Grade 10 - Book 2

Page 1

ID


SAT Plan - G.10 2nd Term Date

Class

Due

-

Mon

1

-

-

Tues

2

-

-

Mon

3

 Vocab.-16

-

Tues

4

 HW-16

-

Mon

5

 Vocab.-17

-

Tues

6

 HW-17

-

Mon

7

 Vocab.-18

-

Tues

8

 HW-18

-

Mon

9

 Vocab.-19

-

Tues

10

 HW-19

-

Mon

11

 Vocab.-20

-

Tues

12

 HW-20

-

Mon

13

 Vocab.-21

-

Tues

14

 HW-21

-

Mon

15

 Vocab.-22

-

Tues

16

 HW-22

-

Mon

17

 Vocab.-23

-

Tues

18

 HW-23

-

Mon

19

 Vocab.-24

-

Tues

20

 HW-24

-

Mon

21

 Vocab.-25

-

Tues

22

 HW-25

-

Mon

23

 Vocab.-26

-

Tues

24

 HW-26

-

Mon

25

 Vocab.-27

-

Tues

26

 HW-27

-

Mon

27

 Vocab.-28

-

Tues

28

 HW-28

-

Mon

29

 Vocab.-29

-

Tues

30

 HW-29

-

Mon

31

 Vocab.-30

-

Tues

32

 HW-30

Demo  Main Idea-2 (R)  Tenses (G)  Reason-2 (R)  Conjunctions (G)  Meaning-2 (R)  Subject Verb (G)  Inference-2 (R)  Pronouns (G)  Tone-Attitude-2 (R)  Parallelism (G)  Redundancy (G)  Comparison-2 (R)  Vocab. Review  Wordiness (G)  Main Idea-3 (R)  Review

Classwork

Next

Passage = 1-A - 1-B

 HW-16

Passage = 2-A - 2-B

 Vocab.-16

Passage = 3-A - 3-B

 HW-17

Passage = 4-A - 4-B

 Vocab.-17

Passage = 5-A - 5-B

 HW-18

Passage = 6-A - 6-B

 Vocab.-18

Passage = 7-A - 7-B

 HW-19

Passage = 8-A - 8-B

 Vocab.-19

Passage = 9-A - 9-B

 HW-20

Passage = 10-A - 10-B

 Vocab.-20

Passage = 11-A - 11-B

 HW-21

Passage = 12-A - 12-B

 Vocab.-21

Passage = 13-A - 13-B

 HW-22

Passage = 14-A - 14-B

 Vocab.-22

Passage = 15-A - 15-B

 HW-23

Passage = 16-A - 16-B

 Vocab.-23

Passage = 17-A - 17-B

 HW-24

Passage = 18-A - 18-B

 Vocab.-24

Passage = 19-A - 19-B

 HW-25

Passage = 20-A - 20-B

 Vocab.-25

Passage = 21-A - 21-B

 HW-26

Passage = 22-A - 22-B

 Vocab.-26

Passage = 23-A - 23-B Passage = 24-A - 24-B

 HW-27

Passage = 25-A - 25-B

 HW-28

Passage = 26-A - 26-B Passage = 27-A - 27-B Passage = 28-A - 28-B Passage = 29-A - 29-B Passage = 30-A - 30-B Passage = 31-A - 31-B Passage = 32-A - 32-B

www.HanyMahdy.net

 Vocab.-27  Vocab.-28  HW-29  Vocab.-29  HW-30  Vocab.-30 -


Literature Plan (G.10) Macbeth Quarter (3) Week

Topic

Homework

Prepare

1

 Act (1-A)

HW-1

 Notes (2)

2

 Act (1-B)

HW-2

 Notes (3)

3

 Act (2-A)

HW-3

 Notes (4)

4

 Act (2-B)

HW-4

 Notes (5)

5

 Act (3-A)

HW-5

 Review (1)

6

 Review (1)

HW-6

 Review (2)

7

 Review (2)

HW-7

 Review (3)

8

 Review (3)

HW-8

-

Macbeth Quarter (4) 1

 Act (3-B)

 HW-1

 Notes (7)

2

 Act (4-A)

 HW-2

 Notes (8)

3

 Act (4-B)

 HW-3

 Notes (9)

4

 Act (5-A)

 HW-4

 Notes (10)

5

 Act (5-B)

 HW-5

 Review (1)

6

 Review (1)

 HW-6

 Review (2)

7

 Review (2)

 HW-7

 Review (3)

8

 Review (3)

 HW-8

-


Apps & Links      

Website email Telegram Zoom Google Meet YouTube

     

hanymahdy.net hanymahdy@gmail.com Browser  t.me/Sakkara_10  Join Channel Contacts  Add  hanymahdy@gmail.com People  Add People  hanymahdy@gmail.com Browser  bit.ly/hanymahdy  Subscribe

Vocabulary


Vocab. (1)

Vocabulary One  Abandon

2.

 Accelerate

3.

 accomplished

 to leave o The house was abandoned many years ago.  to move faster

o We need to accelerate climate action.  very successful — very skilled

o Orwell was an accomplished English writer.  exact

 Acquire

6.

 Adapt

7.

 Adequate

8.

 Adhere

9.

 Adjust

o He acquired the habit of thinking loudly.  to change o Some animals couldn’t adapt to climate changes and finally died.  enough

H

r. M 10.

 to get

M

5.

o We hope to become more accurate in predicting earthquakes.

y

 Accurate

an

4.

ah dy

1.

 Advantage

o She makes an adequate amount of money.  to obey - to follow o You should adhere to the rules.  to make small changes o I adjusted the volume on the radio.  a positive point o Speed is an advantage in most sports.


Vocab. (2)

Two 1.

 Adverse

 difficult o She lived in adverse conditions.  to support

 Advocate

o Doctors advocate healthy eating for the children.

 Affection

4.

 Allusion

 strong love

o She has deep affection for her parents.  an indirect reference

o He made an allusion to a secret plan.

M

3.

ah dy

2.

 another choice  Alternative

o We planned an outdoor wedding, but we have

y

5.

6.

an

an alternative location if it rains.  Ambiguous

 confusing

o I was confused by his ambiguous message.

7.

H

 having strong desire for success

 Ambitious

o The company was created by two ambitious

r.

young men.

 Analogous

M

8. 9.

10.

 Ancestor

 Anecdote

 similar o My situation is analogous to yours.  one from whom a person is descended o Her ancestors came to America in the 1850.  a short story o He told us many anecdotes about his childhood.


Vocab. (3)

Three  great sadness

2.

 Anguish

o He watched in anguish as fire spread through the house.  unknown

 Anonymous

ah dy

1.

o The donor wishes to remain anonymous.  to expect - to predict

 Anticipate

4.

 Approximately

5.

 Assert

o The organizers of the fair anticipate a large crowd.  nearly

o The cost will be approximately 500 euros.

M

3.

 to say that something is true

y

o He asserted that he was innocent.  a belief without proof

 Assumption

o Many scientific assumptions about Mars were wrong.

an

6.

 amazed

 Astonished

8.

 Attempt

M

r.

H

7.

9.

 Autonomy

o The doctors were astonished at the speed of his recovery.  trying o This is my second attempt at the exam.  independence o Our teacher encourages individual autonomy.  unfair preference

10.

 Bias

o The manager was fired because of his bias against the workers.


Vocab. (4)

Four 1.

 distract

 Blur

o The sentence blurs the focus of the essay.  increase

 Boost

3.

 Broad

o In order to boost profits, you need to look for new customers.  wide

o The store has a broad selection of cell phones.  a heavy load

 Burden

o A huge burden was lifted off my shoulders when I finished my exams.

M

4.

ah dy

2.

 hiding from enemies  Camouflage

6.

 Category

o The rabbit's white fur acts as a camouflage in the snow.

y

5.

an

 division

o The two cars belong to the same category.

 disorder

 Chaos

8.

 Cherish

r. M 9.

o When the police arrived, the streets were in total chaos.

H

7.

 Chronological

 to love - to value o I cherish my independence.  arranged in order of time o The movie features the World War II in chronological order.  to quote

10.

 Cite

o In his essay, Randy must cite the opinions of several experts.


Vocab. (5)

Five 1.

 to state without proof

 Claim

o He claimed that he saw a UFO.  unity

 Coherence

o My group walked in coherence; we all moved hand in hand.

ah dy

2.

 events happening at the same time by accident

3.

 Coincidence

4.

 Collaborate

5.

 Compelling

6.

 Compensate

7.

 Competent

o The competent mechanic managed to fix the engine in a short time.  to collect

8.

 Compile

o The publisher will compile 500 poems into one book.  including everything

o By coincidence, every child in the class has a twin.  to work together

M

o The two companies agreed to collaborate.  captivating

y

o It was a compelling movie about living on the moon.  to pay for work or damages

M

r.

H

an

o Nothing can compensate for the loss of one's home.  skilled

9.

 Comprehensive

10.

 Compromise

o Our software needs a comprehensive update.  settling a disagreement o After hours of negotiations, a compromise was reached.


Vocab. (6)

Six  Conceal

2.

 Concept

 principle - idea o She is familiar with basic concepts of physics.

5.

 Conduct

6.

 Confess

7.

 Conflict

8.

 Consequence

M

 Condemn

y

4.

o Many people are very concerned about the destruction of the rainforests.  to criticize strongly o We strongly condemn the attacks against civilians.  to carry out o The group conducted the research in Australia.  to admit

o He finally confessed his crime.  struggle o The theme of the book is the conflict between good and evil.  result o The earthquake had devastating consequences.  to regard - to think deeply o This man is considered a hero in Palestine

r.

H

an

 Concerned

 Consider

M 10.

o He had a spy camera concealed in his pocket.

 worried - interested

3.

9.

 to hide

ah dy

1.

 Considerable

 large o We received a considerable number of complaints.


Vocab. (7)

Seven 1.

 Contemplate

 to think deeply o He contemplated his future career.  modern

 Contemporary

o This magazine focuses on the contemporary fashion.

ah dy

2.

 the text before and after a word in a passage  Context

4.

 Contradict

o The meaning of this word can be understood in context.  to oppose

o The lab results contradict his theory.

M

3.

 to donate money or time

6.

 Controversy

7.

 Convenient

o Bill Gates has contributed billions of dollars to Africa.

y

 Contribute

 debate

an

5.

o VAR caused controversy at World Cup 2018.

H

 easy o It is very convenient to pay by credit card.  traditional

 Conventional

M

r.

8.

9.

10.

 Convey

 Convince

o Most of her books are conventional detective stories.

 to mean - to express o His look conveyed all the love he felt for his mother.  to persuade o I convinced him to leave immediately.


Vocab. (8)

Eight

2.

 Crisis

3.

 Criteria

4.

 Criticize

5.

 Crucial

ah dy

 Counterargument

M

1.

 an opposing point of view o In our conversation, I offered the obvious counterargument.  a critical situation o A year ago, our company was in crisis.  standards o What are the criteria for selecting the national team players?  to discuss the positive and negative points o The writer criticized the novel in his review.  Very important o Takeoff and Landing are the most crucial moments in any flight.

7.

 Declare

8.

 Decline

y

 Custom

o It is the custom for the bride to wear a white dress.

r.

H

an

6.

 tradition

 Deficient

10.

 Deliberate

M

9.

 to announce o America declared war on Japan in 1941.  to decrease o The numbers of the white tiger are declining.  not enough o A diet deficient in calcium can lead to weak bones.  intentional o The car accident seems to be deliberate.


Vocab. (9)

Nine

 Depict

3.

 Deplete

4.

 Deteriorate

5.

 Determine

6.

 Diction

7.

 Dignity

8.

 Diminish

ah dy

2.

M

 Demonstrate

 to decide

o I determined that one day I would be an actor.

y

1.

 to show clearly o Would you kindly demonstrate how the car engine works?  to describe o I like the way he depicts the characters in his novel.  to use up o Logging and mining deplete our natural resources.  to become worse o Rain and sun will gradually deteriorate the paint.

an

 choice of words

o The student's essay was full of clever diction.

 self-respect

r.

H

o He wished to quit the job with dignity.  to decrease - to reduce o The side effects of this medicine will diminish over time.  to hide o He disguised himself as a guard and could finally escape.  to refuse o Let’s not dismiss the idea without discussing it deeply.

 disguise

10.

 Dismiss

M

9.


Vocab. (10)

Ten  disagreement 1.

 Dispute

o We couldn’t settle our dispute over work

 Distinct

4.

 Distinguish

5.

 Distract

6.

 Diversity

o Each herb has its own distinct flavor.  to recognize the difference

o We can distinguish between right and wrong.  disturb

o I was distracted by the loud noise.  Variety

 Divert

8.

 Domestic

o The island has a great diversity in plant life.

 to redirect

M

r.

H

7.

9.

 clearly different

an

3.

o The barking dogs disrupted my sleep.

M

 Disrupt

y

2.

 to interrupt

ah dy

conditions.

 Dominate

o The traffic was diverted to a side street.

 related to home or country o My husband is an expert at domestic work.  to control o The team dominated the second half of the game.  inactive- asleep

10.

 Dormant

o Although the volcano remained dormant for 50 years, it suddenly erupted.


Vocab. (11)

Eleven  long-lasting 1.

 Durable

2.

 Efficiency

3.

 Ego

o I'm glad he got the job; he needed something to boost his ego.  to give more details

4.

 Elaborate

o Who can elaborate on the main theme of the short story?  remove

5.

 Eliminate

o Doctors seek to eliminate the causes of the disease.  to come out

6.

 Emerge

7.

 Eminent

9.

10.

ah dy

M

y

an

o The cat emerged from its hiding place behind the couch.  famous

H

r.  Emphasize

M

8.

o The washing machine is made of durable materials.  the good use of time, money, or energy o Sweden has shown the best model of energy efficiency.  self-esteem

 Endure  Engaging

o The eminent scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize.  to highlight o The SAT teacher emphasized the need for continuous practice.  to bear - to tolerate o I cannot endure another day; it’s been three weeks of exams!  charming o The children were watching an engaging movie.


Vocab. (12)

Twelve 1.

 Enhance

 to improve o Robots have enhanced automobile production.  a difficult project

 Enterprise

o Sending a spaceship to Mars is an expensive enterprise.  excited

 Entirely

5.

 Eradicate

6.

 Essential

7.

 Establish

 completely

M

4.

o He seems very enthusiastic about his role in the new play. o The house was entirely renovated.  to destroy completely

o The enemy has been completely eradicated.

y

 Enthusiastic

 very important

an

3.

ah dy

2.

o It's essential to make regular check-ups.

 to set up

H

o Harvard College was established in 1636.

 to calculate something roughly

 Estimate

M

r.

8.

9.

10.

 Eternal  Ethical

o We need to estimate how much paint we'll need for the room.  lasting forever o This life is not eternal.  moral o Is it ethical to employ children?


Vocab. (13)

Thirteen 1.

 Eventually

2.

 Evolve

3.

 Excavate

4.

 Exceed

5.

 Exhibit

 Finally o The racer could eventually finish the marathon.  to develop gradually

 to dig out

o The archaeologists excavated a new statue.  to go beyond  to show

M

o The cost will exceed 1000 dollars.

o The child exhibited some signs of the disease.  direct

o We were given explicit instructions to keep order.

y

 Explicit

an

6.

ah dy

o The company has evolved into a major technology corporation.

 to take selfish advantage of

 Exploit

o The factory owner exploited the workers; therefore, they went on a strike.

H

7.

 not protected

 Exposed

r.

8.

 Facilitate

M

9.

10.

 Figurative

o You should not be exposed to the sun all day long.

 to make easier o To facilitate learning, each class has no larger than ten students.  symbolic o The poem is full of figurative language.


Vocab. (14)

Fourteen  results o She published her findings in a medical journal.  to grow - to achieve success

 Findings

2.

 Flourish

o Technology markets have flourished in recent years.  to rise and fall in waves

3.

 Fluctuate

4.

 Forecast

o In the desert, the temperature fluctuates dramatically.  to predict

5.

 Foreshadow

o The dark clouds foreshadow an approaching storm.  basis

6.

 Foundation

7.

 Fragile

o The inspector discovered a crack in the house's foundation.  easily broken or damaged

8.

 Fragment

ah dy

1.

an

y

M

o Amazon forecasts high profits this year.  to give a warning

r.

H

o Be careful with that vase; it's very fragile.  a broken piece

 Fulfill

10.

 Fundamental

M

9.

o The road was covered with fragments of glass from the shattered window.

 to achieve o If we could buy this house, our dream would be fulfilled.  basic o We need to make some fundamental changes in our business.


Vocab. (15)

Fifteen  real - honest  Genuine

2.

 Gradual

3.

 Grief

o He has always shown a genuine concern for poor people.  happening slowly

ah dy

1.

o We noticed a gradual change in temperature.  great sadness

o Grief can cause a physical pain.  agreement

5.

 Hierarchy

6.

 Hostile

o The pilot and his copilot were working in harmony.

M

 Harmony

 ranking from highest to lowest o He was at the top of the company hierarchy.

y

4.

 related to an enemy

an

o He was entering hostile territory.

 false pretending

 Hypocrisy

o I hate the hypocrisy of those who say one thing but do another.

H

7.

 theory

 Hypothesis

M

r.

8. 9.

10.

 Identity

 illusion

o Scientists will set up some experiments to test out the new hypothesis.  name - character o The identity of the criminal is not known.  a false idea o A large mirror in a room can create the illusion of more space.


Vocab. (16)

Sixteen  to explain - to give an example  illustrate

2.

 immersed

o The diagram illustrates the bad effects of smoking on health.  deeply involved o He was immersed in his new project.

ah dy

1.

 Coming into another country to live permanently

 immigration

4.

 immortal

 impact

6.

 implicit

o No human is immortal.

an

y

o The goalkeeper has a great impact on the team.  indirect o There is a sense of moral duty implicit in her writings.

 to suggest

r.

H

 imply

 indicate

M

8.

 never dying  effect

5.

7.

o He plans an immediate immigration to Canada.

M

3.

9.

 inevitable

10.

 infamous

o What does the writer imply in the first paragraph?

 to show o The map indicates where the treasure is buried.  certain to happen o I think our loss is inevitable.  famous for evil actions o He is infamous for his war crimes. 


Vocab. (17)

Seventeen  to conclude

1.

 infer

2.

 influence

o What can you infer from the passage?

ah dy

 Initial

5.

 innovation

6.

 inquiry

7.

 integral

8.

 integrity

M

4.

o We need to spend more money on repairing the city infrastructure.  first o The initial earthquake was followed by a series of aftershocks.  a new idea, method, or device o This is the latest innovation in TV technology.  request - investigation

y

 infrastructure

an

o Facebook didn’t respond to our privacy inquiry.  very important o He played an integral role in the success of the company.  honesty

H

r. M 10.

o Her parents have a great influence on her.  structures needed for a society

3.

9.

 effect

 Interaction

 interpretation

o He was a man of the highest integrity.  communication o There's not enough interaction between the manager and the employees.  explanation o His email needs further interpretation.


Vocab. (18)

Eighteen  to occupy

 invade

o Germany invaded France in 1940.  to examine

 investigate

3.

 irony

4.

 irrational

o The police department is investigating the cause of the accident.  a situation that seems contrary to what you expect o When he went to the police station for help, he got arrested. What an irony!  unreasonable

ah dy

2.

M

1.

o Cats have irrational fear of cucumbers.  to put in danger

 Jeopardize

6.

 Judgment

7.

 Legacy

8.

 lethal

o His health has been jeopardized by poor nutrition.  opinion o In my judgment, we shouldn't change our plan.  something remaining from the past

an

y

5.

r.

H

o She left us a legacy of a five novels.

 Lethargy

10.

 Liability

M

9.

 deadly o These chemicals are lethal to fish.

 tiredness - drowsiness o The medicine causes loss of appetite and lethargy.  legal responsibility o He admitted liability for the accident.


Vocab. (19)

Nineteen  to keep - to continue  Maintain

o The pilot could easily maintain control of the aircraft.  to control something to your advantage

2.

 Manipulate

3.

 Mature

o She manipulated the media to make people believe she was innocent.  fully grown

 Meticulous

6.

 Migration

7.

 Modify

o He described the scene in meticulous details.  moving in winter to another place o Flocks of birds assemble before migration.  to make small changes o He modified the recipe by using oil instead of butter.

H

 Momentous

M

r.

8.

o I found him sitting alone, deep in meditation.  very careful

M

5.

 thinking carefully

y

 Meditation

o The grapes will be mature next month.

an

4.

ah dy

1.

9.

 Motivate

10.

 Multitude

 very important o My graduation was a momentous day in my life.  to encourage o Acting can motivate students to study literature.  a very large number o He was captivated by the multitude of stars in the sky.


Vocab. (20)

Twenty  shared between two people  Mutual

2.

 Narrator

3.

 Nocturnal

o Mutual respect is the key to their successful friendship.  storyteller

ah dy

1.

o The novel has a female narrator.  active at night

o Most owls are nocturnal.  famous for evil actions

 Nourish

o Our neighbor is notorious for his violent arguments.  to feed

o We need to nourish our brains with reading.

y

5.

 Notorious

M

4.

6.

an

 many

 Numerous

o He received numerous awards in his first season.

 Objective

r.

7.

H

 neutral

 Oblivious

M

8. 9.

10.

 Obscure  Obsessive

o I can't be objective when I'm judging my brother's work.

 unaware o The driver was oblivious of the speed limit.  unclear o The main idea of the passage is obscure.  thinking too much about something o He is obsessive about space travel.


Vocab. (21)

Twenty-One  something that blocks your way 1.

 Obstacle

o The major obstacle to open the restaurant is money.  very clear

 Obvious

3.

 Ominous

o Her doctor noticed the obvious signs of the disease.  suggesting evil

o The enemy spoke in an ominous tone.  chance

 Opportunity

o There are few job opportunities for students this summer.

M

4.

ah dy

2.

 showing hope for the future

6.

 Outline

 Paradox

M

8. 9.

10.

 to describe generally o He outlined his plan for the next game.

 to defeat

H

 Overcome

r.

7.

o He is optimistic about his chances of winning a gold medal.

y

 Optimistic

an

5.

 Partially  Perish

o I am trying to overcome my fear of flying.

 contradiction o “Every end is a new beginning.” What a paradox!

 not completely o The building was partially destroyed in the fire.  to die o Nobody perished in the accident.


Vocab. (22)

Twenty-Two  Permanent

2.

 Persistent

 unchanging - lasting forever o He was looking for a permanent job in NASA.  continuing despite difficulties o Be persistent; don't give up.  point of view

3.

 Perspective

ah dy

1.

o From a personal perspective, I think you should travel abroad.  expecting the worst to happen

5.

 Phenomenon

6.

 Phobia

7.

 Plausible

o Most doctors were pessimistic about the surgery.

M

 Pessimistic

 a rare event

o The lunar eclipse is a natural phenomenon.

y

4.

an

 having a strong fear o His fear of heights developed into a phobia.

H

 reasonable o Your suggestion is not plausible.

 a large amount

 Plenty

M

r.

8.

9.

10.

 Portion

 Posterity

o We have plenty of time to prepare for the graduation.

 part o A large portion of the city was flooded.  future generations o We must achieve freedom for ourselves and our posterity.


Vocab. (23)

Twenty-Three 1.

 to express admiration

 Praise

o He should be praised for his hard work.  to come before

 Precede

o Smoke and loud noises preceded the

ah dy

2.

volcanic eruption.

3.

 Precisely

 exactly

o I measured the length of the board precisely.  someone or something replaced by another

5.

 Preserve

o The new manager learned from his predecessor's mistakes.

M

 Predecessor

 to keep something protected o Salt can be used to preserve meat.

y

4.

an

 advantage - chance

 Privilege

7.

 Procedures

8.

 Proficient

r. M 9.

10.

o I had the privilege of meeting your grandfather.

 steps

H

6.

 Profound  Prohibit

o He failed to follow the safety procedures.

 skillful o She is proficient in two foreign languages.  deep o His knowledge of history is profound.  to prevent o Smoking is prohibited in this restaurant.


Vocab. (24)

Twenty-Four  Prominent

2.

 Promote

 well-known o The company became prominent in the 1990s.  to support - to advance o Good soil promotes plant growth.  to suggest

4.

 Prosper

5.

 Purchase

 Pursue

o He hopes his business will prosper.  to buy

o He purchased a new suit for his wedding.  goal

o The purpose of the new resort is to attract more tourists.

an

7.

 to grow - to achieve success

 to follow - to seek o The car was pursued by helicopters.

H

6.

 Purpose

o The city council proposed a plan for a new bridge.

M

 Propose

y

3.

ah dy

1.

 basic - extreme

 Radical

M

r.

8.

9.

10.

 Rapid

 Rational

o We need to make some radical changes to our apartment.  quick o Thank you for your rapid response to my question.  reasonable o Human beings are rational creatures.


Vocab. (25)

Twenty-Five  to protest

1.

 Rebel

2.

 Reclaim

3.

 Reconcile

4.

 Regulations

o You should rebel against injustice.  to get back  to end conflict

o We could finally reconcile our differences.  rules

o Each company has a set of regulations.

6.

 Reject

o The engineers built a new wall to reinforce the dam.

y

 Reinforce

M

 to support 5.

ah dy

o He reclaimed the title of world champion.

an

 to refuse

o Our offer was completely rejected.

 a release from worry

 Relief

8.

 Reluctant

9.

 Remedy

r. M 10.

o I felt such a sense of relief after I finished my exams.

H

7.

 Renovate

 unwilling o He is reluctant to talk about politics.  solution - medicine o The problem was beyond remedy.  to renew o We renovated the kitchen last summer.


Vocab. (26)

Twenty-Six  Renowned

2.

 Represent

3.

 Resemble

4.

 Restrained

5.

 Reveal

o Einstein was a renowned scientist.  to act in behalf of someone else o The lawyer represented his client in court.  to look like

o He resembles his father.  controlled

o He was admired for his restrained behavior.

M

 to make known - to show

o She would not reveal the secret.  to respect deeply

y

 Revere

o The family reveres old traditions.

an

6.

 famous

ah dy

1.

 using language effectively

 Rhetorical

8.

 Rural

r.

H

7.

 Seek

M

9.

10.

 Sentimental

o My question was rhetorical. I wasn't really expecting an answer.

 related to the countryside o Their cottage is in an amazing rural setting.

 to look for o You should visit your doctor and seek his advice.  emotional o When I think about my childhood, I get very sentimental.


Vocab. (27)

Twenty-Seven

 Simulate

 Simultaneously

4.

 Skeptical

5.

 Slightly

6.

 Solidarity

7.

 Solitude

8.

 Sophisticated

H

r. M 9.

10.

 at the same time o To drive a car, you learn to do several things simultaneously.  doubtful o When I said I finished reading the passage early, my teacher looked skeptical.  a little o He is slightly taller than his brother.  unity o There was a great feeling of solidarity between the students.  being alone

an

3.

o The model will be used to simulate the effects of an earthquake.

ah dy

2.

o The discovery has great significance to researchers.  imitate

M

 Significance

y

1.

 importance

 Speculation

 Spiritual

o She wished to work on her novel in solitude.  advanced - complex o The corporation has a sophisticated computer network.  guessing without evidence o The book has many speculations about the future.  related to the soul o Traditional ways of life focused on our spiritual needs.


Vocab. (28)

Twenty-Eight 1.

 Spontaneous

 done in a natural way o The audience began a spontaneous applause.  a collection of data

 Statistics

o The statistics show that women live longer than men.  very large

3.

 Substantial

o A substantial number of people lost their savings.

 Superficial

 not deep

y

5.

o We bought sufficient food for our camping trip. o I had a superficial knowledge of the topic.

an

 Sufficient

M

 enough 4.

ah dy

2.

 a number of questions asked to collect data

 Survey

H

6.

o The survey found some interesting facts about our eating habits.

 to doubt

 Suspect

r.

7.

 Suspicious

9.

 Symbol

10.

 Sympathy

M

8.

o If you suspect a gas leak do not strike a match or use electricity.  doubtful o She died in suspicious circumstances.  representation o A dove is a symbol of peace.  caring for the suffering of another person o We had great sympathy for the flood victims.


Vocab. (29)

Twenty-Nine  to happen at the same time - to update  Synchronize

 Temporary

3.

 Thesis

4.

 Thrilled

5.

 Thrive

o We disagreed with the thesis of the report.  excited - very happy

M

o I was thrilled to visit Paris again.  to grow - to achieve success

o These plants can thrive with little sunlight.

7.

 Transition

8.

 Treacherous

 to bear

o These ants can tolerate temperatures that would kill other species.  change

an

 Tolerate

o The country made a successful transition from agriculture to industry.  disloyal

H

r.  Trend

M 10.

o His job was temporary; he had to find another one.  the main idea - an academic paper

6.

9.

 for a short time

ah dy

2.

o The sound and picture have to synchronize perfectly.

y

1.

 Undermine

o We arrested a treacherous agent among us.  general direction - current style o Android technology is the latest trend in television.  to weaken o The flow of water undermined the pillars supporting the roof.


Vocab. (30)

Thirty  related to the city  Urban

o Pollution has reached high levels in some urban areas.  to make use of

2.

 Utilize

3.

 Validate

4.

 Vanguard

5.

 Vigilant

6.

 Vital

ah dy

1.

o You can utilize Microsoft Word to review the essay.  to prove to be true or legal  Pioneer

M

o The court validated the contract.

o He was the vanguard of country music.  alert

y

o The burglar was spotted by vigilant neighbors.

an

 very important

o Your heart is a vital organ.

 of free will - without payment

 Voluntary

8.

 Wary

r. M 9.

10.

o Participation in the program is completely voluntary.

H

7.

 Welfare

 Yield

 cautious o The store owner kept a wary eye on him.  well-being - happiness o The country provided free health coverage for the welfare of its citizens.  to give - to supply o We believe this soil will yield good crops.


Practice


1

1

Passage 1-A

 Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage. Barchester Towers The following passage is taken from Barchester Towers, Anthony Trollope’s novel set in the fictional cathedral town of Barchester, to which the family of Dr. Stanhope, a clergyman newly assigned to the cathedral, has just moved.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

The great family characteristic of the Stanhopes might probably be said to be heartlessness, but this want of feeling was, in most of them, accompanied by so great an amount of good nature as to make itself but little noticeable to the world. They were so prone to oblige their neighbors that their neighbors failed to perceive how indifferent to them was the happiness and well-being of those around them. The Stanhopes would visit you in your sickness (provided it were not contagious), would bring you oranges, French novels, and the last new bit of scandal, and then hear of your death or your recovery with an equally indifferent composure. Their conduct to each other was the same as to the world; they bore and forbore; and there was sometimes, as will be seen, much necessity for forbearing; but their love among themselves rarely reached above this. It is astonishing how much each of the family was able to do, and how much each did, to prevent the well being of the other four. (The elder daughter) Charlotte Stanhope was at this time about thirty-five years old; and, whatever may have been her faults, she had none of those that belong to old young ladies. She neither dressed young, nor talked young, nor indeed looked young. She appeared to be perfectly content with her time of life, and in no way affected the graces of youth. She was a fine young woman; and had she been a man, would have been a fine young man. All that was done in the house, and was not done by servants, was done by her. She gave the orders, paid the bills, hired and dismissed the domestics, made the tea, carved the meat, and managed everything in the Stanhope household. She, and she alone, could ever induce her father to look into the state of his worldly concerns. She, and she alone, could in any degree control the absurdities of her sister. She, and she alone, prevented the whole family from falling into

45)

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

utter disrepute and beggary. It was by her advice that they now found themselves very unpleasantly situated in Barchester. So far, the character of Charlotte Stanhope is not unprepossessing. But it remains to be said, that the influence that she had in her family, though it had been used to a certain extent for their worldly well-being, had not been used to their real benefit, as it might have been. She had aided her father in his indifference to his professional duties, counseling him that his livings were as much his individual property as the estates of his elder brother were the property of that worthy peer. She had for years past stifled every little rising wish for a return to England that the reverend doctor had from time to time expressed. She had encouraged her mother in her idleness in order that she herself might be mistress and manager of the Stanhope household. She had encouraged and fostered the follies of her sister, though she was always willing, and often able, to protect her from their probable result. She had done her best, and had thoroughly succeeded in spoiling her brother, and turning him loose upon the world an idle man without a profession, and without a shilling that he could call his own. Miss Stanhope was a clever woman, able to talk on most subjects, and quite indifferent as to what the subject was. She prided herself on her freedom from English prejudice, and she might have added, from feminine delicacy. On religion she was a pure freethinker, and with much want of true affection, delighted to throw out her own views before the troubled mind of her father. To have shaken what remained of his Church of England faith would have gratified her much; but the idea of his abandoning his preferment in the church had never once presented itself to her mind. How could he indeed, when he had no income from any other source?


1 The main purpose of the passage is to A. explain the reasons behind a family’s return to England. B. describe a main character’s moral and intellectual temperament. C. analyze family dynamics in an aristocratic society. D. draw a contrast between a virtuous daughter and her disreputable family. 2

As used in line 3, “want” most nearly means A. hardship. B. desire. C. lack. D. necessity. 3

In lines 10–15 (“The Stanhopes would visit . . . indifferent composure”), what is the most likely reason the author inserts the parenthetic comment “(provided it were not contagious)”? A. To demonstrate the extreme fear of infectious disease in the period B. To emphasize how little the Stanhopes actually cared for their sick neighbors wisdom C. To commend the Stanhopes for their prudence in avoiding contagion D. To offer an excuse for the Stanhopes’ failure to visit their friends 4

According to the opening paragraph, the Stanhopes’ behavior to members of their family A. reflected a real concern for the well-being of their close relatives. B. was markedly more loving than their behavior to those outside the family. C. showed the same lack of affection that typified their conduct to their neighbors. D. included visiting them with books and gifts of fresh fruit when they fell ill.

Passage 1-A

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1

2

5

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–6 (“The great . . . world”) B. Lines 6–10 (“They . . . them”) C. Lines 10–15 (“The Stanhopes . . . composure”) D. Lines 15–20 (“Their conduct . . . this”) 6

The tone of the passage is best described as A. self-righteous and moralistic. B. satirical and candid. C. sympathetic and sentimental. D. indifferent and unfeeling. 7

On the basis of the passage, which of the following statements about Dr. Stanhope can most reasonably be made? lazy

A. He is even more indolent than his wife. B. He resents having surrendered his authority to his daughter. remorse C. He feels remorse for his professional misconduct. D. He has little left of his initial religious belief. 8

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 39–41 (“She . . . concerns”) B. Lines 54–59 (“She had . . . peer”) C. Lines 59–62 (“She had . . . expressed”) D. Lines 77–85 (“On . . . mind”) 9

The narrator indicates that the effect of Charlotte’s on her brother’s upbringing was his becoming A. foolish. B. lazy. C. dejected. D. irreverent. 10

As used in line 78, “pure” most nearly means A. uncontaminated. B. wholesome. C. virtuous. D. absolute.


2

3

Passage 1-B

 Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage. Policing Our Planet Once completely oblivious of the damages to the

1

environment caused by pollution, waste, and overpopulation, the world 1) had now began to look seriously upon the depletion of our natural resources. Whether we scrutinize the harmful exhaust gases that pollute our 2) air—carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, among others—or turn to

2

deforestation and chemical effluents, the situation is clearly out of control. 3) For example, scientists have proven that all of the threats to the Great Lakes come as a result of human activity. Furthermore, it is no longer a question limited to a certain population or government, but a matter of global concern. The

3

recognition of its severity is undoubtedly behind the rise in demand for environmental engineers. Environmental engineers use the 4) principles of biology, chemistry, and engineering to develop solutions to environmental problems and consider global issues such as potable water, climate change, and sustainability. Typically, the work of an environmental engineer involves inspecting facilities for compliance with state and federal regulations, preparing and reviewing environmental investigation reports, designing projects to protect and conserve the environment, and advising corporations in regard to contamination clean-up.

4

5) Unexpectedly, environmental engineers may collaborate with specialists of science, law, or business to address specific concerns such as acid rain, soil degradation, or hazardous wastes.

5

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE has now began has now begun have now begun

A. NO CHANGE B. air, carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide, ammonia among others, or C. air—carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia among D. others, or air, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, among others—or Which choice offers an accurate interpretation of the data in the chart? A. NO CHANGE B. For example, the vast majority of the threats to the Great Lakes comes as a result of human activity. C. For example, approximately 24 percent of the threats to the Great Lakes comes as a result of human activity. D. For example, environmental regulations have successfully negated human activity as a source of threats to the Great Lakes.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE principals principle concepts principal ideas

Which choice provides the most logical introduction to this sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. Habitually, C. Other times, D. Possibly,


2 For those interested in pursuing a career as an

4

Passage 1-B

6

environmental engineer, a bachelor’s degree is a must. While a degree in environmental engineering is 6) necessary, related fields such as general or civil engineering can be acceptable as well. Even then, the four-year degree is mandatory for even 7) an entry-level position, and many employers seek out those who have differentiated themselves with previous experience,

7

graduate degrees, and/or licensing. At the top of the list for preferred skills for candidates are strong critical thinking skills and complex problem solving, followed closely by problem sensitivity and deductive reasoning. 8) You can be expected to have strengths in analyzing, evaluating, and interpreting highly

8

complex data. For management or supervisor positions, a master’s degree is required. 9) Your commitment to education in environmental engineering does not go unrewarded. The median annual

9

income is recorded at well over $80,000, and the outlook is promising. Tightening federal regulations 10) to meet environmental safe standards and for the purpose of the cleaning of contaminated sites are expected to only stimulate the need for environmental engineers over the next decade.

10

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 11) environmental degradation is increasing at an exponential rate, with up to 30 percent of current species becoming extinct in the coming years. With wages climbing and job prospects high, environmental engineering seems a promising occupation for one interested in remedying the current damage and preventing further harm to our planet.

11

Which choice gives the most logical contrast with the second part of the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. educational, C. preferable, D. adequate, A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE a starting gig, a position acquired at the outset of one’s career, a job,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE I can be One can be She can be

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE You’re commitment One’s commitment Ones’ commitment

A. NO CHANGE B. to meet environmentally safe standards and clean up contaminated sites is C. in order to meet environmentally safe standards and in order to clean up contaminated sites are D. to meeting environmentally safe standards and cleaning up contaminated sites were Which choice provides the most fitting and specific justification for the argument in the sentences before and after? A. NO CHANGE B. job prospects for high-technology jobs are going up. C. the need for environmental specialists is increasing at an alarming pace. D. there are 21,100 projected job openings in environmental engineering by the year 2022.


1

5

Passage 2-A

 Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage. 3-D scans reveal secrets of extinct creatures Paleontologists have been trying to Using the super-sharp insight of the build 3-D visualizations of fossils since the synchrotron X-rays, Cunningham’s team early 20th century, when William Sollas virtually dissected the blobs, revealing of the University of Oxford perfected a 65) structures within. Those structures, some as small as a thousandth of a millimeter 5) technique for grinding through a fossil sequentially. Sollas would grind away for across, may be the nuclei of ancient cells. If a fraction of a millimeter, then stop and so, they show that the fossil creatures had photograph the exposed fossil in exquisite been developing differently than would be detail. By repeating this process time and 70) expected from early animals, and probably belong instead to a group known as protists. 10) again—sometimes through hundreds of layers—Sollas eventually built a slice-by-slice The work, reported in 2011 in Science, encyclopedia of a given fossil, which he could underscored the power of synchrotron then reconstruct as a 3-D wax model. imaging for studying complicated fossils. But his method destroyed the fossil 75) Cunningham is now looking at slightly younger fossils, embryos from about 542 15) and took a lot of time. By the 1980s, paleontologists had taken to zapping fossils million years ago—just after a diversity of in machines such as CT scanners, which animals spilled forth in the evolutionary send X-rays through an object to build up a burst known as the Cambrian explosion. 80) The synchrotron images reveal details about three-dimensional picture of what’s hidden how the embryos developed: One of them 20) inside. In recent years, that technology has improved enough for scientists to extract “might look like a worm curled up and about tantalizing information about fossils. to hatch, or something with spines around In most cases, an ordinary CT scanner will its mouth,” Cunningham says. By piecing 85) together different fossils that represent the do. Researchers typically take a rock to their various stages as these embryos developed, 25) local hospital or university CT laboratory and adjust the settings until the X-rays penetrate he and his colleagues are building a more at just the right energies to reveal the form complete picture of how early animals might encased in the rock. In more complicated have been related to one another. 90) cases, such as when the fossil and the rock Sometimes the scans show more than just never-before-seen details: They 30) surrounding it look stubbornly similar, the scientists might take the rock to a more help paleontologists reconstruct major sophisticated machine. evolutionary changes from the past. Such Virtual dissection insights wouldn’t have been possible without 95) the exceptional detail coming from computer Paleontologist John Cunningham, also scans. The discoveries are more than just 35) at the University of Bristol, regularly packs up his most precious fossils and flies with pretty pictures—they divulge fundamental them to the Swiss Light Source in Villigen, differences between ancient and modern life, Switzerland. That machine is a synchrotron, allowing biologists to better understand how 100) organisms evolved. which accelerates electrons to nearly the As scanning technologies and computer 40) speed of light. The accelerated electrons emit radiation including X-rays, which are software get more sophisticated, 3-D usually used to explore questions in physics, reconstructions will probably gain in materials science and chemistry. Unlike popularity among paleontologists. Some are 105) already copying fossils using 3-D printers CT scanners, which use X-rays over a range so that they can touch specimens they once 45) of wavelengths, synchrotrons can produce X-rays of a single wavelength. That level of only dreamed of handling. control allows scientists to manipulate the Slicing and Dicing scan far more precisely and coax out detail Unlike older forms of analysis, which destroy the from even the most stubborn structures fossil and can take weeks to do, nondestructive, high-resolution scanning has become a go-to 50) hidden within rock. Cunningham has used the Swiss method for paleontologists interested in synchrotron to explore some of revealing hidden anatomies of ancient paleontology’s most controversial fossils: organisms. millimeter-sized blobs in 570-million-year-old 55) rocks from the Doushantuo formation in southern China. Some scientists think the blobs represent embryos of some of the oldest known animals in the fossil record, which if true would be an astonishing 60) witness to the earliest evolution of animals. But nobody could see past the surface.


1 12

13

14

15

16

6

The purpose of sequential or serial grinding was to enable paleontologists to A. dispose of redundant fossil specimens. B. analyze the interior of fossil specimens. C. create an encyclopedia of evolutionary theory. D. avoid exposure to X-ray technology. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 9–13 (“By repeating . . . model”) B. Lines 14–15 (“But . . . time”) C. Lines 15–20 (“By the 1980s . . . inside”) D. Lines 20–22 (“In recent . . . fossils”) As used in line 30, “stubbornly” most nearly means A. pigheadedly. B. persistently. C. willfully. D. perversely. The author indicates that, in comparison to serial grinding, modern methods of fossil analysis have tended to be A. less efficient and more expensive. B. more detailed and less damaging. C. less time-consuming and less reliable. D. longer in duration and more destructive. 16. As used in line 48, “coax out” most nearly means A. extract. B. persuade. C. flatter. D. plead.

Passage 2-A 17

18

19

20

21

In making the assertion that “The discoveries are more than just pretty pictures,” the author is attempting to A. propose a hypothesis. B. explain a paradox. C. emphasize a point. D. rephrase a question. The table contains information useful to answer all of the following questions EXCEPT A. Which form of analysis would be most damaging to a fossil being studied? B. Of the forms of analysis listed, which is the least expensive to employ? C. Which form of analysis offers the finest level of resolution? D. Of the forms of analysis listed, which was the earliest to be employed? Based on the table, which method of highresolution scanning would be most appropriate for use by a paleontologist in need of speedy results? A. Micro-CT B. Synchrotron-based tomography C. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) D. Laser scanning The results of Cunningham’s study of rocks from the Doushantuo formation in China can best be described as A. anomalous. B. definitive. C. unsatisfactory. D. tentative. Which sentence best provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 34–38 (“Paleontologist .. Switzerland”) B. Lines 51–56 (“Cunningham ... China”) C. Lines 65–67 (“Those ... cells”) D. Lines 75–79 (“Cunningham ... explosion”)


2

7

Passage 2-B

 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage. The Bullroarer Apart from the drum, there is perhaps no

12

instrument more widespread among the world’s ancient cultures than the curious noisemaker known severally as the “bullroarer,” 12) rhombus’, “tundun,” or “whizzingstick.” In construction and operation it is perhaps only slightly more sophisticated than the simple percussive

13

instruments of antiquity. It is 13) suspicious that this instrument’s significance to bygone peoples, much like the drum, was principally ritual, but perhaps also communicative. Even into modern times, tunduns were

14

commonly used by the Australian Aboriginal cultures during 14) hunting and gathering on the plains of Australia. The oldest known bullroarers were discovered in the Ukraine, and are estimated to date from the Paleolithic era, approximately 17,000 B.C., but slightly more recent bullroarers have been discovered at archeological sites on every continent 15) apart of Antarctica. Not surprisingly, the instrument exhibits a fairly wide variation in size,

15

shape and ornamentation across history and cultures; but, the essential design is unmistakable: a wooden slat generally measuring between six to twenty-four inches in length affixed at one end to a length of twisted cord.

16

When one swings the slat by the cord in a circle around the head, the untwisting and re-twisting of the rope 16) caused the slat to rotate laterally. The result is a unique vibrato sound that has been likened both to an animal’s roar, and the approach of a distant thunderstorm. Pitch modulation can be achieved by altering the speed of rotation, or the length of the cord. The capacity for pitch modulation has 17) lent credence to the idea that bullroarers could be used to communicate coded messages, with certain meanings attached to certain pitches.

17

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE “rhombus,” rhombus, rhombus

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE suspected suspect superstitious

The writer would like to express that tunduns played a role in significant transitional life events in Aboriginal culture. Which choice best conveys this idea? A. NO CHANGE B. the daily preparation of meals. C. rites of passage and burial ceremonies. D. creating fires used for both cooking and protection.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE a part of apart from a part from

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE had caused have been causing cause

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE lended credibility loaned credibility lending credence


2 18) This would make bullroarers, like the telegraph

8

Passage 2-B

18

machines of the modern era, that transmitted Morse code messages over long distances. Though we can only speculate on its use among preliterate peoples, some historical anthropologists have suggested that the bullroarer’s ubiquity across the world’s ancient cultures suggests that 19) its primary function must have been practical rather than ritual. The most common application cited by such scholars is that of longdistance communication. 20) For the reason that no scientific studies on the

19

subject have been published, many witnesses claim that the lower audible frequencies emitted by the bullroarer can travel impressive distances, with listeners clearly discerning its sound from up to two miles away. If indeed

20

bullroarers can be used 21) as musical instruments by early civilizations, then this usefulness would be a logical justification as to why this instrument was invented 22) by the greatest musician in the history of the

Aboriginal peoples.

21

22

A. NO CHANGE B. This would make bullroarers like, the telegraph machines of the modern era that transmitted Morse code messages over long distances. C. This would make bullroarers like the telegraph machines of the modern era, that transmitted Morse code messages, over long distances. D. This would make bullroarers like the telegraph machines of the modern era that transmitted Morse code messages over long distances.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE it’s its’ their

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Because Since Though

Which choice is most consistent with the argument in the paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. to communicate over long distances with relatively high accuracy, C. to discover the breeding grounds of prey to be hunted, D. to symbolize the vibrancy of Aboriginal musical expression, The writer wants to express that there was NOT a single inventor of the bullroarer. Which choice best accomplishes this goal? A. NO CHANGE B. as a means to communicate easily between one group and another. C. independently by prehistoric peoples all over the world. D. for peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Australia.


9

1

Passage 3-A

 Questions 22-32 are based on the following passage. Narrative of the Life of an American Slave

In this excerpt from his autobiographical Narrative of the Life of an American Slave, the abolitionist Frederick Douglass tells how he, as a young child, learned the value of learning to read and write.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

Mr. and Mrs. Auld were both at home, and met me at the door with their little son Thomas, to take care of whom I had been given. And here I saw what I had never seen before; it was a white face beaming with the most kindly emotions; it was the face of my new mistress, Sophia Auld. I wish I could describe the rapture that flashed through my soul as I beheld it. It was a new and strange sight to me, brightening up my pathway with happiness. Little Thomas was told, there was his Freddy, and I was told to take care of little Thomas; and thus I entered upon the duties of my new home with the most cheering prospect ahead. My new mistress proved to be all she appeared when I first met her at the door—a woman of the kindest heart and feelings. She had never had a slave under her control previously to myself, and prior to her marriage she had been dependent upon her own industry for a living. She was by trade a weaver; and by constant application to her business, she had been in a good degree preserved from the blighting and dehumanizing effects of slavery. I was utterly astonished at her goodness. I scarcely knew how to behave towards her. My early instruction was all out of place. The crouching servility, usually so acceptable a quality in a slave, did not answer when manifested toward her. Her favor was not gained by it; she seemed to be disturbed by it. She did not deem it impudent or unmannerly for a slave to look her in the face. The meanest slave was put fully at ease in her presence, and none left without feeling better for having seen her. But alas! this kind heart had but a short time to remain such. The fatal poison of irresponsible power was already in her hands, and soon commenced its infernal work. Very soon after I went to live with Mr. and Mrs. Auld, she very kindly commenced to teach me the A, B, C. After I had learned this, she assisted me in learning to spell words of three or four letters. Just at this point of my progress, Mr. Auld found out what was

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

going on, and at once forbade Mrs. Auld to instruct me further, telling her that it was unlawful, as well as unsafe, to teach a slave to read. Further, he said, “If you give a slave an inch, he will take an ell. A slave should know nothing but to obey his master—to do as he is told to do. Learning would spoil the best slave in the world. Now,” said he, “if you teach that boy (speaking of myself) how to read, there would be no keeping him. It would forever unfit him to be a slave. He would at once become unmanageable, and of no value to his master. As to him, it could do him no good, but a great deal of harm. It would make him discontented and unhappy.” These words sank deep into my heart, stirred up sentiments within that lay slumbering, and called into existence an entirely new train of thought. I now understood what had been to me a most perplexing difficulty—to wit, the white man’s power to enslave the black man. From that moment I understood the pathway from slavery to freedom. Though conscious of the difficulty of learning without a teacher, I set out with high hope, and a fixed purpose, at whatever cost of trouble, to learn how to read. The very decided manner with which my master spoke, and strove to impress his wife with the evil consequences of giving me instruction, served to convince me that he was deeply sensible of the truths he was uttering. It gave me the best assurance that I might rely with the utmost confidence on the results which, he said, would flow from teaching me to read. What he most dreaded, that I most desired. What he most loved, that I most hated. That which to him was a great evil, to be carefully shunned, was to me a great good, to be diligently sought; and the argument which he so warmly urged, against my learning to read, only served to inspire me with a desire and determination to learn. In learning to read, I owe almost as much to the bitter opposition of my master, as to the kindly aid of my mistress. I acknowledge the benefit of both.


1 22

23

10

According to the opening paragraph, the author’s initial reaction toward joining the Aulds’ household was primarily one of A. absolute astonishment. B. marked pleasure. C. carefree nonchalance. D. quiet resignation. To some degree, the author attributes Mrs. Auld’s freedom from the common attitudes of slave owners to her A. abolitionist upbringing. B. personal wealth. C. experiences as a mother. D. concentration on her trade.

Passage 3-A 27

28

29

24 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? (A) Lines 4–6 (“And here . . . emotions”) (B) Lines 16–18 (“My new . . . feelings”) (C) Lines 22–26 (“She was . . . slavery”) (D) Lines 34–38 (“She did not . . . her”) 25

26

Which of the following best explains why the author felt his “early instruction was all out of place” (line 29)? A. It failed to include instruction in reading and writing. B. It did not prepare him to take adequate care of the Aulds’ young son Thomas. C. It had been displaced by the new instructions he received from the Aulds. D. It insisted on an obsequiousness that distressed his new mistress. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 19–22 (“She . . . living”) B. Lines 26–27 (“I . . . goodness”) C. Lines 30–34 (“The crouching . . . it”) D. Lines 40–42 (“The fatal . . . work”)

30

31

32

As used in line 31, “answer” most nearly means A. acknowledge. B. retort. C. reply. D. serve. By “this kind heart had but a short time to remain such” (lines 38–39), the author primarily intends to convey that Mrs. Auld A. was fated to die in the near future. B. was unable to keep her temper for extended periods of time. C. had too much strength of will to give in to the softer emotions. D. was destined to undergo a change of character shortly. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following were characteristic of Mrs. Auld at the time the author first met her EXCEPT A. diligence in labor. B. dislike of fawning. C. disdain for convention. D. benevolent nature. The author’s main purpose in this passage is to A. describe a disagreement between a woman and her husband. B. analyze the reasons for prohibiting the education of slaves. C. describe a slave’s discovery of literacy as a means to freedom. D. portray the moral downfall of a kindhearted woman. As used in line 80, “sensible” most nearly means A. logical. B. prudent. C. intelligent. D. conscious/aware. The tone of the author in acknowledging his debt to his master (lines 92–95) can best be described as A. sentimental and nostalgic. B. cutting and ironic. C. petulant and self-righteous. D. resigned but wistful.


2

11

Passage 3-B

 Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage. Astrochemistry Do ever you remember hearing in school that the

23

sun—by far the largest body in our solar system—is composed almost entirely of the two smallest elements, 23) hydrogen, and helium. Or perhaps that the

distinctive blue hues of Neptune and Uranus arise from

24

an unusual abundance of organic methane? At the time, it may have seemed curious to you that scientists were able to make such bold hypotheses about the chemical compositions of things 24) using space-based telescopes for data-gathering; after all, we can hardly gather a gas sample from the surface of the sun. And yet we know with surprising certainty not only the composition of the bodies in our solar system, 25) from also that of many

25

interstellar bodies, and even some intergalactic ones as well. 26) The key principle that connects astronomy and

chemistry is the emission spectrum. When struck by a

26

wave of electromagnetic radiation, every element 27) enter an “excited state,” in which the electrons

surrounding the nucleus “jump” to higher energy levels. Eventually, the complex returns to its ground state, and the excess energy is released once again as electromagnetic radiation. However, this new photon carries with it a sort of chemical “signature” called an emission spectrum, which is 28) one of the only of its

27

kind to the element from which it was emitted.

28

(A) NO CHANGE (B) hydrogen and helium. (C) hydrogen, and helium? (D) hydrogen and helium? The writer wants to highlight that scientists are able to determine the chemical makeup of stars far from our solar system. Which choice would most specifically support this aim? A. NO CHANGE B. 93 million miles away or more; C. that are a prodigious distance from Mother Earth; D. capturing the imaginations of young and old alike; (A) NO CHANGE (B) but also (C) also (D) and Which choice would best introduce this paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physical forces underlying the universe. C. Photons are smaller than protons, representing quanta of light. D. Perhaps one day, mankind will be able to move beyond observation of distant stars to exploration of faraway solar systems. (A) NO CHANGE (B) entering (C) enters (D) entries (A) NO CHANGE (B) partial (C) uniquely (D) specific


2 A spectrometer is an instrument that spreads a

12 29

wave of electromagnetic radiation into its component frequencies. When you look through a spectrometer at a beam of white light, 29) and you see a continuous band of colors shifting like a rainbow from red to violet.

30

However, when a spectrometer is used to examine the flame test of, say, sodium carbonate or cobalt, the band is broken into a series of lines which represent the very specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation that are

31

30) shot forth of the compound. Because emission

spectra are unique to each element and constant throughout the universe, scientists are able to attach a spectrometer to a telescope, locate a celestial body, and 31) determine, the chemical composition of that body

simply, by comparing the resulting spectrum to those of known compounds on Earth. Over the past one hundred years astrochemical spectroscopy has revealed some fascinating information about our galaxy. It is because of spectroscopy, 32) however, that we know of the existence of

32

interstellar complex organic compounds—such as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and even the amino acid glycine. Though it seems paradoxical that we 33) use the smallest units of matter to study the largest, astrochemical spectroscopy is sure to have a hand in our expanding knowledge of the universe for a very long time to come.

33

Passage 3-B

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE and one can see and he or she can find you see

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE emitted by providing linear for

A. NO CHANGE B. determine the chemical composition, of that body simply by comparing, the resulting spectrum to those of known compounds on Earth. C. determine the chemical composition of that body simply by comparing the resulting spectrum to those of known compounds on Earth. D. determine the chemical composition of that body, simply by comparing the resulting spectrum to those of known, compounds on Earth. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE on the other hand, consequently, for instance,

What would most logically follow the first part of this sentence while being consistent with the passage as a whole? A. NO CHANGE B. seek to understand the universe, C. look for astronomical order among the chaos, D. use chemistry to analyze the makeup of stars,


13

1

Passage 4-A

 Questions 33-42 are based on the following passage.

“Hush, humans, We’re trying to survive here,” & “Highway bridge noise can disturb fish’s hearing,”

The following passages are taken from two articles by Susan Milius, “Hush, humans, We’re trying to survive here,” and Highway bridge noise can disturb fish’s hearing,” both published in issues of Science News in February 2015.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

Passage 1 To explore a basic question about wildlife and noise, Jesse Barber and his colleagues built what they call the phantom road. Earlier studies of noise effects often compared animals near roads or other clamorous human-made features with animals in rural landscapes. This approach left questions about how much of the difference came from noise instead of from artificial lights, exhaust fumes or other non-noisy aspects. Other research teams have turned to, of all things, gas wells to try to sort out the problem—by monitoring wildlife near wells equipped with thundering compressor motors versus otherwise similar wells without the noisy equipment. In Canada’s boreal forest, songbirds didn’t settle as densely near the monster motors, and in a New Mexico gas field, there weren’t as many bird species at the loud sites. The impact rippled onward: Because the animals found in the neighborhood changed, plants’ exchange of pollen and spread of seeds would change. Noise seemed to be the cause. But for a direct test of sound effects, Barber, of Boise State University in Idaho, and his colleagues created a highway that was nothing but the noise. They broadcast recordings of cars from 15 pairs of speakers mounted in a row along a half-kilometer of ridge near Lucky Peak State Park in Idaho. “It sounded like a highway in the woods,” Barber says. “But then you get up there and there’s no road.” “Challenging” is his restrained word for the travails of the experiment. It took a month just to position the speakers and get the broadcast to sound realistic. And once the spectral road was running, lab members spent hours each day hiking out and back to replace batteries and take data because, of course, there was no real road to the site. But the effort was worthwhile, as revealed in the team’s 2013 report in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The ghostly road ran beside a major rest stop for migratory birds. Just beyond the ridge, the great Douglas fir forest of central Idaho frays into clusters of bitter cherry and chokecherry, and then the landscape opens into what small migratory birds would have every right to call challenging. They must cross miles of low-growing steppe vegetation with little cover but plenty of bird-eating raptors. Typical migrants “stop at the edge for a few days and fatten up and get ready

60)

65)

70)

75)

for this dangerous and exhausting nocturnal journey,” Barber says. When the researchers turned on the speakers for four days of faux traffic, the numbers of birds stopping to rest dropped by more than a quarter on average. And during the alternating four-day stretches of silence, bird numbers bounced back. Noise matters, Barber and colleagues concluded. It can change animals’ most basic stay-or-go assessments of habitat. It can prompt more than the usual number of birds on thousand mile marathons to skip a chance to rest and refuel. Noise on Noise Off When speakers piped traffic noise into an Idaho forest, fewer migrating birds stopped to rest than in nearby quiet areas or when the noise was off. Yellow warblers showed a strong distaste for the noise.

Passage 2

80)

85)

90)

95)

Loud recordings of traffic rumbling over highway bridges can cause rock-concert hearing shifts in lab fish that normally live in Alabama streams. After two hours of broadcast traffic noise in the lab, small silvery fish called blacktail shiners (Cyprinella venusta) could no longer detect some important sounds as easily as fish not exposed to the highway din. Jenna Crovo of Auburn University in Alabama reported the findings January 5 at the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. Shiners not subjected to recordings could hear the upper peak of their species’ courtship growl when tones were played at about 80 decibels. Fish subjected to traffic broadcasts didn’t hear those tones until researchers played them about 10 decibels louder. Whether the threshold shift is permanent or the fish’s hearing returns to normal—as often happens in human concertgoers who experience similar shifts— remains to be seen.


1 33

34

35

36

37

14

Both passages are written from the perspective of someone who is A. actively engaged in academic investigations of wildlife behavior. B. knowledgeable about research into the effects of human actions on wildlife. C. an active campaigner for the protection and conservation of native wildlife. D. a technical expert on audiological difficulties. As used in line 8, “left” most nearly means A. abandoned. B. went away from. C. failed to answer. D. ceased attending.

Passage 4-A 38

39

40

The basic question about wildlife and noise that Barber and his colleagues sought to explore concerned A. the amount of noise produced by different wildlife species. B. the impact of highway construction on migratory birds. C. the degree to which mere noise affected wildlife populations. D. the difference between the effects of noise in rural and urban environments. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–3 (“To explore . . . road”) B. Lines 4–7 (“Earlier . . . landscapes”) C. Lines 25–28 (“But for a direct . . . noise”) D. Lines 77–80 (“Loud recordings . . . streams”) It is reasonable to conclude that a necessary step for the scientists conducting the research described in Passage 1 was to A. isolate noise from other human-caused factors affecting wildlife behavior. B. construct a road to enable their closer observation of wildlife in their native habitat. C. replicate previous studies of the effects of traffic noise on animal behavior patterns. D. monitor wildlife populations throughout Canada, New Mexico, and Idaho.

41

42

Barber’s use of the word “challenging” to describe the laborious efforts involved in setting up the experiment is an example of A. an understatement. B. an analogy. C. a simile. D. a fallacy.

As used in line 30, “mounted” most nearly means A. ascended. B. installed. C. launched. D. increased.

Which statement best summarizes the information presented in the graph? A. No yellow warblers stopped to rest in the areas exposed to traffic noise. B. Yellow warblers strongly preferred areas where the road sound had been turned off to ones never exposed to traffic noise. C. The greater the road noise, the more likely the yellow warblers were to avoid the area. D. Yellow warblers were affected only by noise levels of 60 decibels or more.

It can be inferred that the impact of noise on the shiners in Passage 2 was negative because it affected their A. sense of direction. B. mating patterns. C. exposure to traffic sounds. D. avoidance of danger.

The wild birds described in the experiment in Passage 1 differed from the shiners described in the experiment in Passage 2 in that the birds were A. able to avoid the noise being broadcast. B. more sensitive to recorded sound. C. threatened with permanent hearing loss. D. less able to assess unfamiliar habitats.


2

15

Passage 4-B

 Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage. Blood Ties William Faulkner is one of the most highly

34

recognized American authors of all time. He is celebrated for his use of “stream of consciousness” writing to give life to Southern U.S. culture, and 34) was considered one of the best people ever to put pen to paper. While The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying are some of Faulkner’s best known novels, his plethora of short stories are perhaps lesser known 35) because of a lack of public awareness about them. A particular short story,

35

“Barn Burning,” tells the story of Colonel Sartoris Snopes, a young protagonist who struggles to develop into his own man under his father’s malevolent eyes. Colonel Sartoris, or “Sarty,” is trapped in a world stricken by fear, grief, and misery. 36) While physically similar and often volatile like his

father, Sarty is continually faced with the paradox of

36

detesting the man who raised him, while also feeling an inherent fidelity to him. Sarty’s personal growth is stunted by this ubiquitous inconsistency in his character. Sarty’s father, Abner, is a rigid man—set in his ways and seemingly vengeful toward everyone outside of his own family. Constantly unhappy, Abner 37) lauds anyone who surpasses him in joy, health, or wealth. He is particularly fond of offending and stealing from others, and then burning the barns of those who dare to question his conduct.

37

Which choice would give the most logical and specific support to the assertion made in the first sentence of the passage? A. NO CHANGE B. was thought of as a true American hero, not in the traditional, but literary sense. C. was revered as one of the best executors of the “stream of consciousness” style. D. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1949. What should be done with the underlined portion? A. Keep it, because it provides a relevant clarification. B. Keep it, because it gives specific evidentiary support. C. Delete it, because it repeats an assertion. D. Delete it, because it is inconsistent with the other information in the paragraph. A. NO CHANGE B. While physically similar, and often, volatile, like his C. While physically similar, and often volatile like his D. While physically similar and often, volatile like his Which word would most likely capture Abner’s mentality based on the context? A. NO CHANGE B. invokes C. despises D. reveres


2 38) Interestingly, Faulkner first introduces Sarty at

16 38

his father’s trial where he is accused of burning a local farm. It is through Sarty’s inner toil 39) which the reader becomes distinctly aware of Abner’s guilt. Rather than being oblivious to his father’s evil disposition, Sarty

39

wishfully, and somewhat naively, hopes that his father will 40) overcome it. The story continues not as a battle for integrity within Abner, but within Sarty, who must choose the man he is to become.

40

Sarty’s internal conflict is 41) made more challenging by the fact that he has to remain faithful to his kin and a fear of the consequences in turning away from them. Throughout the short piece, Sarty becomes

41

almost two separate characters, his thoughts as divided as his loyalty. On certain occasions, he is brutally ashamed of his 42) father’s deceit, on others he overcompensates for his treachery by defending his

42

father at all costs. 43) So it comes as little shock to the reader when

his father decides to burn the barn of his newest employers. When enlisted to help with the crime, Sarty

43

weighs his options, hesitant to disobey his father. Eventually, Sarty betrays his father by revealing the plan. This act of defiance allows Sarty to make a character transition and wholly resist the life his father has led. Sarty’s story is a beautiful portrayal of 44) a diverged heart and its battle to follow its own path. 44

Passage 4-B

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE As a result, For this very reason, On the other hand,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE from for that

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE overcome these. overcoming this. overcoming those.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE pretentiously made more oppressive complicated by a desire OMIT the underlined portion.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE fathers deceit: on others he father’s deceit; on others, he fathers’ deceit—on others, he

Which choice provides the best transition from the theme of the previous paragraph to the topic of this new paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. Sarty has little difficulty deciding what to do C. Therefore, the accumulated lies of his father surprise Sarty D. Perhaps the best illustration of Sarty’s divided nature is Which wording is most consistent with the passage as a whole? A. NO CHANGE B. a decisive mind C. a melancholy attitude D. unrelenting optimism


17

1

Passage 5-A

 Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage. An Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge

In this adaptation of an excerpt from An Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge, a short story set in Civil War times, a man is about to be hanged. The first two paragraphs set the scene; the remainder of the passage presents a flashback to an earlier, critical encounter.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

A man stood upon a railroad bridge in Northern Alabama, looking down into the swift waters twenty feet below. The man’s hands were behind his back, the wrists bound with a cord. A rope loosely encircled his neck. It was attached to a stout crosstimber above his head, and the slack fell to the level of his knees. Some loose boards laid upon the sleepers supporting the metals of the railway supplied a footing for him and his executioners—two private soldiers of the Federal army, directed by a sergeant, who in civil life may have been a deputy sheriff. At a short remove upon the same temporary platform was an officer in the uniform of his rank, armed. He was a captain. A sentinel at each end of the bridge stood with his rifle in the position known as “support”—a formal and unnatural position, enforcing an erect carriage of the body. It did not appear to be the duty of these two men to know what was occurring at the center of the bridge; they merely blockaded the two ends of the foot plank which traversed it. The man who was engaged in being hanged was apparently about thirty-five years of age. He was a civilian, if one might judge from his dress, which was that of a planter. His features were good—a straight nose, firm mouth, broad forehead, from which his long, dark hair was combed straight back, falling behind his ears to the collar of his well-fitting frock coat. He wore a moustache and pointed beard, but no whiskers; his eyes were large and dark grey and had a kindly expression that one would hardly have expected in one whose neck was in the hemp. Evidently this was no vulgar assassin. The liberal military code makes provision for hanging many kinds of people, and gentlemen are not excluded. Peyton Farquhar was a well-to-do planter, of an old and highly respected Alabama family. Being a slave-owner, and, like other slave-owners, a politician, he was naturally an original secessionist and ardently devoted to the Southern cause. Circumstances had prevented him from taking service with the gallant army that had fought the disastrous campaigns ending with the fall of Corinth, and he chafed under the inglorious restraint, longing for the release of his energies, the larger life of the soldier, the opportunity for distinction. That opportunity, he felt, would come, as it comes to all in war time. Meanwhile, he did what he could. No service

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

105)

was too humble for him to perform in aid of the South, no adventure too perilous for him to undertake if consistent with the character of a civilian who was at heart a soldier, and who in good faith and without too much qualification assented to at least a part of the frankly villainous dictum that all is fair in love and war. One evening while Farquhar and his wife were sitting near the entrance to his grounds, a grey-clad soldier rode up to the gate and asked for a drink of water. Mrs. Farquhar was only too happy to serve him with her own white hands. While she was gone to fetch the water, her husband approached the dusty horseman and inquired eagerly for news from the front. “The Yanks are repairing the railroads,” said the man, “and are getting ready for another advance. They have reached the Owl Creek bridge, put it in order, and built a stockade on the other bank. The commandant has issued an order, which is posted everywhere, declaring that any civilian caught interfering with the railroad, its bridges, tunnels, or trains, will be summarily hanged. I saw the order.” “How far is it to the Owl Creek bridge?” Farquhar asked. “About thirty miles.” “Is there no force on this side of the creek?” “Only a picket post half a mile out, on the railroad, and a single sentinel at this end of the bridge.” “Suppose a man—a civilian and a student of hanging—should elude the picket post and perhaps get the better of the sentinel,” said Farquhar, smiling, “what could he accomplish?” The soldier reflected. “I was there a month ago,” he replied. “I observed that the flood of last winter had lodged a great quantity of driftwood against the wooden pier at the end of the bridge. It is now dry and would burn like tow.” The lady had now brought the water, which the soldier drank. He thanked her ceremoniously, bowed to her husband, and rode away. An hour later, after nightfall, he repassed the plantation, going northward in the direction from which he had come. He was a Yankee scout.


1 1

2

3

4

5

6

As used in line 13, “civil” most nearly means A. polite. B. noncriminal. C. nonmilitary. D. individual. In cinematic terms, the first two paragraphs most nearly resemble A. a wide-angle shot followed by a close-up. B. a sequence of cameo appearances. C. a trailer advertising a feature film. D. two episodes of an ongoing serial. It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that the man awaiting hanging was A. innocent of any criminal intent. B. an unlikely candidate for execution. C. a victim of mistaken identity. D. purposely assuming a harmless demeanor. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 25–27 (“The man . . . age”) B. Lines 27–29 (“He was . . . planter”) C. Lines 33–38 (“He wore . . . hemp”) D. Lines 44–47 (“Being . . . cause”) The author’s tone in discussing “the liberal military code” (line 39) can best be described as A. approving. B. ironic. C. irked. D. regretful. It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that Peyton Farquhar would consider which of the following a good example of how a citizen should behave in wartime? A. He should use even underhanded methods to support his cause. B. He should enlist in the army without delay. C. He should turn to politics as a means of enforcing his will. D. He should avoid involving himself in disastrous campaigns.

18

Passage 5-A 7

8

9

10

11

As used in line 59, “consistent” most nearly means A. unchanging. B. compatible. C. logically sound. D. steady and predictable. It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that Mrs. Farquhar is A. sympathetic to the Confederate cause. B. too proud to perform menial tasks. C. uninterested in news of the war. D. reluctant to ask her slaves to fetch water. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 56–64 (“No service . . . war”) B. Lines 68–70 (“Mrs. Farquhar . . . hands”) C. Lines 70–73 (“While she . . . front”) D. Lines 104–106 (“He thanked . . . away”) From Farquhar’s exchange with the soldier (lines 84– 102), it can most reasonably be inferred that Farquhar is going to A. sneak across the bridge to join the Confederate forces. B. attempt to burn down the bridge to halt the Yankee advance. C. remove the driftwood blocking the Confederates’ access to the bridge. D. undermine the pillars that support the railroad bridge. The main purpose of the concluding sentence of the passage is to A. offer an excuse for Farquhar’s failure to destroy the bridge. B. provide context useful in understanding Farquhar’s emotional reactions. C. establish that Farquhar has been entrapped into taking an unwise action. D. contrast Farquhar’s patriotic behavior with the scout’s treachery.


2

19

Passage 5-B

 Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage. Out with the Old and the New Modernism can be characterized by its complete

1

rejection of 19th-century traditions and values of prudish and proper etiquette. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “Bernice Bobs Her Hair” was written in 1920 and reflects this 1 embrace of conventional morality most effectively through the character of Marjorie Harvey. Marjorie, an immensely popular and desirable young woman, is plagued by Bernice, her dull

2

cousin who fails to entertain 2 or be entertained by Marjorie’s many social environments. In a desperate attempt to make Bernice more popular and therefore, more bearable, Marjorie teaches Bernice to appear beautifully at

3

ease with 3 itself in order to gain social favor. Fitzgerald uses Bernice’s transformation to embody Modernist ideals of moral relativism and 4 the implementation of mockery of former Victorian standards of custom.

4

Marjorie, a quintessential modern girl, represents the destruction of conventional norms and former ideas of femininity. Young and beautiful, she is interested only in having a good time and being good company to the many

5

suitors 5 whom flock to her. Despite her good looks and family wealth, Bernice is disliked for her stifling and overly formal Victorian propriety. 6 On the other hand, Bernice is old-fashioned,

6

outdated, and unpopular. The “new,” modern woman is best denoted by her wit, carelessness, and lack of emotion. Where the dignified nature of Bernice is seen as snobbish and out of style, Marjorie’s sardonic and indifferent manner is fresh and exciting. The stark contrast 7 between the Victorian and Modernist eras is even depicted in the girls’ taste in literature: Marjorie casts off Bernice’s reference to Little Women in exchange for the more recent Oscar Wilde.

7

Which wording is most consistent with the paragraph as a whole? A. NO CHANGE B. ignorance C. rebuff D. significance A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE and entertainment with the entertaining of of the entertaining for

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE oneself themselves herself

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE for the mocking of to mock mocking

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE who whose who’s

Where in this paragraph should the underlined sentence be placed? A. where it is now B. before the first sentence C. before the second sentence D. before the third sentence A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE among for on


2 Still, Modernism isn’t let off easy in Fitzgerald’s well-

20

Passage 5-B 8

liked short story. 8 When Marjorie is preferred socially, she is flagrantly rude and always needing to be entertained. She instructs Bernice in social protocol in a 9 few short sentences, causing the reader to question the frivolous

9

hedonism that dominates the early 20th century. Once Bernice adopts her cousin’s apathy, she easily falls into the world of dancing, dating, and laughing. In fact, never being serious happens to come quite easy.

10

The equally 10 kind-hearted natures of both of Fitzgerald’s characters come crashing down when Marjorie tricks Bernice into getting her hair bobbed—a style so rebellious that it causes Bernice to faint. Bernice finds revenge in severing off a golden lock of Marjorie’s hair while she sleeps. While using Bernice and Marjorie to model both eras, Fitzgerald finds flaws in 11 both: the old manner is a lifeless forgery, while the new approach is only relaxed on the surface.

11

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE While Because Since

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE short few few, short short, few

Which choice would best be logically placed here to represent the characterizations of Marjorie and Bernice in the paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. revolutionary dogmatism C. false facades D. frivolous piety A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE both, the old manner is a lifeless forgery while both—the old manner is a lifeless, forgery, while both; the old manner, is a lifeless forgery while


21

1

Passage 6-A

 Questions 12-20 are based on the following passage. Roosevelt’s Third Inaugural Address

The following passage is taken from Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Third Inaugural Address, made on January 20, 1941, nearly a year before the bombing of Pearl Harbor triggered America’s entry into the Second World War.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

A nation, like a person, has something deeper, something more permanent, something larger than the sum of all its parts. It is that something which matters most to its future—which calls forth the most sacred guarding of its present. It is a thing for which we find it difficult— even impossible—to hit upon a single, simple word. And yet we all understand what it is—the spirit—the faith of America. It is the product of centuries. It was born in the multitudes of those who came from many lands—some of high degree, but mostly plain people, who sought here, early and late, to find freedom more freely. The democratic aspiration is no mere recent phase in human history. It is human history. It permeated the ancient life of early peoples. It blazed anew in the middle ages. It was written in the Magna Carta. In the Americas its impact has been irresistible. America has been the New World in all tongues, to all peoples, not because this continent was a new-found land, but because all those who came here believed they could create upon this continent a new life—a life that should be new in freedom. Its vitality was written into our own Mayflower Compact, into the Declaration of Independence, into the Constitution of the United States, into the Gettysburg Address. Those who first came here to carry out the longings of their spirit, and the millions who followed, and the stock that sprang from them—all have moved forward constantly and consistently toward an ideal which in itself has gained stature and clarity with each generation. The hopes of the Republic cannot forever tolerate either undeserved poverty or self-serving wealth. We know that we still have far to go; that we must more greatly build the security and the opportunity and the knowledge of every citizen, in the measure justified by the resources and the capacity of the land. But it is not enough to achieve these purposes alone. It is not enough to clothe and feed the body of this Nation, and instruct and inform its mind. For there is also the spirit. And of the three, the greatest is the spirit. Without the body and the mind, as all men know, the Nation could not live. But if the spirit of America were killed, even though the Nation’s body and mind,

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

constricted in an alien world, lived on, the America we know would have perished. That spirit—that faith—speaks to us in our daily lives in ways often unnoticed, because they seem so obvious. It speaks to us here in the Capital of the Nation. It speaks to us through the processes of governing in the sovereignties of 48 States. It speaks to us in our counties, in our cities, in our towns, and in our villages. It speaks to us from the other nations of the hemisphere, and from those across the seas—the enslaved, as well as the free. Sometimes we fail to hear or heed these voices of freedom because to us the privilege of our freedom is such an old, old story. The destiny of America was proclaimed in words of prophecy spoken by our first President in his first inaugural in 1789— words almost directed, it would seem, to this year of 1941: “The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the republican model of government are justly considered . . . deeply, . . . . finally, staked on the experiment intrusted to the hands of the American people.” If we lose that sacred fire—if we let it be smothered with doubt and fear—then we shall reject the destiny which Washington strove so valiantly and so triumphantly to establish. The preservation of the spirit and faith of the Nation does, and will, furnish the highest justification for every sacrifice that we may make in the cause of national defense. In the face of great perils never before encountered, our strong purpose is to protect and to perpetuate the integrity of democracy. For this we muster the spirit of America, and the faith of America. We do not retreat. We are not content to stand still. As Americans, we go forward, in the service of our country, by the will of God.


1 12

13

14

15

16

22

As used in line 14, “plain” most nearly means A. candid. B. ordinary. C. homely. D. intelligible. The author indicates which of the following about the American belief in freedom? A. It lacked any supporters who belonged to the upper classes. B. It had its origins at the time of the American Revolution. C. It is an ideal that has lost its hold on the public. D. It has deep-seated historical roots. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–3 (“A nation . . . parts”) B. Lines 17–21 (“The democratic . . . Carta”) C. Lines 23–28 (“America has been . . . freedom”) D. Lines 33–39 (“Those who first . . . generation”) The author uses the Mayflower Compact, Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Gettysburg Address as examples of A. subjects of previous inaugural addresses. B. expressions of the democratic aspiration. C. documents of historical interest. D. writings with ongoing legal implications. The author recognizes counterarguments to the position he takes in lines 33–39 (“Those who first . . . generation”) by A. acknowledging that economic injustices must be addressed before democracy can prevail. B. admitting that the native-born descendents of our immigrant forebears have lost faith in democracy. C. conceding the lack of resources and capacity that hinder the fulfillment of the American dream. D. likening the Nation to a human body with physical, mental, and spiritual needs.

Passage 6-A

17

18

19

20

21

As used in line 76, “directed” most nearly means (A) addressed. (B) ordered. (C) supervised. (D) guided What main effect does the repetition of the phrase “It speaks to us” in lines 62–70 have on the tone of the passage? A. It creates a whimsical tone, endowing an abstract quality with a physical voice. B. It creates a colloquial tone, describing commonplace activities in ordinary words. C. It creates a dramatic tone, emphasizing the point being made and adding to its emotional impact. D. It creates a menacing tone, reminding us of our failure to heed the voices of freedom crying for our aid. It can most reasonably be inferred that the experiment to which Washington refers in line 81 is A. a scientific investigation. B. a presidential inauguration. C. democratic government. D. national defense. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 56–59 (“But . . . perished”) B. Lines 60–62 (“That spirit . . . obvious”) C. Lines 83–87 (“If we . . . establish”) D. Lines 92–94 (“In the face . . . democracy”) It is reasonable to conclude that a major goal of Roosevelt in making this speech was to A. inform American citizens of changes of policy in the new administration. B. impress his European counterparts with the soundness of America’s foreign policy. C. encourage American voters to avoid the divisiveness inherent in partisan politics. D. inspire the American people to defend the cause of freedom in dangerous times.


2

23

Passage 6-B

 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage. Extra, Extra If any field has drastically changed in the last two

12

decades, it is journalism. Journalism includes the gathering and distribution of news through a variety of mediums, 12 building upon the long-standing professional excellence

with which journalism is associated. Whether via print, broadcast, or digital, journalists are responsible for keeping the public informed, and often play a vital role in allowing the general population to participate in the political process. Although the digital age has understandably

13

discouraged popularity in some traditional forms of 13 news media the field itself is optimistic, not only is the

digital platform more than making up for the moderate declines in traditional news sources, 14 but also research

14

shows that Americans are spending more time consuming news than they have since the early 1990s. 15 The traditional dominance of newspapers has continued unabated.

15

Quite simply, the days of print-only newsrooms are past. Now, one doesn’t wait until the 6 P.M. broadcast to hear what’s happening around the world, 16 nor does one grab the newspaper on Sunday morning for breaking news. The public expects minute-by-minute updates, and media companies meet this demand with 24-7 online newsreels. Journalists can no longer limit themselves to gathering stories or writing articles or speaking publicly —they must be able to do it all and then some. Even entry-level positions require candidates who have had media training and internship experience in addition to a formal education. Internships at most media outlets include everything from copy editing to blogging.

16

Which choice most specifically elaborates on the first part of this sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. growing its reach to include urban, suburban, and rural population centers. C. which have recently expanded to incorporate smartphones, tablets, and blogs. D. demonstrating that seeking the average public opinion is most objective. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE news media, the field itself is optimistic, not only news media, the field itself is optimistic: not only news media the field itself; is optimistic not only

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE and for since

Which choice best concludes this paragraph and transitions to the topic of the next paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. Journalism isn’t dying; the way reporters do their job is changing. C. Journalism is no longer the sort of career that globally minded people would chose. D. With the steady demise of public interest in quality journalism, it is only a matter of time before journalism falls by the wayside. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE because for while


2 The tough competition and demanding prerequisites

24

Passage 6-B 17

for the job market need not be deterrents. Leading journalism 17 department’s are reassuring that their students leave undergraduate with all the tools necessary for success. For instance, the University of Missouri at

18

Columbia 18 —boasting the number one journalism department in the nation according to The Huffington Post—offers more than 30 interest areas, incorporating an intensive liberal arts education along with hands-on experience in media labs and internships for academic credit. Ohio 19 University also having, a journalism department ranked in the top ten nationwide offers three campus publications plus a broadcasting outlet for students

19

to gain professional experience before graduation, not to mention OU’s Institute for International Journalism, which offers opportunities for reporting abroad.

Technology and its 20 endless affects on all areas of the

20

job market are tedious subjects for the student and young professional. One cannot consider a career field without hearing how formidable its outlook is and how quickly one could fail in an uncertain economy. Indeed, journalism

21

students have been well informed 21 about the steadily increasing demand for journalists in the recent past, but the truth stands that there will always be a demand for the news, and therefore, a need for journalists. The field 22 is adapting and so are its constituents.

22

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE departments’ are insuring that they’re departments are assuring there departments are ensuring that their

Which choice best connects this sentence to the previous sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. —located in the geographic near-middle of the United States— C. —a university that offers a variety of possible undergraduate majors and minors— D. —ranked among the best universities for average starting salary among its graduates— A. NO CHANGE B. University also having a journalism department ranked in the top ten nationwide offers C. University, also having a journalism department, ranked in the top ten, nationwide, offers D. University, also having a journalism department ranked in the top ten nationwide, offers A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE endless effects endlessly affects endlessly effects

Which choice offers the most accurate interpretation of the data in the chart? A. NO CHANGE B. about the gradual decline in jobs for journalists in the past decade, C. about the constant level of employment for journalists these past few years, D. about the job market fluctuations in recent years, A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE was adapting is adopting was adopting


1

25

 Questions 32-42 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

60)

Passage 7-A

The relationship between the president and the press Passage 1 was well expressed by Sir William Berkeley, In the shifting relationship between the governor of Virginia, when he wrote home to his superiors in 1671: “I thank God there press and the presidency over nearly two are no free schools nor printing, and I hope centuries, there has remained one primary we shall not have these hundred years; for constant—the dissatisfaction of one with 65) learning has brought disobedience, and the other. No president has escaped press heresy, and sects into the world, and printing criticism, and no president has considered has divulged them, and libels against the himself fairly treated. The record of every best government, God keep us from both.” administration has been the same, beginning There are those in twentieth-century with mutual protestations of goodwill, 70) America who would say “Amen” to Berkeley’s ending with recriminations and mistrust. view of printing and “libels against the best This is the best proof we could have that government.” the American concept of a free press in a free Passage 2 society is a viable idea, whatever defects the In their analysis of aggressive journalist media may have. While the Founding Fathers behavior in a comparative study of press and their constituencies did not always agree 75) conferences held by Presidents Eisenhower on the role the press should play, there was and Reagan, Clayman and Heritage (2002) a basic consensus that the newspaper (the developed an original encoding system only medium of consequence at the time) according to ten different features of should be the buffer state between the rulers 80) question design. Their findings showed and the ruled. The press could be expected significantly greater levels of aggression and to behave like a watchdog, and government adversarial behavior by the press in dealings at every level, dependent for its existence with the more recent president. Clayman, on the opinions of those it governed, could Elliot, Heritage & McDonald’s updated study expect to resent being watched and having its 85) (2004) refined the coding process and used a shortcomings, real or imaginary, exposed to more continuous sample to test the validity the public view. and reliability of the original study. Their Reduced to such simple terms, the comparison of journalistic adversarialness relationship of the presidents to the press covered each president from Eisenhower to since George Washington’s first term is 90) Clinton and supported original results that understandable only as an underlying show a long-term decline in deference to the principle. But this basic concept has been president. The continuous sample revealed increasingly complicated by the changing more volatility than the simpler work on nature of the presidency, by the individual which it was based but is a further testament nature of presidents, by the rise of other 95) to the increased aggressiveness, sometimes media, especially television, and by the adversarial treatment prevalent in press growing complexity of beliefs about the conferences regardless of partisanship or function of both press and government. personal idiosyncrasy. In surveying nearly two centuries of this These findings would suggest that relationship, it is wise to keep in mind an 100) the increasingly contentious, adversarial axiom of professional historians—that we relationship between the press and the should be careful not to view the past in highest ranking executive official has terms of our own times, and make judgments created a modern press conference where accordingly. Certain parallels often become the president must relinquish more agenda-setting obvious, to be sure, but to assert what an 105) control than in other communicative individual president should or should not processes. In each session, he subjects have done, by present standards, is to violate himself to open questioning that is shown to historical context. Historians occasionally be significantly less deferential, more direct castigate each other for this failing, and and often more aggressive and hostile than in the case of press and government, the ever before. This would seem an appropriate danger becomes particularly great because 110) justification for the dwindling numbers of the words themselves—“press” and traditional solo press conferences in recent “government,” even “presidency”—have administrations (Kumar, 2003b). changed in meaning so much during the past two hundred years. Solo and Joint Press Conferences by President 1981–2004 It is part of American mythology that the nation was “cradled in liberty” and that the colonists, seeking religious freedom, immediately established a free society, but the facts are quite different. The danger of an uncontrolled press to those in power


1 32

33

34

35

36

37

26

The main purpose of Passage 1 is to A. examine methods of evaluating the relationship between the press and the president. B. argue that the adversarial relationship between the press and the presidency has proven deleterious to both. C. present an overview of an inherently conflicted relationship that faces new challenges. D. consider a political dilemma created by the mutual antagonism between two major institutions. According to the opening paragraph of Passage 1, all American presidents have experienced A. defects in the quality of their press coverage. B. goodwill from some reporters in the press corps. C. alternating periods of antagonism and harmony with the press. D. mutual animosity involving themselves and the press.

Passage 7-A 38

39

40

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 7–10 (“The record . . . mistrust”) B. Lines 11–14 (“This . . . may have”) C. Lines 14–20 (“While . . . ruled”) D. Lines 27–31 (“Reduced . . . principle”) As used in line 27, “reduced” most nearly means A. decreased. B. boiled down. C. marked down. D. demoted. The authors of Passage 1 caution the reader about judging the actions of long-dead presidents because A. historical accounts, when investigated, have proven to be untrustworthy. B. contemporary authors have rewritten history to reflect current academic opinions. C. readers today cannot fully grasp the significance these actions had in their own time. D. history, at best, is an imprecise science. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–7 (“In the shifting . . . treated”) B. Lines 20–26 (“The press . . . public view”) C. Lines 27–37 (“Reduced . . . government”) D. Lines 43–54 (“Certain parallels . . . years”)

In the opening sentence of the final paragraph (lines 55–59) of Passage 1, the authors seek primarily to A. define a term. B. defend a widely held belief. C. correct a misconception. D. champion a cause. As used in line 107, “open” most nearly means A. receptive. B. unrestricted. C. unconcealed. D. vulnerable. Data in the graph about presidential solo and joint press conferences from 1981–2004 most strongly support which of the following statements? A. President Clinton held more solo press conferences than President George H. W. Bush did. B. Presidents Clinton and George W. Bush held a far higher percentage of joint press conferences than either of their predecessors did. C. President Reagan’s failure to hold joint press conferences resulted from a reluctance to share the spotlight with other members of his administration.

D. While President George H. W. Bush held far more press conferences than his son President George W. Bush did, both Presidents Bush held more joint sessions than solo sessions. 41

42

Which choice best describes the relationship between the two passages? A. Passage 2 denies the static nature of the phenomenon described in Passage 1. B. Passage 2 evaluates the conclusions drawn from assertions made in Passage 1. C. Passage 2 predicts the eventual healing of a breach reported in Passage 1. D. Passage 2 critiques the hypotheses proposed by researchers cited in Passage 1. On which of the following points would the authors of both passages most likely agree? A. Those who criticize the press for its treatment of the president fail to understand the press’s watchdog function. B. Members of the press corps are unlikely to prefer joint press conferences to solo sessions. C. The relationship between the press and the presidency is inherently adversarial, and likely to remain so. D. The president needs to regain agenda-setting control of traditional solo press conferences.


27

2

Passage 7-B

 Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage. Parthenon Of all the ancient, sacred, and truly splendid

23

buildings to visit, the Parthenon may just be the most treasured of all. 23 A long time past, the Greeks built their apotheosis over a span of nine years atop the Acropolis of Athens as a tribute to Athena, the city’s

Which choice would most specifically describe how long ago the Parthenon was constructed? A. NO CHANGE B. More than 2,500 years ago, C. Many decades of ages past, D. In days gone by,

beloved patron goddess of war and reason. The temple itself was completed in 438 B.C., although decorative sculpting and engraving within the structure went on for

24 A. NO CHANGE B. temple, treasury church, and most recently, tourist attraction. C. temple treasury, church and most recently tourist attraction. D. temple treasury church, and most recently tourist attraction.

several more years. Since then, the structure has served as 24 temple, treasury, church, and most recently, tourist attraction. Pericles—leading politician in 5th century B.C.— recruited the sculptor Phidias to oversee two architects, Iktinos and Kallikrates, in the construction of the

25 What could best be used for the underlined portion to convey the high priority the Greeks placed on completing the Parthenon in a glorious fashion? (A) NO CHANGE (B) Sparing no expense, (C) With artistic patience, (D) Using architectural techniques,

Parthenon to house a forty-foot high statue of Athena. 25

Honestly and judiciously, the ancient Greeks planned

an exceptional monument with a base the size of half a football field and pillars over thirty feet tall. Athenians stored their most lavish possessions inside the Parthenon among a host of statues, sculptures, precious metals, and treasures taken in the conquest of the Persians. 26

Yet, the endeavor and all it stood for were

short-lived: just seven years after the Parthenon was constructed, war broke out with Sparta. Sometime after the reign of Athens, in 5th century A.D., the statue of Athena was plundered and later destroyed.

26 (A) NO CHANGE (B) Additionally, (C) In conclusion, (D) As a result,


28

2 Perhaps, even with Athena—the very core of

Passage 7-B 27

Parthenon— missing, the temple 27 could of still served as a great, inclusive museum of Greek history, tracing the founding of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy, and early western civilization; yet, the Parthenon would

28

endure many other foes. The Parthenon was first converted to a Christian church, which led to the removal of 28 its’ “pagan gods.” With the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the monument was used as a mosque

29

until a Venetian attack on Athens destroyed large parts of the building and left its 29 archaeology deserted. By the 18th century, little was left of the Parthenon after decades of European pillaging. 30

30

In the contemporary world in which we reside,

the Parthenon is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the world, enticing millions of people each

31

year and warranting an ongoing restoration project currently in its third decade. Even in its antiquity, its subtle beauty and architectural refinement 31 is uncontested. Its miracle comes not from its magnitude,

32

but from the curvatures between its platform and columns that offer an illusion of symmetry that exceeds its true dimensions, and in the elaborate engravings within its marble surfaces 32 that having to outlast centuries of calamity. Now, architects, engineers, and artists work to recreate the surprisingly balanced and unbelievably precise work of the Athenians. 33 How is it that today’s architects are taking forty years to do what they did in less than ten?

33

(A) NO CHANGE (B) might of (C) could have (D) should have been (A) NO CHANGE (B) it’s (C) it is (D) its (A) NO CHANGE (B) components (C) particles (D) remnants A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE In the world of today, Contemptuously, Today,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE are was were

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE which has to outlast that have outlasted which had outlasted

Which of the following would be the most effective conclusion to the essay? A. NO CHANGE B. It is vital that we learn from the past in order to not repeat the mistakes of history. C. Tourism is a growing business worldwide, as people seek out memorable experiences rather than to accumulate possessions. D. The world continues to be haunted by the Venetian attack on the Parthenon, turning a brilliant accomplishment into utter ruins.


29

1

Passage 8-A

 Questions 43-52 are based on the following passage. -

The following passage is abridged from Rachel Ehrenberg’s “The facts behind the frack” (Science News), an article on the controversies surrounding the hydraulic fracturing method of recovering natural gas from below the Earth’s surface.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

To call it a fractious debate is an understatement. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, wrenches open rock deep beneath the Earth’s surface, freeing the natural gas that’s trapped inside. Proponents argue that frackingrelated gas recovery is a game changer, a bridge to the renewable energy landscape of the future. The gas, primarily methane, is cheap and relatively clean. Because America is brimful of the stuff, harvesting the fuel via fracking could provide the country with jobs and reduce its dependence on foreign sources of energy. But along with these promises have come alarming local incidents and national reports of blowouts, contamination and earthquakes. Fracking opponents contend that the process poisons air and drinking water and may make people sick. What’s more, they argue, fracking leaks methane, a potent greenhouse gas that can blow up homes, worries highlighted in the controversial 2010 documentary Gasland. Fears that fracking companies are operating in a Wild West environment with little regulation have prompted political action. In June, the group Don’t Frack Ohio led thousands of protesters on a march to the statehouse, where they declared their commitment to halting hydraulic fracturing in the state. Legislation banning the process has been considered but is now on hold in California. New York—which sits atop a giant natural gas reserve—has a statewide fracking moratorium; pending policies would allow the process only where local officials support it. Despite all this activity, not much of the fracking debate has brought scientific evidence into the fold. Yet scientists have been studying the risks posed by fracking operations. Research suggests methane leaks do happen. The millions of gallons of chemical-laden water used to fracture shale deep in the ground has spoiled land and waterways. There’s also evidence linking natural gas recovery to earthquakes, but this problem seems to stem primarily from wastewater disposal rather than the fracturing process itself. While the dangers are real, most problems linked to fracking so far are not specific to the technology but come with many large-scale energy operations employing poor practices with little oversight, scientists contend. Whether the energy payoff can come with an acceptable level of risk remains an open

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

105)

110)

question. Hydraulic fracturing operations have been linked to some small earthquakes, including a magnitude 2.3 quake near Blackpool, England, last year. But scientists agree such earthquakes are extremely rare, occurring when a well hits a seismic sweet spot, and are avoidable with monitoring. Of greater concern are earthquakes associated with the disposal of fracking fluid into wastewater wells. Injected fluid essentially greases the fault, a long-known effect. In the 1960s, a series of Denver earthquakes were linked to wastewater disposal at the Rocky Mountain arsenal, an Army site nearby. Wastewater disposal was also blamed for a magnitude 4.0 quake in Youngstown, Ohio, last New Year’s Eve. A study headed by William Ellsworth of the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., documents a dramatic increase in earthquakes in the Midwest coinciding with the start of the fracking boom. From 1970 to 2000, the region experienced about 20 quakes per year measuring at or above magnitude 3.0. Between 2001 and 2008, there were 29 such quakes per year. Then there were 50 in 2009, 87 in 2010 and 134 in 2011. “The change was really quite pronounced,” says Ellsworth. “We do not think it’s a purely natural phenomenon.” However, the earthquakes weren’t happening near active drilling—they seemed to be clustered around wastewater wells. It’s hard to look back without pre-quake data and figure out what triggers a single earthquake, notes Ellsworth. There are several pieces of the geology equation that, if toggled, can tip a fault from stable to unstable. A recent study examining seismic activity at wastewater injection wells in Texas linked earthquakes with injections of more than 150,000 barrels of water per month. But not every case fits the pattern, suggesting the orientation of deep faults is important. Ellsworth advises that injection at active faults be avoided. Drill sites should be considered for their geological stability, and seismic information should be collected. (Only about 3 percent of the 75,000-odd hydraulic fracturing setups in the United States in 2009 were seismically monitored.) “There are many things we don’t understand,” says Ellsworth. “We’re in ambulance-chasing mode where we’re coming in after the fact.”


1

30

Passage 8-A

48

49 43

44

45

46

47

In line 1, the author chooses the word “fractious” (contentious; heated) to create A. a metaphor. B. a play on words. C. an exaggeration. D. a counterargument.

50

To call fracking-related gas recovery “a game changer” (line 7) is to assert that fracking A. has no foreseeable negative consequences. B. will radically alter natural gas production. C. is not taken seriously by its proponents. D. will require active federal regulation. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 9–14 (“The gas . . . energy”) B. Lines 15–20 (“But . . . sick”) C. Lines 20–24 (“What’s more . . . Gasland”) D. Lines 51–59 (“While . . . question”)

51

What function does the discussion of fracking legislation in lines 32–38 serve in the passage? A. It describes specific responses to concerns raised in the previous paragraph. B. It analyzes theoretical objections to a claim made in the previous paragraph. C. It provides an unanticipated reaction to an explicit demand made in the previous paragraph. D. It contradicts a working hypothesis proposed in the previous paragraph.

52

As used in line 58, “open” most nearly means A. unresolved. B. vulnerable. C. accessible. D. ajar.

The stance that the author takes throughout the passage is best described as that of A. an advocate of technological innovations. B. an opponent of pointless regulatory oversight. C. a legislator concerned about potential danger. D. an observer striving to present a balanced account. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 25–28 (“Fears . . . political action”) B. Lines 32–38 (“Legislation . . . support it”) C. Lines 51–59 (“While . . . question”) D. Lines 93–95 (“It’s hard . . . Ellsworth”) The graph based on Ellsworth’s figures accentuates the A. validity of his research team’s methodology. B. increased magnitude of each individual earthquake. C. increasing frequency of earthquakes in the region. D. amount of fracking fluid injected into wastewater wells. As used in line 87, “pronounced” most nearly means A. noticeable. B. declared. C. decided on. D. articulated. It can be most reasonably inferred from the concluding paragraph that Ellsworth looks on current hypotheses about connections between the recent increases in earthquakes and the start of the fracking boom as A. corroborated by pre-quake data. B. based on insufficient knowledge. C. evidence of seismic activity. D. contradicted by his research findings.


2

31

Passage 8-B

 Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage. Where Have all the Cavemen Gone? 34 All humans have their ultimate genetic roots in

34

Africa. While our own ancestors were battling drought on the coasts of the African sub-continent, 35 the icebound north of modern Eurasia experienced the spread of the evolutionarily distinct species Homo neanderthalensis, where the Neanderthals developed the tools of flint and bone that have today come to characterize the so-called Mousterian culture of the early Stone Age. (1) Early hypotheses for their extinction centered,

35

predictably, around the 36 climate extreme change of the last Ice Age. (2) However, more recent studies of Neanderthal anatomy and artifacts suggest that they were remarkably well-equipped to deal with the fiercely cold and barren conditions, 37 and even thrived within them for nearly 200,000 years. (3) To cope with the glacial conditions, Neanderthals became short in stature—no more than a meter and half tall —and developed short,

36

broad extremities that would have increased the efficiency of circulation, and helped to preserve body heat. 3837

38

Which choice would best function as the introductory thesis of the essay? A. NO CHANGE B. The defeat of the Neanderthal invaders can only be considered a triumph of human ingenuity. C. The disappearance of the Neanderthals is one of the great mysteries in the evolutionary success of modern humans. D. In order to cope with the repercussions of possible global climate change, we should look to the example of Neanderthal adaptation. A. NO CHANGE B. the evolutionarily distinct species Homo neanderthalensis had spread to the icebound north of modern Eurasia, C. the species Homo neanderthalensis, being evolutionarily distinct, found itself spread to modern Eurasia in the north icebound, D. the north icebound of modern Eurasia experience evolutionarily distinct species spread of the Homo neanderthalensis, A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE climate, extreme extreme climate extreme, climate

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE but for it was the case that they OMIT the underlined portion.

The writer would like to insert this sentence to provide further support to his argument in this paragraph. “Further, there is strong evidence to suggest that later Neanderthals were capable of creating sophisticated and versatile garments from animal pelts designed to maintain core warmth without inducing perspiration.” Where would it best be placed? (A) before sentence 1 (B) before sentence 2 (C) before sentence 3 (D) after sentence 3


2 Another popular theory posits that Neanderthals met

32 39

their extinction through absorption. That is—supposing Neanderthals were not a distinct species, but rather a subspecies of Homo sapiens—some researchers believe that they disappeared after 39 conflicts with humans when they arrived in Eurasia roughly 80,000 years ago. However, a sample of mitochondrial DNA surviving in the

40

remains of a Neanderthal discovered in the Caucus Mountains demonstrates 3.5 percent genetic divergence from 40 contemporary Homo sapiens. While it is possible that some Neanderthals may have become culturally assimilated with our ancestors, it is highly unlikely that their DNA contributed to that of modern humans.

41

Currently, the most widely held theory to explain the extinction of the Neanderthals boils down quite simply to the processes of natural selection. While Neanderthals appear to have maintained a stable population during the Ice Age, 41 a drastic genetic bottleneck was experienced

42

by our African ancestors, leaving only the strongest and most intelligent to survive and carry on the species. When Homo neanderthalensis at last met Homo sapiens, it is probable that 42 they was outmatched, at the very least,

43

in technology, creativity, and social efficacy. In the several thousand years that followed, competition for resources would have pushed Neanderthals farther and farther to the 43 oceans of Europe and Asia. The last known remnants of Neanderthal culture issue from the remote location of Gorham’s Cave on the Gibraltar coast. By this time - roughly 27,000 years ago - Homo neanderthalensis had been displaced by its evolutionary cousin 44 to the very edge of the land nearly back into Africa itself where our common ancestors, first emerged millions of years prior.

44

Passage 8-B

Which choice is the most consistent elaboration on the first sentence of this paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. interbreeding C. discoveries D. commerce Which wording best conveys that the Neanderthals only have a slight genetic divergence from present-day humans? A. NO CHANGE B. punctual C. unique D. scientific A. NO CHANGE B. a drastic genetic bottleneck by our African ancestors was experienced, C. our African ancestors drastically experienced a bottleneck that was genetic, D. our African ancestors experienced a drastic genetic bottleneck, A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE they were the Neanderthals are the Neanderthals were

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE margins debris remains

A. NO CHANGE B. to the very edge, of the land nearly back into Africa itself, where our common ancestors C. to the very edge of the land, nearly back into Africa itself, where our common ancestors D. to the very edge of the land nearly, back into Africa itself where our common, ancestors


33

1

Passage 9-A

 Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

Persuasion The following passage is taken from Jane Austen’s novel Persuasion. In this excerpt we meet Sir Walter Elliot, father of the heroine.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

Vanity was the beginning and end of Sir Walter Elliot’s character: vanity of person and of situation. He had been remarkably handsome in his youth, and at fifty-four was still a very fine man. Few women could think more of their personal appearance than he did, nor could the valet of any new-made lord be more delighted with the place he held in society. He considered the blessing of beauty as inferior only to the blessing of a baronetcy; and the Sir Walter Elliot, who united these gifts, was the constant object of his warmest respect and devotion. His good looks and his rank had one fair claim on his attachment, since to them he must have owed a wife of very superior character to anything deserved by his own. Lady Elliot had been an excellent woman, sensible and amiable, whose judgment and conduct, if they might be pardoned the youthful infatuation which made her Lady Elliot, had never required indulgence afterwards. She had humored, or softened, or concealed his failings, and promoted his real respectability for seventeen years; and though not the very happiest being in the world herself, had found enough in her duties, her friends, and her children, to attach her to life, and make it no matter of indifference to her when she was called on to quit them. Three girls, the two eldest sixteen and fourteen, was an awful legacy for a mother to bequeath, an awful charge rather, to confide to the authority and guidance of a conceited, silly father. She had, however, one very intimate friend, a sensible, deserving woman, who had been brought, by strong attachment to herself, to settle close by her, in the village of Kellynch; and on her kindness and advice Lady Elliot mainly relied

45)

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

for the best help and maintenance of the good principles and instruction which she had been anxiously giving her daughters. This friend and Sir Walter did not marry, whatever might have been anticipated on that head by their acquaintance. Thirteen years had passed away since Lady Elliot’s death, and they were still near neighbors and intimate friends, and one remained a widower, the other a widow. That Lady Russell, of steady age and character, and extremely well provided for, should have no thought of a second marriage, needs no apology to the public, which is rather apt to be unreasonably discontented when a woman does marry again, than when she does not; but Sir Walter’s continuing in singleness requires explanation. Be it known, then, that Sir Walter, like a good father (having met with one or two disappointments in very unreasonable applications), prided himself on remaining single for his dear daughters’ sake. For one daughter, his eldest, he would really have given up anything which he had not been very much tempted to do. Elizabeth had succeeded at sixteen to all that was possible of her mother’s rights and consequence; and being very handsome, and very like himself, her influence had always been great, and they had gone on together most happily. His two other children were of very inferior value. Mary had acquired a little artificial importance by becoming Mrs. Charles Musgrove; but Anne, with an elegance of mind and sweetness of character, which must have placed her high with any people of real understanding, was nobody with either father or sister; her word had no weight, her convenience was always to give way—she was only Anne.


1 1

2

3

4

5

The main purpose of the passage is to A. provide an overview of the interrelationships of the members of a family. B. point out some unfortunate personality defects in a main character. C. explain the relationship between a main character and his amiable wife. D. describe a main character and a major change in his life. As used in line 3, “situation” most nearly means A. position of employment. B. physical surroundings. C. state of affairs. D. social standing. Which choice best summarizes the first two paragraphs of the passage (lines 1–43)? A. Even though the loss of his admirable wife devastates a character, he perseveres in caring for their young children. B. A vain and foolish character is left to care for three daughters after the death of his sensible wife. C. After seventeen years, a character who can no longer endure being married to a conceited fool abandons her family. D. Largely prompted by a character’s good looks, an otherwise intelligent woman enters into a misalliance. The narrator speaks well of Lady Elliot for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A. her concealment of Sir Walter’s shortcomings. B. her choice of an intimate friend. C. her guidance of her three daughters. D. her judgment in falling in love with Sir Walter. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 5–9 (“Few women . . . society”) B. Lines 18–23 (“Lady . . . afterwards”) C. Lines 23–31 (“She had . . . them”) D. Lines 31–35 (“Three . . . father”)

34

Passage 9-A

6

7

8

9

10

11

It can most reasonably be inferred that over the years Lady Elliot was less than happy because of A. her lack of personal beauty. B. her separation from her most intimate friend. C. the disparity between her character and that of her husband. D. her inability to teach good principles to her young daughters. As used in line 33, “charge” most nearly means A. accusation. B. responsibility. C. official instruction. D. headlong rush. The narrator indicates that Lady Elliot’s emotions regarding her approaching death were complicated by her A. pious submissiveness to her fate. B. anxieties over her daughters’ prospects. C. resentment of her husband’s potential remarriage. D. reluctance to face the realities of her situation. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 23–31 (“She . . . quit them”) B. Lines 31–35 (“Three . . . father”) C. Lines 35–43 (“She . . . daughters”) D. Lines 44–50 (“This friend . . . widow”) The phrase “make it no matter of indifference to her when she was called on to quit them” (lines 29–31) is an example of A. ironic understatement. B. effusive sentiment. C. metaphorical expression. D. personification. The “applications” made by Sir Walter (line 62) were most likely A. professional. B. insincere. C. marital. D. paternal.


35

2

Passage 9-B

 Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage. Chiroptera 1- As insignificant animals, bats make up a quarter of

mammal species worldwide. They are the only mammals

1

capable of true flight; their webbed forelimbs—which anatomically resemble the human hand—can sustain flight unlike the “gliding” of squirrels and opossums. 2- Although often considered pests themselves, most bats feed on insects and share a large part of natural pest control. The remaining percentage of bat species, whose diet doesn’t consist of

2

insects, are frugivores, carnivores, or hematophagous. It is the latter bloodsuckers who attract the most attention. The ecological roles of bats 3- do not end with pest control. They are also responsible for pollinating and dispersing fruit seeds. In fact, some tropical plants rely solely on bats for reproduction.

3

Bats are of the order Chiroptera and divided into two suborders: Microchiroptera and Megachiroptera. 4- The smallest bats are known to have bodies approximately

4

one inch long. And some are known to live up to 30 years. Echolocation is the highly sophisticated sense of hearing in which sound waves bounce off objects and emit echoes that microbats use to detect obstacles. It is this object that allows the nocturnal microbat to sense where an 5- object is, how big or small that object may be, and even how fast that object is moving. In contrast, megabats have well-developed eyesight and more advanced characteristics in their brains. They often inhabit warm climates and live socially in colonies.

5

Which choice best expresses that bats are not quite the most widespread mammalian species? A. NO CHANGE B. Representing 12 percent of mammals, C. Second only to rodents, D. Far more populous than humans,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Because they are However For this very reason, they are

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE does don’t do’s

A. NO CHANGE B. The smallest bats are known, to have bodies approximately one inch long. C. The smallest bats are known, to have bodies, approximately one inch long. D. The smallest, bats are known to have bodies approximately one inch long.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE material phenomenon thing


2

36

Recently, bat populations have been threatened by the

Passage 9-B 6

deadly white-nose syndrome. Since the winter of 2007– 2008, millions of bats have died as a result of this white fungus that spreads into the ears, muzzle, and wings of hibernating bats. Some estimates show a 6- 10 percent increase in the brown bat population in United States since the initial spread of the disease through the end of 2010. While the full

7

consequences of such a large population reduction are yet unknown, 7- and it is clear that farmers will feel the 8- affect with their best pest controllers now all but absent. Scientists at Michigan Technological University are working hard to

8

prevent further spread of the disease. Using chemical fingerprinting, these scientists are tracing the 9- bats hibernation sites and movements to detect what areas are infected and how the syndrome is being transmitted. Their research is particularly significant with the disease spreading to the 10- brown bats of Tennessee—a species that is already on the endangered list. Interestingly, some species have altered their mating and living habits to help protect themselves, and it is through observation of these adaptations that researchers 11- so preservationists can make the necessary interventions.

9

Which choice is best supported by the information in the accompanying graph? A. NO CHANGE B. 15 percent decline C. 40 percent decline D. 65 percent decline A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE but or OMIT the underlined portion.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE effect affectedness effectively

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE bat’s bat is bats’

10 Based on the latter part of the sentence and the information in the graph, which bats most likely fit this description? A. NO CHANGE B. Indiana C. gray D. big-eared 11 Which choice is most logically inserted at this point in the sentence? A. have decided how the species are thriving B. are learning which species are in the most danger C. are finding the preferred cultural associations of bats D. may locate major bat predators


1

37

Passage 10-A

 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage.

Mayflower Compact

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

The advantage of associating the birth of democracy with the Mayflower Compact is that it is easy to do so. The public loves a simple explanation, and none is simpler than (5) the belief that on November 11, 1620—the day the compact was approved—a cornerstone of American democracy was laid. Certainly it makes it easier on schoolchildren. Marking the start of democracy in 1620 relieves students of the responsibility of knowing what happened in the hundred some years before, from the arrival of the Santa Maria to the landing of the Mayflower. The compact, to be sure, demonstrated the Englishman’s striking capacity for self-government. And in affirming the principle of majority rule, the Pilgrims showed how far they had come from the days when the king’s whim was law, and nobody dared say otherwise. But the emphasis on the compact is misplaced. Scholarly research in the last half-century indicates that the compact had nothing to do with the development of self-government in America. In truth, the Mayflower Compact was no more a cornerstone of American democracy than the Pilgrim hut was the foundation of American architecture. As Samuel Eliot Morrison so emphatically put it, American democracy “was not born in the cabin of the Mayflower.” The Pilgrims indeed are miscast as the heroes of American democracy. They spurned democracy and would have been shocked to see themselves held up as its defenders. George Willison, regarded as one of the most careful students of the Pilgrims, states that “the merest glance at the history of Plymouth” shows that they were not democrats. The mythmakers would have us believe that even if the Pilgrims themselves weren’t democratic, the Mayflower Compact itself was. But in fact the compact was expressly designed to curb freedom, not promote it. The Pilgrim governor and historian, William Bradford, from whom we have gotten nearly all of the information there is about the Pilgrims, frankly conceded as much. Bradford wrote that the purpose of the compact was to control renegades aboard the Mayflower who were threatening to go their own way when the ship reached land. Because the Pilgrims had decided to settle in an area outside the jurisdiction of their royal patent,

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

some aboard the Mayflower had hinted that upon landing they would “use their owne libertie, for none had power to command them.” Under the terms of the compact, they couldn’t; the compact required all who lived in the colony to “promise all due submission and obedience” to it. Furthermore, despite the compact’s mention of majority rule, the Pilgrim fathers had no intention of turning over the colony’s government to the people. Plymouth was to be ruled by the elite. And the elite wasn’t bashful in the least about advancing its claims to superiority. When the Mayflower Compact was signed, the elite signed first. The second rank consisted of the “goodmen.” At the bottom of the list came four servants’ names. No women or children signed. Whether the compact was or was not actually hostile to the democratic spirit, it was deemed sufficiently hostile that during the Revolution, the Tories put it to use as “propaganda for the crown.” The monarchists made much of the fact that the Pilgrims had chosen to establish an English-style government that placed power in the hands of a governor, not a cleric, and a governor who owed his allegiance not to the people or to a church but to “our dread Sovereign Lord King James.” No one thought it significant that the authorities had adopted the principle of majority rule. Tory historian George Chalmers, in a work published in 1780, claimed the central meaning of the compact was the Pilgrims’ recognition of the necessity of royal authority. This may have been not only a convenient argument, but a true one. It is at least as plausible as the belief that the compact stood for democracy.


1 12

13

14

15

16

The author’s attitude toward the general public can best be described as A. sympathetic. B. condescending. C. perplexed. D. hostile.

38

Passage 10-A

17

18

The purpose of the first paragraph (lines 1–13) is to A. present an elaborate speculation. B. develop a chronological summary. C. capture the reader’s attention. D. provide a working hypothesis. As used in line 8, “Marking” most nearly means A. assessing. B. forming. C. designating. D. manifesting. In stating that “[t]he compact, to be sure, demonstrated the Englishman’s striking capacity for self-government,” the author A. concedes a point. B. invokes an expert. C. offers a rationale. D. rejects an assumption. The Pilgrims’ attitude toward the concept of democracy can best be described as A. complete rejection. B. qualified endorsement. C. marked approbation. D. objective neutrality.

19

20

21

22

As used in line 35, “held up” most nearly means A. delayed. B. cited. C. waylaid. D. carried. According to the passage, the compact’s primary purpose was to A. establish legal authority within the colony. B. banish non-Pilgrims from the settlement. C. eradicate heretical thinking among the settlers. D. protect each individual’s civil rights. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 41–44 (“The mythmakers . . . itself was”) B. Lines 44–49 (“But in fact . . . as much”) C. Lines 53–62 (“Because the Pilgrims . . . to it”) D. Lines 63–67 (“Furthermore . . . elite”) In the passage, the details about the signers of the Mayflower Compact are used to emphasize A. the Pilgrims’ respect for the social hierarchy. B. the inclusion of servants among those signing. C. the great variety of social classes aboard. D. the lack of any provision for minority rule. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 46–49 (“The Pilgrim . . . much”) B. Lines 59–62 (“Under . . . it”) C. Lines 63–66 (“Furthermore . . . people”) D. Lines 69–73 (“When . . . signed”) Which category of passenger is least represented on the accompanying graph? A. Male adult servants B. Female adult farmers C. Male minor farmers D. Female minor farmers


2

39

Passage 10-B

 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage. The Tyrannical and the Taciturn The so-called “marriage group” from Geoffrey

12

Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales consists of five stories, in each of which marriage is 12- not—as tradition would dictate, the resolution, but instead functions as a central narrative conflict. Generally, the dysfunctional aspects of

13

each married pair 13- are supported by specific textual quotations: an unbalanced distribution of power and ineffective communication between the espoused.

Perhaps nowhere 14- is this timeless marital troubles

14

better illustrated than in the second narrative of the suite, “The Clerk’s Tale.” 15- In the story of “The Clerk’s Tale,” we find the greatest power imbalance of any of Chaucer’s

15

unhappy couples. A Marquis of Lombardy, Lord Walter, fears that marriage will mean the surrender of his personal freedom, stating 16- “I me rejoysed of my liberte / That seelde tyme is founde in marriage.” To ensure that his “liberte” is uncompromised by wedlock, he does not choose for his bride a noblewoman of equal birth but, instead, the daughter of his poorest subject, Griselda.

16

A. NO CHANGE B. not—as tradition would dictate—the resolution, but C. not as tradition would dictate, the resolution, but D. not, as tradition would dictate—the resolution, but Which of the following would most logically connect to what comes next in the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. could be said to derive from two critical failings: C. are ironic given the dominant themes in the work: D. contribute to a resolution between the protagonist and antagonist: A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE is these are those are them

A. NO CHANGE B. In this medieval narrative found in The Canterbury Tales, C. Here D. Therefore The author is considering removing the quotation marks in the underlined portion. Should she do so? A. Yes. The underlined portion represents the internal monologue of the narrator. B. Yes. The underlined portion is written in the medieval style, which is consistent with the style of the rest of the essay. C. No. The quotation marks serve to demonstrate the narrator’s possession of specific thoughts. D. No. The quotation marks serve to set aside a statement by a character.


2

40

The disparity of partnership in the marriage inevitably

Passage 10-B 17

leads Walter to abuse his power. Soon after the couple’s first child is born, Walter begins “testing” his wife’s devotion through a series of truly mean-spirited pranks, including a false order for the execution of their two children

18

17- a renouncement of their marriage. Griselda consents to

each demand precisely as she promised on their wedding day, and one begins to imagine that the Marquis is not so much testing his wife’s devotion 18- so they are exploring

19

the extent to which his power reaches. Conversely, Griselda contributes to the complications 19- through her unwillingness to communicate openly with

20

Walter. In Griselda’s final test, wherein she is cast out of the castle and replaced by a younger woman of higher birthright, Griselda asks 20- that Walter not send her away naked, once again emphasizing her intent to preserve the dignity of the bodies that fall victim to his wishes. This exchange is notable in that it is the first time Griselda directly asserts her desires

21

to Walter, and although she desists as soon as he raises an objection, she allows herself, finally, at 21- what she believes, to be the end of their marriage, to communicate to him what she feels to be right and honorable. In any case, Griselda’s concern for the physical body 22- becomes somewhat ironic given the tale’s conclusion,

particularly its invocation of the myth of Echo and Narcissus. Just as Echo could not speak of her own accord but only reflect the words of others, Griselda’s inability to communicate with Walter beyond reflection of his immediate will causes her, in some sense, to lose even her physical body as a character, reduced to merely the echo of his desires.

22

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE a marriage of their renouncing. of their marriage, a renouncing. with the renouncement of their marital vows.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE when they were so he was as he is

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE as since to

Which choice best communicates Griselda’s limited request? A. NO CHANGE B. so that C. only that D. from that A. NO CHANGE B. what she believes to be the end of their marriage to communicate to him what C. what she believes—to be the end of their marriage, to communicate to him what D. what she believes to be the end of their marriage, to communicate to him what A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE became had become have become


1

41

 Questions 23-32 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

Passage 11-A

Sleep: The Brain’s Housekeeper? Every night since we first evolved, humans the same time. Therefore, they decided to have made what might be considered a test whether the activity of the glymphatic 55) system changed during sleep. Lulu Xie, the baffling, dangerous mistake. Despite the once-prevalent threat of being eaten by new study’s first author, spent the next two predators and the loss of valuable time for years training mice to relax and fall asleep on gathering food, accumulating wealth, or a two-photon microscope, which can image reproducing, we go to sleep. Scientists have the movement of dye through living tissue. 60) long speculated and argued about why we Once Xie was sure the mice were asleep by devote roughly a third of our lives to sleep, checking their EEG (electroencephalogram) but with little concrete data to support any brain activity, she injected a green dye into particular theory. Now, new evidence has their CSF through a catheter-like device in refreshed a long-held hypothesis: During their necks. After half an hour, she awakened 65) them by touching their tails and injected sleep, the brain cleans itself. Most physiologists agree that sleep serves a red dye that the two-photon microscope many different purposes, ranging from could easily distinguish from the green. By memory consolidation to the regulation tracking the movements of red and green dye of metabolism and the immune system. throughout the brain, the team found that While the purposes of biological functions 70) large amounts of CSF flowed into the brain such as breathing and eating are easy to during sleep, but not during the waking state, understand, scientists have never agreed on Nedergaard reports. any such original purpose for sleeping. A A comparison of the volume of space new study by Maiken Nedergaard provides between nerve cells while the mice were what sleep researcher Charles Czeisler calls 75) awake and asleep revealed that the glial the “first direct experimental evidence channels carrying CSF expanded by 60% at the molecular level” for what could be when the mice were asleep. The team also sleep’s basic purpose: It clears the brain injected labeled β amyloid proteins into the of toxic metabolic byproducts. The new brains of sleeping mice and wakeful mice work confirms a long-standing hypothesis 80) and found that during sleep, CSF cleared that sleep promotes recovery—something away this “dirt” outside of the cells twice as is paid back or cleaned out. It builds on quickly—”like a dishwasher,” Nedergaard Nedergaard’s recent discovery of a network says. Such proteins can aggregate as of microscopic, fluid-filled channels that pathogenic plaques outside cells and are clear toxins from the brain, much as the 85) associated with Alzheimer’s disease, she says. lymphatic system clears out metabolic waste Many neurological diseases—from products from the rest of the body. Instead Alzheimer’s disease to stroke and dementia— of carrying lymph, this system transports are associated with sleep disturbances. The waste-laden cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Before study suggests that lack of sleep could have the discovery of this “glymphatic” system, as 90) a causal role, by allowing the byproducts to Nedergaard has dubbed it, the brain’s only build up and cause brain damage. known method for disposing of cellular waste New scientific results often raise new was breaking it down and recycling it within questions, and this study of sleep is no individual cells, she says. exception to the rule. Does the need to The earlier study showed that glia, the 95) remove waste products actively regulate brain’s non-neuronal cells, control the sleep? In other words, does the buildup of flow of CSF through channels in their cell metabolic byproducts make us sleepy? Is membranes. “If we delete the channels in this cleaning function of sleep shared across glial cells, the flow almost stops,” Nedergaard species? No one role of sleep rules out all 100) others, and sleep presumably has many says. Because the transport of fluid across cell membranes requires a lot of energy, functions, just as the weekend is variously Nedergaard and her team had a hunch that for shopping, socializing, and cleaning the the brain would not be able both to clean the house. It is possible that different species brain and to process sensory information at have evolved different functions of sleep to 105) suit their different habitats.


1 23

24

25

26

27

28

42

The main purpose of the passage is to A. explain why humans sleep more than other mammals. B. prove that sleep is in fact beneficial to human beings. C. discuss recent experiments regarding brain activity during sleep. D. clarify the workings of the lymphatic system.

Passage 11-A

29

30

It may most reasonably be inferred from the passage that one function of the lymphatic system is the A. relay of sensory information. B. regulation of temperature. C. transport of cerebrospinal fluid. D. drainage of waste. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 21–27 (“A new . . . byproducts”) B. Lines 27–30 (“The new . . . cleaned out”) C. Lines 30–35 (“It builds . . . body”) D. Lines 37–42 (“Before . . . says”) The new experiment described indicates that the purpose of sleep is to A. build up pathogenic plaques outside cells. B. replenish the body’s energy stores. C. clean the brain and provide other unknown benefits. D. reduce the buildup of electrical signals. As used in line 29, “promotes” most nearly means A. exchanges a pawn. B. raises in rank. C. fosters. D. publicizes. Why did the scientists consider the fact that glial channels expanded by 60 percent a significant result? A. It suggested that the brain expanded during sleep. B. It suggested that the flow of cerebrospinal fluid increased during sleep. C. It suggested that other organs expanded simultaneously in similar fashion. D. It suggested a peak in the processing of sensory information.

31

32

As used in line 67, “distinguish” most nearly means A. characterize. B. tell apart. C. make prominent. D. discern. Which statement about the function of Xie’s injection of two different colored dyes into the mice’s cerebrospinal fluid is best supported by the passage? A. It enabled the researchers to differentiate between different types of molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid. B. It enabled the researchers to differentiate cerebrospinal fluid that entered the brain during a sleeping state from cerebrospinal fluid that entered the brain during a wakeful state. C. It enabled the researchers to differentiate between cerebrospinal fluid and lymph. D. It enabled the researchers to differentiate between fluids that cleared out waste products from the lymphatic system and fluids that cleared out waste products from the glymphatic system. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 55–59 (“Lulu Xie … living tissue”) B. Lines 64–67 (“After half an hour … green”) C. Lines 67–72 (“By tracking … reports”) D. Lines 73–77 (“A comparison … asleep”) 32. The reference to common weekend activities in lines 101–103 (“the weekend … cleaning the house”) primarily serves to A. emphasize the importance of leisure time for mental and physical health. B. determine which activities provide the most benefits. C. illustrate by analogy the likely diversity of the roles played by sleep. D. demonstrate the fundamental similarity between recreation and sleep.


43

2

Passage 11-B

 Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.

A, B, C—1, 2, 3

Few jobs are as important as that of teachers. A

23

society’s quality of life often depends on its economic growth, which is directly affected by its 23- workforce, which, of course, is educated by its school teachers. Take a moment to imagine the ten most influential people in your

24

life—chances are, at least one of them is a teacher or an instructor you have presently or have had in the past. 24- From English class during first period to

mathematics as the final period, teachers are those constant guardians molding you into the person you will become, pushing you to do 25- your best and critiquing you when

25

you’re falling short of your potential. Many students realize too late that relationships with their teachers, and later with their professors, should be fostered into life-long connections.

26

26- However, what is it that’s so special about being a

teacher? It begins with the decision to devote your life to the education of others. Most teachers have, at some point, entertained the idea of a career that requires less personal

27

investment and pays better than 27- an average of approximately $45,000 per year in many cities; yet, when asked, few would take back their decision. The most probable explanation is that despite the negatives, the field of teaching is uniquely rewarding and exceptionally

28

worthwhile. A 28- teachers’ workday starts and ends with the training and shaping of the next generation; and for many, there’s no better way to invest their own training 29- compared in the opening of young minds.

29

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE workforce which, of course, are educated by its workforce, which, of course is educated by its’ workforce, which of course is educated by it’s

Which choice would most logically emphasize the wide span of time during which teachers have a direct influence over students? A. NO CHANGE B. From the opening of the school doors to their closing at day’s end, C. From schools in the United States to schools located in faraway countries, D. From elementary to middle to high school and beyond, A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE you’re best and criticizing you when your your best and criticizing one when one’s you’re best and critiquing you when you’re

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE So, But, Further,

Which choice offers the most accurate interpretation of the data in the chart that accompanies this passage? A. NO CHANGE B. an average of approximately $50,000 per year C. an average of approximately $55,000 per year D. an average of approximately $60,000 per year A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE teacher’s teachers teacher has a

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE than then related


2

44

Nonetheless, becoming a teacher takes much more

Passage 11-B 30

than a kind heart and a good dose of patience. All school teachers need to have a bachelor’s degree—most commonly in education, but sometimes in the subject that the teacher wishes to teach—and it is increasingly common for teachers to obtain a master’s degree. 30- Obscuringly, after degree

31

completion, teachers need to acquire a teaching certificate, or a license to teach—most often, this licensing is achieved via teacher-education programs where 31- perspective teachers student-teach under more experienced instructors.

32

Many schools prefer that their teachers continue to learn, train, and attend field-related events throughout their employment. Even then, the job is far from cookie-cutter. Most teachers are expected to be knowledgeable in psychology and counseling in order to provide other support for students. Licensure requirements and salaries can vary based on geography; 32- salaries in many urban school districts can vary by as much as approximately $4,000 based on the city’s location. Additionally, if you choose to teach at the secondary level, it is best to be ready to answer questions about college, career planning, and young adult issues. One thing is 33 for sure, a good teacher is there because he or she wants to be.

33

A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Given, Furthermore, Professionally,

NO CHANGE prospective prospecting previewing

Which choice offers the most accurate interpretation of the data in the chart? A. NO CHANGE B. salaries in many urban school districts can vary by as much as approximately $7,000 based on the city’s location. C. salaries in many urban school districts can vary by as much as approximately $10,000 based on the city’s location. D. salaries in many urban school districts can vary by as much as approximately $13,000 based on the city’s location. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE for sure: a good for sure a good for a


1

45

Passage 12-A

 Questions 43-52 are based on the following passage.

Dinosaur metabolism neither hot nor cold, but just right

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

60)

Call it the Goldilocks solution. Paleontologists have struggled for 50 years to determine whether dinosaurs were coldblooded ectotherms like today’s reptiles, making little effort to control their body temperatures, or warm-blooded endotherms, like most modern mammals and birds, which keep their body temperatures at a constant, relatively high set point. The answer greatly influences our view of dinosaurs, as endotherms tend to be more active and faster growing. A recent study concludes that dinosaur blood ran neither cold nor hot but something in between. Examining growth and metabolic rates of nearly 400 living and extinct animals, the researchers conclude that dinosaurs, like a handful of modern creatures including tuna and the echidna, belonged to an intermediate group that can raise their body temperature but don’t keep it at a specific level. The researchers christen these creatures mesotherms. Establishing a new metabolic category is “audacious,” admits lead author John Grady, an evolutionary biologist at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. And some still think dinosaurs were “just fast-growing ectotherms,” as vertebrate physiologist Frank Paladino of Indiana University– Purdue University Fort Wayne insists. But paleobiologist Gregory Erickson of Florida State University in Tallahassee calls the paper “a remarkably integrative, landmark study” that transforms our view of the great beasts. For the first 150 years after their discovery, dinosaurs were considered ectotherms like today’s reptiles. Ectothermy makes some sense: “It requires much less energy from the environment,” explains Roger Seymour, a zoologist at the University of Adelaide in Australia. But it has drawbacks, too: “The animal cannot feed in cold conditions and has a much more limited capacity for sustained, powerful activity, even if warmed by the sun,” he says. Beginning in the late 1960s, researchers put forward the then-heretical idea of dinosaurs as endotherms, and evidence for this has accumulated. Annual growth rings in dinosaur bones suggest fast, energy-hungry developmental rates. Birdlike air sacs may have boosted their respiratory efficiency, suggesting rapid movements. And isotopic data from fossils suggest higher body temperatures (Science, 22 July 2011, p. 443). Giant endotherms pose their own puzzles, however, such as the huge quantities of food needed to sustain them. An endothermic Tyrannosaurus rex “would probably have starved to death,” Grady says.

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

105)

110)

115)

120)

He and his colleagues tackled the problem by examining the relationship between an animal’s growth rate—how fast it becomes a full-sized adult—and its resting metabolic rate (RMR), a measure of energy expenditure. Earlier studies, based on limited data, had suggested that growth rates scale with metabolic rates. That is, the more energy an animal can expend, the faster it can grow and the bigger it can get. The team pulled together updated data on 381 living and extinct vertebrates, including 21 species of dinosaurs, and developed mathematical equations that predict the relationship between metabolic rate, growth rate, and body size in living animals. These equations show that ectotherms and endotherms fall into distinct clusters when growth rate is plotted against metabolic rate. High-energy endotherms grow fast and have high metabolic rates, whereas ectotherms have low values of both. Those two categories include most living species, but the team found that a handful, such as fast-swimming sharks, tuna, reptiles such as large sea turtles, and a few odd mammals like the echidna, fall into an in-between state: mesothermy. These animals use their metabolism to raise their body temperatures, but do not “defend” a set temperature. Using their equations, the team calculated dinosaur RMRs, plugging in reliable published data on these extinct animals. Dino growth rates can be estimated because rings of bone, which give a measure of age, were laid down annually, and body size can be estimated from bone size. The results placed dinosaurs squarely among the mesotherms. The earliest birds—direct descendants of dinosaurs— plotted as mesotherms, too. Grady and colleagues think mesothermy may have allowed dinosaurs to grow large and active with lower energy costs. Geochemist Robert Eagle of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena agrees: “In a world that was generally hotter than today, it wasn’t really necessary to be a full endotherm.” Previous studies have suggested that during the Mesozoic, even mammalian endotherms kept their bodies at a lower set point than they do today, he says. Grady suggests that mesothermy might even help explain why dinosaurs ruled the Earth: They could easily outcompete other reptiles, which were lethargic ectotherms. And by getting big quickly, they occupied the large-animal niches, and prevented the small, energy-hungry endothermic mammals from getting bigger themselves. Until, of course, the fateful asteroid struck, and dinosaurs vanished.


1

46

Passage 12-A 47

43

44

45

46

The primary purpose of the chart accompanying the passage is to illustrate that A. tyrannosaurs were carnivores that preyed on mammals and birds. B. ostriches are birds that have lost the ability to fly. C. alligators have a lower metabolic rate than sharks. D. in metabolic rate dinosaurs are most akin to sharks. The passage is written from the perspective of someone who is A. an active participant in evolutionary biology research. B. a supporter of the long-held theory that dinosaurs were ectotherms. C. well-informed about competing theories regarding dinosaur metabolism. D. skilled at developing mathematical equations. In the opening sentence, the author makes A. an allusion to a familiar tale. B. a contrast with a literary archetype. C. an exaggeration about a theory’s significance. D. an exception to a rule. By admitting that the action of establishing a new metabolic category is “audacious,” study author Grady is A. denying the action’s validity. B. acknowledging its radical nature. C. confessing an error in methodology. D. refuting a hypothesis.

48

49

50

51

52

What function do the fourth and fifth paragraphs (lines 36–56) serve in the passage as a whole? A. They acknowledge that a theory described by the author of the passage has some limitations. B. They give an overview of previous theories about the body temperature and activity level of dinosaurs. C. They advocate the abandonment of a longestablished assumption about the nature of dinosaur metabolism. D. They illustrate the difficulty of reaching any conclusions about the physiology of prehistoric reptiles. It is reasonable to conclude that the main goal of the scientists conducting the research described in the passage is to A. learn the history of classifying dinosaurs as coldblooded or warm-blooded. B. explore possible ways to predict the body temperatures of mammals and birds. C. characterize dinosaurs according to their metabolic and growth rates. D. determine the role that dinosaur metabolism played in their extinction. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 13–22 (“A recent . . . level”) B. Lines 24–27 (“Establishing . . . Albuquerque”) C. Lines 36–38 (“For the first . . . reptiles”) D. Lines 106–110 (“Geochemist . . . endotherm’”) As used in line 68, “scale” most nearly means A. flake. B. reduce. C. ascend. D. correlate. As used in line 97, “laid down” most nearly means A. rested. B. deposited. C. sacrificed. D. formulated. In line 91, the quotes around the word “defend” indicate that A. the word is being used for ironic effect. B. it has been quoted from an authoritative source. C. the author would prefer a different word in its place D. the word is being used in an unusual sense.


2

47

Passage 12-B

 Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage. Murder Most Fowl Al Capone, speakeasies, the Saint Valentine’s Day

34

Massacre—most of us have at least heard of Chicago’s 34- transparent affairs throughout the United States’

thirteen-year “noble experiment” with prohibition. But while prohibition was repealed in 1933, another, less renowned noble experiment was inaugurated in Chicago in 2006—a citywide ban on the sale of foie gras, or fatty duck

35

liver. Like veal, foie gras has often been a target of animal rights groups such as PETA 35- because ducks traditionally undergo a technique called “gavage” in order to fatten the liver artificially. 36- Gavage involves, the force-feeding of

36

corn, to ducks through a funnel. Sponsors of the ban cited the raising of foie gras as a particularly heinous act of commercialized animal cruelty—one that overshadows the treatment of chickens, pigs, cows, and other animals raised for slaughter. The ban was passed by 37- Chicago’s City Council in an omnibus bill despite the

37

opposition of the city’s mayor. Foie gras is considered a very traditional and desirable ingredient in 38- French cooking, not

38

surprisingly, Chicago’s many respected French-style chefs were outraged by the council’s decision. Other chefs throughout the city expressed similar dismay at what they perceived as everything from artistic censorship to the Orwellian tyranny of an authoritarian state. Restaurant patrons, for the most part, 39- were appalled at the City Council’s encroachment on personal dietary choices. In fact, many restaurants reported a tremendous spike in foie gras sales in the months between when the bill was passed and the date on which it took effect.

39

Which word is most applicable to the types of “affairs” listed at the beginning of the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. ancient C. alcoholic D. dubious A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE while although and

A. NO CHANGE B. Gavage involves the, force-feeding of corn to ducks through a funnel. C. Gavage involves the force-feeding of corn to ducks through a funnel. D. Gavage involves the force-feeding, of corn to ducks through a funnel. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Chicagos City Council Chicagos’ Cities Council Chicagos Cities Council

A. NO CHANGE B. French cooking; not surprisingly, Chicago’s many C. French cooking: not surprisingly Chicagos many D. French cooking not surprisingly, Chicago’s many 39. Which choice best expresses that restaurant patrons had the opposite attitude about the foie gras ban than the chefs described in the previous sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. considered moving away from this oppressive C. society. D. just wondered what all the fuss was about. E. felt that artists should be able to paint whatever they would like.


48

2 40- What’s more, after the ban became active—

Passage 12-B 40

much like in the old days of prohibition—enterprising Chicagoan restaurateurs, diners, and chefs found ways around the legislation. Some restaurants, such as Har-DeHar-Har and Copperblue, simply continued to sell foie gras,

41

claiming the 41- enormous livers were sourced either from chickens or from naturally fed ducks. Bin 36 offered a salad of figs, honey, and apricots at what appeared to be the exorbitant price of thirty 42- dollars—until one realized the salad included a “complimentary” serving of foie gras. Bin 36, being the most cavalier of the culinary rebels, was

42

investigated by the Health Department, who nonetheless declined to issue a citation. Following that decision, attempts to enforce the ban essentially 43- vivified, and any restaurant in Chicago wishing to serve foie gras could do so without a serious fear of reprisal.

43

Two years after the ban was passed, it was repealed. Chefs hailed the action as a victory 44- to personal freedom. Many animal rights advocates decried it as surrender to wealthy special interest groups. Mayor Richard Daley reflected on the council’s decision to ban foie gras could do so without a serious fear of reprisal.

44

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Conversely, However, In contrast,

Which wording gives the most logical and vivid description based on the context of the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. suspiciously large and luscious C. grotesquely unappetizing D. poultry A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE dollars, until one, realized the salad dollars: until one realized, the salad dollars; until one realized the salad

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE congealed, checked, froze,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE since for on


49

1

Passage 13-A

 Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.

Great Expectations The following passage is taken from Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. In it, the hero, Pip, recollects a dismal period in his youth during which he for a time lost hope of ever bettering his fortunes.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

It is a most miserable thing to feel ashamed of home. There may be black ingratitude in the thing, and the punishment may be retributive and well deserved; but, that it is a miserable thing, I can testify. Home had never been a very pleasant place to me, because of my sister’s temper. But Joe had sanctified it and I believed in it. I had believed in the best parlor as a most elegant salon; I had believed in the front door as a mysterious portal of the Temple of State whose solemn opening was attended with a sacrifice of roast fowls; I had believed in the kitchen as a chaste though not magnificent apartment; I had believed in the forge as the glowing road to manhood. Now, it was all coarse and common, and I would not have had Miss Havisham and Estella see it on any account. Once, it had seemed to me that when I should at last roll up my shirt sleeves and go into the forge, Joe’s ‘prentice, I should be distinguished and happy. Now the reality was in my hold, I only felt that I was dusty with the dust of small coal, and that I had a weight upon my daily remembrance to which the anvil was a feather. There have been occasions in my later life (I suppose as in most lives) when I have felt for a time as if a thick curtain had fallen on all its interest and romance, to shut me out from any thing save dull endurance any more. Never has that curtain dropped so heavy and blank, as when my way in life lay stretched out straight before me through the newly-entered road of apprenticeship to Joe. I remember that at a later period of my “time,” I used to stand about the churchyard on Sunday evenings, when night was falling, comparing my own perspective with the windy marsh view, and making out some likeness between them by thinking how flat and low both were, and how on both there came an unknown way and a dark mist and then the sea. I was quite as dejected on the first working-day of my apprenticeship as in that after time; but I am glad to know that I

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

never breathed a murmur to Joe while my indentures lasted. It is about the only thing I am glad to know of myself in that connection. For, though it includes what I proceed to add, all the merit of what I proceed to add was Joe’s. It was not because I was faithful, but because Joe was faithful, that I never ran away and went for a soldier or a sailor. It was not because I had a strong sense of the virtue of industry, but because Joe had a strong sense of the virtue of industry, that I worked with tolerable zeal against the grain. It is not possible to know how far the influence of any amiable honest-hearted duty-going man flies out into the world; but it is very possible to know how it has touched one’s self in going by, and I know right well that any good that intermixed itself with my apprenticeship came of plain contented Joe, and not of restless aspiring discontented me. What I wanted, who can say? How can I say, when I never knew? What I dreaded was, that in some unlucky hour I, being at my grimiest and commonest, should lift up my eyes and see Estella looking in at one of the wooden windows of the forge. I was haunted by the fear that she would, sooner or later, find me out, with a black face and hands, doing the coarsest part of my work, and would exult over me and despise me. Often after dark, when I was pulling the bellows for Joe, and we were singing Old Clem, and when the thought how we used to sing it at Miss Havisham’s would seem to show me Estella’s face in the fire, with her pretty hair fluttering in the wind and her eyes scorning me,—often at such a time I would look towards those panels of black night in the wall which the wooden windows then were, and would fancy that I saw her just drawing her face away, and would believe that she had come at last. After that, when we went in to supper, the place and the meal would have a more homely look than ever, and I would feel more ashamed of home than ever, in my own ungracious breast.


1 1

2

3

4

5

The passage as a whole is best described as A. an analysis of the reasons behind a change in attitude. B. an account of a young man’s reflections on his emotional state. C. a description of a young man’s awakening to the harshness of working class life. D. a criticism of young people’s ingratitude to their elders. Thanks to Joe, the narrator’s early image of his home can best be described as basically A. miserable. B. modest. C. positive. D. realistic. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–5 (“It is a most . . . testify”) B. Lines 8–16 (“I had believed . . . manhood”) C. Lines 23–36 (“Now the reality . . . Joe”) D. Lines 37–45 (“I remember . . . the sea”)

50

Passage 13-A 6

7

8

9 In the passage, Joe is portrayed most specifically as A. distinguished. B. virtuous. C. independent. D. coarse. Which word could best replace “time” in line 38? A. apprenticeship B. childhood C. sentence D. existence

10

11

The passage suggests that the narrator’s increasing discontent with his home during his apprenticeship was caused by A. a new awareness on his part of how his home would appear to others. B. the increasing heaviness of the labor that his apprenticeship required. C. the unwillingness or inability of Joe to curb his sister’s temper. D. a combination of simple ingratitude and human sinfulness. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–2 (“It is . . . home”) B. Lines 6–7 (“Home . . . temper”) C. Lines 16–19 (“Now, it . . . account”) D. Lines 23–27 (“Now the reality . . . feather”) According to the passage, the narrator gives himself a measure of credit for A. working diligently despite his unhappiness. B. abandoning his hope of a military career. C. keeping his menial position secret from Estella. D. concealing his despondency from Joe. The author includes the description of the narrator’s view from the churchyard (lines 37–45) primarily to A. suggest the narrator’s strong prospects for advancement. B. highlight the beauty of the natural setting. C. emphasize the depth of the narrator’s gloom. D. foreshadow Joe’s eventual demise. As used in line 91, “homely” most nearly means A. plain and unrefined. B. cosy and comfortable. C. proper and domestic. D. commonly known. The description in the next-to-last paragraph indicates that what the narrator fears most about Estella is her A. passionate temperament. B. scornful disposition. C. haunting beauty. D. inquisitive nature.


2

51

Passage 13-B

 Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage. The Giants of Theater The great dramatists of the 20th century—Arthur

1

Miller, Tennessee Williams, John Osborne, and Harold Pinter—still owe an enormous creative debt to their 19thcentury 1 forebears, most particularly to the two Scandinavian playwrights Henrik Ibsen and August

2

Strindberg. The hallmarks of modern theater in their present incarnation—from stark realism to surreal expressionism— 2 from the two mens’ works directly

3

derive. Strindberg and Ibsen were themselves not just rivals 3 but grave enemies. Famously, Strindberg mocked and

attacked Ibsen’s most successful and enduring play, “A Doll’s House,” in a short story of the same title and claimed that his ongoing hostilities with Ibsen had cost him his

4

“wife, children, fortune, and career.” Ibsen, meanwhile, somewhat more 4 soberly—though no less venomously— kept a portrait of Strindberg in his study where he worked, naming it “Madness Incipient.” He once remarked, “I can’t write a line without that madman staring down at me with those crazy eyes.” Strindberg and Ibsen found ways to clash with one another on nearly every issue of their time—politics, society, science, religion, women’s rights— 5 by focusing on how these current events had global implications.

5

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE elders seniors historians

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE from the works of these two men directly derive. derive directly from the works of these two men. come directly from this.

Which choice best expresses that the intellectual relationship between Strindberg and Ibsen went far beyond an ordinary rivalry? A. NO CHANGE B. while being peaceful advocates. C. but impassioned artistic adversaries. D. and fiercely competitive belligerents.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE soberly; though no less venomously kept soberly though no less—venomously kept soberly: though no less venomously, kept

The writer would like to express that Strindberg and Ibsen shared their ideas on contemporary issues in both direct and indirect ways. Which choice best conveys this? A. NO CHANGE B. all of which found either subtle or overt expression in their plays. C. through a willingness to both compromise and stick to their guns, depending on the situation. D. some of which called for metaphor, some which called for simile.


2 But at the core of their rivalry lay something more

52

Passage 13-B 6

elemental than mere differences of opinion and competitive antagonism; the characters that populate each writer’s 6 respectedly works are fundamentally distinct in the way they relate to the world around them. Michael

7

Meyer 7 , a Hollywood screenwriter for many prominent films, once compared the two, writing, “Ibsen’s characters think and speak logically and consecutively . . . Strindberg’s dart backwards and forwards. They do not think, or speak, ABCDE but AQBZC.” These two men— writing in the same genre at the same point in history, and emerging from both

8

the same level of society and corner of the world— 8 nonetheless developed remarkably antithetical

worldviews, each powerful enough not only to weather the

9

criticism of the opposition but to develop and grow in spite of it. Although in life the two considered themselves plenary 9 opposites as drama continues to evolve into the postmodern era, we may begin to realize that the worlds envisioned by Strindberg and Ibsen were perhaps not so

10

different as they believed. Described by playwright Bernard Shaw as 10 “the giants of the theatre of our time,” their lingering influences have coexisted and even comingled in drama for more than a century now. The staggering plurality of postmodern theater itself we must attribute, at least in part, to the initial fracturing of the modern drama in its 11 outset state, when refusing to yield to prevailing winds, Strindberg and Ibsen produced a cyclone.

11

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE respectable respectful respective

The writer wants to insert a brief statement at this point that speaks about Meyer’s qualifications to have a worthwhile opinion on this topic. Which, if true, best accomplishes this goal? A. NO CHANGE B. , a noted scholar on ancient Scandinavian history, C. , a contemporary Scandinavian poet, D. , translator and biographer of both playwrights, A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE consequently also divergently

A. NO CHANGE B. opposites as drama continues, to evolve into the postmodern era we may C. opposites, as drama continues to evolve into the postmodern era, we may D. opposites as drama continues to evolve into the postmodern era we may

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE the giants of the theatre of our time, the giants’ of the theatre of our time, ‘the giants of the theatre of our time,’

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE germinating floral germinal


53

1

Passage 14-A

 Questions 12-21 are based on the following passage.

Native American history

The following passage is excerpted from a text on Native American history. Here, the author describes how certain major Indian nations related to the European powers during the 1700s.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

By the end of the seventeenth century the coastal tribes along most of the Atlantic seaboard had been destroyed, dispersed, or subjected directly to European control. Yet the interior tribes—particularly those who had grouped themselves into confederations—remained powers (and were usually styled nations) who dealt with Europeans on a rough plane of equality. Throughout the eighteenth century, the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Iroquois, as well as the tribes of the Old Northwest, alternately made war and peace with the various European powers, entered into treaties of alliance and friendship, and sometimes made cessions of territory as a result of defeat in war. As the imperial power of France and Great Britain expanded into the interior, those powerful Indian nations were forced to seek new orientations in their policy. For each Indian nation the reorientation was different, yet each was powerfully affected by the growth of European settlements, population, and military power. The history of the reorientation of Iroquois policy toward the Europeans may serve as an example of the process that all the interior nations experienced in the eighteenth century. The stability that had marked the Iroquois Confederacy’s generally pro-British position was shattered with the overthrow of James II in 1688, the colonial uprisings that followed in Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland, and the commencement of King William’s War against Louis XIV of France. The increasing French threat to English hegemony in the interior of North America was signalized by French-led or French-inspired attacks on the Iroquois and on outlying colonial settlements in New York

45)

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

and New England. The high point of the Iroquois response was the spectacular raid of August 5, 1689, in which the Iroquois virtually wiped out the French village of Lachine, just outside Montreal. A counter-raid by the French on the English village of Schenectady in March, 1690, instilled an appropriate measure of fear among the English and their Iroquois allies. The Iroquois position at the end of the war, which was formalized by treaties made during the summer of 1701 with the British and the French, and which was maintained throughout most of the eighteenth century, was one of “aggressive neutrality” between the two competing European powers. Under the new system the Iroquois initiated a peace policy toward the “far Indians,” tightened their control over the nearby tribes, and induced both English and French to support their neutrality toward the European powers by appropriate gifts and concessions. By holding the balance of power in the sparsely settled borderlands between English and French settlements, and by their willingness to use their power against one or the other nation if not appropriately treated, the Iroquois played the game of European power politics with effectiveness. The system broke down, however, after the French became convinced that the Iroquois were compromising the system in favor of the English and launched a full-scale attempt to establish French physical and juridical presence in the Ohio Valley, the heart of the borderlands long claimed by the Iroquois. As a consequence of the ensuing Great War for Empire, in which Iroquois neutrality was dissolved and European influence moved closer, the play-off system lost its efficacy and a system of direct bargaining supplanted it.


1 12

13

14

15

16

54

The author’s primary purpose in this passage is to A. disprove the charges of barbarism made against the Indian nations. B. expose the French government’s exploitation of the Iroquois balance of power. C. describe and assess the effect of European military power on the policy of an Indian nation. D. show the inability of the Iroquois nation to engage in European-style diplomacy. As used in line 8, “styled” most nearly means A. arranged. B. designated. C. brought into conformity with. D. designed in a particular fashion. In writing that certain of the interior tribes “dealt with Europeans on a rough plane of equality” (lines 8–9), the author A. suggests that the coastal tribes lacked essential diplomatic skills. B. concedes that the Indians were demonstrably superior to the Europeans. C. acknowledges that European-Indian relations were not those of absolute equals. D. emphasizes that the Europeans wished to treat the Indians equitably. According to the passage, the years 1684–1700 were characterized by A. a significant easing in relations between the Iroquois and the French. B. roughly neutral relationships between the Iroquois and both the French and the English. C. intermittent warlike raids by the Iroquois against the French. D. a lessening of hostility toward the English by the French. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s attitude toward the Iroquois leadership can best be described as one of A. suspicion of their motives. B. respect for their competence. C. indifference to their fate. D. pride in their heritage.

Passage 14-A

17

18

19

20

21

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 17–21 (“As the imperial . . . policy”) B. Lines 25–29 (“The history . . . century”) C. Lines 46–50 (“A counter-raid . . . allies”) D. Lines 57–63 (“Under . . . concessions”) The author attributes such success as the Iroquois policy of aggressive neutrality had to A. the readiness of the Iroquois to fight either side. B. the Iroquois’ ties of loyalty to the British. C. French physical presence in the borderlands. D. European reliance on formal treaties. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 10–17 (“Throughout . . . war”) B. Lines 30–36 (“The stability . . . France”) C. Lines 64–70 (“By holding . . . effectiveness”) D. Lines 71–77 (“The system . . . Iroquois”) As used in line 73, “compromising” most nearly means A. embarrassing. B. jeopardizing. C. accepting lower standards. D. striking a balance. The final three paragraphs of the passage provide A. an instance of a state of relationships described earlier. B. a modification of a thesis presented earlier. C. a refutation of an argument made earlier. D. a summary of the situation referred to earlier.


2

55

Passage 14-B

 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage. Gravity, It’s Everywhere His is a household name, and he is most often

12

thought of as a man unearthing the world’s most 12 imminent mysteries while napping under an apple tree.

He is Sir Isaac Newton, an English physicist and mathematician responsible for the law of universal

13

gravitation. More than 300 years ago, the idea was quite 13 revolutionary: two objects, regardless of their mass,

exert gravitational force toward one another with a force proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton’s equation explained why that

14

apple fell onto his head, 14 why on the ground one firmly stays, and how Earth orbits the sun. It also allowed NASA scientists to send a man to the moon many years later.

15

Newton’s discovery of gravity wasn’t nearly as impressive as his revelation that gravity was universal. Using Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Newton attempted 15 to cast aside all previous scientific discoveries, supposing that planets could move around the

16

Sun because of a force acting between the bodies. The apple, he reasoned, fell 16 and it was attracted to Earth, and even if it was much higher in the tree, it would still fall toward Earth. So why didn’t the moon fall and crash into

17

Earth? Newton attested that the moon is, 17 in fact, in a constant freefall to Earth but is caught in a gravitational field, and Earth’s movement allows the moon to orbit it without ever hitting the surface. The equation, though simple, accounts for the position of all planets and moons and is partly responsible for 18 the paths of astronauts and the successful orbits of satellites.

18

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE eminent complimentary complementary

A. NO CHANGE B. revolutionary, two objects regardless of their mass, exert C. revolutionary—two objects regardless of their mass, exert D. revolutionary; two objects, regardless of their mass exert A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE on the ground one firmly stays, why one stays firmly on the ground, one stays firmly on the ground,

Which choice best expresses Newton’s scientific journey based on the context of the passage? A. NO CHANGE B. to fill in the blanks, C. to gather more observational data, D. to explore the solar system, A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE because but from

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE as a matter of fact, (can you believe it?), based on his accurate theoretical contemplations, which

The writer wishes to express that Newton’s theory can explain the behavior of human-influenced space activities. Which choice best accomplishes this goal? A. NO CHANGE B. the movements of both comets and asteroids. C. the rising of the tides and the occurrence of earthquakes. D. Einstein’s eventual development of a revolutionary paradigm.


56

2 It wasn’t until 1915 that Albert Einstein expanded on

Passage 14-B 19

Newton’s work to impart his theory of general relativity, which states that the gravity of any mass curves the space and time around it. Einstein’s theory of relativity is superior to 19 Newton because it takes into account

20

special relativity and can be used when great precision is necessary. By creating a metric theory of gravitation, Einstein showed that phenomena in classical mechanics correspond to inertial motion within a curved geometry of

21

space-time. This scientific discovery laid the groundwork in both astrophysics and cosmology for years to come. Not only did the theory help to explain an irregularity in Mercury’s orbit, but 20 the bending of starlight was also demonstrated by it and set the theoretical foundations for black holes. 21 So, when extreme precision isn’t a requirement,

Newton’s law of universal gravitation is still widely used to approximate the effects of gravitation—say, for instance, in physics class. 22 While Newton’s theory was preeminent for a time, that time is long since gone.

22

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE it these Newton’s law of universal gravitation

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE starlight used it to bend the demonstration it also demonstrated how starlight bends demonstrating the starlight

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Additionally, For this very reason, Yet,

The writer wants to conclude the essay with a sentence that speaks to the lasting relevance of Newtonian theory. Which choice best accomplishes the writer’s aim? A. NO CHANGE B. It’s hard to believe that science from the year 1687 is still applicable today. C. It is impressive that Newtonian theory could account for irregularities in Mercury’s orbit. D. Students in today’s classrooms still recognize Newton as a brilliant mind.


57

1

Passage 15-A

Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage.



Athabasca The following passage on the formation of oil is excerpted from Athabasca, a novel about oil exploration written by Alistair MacLean.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

Five main weather elements act upon rock. Frost and ice fracture rock. It can be gradually eroded by airborne dust. The action of the seas, whether through the constant movement of tides or the pounding of heavy storm waves, remorselessly wears away the coastlines. Rivers are immensely powerful destructive agencies—one has but to look at the Grand Canyon to appreciate their enormous power. And such rocks as escape all these influences are worn away over the eons by the effect of rain. Whatever the cause of erosion, the net result is the same. The rock is reduced to its tiniest possible constituents—rock particles or, simply, dust. Rain and melting snow carry this dust down to the tiniest rivulets and the mightiest rivers, which, in turn, transport it to lakes, inland seas and the coastal regions of the oceans. Dust, however fine and powdery, is still heavier than water, and whenever the water becomes sufficiently still, it will gradually sink to the bottom, not only in lakes and seas but also in the sluggish lower reaches of rivers and where flood conditions exist, in the form of silt. And so, over unimaginably long reaches of time, whole mountain ranges are carried down to the seas, and in the process, through the effects of gravity, new rock is born as layer after layer of dust accumulates on the bottom, building up to a depth of ten, a hundred, perhaps even a thousand feet, the lowermost layers being gradually compacted by the immense and steadily increasing

40)

45)

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

pressures from above, until the particles fuse together and reform as a new rock. It is in the intermediate and final processes of the new rock formation that oil comes into being. Those lakes and seas of hundreds of millions of years ago were almost choked by water plants and the most primitive forms of aquatic life. On dying, they sank to the bottom of the lakes and seas along with the settling dust particles and were gradually buried deep under the endless layers of more dust and more aquatic and plant life that slowly accumulated above them. The passing of millions of years and the steadily increasing pressures from above gradually changed the decayed vegetation and dead aquatic life into oil. Described this simply and quickly, the process sounds reasonable enough. But this is where the gray and disputatious area arises. The conditions necessary for the formation of oil are known; the cause of the metamorphosis is not. It seems probable that some form of chemical catalyst is involved, but this catalyst has not been isolated. The first purely synthetic oil, as distinct from secondary synthetic oils such as those derived from coal, has yet to be produced. We just have to accept that oil is oil, that it is there, bound up in rock strata in fairly well-defined areas throughout the world but always on the sites of ancient seas and lakes, some of which are now continental land, some buried deep under the encroachment of new oceans.


1 22

23

24

25

26

The passage is written from the perspective of someone who is A. actively engaged in conducting petrochemical research. B. an advocate for the production of purely synthetic oil. C. a prospector involved in the search for underwater oil deposits. D. knowledgeable about oil deposits and the oilmining industry. As used in line 1, “act” most nearly means A. behave. B. make a decision. C. have a particular effect. D. counterfeit. The author uses the Grand Canyon (line 9) as an example of A. the urgent need for dams. B. the devastating impact of rivers. C. the magnificence of nature. D. a site where oil may be found. According to the author, our understanding of the process by which oil is created is A. adequate. B. systematic. C. erroneous. D. deficient. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 38–40 (“It is . . . being”) B. Lines 43–49 (“On dying . . . them”) C. Lines 56–58 (“The conditions . . . not”) D. Lines 60–63 (“The first . . . produced”)

58

Passage 15-A

27

28

29

30

31

It can most reasonably be inferred that prospectors should search for oil deposits A. wherever former seas existed. B. in mountain streambeds. C. where coal deposits are found. D. in new rock formations. The author does all of the following EXCEPT A. describe a process. B. state a possibility. C. mention a limitation. D. propose a solution. As used in line 56, “conditions” most nearly means A. surroundings. B. prerequisites. C. medical problems. D. social positions. The author indicates that the cause of the metamorphosis of decayed vegetation and dead aquatic life into oil should be considered A. an historical anomaly. B. an unexplained phenomenon. C. a scientific curiosity. D. a working hypothesis. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 38–40 (“It is in . . . being”) B. Lines 49–52 (“The passing . . . oil”) C. Lines 56–60 (“The conditions . . . isolated”) D. Lines 60–63 (“The first . . . produced”)


59

2

Passage 15-B

 Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage. Do the Numbers Lie? The question of college rankings 23 continue to be a

23

major player at every level of the university. From the student flipping through college guides, to academics searching for job offerings, to department administrators

24

figuring their next year’s budget, the number next to the university can decide quite a bit. The ranking is supposed to be an indicator of the 24 institute’s performance: its ability

25

to produce excellence. So it makes sense, particularly with the rising tuition costs, that prospective students should weigh the value of their money against the reputation of the education they will receive. 25 Furthermore, faculty must consider, like all job seekers, the security of their employment and the opportunities for career advancement. And more often than not, a university’s funding and resources are directly affected by how it measures 25. up in the vast world of rankings. 26 Rankings often comprise a variety of important educational factors.

26

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE continues is continue are continuing

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE institutes performance—its institutes performance; it’s institute’s performance, its’

The writer wants to insert a sentence at this point that further develops the argument in the paragraph and incorporates information from the graph. Which choice best accomplishes this goal? A. This trend is diluted by nearly a 20 percent overall drop in state and local governmental support for public universities between 1998 and 2008, making college students bear ever less of the tuition burden. B. This trend is encouraged by nearly a 10 percent overall increase in state and local governmental support for public universities between 1998 and 2008, making college students bear a moderate amount of the tuition burden. C. This trend is exacerbated by nearly a 10 percent overall drop in state and local governmental support for public universities between 1998 and 2008, making college students bear ever more of the tuition burden. D. This trend is worsened by nearly a 30 percent overall drop in state and local governmental support for public universities between 1998 and 2008, making college students bear far too much of the tuition burden. Which choice provides the best transition between the current paragraph and the following paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. Universities are in dire need of alternative sources of income. C. Applicants often consider college rankings, but those numbers provide insufficient information on which to base a choice. D. High schools today have become real pressure cookers.


2

60

The needs and goals of high school students are far

Passage 15-B 27

too nuanced to decide on a university by a single number. Could a particular student searching for the best fit for the next four to five years of 27 their life ever find all the answers in a college ranking report? While one student may

28

be looking for small class sizes, another may be looking for job placement, while 28 in another is in search of a strong study abroad program. When taking into account all the aspects of a successful college experience, the ranking system is oversimplified and ineffective. What works for

29

one may not work for another. Moreover, ranking reports do little to show whether universities are doing a good job at actually educating. 29 To counter ranking systems and create a more

meaningful college experience, many universities are adopting undergraduate initiatives that incorporate internships, research experiences, study abroad programs,

30

and community outreach opportunities. The idea is simple: the best undergraduate experience is one that is engaging, challenging, and lifelong. 30 In such programs these experiences just like required classes, are essential to the degree which encourages collaboration between faculty and students, as well as commitment to the community. Often, students are introduced to their university’s 31 alumni who

31

have graduated from the school who share their interests and exposed to careers in their field of study. This university approach can be attractive to the student who is looking for more than a number on a page. The decision of which college to attend is one of the biggest a person will make. While it is important to keep up

32

with which universities are leading the world’s research and hiring the most notable experts, it is more important to consider which university will 32 best foster your growth and personal development. College rankings that encourage differentiation between better and worse universities 33- leaves a lot on the table.

33

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE your they’re his or her

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE from one still

Which choice provides the most relevant introduction to this paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. In order to satisfy federal demands for greater governmental oversight, C. So they may attract students from underrepresented demographic groups, D. To provide more opportunities for students to acquire financial assistance, A. NO CHANGE B. In such programs, these experiences just like required classes are essential to the degree, which C. In such programs these experiences just, like required classes, are essential to the degree which D. In such programs, these experiences, just like required classes, are essential to the degree, which A. NO CHANGE B. alumni who are graduates of the educational institution in question C. alumnuses who are proud to have both matriculated and successfully graduated from the school D. alumni A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE well better good

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE leafs lives leave


61

1

Passage 16-A

 Questions 32-41 are based on the following passage.

Up from Slavery

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

Finally the war closed, and the day of freedom came. It was a momentous and eventful day to all upon our plantation. We had been expecting it. Freedom was in the air, and had been for months. . . . As the great day drew nearer, there was more singing in the slave quarters than usual. It was bolder, had more ring, and lasted later into the night. Most of the verses of the plantation songs had some reference to freedom. True, they had sung those same verses before, but they had been careful to explain that the “freedom” in these songs referred to the next world, and had no connection with life in this world. Now they gradually threw off the mask, and were not afraid to let it be known that the “freedom” in their songs meant freedom of the body in this world. The night before the eventful day, word was sent to the slave quarters to the effect that something unusual was going to take place at the “big house” the next morning. There was little, if any, sleep that night. All was excitement and expectancy. Early the next morning word was sent to all the slaves, old and young, to gather at the house. In company with my mother, brother, and sister, and a large number of other slaves, I went to the master’s house. All of our master’s family were either standing or seated on the veranda of the house, where they could see what was to take place and hear what was said. There was a feeling of deep interest, or perhaps sadness, on their faces, but not bitterness. As I now recall the impression they made upon me, they did not at the moment seem to be sad because of the loss of property, but rather because of parting with those whom they had reared and who were in many ways very close to them. The most distinct thing that I now recall in connection with the scene was that some man who seemed to be a stranger (a United States officer, I presume) made a little speech and then read a rather long paper—the Emancipation Proclamation, I think. After the reading we were told that we were all free, and could go when and where we pleased. My mother, who was standing by my side, leaned over and kissed her children, while tears of joy ran down her cheeks. She explained to us what it all meant, that this

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

was the day for which she had been so long praying, but fearing that she would never live to see. For some minutes there was great rejoicing, and thanksgiving, and wild scenes of ecstasy. But there was no feeling of bitterness. In fact, there was pity among the slaves for our former owners. The wild rejoicing on the part of the emancipated colored people lasted but for a brief period, for I noticed that by the time they returned to their cabins there was a change in their feelings. The great responsibility of being free, of having charge of themselves, of having to think and plan for themselves and their children, seemed to take possession of them. It was very much like suddenly turning a youth of ten or twelve years out into the world to provide for himself. In a few hours the great questions with which the Anglo-Saxon race had been grappling for centuries had been thrown upon these people to be solved. These were the questions of a home, a living, the rearing of children, education, citizenship, and the establishment and support of churches. Was it any wonder that within a few hours the wild rejoicing ceased and a feeling of deep gloom seemed to pervade the slave quarters? To some it seemed that, now that they were in actual possession of it, freedom was a more serious thing than they had expected to find it. Some of the slaves were seventy or eighty years old; their best days were gone. They had no strength with which to earn a living in a strange place and among strange people, even if they had been sure where to find a new place of abode. To this class the problem seemed especially hard. Besides, deep down in their hearts there was a strange and peculiar attachment to “old Marster” and “old Missus,” and to their children, which they found it hard to think of breaking off. With these they had spent in some cases nearly a half-century, and it was no light thing to think of parting. Gradually, one by one, stealthily at first, the older slaves began to wander from the slave quarters back to the “big house” to have a whispered conversation with their former owners as to the future.


1 32

33

34

35

36

As used in line 1, “closed” most nearly means A. shut. B. ended. C. grew nearer. D. blocked off. Which choice best summarizes the first two paragraphs of the passage (lines 1–54)? A. Even though a young man has been brought up in slavery, he finds comfort in singing. B. A loving parent attempts to help her children understand the importance of freedom. C. A man recollects an historic moment that changed his life and the lives of everyone he knew. D. The end of the Civil War failed to disrupt the customary routines of plantation life. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 5–9 (“As the great . . . night”) B. Lines 19–22 (“The night before . . . morning”) C. Lines 34–48 (“As I now . . . pleased”) D. Lines 48–54 (“My mother . . . see”) It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that the mask that the slaves gradually threw off was A. a disguise that they wore in order to conceal their true identity. B. the pretense that the freedom they sang about was purely spiritual. C. an elaborate façade that allowed them to perform at public gatherings. D. a grotesque false face typically worn at a carnival or masquerade. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous passage? A. Lines 1–3 (“Finally . . . plantation”) B. Lines 5–7 (“As . . . usual”) C. Lines 9–10 (“Most . . . freedom”) D. Lines 15–18 (“Now . . . world”)

62

Passage 16-A 37

38

39

40

41

The “charge” to which the author refers (line 65) can best be characterized as A. a formal accusation. B. a headlong rush forward. C. the price asked for goods or services. D. the duty of being responsible for oneself. As used in line 96, “light” most nearly means A. indistinct. B. pale. C. trivial. D. agile. Throughout the passage the narrator most emphasizes which aspect of the experience? A. The orderliness of the freed slaves’ reception of the news. B. The absence of any ill will expressed by either the slaves or their masters. C. The presence of a white stranger on the veranda of the big house. D. The lack of appropriate preparation for events of such great significance. During the course of the final paragraph, the focus of the narrator’s recollection shifts from A. a scene of momentary jubilation to sobering reflection on problems to be faced. B. generalizations about newfound freedom to the specifics of his personal situation. C. the identification of a change of mood to consideration of current possibilities. D. evaluation of factors making the slaves unhappy to recognition of solutions. The final paragraph indicates that the older slaves’ stealthy visit to the big house was mainly inspired by their A. bitterness at the sudden changes in their lives. B. impatience with the noisy rejoicing of the younger slaves. C. reluctance to remain in the slave quarters any longer. D. apprehensions about their uncertain future.


2

63

Passage 16-B

 Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage. Draw Your Home In the third grade, 34 my teacher Mrs. Wabash,

34

asked the class to spend ten minutes sketching our home, specifically the exterior of our house as it appeared to passersby. This prelude was part of a larger exercise that I 35 have long since forgotten. What I remember most was

sitting in my desk completely dumbfounded for the

35

majority of that interval, wondering how on earth I had forgotten the space where I spent the majority of my eight years. Surely, I could recall most of my bedroom; I knew my house was blue; of course, there were many windows

36

and a big porch. 36 Consequently what did the door look like? Were there three or four steps leading to it? 37 How could he know this was even a real door? To these questions and many more, I had no answer.

37

That afternoon, I walked home from the bus stop, sat on my lawn, and meticulously copied what I saw 38 in paper, memorizing every detail. Wounded at my

previous inattention, I began studying every structure that I 39 personally visited myself. The obsession resulting from Mrs. Wabash’s experiment did not fade with time. By high school, my journal of sketched structures

38

transformed from ones I had seen to ones I had thought up independently. I became transfixed with several iconic 40 buildings: the Guggenheim, Getty Center, Reichstag,

Smithsonian, among others. When it came time to fill out

39

college applications, I didn’t blink before selecting “Architecture” as my intended major.

40

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE my teacher, Mrs. Wabash; asked my teacher—Mrs. Wabash, asked my teacher, Mrs. Wabash, asked

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE had since long forgot. has long since forgotten. forgot since long.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE And For But

Which choice logically maintains the flow and focus established by the preceding sentences? A. NO CHANGE B. Was the roof pointed or squared? C. Why should I study architecture? D. I remembered what my neighbor’s house looked like. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE into paper, onto paper, within paper,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE witnessed with my own two eyes. entered. foresaw.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE buildings; the Guggenheim, Getty Center, buildings—the Guggenheim Getty Center buildings. The Guggenheim, Getter Center,


64

2 The word meant little to me at the time: just that I

Passage 16-B 41

could eventually be paid to do what I had been doing ineptly for years. An architect is one who plans, designs, and oversees the construction of 41 buildings homes and other structures. I researched the course requirements at three universities I was considering and found, to my

42

amazement, a quote from a professor of architectural engineering in one of the programs; he said, “The study of architecture is one grounded in the sciences, but inspired by the arts.� I was hooked. Since then, I have found my work as a professional architect to be 42 undoubtedly rewarding and mercilessly demanding. Architects are rarely afforded a regular workweek. Instead, we spend hours upon hours preparing

43

and re-preparing scale drawings, looking into environmental and safety regulations, and meeting with clients. From contracts to design to construction, the architect is there, 43 there job never done. It is indeed an occupation that encompasses nearly every field of work— engineering, mathematics, marketing, administration, customer service, law, and public safety are all needed in successful architecture. 44 Sometimes I ponder whether all of the time I spend on my architectural projects is truly worth the effort.

44

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE buildings, homes, and other structures. buildings homes, and other structures. buildings, homes, and other, structures.

If the author wishes to express both the positive and negative nature of architecture, which of the following choices best accomplishes her goal? A. NO CHANGE B. fearsomely boring and drearily trivial. C. moderately enjoyable and somewhat interesting. D. terribly impersonal and pleasantly dispassionate. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE their job our job his or her job

Which choice most effectively concludes the essay by tying it to the introductory paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. I look forward to one day fulfilling my dream of becoming an actual architect rather than a starry-eyed student. C. Yet when a job is finished, truly finished, and I look up at it, I thank Mrs. Wabash. D. My dream ever since the third grade of studying architecture was about to become a reality.


65

1

Passage 17-A

 Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

The Pupil The passage is an excerpt from Henry James’s short story “The Pupil.” In this section, Pemberton, the young British tutor, describes some of the hasty trips around Europe during which he came to know his pupil, Morgan Moreen, and Morgan’s family.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

A year after he had come to live with them Mr. and Mrs. Moreen suddenly gave up the villa at Nice. Pemberton had got used to suddenness, having seen it practiced on a considerable scale during two jerky little tours—one in Switzerland the first summer, and the other late in the winter, when they all ran down to Florence and then, at the end of ten days, liking it much less than they had intended, straggled back in mysterious depression. They had returned to Nice “for ever,” as they said; but this didn’t prevent their squeezing, one rainy muggy May night, into a second-class railway-carriage—you could never tell by which class they would travel—where Pemberton helped them to stow away a wonderful collection of bundles and bags. The explanation of this maneuver was that they had determined to spend the summer “in some bracing place”; but in Paris they dropped into a small furnished apartment—a fourth floor in a third-rate avenue, where there was a smell on the staircase and the portier was hateful— and passed the next four months in blank indigence. The better part of this forced temporary stay belonged to the tutor and his pupil, who, visiting the Invalides and Notre Dame, the Conciergerie and all the museums, took a hundred rewarding rambles. They learned to know their Paris, which was useful, for they came back another year for a longer stay, the general character of which in Pemberton’s memory today mixes pitiably and confusedly with that of the first. He sees Morgan’s shabby knickerbockers—the everlasting pair that didn’t match his blouse and that as he grew longer could only grow faded. He remembers the particular holes in his three or four pairs of colored stockings. Morgan was dear to his mother, but he never was better dressed than was absolutely necessary—partly, no doubt, by his own fault, for he was as indifferent to his appearance as a German philosopher. “My dear fellow, so are you! I don’t want to cast you in the shade.” Pemberton could have no rejoinder for this—the assertion so closely represented

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

the fact. If however the deficiencies of his own wardrobe were a chapter by themselves he didn’t like his little charge to look too poor. Later he used to say “Well, if we’re poor, why, after all, shouldn’t we look it?” and he consoled himself with thinking there was something rather elderly and gentlemanly in Morgan’s disrepair—it differed from the untidiness of the urchin who plays and spoils his things. He could trace perfectly the degrees by which, in proportion as her little son confined himself to his tutor for society, Mrs. Moreen shrewdly forbore to renew his garments. She did nothing that didn’t show, neglected him because he escaped notice, and then, as he illustrated this clever policy, discouraged at home his public appearances. Her position was logical enough—those members of her family who did show had to be showy. During this period and several others Pemberton was quite aware of how he and his comrade might strike people; wandering languidly through the Jardin des Plantes as if they had nowhere to go, sitting on the winter days in the galleries of the Louvre, so splendidly ironical to the homeless, as if for the advantage of the steam radiators. They joked about it sometimes: it was the sort of joke that was perfectly within the boy’s compass. They figured themselves as part of the vast vague hand-to-mouth multitude of the enormous city and pretended they were proud of their position in it—it showed them “such a lot of life” and made them conscious of a democratic brotherhood. If Pemberton couldn’t feel a sympathy in destitution with his small companion—for after all Morgan’s fond parents would never have let him really suffer—the boy would at least feel it with him, so it came to the same thing. He used sometimes to wonder what people would think they were—to fancy they were looked askance at, as if it might be a suspected case of kidnapping. Morgan wouldn’t be taken for a young patrician with a tutor—he wasn’t smart enough—though he might pass for his companion’s sickly little brother.


1 1

2

3

4

5

6

The primary purpose of the passage is to A. denounce the ill treatment of an exceptional child. B. describe a boy’s reactions to his irresponsible parents. C. portray a selfish and unfeeling mother and son. D. recount an outsider’s impressions of an odd family.

66

Passage 17-A

7

8

It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that the reason for the Moreens’ sudden departure from Nice had to do with A. ill health. B. shifts of mood. C. educational opportunities. D. financial problems. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 3–11 (“Pemberton . . . depression”) B. Lines 11–18 (“They had . . . bags”) C. Lines 18–26 (“The explanation . . . indigence”) D. Lines 31–36 (“They learned . . . first”) It can be most reasonably inferred from the passage that the narrator is making these comments about Pemberton’s travels with the Moreen family A. on Pemberton’s return with the Moreens to Nice. B. in response to visiting Paris for the first time. C. sometime after Pemberton’s wanderings with the Moreens. D. in an effort to write down his memoirs. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 31–36 (“They learned . . . the first”) B. Lines 42–46 (“Morgan . . . philosopher”) C. Lines 59–63 (“He could trace . . . garments”) D. Lines 77–85 (“They joked . . . brotherhood”) The tone of Morgan’s speech to his tutor (lines 46– 49) can best be described as A. apathetic. B. bitter. C. teasing. D. self-righteous.

9

10

11

As described in lines 42–69, Mrs. Moreen’s approach toward Morgan can best be described as A. stern but nurturing. B. fond but pragmatic. C. cruel and unfeeling. D. doting and overprotective. It can most reasonably be inferred from lines 63–69 that Mrs. Moreen most likely ceases to spend money on new clothing for Morgan because A. she and her husband have grown increasingly miserly with the passage of time. B. the child is so small for his age that he needs little in the way of clothing. C. she is unwilling to offend Pemberton by dressing his pupil in finer clothes than Pemberton can afford. D. she has only enough money to buy clothes for the family members who must appear in polite society. As used in line 72, “strike” most nearly means A. appear to. B. run into. C. achieve. D. hit. It can be inferred from the passage that Morgan and Pemberton regard the “hand-to-mouth multitude” of Paris (line 81) with a sense of A. amusement. B. condescension. C. indifference. D. identification. As used in line 96, “smart” most nearly means A. intelligent. B. brisk. C. fashionable. D. impertinent.


2

67

Passage 17-B

 Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage. The Online Job Hunt More and more, technology is changing the ways

1

people find jobs and employers select candidates. Think back to the days when the job hunter 1- chose his or her most precious qualities, wrote them out on one sheet of paper, and sold the best version of 2- themselves to a prospective

2

employer. No longer is it that simple. Google and various social media sites like Facebook and Twitter mean that your control over exactly how you come across to an employer is

3

very different from the traditional resume model. In fact, research shows that approximately 3- one-half of all employers are taking to online searches in the hiring process. What does Google say about you?

4

The good news is technology can work in your favor 4- if you recognize the challenges of using technology

properly. If you approach the World Wide Web as a tool, it can be 5- valuable in a way not witnessed heretofore. Indeed, there are more ways than ever to market yourself

5

and your skills, and to network with other professionals in your field. First, you will want to make sure you are competing in the online job hunt. Career websites like LinkedIn, Dice, and Monster make it simple to get started.

6

6- Within your online, profiles it is critical that you include

information, about your educational background, previous work experience, intern or research positions, and volunteer efforts. 7- Now is not the time to be modest.

7

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE choose has chose had choose

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE yourself himself or herself oneself

Which choice offers the most accurate interpretation of the data in the chart? A. NO CHANGE B. one-fourth C. two-thirds D. four-fifths Which choice provides the most logical and relevant conclusion to the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. since technology has made unbelievable strides. C. despite the dangers of downloading computer viruses. D. just as methodically as it can work against you. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE unprecedentedly valuable. precious beyond your wildest dreams. helpful.

A. NO CHANGE B. Within your online profiles it is critical that you include information about your educational background, previous C. Within your online profiles, it is critical that you include information about your educational background, previous D. Within your online profiles, it is critical that you include information about: your educational background, previous Which choice most logically reinforces the statement in the previous sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. Be careful to keep it short and sweet. C. Remember—your application gets accepted, not your personality. D. Good things happen to those who wait.


2

What’s more—you don’t have to stop there.

68

Passage 17-B 8

8- Whereas the old resume needed to be concise and fit in

the scopes of one or two pages, your online profile can be much more thorough. Make sure to post a 9- professional picture, this allows the employer to see that you are a real

9

person with real skills and makes you more likely to be interviewed. Include any awards or achievements that can relate to the job position and depict your broader talents. Don’t forget to mention any particular leadership

10

responsibilities you’ve been granted in previous experience. Have you taken the initiative to attend conferences or events? Do tell. 10- Be sure to supplement your job search with the tried-and-true methods of newspaper ads and recruiting agencies. While many argue that job hunting has changed for the worse, it doesn’t have to be that way. Never before have recent graduates, career changers, and the unemployed ever had such a plethora of resources at their disposal. 11- Employers are able to find prospective candidates at the click of a button, while job hunters can meet and connect with career professionals that were previously unreachable. Don’t let Google—in all its magnitude—be your disadvantage.

11

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Since Because Moreover

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE professional picture: this professional; picture this professional picture this

Which choice offers an accurate interpretation of the data in the chart by emphasizing one of the most popular recruiting methods? A. NO CHANGE B. Additionally, polish your interpersonal networking skills before you head to a job fair to “wow” potential employers. C. There is even room in most online career profiles for positive feedback from colleagues, supervisors, or mentors. D. And while it may not be ideal, working temporarily at a job in a part-time capacity can be a great way to get your foot in the door. Should the underlined sentence be kept or deleted? A. Kept. It provides specific details in support of the paragraph’s argument. B. Kept. It gives the essay’s first statement about the importance of online job hunting. C. Deleted. It contradicts information elsewhere in the passage. D. Deleted. It distracts from the primary argument of the paragraph.


69

1

Passage 18-A

 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage.

The Symbolic Language of Dreams

In this excerpt from an essay on the symbolic language of dreams, the writer Erich Fromm explores the nature of symbols.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

One of the current definitions of a symbol is that it is “something that stands for something else.” We can differentiate between three kinds of symbols: the conventional, the accidental, and the universal symbol. The conventional symbol is the best known of the three, since we employ it in everyday language. If we see the word “table” or hear the sound “table,” the letters t-a-b-l-e stand for something else. They stand for the thing “table” that we see, touch, and use. What is the connection between the word “table” and the thing “table”? Is there any inherent relationship between them? Obviously not. The thing table has nothing to do with the sound table, and the only reason the word symbolizes the thing is the convention of calling this particular thing by a name. We learn this connection as children by the repeated experience of hearing the word in reference to the thing until a lasting association is formed so that we don’t have to think to find the right word. There are some words, however, in which the association is not only conventional. When we say “phooey,” for instance, we make with our lips a movement of dispelling the air quickly. It is an expression of disgust in which our mouths participate. By this quick expulsion of air we imitate and thus express our intention to expel something, to get it out of our system. In this case, as in some others, the symbol has an inherent connection with the feeling it symbolizes. But even if we assume that originally many or even all words had their origins in some such inherent connection between symbol and the symbolized, most words no longer have this meaning for us when we learn a language. Words are not the only illustration for conventional symbols, although they are the most frequent and best known ones. Pictures also can be conventional symbols. A flag, for instance, may stand for a specific country, and yet there is no intrinsic connection between the specific colors and the country for which they stand. They have been accepted as denoting that particular country, and we translate the visual impression of the flag into the concept of that country, again on conventional grounds. The opposite to the conventional symbol is the accidental symbol, although they have

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

105)

one thing in common: there is no intrinsic relationship between the symbol and that which it symbolizes. Let us assume that someone has had a saddening experience in a certain city; when he hears the name of that city, he will easily connect the name with a mood of sadness, just as he would connect it with a mood of joy had his experience been a happy one. Quite obviously, there is nothing in the nature of the city that is either sad or joyful. It is the individual experience connected with the city that makes it a symbol of a mood. The universal symbol is one in which there is an intrinsic relationship between the symbol and that which it represents. Take, for instance, the symbol of fire. We are fascinated by certain qualities of fire in a fireplace. First of all, by its aliveness. It changes continuously, it moves all the time, and yet there is constancy in it. It remains the same without being the same. It gives the impression of power, of energy, of grace and lightness. It is as if it were dancing, and had an inexhaustible source of energy. When we use fire as a symbol, we describe the inner experience characterized by the same elements which we notice in the sensory experience of fire—the mood of energy, lightness, movement, grace, gaiety, sometimes one, sometimes another of these elements being predominant in the feeling. The universal symbol is the only one in which the relationship between the symbol and that which is symbolized is not coincidental, but intrinsic. It is rooted in the experience of the affinity between an emotion or thought, on the one hand, and a sensory experience, on the other. It can be called universal because it is shared by all men, in contrast not only to the accidental symbol, which is by its very nature entirely personal, but also to the conventional symbol, which is restricted to a group of people sharing the same convention. The universal symbol is rooted in the properties of our body, our senses, and our mind, which are common to all men and, therefore, not restricted to individuals or to specific groups. Indeed, the language of the universal symbol is the one common tongue developed by the human race, a language which it forgot before it succeeded in developing a universal conventional language.


1 12

13

14

15

16

The primary purpose of the passage is to A. refute an argument about the nature of symbolism. B. describe the process of verbalization. C. summarize the findings of a long-term research project. D. refine the definition of a technical term.

70

Passage 18-A

17

18 As used in lines 11–12, “stand for” most nearly means A. tolerate. B. represent. C. support. D. rise. According to lines 25–35, “table” and “phooey” differ in that A. only one is a conventional symbol. B. “table” is a more commonly used symbol than “phooey.” C. “phooey” has an intrinsic natural link with its meaning. D. children learn “phooey” more readily than they learn “table.” It can be inferred from the passage that another example of a word with both inherent and conventional associations to its meaning is A. hiss. B. hike. C. hold. D. candle. Which of the following would the author be most likely to categorize as a conventional symbol? A. a patchwork quilt B. a bonfire C. the city of London D. the Statue of Liberty

19

20

21

22

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 20–24 (“We learn . . . word”) B. Lines 33–35 (“In this case . . . symbolizes”) C. Lines 36–40 (“But even . . . language”) D. Lines 44–52 (“A flag . . . grounds”) According to the author’s argument, a relationship between Disneyland and the mood of joy can best be described as A. innate. B. immutable. C. elemental. D. coincidental. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 36–40 (“But even . . . language”) B. Lines 44–48 (“A flag . . . stand”) C. Lines 57–63 (“Let us . . . one”) D. Lines 68–70 (“The universal . . . represents”) According to the passage, a major factor that distinguishes a universal symbol from conventional and accidental symbols is A. its origins in sensory experience. B. its dependence on a specific occasion. C. the intensity of the mood experienced. D. its appeal to the individual. By saying “Take . . . the symbol of fire” (line 71), the author is asking the reader to A. grasp it as an element. B. consider it as an example. C. accept it as a possibility. D. assume it as a standard. As used in line 100, “properties” most nearly means A. possessions. B. attributes. C. premises. D. assets.


2

71

Passage 18-B

 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage. The Glass Menagerie Among artists living and influential, few rival the

12

famous American classical composer Phillip Glass. He is celebrated for his wide-ranging collaborations with literary figures such as Allen Ginsberg, film directors such as Woody Allen, and 12- David Bowie whom is a producer of records. His broad range in operas, symphonies, and compositions has contributed to his 13- unparalleled popularity within

13

multigenerational audiences. Perhaps no other composer has appealed to such an expansive fan base, allowing Glass’s influence in opera houses, dance halls, and popular culture to go uncontested. His operas continue to play internationally and rarely leave an open seat.

14

With music that is highly repetitive, Glass has been 14- referred to as a minimalist and aligned with the work of

other composers like La Monte Young, Terry Riley, and Steve Reich. 15- Minimalism a term that Glass has taken strides to distance himself from, is marked by a nonnarrative and nonrepresentational conception of a work in progress, and represents a new approach to the

15

activity of listening to music by focusing on the internal processes of the music. Tom Johnson 16- , a self-identifying minimalist, defines it this way: “It [minimalism] includes, by definition, any music that works with limited or minimal materials: pieces that use only a few notes, pieces that use only a few words of text, or pieces written for very limited instruments, such as antique cymbals, bicycle wheels, or whiskey glasses.” Glass prefers, instead, to refer to himself as a classicist with repetitive structures.

16

A. NO CHANGE B. David Bowie who is best known as a record producer. C. a person who has the career of being a record producer, like David Bowie. D. record producers such as David Bowie. The author wants to show that Bowie has great popularity. Which word best expresses this notion? A. NO CHANGE B. solid C. decent D. voracious Which word, if inserted at this point, would best express that Glass’s music is not universally admired? A. understandably B. logically C. controversially D. repeatedly A. NO CHANGE B. Minimalism: a term that Glass has taken strides to distance himself from is C. Minimalism—a term from which Glass has taken strides to distance himself—is D. Minimalism, a term from which Glass has taken strides to distance himself—is The writer would like to express that Tom Johnson is a relevant person to provide commentary on this topic. Which choice best accomplishes this? A. NO CHANGE B. , an admirer of all things Phillip Glass, C. , an American historian of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, D. , an expert in operatic costume design,


72

2 17- To his highest achievements, Glass has been

Passage 18-B 17

nominated for several Academy Awards and won a Golden Globe award in 1999 for his score in The Truman Show. He has been the topic of a series of documentaries and has 18- writing more then one autobiography. In his most

recent, Words Without Music, Glass discusses his influences,

18

beginning with his Jewish father who ran a record shop in Baltimore. His father’s love for Schubert, Shostakovich, and Bartok 19- took in Glass a love for music; by the time he was fifteen years old, he had become the classical-music buyer

19

for the record shop. He studied at the University of Chicago and the Julliard School, before moving to Paris to study technique under the infamous Nadia Boulanger. It was only with the success of his opera “Einstein on the Beach” in 1976 that Glass made a prominent name 20- for himself.

20

Coinciding with his return to New York, Glass formed the Phillip Glass Ensemble, seven musicians whose music is amplified and fed through a mixer. The rest is history. In the

21

last two decades, Glass 21- had composed numerous operas, symphonies, concertos, and soundtracks; his prolific works are so common that 22- they are occasionally encountered by the populace.

22

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE On Between Among

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE writing more than written more then written more than

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE spurred used inspire

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE through oneself. by yourself. in oneself.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE had been composing has composed have composed

Which choice would most clearly and specifically support the statement immediately beforehand in the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. even a layperson would recognize his tunes. C. one can even find them performed in the elite symphonic halls of high society. D. it is relatively effortless for a nonexpert to recognize their quality.


73

1

Passage 19-A

 Questions 23-32 are based on the following passage. Tarantulas The following passage is taken from a classic study of tarantulas published in Scientific American in 1952.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

A fertilized female tarantula lays from 200 to 400 eggs at a time; thus it is possible for a single tarantula to produce several thousand young. She takes no care of them beyond weaving a cocoon of silk to enclose the eggs. After they hatch, the young walk away, find convenient places in which to dig their burrows and spend the rest of their lives in solitude. Tarantulas feed mostly on insects and millipedes. Once their appetite is appeased, they digest the food for several days before eating again. Their sight is poor, being limited to sensing a change in the intensity of light and to the perception of moving objects. They apparently have little or no sense of hearing, for a hungry tarantula will pay no attention to a loudly chirping cricket placed in its cage unless the insect happens to touch one of its legs. But all spiders, and especially hairy ones, have an extremely delicate sense of touch. Laboratory experiments prove that tarantulas can distinguish three types of touch: pressure against the body wall, stroking of the body hair and riffling of certain very fine hairs on the legs called trichobothria. Pressure against the body, by a finger or the end of a pencil, causes the tarantula to move off slowly for a short distance. The touch excites no defensive response unless the approach is from above, where the spider can see the motion, in which case it rises on its hind legs, lifts its front legs, opens its fangs and holds this threatening posture as long as the object continues to move. When the motion stops, the spider drops back to the ground, remains quiet for a few seconds, and then moves slowly away.

40)

45)

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

The entire body of a tarantula, especially its legs, is thickly clothed with hair. Some of it is short and woolly, some long and stiff. Touching this body hair produces one of two distinct reactions. When the spider is hungry, it responds with an immediate and swift attack. At the touch of a cricket’s antennae the tarantula seizes the insect so swiftly that a motion picture taken at the rate of 64 frames per second shows only the result and not the process of capture. But when the spider is not hungry, the stimulation of its hairs merely causes it to shake the touched limb. An insect can walk under its hairy belly unharmed. The trichobothria, very fine hairs growing from disklike membranes on the legs, were once thought to be the spider’s hearing organs, but we now know that they have nothing to do with sound. They are sensitive only to air movement. A light breeze makes them vibrate slowly without disturbing the common hair. When one blows gently on the trichobothria, the tarantula reacts with a quick jerk of its four front legs. If the front and hind legs are stimulated at the same time, the spider makes a sudden jump. This reaction is quite independent of the state of its appetite. These three tactile responses—to pressure on the body wall, to moving of the common hair, and to flexing of the trichobothria—are so different from one another that there is no possibility of confusing them. They serve the tarantula adequately for most of its needs and enable it to avoid most annoyances and dangers. But they fail the spider completely when it meets its deadly enemy, the digger wasp Pepsis.


1 23

24

25

26

27

The primary purpose of the passage is to A. report on controversial new discoveries about spider behavior. B. summarize what is known about the physical and social responses of tarantulas. C. challenge the findings of historic laboratory experiments involving tarantulas. D. discuss the physical adaptations that make tarantulas unique.

74

Passage 19-A

28

29 It can most reasonably be inferred from the opening paragraph that tarantulas A. become apprehensive at sudden noises. B. depend on their mothers for nourishment after hatching. C. must consume insects or millipedes daily. D. are reclusive by nature. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–6 (“A fertilized . . . eggs”) B. Lines 6–9 (“After . . . solitude”) C. Lines 9–12 (“Tarantulas . . . again”) D. Lines 12–15 (“Their sight . . . objects”)

30

31

As used in line 29, “excites” most nearly means A. enlivens. B. inflames. C. stimulates. D. awakens. The author’s attitude toward tarantulas would best be described as one of A. nervous fascination. B. reluctant curiosity. C. marked ambivalence. D. objective appreciation.

32

The description of what happens when one films a tarantula’s reaction to the touch of a cricket (lines 45–49) primarily is intended to convey a sense of the tarantula’s A. omnivorous appetite. B. graceful movement. C. quickness in attacking. D. indifference to stimulation. As used in line 65, “independent” most nearly means A. self-sufficient. B. self-governing. C. impartial. D. regardless. In the passage, the author does all of the following EXCEPT A. deny a possibility. B. define a term. C. correct a misapprehension. D. pose a question. In the paragraphs immediately following this passage, the author most likely will A. explain why scientists previously confused the tarantula’s three tactile responses. B. point out the weaknesses of the digger wasp that enable the tarantula to subdue it. C. describe how the digger wasp goes about attacking tarantulas. D. demonstrate how the tarantula’s three tactile responses enable it to meet its needs. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 53–58 (“The trichobothria . . . movement”) B. Lines 64–66 (“This reaction . . . appetite”) C. Lines 67–71 (“These three . . . them”) D. Lines 74–76 (“But . . . Pepsis”)


2

75

Passage 19-B

 Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage. For Richer or For Poorer Everyone is familiar with Robin Hood’s plight to take

23

from the rich and give to the poor. However, the debate of economic redistribution is far from archaic and rarely confined to folklore, especially given that between 1980 and 2010, incomes for the 23- top 20 percent nearly doubled while incomes in the bottom 10 percent measurably increased. One of the latest arguments for redistribution comes from French economist Thomas Piketty, who has gathered and studied tax records over a

24

200-year span. Piketty argues that inequality is an inherent

In his recent best seller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, 24- Piketty uses data gathered from 20 countries to posit that the rate of return in developed countries is 25- persistently greater than economic growth—this

lasting trend is the main driver of inequality and will only widen the gap further in the future. His work shows that return has been steady even during years of recession when growth has plummeted. While many consider his 25

questionable modern-day applicability—it is indisputably attracting wide attention. Piketty’s data on the wealthy elite makes it somewhat pioneering despite its foundations in age-old economics. 27- Piketty even offers a solution;

24. The writer is considering inserting this sentence at this point in the passage: “His research considers the questions of long-term inequality, concentration of wealth, and potential economic growth, and ultimately concludes that the ever-rising concentration of wealth is not selfcorrecting.”

feature of capitalism that threatens democracy.

book esoteric— 26- especially given its old age and

Which choice gives the most accurate interpretation of the data in the graph? A. NO CHANGE B. top 10 percent nearly doubled while incomes in the bottom 20% barely changed. C. top 10 percent nearly tripled while incomes in the middle 10% barely changed. D. top 10 percent nearly quadrupled while incomes in the bottom 20% decreased.

26

economic redistribution through a progressive global tax on wealth.

27

Should she make this insertion? A. Yes. It elaborates on Piketty’s background and connects to the next sentence. B. Yes. It provides helpful details about Piketty’s research methodology. C. No. It gives irrelevant information to the paragraph’s argument. D. No. It repeats the general idea from the previous sentence. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE chronically more massive consistently more expensive often large

Which choice best elaborates on the first part of this sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. since beautiful illustrations are just as helpful to my understanding as is polished prose C. given the often controversial ideas presented in this work D. a trait that may explain why the 600+ page tome sits unread on library bookshelves A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Piketty, even offers a solution, economic Piketty even offers a solution: economic Piketty even offers, a solution economic


2

76

Piketty faces many 28- observers. Matthew Rognlie, a

Passage 19-B 28

graduate student at MIT, has become a media sensation with his paper that points out what he sees as several flaws in Piketty’s argument. Rognlie argues that, according to the law of diminishing returns, the rate of return will eventually 29- decrease; goes on to say that Piketty has an inflated idea of current return and doesn’t consider

29

depreciation. Rognlie 30- points at housing wealth as the cause of worsening inequality and shows that Piketty’s conclusions are based on the assumption that capital can be substituted for the working class, which is untrue in the

30

housing market. According to Rognlie, the solution put forth in Capital in the Twenty-First Century, since it will do little to limit 31- homeowners’ returns on assets, is no solution at all.

31

But, if Rognlie’s argument holds, do all homeowners benefit? Surely not. Working-class families will continue to buy only in neighborhoods where they can afford homes and where home values are unpredictable. 32- Unexpectedly, they will face further financial

32

instability; meanwhile, the privileged few who can afford to purchase real estate in New York, Chicago, London, and so on will see their returns peak. 33- Whether or not you agree or disagree with Piketty is not as important as whether you recognize the severity and possible implications of his argument.

33

Which word choice is most logically supported by the information in the sentence that follows? A. NO CHANGE B. scholars. C. enemies. D. critics. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE decrease, goes decrease; he goes decrease, he goes

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE points to points on point through

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE homeowner’s the home owner’s homeowners

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Paradoxically, Typically, Hence,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Whether you agree or disagree with Whether you are agreeing OMIT the underlined portion.


77

1 

Passage 20-A

Questions 43-52 are based on the following passage.

Largely unexplored, the canopy or treetop region of the tropical rainforest is one of the most diverse plant and animal communities on Earth. Passage 1 is an excerpt from a 1984 Scientific American article on the rain forest canopy; in it, the naturalist Donald R. Perry shares his research team’s observations of epiphytes, unusual plants that flourish in this treetop environment. Passage 2, “Elucidating Epiphyte Diversity” by Andrew Sugden is taken from the 6 May 2011 issue of Science.

Tropical Rainforests

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

Passage 1 The upper story of the rain forest, which we investigated, incorporates two-thirds of its volume. This region can be divided arbitrarily into a lower canopy, extending from 10 to 25 meters above the ground, an upper canopy, reaching a height of 35 meters, and an emergent zone that encompasses the tops of the tallest trees, which commonly grow to heights of more than 50 meters. The canopy is well lighted, in contrast to the forest understory, which because of thick vegetation above receives only about 1 percent of the sunlight that falls on the treetops. In the canopy all but the smallest of the rain forest trees put forth their leaves, flowers and fruit. It also contains many plants that exist entirely within its compass, forming vegetative communities that in number of species and complexity of interactions surpass any others on the earth. Among the most conspicuous features of vegetation in the canopy of the tropical rain forest are epiphytes. About 28,000 species in 65 families are known worldwide, 15,500 of them in Central and South America; they include species of orchids, bromeliads, and arboreal cacti as well as lower plants such as lichens, mosses, and ferns. Thousands more epiphyte varieties remain unidentified. The Greek meaning of the word epiphyte is “plant that grows on a plant,” and they carpet tree trunks and branches. Epiphytes sprout from seeds borne by the wind or deposited by animals, their roots holding tight to the interstices of the bark. Yet they are nonparasitic; their hosts provide them with nothing more than a favorable position in the brightly lighted canopy. For nourishment epiphytes depend on soil particles and dissolved minerals carried in rainwater, and on aerial deposits of humus. The deposits are the product of organic debris, such as dead leaves from epiphytes and other plants, that lodges among epiphyte roots. Water is directly available to epiphytes only when it rains; other plants have continuous access to moisture trapped in the soil. As a result many epiphytes have developed features that collect and retain rainwater. Some, including orchids and arboreal cacti, have succulent stems and leaves, with spongy tissues that store water, as well as waxy leaf coatings that reduce the loss of moisture through transpiration. Many orchids have bulbous stem bases; other families of epiphytes impound water in

60)

65)

tanks formed by tight rosettes of leaves or in cups shaped by the junctions of broadened petioles2 and stems. Some species possess absorbent, spongelike root masses that soak up and hold water. Bromeliads, a Central and South American family, can hold reserves of several gallons within their cisternlike bases, forming “arboreal swamps” that attract insects of many species, earthworms, spiders, sow bugs, scorpions, tree frogs, and insecteating birds.

1 : Passage of water through a plant to the atmosphere. 2 : Slender stalks that attach a leaf to the stem.

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

Passage 2 In tropical forests, an important fraction of the total plant species diversity is composed of epiphytes: plants that are rooted for part or all their life on the trunks and branches of trees and lianas. The patterns of epiphyte diversity are still poorly understood relative to those of trees, however, because of logistical challenges, such as tree height. Benavides et al. performed a comparative analysis of the epiphyte communities in lowland forest in Colombian Amazonia, aiming to understand how landscape unit (swamp forest, floodplain forest, and welldrained upland) and host tree species influenced the composition of their epiphyte communities, using a combination of collecting by tree climbing and binocular observations. They recorded 154 epiphyte species on 411 tree species. There were clear associations between tree/liana species assemblages and epiphyte species assemblages, but there were few significant associations between individual host species and epiphyte species. The high diversity of both groups of plants in the sampled plots made testing for individual host preferences difficult, suggesting the need for further studies.


1 43

44

45

46

47

48

The author of Passage 1 characterizes the floor or understory of the rain forest as relatively A. insignificant. B. voluminous. C. illuminated. D. obscure. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–3 (“The upper . . . volume”) B. Lines 10–14 (“The canopy . . . treetops”) C. Lines 16–20 (“It also . . . earth”) D. Lines 21–29 (“Among . . . unidentified”) As used in line 18, “compass” most nearly means A. a curved arc. B. directions. C. parameters. D. enclosing limits. It can most reasonably be inferred from Passage 1 that which of the following is true of epiphytes? A. They lack an adequate root system. B. They cannot draw moisture from tree trunks. C. They are incapable of transpiration. D. They are hard to perceive in the dense rain forest canopy. As used in line 27, “lower” most nearly means A. below average. B. relatively primitive. C. less tall. D. more sparse. Epiphytes have direct access to water only when it rains because A. they lack the ability to collect moisture. B. dead leaves and other organic debris cover their roots. C. the thick canopy protects them from rainstorms. D. they lack connections to water in the ground.

78

Passage 20-A

49

50

51

52

In line 64, the quotes around the phrase “arboreal swamps” indicate that A. the author is quoting a standard technical term. B. the term is intended to have a humorous effect. C. the term is being used in a special sense. D. the author means the term literally. What information discussed in Passage 2 is clarified by referring to the infographic in Passage 1? A. The information in lines 68–72 (“In ... lianas”) B. The information in lines 72–75 (“The ... height”) C. The information in lines 85–86 (“They ... species”) D. The information in lines 91–95 (“The ... studies”) Which choice best states the relationship between the two passages? A. Passage 2 draws alternative conclusions from the observations shared in Passage 1. B. Passage 1 proposes a hypothesis that is confirmed in Passage 2. C. Passage 1 introduces a concept that is elaborated on in Passage 2. D. Passage 2 restates in less vivid terms the information presented in Passage 1. The authors of both passages would most likely agree with which of the following statements about epiphyte studies? A. They are most efficiently conducted by means of binocular observation. B. They need to focus on observations of epiphytes in the understory. C. They necessarily entail certain challenges for researchers. D. They should primarily be considered an untapped resource.


79

2

Passage 20-B

 Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.

Hypocrisy of Hippocratic Humorism Sometimes, scientific paradigm shifts in the name of

34

innovation are anything but innovative. The revolutionary theory of the four bodily humors (i.e., the idea that disease results from a physical imbalance in the bodily “humors”) 34- had popularized in 400 B.C.E. in ancient

35

Greece and has been a major obstacle to scientific advancement ever since. The theory of the humors cannot even be described as a paradigm shift (and certainly not one contributing to medical science) for 35- it revolutionized the way that medical practitioners approached their craft. The couching of the humors in the physical world as opposed to the spiritual world did not make it any less mystical but made it more 36- intellectualized entrenched. We of course

36

know today that humorism is abjectly bunk; one of the four humors—specifically black bile—does not exist in nature but was added to tidily complement classical theories of the four natural elements. From a scientific perspective, black bile has every bit as much to do with cancer as 37- demons do with epilepsy.

37

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE have was were

Which choice would most logically and relevantly justify the statement made in the first part of the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. it merely trades one baseless system of mystical superstition for another. C. it does not attempt to provide a theoretical understanding of bodily functions. D. while it was influential in ancient Greece, it did not have influence beyond this limited geographic area. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE intellectually intelligent intellectual

The writer wants to use an applicable analogy to establish the absurdity of using black bile to justify cancer. Which choice best accomplishes this goal? A. NO CHANGE B. ice does with water. C. cartoons do with teenage violence. D. drugs do with addiction.


2

80

Even a cursory 38- analysis of Western medicine’s

Passage 20-B 38

history will reveal that the single greatest obstacle to the advent of evidence-based medical science was not—as has often been posited—religion but Hippocratic humorism itself. 39- One’s tendency to linearize progress

39

retrospectively—particularly in the sciences— has contributed to the fallacious belief that the discovery that lightning results not from the fury of an angry God 40- and from an atmospheric electrical discharge, and the

40

transition of the accepted source of epilepsy from mischievous Roma deities to an imaginary bodily fluid are in some way equivalently significant to the development

41

of modern science. Humorism held medical discovery back for centuries at a time when the pure sciences 41- were conducting medical research; it established a systemic insularity in the field that cut medicine off from discoveries in biology,

42

chemistry, and physics, and generated a remarkably longlived illusion of comprehensiveness that categorically rejected revision and innovation. 42- Somewhat, humorism was a far more persistent enemy of medical

43

science than was superstition because it wore the guise of naturalism. By pretending to possess a physical basis for its tenets, humorism 43- contributed to a deep-seeded belief, among physicians well, into the nineteenth century that pathology was not only independent of supernatural influences but of essentially all external influences. This notion of corporeal isolation—established by the theory of humoral imbalances—laid the foundation for the staunch medical opposition encountered by advocates of the germ theory of disease, and 44- conducted a paucity of help to the geometric growth of the sciences.

44

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE analyses of Western medicines’ history analysis of the history of the medicine of the West analyzing of the history of medical science in Western society

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Ones The They’re

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE but from because of with

The writer would like to emphasize how humorism prevented medical discovery from advancing. Which choice best accomplishes this goal? A. NO CHANGE B. were shifting from the foreground to the background; C. were about to develop further scientifically; D. were preparing for a renaissance; A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE In contrast, Further, Because of this,

A. NO CHANGE B. contributed to a deep-seeded belief among physicians, well into the nineteenth century, that pathology was not, only independent C. contributed to a deep-seeded belief among physicians well into the nineteenth century that pathology, was not only independent D. contributed to a deep-seeded belief among physicians well into the nineteenth century that pathology was not only independent Which choice most specifically elaborates on the long-term negative impact that the belief in corporeal isolation had on medical science? A. NO CHANGE B. delayed understanding of microbial pathogens for at least three centuries. C. viral pathogens cannot be treated by antibiotics but must run their natural course. D. germs continue to plague patients and medical practitioners up to the present day.


81

1

Passage 21-A

 Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Below is the beginning of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Her own remark on the chapter is as follows: “in which the reader is introduced to a man of humanity.”

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

Late in the afternoon of a chilly day in February two gentlemen were sitting over their wine, in a well-furnished parlour in the town of P---- in Kentucky in the midst of an earnest conversation. “That is the way I should arrange the matter,” said Mr. Shelby, the owner of the place. “The fact is, Tom is an uncommon fellow; he is certainly worth that sum anywhere; steady, honest, capable, manages my farm like a clock. You ought to let him cover the whole of the debt; and you would, Haley, if you’d got any conscience.” “Well, I’ve got just as much conscience as any man in business can afford to keep,” said Haley, “and I’m willing to do anything to ‘blige friends; but this yer, ye see, is too hard on a feller, it really is. Haven’t you a boy or gal you could thrown in with Tom?” “Hum!—none that I could well spare; to tell the truth, it’s only hard necessity makes me sell at all.” Here the door opened, and a small quadroon boy, remarkably beautiful and engaging, entered with a comic air of assurance which showed he was used to being petted and noticed by his master. “Hulloa, Jim Crow,” said Mr. Shelby, snapping a bunch of raisins towards him, “pick that up, now!” The child scampered, with all his little strength after the prize, while his master laughed. “Tell you what,” said Haley, “fling in that chap, and I’ll settle the business, I will.” At this moment a young woman, obviously the child’s mother, came in search of him, and Haley, as soon as she had carried him away, turned to Mr. Shelby in admiration. “By Jupiter!” said the trader, “there’s an article now! You might make your fortune on that one gal in Orleans, any way. What shall I say for her? What’ll you take?” “Mr. Haley, she is not to be sold. I say no, and I mean no,” said Mr. Shelby, decidedly. “Well, you’ll let me have the boy, though.”

45)

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

“I would rather not sell him,” said Mr. Shelby; “the fact is, I’m a humane man, and I hate to take the boy from his mother, sir.” “Oh, you do? La, yes, I understand perfectly. It is mighty unpleasant getting on with women sometimes. I al’ays hates these yer screechin’ times. As I manages business, I generally avoids ‘em, sir. Now, what if you get the gal off for a day or so? then the thing’s done quietly. It’s always best to do the humane thing, sir; that’s been my experience.” “I’d like to have been able to kick the fellow down the steps,” said Mr. Shelby to himself, when the trader had bowed himself out. “And Eliza’s child, too! I know I shall have some fuss with the wife about that, and for that matter, about Tom, too! So much for being in debt, heigho!” The prayer-meeting at Uncle Tom’s Cabin had been protracted to a very late hour, and Tom and his worthy helpmeet were not yet asleep, when between twelve and one there was a light tap on the window pane. “Good Lord! what’s that?” said Aunt Chloe, starting up. “My sakes alive, if it aint Lizzy! Get on your clothes, old man, quick. I’m gwine to open the door.” And suiting the action to the word, the door flew open, and the light of the candle which Tom had hastily lighted, fell on the face of Eliza. “I’m running away, Uncle Tom and Aunt Chloe—carrying off my child. Master sold him.” “Sold him?” echoed both, holding up their hands in dismay. “Yes, sold him!” said Eliza firmly. “I crept into the closet by mistress’s door to-night, and I heard master tell missus that he had sold my Harry and you, Uncle Tom, both to a trader, and that the man was to take possession to-day.” Slowly, as the meaning of this speech came over Tom, he collapsed on his old chair, and sunk his head on his knees.


1 1

2

3

4

5

Which choice provides the best summary of what happened in the passage? A. A deal is reluctantly made and the reactions of those affected are given. B. A slave successfully plots an escape from an oppressive society. C. A man struggles to choose between what is humane and what is profitable. D. A philosophical discussion is held between a slaveowner and a slave-trader.

Haley is best characterized as a/an A. humane empathizer. B. financial amateur. C. aggressive negotiator. D. passive mediator. As used in line 31, the phrase “fling in” most closely means A. include. B. hurl. C. relate. D. involve.

Mr. Shelby’s treatment of the child in lines 27–32 is best described as A. purposely deceitful. B. unintentionally inhumane. C. openly belligerent. D. tenderly impartial.

As used in line 38, the word “article” most closely means A. agreement. B. report. C. word. D. item.

82

Passage 21-A 6

7

8

9

10

The passage most strongly implies that Tom’s reaction to hearing of Mr. Shelby’s plans for him is one of A. unanticipated peacefulness. B. delighted relief. C. surprised despondency. D. playful mockery.

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 58–61 (“I know . . . heigho”) B. Lines 62–66 (“The prayer . . . pane”) C. Lines 73–75 (“I’m . . . him”) D. Lines 84–86 (“Slowly . . . knees”)

It can reasonably be inferred that Mr. Shelby places the highest value on which character? A. Tom B. Eliza C. Eliza’s son D. Chloe

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 8–13 (“The fact . . . conscience”) B. Lines 27–32 (“Hulloa . . . will”) C. Lines 37–42 (“By . . . decidedly”) D. Lines 67–70 (“Good . . . door”)

The “light tap” made by Eliza in line 66 suggests that she A. feared unwanted detection. B. respected nightly rituals. C. was hesitant to share bad news. D. understood her misdeeds.


83

2  Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.

Passage 21-B

Stuttering

The precise causes of stuttering are not understood.

1

Recent research indicates that genetic components play a part. Some theorists propose that many stutterers have inherited certain traits that increase the likelihood that they will develop this disorder in their speech. The exact nature of these traits is presently unclear, 1 except that stuttering is -

more common among males than females. What is known, of course, is that stuttering is the repetition of sounds, prolonged vowels, and completestops—verbal blocks. A

2

stutterer’s speech is often uncontrollable. Compared 2 to -

nostutterers, it is sometimes faster than average but usually more slower. Sometimes, too, the voice changes in pitch, loudness, and inflection. 3 Observation of young children during the early -

3

stages of stuttering have led to a list of warning signs that can help identify a child who is developing a speech problem. Most children use “um’s” and “ah’s,” and will repeat words or syllables as they learn to speak. It is not a serious concern if a child says, “I like to go and and and play games,” unless such repetitions occur often, more than once every twenty

4

words or so. Repeating whole words is not necessarily a sign of stuttering; however, repeating speech sounds or syllables such as in the song “K-K-K-Katy” is. Sometimes a stutterer will exhibit tension while prolonging a sound 4 —meanwhile, the 8-year-old who says -

“Annnnnnd— and th-th-th-then I-I drank it” with lips trembling at the same time. Children who experience such a stuttering tremor usually become frightened, angry, and 5 feeling frustration from the inability to speak. A further -

danger sign is a rise in pitch as the child draws out the syllable.

5

A. NO CHANGE B. in part, because not everyone predisposed to stutter will develop the disorder. C. because some people who have stuttered for many years suddenly stop stuttering. D. since those who have experienced unfavorable responses from listeners may develop emotional problems that worsen their conditions. A. NO CHANGE B. to nonstutterers’ speech, if not faster sometimes, then usually slower. C. to that of nonstutterers, it is as fast, but usually slower. D. to the speech of nonstutterers, it is sometimes faster but usually slower. A. NO CHANGE B. Observations of young children during the early stages of stuttering C. Observations of young children, which during the early stages of stuttering D. Observation of young children, during the early stages of stuttering A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE —consequently —for example —to sum up

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE frustrated from the frustrated by their a frustrating feeling because of the


84

2

The appearance of people experiencing the most severe

Passage 21-B 6

signs of stuttering is dramatic. As they struggle to get a word out, their whole face may contort and the jaw may jerk the mouth 6 open. Tension can spread through the whole body. -

A moment of overwhelming struggle occurs during the speech blockage.

While the symptoms of stuttering are easy to recognize, 7 it’s underlying causes remains 8 a mystery. Hippocrates -

-

7

thought that stuttering was due to a dry tongue, and he prescribed blistering substances to drain away the black bile responsible. 9 The brilliant English scientist Sir Isaac Newton,

The writer wants to add examples of stutterers’ physical reactions. Which choice most effectively accomplishes this goal? A. open, the tongue protrudes, and an eyeroll takes place. B. open, along with a protruding tongue and rolling eyes. C. open; their tongues may protrude and their eyes may roll. D. open; tongue protrudes, eyes roll. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE its underlying cause the underlying causes their underlying cause

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE a riddle in the closet a dilemma

-

who developed the law of gravity, also suffered a lifelong

8

stuttering condition. A Roman physician recommended gargling and massages to strengthen a weak tongue. Seventeenth-century scientist Francis Bacon suggested hot wine to thaw a “refrigerated” tongue. Too large a tongue was

9

the fault, according to a 19th-century Prussian physician, so he snipped pieces off stutterers’ tongues. Alexander Melville Bell, father of the telephone inventor, insisted stuttering was simply a bad habit that 10 could be remedied, overcome, -

and eliminated by reeducation.

Some theorists today attribute stuttering to problems in the control of the muscles of speech. Decades ago, however, 11 stuttering was thought to arise from deep-

rooted personality problems and recommended

10

psychotherapy.

11

The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should it be kept or deleted? A. Kept, because it adds evidence to the claim that stuttering has long been a subject of study and research. B. Kept, because it provides still another example of a historical figure concerned about stuttering. C. Deleted, because it blurs the paragraph’s focus on various theories about how stuttering can be cured. D. Deleted, because it fails to provide a specific example of a widely known symptom of stuttering and a possible cure. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE reeducation was needed to overcome it. could be overcome by reeducation. the elimination of which is being by reeducation.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE experts believed that stuttering arose from theories insist that stuttering came from claims were made that stuttering’s origins were


85

1

Passage 22-A

Questions 22-32 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

60)

There are few biochemical compounds as familiar to us as hemoglobin, and as the primary transporter of oxygen in our blood, the celebrity of this curious little compound is not without just cause. Vital to almost every known vertebrate, hemoglobin appears within the very first week of embryogenesis, and while its role may not change throughout development, its molecular structure undergoes a series of significant transformations. Within the red blood cell, hemoglobin exists as a four-subunit complex, or “tetramer,” each subunit of which is made up of one “heme” metalloprotein, and one of several varieties of “globin.” Comprised of iron and a carbon-nitrogen ring, heme is responsible for both the oxygen-binding capacity of hemoglobin, and for the red coloration of blood. Globin, meanwhile, refers to a folded chain of polypeptides, and it is the combination of these chains that imparts each type of hemoglobin with its unique characteristics. In humans, six globin chains are expressed sequentially throughout development. Embryonic hemoglobin, or HbE, is composed of two ζ chains and two ε chains, both of which are expressed exclusively during the embryonic period. In the fetal period, another tetramer of two α chains and two γ chains emerges, and persists for the first six months of postnatal life. Due to its high affinity for binding gases, this fetal hemoglobin, or HbF, is able to extract oxygen from low-affinity maternal hemoglobin, and thus plays a crucial role in the oxygenation of fetal tissues. Like HbF, the final two physiologic hemoglobins, HbA and HbA2, also require a pair of a chains, and differ only in being coupled to two β chains, and two δ chains, respectively. Typically, both HbA and HbA2 are synthesized at fairly stable concentrations, though HbA is produced in far greater abundance. Given the tremendous import of these complexes, it should hardly be surprising that errors in their production can yield devastating results. What may be surprising, however, is that these errors—including sickle-cell disease and thalassemia—are among the most common of all inherited genetic disorders, with an estimated 7% of the world’s population as carriers, two-thirds of whom reside in Africa. Thalassemia describes a group of disorders in which either the α or β chain is quantitatively reduced. Depending on the mutation, these defects can present with a wide range of anemia-related symptoms, and are particularly prevalent throughout Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean. This geographical distribution is anything but

Hemoglobin

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

105-

110)

random. Many studies have demonstrated that the production of suboptimal hemoglobin confers a degree of protection against malaria, a potentially deadly infectious disease caused by members of the Plasmodium genus, which parasitize red blood cells. It follows, then, that whereas in many regions throughout the world thalassemia may merely constitute disease, in those where malaria is endemic, it represents a favorable evolutionary advantage. Owing to a redundancy in the human genome, there are four copies of the α globin gene, with two α-coding regions on each copy of chromosome 16. For this reason, the spectrum of severity in α thalassemia is particularly broad. For instance, deletion of a single gene will result in a carrier state, and is unlikely to cause clinically acute symptoms. Deletion of all four, meanwhile, leads to a precipitation during the fetal period of nonfunctional γ tetramers, also called Hb Barts, and is universally lethal in utero. Similarly, a deletion of three copies typically results in a serious but survivable anemia, and is characterized by the formation of Hb Barts in the fetal period, and nonfunctional β tetramers, termed HbH, throughout adulthood. Predictably, a deletion of two copies produces a still milder anemia, but can be subclassified based on whether the deletions occur on the same chromosome, termed “cis” deletion, or on opposite chromosomes, termed “trans” deletion. The trans subtype appears more commonly in the Mediterranean, while cis is more often found in Asia. Notably, it has been suggested that the cis deletion may contribute to the relatively higher rates of failed pregnancies observed in this part of the world. Like its α counterpart, β thalassemia also impairs the production of HbA. However, the symptoms of β thalassemia will not become evident until after the first six months of life, when the concentration of HbF wanes to a critical threshold. Often, a compensatory upregulation in the expression of HbA2 occurs in affected individuals, the effects of which can be pharmaceutically augmented by a drug called hydroxyurea, which induces the expression of HbF in children and adults. The graph shows varying concentrations of globin chains during human development.


1 22

23

24

25

26

The general purpose of this passage is to A. make an argument. B. raise vital questions. C. introduce a concept. D. call for a course of action. As used in line 4, the word “celebrity” most closely means A. notoriety. B. infamy. C. personage. D. festivity. Based on lines 11–22 and the information in the graph, what makes the hemoglobin varieties distinct? A. Whether there is a carbon-nitrogen ring B. Whether there is a red coloration of the blood C. Variation in the arrangement of metalloprotein chains D. Variation in the arrangement of polypeptide chains Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 11–15 (“Within . . . globin”) B. Lines 15–16 (“Comprised . . . ring”) C. Lines 16–19 (“heme . . . blood”) D. Lines 19–22 (“Globin . . . characteristics”) The paragraph in lines 44–53 most strongly suggests that it is surprising that A. the vast majority of inherited genetic disorders occur due to malfunctions in hemoglobin production. B. biochemical compounds so important to human development can so frequently have errors in their production. C. such a critical part of human health is susceptible to widespread pandemic contagion. D. sickle-cell disease and thalassemia, despite being genetically inherited diseases, can be responsible for the majority of early deaths in Africa.

86

Passage 22-A 27

28

29

30

31

32

As used in line 50, the word “common” most closely means A. communal. B. lowly. C. widespread. D. famous. The purpose of lines 60–72 is to connect A. hemoglobin development to migration patterns. B. cultural characteristics to evolutionary traits. C. geographic particularities to evolutionary adaptation. D. environmental forces to medical innovations. Lines 73–78 (“Owing . . . broad”) most directly imply that the intensity of thalassemia would be more uniform if there were A. fewer copies of the α globin gene in humans. B. the same number of copies of the α globin gene in humans. C. more copies of the α globin gene in humans. D. more information is needed than is given in the selected sentences. The paragraph in lines 73–101 suggests that the relationship between the number of globin genes deleted and the severity of disease is A. inverse. B. proportional. C. equivalent. D. random. 31. What evidence from the passage gives the best justification as to why the graph begins along the x-axis where it does? A. Lines 5–7 (“Vital . . . embryogenesis”) B. Lines 19–22 (“Globin . . . characteristics”) C. Lines 47–53 (“What . . . Africa”) D. Lines 81–84 (“Deletion . . . utero”) 32. Based on the graph, a rough measurement of which of the following globin chains would give the clearest indication that a child was born two months premature? A. Alpha B. Beta C. Gamma D. Zeta


87

2

Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage.

Passage 22-B

Lascaux Prehistoric Cave Paintings

One of the most significant art discoveries of all time

12

began in 1940, when a group of five teenagers and their dog 12 walk to a nearby hill in southern France, looking for -

hidden treasure. They definitely found 13 some, they -

discovered the Cave of Lascaux, home of the famous

13

Lascaux prehistoric cave paintings. 14 At around 15,000 BC, the climate on earth had -

warmed and the glaciers had receded. Rising sea levels

14

were causing more rainfall that supported vegetation and small game animals. Groups of prehistoric people took advantage of these improved conditions and migrated to the Pyrenees of France. Among them were the artists of the Lascaux cave.

15

15 The fact that many of the paintings are located -

more than a mile from the mouth of the cave has led us to believe that the paintings were part of “ritual’ activities and the cave was a type of sanctuary. To reach the painting site the artists had to go on an 16 expedition. Since it took -

days, provisions were needed. Lamps made of limestone or sandstone that burned animal fat, and torches made from wood coated with fat had to be brought along. The artists were not deterred by darkness, the lakes that had to be crossed, or the stalagmites that had to be removed to reach their destination. The paintings are predominantly depictions of animals—almost 600 in all. The horse is the most popular animal. Others include aurochs, stags, ibex and bison and more rarely, bears and felines. There is only one human representation at the site, not unusual among paintings of this time period.

16

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE walked walks had walked

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE some, having discovered some they discovered some; discovering

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE During approximately 15,000 Around roughly 15,000 By 15,000

Which of the following sentences most effectively and accurately expresses the main topic of this paragraph? A. The cave could not have been used for everyday activities. B. Cave artists were likely a select group of talented people. C. To protect the paintings from vandalism, they were created as far as possible from the cave entrance. D. The Lascaux paintings are religious in nature. Which choice best combines the sentences where the segment of the passage is underlined? A. expedition that since it took days it needed provisions. B. expedition that took days and required provisions. C. expedition, and since it took days, requiring artists to bring all the necessary provisions. D. expedition, and provisions were needed, which took days.


88

2 [1] The images at Lascaux were created using

Passage 22-B 17

primitive paints with pigments. [2] The pigments at Lascaux include ochre, charcoal, iron oxide, hematite, manganese and other minerals that produced the browns, blacks, reds and grays in the paintings. [3] A binder stabilized the paint

18

and many have 17 forestalled permanent adhesion to the -

stone surface. [4] No trace is left of the binder but possibilities are water, fat, saliva, blood or urine. [5] These minerals were most likely ground into a powder using stone mortars and pestles. [6] A vehicle liquefied the paint and allowed it to be applied to the surface. [7] Water or oil are typical vehicles that might have been used. 18

19

-

The artists may have applied the paint with brushes and 19 fingers or paint was blown through a straw. Some of -

the paintings seem to have been created by using a crayon to draw an outline of the 20 figures. And then filling it in

20

-

with a brush. Crayons were produced by mixing pigment with a binder, molding it into the desired shape and letting it dry. 21 Brushes that may have been made from leaves

A. NO CHANGE B. proposed C. promoted D. prompted For the sake of cohesion in this paragraph, sentence 5 should be placed A. where it is now. B. after sentence 1. C. after sentence 2. D. after sentence 6.

A. NO CHANGE B. fingers, or blowing through straws C. fingers and with straws through which they blew paint D. fingers and with paint blown through a straw

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE figures. Then filling figures, and then they filled figures, then filling

-

with shredded ends enabled the artists to leave both wide

21

and narrow strokes of paint on the cave’s walls. Moreover, bits of evidence indicate that the stone surface suggested shapes of animals and objects to 22 the artist that they -

could then perfect by applying paint.

22

A. NO CHANGE B. Brushes, that may have been made from various leaves, with shredded ends, C. Brushes that may have been made from various leaves, with shredded ends, D. Brushes that may have been made from various leaves with shredded ends,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE the artists that they could then perfect the artist that he or she could then perfect artists, who then could perfect shapes


89

1 

Questions 33-40 are based on the following passage.

Passage 23-A

The American Forests

This excerpt from “The American Forests,” was part of John Muir’s 1897 campaign to save the American wilderness. He would later be called the godfather of the American environmental movement.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

The forests of America, however slighted by man, must have been a great delight to nature; for they were the best he ever planted. The whole continent was a garden, and from the beginning it seemed to be favored above all the other wild parks and gardens of the globe. […] So they appeared a few centuries ago when they were rejoicing in wildness. The Indians with stone axes could do them no more harm than could gnawing beavers and browsing moose. Even the fires of the Indians and the fierce shattering lightning seemed to work together only for good in clearing spots here and there for smooth garden prairies, and openings for sunflowers seeking the light. But when the steel axe of the white man rang out in the startled air their doom was sealed. Every tree heard the bodeful sound, and pillars of smoke gave the sign in the sky. I suppose we need not go mourning the buffaloes. In the nature of things they had to give place to better cattle, though the change might have been made without barbarous wickedness. Likewise many of nature’s five hundred kinds of wild trees had to make way for orchards and cornfields. In the settlement and civilization of the country, bread more than timber or beauty was wanted; and in the blindness of hunger, the early settlers, claiming Heaven as their guide, regarded God’s trees as only a larger kind of pernicious weeds, extremely hard to get rid of. Accordingly, with no eye to the future, these pious destroyers waged interminable forest wars; chips flew thick and fast; trees in their beauty fell crashing by millions, smashed to confusion, and the smoke of their burning has been rising to heaven more than two hundred years. After the Atlantic coast from Maine to Georgia had been mostly cleared and scorched into melancholy ruins, the overflowing multitude of bread and money seekers poured over the Alleghenies into the fertile middle West, spreading ruthless devastation ever wider and farther over the

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

rich valley of the Mississippi and the vast shadowy pine region about the Great Lakes. Thence still westward the invading horde of destroyers called settlers made its fiery way over the broad Rocky Mountains, felling and burning more fiercely than ever, until at last it has reached the wild side of the continent, and entered the last of the great aboriginal forests on the shores of the Pacific. Surely, then, it should not be wondered at that lovers of their country, bewailing its baldness, are now crying aloud, “Save what is left of the forests!” Clearing has surely now gone far enough; soon timber will be scarce, and not a grove will be left to rest in or pray in. The remnant protected will yield plenty of timber, a perennial harvest for every right use, without further diminution of its area, and will continue to cover the springs of the rivers that rise in the mountains and give irrigating waters to the dry valleys at their feet, prevent wasting floods and be a blessing to everybody forever. Every other civilized nation in the world has been compelled to care for its forests, and so must we if waste and destruction are not to go on to the bitter end, leaving America as barren as Palestine or Spain. In its calmer moments in the midst of bewildering hunger and war and restless over-industry, Prussia has learned that the forest plays an important part in human progress, and that the advance in civilization only makes it more indispensable. […] So far our government has done nothing effective with its forests, though the best in the world, but is like a rich and foolish spendthrift who has inherited a magnificent estate in perfect order, and then has left his rich fields and meadows, forests and parks, to be sold and plundered and wasted at will, depending on their inexhaustible abundance. Now it is plain that the forests are not inexhaustible, and that quick measures must be taken if ruin is to be avoided.


1 33

34

35

36

37

The overall point of the passage is to A. tell a story. B. survey current knowledge. C. make an argument. D. describe an environment.

Muir’s tone in the passage is best described as A. urgent and earnest. B. arrogant and condescending. C. optimistic and cheerful. D. hopeless and depressed. As used in line 19, the word “sealed” most closely means A. fastened. B. settled. C. authenticated. D. killed.

Based on the information in the passage, it is reasonable to infer that in the year 1897, which region of the United States had the greatest abundance of unharvested forests? A. The Atlantic Coast B. The Middle West C. The Mississippi Valley D. The Pacific Region

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 34–42 (“Accordingly . . . ruins”) B. Lines 43–45 (“Multitude . . .West”) C. Lines 47–48 (“rich . . . Lakes”) D. Lines 49–55 (“Thence . . . Pacific”)

90

Passage 23-A 38

39

40

41

42

Muir uses lines 59–62 (“Clearing . . . pray in”) to make appeals that focus on the themes of A. nationalism, militarism, and expansionism. B. environmentalism, scholarship, and piety. C. economics, leisure, and religion. D. justice, individualism, and truth.

Muir describes the overall approach to forest management by the U.S. Government at the time this passage was written as A. hands-off. B. legalistic. C. progressive. D. interventionist.

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–3 (“The . . . planted”) B. Lines 40–42 (“After . . . ruins”) C. Lines 56–59 (“Surely . . . forests”) D. Lines 81–84 (“So far . . . spendthrift”)

Muir suggests that the United States should emulate the philosophy of which country? A. Palestine B. Prussia C. Spain D. Georgia

As used in line 91, the word “ruin” most closely means A. undoing. B. hostility. C. devastation. D. ignorance.


91

2

Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.

Passage 23-B

Home Schoolers

Home schoolers are now a 23 divisive multidimensional, -

23

heterogeneous population. No longer the preserve of left wing unschoolers and right wing fundamentalists, the great range of people make it very difficult to draw even broad generalizations about the phenomenon. 24 In addition, one -

article of faith unites all home schoolers: that home schooling should be unregulated. Home schoolers of all stripes believe

24

that they alone should decide how their children are educated, and they unite in order to press for the absence of regulations or the most permissive regulation possible.

25

25 Flexibility in laws governing mandatory schooling for -

all children between certain ages opened the door to educational options. Matters of conscience, convenience, and custom led some parents to have their children schooled at home, or at least, away from traditional educational institutions. In no other educational setting are parents so fully responsible for determining what children are 26 taught. Unregulated home schooling is nothing less than -

total and complete parental authority over schooling with minimal regard for the quality and content of instruction.

26

Home schooling, therefore, represents the ultimate parenting authority over schooling. The theoretical arguments 27 for regulating home schooling begin from this point. If -

compulsory education is the law of the land, the question must be asked whether the schooling of children should ever be under the total and complete control of parents. 28 Kathleen Lyons, a spokesperson for the National -

Education Association the largest and most powerful

27

teachers’ union in America believes that home schooling cannot provide students with a comprehensive education experience. Regardless, home schooling parents claim that they are, and always will be, the appropriate authority over their children, and that what needs to be changed is the state’s authority over the upbringing of children. So let us ask two separate, but related, questions: What justifies, if anything, government authority over the education of children? and what justifies parental authority over the education of their own children?

28

Which choice results in the most effective opening sentence of this paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. multiethnic and heterogeneous C. diversified and homogeneous D. diverse A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Accordingly Nevertheless To be sure

Which choice best describes the central idea of this paragraph? A. Educational goals are uncertain when schooling is left completely to parents. B. Home schooling should be a permissible educational option, of course, but strict regulations are needed to assure a reasonable level of quality. C. The citizens of a free country can be free only up to a point. D. In a free society, the requirement that all children to be schooled has served as an incentive to develop alternative means of education. The writer is thinking about listing additional responsibilities of parents who are home schooling their children. Which choice would best accomplish this goal? A. taught and they must make decisions about the implementation of certain lessons. B. taught, but also when, how, and with whom they are taught. C. taught. Lessons must also be planned and they must supervise homework. D. taught, as well as lessons and tests and homework. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE as pertaining to the regulation of in behalf of the full regulation of regulating

A. NO CHANGE B. Kathleen Lyons a spokesperson for the National Education Association the largest and most powerful teachers’ union in America. States, C. Kathleen Lyons, a spokesperson for the National Education Association, the largest and most powerful teachers’ union in America, D. Kathleen Lyons, a spokesperson for the National Education Association the largest, and most powerful teachers’ union in America,


92

2

Recognizing that parents ought indeed to possess wide ranging authority to raise their children as they see fit, 29 questions of the government’s role need to be answered, especially where and when its stewardship of children’s education starts and stops.

Passage 23-B 29

-

30 This is so for many reasons, chief among them that -

parents are responsible for the care of their children, and 31 their knowledge of their children is better than any school teacher. -

Let us take it as given, therefore, that parental authority over their children is legitimate and desirable. What reason is there, in that case, to accept sovereignty over the education of children by the government, an authority that could in certain circumstances curtail the authority of parents? The answer should lie in the quality of education that students receive. While critics insist that the government should regulate home schooling in order to ensure the quality of education, recent studies have shown that the degree to which home schooling is regulated by state governments has no bearing on student test scores. In fact, 32 on major achievement tests, almost a third of home schooled students earn scores in the highest decile (i.e., the top 10 percent). With that level of performance, the so-called “citizenship argument” against unregulated home schooling, which seeks to justify providing children with a civic education, is highly questionable. Advocates of another proposition, known as the “freedom argument,” seek to justify providing children with an education that cultivates their freedom and thereby 33 avoid the development of what may be called “ethically servile” adults. Together, the two arguments justify some state authority over the education of children and rule out total parental control of education.

30

31

-

32

-

Standardized tests translate home school achievement into public-school-achievement terms

33

A. NO CHANGE B. questions about the role of government must be asked and answered C. the government needs to answer questions about its role D. the role of government is to answer crucial questions

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE This guideline This puzzle Just such a controversy

A. NO CHANGE B. they know their children better than school teachers. C. they know their children as well if not better than school teachers. D. they know their children better than anyone else, including school teachers.

Which choice most accurately reports data shown on the graph? A. NO CHANGE B. The number of public school students exceeds the number of home schooled students. C. From 10 percent to 17 percent of home schooled students perform at the highest levels on standardized tests. D. Ten percent of both public school and home schooled students achieve at the same level.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE avoids to avoid avoiding


93

1 

Questions 43-52 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

Passage 1 No one is sure how much available oil is left, but considering our oil reserves took hundreds of millions of years to form, time to depletion is little more than a blink of an eye. So we have two options—stop relying on oil or use it up and watch the ensuing chaos. One promising alternative fuel source is ethanol. Our ancestors have been fermenting organic matter to make ethanol for thousands of years. Today ethanol is primarily consumed in alcoholic beverages, but why not also use it to power our cars? This alternative fuel is made by fermenting crops such as wheat, corn, and sugarcane. One glucose molecule is broken down to form two ethanol molecules and two carbon dioxide molecules. Because it is made from organic matter, it is renewable—a big pro compared to oil. Another benefit is that it’s domestically made, so we don’t have to rely on other countries for it. Unfortunately, it’s slightly more expensive per mile than gasoline. Additionally, because its production uses crops, widespread implementation may cause an increase in some food prices. Another promising alternative is biodiesel. Biodiesel is made out of animal fats, plant fats, and even used grease from restaurants. The glycerol backbone is removed from the fat, breaking the fat into three separate chains, which are then reacted with an alcohol to form the biodiesel. This type of chemical reaction is called a transesterification. Like ethanol, biodiesel is also renewable and domestically produced. It’s also completely nontoxic and biodegradable. Unfortunately, like ethanol, it’s also more expensive. While they may be more expensive, both of these fuel sources produce fewer greenhouse gases than regular gasoline. A couple extra dollars is a small price to pay for the environmental friendliness and self-sufficiency that these alternatives would provide. Our current alternatives may not be perfect, but that’s no reason to be discouraged. The time for alternative fuel exploration is now. Why wait for oil to run out when superior sources of energy are already available and more are within reach?

Passage 24-A

Alternative Energy 50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

Passage 2 There is a natural tendency to confuse change with progress. This is perfectly understandable, especially considering that we went from inventing electricity to perfecting aviation to reaching the moon all in a time period analogous to just a blink in the grand scheme of human history. Such prodigious leaps have left us hungry for more leaps, and there are benefits to restlessness, even if entropic; throw enough aimless darts in every direction and you’ll find a bull’s eye, even if by accident. But, such leaps have also left us skeptical against inaction, and now there is a proclivity to mistake the status quo for the stagnation of standing still. Call it the New Coke effect, where society takes three misguided steps back in its interminable urgency to keep moving forward. That said, I will be the first to admit that the future livelihood of an industrialized world most likely hinges on change, namely the discovery of an effective, inexpensive source of renewable energy. But, as the federal government wastes billions here and billions there throwing money at hopeless companies with hapless executives (Solyndra, for instance), I can’t help but feel like renewable energy is New Coke. Certainly, we have not yet perfected our energetic ways and means, but why are we so obsessed with discarding what we have now? Principally, despite decades of apocalyptic forecasting of peak oil, petroleum output is as healthy as ever. In fact, petroleum companies are leaving the industry not because oil reserves are dwindling, but rather because oil production is so massive that demand is falling considerably. Case in point: oil is currently selling at a third the cost of bottled water. So, yes— the day most likely will come when the wells run dry. But, until then, let us celebrate our good fortune and be thankful for what we have.


1 43

44

45

46

47

The author of passage 1 most strongly implies in paragraph 1 (lines 1–6) that the choice of whether to pursue alternative energy is A. multi-faceted. B. obvious. C. ambiguous. D. premature.

As used in line 30, the word “breaking” most closely means A. flouting. B. eliminating. C. separating. D. categorizing.

The author of Passage 1 suggests in lines 44–49 (“Our current . . . reach”) that extensive research into alternative energy resources should begin A. in the coming centuries. B. in the coming decades. C. in the coming years. D. immediately.

Lines 59–61 (“throw . . . accident”) can best be paraphrased as A. systematic, focused research will lead to a successful result. B. amateur researchers should be put on equal footing with academic researchers. C. nearly all useful recent innovations have come as the result of chaotic creativity. D. if you try enough different things, something will eventually work.

As used in line 82, the word “apocalyptic” most closely means A. pessimistic. B. technical. C. asymmetric. D. deceitful.

94

Passage 24-A 48

49

50

51

52

The author of Passage 2 primarily uses the example in lines 88–90 (“Case in . . . water) to A. show how water prices reflect relatively high demand for it. B. illustrate how oil prices reflect relatively low demand for it. C. explain how oil has come to be more plentiful than water. D. demonstrate why consumers find fewer uses for oil than water. The author of Passage 1 would most likely state that the author of Passage 2 needs to make what important clarification to lines 82–84 (“Principally . . . ever”)? A. To what extent this applies to just domestic petroleum production B. Whether the petroleum produced is organic and renewable C. If the petroleum production will generate greenhouse gases. D. If the petroleum mentioned here will be more or less expensive than ethanol Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 7–10 (“One promising . . . years”) B. Lines 19–21 (“Another . . . for it”) C. Lines 37–40 (“While . . . gasoline”) D. Lines 40–43 (“A couple . . . provide”) What evidence from Passage 1 would the author of Passage 2 most effectively use to support his statement in lines 78–81 (“Certainly . . . now”)? A. Lines 1–4 (“No one . . . eye”) B. Lines 15–19 (“One glucose . . . oil”) C. Lines 21–25 (“Unfortunately . . . prices”) D. Lines 29–32 (“The glycerol . . . biodiesel”) Which statement best summarizes the overall relationship between the two passages? A. Passage 2 and Passage 1 are in direct opposition to each other when it comes to the question of the association of petroleum with greenhouse gas emissions B. Passage 2 explores the association of petroleum with contemporary popular culture far more than does Passage 1 C. While both passages are concerned about petroleum depletion, Passage 1 advocates immediate action and Passage 2 calls for patience D. While both passages are interested in alternative energy solutions, Passage 2 focuses on government funding and Passage 1 focuses on scientific innovation


95

2

Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.

Passage 24-B

Debbie Vasquez

One of middle-school teacher Debbie Vasquez’s

34

34 passions have long been to expose underprivileged -

students to robotics, biochemistry and biophysics, genetics, and marine aquatic biology, topics that schools like Debbie’s, in Washington D.C.’s South East neighborhood rarely teach. Many of Debbie’s

35

35 colleagues, who envy her energy and commitment, -

wish that they possessed as much enthusiasm for teaching 36 as her. Counting on the support of every -

faculty member, then, 37 Debbie’s plans for awakening -

kids’ interest in science consumes every day.

36

She aims to make science not just another subject that kids take in school but something that gets them out of bed in the morning and may someday lead to a career. “I never had the opportunity at that age,” Debbie recalls.

37

“The schools I went to weren’t that great. Furthermore, in middle school I never did a single lab, ever. I never once met a scientist or an engineer until college.” Thanks to Debbie, her kids won’t suffer the same fate. “Not as long as I’m their teacher,” she vows. Now in

38

her fourth year, Debbie teaches STEM-related topics— Science, Technology, Engineering and 38 Math. They -

hold the promise of a wide range of enticing careers in the decades ahead. As they look to the future, U.S. businesses frequently voice concerns over the supply and availability of STEM workers. There are now 26 million STEM-related jobs, and the number is rapidly growing. The U.S. Labor Department 39 anticipates a -

need for only 9.8 million non-STEM workers in 2018.

39

A. NO CHANGE B. passions for a lengthy and extended period of time has been to expose C. passions has long been to expose her D. longtime passions are to expose A. NO CHANGE B. colleagues who envy Debbie’s energy and commitment C. colleagues who envy Debbie’s energy and commitment, D. colleagues, envying Debbie’s energy and commitment A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE like her as she as she possesses

A. NO CHANGE B. every day she is consumed by daily plans for waking up kids’ interest in science C. Debbie’s plans for the waking up of kids’ interest in science consumes every day D. she is consumed every day by plans for awakening kids’ interest in science Which choice most effectively combines the sentences at the underlined text? A. Math, which holds the promise B. Math because they hold the promise C. Math, holding the promises D. Math, and they hold the promise Which choice most accurately conveys data based on the graph? A. NO CHANGE B. reports that between 2000 and 2018 STEM workers will constitute 24.9 percent (i.e., 7.9% + 17% = 24.9%) of America’s work force C. projects a 17.0 percent growth of STEM occupations between 2008 and 2018 D. estimates that the growth rate of non-STEM employees will double between 2010 and 2018


96

2 40 [1] According to Debbie’s account of her -

Passage 24-B 40

employment, the idea of teaching middle school kids 41 simultaneously frightened her. [2] She wondered -

what she could teach them that would make a difference in their lives. [3] Shocked by her students’ attitudes and frustrated by their lack of skills, more often than not during her first months of teaching, she went home in tears. 42 [4] Teachers who feel discouraged often seek -

help from colleagues or administrators, and as she brought STEM-related lessons to her kids 43 it raised the -

level of interest increased, not only because of numerous

41

hands-on activities but because of who she herself was. [5] “I represented new, tangible options,” she says. [6] “I was a role model. 44 [7] I even looked like my -

students and had a similar background. [8] Because of me, what hadn’t been on the kids’ radars before was now

42

becoming accessible in a very real way.” [9] She raised kids’ sights and made them realize that the growth of STEM jobs with higher salaries than they ever imagined was the means to one day lifting themselves out of the ranks of the impoverished and into the middle class and beyond.

43

44

Which choice serves most effectively as the main topic of this paragraph? A. Students thrive and learn more when they are given meaningful, hands-on work to do in the classroom. B. Students benefited not only from Debbie’s lessons but also from her background and experience. C. For low-income students, STEM offers untold opportunities to succeed in the future. D. The promise of high salaries motivates impoverished students to raise their aspirations and work harder. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE initially originally, at the start as it turns out

Which version of the underlined section of sentence 4 maintains the sentence pattern established by the paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. It sometimes takes superhuman effort to turn failure into success C. But gradually, she began to perceive new possibilities D. It is more important to explain new material to a class than to berate them for their behavior A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE it raised their level of interest their interest grew there occurred an increase in the level of interest

For the sake of cohesion of this paragraph, sentence 7 should be A. left as it is. B. combined with sentence 6. C. deleted. D. placed after sentence 9.


97

1 

Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

Passage 25-A

This Side of Paradise

Amory Blaine inherited from his mother every trait, except the stray inexpressible few, that made him worthwhile. His father, an ineffectual, inarticulate man with a taste for Byron and a habit of drowsing over the Encyclopedia Britannica, grew wealthy at thirty through the death of two elder brothers, successful Chicago brokers, and in the first flush of feeling that the world was his, went to Bar Harbor and met Beatrice O’Hara. In consequence, Stephen Blaine handed down to posterity his height of just under six feet and his tendency to waver at crucial moments, these two abstractions appearing in his son Amory. For many years he hovered in the background of his family’s life, an unassertive figure with a face half-obliterated by lifeless, silky hair, continually occupied in “taking care” of his wife, continually harassed by the idea that he didn’t and couldn’t understand her. But Beatrice Blaine! There was a woman! Early pictures taken on her father’s estate at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, or in Rome at the Sacred Heart Convent—an educational extravagance that in her youth was only for the daughters of the exceptionally wealthy—showed the exquisite delicacy of her features, the consummate art and simplicity of her clothes. A brilliant education she had—her youth passed in renaissance glory, she was versed in the latest gossip of the Older Roman Families; known by name as a fabulously wealthy American girl to Cardinal Vitori and Queen Margherita and more subtle celebrities that one must have had some culture even to have heard of. She learned in England to prefer whiskey and soda to wine, and her small talk was broadened in two senses during a winter in Vienna. All in all Beatrice O’Hara absorbed the sort of education that will be quite impossible ever again; a tutelage measured by the number of things and people one could be contemptuous of and charming about; a culture rich in all arts and traditions, barren of all ideas, in the last of those days when the great gardener clipped the inferior roses to produce one perfect bud.

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

In her less important moments she returned to America, met Stephen Blaine and married him—this almost entirely because she was a little bit weary, a little bit sad. Her only child was carried through a tiresome season and brought into the world on a spring day in ninety-six. When Amory was five he was already a delightful companion for her. He was an auburn-haired boy, with great, handsome eyes which he would grow up to in time, a facile imaginative mind and a taste for fancy dress. From his fourth to his tenth year he did the country with his mother in her father’s private car, from Coronado, where his mother became so bored that she had a nervous breakdown in a fashionable hotel, down to Mexico City, where she took a mild, almost epidemic consumption. This trouble pleased her, and later she made use of it as an intrinsic part of her atmosphere—especially after several astounding bracers. So, while more or less fortunate little rich boys were defying governesses on the beach at Newport, or being spanked or tutored or read to from “Do and Dare,” or “Frank on the Mississippi,” Amory was biting acquiescent bell-boys in the Waldorf, outgrowing a natural repugnance to chamber music and symphonies, and deriving a highly specialized education from his mother. “Amory.” “Yes, Beatrice.” (Such a quaint name for his mother; she encouraged it.) “Dear, don’t think of getting out of bed yet. I’ve always suspected that early rising in early life makes one nervous. Clothilde is having your breakfast brought up.” “All right.” “I am feeling very old to-day, Amory,” she (90) would sigh, her face a rare cameo of pathos, her voice exquisitely modulated, her hands as facile as Bernhardt’s. “My nerves are on edge—on edge. We must leave this terrifying place to-morrow and go searching for (95) sunshine.” Amory’s penetrating green eyes would look out through tangled hair at his mother. Even at this age he had no illusions about her.


1 1

2

3

4

5

Beatrice is best characterized as A. privileged and eccentric. B. mean-spirited and haughty. C. wealthy and industrious. D. misanthropic and itinerant.

Lines 1–3 (“Amory . . . while”) most strongly suggest that A. Amory and his mother share many unfavorable qualities. B. Amory’s best characteristics came from his mother. C. Amory’s great intellect and personality came from his father. D. Amory has a striking interest in genetics.

98

Passage 25-A

6

7

8

The style of the second paragraph (lines 22–49) is generally A. educational and morose. B. intellectual and nebulous. C. idealistic and optimistic. D. emphatic and descriptive.

9

As used in line 31, the word “passed” most closely means A. spent. B. gave up. C. tossed. D. agreed.

10

The passage implies that Beatrice married Stephen for what reason? A. True love B. Because she settled C. Because she was forced D. Because of vengeance

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 3–10 (“His father . . . O’Hara”) B. Lines 15–21 (“For many . . . her”) C. Lines 50–53 (“In her . . . sad”) D. Lines 84–87 (“Dear . . . up”)

Amory’s upbringing and education can best be described as A. demanding. B. scholarly. C. exhausting. D. unique.

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 15–21 (“For . . . her”) B. Lines 41–49 (“All in . . . bud”) C. Lines 72–80 (“So . . . mother”) D. Lines 84–87 (“Dear . . . up”)

As used in line 63, the word “did” most closely means A. made. B. traveled. C. caused. D. organized.

Amory’s relationship with his mother is A. traditionally pious. B. unusually friendly. C. blatantly disrespectful. D. cold and distant.


99

2 Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.

Passage 25-B

Radiation on Mars

As Mars-bound rockets are still being tested, NASA,

1

along with the space agencies of other countries, -1 have -

continued to evaluate risks of manned missions to the Red Planet, including radiation exposure and the effects of microgravity, -2 the risks of which we don’t yet fully -

2

understand, although -3 it’s a slam dunk that when left -

untreated they can adversely affect health. -4 To be sure, -

harmful radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles can easily penetrate typical shielding.

3

With regard to gravity, we don’t know precisely how much gravity is needed to avoid the potential problem of too little. However, of the two planets, Mars and the Earth, the

4

latter has -5 the strongest gravity by far—66 percent to be -

exact—and six times stronger than the Moon. Mars also has readily available resources such as water and its roughly 24-hour day/night cycle is closer to the Earth’s than that of any other planet or moon. -6 The risk from -

radiation is visualized more easily when compared to other risks.

5

6

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE continued continues will continue

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE that we don’t yet fully understand the risk of a risk not yet fully understood by us risks we don’t yet fully understand,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE it is a near certainty it’s a veracity you can depend on it

The writer wants to develop the paragraph with evidence about the risk to health posed by radiation. Which choice best accomplishes this goal? A. NO CHANGE B. Recently, in fact, space researchers, using a Cosmic Ray Telescope, have documented, quantified, and correlated the impact of radiation on human health. C. Clearly, the environment of space poses significant risks to both humans and satellites. D. Indeed, the relationship between exposure to radiation and the menace of cancer has long been known. A. NO CHANGE B. the stronger gravity by far—66 percent higher to be exact—and six times stronger than the Moon C. the stronger gravity by far—66 percent stronger to be exact—and six times stronger than that of the Moon D. the strongest gravity by far—66 percent higher to be exact—and six times stronger than the Moon’s For the sake of paragraph cohesion, what is the best thing to do with this sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. Change it from passive to active voice and leave it where it is. C. Delete it. D. Delete as many words as possible and combine it with the next sentence.


100

2 The world’s space agencies have put in place

Passage 25-B 7

radiation exposure limits for astronauts over their careers. -7

-

At Mars, the risk can be managed by monitoring each

crew member’s radiation exposure and limiting the surface exploration time of those most at risk. The limits depend

8

on the sex and the age of the astronaut, and are designed to keep the risk of radiation-induced fatal cancer below 3 percent. Based on a report by the National Council on Radiation Protections, -8 for females under 30, the threat -

of radiation exposure virtually exceeds the maximum allowable for their lifetime. Lines show resulting exposure for crew members arriving on Mars at age 35 and spending an average of two hours per day outside a habitat built on the planet.

9

But in the end, why are we even considering such a journey? In a word: life. -9 To go there to see if we can find -

evidence of life, a second genesis, and if we don’t find it, we want to establish new life on Mars— -10 our own. But -

10

here is the thing: for the first time in history a species on Earth has the knowledge and technology to ensure its own survival on new worlds. For many enthusiasts it is an escape, a chance for a new start and the challenge of a lifetime. This is the broad-brush view of why we need to go to Mars, but on a more personal level, what is it that drives people to want to go to such places, so far away, so hostile to life? -11

-

Lines show resulting exposure for crew members arriving on Mars at age 35 and spending an average of two hours per day outside a habitat built on the planet.

11

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE In Mars risks are managed The risks on Mars can be managed Managing risks on Mars is

Which choice completes the sentence with accurate data drawn from the graph? A. NO CHANGE B. limits of allowable exposure for females between 35 and 45, increase at approximately the same rate as the limits for men of the same age. C. limits of cumulative exposure for men age 45 and older increase at a rate that is slower than that for women age 45 and older. D. all other conditions being equal, it is more harmful for men than it is for women to be exposed to radiation. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE We want to go there Going there It is to go there

A. NO CHANGE B. our own. And here is the clincher: for the first time in history a species on Earth has C. our own, and furthermore, for the very first time in the history of our species on Earth, we have D. our own, and for the first time in history our species on Earth have The writer wants to conclude the passage by answering the question with a sentence that emphasizes the romantic lure of space travel and settling on Mars in spite of the risks involved. Which choice would best accomplish that goal? A. The answer is that Mars is a new frontier. B. The answer is that, while Mars is not for everyone, our planet is teeming with men and women who burn with desire to take chances in the interest of science. C. The answer is that humans like challenges that test their knowledge, resourcefulness, and abilities. D. The answer is that the risks of radiation are no worse than the everyday risks we face here on earth—such as smoke that causes lung cancer.


1

101

Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

Passage 26-A

What’s Not to “Like”? Eliza Jennings is excited to be a part of her to ban all social networking. For some, company’s first ever community event. the unique ability of social media to market company services and extend company reputation Come get your face painted and try Zing— 60) is indispensable. Many startup businesses the new eight-hour energy shot! #zing find that they simply cannot compete #LawrenceCoFieldDay #lovemyjob without a social media page to deliver their Tom Willis has a position open for administrative mission and broaden their contacts. It can secretary—2 years of experience simply be the best tool available for advertising, preferred. Message with any inquiries. 65) marketing, expansion, and customer Sherry Swanson needs help with the new feedback. Likewise, it provides an unrivaled software program. Alert: Technophobia! Can medium for market research. anybody explain? Networking expansion isn’t the only plus. If the eruption of smart phones has been While it is possible that social media could the vanguard of anything, it is the near 70) create discord, it is just as likely to promote societal takeover of social media. Within the collaboration and solidarity within company workplace, most supervisors quickly block culture. Never before has it been as sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram easy for colleagues to link up, interact, and from company computers, and for good reason. initiate friendships. The benefits of having Productivity is likely to decrease if three 75) employees who know one another and hours of an eight-hour workday are spent develop respect for one another are endless. “liking” and “tweeting” and “pinning.” Then A congenial icebreaker, Facebook and Twitter there is company bad-mouthing to consider. pages are known for bringing together former In the digital age, nothing one says or does strangers and allowing acquaintances to realize or records online is private—nothing. It takes 80) similar interests. A corporate culture that only a few incidents to realize that a social embraces affinity and breaks down barriers media page is not the best place to post one’s to allow open and constructive discussion is aggravation with company policies, to share in a far better situation than one that doesn’t. confidential business plans, or to announce Surprisingly, social media has also been one’s forthcoming resignation. And with 85) connected to better company retention. even the most responsible staff, there is the Some technologically savvy employers have heightened possibility of viruses or hacking. created company pages where staff can make Simply put, many employers decide the cons announcements, share ideas, discuss problems, outweigh the pros. and congratulate one another on excellent Many of these same administrative boards 90) work. The page becomes a space where agree that social media outside of work is colleagues can support one another, but also just as harmful and make addendums to where the company itself can show appreciation. employee contracts outlawing all mention Feelings of openness, teamwork, and of work and/or colleagues via online social apt recognition keep good workers happy outlets. Other jobs go farther, demanding that one’s social media personalities align 95) and in their positions longer. More so, some offices report that employees who use social with the corporate values maintained in the media are actually more productive, with workplace. One may face disciplinary action occasional tweets and status updates providing and even termination if a page appears indecent a much-needed break in an otherwise or offensive. Still, when bringing in new 100) monotonous workday. hires, employers violate their own embargo Social media in the workplace has gotten and check out prospective employees’ pages, a bad rap; in many ways, it deserves it. But quickly disqualifying applicants who may the role it can play—when embraced appropriately— not seem to fit the company culture. Social in networking, collaboration, and media has certainly altered today’s workforce, 105) retention proves that it isn’t as simple as that. and many would argue that the change Like any new and rapidly changing technology, hasn’t been for the best. it will take time and adaptability for its Yet, the examples above paint another advantages and pitfalls to be clear. The smart picture—one where the workforce is actually company will find it necessary to consider improved by the open communication, wider 110) the implications social media presents for its network, free advertising, and increased future—is it really something that can just be accessibility of social media. In fact, there are ignored or banned altogether? many reasons why an employer should hesitate


102

1 Percentages of members of each demographic group who use social networking sites in 2014.

16

17

11

12

13

14

15

Which of the following statements best expresses the thesis of the passage? A. Social media has already proven to be one of the most valuable workplace tools. B. Social media should not be disregarded as a potentially valuable tool in the workplace. C. The risks of social media are far too great to allow it in the workplace. D. Employees should be able to decide for themselves how to best use social media while working. Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 12–21 (“If the . . . consider”) B. Lines 33–43 (“Many . . . offensive”) C. Lines 90–100 (“The page . . . workday”) D. Lines 101–112 (“Social . . . altogether”)

18

19

20

The structure of the essay is best described as a/an A. analysis of the pros and cons of an issue. B. argument in favor of a change from the mainstream. C. critique of the latest media research on a topic. D. a series of interesting anecdotes. The most likely purpose of lines 1–11 is to A. introduce the thesis of the essay by giving three major points to be analyzed going forth. B. hook the reader’s interest with concrete examples illustrating the applicability of the passage’s topic. C. connect to the sentence that follows by providing instances of common smart phone language. D. draw upon the author’s personal experiences to connect with similar experiences of the readers. Lines 51–55 (“Yet . . . media”) primarily function to A. digress from the theme of the passage. B. challenge the argument that follows. C. explain how certain social media companies came to dominate the marketplace. D. provide a major transition.

21

Passage 26-A

The passage suggests that what type of business would most likely benefit from utilizing social media? A. A large, expanding business B. A well-established business C. A small, growing business D. A mid-sized, industrial business Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 23–28 (“It takes . . . resignation”) B. Lines 33–41 (“Many of . . . workplace”) C. Lines 51–57 (“Yet . . . networking”) D. Lines 60–63 (“Many . . . contacts”) As used in line 67, the word “medium” most closely means A. best. B. means. C. middle. D. standard. As used in line 90, the word “space” most closely means A. area. B. dimension. C. clearing. D. separation. Based on the information in the table, a randomly selected person with which of the following characteristics would be most likely to use a social network website? A. A 45-year-old man who has an advanced graduate degree. B. A 35-year-old man who has a master’s degree in engineering. C. A 25-year-old woman who left college without completing her degree. D. A 15-year-old girl who is a sophomore in high school. What statement, if true, would best connect to the information in the graph to explain what the passage states about startup businesses in lines 60–66 (“Many startup . . . feedback”)? A. Those in the age group 18–29 are by far the most likely to be interested in the products of startup businesses. B. As more consumers use social media sites, they develop “ad blindness,” tuning out informational appeals that distract from their primary focus. C. Startup businesses typically have more young people as part of their workforce. D. Venture capital investors are interested in reviewing detailed financial statements of startups before making initial investments.


103

2 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage.

-12 -

Passage 26-B

The Beatles

How to explain the popularity of the Beatles, a

12

group that broke up officially in 1970 in the 21st century? The Beatles break up was marked with rancor and resentment between Paul McCartney and -13 John Lennon. -

Lawsuits were filed and legal matters dragged out for years, during which time the principals hardly communicated. [1] This sour end to the most popular music group of all time has not cooled the ardor of their fans. [2] Beatle

13

fanatics continue to make pilgrimages to iconic Liverpool and London locations to experience the landmarks of Beatles history. [3] Go to any Paul McCartney or Ringo concert and you’ll see fans of all generations, not just aging baby boomers. [4] Many of these fans continue to gather at annual Beatles fests in America and Liverpool to pay -14

-

14

loyalty to their favorite band. [5] This is the most

powerful testament to the enduring legacy of the Beatles. [6] As the magical melodies travel from generation to generation, you can be assured that the Beatles will remain

15

as relevant today as they were in those halcyon days of 1963–70. -15

-

Although the group’s musical innovations are often

cited to account for -16 their continued popularity, -

inventiveness alone cannot be the whole story. Some

16

observers insist they gain their importance in the history of music because of their refreshing humor. Of the popular rock artists -17 prior to the Beatles; they came across as dull, -

including the Beach Boys, and the Four Seasons. Even Elvis Presley and the Rolling Stones, when compared to the Beatles, lacked humor and insightfulness.

17

A. NO CHANGE B. When they officially broke up in 1970, can the popularity of the Beatles be explained in the 21st century? C. Although they broke up in 1970 officially, in the 21st century can the Beatles’ popularity be explained? D. Can the popularity of the Beatles, a group that broke up officially in 1970, be explained in the 21st century? A. NO CHANGE B. John Lennon. They filed lawsuits and legal matters were dragged out C. John Lennon and lawsuits were filed and legal matters dragged out D. John Lennon, who filed lawsuits and their legal matters dragged out A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE homage kudos servility

For the sake of the cohesion of this paragraph, sentence 5 should be placed A. where it is now. B. before sentence 1. C. after sentence 3. D. after sentence 6. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE its enduring notoriety its uninterrupted popularity their interminable popularity

A. NO CHANGE B. prior to the Beatles, the Beach Boys and the Four Seasons came across as dull. C. prior to the Beatles, they came across as dull, including the Beach Boys and the Four Seasons. D. prior to the Beatles, like the Beach Boys, and the Four Seasons, they all came across as dull.


104

2

So where did their humor come from? One theory says

Passage 26-B 18

that it was a natural coping mechanism of residents who used to rely on humor to relieve the hardships they experienced in Liverpool, England, their post-World War II

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE regularly made jokes about their city: are accustomed to making jokes about the city. got into the regular habit of joking about their city;

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE they had a natural bond between them their bond being natural between them the natural bond between them

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE a higher amount than any song more than the sales of any other song the highest number of any group

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE In comparison At the same time As a matter of fact

blue-collar hometown. Liverpudlians, as the natives are called, -18 even make jokes about their city!

19

-

Why does the River Mersey run through Liverpool? Because it doesn’t want to get mugged. Their wit got a boost, too, from the screenwriter of their first movie, A Hard Day’s Night, who, in crafting the movie script, drew upon

20

their sense of humor, their manner of talking, and -19 they -

had like a natural bond between them. Humorous quips, especially cutting ones from John Lennon, became their standard manner of speaking in public.

21

When the Beatles were about to debut on American television in 1964, “I Want to Hold Your Hand” had already sold a million copies -20 a larger number than any group. -

-21

-

Consequently, arriving at the airport in New York, -22 an -

avalanche of reporters greeted the group. That there were many reporters there to skewer these longhaired interlopers was not a delusion. As one CBS News commentator said, “They symbolize the 20th century non-hero as they make non-music, wearing nonhaircuts, give non-mercy.” Luckily for the Beatles, their wit won over the American media— and helped ensure that we’d still be celebrating them more than a half century later.

22

A. NO CHANGE B. a large amount of reporters greeted the group C. the group was greeted by an avalanche of reporters D. reporters in great numbers greeted the group


105

1

Passage 27-A

Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage.

Vaccinations

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

60)

Passage 1 Smoking tobacco causes cancer. It causes small cell and squamous cell cancers of the lung, as well as oral and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastrointestinal carcinoma, and cancers of half a dozen additional tissues. It is highly correlated with the second leading cause of death in the United States, and the decision to not smoke reduces one’s risk of lung cancer by more than half. This information will surprise no one. It is, therefore, baffling that 1 in 5 Americans continues to use tobacco. Yet there is one behavior on the rise that is still more contrary to human health than smoking—and perhaps more inexplicable as well, as it cannot be explained away by chemical dependence, nor by social custom. I speak, of course, of the decision to not vaccinate one’s children. There is apparently a belief among these erring individuals that the ailments against which the Centers for Disease Control recommends we vaccinate are somehow less serious than we, as a society, have been led to believe. There is a belief, moreover, that because these diseases are easily preventable through modern medical science, they must, implicitly, be easily treatable as well. Let us clarify this matter. Not long before it was eradicated by vaccination, smallpox virus erased entire cultures on two continents, where fatality rates rose as high as 90%. For those who survived, it was a cause of permanent, often debilitating disfigurement. Prior to the HiB and DTaP vaccines, epiglottitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, and diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium diptheriae were both exceedingly common causes of death in young children, largely because of their tendency to develop rapidly and obstruct the airway. Death typically occurs well before medical attention can be accessed, and thus, in spite of all our modern medical advances, these diseases remain just as dire as they were two hundred years earlier. We could continue this list. In the past, for instance, rubella was the most common cause of congenital deafness, and mumps a major cause of sterility. Children who survived the measles, meanwhile, ran and still run the risk of the virus reemerging years later as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a frequently fatal infection of the brain. The point, however, is clear. Vaccination is neither a conspiracy, nor merely a matter of modern convenience; nor is it entirely without risk. But vaccination, plainly put, is the only effective medical intervention to safeguard our children from some of the deadliest and most virulent diseases known to man.

Passage 2 Let us dispense entirely with the fallacies and the delusions; there is not an analytically credible source on the planet that will defend a link between vaccines and autism spectrum 65) disorder. But for many conscientious parents who choose not to vaccinate their children, the decision is based not on delusion, but upon a simple, mathematical reality. Philosophically, medicine is premised on a 70) balance between beneficence, and nonmaleficence. That is to say, for a medical intervention to be deemed ethical and appropriate, the risks of not treating an individual must always outweigh the risks inherent in the 75) treatment itself. Risk accompanies every medical intervention, and vaccination is no exception. Specifically, in a certain subset of individuals, exposure to either the gelatin or egg protein components used to stabilize 80) vaccines can result in a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. Additionally, so-called “live-attenuated vaccines”, including those for varicella, rotavirus, and MMR, contain living strains of their corresponding pathogens 85) that, through genetic modification, have been rendered pathologically inert. Rarely, these attenuated strains may undergo mutation, and revert back to their pathogenic forms. Immunocompromised individuals, 90) such as those infected with HIV, are particularly at risk for this dangerous outcome. While it is true that adverse vaccine events are uncommon, it is equally true that, within the American population, most 95) diseases against which vaccinations protect are uncommon—more uncommon, in fact, than the incidence of adverse vaccine events. Thus, so long as the majority of the American population remains vaccinated, an unvaccinated 100) individual will be well-protected through a phenomenon described as “herd immunity.” The decision not to vaccinate, therefore, hangs upon an appreciation of the dynamic balance between beneficence and 105) nonmaleficence as it pertains to the individual. While some may argue that taking advantage of such a strategy violates an ethical obligation to society, one cannot help but wonder: when presented with the numbers, 110) will these individuals truly value the health of society above that of their children? Their math, I would wager, just doesn’t add up.


1 22

23

24

25

26

106

With respect to the author’s argument as a whole, lines 1–12 (“Smoking . . . tobacco”) most strongly serve to A. show the obvious absurdity of a personal decision to set up the argument that follows. B. highlight the primary topic of the essay. C. provide key statistics on both tobacco and vaccination research . D. illustrate the irrationality of widespread tobacco use given the latest scientific research.

Passage 27-A

27

28

The primary purpose of lines 19–27 (“There is . . . as well”) is to A. cite scholarly evidence in support of the author’s thesis. B. present the alternative views that the author will later dissect. C. underscore the author’s fundamental respect for opposing viewpoints. D. give a vital clarification to the author’s argument.

As used in line 30, the word “erased” most closely means A. transported. B. eliminated. C. fought. D. affected. The author of Passage 2 would most likely agree that an unvaccinated individual would be most likely to survive A. under no circumstances. B. if he or she took preventative measures based on alternative medicine. C. if he or she were careful to remain immunocompromised. D. in a society where virtually everyone else is vaccinated. Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 61–65 (“Let us . . . disorder”) B. Lines 77–81 (“Specifically . . . reaction”) C. Lines 87–91 (“Rarely . . . outcome”) D. Lines 98–102 (“Thus . . . immunity”)

29

30

31

As used in line 61, the phrase “dispense entirely with” most closely means A. fundamentally understand. B. physically remove. C. somewhat ignore. D. do away with.

What is the overall relationship between the two passages? A. Passage 1 strongly disagrees with the tolerance of non-vaccination in Passage 2. B. Passage 1 uses a more scientific approach while Passage 2 is more mathematical. C. Passage 2 advocates careful cost-benefit analysis while Passage 1 advocates decisive policies. D. Passage 2 attempts to explain a phenomenon that Passage 1 deems inexplicable.

The author of Passage 2 would most likely respond to the final sentence of Passage 1 (lines 57–60) by stating that it A. contradicts widespread thinking. B. needs an important qualification. C. is overly influenced by popular opinion. D. is insufficiently paranoid.

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 65–68 (“But for . . . reality”) B. Lines 71–75 (“That is . . . itself”) C. Lines 81–86 (“Additionally . . . inert”) D. Lines 92–97 (“While it . . . events”)

The respective attitudes of the authors of Passage 1 and Passage 2 toward parents who choose not to vaccinate their children are best described as A. hatred and appreciation. B. forgiveness and intolerance. C. loathing and gratitude. D. contempt and understanding.


107

2 Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.

Delivering Little Boy

At approximately 2:00 A.M. on August 6, 1945, a modified American B-29 Superfortress bomber named the Enola Gay left the island of Tinian for Hiroshima, Japan. Piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets, commanding officer of the 509th Composite Group, who named the bomber after his mother, -23 flew the four-engine plane followed by two observation planes carrying cameras and scientific instruments. One of seven aircraft making the trip to Hiroshima, only the Enola Gay carried a bomb nicknamed “Little Boy”—a bomb that was expected to -24 lay waste to almost everything within a 3 square-mile area of the city. Measuring over 10 feet long and almost 30 inches across, it weighed close to 5 tons and had the explosive force of 20,000 tons of TNT. -

23

24

-

[1]The Enola Gay’s weaponeer, Navy Captain Deak Parsons, was concerned about taking off with the bomb fully assembled and live. [2] Some heavily loaded B-29s had crashed on takeoff from Tinian. [3] If that happened to the Enola Gay, the bomb might explode and wipe out half the island. [4] Thus, Parsons, assisted by Lt. Morris Jeppson, finished the assembly and armed the bomb after takeoff. -25 [5] Carrying an atomic bomb for the first time, the crew had to be careful.

25

26

-26 Four hours into the flight, it was 6:00 A.M., and that was when the bomb was fully armed, and then Tibbets announced to the crew that the plane was carrying the world’s first atomic bomb. Close to 7:00 A.M., the Japanese radar net detected aircraft heading toward Japan, and an alert -27 is broadcasted throughout the Hiroshima area. Soon afterward, a weather plane circled over the city but found no sign of bombers. The citizenry of Hiroshima, -28 consequently, began their daily routine and thought the danger had passed. At 7:25, the Enola Gay approached Hiroshima at 26,000 feet. By 8:00, Japanese radar again detected B-29s heading toward the city. Although radio stations broadcast additional warnings for people to take shelter, -29 but many ignored it and continue as before to carry out business as usual. At 8:09, the crew of the Enola Gay could see the city appear below and received a message indicating that the weather was good over Hiroshima. -

27

28

-

-

Passage 27-B

29

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE the four-engine plane was followed by flew the four-engine plane. It was followed by the four-engine plane and he was followed

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE decompose cripple trash

Which choice describes the most effective placement in the paragraph of sentence 5, the paragraph’s topic sentence? A. After sentence 2 B. After sentence 3 C. After sentence 4 D. None of the above; delete it A. NO CHANGE B. Four hours after take-off at 6:00 A.M., the bomb was fully armed and Tibbets C. At 6:00 A.M., four hours into the flight, and the bomb was fully armed and that was when Tibbets D. By 6:00 A.M. the bomb was fully armed, and Tibbets A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE was broadcast has been broadcast had been broadcasted

A. NO CHANGE B. in consequence, therefore, began its daily routine C. therefore, began its daily routine D. began their daily routine A. NO CHANGE B. but many citizens ignored the warnings and continued to carry out their C. many ignored them and continued to carry out their D. many of them were ignored and they conducted


108

2 A T-shaped bridge at the junction of the Honkawa

30

and Motoyasu rivers near downtown Hiroshima was the target. -30 The aircraft arrived over the target area at 8:15 –

A.M. Upon seeing the target in the bomb sight, Little Boy was dropped. It exploded, instantly killing 80,000 to 140,000 people and seriously injuring 100,000 more. The bomb exploded some 1,900 feet above the center of the city, over Shima Surgical Hospital, some 70 yards southeast of the Industrial Promotional Hall (now known as the Atomic Bomb Dome). Crew members of the aircraft saw a column of smoke rising fast, observed intense fires springing up, -31 and a mushroom cloud, which almost -

31

enveloped the observation planes, was noticed, too. The burst temperature, estimated to reach over a million degrees Celsius, ignited the surrounding air, forming a fireball some 840 feet in diameter. Eyewitnesses more than 5 miles away said -32 its brightness exceeded the -

sun’s ten times over. In less than one second, the fireball had expanded to 900 feet. The blast wave shattered

32

windows for a distance of ten miles and was felt as far away as 37 miles. Over two-thirds of Hiroshima’s buildings were demolished. -33 Huge fires by the hundreds, ignited -

by the thermal pulse, produced a firestorm that incinerated everything within 4.4 miles of ground zero. To the crew of the Enola Gay, Hiroshima had disappeared under a thick, churning foam of flames and smoke. The co-pilot, Captain Robert Lewis, commented, “My God, what have we done?”

33

Passage 27-B

In the context, which choice is the best way to combine the two underlined sentences into one? A. The aircraft arrived over the target area at 8:15 A.M., and upon seeing the target in the bomb sight, Little Boy was dropped. B. Overhead at 8:15 A.M., the bridge was seen through in the aircraft’s bomb sight and Little Boy was dropped. C. At 8:15 A.M., viewing the bridge through the aircraft’s bomb sight, Little Boy was dropped. D. Arriving over the bridge and seeing the target in the bomb sight at 8:15 A.M., the crew dropped Little Boy.

A. NO CHANGE B. and noticed a mushroom cloud almost enveloping the observation planes C. and along with a mushroom cloud which almost enveloped the observation planes was noticed D. noticing, too, that the observation planes were being almost enveloped in a mushroom cloud

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE the brightness exceeded the sun tenfold it was over ten times more brighter than the sun the brightness of it exceeded the sun ten times over

A. NO CHANGE B. Huge fires by the hundreds ignited by the thermal pulse produced a firestorm, it incinerated C. Huge fires by the hundreds, ignited by the thermal pulse; and produced a firestorm that incinerated D. Huge fires, by the hundreds, and ignited by the thermal pulse, produced a firestorm that incinerated


109

1

Passage 28-A

Questions 41-52 are based on the following passage.

Searching the Skies

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

In 1950, Enrico Fermi posited the question, “Where is everybody?” when considering the apparent contradiction between high estimates of the likelihood of the existence of extraterrestrial life and mankind’s lack of contact with, or evidence for, such civilizations. Later referred to as the Fermi Paradox, his provocative query was founded on the assumption that since the Sun is quite typical, other Earth-like planets surely exist and have intelligent life, and by now, should have visited or contacted Earth. Extraterrestrial intelligence, or ETI, refers to hypothetical intelligent civilizations that are assumed to exist based on the existence of human intelligence and the vast size of the universe. While popular and scientific opinion on ETI varies greatly—from certainty to skepticism to downright incredulity—the search for alien intelligence is extensive and substantive. Whether you anticipate the stringy worm guys with serious fire power in Men In Black; the eternally wise Jedi Master, Yoda; Stan Winston’s nightmarish predators; or Steven Spielberg’s sweet-loving E.T.; the search for intelligent life outside Earth is on. SETI, or “the search for extraterrestrial intelligence,” is the collective name for activities undertaken to seek intelligent extraterrestrial life, and most recently involves constant monitoring of electromagnetic radiation with radio telescopes in hopes of detecting non-natural radio emissions or other signs of transmissions from civilizations on other worlds. In March 2014, UC Berkeley began an all-sky survey using the Arecibo radio telescope. Although we have been listening for messages since the 1960s, there have also been recent efforts to communicate with and purposely send out our own messages. Active SETI is the attempt to send messages to intelligent extraterrestrial life via radio signals. CETI, on the other hand, is any number of efforts to communicate with ETI that focuses on composing and deciphering messages that, theoretically, could be understood by another technological civilization. And the pursuit of ETI contact is no longer limited to the few and far between. SETILive, launched in February 2012, uses data from the Allen Telescope Array to allow the public to search radio signals themselves. Many astronomers and physicists attribute the renewed efforts to establish contact with alien civilizations to the present-day

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

105)

110)

escalation in the discovery of exoplanets, or planets that orbit a star other than our Sun. According to NASA’s data, as of June 2015, there have been 1,838 confirmed exoplanets, where, just 20 years ago, it seemed that our solar system was destined to be the extent of our planetary discovery. A significant part of that escalation can be attributed to NASA’s Kepler Mission, an unmanned space observatory craft launched in 2009 to find Earth sized and smaller planets orbiting other stars. More than 800 systems like our own solar system with stars and orbiting planets have been identified. So why is it, with a rejuvenated effort to find evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence, that Fermi’s question is still so pertinent? Despite billions of dollars and years of research, SETI has nothing substantial to show for itself. In fact, the closest thing to ETI contact is the Wow! Signal: a strong narrowband radio signal detected in 1977 by Jerry R. Ehman of Ohio State University’s Big Ear radio telescope project. Ehman was able to successfully observe the signal for a 72-second window, circling its non-natural waves and writing “Wow!” next to it—his enthusiasm led to its name, but not to any significant breakthrough. Since 1977, efforts to relocate the signal have failed again and again. The theoretical explanations for Fermi’s paradox differ greatly. Some simply believe that few, if any, other civilizations exist. The Rare Earth Hypothesis suggests that Earth is unique, and so, therefore, is intelligent life. Others theorize that intelligent life has a tendency of destroying itself quickly; they hypothesize that self-annihilation occurs before contact can be made. On the other hand, many postulate that ETI’s do exist, but we see no evidence for a variety of reasons. Perhaps we are too far apart in space or time. Perhaps humans, a relatively new species, haven’t searched long enough. Or maybe we aren’t listening properly. What if our distant neighbors are using different frequencies? Regardless of how certain or uncertain you are that extraterrestrial intelligent life exists, the venture to solve Fermi’s Paradox is prevailing, and many believe the stakes are high. Some argue that the enormous expense involved in such projects is only surpassed by the futility of seeking aliens when we have had decades without success; but, others counter that the discovery of 1,838 exoplanets is hardly unsuccessful.


1

110

Passage 28-A 47

48 42

43

44

45

46

What is the purpose of this passage? A. To advocate for a particular course of technological action B. To survey various attempts to resolve a scientific dilemma C. To detail the established consensus on an interesting problem D. To consider alternative approaches to a social issue According to the passage, the general scientific attitude toward the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence is best described as A. deeply passionate and mostly certain. B. quite interested but currently unsettled. C. somewhat pessimistic and rather fearful. D. fundamentally skeptical but always dogmatic.

49

50

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 1–7 (“In 1950 . . . civilizations”) B. Lines 16–20 (“While . . . substantive”) C. Lines 21–26 (“Whether . . . on”) D. Lines 38–41 (“Although . . . messages”) Which of the following is the best paraphrase of the Fermi Paradox (line 7)? A. “It seems reasonable that there should be extraterrestrial intelligence, so why haven’t we found it?” B. “It is contradictory that there is both concrete evidence in favor of alien life and direct evidence against their existence.” C. “It is clear that aliens have made contact, so why won’t the majority of humanity accept this obvious truth?” D. “The universe is so old and large that there should be extraterrestrial intelligence; why won’t scientists make an effort to locate it?” As used in line 19, the word “incredulity” most closely means A. curiosity. B. anticipation. C. wisdom. D. disbelief.

51

52

The example in lines 72–83 primarily serves to demonstrate that A. there is decisive evidence in favor of alien life. B. the search for extraterrestrial intelligence has been virtually fruitless. C. scientists are redoubling their efforts to build on Ehman’s discovery. D. astronomers are notable for the enthusiasm with which they conduct their observations. The purpose of lines 99–103 (“Perhaps we . . . frequencies”) is to A. explain why the author is quite pessimistic about the possibility of finding ETI. B. offer suggestions that have not likely been considered by scientists. C. give a recommended course of action to solve a scientific problem. D. elaborate on possible reasons why we have not found evidence of ETI. As used in line 106, the word “venture” most closely means A. endeavor. B. risk. C. business. D. speculation. Based on the trends in the graph and the information in the passage, which of these best represents a logical next step in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence? A. A manned space station that will monitor radio waves B. An analysis of previous extraterrestrial communications C. An exploratory mission to an Earth-like exoplanet D. A space shuttle delivery of an advanced outer-space telescope According to the graph, between the years 2008–2015, the growth in which of these budget components most closely mirrored the growth of NASA’s entire budget? A. Exploration Missions B. Robotic Technology C. Space shuttles/Stations D. Aeronautics Suppose that a scientist wants evidence that would support NASA’s funding decisions with respect to space stations and space shuttles as outlined in the graph. Which option gives the best evidence from the passage? A. Lines 38–41 (“Although . . . messages”) B. Lines 50–53 (“SETILive . . . themselves”) C. Lines 63–70 (“A significant . . . identified”) D. Lines 76–80 (“In fact . . . project”)


111

2

Passage 28-B

Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.

Ari Drummond Although history and the outdoors, including hiking

34

in the mountains and deserts, -34 is Ari Drummond’s -

greatest joy, he hadn’t realized he wanted to be an archaeologist until he was 23 and was nearly finished with a totally unrelated college degree. He pinpoints his decision to be an archaeologist to a single day: Having been traveling overseas for a while and wandering

35

around Izmir, Turkey, -35 a museum of archaeology -

caught his eye. The halls of the museum contained an impressive collection of ancient Greek artifacts, ancient statues, vases, stone carvings, and even long-buried

36

sarcophaguses (coffins). The archaeologist’s job would be -36

-

to pull centuries-old objects like those out of the

ground, and seemed like something he might like to try. By chance, he struck up a conversation with a Mr. Yilmaz, an archaeologist and one of the museum’s curators. They got along -37 very good; so good in fact that Mr. Yilmaz -

37

invited him to lunch next day. -38 He suggested that he –

study archaeology during lunch.

38

A. NO CHANGE B. was Ari Drummond’s greatest joy C. have been what have given Ari Drummond his greatest joy D. were Ari Drummond’s greatest joy

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE his eye caught a museum of archaeology he came across a museum of archaeology an archaeological museum caught his eye

A. NO CHANGE B. having the experience of pulling centuries-old objects like these ones C. experiencing the pulling of ancient, centuriesold objects like those D. to pull those ancient, centuries-old objects

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE very well, so well in fact that very well. So well that very good, so good that

A. NO CHANGE B. He suggested to Ari that he study archaeology at lunch C. As they ate, Mr. Yilmaz suggested that Ari study archaeology D. Mr. Yilmaz made the suggestion to Ari that he should study archaeology at lunch


112

2 Ari followed through. It happens that Indiana Jones

39

movies were the rage at the time. To Ari, Indiana Jones was a role model. The films portrayed the archaeologist’s routine with surprising accuracy. -39 Ari was an avid fan -

of Indiana Jones’ movies. Snakes, especially rattlers, are often an issue in wilderness areas where Ari works. Other dangers include spiders, bears, and stumbling upon back country drug-growing -40 areas while he is out on a -

survey perils such as those don’t deter him. The search for evidence of ancient humans totally -41 will totally

40

-

devour his entire mind and body. Managing an active dig site, he says, is like keeping multiple plates spinning all at once. (#11) He spends most of the time tirelessly digging into the earth and getting completely -42 filthy,

41

-

but there are not frequent discoveries of arrowheads or other objects. 42 For Ari, there’s nothing so thrilling as reaching into the dirt and picking up varieties of stone tools or weapons that human hands have not touched for 800 years or -43 more. Such artifacts link him instantly to -

those ancient people who left them there so long ago. In fact, finding an arrowhead once led Ari to discover a

43

previously unknown Shoshone Indian village in Utah. Archaeologists dig excruciatingly -44 slowly. They -

engage in a methodical process of shaving the ground just a few centimeters at a time so the soil and the artifacts can tell us the story of the past. It’s a destructive science, really, because once the earth is disturbed, it can never be returned exactly as it had been.

44

Passage 28-B

For the sake of paragraph cohesion, which choice is the most effective substitute for the underlined sentence? A. No substitute; delete the sentence from the passage. B. Ari’s hat is never far from his head, and khaki pants are part of his standard uniform. C. The work entails travel to many remote places on the map. D. Despite their education and training, archaeologists usually don’t get rich. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE areas. While he is out on a survey, areas while he is out on a survey, areas, while he is out on a survey

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE has devoured his entire mind and body devours his mind and body will totally devour his mind and body

A. NO CHANGE B. filthy, but he discovers arrowheads and other objects fairly infrequently. C. filthy, and infrequently are arrowheads and other objects discovered. D. filthy, but a discovery of arrowheads or other objects are not frequent. A. NO CHANGE B. more; artifacts that link him instantly to the ancient people who left them C. more. Such artifacts, they are an instant link to the people which left them D. more. These artifacts create an instant link-up with ancient people who have left them For the sake of cohesion, which choice most effectively combines the sentences in the underlined portions? A. slowly, and they engage B. slowly; while digging, they engage C. slowly, but they engage D. slowly, engaging


113

1 Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

Passage 29-A

Finnegan - A short story

David Benson was a timid boy born to parents who had long since stopped worrying about having children. Willie and Louise had three grown girls, the youngest was nineteen and leaving to cosmetology school the year David was born. Louise had suspected an arsenal of health issues before realizing she was with child, and even then, she waited another three weeks to tell her unsuspecting husband. Long ago, when he had just taken over the farm and his body was strong and his dreams were considerable, Willie had wanted a son more than anything else. He had hopes of expanding his property, becoming a rich man, and gaining respect in town—these were all things that never came which he planned to pass on to the son who came far too late. By the time David was born, more than half the farm had been divided and sold, and Willie kept only a handful of hired hands to tend his small share of the land while he drove semi-trucks fifty hours a week to supplement his meager income. David was an oversensitive, misunderstood boy. He learned quickly that his mother was far too tired to love him as she had the girls. His father, often absent, seemed distant and begrudging around David. So it was that David, from the age of four on, often wandered the farm alone, contemplating the burly pigs or collecting berries and nuts or simply doing his best to avoid the sinister silence that was home. When David was ten, he felt that he would have his first adventure. Mr. Harding, an old friend of his father who had a boy just two years older than David, offered to let David stay with them in town. It’d be easier on Louise if she didn’t have to drive the boy to and from school, and David would be happier having Michael to keep him company. David could spend weekends on the farm and help Willie with the chores, of course. For the first time in his life, David felt that whatever he was missing he was sure to find; whatever was the void that lingered about the farm it was sure to disappear in town. But whatever it was that David was looking for, he didn’t find it with the Hardings. Mr.

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

Harding was a boisterous banker who found David’s shyness unbearable. Mrs. Harding was a rather large woman who spent nine tenths of her day cooking and grew solemn when David refused second helpings. And in Michael, David found only a combative stranger who held a singular interest: riding his bicycle around the town square in search of the coveted Sara Ridenour. David had just turned fourteen when walking back from school, he heard the pathetic whimper. The puppy was small—obviously malnourished and feeble—and much too young to be away from its mother. David removed his jacket and coddled the pup against his chest as he walked briskly back to the Hardings rehearsing what he might say. To his surprise, Mr. Harding’s only requests were that David keep the frail animal in his own room and dispose of it once it was either healthy enough to live on its own or dead. These conditions seemed quite fair to David; and day and night, he dedicated himself to restoring the health of Finnegan, the boy’s very first friend. The puppy slept on his chest, suckled milk from a bottle, and moaned softly when David wiped his failing body. In the end, David’s devotion was not nearly enough, and just six days after his rescue, the puppy’s underdeveloped organs failed him. David’s anguish was palpable, and Mrs. Harding, in a rare moment of compassion, suggested that Michael help David bury the poor animal in a proper manner. A half-mile into the woods on the west side of town, Michael dug a hole while David wept inconsolably, clutching the tiny shoebox made coffin. When the hole was plenty deep, Michael, embarrassed, excused himself to allow David a minute alone to dispose of his beloved companion. After fifteen minutes— long after Michael had expected David to trudge back out of the woods, muddy and sobbing—Michael walked annoyingly back to the burial site. He planned on telling David frankly that this was no way to act about a silly dog. Instead, Michael found the hole still empty and David nowhere to be found. Later, the police would make him repeat the story again and again.


1 1

2

3

4

5

Which choice best summarizes the passage? A. A boy is upset over his dog’s death and goes missing. B. Two parents contemplate their regrets and unfilled dreams. C. A misunderstood boy finds purpose and joy only to lose it. D. It illustrates the differences between life on a farm and life in town. The primary purpose of the first sentence of the passage is to A. demonstrate the age difference between David and his siblings. B. scientifically explain how David was genetically predisposed towards having a more introverted personality. C. give a reason for why David went to live with the Harding family. D. give insight into David’s personality and his parents’ state of mind. The passage indicates that when David went to live with the Hardings, he thought Michael was A. helpful and friendly. B. distant and quarrelsome. C. embarrassed and unemotional. D. athletic and observant.

114 6

7

8

9

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 39–42 (“It’d be . . . company”) B. Lines 55–59 (“And in . . . Ridenour”) C. Lines 81–84 (“David’s . . . manner”) D. Lines 85–88 (“A half-mile . . . coffin”) 10 In line 65 “coddled” most nearly means A. spoiled. B. humored. C. cosseted. D. indulged.

Passage 29-A

The primary purpose of paragraphs six and seven (lines 60–84) is to A. demonstrate that Mr. Harding is fair and just. B. provide a justification for David’s “oversensitive” mindset. C. give reasons as to why David is so upset after the puppy’s death. D. show that David initially misjudged Mrs. Harding’s personality. Based on the information in the passage, what is the best description of what David was looking for at the beginning of paragraph 5 (lines 49–59)? A. A home in town B. A new friend C. A prosperous family D. A pet of his own

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 45–48 (“For the . . . town”) B. Lines 49–52 (“But . . . unbearable”) C. Lines 68–71 (“To his . . . dead”) D. Lines 72–75 (“These . . . friend”)

The information in paragraph two most clearly implies that Willie A. is a much better semi-truck driver than a farmer. B. sold too much of his farm to pass any to his family. C. would have accomplished his dreams if David was born earlier. D. has not been successful in expanding the farm’s size.

As used in line 81, the word “palpable” most closely means A. concealed. B. credible. C. noticeable. D. believable.


115

2

Passage 29-B

Questions 1-11 Global Warming The gap between science and public understanding

1

1 prevent action on global warming. This is disheartening -

news in many ways because it makes the prospect of change seem incredibly 2 difficult to some the movement -

needs a more scientific consensus as well as a human heart.

2

Matthew Spiegel, an associate professor of communications at St. Mary’s University, has thought a great deal about ways 3 to inform the public as well as -

talking about global warming in a way that will persuade and convince people that it is a serious problem. He

3

believes that the means of telling people about our rapidly warming planet need improvement. Polls say that 55 percent of America’s adults use television news for information on current events. Knowing that fact, the movement to stop global warming 4 must rely more -

heavily on Fox News, CNN and other broadcasters to

4

persuade the public that the perils of climate change have two main 5 characteristics: they are real should be feared, -

with the emphasis on their reality.

5

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE prevents action on global warming preclude actions on global warming blocks preventative action in behalf of global warming

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE difficult. To some, the movement needs difficult to some. The movement needs difficult to some, the movement needs

A. NO CHANGE B. that persuasively informs the public as to the effects of global warming C. to use information about global warming to persuade D. to keep the public informed about global warming Which choice most accurately states a conclusion that can be drawn from the data shown by the graph? A. NO CHANGE B. Anti-global warming forces can rest assured that organizations devoted to the perils of environmental causes are having great success in convincing the C. public about global warming. D. Anti-global warming forces should push for more science programs on the subject to be shown on television. E. Anti-global warming forces must train more teachers to incorporate lessons in global warming in their classes. A. NO CHANGE B. characteristics: they are real and they should be feared; with C. characteristics. They are real and they should be feared; with D. characteristics: they are real and they should be feared. With


116

2

Spiegel, in order to identify the most effective method to alert the people to the hazards of global warming, has built three different arguments: (1) the customary environmental argument, (2) the national security argument, and (3) the public health argument. Having found 6 indifference in people’s reactions to the environmental consequences, 7 threatening effects of global warming were described in terms of calamitous events eventually striking both national security and public health. Hypothesizing that these arguments would help sway both conservatives and minorities—the demographics most apathetic or hostile to climate change—he was surprised at first by his research results. Both minorities and conservatives paid more attention 8 to public health than national security issues and concerns. Upon reflection, however he recalled that the public health 9 angle had earlier been a useful tool for environmentalists before and was especially effective when combined with tangible events that illustrate the insidious nature of climate change. Back in 1948, in Donora, Pennsylvania, an industrial town, 10 demonstrated the dangers when smog blanketed it. It killed twenty people and sickened six-thousand more. -

Passage 29-B 6

7

-

8

-

-

9

-

11

10

-

The Public’s Trust in Sources of Information About Global Warming How much do you trust or distrust the following as a source of information about global warming? (order of items randomized)

11

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE irrelevancy mediocrity indecency

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE global warming’s long-term effects were described he stressed the effects of global warming he emphasized the threatening long-term effects

A. NO CHANGE B. to public health issues than national security C. to public health than was paid to national security issues and concerns D. to issues of public health than they paid to national security concerns A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE angle has proved to be debate is conflict was once

A. NO CHANGE B. the dangers of climate change were put on display by a blanket of smog C. a blanket of smog heralded its dangers D. provided evidence of the dangers of climate change If placed at the end of the paragraph, which choice would best serve as a conclusion to the paragraph and to the passage as a whole? A. America is becoming increasingly aware of the danger air pollution poses to public health. B. For minority groups, which face unemployment, crime, and discrimination, global warming is not going to be a top-of-the-mind risk unless disaster strikes, C. Spiegel explains, “Once you start telling people with problems that climate change is going to make things in their communities even worse, and the communicators are not environmentalists or scientists but public health officials—now you’ve got a story and a messenger that connects.” D. Such events have spurred passage of legislation like the Clear Air Act, which has played a large part in the reduction of six major air pollutants by 72 percent since its passage.


1

117

Questions 21-30 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

Passage 30-A

Humanity’s Code

A protein is a large, complex macromolecule composed of one or more long chains of amino acids. Proteins are 15–25% nitrogen and an equal amount of oxygen, and are present in and vital to every living cell. They are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs. As a matter of fact, proteins hold together, protect, and provide structure to the body of a multi-celled organism. Furthermore, they are responsible for catalyzing and regulating the body chemistry. Yet, before Frederick Sanger—one of only two people to ever receive two Nobel Prizes in the same category— little was known about proteins and the sequence of their amino acid chains. Frederick Sanger graduated with a doctorate in biochemistry from St. John’s College in 1943, where he had spent three years researching the metabolism of the amino acid lysine. Yet, it wasn’t until his work with insulin that Sanger differentiated himself in the field of chemistry. His first true accomplishment occurred when he successfully determined the complete amino acid sequence of the two polypeptide chains of bovine insulin A and B in the early 1950s. His research proved that proteins have a defined chemical composition, and he ultimately concluded that every protein had a unique sequence. In 1958, Sanger was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for showing how amino acids link together to form insulin, and, therefore, providing the tools for scientists to analyze any protein in the body. Much later, after his retirement, he would describe himself as “just a chap who messed about in a lab.” Four years later, Sanger took a position as the head of the Protein Chemistry Division on the Medical Research Council, where he began to work on the sequencing of ribonucleic acid. He developed methods for separating ribonucleotide fragments generated with specific nucleases which triggered the discovery of formylmethionine tRNA, responsible for initiating protein synthesis in bacteria. Yet his earlier work with insulin helped him to form and deliberate on ideas of how DNA codes for proteins. When

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

he turned to sequencing DNA—the blueprint-like molecule that carries the genetic instructions for all living organisms—Sanger collaborated with Alan Coulson to publish the “Plus and Minus Technique,” a sequencing procedure he developed to determine the order of the chemical bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine which spell out the genetic code for all living things. When he devised a more efficient method for reading the molecular letters that make up the genetic code in 1977, he christened it the “Sanger Method.” The “Sanger Method” allows long stretches of DNA to be rapidly and accurately sequenced, which earned him his second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980. He employed his invention to decipher the sixteen thousand letters of mitochondria. More significantly, this method eventually allowed scientists to decode the three billion letters of the human genetic code, giving science the ability to distinguish between normal and abnormal genes. In the same way, Sanger’s work directly contributed to the development of biotechnology drugs like human growth hormone. In 1986, the celebrated chemist accepted an Order of Merit. Shortly after, he helped open the Sanger Institute outside of Cambridge, which is now one of the world’s largest genomic research centers. Sanger died in November 2013; his obituary documented his supreme modesty in an autobiographical account of himself as “academically not brilliant.” At any rate, Sanger’s research prompted the decoding of the human genome.


1 21

22

23

24

25

118

The organization of the passage is A. somewhat chronological. B. mostly chronological. C. somewhat argumentatively sequenced. D. mostly argumentatively sequenced.

As used in line 5, the word “vital” most closely means A. vibrant. B. essential. C. biological. D. dynamic.

According to the passage, Sanger’s attitude toward his own accomplishments could best be described as A. humiliated. B. humble. C. confident. D. arrogant.

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 12–16 (“Yet . . . chains”) B. Lines 31–35 (“In 1958 . . . body”) C. Lines 73–76 (“In the . . . hormone”) D. Lines 81–85 (“Sanger . . . brilliant”)

Which option could best be cited as evidence in support of the claim that Sanger was confident in the significance of his research? A. Lines 23–27 (“His first . . . 1950s”) B. Lines 39–43 (“Four . . . acid”) C. Lines 60–63 (“When he . . . Method”) D. Lines 73–76 (“In the . . . hormone”)

26

27

28

29

30

Passage 30-A

Sanger’s quote in lines 37–38 (“just . . . lab”) has a tone best described as (A) playful. (B) somber. (C) bombastic. (D) careless. As used in line 67, the word “employed” most closely means A. tried. B. hired. C. created. D. utilized.

The primary purpose of lines 69–76 (“More . . . hormone”) is to A. elaborate on the practical applications of a discovery. B. anticipate and address objections to the author’s thesis. C. explain Sanger’s primary methods of research. D. show the negative side effects of Sanger’s findings. It is most likely that one of the “other” countries that has the most Nobel Prize winners has percentage of the total number of prize winners in what range? A. Between 12% and 33% B. Between 11% and 12% C. Between 6% and 11% D. Between 0% and 6%

What is the probability that a randomly selected Nobel Prize winner from the set of winners from Germany and the United States will be from Germany? A. 33 B. 0.33 C. 11 D. 0.25


119

2

Passage 30-B

Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.

Censorship of Books Censorship of books, along with a number of media

23

rating systems, 23 have been used for years by individuals -

and groups to prevent and control the creation, access, and dissemination of ideas and information. In schools the issue of censorship is potentially 24 volatile because of the -

24

conflicting interests and responsibilities of 25 various -

stakeholders, school boards, librarians, teachers, parents, students, and the community at large may suddenly find themselves embroiled in heated disagreements. Statutes

25

related to public education, however, grant to school boards the right 26 of ultimately making the final decisions -

about which materials may and may not be used in the

26

classroom and which should be made available to students in the school library. When materials are banned, appeals can be made, of

27

course, leading to such legal wrangles as Board of Education vs. Pico, in which the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the banning of books from school libraries because it limits 27 student’s rights to explore and to learn, -

and their enjoyment of reading, too.

28

28 Nevertheless, throughout the country, books are -

regularly being challenged. Individuals or groups deem material inappropriate for young people. Objectionable material is usually cited as the reason. At first, they may request that the material be removed from library shelves, or they insist that it be excised from school curricula. If their initial efforts fail, they may petition higher authorities or rally additional support from the larger community. As a last resort, they may turn to the legal system for help, filing a lawsuit to enjoin the availability of materials they find offensive. 29

-

29

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE is a years-old method used by are a method used for years by for years have served both

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE vociferous varied voluble

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE various stakeholders: school boards various stakeholders school boards various stakeholders; school boards

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE of ultimate decision making regarding to finally make the decisions on to make the final decisions about

A. NO CHANGE B. students rights to explore, to learn, and enjoyment of reading, too C. a student’s right to explore, to learn, and to enjoy reading D. student’s rights to explore, learn, and enjoy reading A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE In that regard Irregardless In contrast

Which choice most effectively establishes the main topic of this paragraph? A. It is difficult to challenge the availability of books or other material because what is objectionable to some people may not be objectionable to others. B. All citizens enjoy the right to challenge the use of objectionable material in the classrooms and libraries of public schools. C. Those who want to keep certain books or other materials away from youngsters protest in a more or less predictable way. D. Challenges to books and other objectionable materials are usually made with the well-being of young people in mind.


120

2 In one infamous case, titles in the Harry Potter series

30

were banned from a school library because of allegations that they “promoted witchcraft and defiance of authority.” Data compiled in recent years by the American Library Association keeps track of the reasons behind challenges to books across the United States. 30

While book challenges are a by-product of life in a free society, banning books, especially in public schools supported by taxpayers, often provokes rigorous objections. Opponents of book banning argue that not everyone on earth is the same, 31 and you do a disservice to young -

people when one prevents them from learning about the

31

values and lifestyles of people other than themselves. At the same time, 32 it’s either naive and foolish to assume -

that school-age youngsters don’t know very much about the world. After all, the vast majority of adolescents have access to digital media, 33 the content of which is as -

provocative than that in most library books. So indeed, young children should be granted the same rights as other

32

citizens, especially because a deprivation of rights could mean diminished chances for them to question and learn.

33

Passage 30-B

Which choice most accurately interprets data found on the graph? A. Challenges on the basis of excessive violence are more likely to succeed than challenges based on racism. B. Foul language has been the leading cause of book challenges, with sexually explicit content close behind. C. A combination of reasons labeled “Other” and “Unsuited to Age Group” make up the third most common cause of book challenges. D. Between 2010 and 2014, most issues failed to attract more than an average 100 challenges per year.

A. NO CHANGE B. by doing a disservice to young people you keep them away from learning C. it is a disservice to young people to prevent or keep them from learning D. and young people are hurt when they are kept from learning

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE it is either naive or foolish its both naive and foolish it is neither naive or foolish

A. NO CHANGE B. whose content is as provocative as most library books C. with more provocative contents than is found within most library books D. the content of which can be more provocative than most library books


121

1

Passage 31-A

Questions 31-41 are based on the following passage.

Passage 1 Atlanta Exposition Speech

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

Our greatest danger is, that in the great leap from slavery to freedom we may overlook the fact that the masses of us are to live by the productions of our hands, and fail to keep in mind that we shall prosper in proportion as we learn to dignify and glorify common labor and put brains and skill into the common occupations of life… No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we must begin and not the top. Nor should we permit our grievances to overshadow our opportunities. To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted, I would repeat what I say to my own race. “Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down among the 8,000,000 Negroes whose habits you know, whose loyalty and love you have tested in days when to have proved treacherous [meant] the ruin of your firesides. […] While doing this you can be sure in the future, as you have been in the past, that you and your families will be surrounded by the most patient, faithful, law-abiding and unresentful people that the world has seen. As we have proven our loyalty to you in the past, in nursing your children, watching by the sick bed of your mothers and fathers, and often following them with tear dimmed eyes to their graves, so in the future in our humble way, we shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach, ready to lay down our lives, if need be, in defense of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil and religious life with yours in a way that shall make the interests of both races one. In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.

Passage 2 Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others 45)

50)

55)

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

… Booker T. Washington arose as essentially the leader not of one race but of two—a compromiser between the South, the North, and the Negro. Naturally the Negroes resented, at first bitterly, signs of compromise which surrendered their civil and political rights, even though this was to be exchanged for larger chances of economic development. The rich and dominating North, however, was not only weary of the race problem, but was investing largely in Southern enterprises, and welcomed any method of peaceful cooperation. Thus, by national opinion, the Negroes began to recognize Mr. Washington’s leadership; and the voice of criticism was hushed. Mr. Washington represents in Negro thought the old attitude of adjustment and submission, but adjustment at such a peculiar time as to make his programme unique. This is an age of unusual economic development, and Mr. Washington’s programme naturally takes an economic cast, becoming a gospel of work and money to such an extent as apparently almost completely to overshadow the higher aims of life. Moreover, this is an age when the more advanced races are coming in closer contact with the less developed races, and the race-feeling is therefore intensified; and Mr. Washington’s programme practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races. Again, in our own land, the reaction from the sentiment of war time has given impetus to race prejudice against Negroes, and Mr. Washington withdraws many of the high demands of Negroes as men and American citizens. In other periods of intensified prejudice all the Negro’s tendency to self-assertion has been called forth; at this period a policy of submission is advocated. […] Mr. Washington distinctly asks that black people give up, at least for the present, three things—First, political power, Second, insistence on civil rights, Third, higher education of Negro youth—and concentrate all their energies on industrial education, the accumulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South.


1 31

32

33

34

35

122

As used in line 8, the word “common” most closely means A. shared. B. public. C. ordinary. D. universal.

Lines 14–17 most precisely refer to A. invaders. B. foreigners. C. immigrants. D. travelers.

36

Passage 2 most strongly suggests that Washington encourages African-Americans to A. fight for universal equality between the races. B. settle for less than they rightfully should. C. ignore economic goals in favor of moral ones. D. deceive others with respect to their true loyalties.

Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 47–51 (“Naturally . . . development”) B. Lines 56–59 (“Thus . . . hushed”) C. Lines 69–73 (“Moreover . . . intensified”) D. Lines 78–84 (“Mr. . . . advocated”)

37 As used in line 66, the word “cast” most closely means A. event. B. constraint. C. throw. D. direction. 38

The general purpose of the paragraph in lines 25–43 is to argue in favor of A. foreign hostility coupled with a strong defense. B. immigration restrictions coupled with educational opportunities. C. national unity coupled with racial separation. D. ethnic loyalty coupled with better care for the sick.

Lines 52–56 most strongly imply that the North was most concerned with A. ethical considerations. B. commercial advancement. C. religious truth. D. geographical awareness.

Passage 31-A

39

40

41

Which sentence best summarizes the relationship between the passages? A. Passage 1 advocates a course of action that Passage 2 expresses as insufficient. B. Passage 1 presents empirical data that Passage 2 attempts to refute. C. Passage 1 argues against the eventual goals laid out in Passage 2. D. Passage 1 is more idealistic while Passage 2 is more pragmatic. Based on the passages, what Washington would most likely define as African-American “compromise,” Dubois would most likely define as A. obedience. B. negotiation. C. treason. D. persistence. Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 14–18 (“To . . . race”) B. Lines 25–29 (“While . . . seen”) C. Lines 44–47 (“Booker . . . Negro”) D. Lines 60–63 (“Mr. . . . unique”) Which selection from Passage 1 gives the most direct response to the last paragraph of Passage 2? A. Lines 8–13 (“No race . . . opportunities”) B. Lines 19–23 (“Cast it . . . firesides”) C. Lines 30–32 (“As we . . . fathers”) D. Lines 40–43 (“In all . . . progress”)


123

2

Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 12 unique novel, Uncle -

12

Tom’s Cabin, was unprecedented for a reading and publishing phenomenon. Soon after it was published in the 1850s the book became a 13 sensation, the work -

became the second best-selling book in America during the nineteenth century. 14 It sold the greatest amount -

13

of copies except the Bible. In a statement nearly as famous as the one Lincoln is 15 supposed to have made -

about the novel—that it started the Civil War—Stowe

14

claimed providential inspiration as the source of Uncle Tom’s Cabin: “I did not write it. God wrote it. I merely recorded His dictation.” 15 Readers throughout the nation, north and south, found themselves 16 deepened by the book in ways -

they had never before experienced. Charles Holbrook, a North Carolina teacher, described his reading experience

16

by confessing in his journal that “the tears rushed into my eyes” when Little Eva died. “I believe it to be the most soul-stirring book I ever read.” 17 Characters took -

17

on a life of their own. Plot and narrative blossomed with almost uncontrollable vitality. It was, in fact, the uncanny ability of Uncle Tom’s Cabin to ensnare readers in the most intimate and compelling concerns of its characters that made Stowe’s book so overwhelmingly popular. Southern editors decried the book, however, for one main 18 reason: its unscrupulous depiction of slave life -

enlisted sympathies on behalf of slaves through imaginative identification —an unfair tactic, it seemed to them, in the polemical war over abolition.

Passage 31-B

18

A. NO CHANGE B. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a unique novel for a reading C. novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin evolved uniquely into an unprecedented reading D. novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin was unprecedented as a reading A. NO CHANGE B. sensation; the work became C. sensation the work became D. sensation, the work had become A. NO CHANGE B. Except for the Bible, it sold the greatest amount of copies C. Only the Bible sold more copies D. The Bible only sold more copies A. NO CHANGE B. suppose to have said C. reportedly to have been made D. allegedly made A. NO CHANGE B. engrossed in the book C. moved by D. enhanced in Which choice combines and improves the underlined sentences most effectively? A. Characters took on a life of their own, and the plot and narrative blossomed with almost uncontrollable vitality. B. As plot and narrative blossomed with almost uncontrollable vitality, the characters took on a life of their own. C. Although the plot and narrative blossomed with almost uncontrollable vitality, the characters took on a life of their own. D. While the characters took on a life of their own, and as plot and narrative blossomed with almost uncontrollable vitality. A. NO CHANGE B. reason; its unscrupulous depiction of slave life, which enlisted C. reason, which was its unscrupulous depiction of slave life, which enlisted D. reason. That being its unscrupulous depiction of slave life, which enlisted


124

2 19 At the height of segregation, the novel helped -

19

provide a literary and social history for the still recent slave past, enduring as a touchstone reading experience for African Americans well into the twentieth century. But one place the novel did not endure was the academy. For much of the twentieth century, Uncle Tom’s Cabin was seen by most literary professionals as a cultural embarrassment. The literary critic, J. W. Ward, wrote “The problem with Uncle Tom’s Cabin is how a book so seemingly artless, so lacking in literary talent, was not only an immediate success but has endured

20

among common readers.” This attitude would not begin to change until 20 the 1980s. During that decade feminist critics -

21

resurrected many overlooked masterpieces of sentimental fiction, hoping to discover an alternative tradition to the male-dominated “American Renaissance.” Ultimately, the novel remains elusive, uncategorizable. Not entirely representative of any particular mode or genre, 21 Stowe wrote a novel that -

was the rarest of literary phenomena: a cultural sensation. Striking a responsive chord in innumerable readers at a flashpoint in history, the novel’s career in the social realm was 22 equally unpredictable as it was -

profound. If Stowe’s remarkable book set unrealistic expectations for subsequent generations about the extent to which fiction might affect social change, it also illustrates the latent, marvelous power of the novel.

22

Passage 31-B

Which choice most effectively establishes the main topic of this paragraph? A. Critics had little use for a book made odious by false emotion and old-fashioned piety. B. The overall meaning of the book changed for U.S. culture as the abolition movement and the Civil War became memories. C. One of the book’s major accomplishments was to encourage empathetic rapport between whites and African Americans. D. Uncle Tom’s Cabin has an ambiguous role in America’s social and literary history. A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE the 1980s. It was during that ten-year decade that the 1980s. Simultaneously, the 1980s, when

A. NO CHANGE B. a rare phenomenon of literature was the result of Stowe’s novel writing: C. the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin was the rarest of literary phenomena: D. the novel writing of a rare literary phenomenon is what Stowe accomplished,

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE both equally unpredictable as well as profound. as unpredictable as it was profound. equally unpredictable as profound.


125

1 Questions 41-52 are based on the following passage.

5)

10)

15)

20)

25)

30)

35)

40)

45)

50)

55)

Passage 32-A

Influenza

It is a pestilence that has harried civilizations since at least the time of Homer. What’s more, it has done so with such routine periodicity that, in our modern age of annual inoculations, the enduring danger of this disease has grown all too easy to take for granted. Influenza owes its name to physicians of the Italian renaissance, who believed it was caused by inauspicious astrological “influences.” Today, of course, we know it to be the result of infection by one of several closely related strains of virus. However, unlike other viruses for which vaccines are available—several of which, through tenacious public health efforts, have been eradicated worldwide—influenza remains a perennial menace, and due to the unique nature of its genome, is unlikely to ever be completely conquered. Traditionally, outbreaks of influenza are classified as either “epidemic,” in which the incidence of the disease increases significantly within a given community, or “pandemic,” in which the incidence increases over a much larger region, such as a continent. While superficially the distinction may seem arbitrary, in fact it reflects two well-delineated facets of the influenza virus replication process. In the Northern hemisphere, “flu season” spans from November to April, and represents an annual recurrence of influenza epidemics among communities situated in this part of the world. Pandemic outbreaks, though not nearly as common, also seem to follow an approximate epidemiological pattern, typically occurring about three times per century. In the 20th century, these outbreaks included Spanish Flu in 1918, Asian Flu in 1957, and Hong Kong Flu in 1968. Of the three, Spanish Flu was by far the most devastating. With an estimated mortality as high as 100 million, its deadliness was on par with that of the infamous Black Plague, which ravaged Eurasia in the Middle Ages. “Antigenic drift” and “antigenic shift” are the two chief processes through which influenza circumvents our adaptive immunity, and are thought to be the causes of epidemic and pandemic influenza, respectively. To understand these two processes, it is necessary to have a working knowledge of the virus itself. There are three known species of influenza virus—influenza A, B, and C—each of which consists of eight segments of RNA contained within a protein capsid, which

60)

65)

70)

75)

80)

85)

90)

95)

100)

105)

110)

in turn is surrounded by a lipid envelope. Collectively, these RNA segments code for eleven proteins; two of which, upon synthesis, are expressed on the envelope’s exterior. These two proteins are known as hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA). In terms of the viral life cycle, HA is responsible for attaching to sugar residues that coat the cells of our respiratory tracts. Once the virus has infected a cell and replicated within its nucleus, NA cleaves these residues, allowing the virus to spread further throughout the body. Because HA and NA are the outermost viral proteins, it is specifically against these two “antigens” that our white blood cells create antibodies. Furthermore, among the diverse strains of influenza, genetically encoded differences exist in the types of HA or NA expressed. This allows scientists to sub-classify strains based on the specific antibodies produced against them. For instance, the H1N1 strain was responsible for both Spanish Flu, as well as the Swine Flu pandemic of 2009, while H5N1 caused the Avian Flu epidemic of 2004. Random point mutation to the genes encoding HA and NA is one way in which these subtypes evolve, and can, moreover, interfere with the efficacy of our antibodies. The aggregation of many point mutations over time is referred to as antigenic drift, and eventually results in renewed vulnerability to viral strains against which an individual was previously immune. Notably, influenza A lacks the ability to proofread and correct its genetic material during replication, and as a result, is prone to a much higher rate of mutation than other species of influenza. For this reason in particular, influenza A is responsible for the vast majority of annual epidemics. To date, 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes have been identified, only a fraction of which are currently infectious to humans. However, because the influenza genome is split into segments, when an animal—a bird, for instance—is co-infected with a strain specific to its species, as well as one capable of infecting humans, the segments may become intermixed during replication in a process called “viral reassortment.” When the genes implicated in reassortment include either HA or NA, antigenic shift occurs, and the resulting viral particles will express novel proteins to which the entire human race is vulnerable.


1

126

The table shows, for each human outbreak of influenza, relevant epidemiological data, and the viral subtype involved.

42

43

44

45

46

47

48 The structure of the passage is best described as a A. broad survey followed by a technical analysis. B. historical overview followed by a logical argument. C. general critique followed by experimental summaries. D. persuasive presentation followed by a research summary.

49

Lines 12–19 (“However . . . conquered”) most strongly suggest that influenza A. will continue to be a threat despite scientific advances. B. can be fully eradicated with sufficient research funding. C. is unique among diseases in the severity of its symptoms. D. has been eliminated as a pervasive threat to humanity.

50

As used in line 21, the word “epidemic” would best describe which of the flu outbreaks in the table? A. 1889 B. 1957 C. 2009 D. 2013

51

Based on the passage, would antigenic drift or antigenic shift result in greater fundamental changes to genetic structure? A. Antigenic drift because it results in increasing vulnerability to viruses B. Antigenic drift because it can easily spread throughout the body C. Antigenic shift because it entails genetic replication D. Antigenic shift because it involves interspecies genome exchange Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 61–65 (“These . . . tracts”) B. Lines 65–69 (“Once . . . body”) C. Lines 83–91 (“Random . . . immune”) D. Lines 101–108 (“However . . . reassortment”)

52

Passage 32-A The primary purpose of the paragraph in lines 83–98 is to A. explain how HA and NA antibodies lead to genetic mutations resulting in flu. B. contrast the process of antigenic drift with that of antigenic shift. C. describe the mechanism whereby a particular flu type becomes quite harmful. D. critically respond to widespread misconceptions about flu vaccines. As used in line 92, the word “ability” most closely means A. aptitude. B. capacity. C. skill. D. talent. Given the data in the table, which of these flu outbreaks most likely resulted in the greatest number of deaths? A. Russian B. Asian C. Hong Kong D. Avian Based on the table and the passage, which flu outbreaks (given by year of occurrence) would most likely result in the human body producing similar chemicals to fight them? A. 1889 and 1957 B. 1918 and 2009 C. 1968 and 2013 D. 2005 and 2013 Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A. Lines 37–45 (“In the . . . Ages”) B. Lines 53–57 (“There are . . . envelope”) C. Lines 78–82 (“For instance . . . 2004”) D. Lines 108–112 (“When . . . vulnerable”) According to the information in the table, which of these options gives the most logical possible reason that the flus of 2005 and 2013 resulted in relatively few cases? A. These strains of flu are transmitted via blood rather than through the more contagious respiratory method. B. Asia, and particularly China, has lower population density than the global norm. C. Those humans infected were more likely to die before they could transmit the disease. D. The reservoir of the human influenza outbreak had birds as its source.


127

2

Passage 32-B

Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.

Good Teachers Of course 34 a good teacher should know their -

34

subject and, within limits, they should know their students. 35 But, also there is another necessary qualification. Good -

teachers are men and women of exceptionally wide and lively intellectual interests. It is useless to think of teaching as a business, like banking or insurance: to learn the necessary 36 quota of rules and facts, to apply them day

35

-

by day as the bank manager applies them, 37 going home -

in the evening and sinking into a routine of reality TV and Spotify, to take pride in being an average citizen, indistinguishable from the dentist and the superintendent

36

of the gas-works—and then hope to stimulate young and active minds. Teachers in schools and colleges must 38 see, think, and understand more better that the -

average man and woman of today’s society.

37

38

A. NO CHANGE B. to be a good teacher, their subject should be known to them C. their subject should be known by a good teacher D. good teachers should know their subject A. NO CHANGE B. But they need other qualifications, too C. On the other hand, another qualification is necessary D. But another qualification is needed A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE amount allotment slew

A. NO CHANGE B. and in the evening going home to sink into a routine of reality C. to go home in the evening and sink into a routine of reality D. then go home for the evening routine sunk into reality A. NO CHANGE B. see more, think more, and understand more than the average C. see more, think more, understand as well or better than the average D. see, think, and understand more compared to the average


128

2

[1] This doesn’t mean that they must have a better command of language and know special 39 subjects, such as Spanish literature is one of them and marine biology would be another. [2] It means that they must become intimately acquainted with the world and the human condition. [3] Much of their careers should be spent widening the horizons of their spirit. [4] And they should also have an enthusiasm for delving into the problems of the mind. [5] And yes, this too—they must even have a keen taste for some of the superficial enjoyments of life— from baseball to blogging. [6] They must partake of the inexhaustible pleasures the sciences, the humanities, and history. 40

Passage 32-B 39

-

40

41 Most people stop growing between thirty and -

forty. They “settle down”—a phrase which implies stagnation—or at the utmost they “coast along,” using their acquired momentum, applying no more energy, and gradually slowing down to a stop. No teachers should dream of doing this. Their job is understanding a large and important area of the world’s activity and achievements and making it viable for the young. 42 Many teachers are apt to prepare work for the next day or for next week, having lost sight of the fact that they should plan their classes for a marking period, a semester, or even a whole year at a time. They should expect to understand more and more of it as the years go by.

41

A. NO CHANGE B. subjects. Spanish literature, for example. Marine biology being another. C. subjects, such as Spanish literature and marine biology D. subjects, and both Spanish literature and marine biology are respected fields of study. For the sake of the paragraph’ s coherence, sentence 5 should be situated A. where it is now. B. after sentence 1. C. after sentence 3. D. after sentence 6.

A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE Besides, most people Meanwhile, most people Furthermore, most people

-

Good teachers are interesting men and women. As such, they will make the work interesting for their students, in just the same way as they talk and write interestingly. Most teaching is done by talking. If a teacher’s mind is full of lively awareness of the world, he’ll never be at a loss for new points of view on matters related to the subject he teaches. Novel illustrations will constantly be suggested to such teachers and they will discard outworn types of argument and find fresh ones. Allusions and reminiscences will brighten their talk and keep their audience 43 from freaking out over the awful feeling that it knows ahead of time exactly what their teacher is going to say next. Teachers often explain the vague by the vivid, the unknown by the known, but even the known—sometimes called common knowledge—may challenge the intellect of some students and create a gap between the teachers and the taught. Indifferent students, therefore, sometimes allege that teachers are insensitive to them, 44 which is difficult to substantiate.

42

43

-

-

44

In order to develop the paragraph effectively, what should be done with the underlined sentence? A. Leave it as it is. B. Break it into two or more short sentences. C. Move it to the beginning of the paragraph. D. Delete it.

A. NO CHANGE B. from freaking out over the awful feeling that they know exactly what their teacher is going to say next C. from the awful feeling that it knows exactly what the teacher will say next D. from suffering the awful feeling that they know exactly what their teacher is about to say A. B. C. D.

NO CHANGE which is difficult to prove but they deny it but the allegation is usually false


Homework


129 Questions 13-21 are based on the following passage. 55

The following excerpt is adapted from a 1985 book on the role of storytelling in human understanding.

Line

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

218

We love to spin yarns, to tell tales, to chronicle events. If we get even a few details about someone, we'll start to connect those details into some kind of narrative about that person. We want any nearby dots to be connected. Effect with no cause, correlation with no causation: we can't assimilate these ideas because they don't have that narrative structure. Our minds want stories, even if those stories need to be twisted and mangled into existence. This is how we give order to the chaotic world around us. Take any messy, complicated historical event, something like the American Civil War: a bloody and long conflict, and hopelessly complex when taken in isolation. Historians and onlookers alike have spent over a century debating the causes, the effects, and the place of this event in the ongoing plot of American history. Neuroscientists have referred to a "need for narrative," both as an explanation for the popularity of fiction and for how people interact with one another. In the grander scheme, the need for narrative may inform the way we understand ourselves. We'll take anything conclusive as long as it's consistent. Personality is one of life's great mysteries. It is too large; it has too many components; it has too many omissions. It changes all the time, from day to day or hour to hour, and there are times that it can seem we've got multiple personalities at once. Because it is too many things to manage, we turn personality into a single narrative, a single "me" or "you.'' I need my friend Jack to be the brainy one; I need my husband to be the comforting one; I need my parents to be my sources of strength. Understanding them as I do, as the stories that they are, I simply forget whenever they do something that doesn't make narrative sense. It makes sense that in the earliest literary and historical texts we have, the main characters are defined by their cardinal attributes. Whether Odysseus is characterized by his bravery, Penelope by her devotion, or Oedipus by his tragic love, these complex characters are made into simpler, more consistent wholes on the strength of narrative. In all eras of history, literature and art have been filled with "characters," whether the symbolic, allegorical characters of the Bible or the subjects of contemporary biographical film. In the early twentieth century, the very notion of "consistent" stories broke down, and characters became less rigidly defined as a result. Suddenly, amid a cultural shift away from religious certainty, one's environment, one's historical era, one's family history could all come to bear on the maze of human personality. Psychologists began to spend entire careers studying human personalities, but for all these changes, the goal was still the same: contain the human experience, find the story that can encapsulate all of human complexity. If the

I

500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

HW - 16 human personality seems more complex, then the method of storytelling needs to be changed accordingly. Our need for narrative will not allow us to abandon storytelling altogether. Because after all that has come before us, and all that will come later, if we're not part of the big story, what are we?

13. As used in line 1, "yarns" most nearly means

A) strings. B) tapestries. . C) narratives . D) tails.

14. The author implies that "nearby dots to be connected" (line 4) are details that

A) are part of the simplicity of the meaning of life. B) do not exist in the real world. C) different personalities understand in different ways. D) may not be connected outside the human mind.

15. The author uses the phrase "twisted and mangled" (line 8) in order to

A) chastise readers for accepting simple solutions. B) show the historical roots of a human response. C) identify why humans prefer certain types of personality. D) underline the need for a particular preference.

16. In context, the reference to the "ongoing plot" (line 15) serves to emphasize the

A) historical interest in conspiracy theories. B) challenge in uncovering historical mysteries. C) perceived relatedness of historical events. D) human talent for creating fictional stories.

17. The phrase "In the grander scheme" (line 18) serves as a transition between a discussion of A) historical events and literary texts. B) a contested theory and scientific certainty. C) a neuroscientist's view and a psychologist's critique. D) a general theory and a specific application.


130

HW - 16

18. Based on information presented in lines 22-26, which of the following would most likely be the title of a study of human personality in the twentieth century?

A) The Tragic Flaw in Human Personality B) Who We Are In Three Easy Steps C) The Mirror and the Labyrinth of Personality D) The Role of the American Civil War in History

19. The author refers to a "cultural shift" (line 46) to help account for

A) the historically consistent understandings of personality. B) psychologists' desires to do away with storytelling. C) a general human distrust of psychological theories. D) the broad historical change in attitudes toward personality.

20. As used in line 51, "contain" most nearly means

A) hold. B) understand. C) imprison. D) restrain.

21. Which of the following best captures the main idea in

lines 56-58 ("Because ... we?")? A) Our historical era is just as important as other past eras. B) People in the future will tell themselves different stories from the ones we tell ourselves. C) History is ultimately very similar to writing fiction or poetry. D) Life as we know it would be much different without the need for narrative.

Reading Drills

I 219


131 Questions 22-33 are based on the following passage. In this passage, a literary critic discusses some of the issues he encountered while researching the life of Jean Toomer (1894-1967), an author from the early to midtwentieth century. Most famous as the author of the seminal book Cane (1923), Toomer was also a deeply private individual, whose views of race were often in conflict with those of others from his time.

Line 5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

220

Though lauded as a central figure in the Harlem Renaissance, Jean Toomer the man has remained a mystery to literary historians. In an article published in The Crisis in 1924, race leader W.E.B. DuBois pointed to the mystery surrounding Toomer: "All of his essays and stories, even when I do not understand them, have their strange flashes of power, their numerous messages and numberless reasons for being." Essayist William Stanley Braithwaite is unreserved in his praise for Toomer's major book, Cane (1921): "Cane is a book of gold and bronze, of dusk and flame, of ecstasy and pain, and Jean Toomer is a bright morning star of a new day of the race in literature." Toomer gained huge accolades from the white literary world as well, and well-known authors such as Sherwood Anderson and Waldo Frank considered him one of their own. But Toomer's full connection to the white world remains a mystery, and critics have begun to wonder whether Toomer is the paragon of racial representation that he was initially represented, by Braithwaite especially, to be. For many black artists in the 1930s and 1940s, Jean Toomer was an inspiration. He helped to broaden the definition of what "race literature" could be. He was not constrained, as many other black authors of the time were, to writing only about race oppression and race conflict. He could incorporate influences from white as well as black artists, and he melded them into an innovative style that mixed poetry, prose, jazz, folklore, and spiritualism. He showed that an African American author didn't have to be defined by his race but could enjoy, and even surpass, the artistic freedom enjoyed by white artists. Furthermore, he was able to cross over the color line to reach white audiences, who, in the 1920s especially, remained widely uninformed about cultural production by African Americans. Still, his relationship to civil rights and the African American community has been difficult to determine. After the success of Cane, Toomer contributed only a few more essays before withdrawing from the literary world altogether. In the 1930s, he had nearly disappeared from the literary scene, and his two marriages, in 1931 and 1934, were interracial, both to white women. Although intermarriage between blacks and whites was still socially vilified at the time, Toomer's attitude toward this social restriction is vague. Toomer himself may not have thought

I

500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

50

55

60

65

70

75

BO

HW - 17 of these marriages as interracial: particularly by the 1940s, Toomer insisted that his race was "American" and by the end of his life, he may have even identified as a white man. These scraps are all historians have. By the 1960s, race activism reached its apex with such figures as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X. Black and white artists alike joined together in the fight that became known as the Civil Rights movement. By that time, however, Jean Toomer W!lS nestled in a deeply private life in Doylestown, Penn., and was not one of the voices in the fight for black equality. By then, and until his death in 1967, Toomer was much more taken with local issues, and his main concern was with his church, the Friend's Society of Quakers, and the high school students whom he taught there. If Toomer's early literary output can be more thoroughly understood than his later personal life, or his later racial identification, it can only be because Toomer himself wanted it to be so. His own sense of race and personality was so complex that he likely did not want to become embroiled in debates that were literally so black and white. In a 1931 essay, Toomer announced that "the old divisions into white, black, brown, red, are outworn in this country. They have had their day. Now is the time of the birth of a new order, a new vision, a new ideal of man." Whether we consider Toomer's view naive or not, there can be no question that he thought himself a part of this "new order." Because Toomer was such a truly great artist, literary historians will always long for more information about his life. Unfortunately, there's little hope more information will emerge, and Jean Toomer the man must remain an inscrutable piece in our understanding of Jean Toomer the artist. Perhaps such inscrutability is good for us, too. We should be wary of the rigid categories that Toomer fought against all his life, and if anything, perhaps Toomer's refusal to fit into these categories can help us to modify our own.

22. The author suggests that Toomer's relationship with the black community has remained a mystery to literary historians (lines 2-3) because A) details of Toomer's later life are insufficient to expiain his personal attitudes. B) • Toomer's fame in literary circles was not acknowledged by white authors. C) Toomer's essays provide inconsistent representations of his views. D) evidence shows that Toomer worked against the Civil Rights movement.


132 23. In lines 3-16, the author's discussion ofToomer's contemporaries and later artists is used to A) show how one particular era viewed the role of race in art. B) give evidence of their views ofToomer's influence on black artists and thinkers. C) provide examples ofToomer's literary mastery and experimentation. D) list the challenges faced by black artists in contemporary society. 24. As used in line 9, "unreserved" most nearly means A) vacant. B) available. C) garrulous. D) complete. 25. The author mentions Waldo Frank and Sherwood Anderson (lines 14-15) as indications of the A) urgency with which Toomer courted a white readership. B) limited supply of published reviews ofToomer's first novel. C) types of influences upon which Toomer drew in writing Cane. D) appeal that Toomer had to both black and white readers. 26. The author most directly supports the statement in lines 21-22 ("For many ... inspiration") by citing A) influences from which Toomer drew inspiration. B) the reception ofToomer's work by contemporary black critics. C) lists ofToomer's most famous published works. D) aspects ofToomer's art that showed a new way. 27. "These scraps" (line 49) most directly refer to evidence that A) gives actual details ofToomer's biography. B) paints a complete picture ofToomer's life. C) frees literary historians to speculate. D) reaffirms the messages found in Toomer's work. 28. In lines 50-53, the author discusses race activism primarily to A) demonstrate that Toomer's racial attitudes were atypical. B) praise the achievements of the Civil Rights movement. C) refer to a major equality movement in American history. D) state that Toomer had no interest in contemporary race relations.

HW - 17

29. The word "taken" (line 57) most directly emphasizes which aspect ofToomer's approach to race issues? A) His disapproval of broad social changes B) His ability to play both sides of an issue C) His focus on smaller matters D) His eagerness to fight for broader causes

30. In lines 61-67, the author emphasizes which point about Toomer? A) His contemporaries disparaged him for his cowering attitude toward social equality B) His attitude toward race was rooted in private and philosophical concerns C) His public attitude toward race differed sharply from his private views D) His commitment to racial equality influenced his political views on race

31. As used in lines 66-67, "black and white" most nearly means A) faintly tinged. B) socially progressive. C) racially complex. D) reductively simple.

32. Which resource, if it existed, would be most helpful for the task described in lines 75-78 ("Unfortunately ... artist")? A) Accurate information about the progress of social equality in the United States B) Toomer's personal diary or autobiography C) Records of household income kept by Toomer's wives D) Statements from later authors about the importance ofToomer's influence

33. The final phrase in lines 80-82("if ... own") primarily emphasizes which of the following points? A) Toomer identified as white at the end of his life to distance himself from Civil Rights. B) Those in the Civil Rights movement were correct to dismiss Toomer as a counterproductive force. C) Toomer had more advanced views than most African American authors from the 1920s. D) Toomer's personal views on race remain complex even in our own day.

Reading Drills

I 221


133

HW - 18

Writing & Language Drill 3 For each question in this section, circle the letter of the best answer from among the choices given. Questions 1-11. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. A Norwegian Struggle

Where is the line between fact and fiction? As an author, if you write about your own experiences but give them to a fictional character, are the experiences truly 0 made up out of thin air? And what about those close to you? If the mother of your main character bears a resemblance to your own mother, where does 8 her responsibility lie? Contemporary Norwegian~ writer. Karl Ove Knausgard. has built a literary phenomenon out of exactly these questions. Knausgard's mammoth autobiographical work, My Struggle, contains over 3000 pages of detailed autobiography, with names and identities the same as those from his own life. His father's struggles with (and eventual death from) alcoholism, the difficulty of his first marriage, all of this and more feature in full, vivid detail in the pages ofKnausgard's work. IfKnausgard's books cannot be referred to as actual libel, they are nonetheless more revealing than many of the book's subjects, especially Knausgard's uncle Gunnar and ex-wife Tonje, deem @appropriate.

e

My Struggle has a clear precedent in the early twentiethcentury masterpiece Jn Search of Lost Time, the multi-volume novel by French author Marcel Proust. The difference there, however, was that while Proust's main character and narrator was named "Marcel," everyone else in the book had been given fictionalized names. Proust's great novel is considered one of the masterpieces of twentieth-century literature and the 0 definition statement on how memory conditions human experience. @The similarities are many between Knausgard's and Proust's work. In contrast to the similarities. however. the differences are telling as well. Knausgard's title comes from, of all places, Adolf Hitler, whose famous and troubling work Mein Kampf is quoted in the Norwegian Min Kamp, or My Struggle. Knausgard's critics wonder 0 with its title why a book that already has the potential to anger and offend many people with its contents should also do so. But Knausgard's success seems to be built on exactly these objections. The fact that he is known as the "Norwegian Proust" and not the "Norwegian Hitler" shows that his borrowing of Hitler's title has already done a good deal to take away the power of Mein Kampf. 0 Moreover, literature has always been rooted in reality, and readers are free to interpret things as the wish. Isn't it possible,

40

I

500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

for example, that Proust's work seems less scandalous to us today because all of the people I]) on which it is based are long dead? And come to think of it, nearly all of Knausgard's readers don't know the flesh-and-blood Gunnar, or Tonje, or Karl Ove any more than they would fictional characters. Knausgard's book has raised vital questions as a result, the most important of which may be, 4D why would he name his book after a horrible dictator's autobiography?


134 1.

Which of the following choices fits most effectively with the style and tone of the first paragraph?

8.

A) NO CHANGE B) your C) you're D) an author's

3.

A) NO CHANGE B) writer Karl Ove Knausgard, has built C) writer, Karl Ove Knausgard has built D) writer Karl Ove Knausgard has built

4.

Which of the choices is best aligned with the ideas presented in the first paragraph? A) NOCHANGE B) the six volumes of which are being released in the United States in 2015 and 2016. C) which has been translated into many languages beyond the original Norwegian. D) which is a special and remarkable work by a great writer.

5.

A) NO CHANGE B) appropriated. C) appropriately. D) appropriations.

6.

A) NO CHANGE B) definitional C) definitive D) definingly

7.

How would these two sentences best be combined?

The best placement for the underlined portion would be: A) where it is now. B) after the word book. C) after the word offend. D) after the word so (and before the period).

A) NOCHANGE B) straight off the dome? C) fiction? D) coming from out of nowhere? 2.

HW - 18

9.

The author is considering deleting the phrase "and not the 'Norwegian Hitler'" from the, preceding sentence. Should the phrase be kept or deleted? A) Kept, because it clarifies information presented in the latter part of the sentence. B) Kept, because the sentence is not grammatically complete otherwise. C) Deleted, because it repeats information stated explicitly elsewhere in the sentence. D) Deleted, because the mention of Adolf Hitler could be offensive to some readers.

10. A) NO CHANGE B) on whom C) on who D) whom

11. Which of the following choices provides the best conclusion to the essay by echoing themes presented in the first paragraph? A) NOCHANGE B) where does life end and fiction begin? C) how a man in his 40s write such a long book? D) can his family and friends ever forgive him?

A) NOCHANGE B) Both the similarities and differences between Knausgard's and Proust's work are telling; however, the differences are that much more so. C) The similarities are many between Knausgard's and Proust's work; nevertheless, the similarities and differences are equally many and just as telling. D) The similarities are many between Knausgard's and Proust's work, but the differences are telling as well.

Writing and Language Drills

I

41


135

HW - 19


136

HW - 19

12. A) NO CHANGE B) existence, but, cite C) existence, cite D) existence, but cite

20. A) NO CHANGE B) He or she is C) Their D) One's

13. All of the following alternatives to the underlined portion would be acceptable EXCEPT:

21. The writers wants to add an introductory clause to this sentence that shows that the Production Designer's job is often underappreciated. Assuming that capitalization and punctuation are adjusted accordingly, which of the following would fit most appropriately here?

A) Nevertheless, B) However, C) Moreover, D) Even so, 14. A) NO CHANGE B) equally we admire C) we're equally admiring D) we have also admired 15. A) NO CHANGE B) director and, the C) director and the D) director, and the 16. A) NO CHANGE B) who made the impossible into the possible, C) an accomplished production designer, D) DELETE the underlined portion. 17. A) NO CHANGE B) those of director C) that of director D) the director's

A) Although many consider a film to be the result of a director's "vision," B) While actors and actresses typically make all the money from a film, C) Like the producer him- or herself, who typically finances the film, D) While the counterpart in the theater is the art director and set designer, 22. The writer is considering ending the sentence at the word impossible and ending the sentence with a period. Should the writer keep the sentence as it is or make the change? A) Keep the sentence as is, because the production designer receives no credit without the phrase. B) Keep the sentence as is, because the sentence changes meaning without this phrase. C) Make the change, because the information presented is presented earlier in the paragraph. D) Make the change, because a sentence should always be made more concise if it is grammatically correct.

18. Which of the following pieces of information from the graph best supports the ideas presented in this passage? A) NOCHANGE B) nearly half of all Best Picture winners have also been Best Production Design winners. C) the award for Best Director exists in almost a 1: 1 ratio with the award for Best Picture. D) there is an obvious disparity between the number of Best Actor winners in Best Picture films and Best Actress winners in Best Picture films. 19. A) B) C) D)

NO CHANGE those in the visual aspects of DELETE the underlined portion.

Writing and Language Drills

I

43


137

HW -20

Questions 23-33. Read the following passage carefally before you choose your answers.

British Columbia's Pre- and Future History

Vancouver, British Columbia, is Canada's eighth most populous city, and it is known as one of the hotbeds of contemporary Canadian culture, alongside eastern cities Toronto and Montreal. Still, while nearly everyone knows about Qi them. few know about the importance of Native American culture within the coastal region of British Columbia. A ~ small community. of the Kwakwaka'wakw people. in the Pacific Northwest. links the area to its pre-European roots. Although the language, a collection of dialects known as Kwak'wala, is spoken by only about 250 people, the Kwakwaka'wakw continue to be a relevant force in the region and an inspiring reminder of an era that was cruelly uprooted in the early nineteenth century. Si ~According to this mythological narrative, the original settlers came to the area in animal form and became human when they arrived at the places they would settle. One of the major figures in this origin story, the Thunderbird, can still be seen in the many totems and carvings that remain, particularly from the late nineteenth century. Much of what we know about the nineteenth-century Kwakwaka'wakw tribes~ come from German-American anthropologist Franz Boas. In Boas's analysis, we can see the importance of weaving and woodwork, particularly as displays of wealth and power within the community. In fact, most-heavily studied aspect ofKwakwaka'wakw culture remains the potlatch, ~ which scholars devote much

attention to. a gift-giving ceremony in which the wealthy demonstrate their extreme affluence by the vast quantities they are able to give away. The survival of the potlatch and ~ the more general Kwakwaka'wakw is a minor miracle. Between 1830 and 1880, 75% of the tribe's population was killed by violence and disease. Canada outlawed the practice of potlatch in 1884, citing its wastefulness and expenditure as running contrary to the "civilized" values of white Canada. Policies like the potlatch ban ~ were instituted as part of a broader project of assimilation, designed to turn native populations into Canadians, not only by banning native practices but also by sending native children to harsh assimilationist schools. The population of Kwakwawa'wakw today is just over 5,000. ii However. the small community of Kwakwaka'wakw peoples remains committed to its traditions, and in the late twentieth century, a move away from assimilationist policies meant that the Canadian government was more willing to recognize and encourage cultivation of its native heritage. Things today may be as good as they've been at any time in history: the population of Aboriginal peoples in Canada from 2001-2006 ~has declined 20.1%. with growth in British Columbia peaking at 42%. The Winter Olympics in Vancouver in 2010 showed that Canada has finally begun to see the influence of the Kwakwaka'wakw and others as integral toeil it's national character.

2001-2006 Aboriginal Population Growth, by Province

Percent

50 42.1

40

30 Canada = 20.1

20

10

0

NS

Que

PEI

Ont

Source: 2001 & 2006 Census of Canada

44

I

500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

Nfld

Alta

Man Yukon

BC

NWT

Nvt

Sask

NB


138

HW - 20

23. A) NO CHANGE B) it C) one D) Vancouver

28. A) NO CHANGE B) that scholars devote much attention to, C) much scholarly attention being devoted to it, D) DELETE the underlined portion.

24. A) NO CHANGE B) small community, of the K wakwaka' wakw people, in the Pacific Northwest C) small community of the Kwakwaka'wakw people in the Pacific Northwest D) small community of the Kwakwaka'wakw people, in the Pacific Northwest,

29. A) NO CHANGE B) the, more generally, Kwakwaka'wakw C) the Kwakwaka'wakw, more generally D) the Kwakwaka'wakw in general

25. At this point, the writer is considering adding the following true statement: The Cree, who live further to the east, have fared much better, with a contemporary population of over 200,000. Should the writer make this addition here? A) Yes, because it shows that the Kwakwaka'wakw should have moved further east. B) Yes, because it suggests that Canada's history is not as checkered as the rest of the passage states. C) No, because it adds an unnecessary detail to the passage's discussion of the Kwakwaka'wakw. D) No, because it minimizes the difficulties that the Kwakwakwa'wakw have faced throughout history.

26. Which of the following would best introduce the subject matter of this paragraph? A) There is little documented history of the Kwakwaka'wakw before the eighteenth century, but a ri.ch oral history exists. B) Most Native American documented history comes from archaeologists and living oral historians. C) Like English settlers in the United States, English settlers in Canada killed off Native Americans in tragically high numbers. D) Using animals to explain prehistoric human behaviors has been a common practice throughout history.

30. A) NO CHANGE B) have been instituted C) are instituted D) had been instituted

31. A) NO CHANGE B) Therefore, C) On the other hand, D) Next,

32. Which of the following gives accurate information based on the graph? A) NOCHANGE B) was just over 20%, with growth in some provinces reaching as much as 42%. C) has declined 20.l %, with growth in Alberta keeping pace with the national average. D) was just over 20%, with growth in Ontario seeing the most significant increase.

33. A) NO CHANGE B) its C) their D) they're

27. A) NO CHANGE B) comes C) are coming D) came

Writing and Language Drills

I

45


139

HW - 21

Questions 34-44. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers.

A Sweet Invention in the Big Easy

~ Born in New Orleans. LA. on March 17. 1806. was a man named Norbert Rillieux. Rillieux was the son of Vincent Rillieux and Constance Vivant. Because Vivant was a free woman of color and marriages between the races were outlawed at the time, Vivant became Rillieux's placee, or common-law wife. Race relations were slightly less restrictive in Creole Louisiana ~ than in other parts of the American South. ~Norbert might have been born into constricting circumstances elsewhere in the South; Creole Louisiana afforded him recognition as his father's son and access to education not available to other free blacks or slaves. The young Norbert attended Catholic schools in Louisiana, and in the early 1820s, he went to Paris to study at the Ecole ~ Centrale. there he learned physics, mechanics, and engineering, and ~ became a noted expert in steam engines. This remarkable education led to Rillieux's eventual achievements in sugar refining and cemented his place as one of the first African-American inventors in the United States. While studying at the Ecole Centrale, ~ sugar refining emerged as an urgent concern for Rillieux. At that time, Louisiana was a central hub in the sugar trade, but the process of refining that sugar was (ti) little understood. Until then, sugarcane juice would be pressed from the cane, and the juice would be heated until the water boiled, leaving a (D gunky residue. This residue was then poured into smaller and smaller pots until it achieved its maximum thickness. The problem with such a method was that sugar was lost at every step, and much of the sugar would burn away because the heat was difficult to monitor. After a failed attempt to start a sugar refinery with his brother Edmond, Norbert patented his new sugar-refining machine in 1843. The new machine addressed both major issues with the old method of sugar ~ refining. All the while making the process significantly safer for those men, mainly slaves, who worked the machines. The machine used vacuum pressure to lower the boiling point of the relevant liquids. Heat can be easily controlled because it comes from only one source-most of the 6l systemic heat is recycled steam. That steam cycles through stacked pans, where the sugarcane could essentially refine itself, rather than require the workers to transfer the scalding hot liquids by hand. By 1849, Merrick and Towne, the Philadelphia manufacturers who sold Rillieux's new invention, could guarantee purchasers previously unheard-of yields: 6l up to 18.000 pounds of sugar a day.

46 I 500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

As historians of science learn more about the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, they uncover more and more odds-defying work from men and women who were not given proper rights and recognitions in that era. There's much more to this period, it seems, than George Washington Carver.


140 34. A) NO CHANGE B) Norbert Rillieux was born March 17, 1806, in New Orleans, LA. C) On March 17th in 1806, Norbert Rillieux was born in Louisiana in New Orleans. D) Born in New Orleans, March 17th was the birthday of Norbert Rillieux in 1806.

35. A) NO CHANGE B) then were relations in C) than the race relations were in D) than those of blacks and whites in 36. A) NO CHANGE B) However, Norbert C) Because Norbert D) While Norbert

37. A) NO CHANGE B) Centrale there C) Centrale. There D) Centrale, there,

HW - 21

41. A) NO CHANGE B) gross C) syrupy D) bituminous

42. A) NO CHANGE B) refining; all C) refining all D) refining, all 43. A) NO CHANGE B) system's C) systems' D) systems

44. Which of the following would be support the statement made in the first part of this sentence? A) NO CHANGE B) and they could be on the cutting edge of technology, too. C) hiding the identity of the inventor all the while. D) how could anyone afford not to buy this machine?

38. Which of the following best maintains the focus established in this sentence and paragraph? A) NO CHANGE B) lived a traditionally French lifestyle. C) did not have to contest with racial prejudice. D) became a teacher at the young age of 24. 39. A) NO CHANGE B) Rillieux's concentration led him to the process of refining sugar. C) his background in chemistry led him to a new way of refining sugar. D) Rillieux began to work on the chemical process of refining sugar.

40. Which of the following would best maintain the focus on the problems with refining sugar in the early eighteenth century? A) NO CHANGE B) a popular process. C) costly and inefficient. D) the "sweetest" job in town.

Writing and Language Drills

I 47


141

HW - 22

Reading Drill 4 For each question in this section, circle the letter of the best answer from among the choices given.

Questions 1-12 are based on the following passage. 45

This passage is adapted from a 2009 book looking at Western (that is, European and American) attempts to modernize the Middle East and other regions. 50

Line 5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

222

The international history of the twentieth century is overflowing with Western projects to modernize the Middle East. The United States, and England to a lesser degree, have tried to bring freedom to oppressed peoples throughout the region, and as the word "freedom" implies, this was a philanthropic mission. President Bill Clinton, for example, is still praised for his role in Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, even as his other failures and accomplishments gained front page news in the mid1990s. His even-handed, mediating role helped to save these warring states from total destruction. This attitude toward non-Western regions, the belief that the West's systems of government can help save the people of the Middle East, Africa, or Latin America, is a holdover from an imperial moment, when European nations conquered these regions with militaries rather than diplomats. It may be time to start asking, however, whether Western systems of government are universally applicable. That is to say, perhaps the Western value of "freedom" -as it relates to markets, speech, and behaviors-is not one that is shared by people outside the West. Unrest in the Middle East and other non-Western regions can only continue until new systems of governance begin to emerge from the regions themselves. These modernization projects bear an eerie resemblance to the "civilizing missions" of European nations in the nineteenth century. These missions always begin with the premise that those in non-Western nations are unable to govern themselves. In most cases, the result is little more than a large-scale, prolonged clash of cultures, in which prejudices toward the "poor souls" who can't take care of themselves only become that much firmer in the minds of the un-self-conscious interlopers. The native peoples who are then forced to live under the new government's rule become extremely skeptical of it, as its supposed successes are measured by seemingly irrelevant metrics. Many ancient and historical societies come from these regions, but since the seventeenth century, these regions have been considered almost universally backward. This notion persists in contemporary politics, and in the United States, the idea that the U.S. is making the world safe for democracy is common among both major political parties. As recently

I

500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

as 2003, in a war that was billed as one of self-defense, George W. Bush was promising Americans, "Helping Iraqis achieve a united, stable, and free country will require our sustained commitment." Bush is the inheritor of a long tradition of this belief in the power of Western influence. This influence, though, has not been a pure force for good. While Western systems of government were created as responses to nation states and royal traditions, non-Western nations have their own set of foundations and traditions. The earliest colonial governments in these non-Western regions were run by Westerners. But now that the colonial governments have been kicked out, a system of rule by the actual people who live in these non- Western nations must be something else. To take one example, the name "Iraq" is not quite as applicable to all its citizens as the names "France," "Portugal," or "The United States" are in their own regions. For many Westerners, nationality is a given and ultimately trumps the more local identifications of town, city, or state. In Iraq, as the Bush administration learned, religious distinctions are more meaningful than national similarities. Approximately 65 percent of those living in Iraq are Shia Muslims, but does this make it a Shia country? To an extent, maybe, but Sunni Muslims represent a powerful and vocal minority, and the northern regions of Iraq comprise a semiautonomous region of a third group, the Kurds. The Western notions of nationabove- all and religious coexistence can't maintain in this and other countries because the value systems have developed so independently of these notions. As in many other parts of the world, "Iraqi freedom" was defined by someone other than the Iraqis themselves. Western civilizing efforts have always been based on the unfortunate premise that non-Westerners cannot govern themselves, often on no other evidence than Westerners' firm belief in the success of their own political systems. The refusal to accept that the basic principles of democracy and free-market capitalism may not be universally applicable has always compromised efforts at Western modernization because these efforts have lacked the appropriate local perspectives. Certainly, Western nations are today more sensitive to cultural differences than they have ever been. It remains to be seen, however, whether this new multicultural stance is a genuine change or a simple repackaging of an old product.


142 1. In the context of lines 1-3 ("The international ... East"), the phrase "overflowing with" suggests that

A) modernization is a common subject of conversation for Middle Eastern visitors to the West. B) some Middle East countries have been subject to more modernization efforts than others. C) there have been many attempts by Western countries to modernize the Middle East. D) there are simply too many countries in the Middle East for historians to describe accurately.

2. The author mentions Bill Clinton (line 7) primarily in order to A) cite one person who represents a certain perspective. B) describe the rewards of one person's courage against difficult odds. C) state that those who have contributed to peace in the region come from a variety of backgrounds. D) show that Middle East peace was only one of Clinton's minor accomplishments.

3. According to the passage, it is worth asking whether Western systems of government are universally applicable (line 18) because they A) are too reliant upon ancient forms of nonWestern government. B) refuse to recognize the accomplishments of diplomats like Bill Clinton. C) have as their only goal the introduction of Western goods into non-Western markets. D) may not be the most appropriate forms of government for those outside the West.

4. Which of the following best states how the peoples mentioned in line feel about West-influenced governments? A) They despise the governments because they are hopelessly corrupt. B) They question the ability of their fellow citizens to govern them. C) They doubt that the governments have delivered on all that they have promised. D) They support the new regime because it represents a change from old ways.

HW - 22

5. According to the author, what has changed since the seventeenth century (line 39)? A) Native citizens are now in open conflict with Western-style governments. B) Middle Eastern government officials look to the West for models of how to govern. C) Regions that were once considered model civilizations are no longer thought of as ideals. D) People in non-Western countries are not willing to compromise in a way that supports democracy. 6. The statement that Western influence has not been a pure force for good (line 50) suggests that the author, in general, believes that A) people in the Middle East would prefer to have their fellow citizens in high government positions. B) people in the Middle East have not necessarily benefited from Western-style governments. C) voters in Middle East elections wish there were more candidates from the West. D) forms of democracy in the Middle East are more advanced than those in the West. 7. As used in line 62, "trumps" most nearly means A) B) C) D)

kicks out. defeats by force. beautifies. is more important than.

8. As used in line 71, "maintain" most nearly means A) work. B) repair. C) hang. D) build. 9. Which of the following, if true, would refute the claim made in lines 74-75 ("As ... themselves") A) The Western influence in the Middle East has not been able to overcome internal divisions among groups within Iraq. B) Many representatives from the Middle East have been crucial to developing the government systems that exist in the Middle East today. C) Contemporary styles of government in the Middle East can be traced back to principles developed in Europe in the late 1700s. D) Famous diplomats such as Bill Clinton have continued to offer guidance to those in the Middle East and elsewhere.

Reading Drills

I 223


143 10. Which of the following best describes the sentence in lines 84-86 ("Certainly ... been")? A) A response to critics of the author's own argument B) An idea developed further in other works by the author C) A tangent that the author considers necessary for his main point D) A concession that contemporary trends are not exclusively negative

11. The author uses the phrase "repackaging of an old product" (line 86) primarily to A) outline an analogy for an ideal approach. B) suggest the type of reformulation necessary for success. C) express skepticism toward a certain transformation. D) criticize the financial interests of Western governments.

12. The author would most likely consider which approach to be a new strategy for the formation of governments in the Middle East? A) Allowing Western governments to shape government policy in the Middle East B) Breaking down cultural barriers within countries to promote national unity C) Increasing the authority of government officials to implement Western democracy D) Collaborating with local representatives to determine which style of government is best for a particular country

224

I

500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

HW - 22


144 Questions 13-22 are based on the following passage.

This passage is adapted from Jennifer O'Sullivan, Reflection or Reimagining: Examining Authorial Intent in Twentieth Century Fiction.Š 2013 by The Gazette of Literary Criticism.

Line

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

The Irish author James Joyce (1882-1941) created some of the most unique and personal, yet controversial and inaccessible, literature of the last century. With his modernist, experimental narrative style, his close attention to the details of ordinary life, his novel technical innovations, and his recurring themes of isolation and exile, Joyce created fictional worlds at once stark and foreign, yet simultaneously rich and familiar. In order to better decipher the seemingly endless conundrum of Joyce's meanings and messages, it is worth turning one's attention to events in Joyce's life that may help the reader understand some of the sources of his creative inspiration. While studies of Joyce have considered the importance of Joyce's years in exile to his writing, few have made explicit the connections between Joyce's writing and the specific contexts of his time abroad; Richard Ellman's definitive 1959 treatment and John McCourt's more recent work are the exceptions rather than the rule in this regard. The parallels between the reality of Joyce's life and the fictional worlds he created are too frequent to ignore. Joyce first fled Dublin in 1904 with his lifelong love, Nora Barnacle, for reasons both personal and professional. Joyce and Barnacle were then unmarried, and their relationship was the target of social condemnation. So, too, was Joyce driven out of Ireland by the Catholic Church's harsh criticism of his early writings in which he clearly rejected what he felt to be the Church's oppressive spiritual controls. For eleven years, the couple lived in the major Mediterranean seaport of Trieste, then an Austrian imperial city. Trieste was a melting pot of mercantile, religious, and cultural activity, and its language, Triestino (which Joyce came to speak beautifully) was an amalgamation of blended words and sounds from many languages. Joyce's exposure to Triestino directly influenced Joyce's fashioning of his own potpourri language for his final novel Finnegan's Wake; the composite dialect of the work harkened back to its English origins, but also incorporated diverse elements of many tongues. As Joyce's most famous biographer, Ellman, notes, every moment of an author's waking life may manifest itself in the author's work, and Joyce himself encouraged his audience to read his works autobiographically. However, ferreting out the autobiographical elements from Joyce's work involves much more than such a superficial survey of literary images. The relationship between an author's writings and the author's life experiences is not as transparent as it may seem. A writer's life may be reflected in his work, but this reflection is almost always distorted to some degree, sometimes purposefully, and sometimes

55

60

65

HW - 23

inadvertently. This situation leaves both the reader and the critic at an intriguing impasse: when can we know when a seemingly autobiographical image in a fictional work is actually meaningful? When, in Ulysses, Joyce's literary alter ego Stephen Dedalus muses on whether Shakespeare's characters were all based on actual people that he knew, is this an example of Joyce commenting indirectly on Shakespeare, or of Joyce alluding to his own work? Regardless of how tempting it may be for the reader to read Ulysses or A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man solely through the biography of Joyce, such a technique is fraught with danger, since we can ultimately never be sure exactly what any author means to express through his or her art.

13. The author mentions Joyce's viewpoint ('_'Joyce himself ... autobiographically") in lines 43-44 to emphasize A) how tempting it may be to read Joyce's work as a reflection of his life B) that Joyce intended to fool the reader all along C) that Joyce had to fight with his critics to have his work interpreted this way D) that Joyce always spoke directly through one of the characters in his books

14. The author most nearly believes that Ulysses A) is autobiographical in nature, and that Stephen Dedalus can be understood to represent Joyce himself. B) is pure fiction, and that nothing in the book represents anything that ever happened to Joyce. C) probably reflects elements of Joyce's life, but that it is difficult to say exactly which details are autobiographical. D) is the most unique example of autobiographical fiction written in the Twentieth Century. 15. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A) Lines 1-3 ("The Irish author ... last century") B) Lines 19-21 ("The parallels ... ignore") C) Lines 41-44 ("As Joyce's .. . autobiographically") D) Lines 61-66 ("Regardless of ... her art")

Reading Drills

I 225


145 16. It can be inferred that Joyce left Dublin and went into exile to A) B) C) D)

find literary inspiration attain greater artistic and personal freedom accept a job as a writer escape Nora's parents' disapproval

17. The description of Joyce's work in the first paragraph provides information about all of the following EXCEPT A) B) C) D)

when Joyce wrote his first novel the style in which Joyce wrote the degree of critical acclaim Joyce has received when Joyce lived

18. In line 10, "conundrum" most nearly means A) B) C) D)

conception intuition parody puzzle

19. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage? A) The author makes a specific claim, offers evidence to support this claim, and ends by expanding the discussion to a more general, but related, idea. B) The author states the main point, offers three theories that may support this point, and ends by selecting the theory that provides the best evidence. C) The author makes a claim, shows that other writers also make this claim, and ends by criticizing the others' research methods. D) The author summarizes scholarly literature about James Joyce, then concludes that Joyce isn't as great a writer as originally claimed. 20. The comment in lines 51-52 ("sometimes purposefully, and sometimes inadvertently") suggests that A) writers are usually writing about themselves B) writers may misrepresent an actual event in a fictional work without realizing it C) readers should not trust writers who write autobiographically D) readers don't always interpret a novel the way the author intended

226

I

500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

HW - 23

21. According to the ideas presented in the final paragraph, which of the following is the most appropriate interpretation of Dedalus's claim regarding Shakespeare? A) The character of Dedalus was a literary critic. B) Joyce expressed this controversial belief through Dedalus to protect his career. C) Joyce may have believed Shakespeare's characters were based on real people. D) Dedalus was based on a person Joyce knew personally. 22. All of the following could be considered autobiographical elements in Joyce's writing EXCEPT A) themes of isolation and exile B) a character who worked as a sailor in Trieste C) a character who is persecuted for his religious beliefs D) the character of Stephen Dedalus


146 Questions 23-32 are based on the following passage. This passage is adapted from Arthur Loman, Life of a Salesman.Š 2007 by Arthur Loman.

Line 5

JO

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

William was completely lost, that much he knew. Unfortunately, that was all he knew. Of course, he hated to admit it when he was lost, so much so that when he did get lost, it would inevitably create a tragic episode of the grandest proportions, rather than a minor inconvenience. In a way, that made it easier for him to explain his tardiness to others. It was certainly easier to evade responsibility for a huge, unforeseeable mishap than for a series of small, yet obvious, errors. These situations always started out the same way. William would be setting out to drive to a business appointment. Before leaving he would verify that he had everything he needed for the day. First he checked to see that he had his briefcase. He then checked and rechecked the contents of the briefcase to see that every possible document he might need was there, not to mention extra pens, notepads, a calculator, spare calculator batteries, his cell phone, and spare cell phone battery. He even insisted upon carrying a miniature tape recorder, and spare batteries for that, as well. The inclusion of this last item was particularly perplexing to his coworkers, as there was no possible use for it in his work. When casually queried about the tape recorder, William merely responded, "I might need it." That much, certainly, was evident, and they let the matter drop. To be sure, his insistence on traveling with a tape recorder for which he had no need was not the oddest thing about William, as far as his coworkers were concerned. Although his hygiene and grooming were impeccable, his clothing seemed remarkably similar, if not identical, from one day to the next. His coworkers surmised that he owned several suits and ties, all of the same cut, in just two colors, navy blue and brown. As he began his trip, William would have the directions to his destination neatly written out in his own, extremely precise handwriting (the only handwriting he could dependably read, he would say). The directions would be hung on the dashboard within easy view, on a miniature clipboard. William didn't actually need the directions at that point, since he had already committed them to memory. In fact, if you were in the car with him on such occasions (a practical impossibility since William would never drive with anyone in the car during business hours, not that anyone was anxious to, of course), you would hear him muttering a litany of lefts and rights; chanting his mantra, street names and route numbers in their proper order. Everything would be going fine until something would distract William, perhaps a flock of birds flying in formation, or an out-of-state license plate he didn't recognize. Several minutes would pass, and he would slowly realize that he might have lost command of his directions and missed a turn. He would remain, however,

HW - 24

in relatively calm denial of this possibility, until he had driven many more miles and passed several other turns. "This road doesn't look like it goes the right way," he would grumble. "Too many other people are turning off here; I don't want to get stuck in traffic." And maybe, just maybe, he hadn't missed his turn, and it was going to 60 appear around the next bend in the road. "No way to find out but to keep on going." Obviously, the sensible thing to do would be to pull over, and consult a map, or perhaps use the cell phone to call for assistance. Neither of these things was an option as far as William was concerned. 65 The cell phone, as he put it, "should be used only in emergencies." Since nothing that ever happened to him constituted an "emergency" in his mind, he never once actually used the phone. As to maps, he never carried one. He claimed that most 70 of them were useless to him, as they were "organized and planned so badly." In any event, what need did he have for maps when he always had his directions written out so carefully? So on and on he drove, hoping that some type of 75 resolution would eventually reveal itself to him, that it would suddenly occur to him where to turn around, what to do. On one occasion, he drove through three different states before finding his way back to the office, well after dark, his suit rumpled, but his blue necktie still flying so proudly. 55

23. The primary purpose of the passage is to A) recount the mishaps of a man driving to a business meeting B) chronicle the idiosyncrasies of a traveling businessman C) provide a detailed description of a day in the life of a salesperson D) explain a man's lateness to his co-workers 24. The list of items in William's briefcase (lines 15-18) serves to A) give an indication of the compulsive nature of William's preparations. B) illustrate the stupidity of William's behavior. C) show that William was a conscientious planner. D) describe all the items William might need while at a business appointment.

Reading Drills

I

227


147 25. The attitude of William's coworkers toward him can best be described as

A) mildly curious B) coldly indifferent C) overtly condescending D) deeply intrigued

HW - 24

31. The reference to maps (line 69) implies that William

A) has much to learn about navigation B) relies more on instinct than reason C) questions the mapmaker's eye for detail D) does not trust the orderliness of most maps

32. The author refers to William's "blue necktie" (line 79) 26. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

A) B) C) D)

Lines 7-9 ("It was certainly ... errors") Lines 25-28 ("To be sure ... concerned") Lines 53-55 ("He would remain ... turns") Lines 77-80 ("On one occasion ... proudly")

27. William's answer to his coworkers' questions about his tape recorder (lines 19-25) implies that he

A) knows much more about the applications of technology in business than they do B) records business conversations in order to have proof of what was discussed C) believes it is best to be prepared for any contingency D) feels that their questions are rude and intrusive 28. William's preparations for his business meetings are best described as

A) professional B) careless C) useful D) fruitless 29. As used in line 44, "anxious" most nearly means

A) nervous. B) eager. C) uneasy. D) stressed. 30. As used in lines 51-53 "command" most nearly means

A) power. B) authority. C) leader. D) control.

228 I 500+ Practice Questions for the New SAT

in order to suggest A) the importance William places on his hygiene and grooming B) his ability to display dignity despite his mistakes C) the lack of variety in his wardrobe D) his obliviousness to the fact the he caused his own tardiness


148

HW - 25


149

HW - 25


150

HW - 26


151

HW - 26


152

HW - 26


153

HW - 27


154

HW - 27


1

155

Questions 24-29 are based on the following passage.

HW - 28

40

This passage is adapted from “Recapturing America’s Moral Vision,” a speech given by Robert F. Kennedy at the University of Kansas in 1968.

Line 5

10

15

20

25

30

35

There are millions living in the hidden places whose names and faces are completely unknown. But I have seen these other Americans. I have seen children in Mississippi starving, their bodies so crippled from hunger and their minds so destroyed for their whole lives that they will have no future. We haven’t developed a policy so we can get enough food so that they can live, so that their lives are not destroyed. I don’t think that’s acceptable in the United States of America, and I think we need a change. I think we can do much, much better. And I run for the presidency because of that. I run for the presidency because I have seen proud men in the hills of Appalachia, who wish only to work in dignity, but they cannot, for the mines are closed and their jobs are gone and no one—neither industry, nor labor, nor government—has cared enough to help. I think we here in this country, with the unselfish spirit that exists in the United States of America, I think we can do better here also. If we believe that we, as Americans, are bound together by a common concern for each other, then an urgent national priority is upon us. We must begin to end the disgrace of this other America. And this is one of the great tasks of leadership for us, as individuals and citizens this year. But even if we act to erase material poverty, there is another greater task: it is to confront the poverty of satisfaction, purpose, and dignity that afflicts us all. Too much and for too long, we seemed to have surrendered personal excellence and community values in the mere accumulation of material things. Our Gross National Product now is over 800 billion dollars a year. But that Gross National Product—if we judge the United States of America by that—that Gross National Product counts air pollution and cigarette advertising and ambulances

45

50

55

to clear our highways of carnage. It counts special locks for our doors and the jails for the people who break them. It counts the destruction of the redwoods and the loss of our natural wonder in chaotic sprawl. It counts napalm and it counts nuclear warheads and armored cars for the police to fight the riots in our cities. It counts Whitman’s rifle and Speck’s knife and the television programs which glorify violence in order to sell toys to our children. Yet the Gross National Product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education, or the joy of their play. It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our wit nor our courage, neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country. It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile. And it can tell us everything about America except why we are proud that we are Americans. 22 Kennedy’s attitude toward the situation faced by “other Americans” mentioned in the passage is best described as A) annoyed. B) resigned. C) outraged. D) bemused. 23 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A) Lines 1-2 (“There are … unknown”) B) Lines 9-11 (“I don’t … change”) C) Lines 31-33 (“Too much … things”) D) Lines 53-56 (“It measures … country”)

CONTINUE


1

156

24

HW - 28

27 The passage most strongly suggests that the Gross National Product

As used in line 28, “erase” most nearly means

A) is essential to helping Americans escape from a life of poverty and disgrace.

B) delete.

B) measures economic but not personal or moral value.

D) cancel.

C) must increase if Americans are to improve their environment, jails, and cities.

A) eliminate. C) obliterate.

28

D) does not accurately represent the breakdown of industries in the American economy.

Kennedy refers to “the poverty of satisfaction, purpose, and dignity” (line 29-30) primarily to A) urge Americans to act quickly or face economic failure.

25 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

B) suggest that Americans face more than just economic challenges.

A) Lines 18-21 (“I think … also”)

C) inspire Americans to be more ambitious in their economic goals.

B) Lines 24-25 (“We must … America”)

D) warn Americans that unless they fix the economy, their communities will suffer.

C) Lines 34-35 (“Our Gross … year”) D) Lines 56-57 (“It measures … worthwhile”) 29 26 Based on the passage, which best describes the relationship between the “unselfish spirit” Kennedy describes and the problems he sees in the United States? A) The unselfish spirit exhibited by Americans can be drawn upon to resolve many of the country’s problems. B) The unselfish spirit of the men of the Appalachia must be harnessed to help avoid further problems. C) Americans can rely on the unselfish spirit of their government to solve any problems.

The rhetorical effect of the repetition in lines 37-47 is to A) emphasize the various negative portions of the economy that contribute to the Gross National Product. B) show how many areas of the economy are included in the Gross National Product. C) reveal how economic analysts must alter their calculation of the Gross National Product. D) demonstrate the great diversity of the American economy, as seen in the Gross National Product.

D) The unselfish spirit demonstrated by industry is the cause of the United States’ problems.

CONTINUE


1

157

Questions 11-16 are based on the following passage. This passage is adapted from Shirley Chisolm, “For the Equal Rights Amendment,” delivered before the United States Congress in 1970. Chisolm, the first African American woman elected to Congress, was arguing in favor of a Constitutional amendment securing legal equality between men and women.

Line 5

10

15

20

25

30

35

The resolution before us today, which provides for equality under the law for both men and women, represents one of the most clear-cut opportunities we are likely to have to declare our faith in the principles that shaped our Constitution. It provides a legal basis for attack on the most subtle, most pervasive, and most institutionalized form of prejudice that exists. Discrimination against women, solely on the basis of their sex, is so widespread that is seems to many persons normal, natural, and right. Legal expression of prejudice on the grounds of religious or political belief has become a minor problem in our society. Prejudice on the basis of race is, at least, under systematic attack. It is time we act to assure full equality of opportunity to those citizens who, although in a majority, suffer the restrictions that are commonly imposed on minorities—women. The argument that this amendment will not solve the problem of sex discrimination is not relevant. If the argument were used against a civil rights bill, as it has been used in the past, the prejudice that lies behind it would be embarrassing. Of course laws will not eliminate prejudice from the hearts of human beings. But that is no reason to allow prejudice to continue to be enshrined in our laws— to perpetuate injustice through inaction. What would the legal effects of the equal rights amendment really be? The equal rights amendment would govern only the relationship between the State and its citizens—not relationships between private citizens. The amendment would be largely self-executing, that is, any Federal or State laws in conflict would be ineffective one year after the date of ratification without further action by the Congress

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

HW - 29

or State legislatures. Jury service laws not making women equally liable for jury service would have been revised. The selective service law would have to include women, but women would not be required to serve in the Armed Forces where they are not fitted any more than men are required to serve. Survivorship benefits would be available to husbands of female workers on the same basis as to wives of male workers. Public schools and universities could not be limited to one sex and could not apply different admission standards to men and women. Laws requiring longer prison sentences for women than men would be invalid, and equal opportunities for rehabilitation and vocational training would have to be provided in public correctional institutions. What would be the economic effects of the equal rights amendment? Direct economic effects would be minor. If any labor laws applying only to women still remained, their amendment or repeal would provide opportunity for women in better-paying jobs in manufacturing. More opportunities in public vocational and graduate schools for women would also tend to open up opportunities in better jobs for women. Indirect effects could be much greater. The focusing of public attention on the gross legal, economic, and social discrimination against women by hearings and debates in the Federal and State legislatures would result in changes in attitude of parents, educators, and employers that would bring about substantial economic changes in the long run. This is what it comes down to: artificial distinctions between persons must be wiped out of the law. Legal discrimination between the sexes is, in almost every instance, founded on outmoded views of society and the pre-scientific beliefs about psychology and physiology. It is time to sweep away these relics of the past and set further generations free of them. The Constitution was designed to protect the rights of white, male citizens. As there were no CONTINUE


1 80

158

black Founding Fathers, there were no founding mothers—a great pity, on both counts. It is not too late to complete the work they left undone. Today, here, we should start to do so.

HW - 29

14 Chisolm characterizes discrimination against women as A) unfortunate but unavoidable.

11

B) accepted but unjust. The stance Chisolm takes in the passage is best described as that of

C) embarrassing but necessary. D) illegal but common.

A) a weary radical. B) a passionate advocate.

15

C) an excited politician.

As used in line 11, “expression” most nearly means

D) an optimistic scholar.

A) assertion. 12

B) intensity. According to Chisolm, legal distinctions between the sexes

C) announcement. D) emotion.

A) protect important differences. B) are usually valid, but occasionally harmful. C) reflect outdated thinking. D) have only minimal effects.

16 Chisolm recognizes and dismisses which of the following counterarguments? A) Legal remedies are insufficient for eradicating bias.

13 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

B) The Constitutional amendment would change the demographics of the Armed Forces.

A) Lines 8-10 (“Discrimination against … right”)

C) America is already more equitable than other countries.

B) Lines 14-18 (“It is … women”) C) Lines 28-29 (“What would … be”)

D) The Constitutional amendment would rob women of certain benefits.

D) Lines 71-74 (“Legal … and physiology”)

CONTINUE


1 17

159

HW - 29

19 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

The contrast between direct and indirect effects in lines 53-68 serves primarily to

A) Lines 5-8 (“It provides … exists”)

A) argue that although no one knows what the immediate ramifications of the amendment will be, the ultimate effect will be small.

B) Lines 23-25 (“Of course … beings”) C) Lines 29-31 (“The equal … its citizens”)

B) imply that while some of the things people fear may come to pass, there will also be unpredictable benefits.

D) Lines 54-55 (“Direct economic … minor”) 18

C) suggest that the impact of the amendment will be considerably larger in the future than in the present day.

As used in line 41, “fitted” most nearly means A) contoured.

D) state that certain aspects of people’s lives will be changed severely, while other aspects will remain much the same.

B) shaped. C) fixed. D) suited. 20

By “relics of the past,” (line 75) Chisolm refers to A) reliance on the Constitution as the ultimate arbiter of justice. B) laws with different provisions for men and women. C) assumptions about women’s natural inclinations for homemaking. D) convoluted legal processes for altering laws.

CONTINUE


2 Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage.

160

HW - 30

12 Which choice would most effectively develop the main topic of this passage?

The Midnight Ride of Sybil Ludington

A) NO CHANGE

Paul Revere’s midnight ride is legendary, but the

B) Sybil Ludington rode a horse, named “Star,” married a man named Edmund Ogden, and lived to the age of 77.

story of a similar ride made by a teenaged girl named Sybil Ludington is less well-known. 12 Her journey through the rough countryside of Putnam County, New

C) During the Revolutionary War, a number of people rode through the night to warn about impending battles.

York, was of equal importance to the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. 13 Though her

D) Paul Revere went on to serve in the militia, and become a successful entrepreneur.

ride helped win a battle, General George Washington visited her family farm to personally thank the brave girl. 13

A) NO CHANGE B) Whereas C) Insofar as D) Because

CONTINUE


2 Before the Revolutionary War 14 inaugurated,

161

HW - 30

14

Sybil Ludington led a fairly stable and secure life. Her

A) NO CHANGE

father, Henry Ludington, was a successful farmer and

B) initiated

businessman. He had also served the British crown in

C) broke out

the French and Indian War, and he remained a

D) blew up

Loyalist .15 until 1773, when he joined the rebel cause. Because of his extensive military experience,

15

Henry Ludington was named a Colonel and

A) NO CHANGE

commissioned to lead a regiment of the Continental

B) until 1773 when he

Army made up of local men.

C) until 1773. When he

[1] In late April of 1777, British General William

D) until, 1773, when he

Tryon led a company of 2,000 men in an attack on Danbury, Connecticut, some 20 plus miles away from

16

the Ludington home. [2] Riders were dispatched to find

A) NO CHANGE

help in battling Tryon’s soldiers. [3] The British

B) their

destroyed the munitions stored 16 they’re by the

C) there

Continental Army before setting all the homes owned

D) they are

by revolutionaries on fire. [4] On the night of April 26, 1777, one of these riders arrived at the Ludington farm. [5] Because it was planting season, Colonel

17

Ludington’s regiment had disbanded; someone would

For the sake of cohesion of the paragraph, sentence 2 should be placed

have to spread the word that they must regroup. [6]

A) where it is now.

The rider from Danbury was exhausted and the Colonel

B) after sentence 3.

had to prepare for battle, so it was decided that Sybil,

C) after sentence 4.

then 16, would go. .17.

D) before sentence 6.

CONTINUE


2 She saddled her horse Star and set off into the

162

HW - 30

18

dark .18 night, made even darker, by a powerful

A) NO CHANGE

rainstorm. Riding over muddy roads that ran through

B) night made even darker by

deep woods, Sybil stopped at the farmhouses of the

C) night made even darker, by

militiamen and 19 shouts, “The British are burning

D) night, made even darker by

Danbury; muster at Ludington’s!” By the time Sybil returned home the next morning, she had ridden 40

19

miles and most of the 400 members of her father’s

A) NO CHANGE

regiment were assembled at the farm. 20 By this time,

B) shouting

Sybil’s clothes were completely wet and muddy. They

C) to shout

set off in pursuit of Tryon’s troops, whom they

D) shouted

encountered in Ridgefield, Connecticut. As a result of that battle, Tryon withdrew his troops from Connecticut, never to return.

20 The writer is considering deleting this sentence. It should be A) kept, because it makes sense that Sybil would have been soaked after riding through the rain. B) kept, because it helps to explain why Sybil made her ride so quickly and how she inspired the assembled troops. C) deleted, because it interrupts the transition from information about assembled troops to their action with extraneous information. D) deleted, because Sybil’s personal comfort is not relevant to the story of her ride.

CONTINUE


2 Shortly thereafter, General Washington visited the

163

HW - 30

21

Ludington home to thank Sybil for 21 one’s

A) NO CHANGE

courageous ride. Although she rode twice as far as he

B) her

did, Sybil never became as famous as Paul Revere. 22.

C) she

As a result, she has been honored for her role in

D) their

history: there is a statue of her near the location of the farm in Carmel, New York, and the U.S. Postal Service also honored her with a stamp in 1975.

22 A) NO CHANGE B) However, C) Therefore, D) In addition,

CONTINUE