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ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal (Bi-monthly - Refereed & Peer Reviewed Journal) Email : creativespace@live.com & creativespaceip@gmail.com Blog : http://creativespaceip.blogspot.in http://eklavyapublication.in/creative-space

Creative Space : International Journal

Multi Lingual and Multi Disciplinary

Creative Space : International Journal Vol. 02, Issue 03-04 (May - August, 2014) (Bi-monthly - Refereed & Peer Reviewed Journal)

Multi Lingual and Multi Disciplinary

“शिक्षा का सबसे बडा उद्देश्य आत्मशिर्भर बिािा है।” - सैमअ ु ल स्माइल्स -

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Creative Space : International Journal, ‘Aashiyana’, 40, Ramnagar, Nr. Vrundavan Soc., Timbavadi ByPass, Madhuram, Junagadh (Gujarat) Email : creativespace@live.com, creativespaceip@gmail.com

Vol. 02, Issue 3-4 (2014)

To __________________________________________________

Chief Editor

Haresh Parmar

Guest Editor Bharat Bheda


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal (Bi-monthly – Refereed & Peer Reviewed Journal) Multi-Lingual and Multi-Disciplinary ISSN 2347-1689 May – Augest, 2014 (Joint Issue) Vol 02, Issue 03-04

Chief Editor Haresh Parmar (Reaserch and Teaching Assistant - RTA) School of Humanities, IGNOU, New Delhi Email : creativespaceip@gmail.com Website : http://eklavyapublication.in Blog : http://creativespaceip.blogspot.in Mo. 09408110030

Guest Editor Dr. Bharat Bheda Dr. Anil Khavdu

Eklavya International Publication ‘Aashiyana’, 40, Ramnagar, Nr. Vrundavan Soc., Madhuram, Nr. Timbavadi Bypass, Junagadh – 362 015, Gujarat, India Email : creativespace@live.com & creativespaceip@gmail.com

Website : http://eklavyapublication.in Blog : http://creativespaceip.blogspot.in Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

Creative Space : International Journal (Bi-monthly - Refereed & Peer Reviewed Journal) Multi Lingual and Multi Disciplinary Email : creativespace@live.com & creativespaceip@gmail.com

Blog : http://creativespaceip.blogspot.in Website : http://eklavyapublication.in

ISSN 2347-1689 May to August, 2014 Vol 02, Issue 03-04

Chief Editor Haresh Parmar (HareshKumar V. Parmar) ® ‘Aashiyana’, 40, Ramnagar, Nr. Vrundavan Soc., Madhuram, Nr. Timbavadi Bypass, Junagadh – 362 015, Gujarat, India Email : hareshgujarati@gmail.com and creativespaceip@gmail.com

Editor Dr. Shivdatta Wavalkar Email : shiva.janaisan@gmail.com

Dr. Rekha Kurre Email : rkurre1705@gmail.com

Dr. Bharat Bheda Email : bharatbheda11@gmail.com

Dr. Anil Khavdu Email : anilkhavdu@gmail.com

© सर्वाधधकवर सुरधित प्रकवधित सवमग्री के उपयोग के धिए िेखक, अनुर्वदक एर्ं Creative Space की स्र्ीकृ धत आर्श्यक है | प्रकवधित रचनवओं/ िोध सवमग्री/ िेखों आदद की रीधत-नीधत यव धर्चवरों से Creative Space संपवदक मंडि यव संपवदक की सहमधत अधनर्वया नहीं है | Email : creativespace@live.com & creativespaceip@gmail.com

Website : http://eklavyapublication.in Blog : http://creativespaceip.blogspot.in May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

Associate Editor :  Syed Hayath Basha Quadri, Lecturer in English, Govt. Senior Secondary School, J - Block, Saket, New Delhi. ® House No.2/222 Mandlem Po,Nandikotkur Taluk, Kurnool Dist. (A.P.) Email : hayath83n@gmail.com  Dr. Dilip Chavda, Email : nildipgujarati@gmail.com  Dr. BharatKumar V. Bheda, Assistant Prof., Hindi Department, DKV Arts and Science College, Jamnagar (Gujarat). Email : bharatbheda11@gmail.com  Dr. Anilkumar M. Makdia, Assistant Prof., Hindi Department, Ranavav Arts College, Ranavav, Dist. Porbandar (Gujarat), Email : anil_makadia@yahoo.in

 Niroj Kumar Sethi, Research Scholar, SOH, IGNOU, New Delhi Email : niroj2050@gmail.com  Smita Mishra, Research Scholar, SOH, IGNOU, New Delhi  G. Niranjani Assistant Professor, No.17, Aiswarya Nagar, Thirumulaivoyal, Ambattur, Chennai, (Tamil Nadu)

Advisory and Peer Reviewed Board :  Prof. Prasad Brahmbhatt ASC Director (X Director), ASC-UGC, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad (Gujarat)  Dr. M. B. Gaijan, Head, Deptt. Of English, Samaldas Arts College, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar – 364002 Email : gaijanmb@yahoo.co.in  Dr. Visier Sanyu Melbourne University, Melbourne, Australia E-mail: nokpao@gmail.com  Eva De Clercq Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, Ghent University, Belgium Email : evadeclercq@gmail.com  Dr. R. N. Kathad Associate Professor, Sanskrit Dppt. Saurashtra University, Rajkot (Gujarat)  Dr. K. S. Chotaliya Associate Proffessor, Hindi Deppt., Josipura Mahila Arts and Commerce College, Junagadh (Gujarat)  R. M. Jadeja Princhipal and Prof., Shree D.K.V. Arts & Science College, Jamnagar (Gujarat)  Dr. M. N. Vaghela Head Of Hindi Department Dr. Virambhai Rajabhai Mahila College opp. Khichadi Mg road, Porbandar – 360575 (Gujarat) Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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Creative Space : International Journal

® shri ji nagar 1 'hurdya aalay' house name near suruchi school post; udhyog nagar, Porbandar (Gujarat)  Dr. Parmod Kumar Assistant Professor in English, School of Humanities, GNOU, New Delhi. E-mail: parmod.mehra@gmail.com  Dr. Devendra Kumar Assistant Professor, R.L.A. College (Evening), University of Delhi, Delhi E-mail: tanwar_deven@yahoo.com  Hiteshkumar V. Parmar Assistant Professor, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh ® Ramnagar, 40, Nr. Vrundavan Soc., Madhuram, Nr. Timbavadi Bypass, Junagadh – 362 015, Gujarat, India. Email : hitesh7hp@gmail.com  Chintan D. Gohel Assistant Professor, Gujarat Vidhyapith, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Email : chintan.kumar@gmail.com  Sureshkumar J. Parghi Assistant Professor, Computer, Comp. Department, Shree V. M. Mehta Muni. Arts and Com. College, Jamanagar (Gujarat). Email : suresh_parghi@yahoo.com  Mina H. Rathod Adhyapak sahayak, B. D. Shah college of education, Modasa , Dist. Aravalli. Email : meenarathod2013@gmail.com

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Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

Submission Guide Subject Category: Humanities, Commerce, Education, Distance Education, Rural Development, Agriculture and Food Engineering, Sociology, Psychology, Science, Social Science, Children Education, Journalism, Performing Arts, Philosophy, Management, Medical, Computer Science Engineering, Information Technology, Electronics and Telecommunication Engg., Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engg. etc. Arts, Science, Education, Commerce, Engineering, Technology etc... Creative Space : International Journal is a peer-reviewed journal concerned with crossdisciplinary research in the field of Literature seeks contributions, essays, book reviews, reflections, reports and observations. Creative writings are also welcome.

© सर्वाधधकवर सुरधित प्रकवधित सवमग्री के उपयोग के धिए िेखक, अनुर्वदक एर्ं Creative Space की स्र्ीकृ धत आर्श्यक है | प्रकवधित रचनवओं/ िोध सवमग्री/ िेखों आदद की रीधत-नीधत यव धर्चवरों से Creative Space, संपवदक मंडि यव संपवदक की सहमधत अधनर्वया नहीं है |

Paper Submission Email IDs: creativespaceip@gmail.com , creativespace@live.com Abstract — This document gives formatting guidelines for authors preparing papers for publication in the Creative Space : International journal. The authors must follow the instructions given in the document for the papers to be published. Keywords— It includes at least 5 keywords or phrases in alphabetical order separated by comma.

I. INTRODUCTION This document is template. We ask that authors follow some simple guidelines. In essence, we ask you to make your paper look exactly like this document. The easiest way to do this is simply to download the template, and replace (copy-paste) the content with your own material.

II. PAGE LAYOUT An easy way to comply with the paper formatting requirements is to use this document as a template and simply type your text into it. (A4 MS Word File)

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ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

Type Setting : A4, MS Office Word File Format English language: Everything must be typed in MS-Word file format, A4 page size, Times New Roman fonts type, 12 points font size.

Sanskrit and Hindi languages: Everything must be typed in MS-Word file format, A4 page size, Mangal (Unicode) / Kruti dev 10 fonts type, 12 points font size.

Gujarati Language: Everything must be typed in MS-Word file format, A4 page size, Shruti (Unicode) Fonts Type, 12 points font size.

For any language other than mentioned above: Everything must be typed in MS-Word file format, A4 page size, your fonts type, 12 points font size.

REFERENCES The heading of the References section must not be numbered. All reference items must be in 8 pt font. Please use Regular and Italic styles to distinguish different fields as shown in the References section. Number the reference items consecutively in square brackets.

READER AND AUTHOR FEES : Conmen Fees : 1500/- (1 Year), 2500/- (2 Year), 5000/- (5 Year) and 5000/- + (Supports)

This journal charges the following author fees. Fees : Rs. 1500.00 Authors are required to pay an Article Submission Fee which is again not mandatory but gain optional as part of the polishing article so that it should fit and alligned with other articles. In this lot's of job will be done to give it in a Camera Ready Shape, which includes Language editing, subject depthness, reviewing from distinguish editors/reviewers. If you do not have funds to pay such fees, you will have an opportunity to waive each fee. We do not want fees to prevent the publication of worthy work.

For more details you can contact at

Editor in Chief Haresh Parmar Lecturer (Contract) Gujarati Department, D.K.V. Arts and Science College, Jamnagar (Gujarat) ® ‘Aashiyana’, 40, Ramnagar, Nr. Vrundavan Soc., Timbavadi ByPass, Madhuram, Junagadh (Gujarat) Email : creativespace@live.com , creativespaceip@gmail.com

Blog : http://creativespaceij.blogspot.in May – August, 2014

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ISSN 2347-1689

Editor Voice I Chief Editor हम सभ्य एर्ं धर्द्वद समवज आँखे मुंद के यथवथा को भ्रधमत रूप से स्र्ीकवर कर रहे है | भवरतीय समवज आज भी प्रवचीन अव्यर्स्थव जैसी र्णा-जवधत व्यर्स्थव में अटव-पड़व| है जब दक हम धर्कवस कव धबगुि बजवते है | देि-धर्देिों में हमने दस्तक दी है, आध्यवधममकतव के पैरोकवर बन के मगर यह भूि जवते है दक हम अिवंत है | सरकवर धनजीकरण को बढ़वर्व देती है और हम हवथों पर हवथ धरे बैठे उसी में फँ सते जवते है | धनजीकरण के आधवर पर सरकवर अपनी धजम्मेदवरी को कम करके धनजी हवथों को मजबूत एर्ं सरकवरी और समवज को कमजोर बनवने कव षडयंत्र रचव जव रहव है | हम सविी है, मगर मौन सविी | हमें र्चास्र्र्वदी िोगों एर्ं नीधतयों को समझनव होगव, नहीं तो हम अपनी ही भूि पर पछतवएँगे | धनजीकरण यवनी यंत्रीकरण | आप अपने बच्चे को धजस धनजी स्कू ि में भेजते , कभी जवनव है दक र्हवँ पर दकस तरह के धििक पढ़व रहे है ? बच्चव क्यव पढ़ रहव है ? इसे िोषण की परम्परव को कवयम बनवनव कहते है | सरकवरी महकमें की धस्थधत भी बुरी है यह स्र्ीकवर है, मगर सरकवर ने दकस धजम्मेदवरी से उसे कम आय में रक्खव है, यह भी एक प्रश्न है | हमें अगर समवज को मजबूत एर्ं सिक्त बनवनव है, उसमें र्ह जज्बव िवनव है, जो क्वंधत एर्ं पररर्तानकवमी हो तो, हमें आज ही जवगनव पड़ेगव हमवरे बेहतर कि के धिए | सवधहमय एर्ं िोध कव कवम है, समवज के सवमने सच िवनव, तटस्थ समय | हम हमवरे अंतरवममव यव मन को पूछे की क्यव हम सही में समवज के सवमने तटस्थ एर्ं यथवथा सच िव पवए है ? हविवँदक हम मवनते है दक कु छ िोध आपको मवत्र िोध िगतव है, मगर उसकव असर समवज पर भी यहवँ तक दक अपने आप पर भी इसकव असर पड़तव है | अगर हमवरे ख़यविवत भेद्कवरी है तो, पूर्ाग्रहयुक्त बवत समवज के सवमने आ सकती है | र्ह अगर खंड्नवममक हो तो मविूम होतव है दक हम भी रचनवममक नहीं है | हमें यह स्थवन धमिव है, तटस्थ एर्ं सृजनवममक स्र्स्थ धर्चवरों को आर्वहन देने कव अगर ऐसे धर्चवरों को हम र्हवँ नहीं कर पवते तो यह हमवरव प्रयवस धनष्फि हम समझेगे | सच यह भी है दक हमें इतने कम समय में कई िेख धमिे एर्ं रचनवममक िेख पवके ; हमें उम्मीद भी बढती है, हम कु छ आिेख हमवरे पवठकों के सवमने इसधिए भी रखते है दक र्ह खुद आिोचनव कर सके | आधखर समवज हो यव पयवार्रण, सवधहमय, धर्ज्ञवन, िवस्त्र उन्हें हमें बेहतर ही तो बनवनव है | उम्मीद है आने र्विे अंक में हमें रचनवममक एर्ं क्वंधत दिाक िेख धमिे, जो समवज को सच बतवएं एर्ं उसको यह बतवएं की हम दकस भ्रम में जी रहे है |

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यह अंक की देरी के धिए िमव चवहते है | हमवरव बोडा इस समय में कवफी व्यस्त थव धजसके तहत हम अब आपके सवमने यह संयुक्त अंक प्रस्तुत कर रहे है | Creative Space : International Journal ने अपनव ब्िॉग और र्ेबसवइट आरम्भ कर दद है जहवँ से आप कभी भी कोई भी जवनकवरी प्रस्तुत पधत्रकव के बवरे में िे सकते हो | यह र्ेब एर्ं ब्िॉग आप नेट जगत में http://eklavyapublication.in और http://creativespaceij.blogspot.in यहवँ से देख सकते हो | आप ब्िॉग एर्ं र्ेबसवइट के मवध्यम से अपनी बवत भी रख सकते हो | आप हमें पत्र यव मेि के मवध्यम से आपके सुझवर् अर्श्य भेजें |

प्रधवन संपवदक हरे ि परमवर Email : creativespaceip@gmail.com Blog : http://creativespaceij.blogspot.in Web. : http://eklavyapublication.in Conact : 09408110030

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Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

Editor Voice II Guest Editor सह संपवदक की नजर से ........................... र्ैधिक पररप्रेक्ष्य में हम धर्कवस कर हैं | ऐसव हमें िगतव हैं, िेदकन हमवरी जमीन और र्वस्तधर्कतव कु छ ओर ही बयवँ करती है | अफ़सोस दक हम धिधित समवज भी कु छ भ्रधमत अर्स्थव में जी रहे है | हम िवहमृग र्ृधत में जी रहे है, हमने हमवरी व्यर्स्थव को भेद्कवरी ही रहने ददयव है | इसी अर्स्थव में हम कल्पनवओं में सपनों कव महि खड़व कर देते हैं | हमवरी जरूरत क्यव है ? हमें क्यव चवधहए ? हमें क्यव पवनव है ? और हमवरव उदेश्य क्यव है ? देि को आजवद हुए ६० सवि से ज्यवदव समय हो गयव है | दफर सवमवधजक संरचनव के ढवँचें की बदोित से समवज धर्कवस की ओर न जवकर, सवमधजक उन्मूिन की ओर प्रस्थवन कर रहव हैं | समवज में फै िे अरवजकतवर्वदी धर्चवरों को बढ़वर्व जवधतर्वद के सभ्य भूत से ही सभवनतव के सवथ प्रवप्त होतव हैं | धजनको प्रबुद्ध एर्ं सभ्य िोग गधतमवन प्रदवन करते रहते हैं | आज-कि गवंधी धर्चवरधवरव को जोर-िोर से अपनवने की गधतधर्धधयवँ को बैिवधखयों कव सहवरव अर्श्य धमि रहव हैं | एक प्रकवर से गवंधीजी के धर्चवरों को मोधडफवइड करने कव तुत उभवरव जव रहव है | यूँ कहे तो गित नहीं होगव दक ‘पूरवनी बोति में नयव दवरू’ भरने की प्रदक्यव गधतमवन हो गई है | धजसके चिते रवजकीय रोरटयवँ सेकी जव सकती है | धहन्दी सवधहमय के समवज सुधवरक कधर् ‘कबीर’ भी कहते है दक- “ नवये, धोये क्यव भयव, मन कव मैि न जवय | मीन सदव जि में रहे दफर बवँस क्यों न जवय |” कबीरदवस की उक्त पंधक्तयों को चररतवथा करने की प्रधतयोधगतव आज िगती दृधिपवत होती है | दो रं गी दुधनयव के मुखौटे अिग-अिग है | कभी ददखवते, तो कभी धछपवते है | क्योंदक गवंधीजी ने कभी उच्च-नीच के भेदभवर् को मवन्यतव नहीं दी थी | तो दफर गवंधधयन मुखौटे को पहनकर धचधड़यवँ दो रं गी गवन क्यों कर रही हैं ? गवंधीजी ने कभी धििव के व्यवपवरीकरण को बढ़वर्व नहीं ददयव थव | दफर भी आज-कि गवँधी के नवम पर अपने धििव के अड्डे चिवये जवते है | र्ही ँ िोग गवंधीजी के आदिो की दुहवई देते हुए, धििव के व्यवपवरी नर पंगुओं को पैदव कर रहे हैं | भवरत आज भी अपनी धर्िेष पहचवन बनवने में असफि रहव है | अंग्रेजों को देि धनकवि धमिे कई सवि हो गए, िेदकन आज भी िोग अंग्रेजों की जूठन चवटने में गौरर्वधन्र्त हो रहे हैं | क्यव हमवरे देि की अधस्मतव की पहचवन अपनी भवषव में संभर् नहीं है ? दकन्तु देिर्वधियों को अंग्रेजी ने भी गुिवम बनव ददयव हैं | धजनकी जड़ों को कवटनव यवनी जूठन की प्रर्ृधत से आझवद होनव है | जो भवरतीय अंग्रेजों को स्र्ीकवया नहीं है | धर्ि के धर्धर्ध देिों ने उनकी खुद की भवषव में धर्कवस दकयव हैं, नहीं के अंग्रेजी में | िेदकन हम अंग्रेजों के जूठन को चवटने में ही धर्र्ि है | ख़ैर देि की अधस्मतव पहचवन की समझ तक हम नि हो गए होंगे | प्रस्तुत अंक में समवधर्ि सविरों की सवधनवमय प्रधतफधितव को स्र्ीकवर करते हुए, सहषा को अनुभर् कर रहे है | उक्त अंक में सधम्मधित धर्धभन्न िेत्रों के धर्धर्ध िेखों के जररए, ज्ञवन के धर्स्तृत दृधिकोण

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Creative Space : International Journal

को समथातव प्रदवन की हैं | आने र्विें अंकों में आप अपनी धर्द्वतव को प्रगट करते रहेंगे | क्योंदक दुधनयव र्ही ँ बदि सकतव है, धजन्हें अपनी सुरिव कव डर नहीं | धन्यर्वद..................... जय धहन्दी.................................. भरत. र्ी. भेडव D. K. V. Arts and Sc. College, Jamnagar Mo. 09924646501

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Table of Contents  

Editor Voice I : Chief Editor : Haresh Parmar Editor Voice II : Guest Editorial : Dr. Bharat Bheda

vii ix

English 1. Insecurity and Mental Health Among Divorce and Married Women Mohini M. Pandya & Yogesh A. Jogsan

01-08

2. Emotional Maladjustment and Psychophysical Stress among Married and Divorce Women Doshi Dhara R. & Yogesh A. Jogsan 09-19 3. Emotional Maturity among Normal and Special School Teacher Dr. Karshan Chothani & Mr. Paresh B. Valand

20-28

4. Psycho-physical Stress and Depression among Married and Un-married Women Balvant M. Chhansiya & Yogesh A. Jogsan 29-37 5. A study of Perceived Parental Avoidance on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents Chavda Hasmukh M. & Yogesh A. Jogsan 38-49 6. Emotional Stability and Children Parent’s Relation among Boy’s and Girl’s Vadoliya Nilesh M. & Yogesh A. Jogsan

50-58

7. Self Control and Moral Attitudes in Male and Female Professor Pravin V. Dabhi. & Yogesh A. Jogsan

59-68

8. Self Actualization and Emotional Stability in Urban and Rural Women Zala Hitesh M. & Yogesh A. Jogsan

69-78

9. Health Adjustment and Mental health among Working and Non-working Women Nilesh M. Vadoliya & Yogesh A. Jogsan 79-87 10. Self Concept and Life Stress among Urban and Rural Women Kamleshkumar S. Kharadi & Yogesh A. Jogsan

88-97

English 11. हहदी के आंचधिक उपन्यवस डॉ. जवहिदर इं गिे

98-102

12. सवम्प्रदवधयकतव और जवधतर्वद की समस्यव धिए हुए ‘रवजव कव चौक’ कहवनी-संग्रह डॉ. रे खव कु रे

103-106

13. बवरडोिी समयवग्रह और र्ल्िभभवई पटेि डॉ. जधस्मनव एर्. सवरडव

107-110

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14. समयतवफिनिधि तवर्ककक कवरको की समयतवफिनििीतव की धर्र्ेचनवममक खोज डॉ. दर्े रवजेश्री के .

111-115

15. दधित चेतनव के यथवथा में िरणकु मवर हिबविे कव कहवनी-संग्रह “दधित ब्रवह्मण” भरतकु मवर र्ी. भेडव

116-119

16. डॉ. प्रभवकर मवचर्े के उपन्यवसों में ग्रवम-समवज सोिंकी धमेि डी.

120-125

17. सर्ेिरदयवि सक्सेनव की कहवधनयों में मवनर्ीय संर्ेदनव मवनसी हविवणी

126-129

18. मयक्तव, गृधहणी और अपररणीत धस्त्रओं में आर्ेधगक पररपक्वतव कव अभ्यवस देसवई रवहुि बी.

130-135

19. मृदि ु व गगा की चूनी हुई कहवधनयों में आधुधनक जीर्न िैिी धर्षयक समस्यव कव धनरूपण गोधहि धर्ममष्ठवबव प्रर्ीणहसह

136-140

20. ओमप्रकवि र्वल्मीदक की कहवधनयों में दधित चेतनव मनोजकु मवर सरर्ैयव

141-142

21. “यहवँ रोनव मनव है” एकवंकी में नवरी की दयधनय धस्थधत मोरी पूनम के .

143-144

English 22. ગ્રાભીણ વલકાસભાાં અલયોધક તત્લો પ્રા. બાનુફેન ધાભેચા

145-152

23. ભાણસાઈનો લયસાદ લયસાલતી લાતાા : લયસાદ (ભોહન ઩યભાય) પ્રા. વનતેળકુભાય રાભુબાઈ ચૌધયી

153-156

24. ભોંઘલાયી સાભે ફાથ બીડલા ગૃહહણીનાાં પ્રમત્નો પ્રા. ભૈવથરી ટી. ઩ાઠક

157-164

25. સાલાજવનક ગ્રાંથારમોના વલકાસ ભાટેના પ્રેયક ઩હયફ઱ો ભીતા ઩ી. યામચુયા

165-170

26. ‘લસુધા’નાાં કાવ્મોભાાં અધ્માત્ભચચિંતન ળલાાણી એ. ઩ટેર

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171-175

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27. જીલન જીલલાનુ ાં વળક્ષણ : ‘઩ોરીએના’ નલરકથાના સાંદબે અરુણા યુ. ભકલાણા

176-181

28. દમાનાંદ સયસ્લતી એક સભાજ સુધાયક રો બયતકુભાય ગોવલિંદબાઈ

182-186

29. ભહાબાયતભાાં જીલનસાપલ્મ ચૌહાણ જીતેન્દ્રકુભાય અયળીબાઈ

187-189

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Earth and Environment Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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Creative Space : International Journal

Save the

Earth and Environment May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


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ISSN 2347-1689

INSECURITY AND MENTAL HEALTH

Insecurity and Mental Health Among Divorce and Married Women Mohini M. Pandya & Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out the mean difference between insecurity and mental health among divorce and married women. The total sample consisted 60 as a variation belonging to 30 divorce and 30 married women. The research tool for insecurity was measured by Dr. Bina Shah and mental health was measured by Dr. D. J. Bhatt and Ms. Geeta R. Geeda (1992). To check the significant difference of insecurity and mental health t-test was applied. To check the relation between insecrity and mental health correlation method was sued. The study revealed that there was significant difference between divorce and married women in insecurity and mental health. While the correlation between insecurity and mental health reveals 0.50 minor positive correlation. Insecurity and Mental Health among Divorce and Married Women In today‘s progressive area psychological research can be very helpful to study the problems of society, social sciences like sociology, economics psychology etc. Were used in various branches of psychology like child psychology, educational psychology and industrial psychology etc. We have to suffer many problems in this type of study. Besides, mental health of workers, students aged persons, working and nonworking women, patients etc. Were studied. But rare case researches studied by women problems in insecurity and their mental health. Therefore, here insecurity and mental health of divorce and married women were studied. Feeling of security - insecurity is a important determinant of personality development and mental health. Horney (1939) believes that there are two Mohini M. Pandya (Ph.D. Student) & Yogesh A. Jogsan (Assistant Professor) Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005 Gujarat (India) 1

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important needs in childhoods satisfaction and security; with more reference given to security than satisfaction. In the absence of security than satisfaction. In the absence of security on individual feels insecure and his personality can not be an organized one. Insecurity feelings is an individual are often considered to be having adverse influence on the day to day life of the individual-occupational or otherwise. In certain percentage of cases insecurity may also be contributing to mind or serious maladjustment of persons, therefore it is necessary for successful mental and social development that the individual feels secure. In the view of Maslow (1945), ―Security is a feeling of being liked, loved accepted of belonging and of having a place in the graph, of safely, and of being unanimous.‖ Maslow (1952) opined that the feeling of security insecurity is a primary need for healthy personality development. As food is necessary for physical growth for emotional and social development security is needed. He believes that after physiological needs are gratified the next need emerging in the order of need security. Mcclleland and Atkinson (1953) also suggested that like other motives, the study of the security motive too is very useful. Maslow (1952) constructed a security insecurity scale (SIS) for the measurement of security insecurity. In India Srivastva and Kapil (1972), Tiwari and Singh (1976) have studied security motive in relation to different variables. Kureshi (1966) has constructed a projective technique for the measurement of achievement power approval, aggression and security motives. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional well-being or an absence of a mental-disorder. From perspectives of the discipline of positive psychology or holism mental health may include an individual‘s ability to enjoy life and procure a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. The world health organization defines mental health as a state of well-being in which the individual realize his or her own abilities can cope with the normal stress of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It was previously stated that there was no once ―Official‖ definition of mental health, cultural differences subjective assessments and competing professional theories all effects how ―mental health‖ is defined. Review of Literature

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Sharma V. (2008) study on ―Insecurity and adjustment among employees of Government and private sector.‖ The result of the study indicates that the private employee was more insecure as compare to the government employee. Chakraborty (1990) study on social stress and mental health states that mental health broadly implies the existence of psychiatric disorder, illness and much more. It includes peoples, subjective stresses, joys, sorrows and what is now fasbionably called ―Quality of Life‖ Feinberg (1954) focused on the mental health of the children. He reported that the orphanage reared children handicapped by frustration of their need of security, love and esteem have developed altitudes of hopelessness, unworthiness and guilt. Significance of the Study Present study is about insecurity and mental health of divorce and married women. Maslow theory shows that first head of human beings is physical and gave need pyramid theory. If person is satisfied with physical need, can think properly in psychological and social way and his mental health is very good. It interprets that person‘s mental health is dependent on his security. When person is safe, his mental health is very good. Person‘s choice is very much important in mental health therefore person always first think about his safety. When a person have high mental health person‘s insecurity level seems law but when a person have high insecurity, person‘s mental health seems law. Objectives The main objectives of study were as under : 1. To measure the insecurity among divorce and married women. 2. To measure the mental health among divorce and married women. 3. To check the correlation between insecurity and mental health.

Null-Hypothesis To related objectives of this study, null hypothesis were as under : 1. There is no significant difference in insecurity among divorce and married women. 2. There is no significant difference in mental health among divorce and married women. 3. There is no correlation between insecurity and mental health. METHOD Participants

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According to the purpose of present research total 90 divorce and married women has been selected. There were 45 divorce women and 45 married women were taken as a sample from different areas of Rajkot City (Gujarat-India) Instruments 1. Insecurity Scale : To check the insecurity of subject, here insecurity scale developed by Dr. Binna Shah was used, this scale is 3 point scale. This scale has 8 sub - factors which are : (1) Familiar insecurity (2) School insecurity (3) Peer group insecurity (4) Educational insecurity (5) Prospective context (6) Text deleted insecurity (7) Sel-related insecurity (8) Existence related insecurity. In this scale each sub-factor has 75 sentences. In this scale some sentences are positive and some are negative. This scale is 3 point scale each sub-factor has some scoring system. 2. Mental Health Questionnaire: The mental health scale was made by D. J. Bhatt and Ms. Geeta R. Gida in 1992. This scale contains 40 statements pertaining to five domains aim of mental health. Theses five dimensions include perception of reality integration of personality, positive self-evaluation, group oriented attitudes and environmental mastery to be rated on 3 point scale. Reliability of present scale as checked by three methods on which 0.81 by logical similarity, 0.94 by split-half method and test-retest has 0.87. Procedure The testing was done on a group of sample. The whole procedure of fill the questionnaire was explained to them fully and clearly. The instructions given on the questionnaire were explained to them. It was also made clear to them that their scores would be kept secret. It was checked that none of the subjects left any questions unanswered or that no subject encircled both the answers given against a question. Research Design The aim of present research was to study of insecurity and mental health among divorce and married women. Here Binna Shah‘s insecurity scale and mental health questionnaire which was made by D. J. Bhatt & Geeta R. Gida was used in this research. Here‗t‘ test and correlation method was used. Result and Discussion The aim of present research is to study of insecurity and mental health among divorce and married women. Here insecurity and mental health questionnaire

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are used in this research. Here t-test and correlation method is used. Discussion of present research is as under: Insert Table-1 about here Table-1 presents the mean, SD of both divorce and married women and t-values of the observed variables. A perusal of the table shows that the mean of divorce and married women, is 18.85 and 1.85 respectively. The SD for this variable is 5.64 and 7.41 for divorce and married women respectively. The t-value is 2.04 which is significant at 0.05 level. So we can say that first hypothesis was not accepted and married women feels very insecurity rather than divorce women because of social atmosphere and family environment. Insert Table-2 about here According to Table-2 the result obtained on the basic area of mental health reveals significant difference among divorce and married women. The divorce women received high mean score 55.12 as compare married women 48.88. The SD score of divorce women receive 7.72 and married women 10.13. The t-value is 3.50 which is significant at 0.01 level. So we can say that second hypothesis is not accepted and divorce women receive high mental health as compare to the married women because of she lives alone and she has no any kind of social responsibility. Insert Table-3 about here According to Table-3 the result obtained that minor positive correlation between insecurity and mental health. The 0.50 minor positive correlation between insecurity and mental health. Mental health is a very important factor in life. When the person is happy and satisfied with his/her job or life, it suggests that he/she has a good mental health and when he/she is not satisfied and happy. The mental health is disturb and when the person feels insecurity the mental health decreases. When the person have good mental health, he/she feels secure in his/her life. Conclusion We can conclude by data analysis as follows : There were significant difference in insecurity and mental health among divorce and married women. Divorce women have better security and mental health as compared to married women. There were 0.50 minor positive correlation are seen between insecurity and mental health. It means as the mental health increases the insecurity increases and vice versa.

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Findings In the present research, divorce women receive good mental health as compare to married women. Insecurity and metal health as compare to married women. The minor positive correlation we seen between insecurity and mental health. Limitations of the Study Sample for this research is only 90, which is not enough for generalization. In the present research only divorce and married women has been taken which does not generalization on all categories. Samples were selected only from one district of Gujarat there for results were limited for the divorce and married women. Here only questionnaire method was used to get data which shows result limitations. In the present research only divorce and married women has been focus were as it can generalization only limited factor of women. The research has been assessed only two variables such as insecurity and mental health questionnaire. There are taken only some of the personal variable which can cause other factors are still remained to measure. Recommendations Insecurity and mental health are broad subject it should be also measure on bank employees, lawyer, doctor, teacher, students and many more. In the present research name, area, more kinds of variable can also used like type of words. Here questionnaire method was used only but other method can also observational method interview method, experimental etc. used. Present study has taken only 90 data research, can be more data. Here data selected only from some of the area of Rajkot (Gujarat-India) but it also can taken from huge masses from many city or state. The study has been measured only by using t-test & correlations were as another methods can be also used. Insecurity and mental health can be also measured with other variable like adjustment, anxiety etc.

References Bhatt, D. J. & Gida, G. R. (1992). The Mental Health Hygiene Inventory (M.H.I.) Construction and Standardization, Unpublished M.Phil. Dissertation Thesis, Department of Psychology, Saurastra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, 24-29. Boring, E. G. (1966). An Introduction of Psychology, Mc Graw Hill Pub., New York. Chakraborty, A. (1990). Social Stress and Mental Health : A Socio Psychiatric Field Study of Calcutta. New Delhi, Sage Pub. India Pvt. Ltd. Horney (1939). New Ways in Psychoanalysis, New York : W. W. Norton.

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Maslow, A. H., Brish E., Stein, A. M. & Hontagmann, I. (1945). A Clinically Derived Test for Measuring Psychological Security Insecurity, Journal of General Psychology, 33, 21-25. Maslow, A. H. (1952). The S. I. Test A Measure of Psychological Security Insecurity Inventory, Palo Alto : Stanford University Press. McClleland, D. C. & Atkinson, J. W. (1953). The Achievement Motive, New York : Appletoncentury Crafts. Srivastava & Kapil (1972). Manual and Direction. Vasavada, J. P. (2004). A Comparative Study of Insecurity and Adjustment Among Students of Joint & Nuclear Family, Unpub. Dissertation, Dept. of Psychology, Saurastra University, Rajkot, 78-80. WHO (1952). Promoting mental health : Concepts Emerging Evidences Practice : A Report of the World Health Organizations on Geneva.

Result Table Sr. No. 1. 2.

Result Table-1 Showing Mean, SD and t-value of Insecurity Variables N Mean SD Divorce Women Married Women

45

18.85

5.64

45

21.85

7.41

t

2.04* * P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01

Sr. No. 1. 2.

Result Table-2 Showing Mean, SD and t-value of Mental Health Variables N Mean SD Divorce Women Married Women

45

55.12

7.72

45

48.08

10.13

t

3.50** * P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01

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Result Table-3 Showing the Correlation between Insecurity and Mental Health Sr. No. Variables N Correlation 1 Insecurity 90 0.50 2 Mental Health 90

Creative Space : Intarnatioanal Journal

વલજ્ઞા઩ન દાતા તેભજ ળૈક્ષણણક વભાચાય ભાટે વં઩કક કયલો. દયે ક પ્રકાયના વલજ્ઞા઩ન આલકામક છે . ળૈક્ષણણક વભાચાય વભમવય ભોકરલા. ળૈક્ષણણક કામકક્રભોની જાશેયાત ઩ણ અશી આ઩ી

ળકામ છે . વં઩કક : ૦૯૪૦૮૧૧૦૦૩૦ શયે ળ ઩યભાય

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Running Head: EMOTIONAL MALADJUSTMENT AND PSYCHOPHYSICAL STRESS

Emotional Maladjustment and Psychophysical Stress among Married and Divorce Women Doshi Dhara R. & Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The Main Purpose of the present study was to find out the difference between divorce and married women on emotional maladjustment and psychophysical stress. For this total 80 women were selected. In out of 80 women, 40 were married and 40 were divorce women were selected. Research tool emotional maladjustment (Bhargav and Singh, 1998) and psychophysical stress (Maheshwary, 2002) was administrated. To check significance difference between group t-test was applied and to check correlation between variables Karl Person Correlation method was used. Results show that there was significance difference between groups. Divorce women were more emotional maladjustment and they have high psychophysical stress as compare divorce women. Positive correlation between psychophysical stress and emotional maladjustment. Emotional Maladjustment and Psychophysical Stress among Married and Divorce Women Behavior which we label maladjustment can have number of causes. It may be the result of normal learning in unusual environment. It may be main gestation of nervous - system disorder or it may represent the breakdown of normal problem solving ability and normal defense mechanisms which have failed to protect the individual from his anxiety. The symptoms of maladjustment are normal mental processes which for some reason have become ex-agented and distorted. Thus re-cognizing some of the symptoms described below should and disturb you. The fact of self awareness is itself a sign of mature adjustment. We can classify maladjustment into four categories: (1) neurosis, in which a person develops a crippling symptom of psychological origin (2) psycho somatic

1

Doshi Dhara R. & Yogesh A. Jogsan

Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005 Gujarat(India) Vol. 02, Issue â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 03-04

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disorders in which a physical ailment can partially be traced to psychological stress (3) Psychosis, in which a person withdraws from reality into a private fantasy world and (4) conduct disorders such as antisocial behavior. As we take up each from of maladjustment, we shall describe and illustrate the condition involved, discuss its possible caused and describe the methods that are used in order the remote the condition. In our society the world ―Maladjustment‖ is easily misused. All sorts of individualistic energetic, enterprising, curious, critical and creative people are celled maladjustment by conformist dullards who are afraid of any sign of spontaneity. In fact, very often the so called well-adjusted person who passively accepts oppressive living conditions is the one with the problem. In some situations maladjustment is the only proper response. This is especially true in regard to sexual oppression. People who have no difficulty renouncing their sexual interests, who readily adapt to narrow sexual roles, and who never questions the official sexual morality hardly seen human and may very well be unfeeling, dangerous characters. Actually and perhaps fortunately, in real life this kind of total adjustment is rare. After all, not even the most righteous New England puritans were always free of temptation. No matter how hard they tried to conform to their rigidcalture, they never succeeded for long. Thus be their own unrealistic standards, they were sexually maladjusted but actually they had little reason to. Thus, it may well be that cur world in elite need new organization, ―The International Association‖ for the advancement of creative maladjustment. In today‘s era of stress the restoration of health appears to be a problem. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the health in total includes physical, mental, social and spiritual dimensions. However, in spite of having an effective immune system endowed by the nature, human is unable to overcome the negative effects of environment leading to ―stress‖. The stress effects declines immune efficacy and fail to or test the health of all vital systems. Therefore we propose an operational definition of health as a state of dynamic equilibrium and stability against the changing environment accompanied with constant attacks from external world (bacteria, virus, pollutants etc.) and internal psychological disturbances like fear anxiety, depression, neuroticism etc.‖ Although one can treat these malfunctions employing the advanced medical remedies to restore the defense mechanism of the body, the root cause of the infections arising out of imbalanced neuron-humeral functions triggered by the disturbed mental state remains unaffected. Such illness of psycho-physical origin con not is treated

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merely at organic level. Therefore there is a need of some solution to set right the psycho-physical imbalance and in turn restoring neuron-humeral balance is the need of the hour. In the late 1960s, levine, et. al. (1967) developed an experimental animal model showing that early. Stress experiences may have effect over normal stress responses in adult hood. However, significant result have been found in investigations with human regarding the relation between exposure to an environment rich in stressors throughout the first years of life and psychophysiological vulnerability in later years. To a scientist, psycho-physical stress is any action or situation that places special physical or psycho logical demands upon a person, anything that can unbalance his individual equilibrium and while the physiological response to such demand is surprisingly uniform, the forms of psychophysical stress are innumerable. Psycho physical stress may be even but unconscious like the noise of acuity or the daily chore of driving the car. Perhaps the incontestable statement that can be made about psycho physical stress is that it belongs to every one to businessmen and professors, to mother and their children, to factory workers. Stress is a part of fabric of life. Nothing can isolate psycho physical stress from human beings as is evident from various researches and studies. This study seeks to study emotional maladjustment and psychophysical stress in married and divorce women. Need and Significance of Study One of the most common findings in the study of emotion dynamics and psychophysical stress is that high levels of emotional variability are associated with maladaptive psychological functioning. Marriage is the very important factor in our country. Married women are reputed as compare divorce women. Divorce women face more problems as compare married women. So we see that the types of women have more psychophysical stress and emotional maladjustment. Review of Literature The ideal that marital conflict and emotional maladjustment shapes ineffective parenting and ultimately childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s maladjustment is fairly widely accepted in the marital conflict and emotional maladjustment literature. In their review, Corckenberg and Covey (1991) stated that there is little questions at this point

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that marital conflict affects child externalizing behavior indirectly, through its link with parental behavior. Anthropological studies on psychophysical stress, though infrequent, have been conducted. Levels of epinephrine were higher in westernized urban Samoans than in Samoans having more traditional life styles as rural agriculturalists, but more epinephrine levels did not differ. Rural villagers had higher levels of life satisfaction and emotional stability compared with urban Samoans, thus correlating stress hormone levels to subjective stress. A study of Mexican American migrant from workers in was consign demonstrated associations between dopamine B hydroxylase CDBh, a norepinephrine precursor), acute stress (familial separation, migration), and diabetic status. A longitudinal study of children and young adult in the Dominican Republic demonstrated that several measures of chromic and acute house hold insecurity, especially poor material care, were associated with critisol levels. Objectives The main objectives of study were as under: 1. to measure emotional maladjustment in married and divorce women. 2. to measure psycho-physical stress in married and divorce women. 3. To check correlation between emotional maladjustment and psychophysical stress.

Null-Hypothesis To related objectives of this study, null hypothesis were as under: 1. There is no significance difference emotional maladjustment in married and divorce women. 2. There is no significance difference on psycho-physical stress in married and divorce women. 3. There is no correlation between emotional Maladjustment and psychophysical stress. Method Participants The participants of 80 women were taking with random method. Out of 80 women there were 40 women married and 40 women were divorce. Data were selected in Rajkot City (Gujarat).

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Instruments Emotional Maturity Scale: The emotional maturity scale was made by Bhargava and Singh (1998). Gujarati adaption by Jogsan (2006). This is 5 point scale. 5 dimension of this scale. Emotional instability, emotional regressions, emotional maladjustment, personality disintegration and lack of independence. The reliability of emotional maladjustment was 0.58 and validity of this scale was 0.64. Psycho-physical Stress Scale: This scale was developed by Maheshvari (2002). The scale contains 24 statements in all. This is 2 point scale. One mark is awarded for every ‗yes‘ response and 0 for no response. High score obtained on the scale are an indicative of high skill for physical stress and high degree of stress. The test retest reliability of the tools was examined the retest reliability was found to be 0.87. Where as spilt half reliability was 0.74. The validity of this scale was very high. Procedure In this study Randomization sample used. Initial meeting with the participants was made at Their Home. Total 80 Women were taken out of 80, 40 were Married women and 40 were Divorcee Women selected. They were informed about the purpose of the study. Upon initial meeting, each participants was also explained the nature of the study. Participants were informed about the confidentiality regarding information collected from them. A time for data collection was set up that was conducive for the participants. Before administering the scale, the purpose of the study was again explained to the participants. A good rapport was built with the participant for getting correct response. Some necessary instruction and guidelines were provided to them properly filling the scale. After this the both scale were provided to them and they were requested to fill up the both scales as per the instructions given in the scales. After completion of the scale participants returned the scale and they were thanked for their participation and co-operation. Research Design The aim of present research was a study the emotional intelligence and psychophysical stress among married and divorce women. For this total 80 women were taken as a sample from Rajkot City (Gujarat). Out of 80 women, there were 40 married and 40 divorce women were selected. Here emotional maladjustment (Bhargava and Singh, 1998) scale, and psycho physical stress scale (Maheshvari, 2000) was used. To check significance different‘ test was used

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and to check correlation Karl Pearson ‗r‘ method was used. Result and discussion is as under. Result and Discussion The present study attempted to assess the emotional intelligence and psychophysical stress among married and divorce women. The t-test was applied for the purpose of statistical interpretation to test the significance of different between means. While to check correlation Karl Pearson correlation ‗r‘ method used. Result and discussion of the present study is as under: Insert Table-1 about here In emotional maladjustment mean of married women received 18.54 while divorce women received 21.48. Standard deviation of married women received 5.56 and divorce women received 6.54 t-value was 3.69 which was significant at 0.01 levels. So we can say that there was significant difference in emotional intelligence among married and divorce women. It means first hypothesis is reject. Insert Figure A1 Insert Table-2 about here In psycho-physical stress mean of married women received 10.57 while divorce women received 17.57. Standard deviation of married women received 3.01 while divorce women received 5.01. The t-value was 2.85. This was significant at 0.01 levels. So we can say that there was significant difference in psycho-physical stress among married and divorce women. It means second hypothesis is reject. Insert Figure B1 Insert Table-3 about here Correlation between emotional maladjustment and psycho-physical stress is 0.42. This was positive correlation. It means emotional maladjustment increases psycho-physical stress increases and emotional maladjustment decreases psychophysical stress decreases. The findings of this study show differences between married women and divorce women emotional maladjustment and psychophysical stress. Divorce women show significantly higher levels than married women on both emotional maladjustment and psychophysical stress. This result is in the same direction as those from other studies. (Oddens et. al., 1999; Castro, et. al. 2001; Dyer et. al. 2005, Verhak, et. al. 2007). Del, et. al. 2008, Morero - Rosset and Martin, 2007.

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Tache and Selye (1985) summarized the essential point of selye‘s model of stress as like all life events cause some stress, but married women have support of their family members in stress but divorce women have not more support. Married women excessive or unnecessary stress avoided whenever possible but divorce women can‘t excessive. Married women remove of the stressor eliminates stress but divorce women can‘t do this because some time they fell very lonely and unsupportable. Conclusion There was significant difference in emotional maladjustment and psychophysical stress among married and divorce women. Divorce women have high psycho physical stress and emotional maladjustment. There were 0.42 positive correlations between emotional maladjustment and psycho physical stress. Limitations This study is not without its limitations, which should be noted. The present investigation was carried out under the following delimitations. The study was confined to women only. So generalization of the result might be unfell here. One most limitation of this study is small sample size of 80 Married and Divorce Women. This study was conducted in Rajkot City (Gujarat). As the study was for 1-2 months (November-December) only, time was a limiting factor. The findings made in the study May be biased by the incorrect information given by participants. No other mental except questionnaires had been adopted in the present research work for the collection of information. In sample selection for this research Random method was followed. The present research is only a part of the study, thus generalization should not be consummated, and the scientific is not approached in the selection of sample. The conclusion of present research is significant so one aspect the limitation reveals that emotional maladjustment and Psycho-Physical stress is internal aspect of a person‘s personality and character. There for in this practical world all persons take differently and act differently. Suggestion Endeavour can be executed to analyze move than 80 data of sample to attain better results. For the accumulation of information, variegated methods except questionnaires can be adopted. Selection of sample can be accomplished with the intake of different people from different state and district to ascertain their emotional intelligence. To crown the edifice of the research work, other method of selecting sample can be appropriated.

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Problems of Data Collection and Research There are several problems faced by researcher some of them are as follows : • Irrelevant or duplicate data collected. • Pertinent data omitted. • Erroneous or misinterpreted data collected. • Poor documentation from sample. • Conflicting data. • Lack of equipment. • Insufficient interaction. • Lack of confidence and awareness in participants. • Lack code of conduct in research in participant. • Inadequate assistance. • Improper library management. • Lack of availability or access to literature. References Castro, C., Borras, C., Perez-Pareja, F. J. & Palmer, A. L. (2001). Respuestas Emoiconates En Mujeres Quese Encuentran En Tratamiento De Reproduction Asistida. Ansiedad Y Estres, 7(2-3), 283-294. Crockenberg, S. B. & Covey, S. L. (1991). Marital Conflict and Exernalizing Behavior in Children, In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.) Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology : Vol. 3, Research and Clnical Contributions to a theory of Developmental Psychopahtology (pp. 235-360.) Del, Castillo, M., Moreno, Rosset, C., Maritn, M. D., Garcia - Fernadez, E. & Urries, A. (2008). Evaluacion de Afectos Y Emociones En Parejas Infertiles, Communications Presentadal VII Congreso Internacional De La Sociedad Espanola Para el Estuido De La Ansxedad Y el. Estres (SEAS).Benidorm (Alicante) Dyer, S. J., Abrahams, N., Mokena, N. E., Lombard, C. J. & Vand der Spuy, Z. M. (2005). Psychological Distress Among Women Suffering From Couple Infertility in South Africa, A quantitative Assessment, Human Reproduction, 20(7), 1938-1943. Floinn, M., England, B. (1989). Childhood Stress and Family Environment, Current Anthropology, 36(5), 854-866. James, G. D. (1989). The Relation of Norepinephrine to Blood Pressure in Independent of Acculturation in Western Samoan Men. Americal Journal of Hypertension, 1989, 2(6p + 1), 471 : 473.

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James, G. D., BAker, P. T., Jenner, D. A., Harrison, G. A. (1987). Variatin in Lifestyle Charactristic and Catecholamine Excretion Rates Among Young Western Samoan Men, Social Science and Medical, 25(9) : 981-986. Moreno - Rosset, C., Antequera, R. & Jenaro, C. (2008). DERA Cuestionario De Deasjuste Emotional y Recursos Adaptativos en Infertilidad, Premio TEA Ediciones, 2007, Madrid : TEA Ediciones. Mesheveray, S.(2002). Psycho-Physical Stress Scale, Gujarat Journal of Psychology, 2(4), 44-46. Oddshansky, E. (1999) The reporductive years In J. Lewis, Bernstein & A., Paulsimon (Eds.) Women Across the Life Cycle, Massachusetts, Jones & Barttett. Scheder, J. C. (2005). A Sickly-Sweet Harvest : Farm - Worker Diabetes andSocial (in) Equality. In M.L. Ferreira, J. Lang (Eds.) Indigenous Peoples and Diabetes, Purham, NC : Carolina Academic, 2005l 279-334. Scheder, J. C. (1988). A Sickly Sweet Harvest Farm Worker Diabetes and Social Equality, Medical Antnropology Quarerly, 1988, 2(3), 251-277. Singh, S. M. & Bhargava, M. (1998). The Emotinal Maturity Scale (E.M.S.) Construction and Standardization, National Psychological Corporation, Agra. Tache, J. & Selye, H. (1985). On Stress and coping Mechanisms, Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 7, 3-24. Verhaak, C. M., Smeenk, J. M., Evers, A. W., Kremer, J. A., Karaaimaat, F. W. & Braat, D. D. (2007). Women Emotional Adjustment to IVF : A Systematic Review of 25 Years of Research Human Reproduction Update : 13(1), 27-26. ` Result Table-1 Showing The Mean, SD and t-value of Emotional Maladjustment (N=80) Sample N Mean SD t Married 40 15.54 5.56 Women 3.69** Divorce 40 21.48 6.54 Women Sig. Level 0.05 = 1.97* 0.01 = 2.58**

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Figure Caption of Maladjustment (A1)

Result Table-2 Showing The Mean, SD and t-value of Psycho-Physical Stress (N=80) Sample N Mean SD t Married 40 10.57 3.01 Women 2.85** Divorce 40 17.57 5.01 Women Sig. Level 0.05 = 1.97* 0.01 = 2.58**

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Figure Caption of Psychophysical stress (B1)

Result Table-3 Showing the Correlation between Emotional Maladjustment and Psycho-Physical Stress Variable N Mean r Emotional 80 20.01 Maladjustment 0.42 Psycho-Physical 80 17.07 stress

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Running Head : EMOTIONAL MATURITY

Emotional Maturity among Normal and Special School Teacher *Dr. Karshan Chothani & **Mr. Paresh B. Valand1 Abstract Maturity development is most important in our life. In the present research an attempt was made to study emotional maturity among normal and special school teachers. Sample consisted of 120 teachers (60 normal school teachers and 50 special school teachers). Emotional maturity scale by P.Y. Singh and Mahesh Bhargav was used to measure various component of emotional maturity. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics mean, SD and t-test. Results indicated that significant difference was existed between normal school teachers and special school teachers on certain components of emotional maturity such as emotional instability, emotional regression, social maladjustment, personality disintegration and all over emotional maturity. Key Word : Emotional maturity, Types of school

Emotional Maturity among Normal and Special School Teacher Emotions are important in our lives. Our emotions have the potential to serve us as a delicate and sophisticated interval guidance system. In the context of emotions, emotional maturity, emotional competence and emotional intelligence are the relatively new constructs. Emotional maturity defined as, ―A process in which the personality is continually striving for greater sense of emotional health, both intra-psychically and intra-personally‖. In brief emotional maturity can be called as the process of impulse control through the agency of ―self‖ or "ego‖ ―An Emotional mature person is one who is able to keep a lid on feelings. He can suffer in silence. He can bide his time in spite of present discomfort. He is not 1

*Karshan B. Chothani Associate Professor and Head, Department of Psychology, C. U. Shah Arts College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India) **Paresh Valand Ph. D. Research Scholar, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India) May – August, 2014

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subject to swing in mood, he is not volatile. When he does express emotion, he does so with moderation, decently and in good orderâ&#x20AC;&#x2013;. Emotional maturity is the ability to bear tension and it is the ability to develop high tolerance for disagree circumstance. Kaplan and baron (1986) elaborated the characteristics of an emotionally mature person say that he has the capacity to withstand delay in satisfaction of needs. He has belief in long term planning and is capable of delaying or revising his expectations in terms of demands of situation. Stephen conducted a study related to neuroticism and emotional maturity among college female students and found that the individuals who scored higher neuroticism are having a low level of emotional maturity. Lohithakshan Emotional instability is an indication of emotional immaturity, as emotionally unstable response is characterized by the lack of agreement between the emotional response and the provoking stimulus. There are several studies conducted on emotional maturity of students (Dhami, 1974; Manral Bheema, 1983; Arya, 1989; Gupta, 1989; Audichya and Jain, 2009; Joshi et al., 2009; Ral and Pandey, 2009) and their emotional stability (Aleem, 2008; Kumar, 2008). However, the studies on emotional maturity of teachers are yet to be taken. Hence, the present study is undertaken to quantify the emotional maturity of teachers. It is axiomatic that affective education cannot be had without emotionally mature teachers. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the emotional maturity of normal and special school teachers in relation to types of schools and gender. Objectives: 1. To compare the Emotional Maturity of Normal and special school teachers. 2. To compare the Emotional Maturity of male and female teachers. Hypotheses: 1. There is no significant difference in the Emotional Maturity of Normal and special school teachers. 2. There is no significant difference in the Emotional Maturity of male and female teachers of normal school. 3. There is no significant difference in the Emotional Maturity of male and female teachers of special school. Vol. 02, Issue â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 03-04

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Methods Participants: For this study a sample of 120 (60 were normal school and 60 were special school) school teachers from different schools of Ahmedabad city were selected. Instruments: Emotional Maturity Scale: For measuring emotional maturity a scale developed by Singh and Bhargav (1984) was used. The scale has five components viz., instability, emotional regression, social maladjustment, personality disintegration and lack independence. The scale consists of 10 items in each component except for the component i.e. lack of independence which has 8 items. The responses are scored according to weight age of 5 to 1 (very much to never). Higher the score on the scale, lesser is the degree of emotional maturity and vice versa. Statistical Technique used: Descriptive analysis- Mean, and Standard Deviation was computed. Inferential statistics such as‗t‘ test was applied to determine the significance of difference in mean scores on said variables between normal and special schools male and female teachers. The level of significance was set at 0.01. Results and Discussion: Table - 1, Mean, SD, and ‘t’ value of Emotional Maturity of normal and special school teachers ‗t‘ Factors Group N M SD valu e Emotional Normal school 60 23.23 5.52 2.53 instability Special school 60 21.42 0.59 ** Emotional Normal school 60 23.28 2.05 10.0 Regression Special school 60 19.93 1.56 7* Social Normal school 60 23.09 1.00 10.0 Maladjustment Special school 60 20.03 2.65 9* Personality Normal school 60 21.56 0.82 10.5 disintegration Special school 60 18.47 2.12 3* Lack of Normal school 60 16.52 0.87 3.29 independence Special school 60 17.15 1.02 * Total Emotional Normal school 60 109.09 10.61 7.33 May – August, 2014

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maturity Special school 60 Sing. Level at 0.01 = 2.63 and 0.01 level = 1.98

97.27 df = 118

8.11

*

Table 1 shows mean values, standard deviation, and t-values with regard normal school teachers and special school teachers. The normal school teachers with mean score 23.23 and the special school teachers with mean score 21.42, the t value 2.53 is higher than the table value 1.98 and hence found significant at 0.05 level of significance. The results thus indicate that normal school teachers possess significantly higher degree of emotional stability than their counter parts. Therefore, Hypothesis 1 is accepted. In the area of Emotional regression, the normal school teachers have mean score of 23.38 where as the special school teachers have a mean score of 19.93 with tvalue 10.07 (significant at 0.01 level) indicating that special school teachers are more emotionally regressive as compared to normal school teachers. In the area of Social maladjustment, the normal school teachers have mean score of 23.09 where as the special school teachers have a mean score of 20.03 with tvalue 10.09 (significant at 0.01 level) indicating that special school teachers are more socially maladjustive as compared to normal school teachers. In the area of Personality disintegration, the normal school teachers have mean score of 23.56 where as the special school teachers have a mean score of 18.47 with t-value 10.53 (significant at 0.01 level) indicating that special school teachers are more Personality disintegration as compared to normal school teachers. In the area of Lack of Independence, the normal school teachers have mean score of 16.52 where as the special school teachers have a mean score of 17.15 with tvalue 3.29 (significant at 0.01 level) indicating that normal school teachers are more independent as compared to special school teachers. Table 1 also show that the observed difference between the mean score of emotional maturity of normal and special school teachers is found to be significant. So the null hypothesis 1 is rejected. The ‗t‘ value 7.33 is significant which tells that there is significant difference between rural and urban Primary school teachers in the emotional maturity. The mean score of normal school teachers is 109.09 and an special school teacher is 97.27 It shows that the mean score of the normal school teachers is higher and the mean score of the special school teachers is lower. And higher the score on the scale greater the degree of emotional immaturity. Thus, the normal school teachers possess more emotional maturity than the special school teachers.

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Table - 2, Mean, SD, and ‘t’ value of Emotional Maturity among male and female teachers of normal school Factors Group N M SD ‗t‘ value Emotional Male 30 27.13 4.00 9.77* instability Female 30 19.33 1.77 Emotional Male 30 24.73 3.78 3.49* Regression Female 30 21.83 2.53 Social Male 30 26.00 3.61 1.11 Maladjustment Female 30 24.07 5.27 Personality Male 30 22.23 2.85 1.25 disintegration Female 30 21.07 4.22 Lack of Male 30 17.13 2.74 1.94 independence Female 30 15.09 2.12 117.4 Total Emotional Male 30 3 7.59 6.45* maturity Female 30 102.3 10.03 7 Sing. Level at 0.01 = 2.63 and 0.01 level = 1.98 df = 118 Table 2 shows mean values, standard deviation, and t-values with regard Male and female teachers of normal school. The male teachers with mean score 27.13 and the female teachers with mean score 19.33 , the t value 9.77 is higher than the table value 2.63 and hence found significant at 0.01 level of significance. The results thus indicate that female teachers possess significantly higher degree of emotional stability than their counter parts. In the area of Emotional regression, the male teachers have mean score of 24.73 where as the female teachers have a mean score of 21.83 with t-value 3.49 (significant at 0.01 level) indicating that male teachers are more emotionally regressive as compared to female teachers. Table 2 also show that the observed difference between the mean score of over all emotional maturity of male and female teachers of normal school is found to be significant. The ‗t‘ value 6.45 is significant which tells that there is significant difference between male and female teachers in the emotional maturity. The mean score of male teachers is 117.43 and an female teacher is 102.37 It shows that the mean score of the male teachers is higher and the mean score of the female teachers is lower. And higher the score on the scale greater the degree of emotional immaturity. Thus, the female teachers possess more emotional maturity than the male teachers.

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On the dimension of Social maladjustment, Lack of independence and Personality disintegration do not differ significantly of normal school male and female teachers. Thus, Hypothesis 2 is partially accepted. Table - 3, Mean, SD, and ‘t’ value of Emotional Maturity female teachers of special school Factors Group N M Male 30 21.83 Emotional instability Female 30 21.00 Male 30 21.03 Emotional Regression Female 30 18.83 Male 30 22.17 Social Maladjustment Female 30 18.43 Personality Male 30 19.97 disintegration Female 30 16.97 Male 30 18.00 Lack of independence Female 30 16.03 Total Emotional maturity

Male Female

30 30

Sing. Level at 0.01 = 2.63, and 0.01 level = 1.98

among male and

SD 6.17 6.04 6.02 5.05 5.23 6.02 6.16 5.72 6.11 6.79 22.4 103.0 9 0 18.8 91.53 3 df = 118

‗t‘ value 0.53 1.45 2.57* 1.95 1.02

2.14*

Table 3 shows mean values, standard deviation, and t-values of Social maladjustment with regard Male and female teachers of special school. The male teachers with mean score 22.17 and the female teachers with mean score 18.43 , the t value 2.57 is higher than the table value 1.98 and hence found significant at 0.05 level of significance. The results thus indicate that male teachers are more socially maladjustive as compared to female teachers of special school. Table 3 also show that the observed difference between the mean score of over all emotional maturity of male and female teachers of special school is found to be significant. The ‗t‘ value 2.14 is significant which tells that there is significant difference between male and female teachers of special schools in the emotional maturity. The mean score of male teachers is 103.00 and an female teacher is 91.53 It shows that the mean score of the male teachers is higher and the mean score of the female teachers is lower. And higher the score on the scale greater the degree of emotional immaturity. Thus, the female teachers possess more emotional maturity than the male teachers of special schools.

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On the dimension of Emotional Regression, Lack of independence and Personality disintegration do not differ significantly of normal school male and female teachers. Thus, Hypothesis 3 is partially accepted. Success in teaching requires considerable capacities in emotional competence. The characteristics of emotionally mature person are explained in the succeeding paragraphs. The emotionally mature individual selects a convenient time and place for letting off emotional steam and a socially acceptable outlet. This enables him to inhibit emotional reactions. The emotionally immature individual by contract, ―blows up‖ when he is angry, jealous, or frightened, letting go at the time the emotional stimulus is present. While every individual must have on outlet for a strong emotion sooner or later, whether the outlet be direct or indirect, the emotionally mature individual selects the appropriate time and place for this. The emotionally mature individual learns to ignore many of the stimuli that formerly aroused his emotions and responds mainly to stimuli that are serious in nature. By contrast, the immature individual becomes angry about superficial matters, has his feelings easily hurt, and takes things personally when he is criticized. The emotionally mature individual is stable in his emotional responses. This contrasts with the emotionally immature individual who has a tendency to swing from the mood to another to have marked ―ups and downs‖ for relatively no reason, and to have strong sentiments that literally sweep him off his feet. A well matured person establishes a harmonious, stable and satisfying relationship with the environment from the viewpoint of his own welfare and that of others. Maturity evaluated in terms of socially appreciative and approved desires, goals and experiences of life which guide human action and behaviour. Maturity is evaluated most often in terms of culturally valued consequences that are attached to task performance. The curriculum task would remain incomplete if five objectives that have been mentioned in the affective domain taxonomy and exposure to this affective atmosphere do not become a part of educational agenda in appropriate places. Education being a process of socialization of individual, there has always existed a social imperative for Affective Education to promote soft skills. There is a need for affective education to teachers working in normal and special schools, Emotional Maturity of Teachers in relation to their gender and types of schools both at pre-service and in-service levels. This may be done by proving the effective learning opportunity for refinement of feeling and characterization among pre-service and in-service teachers.

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Conclusion The emotional maturity of the normal and special school teachers in relation to types of school and gender is the main issue of the present study. The findings of study reveal that the types of schools of the teachers has significant influence on their emotional maturity. It can be concluded that gender of teachers affect their level of emotional maturity. 1. Out of the five dimensions of emotional maturity Normal school teachers are significantly more mature on all five dimensions namely, Emotional Instability, Emotional regression, social maladjustment, personality disintegration and lack of independence and also over all emotional maturity. 2. Out of the five dimensions of emotional maturity Normal school Female teachers are significantly more mature on two dimensions namely, Emotional Instability and Emotional regression and also over all emotional maturity. 3. Out of the five dimensions of emotional maturity Special school school Female teachers are significantly more mature on one dimensions namely, social maladjustment and also over all emotional maturity. References Aleem, S. (2005), Emotional stability among college youth, Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 31(1-2): 99-102. Arya, A. (1989), Emotional maturity and value of superior children in family, Ph.D. in Psychology, Agra University. Audichya, S. and Jain, P. (2009). A study on emotional maturity of adolescent boys and girls of nuclear and joint families. Indian Psychological Review, 72(1): 19-24. Bheema, M (1983), The impact of emotional maturity and prolonged deprivation on indisciplined behavior among University students in relation to their academic achievements, Ph.D. Education, Kumaum University. Dhami, G.S. (1974), Intelligence, emotional maturity and socio-economic status as factors indicative of success in scholastic achievement, Ph.D. Education, Punjab University. Gupta, Poonam (1989), A comparative study between male and female adolescent school-going students on emotional maturity and achievement in

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curricular and co-curricular activities. Ph.D. Education, Agra University. Joshi, R., Gupta, N. and Tomar (2009), Emotional maturity in relation to optimism - pessimism among adolescents. Indian Psychological Review, 72(1): 11-14. Allen Brad Brake, Emotion and its influences on problem solving, Dissertation Abstract, 1997. Stephen. S. 2002. A study related to neuroticism and emotional maturity among college female, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Osmania University, Karnataka, India. Walter, D. and Smitson W.S. 1974. The Meaning of Emotional Maturity, MH. Winter. 58:9-11. Lohithakshan, P.M. 2002. Dictionary of Education, Kanishka Publishers and distributors, New Delhi. Singh, Y. and bhargava, M. Manual for emotional maturity scale, national psychological Corporation, agra; 1990.

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Running Head: PSYCO-PHYSICAL STRESS AND DEPRESSION

Psycho-physical Stress and Depression among Married and Un-married Women * Balvant M. Chhansiya & **Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to find out the mean difference between married and non married women. The total 80 women as a variation belonging to married and un-married women were taken. The research tool for psycho-physical stress was measured by Maheshvari‘s psycho-physical stress scale and tool for depression were used which made by Back et al. Here t-test was applied to check the significant of in psychophysical stress and depression between married and un-married women. To check the relation between Psycho-physical stress and Depression correlation method is used. The study revealed that there was significant difference between married and non married women in psycho-physical stress. There was significant difference between married and un-married women in depression. While the correlation between psycho-physical stress and depression reveals 0.53 positive correlation. Keywords: Psycho-physical stress and Depression Psycho-physical Stress and Depression among Married and Un-married Women A high proportion of patients with general distress were suffering only from PPD (also known as ―Psychosomatic disorders‖ or ―maladaptive illness‖) classified as ―psychological factors affecting medical condition‖ in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, APA, 2000) (code 777). PPD are characterized by psychological and physical symptoms that are caused by stress and emotional factors and involve one or more systems.

1

* Balvant M. Chhansiya & **Yogesh A. Jogsan Department of Psychology, Suarashtra University, Rajkot-360 005 Gujarat (India) Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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Psychophysical stress and reduces driving skills. Myopic drivers need more time for information in take and might miss relevant incidents. Hence even slightly uncorrected vision affects performance although critical incidents happened rarely in this study. There fore drivers of 45 years or older should have an eye on their visual performance. Self tests as a number plate test or by examination by professionals should be run every now and then. Description of the Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC-CRM) and of Neurological psycho-physical optimization: The REAC-CRM is an innovative medical device 11, 12 aimed at promoting the Neuro-Psycho-Physical Optimization (wellbeing and a reduction in the adaptive dysfunctional modifications in the nervous system induced by stress). Chronic stress is associated with cardiovascular diseases, but the link with stroke has not been well established. Stress is influenced by life-style habits, personality type and Depression levels. We sought to evaluate psycho-physical stress as a risk factor for stroke, while assessing gender influences. Virtually all the measures we have discussed have been associated with some kinds of health outcome measures, although in many cases this would be self-reported psychological distress or psychosomatic symptoms. How ever, most of the life events scales, negative affect, and the perceived stress measures have been associated with a ―hard‖ physical disease outcome in one context or another. 

What is depression? Everyone occasionally feels blue or sad. But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days. When you have depression, it interferes with daily life and causes pain for both you and those who care about you. Depression is a common but serious illness. Many people with a depressive illness never seek treatment. But the majority, even those with the most severe depression, can get better with treatment. Medications, psychotherapies, and other methods can effectively treat people with depression. Signs and symptoms included: 1. Persistent sad, anxious, or ―empty‖ feelings 2. Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism 3. Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness 4. Irritability, restlessness 5. Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex 6. Fatigue and decreased energy 7. Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions

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8. Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping 9. Overeating, or appetite loss 10. Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts 11. Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment. Depressive symptoms and disorders are one of the most common complications of chronic illness. In fact, depression is increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness in its own right3 because depressed individuals experience high rates of symptom recurrence4 and sustained functional impairment. Depression can intensify pain, fatigue, self-doubt and lead to self-isolation. Depression can be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Depression can be mild, moderate, or severe. Depressive disorders are the major health problems because they occur commonly throughout life, cause considerable suffering, and often signal the beginning of long-term problems. Depression is a serious condition for people of all ages, but for older people depression is often associated with other co-morbid conditions, such as physical disability (Baldwin, 2008; Chiu, Ames, Draper, & Snowdon, 1999) dementia (Beyond blue, 2007) and Depression (Ames, Flynn, Tuckwell, & Harrigan, 1994; Bryant, Jackson, & Ames, 2008) that exacerbate the distress experienced by older people and their careers. There is ongoing debate as to whether the prevalence of depression increases or decreases with age (O'Connor, 2006). It appears that formal diagnoses of depression are less common in older people, with rates considerably lower than those in younger populations (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1998, 2008). Egido et al. (2012). Is psycho-physical stress a risk factor for stroke? A casecontrol study Compared with healthy age-matched individuals, stressful habits and type A behaviour are associated with high risk of stroke. This association is not modified by gender. CA Winters, S Cudney, T Sullivan(2010) Expressions of depression in rural women with chronic illness The data also provide significant information for healthcare providers. It can enhance their sensitivity to rural clientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; needs and the everyday challenges of living with depression in the context of the rural environment.

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Caroline A. Jackson and Gita D. Mishra (2013) Depression and Risk of Stroke in Midaged Women Depression is a strong risk factor for stroke in mid aged women, with the association partially explained by lifestyle and physiological factors. Further studies of midaged and older women from the same population are needed to confirm whether depression is particularly important in younger women and to inform targeted intervention approaches. Ganraj Bhat Sankapithilu. et.al. (2010)A comparative study of frequency of postnatal depression among subjects with normal and caesarean deliveries Among Post caesarean subjects, depression was diagnosed in 20% (n=10) as compared to 16% (n=8) in subjects that delivered normally. However there was no significant difference in the frequency of depression among the two groups. Research problem: ―Psycho-physical Stress and Depression among Married and Un-married Women‖ Objectives: The main objectives of study were as under. 1. To measure the psycho-physical stress among married and un-married women. 2. To measure the depression among married and un-married women. 3. To measure the correlation between psycho-physical stress and depression. Hypothesis: To related objectives of this null hypothesis were as under. 1. There is no significant difference in psycho-physical stress among married and un-married women. 2. There is no significant difference in depression among married and unmarried women. 3. There is no correlation between psycho-physical stress and depression. Method 1. Participants: According to the purpose of present study total 80 Sample has been selected. There were 40 married women and 40 un-married women were taken as a sample from different area in Rajkot city. (Gujarat) 2. Research design:

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The aim of present study was to a study of psycho-physical stress and depression among married and un-Married women. For these total 80 (40 married and 40 un-married women) were taken as a sample. Here to the measure psycho-physical stress in for psycho-physical stress scale was used. This was made by Mahshvari S. Check depression in them Beck et.al. depression scale was used. To check difference between group t- test and correlation method was used. The result discussion of psycho-physical stress and depression is as under. 3. Tools: For this purpose the following test tools were considered with their reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective menus in present study two inventories is used. a) Maheshvari‘s psycho-physical stress scale: The scale was developed by maheshvari S.(2002). The scale contains 24 statements in all this two point scale. One score for every ‗yes‘ and Zero score for ‗no‘ response. High scores obtained on the scale are on indicative of high skill for physical stress and high degree of stress. The t-test retest reliability of the tool was found to be 0.87. The split half reliability was found to be 0.44. The validity of this scale was very high. b) Beck‘s depression inventory: Back Depression Inventory (BDI) was developed by Beck et al. The Beck‘s depression inventory (BDI) is a self-administered scale comprising 21 item assesing cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms of depression and the items were scored from 0 to 3. This inventory has test-retest reliability coefficient ranging from 0.74 to 0.83 on different time intervals and positively correlated with Hamilton depression rating scale with a person of 0.71. Reliability and validity of Gujarati adaption in Sardar Patel University was 0.80 and 0.65. 4. Procedure: According to purpose of present study for data collection the investigator explained the purpose the study to the subjects for these total 40 married and 40 un-married women were taken as a sample from different part of Rajkot city (Gujarat). Testing done to a personally with married and un-married women. The whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly. The instructions given on questionnaire were explained to them. It was also made clear to them that these scores would be kept secret. It was checked that all of the participants left any questions unanswered or that no participants encircled both the answer given against questions. Results and Discussions

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The main objective of present study was to ―measure the psycho-physical stress and depression of married and un married women.‖ In it statistical t-test method is used. To check correlation between psycho-physical stress and depression Karl Persian ‗r‘ method is used. Result discussion of present study is as under. Table-1 The table-1 indicates that the mean score of psycho-physical stress in married women are 13.79 and un-married women are 10.88. The standard deviations for both married women and un-married women‘s are 9.73 and 5.19 respectively. The difference between these two means is significant at 0.05 level of confidence as the value of t-test is 2.40 Findings shown that married women are more affected by psycho-physical stress in comparison to un-married women. Married women find themselves under more psycho-physical stress because of their multiple roles. The married outside home is seen as an added on role for married women while it is seen as substitute role in un-married women. So the first hypothesis is unaccepted. Evidences of research finding given by Egido et al. (2012). Conducted study in the Is psycho-physical stress a risk factor for stroke? A control study Compared with healthy age-matched individuals, stressful habits and type A behaviour are associated with high risk of stroke Result was same as present study. There for we can say that present finding are supported by Egido et al. (2012). Table-2 The table-2 indicates that the mean scores of depression in married women and un-married are 22.28 and 18.91 the standard deviations for both married women and un-married women are 6.83 and 5.98 respectively. The difference between these two means is significant at 0.01 level of confidence as the value of t-test is 2.78 a perusal of that reveals significant difference between depression of the two groups. In this study married women scored higher on depression in comparison to their un-married women counterparts. It is not surprising because in our culture, society renders more care, protection and support to un-married women. So the second hypothesis is also unaccepted. Evidences of research finding given by Ganraj Bhat Sankapithilu. et.al.(2010). Results show that However there was significant difference in the frequency of depression among the two groups. Result was same as present study. There for we say that present finding are supported by Ganraj Bhat Sankapithilu. et.al.

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(2010). Also supported by Caroline A. Jackson and Gita D. Mishra (2013) and CA Winters, S Cudney, T Sullivan(2010) Table-3 According to table-3 the results obtained positive co-relation between psycho-physical stress and depression. It was 0.53 positive co-relations between psycho-physical stress and depression. It means psycho-physical stress decrease depression decrease and psycho-physical stress increase depression increase. Conclusion We can conclude by data analysis as follows; There were significant differences between the mean scores of two groups on psycho-physical stress. Married women are more affected by psycho-physical stress in comparison to un-married women and there were significant difference between the mean scores of two groups on depression. Married women scored higher on depression in comparison to their un-married women counterparts. It is not surprising because in our culture, society renders more care, protection and support to un-married women. The co-relation between psycho-physical stress and depression is 0.53 which is positive correlations. Refrences: Ames, D., Flynn, E., Tuckwell, V., & Harrigan, S. (1994). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among in-patients in an acute geriatric hospital. Australian Journal on Ageing, 13, 8-11. Andreas Sprenger. Effects of impaired vision on eye movements, psychophysical stress parameters and behavior. Dept. of Neurology, University of Luebeck, Germany. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1998). Mental Health and Wellbeing:Profile of Adults, Australia (No. ABS Catalogue No. 4326.0). Canberra: ABS. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: Summary of results (No. ABS Catalogue No. 4326.0). Canberra: ABS. Baldwin, R. (2008). Mood disorders: Depressive disorders. In R. Jacoby, C. Oppenheimer, T. Dening & A. Thomas (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry. pp. 529-556. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Beyondblue. (2007). Dementia and Depression. Retrieved 30th May, 2008 Bryant, C., Jackson, H., & Ames, D. (2008). The prevalence of Depression in older adults: Methodological issues and a review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109, 233-250.

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CA Winters, S Cudney, T Sullivan(2010) Expressions of depression in rural women with chronic illness The international journal of rural an remote health research, 10: 1533. (Online). Caroline A. Jackson and Gita D. Mishra (2013) Depression and Risk of Stroke in Midaged Women. American Heart Association, Inc. Published online. Chiu, E., Ames, D., Draper, B., & Snowdon, J. (1999). Depressive disorders in the elderly: a review. In M. Maj & N. Sartorius (Eds.), Depressive disorders. Chichester: John Wiley. Devane CL, Chiao E, Franklin M, Kruep EJ. Depression disorders in the 21st century: status, challenges, opportunities, and comorbidity with depression. American Journal of Managed Care, 2005 Oct; 11(Suppl. 12):S344-353. Egido et al. (2012) Is psycho-physical stress a risk factor for stroke? A casecontrol study (11) Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. Ganraj Bhat Sankapithilu. et.al. (2010) A comparative study of frequency of postnatal depression among subjects with normal and caesarean deliveries Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences Peer Reviewed, Open Access, Free Online Journal Published Quarterly : Mangalore, Volume 9, Issue 2 National Institute of Mental health, Science Writing, Press & Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda.p.p.1-23 O'Connor, D. W. (2006). Do older Australians truly have low rates of Depression and depression?A critique of the 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 623 631. Result tables: Table-1 Psycho-physical stress among married and un-married women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

r

Sig.

1

Married Women Un-married Women

40

13.79

9.73

2.40

0.05

40

10.88

5.19

2.

Significance Level 0.05 = 2.02 0.01 = 2.71

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Table-2 Depression among married and Un-married women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

t

Sig.

1

Married Women Un-married Women

40

22.28

6.83

2.78

0.01

40

18.91

5.98

2.

Significance Level 0.05 = 2.02 0.01=2.71 Table-3 Correlation of the Psycho-physical stress and Depression among married and Unmarried women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

r

1

Psychophysical stress Depression

80

12.34

0.53

80

20.60

2.

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Running head: PERCEIVED PARENTAL AVOIDANCE AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

A study of Perceived Parental Avoidance on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents Chavda Hasmukh M. & Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The main purpose of this research was to find out the mean difference between three group of adolescents in‖ perceived parental avoidance on aggressive behavior of adolescents‖. The total 180 students were taken as a variation was measured by Sarala Zava was used. Child behavior check list was used. Here t-test was applied to check the significance difference. In some cases a mother does not have much choice but to provide her children with inadequate supervision or to deprive them of necessities. A low-income mother with many children cannot easily obtain or pay for a baby sitter every time she wants or needs to leave the house if she leaves her children alone. She is gambling with their safety and can be arrested for neglect. Key words: Perceived parental avoidance, Aggressive behavior, Adolescents A study of Perceived Parental Avoidance on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents Since the seminal work of Mary Ainsworth and colleagues, attachment research has largely proved the link between sensitivity/responsiveness of primary caregivers and attachment security in childhood (e.g., Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). There is much evidence for the transmission of attachment from caregivers to children, although the processes of such transmission remain partially unexplained (e.g., van Ijzendoorn, 1995). Most attempts to bridge this transmission gap concentrate on attachment in infancy and childhood (e.g., Bernier & Dozier, 2003; Raval et al., 2001). According to Bowlby (1973), an internal working model of self and others is developed on the basis of early attachment experiences. This may be stable over time, or may 1

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change due to experiences and environmental factors such as family climate or negative life events (Lewis, Feiring, & Rosenthal, 2000; Waters, Merrick, Treboux, Crowell, & Albersheim, 2000). Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) distinguished four types of attachment in adulthood: secure attachment with a positive model of self and others, dismissing attachment with a positive model of self and negative of others, preoccupied attachment with a negative model of self and positive of others, and fearful attachment with a negative model of self and others. Other authors differentiate between attachment dimensions like closeness, dependence and anxiety (e.g., Collins & Read, 1990). In adolescence various biological, cognitive, emotional, and social changes take place, affecting the parent-child relationship. Therefore, it seems necessary to clarify which factors influence attachment in this particular period of life. Changes in parentchild relations during adolescence may differ cross-culturally due to different developmental pathways which may be characterized by the culture-specific concepts of independence or interdependence (Greenfield, Keller, Fuligni, & Maynard, 2003; Rothbaum, Pott, Azuma, Miyake, & Weisz, 2000). Peer aggression and victimization is widespread in children and adolescents between 11 and 16 years old (Nansel, Craig, Overpeck, Saluja, and Ruan, 2004). The multi-national Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study shows that no fewer than 9% and as many as 54% of school aged children from the 25 nations studied are involved in aggressive acts toward peers, are victimized by peers, or both (Nansel et al., 2004). The apparent ubiquity of these behaviors in children and adolescents has made their study and prevention important educational and public health goals (Berger, 2007; Hawley, Little, and Rodkin, 2007; Olweus, 1993; Smith, Pepler, and Rigby, 2004). While developmental and educational psychologists have dominated the study and interpretation of these behaviors, several researchers have proposed that these behaviors can and should be understood from the perspective of evolutionary theory (Bjorklund and Pellegrini, 2002; Hawley, 1999; Sutton, Smith and Swettenham, 1999; Vaillancourt, 2005). Two recent studies use evolutionary principles to link peer victimization in adolescence with mating and intrasexual competition. Leenaars, Dane, and Marini (2008) found that female adolescents who considered themselves attractive were at higher risk for indirect victimization (e.g., hurtful rumor spreading) than their non-victimized peers. The authors interpret these results as a form of intrasexual competition between female adolescents whereby attractive

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girls become targets of victimization by other girls who are competing for mating opportunities. This interpretation follows the logic that males favor attractive females (Buss, 1988, 1989) and females compete with each other for high quality, attractive mates (Buss, 1988; Buss and Dedden, 1990). Indirect aggression may become a behavioral/functional tool to lower the competitive value of rival girls by signaling the victim‘s promiscuity and possible infidelity to potential male mates (Buss and Dedden, 1990). The indirect nature of the behavior reduces the chance of physical harm which is a predicted element of female aggressive competition (Campbell, 1999). Victimized females may not suffer in number of available short-term sex partners, but may be hindered in their competition for genetically superior long-term mates due to reputational damage (Buss and Schmitt, 1993). Gallup, O‘Brien, White and Wilson (2009) found that 85% of victimization in adolescence is directed toward same-sex peers as predicted by results from large school samples from Europe and Australia (Olweus, 1993; Rigby 2002). Gallup et al. (2009) showed that female victims of indirect aggression started having sex at earlier ages and had more lifetime sex partners in early adulthood than their peers who were either not victimized or less victimized in adolescence. The opposite relationship was true for males, as victimization in adolescence was negatively correlated with lifetime number of sex partners and the rate of sex partners per year. Intrasexual aggression is one of many functional and potentially adaptive responses to competition with mating rivals and the retention of opposite-sex partners (Buss and Shackelford, 1997). From a functional point of view, researchers have found that aggressive behavior towards peers lowers selfesteem and self-regard in victimized children and adolescents (Egan and Perry, 1998; Salmivalli, Kaukiainen, Kaistaniemi, and Lagerspetz, 1999; Rigby, 2002). In adolescent females, this reduction in self-esteem could lead to (1) reduced dating/mating opportunities due to marginalization and ostracism or (2) to increased short-term sexual encounters as these teens seek short-term affairs that boost self-esteem (Greiling and Buss, 2000). Numerous short-term mating opportunities favor male reproductive strategies but may be costly to females who could be perceived as promiscuous or potentially unfaithful to males. Other researchers have shown that self-esteem is lower in children and adolescents who are (1) victimized, (2) aggressive toward peers, or (3) considered both bullies and victims (Rigby and Cox, 1996; O‘Moore and Kirkham, 2001). High self-esteem appears to protect children and adolescents from both

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perpetrating and being victimized by these negative social interactions with peers (O‘Moore and Kirkham, 2001). Since the 1980s there has been a steady increase in research analysing problems of aggressive behaviour among children and adolescents at school, reflecting the growing seriousness of these problems in some European countries and the United States (Olweus, 2001; Skiba, 2000; Smith, 2003). These behaviours involve aggression against school property and that of other classmates, as well as aggression against teachers and peers themselves (Astor, Pitner, Benbenishty, & Meyer, 2002; Herrero, Este´vez, & Musitu, 2006). The present research specifically focused on aggression towards peers at school; following the classification of aggressive behaviours propose by Little, Henrich, Jones, and Hawley (2003). These authors distinguish between overt aggression, a type of behaviour which involves direct and manifest violence (e.g., hitting, pushing), relational aggression or harming others through manipulation of interpersonal relationships (e.g., spreading rumours, excluding a peer from a group), and instrumental aggression, used by aggressors to achieve their immediate goals (e.g., hitting a peer to get money). Regarding factors that may underlie these problems, previous research has documented the association between aggressive behaviour in adolescence and particular individual and social factors, these later relating mainly to the family and school contexts, the most important social contexts for development and psychosocial adjustment in this period of life (Musitu & Garcı´a, 2004). Prior studies examining the link between individual variables and aggressive behaviour in adolescence have demonstrated, for instance, that aggressive adolescents are normally unable to anticipate the negative consequences of their behaviours for the victim, showing lower levels of empathy (Dykeman, Daehlin, Doyle, & Flamer, 1996; Evans, Heriot, & Friedman, 2002; Olweus, 2005). Other recent studies conclude that aggressive adolescents at school show a very strong need for social recognition; they would like to be considered as powerful, socially accepted, different, and rebellious by their classmates (Rodrı´guez, 2004). In other words, some authors suggest that the desire for popularity, leadership, and power leads to the involvement of many adolescents in disruptive behaviours (aggressive acts, drugs consumption), providing them the opportunity to construct the social reputation they desire (Buelga, Ravenna, Musitu, & Lila, 2006; Carroll, Hattie, Durkin, & Houghton, 1999; Emler & Reicher, 2005; Kerpelman & Smith-Adcock, 2005). This wish to be recognized as a rebel implies, moreover, that these adolescents hold rather negative attitudes

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towards authority. In fact, it has been documented that aggressive adolescents normally show somewhat negative attitudes to institutional authorities such as the police, the law, and also the school and teachers (Adair, Dixon, Moore, & Sutherland, 2000; Emler & Reicher, 1995; Este´vez, Herrero, Martı´nez, & Musitu, 2006). But how do they develop these attitudes, goals and deficits? Objectives The main objectives of study were as under: 1 To measure the lower and middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. 2 To measure the middle and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. 3 To measure the lower and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. Null hypothesis To related objectives of this study null hypothesis were as under: 1 There is no significant difference in lower and middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. 2 There is no significant difference in middle and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. 3 There is no significant difference in lower and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. Method Participants According to the purpose of present study total 180 samples has been selected. There were 90 boys and 90 girls were taken as a sample from different area in Rajkot city (Gujarat). Research design A study of Perceived Parental Avoidance among Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents, for these total 180 boys and girls adolescents were taken as a sample. Here to the measure home environment in the home environment scale was used. This was made by sarla java. Check problem of aggressive behavior in the Agenk back home environment scale was used. To check difference between group t- test methods was used. The result discussion of perceived parental avoidance on aggressive behavior is as under. Tools

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For this purpose the following test tools were considered with their reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective manuals in present study two inventories is used. a) Home environment scale The scale was developed by sarla java. This scale contents 14 factors. Their reliability and validity are higher. b) Child behavior check list The scale was developed by Agenk back. This scale contents 118 statements in 23 statements measure of aggressive. Their reliability and validity are higher. Procedure The testing was done on a group of boys and girls adolescents. The whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly. The instructions given on the questionnaire were explained to them. It was also made clear to them that their scores would be kept secret. It was checked that none of the subjects left any questions unanswered or that no subject encircled both the answers given against question. Result & Discussion The mean objective of present study was to study of perceived parental avoidance on aggressive behavior in adolescents. In it statistical t‘ method was used. Result discussion of present study is as under. Insert table-1 According to table-1 the result obtained on the basic area of lower and middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents reveals significant difference in adolescents. In lower avoidance behavior of perceived parents received high mean score 20.61 as compare middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents 15.91. There has mean difference was 4.70. The t -value was 3.92 (table-1) there was 0.05 level significant difference of lower and middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. So we can say that first hypothesis was not accepted. Insert table-2 According to table-2 the result obtained on the basic area of middle and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents reveals significant difference in adolescents.

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In middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents received high mean score 15.91 as compare upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents 12.03. There has mean difference was 3.88. The t -value was 4.04 (table-2) there was 0.01 level significant difference of middle and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. So we can say that second hypothesis was not accepted. Insert table-3 According to table-3 the result obtained on the basic area of lower and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents reveals significant difference in adolescents. In lower avoidance behavior of perceived parents received high mean score 20.61 as compare upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents 12.03. There has mean difference was 8.58. The t -value was 7.66 (table-3). There was 0.01 level significant difference of lower and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. So we can say that third hypothesis was not accepted. Conclusion We can conclude by data analysis as follows; We can concluded that the comparison between higher and middle, and middle and lower avoidance behavior of parents. The teenagers, who experienced lower avoidances behavior, are more aggressive. References Adair, V. A., Dixon, R. S., Moore, D. W., & Sutherland, C. M. (2000). Bullying in New Zealand secondary schools. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 35, 207–221. Adolescence has different effects on the sexual behavior of male and female college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 611–615. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Astor, R., Pitner, R. O., Benbenishty, R., & Meyer, H. A. (2002). Public concern and focus on school violence. In L. A. Rapp-Paglicci, A. R. Roberts, & J. S. Wodarski (Eds.), Handbook of violence. New York: Wiley. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244. Berger, K. S. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Developmental Review, 27, 90-126.

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Bernier, A., & Dozier, M. (2003). Bridging the attachment transmission gap: The role of maternal mind-mindedness. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 355-365. Bjorklund, D. F. and Pellegrini, A. D. (2002). The origins of human nature: Evolutionary Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books. Buelga, S., Ravenna, M., Musitu, G., & Lila, M. S. (2006). Epidemiology and psychosocial risk factors associated with adolescents drug consumption. In S. Jackson, & L. Goossens (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent development. UK: Psychology Press. Buss, D. M. (1988). The evolution of human intrasexual competition: Tactics of mate attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 616–628. Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain sciences, 12, 1– 49. Buss, D. M., and Dedden, L. A. (1990). Derogation of competitors. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 395-422. Buss, D. M., and Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204–232. Buss, D. M., and Shackelford, T. K. (1997). From vigilance to violence: Mate retention tactics in married couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 346– 361. Campbell, A. (1999). Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 203–214. Carroll, A., Hattie, J., Durkin, K., & Houghton, S. (1999). Adolescent reputation enhancement: Differentiating delinquent, nondelinquent, and at-risk youths. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 593–606. Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 644-663. Dykeman, C., Daehlin, W., Doyle, S., & Flamer, H. S. (1996). Psychological predictors of school-based violence: Implications for school counselors. School Counselor, 44, 35–47. Egan, S. K., and Perry, D. G. (1998). Does low self-regard invite victimization? Developmental Psychology, 34, 299-309. Emler, N., & Reicher, S. (1995). Adolescence and delinquency. Oxford: Blackwell. Emler, N., & Reicher, S. (2005). Delinquency: Cause or consequence of social exclusion? In D. Abrams, J. Marques, & M. Hogg (Eds.), the social

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psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 211–241). Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Este´vez, E., Herrero, J., Martı´nez, B., & Musitu, G. (2006). Aggressive and non-aggressive rejected student: An analysis of their differences. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 387–400. Evans, M., Heriot, S. A., & Friedman, A. G. (2002). A behavioral pattern of irritability, hostility and inhibited empathy in children. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 211–224. Gallup, A. C., O‘Brien, D. T., White, D. D., and Wilson, D. S. (2009). Peer victimization in Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways through universal development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 461490. Greiling H., and Buss D.M. (2000). Women's sexual strategies: the hidden dimension of extra-pair mating. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 929-963. Hawley, P. H. (1999). The Ontogenesis of social dominance: A strategybased evolutionary Hawley, P. H., Little, T. D., and Rodkin, P. C. (Eds.) (2007). Aggression and Adaptation: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Herrero, J., Este´vez, E., & Musitu, G. (2006). The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: Testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age. Journal of Adolescence, 29(5), 671– 690. Kerpelman, J. L., & Smith-Adcock, S. (2005). Female adolescents‘ delinquent activity—The intersection of bonds to parents and reputation enhancement. Youth and Society, 37(2), 176–200. Leenaars, L. S., Dane, A. V., and Marini, Z. A. (2008). Evolutionary perspective on indirect victimization in adolescence: the role of attractiveness, dating and sexual behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 404-415. Lewis, M., Feiring, C., & Rosenthal, S. (2000). Attachment over time. Child Development, 71, 707-720. Little, T. D., Henrich, C. C., Jones, S. M., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the ‗‗whys‘‘ from the ‗‗whats‘‘ of aggressive behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122–133. Musitu, G., & Garcı´a, F. (2004). Consecuencias de la socializacio´ n familiar en la cultura espan˜ ola. Psicothema, 16, 288–293. Nansel, T. R., Craig, W., Overpeck, M. D., Saluja, G., Ruan, W. J., and the Health behaviour in school-aged children bullying analyses working group.

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(2004). Crossnational consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and psychosocial adjustment. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 730-736. O‘Moore, M. and Kirkham, C. (2001). Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behavior. Aggressive Behavior 27, 269-283. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Understanding children's worlds. Oxford: Blackwell. Olweus, D. (2001). Olweus, core program against bullying and antisocial behavior: A teacher handbook. Bergen: Research Centre for Health Promotion. Olweus, D. (2005). Bullying at school: Data and intervention. In IX international meeting about biology and sociology of violence: violence and school, Valencia, Spain. perspective. Developmental Review, 19, 97-132. Raval, V., Goldberg, S., Atkinson, L., Benoit, D., Myhal, N., Poulton, L., et al. (2001). Maternal attachment, maternal responsiveness and infant attachment. Infant Behavior & Development, 24, 281-304. Rigby, K. (2002). New perspectives on bullying. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Rigby, K. and Cox, I. (1996). The contribution of bullying at school and low self-esteem to acts of delinquency among Australian teenagers. Personality and Individual Differences 21, 609-612. Rodrı´guez, N. (2004). Guerra en las aulas [War in the classrooms]. Madrid: Temas de Hoy. Salmivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A., Kaistaniemi, L., and Lagerspetz, K.M.J., (1999). Selfevaluated self-esteem, peer-evaluated self-esteem, and defensive egotism as predictors of adolescents‘ participation in bullying situations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25, 1268-1278. Skiba, R. J. (2000). Zero tolerance. Zero evidence. An analysis of school disciplinary practice. Indiana: Policy Research Report. Smith, P. K. (Ed.). (2003). Violence in schools: The response in Europe. London: Routledge Falmer. Smith, P.K., Pepler, D.J., Rigby K. (2004). Bullying in schools: How successful can interventions be? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sutton, J., Smith, P. K., and Swettenham, J. (1999). Socially undesirable need not be incompetent: A response to Crick and Dodge. Social Development, 8, 132-134. Vaillancourt, T. (2005). Indirect aggression among humans: Social construct or evolutionary adaptation? In R. E. Tremblay, W. W. Hartup, and J.

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Archer (Eds.), Developmental origins of aggression (pp. 158-177). New York: The Guilford Press. van Ijzendoorn, M. (1995). Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 387-403. Waters, E., Merrick, S., Treboux, D., Crowell, J., & Albersheim, L. (2000). Attachment security in infancy and early adulthood: A twenty-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 71, 684-689. Result Table Table-1. Showings mean, S.D. and t-value of lower and middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. Sr.No. 1

2

Sample Groups

N

Lower avoidance behavior of perceived parents

60

middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents

60

SD Mean 20.61

t

7.31 3.92**

15.91

5.70

*P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01 NS= Not Significant Table-2. Showings mean, S.D. and t-value of middle and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. Sr.No. 1

2

Sample Groups

N

middle avoidance behavior of perceived parents

60

Upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents

60

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SD Mean 15.91

t

5.70 4.04**

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12.03

4.72

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ISSN 2347-1689 *P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01 NS= Not

Significant Table-3. Showings mean S.D. and t-value of lower and upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents in adolescents. Sr.No. 1

2

Sample Groups

N

Lower avoidance behavior of perceived parents

60

upper avoidance behavior of perceived parents

60

SD Mean 20.61

t

7.31 7.66**

12.03

4.72

*P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01 NS= Not Significant

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Running head: EMOTIONAL STABILITY AND CHILDREN PARENT’S RELATION

Emotional Stability and Children Parent’s Relation among Boy’s and Girl’s *Vadoliya Nilesh M. & **Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The main purpose of this research was to compare the emotional stability and children parent‘s relation among boy‘s and girl‘s. The total sample consisted of 60 among 30 are boy‘s and 30 girl‘s. The research tool for emotional stability originally written by A.N.Gupta and A.K.Singh and Gujarati translate this questionnaire Y.A.Jogson children parent‘s relation questionnaire originally written Nalini Rao Gujarati translate this questionnaire Y.A.Jogsan. Here‗t‘ test used Result revealed Emotional stability is a significant difference. Children parent‘s relation in father relation significant difference and mother relation not-significant difference in boy‘s and girl‘s. Keywords: Emotional stability, Children parent‘s relation. Emotional Stability and Children Parent’s Relation among Boy’s and Girl’s The emotional expression is very important for the adjustment with society. Emotional stability towards effective self management and effective inter personal relations. Emotional intelligence is play important role in social communication skills. If lake of care in child cares create problems and has to suffer a lot if person is not able to manage emotional skills. Weak physical problems can be also happen by it. The Greek Philosopher Aristotle had told before many years ago that there isn‘t question of Prosperity of emotional but more than its expression‘s prosperity. He suggested an idea to the people that ―you should have the ability to express your anger to proper person, at proper time, for proper reason and in limit.‖ What is the emotion? 1

*Vadoliya Nilesh M. & **Yogesh A. Jogsan Department of Psychology, Suarashtra University, Rajkot-360 005 (Gujarat) May – August, 2014

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Charles Darwin believed that emotions are inborn and spontaneous reactions, which are useful for good adjustment. ―Emotion is be very active status of nervous system.‖ Emotion is the complex psychophyological experience of individual‘s state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environment (external) influences. Emotional stability: A person gets emotional stability with time and circumstances and it can be understand more by experience. Emotional stability is such type of stage which people express by his inborn experience, pre-experience and as his maturity. A person takes care of social cultural element when he gives reactions so, the emotion which is stable in the person it can be called ―emotional stability‖. So, emotional stability describes the expression and reaction about when? And which type emotions should be expressed in different situation. According to Freud ―If a person can express all the three emotions like Id, ego and super ego. So, that we can understand he has emotional stability and emotional control in him. Freud was one of the first theorists to recognize that sexuality exists throughout the life cycle. Freud believed that the sex drive, or libido, an instinctual striving for sensual pleasure, was one of the key forces motivating behavior. Although Freud asserted that libido existed from infancy on, he did not say that infantile or childhood sexuality was identical to sexuality in adults. Instead, he proposed that early unfocused sexual feeling pass through a predictable series of developmental stages that are necessary for the formation of mature adult personality and behavior. He saw this development occurring in five stages. In the first year of life, called the oral stage, the mouth is the primary focus of sexual energy and sensual gratification. Infants not only get obvious pleasure from sucking but also put things (any things) into their mouth to explore them, to see what they are like. In the anal stage, from age 1 to 3, sensual pleasure shifts to the anal region. In the process of toilet training, the child has his or her first real opportunity to assert some independence from parental control. Deliberately holding beck bowel movements or letting them go produces both physical and psychological pleasure, but gradually the child learns to follow socially acceptable behavior regarding bathroom functions.

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In the phallic stage, from about age 3 to5, erotic interest shifts to the genitals. Here, Freud suggested separate developmental pathways for boys and girls. As a boy experiences erotic pleasure from masturbation, he develops fantasies of possessing his mother sexually. (This is quite understandable, since his mother is likely to be already loved and loving.) This fantasy wish leads to the Oedipus complex (named after the Greek story in which Oedipus unknowingly killed his father and married his mother.); the boy becomes jealous of his father whom he sees as a rival for his mother‘s affection. At the same time, the fears the anger of his powerful father and becomes especially afraid that his father will punish him by removing his penis. This castration anxiety is supported by two bits of logic in the young boy‘s mind: (1) he expects that his penis will be ―punished‖ because it is the source of his pleasure and guilt, and (2) he knows by now that girls do not have penises, and this suggests that a penis can be taken away. The problem is resolved by a creative compromise. The boy gives up his father and instead identifies with his father. In this way he tries to become as mush like him as possible so that he too will one day be powerful and able to satisfy his sexual cravings. The female counterpart of the Oedipus complex (the Electra complex, named after a Greek legend about a princess who helped kill her mother) is more complicated. Essentially, it is based on the view that after discovering that she does not have a penis, the girl feels envious and cheated. This so-called penis envy results in the girls wanting to possess her father and to replace her mother, whom she blames for her dilemma. Freud believed that this situation is less adequately resolved than the Oedipus complex because the girl is not so powerfully motivated by fear: after all, she has already ―lost her penis.‖ Freud thought that this less successful resolution of a childhood conflict led women to less mature psychologically than men because penis envy persists throughout life. After the resolution of the Oedipus or Electra complex, which is usually achieved by age 6, the child enters a latency stage where sexual impulses presumably recede in importance. Here the child becomes involved in nonsexual interests such as intellectual and social pursuits. This stage ends at the time of puberty when the genital stage is activated by internal biological forces. The adolescent gradually learns to focus his or her sexual intercourse in particular, finally expressing mature adult genital sexuality.

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A brief outline of Freud‘s theories of sexual development does not adequately explain the richness of his work or the complexity of his viewpoints. The Freudian influence on modern sexology has been profound and continues to be felt today. Several criticisms of Freud‘s ideas, however, are relevant to our discussion here. First, many authorities (including some of Freud‘s own followers) believe that he largely overlooked the importance of cultural input on sexual development. For example, it has been suggested that the anal stage is really a result of our culture‘s emphasis on bowel training rather than a reflection of erotic pleasure (Marmor, 1971). Similarly, cross-cultural anthropology provides evidence that the Oedipus complex is not encountered universally and that latency is primarily a function of a sexually restrictive society rather than determined by inner psychological forces alone. Second, many critics have suggested that Freud‘s views on female sexuality were extremely biased (Millett, 1970; Sherfey, 1972; Tannov, 1975; Frieze et al.., 1978). Finally, Freud himself acknowledged that many of his ideas were incomplete and indicated that they should be revised as new knowledge became available. Emotional stability and Delinquent behavior among Girl‘s and Boy‘s: the result of emotional significant difference (Nilesh vadoliya). Self-actualization and emotional stability in adolescents: the result of emotional stability not significant difference (Nishant vegda) Problem of study: The problem of present study is to find out the emotional stability and children parent‘s relation among boy‘s and Girl‘s. Objectives: The main objectives of study were as under. 1. To measure the emotional stability among boy‘s and girl‘s. 2. To measure the father relation among boy‘s and girl‘s. 3. To measure the mother relation among boy‘s and girl‘s. Hypothesis: To related objective of his null-hypothesis were as under. 1. There is no significant difference in emotional stability among boy‘s and Girl‘s. 2. There is no significant difference in father relation among boy‘s and Girl‘s. 3. There is no significant difference in mother relation among boy‘s and Girl‘s.

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Method Samples: According to the purpose of present study total 60sample has been selected. There were 30 children boys and 30 children girls were taken as a sample from different area in Rajkot city (Gujarat). Research Design: The aim of present research was to a study of emotional stability and children parent‘s relation among Boy‘s and Girl‘s were taken as a sample. Here to measure emotional stability scale was used which was mode by A. N. Gupta and A. K. Singh. Then Gujarati translated Y. A. Jogsan. Check children parent‘s relation in them Nalini Rao children parent‘s relations scale was used. To check the difference between groups t-test on method was used. The result discussion of emotional stability and children parent‘s relation is as under. Instruments: For this purpose the following test tools were considered with their reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective manuals. In present study two inventory used in research. 1. Scale of Emotional Stability: This questionnaire was originally written by A. N. Gupta. And A. K. Singh and Gujarati translated this questionnaire Y. A. Jogsan. There are 15 questions this is 2 point are given here to scale the emotional stability. 2. Scale of Children Parent‘s Relation: This questionnaire was originally written Nalini Rao and Than Gujarati translated Y. A. Jogsan and 100 questions and 10 factors. Validity 0.69 to 0.81. Procedure: The testing was done on a group of children boy‘s and Girl‘s. The whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly. The Instruction given on the questionnaire ware explained to them. It was also made clear to them that their scores would be kept secret. It was checked that none of the subjects left any questions unanswered or that no subjects encircled both the answer given against question. Result and discussion: The main objective of present study was to emotional stability and Children parent‘s relation among boys and girls in is statistical t method was used. Result discussion of present study is as under.

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Table-1 According to table-1 the result obtained on the basic area of emotional stability reveals no significant difference of boys and girls. In emotional stability boys received mean score 6.88 as compare girls 5.39.boys mean score high. There has mean difference. The t-value was 6.03.there was significant of boys and girls 0.01 level. So we can say that first hypothesis rejected. This is conformity with the finding of Nilesh vadoliya Conformity with the not-finding of Nishant vegda. Table-2 According to table-2 the result obtained on the basic area of father relation reveals no significant difference of boys and girls. In father relation boys received mean score 199.98 as compared the girls high mean score 245.90.the t-value was 5.53.there was significant of boys and girls in father relation. It is child's unconscious desire for the exclusive love of the parent of the opposite sex. This desire includes jealousy toward the parent of the same sex and the unconscious wish for that parent's death. This concept is in Females this meaning a girl child is threatened by her mother and has stronger feelings for her father. She may want her mother to die. This is the same thing as Oedipus complex, but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s opposite. Sigmund Freud was also the first person to use term and relate it to human psychology. He used it as the opposite of Oedipus complex. He also believed that this was a normal part of the human psychological growth. He believed that in this stage female children felt intense feelings of love and hate towards the father and the mother. Freud also said that most women grew out of this, but not all. The Electra complex comes from the Greeks as well. Electra was the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. After the murder of their father by their mother and her lover, she and her brother conspired to murder the two lovers. So we can say that second hypothesis rejected. Table-3 According to table-3 the result obtained on the basic area of mother relation reveals no significant difference of boys and girls. In mother relation boys received high mean score 288.44 as compared the girls mean score 286.50.the t-value was 0.58.there was no significant difference of children boys and girls in mother relation. The term Oedipus complex was first used by the famous Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. He believed that it Vol. 02, Issue â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 03-04

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was a normal part of the human psychological growth. He believes that in this stage male children felt intense feelings of love and hate towards the mother and father. Freud said that most people grew out of this stage but some mentally ill adults still feel this strong sense of the Oedipus complex. This concept is in male it is child's unconscious desire for the exclusive love of the parent of the opposite sex. This desire includes jealousy toward the parent of the same sex and the unconscious wish for that parent's death. This meaning a boy child is threatened by his father and has stronger feelings for his mother. He may want his father to die. So we can say that third hypothesis accepted. Conclusion: Because of the purpose of the result the conclusion is like this: The difference of emotional stability can be seen among boys and girls, there is significant difference. Thus, the hypothesis is rejected. The difference of father relation can be seen among boys and girls, there is significant difference. Thus, the hypothesis is rejected. The difference of mother relation can be seen among boys and girls, there is not-significant difference. Thus, the hypothesis is accepted. References:  Frieze, I.H., (1978) Women and Sex Roles: a social psychological perspective. New York Norton.  Marmor, J (1971). ―Normal and Devint Sexual Behavior‖. Journal of American Medical Association. 217: 165-170.  Millett, K (1970) Sexual Politics, Doubleday New York.  Nilesh Vadoliya: A Study of Emotional Stability and Delinquent Behavior among Girl‘s and Boy‘s. Article (28) research in psychology vista publication, Jaipur.  Rao N 1989. Parent Child Relationship Scale. Agra: National Psychological Corporation.  Shannon Young: Oedipus Complex VS. Electra complex. Final Project for World Literature.  Sherfey, M.J. (1972) the Nature and Evolution of Female Sexuality. Random House, New York.  Tennov, D, (1975) Psychotherphay, the Hacardous cure, Abelard-Schuman, New York.  Vegda Nishant K. & Yogesh A. Jogsan: Self Actualization and Emotional Stability in Adolescents. Article (29) research in psychology vista publication, Jaipur.

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William, H, Masters, & Virginia. ―Freud‘s Theories of Sexual Development: Human Sexuality. 5th edition (page. 210-211). Result tables: Table-1 Showing the Mean and t-value of emotional stability Sr. No. 1 2.

Variable

N

Mean

t

Sig.

Boy‘s Girl‘s

30 30

6.88 5.39

6.03

0.01

Sig. Level 0.05 = 2.04 0.01 = 2.75 NS=Not significant Table-2 Showing the Mean and t-value of father relation Sr. No. 1 2.

Variable

N

Mean

t

Sig.

Boy‘s Girl‘s

30 30

199.98 245.90

5.53

0.01

Sig. Level

0.05 = 2.04 0.01 = 2.75 NS=Not significant

Table-3 Showing the Mean and t-value of mother relation Sr. No. 1 2.

Variable

N

Mean

t

Sig.

Boy‘s Girl‘s

30 30

288.44 286.50

0.58

NS

Sig. Level

0.05 = 2.04 0.01 = 2.75 NS=Not significant

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Chart - 1 Shoving mean scores of boys and girls on emotional stability Emotional Stability

boys girls

Chart - 2 Shoving mean scores of boys and girls on father relation Father Relation

boys girls

Chart - 3 Shoving mean scores of boys and girls on mother relation Mother Relation

boys girls

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Running Head: SELF CONTROL AND MORAL ATTITUDES

Self Control and Moral Attitudes in Male and Female Professor *Pravin V. Dabhi. & ** Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The present investigation has been meanly aim to self-control and moral attitudes among male and female professor. To collect the data of selfcontrol scale of Arun kumar Singh and Alpa Sen Gupta was used. They have made English version scale. The translate by Yogesh.A.Jogsan. The sample collect the data of moral attitudes English version scale of U.S. Brakely, Frenk.J.Sulloway and Michal shermar used. The translate gujarati by Yogesh.A.Jogsan. Here F-test(ANOVA) was applied to check the significance difference in self-control and moral attitudes among male and female professor. To check the relation between self-control and moral attitudes co-relation method is used. The study revealed that there was no significant difference between male and female professor in self-control and moral attitudes. While the corelation between self-control and moral attitudes reveals (0.99) major positive co-relation.

Keywords: Self Control and Moral Attitudes Self-control and Moral Attitudes among Male and Female professor Perhaps the best-known treatment of self control and deviance is Gottfredson and Hirschi‘s(1990). Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that crime and ‗‗analogous behaviors‘‘ (deviant behavior that resemble crime) are the result of low self control, coupled with criminal opportunity.Further, they argue that: (1) self control largely comes from parental discipline in childhood, (2) absolute levels of self control can change throughout the life course with natural cognitive aging and responsibility, but

1

*Pravin V. Dabhi. & ** Yogesh A. Jogsan Department of Psychology, Suarashtra University, Rajkot-360 005 Gujarat (India) Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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(3) one‘s relative level of self control compared to others‘ is largely determined by about age 11–12.2 However, religious socialization and exposure to religious activities would seem to be a potentially important process by which self control could be developed and increased. Indeed, evidence and theory suggest that self control should be pervious to religious influence (Laird et al. 2011; McCullough and Willoughby 2009; Vazsonyi and Jenkins 2010; Walker et al. 2007), even after the late childhood=early adolescence period posited by Gottfredson and Hirschi to be the point at which one‘s relative self control stabilizes. Some scholars have moved away from treating self control as a stable individual trait to treating it as a dynamic capacity that is conditioned by social environmental factors, such as prior self control depletion, moral beliefs and choice, or community characteristics (Arneklev et al. 1998; Muraven et al. 2006; Piquero and Buffard 2007; Teasdale and Silver 2009; Tittle et al. 2004; Wikstrom and Treiber 2007). By implication, adolescents‘ self control might be affected by their parents‘ and their own religion (Geyer and Baumeister 2005; McCullough and Willoughby 2009; Vazsonyi and Jenkins 2010). Religion could thus strengthen self control. Hay and Forrest (2006:740) note that ‗‗little is known about the process by which [self control] develops over time.‘‘ Latimore et al. (2006:348) note that only a small handful of studies address predictors of self control, and ‗‗additional information concerning the sources of self control are therefore needed.‘‘ They theorize that a key source might be moral messages from caregivers and others. Cochran et al. (1998) find that parental attachment contributes to higher self control. Hay and Forrest (2006) find moderate stability in absolute self control and between-individual differences in self control, but they also find that between-individual differences in self control were affected by parental socialization well into adolescence.3 Pratt et al. (2004) find that both parental socialization and neighborhood conditions predict variation in self control. They argue that community-level control and socialization is equally important as parenting in contributing to the development of self control. These suggestions of malleability of self control past childhood imply that participation in religion might strengthen self control. Psychologists have developed a ‗‗muscle‘‘ or ‗‗strength‘‘ model of self control (Muraven et al. 1998), arguing that self control is a cognitive resource that is temporarily depleted whenever it is exercised, just as a muscle is temporarily fatigued when it is used. Research by Muraven et al. (2006) and others (e.g., Muraven et al. 1998) supports a muscle model of self control, finding that base

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levels of self control and self control depletion independently predicted student cheating. This model also implies that self control should grow stronger with regular ‗‗exercise‘‘: repeated efforts at self control should make one‘s self control stronger over time (Muraven et al. 1998). Geyer and Baumeister (2005:418) argue that ‗‗Religious organizations, as an external source of discipline, can be very helpful to people‘s personal self control endeavors.‘‘ In other words, religion may fortify this psychological muscle of self control by encouraging its repeated use in everyday life. Relatedly, Latimore et al. (2006) argue that self control rests largely on internalized moral principles that are enforced by guilt and painful emotions. Religion likely fosters what Geyer and Baumeister (2005) call the three main elements in the operation of self control: (1) it fosters internalization of behavioral standards, (2) it fosters self monitoring, and (3) it exhorts individuals to control or alter their own behavior. Regular participation in physical activities is considered to be fundamental for the development and maintenance of desirable levels of motor and metabolic fitness. It is very likely an important factor for regulating growth and maturation processes and the integrity of musculoskeletal structures (Malina et al., 2004). In addition, sport seems to be an important component of daily physical activity in children and adolescents and its importance is often viewed as positive. Among the potential benefits of participation in competitive sports is the impact of its experiences for enhancing interactions with peers, coaches and other significant adults, believed to be essentials in character development (Roberts, 2001). However, as noted by Shields and colleagues (Shields et al., 2002), these benefits do not happen simply through participation in the activity, but depend on the climate of practices as well as of competitions, and the influence of peers, coaches, and other significant adults (Brustad and Partridge, 2002; Ntoumanis and Vazou, 2005; Smith et al., 2006; Smoll and Smith, 2002) To measure and assess the values and attitudes of adolescents towards sports has been therefore a major concern among researchers, particularly after the mid 80s.The problem lies not only in the difficulty in finding the adequate instruments to the object of study, but also in defining a conceptual framework that gives coherence to the validation mechanisms of moral decision making and, at the same time, allows the intervention of educational agents. The complexity of the issues involved makes it difficult to analyse them from a single theoretical point of view or to use a single methodology. A recent instrument, the Attitudes to Moral Decision Making in Youth Sport Questionnaire (AMDYSQ; Lee et al., 2007), measures

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acceptance of cheating, acceptance of gamesmanship, and keeping winning in proportion. Whitehead (2007) demonstrated that moral values positively predicted commitment and conventions, and negatively predicted gamesmanship. Thus, these values (which include trying to be fair, helpful, and obedient, and to play properly and be sporting) lift pro-social attitudes and lower the acceptance of gamesmanship in which players attempt to upset their opponents. Such values should be encouraged by coaches. As a starting point to approach the problem, different authors (Boixadós et al., 2004; Lee, 1996; Vallerand et al., 1997) used the construct fair play, based on normative/ conventional components, supposedly sustained by sport rules, as well as cognitive (renounce to ―victory at all costs‖ and ―give one‘s best‖) and social components (―get along with all interveners‖). In United Kingdom, the Sports Council conducted a research that lead to the elaboration of a set of Values and Attitudes Questionnaires, aimed at youth sports (Lee, 1996). Based on these premises, the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire –SAQ, composed of 23 items, was applied to a sample of male and female athletes, aged from 13 to 16 years old, and engaged in the United Kingdom‘s most popular sports (Whitehead et al., 2003). This study resulted in a four factor model proposal, two of which factors were considered socially positive (Commitment and Convention) and the other two socially negative (Cheating and Gamesmanship). The concept of gamesmanship is defined by Lee and Whitehead (1999) as a category of actions that do not violate the rules of the particular sport and clubs who were engaged in large number of competitive and organized sports. The growing research would provide an unique opportunity to appreciate the cultural independence of the relationship between achievement goal orientation on attitudes. Research problem: ―Self-control and Moral Attitudes among Male and Female Professor‖ Objectives: The main objectives of study were as under. 4. To measure the self-control among U.G and P.G professor. 5. To measure the self-control among male and female professor. 6. To measure the moral attitudes of U.G and P.G professor. 7. To measure the moral attitudes among male and female professor. 8. To measure the internal effect of self-control on status and sex variables. 9. To measure the internal effect of moral attitudes on status and sex variables. 10. To measure the correlation between self-control and moral attitudes. Hypothesis: To related objectives of this null hypothesis were as under.

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1. There is no significant difference in self-control among U.G and P.G professor. 2. There is no significant difference in self-control among male and female professor. 3. To measure the moral attitudes of U.G and P.G professor. 4. There is no significant difference in moral attitudes among male and female professor. 5. There is no significant difference in internal effect of self-control status and sex variables. 6. There is no significant difference in internal effect of moral attitudes on status and sex variables. 7. There is no correlation between self-control and moral attitudes. Method 5. Participants: According to the purpose of present study total 120 sample has been selected. There were 60 male professor(30 U.G and 30 P.G) and 60 female professor(30 U.G and 30 P.G) were taken as a sample from different area in Rajkot city. (Gujarat) 6. Research design: The aim of present study was to a study of self-control and moral attitudes among male female professor. For these total 120 male and female professor were taken as a sample. Here to the measure self-control in the self-control scale was used. This was made by Arunkumar Singh and Alpa Sen Gupta. Check moral attitudes in them U.S.Brakely, sulloway et. al. moral attitudes scale was used. Here F-test has been used to check the main and internal effects. To check correlation between self-control and moral attitudes Karl Persian ‗r‘ method is used. The result discussion of self-control and moral attitudes is as under. 7. Tools: To collect the data of self-control scale of Arunkumar Singh and Alpa Sen Gupta was used. They have made English version scale. But investigate has used gujarati version scale made by Yogesh.A.Jogsan and the same to collect the data of moral attitudes English version scale of U.S.Brakely, Sulloway et. Al. used. But investigator has used attitude scale gujarati version made by Yogesh.A.Jogsan. There reliabity and validity score of the both scale shown very high. 8. Procedure: According to purpose of present study for data collection the investigator explained the purpose the study to the subjects for these total 60 male(30 P.G and 30 U.G)and 60 female(30 P.G and 30 U.G) professor were taken as a sample from different part of Rajkot city (Gujarat). Testing was done personally with male

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and female professor. The whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly. The instructions given on questionnaire were explained to them. It was also made clear to them that these scores would be kept secret. It was checked that non of the participants left any questions unanswered or that no participants encircled both the answer given against questions. Result and Discussion There factorial design 2 x 2 factorial design have been used to check the main and interaction effect of the two main independent variables with the help of statistical method F-test (ANOVA) and mean. The difference has been examined. Insert Table-1 about here In Table-1 show the ‗F‘ ration (ANOVA-F) of the status and sex variables. Here a showed status variable and B showed sex variable. The Mean difference of status variable and sex variable were found non-significant. In the table showed the ‗F‘ ratio and mean score of status variable. Here ‗F‘ ratio 0.25 was found non-significant of both levels. (0.01 and 0.05). Because the ‗F‘ ratio found less than original value. Here the mean difference among A1 U.G. professors was found 19.15. They were found non-significant. The difference is very less here. Therefore, even if ‗F‘ ratio was found non-significant then also in accordance with the mean. We can affirm that in compare to P.G. professors has more self-control in preparation. In self-control give possible reason for the difference between male and female professors, it can be said that today‘s person can earn self-control from the factors like equality for male-female professors and personality development class. As self-control is connected with impulses and this impulse is inborn and it affects male-female equally. Therefore, the present result might be deducted. The mean among B1 shows male and B2 shows female was found 19.28 and 19.31 respectively. According to mean, females have got more self-control in compares to make. Interaction A x B which shows status and sex variables was found nonsignificant and sex variables was found non-significant here. So there is no difference in self-control so far as interaction was concerned. Here interaction effect between A x B ‗F‘ ratio was found 1.21 which was non-significant. This result was shown in table.

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The interaction mean of four groups chronologically. Male professors mean was found 19.10, U.G. female professors mean was found 19.46. P.G. male professors mean was found 19.80 and P.G. female professors mean was found 18.83 in selfcontrol. Insert Table-2 about here The table-2 shows the ‗F‘ ratio (ANOVA) of the status and sex variable. Here A showed status variable and B showed sex variable. The mean difference of status variable and sex variable of moral attitude were found non-significant. In table-2 showed the ‗F‘ ratio and mean score of status variable. Here F-ratio 0.19 was found non-significant at the both levels (0.01 and 0.05). Because the Fratio found less then original value. Here the mean difference among A1 U.G. professors was found 91.50 and A2 P.G.professors was found 92.10. They were found non-significant. So, the difference is very less here. Therefore, even if Fratio found non-significant then also in accordance with the mean, we can affirm that in compare to U.G. professors and P.G. professors believe more in morality. The second main variable sex was shown in table-2 here ‗F‘ value was 1.14 wich was less than original value. So, the difference was on-significant. Interaction A x B which shows status and sex variables was found nonsignificant here. So, there is no difference in moral attitude so far as interaction is concerned. Here interaction effect of A x B F-value was found 0.19 which was non-significant. This was shown in table-2. Table-2 showed the interaction mean of four groups chronologically. U.G. male professors mean was found 90.47, U.G. female professors mean was found 92.53, P.G. male professors mean was found 91.67 and P.G. female professors was found 92.53. Insert Table-3 about here Above table-3 shows the co-relation between self-control and moral attitudes. Here the co-relation between self-control and moral attitude was found 0.99. Which reveals that there was high positive co-relation was found between both subjects. Eventually, as the self-control is very good in person, his attitude towards morality would be better. Quite opposite to it, as the low positively of moral attitude, self-control would be found less. The result shows the significant. Co-relation between self-control and moral attitude. Therefore the hypothesis made initially in the beginning of the research was denied here. Conclusion

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The statistical analysis as mentioned above warranted the following inferences. Status variable of self-control didn‘t reveal any significant difference. Here the initial hypothesis in the beginning of research can be seen consented. Male and female sex variable of self-control didn‘t found any significant difference. Thus the hypothesis made initially was approved. U.G. and P.G. male and female professors had no difference in the interaction of status and sex variable of self variable of self-control. So, the hypothesis was accepted here. The over all result showed no significant difference in status variable of moral attitude. Here the hypothesis made initially was accepted. Sex variable showed no significant difference in male and female on moral attitude. Thus the hypothesis made initially became consented. U.G. and P.G. male and female professors had no significant difference in the interaction of status and sex variable of moral attitude. Therefore, hypothesis ascertained initially was accepted here. Here the self-control and moral attitude comes up with significant co-relation (0.99). Therefore the hypothesis initially made was denied here. Reference Arneklev, Bruce, J., John K. Cochran and Randy R. Gainey (1998). Testing Gottfredson and Hirschi‘s Low Self-control Stability Hypohtesis : An Exploratory Study. American Journal of Criminal Justice 23 : 107-127. Boitados, M., Cruz, J., Torregrosa, M. and Valiente, L. (2004). Relationships among Motivational Climate, Satisfaction, Perceived Ability and Fair Play Attitudes in Young Soccer Players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 301317. Brustad, R. and Partridge, J. (2002). Parental and Peer Influence on Children‘s Psychosocial Development Through Sport : In : Children and Youth in Sport : A Biopsychosocial Perspective. Eds : Smoll, F. and Smith, R. Dubuque, IA, Kendall / Hunt. 187-210. Cochran, John, K., Peter B. Wood, Christine S. Sellers, Wendy Wilkerson and Mitchell B. Chamlin (1998). Academic Dishonesty and Low Self-control : An Empirical Test of A General Theory of Crime. Deviant Behavior 19 : 227-255. Geyer, Anne and Roy F. Baumeister (2005). Religion Morality and Self Control. pp. 412-432 in Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Edited by Raymond F. Paloutizian and Crystal L. Park, New York : Guilfored Press. Gottfredson, Michael and Travis Hirschi (1990). A General Theory of Crims, Stanford, CA : Stanford University Press. Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest (2006). The Development of Self-control : Examining Self-control Theory‘s Stability Thesis. Criminology, 44 : 739-774.

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Laird, Robert D., Loren D. Marks and Matthew D. Marrero (2011). Religiosity, Self-control and Antisocial Behavior : Religiosity as a Promotive and Protective Factor. Journal of Applied Development Psychology, 32 : 78-85. McCullough, Michael, E. and Brain, L. B. Willoughby (2009). Religion, Selfregulation and Self-control : Associations, Explanations, and Implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135 : 69-93. Muraven, Mark, Greg Pogarsky, and Dikla Shmueli (2006). Self-control Depletion and the Theory of Crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 22 : 263277. Muraven, Mark, Dianne M. Tice and Roy F. Baymeister (1998). Self Control as a Limited Resource : Regulatory Depletion Patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 : 774-789. Piquero, Alex and Jeff Buttard (2007). Something Old, Something New : A Preliminary Investigation of Hireschi‘s Redefined Self-control. Justice Quarerly 24 : 01-27. Pratt, Travis, Michael Turner and Alex Piquero (2004). Parental Socialization and Community Context : A Longitudinal Analysis of the Structural Sources of Low Self-control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41 : 219-243. Teasdale, Brent and Eric Silver (2009). Neighborhoods and Self-control : Toward an Expanded View of Socialization. Social Problems 56 : 205-222. Vazsonyi, Alexander T. and Dusty D. Jenkins (2010). Religiosity, Slef-control and Virginity Status in College Students from the ‗Bible Bett‘ : A Research Note. Journal For the Scientific Study of Religion 49 : 561-568. Wikstrom, Pre-olof and Kyle Treiber (2007). The Role of Self-control in Crime Causation : Beyond Gollofredson and Hirschi‘s General Theory of Crime, European Journal of Criminology 4 : 237-264.

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RESULT TABLE Result Table-1 Showing the ANOVA of Status and Sex Variable on self control Variable SS df M.S. F Sig A 2.70 1 2.70 0.25 NS B 3.33 1 3.33 0.003 NS AB 13.33 1 13.33 1.21 NS Error 1277.13 116 11.01 Total 1293.20 119 * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, NS = Not Significant Result Table-2 Showing ANOVA of Status and Sex Variable on Moral Attitude Variable SS df M.S. F Sig A 10.80 1 10.80 0.19 NS B 64.53 1 64.53 1.14 NS AB 10.80 1 10.80 0.19 NS Error 6595.07 116 56.85 Total 6681.20 119 * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, NS = Not Significant Result Table-3 Showing the Co-relation Between Self-control and Moral-attitude Sr. No. Detail N r 1 Self-control 120 0.99 2 Moral-attitude 120

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Running Head: SELF ACTUALIZATION AND EMOTIONAL STABIALITY

Self Actualization and Emotional Stability in Urban and Rural Women *Zala Hitesh M. & ** Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The main purpose of this research was to find out the mean difference between urban and rural women. The total 80 urban and rural Women were taken as a variation. The research tool for self actualization was measured by K.N.Sharma‘s self actualization scale. While the tool for emotional stability were used which made by A.N.Gupta and A.K.Sing. Here t-test was applied to check the significance of in self actualization and emotional stability between urban and rural Women. To check the relation between self actualization and emotional stability co-relation method is used. The co-relation between self actualization and emotional stability reveal 0.27 negative co-relation. Keywords: Self actualization and Emotional stability. Self Actualization and Emotional Stability in Urban and Rural Women What does one do when he actualizes? Does he grit his teeth and squeeze? What does self-actualization mean in terms of actual behavior, actual procedure? I shall describe eight ways in which one self-actualizes. First, self-actualization means experiencing fully, vividly, selflessly, with full concentration and total absorption. It means experiencing without the selfconsciousness of the adolescent. At this moment of experiencing, the person is wholly and fully human. This is a self actualizing moment. This is a moment when the self is actualizing itself. As individuals, we all experience such moments occasionally. As counselors, we can help clients to experience them more often. We can encourage them to become totally absorbed in something and to forget their poses and defenses and their shyness - to go at it "wholehog." From the outside, we can see that this can be a very sweet moment. In those 1

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youngsters who are trying to be very tough and cynical and sophisticated, we can see the recovery of some of the guilelessness of childhood: some of the innocence and sweetness of the face can come back as they devote themselves fully into the experiencing of it. The key word for this is "selflessly," and our youngsters suffer from too little selflessness and too much self-consciousness, self-awareness. Second, let us think of life as a process of choices, one after another. At each point there is a progression choice and a regression choice. There may be a movement toward defense, toward safety, toward being afraid; but over on the other side, there is the growth choice. To make the growth choice instead of the fear choice a dozen times a day is to move a dozen times a day towards self-actualization. Self-actualization is an ongoing process; it means making each of the many single choices about whether to lie or to be honest, whether to steal or not to steal at a particular point, and it means to make each of these choices as a growth choice. This is movement toward self-actualization. Third, to talk of self-actualization implies that there is a self to be actualized. A human being is not a tabula rasa, not a lump of clay or Plasticize. He is something which is already there, at least a "cartilaginous" structure of some kind. A human being is, at minimum, his temperament, his biochemical balances, and so on. There is a self, and what I have sometimes referred to as "listening to the impulse voices" means letting the self emerge. Most of us, most of the time (and especially does this apply to children, young people), listen not to ourselves but to Mommy's interjected voice or Daddy's voice or to the voice of the Establishment, of the Elders, of authority, or of tradition. As a simple first step toward self-actualization, I sometimes suggest to my students that when they are given a glass of wine and asked how they like it, they try a different way of responding. First, I suggest that they not look at the label on the bottle. Thus they will not use it to get any cue about whether or not they should like it. Next, I recommend that they close their eyes if possible and that they "make a hush." Now they are ready to look within themselves and try to shut out the noise of the world so that they may savor the wine on their tongues and look to the "Supreme Court" inside themselves. Then, and only then, they may come out and say, "I like it" or "I don't like it." A statement so arrived at is different from the usual kind of phoniness that we all indulge in. At a party recently, I caught myself looking at the label on a bottle and assuring my hostess that she had indeed selected a very good Scotch. But then I stopped myself: What was I saying? I know little about Scotches. All I knew was what the

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advertisements said. I had no idea whether this one was good or not; yet this is the kind of thing we all do. Refusing to do it is part of the ongoing process of actualizing oneself. Does your belly hurt? Or does it feel good? Does this taste good on your tongue? Do you like lettuce? Fourth, when in doubt, be honest rather than not. I am covered by that phrase "when in doubt," so that we need not argue too much about diplomacy. Frequently, when we are in doubt we are not honest. Clients are not honest much of the time. They are playing games and posing. They do not take easily to the suggestion to be honest. Looking within oneself for many of the answers implies taking responsibility. That is in itself a great step toward actualization. This matter of responsibility has been little studied. It doesn't turn up in our textbooks, for who can investigate responsibility in white rats? Yet, it is an almost tangible part of psychotherapy. In psychotherapy, one can see it, can feel it, can know the moment of responsibility. Then there is a clear knowing of what it feels like. This is one of the great steps. Each time one takes responsibility that is an actualizing of the self." (1971, pp. 43-45) We were wrong. In the Farther Reaches of Human Nature (Maslow, 1971) published by his family a year after Maslow's death, he reveals his later thinking: that there is a definition and process that transcends the self in self actualization characterized by such terms as selfless, devoted, warbling at a calling and "beingvalues" (Maslow, 197 1 : 128). We will label this level, consistent with Maslow's terminology in the 1971 book as "Beyond SelfActualization" (Maslow, 107 1 :42). Abraham Maslow (1943) famously elaborated on the term self actualization soon after the term was coined by Kurt Goldstein. Maslow took a more specific and limited lens on self actualization; referring it to a person's desire for fulfilled and the desire to achieve everything within their potential. Maslow followed on to describe self actualization as our tendency to become increasingly closer to which we are and to become actualized in everything we are capable of. Maslow described this term in light of his hierarchical theory on human motivation. He believed that upon achieving all of the preceding lower order needs, a person's desire to become self actualized will take form in varying ways amongst different people (Maslow, 1943). Maslow's definition of self actualization developed through early interviews with people he both knew and admired. He then interviewed another sample of people he thought were self-actualized. He would write down a list of common traits he identified among each of the subjects, searching for some correlation. Maslow then took that trait list and

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analyzed a second sample of self-actualized individuals who matched up with many of the key traits. Famous People which Maslow felt were self-actualized included Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, William James, Albert Schweitzer, Aldus Huxley and Eleanor Roosevelt. Through a process of refining his trait list again and again, Maslow eventually came up with what he believed to be a stable list of attributes which would define the self-actualized individual (Maslow, 1943). Some of these most notable attributes include being honest and being involved in a cause outside of one's self and experiencing fully, vividly, and selflessly with full concentration and absorption. Self actualized people were also described as spontaneous and as having profound interpersonal relationships, meaning that their serious relationships are few yet deep. Another of the main traits Maslow associated with self actualized individuals was a philosophical sense of humors and high capacity for Creativity (Maslow, 1943). Self actualization is the term given to the modern psychological concept first coined by Kurt Goldstein (1934) and then developed by Maslow (1943, 1954, 1968) in his work on motivational theories. This brings us back to the ethnocentric criticism of self actualization. Given that societies such as those of the United States and Great Britain have high individualistic qualities (Hofstede, 1980, 1983) and self actualization is believed to be induced by such environments (Hewitt, 1989; Wilson, 1997), it may be inferred that living in highly individualistic societies makes one more prone to developing Maslow‘s self actualizing characteristics and the ―need‖ for such self actualization. Torrance, widely known as the ‗‗Father of Creativity‘‘ for his research over sixty years, developed the ‗‗Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking.‘‘ This test enabled him to dispute the use of IQ tests as a sole indicator of real intelligence; he showed that creativity levels can be scaled and personal creativity increased through practice. He advocated self-actualization at an early age as a preventative measure for the futility experienced by so many adults, ‗‗It is my belief that every person should realize he can do some sort of original work that has some merit. If this realization were cultivated in childhood, we would not have so many adults with a sense of futility about doing something original‘‘ (Torrance, 1965; Childs, 2003). Amabile, Csikszentmihalyi, Faure, Kay, Papert, and Torrance champion the synergies of self-actualization, learning, and creativity and expand upon the

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elements each believes are most critical to attaining these goals. Amabile champions intrinsic motivation and achievement; Csikszentmihalyi, optimal experience and conducive environments; and Faure, discovery, experimentation, imagination, and increasing exposure to cultural influences. Kay invents learning technologies from the perspective that learning can generate deep joy and ownership of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s education and knowledge; Papert sees new relationships between technological entities and learners enhancing self-awareness and selfworth as well as yielding insights to Constructionist theories fundamental to sustained interest, ability, and adaptable cognitive structures; and Torrance believes in cultivating early experience and belief in personal creativity as a means for lifelong self-actualization. While there exists a synergistic cycle among self-actualization, learning, and creativity, the fact that we do not achieve excellence on a broad level in our current educational systems indicates that there are significant challenges to entering and sustaining this cycle. Some of these challenges and opportunities are discussed in the following sections. Emotional stability is not only one of the effective determinants of the personality patterns, but it also helps to control the growth of adolescent development. The concept of stable emotional behaviour at any level is that which reflects the fruits of the normal emotional development. An individual who is able to keep his emotions stable and under control even in extreme situations, might still be emotionally stunned or be childish in his behavior sometimes. Therefore emotional stability is considered as one of the important aspect of human life. Pupil must be able to control his/her emotions adequately and also expressed them appropriately. Scott (1968) opined that emotional stability as one of the seven important indicators of superior mental health. It also affects the learning of the pupils. Emotional control may impair performances in situations which require flexibility and adaptability on the part of the person or pupil. If the pupil have no very little emotion control. It may lead to anxiety, inferiority feeling and guild (Fandsen, 1961). It has also been found that if the people want to be mentally healthy, these unhealthy feelings must be replace by the feeling of self respect, security and confidence which can be achieve only after a good sense of emotional stability emerges. Emotional stability overcomes the fear generated by past errors; it also allows us to pursue our superior ideals and be of service to others whenever we wish to do so. It neutralizes environmental instability and helps us to face pressures or facilities with equal poise, refraining from excess and extravagance. When aware of our mission on earth, we should set ourselves a goal and strive to attain it. We should neither stop nor run, but walk on firmly and steadily, never disturbing

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others. Our faith in the truth of everlasting life should help us to act serenely. We should ask our self what we expect from life, how we plan to achieve it and why we want it. According to Smithson (1974) emotional stability is the process in which the personality is continuously striving for greater sense of emotional health, both intra-physically and intra-personally. It has been emphasized that the emotionally stable individual has the capacity to withstand delay in satisfaction of needs, ability to tolerate a reasonable amount of frustration, belief in long term planning and is capable of delaying or revising his expectations in terms of demands of the situations. An emotionally stable child has a capacity to make effective adjustments with himself, members of the family and his peers. It may be suggested that somehow emotional stability is related to person socioeconomic status in some or other way. Research problem: ―Self Actualization and Emotional Stability in Urban and Rural Women‖ Objectives: The main objectives of study were as under. 1. To measure the self actualization among urban and rural women. 2. To measure the emotional stability among urban and rural women. 3. To measure the co-relation between self actualization and emotional stability. Hypothesis: To related objectives of this null hypothesis were as under. 1. There is no significant difference in self actualization among urban and rural women. 2. There is no significant difference in emotional stability among urban and rural women. 3. There is no correlation between self actualization and emotional stability. Method 1. Participants: According to the purpose of present study total 80 samples has been selected. There were 40 urban and 40 rural women were taken as a sample from different area in rajkot city (Gujarat). 2. Research design: The aim of present study was to a study of self actualization and emotional stability among urban and rural women. For these total 80 women were taken as a sample. Here to the measure self actualization in the self actualization scale was used. This was made by K.N.Sharma. Check emotional stability in the A.N.Gupta and A.K.Sing‘s emotional stability scale was used. To

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check difference between group t- test and correlation method was used. The result discussion of family relation and emotional stability is as under. 3. Tools: For this purpose the following test tools were considered with their reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective manuals in present study two inventories is used. a) K.N.Sharma‘s self actualization scale : The scale was developed by K.N.Sharma. This scale contents 75 statements. This is 3 point scale and their reliability and validity are higher. b) A.N.Gupta and A.K.Sing‘s emotional stability scale: The inventory was developed by A.N.Gupta and A.K.Sing. This scale contents 15 statements. This is 2 point scale and their reliability and validity are higher. 4. Procedure: The testing was done on a group of urban and rural women. The whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly. The instructions given on the questionnaire were explained to them. It was also made clear to them that their scores would be kept secret. It was checked that none of the subjects left any questions unanswered or that no subject encircled both the answers given against question. Results and Discussions The main objective of present study was to measure the self actualization and emotional stability in urban and rural women. In it statistical t-test method was used and to check co-relation method was used. Result discussion of present study is as under. Table – 1 According to table-1 the result obtained on the basic area of self actualization reveals significant of urban and rural women. In self actualization urban women received high mean score 178.85 as compare rural women 172.34. There has mean difference was 6.51. The standard deviation score of urban women received 5.95 and rural women received 4.18. The t-value was 2.56(table-1).there was 0.05 level significant difference of urban and rural women in self actualization. So we can say that first hypothesis unaccepted. Table – 2 According to table-2 the result obtained on the basic are of emotional stability reveals significant of urban and rural women.

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In emotional stability urban women received low mean score 6.28 as compare rural women 9.36. There has mean difference was 3.08. The standard deviation score of urban women received 2.32 and rural women received 3.94. The t-value was 3.62(table-2).there was significant difference of urban and rural women in self actualization. So we can say that second hypothesis unaccepted. Table – 3 According to table-3 the result obtained that negative co-relation between self actualization and emotional stability. The -0.27 negative co-relation between self actualization and emotional stability. It means self actualization increase emotional stability decrease and self actualization decrease emotional stability increase. Conclusion We can conclude by data analysis as follows; There were significant differences between the mean scores of two groups on self actualization. Urban women are more affected by self actualization in comparison to rural women and there were significant difference between the mean scores of two groups on emotional stability. Rural women scored higher on emotional stability in comparison to their urban women counterparts. The corelation between self actualization and emotional stability is -0.27. This is negative co-relation. Reference Amabile,T., 1983. The social psychology of creativity: a componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (2), 357–376. Childs, M., 2003. ‗Father of Creativity‘ E. Paul Torrance Dead at 87; The College of Education: Online News, The University of Georgia. Csikszentmihalyi, M., 1996. Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, NY. Faure, E., Herrera, F., Kaddoura, A., Lopes, H., Petrovsky, A., Rahnema, M., Ward, F. (Eds.), 1972. Learning To Be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow. UNESCO, Paris. Hewitt, J. (1989). Dilemmas of the American self. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture‘s Consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Hofstede, G. (1983). The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories. in Journal of International Business Studies, 14, 75-89.

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J. Scott Armstrong. On the Interpretation of Factor Analysis, Published in Psychological Bulletin, 70 (5), 1968, 361-364. Kay, A., 1991. Computers, Networks and Education, Scientific American, September. Maslow A.H.(1954) Motivation and Personality J.J.harper and Row. Maslow A.H.(1958) Motivation and Personality New York: hareer. Papert, S., 1980. Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas. Basic Books, Inc., New York, NY. Sharma K.N. Self-Actualization Inventory (SEAI). Lucknow; Ankur Psychological Agency, 2000. Smithson WB. Psychological adjustment: Current concepts and applications.New York: McGraw Hill Book Company; 1974. Torrance, E.P., 1965. Rewarding Creative Behavior: Experiments in Classroom Creativity. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Wilson, S. R. (1997). Self actualization and culture. In D. Munro, J. E. Shumaker, & S. C. Carr (Eds.), Motivation and culture. (p. 97-116) New York: Routledge.

Result table Table-1 Self actualization among urban and rural women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

t

Sig.

1

Urban women

40

178.85

5.95

2.56

0.05

2.

Rural women

40

172.34

4.18 Significance Level 0.05 = 1.99 0.01 = 2.64

Table-2 Emotional stability among urban and rural women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

t

Sig.

1

Urban women

40

6.28

2.32

3.62

Sig

2.

Rural women

40

9.36

3.94 Significance Level

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0.05 = 1.99 0.01 = 2.64

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Table-3 Correlation of the self actualization and emotional stability in Urban and rural women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

r

1

Self actualization

80

175.60

-0.27

2.

Emotional stability

80

7.77

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Running head: HEALTH ADJUSTMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH

Health Adjustment and Mental health among Working and Non-working Women * Nilesh M. Vadoliya & **Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The main purpose of this research was to compare the health adjustment and mental health among working and non-working women. The total sample consisted 80 among 40 working women and 40 non-working women. The research tools health adjustment scale was measured by [BEII] and translated in to Gujarati by D. J. Bhatt and mental health inventory made by D. J. Bhatt and Geeda G. R. [1992] t-test was applied to check the significance different of health adjustment and mental health among working and non-working women. To Check the relation Karl-person correlation was used. Result reveled that significant difference in health adjustment and mental health is a significant difference working and nonworking women. Which co-relation between health adjustment and mental health revels 0.41 positive correlation. Keywords: Health adjustment, Mental Health. Health Adjustment and Mental health among Working and Non-working Women Life was pretty simple for June and Ward Cleaver of leave it to beaver. Every morning, Ward, dressed in a suit, kissed his wife and left for work. June, in a dress, took care of the children and had a hot meal waiting for Ward‘s return from work. The routine was the same for Margaret and Jim Anderson, the married couple on Father Know Best. These two popular television shows from the late 1950s depicted the traditional nuclear family, where men worked outside the home and women worked inside the home. Another way the effect of work on health has been evaluated is to compare women who are employed outside the home to those who are housewives. When 1

* Nilesh M. Vadoliya & **Yogesh A. Jogsan Department of Psychology, Suarashtra University, Rajkot-360 005 (Gujarat) Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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working women are compared to housewives, a wealth of evidence indicates that employed women report better psychological and physical health (Fokkema, 2002; Khlat, Sermet, & Le Pape, 2000). Evan among women with children, the weight of the evidence is that employed mothers are healthier than nonemployed mothers, but more so if children are older (Fokkema, 2002). There are cultural differences in the benefit of work for women. For example, a study in India found no difference in psychological well-being between women who did and did not work outside the home (Andrade, Postma, & Abraham, 1999). This model has been supported by three different studies (Rosenfield, 1989). In all three women who were susceptible to high family demands (i.e., women with children and employed full time) were more distressed than men, where as women with fewer demands (women with children and who worked part time or women without children and who worked full time) had levels of distress similar to men‘s. If demands were low, employed women were less distressed than housewives. Employment also increased women‘s perceptions of control when it increased their relative income in the family. Women with higher relative incomes had a heightened sense of control and, subsequently, reduced distress. In total, the healthiest women in this study were those who had children and were employed part time. These women gained some advantage from an increase in relative income that was not offset by an increase in demands. The debate between part-time and full-time work is unclear. One study showed that part-time employment does not provide the same health benefit that fulltime employment does for women (Wethington & Kessler, 1989), whereas a study of women with children under 5 showed that part-time but not full-time work improved health compared to no work(Fokkema, 2002). Before reading this chapter, if you are a college student, pause for a moment to consider what your plans are for after graduation. Do you project that you will work full-time, get married, have a child or children, etc.? Also think about the sequence of these plans. If some of these decisions have already been made in your life, consider someone younger such as a daughter or friend or remember what you planned in your early twenties. It also makes a difference if these projections are for women or men, so think about a women (if not you, then a potential or real wife, daughter, etc.) Karen Schroeder and her colleagues (1992) asked these questions of 292 traditional aged undergraduate women and their parents at the University of Rhode Island. The most popular sequence, endorsed by 56 percent of the

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students and a majority of parents for parents for their daughters, projected graduation, full-time employment, then marriage children, shopping work at least until the youngest child is in school, then returning to full-time employment. An additional 18 parent selected the same scenario but planned to return to work earlier. Not one student described a full-time career with no marriage. Only 12 percent of these undergraduate women expected to graduate, work fulltime, get married, have children, and continue work with only minor interruptions for childbirth. In-deed, other research finds that continuously employed mothers are regarded less favorably by college students than mothers who interrupt their careers (Bridges & Etaugh, 1995). Employed mothers are regarded by student raters as less well adjusted (Etaugh & Poertner, 1991) and as less dedicated to their families (Etaugh & Nekolny, 1990) than non employed mothers. These projections stand in stark contrast to the demographic facts that in 1998 a majority of women with a child age one or under (61.8 percent) and with preschoolers (65.7 percent) were employed (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1999). In this chapter, we grapple with some basic issues about women and work. We being by exploring the meaning of work in women‘s live, then go on to describe the reality of women‘s employment in the united states. We note that the workplace is different for women and men, then continue on to explore two areas that may contribute to this difference: women‘s occupational ―choices‖ and family -to-work ―conflict.‖ We conclude by describing some changes designed to create a women-friendly workplace. Recant epidemiological studies suggest that anywhere from almost one third (Robins et al., 1984) to almost one half of Americans will experience psychological distress sufficient to warrant diagnosis of a formal mental disorder at some time during their lives (Kessler et al., 1994). Although women and men share much in common in the area of mental health, women‘s and men‘s experiences differ sufficiently to yield significant distinctions in this area (Kessler et al., 1994).this chapter examines mental health issues specifically for women. First, conceptualizations of mental health and disorder, especially as they are impacted by gender, are discussed. Second, prevalence rates for specific disorder are examined, followed by possible explanations for gender-related difference. Finally, an expanded framework for understanding women‘s mental health is presented. Stress related to poverty and gender role strain, as well as violence against women, will be explored.

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Historically, most research in psychiatry and psychology has focused on the experiences of men, even when women were seen as the primary clients. This chapter utilizes a feminist framework in which all women‘s experiences are central to conceptualizations of mental health and distress, the diagnostic tools and nomenclatures used, and the therapeutic interventions developed. In addition, most available research on women‘s mental health has been limited in scope, focusing on white, middle-class women (Reid & Comas-Diaz, 1990). Although women share a number of common experiences based on gender, women‘s experiences reflect great diversity related to ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, social class, and physical ability. Numerous researchers (Brown, 1997; Reid & Comas-Diaz, 1990; Russo, 1995) have called for attention to such diversity to better understand mental health issues for all women and to provide the most appropriate services when needed. Effort is taken to examine this diversity among women as each topic is discussed. Review of literature: 1. Health adjustment: Stress and health adjustment among government and private school‘s teacher: the result of health adjustment significant difference (Miss. Priyanka M. Garaiya and Dr. Y.A. Jogsan). 2. Mental health of study: 1. Personality and mental health among aged male and female: the result of mental health significant difference (Revti R. Duthatra and Dr. Y.A. Jogsan(2013). 2. Psycho-physical stress and mental health among dalit and general working women: the result of mental health significant difference (Miss. Doshi Dhara R. and Dr. Y.A. Jogsan). Problem of study: The problem of present study is to find out the Health adjustment and mental health among working and non-working Women. Objectives: The main objectives of present study were as under. 1. To measure the health adjustment in working and non-working women. 2. To measure the mental health in working and non-working women. 3. To measure the co-relation between health adjustment and mental health. Hypothesis:

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To related objective of this null-hypothesis were under. 1. There is no significant difference in health adjustment among working and non-working women. 2. There is no significant difference in mental health among working and nonworking women. 3. There is no co-relation between health adjustment and mental health. Method Samples: According the purpose of present study total 80 samples has been selected. There were 40 working women and 40 non-working women were taken as a sample in Rajkot city (Gujarat). Research Design: The aim of present research was to a study of health adjustment and mental health among working and non-working women. For these total 80 women were taken as a sample. Here to measure health adjustment in them Bell and translated in Gujarati by Dr. D. J. Bhatt was used. Check Mental Health in the, mental health scale was used which was made by Dr. D. J. Bhatt (1992). To check the difference between groups t-test and to check the relation Karl-person corelation ‗r‘ method was used. Instruments: For this purpose the following test tools were considered with their reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective manuals. In present study two inventory used in research. 1. Scale of Health adjustment: The health adjustment scale developed by Bell and translated in to Gujarati Dr. D. J. Bhatt. It consists of 32 items. Here, it score is law while health adjustment very batter. There inventory has test retest reliability coefficient 0.76. 2. Scale of mental health: The mental health inventory was developed by Dr. D. J. Bhatt and Geeda G.R. this scale contains 40 statements pertaining to five domains aim of mental health. These five dimensions include perception of reality, integration of personality, positive self-evaluation attitudes, and environmental mastery to be rated on 3 point scale. In this scale statement No. 1,3,9,14,19,20,22,24,25,26,28,33,35,37,38 are negative and others are positive.

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Which statement are positive for agree, disagree, Neutral 3, 2, 1 score was used and which are negative statement for agree, disagree, Neutral 2, 3, 1 score was used. Reliability of present inventory was checked by three methods on which 0.81 by similarity, 0.94 by half-divided method and testretest has 0.87. Procedure The testing was done on a group of working and non-working women. The whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly. The Instruction given on the scale was explained to them. It was also male mode clear to them that their scores would be kept secret. It was checked that none of the subjects left any questions unanswered or that no subjects encircled both the answer given against question. Result and discussion: The main objective of present study was to study of health adjustment and mental health among working and non-working women. In it statistical‗t‘ method was used and to check correlation method was used. Result discussion of present study is a under. Table-1 According to table-1 the result obtained on the basic are of health adjustment reveals no significant difference of working and non-working women. Health adjustment received working women mean score 25.28 as compare nonworking women high mean score 31.78(table-1). There has mean difference. The standard deviation score of working women received 2.38 and non-working women received 5.17.the t-value was 4.78.there was 0.01 levels significant difference of health adjustment among working and non-working women. So we can say that first hypothesis reject. This is conformity with the finding of Miss. Priyanka M. Garaiya and Dr. Y.A. Jogsan. Table-2 According to table-2 the result obtained on the basic are of mental health reveals no significant difference of working and non-working women. Mental health received working women mean score 11.18 as compare nonworking women high mean score 15.70(table-1). There has mean difference. The standard deviation score of working women received 8.34 and non-working women received 9.94.the t-value was 2.59.there was 0.05 levels significant

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difference of mental health among working and non-working women. So we can say that second hypothesis reject. This is conformity with the finding of Revti R. Duthatra and Dr. Y.A. Jogsan (2013) and Miss. Doshi Dhara R. and Dr. Y.A. Jogsan. Table-3 According to table-3 the result obtained that positive correlation between health adjustment and mental health. The positive correlations between health adjustment and mental health received 0.41. It means health adjustment decrease mental health decrease and health adjustment increase mental health increase. Conclusion: We can conclude by data analysis as follows: There were significant difference in health adjustment and mental health among working and non-working women. Non-working women have higher health adjustment as compare working women. And non-working women have higher mental health as compare working women. The positive correlations seen between health adjustment and mental health received 0.41. It means health adjustment decrease mental health and health adjustment increase mental health increases. References:  Andrade, C., Postma, K., & Abrham, K. (1999). Influence of women‘s work status on the well-being of Indian couples. International Journal of Social psychiatry, 45(1), 65-75.  Bhatt, D. J. & Geeda G.R. (1992). The Mental Health Hygiene Inventory (M.H.I) construction and standardization, unpublished M.Phil. Dissertation, Dept of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, 49-52.  Bridges, J. S., & Etaugh, C. (1995). College student‘s perceptions of mother: Effects of maternal employment childrearing pattern and motive for employment. Sex Roles, 32, 735-751  Brown, L.S. (1997). New voices, new visions: Toward a lesbian/gay paradigm for psychology. In M. M. Gergen & S. N. Davis (eds.), toward a new psychology of gender (pp. 295-308). New York: Routledge.  Etaugh, C., & Nekolny, K. (1990). Effects of employment status and marital status on perceptions of mother. Sex Roles, 23, 273-280.  Etaugh, C., & Poertner, P. (1991). Effects of occupational prestige, employment status, and marital status on perceptions of mother. Sex Roles, 24, 345-353.

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Fokkema, T. (2002). Combining a job and children: contrasting the health of married and divorced women in the Netherlands? Social science and medicine, 54, 741-752. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen J. U., & kindler, K.S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General psychiatry, 51, 8-19. Khat, M., Sermet, C., & Le Pape, A. (2000). Women‘s health in relation with their family and work roles: France in the early 1900s. Social science and medicine, 50, 1807-1825. Reid, P.T. & Comas-Diaz, L. (1990). Gender and ethnicity: Perspectives on dual status. Sex Roles, 22, 397-408. Revti R. Duthatra and Y.A. Jogsan: personality and mental health among aged male & female. Article (32) research in psychology vista publication, Jaipur. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Weissman, M.M., Orvaschel, H., Gruenberg, E., Burke, J.D., & Regier, D.A. (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General psychiatry, 41, 949-958. Rosenfield, S. (1989). The effects of women‘s employment: Personal control and sex differences in mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 77-91. Russo, N.F. (1995). Women‘s mental health: Research agenda for the twentyfirst century. In C.V. Willie, P.P. Rieker, B.M. Kramer, & B.S. Brown (Eds.). Mental health, racism, and sexism (pp. 373-396). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. Schroeder, K.A., Blood, L. L., & Maluuso, D. (1992). An intergenerational analysis of expectations for women‘s career and family roles. Sex Roles, 26, 273-291. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1999). Statistical abstract of the United States: 1999 (119th ed.). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Wethington, E., & Kessler, R. (1989). Employment, parental responsibility, and psychological distress. Journal of Family Issues, 10(4), 527-546.

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Result table Table-1 Showing the Mean, SD and t-value of health adjustment Sr. No. 1 2.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

t

Sig.

Working women Non-working women

40 40

25.28 31.78

2.38 5.17

4.78

0.01

Sig. Level 0.05 = 2.02 0.01 = 2.71 Table-2 Showing the Mean, SD and t-value of mental health Sr. No. 1 2.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

t

Sig.

Working women Non-working women

40 40

11.18 15.70

8.34 9.94

2.59

0.05

Sig. Level

0.05 = 2.02 0.01 = 2.71

Table-3 Correlation of the health adjustment and mental health among working women and non-working women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

r

1

Health adjustment Mental health

80

28.53

0.41

80

13.44

2.

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Running head: SELF CONCEPT AND LIFE STRESS

Self Concept and Life Stress among Urban and Rural Women *Kamleshkumar S. Kharadi & ** Yogesh A. Jogsan1 Abstract The present study aims at finding out the level of self concept and life stress among urban and rural women. Self concept scale and life stress scale was used to collect data from a random sample of 60 urban and rural women. Statistical technique such as mean, standard deviation, t-test and coefficient of correlation were employed for the analysis of data. The results revealed that significant differences were indicated regarding self concept and life stress among urban and rural women.The correlation analysis revealed that self concept and life stress does have negative impact of urban and rural women. Keywords: self concept, life stress, women. Self concept and life stress among urban and rural women "Self-concept is our perception or image of our abilities and our uniqueness. At first one's self-concept is very general and changeable... As we grow older, these self-perceptions become much more organized, detailed, and specific." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2013) "A self-concept is a collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior. Your self-concept is your mental picture of yourself. It is a collection of self-perceptions. For example, a self-concept might include such beliefs as 'I am easygoing' or 'I am pretty' or I am hardworking.'" (Weiten, Dunn, & Hammer, 2012) "The individual self consists of attributes and personality traits that differentiate us from other individuals (for example, 'introverted'). The relational self is defined by our relationships with significant others (for example, 'sister'). Finally, the collective self reflects our membership in social groups (for example, 'British')." (Crisp, R. J. & Turner, R. N., 2007) 1

*Kamleshkumar S. Kharadi & ** Yogesh A. Jogsan Department of Psychology, Suarashtra University, Rajkot-360 005 Gujarat (India) May â&#x20AC;&#x201C; August, 2014

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Self-concept is the image you have of yourself, including your physical appearance and personality characteristics. Many factors can influence our selfconcept, including our childhood experiences, how other people respond to us, and how we relate to other people. Psychologists have suggested that there are a number of different components of self-concept, including our social behavior, physical condition, emotional awareness, family relationships, and academic performance. There are a variety of ways to think about the self. The most widely used term is self-concept and generally refers to the totality of a complex, organized, and dynamic system of learned beliefs, attitudes and opinions that each person holds to be true about his or her personal existence. Franken (1994) states that ―There is a great deal of research which shows that the self-concept is, perhaps, the basis for all motivated behavior. It is the self-concept that gives rise to possible selves, and it is possible selves that create the motivation for behavior‖ We develop and maintain our self-concept through the process of taking action and then reflecting on what we have done and what others tell us about what we have done. We reflect on what we have done and can do in comparison to our expectations and the expectations of others and to the characteristics and accomplishments of others. That is, self-concept is not innate, but is developed by the individual through interaction with the environment and reflecting on that interaction. There are a several different components of self-concept: physical, academic, social, and transpersonal. The physical aspect of self-concept relates to that which is concrete: what we look like, our sex, height, weight, etc.; what kind of clothes we wear; what kind of car we drive; what kind of home we live in; and so forth. Our academic self-concept relates to how well we do in school or how well we learn. There are two levels: a general academic self-concept of how good we are overall and a set of specific content-related self-concepts that describe how good we are in math, science, language arts, social science, etc. The social selfconcept describes how we relate to other people and the transpersonal selfconcept describes how we relate to the supernatural or unknowns. As mentioned before that self-concept is something very dynamic, there are few steps can be taken to have a positive self-concept. First, we must behave objectively in knowing ourselves. No matter how small the achievement or positive experience that we possess it must be appreciated.

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We must try to enhance our talent and self-potential. As it says, ‗You can‘t be all things to all people, you can‘t do all things at once, and you just do the best you could in every way.‘ Secondly, we must know and always appreciate ourselves. There is no other person that can appreciate us more that ourselves. People who know how to appreciate themselves are the one that can see all the good and positive things within them and other people. So, if can appreciate other people, we also can appreciate ourselves. Thirdly, never be an enemy to us. People tend to blame themselves when a conflict arises between ideal expectation and the real self. When we become the enemy to ourselves, we can hardly see the good and positive side of ourselves. Gradually, they are mentally exhausted, frustrated and develop negative selfconcept. The final step is to have a positive and rational thinking. The Buddha says, ‗We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.‘ How powerful is our mind! The power of our thoughts depends a lot on how we think. If we can develop positive and rational thoughts, we are developing a positive self-concept. A positive self-concept person usually is a winner but a negative self-concept person is always a loser. The claim is prompted by a Swedish study that found a link between reported stressful events and dementia in later life. The study assessed 800 middle-aged Swedish women for a number of factors and then followed them over a 38-year period. The assessments included questioning if the women had experienced what the researchers termed "psychosocial stressors" – that is traumatic, though often common, events, such as a divorce or a partner being affected by mental illness. They were also questioned over the course of the study (once each decade) about self-reported feelings of distress – symptoms such as feelings of irritability or tension. The women were then monitored to see if they developed dementia in later life. The researchers found that a higher number of stressors at the beginning of the study were associated with increased risk of dementia. Overall, this study suggests some associations between common stressors and dementia later in life.

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However, the risk factors of dementia in general and Alzheimer‘s disease in particular are not firmly established, and it is possible that other unmeasured factors may be involved. The researchers do make the interesting suggestions that finding ways to better cope with stress in middle age may have a protective effect against dementia in later life; however, this hypothesis is currently unproven. Life, Stress and Health Model We view potential stressors of life and react to events in life through ―lenses.‖ The diagram below demonstrates how aspects of one‘s life can impact on their beliefs and attitudes, which can have a corresponding impact on their choices and resulting lifestyle habits. Our repeated behaviors will become our habits and it‘s one‘s habits that determine how they respond to potential stressors. This, in turn will hugely impact on one‘s health and quality of life. Stress can be a mess! Stress is one of those things that each of us deals with, or has dealt with at some point or another. It‘s actually a normal physical response to things that frighten us, alarm us, cause us to feel threatened or takes our lives off balance. In some emergency cases, stress can save our lives by allowing us to kick into defense, such as in the case of preventing an accident. Stress goes to the core of our physical, mental and emotional state and can hurt if not kept in check. Triggers can be anything from financial woes, spiritual/emotional problems, loss, health issues, concerns about the future, job struggles, relationship challenges, children, parents, spouses and everything and everyone in between. The symptoms or side effects can be anything from headaches, chest tightening, ―funny‖ feelings in the stomach, hives, dizziness, sweaty palms, dry mouth, nervousness, anger, hostility, irrational behavior, poor judgment, mood swings, appetite changes, digestive problems, insomnia, crying, irritability, depression, increased heart rate, and so on and so on and so on. Lately, I‘ve heard of too many people I know and love grappling with the effects of stress courtesy of this thing called life. It saddens me, and in all honesty, is a personal stress trigger when I see those I care for under the influence of stress. I despise the harmful, hurtful, hindering effects of stress! I really do! (Now let me take a deep breath as I type, so I don‘t start feeling all ―funny‖ in the stomach because I‘m becoming stressed thinking about what others are going through.) Stress, Health and Faith

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Life and stress – they go hand in hand. We will experience lots and lots of stress in our life. There is no getting around it. I believe that the degree to which we effectively manage and cope with the stress in our lives will determine the degree to which we are healthy. If we turn to unhealthy behaviors to cope with the stress, our physical and emotional health will suffer. Many people turn to food as a way to cope with stress. Others turn to the use of drugs. Some turn to alcohol. Still others light up a cigarette. Some burn the midnight oil surfing the internet and pay for it the next day because they have had inadequate sleep. So what do we do about it? Glad you asked, because I don‘t have all the answers. What I do know, is that in 2002 I became ill and was diagnosed in 2003 with a disease called Hyperthyroidism which lead to Graves Disease which lead to a potentially fatal Thyroid Storm which lead to the doctors and me not knowing if I was going to come out of this whirlwind of medical madness alive or altered. One of the key factors I had to avoid and MUST avoid to this day is stress. Why? Because stress is a mess! That one single experience and the years following have taught me many lessons, some of which I‘m still in class digesting. I learned what was important. I learned who and what pushed my buttons. I learned how stress can lead to life-threatening illness. I learned how stress can stop you completely in your tracks. I learned what stress does to the spirit, soul and body. I learned how stress can try to tear apart families. I learned how I am responsible for doing whatever I have to do to preserve this precious life God granted me. I learned the power of the word of God over stress. I learned how some human beings are assigned as angels on earth to help each other during stressful times. And I learned that a life of stress does not have to be my final destination. Review of literature Edward C. Chang (2001). Life Stress and Depressed Mood among Adolescents: Examining a Cognitive-Affective Mediation Model. In addition, results indicated that self-esteem was the strongest predictor of dysphasia. Life stress also was found to be a significant predictor of depressed mood even after controlling for the influences of clarity of self-concept and self-esteem. Implications of these findings for future research and for working with distressed adolescents are discussed. Nicholas A. Gage and Kristin Lierheimer(2011) Exploring Self-Concept for Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders as They Transition from Elementary to Middle School and High School. The results of this study shed light on the self-concept of students with EBD. First, the evidence suggests that students with EBD have high,

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positive levels of self-concept. This finding runs counter to the assumptions about labels and their impact on self-concept. Second, although there is significant variability in selfconcept among these students, student scores in elementary can predict their self-concept in middle and high school. Lastly, ethnicity and urbanity may be good predictors of selfconcept for students with EBD. Problem Self concept and life stress among urban and rural women. Objectives The main objectives of study were as under: To measure difference mean of self concept in urban and rural women. To measure difference mean of life stress in urban and rural women. To check the co-relation between self -concept and life stress. Hypothesis To related objectives of null hypothesis were as under: There is no significance difference in self concept between urban and rural women. There is no significance difference in life stress between urban and rural women. There is no correlation between self concept and life stress. Method Participants The participants of the study consisted of all the 60 urban and rural women of Rajkot district. However, at the time of tabulation of data it was found that few of the questionnaires were incomplete in one or the other aspect so they were discarded leaving behind a total of questionnaires which were finally analyzed. Research design The aim of present research was to study of self concept and life stress among urban and rural women. For these total 60 urban and rural women. To check difference t-test method is used. Were taken as participant to check the correlation between self concept and life stress Pearson ‗r‘ method is used. Instruments For this purpose the following test tools were considered with their reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective manuals. In present study two inventory used in research. (1) Self concept scale The scale was developed by Aedluvaliya S.P. the scale contains 37 statements in all. (2) Life stress scale

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In present study to collect data life stress test was made by Dr. Gurmeet Singh. The reliability and validity of the scale is very high. Procedure The testing was done on a group of women .the whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly. The instruction given on the inventory was explained to them. It was also made clear to them that their scores would be kept secret. It was checked that none of the subjects left any questions unanswered or that no subject encircled both the answers given against a question. Result & discussion The main objective of present study was to study of self concept and life stress among urban and rural women. Result discussion is as under. Insert Table-1 According to table no-1 indicates that the urban women received high mean score 65.17 as compared rural women 56.98. The standard deviation score of urban women received 11.19 and rural women received 8.99. The t-value was 2.27 significant at 0.05 levels. Urban women were feels more self concept compared rural women. So we can say that second hypothesis was not accepted. Evidences of research findings given by Nicholas A. Gage and Kristin lierheimer (2011) conducted study of middle school and high school students. Results indicate EBD have high, positive levels of self concept. Lastly, ethnicity and urbanity may be good predictors of self concept for students with EBD. Insert Table-2 According to table no-2 indicates that the urban women received high mean score 47.77 as compared rural women 40.27. The standard deviation score of urban women received 5.83 and rural women received 4.73. The t-value was 2.38 significant at 0.05 levels. Urban women were feeling more life stress compared rural women. So we can say that second hypothesis was not accepted. Evidences of research findings given by Edward C. Chang(2001). Conducted study of adolescents Life stress also was found to be a significant predictor of depressed mood even after controlling for the influences of clarity of self concept and self esteem. Insert Table-3 According to table no-3 indicates that the result obtained negative correlation between self concept and life stress. -0.43 negative correlations were seen. Mean

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self concept and increases life stress decreases and self concept decreases life stress increases and vice versa. Conclusion The statistical analysis as mentioned above warranted the following inferences: Here the first and second hypothesis was not accepted because the significant difference was seen. Self concept and life stress we saw that significant difference in urban and rural women variables. -0.43 negative correlation between self concept and life stress. Limitations and future research This study had several limitations that can be addressed by future research. Firsts the participants consists only of urban and rural women of the Rajkot district. So, it is not representative of all urban and rural women. Hence, more representative participants might yield different results; for example, a participant from different areas of Rajkot might show significant interaction effects of area. Suggestions The study can be replicated on a larger participant and on women of other district as well as other states. Comparisons can be drawn with the women educators studying in universities also taking into account other demographic variables such as, socio-economic status, age, teaching experience, residential backgrounds, education level, and etc. to quote a few. References Able, M.H. and Sewell, J.(1999).Stress and Burnout in Rural and Urban Secondary School Teachers, The Journal of Educational Research,92(5),287-293. Agra Wali Vimala (1994) Stress and Multiple Role of Women Lucknow Indian Journal of Social Science,July. Arben, P.D. (1996). Are mental illnesses biological diseases? Some public policy implications Health and Social Work. 21(1): 66. Bracken, B A. (1992). Examiner‘s Manual for the Multidimensional self-esteem scale. Austin, TX:Pro-Ed. Franken, R. (1994). Human motivation (3rd ed.). Pacific grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Jiangong,S .et al. (2000). A Study of Mental Health state and influencing factors in college students. Journal of Baotou Medical College, 2.Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from him retrieved on 20.6.2012

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Li, S. et al. (1989).The prevalence of study discontinuance in students caused by mental disorders among 16 college and universities in Beijing from 19781987.chinese mental health Journal, 3, 113-115. Litzrow,M.A. (2003). The Mental Health needs of today‘s college students: challenges and recommendations. Journal of student Affairs and practice, 41,167181 Pastorino, E. E. & Doyle-Portillo, S.M. (2013). What Is Psychology? London: Sage Publishing‘s. Rogers, C. (1959). A Theory of therapy, Personality and interpersonal Relationships as Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A Study of a Science. Vol.3: Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York: McGraw Hill. Weiten, W., Dunn, D. S. & Hammer, E. Y. (2012) Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustments in the 21st Century. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth. Result table Table-1 Self concept among urban and rural women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

1

Urban women Rural women

30

65.17

11.19

30

56.98

8.99

2.

t

Sig.

2.27

0.05

Sig. Level 0.05 = 2.00 0.01 = 2.66 Table-2 Life stress among urban and rural women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

SD

t

Sig.

1

Urban women Rural women

30

47.77

5.83

2.38

0.05

30

40.27

4.73

2.

Sig. Level

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0.05 = 2.00 0.01 = 2.66

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Table-3 Correlation of the self concept and life stress in Urban and rural women Sr. No.

Variable

N

Mean

1 2.

Self concept Life stress

60 60

61.08 44.02

r -0.43

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1

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Lkkaiznkf;drk vkSj tkfrokn dh leL;k fy, gq, ^jktk dk pkSd^ dgkuh&laxzg MkW-js[kk dqjsZ1 ^jktk dk pkSd^ uferk flag dk nwljk dgkuh laxzg gSA bl dgkuh laxzg dk igyk laLdj.k lu~ 1982 rFkk nwljk laLdj.k lu~ 1996 esa izdkf”kr gqvkA budh ;s lHkh dgkfu;k¡ yxHkx vkt rhl lky ckn Hkh ledkyhu yxrh gaSA budh dgkfu;ksa ds fo’k; tSls lekt esa mits tkfrokn] lakiznkf;drk] nfyr “kks’k.k] nfyr psruk dks mHkkjus dk iz;kl] L=h dk thou] miHkksDrkoknh lekt esa la?k’kZ djrk gqvk ifjokj] izd`fr ij vkS|ksfxd izHkko] lkekU; euq’; dks Hkz’Vkpkj rFkk vke tuthou ls tqM+h gqbZ ?kVukvksa ls lacfa /kr gSA bl dgkuh laxzg esa dqy vkB dgkfu;k¡ gSaA lHkh dgkfu;ksa dk “kh’kZd [kkeks”k gksdj Hkh cksyrk gqvk izrhr gksrk gSA ;g dgkuh laxzg laiznkf;drk ds fofo/k tfVy i{kksa vkSj lekt esa O;fDr;ksa ds euksHkkoksa dh vfHkO;fDrh iznku djrh gSA lkaiznkf;drk vkSj tkfrokn dh ,d NksVh lh fpaxkjh gh iwjs lekt dks vius pisV esa ysdj euq’;ksa dks foosdghu cukus dk iz;kl djrh gSS ifj.kker% euq’;] euq’; ls gh ?k`.kk vkSj }s’k djrk gSA lfn;ksa ls tks nfyr] mRihfM+r] “kksf’kr lekt vkSj e/;oxZ ds chp Åap&uhp dk HksnHkko] lo.kZ vkSj NksVh tkfr;ksa ds chp tkfrokn ftl izdkj c<+rk tk jgk gS mldk fp=.k Hkh budh dgkfu;ksa esa feyrk gSA bl dgkuh&laxzg dh igyh dgkuh dk “kh’kZd ^jktk dk pkSd^ gSA ;g dgkuh tehu ¼jktk dk pkSd½ dh leL;k dks dsUnz esa j[kdj fy[kh xbZ gSA fdl izdkj iwathifr vkSj tehankj yksx nfyr vkSj detksj oxZ ls mudh Hkwfe gfFk;ka ysrs gSaA blesa lkaiznkf;drk dh ckr Hkh mtkxj gqbZ gSA nks nksLr fgUnq gksrs gq, Hkh vkil esa yM+ tkrs gSa vkSj var% ej tkrs gaSA igys jktk dk pkSd “kgj ds ckgj gqvk djrk Fkk fdURkq tSl& s tSls “kgjksa dk fodkl gksrk x;k] ^jktk dk pkSd^ “kgj ls tqM+Rkk x;kA gehniqj bykds ds jktk us vius iq= ds tUe dh [kq”kh esa ;g tehu buke esa nh Fkh ftls vkB&nl ?kjksa us gfFk;ka fy;k FkkA ;gka lfn;ksa ls ;s yksx jg jgs FksA gehniqj bykds ds jktk dh rhljh ih<+h ds csVs us ml Hkwfe ij gksVy] ikdZ vkSj dkyksuh;ka cukuk pkgrs gSa vkSj os cuok Hkh ysrs gSa] fdUrq ogka dh turk vius 1

MkW- js[kk dqjsZ vflLVsVa izkQ s l s j (On Contract), fgUnh foHkkx] ekufodh ,oa Hkk’kk v/;;u dsUnz jktLFkku dsUnzh; fo”ofo|ky;, cknajflanjh] Rkglhy&fd”kux<+] ftyk&vtesj fiu &305817 Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

nfyr usrk ds lkFk feydj Hkh dqN ugha dj ikrsA ;gka Hkz’Vkpkj ij Hkh izdk”k Mkyk x;k gSA cM+s cPPkw ds firk dyqvk teknkj gS og vius csVs dks equlhikyVh esa gh ukSdjh yxkus dh ckr djrk gS rks gSM teknkj mlls ikap lkS :Ik, ekaxrk gSA vkSj dywvk bruk xjhc gS fd og bruh jde ugha ns ldrkA nfyr ikfjokfjd thou dh fLFkfr dk ftØ fd;k x;k gSA bl izdkj cM+k cPpw tehankj ds lkFk fey tkrk gS vkSj mlds ;gka ukSdjh djus yxrk gSA ;g ckr cPpw [kka dks jktk ds pkSd dh fpark jgrh gS og viuh iRuh dks ?kj ij izrkfM+r Hkh djrk gSA mn~/kkVu gksus dh igyh jkr dks og tkdj u;s cus gksVy ij ce Hkh Qad s rk gSA rc cM+k cPpw pkSdhnkj mls jksdrk gSA ifj.kker% ckr QSyrh gS fd lkaiznkf;drk ds naxs gks x;s vkSj cPpw pkSdhnkj ekjk x;kA vf/kdkjh vkSj lsB [kq”k gksrs gSa fd cPpw ds ejus ls jkLrk lkQ gks x;kA bl izdkj ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd ,d nfyr ds ejus ls fdlh dks dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+rk os dsoy viuk gh Qk;nk ns[krs gSaA vkt iwa¡thifr oxZ vius Qk;ns ds fy, dgha Hkh dSls Hkh viuk dke djok jgh gSA blh ckr dk ladsr fd;k x;k gSA tekuk cny jgk gS fdURkq “kks’k.k vHkh Hkh tkjh gSA ^lek/kku^ dgkuh esa etnwjksa }kjk gM+rky dh leL;k dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA fey ekfyd etnwjksa ds LokLFk ij /;ku u nsrs gq, dsoy viuk equkQk dekuk pkgrs gSaA bl dgkuh ds ek/;e ls fey esa dke djus okys etnwjksa ds LokLF; leL;k dks mBk;k x;k gSA dbZ etnwj fcekfj;ksa ds f”kdkj gksrs tk jgs gSaA ^lc yksx /khjs&/khjs xy&xy dj ekSr ds f”kdkj gksrs jgs gSaA QSDVjh dh tgjhyh gok mUgsa yhy xbZ gS vkSj ge ,d&,d dks ,sls gh yhysxh---ge lc dks ekjsxhA <ykbZ ;wfuV dk vkneh tLrk ihry dh Hkki fuxyrk dc rd ftank jg ldrk gSA dkap idkus okyksa dk QsQM+k D;ksa dkap dh Hkki ls] rstkc dh Hkki ls Nyuh gksrk jgrk gSA gj vkneh vkB&nl cjl ckn [kakl [kkaldj fny dk ejht cu tkrk gSA dkj[kkus esa dk;Z djus okyk u;k&u;k yxk ;qod D;ksa nl o’kksZa esa gh cq<+k gks tkrk gS] vkSj [kjkc e”khu ij dke djus okyk D;ksa tYnh fjVk;j gks tkrk gSA^ etnwjksa ds lkFk vusd izdkj dh leL;k gksrh gS fdURkq ekfyd dks bu lcls dksbZ oklrk ugha gksrk os rks vius iwtk&ikB vkSj vius equkQs ds ckjs esa gh lksprs gSaA os dgrs gSa cksul feysxk] t:j feysxk---ysfdu bEiksVZ ;wfuV ds ojDlZ dksA ckdh yksx Hkh tks esgur djds ml tSlk dke djsaxs---os gh mlds gdnkj gksx a sA cksfy,a eatwj gS\ lsB vkLFkkoknh gS og eafnj cuokus ds fy, ok;nk djrs gq, dgrk gS ^^ fdlh Hkh /kkfeZd dke esa vkSj bZ”oj ds dke esa ihNs ugha jgrkA lks eSa oknk djrk gwWa fd eafnj nks eghus ds Hkhrj t:j cuok nwx a k----^^ Li’V gS fd lsB eafnj rks cuokuk pkgrk gS fdUrq vLirky ughaA bl dgkuh esa gM+rky rks lekIr gks tkrh gS] ijUrq etnwjksa dks dksbZ mfpr lek/kku ugha fey ikrkA

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

^clUrh dkdh^ uked dgkuh esa ,d xzkeh.k L=h dks fpf=r fd;k x;k gSA og vius iwjs thou esa x`gLFkh ds lq[k ls vatku jgh gSA ,d xzkeh.k ikjaifjd L=h tks cgqr esgurh gSA vius cPps dks “kgj esa i<+kus ds fy, og dM+h esgur djrh gSA ifj.kker% csVs dks cSad esa ukSdjh fey tkrh gSA mldk ,d lq;ksX; dU;k ls fookg Hkh djk fn;k tkrk gSA csVk us viuh eka dks “kgj cqyk fy;k] tc “kgj esa jgus dh vknr gks xbZ rks okil xkao tkus dks dg fn;kA dkdh dks tkus dk eu ugha Hkh gksrk fQj Hkh tkuk iM+rk vkSj dkdh xkao tkrh] ?kj dk [ksrh ns[krh fQj “kgj okil vk tkrh] bl izdkj fnu pyus yxkA oh: dk ifjokj c<+us yxk vius iSlksa dh t:jr vf/kd gksus yxhA rc mldk /;ku ?kj dh [ksrh ckM+h ij vf/kd tkus yxk vkSj og vius dkdk dkdh dks xkao Hkstrk jgrk fd os ogka dke djsA dkdk ds fcekj iM+us ij Hkh oh: dkdh dks xkao Hkstrk gSA varr% dkdh dks le> esa vk tkrk gS fd vc gekjk vkSj dksbZ ugha gS ejrs ne rd xkao esa gh jguk gSA bl dgkuh esa lkekftd LVsVl cuk;s j[kus] O;fDr dh fLFkfr;ka] iSlksa ds izfr eksg] Ldwyksa esa nkf[kyk ds fy, ?kwl nsuk fQj Hkh ,Meh”ku u feyuk] xkao dh leL;k,a] ,d o`) L=h&iq#’k dh leL;k] mudh ekufld fLFkfr vkSj ,d “kgjh thou th jgs csVs&cgq dh leL;kvksa vkSj muds LokFkZ dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA ^;g ugha^ dgkuh esa ,d eqfLye fjDls okys dh nkLrka dks mtkxj fd;k x;k gSA “kdwj uked ,d xjhc ckyd dks mlds firk cpiu esa gh dke ij yxk nsrs gSA mlds firk fjDlk pykus dk dk;Z djrs FksA vpkud mlds firk dh e`R;q cl ls Vdjk tkus ds dkj.k gks tkrh gSA ;kuh vc og vius ?kj dk eqf [k;k cu tkrk gSA “kkchj vkSj eqUuh dh ftEesokjh ml ij vk tkrh gSA firk dk fjDlk og Lo;a pykus yxrk gSA blh chp lkaiznkf;drk ds naxs gksus yxrs gSa mldk f”kdkj “kdwj gks tkrk gSA og ekjk tkrk gS eqfLye ds gkFkksa ls gh ijUrq ckr QSyk nh tkrh gS fd naxs esa fgUnq us pkdw ls ekj fn;kA ml fjDlsokys ds vius dbZ NksVs&NksVs lius gksrs gSaA “kdwj ds thou dh vkfFkZd] lkekftd vkSj lkaiznkf;d fLFkfr;ksa dk fp=.k fd;k x;k gSA ,d fuEu oxZ vkSj e/; oxZ ds fgUnq vkSj eqfLyeksa dh ekufldrk dk Hkh o.kZu feyrk gSA ^lSykc^ dgkuh esa ,d Vªsu esa lQj dj jgs ;kf=;ksa dh ekufldrk dk o.kZu gSA ftlesa ,d fjtosZ”ku okys jsy ds fMCcs esa dqN ;qok etnqj tks “kjkc ds dkj[kkus esa dk;Z djrs gSa os pM+ tkrs gSaA mudk lQj dsoy vk/ks ?kaVs dk gh jgrk gSA dM+kds dh BaM ds le; jsy ds fMCcs ij p<+uk vkSj reke rjg dh ckrsa djds ;kf=;ksa dks Hk;Hkhr djus dk mudk iz;kl rkfd txg fey tk;sA jsy ds fMCcs esa

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

etnwj ;qokvksa dk ,d lSykc jkstuk vk/ks ?kaVs dk lQj r; djds vius xarO; LFkku ij igaqp tkrk vkSj jsyxkM+h vkxs c<+ tkrh gSA ^Øakflx^ dgkuh ds ek/;e ls ysf[kdk ;FkkFkZ ls voxr djkuk pkgrh gS fd cgqr ls “kgjksa ds e/; ,d jsYos Økaflx vko”; gksrk gS ftlls O;fDr tYn ls tYn fudyus ds pDdj esa vius tku dks Hkh tksf[ke esa Mky cSBrk gSA ;g dgkuh ,d egRoiw.kZ leL;k dks fpf=r djrh gSA dgkuh esa dqN nq ?kZVukvksa dk fp=.k Hkh gSa ftlesa lfjrk uked ;qok yM+dh dh e`R;q gks tkrh gS og jsyxkM+h ds e/; dSls Qalrh gS vkSj mldh e`R;q gksrh gSA ;qok Nk= usrk jsYos Økaflx ij iqy cuokus dh ekax dks ysdj vkanksyu djus dh ;kstuk cukrs gSa] rkfd ,slh ?kVuk,a Hkfo’; esa u gks fdUrq nqHkkZX; muds “kgj esa fganq eqfLye naxs fNM+ tkrs gSaA ftlds dkj.k iqy ugha cu ikrk vkSj vk;s fnu u;s&u;s ?kVuk,a ?kVrh jgrh gSA mlh Økaflx ls ,d etnwj ekj tkrk gSA rc ,d v/;kfidk dgrh gS ^^esjh le> esa ugha vkrk] D;ksa bu <dsy okyksa dks lcls tYnh iM+rh gS ykbu ikj djus dhA vjs u nQ~rj tkuk gS rqEgsa u dkystA dkgs dh tYnh gSA tku dh dksbZ ijokg gh ughaA^^ ejus okys dks gh lHkh nks’k nsrs fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSa ljdkj ml ij dksbZ iqy dk fuekZ.k ugha dj jgh gS bl ij dksbZ ugha lksprkA ,d dks<+h dk Hkh fp=.k feyrk gSA ^j{kd^ dgkuh esa lkaiznkf;drk dk fp=.k fd;k x;k gSA fgUnq eqfLye /keZ ds dkj.k ;qok ih<+h esa ckr&ckr ij yM+kbZ&>xM+s dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA ^vius yksx^ dgkuh esa tkfrokn vkSj nfyr oxZ dks fpf=r fd;k x;k gSA Yksf[kdk us tkfrokn vkSj lkaiznkf;drk ds :iksa rFkk dkj.kksa dks mtkxj djus ds fy, dgkfu;k¡ x<+rh gSaA dgha os dgkuh dks fo”oluh; rFkk izHkko”kkyh cukus esa lQy gks tkrh gSa] dgha vlQyA ^jktk dk pkSd^ dks bl n`f’V ls lQy dgk tk,xkA ;g dgkuh ,d NksVs ls lekt vkSj dbZ O;oLFkk dh dgkuh gSA bl tkfroknh O;oLFkk esa lekt ds vusd NksVs&cM+s izlx a ksa dks ;g dgkuh izLrqr djrh gSA vkt Hkh bl ledkyhu le; esa budh dgkfu;ka izklafxd cuh gqbZ gSaA

jktk dk pkSd] ysf[kdk& uferkflag] ok.kh izdk”ku] nfj;kxat] ubZ fnYyh] fiu&110002] f}rh; laLdj.k 1996] i`’B la[;k&123] ewY;&75 :Ik;sA

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

बारडोिी सत्याग्रह और वल्िभभाइ पटेि डॉ. जिममना एव. सारडा1 (१) प्रारं भ : भारतीय आितहास में गुजजर जाित का योगदान बहुत ही महत्वपूणज रहा है | प्राचीन समय से अजतक गुजजर जाितने िविवध क्षेत्र में ऄपनी शिियों का पररचय ददया है | गुजजर जाितने ऄपनी एक िवशेष पहचान बनाइ है | प्राप्त िवगत के ऄनुसार गुजरात में बसा हुअ पाटीदार समाज भी आसी गुजजर समाज का ऄनन्य िहमसा है | गुजरात में िविभन्न मथानों में बसनेवािे पाटीदार समाज के िोगो ने ऄपनी कायजक्षमता से के वि गुजरात ही नहीं पुरे िवश्व में गुजजरों का नाम रोशन दकया है | गुजरात में पाटीदार िोगो ने अर्थथक राजकीय एवं सामािजक क्षेत्र में महत्वपूणज योगदान ददया है | आसी समाज के एक गणमान्य नेता जो अज भी भारतवासी के ददिो में “सरदार” के नाम से सम्मािनत है | मवातंत्र्य संग्राम के दौरान िविवध सत्याग्रहो और बाद में मवतंत्र भारत के ऄखंड मवरुप में ईनका बहुत बड़ा योगदान है | देशी राज्यों की िविीनीकरण की प्रदिया में ईन्होंने महत्वपूणज भूिमका िनभाइ थी | (२) वल्िभभाइ पटेि का जीवन :वल्िभभाइ पटेि का जन्म गुजरात के खेडा िजल्िा के करमसद गााँव में हुअ था | वल्िभभाइ पटेि के िपताजी का नाम झवेरभाइ और माता का नाम िाडबाइ था | ईनके िपता झवेरभाइ मवामीनारायण संप्रदाय के िशष्य थे | और वो दकसान थे | झवेरभाइ पटेि में मवतंत्रता की िचनगारी प्रकटी हुईं थी | ईन्होंने १८५७ के मवातंत्रय संग्राम में ििरटशरो के ऄन्याय के सामने िड़नेवािे भारतीयों को मदद करने के ििए ितन साि तक ऄपने वतन का त्याग कर ददया था | आस प्रकार वल्िभभाइ पटेि को देशभिि, वीरत्व और नेतृत्व का कौशल्य िवरासत में िमिा हुअ था |(१)

वल्िभभाइ पटेिने ऄपने िवधाभ्यास की शुरुअत गााँव की पाठशािा में की थी | ईसके बाद गुजरात के निडयाद शहर में ऄंग्रेजी माध्यम की शािा में मेरिक की पढाइ पूरी की थी | बाद में ईन्होंने कानून का ऄध्ययन करके िडिमिक्ट प्िीडर की पदवी प्राप्त की थी | वे पुनः भारत में अकर ऄहमदाबाद में वकाित शुरु की थी |(२)

(३) वल्िभभाइ पटेि का राजनीितक जीवन : 1

डॉ. जिममना एव. सारडा

अिसमटेंट प्रोफे सर, आितहास, आतहास िवभाग, डी. के . वी. अर्टसज और सायंस कॉिेज, जामनगर (गुजरात) Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(107)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

वल्िभभाइ पटेि ऄहमदाबाद वापस अए ईसी दौरान १११५ में मोहनदास करमचंद गांधीने भारतीय राजकीय जीवन में प्रवेश दकया था | आससे पहिे गांधीजी ने दिक्षण अदिका में रहकर ििरटशरों की रं गभेद नीित और ऄन्याय के सामने अवाज ईठावी थी | और समग्र िवश्व को “सत्याग्रह” नामके ऄहहसक शस्त्र की भेट की थी | सत्याग्रह एक ऐसी प्रणािी थी िजस में सत्य एवं अग्रह के िमश्रण से धमज और िांित का समन्वय होता है | आसी ऄपूवज समन्वय के कारण वह जीवन के सभी पहिु में बदिाव िा शके ऐसा पररचायक बना था |(३)

गांधीजी के आस सत्याग्रह अंदोिन से वल्िभभाइ पटेि परीिचत हुए थे | गांधीजी की दृढ़ता और िनडरता की जानकारी ईन्होंने िबहार में दकये चंपारण सत्याग्रह से प्राप्त की थी | वल्िभभाइ पटेि ने मवातंत्र्य संग्राम में गांधीजी का साथ िनभाने के बारे में सोच ििया था | आसी के पररणाम मवरूप ईन्होंने १९१७ के खेडा सत्याग्रह में गांधीजी का साथ िनभाया था | १९२१ में वल्िभभाइ ने वकीिात छोड़कर पूणज रूप से गांधीजी के अंदोिन एवं कोंग्रेस में सािमि हो गये थे | १९२२ में बोरसद के प्रांतीय कोंग्रेस समीित के ऄध्यक्ष बने थे | ईन्होंने १९२३ में नागपुर में झंडा सत्याग्रह में िहमसा ििया था | वल्िभभाइ पटेि ऄमदाबाद म्युिन. के ऄध्यक्ष बने थे |(४) बारडोिी सत्याग्रह और वल्िभभाइ पटेि :सन १९२१ में गांधीजीने सिवनय कानून भंग की िड़ाइ चिायी थी | ईसी समय बारडोिी के मथािनक िोग और ििरटश ऄिधकाररयों के िबच में संघषज हुअ था | ककतु चौरीचौरा की करूण घटना की वजह से सिवनय कानून भंग की िडाइ मौकु फ़ रखी गयी थी | दफर भी बारडोिी में मवराज्य अश्रम की मथापना की गइ थी |(५) मुंबइ प्रान्त में हर तीस साि के बाद दकशानो की अर्थथक पररिमथित का पुनःमूल्यांकन कर के जमीन महेसुि िनधाजरण दकया जाता था | आसी के ऄंतगजत बारडोिी तहसीि का पुनःमूल्यांकन कायज सुरत के नायब समाहताज श्री जयकार को सोंपा गया था ईन्होंने जमीन का पुनःमूल्यांकन करके ३० प्रितशत महेसुि कर में बढौती की थी और साथ में २३ गॉव का दरज्जा बदि ददया था | आस तरह से दकसानो के ईपर महेसुि कर का ज्यादा भारण बढ़ गया था | दकसानो ने यह महेसुि का िवरोध दकया था | आस महेसुि बढ़ने की जो प्रदिया हुइ ईसकी तपास सेटिमेन्ट किमश्नर एंडरसन को सोंपी गयी थी | ईन्होंने भी महेसुि बढाया था | मुंबइ सरकर ने दोनों ऄिधकारीयों के वृतांत का ऄभ्यास कर के २२ प्रितशत कर बढ़ा ददया था |(६) आस तरह से बारडोिी तहसीि के दकशानो पर ऄिधक महेसुि डािा गया था | पुरे बारडोिी तहसीि के दकसानो पर तक़रीबन २१ प्रितसत से भी ज्यादा महेसि ु डािा गया था |(७) बारडोिी तहसीि के दकसनो ने आस ऄन्याय के सामने अवाज ईठाने के बारे में सोचकर श्री खुशािभाइ और ऄन्य दकसान नेताओ के सामने ऄपनी बात रखी थी | दकशान नेताओ ने यह बात पे ध्यान नहीं ददया था | आसके बाद दकसान नेताओ ने तत्काििन गुजरात कोंग्रस ऄध्यक्ष वल्िभभाइ पटेि और May – August, 2014

(108)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

गााँधीजी के सामने ऄन्यायी महेसुि व्यवमथा की बात रखी थी | गांधीजी ने वल्िभभाइ पटेि को दकसानो पर हो रहे ऄन्याय के सामने अवाज ईठाने की सिाह दी थी | वल्िभभाइ पटेि ने बारडोिी सत्याग्रह का अंदोिन शुरू करने से पहिे बारडोिी के दकशान नेताओ जैसे की खुशािभाइ, कुं वरबाइ, कल्याणजीभाइ अदद के पास यह जााँच करवाइ थी की बारडोिी तहसीि के दकसानो की यह ऄन्याय के सामने िड़ने की कै सी तैयारी है | बाद में ईन्होंने दकसानो को यह भी िहदायत दी की कोइ भी दकसान पूरा महेसुि भरने के ििए तैयार नहीं होगा तो ही वह प्रश्न पर अंदोिन करें गे |(८) आस तरह से सेनापित वल्िभभाइ पटेि की ऄगुअइ के तहत बारडोिी सत्याग्रह का प्रारं भ हुअ था | यह सत्याग्रह में पुरे बारडोिी तहसीि के िोग सािमि हुए थे | यह सत्याग्रह में सौराष्ट्र के कायजकताज िोग भी सािमि हुए थे | िजसमे मनीभाइ कोठारी, फु िचंदभाइ शाह ईनकी पत्नी शारदाबहन अदद सािमि हुए थे | ईसमें भी फु िचंदभाइ शाह ने तो सत्याग्रह में सािमि हुए िोगो का जुमसा बढाने के ििए शौयज गाने की तैयारी दकये थे | सुबह प्रभात फे री िनकािी जाती थी | ददन में सरघस िनकािे जाते थे |(९) बारडोिी सत्याग्रह की जानकारी सामान्य जनसमूह तक पहोंचे आस ििए पित्रका भी प्रकािशत करने की तैयारी की गइ थी | आस पित्रका का संपादन जुगतराम दवे, िचमनिाि भट्ट और मगनिाि ने दकया था |(१०) बारडोिी सत्याग्रह की िड़ाइ में मिहिओं ने भी महत्वपूणज योगदान ददया था | ििरटश ऄख़बार ने सत्याग्रह का ईग्र मवरुप देखकर अंदोिनकारी दकसानो को महेसुि भरने की ताकीद की थी | दकन्तु दकसानो ने महेसुि भरने से आन्कार कर ददया था | तो ििरटश सरकार ने दकसानो की जमीन और पशुओ को जप्त करने का अदेश ददया था | दफर भी दकसनों ने वल्िभभाइ पटेि की ऄगुअइ से सत्याग्रह को अगे बढाया था | वल्िभभाइ की िमथरता और दकसानो की एकजूट होकर िड़ने की मक्कमता से ििरटश सरकार ने दकसान नेताओ को एक बार सुनने का फै सिा दकया था | दकसान नेताओ को सुनने के बाद ब्िूमफील्ड और मेक्सवेि ने सत्याग्रह की प्रारं िभक झांच की थी | भोिाभाइ देसाईं, रामनारायण पाठक, कल्याणजी महेता अदद ने ििरटश ऄिधकाररयों के सामने दकसानो के प्रश्नों को रखा था |(११) वल्िभभाइ पटेि ने ििरटशरों की ऄन्यायी नीित के सामने िड़के दकसानो को ऄहहसक अंदोिन का जो बोध ददया था | ईसी की वजह से महात्मा गांधीने ईनको “सरदार” का िबरुद ददया था |(१२) तब से समग्र हहदुमतान वल्िभभाइ पटेि को सरदार के नाम से जानता है | समापन :

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(109)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

वल्िभभाइ ने गुजजर पाटीदार के यहााँ सामान्य पररवार में जन्म ििया था | पर ऄपनी दृढ़ता से देश के ईत्तम बेररमटर बने थे | ईन्होंने ऄहमदाबाद को ऄपना कमज क्षेत्र बनाया था | ऄहमदाबाद में वकाित करने के साथ गांधीजी से भी परीिचत हुए थे | गांधीजी की िवचारधारा से प्रभािवत होकर वल्िभभाइ पटेि ने ऄपनी वकाित छोड़कर पूणज रूप से देश को अजाद करने के संग्राम में जुड़ गए थे | १९२७ – २८ में सुरत के बारडोिी तहिसक के दकसानो के हुए ऄन्याय के सामने ििटीशरो से ऄहहसक िड़ाइ िड़ने के ििए गांधीजी ने ईनको प्रेरणा दी थी | वल्िभभाइ के कु नेह पूवजक आस सत्याग्रह में दकसानो का साथ िनभाया था | और ििटीशरो को भी वल्िभभाइ पटेि और ऄन्य दकसान नेताओ की बात माननी पड़ी थी | आस तरह वल्िभभाइ पटेि ने “सरदार” की भूिमका पूणज रूप से िनभायी थी | ईसके बाद सरदार वल्िभभाइ पटेि ने देश के मवातंत्र संग्राम में ऄपना महत्वपूणज योगदान ददया था | १९४६ – ४७ में देसी राज्यों के िविीनीकरण में भी महत्वपूणज भूिमका िनभाइ थी | और आस तरह से सरदार वल्िभभाइ पटेि भारत के िबममाकज सािबत हुए थे | संदभज सूिच (१) व्यास रजनी – गरवा गुजरती, पृ. २१८ (२) वही, पृ. २१८ (३) शास्त्री और परीख – संपाददत – गुज्राटका राजकीय और सांमकृ ितक आितहास - ग्रंथ – ९, पृ. २७ (४) व्यास रजनी, पुवाजकत पुमतक पृ. २९९ (५) गुजरात सुवणज जयंती िवशेषांक, पृ. ६४ (६) पारीख नरहरी डी. सरदार वल्िभभाइ – भाग – १ पृ. ६८ (७) शास्त्री और परीख संपा. पुवाजकत ग्रंथ, पृ. ३४ (८) वही, पृ. ३४ (९) जानी एस. जी., सौराष्ट्र का आितहास पृ. ४८८ (१०) राज दफतर – सरदार पटेि िवशेषांक – २००१, पृ. ०३ (११) वही, पृ. ४ (१२) वही, पृ. ५

May – August, 2014

(110)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

सत्यताफिनििक्ष तार्ककक कारको की सत्यताफिनिक्षीता की िववेचनात्मक खोज डॉ. दवे राजेश्री के .1 “सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारको की सत्यताफिनििक्षता और बहुमूल्यीय तकज शास्त्र के चुमत सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारक |” अधुिनक प्राितक तकज शास्त्र ईनके सामन्य ऄभ्यास के ऄिधकतम ऄंश में डॉ िवभाग में िवभािजत होते है | एक तकज शास्त्र में िवधानको एकम बनाकर ईसके अंतररक बंधारण की तपास कीये बगैर मात्र िवधान दकस तरह से संयुि हो सके ईस पर से संयुि िवधानों का मवरूप और दिीि की प्रमाणभुतता का िनणजय िेता है | ज्योंदक तकज शास्त्र के दुसरे िवभाग में िवधान के अंतररक बंधारण की तपास और ईस बंधाराण पर अधाररत दिीिों की भी जााँच होती है | प्रथम िवभाग िजसे िवधान परक शास्त्र (Proportional Logic) कहा जाता है | अधुिनक तकज शास्त्र में सबसे महत्वपूणज िवभाग माना जाता है | दूसरा िवभाग ऄथाजत िवधेय परक तकज शास्त्र में भी िवधानपरक तकज शास्त्र के सभी पररणाम और िनयमो के पररणाम ििए जाते है | यह ऄिभगम तकज शास्त्र के मवभािवक िनगमन पध्धित के और मवयं तथ्यमुल्क तंत्र के ऄिभगम ऄैसे कोइ भी तरीके से दकये जानेवािे ऄभ्यास के ििए यथाथज रहता है |(१) आसििए िवधानपरक तकज शास्त्र के क्षेत्र में िवधान संयुििवधानों की रचना दकस प्रकार होती है यह प्रश्न एक ऄथजमे समग्र प्राितक तकज शास्त्र के ििए एक िनव के समान प्रश्न बन जाता है | सामान्य रूप से िवधानपरक तकज शास्त्र में िवधान सत्यताफिनिक्षीता से जुड़ते है | आसी कारण िवधानपरक तकज शास्त्र और िवधेयपरक तकज शास्त्र में समािवष्ट सभी िवधेय परक तकज शास्त्र को सत्यताफिनिक्षी तकज शास्त्र (Truth Functional Logic) कहा जाता है | आस प्रकार सत्यताफिनिक्षीता का ख्याि अधुिनक तकज शास्त्र का एक महत्वपूणज ख्याि है | आसििए सत्यताफिनििक्ष तार्ककक कारको की सत्यताफिनिक्षीता की िववेचनात्मक खोज (जााँच) करने का अशय आस शोध िनबंध का िवषय है |

ऄिखि भारतीय दशजन पररषद – ५७वााँ ऄिधवेशन १२ से १४ जनवरी २०१३ पारनेर (महाराष्ट्र) सामन्य रूप से िवधानपरक तकज शास्त्र में सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारको की व्याख्या आस तरह दी जाती है |(२)

1

डॉ. दवे राजेश्री के .

ऄध्यक्ष, तत्वज्ञान िवभाग, श्री डी.के .वी. अर्टसज ऄेन्ड सायन्स कोिेज, जामनगर Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(111)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

“जो कोइ संयुि िवधान का सत्यतामूल्य कोइ कारक के अधार पर समािवष्ट घटकरूप िवधानों में सत्यतामूल्यों के अधार पर िनधाजररत हो सके तो यह सत्यताकारक सत्यताफिनििक्ष माना जाएगा और िवधान भी सत्यताफिनिक्षी रूप से संयुि िवधान माना जायेगा |” आस व्याख्या के ऄनुरूप सामन्य रूप से नीचे ददये गए पााँच सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारको का मवीकार दकया जाता है | (१) ‘ . ‘ समुच्चय (२) ‘v’ िवकल्पन (३) ‘>’ शरती (४) ‘=’ ििशरती (५) ‘-‘ िनषेध यह पााँच तार्ककक कारक सत्यताफिनिक्षी हैं | क्यूंदक ईसके िारा संयुि हो रहे घटक रूप िवधानों के सत्यतामुल्यो का िनधाजरण होता है |

जो कोइ भी कारक चुमतरूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी होता है तो ईसके घटकरूप िवधान के , सत्यतामूल्य के अधार पर नवरिचत हुअ संयुि िवधान का सत्यतामूल्य िनधाजररत होना चािहये |(३) आस ऄथजमें मपष्टतः िनषेध चुमत सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारक है | क्योंदक जो कोइ िवधान ‘P’ में सत्यतामूल्य ददया गया है तो िनषेध से ईसका सत्यता मूल्य ऄिनवायजरूप से िनिित हो जाता है | ई.दा. – ‘P’ यदद ‘T’ है तो ~ P – ‘F’ होता है | ईसीके साथ साथ जब तक ‘P’ का सत्यतामूल्य ददया नहीं जाता जब तक ~ P के सत्यतामूल्य देने का कोइ रामता नहीं है | आस ििए ‘~’ चुमत रूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारक है | यहााँ हम यह देखग ें े की आसी प्रकारकी चुमत सत्यताफिनिक्षीता और सभी तार्ककक कारको के ििए बताना मुिककि है |

समुच्चय : समुच्चय के सामन्य ऄथजघटन ऄनुरूप जो दोनों ममुिययत सत्य है तब ही समुच्चय सत्य होता है | ऄथाजत डॉ में से से एक भी ऄसत्य है तो समग्र संयुि िवधान ऄसत्य बनता है | ऄथाजत सत्यताफिनिक्षी रहने नहीं देती है ईदा ‘

‘ सत्यताफिनिक्षी कारक है और चुमतरूप (Stricly) है तो, ‘

‘ से जुड़े P,q

िवधानों जो संयुि िवधान बनाते है P q ईसका सत्यतामूल्य, (१) ‘ ‘ का ऄथजघटन

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Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

(२) P और q के सत्यतामूल्यों के अधार पर िनिित हो सके ‘ ‘ के संदभज में (२) शरत का पािन होता नहीं है | क्यूंदक समय जो P और q दोनों में से एक का सत्यतामूल्य ‘F’ होता है P का F होता है तो P

(P,q) का सत्यतामूल्य िनधाजरण करते (P,q) = F हो जाता है | ऄथाजत जो

q का सत्यतामूल्य िनधाजरण के ििए q के सत्यतामूल्य को जानना जरुरी नहीं

है | ऄथाजत

(P,q) = F ऄथवा q F

िवकल्पन : िवकल्पन के ऄथजघटन ऄनुसार यदद दोनों िवकल्पों ऄसत्य होते है वै तब ही समग्र वैकिल्पक संयुि िवधान ऄसत्य होता है | ऄतः जो कोइ एक भी िवकल्प सत्य है तो समग्र िवधान सत्य हो जाता है | आस ििए समुच्चय की तरह जो pvq में p और q दोनों में से एक भी सत्य होगा तो समग्र वैकिल्पक िवधान सत्य हो जाता है | आस तरह V(p,q)=T जो p और q ‘T’ ऄब शरती तार्ककक कारक के ििए भी यह पररिमथित िनर्थमत है |

शरती : (४) वमतुिक्षी गिभताथज के सामन्य ऄथजघटन ऄनुसार शरती िवधान पूवाांग सत्य और ईतरांग ऄसत्य है तब ही ऄसत्य होता है | बाकी सत्य होता है | यदद ऄथजघटन िनित संदभज में शरती को भी चुमत से सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारक रहने नहीं देता है | क्योंदक यदद पूवाांग ऄसत्य रहेता है तो ईतरांग के सत्यतामूल्य को जाने बगैर समग्र शरती िवधान का सत्यतामूल्य ‘T’ िनधाजररत हो जाता है | ईसी प्रकार जो ईतसंग सत्य होता है तो पूवाांग के सत्यतामूल्य को जाने बगैर समग्र शरती िवधान का सत्यतामूल्य ‘ T’ िनिित होता है | ऄथाजत > (P,q) = T यदद P F और > (P,q) = T यदद q T आस प्रकार P > q में ‘>’ ‘चुमत रूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारक नहीं है |

ििशरती : समान सत्यतामूल्य रखते हुए िवधान के िबच ईसकी समान सत्यता को ऄिभव्यि करने के ििए सामन्य भाषा में ‘if…….then and only then’ के शब्द प्रयोग से वमतुिक्षी सममुल्ता (material eqvivalance) नामक तार्ककक कारक प्रयुि दकया गया है | िजसकी सामन्य रूप से ऄिभव्यिि यदद ...... तब और ........ तब ही के मवरूप में की जाती है | यह कारक जो सत्यताफिनिक्षी संयुि

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Creative Space : International Journal

िवधान बनता है वो दोनों घटकरूप िवधान एक साथ सत्य ऄथवा ऄसत्य होते है तो ही यह संयुि िवधान सत्य होता है | यह कारक चुमत रूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी कारक है | क्योंदक यदद p का सत्यतामूल्य ‘T’ ददया जाता है तो जब तक p=q का सत्यतामूल्य जाना नहीं जाता है | यही बात P और q के ‘F’ सत्यतामूल्य के बारे में भी हम कह सकते है | आस प्रकार ‘=’ चुमत रूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी तार्ककक कारक है |

आस प्रकार िवधानपरक तकज शास्त्र में और खास करके मवभािवक िनगमन पध्धित में प्रयुि हो रहे पााँच तार्ककक कारको में से िनषेध और ििशरती ये दोनों तार्ककक कारक ही चुमतरूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी रहे है | यहााँ चुमतरूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी कारक का अधार नहीं िेता है तो ईसमे अपितजनक क्या है ? िवधान परक तकज शास्त्र के मवभािवक िनगमन पध्धित का ऄिभगम और मवयं तथ्यमूिक तंत्र के ऄिभगम में यदद तार्ककक कारक प्रयुि होते है | और आस प्रयुिि में कु छ परे शानी वािी बात नहीं है | ईसी तरह जो कारक चुमतरूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षी है तो भी तकज शास्त्र की कोइ मवरूपिक्षी ऄपूणजता पूणज हो जायेगी ऐसा भी नहीं है | जब तकज शास्त्र को सामान्य भाषादकय ऄथजघटनो में (Natural Languistic Enterpretation) प्रयुि करने का होता है तब चुमतरूप से सत्यताफिनिक्षीता ऄपनी साथकज ता की ऄिभव्यिि करती है |

सत्यताफिनििक्षता की िवचारणा तकज शास्त्र में एक पूणजतः िभन्न ऄिभगम से भी होती है | सामन्य रूप से िवधान को सत्य या ऄसत्य ऐसे दो मूल्य ददए जाते है | परं तुमवरूपििक्षता के अधार पर ऐसा जरुरी नहीं है दक सत्यतामुल्यकी संख्या दो ही हो वह दो से ऄिधक मतिब ऄनंत तक दद जा सकती है | दो ज्यादा सत्यतामूल्यवािे तकज शास्त्र में तार्ककक कारक चुमत रूप से सत्यताफिनक्षीता ही होंगे | और ऐसे कारक एक बहुमूल्यीय िवधानपरक तकज शास्त्र बना सकते है | यह मेरे ऄगिे संशोधन पत्र का िवषय रहेगा |

संदभज सूिच : (1) प्राितक तकज शास्त्र प्रा. ऄेस. ऄेस. शमाज युनी. ग्रंथ िनमाजण बोडज, ऄहमदाबाद (2) Symbolic Logic 4th Edition I.M Copi The Macmillan Company New york

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ISSN 2347-1689

(3) Elements of Logic Josephta Maria New Literature Publishing Company 65, Mahatma Road, Fort Bombay 1970 (4) An Introduction to Logic Irving M. Copi Macmillan New York (5) Set Theory and Logic Roabert R. Stoll Evrasia Publishing house Pvt. Ltd Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

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Creative Space : International Journal

दिित चेतना के यथाथज में शरणकु मार हिबािे का कहानी-संग्रह

“दिित िाह्मण” भरतकु मार वी भेडा1 सािहत्य िवचारों का समुन्दर हैं, िजसमें समय के साथ पररवर्थतत भावों का ऄक्षय प्रवाह प्रवािहत होता रहता हैं| िजसकी ज्ञानरुपी गहराइयों में ऄनेकानेक िवचारकों का ऄथाग प्रयास रहता है | िहन्दी सािहत्य में पीछिे दो-तीन दशकों से नारी-िवमशज और दिित-चेतना पर ऄिधकत्तर सािहत्य सृजन हो रहा है | ईि िवचारधारा से प्रभािवत हुए शरणकु मार हिबािे | जो मूित: मराठी दिित िेखक है | ईन्होंने ऄपनी िेखनी के माध्यम से दिित- चेतना की एक सशि राह ददखाइ है | ईन्होंने ऄपने कहानी-संग्रह ‘दिित िाह्मण’ के माध्यम से सददयों से पीिड़त-शोिषत, कुं रठत, संत्रास, दुिखत और दिमत िोगों के यथाथज जीवन को सजीव रूप में अंकिन दकया है| समाज की सड़ी-गिी एवं मनुवादी व्यवमथा और अर्थथक नीित के दोहरे ऄिभशाप में वषों से शोिषत हो रहा, दिित वगज ऄपनी पीड़ा,दररद्रता, ऄभावग्रमता और पराधीनता की बेिड़यों से अजादी की पहि ऄवकय करता है | दकन्तु सामन्ती रुतबे तिे ईनकी मवतंत्रता को ददन-प्रितददन रौंदा जाता हैं | फिमवरूप ईनकी िड़ाइ एक समाज से न होकर, पूरी िसमटम के िखिाफ हो जाती है | प्रमतुत कहानी-संग्रह सामन्ती एवं ईच्च वगज की शोषक नीित के िखिाफ खुिा िवद्रोह ही िगता है | िजसमें वैचाररक िांित का बीज भी है और साथ ही ऄपने ऄिधकारों के ििए रििांित का अह्वान भी करती हैं | प्रमतुत कहानी-संग्रह की प्रथम कहानी ‘दिित िाह्मण’ में हिबािेजी ने यह समझाने का प्रयास दकया है दक दिित चाहे दकतना भी ईच्च या प्रबुद्ध नागररक क्यों न बन जाय | दकन्तु जाित-िवषयक ऄपमान ईन्हें जीवनांत तक सहना ऄिनवायज बन जाता हैं | जब एक दिित व्यिि का सवणज समाज की ऄिभजात्य सोसायटी या अवासीय जगह में रहना और ईनकी बजह से वह जाितवाद के दंगिों का िशकार बनता हैं | ऄपने सवणज िमत्र की दोहरी व्यवहार नीित से त्रमत हो जाता हैं | िजनके फिमवरूप ईसे ऄपने िोगों की ऄहिमयत का खिापन मपष्टतया खिता है | यही ईि कहानी का मुख्य मवर है | जीवन के शाश्वत ऄनुभवों की शृंखिा यानी अत्मकथा | ‘अत्मकथा’ कहानी में िेखक ने परामशज या मागजदशजन के नाम पर होनेवािे सािहित्यक शोषण को प्रदर्थशत दकया हैं| जब एक नया अत्मकथाकार, ऄपनी अत्मकथा को प्रकािशत करने हेतु मागजदशजन के ििए प्रबुद्ध िवचारकों की सहायता ऄवकय िेता हैं | दकन्तु परामशज की अड़ में अत्मकथाकार की अत्मकथा चोरी हो जाती हैं | ऐसी अशंका िेखक को खिती है पूणजतया कहानी में सािहित्यक प्रबुद्ध नकिकारों के चेहरे से बनावटी नकाब ईतारने का साहिसक प्रयास दकया गया हैं |

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Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

‘सफ़े द मक्खी’ हिबािेजी की एक प्रतीकात्मक कहानी है | मक्खी को प्रतीक बनाकर सािहत्य-जगत की वामतिवकताओं से पाठकवगज को ऄवगत करवाया गया हैं | जहााँ पर गैर दिित िेखक दिित छात्रों से ददखावी अत्मीय व्यवहार, छिना के अधार पर हो, ईनको ददखाते हुए, छात्रों के जीवनानुभवों की नकि करके ईन्हें ऄपने सािहित्यक ददमाग की ईपज करार देकर प्रकािशत करते हैं | दरऄसि सािहत्य जगत की रुग्ण मानिसकताओं का पदाजफाश दकया गया हैं | जो प्रितभा संपन्न नवदिित सािहत्यकारों का अत्मीयता की अड़ में सािहित्यक शोषण की सममयाओं को ईजागर करने का सफि प्रयास हुअ है | ‘सरकारी जमाइ राजा’ कहानी सरकारी कायाजियों में काम करनेवािे दिित िििपकों की दारुण व्यथा गाथा हैं | अये ददन िविभन्न जगहों या मथानों पर दिितों का जाित-िवषयक शोषण एवं ऄवहेिना होती है | तकरीबन यह िनरंतर एवं सदैव प्रदिया बन गयी है | तब सरकारी कायाजिय कै से अबाद रहेंगे ! दिित िििपकों की मानिसक एवं शारीररक यंत्राओं तथा प्रतािड़ता को िेखक ने सूक्ष्मतम ढंग से िचित्रत दकया हैं | एक प्रकार से सवणज कमजचाररयों और दिित कमजचाररयों के बीच की वैमनमयता को ईजागर दकया गया हैं | जब दिित कमजचारी ईनका िवरोध या सामना करने का साहिसक प्रयास करते है तो, ईन पर ऄनामत का अरोप िगाकर, ईन्हें ऄवहेिित एवं ऄपमािनत का सयाफा बााँधकर ‘सरकारी जमाइ राजा’ की संज्ञा से िवभूिषत करके शोिषत हथकं डों को ऄपनाकर रुग्ण मानिसकता को प्रमतुत करते हैं | दैिहक सुख के नाम पर िनम्न जाितयों का ‘सांमकृ ितक प्रितशोध’ हिबािेजी की ‘ओछीजात का’ कहानी का प्रमुख मवर रहा हैं | वमतुतः सददयों से दिित एवं शोिषत वगज की नाररयों का शारीररक शोषण ईच्चवगीय पुरुष करते अये हैं | दकन्तु नयी सदी के अधुिनक िवचारों ने पुख्ताइ परं परा तथा व्यवमथा का ईन्मूिन ऄवकय दकया हैं | िजसके चिते दिित पुरुष, ईच्चवगीय नारी के साथ दैिहक संबंध मथािपत करके के वासनामय सुख िनिित प्राप्त करता है | दकन्तु प्रमतुत ऄवैध शारीररक संबंध िववाह जैसे पिवत्र बंधन में िवश्वास रखता नहीं है | यूाँ कहे तो ईद्भिवत वासनामय क्षण का शमन मात्र ही है | फिमवरूप दिित पुरुष ईच्चवगीय स्त्री से शारीररक संबंध मथािपत कर के मनुवादी परं परा से बदिा ऄवकय िेता है | दिित नौकरीपेशा व्यिि के अरक्षण पद िवषयक सममया का वृतांत ‘सीढ़ी’ कहानी है | एक दिित िशक्षक को ईसके अरिक्षत पद पर मथान न देकर,ईनकी जगह पर ऄन्य गैर-दिित वगज के व्यिि को िनयुिि देना और ईनके अरिक्षत पदों को हटाने का षड्यंत्र रूपी हथकण्डों को ऄिख्तयार करना ‘सीढ़ी’ कहानी की मुख्य सममया हैं | दिित िशक्षक को जूठे भ्रष्टाचार के चिव्यूह में फााँसकर, ईनके मथान से बेदखि करना अदद शोषणकारी प्रवृित का सूक्ष्मतम ढंग से हुए िचत्रण पररििक्षत होते हैं | ऄंततः दिित िशक्षक प्रितशोध के रूप में प्रशासनािधकारी की रिधारा को बहाकर रििांित का अहवान भी करता है | सही ऄथों में दिित एवं िपछड़ें वगों के ििए ईपयुजि िांित ही पूणज मवतंत्रता की िनशानी हैं | ‘रथयात्रा’ कहानी राम मंददर िनमाजण के नाम पर राजनैितक रोरटयााँ सेकनेवािे मवाथी िोगों की दामतान हैं | िजसमें नींव का पत्थर दिित जाित बनती है | जो रथयात्रा में सिम्मिित ऄवकय होती है | दकन्तु जाितवाद की वजह से ईनकी ईपिमथित हामयामपद एवं हािसए पर मानते हुए, ईसे िभखाररयों की ईपािध दी जाती हैं | ऄवहेिित पररिमथित से उबा हुअ दिित युवक सेवक पूजारी की हत्या करके ऄपनी रथयात्रा को समाप्त करता है | तो कहीं पर प्रेम संबंधों का दुखद पररणाम ‘िनिेझंड’े कहानी का Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(117)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

हादज है | जहााँ एक दिित िड़का सवणज िड़की को प्यार करने ऄसंभिवत प्रयास करता है | दकन्तु प्यार का सपना क्षिणक मात्र ही रहता है | दकन्तु जाितवाद की दुकान चिाते हुए, िड़के के पूरे पररवार को मृत्यु दण्ड देकर प्यार की अहुित दी जाती है | यूाँ कहे तो सवणज वगज ऄपनी हैवािनयत रुतबे से प्रितष्ठा को कायम करना चाहता है | िवशेष रूप से मनुष्य की जाितगत िु रता एवं िपशाचनापन का पदाजफाश हुअ है | ‘रत्ना’ दो प्रेिमयों के िमिन के ििए जद्दोजहद भरी दामतान हैं | जैसे नदी कइ ऄनिगनत करठनाइयों का सामना करते हुए, ऄपने प्रेमी-पथ समंदर से अहिगन समािवष्ट होती है | ईसी प्रकार कहानी का नायक भी समंदर में ईठने वािी िवशािकाय एवं शत्रुवत तरं गों का ऄिभमान सागर की तट पर चकनाचूर होता हैं | समंदर की िवशािकाय िहरों की भााँित प्रमतुत कहानी का खिनायक ‘गणा’, जो चातक रूपी प्रेमाधीन नायक-नाियका को ऄिग रखना चाहता था | दकन्तु कहानी का ऄंत सुखद होता है, िविभन्न ऄड़चन एवं िव्ों को िशकमत देते हुए, शाश्वत प्रेम में पररिणत होता हैं | तो कहीं पर बदिे की भावना से ग्रमत ‘बिी’ के मनोभावों को ‘ऄंधेरे का गभज’ कहानी में ऄिभव्यि दकया गया हैं | जो सवणों की हवेिी िनमाणज में िनम्न जाित के कइ सारे दिितों के प्राणों की अहुित िी थीं | िजनमें से एक ‘बिी’ की सगभाज मााँ थीं | िजन्हें नींव का पत्थर समझकर, हजदा जमीन में गाड़ने की ददजनाक घटना से वह, त्रमत एवं मनोव्यिथत हैं | अवेगपूणज मनोदशा से िघरा हुअ बिी; मुिखया की बेटी की हत्या के मंशुबों में फाँ सकर ऄंत तक मुिि के दकए छटपटाता हैं | ‘चकता’ कहानी दोहरे ऄिभशाप का प्रितफिित है | नायक एक ओर ऄछू त है, तो दूसरी ओर चकता यानी कोढ़ जैसे कुं रठत रोग का िशकार है | पूरी कहानी नायक के रोगी होने की वजह से समाज के ऄवहेिनापूणज व्यवहार का दयनीय िचठ्ठा है | कहानी का प्रमुख मवर बीमार मनुष्य के साथ िोगों का ऄमानुषी व्यवहार और ईनके प्रित घृिणत रवैये को मुखाितब हुअ है | दूसरी ओर ‘गोहत्या’ एक प्रतीकात्मक कहानी है | कहानीकार ने पूजारी और कसाइ को प्रतीक बनाकर, िोगों की भ्रिमत मन:िमथित को प्रमतुत करने का साथजक प्रयास दकया है | जहााँ पूजारी गंगाजि से ऄपने हाथ पिवत्र करने की ठगी प्रवृित करता नजर अता हैं, तो वहीं कसाइ गाय के रि से ऄपने हाथ पाक करता है | कहानीकार ने सांकेितक रूप से महारों से ऄिधकािधक मांस खानेवािे िाह्मण की ओर आंिगत दकया हैं | ‘मुख’ में राम और बगि में छू री’ जैसी कहावत को चररताथज करती कहानी ‘गोहत्या’ है | वहीं ‘जुिूस’ कहानी दिितोत्कषज साहिसक गाथा है | जहााँ िघनौने राजनीितक पंगुओं की ऄसिीयत को जनसाधारण के समक्ष प्रदर्थशत दकया गया हैं | एक जाित का चुनावी जयघोष पाने की ििक, ईनको िनम्न मतर तक िगरने के ििए मजबूर करता है | यानी ऄन्य जाितयों का सहारा िेना अवकयक बन जाता है | ‘मायावती’ के राजनीितक िवचारों को संकेताथज करके कहानीकार ने ‘वासुदव े कु टुम्बकम’ की भावनाओं को मथािपत करने का साहसी कदम ईठाया हैं | िेखक ने परं परागत एवं अधुिनक रहन-सहन,सामािजक िमथित और अपस में वैचाररक िभन्नता से ईत्पन्न होनेवािी संघषजशीि पररिमथितयों को ‘युद्ध’ कहानी के रूप में प्रमतुत दकया हैं | अधुिनकता, िशक्षा एवं ऄधुनात वैचाररकता से प्रभािवत समाज गुिामी की जंजीरों को तोड़कर, अधुिनक समाज का नव-िनमाजण करे वहीं सही ऄथों में दिित चेतना हैं | ‘सरहद’ दिित फौजी जवान के सामािजक मतर पर ऄवहेिना एवं प्रवंचना की सच्ची ह्रदय द्रिवत कहानी है | जो देशप्रेम एवं राष्ट्रीयता की खाितर सरहद पर दुकमनों से सदैव िड़ने के ििए तत्पर रहता है | िेदकन सामािजक मतर पर जाितवाद के May – August, 2014

(118)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

चिव्यूह में दिित फौजी ऄवकय परामत होता है | वामतव में समाज के जाितवाद एवं भेदभाव की कु रटिता से ऄपने अपको ऄसुरिक्षत महसूस करता हैं | िवशेषत: शरणकु मार हिबािे का कहानी-संग्रह ‘दिित िाह्मण’ हमें सददयों से परं परागत समाज व्यवमथा के नाम पर दिमत दकए गए दिित एवं िपछड़े वगों की यातनाओं को ईजागर करता हुअ हैं | हिबािेजी का कहानी-संग्रह एक ओर हमें दिित एवं िपछड़े वगों की व्यथा गाथा से हमारे मन को संतप्त करता है, तो कहीं अधुिनक युगीन पररवर्थतत रवैये को ऄपनाकर, पुनरुत्थान के संकेत भी प्रदान करते हैं | फिमवरूप ‘सीढी’, ‘रथयात्रा’, ‘नीिेझण्डे’, ‘ऄन्धेरे का गभज’, ‘गोहत्या’, ‘जुिूस’, ‘सरहद’, ‘अदद कहािनयों में हिबािेजी का ऄंदाज तेजाब का घोतक दृिष्टपात होता है | जो ऄपमान, ऄमानवीय ऄत्याचार और शोषण को सहना िसखाता नहीं है | बिल्क प्रितशोध की अग या बदिे की भावना का ज्वािामुखी िवमफोटक बनता है | ऄंतत: कहे तो हिबािेजी का ‘दिित िाहमण’ कहानी-संग्रह हमें दिितों की पीडाओं, कुं ठाओं से दुिखत ऄवकय करता हैं | दकन्तु दुसरे क्षण ईन शोषणकाररयों से प्रितशोध के ििए सहायता भी देता हैं | सही ऄथों में हिबािेजी ने दिित चेतना की धारा को प्रमािणकता से बहाया हैं | जो अगे चिकर िवमतृत फिक पर रिरं िजत िांित का मवरूप ऄवकय धारण करें गी | संदभज- ग्रंथ : कहानी संग्रह : दिित िाह्मण, शरणकु मार हिबािे

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(119)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

डॉ. प्रभाकर माचवे के ईपन्यासों में ग्राम-समाज सोिंकी धमेश डी.1 भारत ऄिधकांशत: ग्रामों का देश है | भारत की अत्मा ईसके ग्राम हैं | िजनमे सामूिहक जीवन के ििए ऄिधकांशत: सामािजक, अर्थथक, शैक्षिणक, धार्थमक एवं ऄन्य सेवाओं की अवकयकता होती है | िजसमे व्यवहारों के प्रित सामान्य सहमित होती है | आसी अधार पर डॉ. प्रभाकर माचवे जी ने ऄपने ईपन्यासों में कु छ मात्रा में ग्रामीण समाज को मथान ददया है | सािहत्यकार समाज से संबंिधत ग्रामीण तथ्यों (भिे ही वे कम-ऄिधक मात्रा में क्यों न हो) परखता है, ऄनुभव करता है | ऄन्यथा िेखक की समसामियक चेतना, ईसका िचत्रण तथा ऄिभव्यिि एक कल्पना मात्र रह जायेगी | भारतीय ग्रामांचि का िचत्रण करनेवािे सािहत्यकार आसके साक्षी है | आस द्रिष्ट से प्रेमचंद का तत्कािीन ईपन्यास सािहत्य ग्राम जनसमाज का ऄंग है | डॉ. हजारी प्रसाद ििवेदी के शब्दों में ग्राम में “िाखो और करोडो की तादाद में फै िे हुए भुक्खड़ो, दाने-दाने को और िचथड़े-िचथड़े को मोहताज िोगो का समूह रहता है |”१ मपष्ट है ईपन्यासकार सामियक समाज का संदभज तब तक नहीं ििख सकता जब तक वह संपूणज वामतिवकता के साथ ईस तथ्य को सुमपष्ट, सुिमथर रूप में देख नहीं िेता | डॉ. माचवे आन्ही ईपन्यासकारो में से एक है िजन्होंने मवाधीनता के पिात काि के ग्राम की सच्चाइ का वणजन समकािीन िमथितयों के िविवध ऄंगो से दकया है | आस ऄनुभव की ऄिभव्यिि के संदभज में डॉ. माचवे जी ने ‘ददज के पैबंद’ के ‘अरं भ’ के पृष्ठ में कहा है दक “आसमें सेवा ग्राम (बधाज) के पास के गााँव के महारों, शांितिनके तन के पास संथािो या ऄरहवद अश्रम के औरोिबि के पास के गरीब तिमि अददवासी मजदूरो का िजि ऄवकय है (िजनकी गरीबी ऄसिियत में बेहद ऄवणजनीय गरीबी है |)”२ वे ‘तीस चािीस पचास’ की भूिमका में भी ग्राम िचत्रण का ईल्िेख करते हुए कहते हैं दक ‘समापन के ििए मेने भारत का एक किल्पत गााँव चुना है – सेवापुरी |”३ मपष्ट होता है की ईपन्यासकार ग्रामसमाज के िचत्रण में ऄछू ता नहीं है | प्रत्येक ग्राम, देहात, ऄंचि, बमती, की ऄपनी कु छ सामियक िविशष्टताएाँ होती हैं | वहां समसामियक, सामािजक चेतना के पक्ष की ऄन्यान्य सममयाएाँ भी पररिमथित के ऄनुरूप िनर्थमत होती हैं | ग्राम की चेतना प्रत्येक मतर पर िवद्रोहात्मक रूप में अ सकती हैं | डॉ माचवे के ईपन्यासों में िचित्रत ग्रामों, कमबो तथा मुहल्िों को महानगरीकरण एवं औद्योगीकरण ने व्यापक मात्रा में िविभन्न िवशेषताओं में, सममयाओं में तब्दीि दकया | डॉ. प्रभाकर माचवे के ईपन्यासों के पात्र शहरी अकषजण के कारण ग्राम से कमबो, शहरों के कारखानों में रोजगार के ििए गये हैं | तो कु छ पात्र शहर से ग्राम में मानवजीवन का ऄध्यन करने पहुाँच गये हैं | आस प्रकार ग्राम एवं शहर के पररवतजन ने ईपन्यासों में ग्रामों, कमबो एवं झोपिड़यों का िनम्न वगज एवं गरीब दकसानो का िविशष्ट व्यिित्व एक सममया के रूप में प्रमतुत दकया है | ऄतः ईपयुजि पृष्ठभूिम के अधार पर डॉ. माचवे के ईपन्यासों में िचित्रत के ग्रामीण समाज को ईग्रिििखत रूप में प्रमतुत दकया जा सकता है – 1

सोिंकी धमेश डी.

सोहमनगर सोसा., मोरबी रोड रे िवे िोसींग, बेडीपरा, राजकोट May – August, 2014

(120)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

गााँव का िनम्न वगज महानगरो में िवकास एवं यांित्रकीकरण के कारण जीवन िनवाजह के एवं अवागमन के साधन ग्रामों तक पहुंचे | पररणाममवरूप ग्रामों के परं परागत मवरूप को तथा जीवनशैिी को ठे स पहाँची | महानगरीय सभ्यता एवं औद्योगीकरण से ग्राम समाज के ऄछू तों तथा परं परागत िनम्न जाितयों के रोजी-रोटी के साधन नष्ट हुए | यह वामतिवकता ‘धुत’ ईपन्यास में ऄछू तों के कु नबे के माध्यम से व्यि हुइ हैं | वहां मेहतर, धीवर, चमार, खरटक, बसोर अदद िनम्न वगज के िोग रहते है | िेखक ने एक बुढे हररजन के िारा ऄपना दुखड़ा रोया... “ऄछू ता तो हमें सब मानते, पर ऄब दुःख की बात है की पहिे हमें घर से कु छ जूाँठा, फें का हुअ ऄन्न, रोटी-सािन िमि जाता था | ऄब वह भी बंध है | महाँगाइ बढती जाती है | ईस िहसाब से रोजगार नहीं िमिता | नगरपाििका वािे अकर सब जगह नि िगाने वािे है |”४ ग्रामों की िनम्न जाितयों को भूखे पेट रखने के ििए नयी िशक्षा व्यवमथा तथा यांित्रकीकरण में वृिद्ध तो हुइ दकन्तु ईससे भी ग्राम के बच्चो में, छात्रो में कृ िष क्षेत्रं एवं िनम्नमतरीय कायो के प्रित दुभाजग्यपूणज नैराकय ही हाथ िगी | “वे ऄब घरे िु काम नही करते, झोपिड़यो का यह हाि है दक हर बाररश में छप्पर बनाना पड़ता है | मरे हुए जानवरों की खाि खींचने का काम दकतना बड़ा और काठी काम है? नयी पीढ़ी रबड़ की चप्पिें और जुते पहनने िगती है | हमारे ििए जूता गााँठने का काम भी नहीं रहेगा | नये ढंग की टरट्टयााँ बन रही हैं | हमारे ििए मैिा साफ़ करने का काम भी नहीं रहेगा | जंगि में जाकर िशकार करने, सूऄर पािने या बााँस की टोकररयााँ बुनने के काम में दकतना तंत है ! खेती में हमारी औरतें पहिे थोड़ी-बहुत मजदुरी करती भी थी | ऄब वह भी नहीं िमिती | बच्चे मकू िों में पढने जाकर दफरं ट हो गये है | कहते हैं, ये गंदे और ओछे काम दकयों करें गे? हमें भी जमीन दीिजए तो हम भी खेती करें गे | हम दकसी तरह से औरों से कम है?... हमारी जात िबरादरी में ऄब िड़दकयां बड़ी होकर िबनब्याही रह जाती है | ईनसे यह सब काम हिका काम नहीं होता | नयी िशक्षा ने सब की अाँखे खोि दी है |”५ िनम्न मतरीय ऄछू त जाित के समाज की झोपिड़यााँ या िनवास गााँव से सटकर ही रहती है िजनमे सभी प्रकार की जाितयााँ रहती है | गााँव दूर से गाँधाते हैं | “हररजनों, मातंग-मांगो के झोपड़े बाहर थे | बाद में महारो की बमती थी | दफर और कु नबी िोग |...”६ ऄतः ईपयुजि ग्रामीण िनम्नवगज के िचत्रण के अधार पर कहा जायेगा की ग्राम का िनम्न वगज भी बदिती हुइ िमथितयों का िशकार हुअ है | अर्थथक पहिू ईसके पररवार की दृष्टी से यहााँ भी महत्वपूणज है | गााँव का कृ षक वगज परं परागत कृ िषक्षेत्र पर अधाररत खेत से फसि ईपजा कर जो ईसी के सहारे ऄपना जीवन िनवाजह करता है वह दकसान समाज कहा जा सकता है | ग्रामों में दकसानो की खेती से जुडी सममया सब से महत्वपूणज है | “कभी ऄयछे िबज नहीं िमिते, तो कहीं खाद नहीं थी | जानवरों की नमि सुधारने का कोइ तरीका नहीं था | खेती के औजार बाबा अदम के ज़माने के थे | घर घर में कु नबे के अपसी झगड़े थे | अपस में मुकदमेंबािजयााँ हो रही थी | कहीं हसचाइ की व्यवमथा नहीं थी तो कहीं मवेशी को चारा-दाने का प्रबंध नहीं था | न कोइ और पयाजयी व्यवसाय था, न कोइ हमतोद्योग या दमतकारी |”७

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(121)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ग्राम शहरों के गरीब होने से दकसान के ििए कृ िष क्षेत्र की ईपज शहरों की मंिडयों में पहुाँचाने में और वहााँ से जीवनावकयक वमतुएाँ िाने में सुिवधा होती थी | िेदकन ऄिशक्षा और दररद्रता के कारण यहााँ व्यापक मात्रा में दकसानों की िुट होती है | दकसान के ऐसे शोषण को ‘द्युत’ ईपन्यास के एक दकसान की ही बोिी में हम देख सकते हैं “सब से बड़ी सुिवधा तो खेती की ईपज बेचने की थी | वहााँ कसज मझोििये और िबचौििए थे | सममया ऄथजतंत्र के चारों और खुाँटो की थी ईत्पादन िवतरण. िविनयम, ईपभोग | सब जगह दिाि थे और महेनत का फि महेनतकश को नहीं िमिता था |”८ कु छ ग्राम पहाड़ी प्रदेश में बसे थे, वहााँ अर्थथक तंगी के कारण दकसान ऄपनी खेती में नये कृ िषतंत्रों का प्रयोग नहीं कर पाते थे | आसििए खेती से ऄत्यंत ऄल्प मात्र में फसि, ऄन्न की ईपज होती है | पररणामतः दकसान को वषजभर ऄत्यिधक अर्थथक हािन सहनी पड़ती है | ‘ददज के पैबंद’ में पहाडी प्रदेश ऄिमोड़ा के असपास दकसानों की िमथित ऐसी ही है | “वहााँ ऄब भी ईसी तरह हाथों से ही खेती होती है जैसे दो हजार बरस से होती अ रही है | िस्त्रयााँ ज्यादा काम करती है | मदज काम करना बुरा समझते हैं |”९ ग्राम समाज में कृ िष क्षेत्र में परं परागत खेती के माध्यम से जायदाद एवं संपित का बाँटवारा पीढ़ी दर पीढ़ी से होता रहा है | पररवार में सदमय िजतने ऄिधक, ईतने ही खेती के टुकड़े या भाग होते हैं | मािवे ग्राम के के शो का पररवार आसी देहाती दामतान एवं ररकते का िशकार है | “बाप ने कु छ जमीन की काकत बड़ी महेनत से ऄपने पसीने की गाढ़ी कमाइ से कर िी थी | पर वह बाद में भाइ-िबरादरी, कोटज कचहरी के चक्कर में ईनके पास नहीं रह पायी थी | के शो के छह भाइ और चार बहनें थी और जब यह सब से छोटा िड़का के शो सयाना हुअ तो ईसकी दकममत में गाय भैंसे और रे वड चराना ही बाकी था.... घर की हाित बहुत खमता हो चुकी थी.... पुकतैनी खेत िबके , बैि िबके , मकान के भी टुकड़े-टुकड़े हो गये |”१० अदमी हमेशा बहेतर की तिाश में बढ़ता है, वह बहेतर कभी बदतर सािबत होता है | ‘सााँचा’ का के शो ऄपने अर्थथक हािात को सुधारने के ििए ग्राम से शहर की और जाता है, दकन्तु वहााँ िनराशा, दुःख, छि ही हाथ िगता है | “के शो का पुकतैनी मकान भाइ बंदो के िड़ाइ-झगडे से टूट चूका था | जो ईसके िहमसे में जरा सी जमीन अयी भी थी, तो वह िनकम्मी थी | सो ईसे बेच-बाच कर ईसने सािभर की ज्वार बीबी-बच्चो के ििए घर में जमा कर रख दी |”११ शहर से दूर िमथत गााँवों की भी ऄपनी सममयाएाँ हैं, जो ग्राम शहर से करीब हैं ईसके मवरूप में कु छ मात्र में अधुिनकीकरण, नवीनीकरण की झिक, पानी की सुिवधा तथा पक्के रामते के माध्यम से ददखाइ देती है िजसमे ऄिमोड़ा का एक बहुत छोटा सा िहमसा है | “गााँव की हाित तेजी से बदिती जा रही है.. दकतना कु छ बदि गया है | िबजिी दूर दूर तक पहुाँच गइ है | कच्ची सड़क पक्की बन गयी है | ऄब जो पुराने राजा-जमींदार ऄत्याचार करते थे, नहीं रहे हैं...”१२ ग्राम के ऄिशिक्षत समाज को शहरी तडक-भड़क का अकषजण होता है | शहरी समाज शासन के सहयोग से ऄनेक प्रितिगयोिगताओं अदद के माध्यम से अरोग्य के िविभन्न ईपिम कायजिन्वत करता रहता है | ग्रामों में ये योजनाएाँ िविंब से कायाजिन्वत होती है | िेदकन ग्राम का समाज ऄज्ञानवश आन सरकारी योजनाओं के िाभों को असानी से मवीकारता भी नहीं, ईिटे वह ईनका िवरोध करता है | ग्रामीण जनता की आस मनोवृित, प्रवृित को माचवे जी ने ‘ददज के पैबंद’ में आस तरह ऄिभव्यि दकया है “पहिे तो गााँव वािे समझे की पररवार िनयोजन वािे डाक्टर िोग अ गये | मारे डर के िस्त्रयााँ भीतर अकर दुबक गयीं | छोटे छोटे बच्चे गंदे चीथड़े पहने चारों और आन नवागंतुक को घेरकर जमा हो गये | दफर एक ऄधेड़ सा पुरुष अया | हमें अपके पैसे भी नहीं चािहए न हमें कोइ ऑपरे शन करना है |”१३ ग्रामों में जनवृिद्ध की रोकथाम करना वहााँ व्याप्त ऄज्ञान और परं परागत ऄंधश्रद्धा के कारण ऄसंभव है | May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

दफर भी शासन ऄनेक योजनाओ िारा िविभन्न धराति पर कोिशश करता रहता है | कु छ पहाड़ी प्रदेशो में अवागमन के साधनों की दुिजभता भी आसके ििए िजम्मेदार है | आसके कारण अरोग्य के ििए अवकयक दवाइयााँ व ऄन्य अवकयक ईपाय िनम्न वगीय दकसानों के कु टुंबो तक पहुाँच नहीं पाते | “जसवंती गााँव में ऄिग दुखी थी | ईसको बहुत ददनों से पेट का ऐसा िवकार हो गया था जो ऄयछा नहीं होता था | िजस पर भी घर का सारा कामकाज | ईसकी सेहत िगरती जा रही थी | अिखरी दशजन दे जाने की बात पात्र में ििखी थी |”१४ ग्राम में शहरी िोगों की चािाकी एवं गुंडागदी का दर फै िा रहता है | आसििए कोइ ऄज्ञात शहरी व्यिि ग्राम में ददखाइ पड़े तो ग्राम के िोग ईसकी और कौतुहि एवं भयिमिश्रत ईत्सुकता से देखते रहते हैं | ईससे डरते हैं | ‘िापता’ का शहरी व्यिि राव जगन्नाथ के बारे में यही हुअ | “राव जनन्नाथ धीवर की झोपडी में पहुाँचा एक नया शहरी बाबू अता देखकर वह अगबबुिा हो गया | ये सब शहर के गुंड-े िफं गे कहााँ से कहााँ चिे अते हैं | देिखए, मेरी सोने जैसी बेटी को ही ईडा िे गया |”१५ ग्रामों के िघु अकार के कारण वहााँ के व्यिियों का एक-दुसरे से ऄयछा और गहरा पररचय होता है तथा अत्मीयता के संबंध भी रहते हैं | पररणामतः एक पररवार के िोगों का दुसरे के यहााँ अना-जाना, बैठना, रहना ग्राम संमकृ ित की ऄपनी खािसयत होती है | ऐसी ही दोमती, के शो एवं मांग्या की है | के शो की िड़की िववाह योग्य हो गयी है | आसििए के शो को ईसकी पत्नी जसवंती अगाह करती है की “में कहे देती हाँ, एक ददन यह ऄपने सारे कु नबे को िे डू बेगी | ऄब िड़की आतनी बड़ी हो गयी | ईसके ब्याह की दफकर करो | ईस भुक्खड़ के साथ दुिनया भर की बुराआयााँ करते दफरने से क्या िमि जाने वािा है ?”१६ दकसान समाज की चेतना से संबद्ध ईपयुजि चचाज के अधार पर मपष्ट होता है की डॉ. माचवे ने मवातंत्र्योतर ग्राम जीवन के सामिजक पक्ष के िारा समसामाियक सामिजक चेतना को वाणी प्रदान करते हुए दकसान के जीवन की सममयापूणज वामतिवकता के प्रित ज्ञानात्मक जागृित को व्यि दकया है | गााँव का पहाड़ी अददवासी समाज डॉ. माचवे के ईपन्यासों में ग्रामजीवन के संदभज में पहाड़ी समाज की चेतना पात्रो, घटनाओ एवं प्रसंगों के माध्यम से वयि हुइ है | आससे संबंिधत ईपन्यास है ‘ददज के पैबंद’ (पृ.२१,४३), ‘सााँचा’ (पृ.६१), ‘तीस चािीस पचास’ (पृ.५७), ‘दकशोर’ (पृ.५), ‘िापता’ (पृ.७३,७१) | ग्राम के पहाड़ी प्रदेशों के िनवासी िोगों की ऄपनी एक संमकृ ित एवं परं परा है, िजसका सौभाग्य से ही दकसी सांकृितक चेतना के अधार पर महानगरीय जीवन से संपकज रहा है | यातायात एवं रोजगार के साधनों की ऄनुपिब्धता परं परागत है | आसििए जीवन िनवाजह के साधनों के रूप में घने जंगिो, पहाड़ो, पवजतो में कं दमूि, फि तथा जंगिी अयुजवेदीय वमतुओं को बेचकर प्राकृ ितक संपित के सहारे वे ऄपने ददन व्यतीत करते है | दकसी बंजर जमीन में ऄथवा घने जंगिो में शारीररक श्रम करना ईनकी िनयित बन गइ है | “पहाड़ी िोग जो िनरंतर कष्ट से झुके, िसर पर और पीठ पर बोझ ईठाये पुकतों से गुिामिगरी करते जो मैिे कु चैिे कपडे पहने बेहद गरीबी और ऄंधिवश्वास की गर्कदश में पड़े हैं ईन्हें गतज से कौन ईबरे गा?”१७ पहाड़ी समाज में ईनकी परं परागत िोक संमकृ ित है | वहााँ िशक्षा के ऄभाव से घोर ऄज्ञान है दकन्तु सांकृितक परं परा की दृष्टी से नारी ऄग्रमथान पर है | कभी कभार ईसका संबंध महानगरीय तड़क भड़क से भरी अकषजक जीवनशैिी से ईभर अता है | अर्थथक िाभ हेतु वह शहरी पूाँजीपितयों के षड्यंत्र में फाँ सती, ऄटकती है या कभी ईनके माता-िपता भी अर्थथक िािच से ईन्हें नगरों, महानगरों में बेच देते Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

हैं | ‘पहाडी िडदकयों की अम िबिी, खरीद-फ़रोखत, नेपाि की सीमा से किकता, बंबइ के चकिाखानों तक और वहााँ से पता नहीं दकन दकन देशों तक होती है |”१८ पहाड़ी समाज के परं परागत मवरूप में अज तक कोइ पररवतजन नहीं अया | ईनकी ऄपनी िवशेष िवचारधारा, कु ल्मायजदाऍ हैं | “सब कु छ बदिता है पर जीवन मूल्य हैं जो बदिने नहीं चािहए | हमारे कु ि और देवता कै से बदि सकते है “१९ प्रत्येक समाज की पहचान ईनके गुणों-दुगुजणों से होती है | िेदकन कु छ गुण िचरकाि रहते है | पहाड़ी समाज ईनके गुणों-दुगुजणों से होती है | पहाड़ी समाज की प्रमुख पहचान ईसका सांमकृ ितक पक्ष है जो िविभन्न ऄवसरों पर द्रिष्टगत होता है | “यही पहाडी श्रिमक िजन्हें अप मनुष्य से भी बदतर हजदगी िबताने वािा कहते है, जब ऄपने व्रत-ईत्सव में नाचते है तब वे भी हमारी संमकृ ित की एक थाती को साँजोये चिते है | एक परं परा ईन्हें पैरों के घुघ ं रुओं के साथ िथरकाती है |”२० डॉ. माचवे ने आंदौर शहर के पििम भाग के पहाडी प्रदेशों पहाडी समाज को तथा ईनके ईत्सव को िचित्रत दकया है दक “िशप्रा के दकनारे रात को कइ बैिगािड़यााँ रे त में रुकी पड़ी थीं | कहीं भजन गाये जा रहे थे, तो कहीं िोगगीत, दीप की कइ कतारें पानी में डू ब-ईतरा रही थीं | वातावरण में एक ईल्िास और अनंद था, प्रकृ ित जैसे वहााँ मुखर हो ईठी थी | असमान की िनरभ्रता, अकार दकशोररयों की दकिकाररयों में समा गयी थीं | पिाश के पुष्पों की कोमिता जैसे ईनके चहरों पर िखिी थी | चारों और पतझर था, पीिे पत्ते थे, टूटे घाट और खंिडत पैिडयााँ थीं |”२१ ग्राम समाज के पहाड़ी समाज में अददवािसयों, संथािो के परं परागत रूप को तथा ईनकी पाररवाररक, समाजगत सममयां सममयाओं की ऄिभव्यिि के माध्यम से पहाड़ी समाज के मवरूप पर प्रकाश डािा है | ईनकी सममयाएाँ मवातंत्र्यपूवज काि से वैसी ही है | शासन एवं शासनािधकाररयों का ध्यान ईन तक नहीं गया है | पररणाममवरूप वह अददमानव जैसा ही जीवन िबताने पर मजबूर हैं | ईनकी सामिजक चेतना महानगरीय या ग्राम समाज के सभी धरातिो से िभन्न है | िनष्कषज िनष्कषजतः ग्राम समाज के ईपयुजि िचत्रण के अधार पर हम कह सकते है की भारत में ग्रामीण दकसान कु छ मात्रा में प्रकृ ित पर ऄविंबीत है | पररणामतः जमीन से अय कम होने से गरीबी की हाित में जीवनयापन करना ईनकी िनयित बन गयी है | भारत के ग्रामों में सामािजक सुधार बहुत ऄल्प मात्रा में हुअ है, पररणामतः सवजत्र ऄंधश्रद्धा तथा ऄज्ञान व्याप्त है | ग्रामीण दकसान संमकृ ित में िस्त्रयों का पुरुष की तुिना में गौण मथान है | ऄतः परं परागत चूल्हा-चौका करने मे, बच्चो का पािन करने में ही ईसका जीवन बीत रहा है | िनम्न वगज के ऄिधकांश दकसान कृ िष कायज के ििए ईत्तम बीजो ऄथवा यंत्रपद्धित का प्रयोग नहीं करते, पररणामतः ईपज कम होने से दकसान को अर्थथक सममयाओं का सामना करना पड़ता है | संदभजसिू च १ मध्यमवगीय चेतना और हहदी ईपन्यास – भूपहसह भूपेंद्र, पृ. २३, २ ददज के पैबंद, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, अरं भ से May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

३ तीस चािीस पचास, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, भूिमका से ४ द्युत, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ.७६ ५ द्युत, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ७६-७७ ६ ददज के पैबंद, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. १२६ ७ द्युत, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ७८ ८ वही, पृ ७० ९ ददज पैबंद, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. २० १० सााँचा, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. २३ ११ वाही, पृ.१ १२ ददज के पैबंद, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. २० १३ वही, पृ. १२६ १४ सााँचा, डॉ प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ८१ १५ िापता, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ५६ १६ सााँचा, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ४ १७ ददज के पैबंद, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ४३ १८ वही, पृ. २१ १९ तीस चािीस पचास, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ५७ २० ददज के पैबंद, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ४३ २१ सााँचा, डॉ. प्रभाकर मावचे, पृ. ६१

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

सर्वेश्र्वरदयाऱ सक्सेना की कहाननयों में मानर्वीय संर्वेदना मानसी हािाणी1 सवेश्वरजी का सम्पूणज सािहत्य रचनाविी के िारा एक सूत्र में प्रकािशत हो रहा है | ऄब तक आसके नौ खण्ड प्रकािशत हो चुके है | आसके ऄन्तगजत ईनका सम्पूणज काव्य, कहािनयााँ, ईपन्यास, नाटक, िनबंध, साक्षात्कार, बािनाटक अदद सिम्मिित है | रचनाविी के तीसरे खंण्ड में सवेश्वरजी की कहािनयााँ प्रकािशत है | जीवन के प्रित ऄनुराग सत्य के ऄन्वेषण की िजज्ञासा, सममयाओं और िवषमताओं के प्रित सजाग दृिष्ट, पैना व्यंग्य और हबबो तथा प्रतीकों के िनमाजण की क्षमता सक्सेनाजी के सािहत्य को गररमा प्रदान करती है |

सक्सेनाजी के िेखन में सामान्य भारतीय जनता को ईसकी समग्रता से देखा जा सकता है | जब साधारण की अकांक्षाएाँ, ईसका ऄभावग्रमत जीवन और बहुअयामी संघषज ईनकी रचनओं में व्यक्त्त हुअ है | ऄथाजत सक्सेनाजी का सािहत्य युगीन पररवेश को व्यक्त्त करता है | हजदगी की सााँस और धडकन हमें ईनके सािहत्य में सुनाइ देती है | वह मुखौटे में िछपे समाज के सही रूप को समाज के सामने रखना चाहते है | जीवन की िनरथजकता मूल्य हीनता का भी ईन्होंने पूणज शैिी में प्रभावी वणजन दकया है |

“मौत की अाँखे” यह ऐितहािसक कहानी है | आस कहानी के ऄंतगजत औरं गजेब की िड़की जेबुिन्नसा की ईदासीनता का िचत्रण दकया है |

जेबुिन्नसा भी एक मशहुर कवियत्री थी, वह ऄत्यंत भावुक थी | ईसका आतना गहरा ऄध्ययन था दक वह अज प्रख्यात हो गइ थी | प्रत्येक िविान् ईसकी आज्जत करता था | ऄदकि खां और जेबुिन्नसा के दौरान सािहित्यक चचाज होती है तब ऄदकि खां कहता है – “हजदगी के दौरान में मुहब्बत की बहुत जरुरत होती है, शहजादी | यह वह रौशनी हे जो ददि के सरे ऄाँधेरे को हर कर देती है | जंगि में रहनेवािा एक शख्स िजसने कभी आन्सान की सूरत नहीं देिख ईसे दरख्त से ही मोहब्बत करने िगता है जो िहििमि जाते है | 1

मानसी हाऱाणी

(ऩीएि.डी. शोधाथी), दहन्दी भवन, सौराष्ट्र ववश्वववद्याऱय, राजकोट May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

दुिनया ईसकी मोहब्बत पर ईं गिी नहीं ईठाती , ईससे वह डाह नहीं करती | आन्सान ने अज मोहब्बत को गित तरीके से अपना ििया हे | मोहब्बत िजमम से नहीं बिल्क, रूह से ताल्िुक रखती दुिनया कमजोर है | वह ऄपनी कमजोरी रोक नहीं पाती | आसििए ऄपनी कमजोरी को मोहब्बत के गिे मढ ईसको बदनाम करती है |

आस प्रकार औरं गजेब की पुत्री जेबुिन्नसा इरान मुल्क के ऄदकि खां से प्यार करती है | ऄदकि खां ऄपनी शायरी िारा फारसी सािहत्य को समृद्ध दकया था | ऄदकि खां की शयरी को सुनकर औरं गजेब ईसे ऄपने दरबार में मथान देता है |

आस कहािन के माध्यम से सवेश्वरजी ने यह दशाजया है की प्रेिमका की आज्जत बचाने के ििए वीर प्रेमी ऄपनी जान देने के ििए जरा भी िहचदकचाते नहीं | ऄदकि खां और जेबुिन्नसा का िनकछि प्रेम दशाजया है | ओरं गजेब की िू र िनित का दशजन करवाया है | ईसे पता है की गरम पानी के देग में ऄिनि खां िछपा हुअ है तो ईसके िनचे सुिगती हुइ िडदकयााँ डाि देता है िजसके कारन ऄदकि खां िजन्दा न रहे | मगर ऄदकि खां हाँसते-हाँसते ऄपने प्यार पर कु रबान हो गया अदशज व्यिक्त्त प्रेम ददखाइ देता देता है | समाज में कु छ ऐसे वीर प्रेमी होते है | जो ऄपनी प्रेिमका की आज्जत बचाने हेतु प्रेम की बििवेदी पर हंसते चढकर प्रेम की िमशाि कायम कर जाते है |

“ िक्षितज के पर “ कहािन के ऄंतगजत मंगि और आन्दु दोनों की प्रेम कहािन दशाजइ है | आन्दु जमीनदार की िड़की है और मंगि गरीब है | आस दोनों के प्यार के िबच जमीनदारी अ जाती है | मंगि का जीवन आसके कारन वीरान बन जाता है और ऄपने ईजड़े संसार के बारे में वह बताता है की “ वह क्षीतीज के पर आन छोटे-छोटे बदिो की कही हुइ ऄधूरी कहािन में देख रहा हु और साथ ही साथ ऄपने भिवष्य का ईजड़ा हुअ संसार भी | “आन्दु की शादी दुशरी जगह हो जाती है | आन्दु मंगि को भूि जाती है | परं तु मंगि आन्दु के प्रेम में पागि हो ईसकी प्रतीक्षा में ऄपनी बची हजदगी िबताता है | ऄचानक एक ददन आन्दु ऄपने पित के साथ ईस गााँव में अती है | एश्वयज संपन्न आन्दु को मंगि तो पहचान िेता हे परं तु आन्दु गरीब मंगि को पहचान नहीं पाती | मंगि को ऄपना जीवन व्यथज िगता है | मंगि की अवाज से आन्दु मंगि को पहचान िेती हे | परं तु तब तक मंगि ऄपनी नााँव को ििए िक्षितज के पार चिा जाता है |

धनवान गरीब का भेदभाव आस कहािन के माध्यम से दशाजया गया है | प्रेम का भंग दकस प्रकार होता हे यह आस कहािन में दशाजया है | मंगि के जीवन की िववशता जीवन संघषज , ऄपराध को बताकर मंगि के जीवन में िनरासा दकस प्रकार िनमाजण हो जाती हे आसका िचत्रण दकया हे | मंगि ने आन्दु से आतना Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

प्यार दकया था की जीवन के ऄंत तक प्यार िनभाता है और आन्दु का प्यार क्षिणक था | ऄपने वैवािहक जीवन में आतनी मग्न हो जाती हे की आन्दु ऄपने प्रेमी को भूि जाती हे | मंगि का प्रेम ईदात और िनमवाथज है | मंगि की भावावेग और मन की दुबजिता पर कहािन प्रकाश डािती है |

“मृत्युपास“ यूनानी प्रेम कथा पर अधाररत है | आसमें सवेश्वर ने व्यििगत प्रेम की ऄपेक्षा देश प्रेम की भावना को सवोपरर िसध्द कर ददखाया है | कहािन का नायक डेमीिीयस मपाटाज का वीर सैिनक है | नाियका युफोिनया रूप और किा की ऄप्सरा है | वह मपाटाज की सुप्रिसध्ध नतजकी है | मपाटाज पर हो रहे शत्रु के अिमण से देश की रक्षा करना डेमोिीयास ऄपना धमज समजता है | देश की रक्षा करते हुए वह वीरगती को प्राप्त करता है | डेमोिीयस के शब को धार्थमक िविध के ऄनुशार पूजा की जाती है | युफोिनया डेमोिीयस से ऄिधक प्रेम करने के कारन वह ऄत्यंत दु:खी हो जाती है | दरबार मे नृत्य कानजर के ििए बुिाते है तो साज स्ुंगर के िबना अती है तो पुजारी िोिधत ऄवमथा में कहते है-“ अज की वीर पूजा को आस प्रकार घृणा का ईपहार देकर तुम यूनान के देवता का ऄपमान कर रही हो मपोटज के ऄमर वीर डेमोिायस का ऄपमान करता है |”

युफोिनया को प्रेम ऄमर है | मवगीय है, आसििए वह ऄपने प्रेमी के साथ ऄपने जीवन को ईत्सगज कर देती है | सक्सेना जी ने व्यिि प्रेम की ऄपेक्षा देश प्रेम ईत्कृ ष्ट रूप में प्रदर्थशत दकया गया है | युिनफोिनया रूप और किा की पुजारी है | वह तन से जीतनी सुन्दर है ईसका मन भी सुंदर और पिवत्र है | डेमोिायस ने ऄपनी दश की रक्षा के खाितर वीरगित को प्राप्त होता है और ऄपने धमज का पािन करत्ता है | युिनफोिनया ने ऄपनेप्रेमी के साथ मर कर ऄपने धमज का पािन दकया है |

‘िड़ाइ’ कहािन नायक सत्यव्रत है |ईसने िनणजय ििया है दक सत्य कम करूाँगा और ऄसत्य के सामने िडू ग ं ा | खुद ऄसत्य काम नहीं करूाँगा और दकसी को करने नहीं दूग ं ा | ददन की शुरुअत से ही मंजन , चीनी ,ऄखबार के अधर दकस प्रकार ऄसत्य कायज हो रहा है | यह दशाजया गया है |

सत्यव्रत बच्चो की मकू ि में गए | ऄपने िड़के की पुमतक गम हो गइ आसकी िशकायत ऄगर ऄंग्रेजी भाषा मे करें गे तो ही सुनी जाएगी | ऄपनी भाषा बोिकर पिे बढे ऄब ऄंग्रेजी भाषा में बातचीत करने के ििए कहा जाता है | ऄंग्रेजी भाषा का िवरोध करते है |

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Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

अगे चिकर रोटीवािे से ईिजकर सत्यव्रत ईसे बेइमान कहते है | मगर आसमें भी कोइ आसकी बात नहीं सुनते | चुपचाप ऄन्याय मवीकार कर अवाज नहीं ईठानी चािहए |

सत्यव्रत राशनकाडज के दफ्तर दूर होने के कारण बस में जाता है | तब रटकट नहीं देता यह देखकर कं डक्टर और सत्यव्रत में कहा सुनी हो जाती है | आन्मपेक्टर भी कं डक्टर का ही साथ देता है सत्यव्रत सच्चा होने के बावजूद भी जूठा सािबत दकया जाता है |

राशन के दफ्तर में भी ऄिधकारी काम नहीं करता अपस में बातचीत ही कर रहे है | वहां भी सत्यव्रत कहता है की पहिे जनता का काम करना चािहए दफर बातचीत | राशन के दफ्तर में भी भ्रष्टाचार देखता है और ईसका िवरोध करता है | राशन दफ्तर की बहार “सत्यपथ” पित्रका के तंत्री िमि जाते है | सत्यव्रत ईन्हें कहते है ऄपनी पित्रका का नाम “ऄमत्य पथ” रख देना चािहए | सत्य के सामने िड़कर समाज का सही दशजन करवाना चािहए |

सत्यव्रत अगे जा ही रहा था वहां ररक्षावािा एक बूढी स्त्री के साथ ज़गडा होता है | ररक्षावािा तीन रुिपया मााँगता है मगर बुदढया दो रूपये देना चाहती है | आस मामिे को िसपाही ररक्षावािे के पास से पैसा िेकर मामिा रफा-दफा कर देता है | सत्यव्रत िसपाही से िड़ पडता है की तुमने घुस िी है |

सत्यव्रत थोडी दुरी पर जाता है तो एक अदमी बीमार है ईसे ऄमपताि में जगह न होने के कारण भती नहीं करते | ईस अदमी की हाित बहुत ख़राब थी | गरीब और जान-पहचान न होने के कारण ऄमपताि में भती नहीं करवाते मगर एक नेता ने िसफज फोन दकया तो ईसे दकसी भी तरह जगह करके ईसका आिाज करते है | मगर ईस अदमी को भती न करके और ईसका आिाज न करने के कारण अदमी मर जाता है | ईस डॉक्टर की िशकायत पुििसथाने में करते है मगर डॉक्टर को छोड़ ददया जाता है | पुरे ददन भूख प्यास और धुप के कारण वह बेहोश होकर िगर जाता है | ईसे ईसी ऄमपताि में ईसे पागि मानकर पागिखाने िे जाने ििए कहा जाता है |

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Creative Space : International Journal

Tostf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ d] cfj]lus kl/ksjtf sf cEof; b];fO{ /fx'n aL=1 Abstract The aim of present study was to found the emotional maturity of disregarded, married and unmarried women. An Economical & social Status of the total sample consisted of 180 by 2 x 3 Factorial Design. The Emotional Maturity Scale was used for the data collection made by Dr. Yashir Singh & Dr. Mahesh Bhargava. F-test (ANOVA) was used for the data analysis the result Revealed that marital status, Economical & Social Status and Interaction was significantly effect their Emotional maturity of women. Key word :- Emotional Maturity

k|:tfjgf M cfh s] ljsf;zLn o'u d]+ dgf]j}1flgs cg';+wfg pkof]uL xf] ;stf x} . lh; t/x ;] ef}lts lj1fg d]+ k|of]u xf]t] x} p;L t/x P;] k|of]u ;] ;+a+lwt kl/jTof]{ k/ ;+k"0f lgo+q0f /vs/ p; s] sfo{—sf/0f s] kl/0ffd sL rrf{ sL hftl x} . n]lsg ;dfh d] ckgf ckgf c:tLTj 6LsfP /vtL ;d:ofcf]+ sf] k|of]uzfnf d]+ gxL+ n] hftL x} . cf}/ p; k/ ;+k"0f{ lgo+q0f eL gxL+ nfu' sLof hf ;stf . O; lnP ;dfh d] ˚}]ntL x'O{ ;d:ofcf] s] cEof; sf] ;fdfhls lj1fg h};] ls ;dfhzf:q, cy{zf:q, dfgjzf:q cflb lj1fg d]+ xf]t] x} . p;d] eL vf; s/t] afndgf]lj1fg, z}Ifl0fs dgf]lj1fg cf}/ cf}Bf]lus dgf]lj1fg cflb If]q d]+ cg';+wfg xf]t] xL /xt] x} . jt{dfg ;do d]+ lzIf0f If]q d]+ e"tsfn sL l:ylt abnL x'O{ lbcfO{ b]tL x} . a9tL hftL ck]IffP, cfjZostfcf] k|fKt s/g] hft] x'O{ JolSt sf] ldntL xtfzf, ;+wif{ cf}/ lr+tf sf ef]u aggf k8tf x} . kl/0ffd :j?k JolStTj ljs[lt sL l:ylt pkl:yt xf]tL x} . O{; lnP O; If]qd]+ go] go] cg';+wfg xf]t] x}, o] cfjZos x} . JolSt sL Og bf]gf] aftf] k/ ljljw k|sf/ s] kl/an c;/ s/t] x} . hL;d] cfj]u sf] oxf“ clws dxTj tTj s] ?kd]+ /v zst] x} . cfj]u kl/kSjtf ofg] Sof < afns s] :jf:Yo dfgl;s ljsf; s] lnP cfj]lus kl/kSjtf cfjZos x} . c+u|]hL d]+ cfj]lus kl/kSjtf sf] “Emotional Maturity” sxt] x} . cfj]lus kl/kSjtf s] lnP hf] e|d k}bf xf] uof x} . hf] JolSt dWod dfu{ r'g s] ckg] cfj]u sf] k|blz{t s/tf x} p;d] cfj]lus kl/kSjtf xf]tL x} . P};] dfggf of]Uo gxL x} . Pr=aL= O+lUnz (1995-96) g] ;r xL sxf x} . ls cfj]lus kl/kSjtf sf P];f cy{ gxL xf]tf ls ;f/L g};lu{s efjgfcf] sf] cf}/ p;sL cleJolSt sf bdg s/] . sf]O{ OG;fg ax't zf+t pbf;Lg cf1f+lst cf}/ zlStzfnL x} tf] p;d] ;+k"0f{ cfj]lus kl/kSjtf p;d]+ x} P};f gxL+ sxgf rflxP . sfO{ O{G;fg cfj]u sf] clgo+lqt /Lt ;] Jost s/] cyjf dfq efjgfcf] sf] aflnz /ft ;] ;+tf]ifg] sf k|oTg s/tf x} . tf] p;] eL cfj]Lus kl/kSjtf gxL+ sxgf rflxP O; aft k/;] ox k|Zg pkl:yt xf]tf 1

Desai Rahul B. (Research Scholar)

Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot May – August, 2014

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Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

x} ls Sof cfj]lus kl/kSjtf sL ;rL ;dh"lt gxL+ xf] ;stL < O; aft d]+ O{+lUnz (1995-96) sf dfggf x} ls+ æha cfj]u sL cleJolSt dof{lbt, s|dzM c;/sf/s cf}/ ;';dfof]lht /Lt ;] xf]tL x} ta p;] cfj]lus kl/kSjtf sxt] x} . cfj]lus kl/kSjtf sf cfwf/ JolSt ;xL ;do k/ cfjZostfg';f/ cf}/ ;+hf]uf] s] ;fy ;dfof]lht xf]s/ cfj]u sf cg'ej cf}/ cleJolSt s/] p;s] pk/ x} .Æ ;f]/]G; cf}/ dfd (1995-96) sf cfj]lus kl/kSjtf s] af/] d] dfggf x} ls JolSt ckgL hfg sf v'b sf] k|fKt xf]g] jfnL ts sf ckg] lnP ;xL pkof]u s/ ;s] p;] cfj]lus /Lt ;] o'St s/ ;st] x} . cfj]u sL kl/kSjtf of]Uo k|df0f d]+ cfj]u s] lgo+q0f sf ;"rg s/tf x} . cfj]u sL kl/kSjtf sf cy{ ox gxL+ ls JolSt d]+ hlNb xL ;'wf/ cf hfP cfj]u sL kl/kSjtf s] sf/0f JolSt d]+ wL/] wL/] kl/l:ylt s] ;fy sf ;dfof]hg ljsl;t xf]g] nutf x} . P˚=Pn= ?r (1995-96) sxt} x} ls kl/kSj JolSt cfj]uf] sL cf}/ g˚/t agfO{ /v] aLgf, ;dh0fk"j{s cfj]u sf lgo+q0f s/t] x} . O;lnP pgsf cf/f]Uo agf /xtf x} . cfj]lus o'Sttf jfnL JolSt cfTdlj jf;', cfj]lus tgfj b"/ s/g] sf dfu{ s] ps]n k|fKt s/g] jfnL ljljw cle?lrcf], zf/Ll/s sfof]{ cf}/ /dt—udt sL cf}/ dgf]jn0f agft] x} . P];L aft d]+ JolSt s] cfj]udo hLjg d]+ ax't xL /fxtsf/s ;flat xf]t] x} . cfj]u kl/kSjtfjfn] cEof;Lcf] sL P}ltxfl;s e"ldsf M z?cft s] ;f]kfg d]+ Emotion s] ;fy cnu—cnu kl/jTof]{ sf] hf]6s/ p;sf cEof; s/g] d]+ cftf yf . h};] ls, cfj]lus c;nfdlt , xtfzf cf}/ cfj]u , JolStTj nIf0ff] , cf}/ cfj]lus kl/kSjtf , cflb k/ cfj]u cflb k/ cfj]u sL c;/] hf“r sL hftL yL . k/+t' h}+;] dgf]lj1fg sf ljsf; xf]tf uof t};] t};] cWoog d]+ eL wL/] wL/] kl/jt{g xf]g] nuf . Smith cf}/ Ellsworth (1987) g] :6]G˚{8 o'lgjl;{6L d]+ ljBfyL{cf] s] cfj]u cf}/ k/LIff d]+ xf+l;n sL l;l¢ sf cEof; lsof . Hallerstand (1986) g] cfj]lus k|ltls|ofcf] cf}/ kfl/jfl/s ;dflhs/0f sf cEof; lsof yf . Bulmberg cf}/ Izard (1986) afns sL dfgl;s cj:yf cf}/ ;fdflhs lvGgtf s] k|of]u eL lso] y] . jt{dfg ;do d]+ eL cfj]u s] cnu cnu kl/jTof]{ s] ;fy cEof; b]vg] sf] ldnt] x} . p;d]+ Izard (1986), Smith (1987) cflb sf ;dfj]z xf] hftf x} . ;+zf]wg sL ;d:of M æTofStf u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf] d]+ cfj]lus kl/kSjtf sf cEof;=Æ ;+zf]wg s] pb]Zo M ;+zf]wg sL ;d:ofcf] sf] nIf d]+ /vt] x'P ;+zf]wg s] d]Vo x]t' O; k|sf/ atf ;st] x} .  zx]/L cf}/ u|fDo :t/ sL :qLcf]+ d]+ cfj]u kl/tSjtf s] e]b sL hf“r s/gf .  Tostf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ d] cfj]u kl/kSjtf s] e]b ls hf“r s/gf .  zx]/L :t/ cf}/ u|fDo :t/ sL ToStf u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf] d]+ cfj]u kl/ksSjtf sL hf“r s/gf . ;+zf]wg sL pTsNkgf M k|:t't ;+zf]wg sL pTsNkgf lgDgfg';f/ x} . 1. zx]/L cf}/ u|fDo :t/ sL :qLcf] d]+ cfj]u kl/kSjtf d]+ sf]O{ ;fy{s e]b gxL+ x} . 2. ToStf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ d]+ cfj]u kl/kSjtf sf sf]O{ e]b gxL+ xf]tf . Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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zx]/L:t/ cf}/ u|fDo :t/ sL ToStf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLof]+ d] cfj]u kl/kSjtf d]+ sf]O{ ;fy{s e]b gxL+ x} . 3.

;fwgf]+ M k|:t't ;+zf]wg ToStf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ckl/l0ft :qLof]+ s] cfj]lus kl/Sjtf sf x} . lh; s] cWoog sf] dfkg] s] lnP 8f¶= ofzjL/ l;+u cf}/ 8f¶= dx]z efu{j /lrt cfj]u kl/kSjtf dfkg t'nf sf O:t]dfn s/g] d]+ cfof . lh;sL oyfy{tf cf}/ lj j;gLotf pRr b]vg] sf] ldntf x} . lh;d] s'n ldnfs/ 48 ljwfg x} . lgbz{ M k|:t't ;+zf]wg d]+ s'n 180 :qLcf]+ sf] lnof uof x} . lh:;] 90 zx]/L cf}/ 90 u|fDo :qLof]+ sf ;dfj]z xf]tf x} . ToStf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ s] cfj]u sL k/LkSjtf s] e]b sf] dfkg] s] lnP 60 ToStf :qLcf]+ zx]/L cf}/ u|fDo :t/ sL, 60 u[lx0fL zx]/ cf}/ u|fDo :t/ sL, cf}/ 60 ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ pRr cf}/ lgDg:t/ sL nL uO{ x} . ;+zf]wg of]hgf M k|:t't ;+zf]wg ToStf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ s] cfj]u sL kl/kSjtf s] e]b sL hf“r s/g] sf x} . oxf“ k/ tLg :jt+q kl/jTo{ sL d'Vo cf}/ cf+tl/s c;/ sL hf“r s/gf cfjZos xf]g] ;] 2 x 3 ˚]s6f]l/on l8´fO{ k;+b s/ s] cf+s8fzf:qLo k¢lt F-Test sf pkof]u s/g] d]+ cfo]uf . bf] kl/jTo{ d]+ A ofg] ls :t/ B ofg] ls zfbL sf b/Hhf n]g] d]+ cfo]uf . hf] lgDg sf]i6s 1 d] atfof uof x} . kl/0ffd sf]i6s M Table No. 1 A1 zx]/L 30 30 30

kl/jTo{ B1 ToStf B2 u[lx0fL B3 ck/l0ft A = :t/

A2 u|fDo 30 30 30 A1B1 = zx]/L ToStf A2B1 = u|fDo ToStf A1B2 = zx]/L u[lx0fL A2B2 = u|fDo u[lx0fL A1B3 = zx]/L ck/l0ft A1B3 = u|fDo ck/l0ft

B = zfbL sf b/Hhf A1 = zx]/L :t/ A2 = u|fDo :t/ B1 = ToStf B2 = u[lx0fL B3 = ck/l0ft Table No. 2

lj:tf/ cf}/ zfbL :t/ ;+a+lwt kl/jTo{ s] ANOVA bzf{tf sf]i6s Source Status Aria May – August, 2014

Sum of Square 8268.89 20253.68

df

Mean

F

Sig.

1 2

8268.89 10126.84

15.80 19.40

0.01 0.01

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ISSN 2347-1689

7221.88

2

3610.94

6.89

0.01

91080.47 126324.91

174 179

523.40 -

-

-

Table No. 3 lj:tf/ kl/jTo{ sf dWos F bzf{tf sf]i6s Variable n Mean diff. F A1 90 98.21 15.80 A2 90 111.70 G.M. = 104.92 Table No. 4 lj:tf/ kl/jTo{ sf L.S.D. bzf{tf sf]i6s Sr. No. Pairs Mean diff. 1. A1 Vs A2 13.49 L.S.D. Level = 0.05 = 6.66 0.01 = 8.77 Table No. 5 zfbL :t/ kl/jTo{ sf dWos cf}/ F bzf{tf sf]i6s Variable n Mean diff. F B1 60 116.55 B2 60 90.90 19.40 B3 60 107.32 G.M. = 104.92

Sig. 0.01

Sig. 0.01

Sig. 0.01

Table No. 6 zfbL :t/ sf L.S.D. bzf{tf sf]i6s Sr. No. Pairs Mean diff. 1. B1 Vs B2 25.65 2. B1 Vs B3 9.23 3. B2 Vs B3 16.42 L.S.D. Level = 0.05 = 8.16 0.01 = 0.174 Table No. 7 lj:tf/ cf}/ zfbL :t/ sf dWos cf}/ F bzf{tf sf]i6s Variable A1 A2 F B1 118.77 114.53 B2 81.20 100.60 6.89 B3 92.67 119.97

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Sig. 0.01 0.05 0.01

Sig. 0.01

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ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

lj:tf/ cf}/ zfbL :t/ sf cf+tl/s cf}/ L.S.D. bzf{tf sf]i6s Sr. No. Pairs 1. A1B1 Vs A1B2 2. A1B1 Vs A1B3 3. A1B1 Vs A2B1 4. A1B1 Vs A2B2 5. A1B1 Vs A2B3 6. A1B2 Vs A1B3 7. A1B2 Vs A2B1 8. A1B2 Vs A2B2 9. A1B2 Vs A2B3 10. A1B3 Vs A2B1 11. A1B3 Vs A2B2 12. A1B3 Vs A2B3 13. A2B1 Vs A2B2 14. A2B1 Vs A2B3 15. A2B3 Vs A2B3 L.S.D. Level = 0.05 = 11.55 0.01 = 15.19

Mean diff. 37.57 24.1 4.24 18.17 1.2 13.47 33.33 19.4 38.77 19.86 5.93 25.3 13.93 5.44 19.37

Sig. 0.01 0.01 NS 0.01 NS 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 NS 0.01 0.05 NS 0.01

kl/0fd rrf{ M k|:t't ;+zf]wg æToStf, u[lx0fL cf}/ ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ sL cfj]u kl/kSjtf sf cEof;Æ s/g] sf x} . d'Vo c;/ M oxf“ kl/0ffd sf]i6s g+= 2A kl/jTo{ sL F sf b/ 15.80 x} . O{;lnP cf+s8fzf:qLo k|o'lSt s] cg';f/ b]v] tf] oxf“ atfo] x'P F sf b/ Hofbf x} . O;lnP 0.01 sIff d] e]b ;fy{s x} p;L k|sf/ ;] sf]i6s g+= 2B kl/jTo{ sL p;sL F sf b/ 19.40 x}, hf] 0.01 sIffd]+ e]b ;fy{s x} . tbpk/f+t sf]i6s g+= 2 d]+ AB kl/jTo{ F sf b/ 6.89 x} . hf] cf+s8fzf:qLo k|o'lSt s] cg';f/ 0.01 sIffd]+ e]b ;fy{s x} . sf]i6s g+= 3 d]+ A1 kl/jTo{ ofg] sL zx]/L :qLcf]+ sf dWos 98.21 x} . ha sL u|fDo :qLcf]+ ofg] sL A2 sf dWos 111.70 x} . hf] A1 ;] a8f x} . ofg] sL oxf“ u|fDo :t/ sL :qLcf]+ ;] zx]/L :t/ sL :qLcf]+ d] cfj]u kl/kSjtf Hofbf x} . sf]i6s g+= 3 d]+ A1 cf}/ B2 kl/jTo{ d]+ F sf b/ 15.80 x}, cf}/ sf]i6s g+= 4 d]+ L.S.D. dWos sf e]b 13.49 x} . hf] 0.01 sIff d]+ ;fy{s x} . sf]i6s g+= 5 d]+ B2 kl/jTo{ ofg] sL ToStf :qLcf]+ lh;sf dWos 116.55 x} . B2 kl/jTo{ ofg] sL u[lx0fLcf]+ lh;sf dWos 90.90 x} . ha sL B3 kl/jTo{ ofg] sL ck/l0ft :qLcf]+ sf dWos 107.32 x} . B1,B2 cf}/ B3 kl/jTo{ s] F sf b/ 19.40 x] . 0.01 hf] sIffd] ;fy{s x} . May – August, 2014

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ISSN 2347-1689

oxf“ sf]i6s g+= 5 d] B1,B2 cf}/ B3 s] F sf b/ 19.40 x} cf}/ sf]i6s g+= 6 d]+ L.S.D. d]+ dWos sf e]b B1 Vs B2 = 25.65 x} . hf] 0.01 sIff d]+ ;fy{s x} . B1 Vs B3 = 9.23 x} . hf] sIffd]+ ;fy{s x} . ha sL B2 Vs B3 = 16.42 x}, hf] 0.01 sIff d]+ ;fy{s x} . cf+tl/s c;/ M cf+tl/s c;/ s] u[k sf dWos sf]i6s g+= 7 d] atfof x'cf x} . oxf“ zx]/L :t/ sL ToStfcf] sf dWos 118.77 x} . zx]/L :t/ sL u[lx0fL sf dWos 81.20 x} . ha sL zx]/L :t/, sL ck/l0ft :qLcf] sf dWos 92.67 x} ha sL u|fDo :t/ sL ToStf sf dWos 114.53 x} . u|fDo :t/ sL u[lx0fL sf dWos 100.60 x} . ha sL u|fDo :t/ sL ck/l0ftf sf dWos 119.97 x} . lh; s] F sf b/ 6.89 x} . hf] 0.01 sIff d]+ e]b ;fy{s x} . oxf“ A1B1 Vs A2B1, A1B1 Vs A2B3, A1B3 Vs A2B2, cf}/ A2B1 Vs A2B3 hf]8] d]+ L.S.D. e]b c;fy{s b]vg] sf] ldntf x} . cf}/ A1B2 Vs A1B3, A2B1 Vs A2B2 hf]8] d]+ e]b 0.05 cy{ sIff d]+ ;fy{s b]vg] sf] ldntf x} . afsL sL 9 hf]8] d]+ L.S.D. 0.01 cy{ sIffd] ;fy{s b]vg] sf] e]b ldntf x} . ofg] sL zx}/L ju{ cf}/ u|fDo ju{ s] cnu cnu zfbL s] b/Hh] jfnL :qLcf]+ d]+ cfj]u kl/kSjtf d]+ e]b b]vg] sf] ldntf x} . lgisif{ M != zx]/L ju{ cf}/ u|fDo ju{sL :qLcf]+ d] cfj]u kl/kStf d]+ ;fy{s e]b b]vg] sf] ldntf x} . ofg] sL zx]/L ju{ sL :qLcf]+ d]+ cfj]lus kl/kSjtf xf]tL x} . ha sL u|fDo ju{ sL :qLcf]+ d]+ cfj]lus /Lt ;] zx]/L ju{ sL :qLcf] sL a/fa/L d]+ ckl/kSjtf xf]tL x} . @= cnu cnu zfbL b/Hh] kfg]jfnL :qLcf]+ ofg] sL ck/l0ft, ToStf cf}/ u[lx0fL :qLcf]+ d]+ cfj]u kl/kSjtf d]+ ;fy{s e]b b]vg] sf] ldntf x} . #= k|:t't ;+zf]wg sL cf+tl/s c;/ d]+ eL ;fy{s e]b b]vg] sf] ldntf x} . References : 1. Bhargav M. & Sharma S. N. (1993) : Sex Differencesin Emotional Maturity of spark son at college level Souvenir xxx, AAP Conference, 1993, P. 27. 2. Blumberg and Izard (1986) : Discriminating patterns of Emotions 10 & 11 years old children Anxiety and depression journal of personality and social psychology, vol. 51, No. 4, 852, 857 3. Ellsworth P.C. (1991) : some in plications of cognitive appraisal theories of emotion in K.T. Strong man (Ed) international Review of studies on emotional, vol 1. Chichesterl Wiley, 143-160 4. Kallingworth L.A. (1928) : A Psychology of the Adolescent, New York appleton. 5. Izard C. E. (1972) : The face of emotion appleton century – crafts, New York 6. Rotter J.B.C. (1986) : Generalized Expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement psychological Managra Ph. 7. Smith C.A. & Lazarus R.S. (1993) : Appralsal components, core reational themes and the emotions, cognition and emotion, 7,223-269

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मृदि ु ा गगज की चूनी हुइ कहािनयों में अधुिनक जीवनशैिी िवषयक सममया का िनरूपण गोिहि धर्थमष्ठाबा प्रवीणहसह1 प्रमतावना : िहन्दी गद्य सािहत्य में मृदि ु ाजी का ऄपना िविशष्ट योगदान रहा हैं | गद्य सािहत्य में मृदि ु ाजी ने कहानी एवम ईपन्यास के क्षेत्र में िवशेष रूप से ऄपना सािहत्य िनरुिपत दकया हैं | बचपन में सािहत्य की ओर िवशेष रूिच ने अज मृदि ु ा गगज को िहन्दी कथा जगत की महान िेिखका के रूप में प्रख्यात कर ददया हैं | मृदि ु ाजी की कहािनयों पर हम यहााँ चचाज करते हुए ईनकी चुनी हुइ कहािनयों के माध्यम से हम अधुिनक जीवन में व्याप्त िविभन्न सममयाओं की संिक्षप्त चचाज यहााँ हम करेंगे | कहानी क्षेत्रे मृदि ु ाजी ने कइ कहानी संग्रहों के माध्यम से नये पररवेश में व्याप्त नयी - नयी ईन चचाजओ का ब्यौरा ईनकी कहािनयों में हमें िमिता हैं, िजसमें अधुिनक युग में नयी जीवनशैिी को ऄपनाता आन्सान ददखावे की भावना से ऄपना वजूद खोता ददखाय पड़ता हैं | अधुिनक जीवनशैिी िवषयक सममयाओं में घुटन, संत्रास, उबन, ऄजनबीपन, ऄके िापन अदद िवषयों की चचाज हम मृदि ु ा गगज की कहािनयों के झरीए देखे तो िनम्नानुसार हैं | मृदि ु ा गगज की चूनी हुइ कहािनयों का कथ्य एवं िशल्प के पररप्रेक्ष्य में ऄध्ययन :एक श्रेष्ठ कहानी की पहचान वही है, जहााँ कहानी में कथ्य के बराबर साथ चिनेवािा िशल्प ईनसे जुड़ा हो | कोइ भी कहानी ऄके िे कथ्य या ऄके िे िशल्प को िेकर अगे नहीं बढ़ पाती | कहानी में बाह्य पक्ष की सजावट के साथ अन्तररक पक्ष भी िनखरा होना चािहए | यहााँ पर हम मृदि ु ा गगज की चुनी हुइ कहािनयों का कथ्यगत एवम िशल्पगत ऄध्ययन देखे तो िनम्नानुसार होंगा | मृदि ु ा गगज की चूनी हुइ कहािनयों का कथ्य के पररप्रेक्ष्य में ऄध्ययन : मृदि ु ा गगज की चूनी हुइ कहािनयों में ईनकी 'दुिनया का कायदा' कहानी की कथ्य के पररप्रेक्ष्य में देखे तो प्रमतुत कहानी दो खंडो में िवभािजत कथानक से हमारे सामने अया है, िजसमे नगरीय जीवनशैिी के बराबर साथ-साथ चिनेवािा ग्रामीण पररवेश भी ददखता है | िेखा नामक पात्र के आदज-िगदज पूरा कथानक घूमता नज़र अता है | जहााँ एक ओर वह ऄपने गााँव में जेठानी की मृत्यु पर जेठजी के ब्याह करने के फै सिे से हैरान है, तो दूसरी तरफ पैसो की ऄंधी दौड़ में पित की नैितकहीनता से त्रमत है जहााँ ररकते का भी कोइ मूल्य नहीं था | मृदि ु ाजी की ऄन्य कहानी 'खरीददार' की स्त्री पात्र जो नारी चेतना को उभारने में कामयाब ददखती है | शादी न हो पाने के दो कारण जहााँ एक ओर दहेज़ जुटा न पानेवािे माता-िपता तो दूसरी ओर खूद का रूप िजसे कोइ पसंद न कर ठु करा देते है | नाियका ऄपने जीवन में िबकनेवािी चीज न बनकर खरीददार बनने का फै सिा कर मवतंत्रता से ऄपना जीवन जीती गोिहि धर्थमष्ठाबा प्रवीणहसह (शोधछात्र) िहन्दी िवभाग, एम.के .भावनगर युिनवर्थसटी, भावनगर 1

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है | एक ऄफसर बनकर वह अज ऄपने प्रेमी सुनीि जो ईसे चाहता है, ईसे ब्याह करना चाहता है ईनके सामने वह खरीददार के रूप में खड़ी है और सुनीि िविे ता | नारी मवातंत्र्य की चचाज के साथसाथ िेिखका ने स्त्री-पुरुष के समानािधकार की बात भी प्रमतुत कहानी में करते हुए बड़ी ही सहजता से कहानी के कथ्य का िनरूपण दकया है | 'ऄिग - ऄिग कमरे ' कहानी के कथ्य में मृदि ु ाजीने नयी और पुरानी पुरानी पीढ़ी के िन्िो को नरे न्द्रदेव और सुरेन्द्रदेव के माध्यम से दशाजते हुए दोनों पीढ़ी के िबच टकराहट को दशाजया है | िपता के ख्यािातो से िबिकु ि िभन्न सुरेन्द्रदेव िपता के मवप्नों को तहस-नहस कर देता है | खुद ऄसुिवधा जेिकर बेटे को सुिवधा में पािने के मोह ने नरे न्द्रदेव को ऄंधा बना डािा | ऄपने बच्चो को बचपन से ही सभी सुिवधा प्राप्त कराने हेतु ईन्हें ऄिग-ऄिग कमरों की व्यवमथा दी गइ | पर बच्चो के यह ऄिग-ऄिग कमरे ईनका जीवन बनता गया |

'ऄिग-ऄिग ऄपने कमरों की दहिीज को ऄपनी-ऄपनी संपित्त की सरहद मानकर वे ईनकी रखवािी में जुट गये |' 1 बच्चो की दुिनया ऄपने अप में ही सीिमत होती नजर अयी | बेटे पढ़ ििखकर होनहार तो बन गया पर वृद्ध िपता का सहारा न बनकर ऄपने कामों में व्यमत, संवेदनहीन होता नजर अता है | प्रमतुत कहानी में िेिखका ने वृद्ध की ऄवदशा न ददखाकर ईसे दफरसे ऄपने बिबूते पर खड़ा ददखाया है जो नयी पीढ़ी के साथ टक्कर िे सकने में कामयाब है | नरे न्द्रदेव फ़ािज़ि से पीिड़त होते हुए भी दफर से ऄपना ऄमपताि खुिवाने का फै सिा करते है | मृदि ु ाजी ने ऄपनी कहािनयों के कथ्य में नवीनता का पुट जरुर डािा है और साथ-साथ िशल्पगत नवीनता को भी पीछे नहीं छोड़ा है | ईनकी चूनी हुइ कहािनयों को िशल्पगत द्रिष्ट से देखे तो िनम्नानुसार होंगा | मृदि ु ागगज की चूनी हुइ कहािनयों का कथ्य के पररप्रेक्ष्य में ऄध्ययन : मृदि ु ागगज की चुनी हुइ कहािनयों में ईनकी कहानी 'दुिनया का कायदा' को िशल्प के पररप्रेक्ष्य में देखे तो प्रथमतः भाषा की द्रिष्टसे प्रमतुत कहानी में िेिखका ने प्रसंगानुकूि भाषा का प्रयोग दकया है | कहानी में िेखा की सास ऄपनी बड़ी बह के देहान्त पर जूठा िविाप करती है जहााँ िेिखका की भािषक योजना बराबर प्रसंगानुकूि रही है "हा.............ऽ.............य.................बह चि बसी .......इ.............इ........." "हा.............ऽ..................य..............भरी जवानी में धोखा दे गयी आ....आ....."|

2

प्रमतुत कहानी में डॉर्टस भाषा का भी प्रयोग हुअ है जैसे"जवान थी चि बसी.......इ..........इ........." 3 वाक्यों की पुनरावृित की नवीन भाषा भी ददखाय पड़ती है | जो दो खंडो में ऄिग-ऄिग मथान पर एक ही वाक्य दोहराया गया है "यह तो दूिनया का कायदा है |"4 (प्रथम खंड) "यह तो दूिनया का कायदा है |"5 (िितीय खंड) कहानी में एसे ऄन्य भी वाक्य है जो एक पात्र के ऄिग-ऄिग मथान पर एक ही वाक्य दोहराता है | प्रमतुत कहानी में ध्वन्यात्मक भाषा का भी प्रयोग हुअ है | शैिी की द्रिष्ट से प्रमतुत कहानी में Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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Creative Space : International Journal

संवादात्मक शैिी तथा दो खंडो में िवभािजत नूतन शैिी के प्रयोग के साथ-साथ िेिखका ने कहानी पर ऄपना भािषक सामथ्यज बखूबी िनभाया है | 'ख़रीददार' कहानी में िेिखका ने एकाद मथान पर अिंकाररक भाषा का भी प्रयोग दकया है जैसे "िपछिे रात वषाज होती रही थी, सुबह नवजात िशशु के समान कोमि िग रही थी|"6

अिंकाररक भाषा को साथ-साथ िेकर चिनेवािी मृदि ु ाजी की भाषा सरि और सहजता से ऄपनी कहानी में िनरुिपत हुइ है | शैिी की द्रिष्ट से मृदि ु ाजी की कहािनयों का ऄध्ययन करे तो ईन्होंने वणजनात्मक शैिी, संवादात्मक शैिी, पूवजदीिप्त शैिी जैसी िविभन्न शैिियों से प्रमतुत कहानी को िनरुिपत दकया है | 'ऄिग-ऄिग कमरे ' कहानी की भािषक संरचना देखे तो शहरी सभ्यता से जुडी आस कहानी में िेिखका ने प्रतीकात्मक भाषा, भदेस भाषा अदद से जोड़ा है | शहरी सभ्यता में पिे बड़े पात्रो में भी िेिखका ने भदेस शब्दाविियों का प्रयोग ददखाया है जैसे नाशुिे, नािायक, कसाइ िविभन्न शब्दाविियों से पररपूणज मृदि ु ाजी की कहानी में वणजनात्मक शैिी, संवादशैिी जैसी िविभन्न शैिी का प्रयोग मृदि ु ाजी की प्रमतुत कहानी में हुअ है | मूितः मृदि ु ा गगज ने ऄपनी कहािनयों में िशल्पगत िविभन्नता को ईतना ही िनभाया है िजतना कथ्यगत िविभन्नताको मृदि ु ाजी ने ऄपनी कहािनयों को कथ्य-िशल्प की द्रिष्ट से नवीनता प्रदान करने का एक सफि प्रयत्त्न दकया है | मृदि ु ा गगज की चुनी हुइ कहािनयों अधुिनक जीवनशैिी िवषयक सममया : मृदि ु ा गगज का कहािनयों में हम ईनकी समग्र कहािनयों में से 'खरीददार', 'दुिनया का कायदा', 'ऄिगऄिग कमरे ' जैसी चुनी हुइ कहािनयों के पररप्रेक्ष्य में अधुिनक जीवनशैिी िवषयक सममयाओं पर एक नजर डािे तो ईनकी 'खरीददार' कहानी में माया नामक स्त्रीपात्र के साथ जुडी िववाह की सममया के साथ जुडी मवाथजवृित्त को िेिखका ने अधुिनक जीवनशैिी में मनुष्य को नैितक हीनता की ओर िे जाते ददखाया हैं | मनुष्य मवाथाजन्ध होता चिा जा रहा हैं, आसके पीछे वह संवेदन शून्य होता जा रहा हैं | शादी के पिवत्र बंधन को रुपयों से देखनेवािा आन्सान अज भावशून्य हो गया हैं | 'खरीददार' कहानी के माध्यम से हम देखे तो –

"यह तो दुिनया का कायदा हैं | पहिे पहि िड़की की सूरत देखी जाती हैं और िड़के की कमाइ |"7 कहानी की नाियका एक तरफ से आतनी रूपवती नहीं हैं, तो दूसरी और पररवार दहेज़ जुटाने में सक्षम न होते हैं, खुद को िबकावी चीज न माननेवािी नाियका का एक ओर िवद्रोही हैं तो दूसरी ओर ईनका ऄके िापन |

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

अधुिनक जीवन में मूल्यों के िवघटन से पाररवारीक ररकतो में फै िी टकराहट ररकतो में अये बदिाव हम मृदि ु ाजी की 'ऄिग-ऄिग कमरें कहानी की झरीए से देखे तो प्रमतुत कहानी में मानवीय मूल्यों की नष्टता का िनरूपण िभन्न द्रिष्टकोण से हुअ हैं | नवीन जीवन मूल्यों को मवीकृ त करनेवािी युवा-चेतना का सशक्त्त ऄंकन करते हुए युवावगज िारा पुरानी पीढ़ी के साथ टकराहट अदद अधुिनक जीवन से जुडी सममयाओं का ऄंकन हुअ हैं | िजसमे नरे न्द्रदेव ऄपने बेटे सुरेन्द्रदेव की ऄित अधुिनकता को देखकर हेरान हैं, बेटे में संवेदनहीनता को देख वह ऄपने ही घर में घुटन महसूस करते हैं | बेटे के व्यमतता भरे जीवन में, बेटे का नैितकहीन होनेवािे मवर सुनकर वह चदकत हैं "अपका तो पूरा बरे िी शहर िजगरी दोमत हैं | दकस-दकस का ििहाज करू |"9 कहानी में प्रमतुत ईपरोक्त्त कथन से मृदि ु ाजी ने पुरानी पीढ़ी से संघषजशीि नयी पीढ़ी की ईस सोच का िनरूपण हैं, िजसमे अधुिनक जीवन का पुट ददखता हैं | मृदि ु ा गगज की 'दुिनया का कायदा' कहानी भी अधुिनक जीवन में पैसो के पीछे भागता मवाथाजन्ध आन्सान की अधुिनकता का िनरूपण करता हैं | आन्सान का अधुिनक जीवन में एक कदम ईनसे ही जुड़े ऄन्य आन्सान को जाने-ऄनजाने में चौट पहुंचा जाता हैं, या खुद व्यिक्त्त ऄपने अप को अधुिनक तो कहिाता हैं, पर देखावे की ईस दुिनया में वह खुिकर जी नहीं पाता | ऄपनों के बीच वह घुटन, ऄजनबीपन संत्रास अदद को भुगतता हैं | मृदि ु ा गगज की ऄन्य कइ कहािनयााँ एसी हैं, िजसमें अधुिनक जीवनशैिी िवषयक सममयाओं का ब्यौरा हमें िमिता हैं | यहााँ पर के वि ईनकी कु छेक चुनी हुइ कहािनयों की चचाज कर हम अधुिनक जीवन में व्याप्त िविभन्न सममयाओं िजनमे ऄिमतत्व बोध से कही आन्सान ग्रिसत हैं, तो कहीं ऄजनबीपन, घुटन अदद से ग्रमत हैं | ईपसंहार : अधुिनक जीवनशैिी में व्याप्त िविभन्न सममयाओं को ऄपनी कहािनयों में समानेवािी साठोत्तरी मिहिा कहानीकार मृदि ु ा गगजने ऄपने समय में व्याप्त या कहें मवतंत्रता प्रािप्त पिात आन्सान के ईन भाव बोध को ऄपनी कहािनयों में उभारा हैं, िजसमे मनुष्य की ऄन्तवेदना या मनुष्य के ऄन्तिन्ि का मुख्य मथान कहािनयों में रहा हैं | मनुष्य के मनोजगत को नापनेवािी मिहिा कथाकारों में मृदि ु ाजी का सवोच्च मथान रहा हैं | ऄपनी कहािनयों में व्यिक्त्त का ऄके िापन, ऄजनबीपन, घुटन, अत्मपीड़न, संत्रास अदद मनोजगत के भावो को ऄपनी कहािनयों में समािहत कर अधुिनक जीवनशैिी िवषयक सममया को बखूबी िनरुिपत दकया हैं | संदभज : 1)

संगित-िवसंगित -1 - 'ऄिग-ऄिग कमरे ' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृष्ठ-364

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संगित-िवसंगित -1 - 'दूिनया का कायदा' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृष्ठ- 68

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संगित-िवसंगित -1 - 'दूिनया का कायदा' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृष्ठ- 69

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संगित-िवसंगित -1 - 'दूिनया का कायदा' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृष्ठ- 70

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

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संगित-िवसंगित -1 - 'दूिनया का कायदा' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृष्ठ- 76

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संगित-िवसंगित -1 - 'ख़रीददार' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृष्ठ- 344

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'संगित-िवसंगित -1' - 'खरीददार' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृ. 345

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'संगित-िवसंगित - भाग - 1' - 'ऄिग-ऄिग कमरे ' - मृदि ु ा गगज - पृ. 360

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May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदक की कहािनयों में दिित चेतना मनोजकु मार सरवैया1 दिित का मतिब है, िजसका दिन और दमन हुअ है, दबाया गया, शोिषत, ईपेिक्षत, धृिणत, कु चिा हुअ | दिित की व्यथा, पीड़ा, शोषण का िववरण करना ही दिित चेतना नहीं है | िेदकन ईसकी सच्ची पीड़ा, वेदना और ईत्पीडन को वाचा देने का मतिब दिित चेतना है | जो वेदना ईसके सामािजक, सांमकृ ितक और अर्थथक मूल्यों से जुडी है | हहदी सािहत्य के आितहास में िजन दिित सजजकों का नाम ििया जाता है, ईनमें सब से श्रेष्ट ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदक को माना जाता है | क्योंदक ईन्होंने ऄपने सािहत्य में दिित जीवन से जुड़े प्रश्नों को प्रकट दकया है | तथा ईनका सािहत्य के वि कोरी कल्पना न रहते हुए ऄपना िजवानुभव भी ईसमे शािमि होता है | िजसके कारण एक ऄिग प्रभाव छोड़ जाते है| ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीक ने ‘सिाम’और ‘घुसपैरठए’ नामक दो कहानी संग्रह ददए है | िजसकी ज्यादात्तर कहािनयों में ईन्होंने दिित जीवन की पीड़ा, ऄज्ञानता, ऄंधश्रद्धा, नइ और पुरानी पीढ़ी का संघषज तथा अर्थथक सममयाओं का वणजन दकया है | सामािजक पररवतजन को प्रमतुत करते हुए ‘सिाम’ नामक कहानी में एक िाह्मण व्यिि ऄपनी दोमती की खाितर दिित की बारात में जाता है | िेदकन वणजव्यवमथा की जड़ता को कथाकार ने एक चायवािे के मुख से प्रकट दकया है दक – “ चुहड़ो की बारात में बामन ?....शहर में चूितया बणाना....मैं अदमी कूं देखते ही िपछान िूं ...दक दकस जात का है ?”१ प्रश्न यह है दक के वि दिित के ििए ही नहीं पर सुधारवादी िाह्मणों के ििए भी सामािजक व्यवमथा दुःखदायी है | एसी ही वेदना ‘िह्मस्त्र ’ नामक कहानी में ददखाइ देती है | एक िाह्मण ऄरिवन्द नैथानी ऄपने दिित िमत्र कं वि को बारात में िे जाता है | िेदकन पंिडत माधवप्रसाद भट्ट के ऄपमािनत व्यवहार के कारण वह वापस िौट अता है | ऐसे िवषय पर कहानी प्रकट करके ओमप्रकाशजीने सामािजक पररवतजन की पहि को प्रमतुत दकया है | ‘मैं िाह्मण नहीं हु’ कहानी में शमाज सरनेम की अड़ में जाती छु पाने से ईपजी पीड़ा को व्यि दकया गया है | कहानी में नइ और पुरानी पीढ़ी के िवचारो को भी नये मायने से प्रकट दकया है | शमाज की बेटी कहती है की “पापा अप बने रिहये श्रेष्ट िाह्मण .....िमरासी से ईसे िेदकन मैने न शमाज होने की अड़ में कभी िाह्मण बनने की कोिशश की | मेरे ििए िाह्मण होना आन्सान की श्रेष्टता का प्रितक नहीं है | यह एक भ्रम है िजसमे सभी उाँच-नीच का खेि खेि रहे है | अप िजतना मातम मनाये... मैं शादी ऄिमत से ही करुगी | ईसके पुरखो का िमरासी होना मेरे ििए कोइ मायने नहीं रखता |”२ आसके िारा नइ पीढ़ी का िवचार प्रगट दकया है जो सामिजक पररवतजन िाने में बहुत ही ईपयोगी बनता है | मानवीय संवेदना से जुडी कहािनयों में ‘बैि की खाि’ और ‘मुबइ कांड’ देखने को िमिती है | परम्परागत कायो में िनष्ठा एवं प्रमािणकता से जुड़े कािे और भूरे को िेखक ने दिित मानवता के मनोजकु मार सरवैया मु : सातपडा, तहसीि : गारीयाधार, जी : भावनगर, 1

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

प्रतीक के समान हमारे सामने रखा है | जो व्यिि रोज ढोर-डंगर मरने की कल्पना करता है | िजसके कारण वह चार पैसे कमा सके | वही व्यिि जब बिनया कहता है की “ये पुिडया िे जाओ, िजस जानवर को िखिाओगे टे बोि जाएगा |”३ वह िोग तकज की चपेट में अए बछडी को दया भाव से बचने के प्रयत्न करने िगते है | वही भावना ईसे मानवता के दायरे में िाकर खड़ा कर देती है |’मुंबइकांड’ कहानी बाबा साहेब अम्बेडकर की प्रितमा को जुते की मािा पहनने के कारण दिितों की संवेदना को प्रकट करती है| सुमेर जैसे पात्र के िारा ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदकजी ने दिित के मानवोिचत गुणों को ईजागर दकया है | ऄपमान का जवाब ऄपमान से नहीं ददया जा सकता | दकसी की िसरदफरी हरकतों का जवाब गुनाह करके नहीं ददया जा सकता | ऐसे गुनाह और ऄपमानो से िनदोष िोगो की ही जान जाती है | अरक्षण जैसी सममया को िेकर घुसपैरठए , ददनेशपाि जाटव ईफ़ज ददग्दशजन और ‘प्रमोशन’ महत्वपूणज कहािनयााँ है | मेिडकि जैसे क्षेत्रों में दिितों का अना सवणों को ऄितिमण िगता है | मेिडकि कािेजो में दिित िवधार्थथयों को कइ मानिसक यातनाओ से गुजरना पड़ता है | मानिसक यातना के कारण दिित िवद्याथी अत्म हत्या भी कर िेता है | ‘प्रमोशन’ कहानी माक्सजवादी हचतन के िवरोधाभास को ईजाकर करती है | मजदुर मजदुर, भाइ भाइ का सहारा िेकर दिितों को पाटी में तो प्रवेश करा िेता है दकन्तु ईनका मथान वही रखते है, जहााँ वणज वादी समाज व्यवमथा ने तय दकया है | ‘काम रे ड’ शब्द देने के बाद भी सुरेश के साथ भेद भाव दकया जाता है | सुरेश को दूध बांटने के काम में िगाने पर सवणज िोगों ने ईसके हाथ से दूध िेने का आनकार कर ददया | ददनेश पाि जाटव ईफ़ज ददग्दशजन िमिडया जगत पर सवणो के अिधपत्य को ईजागर करती है | ददनेश पाि जाटव ऄपना नाम परवतजन कर ददग्दशजन रखता है | और बड़े ऄख़बार का संपादक बनता है | प्रेस के िारा समाज की सच्ची मानिसकता को प्रगट दकया जाता है | ददनेश पाि जाटव ने भी वही दकया दक “राहत कमीओं ने दिितों की सड़ी िाशों को छू ने से आनकार ददया |”४ ऐसा करने पर ईसको नौकरी से बरखामत कर ददया गया | िेखक बताना चाहते है की ऄख़बार प्रगितशीि िवचारों का और अम अदमी के संघषो का िहमायती था दकन्तु ऄसर ईसकी ऄिग पायी गयी | ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदक जी की कु हिनयााँ दिित जीवन का अयना है | ईन्होंने ऄपने अस पास के पररवेश में जो भोगा है ईसी का नग्नता के साथ वणजन दकया है, के वि मानवीय व्यवहार को यथाथज न बताते हुए ईन्होंने सांमकृ ितक, सामािजक सरोकार को भी प्रमतुत दकया है | िेखक की खुद की जो पीड़ा है | आस वणज व्यवमथा के प्रित जो ध्रुणा है, ईसी को ईन्होंने ने कु हिनयों में प्रमतुत दकया है | दिित की यातना िववशता और पीड़ा को बहुत बखूबी ढंग से ओम प्रकाशजी ने ऄपने सािहत्य में ईजागर दकया है | जो के वि अदशज न रहते हुए यथाथज भी है | संदभज सूिच : १.

‘सिाम’, ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदक,

२.

‘मैं िाह्मण नहीं हाँ’, ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदक,

३.

‘बैि की खाि’, ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदक,

४.

‘ददनेश पाि जाटव ईफ़ज ददग्दशजन’, ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीदक,

May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(143)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

May – August, 2014

Creative Space : International Journal

(144)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ગ્રાભીણ વલકાવભાં અલયોધક તત્લો ુ ેન ધાભેચા1 પ્રા. બાનફ પ્રસ્તાલના : ગ્રાભીણ વમુદામ,વંયક્ુ ત કુટુંફ ઄ને જ્ઞાતતએ ત્રણ બાયતીમ વભાજનનાં મ ૂ઱ભ ૂત એકભ૊ છે , બાયતન૊ ગ્રાભીણ વમુદામ અ ત્રણેમ એકભ૊નુ ં પ્રતતતનતધત્લ કયે છે . બ્રિટીળ ઄ભર ઄ભર ઩ ૂલે અ ત્રણેમ એકભ૊ ઩યસ્઩યના ઩ુયક ઄ને વંત ુબ્રરત શતા.અ ત્રણેમ એકભ૊ દ્વાયા વ્મક્ક્ત, વભાજ ઄ને યાષ્ટ્ર ભાટે કેટરાક ભશત્લના કામો થતા શતાં ઄ને તેભાં વ્મક્ક્ત તથા વ્મક્ક્તનુ ં જીલન એકંદયે અ ત્રણ એકભ૊ ઩ુયતુ ં વીતભત શત.ુ ં ઩યં ત ુ બ્રિટીળ ઄ભર દયતભમાન બાયતીમ ગ્રાભીણ વભાજભાં નલી ઩રયક્સ્થતત ઈબી થઇ. ુ ી પ્રથા દ્વાયા જભીનદાયી ઄ને યૈ મતલાયી પ્રથા દાખર કયી, બ્રિટીળ વયકાયે નલી ભશેસર બાયતભાં ઈદ્ય૊ગીકયણ ળફૃ કયુું ઄ને નલા કામદા ઄ભરી ફનાવ્મા. અ ઄ને અલા ઄ન્મ ૂ ૊ ઩ગરાને રીધે બાયતના ગ્રાભ૊દ્ય૊ગ૊ની ઩ડતી થલા રાગી. ઓછી જભીનલા઱ા ખેડત જભીન તલનાના ફનલા રાગ્મા ઄ને ગાભડાભાં ગયીફી ઄ને ફેકાયી તથા ળ૊઴ણ જેલી નલી વભસ્માઓ ઈબી થઇ. ગાભડાની વા઩ેક્ષ અત્ભતનબભયતા ત ૂટયા રાગી, વ્મક્ક્ત ઈ઩યનુ ં વયુકત ં કુટુંફ, જ્ઞાતત ઄ને ગ્રાભવતભતતનુ ં તનમંત્રણ ઘટલા રાગ્યું તેભજ અ ત્રણેમ એકભ૊ ુ ન ઘટલા રાગ્મા. ફીજી ફાજુ ઓગણીવભી વદીના લચ્ચેન ું ઩યસ્લ઩યાલરંફન ઄ને વંતર ળરુઅતભાં લાયં લાય દુષ્ટ્કા઱૊ ઩ડયા. ઩રયણાભે બાયતના ગાભડાભાં ઄નેકતલધ અતથિક, વાભાજજક વાંસ્કૃતતક લગેયે વભસ્માઓ ઈગ્ર ફનલા રાગી. અથી બ્રિટીળ વયકાયે ગ્રાભીણ જીલન ઩રયક્સ્થતત સુધાયલા ભાટે કેટરાક ઩ગરા રીધા.૧૯૩૫ભાં ગ્રાભીણ ઩ુનતનભાભ ણ તલબાગની સ્થા઩ના કયી ઄ને તેના દ્વાયા ગાભડાભાં યાશત અ઩લાની મ૊જના ઄ભરભાં મ ૂકી. ઩યં ત ુ તે ઄મુક ગાભડા ઩ુયતી ભામાભરદત શતી ઄ને તેભાં ગાભડાંની મ ૂ઱ભ ૂત વભસ્માઓને વભજીને તેન ું તનલાયણ કયલાન૊ પ્રમાવ થત૊ ન શત૊.

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ુ ેન ધાભેચા પ્રા. બાનફ

શ૊ભવામન્વ ડી઩ાટભ ભેન્ટ, બલન્વ શ્રી એ. કે. દ૊ળી ભરશરા કૉરેજ, જાભનગય Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(145)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ગ્રાભીણ વલકાવનો અથક : ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવ એટરે ગ્રાભીણ વભાજભાં અતથિક, વાભાજજક, યાજકીમ, વાંકૃતતક ઄ને નૈતતક ક્ષેત્રભાં શેત઩ ૂલભકના ઄ને ઇચ્ચ્છત રદળાના ઩રયલતભન૊ ગ્રાભજન૊ના વાભાજજક જીલનભાં ઇચ્ચ્છત રદળાના વંખ્માત્ભક ઄ને ગુણાત્ભક પેયપાય૊ને ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવ કશેલામ. ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવ ળા ભાટે? (૧) ળારયયીક (૨) અતથિક (૩) ઓદ્ય૊બ્રગક (૪) ળૈક્ષબ્રણક પ્રવ ૃતતના તલકાવ ભાટે. ગ્રાભીણ વલકાવભાં અલયોધક ઩રયફ઱ો : જ્ઞાતત, જ્ઞાતતલાદ ઄ને ઄સ્઩ ૃસ્મતા એ ત્રણે ઩યસ્઩ય વંક઱ામેરા છે . જ્ઞાતત એ જન્ભથી ઊંચનીચના ખ્માર૊ ઈ઩ય યચામેરી જુથ્વ્વ્્લસ્થા છે , જ્ઞાતતલાદ એ ઩૊તાની જ્ઞાતત તયપની બક્ક્તબાલના છે ઄ને ઄સ્઩ ૃળમતા એ વાભાજજક ઄વભાનતા કે ઉંચનીચના બેદ૊નુ ં અત્મંતતક સ્લફૃ઩. ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવભાં અ તન ઩રયફ઱૊ ઄લય૊ધક ફને છે . ઄શીં અ ત્રણેન૊ ઄થભ વભજાલી એ કઇ યીતે ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવભાં ઄લય૊ધક ફને છે તેની તલચાયના કયીશુ.ં ગ્રાભવભાજ ઊંચા ઄ને નીચા દયજ્જજા ધયાલતી જુદી જુદી જ્ઞાતતઓ ફનેર૊ વમુદામ છે . દયે ક ગાભડાભાં એક થઇ લધુ જ્ઞાતતઓ શ૊મ છે . એ ફધી જ્ઞાતતઓના સ્થાન એકફીજાથી ચઢીમાતા કે ઈતયતા શ૊મ છે . અલયોધો : જ્ઞાતતલાદની ભન૊દળા ગ્રાભતલકાવભાં તલતલધ યીતે ઄લય૊ધક ફને છે , જેન૊ ખ્માર નીચેની ચચાભ ઩યથી અલી ળકળે. ૧. જ્ઞાતતલાદ વંકુબ્રચત ભન૊દળા છે . તેની ઄વય શેઠ઱ વ્મક્ક્ત વભાજના કલ્માણ કયતાં ઩૊તાની જ્ઞાતતના કલ્માણને પ્રાધાન્મ અ઩ે છે વભગ્ર વમુદામ કે વભાજના કલ્માણને ગોણ ગણલાભાં અલે છે . જ્ઞાતતલાદ બાલના ગાભની એકતાને નુકવાન ઩શોંચાડે છે . જ્ઞાતતલાદી બાલના ગાભડા ને જુદાજુદા જૂથ૊ભાં તલબાજીત કયી નાખે છે . અથી વભગ્ર ગાભના તલકાવ ભાટેના તલકાવકામભક્રભ૊ના ઄ભરભાં ઄લય૊ધ ઈબ૊ થામ છે . ૨. ગ્રાભતલકાવના કામભક્રભ૊થી ગાભડાના ફધા લગોને ફધી જ્ઞાતતઓ વભાનતાના ધ૊યણે એકવયખા રાબ૊ ભ઱લા જ૊ઇએ. ઩યં ત ુ જ્ઞાતતલાદી બાલના તલકાવના રાબ૊ની લશેંચણીભાં May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

઄વભાનતા ઄ને બેદબાલ ઩ેદા કયે છે . તલકાવ કામભકભોનુ ં વંચારન જેભના શસ્તક શ૊મ છે એલા ગ્રાભીણ નેતાઓ જેભકે વય઩ંચ, ઩ંચામતના પ્રમુખ૊ લગેયે જ્ઞાતતના વંખ્માફ઱ના અધાયે ચટાતા ંૂ શ૊મ છે . તેઓ વભગ્ર ગાભના રશતને ફદરે ઩૊ત઩૊તાની જ્ઞાતતના રશત૊ને પ્રાધાન્મ ભ઱ે , તેભને રાબ૊ ભ઱ી ળકે એ યીતે તલકાવ કામભક્રભ૊ ચરાલે છે . ૩. ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવના ધ્મેમ૊ જેલાં કે વભાનતા, તનમ્ન સ્તયના ર૊ક૊ને ઈત્ક઴ભ લગેયે તવદ્ધ કયલાભાં જ્ઞાતતલાદ ઄લય૊ધક ફને છે . જ્ઞાતતલાદની઄વય શેઠ઱ વાભાજજક, અતથિક કે યાજકીમ તલકાવ ભાટે તલબન્ન જ્ઞાતતઓ મ૊ગ્મ સ્઩ધાભભાં ઈતયે છે . લધુ વંખ્માફ઱ ધયાલતી જ્ઞાતત ઄ને સ્઩ધાભભાં તલજમ ભે઱લે છે . ઩રયણાભે ઄લ્઩વંખ્માફ઱ ધયાલતી જ્ઞાતતઓ તથા વાભાજજક યીતે ઩છાત યશી ગમેરી જ્ઞાતતઓના ર૊ક૊ન૊ તલકાવ ફૃંધામ છે . તેઓ તલકાવની તક૊ ઄ને રાબ૊થી લંબ્રચત યશેલા ઩ાભે છે અગ઱ ઩ાછ઱ યશી જામ છે . 4. જ્ઞાતતલાદી ભાનવના કાયણે જુદી જુદી જ્ઞાતતઓ ઄ને ઄તધકાયના ક્ષેત્રભાં પ્રસ્થાત઩ત રશત૊ તલકવાલે છે . અલા સ્થાત઩ત રશત૊ ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવની પ્રરક્રમાના દયે ક તફક્કે તલઘ્નફૃ઩ ફને છે . અભ, જ્ઞાતતલાદની બાલના ગ્રાભતલકાવના કામભભાં ઘણી યીતે ઄લય૊ધ ઩ેદા કયે છે . અસ્પ ૃશ્મતા અને નેત ૃત્લની વભસ્માઓ : બાયતની જ્ઞાતતપ્રથાભાં શુદ્ધદ્ધ-઄શુદ્ધદ્ધ ખ્માર૊ તલકસ્મા. ઄મુક જ્ઞાતતના ર૊ક૊ના સ્઩ળભથી અબડછે ટ રાગે છે , ઄શુદ્ધ થઆ જલામ એલી ભાન્મતાને કાયણે એલી જ્ઞાતતઓના ર૊ક૊ના સ્઩ળભથી દૂ ય યશેલાની પ્રથાને ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતા તયીકે ઓ઱ખલાભાં અલે છે ઄ને એલી જ્ઞાતતઓને ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મ જ્ઞાતતઓ તયીકે ઓ઱ખલાભાં અલે છે . ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતાના તલચાય૊ ગ્રાભવભાજભાં વ્મા઩ક છે . ગાભડાનાં તલકાવકામોભાં ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતા ઄લય૊ધક ઩રયફ઱ છે .

અલયોધો ૧. ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતાનુ ં અચયણ ર૊કળાશી તલકાવની બાલનાથી તલરુદ્ધનુ ં છે . ર૊કળાશી દયે ક વ્મક્ક્તને ઩૊તાના તલકાવ ભાટે ઩ુયતી તક ભ઱લી જ૊ઇએ, વ્મક્ક્ત-વ્મક્ક્ત લચ્ચે ક૊ઇ બેદબાલ ન શ૊લા જ૊ઇએ એલ૊ ખ્માર ઩ામાભાં છે . ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતાની પ્રથાને કાયણે ગાભડાના વભાજભાં ર૊ક૊ લછે ઉંચ-નીચના બેદબાલ૊ ઩ેદા થામ છે . કશેલાતા ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મ જ્ઞાતતના

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(147)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ર૊ક૊ને ઩૊તાના તલકાવ ભાટે ઩ુયતી તક૊ ભ઱ી ળકતી નથી. શકીકતભાં એ ર૊ક૊ શજાય૊ લ઴ોથી તલકાવની તક૊થઇ લંબ્રચત યહ્યા છે , એટરે તેભને તલકાવની ઩ુયતી તક૊ ભ઱ી વકતી નથી. શકીકતભાં એ ર૊ક૊ શજાય૊ લ઴ોથી તલકાવની તક૊થઇ લંબ્રચત યહ્યા છે , એટરે તેભને તલકાવની ઩ ૂયતી તક૊ ભ઱ી ળકે વાભાજજક – અતથિક યીતે અગ઱ અલી ળકે એ ગ્રાભતલકાવના કામભકભોનું ભશત્લનું ધ્મેમ ભાન્યુ ં છે . ઩યં ત ુ ગ્રાભવભાજભાં પ્રલતભતી ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતાને કાયણે એ ર૊ક૊ને કામભક્રભ૊ના ઩ ૂયતા રાબ ભ઱ી ળકતા નથી. ૨. ગ્રાભતલકાવ કામભક્રભ૊ના ઄ભરભાં ગાભના ફધા ર૊ક૊ની જફૃરયમાત૊ વંત૊઴ામ, એના ઄ભરભાં ફધા ર૊ક૊ન૊ ઄લાજ વંબ઱ામ એ ઄બ્રબપ્રેત છે . ઩યં ત ુ ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતાની ઩યં ઩યાને કાયણે તલકાવ કામભકભોના ઘડતયના તફક્કે કશેલાતી ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મ જ્ઞાતતઓના ર૊ક૊ની જફૃરયમાત૊ને ઩ ૂયતુ ં ભશત્લ ભ઱તુ ં નથી તથા તેના ઄ભરીકયણના તફક્કે તેભના ઄લાજભાંગણીઓ તયપ ઈ઩ેક્ષા વેલલાભાં અલે છે . ૩. ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતાને કાયણે ગ્રાભતલકાવના કામભક્રભ૊ને ઄ભર કયનાયા ર૊ક૊, કભભચાયીઓ, ઄તધકાયીઓ તથા ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મ જ્ઞાતતના ર૊ક૊ એકફીજા વાભે કેટરીક લખત વંઘ઴ભભાં અલે છે દા.ત., રાગત૊ લ઱ગત૊ કભભચાયી કે ઄તધકાયી કશેલાતી ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મ જ્ઞાતતન૊ શ૊મ ત૊ ગાભની વલણભ જ્ઞાતતઓ તયપથી તેને ગ્રાભતલકાવના કામભભાં ઩ુયત૊ વશકાય ભ઱ત૊ નથી, ગાભભાં તેને લવલાટની ઄ને પ્રજાકીમ વં઩કભ ની ઩ણ મુશ્કેરી ઩ડે છે . તેને ભ઱વુ ં જ૊ઇત ું ભાન ઄ને દયજ્જજ૊ ગ્રાભજન૊ તયપથી ભ઱તા નથી. અથી તેના કાભન૊ ઈત્વાશ ભંદ ઩ડી જામ છે , તેની કામભ પ્રેયણા ઘટી જામ છે . અના ઩રયણાભે તેના દ્વાયા થનાય તલકાવકામભભાં ભ૊ટ૊ ઄લય૊ધ ઩ેદા થામ છે . ૪. ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતા તનલાયણને રગતા કામો કે ઩છાત લગોના કલ્માણ ભાટેના કામો ગાભની ઈચ્ચ જ્ઞાતતઓના વશકાય લગય વપ઱તા઩ ૂલભક ઩ાય ઩ાડલાનુ ં મુશ્કેર છે . અલા કામોભાં ઘણી લખત એવું ફને છે કે ઈચ્ચ જ્ઞાતતઓના વશકાયની લાત ત૊ ફાજુ ઩ય યશી ઩ણ તેઓ તેન૊ તલય૊ધ કયતા યશે છે ઄ને તેભાં અડખીરીઓ ઈબી કયલાન૊ ઩ણ પ્રમત્ન કયતા શ૊મ છે . ગાભડાના વમુદામભાં ઈચ્ચ જ્ઞાતતઓ સ્થાત઩ત રશત તયીકે તલકવી શ૊મ છે . જ૊ ઩છાત જ્ઞાતતઓ અગ઱ લધે, તેભન૊ તલકાવ થામ ત૊ ઈચ્ચ જ્ઞાતતઓના વાભાજજક-અતથિક રશત૊ને ધક્ક૊ ઩શોંચળે એવું તેભને રાગતુ ં શ૊મ છે . તેથી તેઓ ઩૊તાના સ્થાત઩ત રશત૊ જા઱લલા ભાટે ઩છાત લગોના કલ્માણ ભાટે શાથ ધયાતાં તલકાવ કામોભાં ઄વશકાય કયે છે .

May – August, 2014

(148)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

૫. ઩ંચામતીયાજના ઄ભરના કાયણે ગાભડાના તલકાવકામોની વપ઱તાન૊ ઘણ૊ અધાય સ્થાતનક નેતાગીયી ઈ઩ય યશે છે . શલે ઩ંચામતીયાજભાં સ્થાતનક નેતાઓ ચટાઇને ંૂ અલે છે . ચટણીભાં ંૂ જ્ઞાતતલાદી ભાનવ ઄ને ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતા તલળેના ખ્માર૊ ફહુ જ ભશત્લન૊ બાગ બજલે છે . ગાભડાભાં કશેલાતી ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મ જ્ઞાતતઓના ભાણવ૊ને ચટણીભાં ંૂ ચટાઇને ંૂ સ્થાતનક નેતાગીયી ભે઱લલાભાં ખુફ ઄લય૊ધ નડે છે . ગ્રાભતલકાવનાં કામોંભાં અ શકીકત ઩ણ ઄લય૊ધક નીલડે છે .

નેત ૃત્લની વભસ્માઓ : ૧. ઩યં ઩યાગત નેત ૃત્લ જ્ઞાતતના ઩ામા ઩ય યચામેલ ું છે . એટરે કે જ્ઞાતતન૊ વ ૃદ્ધ ઈભયન૊ ભાણવ નેતા ગણાત૊ શ૊મ છે . જ્ઞાતતના-નેતા જૂની ઩યં ઩યા ટકાલી યાખલા તથા ઩૊તાનુ ં લચભસ્લ જા઱લી યાખલા પ્રમત્ન કયે છે . વાભન્મ યીતે ગાભની ઉંચી ગણાતી જ્ઞાતતન૊ બુઝુગભ ભાણવ નેતા શ૊મ છે . તે સ્થાત઩ત રશત તયીકે કાભ કયે છે . શલે ઩ંચામતીયાજ પ્રથા દાખર થતાં ઩ંચામતભાં ચટાઇને ંૂ નલા યુલાન ગતતળીર નેતાઓના શાથભાં ગ્રાભતલકાવના કાભ૊ અવ્મા છે . ઩યં ત ુ જ્ઞાતતના ઩યં ઩યાગત બુઝુગભ નેતાઓ ઄ને ઩૊તાના નેત ૃત્લ વાભે ઩ડકાયફૃ઩ ગણે છે , તેથી યુલાન નેતાઓના ગ્રાભતલકાવના કામોભાં વશકાય અ઩તા નથી. અથી ગ્રાભ તલકાવના કાભ૊ભાં ઩યં ઩યાગત જ્ઞાતત નેત ૃત્લ ઄લય૊ધક ફને છે . ૨. ગાભડાભાં સ્થાતનક યીતે કાભ કયતા સ્થાત઩ત રશત૊, જ્ઞાતતલાદી ભાનવ, ઩ક્ષીમ યાજકાયણ તથા ઄ન્મ ઝઘડાઓને કાયણે તલબાજીત નેત ૃત્લની વભસ્મા ઩ેદા થામ છે . ૩. વભગ્ર ગાભના રશતને રક્ષભાં રઇ દીઘભદ્રષ્ષ્ટ્ટથી ગાભના ઈત્થાન ભાટે, ગાભને મ૊ગ્મ દ૊યલણી અ઩ી ળકે એલા નેતાને યચનાત્ભક નેતા કશેલાભાં અલે છે . વભગ્ર ગાભના તલકાવ ભાટે યચનાત્ભક નેતાની જફૃય શ૊મ છે . ઩યં ત ુ ગાભભાં જ્ઞાતતઓ, જ્ઞાતતલાદી ભાનવ, ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મતા, તનયક્ષયતા જેલી વભસ્માઓને કાયણે યચનાત્ભક નેતાઓન૊ રગબગ ઄બાલ પ્રલતે છે . યચનાત્ભક નેતાઓના ઄બાલે ગ્રાભતલકાવનાં કામોભાં ઄લય૊ધ ઩ેદા થામ છે . ૪. ગાભડાભાં થ૊ડાક ર૊ક૊ન૊ પ્રબુદ્ધ લગભ શ૊મ છે . લધુ અલક ઄ને ઉંચ૊ દયજ્જજ૊ ધયાલતા ર૊ક૊ ઄ને તળબ્રક્ષત ભાણવ૊ન૊ અ પ્રબુદ્ધ લગભભાં વભાલેળ થામ છે . ગાભભાં તેઓ ઩૊તાની નેતાગીયી સ્થા઩લા ભાંગે છે . ગાભના યાજકાયણ ઄ને તલકાવભાં તેભેને ઩ ૂછીને ફધા ઩ગરા રેલામ એવુ ં તેઓ ઇચ્છતા શ૊મ છે . અ લગભની જાગૃતત લધુ શ૊મ છે . તેભનાભાં ઉંચા઩ણાન૊-

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(149)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

સુધાયે રા઩ણાન૊ ખ્માર શ૊મ છે . તેભની એલી ઄઩ેક્ષા શ૊મ છે કે તલકાવ ઄તધકાયીઓ ઄ને તલકાવકામભકય૊ જે કાંઇ કયે તે ફધુ ં તેભને ઩ ૂછીને, તેભની વરાશ પ્રભાણે કયે . ઩યં ત ુ અ પ્રબુદ્ધ લગભના ર૊ક૊ ગાભભાં અતથિક યીતે ઩છાત ર૊ક૊, શરયજન૊, અરદલાવીઓ લગેયેના તલકાવભાં બાગ્મે જ વરક્રમ યવ રેતા શ૊મ છે . જમાયે તલકાવ કામભકયે એ ર૊ક૊ના તલકાવ ભાટે વરક્રમ કામભ કયલાનું શ૊મ છે . અથી તલકાવ કામભકયે તલભાવણભાં મુકાવુ ં ઩ડે છે . જ૊ તે પ્રબુદ્ધ લગભના ર૊ક૊નુ ં નેત ૃત્લ સ્લીકાયીને કાભ કયલા ભાગે ત૊ ઩છાત લગભના ર૊ક૊ને તલકાવના ઩ ૂયતા રાબ૊ ભ઱ી ળકે નશીં ઄ને જ૊ ઩છાત લગોના ઈત્થા ભાટે તે વરક્રમ ફને ત૊ પ્રબુદ્ધ લગભના ર૊ક૊ની સ્થાતનક નેતાગીયી કેટરીક લખત ગ્રાભતલકાવ ભાં ઄લય૊ધક ફને છે .

વનયક્ષયતાનાં કાયણો : ૧. ઩યં ઩યાગત જ્ઞાતતપ્રથાભાં તળક્ષણ ભે઱લલાન૊ શક પક્ત ઈચ્ચ જ્ઞાતતઓને શત૊. વભાજભાં તનચરા સ્તયની ગણાતી જ્ઞાતતઓ, શરયજન૊ લગેયેન૊ તળક્ષણન૊ શક ન શત૊. તેથી તળક્ષણથી લંબ્રચત યશેલા ઩ામ્મા છે . ૨. ગ્રાભીણ વભાજ કૃત઴પ્રધાન છે . મુખ્મ ધંધ૊ ખેતી, ખેતીની ભજુયી ઄ને ઩શુ઩ારન શ૊મ છે . અ ધંધાભાં ફા઱કને તળક્ષણની જફૃય ઩ડતી નથી. એભ ર૊ક૊ ભાનતા શ૊મ છે . તેથી ભા – ફા઩ ફા઱ક૊ને નાન઩ણથી જ ઩૊તાના ધંધાભાં જ૊ડી દે તા શ૊મ છે . અથી તળક્ષણન૊ તલકાવ ફૃંધામ છે . ૩. ગાભડાભાં વ્મા઩ક ગયીફી છે . ગયીફ કુટુંફના ફા઱ક૊ને ભા-ફા઩ નાની ઈભયે ક૊ઇ ને ક૊ઇ અતથિક પ્રવ ૃતતભાં જ૊ડી દે તા શ૊મ છે . અભ, કુટુંફની અલકભાં થ૊ડ૊ઘણ૊ લધાય૊ કયલાભાં ફા઱ક૊ન૊ ઈ઩મ૊ગ કયલાભાં અલે છે . તેભને ળા઱ાએ બણલા ભ૊કરલાનુ ં ગયીફ કુટુંફ૊ને ઩યલડતુ ં નથી. અથી તળક્ષણન૊ તલકાવ ફૃંધામ છે . ૪. ગાભડાભાં નાની ઉંભયે છ૊કયા-છ૊કયીનાં રગ્ન કયી નાખલાભાં અલે છે . નાની ઈભયના રગ્ન તળક્ષણના તલકાવભાં ફૃકાલટ ઩ેદા કયે છે . ૫. ગ્રાભવભાજભાં સ્ત્રી-તળક્ષણ તયપ ઈદાવીનતા વેલામ છે . ગ્રાભજન૊ સ્ત્રીઓને તળક્ષણ અ઩લાની જફૃયીમાત સ્લીકાયતા નથી. અથી ગ્રાભીણ સ્ત્રીઓભાં તનયક્ષયતાનુ ં પ્રભાણ ઩ુરુ઴૊ની તુરનાભાં ઘણુ ં લધાયે છે .

May – August, 2014

(150)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ગયીફી – ફેકાયી : ૧. ગાભડાભાં કેટરાક તલકાવકામો ભાટે ના નાણાકીમ ખચભભાં ઄મુક પા઱૊ વયકાય અ઩ે છે ઄ને ઄મુક પા઱૊ ગાભના ર૊ક૊ એ અ઩લાની ળયત શ૊મ છે . અભ, ર૊કપા઱ાની જફૃયીમાત શ૊મ એલા તલકાવ કામભભાં ગયીફ ર૊ક૊ નાણાકીમ પા઱૊ અ઩ી ળકતા નથી. અથી તે ર૊ક૊ અલા તલકાવ કામોથી તલમુખ યશે છે . તેભન૊ વશકાય ભ઱ત૊ નથી. અલા વંજ૊ગ૊ભાં ર૊કપા઱ા ઈ઩ય અધારયત કામભક્રભ૊ન૊ સ્લીકાય, ઄ભર ઄ને તલસ્તયણભાં ઄લય૊ધ ઩ેદા થામ છે . ૂ ૊ વશકાય અ઩તા નથી. ૃ ખેડત ૨. ગ્રાભ તલકાવના કેટરાક કામભક્રભ૊ભાં ગાભડાના વમદ્ધ ૂ ૊ ઈ઩ય શ૊મ છે , તેથી જે કામોભાં ભ૊ટા ગાભડાના લગભના જીલનતનલાભશન૊ અધાય ભ૊ટા ખેડત ૂ ૊ વશકાય ન અ઩તા શ૊મ તેભાં ગયીફ ગ્રાભજન૊ ઩ણ વશકાય અ઩ી ળકે નરશ, અની ખેડત ઄વય તેભના બયણ઩૊઴ણના વાધન ઈ઩ય ઩ડે. અ દ્રષ્ષ્ટ્ટએ ઩ણ ળ૊઴ણ ઄ને ગયીફી ગ્રાભતલકાવભાં ઄લય૊ધક ફને છે . ૩. ખેતી એ ભ૊વભી ધંધ૊ છે . જભીન તલશ૊ણા ર૊ક૊ને ગાભડાભાં ફાયે ભાવ ભજુયીના કાભ ભ઱ી ળકતા નથી. ઄ન્મ ધંધાઓભાં ભાણવને ગાભડાભાં કાભ કયલાની ળક્યતા નશીલત છે . દુષ્ટ્કા઱ લ઴ભભાં અખા લ઴ભ સુધી ફેકાયી યશે છે . અભ, ગાભડાભાં ફેકાયી ઄ને ઄ધભ ફેકાયી ની વભસ્મા વ્મા઩ક છે , જે ગયીફી ઩ેદા કયલાભાં તથા ગયીફી લધાયલાભાં બાગ બજલે છે .

ઉ઩વંશાય બાયત સ્લતંત્ર થયુ ત્માયે અ ફધી વભસ્માઓ લધુ વ્મા઩ક ઄ને ઈગ્ર શતી. સ્લાતંત્ર્મ ઩ ૂલભ ભશાત્ભા ગાંધીજીએ ગ્રાભ૊દ્વાયના કામભકભોભાં દ્વાયા ગ્રાભીણ વભસ્માઓ શર કયલા ઄ને ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવ ભાટે પ્રમત્ન૊ કમાભ . સ્લતંત્રતા ફાદ તલન૊ફા બાલેએ વલોદમી ઄બ્રબગભ દ્વાયા ભ ૂદાન ઄ને ગ્રાભદાનની ચ઱લ઱ ળરુ કયી ગ્રાભીણ ગ્રાભીણ વભસ્માઓ શર કયલા પ્રમત્ન૊ કમો ઄ને અજે ઩ણ અ ચ઱લ઱ ચાલુ છે . ગ્રાભીણ વભસ્માઓ શર કયલા ભાટે ઄ને ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવ કયલા ભાટે બાયત વયકાયે અમ૊જનન૊ ઄બ્રબગભ ઄઩નાવ્મ૊. અ ઄બ્રબગભ દ્વાયા વમુદામ તલકાવ મ૊જના, ઩ંચામતીયાજ ઄ને વશકાયી પ્રવ ૃતતના તલતલધ કામભક્રભ૊ ઄ભરભાં મુકલાભાં અવ્મા છે .

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(151)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

વંદબક પસ્ુ તકો : ૧. બાયતભાં ગ્રાભીણ તલકાવના વાભાજજક ઩ાવા – એ. જી. ળાશ., યચના પ્રકાળન, ઄ભદાલાદ ૨. ગ્રાભીણ ળશેયી વમુદામ – એ.જી.ળાશ

May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ભાણવાઈનો લયવાદ લયવાલતી લાતાક : લયવાદ (ભોશન ઩યભાય) ુ ાઈ ચૌધયી1 પ્રા. વનતેળકુ ભાય રાભબ

ભ૊શન ઩યભાય ગુજયાતી વારશત્મભાં લાતાભકાય, નલરકથાકાય, નાટયકાય, ઄ને તલલેચક તયીકે વાયી એલી નાભના ધયાલે છે . ૧૯૮૦ ઩છી ગુજયાતી વારશત્મભાં ઄નુઅધુતનક ધાયાનુ ં જે નવું ક્સ્થત્મંતય અવ્યુ,ં તેભાં ભ૊શન ઩યભાયની વારશત્મકાય તયીકે ઄ગ્રીભ શય૊઱ભાં ગણના થામ છે . લાતાભકાય તયીકે વાયી એલી નાભના પ્રાપ્ત કયી છે . એભની લાતાભઓના અંગ્રેજી, રશન્દી, ઈદુભ, ફંગા઱ી કન્નડ, ભયાઠી લગેયે ઄નેક બા઴ાઓભાં ઄નુલાદ થમા છે . કેન્દ્રીમ વારશત્મ ઄કાદભી રદલ્શી તયપથી ૨૦૧૧ના જાશેય થમેર એલ૊ડભ ભાં એભના લાતાભ વંગ્રશ ‘અંચ઱૊’ ને ઩ણ વારશત્મ ઄કાદભી, રદલ્શીન૊ એલ૊ડભ પ્રાપ્ત થમ૊ છે . અ ગુજયાતી લાતાભ ઄ને દબ્રરત ગુજયાતી લાતાભ ભાટે એક ઄નન્મ ઘટના છે . ‘અંચ઱૊’ લાતાભ વંગ્રશની ‘લયવાદ’ લાતાભ ભ૊શન ઩યભાયને ગભતી લાતાભઓભાંની એક છે . ઄શીં કથાનક ‘હ’ુ ં ને લયવાદભાં ઓગા઱ી દે મ છે , ને ભાણવ૊ભાં ભાણવાઇથી બ઱ી જામ છે . કથા-નામક ફૃલાફ વાથે ઩૊તાના ગાભભાં જામ છે . તે શલે જીલ્રા કરેકટય તયીકે કાંતત ભાંથી કાંતતરાર ફની ગમા છે . ઩યં ત ુ ઩૊તાના ગાભભાં જામ છે , ત્માયે અ ભ્રભ તેન૊ દૂ ય થઇ જામ છે . અજે ઩ણ તે ગાભના ર૊ક૊ ભાટે કાંતત જ છે . કથાન૊ અયં બ લયવાદી ભાશ૊રથી થામ છે . વર્જક ઄શીં લયવાદ ઩ ૂલે લાતાલયણ કેવ ુ ં વજાભય ુ ં છે , તેન ું તનદભ ળન કયે છે . કથાનામક ઓવયીની રકનાયે થી અકાળ તયપ નજય કયે છે . ત્માંથી લાતાભની ળફૃઅત થામ છે . અકાળ કાફૄરડફાંગ ફની ગયુ ં છે . તેથી પ્રકૃતતના વાતનધ્મથી ળરુઅત થામ છે . ઩લનના સુવલાટાથી ફાયણા બટકામા, લ ૂગડાં ઈડયા, ઩તયાં ત૊ ક્યાંક નબ્ર઱માં ઈડે છે . નામક ઘય ની ફશાય અલે છે . ત્માયે જ બાબીન૊ ઄લાજ વંબ઱ામ છે . ‘વલાયના ળેફૃભાંથી અમ વ૊ તાણના ફા’ય જવુ ં જવુ ં કયતા’તા ટાંટમ૊ જ ટકત૊ નથી, ર૊ 1

ુ ાઈ ચૌધયી પ્રા. વનતેળકુ ભાય રાભબ

઄ધ્મા઩ક વશામક, શ્રી.લી.એભ.ભશેતા મ્યુની. અટભ વ એન્ડ ક૊ભવભ ક૊રેજ, જાભનગય Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(153)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ુ ને ભ઱ીને જાલ ફા’ય !’ કથાનામક ળશેયભાંથી અવ્મા છે . ઩૊તાના ગાભને, બાઇફંધઓ ઩ુનઃસ્ભયણ૊ તાજા કયલા છે . ઩ણ લયવાદન૊ ભાશ૊ર છે . બાબી નામક ને ઘય ભાં ફેવલાની લાત કયે છે . ઩યં ત ુ કથાનામક અજે ગાભભાં પયલા જલાની તૈમાયી કયી રે મ છે . લયવાદ ધીયે ધીયે ઩૊તાના ભ૊તીબ્રફિંદુઓ ધયતી ઈ઩ય લેયલાની ળફૃઅત કયે છે . કથાનામક બાઇના અગ્રશને કાયણે વભમ રઇને ગાભ અવ્મા છે . બાબીને કથાનામક પ્રત્મે શેત છે . અથી ઘયભાંથી નીક઱લા દે તા નથી. ભનબાલતુ ં ખાલાનુ ં શેતથી ખલડાલે છે . બાઇ ના ફે ટાફરયમાં ઩ણ કથાનામકન૊ વાથ છ૊ડીને તનળા઱ે જામ છે . ત્માયે નામક એકરા ઩ડે છે . અથી ફશાય જલાના શ૊મ છે . ત્માંજ લયવાદનુ ં અગભન થામ છે . કથાનામકન૊ જીલ્રા કરેકટય તયીકેન૊ શ૊દ્દ૊ છે , એટરે વભમન૊ ઄બાલ છે . છતાંમ બાઇ ના રીધે ઩૊તાના ગાભની મુરાકાત રે મ છે . ગાભભાં અલે છે , ત્માયે એવું તલચાયે છે કે – ફધા વાશેફ-વાશેફ કયળે. બાઇન૊ ઩ણ લટ ઩ડળે. અલા ઄શભ બમાભ તલચાય૊ તનથભક નીલડે છે . કથાનામક લયવાદભાં બીંજાલા નીક઱ી ઩ડે છે . બાબી લયવાદભાં જલાની ના ઩ાડે છે . ઄તીતન૊ લયવાદ ઄ને શારન૊ લયવાદ ખેંચી રઆ જલા ભજબુય કયી દે મ છે . ફા઱઩ણન૊ તભત્ર કયવનને વાથે રઆ જલાનુ ં તલચાયે છે . કયવન લયવાદની લાછટથી ફચલા ઘય અગ઱ કંતાન ફાંધે છે . કયવને કથાનામક ને ‘કાંતત’ એવુ ં વંફ૊ધન કયે છે . કથાનામકનું ભાથુ ં પાટી જામ છે . ત્માયે કથાનામક ભાન-ભમાભદાનું તલચાયે છે . કયવને કથાનામકને લેણ વંબ઱ાલે છે – ‘અ ત૊ ળે’યભાં જમાં એટરે ભ૊ટા ફારટેન થઇ જમા ને !’૧ નામકને થ૊ડીલાય ત૊ ફધે સ ૂનકાય છલાઇ જામ છે . રદરભાં ખાયાળ રઇને અગ઱ નીક઱ી જામ છે . ઄શીં વર્જક અંફાભાનું ભંરદય એકલું –઄ટુલ ું ફતાલીને, કથાનામકની ક્સ્થતતનુ ં અફેહુફ યજૂઅત કયી અ઩ે છે . નામક જમાં છે , ત્માં જ

લેણી દા મુખી અલે છે . મુખી ‘તત્રભુલનબાઇન૊ કાંતતડ૊’

કશે છે . મુખી એને ‘તબરાન૊ કાંતતડ૊’ કશે છે . કથાનામકના અંતયભાં ફ઱તયા ઈ઩ડે છે . વલાયે ગાડી રઇને અલે અલે છે . ત્માયે ઘયડાબુઢા જ૊ડે ઄રકભરકની લાત કયીળ, ુ બાલતલબ૊ય થળે. ભન-ભયતફ૊ વાચલળે એવુ ં કંઇ જ થત ું નથી. ના઱઩ણનાં બાઇફંધઓ અકાળભાં ઘનઘ૊ય લાદ઱૊ છલામા શતા. તલજ઱ીના ચભકાયાભાં યતતરાર ભાસ્તયનુ ં ઘય દે ખામ છે . યતતરાર ભાસ્તય કથાનામકના ગુરુ શતા. એભ તલચાયીને કથાનામક એભના ઘયે

May – August, 2014

(154)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

઩શોંચી જામ છે . ભાસ્તયના ઘયભાં ફે વાભાજજક કામભકય ઄ને ભાભરતદાય ફેઠા શતા. કથાનક ઘયભાં પ્રલેળલાથી ભાભરતદાય વાશેફને વરાભ કયીને ઈબા થઇ જામ છે . ચા ઩ીતા ફધાઓ જીલ્રાના તલકાવને રગતા કામોની ચચાભ કયતા શતા. નામકન૊ ફૃલાફ ફધાઓની ઈ઩ય છલાત૊ જત૊ શત૊. ત્માયે જ ભાસ્તય નામકની તનળા઱ લે઱ાની સ્મતૃ ત લાગ૊઱ે છે . નામક ચ૊઩ડીઓ ચ૊યતા શતા. તે ઘટના ફધાની લચ્ચે કશી દે મ છે . ઄શીં નામકના ઄શંભને ઠેવ ઩શોંચે છે . કથાનક ઄શીંથી ઩ણ બાગે છે . શલે તે ડૉ. સુયેળના ઘય ઩ાવે ઩શોંચી જામ છે . લયવાદે એ ભાઝા મ ૂકી છે . ડૉ સુયેળની ઩ત્ની રક્ષ્ભી કથાનામક વાથે શાઆસ્કુરભાં વાથે બણેરી શતી. તે ઩ણ કથાનામકને ‘કાંતત ઩ી઩ુડી’ કશીને ભજાક ઈડાલે છે . તેથી નામકન૊ ત઩ત્ત૊ જત૊ યશે છે . એક પબ્ર઱માભાંથી ફીજાભાં, ફીજાભાંથી ત્રીજાભાં એભ કેટરામ પબ્ર઱મા લટાલીને ઝાં઩ા ઩ાવે ઩શ૊ચે છે . લયવાદની શેરી ચડી શતી. ઩ાણી ગાભના ત઱ાલભાં ઠરલાતુ ં શત.ુ ં કથાનામક ફા઱઩ણભાં ઄શીં ખુફ નશામા છે . શભણાં ત૊ ભનભાં ઈક઱ાટ છે . ઘયે ઩શ૊ચીને ગાડી ળશેય તયપ શકાયી મુકું. ત્માંજ નાના ફા઱ક૊ છફછબ્રફમાં કયતા શ૊મ છે . તે કથાનામક વાભે જ૊આને બ્રખરબ્રખરાટનામક ફા઱ક૊ના તનદો઴ શાસ્મથી વાલ શ઱લાફૂર થઆ જામ છે . ફા઱ક૊ જ૊ડે એ઩ણ ઩ાણીભાં ભ ૂવક૊ ભાયે છે . છ૊કયાઓ જ૊ડે ઩ાણીના છફછબ્રફમા કયે છે . કથાનામક ચત્તા ઩ડે છે . એભની નજય અકાળભાં ભંડાઇ છે . કથાનામકનુ ં બ્રચત્ત, બુદ્ધદ્ધ, ભન ઄ને ઄શંકાય યભણે ચડે છે . નાબીભાંથી ‘હ’ુ ં ન૊ તલસ્તાય ઄નંતભાં થામ છે . ધીયે ધીયે ફધુ ં ભુવાંત ુ જામ છે . કથાનામકને રાગે છે કે – કયવન, યતતરાર, લેણીદા મુખી, રક્ષ્ભી લગેયે ઩ીઠ કયીને ઈબા છે . કથાનામક અંતે કશે છે “઄લ્મા બૈ, હુ ં તભાય૊ કાંતત, ભાયા ઩ય ળીદને યીવ બયામા છ૊?” ગાભના ઝાં઩ા તયપ જામ છે . રીભડ૊ ખવેડલા બેગા થમેરા ટ૊઱ાભાં નામક બ઱ી જામ છે . લાતાભભાં વર્જક નામકન૊ જે ઄શંકાય લયવાદ થઇ ઓગ઱ી દે છે . લયવાદ જમાં લયવે છે ત્માં બેદ યાખત૊ નથી. ઈચ-નીચ, ગયીફ-તલંગય, કા઱ા-ગ૊યાન૊ બેદ લગય ભન બયીને લયવે છે . કથાનામક ઄શીં જીલ્રા કરેકટય છે . તેથી ગાભભાં અલે છે . ત્માયે તેને ર૊ક૊ ભાનવન્ભાન અ઩ળે. ઩યં ત ુ લયવાદી ભાશ૊રભાં ર૊ક૊ કાંતતરાર વાશેફ નરશ ઩ણ ‘તફરાન૊

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(155)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

કાંતત’ તયીકે ઓ઱ખ છે . ઄શીં વર્જક નામકન૊ ઄શંભને ઘલાત૊ ફતાલે છે . નામક અ જ ગાભભાં ભ૊ટા થઇને વાશેફ ફન્મા છે . ળશેયભાં વાશેફ તયીકે યશેલામ, ગાભભાં નશીં ! ગાભભાં ત૊ વાભન્મ ભાણવની જેભ જ યશેલામ. તેથી ‘બયત ભશેતા’ એ મ૊ગ્મ જ નોંધ્યું છે . “નાયી લચ્્ક્તતાના અંચ઱ા ઩ાછ઱ ઢંકાઇ ગમેરા વાભાજજક ભાણવને ખ૊રી કાઢલાની વાચી વ્મક્ક્તતતા વાભાજજક ઄નુવધ ં ાનભાં છે . એભ સ ૂચલતી અલી લાતાભઓ ફની યશેલાની. ઄શીં ઩ણ Quest for recovery નુ ં કથાઘટક વશેરાઆથી લાંચી ળકામ છે .”૨ અભ વર્જક ઄શીં લયવાદના ભાધ્મભથી નામકને ઈઠતા પ્રશ્ન૊ ઄ને ઄શંભના તલચાય૊ને ઓગા઱ી નાખે છે . અંતભાં નામકની અંદયનુ ં ભાણવાઇ઩ણુ ં જાગી ઈઠે છે . ભ્રભણા દૂ ય થઆ જામ છે . ર૊ક૊ વાથે બ઱ી જામ છે . અ લાતાભના નાના-નાના લાક્ય૊ ધ્માન ખેંચે છે . તે વર્જકનું જભા઩ાસું ગણી ળકામ. વંદબક સ ૂચી -

‘દબ્રરતચેતના’ વં. ભન૊જ ઩યભાય ઩ ૃષ્ટ્ઠ-૧૦

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‘દબ્રરતચેતના’ વં. ભન૊જ ઩યભાય ઩ ૃષ્ટ્ઠ-૧૩ અવ ૃતત-જાન્યુઅયી -૨૦૧૧

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‘લયવાદ’ અંચ઱૊ (લાતાભ -વમ ૂશ), ભ૊શન ઩યભાય, ઄ભદાલાદ ઩ાશ્વ ૨૦૦૮

May – August, 2014

(156)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ભોંઘલાયી વાભે ફાથ બીડલા ગૃરશણીનાં પ્રમત્નો પ્રા. ભૈવથરી ટી. ઩ાઠક1 અ વીજન ઊતુઓની યાની લ઴ાભઊત ુઓની ઄ને તશેલાય૊ વાથે વાથે રીરા છભ ળાકબાજીઓ તેભજ જુદી જુદી જાતના પ઱પ઱ાદી ઩ણ ફજાયભાં અલે છે . નાના પાભભ શાઈવભાં શયીમા઱ી ખીરેરી જ૊આને અ઩નુ ં ભન ખુફજ પ્રફુલ્રીત થઇ જામ છે . ઩યં ત ુ...... અ ફધી ફાફત૊થી ઩ય થઇને ય૊જીંદા જીલનભાં પ્રલેળ કયીએ એટરે અ઩ણા ભોંઢા ભાંથી એક બમાનક, કાયભ૊ ઄ને ઝણઝણાટી ઈ઩જાલે તલ૊ ળબ્દ નીકળ્મા લગય યશેત૊ નથી ઄ને તે છે “ભોંઘલાયી”......... રગબગ દયે ક ઘયભાં તભાભ પ઱ીમાભાં, ભશ૊લ્રા ઄ને ળેયીભાં અલી બુભયાણ વંબ઱ામ છે . ઩ાંત્રીવની દા઱નાં તવત્તેય થઇ ગમા. ત્રીવની ખાંડનાં ચારીવ થઇ ગમા. અલી બુભ૊ અ઩ણે વો તભાભ ગૃરશણીનાં ભ૊ઢાં ભાંથી વાંબ઱ીમે છીએં. ભોંઘલાયી નાભન૊ યાક્ષવ “યાજકુભાયી” ની જેભ રદલવે ન લધે તેટરી યાત્રે લધે છે . તેભાંમ ભધ્મભલગભ ની ઩રયક્સ્થતત ઄ત્માયે “એક વાંધે ત્માં તેય ત ૂટે ” એલી છે . જમાયે અ઩ણે ભોંઘલાયી ળબ્દ ને રઇને નીક઱ી ઩ડયા છીએ ત્માયે વોથી ઩શેરા ત૊ એ વભજીએ કે ભોંઘલાયી એટરે શુ?ં ઄થભતત્ર ં ભાં “વયે યાળ કે વાભાન્મ બાલ વ઩ાટીભાં જ૊ વતત ઄ને ગણના઩ાત્ર લધાય૊ નોંધામા કયે ત૊ તે બાલલધાય૊ કે ફુગાલ૊ કશેલામ” એટરે જ ઄થભળાસ્ત્રીમ થ૊ભવ તલલ્વને કહ્ું છે કે જમાયે નાણુ ં ખુફ થ૊ડી લસ્તુઓને ઩કડલા ઩ાછ઱ દ૊ડે છે . તેલી ક્સ્થતતને ભોંઘલાયી કશેલામ. ભોંઘલાયી એ ત૊ દે ળભાં ભાઝા મ ૂકી છે . કેટરાક ર૊ક૊ ત૊ ઘયભાં અતથિક બીંવ શ૊લાને કાયણે અ઩ઘાત કયી યહ્યા છે . વેંકડ૊ ઩રયલાય૊ ભોંઘલાયીની વાભે રાચાય ફની ગમા છે . દે ળબયભાં ભોંઘલાયીની ક્સ્થતત ગંબીય ફનતી જામ છે . ગયીફ૊નુ ં જીલન લધુ ને લધુ ઩ડકાયફૃ઩ ફનત ું જામ છે .

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પ્રા. ભૈવથરી ટી. ઩ાઠક

શ૊ભવામન્વ ડી઩ાટભ ભેન્ટ, બલન્વ શ્રી એ. કે. દ૊ળી ભરશરા કૉરેજ, જાભનગય Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(157)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

૨૦૧૨ ભાં ઩ ૃથ્વ્લીન૊ ભાં ઩ ૃથ્વ્લીન૊ નાળ થળે તેલા કામભક્રભ૊થી ટી.લી ચેનર૊ ગાજે છે . ઩ણ ભોંઘલાયી ઄ને તનાલ શેઠ઱ ય૊જ થોડું-થોડું ભાયતા નાગરયક૊ની લેદના બાગ્મેજ ચ૊ટદાય યીતે યજુ થામ છે . વયે યાળ નાગરયક૊ના ખચાભઓભાં ત્રણ ગણ૊ લધાય૊ થમ૊ છે . ઩યં ત ુ તેની આલકભાં ૨૦ થી ૩૦ ટકા ઩ણ ભાંડ લધ્મા છે . અ઩ની અવ઩ાવ જે ઩ણ ળ૊઩ીંગ ઄ને ભ૊જળ૊ખ દે ખામ છે . તે મ ૂ઱ બાયતભાં નથી. બાયતની કુર લસ્તીભાંથી ૬૦ કય૊ડથી લધુ પ્રજાજન૊નાં ઘયભાં પ્રત્મેક વભ્મને શલે ય૊જી-ય૊ટી ભાટે જ૊તયી દે લી ઩ડે તેલી ક્સ્થતત વજાભઇ છે . અજની કભયત૊ડ ભ૊ઘલાયીભાં ભધ્મભલગભની ગૃરશણીને ઩૊તાનુ ં ઘય ચરાલવું ખુફજ ઄ઘફૃ ફની ગયું છે . જે કુટુંફની અલક ૧૫,૦૦૦ થી ૨૦,૦૦૦ ની લચ્ચે છે ઄ને કુટુંફના વભ્મ૊ની વંખ્મા ૪ ની શ૊મ ત૊ ઘયન૊ વ્મલશાય ભાંડ-ભાંડ ચારે છે . ઄ગાઈના જભાનાભાં ર૊ક૊ મુઠ્ઠી બયીને ઩ૈવા રઆ જતા ઄ને તેભાંથી ક૊થ઱૊ બયીને ચીજ-લસ્તુ ખયીદીને રાલતા શતા અજના અધુતનક વભમભાં ર૊ક૊ ક૊થ઱ી બયીને ફૃત઩મા રઇ જામ ઄ને ફદરાભાં મુઠ્ઠીભાં વભામ તેટરી ચીજલસ્તુઓ અલે છે . ભાવવક ફજેટ કુટુંફના વભ્મ૊ની વંખ્મા...............૪ (ફે નાના, ફે ભ૊ટા) ઩તત-઩ત્ની ની ભાતવક અલક........ફૃત઩મા ૨૦,૮૩૩ કરયમાણાન૊ ખચભ

ફૃત઩મા ૪૫૦૦

ળાકબાજી ન૊ ખચભ

ફૃત઩મા ૩૫૦૦

ફંને વંતાન૊ન૊ ઄ભ્માવ ખચભ

ફૃત઩મા ૬૫૦૦

દૂ ધ(દયય૊જ ૧રીટય)

ફૃત઩મા ૧૪૪૦

રાઇટ ફીર

ફૃત઩મા ૧૫૦૦

ટેરીપ૊ન ફીર

ફૃત઩મા ૧૦૦૦

દલા-ડ૊ક્ટય નું ફીર

ફૃત઩મા ૨૦૦૦

ન૊કય(કાભલા઱ા) ન૊ ઩ગાય

ફૃત઩મા ૩૦૦૦

જીલન લીભાનું પ્રીભીમભ

ફૃત઩મા ૧૮૦૦

છા઩ાનું ફીર

ફૃત઩મા ૩૭૦

ધ૊ફી, ઇસ્ત્રી

ફૃત઩મા ૮૦૦

May – August, 2014

(158)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal ક઩ડાં, વાબુ, ઩ાલડય

ISSN 2347-1689

ફૃત઩મા ૨૫૦૦

ફશાય જલા અલલાનું ફવબાડુ, રેનબાડું અકક્સ્ભક ખચભ

ફૃત઩મા ૨૫૦૦

ભકાનબાડુ/ં શપ્ત૊

ફૃત઩મા ૬૦૦૦

બાયતભાં અઝાદી ઩છીના વોથી ઈત્રૃષ્ટ્ટ ઄ને દે ળબક્ત નેતાઓને ભોંઘલાયી, ગયીફી, ૂ નાં શીત૊ ભાટેની રડતનાં ધ્મેમ૊ અપ્મા શતા. સ્લ. નશેફૃજીએ બાયતની અભ કચડામેરા ખેડત જનતા ભાટે “઩ંચલ઴ીમ મોજનાઓ” ળાસ્ત્રીજીએ “જમ-જલાન જમ-રકવાન” ઇંદીયા ગાંધી એ “ગયીફી શટાલ” ને કેન્દ્ર સ્થાને યાખીને ઄ભય થમા છે . જમ પ્રકાળ નાયામણ જેલા બાયત-લ઴ભનાં ઐતતશાતવક નેતાના ઩ામાભાં ઩ણ “જનતા જનાદક ન” શતી. અલા યાજકીમ નેતાઓનાં પ્રમત્ન૊ ઩છી ૧૭૯૦ નાં દામકાભાં ભન૊જકુભાયની રપલ્ભ “ય૊ટીક઩ડાં-ભકાન” ત઩ક્ચયભાં ઩ણ “ભ ૂખભયા”નુ ં તનફૃ઩ણ કયલાભાં અલેલ.ું તે વભમે ત૊ એટરી ભોંઘલાયી ન શતી છતાં ઩ણ તેભાં ભોંઘલાયી ના ખ્માર યજુ કયલાભાં અલેલ ું શત.ુ ં અધુતનક બાયત અતથિક તલકાવની દ૊ડભાં દે ળભાં ઄નેક તવદ્ધદ્ધઓ શાંવર થમેરી છે . ઩ણ અજના વભમભાં ગયીફી, ફેકાયી, ઄ને ભોંઘલાયી ભાથુ ં ઊંચકીને ઈબી છે . લતભભાન વભમભાં ભોંઘલાયી કુદકે ને ભ ૂવકે લધી યશી છે . જીલન જફૃયીમાતની ચીજ૊નાં બાલ ઩ણ ખુફજ ઝડ઩થી લધી યહ્યા છે . જેથી ય૊જીંદી ખાણી-઩ીણી ભોંઘી ફનતી જામ છે . અય૊ગ્મલધભક દલાઓના બાલ ઩ણ ખુફજ ટૂંકાગા઱ાભાં લધી યહ્યા છે . જેથી ભધ્મભલગભની પ્રાથતભક જફૃયીમાત૊ ઩ય કા઩ મુકામ તેલી ઩રયક્સ્થતત અલીને ઈબી છે . અલીને અલી ભોંઘલાયી જ૊ રાંફ૊ વભમ યશી ત૊ બતલષ્ટ્મ ઈ઩ય ભાઠી ઄વય ઩શ૊ચળે. દે ળન૊ તલકાવ ફૃંધામ જળે. ર૊ક૊ની અય૊ગ્મ વરાભતી જ૊ખભાળે. ઄ને બાતલ ઩ેઢી નાદુયસ્ત ફનતી જળે.

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(159)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

અધુતનક યુલાન-યુલતીઓ ભ૊ઘલાયીને કાયણે જમાં સુધી અતથિક વધ્ધયતા ન અલે ત્માં સુધી ફા઱ક૊ ઈત્઩ન્ન કયલાનું ટા઱ે છે . જેથી તેભને ઄ને તેભના ઩છીની ઩ેઢીને નુકવાન થામ છે . ઄ને અ નુકવાન દે ળેને ભાટે ખતયાની ઘંટી વભાન છે . ભ૊ઘલાયી ભાત્ર જીલન-જફૃયીઅતની ચીજ-લસ્તુભાંજ નથી લધી ઩યં ત ુ વળક્ષણભાં ઩ણ તેની ઄વય અલી છે . તે અ઩ણે સ્઩ષ્ટ્ટ઩ણે જ૊ઇ ળકીએ છીએ. ભધ્મભ લગીમ પ્રજા શજુ ગેવ-ડીઝર નાં બાલ લધાયાન૊ કડલ૊ ઘટં ૂ શજુ ઩ચાલી ળકી નથી. ત્માં પ્રજા ઈ઩ય તળક્ષણ ક્ષેત્ર ત્રાટક્ુ ં છે . વ્મલવામરક્ષી ઄ભ્માવ ક્રભ૊ની પી ભાં કયામેર૊ લધાય૊ કભયતોડ છે . જેની ઩ાવે ભફરક ઩ૈવ૊ છે . એજ તેભનાં વંતાન૊ને ઈચ્ચ તળક્ષણ કે પ્ર૊પેળનર તળક્ષણ અ઩ી ળકે તેલી ક્સ્થતતભાં છે . ક૊ઇ઩ણ ભધ્મભલગભન ું ઩શેલ ું વ઩નું તેના વંતાન૊ને બણલાનુ ં શ૊મ છે . શારની કા઱ઝા઱ ભોંઘલાયીભાં ઩ણ તે ઩ેટે ઩ાટા ફાંધીને વંતાન૊ને બણાલે છે . એજયુકેળન ર૊ન ની કેન્દ્ર વયકાયની દ્રાભાફાજી તે ઄નુબલે છે . વ્માજ લીનાની ર૊ન ભાટે વ૊તનમા ગાંધી એ જાશેયાત કયી શ૊લા છતાં ફેંક૊ વ્માજ રે છે . ગેયંટય ભાંગે છે , ક૊રેટય૊ર તવક્ુરયટી ભાંગે છે . અ વંજ૊ગ૊ભાં તળક્ષણ એ, ઩ૈવે-ટકે વમ ૃદ્ધ ર૊ક૊ન૊ તલ઴મ ફની ગમ૊ છ૊. “ભ૊ઘલાયીનાં ચક્કયભાં ઩ીવાત૊ ભાધ્મભલગભ લ઴ે તળક્ષણ પી ઩ેટે ઩ોણોરાખ કેલી યીતે ફાજુભાં મ ૂકી ળકે ? રોજીંદી વસ્તુઓના ભાવ-વધારાનુું કોષ્ટક જુનાબાલ ળાકબાજી ૧૦ થી ૨૫ ફૃ. દૂ ધ

૨૦ થી ૨૪ ફૃ. પ્રતતરીટય

નલાબાલ ૨૦ થી ૧૦૦ ફૃ. ૪૩ થી ૪૮ ફૃ. પ્રતત રીટય

ડીઝર

૩૫ થી ૪૦ ફૃ. પ્રતત રીટય

૭૦ થી ૭૫ ફૃ. પ્રતતરીટય

઩ેર૊ર

૫૫ થી ૬૦ ફૃ. પ્રતતરીટય

૭૦ થી ૭૮ ફૃ પ્રતતરીટય

ગેવ

૨૫૦ થી ૩૦૦ પ્રતત ફૃ. વીરીન્ડય

૪૧૫ થી ૫૫૦ પ્રતત વીરીન્ડય

દે ળનાં ર૊ક૊ને ઄ન્ન વરાભતી, અલાવ વરાભતી, તળક્ષણ વરાભતી, ઄ને વાભાજજક વરાભતી મ૊ગ્મ ભ઱ી ન શ૊લાથી મ૊ગ્મ ભાનતવક તલકાવ થમ૊ નથી. દે ળભાં અતથિક તલકાવ ઘણ૊ જ થમ૊ છે , ઩યં ત ુ તેના રાબ૊ની ઄વભાન ઄ને ઄વભતુરીત લશેંચણી થલાથી ભ૊ટાબાગનાં ર૊ક૊ને અતથિક વરાભતી પ્રાપ્ત થઇ નથી. અથી મ૊ગ્મ યીતે ભાનલીમ તલકાવ થમેર નથી. May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ભોંઘલાયીના કાયણો ભોંઘલાયી ઩ાછ઱ ઄નેક કાયણ૊ જલાફદાય છે . છતાં કેટરાક ભશત્લના કાયણ૊ નીચે મુજફ ગણાલી ળકામ.  ઈત્઩ાદનભાં ઘટાડ૊, ફુગાલ૊, કા઱ાફજાય, અજની ળાવન ઩દ્ધતત  ભ્રષ્ટ્ટાચાય, વયકાયની અતથિક નીતત, ખાધ ઩ુયક નાણા નીતત  વ્મા઩ાયી ફેંક૊ની ળાખ નીતત, કાચા ભારની ખેંચ, લસ્તી લધાય૊  વંગ્રશખ૊યી, કાફૄનાણુ,ં નફફૄં લશીલટી તંત્ર, કુદયતી કાયણ૊  આંતયયાષ્ટ્રીમ ફજાય૊ભાં બાલ૊ની લધ-ઘટ, વટ્ટાખ૊યી કે લામદાફજાય  તલકાવ પ્રેયીત મ૊જનાભાં જગી ં મ ૂડી ય૊કાણ, આંતય યાષ્ટ્રીમ વ્મા઩ાય વંફધ ં નીતત.

ભોંઘલાયી વાભે ફાથ બીડલા ગૃરશણીને ઘય ભેઈનટે ઈન કયલાના સ ૂચનો 

દય ઄ઠલારડમે ફશાય જભલાને ફદરે ભરશનાભાં એક કે ફે લાય જ ફશાય જાઓ.

જ૊ ળક્ય શ૊મ ત૊ ઄ઠલારડમાનું ળાક વાથે ખયીદી ર૊.

સ ૂમભકુકય, વ૊રાય રાઇટ, વ૊રાય લ૊ટય શીટય ન૊ ઈ઩મ૊ગ કય૊.

઩ારયભ ભા લાયં લાય જલાને ફદરે યવ૊ડાભાં લ઩યાતા ળાકબાજી ઄ને પ઱-પ઱ાદીન૊

ઈ઩મ૊ગ કયીને ળારયયીક વોંદમભ નીખાય૊. 

નજીકભાં ક૊ઇલસ્ત ુની ખયીદી કયલી શ૊મ ત૊ સ્કુટય નાં ફદરે ચારીને જાઓ.

ઘયભાં ફનાલેરી લસ્ત ુ ખાલાન૊ અગ્રશ યાખલ૊.

પ્રાથતભક કક્ષાનુ ં જ્ઞાન ફા઱ક૊ને ઘયભાં અ઩લાન૊ અગ્રશ યાખ૊.

ઘયના કાભ ફને ત્માં સુધી જાતે કય૊. જેથી ન૊કય૊ના ખચભભાં કા઩ મ ૂકી ળકામ ઄ને

ળારયયીક કવયત થઇ ળકે. 

યાંધલાના લાવણ૊ભાંથી ક્ષાય દુય કયલ૊ જેથી ૧૦% ગેવની ફચત થળે.

કુટુંફ વાથે ફેવીને ભાતવક ફજેટ ફનાલ૊.

બતલષ્ટ્મની મ૊જના ની ચચાભ કુટુંફના વભ્મ વાથે કય૊.

અકક્સ્ભક ખચભને ફજેટભાં સ્થાન અ઩૊.

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(161)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689 

Creative Space : International Journal

ઘયના વભ્મ૊ને કયકવયનુ ં જ્ઞાન અ઩૊ ઄ને નાના ફા઱કને નાન઩ણથી જ ફચતની ટેલ

઩ાડ૊. 

ગૃરશણીએ અલકનાં ૨૦% ફચતન૊ અગ્રશ યાખલ૊.

કુટુંફના દયે ક વભ્મને રક્ષ્મ નક્કી કયતા ળીખલવુ.ં

રક્ષ્મ ભાટે શુ-ં શુ ં કયવુ ં ઩ડળે તે વભજાલવુ.ં

ભન૊યં જન ભાટે થીમેટયભા ન જતા ઘયે જ dvd રેલી.

ફા઱ક૊ને તભત્ર વાથે ક૊ઇ઩ણ કાભ ભાટે ફશાય જલાનુ ં ત્માયે લાયા-પયતી સ્કુટય રેલાન૊

અગ્રશ યાખલ૊. 

યવ૊ડાની ઩ાછ઱નાં બાગભાં જગ્મા શ૊મત૊ રકચન ગાડભ ન ફનાલવુ ં યવ૊ડાનુ ં લધાયાનુ ં

઩ાણી તેભાં જામ તેલી વ્મલસ્થા કયલી. 

વ્મલવામી ભરશરાએ કમ્પ્યુટયનું જ્ઞાન ભે઱લીને ઩૊તાનુ ં જ૊ફ લકભ જાતે કયવું

ગૃશ ઈદ્ય૊ગ૊ જેલા કે પીનાઇર, લ૊ળીંગ ઩ાલડય, વાબુ, પેઇવ ક્રીભ, ઩ાલડય, શેય ઓઇર,

લેપય, ઄થાણા, ચ૊કરેટ, વ૊વ, જાભ, વીય઩ લગેયે ફનાલીને નાના ઩ામે ગૃશઈદ્ય૊ગ ળફૃ કયલ૊. 

ગૃશ ઈ઩મ૊ગી લસ્ત ુઓ પેંકી ન દે તા તેભાંથી લેસ્ટ ભાંથી ફેસ્ટ ફનાલવુ.ં

દયજી ઩ાવેથી પભો કટીંગ રઇને તવરાઇ કાભ જાતે કયવુ.ં

઩ેર૊રના ફદરે ગેવની ગાડી લા઩યલી.

વ્મલવામી સ્ત્રી શ૊મ ત૊ કુટુંફના વભ્મ૊ને ઩૊તાના વ્મલવામભાં અલતી તકરીપ તલળે

ભારશતીગાય કયીને દયે ક કાભભાં ભદદ રેલી. 

ગેવન૊ ઈ઩મ૊ગ ન શ૊મ ત્માયે યે ગ્યુરેટય ફંધ યાખવું

વભમાંતયે ગેવનું ફનભય વાપ કયવુ.ં

ઓલનભાં લસ્ત ુ મ ૂકી શ૊મ ત૊ લાયં લાય ખ૊ર ફંધ ન કયવુ.ં

રિઝભાં ગયભ ખાલાની લસ્ત ુ ન મુક૊ કાયણકે ક્રમ્પ્રેળયને ર૊ડ ઩ડે.

ગેવની નજીક ભાં િીજ ન યાખ૊.

ફાથફૃભ નાં ગીઝય ને જફૃય ન શ૊મ ત્માયે ઓછા તા઩ભાન ઈ઩ય વેટ કયીને યાખ૊.

ઘયભાં કે જફૃયીમાત પ્રભાણે spot light ન૊ ઈ઩મ૊ગ કય૊.

May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal 

ISSN 2347-1689

કુકયભાં દા઱-બાત, કઠ૊઱ ઩રા઱ીને મુક૊ ઄ને જ૊ ઩રા઱તા ભુરાઇ ગયુ ં શ૊મ ત૊ કાચા

઩઩ૈમાન૊ ટુકડ૊ નાખીને ફાપવુ ં જેનાથી જલ્દી ફાપી જળે. 

ટી.લી., કમ્પ્યુટય, એ.વી. નું કાભ ન શ૊મ ત્માયે ભેઇન સ્લીચ ફંધ યાખ૊.

ગેવ ઈ઩ય યવ૊ઇ કયતા ઩શેરા લાવણ૊, વાભગ્રી તૈમાય યાખ૊.

ફનભય પ્રભાણે લાવણ૊ લા઩ય૊ નાના ફનભય લધુ ગેવ ફચાલે છે .

જે ફૃભ ન૊ ઈ઩મ૊ગ ઓછ૊ થત૊ શ૊મ ત્માં ઓછા લ૊લ્ટેજલા઱ી રાઇટ ન૊ ઈ઩મ૊ગ કય૊.

અ઩ણા ઘય તવલામ ઄ન્મ જગ્માએ બ્રફન જફૃયી રાઇટ/઩ંખા ફ઱તા શ૊મ ત૊ ફંધ કયલા.

ઈતાલ઱ ન શ૊મ ત૊ ધીભી આંચે ઄ને યવ૊ઇનું લાવણ ઢાંકીને ફનાવુ ં

લધુ એનજી ભાટે ળક્ય એટલું િીઝ બયે લ ું ન યાખ૊. નકાભી ચીજ-લસ્તુ િીઝ ભાંથી

વભમાંતયે કાઢી નાખ૊. 

ઓલન લા઩યતા શ૊લ ત૊ વભમાંતયે તેને વાપ કય૊. જેથી ગંદકીના કાયણે ઓલનનાં

ઈષ્ટ્ણતા઩ભાંન ઩ય ઄વય ન ઩શોંચે ઄ને લીજ઱ી ઓછી ફ઱ે . 

ફીન જફૃયી ખયીદી ટા઱૊

ઓલનભાં ગ્રીર કયલા ભાટે ત્રણ થી ચાય લસ્તુઓ વાથે મુક૊.

વાદગી઩ ૂણભ જજિંદગી જીલલાન૊ અગ્રશ યાખલ૊ દે ખા-દે ખી ભાં ન તણાવુ ં

ભરશના દયતભમાન જ૊ઇતી લસ્ત ુ નુ ં રીસ્ટ ફનાલી વાથેજ ખયીદી કયલી.

ટી.લી ભા અલતી જાશેયાત થઇ પ્રેયાઇને ખ૊ટ૊ ખચભ ન કયલ૊. બાલી ઩ેઢી ભાટે વજાકનાયી ઩રયસ્થવતથી ચોંકળો નશીં આ શકીકત છે . બાલી ઩ેઢી જાગો નરશ તો આ ઩રયસ્સ્થવત ભાટે તૈમાય યશો.

ઉ઩વંશાય અંત ભાં હુ ં ત૊ એટલું જ કશીળ કે ભોંઘલાયી નાભના ભશાકામ દુશ્ભન ને નાથલા ભાટે વયકાય ઄ને બાયતની પ્રજા એ જાગૃત થવું જ૊ઇએ ઄ને ખાવ કયીને તળક્ષણ ઄ને વં઩ન્નતા ઇશ્વયની ભશેયથી ુ વાચલલા જાગૃતત ઩ ૂલભકનાં પ્રમત્ન૊ કયે . વાં઩ડ૊ છે . તેલી ભરશરાઓ વભાજ જીલનની વભતરા

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(163)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

નશીં ત૊ અલનાયા રદલવ૊ભાં લુટં પાટ, વ્શાઇટ ક૊રય ક્રાઇભ, વેક્વ તલકૃતત, ળ૊ટભ કટ કભાણી, સ્લાથભ, દગ૊ જેલા દુ઴ણ૊ વભાજભાં અલી જળે ઄ને ભધ્મભ લગભને ભાયી નાખળે. વાથે-વાથે તળબ્રક્ષત ભરશરાઓ ભોંઘલાયીને એક અવનલામક આપત ગણી તેની વાભે ઩૊તાના કોટુંબ્રફક અંદાજ઩ત્રને લેય-તલખેય ન કયીને નલા-નલા પ્રમ૊ગ૊ ળ૊ધે ઄ને પ્રાપ્ત ભારશતી વભાજની શ્રભજીલી ફશેનોને ઩શોંચાડે. તભાભ વભ્મતા ઄ને વંસ્કૃતતનાં મ ૂ઱ભાં અખયે અતથિક ક્સ્થયત ઄ને પ્રગતત તનણાભમક શ૊મ છે . ભોંઘલાયી ઄ને ફેકાયી પ્રગતતને થંબાલતા ઩રયફ઱૊ છે . ત૊ અલનાયા રદલવ૊ભાં “શેલ” ઄ને “શેલ નોટ” એભ ફે જ લગભ યશી જળે. ભધ્મભ લગભ નીક્઱ી જ જળે. દે ળન૊ ભધ્મભ લગભ ગયીફીની ગતાકભાં ધકેરાઇ જળે. ઄ભાયે ઘયન૊ ખચભ કઇ યીતે કાઢલ૊........ ફોરો ભોદીજી? ઄ભાયે જીલવુ ં કઇ યીતે શલે........... ફોરો યાજનાથજી? ઄ભાયે ઄ભાયા ફે ફા઱ક૊ને.......... કઈ યીતે બણાલલા ભોદીજી ?

વંદબક ઄થભળાસ્ત્રના તવદ્ધાંત૊ તલકાવ ઄ને ઩માભલયણનુ ં ઄થભળાસ્ત્ર પામનાન્ળીમર એક્વપ્રેવ(લતભભાન ઩ત્ર૊) વંદેળ (લતભભાન ઩ત્ર) ઄બ્રબમાન (વાભાતમક) બ્રચત્રરેખા ઄ન્મ વાભતમક૊ તેભજ લતભભાન઩ત્ર૊.

May – August, 2014

(164)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

વાલકજવનક ગ્રંથારમોના વલકાવ ભાટેના પ્રેયક ઩રયફ઱ો ભીતા ઩ી. યામચયુ ા1

ભાનલીના અંતયભનને જ૊લા ભાટેના ભાધ્મભ૊ભાં ઩ુસ્તક એ ઄જ૊ડ ઄ને ઄ભ૊ઘ ભાધ્મભ છે . તલલેક ઄ને દક્ષતા કે ઱લલાની ચાલી એ ઩ુસ્તક છે . ”જ્ઞાન એ ભનની ઄ને ભગજની ઈજાભ છે ”. ૃ ફનાલલા ભાટે ભાયી દ્રષ્ટ્ટીએ લાંચન એ ભનની પ઱દ્ર ુ઩તા ભાટે ઄ને વ્મક્ક્તને ભાનતવક વમદ્ધ જફૃયી નશી ઩ણ ઄તનલામભ છે ઄ને અ લાંચનની ભ ૂખ વંત૊઴લા ભાટે ગ્રંથારમ જેવુ ં ઄વયકાયક ભાધ્મભ ફીજુ ંક૊આ઩ણ ના શ૊ઇ ળકે તે તનતલિલાદ વત્મ છે . અજના લૈશ્વીકયણના વભમભાં શય઩઱ે વંલધભન ઩ાભતી ટેકન૊ર૊જી ઄ને જ્ઞાન તલજ્ઞાનની તલસ્તયતી જતી તલતલધ ળાખા-પ્રળાખાઓને કાયણે ભારશતી તલસ્પ૊ટ વજાભમ૊ છે . જ્ઞાન તલજ્ઞાન ગતતળીર ફન્યું છે . શય઩઱ે ભારશતી નલા સ્લફૃ઩ે દે ખામ છે જેભાંથી જ્ઞાનત઩઩ાસુ જનવમુદામ જફૃયી ભારશતી ક્ષણલાયભાં ભે઱લી ઩૊ત઩૊તાના કામભને ઄઩ડેટ કયી તલકાવની કેડી કંડાયે છે ત૊ લ઱ી વભાજન૊ ફીજ૊ લગભ એલ૊ છે કે જે જાશેયજીલનભાં બમ, ભ્રષ્ટ્ટાચાય, વ્મબ્રબચાય, આંતક, ઄યાજકતા, લુટં પાટ, ચ૊યી, ળ૊઴ણખ૊યી, બે઱વે઱ ઄ને રાગલગ જેલા ઄તનષ્ટ્ટ૊ભાં ગ઱ાડૂફ છે . તેઓની ઩ાવે જ્ઞાન, વભજ, વંસ્કારયતા કે રજ્જજાનુ ં નાભ નથી. તેન ુ ં કાયણ વાચી કે઱લણીન૊ ઄બાલ. અલા ઄નૈતતક દૂ ઴ણ૊ને ઄ટકાલલાના બાગફૃ઩ે જ૊ વાચી ઩ામાની કે઱લણીને ળા઱ા ભશાળા઱ાભાંથી ભ઱ે છે . તેને જાશેય જીલનભાં ચરયતાથભ કયલા તલતલધ તલ઴મક

ગ્રંથ૊,

વંગ્રશામેરા જ્ઞાન કે ભારશતીન૊ રેલાભાં અલે ત૊ વ્મક્ક્તગત તલકાવની વાથે વાથે યાષ્ટ્રીમ તલકાવન૊ ભાગભ ભ૊ક઱૊ થામ ઄ને અ તલકાવ ભાટે વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ૊ એ દે લારમ૊ છે કે જે જ્ઞાનતલજ્ઞાન ભશાવાગયભાં પ્રલેળ કયલાની યાજા અ઩ે છે , જ્ઞાન લુટં લાન૊ ખજાન૊ છે કે જે ભાનલભાત્ર ને વભાનતાની ભ ૂતભ ઩ય રાલલા ભાટે વક્ષભ છે ઄ને અ ઄દભ ૂત કામભ વલભ ગ્રંથારમ૊ દ્વાયા થઆ ળકે છે .

1

ભીતા . ઩ી. યામચયુ ા

રામિેયીમન, શ્રી. એ.કે.દ૊ળી ભરશરા કૉરેજ, જાભનગય Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(165)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ુ ને અ઩ેર ભશત્લને અધાયે તલતલધ યીતે તલતલધ તનષ્ટ્ણાત૊એ વલભ ગ્રંથારમને તેના શેતઓ વ્માખ્માતમત કયુું છે ઩યં ત ુ યુનેસ્ક૊ એ અ઩ેરી વલભ ગ્રંથારમની વલભસ્લીકૃત વ્માખ્મા પ્રભાણે કે જેને ૧૯૭૨ ઩છીથી ૧૯૯૪ ભાં વંળ૊ધન કયલાભાં અલી ઄ને જેને યુનેસ્ક૊ વલભ ગ્રંથારમ ઢંઢેય૊ (UNESCO PUBLIC LIBRARY MANIFESTO) તયીકે ઓ઱ખલાભાં અલેછે. તે પ્રભાણે ટૂંકભાં કશીએ ત૊ વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ જ્ઞાનજગત નુ ં સ્થાતનક પ્રલેળદ્વાય છે . જે જે તે વ્મક્ક્તને ઄થલા વાભાજજક વમુદામ૊ને તેના તલતલધ પ્રકાયના તલકાવ ભાટે ઄નુકુ઱ લાતાલયણ ઩ ૂરું ઩ડે છે , તે ભારશતીનું સ્થાતનક કેન્દ્ર છે ઄ને તળક્ષણ, વંસ્કૃતત ઄ને ભારશતી ભાટે જીલંત પ્ર૊ત્વાશન ફ઱ છે કે જેભાં વાભાજજક ભ૊બાના ક૊આ઩ણ બેદબાલ લગય વભાન ન્મામ ઄ને વેલા ભ઱ે છે ઄ને જેભાં વભાજની વાભતમક પ્રલતત્તઓ તથા તેના તલકાવને રગતી વાભગ્રીની વાથે ભાનલજાતતના પ્રમત્ન૊ તથા કલ્઩નાળક્ક્તનુ ં સ્ભયણ કયાલનાયી વાભગ્રીને ઩ણ વંચતમત કયલાભાં અલે છે . વાભાન્મ યીતે વાલભજતનકગ્રંથારમ ન૊ મુખ્મ ધ્મેમ વભાજના અફારવ ૃદ્ધ૊ ભાં લાંચન ટેલ ઩ાડલાન૊ ઄ને તેના દયે ક પ્રકાયના તલકાવને પ્ર૊ત્વાશન અ઩લાન૊ શ૊મ છે જેથી નાગરયક૊ તેના ર૊કતાંતત્રક ઄તધકાય૊ન૊ ઩ણ વક્ષભ ઈ઩મ૊ગ કયલા વજ્જજ થામ છે . ઩યં ત ુ જેલી યીતે એક શાથે તા઱ી ન ઩ાડી ળકામ એ યીતે વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ૊ના તલકાવ ભાટે ના ઄નેક એલા ઩રયફ઱૊ છે કે જે લાચકની મ૊ગ્મ તયવ છી઩ાલલા ભાટે વક્ષભ ફને ઄ને લાચક૊ની લધાયે ભાં લધાયે જફૃરયમાત૊ને ઓછા વભમભાં વંત૊઴ી તેનાં જ્ઞાનભાં લધાય૊ કયી ળકે.

વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ૊ના તલકાવ ભાટે ના પ્રેયક ઩રયફ઱૊ : વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ૊ના તલકાવ ભાટે વોથી પ્રથભ ઩રયફ઱ જ૊ ક૊ઇ ગણી ળકામ ત૊ તે છે નાણાકીમ જ૊ગલાઇ.

નાણાકીમ જ૊ગલાઇ : અજના યુગભાં જેલી યીતે વંવાયના દયે ક ચક્ર ભાટે ઩ામાની જફૃરયમાત નાણુ ં છે તે યીતે ગ્રંથારમન૊ વમુબ્રચત્ત તલસ્તાય ઄ને તલકાવ થામ તે ભાટે નાણાંની તનમતભત અલક થામ તે ખુફ જફૃયી છે . તે ભાટે ગ્રંથારમ ઄તધતનમભના પ્રણેતા ડ૊. એવ. અય. યં ગનાથને નમુનાફૃ઩ ઄તધતનમભ ગ્રંથારમ-કયની રશભામત કયી છે . વાભાન્મ યીતે વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમભાં જફૃયી નાણા ભ૊ટાબાગે વાલભજતનક બંડ૊઱ભાંથી પ્રાપ્ત થામ છે . એટરે કે ગ્રંથારમ ઄તધકાય મુજફ May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

દયે ક દે ળ, પ્રદે ળ ઄થલા સ્થાતનક વંચારન તંત્ર૊ના કામદા અંતગભત વયકાય અ કામભ ભાટે ઄પ્રત્મક્ષ કય રાગુ ઩ાડે છે ઩યં ત ુ અ યકભ ગ્રંથારમના તલકાવ ભાટે ઩માભપ્ત શ૊તી નથી. અથી એલી જ૊ગલાઇ કયલી જ૊ઇએ કે ગ્રંથારમભાં તનમતભત અલકન૊ લધાય૊ થામ ઄ને લાચક૊ને લધાયે ને લધાયે ગ્રંથ૊ પ્રાપ્ત થામ. તે ભાટે નીચે મુજફની ફાફત૊ આચ્છનીમ છે : 

વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમભાં અલનાય દયે ક લાચક ભાટે ય૊જન૊ પક્ત એક ફૃત઩મ૊ પંડ તયીકે

જભા કયલાભાં અલે ત૊ ઩ણ ગ્રંથારમનાં તલકાવ ભાટે વારું ઩રયણાભ રાલી ળકામ. 

એલી લાંચનતપ્રમ વ્મક્ક્તઓ કે જે વભાજ ભાટે કંઆક કયી છૂટલા ભાગતી શ૊મ ત૊ તેન૊

વં઩કભ કયી ગ્રંથારમ ભાટે મ૊ગ્મ ઄નુદાન પ્રાપ્ત કયી ગ્રંથારમ ભાટે નાણાબંડ૊઱ લધાયી ળકામ. 

વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમના તલકાવ ભાટે લાચક૊ ઩૊તાના વાયા પ્રવંગે જ૊ રામિેયીને જ૊ ય૊કડ

઄નુદાન ન અ઩ે ત૊ ગ્રંથારમના ગ્રંથ઩ાર ઩ાવેથી મ૊ગ્મ ભારશતી ભે઱લી જે ઩ુસ્તક૊ની ગ્રંથારમને જફૃયી શ૊મ તે ઩ુસ્તક૊ને દાન અ઩ી “઩ુસ્તકદાન ફયાફય શ્રેષ્ટ્ઠદાન”ની લાત ને વત્મ વાબ્રફત કયી ળકે છે . અ ભાટે ગ્રંથ઩ારે ઓનરાઇન ઩ુસ્તક૊ની માદી ફતાલી લાચક૊ને મ૊ગ્મ રાગે તેલા ઄ને ગ્રંથારમ૊ને જફૃયી શ૊મ તેલા ઩ુસ્તક૊ન૊ ઓનરાઇન જ ઓડે ય અ઩ી ઩ુસ્તક૊ ભંગાલી રેલા જ૊ઇએ જેથી ઩ુસ્તક૊નુ ં દાન કયનાયના ભનભાં ક્યાંમ ઩ણ ક૊ઇ જાતની ગેયવભજ ન પ્રલતે . 

જ૊કે ઄ત્માયે દયે ક ળશેય૊ભાં તન:શુલ્ક ગ્રંથારમની વેલા ધીભે ધીભે લધતી જામ છે તે

઄બ્રબનંદનને ઩ાત્ર છે . ગ્રંથારમના તલકાવ ભાટેન ુ ં ફીજુ ં ભશત્લનુ ં ગણી ળકામ તેવ ુ ં ઩રયફ઱ છે . ગ્રંથ઩ાર ઄ને ઄ન્મ કભભચાયીગણની કામભદક્ષતા : એક લાત ખુફ જ વત્મ છે કે જ૊ ગ્રંથારમભાં લાચક૊ન૊ લગભ લધાયલ૊ શ૊મ, લાચક૊ને ગ્રંથારમના પ્રેભી કયલા શ૊મ ત૊ ગ્રંથ઩ારન૊ તલલેકી વ્મલશાય ઄ને તભત્રતાબમો વ્મલશાય વોથી ભ૊ટું ઩ાસું છે ઄ને ગ્રંથારમન૊ અ પ્રકાયન૊ સ્લબાલ જ઱લાઇ યશે ટ ભાટે તેને તેની એલા ભાટે ઩ ૂણભ વંત૊઴ શ૊ તે ખુફ જફૃયી છે . અ ભાટે તેના મ૊ગ્મ લેતનની જ૊ગલાઇ કયલી જ૊ઇએ. ગ્રંથ઩ારને કામભ કયલાભાં ભજા અલે જ૊કે વયકાય દ્વાયા ન કયલાભાં અલતી બયતીને કયને ઄મુક જગ્માએ ગ્રંથ઩ારનુ ં લતભન ઄નુબ્રચત થઆ જામ છે જે ગ્રંથારમના તલકાવભાં ઄વય કયે છે . અ ભાટે વયકાયે ગ્રંથારમને ફચાલલા ભાટે મ૊ગ્મ ઩ગરા રેલા જ૊ઇએ.

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689 

Creative Space : International Journal

વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમને વાભાન્મ યીતે અજુફાજુના ગાભડાના ભાણવ૊, ઄બણ ભાણવ૊,

જુદા જુદા ધભભ તથા બા઴ાના ભાણવ૊ દયે ક પ્રકાયના લાચક૊ અલતા શ૊મ છે . ત્માયે તેની ભાનતવકતાને ઄નુવાય મ૊ગ્મ ભાગભદળભન ઩રું ઩ાડી તેને જ૊ઇએત્મ વારશત્મ ભે઱લલાભાં ભદદફૃ઩ થામ ત૊ તેને જ૊ઇતુ ં વારશત્મ ભે઱લલાભાં ભદદફૃ઩ થામ ત૊ તેને વભાજની અભ જનતાને ઈ઩ય રાલલાભાં ખુફ ભ૊ટી ભદદ કયી તેવ ું કશેલાળે. 

તનવ ૃત ગ્રંથ઩ાર૊ જ૊ ૩ થી ૪ કરાક વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમભાં ઩૊તાની વેલાઓન૊ રાબ

અ઩ે ત૊ તેના ઄નુબલ૊ન૊ રાબ લાચક૊ને ભ઱ે ઄ને ગ્રંથ઩ાર૊ને ઄ન્મ કભભચાયીઓને ભ઱ે જેથી કદાચ કભભચાયીના ઄બાલને ઩ણ લત્તા ઓછા અંળે તનલાયી ળકામ ઄ને „઄નુબલ એ જ શ્રેષ્ટ્ઠ તળક્ષક છે ‟ ના સુત્ર પ્રભાણે ઄નુબલ ઩યથી કભભચાયીઓની કામભદક્ષતાભાં ઩ણ લધાય૊ થામ. 

કભભચાયીઓને જ૊ ક૊મ્પ્યુટય જ્ઞાન શ૊મ ત૊ તે લાચક ભાટે ખુફ જ ઈ઩કાયક નીલડળે. જે

઩ુસ્તક ગ્રંથારમભાં ઈ઩રબ્ધ ન શ૊મ ઄ને ઈંટયનેટ ઩ય શ૊મ ત૊ લાચક અ સુતલધાન૊ રાબ રઆ ઩૊તાના જ્ઞાનની ભ ૂખ વંત૊઴ી ળકળે. 

કભભચાયીઓ દ્વાયા ઩ુસ્તક પ્રદળભન ગ૊ઠલી લાચક૊ને ઩ુસ્તક૊થી લાકેપ કયી તેની

જીજ્ઞાવાવ ૃતતભાં લધાય૊ કયી ળકામ.

વાભાજજક તલકાવરક્ષી પ્રવ ૃતતઓ : 

અ઩ણા દે ળભાં ઄વાધાયણ઩ણે તલળા઱ ભાનલ વંળાધન૊ છે જેને રક્રમાળીર ઄ને

ઈ઩મ૊ગી ફનાલલાની ખ ૂફ જફૃય છે . અ ભાટે વયકાય દ્વાયા ઄થલા ખાનગી વંસ્થાઓ દ્વાયા પ્રજા ભાટે જે તલકાવરક્ષી કમો ઄ભરભાં અલલાના શ૊મ તેની ભારશત જ૊ વાલભજાતનક ગ્રંથારમભાં ઩શોંચાડલાભાં અલે ત૊ પ્રજાના તલકાવભાં દે ખીત૊ પેયપાય નજયે ચડે તેભાં ક૊ઇ ળંકા નથી.દા.ત.ગયીફી શટાલ૊ ઝુંફેળ અંતગભત વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ૊ દ્વાયા ગયીફ પ્રજાને મ૊ગ્મ ય૊જગાય ભ઱ી યશે તે ભાટેના પ્રમત્ન૊ થામત૊ ઘણા ઩રયલાય૊ ઩૊તાના ઩ગ ઩ય ઈબા યશી સ્લાલરંફી ઄ને જાગૃત ફની ળકે. 

ગયીફ ફા઱ક૊ને વયકાયી મ૊જનાના રાબથી ઄થલા ઄નુદાન અ઩તી વંસ્થા કે

વ્મક્ક્તઓના વશકાય થી ભપત ઩ુસ્તક૊ અ઩ી તલદ્યાદાનન૊ રાબ રઆ ળકામ. જે તે ગાભ કે ળશેયના કશેલાતા શ્રીભંત૊ને ગયીફ ફા઱ક૊ને દત્તક રઇ તેની જીલનજફૃરયમાતની લસ્તુઓ,

May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

સ્કૂરપી, ઩ુસ્તક૊, ડ્રેવ લગેયે અ઩ી વભાજને તળક્ષીત ફનાલી તળક્ષીતવભાજનું તનભાભણ કયલાભાં ભ૊ટ૊ પા઱૊ અ઩ી ળકે.

વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ દ્વાયા અ ફધી વેલાઓન૊ રાબ જ્ઞાનત઩઩ાસુ ,જફૃરયમાતલા઱ા જનવભાજને ભ઱ે તે ખયે ખય અલકાયદામક છે . ઩યં ત ુ તેની વાથે વાથે લાચકલગભ ઩ણ ગ્રંથારમ પ્રત્મેની ઩૊તાની પયજ ઄ને તનષ્ટ્ઠાથી ઩ુયે઩યુ ા વજાગ યશે તે ખ ૂફ જફૃયી છે . ગ્રંથ઩ાર કે ઄ન્મ કભભચાયી ઩ાવેથી મ૊ગ્મ ઩ુસ્તકની ભાંગણી, મ૊ગ્મ યીતે ભે઱લલી, ઩ુસ્તકની રેતીદે તી મ૊ગ્મ વભમે કયી ગ્રંથારમના તનમભ૊ને જા઱લલા ઄ને ળક્ય તેટરી અતથિક ભદદ કયી ગ્રંથારમના તનમભ૊ને જા઱લલાભાં

઄ને ળક્ય તેટરી અતથિક ભદદ કયી ઩ુસ્તકારમને વમધ્ૃ ધ ફનાલી વભાજ

ઈ઩મ૊ગી કામભભાં પા઱૊ અ઩ી ઩૊તાની જાતને ધન્મ ફનાલે તે ખુફ જ જફૃયી ઄ને અલકામભ છે .

ઈ઩વંશાય : અંતભાં ળા઱ાઓભાં કે ક૊રેજ૊ભાં ઄ભ્માવ કયલાથી તળક્ષણ ભે઱લવુ ં ળક્ય છે ઩યં ત ુ ળા઱ાઓ કે ક૊રેજ૊ ફશાય જ્ઞાનની જમ૊ત લધુ પ્રગટાલલા ભાટે વાલભજતનક ઩ુસ્તકારમની ખાવ જફૃય છે કે જમાં જ્ઞાને લધાયલાની અળા વાથે અલત૊ ભાનલી ઄નેક ઩ુસ્તકનુ ં લાંચન કયી ળકે. ઩ુસ્તક૊ તવલામ ભાતવક ઄ખફાય૊ લાંચી ળકે ઄ને તેન૊ ભાનતવક ઄ને ફોદ્ધદ્ધક તલકાવનુ ં સ્તય ઊંચું અલે. ઩ુસ્તક અ઩૊ , ઩ુસ્તક લાંચ૊. ૃ ફન૊. ઩ુસ્તક ભાગ૊, વમદ્ધ વાયાંળ: વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ એ ભારશતીન૊ સ્ત૊ત્ર ઩ ૂરું ઩ાડતી ર૊કળાશી વંસ્થા છે . ઩યં ત ુ ય૊ટી, ક઩ડા ઔય ભકાનની જેભ ક૊ઇ ઩ણ વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમના તલકાવ ઄ને મ૊ગ્મ નાણાકીમ અલક ઄ને અમ૊જન અલશ્મક છે . લાચક૊ની જીજ્ઞાવાવ ૃતત્તને વંત૊઴ી ળકામ તેલા ઩ુસ્તક૊ ઄ને ગ્રંથવાભગ્રી , કુળ઱તાલા઱૊ કભભચાયીગણ, મ૊ગ્મ જગ્માએ ગ્રંથારમનુ ં સ્થાન, મ૊ગ્મ પનીચય લગેયે ઩રયફ઱૊ ખ ૂફ ભશત્લના ઄ને જફૃયી છે . ક૊ઇ ઩ણ વાલભજતનક ઩ુસ્તકારમ કે જમાં લમ, વાભાજજક સ્તય, અલક, બા઴ા, ધભભ, બ્રરિંગ, વાક્ષયતા તથા વંસ્કૃતતના બેદબાલ લગય તભાભ ર૊ક૊ ભાટે દયલાજા

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(169)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ખુલ્રા છે . તે ગ્રંથારમ ભાટેના જફૃયી ઩રયફ઱૊ભાં લાચકલગભ દ્વાયા ઄ને વયકાય દ્વાયા ળક્ય તેટરી લધાયે વશામતા ભ઱ે તે જફૃયી છે . અ ભાટે નાણા સ્ત૊ત્ર તયીકે વયકાય દ્વાયા ર૊ન, લાચક લગભ દ્વાયા ઄નુદાન, ઩ુસ્તકદાન લગેયેથી ઩ુસ્તકારમને વમધ્ૃ ધ ફનાલી ળકામ તે જ યીતે ગ્રંથ઩ાર ઄ને ઄ન્મ કભભચાયીગણની કામભકુળ઱તાથી ઇ રામિેયી ની વેલાથી ઩ુસ્તકારમની વેલાભાં ચાય ચાંદ રગાલી ળકામ છે ઩યં ત ુ તની વાભે લાચકલગભ ઩ણ એટર૊ જ જાગૃત યશે ત૊ વાલભજતનક ગ્રંથારમ વભાજ ભાટે તળયભ૊ય ફની યશે તેભાં ક૊ઇ ળંકાને સ્થાન નથી.

May – August, 2014

(170)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ુ ા‟નાં કાવ્મોભાં અધ્માત્ભણચિંતન „લસધ ળલાકણી એ. ઩ટે ર1 સુદયમ ં ૌ ઈ઩નાભ ધયાલતા કતલ તત્રભુલનદાવ ઩ુરુ઴૊ત્તભદાવ લુશાયન૊ જન્ભ ૨૩ભી ભાચભ,૧૯૦૮ ના ય૊જ બફૃચ જજલ્રાના અભ૊દ તાલુકાના તભમાભાતય નાભના ગાભભાં થમ૊ શત૊. કતલ સુદયભનુ ં ં વ્મક્ક્તત્લ કતલતાભાં વશજ યીતે ઉતયી અવ્યુ ં છે .ગુજયાતી કતલતાના ઘડતયભાં તેભન૊ પા઱૊ ઄નેક યીતે ભત્ત્લન૊ ફન્મ૊ છે . ત્રીવીના કતલઓભાં ઈભાળંકય-સુદયભની ં કતલફેરડીએ કતલતા ક્ષેત્રભાં ક્સ્થત્મંતય ફને તેવ ું ભાતફય પ્રદાન અપ્યુ ં છે . એભની કતલતાભાંથી વંબ઱ાત૊ ચૈતન્મન૊ ધફકાય એ સુદયભની ં જ નરશ, વભગ્ર ગુજયાતી કતલતા યાતળની ઄ન૊ખી બાત છે . આ.વ.૧૯૪૫ભાં શ્રી ઄યતલિંદ અશ્રભ ઩ોંરડચેયીભાં વશકુટુંફ સ્થામી થમા. ૧૫ભી ઓગસ્ટ,૧૯૪૭થી શ્રી ઄યતલિંદના જીલનદળભનનું ઄નુળીરન કયતુ ં ત્રૈભાતવક „દબ્રક્ષણા‟ ળફૃ કયુ.ું „માત્રા‟ના કતલ ઩ોંરડચેયીના ઄યતલિંદાશ્રભના વાધકમ૊ગી સુદયભની ં કાવ્મવાધના ઄ને મ૊ગવાધનાના મ ૂ઱ એભના પ્રાયં બ્રબક જીલનના લતનના પ્રદે ળના લાતાલયણભાં યશેરા છે . એભના ગાભ તભમાભાતયભાં બક્ક્તનુ,ં બક્ત૊નુ,ં ગુરુઓનુ ં મ૊ગ્મ લાતાલયણ શત ુ ં એભના ગાભભાં બજન ભંડ઱ીઓ ભ૊ડી યાત સુધી બજન૊ રરકાયતી. „ગુરુ઩ ૂબ્રણિભા‟ કાવ્મ વાથે વંક઱ામેર૊ ક૊઱ી ક૊ભના ગુરાફ બગત એભના કુટુંફ વાથે ગાઢ વંફધ ં ધયાલતા શતા. ઝૂરણા એકાદળીને રદલવે એ બગતના ભંરદયભાંથી ઠાક૊યજીન૊ લયઘ૊ડ૊ બાયે ઠાઠભાઠથી નીક઱ત૊. ગાભના ર૊ક૊ ઩૊તાની વભજ પ્રભાણે ઄ગભતનગભની ગેફી લાત૊ કયતા. એ ફધાન૊ ઊંડ૊ પ્રબાલ ફા઱ તત્રભુલન ઩ય ઩ડય૊ શત૊. સુદયભે ં „ક૊માબગતની કડલી લાણી‟ (૧૯૩૩), „કાવ્મભંગરા”(૧૯૩૩), „લસુધા‟(૧૯૩૯) માત્રા(૧૯૫૧),‟ યં ગયં ગ લાદબ્ર઱માં‟( ૧૯૩૯)-કાવ્મવંગ્રશ૊ અપ્મા છે . „કાવ્મભંગરા‟ ભાં કેટરાંક પ્રણમકાવ્મ૊, „ક૊માબગતની કડલી લાણી‟ભાં તનમ્ન કક્ષાનાં ભાનલી પ્રત્મે ઩૊તાની શભદદી, „માત્રા‟ વંગ્રશભાં તત્ત્લજ્ઞાન, યં ગયં ગ લાદબ્ર઱મા‟ વંગ્રશભાં ફા઱ક૊ની તલતળષ્ટ્ટ દુતનમાન૊ ઩રયચમ 1

ળલાકણી એ. ઩ટે ર

મુ.઩૊. સુખેળ(લાણીમા પબ્ર઱મા), તા.઩ાયડી, જી.લરવાડ, ત઩ન ક૊ડ- ૩૯૬૧૨૫ Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(171)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

કયાવ્મ૊ છે . જમાયે „લસુધા‟ભાં ઄ધ્માત્ભ બ્રચિંતનની કતલતાઓ જ૊લા ભ઱ે છે . કાવ્મપ્રવ્રુતત્ત એ એક ઄ધ્માજત્ભક પ્રવ્રુતત્ત જ છે .‟ લસુધા‟નાં કાવ્મ૊ દ્વાયા કતલના ઄ધ્માજત્ભક શ૊લાન૊ ઩રયચમ ઩ણ ભ઱ે છે . „઄શ૊ ઩ ૃથ્વ્લીભૈમા!‟ ઄ને „ઈ઴ાના અગાયે ‟ પ્રકૃતતકાવ્મ છે . ઩યં ત ુ, તેભાં પ્રકૃતતભાં તલરવતા ઩યભતત્ત્લની-઩ુફૃ઴ની ઝાંખી કતલ કયે છે . „઄શ૊ ઩ ૃચ્થ્વ્લભૈમા!‟ ભાં કતલ તલવંલાદી જીલનભાં ઄ને જગતભાં વંલારદતાનુ ં બવ્મ વંગીત સ્ફૂયી ઉઠે એલી શ્રધ્ધા વ્મક્ત કયે છે : “ને જ૊ રાલી રદમ૊ એ ભુલનભુલનની વંલાદ-ગીતી, ભૈમા, ત૊ ત૊ ઄ભાયી રપટલી તભટલીએ મ ૂઢ જીવ્માની યીતત” „ઈ઴ાને અગાયે ‟ભાં સુષચ્ુ પ્તન૊ નાળ થઆ ઩ેરાં ઩ંખીઓની જેભ ઩યભ વત્મની જાગૃતતની ફૃચાઓ ગાઆ ઉઠલાની કતલની તભન્ના વ્મક્ત થામ છે : “ઉઠયાં છે કલ્ર૊રી તલશગ ૠતની જાગૃતત-ૠચા, સુતેરી સ ૃષ્ષ્ટ્ટની મ ૃદુ રકયણ સ્઩ળે ૠજુ ત્લચા સ્ફૂયે છે ,અંગાંગે ઩ુરક, નવભાં યકર તરકે, ઄યણ્મે ભેદાને બ્રગરયતળખય ઩ે જમ૊તત ઝરકે.” કતલને ઄વીભ શ્રધ્ધા છે કે ધયતીના તલળા઱ ઩ટ ઩ય ક૊આક સ્થ઱ે ઩ણ સ ૂમભન૊ પ્રકાળ શવે જ ઄ને તેથી અંધકાયન૊ બમ વેલલાની જફૃય નથી. “છતાં જાણું ભાયી ધયતી ઩ય ક્યાંકે મ વતલતા વદા જાગે ને બ૊ નરશ તતતભયન૊ છે રદર, ત઩તા!” „અજે પ્રબાત ઩શ૊ય‟ એ કાવ્મભાં કતલએ વલભવ્મા઩ી પ્રભુની તનયં તય ઈ઩ક્સ્થતતનું તનદળભન કયાવ્યું છે . કતલ ભંજયીએ ભંજયીએ, ક૊રકરના કંઠે, ગ્રીષ્ટ્ભની ઄ટાયીએ , ફૂરની પ૊યભે,તાયાની છાફે,વાગયની ગર્જનાભાં ઄ને પ્રુથ્વ્લીના ઩ાયણે, ફા઱કની અતુય આંખભાં, ભાતાના ઈયભાં, મોલનભાં વલભત્ર પ્રભુન ુ ં ઩યભ વંગીત કતલ વાંબ઱ે છે . અ ઩યભગીત “મ્રુત્યુન ુ ં ઄મ્રુત ઩ીધેલ”ું ૃ ઩ીધા ઩છી વલાયના વભમે અ ગીત યે રામ છે . અ ઩યભ વંગીતન૊ એટરે કે અંધકાયનું ઄મત ૃ કશે છે . ભરશભા કેટર૊ ઊંચ૊ છે કે કતલ મ ૃત્યુન-ે અંધકાયને ઩ણ ઄મત „એક વલાયે ‟ કાવ્મભાં કતલ તનયાકાય પ્રભુની વલભવ્મા઩કતાનુ ં સ ૂચન કયે છે . લવંતની ફૂરભા઱ા ઩શેયી, ક૊મરના કંઠભાં ફંવીના સ ૂય લગાડી, ઩યાગની ઩ાલડી ઩શેયી જાણે કે ક૊આ રદવ્મ તત્ત્લ ઈયભાં પ્રલેળે છે . રકયણફૃ઩ી આંગડી લડે જાણે કે પ્રેભફૃ઩ી સુલણભયંગી સુલાવભાં કતલના અત્ભાને May – August, 2014

(172)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ઝફક૊઱ી જામ છે ક૊આક તત્ત્લ ઄ને અ તત્ત્લ તે ફીજુ ં ક૊આ નરશ ઩ણ વભગ્ર સ ૃષ્ષ્ટ્ટભાં વ્મા઩ેર ઩યભતત્ત્લ એભ કતલ દળાભલે છે . ઄ધ્માત્ભજીલનન૊ અ એક સુદય ં ઄નુબલ કતલએ ઄શીં તનફૃપ્મ૊ છે . અ કાવ્મભાં તલશ્વની યચના ઩ાછ઱ ક૊આ ગશન ળચ્ક્ત્ત યશેરી છે એવું દળભન યજૂ થયું છે . „તુજ ઩ગરી‟ભાં કતલ વલભત્ર વ્મા઩ેરા વર્જનશાયની ઩ગરી ળ૊ધે છે . વર્જનશાય વલભત્ર છે , જગતના કણ કણભાં છે તેભ છતાં એને ળ૊ધલા જઆએ ત૊ વય઱તાથી ભ઱તા નથી. કતલ ઩યભાત્ભા પ્રત્મે ઄વીભ બક્ક્તબાલ દળાભલે છે ઄ને તેથી જ પ્રભુનાં ઩ગરાં ળ૊ધલા જગતની ગરી ગરીભાં, ગગન ભુલનની ળેયીઓભાં, તેજ ઄ને તતતભયની દે યીએ યખડે છે ,બટકે છે . એટલું જ નરશ અંફયચુફી ં ભશેરની ભેડીએ, ઘનઘ૊ય લનની ગીચ કેડીએ એક તીવ્ર તરવાટ વાથે બટકે છે . છતાં પ્રભુના ઩ગરાં ભ઱તાં નથી ત્માયે કશે છે : “ક૊ભ઱ ક૊઱ત તરુ કૂં઩બ્ર઱મે, ઩રયભર ઩ ૂમાું ઩ુષ્ટ્઩ ઩ગતથમે, ઄થડું બટકું ગરી ગરી! ભન ભનની મ્શ૊યી લલ્રયીએ જન જનની અંતય ઓવયીએ, મ ૂતછિત બટકું ગરી ગરી.” કતલ બોતતક તલશ્વની તભાભ ગરીઓભાં બટકે છે . ઩યં ત ુ, ક્યાંમ ઩યભેશ્વય દે ખાત૊ નથી. તેભજ, તેની ઩ગરી ઩ણ દે ખાતી નથી. કતલની પ્રભુબક્ક્ત એભને ઄નેક સ્થ઱૊એ બટકાલે છે છતાં પ્રભુન૊ ક્યાંમ વાક્ષાત્કાય થત૊ નથી. એભાંથી ની઩જતી તનયાળાની રાગણી અ કાવ્મભાં વ્મક્ત થઆ છે . અ કાવ્મભાં પ્રભુદળભનન૊ તરવાટ કેટર૊ ઈત્કટ છે તે જ૊લા ભ઱ે છે . „શંકાયી જા‟ કાવ્મભાં કતલ ઩૊તાની જીલનફૃ઩ી નૈમાના નાતલક ઩યભેશ્વયને ફનાલે છે ઄ને કશે છે : “ભાયી ફંવીભાં ફ૊ર ફે લગાડી ત ું જા, ભાયી લીણાની લાણી જગાડી ત ું જા. ઝંઝાના ઝાંઝયને ઩શેયી ઩ધાય ત઩મા, કાનનાં કભાડ ભાયાં ઢંઢ૊઱ી જા, ઩૊ઢેરી ઩ાં઩ણના ઩ડદા ઈ઩ાડી જયા, વ૊નેયી વ૊ણલું ફતાડી ત ું જા.” Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(173)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

જેભ ઩યભાત્ભા લાંવ઱ીભાં ઩૊તાના ફ૊ર લડે સુદય ં સ ૂય યે રાલે છે તેભ કતલ ઩૊તાની ળયીયફૃ઩ી લાંવ઱ીભાંથી સ ૂય યે રાલલાનું કશે છે . કાન ઄ને આંખ૊ ઄જ્ઞાનફૃ઩ી ઩ડદા લડે ઢંકામેરા છે . તે ઩ડદાને ખવેડી એક વ૊નેયી સ્લપ્ન ફતાલલા કશે છે . પ્રભુને ઩ાભલાની જે તીવ્ર ઄બ્રબરા઴ા હ્રદમભાં છે તેને વંત૊઴ી જલા કશે છે . એટલું જ નશીં જે ળફયી યાશ જ૊ઇ યશી છે ફ૊ય રઆને તેને એક-ફે ફ૊ય અય૊ગી જનભભ ૂખીને જભાડી જલાનુ ં કશે છે . કા઱ફૃ઩ી ફંધનથી ફંધામેરી ઩૊તાની જીલનનૈમાને છ૊ડીને વાગયની રશેય૊ભાં ઈતાયી જલા ભાટે છે ઄ને અંતે કતલ વલભળક્ક્તભાન પ્રભુના અતધ઩ત્મને સ્લીકાયતાં કશે છે : “ભનના ભાબ્રરક તાયી ભ૊જના શરેવ,ે પાલે ત્માં એને શંકાયી ત ું જા.” „નમુ‟ં કાવ્મભાં ઇશ્વયભાં યશેરી શ્રદ્ધા પ્રત્મે નભન કયલાની લાત કયી છે . ઩છી એભ ઩ણ કશે છે કે ઇશ્વય વલભવ્મા઩ી છે . એટલું જ નરશ જમાં જમાં શ્રદ્ધા ઠયી છે ત્માં ત્માં પ્રભુન૊ લાવ છે એભ કશે છે .કતલને બોતતક તલશ્વભાં પ્રભુન૊ વલભવ્મા઩ી પ્રબાલ જણાલા રાગ્મ૊ તેભ તેભ શ્રદ્ધાના બાયથી કતલનુ ં હ્રદમ અદ્રભ ફનતુ ં જામ છે . કતલ છે લટે ઩થ્વ્થયભાં શ્રદ્ધા ધયાલે છે ઄ને ઩થ્વ્થયને બક્ક્ત બાલે નભલા ભાટે તૈમાય થામ છે . ઩થ્વ્થયને નભીને કતલ શ્રદ્ધાના તવિંશાવનને ઩ણ નભે છે . અભ, અ ઩ંક્ક્તભાં કતલ હ્રદમની ઄શ્રધ્ધાભાંથી શ્રદ્ધા પ્રતતની ગતતન૊ ક્રતભક તલકાવ બક્ક્તબાલે તનફૃ઩ામ૊ છે . કતલનુ ં હ્રદમ અંધશ્રદ્ધાભાંથી શ્રદ્ધા તયપ ગતત કયે છે તે ઈ઩યથી કતલની પ્રભુબક્ક્તની માત્રાની ઩ણ પ્રતીતત થામ છે . „જમ૊ત જગાલ૊‟ કાવ્મભાં કતલ પ્રભુની ળયણાગતત સ્લીકાયે છે . તેઓ પ્રભુને કશે છે કે પ્રકાળફૃ઩ી જમ૊ત જગાલી નાનકડી આંગ઱ીઓભાં ળક્ક્ત અ઩ે, નાનકડા ઩ગને અખું જગત પયલાની ક્ષભતા અ઩ે, દીલા લગય અંધાયાભાં જ૊લાનુ ં તેજ અ઩ે, જશાજ લગય દરયમાને તયલા શાથભાં ળક્ક્ત અ઩૊ ઄ને અ યીતે પ્રકાળ અ઩તાં, સુલાવ પેરાલતાં ફનાલ૊ તેભજ ઈયની વાંકડી ળેયીન૊ ઩ંથ તલળા઱ યચાલી શૈમાના નાના ઝયણાને વાગય જેવુ ં તલળા઱ ફનાલ૊ ઄ભાયી વંકુબ્રચત જીલનદૃષ્ષ્ટ્ટને તલસ્ત ૃત ફનાલ૊ ઄ને છે લ્રે કશે છે : “સ્નેશ-ળક્ક્ત-ફબ્રરદાન-નીયથી બયચક ધાય ઝયાલ૊, ઄ભને સ્થ઱ સ્થ઱ભાં લયવાલ૊.”

May – August, 2014

(174)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

ભાનલીની ત્રણ ળક્ક્ત- સ્નેશ, ળક્ક્ત, ફબ્રરદાનન૊ સુબગ વભન્લમ થામ ઄ને ઩રયણાભે ક૊ઇ યચનાત્ભક કામભ થામ એ વંબતલત છે . ક૊ઇ એક પ્રદે ળ ઩ય ભભતા કેષ્ન્દ્રત થામ ઄ને વંકુબ્રચત ભાનવલા઱ા થઇ જામ એના કયતાં ફધાં જ સ્થ઱૊ભાં લવે ત૊ દૃષ્ષ્ટ્ટ તલસ્ત ૃત ફને એ તનતભત્તે કતલ જીલન જીલલાની કરા પ્રાપ્ત કયલા ભાગે છે . „તલયાટની ઩ગરી‟ કવ્મભાં કતલ અત્ભાના અલાવે પ્રભુની ઩ગરી ઩ડે એલી ઇચ્છા ધયાલે છે . પ્રભુને અલકાયલા ઘયને વાપ કયી ળણગાયે છે . ઩છી કલ્઩ના કયે છે પ્રભુના રદવ્મફૃ઩ની. અંધાયી યાત થઇ ગઇ ઩યં ત ુ પ્રભુ અવ્મા નરશ. પ્રભુની યાશ જ૊ઇ જ૊ઇને આંખ ભીંચાલા ભાંડી, ળયીય ઩ણ થાકથી ઢ઱ી ગયુ.ં એલા વભમે લાલાઝ૊ડા વાથે કતલના દ્વાય ઩ય ક૊આ અલે છે . કતલ તલચાયે છે કે ક૊ણ અવ્યું શળે? ત્માં જ ઄લાજ અલે છે „અવ્મ૊ છં અજ હુ ં તાયે ગૃશ‟ે - બગલાન અલે છે ઩ણ રુદ્ર ફૃ઩ે. છતાં કતલ તેભને હ્રદમભાં અલકાયલા તૈમાય થામ છે ઄ને ત્માં જ તલયાટ મ ૂતતિ આંગ઱ી જેલી નાની થઇ જામ છે . ઩યભાનંદની ઄નુભ ૂતતથી કતલના હ્રદમભાં અનંદની બયતી ચડે છે , આંધી ચડે છે . કતલની પ્રભુતભરન ભાટેના ઄઩ ૂલભ ત્માગની બાલના ઄શીં તનફૃ઩ાઇ છે . “ફાંધ ગઠરયમા” ભાં તપ્રમન૊ વંદેળ૊ ભ઱તાં ભીયાં જેલી બક્ત તપ્રમા વ૊નુ,ં ફૃ઩ુ,ં જલાશય તલશ્વની ફધી ભામાને તયછ૊ડી પ્રભુના ઄ભય પ્રેભની ગઠયી ફાંધી તપ્રમતભરન ભાટે નીક઱ી ઩ડે છે . „ક૊ણ?‟ કાવ્મ દ્વાયા એક પ્રશ્નાથભ જ ઇશ્વયની બવ્મતાનાં ઘેયાં દળભન કયાલી તેની વ્મા઩કતા દળાભલે છે . ફૂરનુ ં શાસ્મ, ધયતીની ભશેક, વંધ્માના યં ગ૊, જરની રશેય૊, ઝાક઱, તરુપ઱૊, વરયતાન૊ ભભભધ્લતન, ઩શાડ૊, તલશંગ૊ ને લાદ઱ાં અ વલભના ઄ક્સ્તત્લ ઩ાછ઱ ક૊ણ છ઩ાઇ યહ્ું છે ? ક૊ણ એ વલભને પ્રેયી યહ્ું છે ? એલા પ્રશ્નાથભ દ્વાયા ઩યભાત્ભાની રીરાનુ ં લણભન કયુું છે . ઈ઩ય૊ક્ત ફધાંજ કાવ્મ૊ભાં કતલન૊ ઄ધ્માત્ભ તયપન૊ ઝ૊ક ઄ને બ્રચિંતન જ૊લા ભ઱ે છે .

વંદબભગ્રથ ં સ ૂબ્રચ: ૧. વં઩ા. સુદયમૌ ં , લસુધા, ઩ાશ્વભ ઩બ્બ્રકે ળન, ઄ભદાકલાદ. ૨. િહ્મબટ્ટ, પ્રવાદ, ઄લાભ ચીન ગુજયાતી વારશત્મન૊ આતતશાવ, ઩ાશ્વભ ઩બ્બ્રકેળન, ઄ભદાલાદ, અવ ૃતત્ત ૧રી,૨00૪. ૩. વં.જ૊ળી ઈભાળંકય ઄ને ઄ન્મ,ગુજયાતી વારશત્મન૊ આતતશાવ(ગ્રંથ:3), ગુજયાતી વારશત્મ ઩રય઴દ, ઄ભદાલાદ, અવ ૃતત્ત ૧રી,૧૯૭૬. ૪ યાલ઱, ઄નંતયામ, ગુજયાતી વારશત્મ ભધ્મકારીન,ગ ૂર્જય ગ્રંથયત્ન કામાભ રમ, ઄ભદાલાદ, અવ ૃતત્ત ૧રી, ૧૯૫૪.

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(175)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

જીલન જીલલાન ંુ વળક્ષણ : „઩ોરીએના‟ નલરકથાના વંદબે અરુણા ય.ુ ભકલાણા1 પ્રસ્તાલના „઩૊રીએના‟ એક અંગ્રેજી નલરકથા છે . એરીન૊ય ઩૊ટભ યની નલરકથા ૧૦૦ લ઴ભ ઩ ૂલે રખામેરી છે તેભ છતાં અજે ઩ણ તે ખુફ ર૊કતપ્રમ છે . જેન૊ ગુજયાતીભાં બાલાનુલાદ નીતતન બટ્ટે કયે ર છે . અ નલરકથા ની નાતમકા એક નાની એલી ઄બ્રગમાય લ઴ભ ની છ૊કયી છે . ભેયીઓન ડેન ફાઈ઄ય ઩ુસ્તકની પ્રસ્તાલનાભાં રખે છે કે – „઩૊રીએના‟ એટરે ઄તતળમ અળાલાદી વ્મક્ક્ત.‟ ૧૯૧૩ ભાં જમાયે ઩૊રીએના ઩શેરીલાય પ્રતવદ્ધ થઆ ત્માયે તેની ૧૦ રાખ નકર૊ લશેંચાઆ શતી ! ઄ને અ નલરકથાની નાતમકા ઩૊રીએનાથી પ્રેયાઇને ઩શેરા તલશ્વયુદ્ધન૊ બ૊ગ ફનેરા ર૊ક૊ તેની જેભજ યાજી થલાની યભત યભલા પ્રેયાયું શત.ુ ં અ નલરકથા ઄નેક બા઴ાઓભાં છ઩ાઇ ઄ને ર૊કતપ્રમ ફની છે . તેના ઩ય નાટક રખાયુ ં છે ઈ઩યાંત રપલ્ભ ઩ણ ફની છે . અજના અ બાગ-દ૊ડ બમાભ ઄ને અધુતનક વભમ ર૊ક૊ના જીલનભાં અળાનુ ં રકયણ પ્રવયાલવું અલશ્મક છે ઄ને એટરા ભાટે જ „઩૊રીએના‟ જીલન જીલલાની ક઱ા ળીખલે છે . ઩૊રીએનાનાં જીલન વાથે વંક઱ામેરી દયે ક લાત૊ભાં તેની પ્રવન્નતા ળ૊ધી કાઢલાની અલડત અ઩ણને અક઴ી જામ છે . ઄શીં ઩૊રીએના નલરકથા તલળે તલસ્ત ૃત ચચાભ કયીશુ.ં અ઩ણા જીલનભાં અલતી તનયાળાને ઄લગણલાને કે દફાલી દે લાને ફદરે એ તનયાળાબયી ઩રયક્સ્થતતભાંથી જ કેલી યીતે પ્રવન્નતાને ળ૊ધી કાઢી જીલનને ભાણલા રામક ફનાલી ળકામ એ વત્મન૊ પ્રમ૊ગ અ નલરકથાભાંથી જાણલા ભ઱ળે ! જે અ઩ણને જીલન જીલલાનુ ં તળક્ષણ અ઩ે છે .

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અરુણા ય.ુ ભકલાણા

‘અતળમાના’, ૪૦. યાભનગય, ભધુયભ, જૂનાગઢ (ગુજયાત) May – August, 2014

(176)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

‘઩ોરીએના’

઩૊રીએના એ એક છ૊કયીનું નાભ છે જે ભાતા-ત઩તા લગયની છ૊કયી છે . તે શંભેળા ખુળ યશેલાભાં ભાનનાયી એક ગજફની છ૊કયી છે . ઩૊તાના જીલનભાં ઄નેક વંઘ઴ો છે , દુખ૊ છે , લેદનાઓ છે છતાં તેની ઩ાવે એક ખુળ યશેલાની ક઱ા છે . જીલનનાં દયે ક ક્ષેત્રભાં ખુળ યશેવ ું એ તેની એ તેની એક અદત ફની ગઇ છે . તેના ત઩તા ઩ાવેથી તેને એક યભત યભતા ળીખી છે જેનુ ં નાભ છે „યાજી થલાની યભત‟ અ „યાજી થલાની યભત‟ તલળે લાત કયતાં ઩૊રીએના ઩૊તાની વખી નેન્વીને કશે છે „ભાયે ઢીંગરી જ૊આતી શતી ઩પ્઩ાએ ઩ત્રભાં રખેલ ું ઩ણ શત ુ ં ઩યં ત ુ દાનભાં અલી ટેકણ રાકડીઓ વાથે ઩ત્રભાં રખેલ ું કે દાનભાં ઢીંગરી નશ૊તી અલી ઩ણ અ નાની ટેકણ રાકડીઓ અલેરી એટરે ક્યાયે ક ક૊ઇ ફા઱કને કાભ અલળે. તેભ ધાયીને ભ૊કરી અ઩ેરી, ફવ ત્માયથી ઄ભે અ „યાજી થલાની યભત‟ યભલાની ળફૃ કયી‟ (઩ ૃ-૨૭) -

઩૊રીએનાનાં ત઩તા એક ઩ાદયી શતાં તેભને દાન સ્લફૃ઩ે જે ટેકણ રાકડીઓ અલેરી તે

જ૊આને ઩૊રીએના શકાયાત્ભક તલચાય૊ કયે છે ઄ને તે રાકડીઓ બતલષ્ટ્મભાં ક૊ઇ ઄઩ંગ ફા઱કને ઈ઩મ૊ગી થળે તેભ તલચાયી ઄ને ખુળ થામ છે . -

઩૊રીએનાની અ એક એલી યભત શતી કે દયે ક લાતભાંથી કંઆક એવુ ં ળ૊ધી કાઢલાનુ ં કે

જેનાથી અ઩ણે યાજી થઇએ, ખુળ થઇએ, ઩છી બરે તે ગભે તેલી લાત શ૊મ. અભ જે ભળ્યુ ં છે તેભાંથી અનંદ ભે઱લલ૊ તે જ જીલન જીલલાની ક઱ા છે . પ્રસ્તુત નલરકથાની નાતમકા ઩૊રીએના ઩ાવે અ જીલન જીલલાની ક઱ા છે . -

઩૊રીએના ભાતા-ત઩તાનાં ચાલ્મા ગમા ફાદ થ૊ડા રદલવ વાભાજજક કામભકય વાથે યશે છે

઄ને ત્માયફાદ તેની ભાવી ઩૊રી તેને સ્લીકાયી ઄ને તેને ઘયે રઆ અલે છે . તેની ભાવીન૊ ફંગર૊ ઄ને બવ્મ જીલનળૈરી જ૊આને તે ખુફ ખુળ થઆ જામ છે ઄ને ઩૊તે ઩ણ અલા સુદય ં ઘયના સુદય ં કભયાભાં યશળે એલા સ્લપ્ન૊ વેલે છે , ઩યં ત ુ એવું ફનતુ ં નથી, તેની ભાવી તેને છે લાડાન૊, સુતલધા લગયન૊ ફૃભ યશેલા ભાટે અ઩ે છે .઩યં ત ુ ઩૊રીએના દુખી થલાને ફદરે તેભાંથી ઩ણ સુખ ળ૊ધી કાઢે છે ઄ને તે ફૃભભાં એક ફાયી છે , ફાયી ફશાયથી ફગીચ૊ દે ખામ છે વ ૃક્ષ છે જેના દ્વાયા નીચે ઈતયી ળકામ છે , ફાયીભાંથી તાજી શલા અલે છે જેન૊ ઄નુબલ ભાત્ર તેને ખુળ કયી દે છે .અલી નાની નાની ફાફત૊ભાંથી ખુળીઓ ળ૊ધી રેતી ઩૊રીએના ભાત્ર તેની જાતને જ ખુળ યાખતી નથી ઩યં ત ુ તેની અવ઩ાવના દયે ક ર૊ક૊ને અ યાજી થલાની યભત Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(177)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ળીખલે છે ઄ને દયે ક વ્મક્ક્ત તેને જ૊આને તેની લાત૊ થી તેને ફતાલેરા ઈ઩ામ૊થી ખુળ થલા ભાટે ભજબુય ફની જામ છે . -

઩૊રીએના એકલાય એક શેયીંગ્ટન નાભના વ્મક્ક્તને ભ઱ે છે . અ ભાણવ તલળે ગાભભાં

એલી ભાન્મતા પ્રલતભભાન શતી કે ભાણવ ખડૂવ છે તે ભાત્ર ઩ૈવા એકત્ર કયે છે ઄ને ક૊ઇ વાથે લાત જ કયતા નથી.઩૊રીએના જમાયે ઩ણ તેભને યસ્તાભાં વાભે ભ઱ે ત્માયે વાભેથી તેભને ફ૊રાલતી શતી,઩ણ ઩ેરા લડીર કળ૊ ઈત્તય અ઩તા નશીં.઩૊રીએના તેભ છતાં તેભને ય૊જ ય૊જ ભ઱તી ઄ને ફ૊રાલતી ફાધાનાં અશ્ચમભ લચ્ચે તે વ્મક્ક્ત ઩૊રીએનાનાં તભત્ર ફની જામ છે .શંભેળાં ગંબીય યશેતા એ ભાણવને ઩૊રીએના ફદરી નાખે છે ઄ને શલે ઩ેરા લડીર ઩૊રીએના કશે એ ઩શેરાજ „અજન૊ રદલવ ખુફ વાય૊ છે ‟ એલી ળરુઅત કયે છે ઄ને ઩૊રીએનાને વાભેથી ફ૊રાલે છે . -

઩૊રીએના ભાત્ર ઄બ્રગમાય લ઴ભની નાની એલી ફા઱કી છતાં તે ઈત્વાશથી બય઩ુય ઄ને

ભદદફૃ઩ થલાના વંસ્કાય૊ ધયાલે છે એકલાય શેરયિંગ્ટનન૊ એક્ક્વડન્ટ થમ૊ ત્માયે તેનાથી ફનતી ભદદ કયી શતી. -

„ભેડભ સ્ન૊‟ બ્રફભાય શતાં તે ઩થાયીલળ શતાં તેઓ કમાયે મ ઩થાયીભાંથી ઈબા ન થઆ ળકે

તેલી તેભને ફીભાયી શતી. તેભનું જીલન વાલ તનયવ ફની ગયુ ં શત.ુ ં તેભના જીલનભાં ઩૊રીએનાન૊ પ્રલેળ થમ૊ ઄ને તેઓ ખુળ યશેલા ઩૊રીએનાએ તેભને કહ્ું – -

તભાયી આંખ૊ ભ૊ટી કા઱ી છે , તભાયા લા઱ ઩ણ ક઱ા લાંકરડમા છે , ભને ક઱ા લાકાંરડમા

લા઱ ફહુજ ગભે ભેડભ સ્ન૊ તભે વાચે જ ફૃ઩ા઱ા છ૊ જ૊ તભે ઄યીવાભાં જૂઓ તભને ભાયી લાત વાચી રાગે‟ ઩૊રીએના તેભના ભાટે એક ઄યીવ૊ રઆ અલી ઄ને ભેડભ સ્ન૊ના લા઱ ઓ઱ી અપ્મા ઄ને ઩૊રીએનાએ એભ ઩ણ કહ્ુ.ં -

“ભને ત૊ કા઱ા લા઱ ફહુ ં ગભે, કાળ ભાયે લા઱ ક઱ા શ૊ત !”(઩ ૃ – ૪૫ )

ભેડભ સ્ન૊એ બ્રચડાઇને કહ્ું કે ભાયી જગ્માએ જ૊ ત ું શ૊મ ત૊ તને કા઱ા લા઱ શું ક૊ઇ ઩ણ લસ્તુ ન ગભે ઩૊રીએના બ્રફન્દાવ જલાફ અ઩ે છે કે યાજી થલાનુ ં ! એ કેલી યીતે તેન ું ઈદાશયણ અ઩તા ઩૊રીએના એ કહ્ું કે – “ભરશરા ભંડ઱ ના એક વભ્મ ભેડભ વ્શાઇટને ઩ણ અવું થમેલ ું ઄ને વંતધલા ઩ણ થમેર૊ એટરે ત૊ તે શરી ઩ણ નશ૊તા ળકતા એભણે કહ્ું કે તે શાથ ઩ગ શરાલી ળકતા શ૊ત ત૊ વારું થાત.”(઩ ૃ – ૫૧)

May – August, 2014

(178)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

઄ને ઩૊રીએનાએ કહ્ું કે, તભે ત૊ શાથ ઩ગ શરાલી ળક૊ છ૊, ઩ડખુ પયી ળક૊ છ૊ એટરે એ ફાફતે તભાયે યાજી થવું જ૊ઇએ ખુળ થલાનુ.ં અ ઈ઩યાંત ઩૊રીએના કશે છે કે ભેડભ વ્શાઇટ ફાજુના ઘયભાંથી અલતા ત઩માન૊ના અલજ૊ વાંબ઱તા તે તેભને ખરેર ઩શ૊ચાડતા નશીં કેભકે તેભને એભ તલચાયતા કે તેભની નણંદની જેભ જ૊ તેઓ ફશેયા શ૊ત ત૊ કંઆ વાંબ઱ી ળકતા ન શ૊ત ત૊ શું થાત? ને તે ઓ એ તલચાયીને ખુળ યશેતા કે ઩૊તે વાંબ઱ી ળકે છે . અલી યીતે ઩૊રીએનાએ ભેડભ સ્ન૊ને ઄ને ભેડભ વ્શાઇટને અ યાજી થલાની યભત ળીખલી શતી ઄ને તેઓ તેની યભત મુજફ જ યભલા રાગ્મા તેભના જીલનભાં ઩૊રીએના એ એક અળાનુ ં રકયણ પેરાવ્યુ ં ઄ને તેઓ શલે દુઃખી નથી ખુળ છે . ભેડભ સ્ન૊ ઩૊તાનાં ફૃભની ફાયી ખુલ્રી યાખે છે . ફશાયનું પ્રાકૃતતક લાતાલયણ તનશા઱ે છે ઄ને શાથ લડે બયતગુથ ં ણ કયીને પ્રવુતળીર યશે છે . નલ નલા ક઩ડા ઩શેયે છે ય૊જ ઩૊તાનાં લા઱ ઓ઱ે છે ઄ને ખુળ યશે છે . ઄શીં ભેડભ સ્ન૊ની જે બ્રફભાયી છે તેભાં તે ક્યાયે મ ઩થાયીભાંથી ઈબા થઆ ળકલાનાં નથી ને એટરા ભાટે જ ઩૊રીએનાએ એભને જીલે ત્માં સુધી ખુળ યશે તેલી યભત ળીખલી. ભાણવ ગભે તેટરા દુઃખભાં કેભ ન શ૊મ તેને ઩૊તાના દુઃખ૊ભાંથી કંઆક એવુ ં ળ૊ધી કાઢવું જ૊ઇએ કે જેનાથી ખુળીન૊ ઄નુબલ થામ. ઩૊રીએના વેલાબાલી છ૊કયી છે તેને પ્રાણીઓ પ્રત્મે પ્રેભ છે તે તેની ભાવીના ફંગરાભાં ભાંદરા, ગંદા બ્રફરાડીનાં ફચ્ચાને રઆ અલે છે ઄ને તેની ભાવીને તે ઘયભાં યાખલા ભાટે ભજબુય કયી દે છે તેલી જ યીતે ગલુરડયુ ઩ણ રઆ અલે છે તેને અલા મુગ ં ા પ્રાણીઓ ઩ય પ્રેભ ઄ને દમાની રાગણી થામ છે ઄ને તેભા તે ખુળીન૊ ઄નુબલ કયે છે . ભાણવ ફીજાના દુખ, દદો વભજી ઄ને ફીજાને ભદદફૃ઩ થલાની બાલના કે઱લે ત૊ તેને અંદયથી એક ખુળીન૊ ઄નુબલ થામ છે ઄ને તેને ઩૊તાનાં દુઃખ૊ ભુરાઇ જામ છે . ઩૊રીએનાના ફૃભભાં ઄યીવ૊ નથી તેના ભાટે ઩૊રીએના ઩૊તાની જાત વાથે લાત કયતા કશે છે – “઄યે તાયા ભ૊ઢા ઩ય કા઱ા ડાઘ છે વારું છે કે ભાબ્ર઱માની ફૃભભાં ઄યીવ૊ નથી, લ઱ી ફાયીભાંથી

એટલું વયવ દ્રશ્મ દે ખામ છે કે બીતબ્રચત્ર નથી તેની ખ૊ટ વારે.”(઩ ૃ – ૬૦ )

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(179)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

઩૊રીએના નાની નાની લાતભાં કશુકં એવું ળ૊ધી ઩ાડતી જેભાંથી તેને ખુળી ભ઱ે ઄ને અ યાજી થલાની યભત તે અખા નગયના ર૊ક૊ને ળીખલે છે . નગયના દયે ક ર૊ક૊ ખુળ છે ઄ને ઩૊રીએનાનાં તભત્ર૊ ફની ગમા છે . ઄બ્રગમાય લ઴ભની અ નાનકડી છ૊કયી અખા નગયને ખુળ કયી દે છે તેના જીલનભાં ઄નેક દુઃખ૊ શતા છતાં તે ખુળ યશી ળકતી શતી. !!

એક રદલવ ઩૊રીએનાન૊ એકવીડન્ટ થામ છે તેની કભયની નીચેન૊ બાગ ખ૊ટ૊ ઩ડી જામ છે ઄ને તે ઩થાયીલળ થઆ જામ છે . શવતી, યભતી, ઈત્વાશી ઩૊રીએનાને સ્કુરે જવુ ં છે ફધા નલા નલા ર૊ક૊ ને ભ઱લા જવું છે શજી ત૊ ઘન ર૊ક૊ને યાજી થલાની યભત ળીખલલી છે ઩યં ત ુ અ શુ?ં ઩૊તે એટરી દુઃખી થઆ ગઇ કે તે એવુ ં કંશ ુ ળ૊ધી ળકતી નથી કે ઩૊તે ખુળ થઆ ળકે. ઩૊રીએના યાજી થઆ ળકતી નથી. તે લાતની ખફય ઩ડતા અખુ નગય તેને ભ઱લા અલે છે ઄ને નગયના ફધાજ વભ્મ૊ તેને ખુળ કયલાનાં પ્રમત્ન૊ કયલા ભાંડે છે ઄ને તલચાયે છે કે ઩૊રીએનાને પયીલાય યાજી થલાનું ક૊ણ ળીખલી ળકે? ઄ને ઩૊તે ળીખલેરી „યાજી થલાની યભત‟ નગયના દયે ક વભ્મ૊ યભી યહ્યા છે તે જાણી ઄ને તે ખુળ ખુળ થામ છે . તેની ભાવી ઩ણ અ યભત તલળે જાણી ઩૊રીએના વાથે તે યભત યભે છે .

઩૊રીએનાને રીટભેન્ટ ભાટે તલદે ળ ભ૊કરલાભાં અલે છે ઄ને ત્માં થ૊ડા લ઴ો ફાદ તે ચારી વકે છે ઄ને ઩૊તે ધીભે-ધીભે ચારી વકે તે તલચાયે પયી યાજી થામ છે તે તેની ભાવીને ઩ત્રભાં રખે છે . “વ્શારા ઩૊રી આંટી, ઄ને ટ૊ભ અંકર શા હુ ં ચારી ળકું છં ! અજે હુ ં ભાયા ઩રંગથી છે ક ફાયી સુધી ચારી ઩ુયા છ ડગરા ! ઓશ....... પયીલાય ચારલાનુ ં ખુફ ગમ્યુ.......! ં ” (઩ ૃ – ૧૫૦ ) “ભને વભજાયું નરશ કે ફધા શુ ં કાભ યડતા શતા હુ ં ત૊ આંનદથી બ્રચબ્રચમાયી ઩ાડલા ગાલા ભાંગતી શતી. હુ ં ચારી ળકું છં શા હુ ં ચારી વકું છં શલે હુ ં ઄શીંમા રગબગ દવ ભરશનાથી છં. તેન ુ ં ભને દુઃખ નથી.” (઩ ૃ – ૧૫૦)

અભ અ નલરકથાની નાતમકા ઩૊રીએના ભાત્ર ઄બ્રગમાય લ઴ભની જ છ૊કયી છે છતાં ફધાને એક „યાજી થલાની યભત‟ ળીખલે છે . જીલનભાં ઄નેક દુઃખ૊ વાભન૊ કયલ૊ ઩ડત૊ શ૊મ છે અ દયે ક દુઃખ૊ભાંથી કંઆક સુખી થલાની ફાફત ળ૊ધી રેલી ઄ને ળાંતત઩ ૂણભ જીલન તલતાલવુ ં એ જ જીલન

May – August, 2014

(180)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

જીલલાની ક઱ા છે ઄ને એજ જીલન જીલલાનુ ં વાચું તળક્ષણ છે . અ઩ણે વો ઩૊રીએના જેલા તલચાય૊ કયતા થઇશુ ં ત૊ વાચા ઄થભભાં જીલન જીલી ળકીશુ.ં વંદબકસણુ ચ એરીન૊ય ઩૊ટભ ય (઄નુલાદક – તનતીન બટ્ટ), ઩૊રીએના. ઄ભદાલાદ : અય.અય.ળેઠ એન્ડ કં઩ની, ૨૦૧૩, ઩ ૃ.૨૭. એજન, ઩ ૃ.૪૫ એજન, ઩ ૃ.૫૧ એજન, ઩ ૃ.૬૦ એજન, ઩ ૃ.૧૫૦

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(181)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

ુ ાયક દમાનંદ વયસ્લતી એક વભાજ સધ રો બયતકુ ભાય ગોવલિંદબાઈ1 પ્રાયં બ અજથી ૨૦૦લ઴ભ ઩શેરા બાયતીમ વભાજભાં આંધણા કુરયલાજ૊ શતા તેભજ બાયતીમ વભાજ તલતલધ પ્રકાયના નાત-જાત તેભજ ઄નેક લાડાઓભાં તલબાજીત શત૊. બાયતીમ વભાજભાં ભરશરાઓનુ ં સ્થાન તેભજ ઩છાત જાતતનુ ં સ્થાન અંગે ત૊ તલચાયલાનુ ં જ યહ્ુ.ં બાયતીમ વભાજભાં પ્રાચીન વભમભાં ઄ને અજે જેને અ઩ણે દે લી-ળક્ક્ત તલદ્યા ઄ને વંસ્કાયની દે લી ગણીમે તેભની ઩ ૂજા અયાધના કયીએ છીએ. અજ દે ળભાં દીકયીને દુધ ઩ીતી કયલાન૊ રયલાજ, ફા઱ રગ્ન, તલધલા ઩ુનઃ રગ્ન તન઴ેધ, ઩ડદા પ્રથા(ઘઘ ં ૂ ટ પ્રથા), કન્માને તળક્ષણથી લંબ્રચત લગેયે ઄઩યાધ૊ વશન કયલા ઩ડતા શતા. ઩યં ત ુ અંગ્રેજી તળક્ષણ પ્રાપ્ત કમાભ ફાદ બાયતીમ વભાજભાં ઄નેક વભાજ સુધાયક૊ન૊ જન્ભ થમ૊. જેભ કે યાજા યાભભ૊શન યામ, દમાનંદ વયસ્લતી, ઇશ્વયચન્દ્ર તલદ્યા વાગય, તલલેકાનંદ, ગાંધીજી, ઠક્કય ફા઩ા લગેયે વભાજ

સુધાયક૊

બાયતીમ

વભાજનુ ં દુ઴ણ૊ને

દુય

કયલાભાં

ભશત્લનુ ં કામભ

કયુ.ું

વભાજસુધાયક૊ભાં વોથી ભશત્લનુ ં સ્થાન યાજા યાભભ૊શનયામ નુ ં છે . જેને નલજાગૃતતના ત઩તા તયીકે ઩ણ ઓ઱ખલાભાં અલે છે . ઩યં ત ુ તેના ઩છી ફીજુ ં ભશત્લનુ ં નાભ ગુજયાતભાં જન્ભેરા સ્લાભી દમાનંદ વયસ્લતીનુ ં છે . જેભણે વભાજને જૂની ઩ુયાણી ઩યં ઩યા ફૃરઢગત ભાન્મતા તેભને તળક્ષણ દ્વાયા વભાજ ને ફશાય રાલલાનુ ં કામભ કયુું ઄ને તેભને તેભાં વય઱તા ઩ણ ભ઱ી. ક૊ઇ઩ણ ભશા઩ુરુ઴ના તલચાયનુ ં ઄ધ્મમન તેને જે પ્રણારીભાં જીલન ઩વાય શ૊મ તે પ્રણારી, તેના તળક્ષણ તેભજ તેના વંસ્કાય૊ તેભજ તેના ભાનવ ઈ઩ય ઩ડેરા પ્રબાલ૊ની ઩ ૃષ્ટ્ઠભ ૂતભભાં કયલાભાં અલે તે જ મ૊ગ્મ છે . અ દ્રષ્ષ્ટ્ટએ તેભણે ઩૊તાના જીલનન૊ ભ૊ટ૊ બાગ એક

1

રો બયતકુ ભાય ગોવલિંદબાઈ

‘તનવગભ’, બ્ર૊ક નં. ૭, દળભન યે વીડેન્વી, ભણીનગયની ફાજુભાં, યાભેશ્વય ઩ાકભ ઩ાછ઱, યૈ મા ય૊ડ, યાજક૊ટ – ૩૬૦૦૦૭ May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

વંન્માવી ફૃ઩ે કે જે વાંવારયક ભ૊શ જા઱થી વલે પ્રકાયે મુક્ત થઇને ડગરેને ને ઩ગરે વભાજના ઩ીરડત દુઃખી ર૊ક૊ના કષ્ટ્ટ૊ને તનલાયલા પ્રમત્નળીર યહ્યા શતા. દમાનંદ વયસ્લતીનો જીલન ઩રયચમ :દમાનંદ વયસ્લતીન૊ જન્ભ ગુજયાતના ભ૊યફી તાલુકાના ટંકાયા ગાભભાં ઇ.વ. ૧૮૨૪ ભાં થમ૊ શત૊. તેભનું મુ઱નાભ મુ઱જી ઄થલા મ ૂ઱ળંકય શત.ુ ં તેભના ત઩તાનુ ં નાભ કૃષ્ટ્ણજી શતુ.ં તેભન૊ જન્ભ િાહ્મણ ઩રયલાયભાં થમ૊ શ૊લાથી તેભનાભાં ફા઱઩ણથી ધાતભિક તળક્ષણ૊ન૊ પ્રબાલ લધાયે જ૊લા ભ઱ત૊ શત૊. તેની ઄વય દમાનંદ ઩ય ઩ડી શતી. તેભણે ઩ાંચ લ઴ભની ઈભયે વંસ્કૃત તળક્ષણ પ્રાપ્ત કયલાન૊ વોબાગ્મ પ્રાપ્ત થયુ ં શત.ુ ં તેભણે ચોદ(૧૪) લ઴ભની ઈભયે ત૊ લેદ૊ન૊ ઄ભ્માવ કમો શત૊. તેભાંથી તેભણે ઘણું જ્ઞાન પ્રાપ્ત તઃયુ ં ઄ને તેભના તલચાય૊ભાં ઩ણ ઘણુ ં ઩રયલતભન અવ્યુ.ં તેભણે ૨૧લ઴ભની ઉંભયે ગૃશત્માગ કમો શત૊. ગૃશત્માગ કમાભ ફાદ તેઓ ૧૫લ઴ભ સુધી તેભણે વભગ્ર બાયતન૊ પ્રમાવ કમો ઈતય બાયતના ઄નેક તીથભધાભ૊ નદીઓ, લન૊ તેભજ જગર૊ન૊ ં પ્રલાવ કમાભ ઄ને જ્ઞાન પ્રાપ્ત કયુું તેભને લેદ૊નું જ્ઞાન તેભને ઩યભાનંદ ઩યભશંવ ઩ાવેથી પ્રાપ્ત થયુ ં શત.ુ ં ૩૬લ઴ભની ઉંભયે તેઓ પ્રજ્ઞાચ઺ુ સ્લાભી તલયજાનંદના અશ્રભભા અવ્મા ઄ને તેભની વેલા કયી ઄ને તેભને ગુરુ તયીકે સ્લીકામાભ શતા. ઇ.વ. ૧૯૬૯ભાં ૪૫ લ઴ભની ઉંભયે તેભને કાળીભાં ૩૦૦ ઩ંરડત૊ની વબા ફ૊રાલી ઄ને તેભણે અર૊ચના કયતા કહ્ું કે મ ૂતતિ ઩ ૂજા અંગે ક૊ઇ઩ણ લાત કયલાભાં અલી નથી. દમાનંદન ંુ વાભાજજક દળકન ુ ાયક, ધભભ વ્માખ્માતા ઄ને ધભભચામભ છે તેભ એક દમાનંદ જેભ એક ભશાન ધભભસધ વભાજળાસ્ત્રી, વભાજ સુધાયાક ઄ને વાભાજજક નેતાના ફૃ઩ભાં ઩ણ તેભનુ ં વ્મક્ક્તત્લ ઓછં ભશત્લ઩ ૂણભ નથી. અભ ત૊ તેભની ગણના ૧૯ભી વદીના ઩શેરા વભાજસુધાયક૊ની શ્રેણીભાં જ થામ છે . જેભણે બુહુદ રશિંદુ વભાજભાં પેરામેરી બુયાઇઓ, મુખેરા બમાભ યીતતરયલાજ૊ ઄ને વડી ગમેરી ઩ુયાતન પ્રથાઓના તલય૊ધભાં ઩૊તાન૊ ઄લાજ બુરદ ં કમો શત૊. ઩યં ત ુ દમાનંદનું અ વભાજસુધાયાક ફૃ઩ ઩ણ એક ઈગ્ર ક્રાંતતકાયી વભાજનુ ં અમ ૂર ઩રયલતભન કયનાયા યુગપ્રલતભક ઄ને ક્રાંતતદ્રષ્ટ્ટાની પ્રબાથી દે શવ્્ભાન છે . બાયતીમ વભાજભાં વ્માપ્ત

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(183)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

તલબ્રબન્ન તલકૃતતઓ બુયાઇઓ ઄વભાનતાઓ ળ૊઴ણની પ્રવ ૃતતઓ ઄ને ઄ત્માચાયમુરક પ્રથાઓને દુય કયલા ભાટે દમાનંદે પ્રમત્ન૊ કમાભ છે . વ્મક્ક્તગત, ઩ારયલારયક, વાભાજજક તેભજ યાષ્ટ્રીમ જીલનને ખ૊ખલું કયનાયી બી઴ણ પ્રથાઓન૊ તેભને જે પ્રકાયની દ્રષ્ટ્ટાથી તલય૊ધ કમો શત૊ તે ફધુ ં અજે આતતશાવભાં આતતશાવકાય૊એ એક ઄રગ સ્થાન અ઩વ્યુ ં છે . ફા઱ રગ્ન૊નુ ં ઈન્મ ૂરન, તલધલાઓની ક્સ્થતતભાં સુધાય, સ્ત્રીઓને વભાજભાં ઈબ્રચત સ્થાન ઄઩ાલલાભાં ઩ુરુ઴ાથભ તેભજ દબ્રરત ઄ને ઄સ્઩ ૃશ્મ કશેલાભાં અલતી જાતતને તેભના ન્મામ વોં઩ી ઄તલભળ ઄઩ાલલાભાં તથા જન્ભજાત જાતતપ્રથા દ૊઴૊ પ્રત્મે જન વભાજનુ ં ધ્માન વાચા ભાગે દ૊યલાનુ ં કામભ કયી યાષ્ટ્રબક્ક્તનું કાભ કયુું શતુ.ં સ્લાભી દમાનંદ વયસ્લતીના કામભના પ઱ સ્લફૃ઩ અ઩ણા દે ળભાં એક એલ૊ બ્રચિંતક-લગભ ઩ણ ઈત્઩ન્ન થઇ ગમ૊ શત૊ કે જે ભાત્ર સુધાયાલાદન૊ તલય૊ધી જ ન શત૊ ફરકે તે પ્રત્મેક પ્રાચીન ૃ પ્રામ ઄ને શાતનકાયક થઇ પ્રથાનું ઔબ્રચત્મ તવદ્ધ કયલાના તથા વલભ પ્રકાયના જર્જરયત મત ચુકેરી ફૃરઢઓની ળબ્દાડંફય ઩ ૂલભક અરંકારયક વ્માખ્મા ઩દ્ધતતની ભદદથી તયપેણ કયલાભાં પ્રમત્ન૊ ઩ણ કયત૊ શત૊. એ લગભના ર૊ક૊એ સુધાયક લગભના કામભન ુ ં ઄લમ ૂલ્મન ત૊ કયુજ ભ ઩યં ત ુ વાથ૊ વાથ તેભના ઩ય ઄નેક જાતની તનિંદા-અક્ષે઩૊ ઩ણ કમો. વંબલ છે કે તેઓ સુધાયક૊ દ્વાયા કયલાભાં અલેરી વાભાજજક દુ઴ણ૊ની કટુ અર૊ચનાઓથી ઩ણ બ્રચડાઇ ગમા શ૊મ ઩યં ત ુ સુધાયક૊ને અલી ઄ગનજ્લા઱ા લયવાલલાની કેભ જફૃય ઩ડી ? તેની ઩ાછ઱ કમા કાયણ જલાફદાય શતા, એ કાયણ૊ની ભીભાંવા સુધાયક-લગભ ઩શેરા અર૊ચક૊એ ક્યાયે મ નથી કયી. જ૊ તેભને અલી ભીભાંવા ગંબીયતા઩ ૂલભક કયી શ૊ત ત૊ તેઓ જફૃયી એ તનષ્ટ્ક઴ભ ઩ય ઩શ૊ચ્મા શ૊ત કે ફૃરઢઓ ઄ને દુ઴ણ૊ની અર૊ચના ત૊ અજ યીતે, ક૊ઇ ઩ણ જાતના રાગ રલેટા તલના જ કયલી ઩ડે છે . ત્માયે જ તેન ુ ં કંઇક ઇચ્ચ્છત પ઱ પ્રાપ્ત થામ. શજાય૊ લ઴ભથી અચયલાભાં અલતા ઄ને શજાય૊ લ઴ભથી પ્રગતી ફૃંધામેરી યશી છે એલા તનભભભ ઄ત્માચાય૊ ઄ને દુ઴ણ૊ ક૊ભ઱ ળબ્દાલરીઓન૊ પ્રમ૊ગ કયીને ક્યાયે મ દુય કયી ળકતા નથી.

May – August, 2014

(184)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

સ્ત્રીઓ, શ ૂદ્ર૊ ઄ને વભાજના અંત્મજ લગભ પ્રત્મે કયલાભાં અલતા ઄ભાનલીમ ઄ત્માચાય૊ જ૊ઇને દમાનંદનું હૃદમ જ દ્રતલત નશ૊ત ુ ં થયુ ં ફલ્કે તેભન૊ અત્ભા ઩ણ ચીત્કાય કયી ઈઠય૊ શત૊ તેઓ જમાયે ળતાબ્દીઓથી ત્રસ્ત ઩ીરડત ઄ને ળ૊ત઴ત લગભન૊ શાશાકાય વાંબ઱ે છે . ત્માયે તેભને ઄઩ાય ભાનતવક લેદના થામ છે . ઄ને ત્માયે જ તેઓ અલી વ્માકુ઱ ભન૊દળાભાં જ અ ર૊ક૊ ઈ઩ય ઄ત્માચાય ગુજાયનાયા ઩ંગ-઩ુય૊રશત૊ ઄ને નામ વાભાજજક કણભધાયી પ્રત્મે તનભભભ ફની જામ છે . ઩ ૂલભ઩ક્ષી જમાયે ગલભ઩ ૂલભક ‘સ્ત્રીશુદ્ર૊ના ધીમાતાભ’ એલી કાલ્઩તનક શ્રુતત લાંચીને સ્ત્રીઓ ઄ને શુદ્ર૊ના લેદાધ્મમનને ભાત્ર પ્રતતફંતધત જ નરશ કયી, જમાયે ધુષ્ટ્તા઩ ૂલભક ઄ભે ઩ ૂછે કે જ૊ અ ર૊ક૊ (સ્ત્રી ઄ને શુદ્ર૊) લેદ બણલા ભાંડળે ત૊ ઩છી ઄ભે ર૊ક૊ શુ ં કયશુ,ં ત્માયે સ્લાભી દમાનંદ તેન૊ જલાફ એક જ શત૊ બણલાન૊ ઄તધકાય ભનુષ્ટ્મ ભાત્રને છે . જમાયે તેભને ફીજ૊ પ્રશ્ન કયલાભાં અવ્મ૊ કે જ૊ લેદ સ્ત્રી ઄ને શુદ્ર૊ને અ઩લાભાં અલળે ત૊ ઄ભાયા વ્મલવામને શાતન ઩શોંચળે ઄ને ઄ભે શુ ં કયીશુ ં ? ત્માયે ઈત્તય નીકળ્મ૊ કે તભાયા તનજી સ્લાથભ ખાતય નાયીઓ ઄ને શુદ્ર લગભ શલે લધાયે રદલવ૊ સુધી તભાય૊ કષ્ટ્ટ બ૊ગલલા તૈમાય નથી. ઄ને તેભણે લેદ૊નુ ં વાચુ ં જ્ઞાન ર૊ક૊ને અપ્યુ.ં યાષ્ટ્રીમ એકતા અને યાષ્ટ્રલાદના અગ્રદૂ ત :ુ કયતા દમાનંદને બાયતીમ એકતાના પ્રતત઩ાદક ઄ને યાષ્ટ્રલાદના પ્રતતષ્ટ્ઠતાફૃ઩ે પ્રસ્તત દે લેક્ષ્નામે ઠીક જ રખ્યું છે કે “તલભર પ્રતતબાવં઩ન્ન નાંબડ્રુ ી િાહ્મણ કૂર૊ત્઩ન્ન ળંકયે લેદાંતસુત૊ ઈ઩ય ઩૊તાનું ઄નુ઩ભ બાષ્ટ્મ રખીને સ્લમંને ભાટે ઄તલનશ્વય કીતતિ ઄જર્જત કયી ઩યં ત ુ શું તેભને તલરકત બાયતને એક કયલાન૊ ઩ણ ક૊ઇ કામભક્રભ ફનાવ્મ૊ શત૊? ગોયાંગ દે લ (ચૈતેન્મ) એ ફંગભ ૂતભને લૈષ્ટ્ણલ વંકીતભનની ભધુય મુચ્છૅ નાથી વંભ૊રશત ત૊ કયી ઩યં ત ુ શું બાયતભાં બાયતીમતા સ્થાત઩ત કયલાને ભાટે ઩ણ તેભણે ક૊ઇ ઈદ્ય૊ગ કમો શત૊? ગોયાંગ દે લ (ચેતન્મ) એ ફંગભ ૂતભને એક કયલાન૊ પ્રમાવ કે બાયતભાં બાયતીમતા સ્થાત઩ત કયલાન૊ ઈદ્યભ કમો શત૊ ખય૊ ?’ યાષ્ટ્રના ગોયલ ઄ને એકતા વંદબે ઄બ્રબવ્મક્ક્તનુ ં બ્રચિંતન ન ત૊ ક૊ઇ અચામભ ઄ને ન ત૊ ક૊ઇ વંપ્રદામ-પ્રલતકે કયુ,ું ઩યં ત ુ દમાનંદ અન૊ ઄઩લાદ છે દે લેન્્નાથના ળબ્દ૊ભાં

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(185)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

લતભભાન વભમના અચામે સ્લાભી દમાનંદ અ઩ણી યુગ-યુગથી ચારી અલતી નીયલતાને બંગ કયીને બ્રચયં તનકારીન ઈદાવીનતાને તછન્ન બ્રબન્ન કયી ળાસ્ત્ર-વંસ્કાય ઄ને ધભભ વંસ્કાયની વાથે વાથે પ્રજાકીમ ઩ણ પ્રતત઩ાદન કયુું તેઓ એક વંન્માવી શ૊લા છતાં તેઓ જાણતા શતા કે જમાં સુધી સ્લદે ળી જન૊ભાં ફ઱ નરશ લધે, સ્લદે ળભાં એક પ્રજા શ૊લાન૊ બાલ પ્રતતષ્ષ્ટ્ઠત નરશ થામ પ્રજાની અંદય એકતાનુ ં સ ૂત્ર દ્રષ્ષ્ટ્ટભ ૂત નરશ થામ, ત્માં સુધી ધભભ-વંસ્કાય, ળાસ્ત્ર વંસ્કાય દે ળ૊ચ્ન્ન્ત વભાજ૊ન્નતત લગેયેભાનુ ં કશુ ં જ થઇ ળકલાનુ ં નથી. ભાટે યાષ્ટ્રીમ એકતા સ્થાત઩ત કયલી ખુફજ જફૃયી છે . મ ૂલમાંકન :ગુજયાતનુ ં ગોયલ વભાન દમાનંદ વયસ્લતી એ ઈત્તય બાયતભાં અમભ વભાજની સ્થા઩ના કયી બાયતીમ વભાજભાં ચેતના રાલલાનુ ં કામભ કયુું તેભને બાયતીમ વભાજભાં લ઴ોથી થઇ ગમેરા રયત-રયલાજ૊ના ઄થે વભજાલી ઄ને વાચા ઩થ ઩ય રાલલાનુ ં બગીયથ કામભ કયુ.ું તેભણે ર૊ક૊ને એક સુત્ર અપ્યુ ં શતુ ં કે ‘લેદ૊ તયપ ઩ાછા લ઱૊’ ઄ને લેદાંત ક૊રેજની સ્થા઩ના કયી શતી. અભ, તેના ખયા ઩ુરુ઴ાથભ દ્વાયા વભાજભાં ઘણા ઩રયલતભન૊ અવ્મા શતા અથી તેઓ બાયતના આતતશાવના ઩ાનાં ઩ય સુલણભ ઄ક્ષય૊થી કંડાયામેરા છે . વંદબક ગ્રંથો ૧) અત્ભકથા ભ.દમાનંદ’ (ગુજયાતી)- દળભન મ૊ગ ભશાતલદ્યારમ પ્રકાળન – વાફયકાંઠા ૨) दे श भक्तत (दहन्दी)- તલજ્ઞાન સુધાય- VIRTUOS PUBLICATIONS – DELHI ૩) ववश्व-प्रलसद्ध लशऺाशास्त्त्री – प्रो. कृष्ट्णमर्ू तक सरु े न्रकुमार एंड सन्ज – ददल्ऱी ૪) સ્લાભી દમાનંદ વયસ્લતી (તલચાય-તલશ્રે઴ણ) – ડૉ બાલનીરાર બાયતીમ – દળભન મ૊ગ ભશાતલદ્યારમ – વાફયકાંઠા ૫) નેટ

May – August, 2014

(186)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

DCFEFZTDF\ ÒJG;FO<I RF{CF6 ÒT[gãS]DFZ VZXLEF.1

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(187)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

DlCDF4 DFTFl5TF ;[JFGM DlCDF4 zFâFSD" VG[ DlCDFP EF.vAC[G4 DFTFvl5TF4 U]Z] ;FY[GM JTF"JP DF; VG[ lTlYGL ;DH4 ~5 ;F{\NI" VG[ ,MSl5|ITFGL 5|Fl%T4 5lTJ|TF :+LGF ST"jIM4 NL3F"I]QI DF8[GF SDM"4 :JU"4 GZS4 p¿DvVWD S]/DF\ HgD4 ZFHWD"4 VlC\;FGM DlCDF4 S<IF6SFZL VFRFZ jIJCFZ4 V5\UtJ DF8[ HJFANFZ SDM"4 EFuIGL 5|WFGTF4 lGtI :DZ6LI GNL4 N[JTF4 5J"T4 klQF4 ZFHFVMGF GFD4 ÒJGGL UlTlJlW4 I7GM DlCDF4 DDtJ tIFU4 J{Q6JWD"4 UFI+LH5GM DlCDF JU[Z[ VG[S AFATM DFGJG[ ÒJG ;FO<I A1FJF ;DY" K[P DCFEFZTG]\ lJXF/ lJQFIJ:T] ;DU| DFGJÒJGGL lJ8\A6FVM4 DGMEFZ4 J{ZFuI4 DDtJG[ pS[,L VF5T]\ ÒJG;FO<I A1F[ K[P H~Z K[ DF+ VF ÒJG;FO<IGF VFRZ6GM ÒJGDF\ VD, SZJFGLP VFW]lGS DFGJÒJGDF\ H[ lJ1F[5M 50IF K[ T[G]\ SFZ6 DCFEFZT lGlN"Q8 VF DFGJWD"G[ E},L HJFG]\ VF56]\ ;FC; K[ VG[ T[G[ ,LW[ H VF56G[ VFHGM I]U cDGMEFZ I]Uc H6FI K[P 5ZDFY" ;¿F J0[ VF56[ ;F{ VJTZ[,F CM.V[ tIFZ[ T[GF A\WGYL VF56[ D]ST XL ZLT[ ZCL XSLV[P DCFEFZTSFZ V[8,[ H TM 5MSFZL 5MSFZLG[ VF56G[ VF jIF5S lJ`JWD"G]\ ;[JG SZJF SC[ K[P JQFM" 5}J[" DFGJG[ VF XF`JTWD"YL lJRl,T AGL HTM HM. :JI\ jIF;Ò VS/F. p9IF CTF tIFZ[ T[VM SNFR VFH[ CIFT CMT TM VF56L VF VFW]lGS DFGJ;\:S'lTG[ HM. RMWFZ VF\;]V[ Z0L 50IF CMT V[ VlTXIMlSTZlCT K[P ;D:T DFGJÒJGG[ DW]Z AGFJGFZM cDCFEFZTc H[JM U|\Y lXZMDl6 HIF\ ;]WL VF ;'lQ8DF\ CIFT CMI tIF\ ;]WL DFGJDF DFGJTFGL VMK5 XL ZLT[ m ÒJG 5|tI[ GOZT XF DF8[ m TM RF,M VFHYL H VF56L DCFE}, V[JF DFGJWD"G[ lJ;ZL HJFGF S,\SG[ DCFEFZTGF ;CFZ[ E}\;L GFBLV[P jIlSTGF Z;4 Z]lR D]HA T[ H[ jIJ;FIDF HM0FI T[DF\YL T[G[ 5MTFGL S,F AN,GM VG[ZM VFG\N 5|F%T YFI K[P VFJL jIlSTG[ 5KL VFHGF DFGJGL H[D 5MTFGF SFI"DF\ S\8F/M S[ ZMH ;F\H 50I[ lYI[8ZMDF\ VFG\N ,[JF HJ]\ 50T]\ GYLP VFH[ VF56[ J'âFzDMGM H[ lJSF; SIM" K[ T[ 5[,L VFzD jIJ:YFGF A\WGG[ TM0L N[JFG[ SFZ6[ YIM K[P DCFEFZT[ NXF"J[, GFZLGM DlCDF4 DIF"NFGM K0[RMS E\U SZL VFHGL GFZL ,}\8FJF ,FUL K[P XZLZWD" 5|tI[ pNF;LGTF ;[JL VG[S lADFZLVMG[ VFD\+L K[P ,uG5|YF VG[ IMuI JZvSgIFGF ,1F6MG[ KFJZL ,uGlJrK[NG[ 5|l;wW SIM" K[P ;FZFvGZ;F\ SDM"GL VlEgGTFV[ VGFIF;[ 5F5GF EFULNFZ AgIF KLV[P ZFHWD"G[ E},L XF;SMV[ ;ZD]BtIFZG[ V5GFjIM K[P ;tI4 VlC\;F4 ;[JF4 :T]lT4 ;\:FFZGL VlGtITFG[ E},L VFH[ VF56[ S[8S[8,]\ ÒJG ;FO<I D[/jI]\ K[ V[ TM SM. ÒJGlJD]B AGL E8STF\ DFGJG[ 5}KLV[ TM H BAZ 50[P DCFEFZT VF AWL H AFATMDF\ XF`JTWD" 5|[lZT VFRZ6M ;]RJL T[DF\YL ÒJG;FO<IG[ 5|F%T SZFJ[ K[P :JI\ jIF;ÒV[ 5MTFGL +6 5[-L ;]WL DFGJÒJGGL UlTlJWG[ lGCF/L :JI\ 5ZDFtDFGF ;DY"G[ VF ÒJG;FO<I 5|NlX"T SI]" CMI 5|tI[S DFGJ DF8[ T[ VG];Z6LI K[P XF`JTWD"GF VFRZ6YL ÒJGG[ WgITF A1FL 5ZD;¿FGF VF DFGJ VJTFZGF k6DF\YL VF56[ 5ZDD]lST D[/JL XSLV[ T[D KLV[P C]\ HIFZ[ ÒJG;FO<I 5|F%T SZLX tIFZ[ HUT DG[ DFGJL D8F0L cDFGJc U6JF 5|[ZFX[ V[DF\ DG[ ;\5}6" zâF K[P Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

(189)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

May – August, 2014

Creative Space : International Journal

(190)

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

ISSN 2347-1689

(191)

May – August, 2014


ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

New Issue Published

Please Visit : www.dalitsahitya.com લધુ ભારશતી ભાટે વં઩કભ કય૊ : 09408110030 May – August, 2014

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

Books Publication Sangharsh Publication # 191, Sector-19 B, Pocket B, Near OPG School, DDA MS Flats, Sanskriti Apartments Dwarka, New Delhi-110075

And

EKLAVYA PRAKASHAN Tirupati Nagar, 'MAHEK' Dist. Junagadh, Mangrol - 362225 Gujarat-India E-Mail : prakashaneklavya@gmail.com

हमारे पाठक और िेखक ईपयुजि प्रकाशन के माध्यम से ऄपनी दकताब प्रकािशत करवा सकते है. पुमतक प्रकाशन के ििए हमें संपकज करें

हरे श ऩरमार

सहायक संऩादक : संघषक

E-Mail : editorsangharsh@gmail.com And prakashaneklavya@gmail.com Web. : www.dalitsahitya.com http://eklavyapublication.in

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ISSN 2347-1689

Creative Space : International Journal

Global Journal of Enterprise Information System में शोध अिेख प्रकािशत करने हेतु संपकज करे : Haresh Parmar Mo. 09408110030 and mail : hareshgujarati@gmail.com

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Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04


Creative Space : International Journal

ISSN 2347-1689

Old Issue Creative Space : Intrnational Journal (ISSN : 2347-1689)

Haresh Parmar Mo. 09408110030 Vol. 02, Issue – 03-04

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Creative space : International Journal vol 2 issue 3 4 2014  

Creative Space : International Journal (Bi-monthly – Refereed & Peer Reviewed Journal) Multi-Lingual and Multi-Disciplinary ISSN 2347-1689 M...

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