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Intituto tecnologico en electronic y dibujo

Maestra: Estela aceituno Materia Ingles

Tema Libro virtual

Nombre: Hans jeferson Lopez ramirez Grado 5to dibujo vespertina


INDEX. " INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................... ............ ..3 " WHAT DRAWING is it?.......................................................................................................................................... .4 " GENERAL CLASSIFICATION AND FOR BRANCHES....................................................................................... ...4 " CLASSIFICATION OF THE TECHNICAL DRAWING............................................................................................. ..5 " BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DRAWING............................................................................................................... .5 " THE OLDEST TECHNICAL DRAWING................................................................................................... ..6 " MATERIALS AND TEAMS FOR THE DRAWING....................................................................................... .8 " THE LETTERS................................................................................................................................................ ..10 " THE CARD................................................................................................................................................ .12 " THE NORMALIZATION FOR FORMATS AND BENT OF PAPER IN DRAWING TECHNICIAN... .12 " THE GRAPH OF ELEMENTS OF THE DRAWING (you LINE OF BENCH MARKS)............................................. ..13 " DIMENSIONAMIENTO OR DEMARCATION................................................................................................ .15 " LINES OF COURTS................................................................................................................................. ...16 " WALLS....................................................................................................................................................... .. ...16 " THE DOORS............................................................................................................................................. ..17 " THE WINDOWS...................................................................................................................... .................... ..17 " FLOORS....................................................................................................................... .............................. ....... ...18


" TYPES OF NORTH....................................................................................................................................... ..19 " FURNITURE............................................................................................................................................. ... .19 " TREES............................................................................................................................. ......................... .20 " VEHICLES................................................................................................................................................ ..20 " You FIGURE HUMAN........................................................................................................................ ......... .20 " TEXTURES OF WALLS AND ROOFS................................................................................................... .21 " You CLIMB AND GRAPHICS..................................................................................................................... ...... ...21 " MODERN METHODS OF DRAWING...................................................................................................... .22 " EXERCISE OF THE DRAWING IN REPUBLIC OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC............................................................ ...23 " TO WHAT CLASSIFICATION OF THE DRAWING OF AGREEMENT IS DRAWN AND TO HOW YOU DIBUJA………………………………………………………………………………………………………25 " I DRAW STRUCTURAL………………...……………………………………………………………… .25 " STRUCTURES OF WOOD………………………………………………………………………… ...25 " STRUCTURES OF MASONRY………………………………………………………………… ..26 " STRUCTURES OF ARMED CONCRETE………………………………………………………… ..26 " STRUCTURES OF SHOP………………………………………………………………………… .26 " I MANAGE OF THE INSTRUMENTS………………………………………………………………… .27 " CLASSIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS………………………………………… .28 " DIAGRAMS DE REFUERZO…………………………………………………………………………28 " DRAWING DE TALLER……………………………………………………………………………………28 " PLANE DE CIMENTACIÓN……………………………………………………………………………29


" OUTLINE OF ERECTION, ARMED OR CONSTRUCTION………………………………… ...29 " PLANE OF FALSE OR TRANSITORY WORKS………………………………………….……… …29 " He/she NOTICES OF MATERIALS……………………………………………………………………………… ..29 " It LISTS OF RIVETS………………………………………………………………………………… .30 " DE LISTS DIBUJOS………………………………………………………………………………30 " You DETAIL THAT they FORM THE CONTENT OF THE PLANES……………………………….. …30 " You STRUCTURE OF STEEL…………………………………………………………………………… .34 " THE DRAWING IN OUR MEANS…………………………………………………………………… .36 " I draw Architectural " CONTRUCCION OF A HOUSING " PROGRAM OF NECESSITIES " PLANE OF IT WORKS " PHOTOGRAPHIC PLANES " STRUCTURAL PLANES " ARCHITECTURAL PLANES " PLANES OF ELECTRIC FACILITIES " TOPOGRAPHICAL PLANE (T) " ARCHITECTURAL PLANE " ROOFS " FACADES " PLANES OF ELEVATION " PLANOPS OF COURTS AND SECTIONS " You PHOTOGRAPH………………………………………………………………………………………… ...37 " CONCLUSION................................................................................................................... ....................... ...41 " BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................................. ........ . ...42


OR INTRODUCTION. The Evolution of the Technical Drawing in the history is as many of the changes that it has suffered our present time and it is, for the conception of what is of being maybe since the talkative expression more dilocuente will always insinuate us something that for the ideological diversity for each person will be never the same thing. In the architectural field or generacional of what is denominated technician the drawing has diverse forms of projecting real objects and situations in those that the man wraps up for the full satisfaction of the necessity of spaces that this he has for the daily development of his life. Next we show that that to our to understand and thanks to the continuous investigation we conceive that it can be the Evolution of this no without before to begin speaking of their history, branches, norms and the diverse forms that it is been worth to transmit us messages in the professional technique. In the field of the technical activities, for the representation of the objects several projection methods are used, all which have their own characteristics, merits and disadvantages. The average technical drawing consists on a projection ortogonal, in which representations related of an or several views of the object are used, carefully elected, with which it is possible to define its form completely and characteristic. Nevertheless, for the execution of these two-dimensional representations it is necessary the knowledge of the projection method, in a such way that, any observer is able to deduce from the views the three-dimensional form of the object. In the numerous technical fields and their development stages, often it is necessary to provide drawings of easy reading. These drawings denominated pictorial representations, give a three-dimensional view of an object, just as this he/she would appear before the eyes of an observer. To read these representations it is not necessary a deep technical formation on the matter. The pictorial representations can be presented by themselves or to be supplemented with drawings ortogonales. Diverse methods of pictorial representation exist, but their specifications differ considerably and often they are used in contradictory form. The constant increase of the technical communication to world level, as well as the evolution of the design methods and drawing attended by computer with their diverse types of three-dimensional representations, they derive in the necessity of a clarification of these problems, by means of the formulation of technical norms on the matter


" WHAT DRAWING IT IS It is the language of which projects, with him it is made understand universally, already with purely geometric representations dedicated to competent people, already with perspectives for the laymen. One can also say in other words that is a graphic representation of a real object of an idea or design proposed for later construction. For the architect it is not more than a half assistant for the representation of the works. " GENERAL CLASIFICIĂ“N AND FOR BRANCHES. In the general classification it exists the ARTISTIC one AND TECHNICIAN. to) The Artistic one: it uses drawings to express aesthetic, philosophical or abstract ideas. b) The technician: it is the procedure used to represent topography, engineering work, buildings and machinery pieces that it consists on a normalized drawing. The use of the technical drawing is important in all the branches of the engineering and in the industry, and also in architecture and geology. It should indicate the used materials and the properties of the surfaces. Their fundamental purpose is to transmit the form and exact dimensions of an object. A drawing in ordinary perspective doesn't contribute information about hidden details of the object and it doesn't usually adjust in its real proportion. The conventional technical drawing uses two or more projections to represent an object. These projections are different views of the object from several points that, although they are not complete for separate, among all they represent each dimension and detail of the object. The view or main projection of a technical drawing is the front or raised view that usually represents the side of the object of more dimensions, under the one raised the view it is drawn from above or it plants. If these projections don't define the object completely, they can be added more; a view lateral right or left; see auxiliary from points I specify to show details of the object that otherwise would not be exposed; and cut or courts of the drawing of their interior. " THE TECHNICAL DRAWING IS CLASSIFIED IN: to) Natural D.: It is the one that one makes copying the pattern directly. b) Continuous D.: It is the sculpted ornament or colored that extends to all the long of a mold or cornice. and) Industrial D.: Their objective is to represent pieces of it schemes, conduits mechanic, constructions in clear but accurately enough form and it is for what uses the descriptive geometry as auxiliary. This also facilitates the conception of the work.


d) Defined D.: It is not properly branch, but yes a phase of this and it is made in Chinese ink and with the help of appropriate instruments; that they allow to carry out a precise work. The ideas of communicating the thoughts from a person to another by means of figures existed from the unfortunate times of the man of the caverns, they are still had example of their existences. " BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DRAWING. From the prehistory the first men used the drawing like a communication form, by means of figures of reduced size, located in (coats) rocky, covachas and the interior of caves. From these times, very remote an universal language, a graphic language, has been used that allowed the oldest men to communicate its ideas and thoughts to each other. These drawings constitute the most primitive forms in writing that then became in symbols used in the current writing. The man developed the graphic representation in two different addresses, assisting to his purpose: The Artistic one and Technician. From the beginning of the times, the artists used drawings to express ideas aesthetics, philosophical or abstract graph. In the times old graph, practically everybody was illiterate. The printing didn't exist, and therefore, there were not newspapers neither books were written as there are them in affordable to the I publish in general. People learned listening to their our days. The books were written by hand in papyrus or in parchment and they were not superior and looking at sculptures, squares or drawings in the public places. All could assist a, squares, and these were the main sources of information. The artist was not simply an artist in sense I/you/he/she is, she was a teacher or a philosopher, a means of expression and of communication. The other one directive that guided to the drawing in their development it was the history the technique. From the beginnings of the registered history, the man was been worth of drawings to represent his design of the objects to manufacture or to build. It is not rake some of these first drawing, but it is known in definitive form that the man used drawings, because it could not have designed and built that made without using relatively precise drawings. In the Bible the asseveration is made that Salom贸n's Temple" it was built with figured stones before taking them to its place. Each stone and timber was worked with tools to give him it forms, it was taken to the place and he/she was adjusted in a place. It is evident that exact drawings were used that showed the forms and the sizes of the component parts for the design of the temple. Also, they can it turns in our days, the ruins of old buildings, aqueducts, bridges and other structures of good conception that could not have been lifted carefully without prepared drawings that they served from guide to the manufacturers. Many of these structures are still considered like marvels of the world". The Temple of Am贸n, for example that it is in Karnak, Egypt that ended B.C. around the year 980 and whose


construction took seven centuries. Only in what plays to stone mass, this building surpassed anyone roofed structure that it has been built at some time, up to where one knows, having for dimensions 1200 feet of longitude and 50 feet of width, in its wider part. In way fellow men, the great Roman circus was a structure of enormous proportions, according to the historian Plinio, they could make comfortable seated a total dc 250.000 spectators. " THE OLDEST TECHNICAL DRAWING. The oldest technical drawing that one knows, and that it still exists, it is the view in plant of the design of a strength that made the Chaldaic engineer Cudea, and that engraving appears in a stone loseta, it is remarkable the likeness that keeps this drawing with the preparations for the architects of our days, in spite of having been drawn" thousands of years before the paper was invented. The first written test of the application of the technical drawing took place in the year 30 B.C., when the Roman architect Vitruvius wrote a treaty on architecture in which says, "The architect should be skillful with the pencil and to have knowledge of the drawing, so that he can prepare with easiness and speed the drawings that are required to show the appearance of the work that intends to build". Then it continues discussing the use of the rule and of the compasses for the geometric constructions, for the layout of the plant and the elevation of a building and to draw perspectives. In the museums they can it turns real copies of the first drawing instruments. The compasses were made of brass and they had the same size approximately that those of nowadays. The old compass resembled the compasses of tips of the present time. The plumillas intersected of thin shafts. The theory of the projections of objects on imaginary planes of projection was not developed but until the first part of the century fifteen, and its development owes to the Italian architects Albe Brunelleschi and others. It is of the general knowledge that Leonardo gives Vinci it used drawings to transmit to the other ones his ideas and designs for mechanical constructions, and many of such drawings exist today in day. However, it is not very clear, if Leonardo made mechanical drawings at some time in those that the orthographic views appeared as those that are made at the present time, but it is very probable that yes. Leonardo's treaty gives Vinci it has more than enough painting, published in 1651, it is considered as the first book form on the theory of the drawing of projections; but, it is focused to the orthographic projection. The compass of the Romans was conserved practically without change in Leonardo's time. The circumferences were marked with metallic tips, since the graphite pencils were not invented but until the century eighteen, when Faber established its company in Nuremburg, Germany. Already in the century seventh the plumillas of shafts had been substituted by the prepared ones with feathers of birds, generally of geeses.


The compass type with writing mark, opened step to the compass with graphite narrow lace edging, soon after that the graphite pencils appeared. In Mount Vernon can the drawing instruments used by the great civil engineer George Washington that you/they take the date 1749 turns. This case, is very similar in its content, to the instruments that are used at the present time, and it is formed by a compass of tips, a compass with accessories for line to pencil and it tints, and a graph or ruling pen of parallel leaves, similar to the modern ruling pens. The technique employee with more frequency is that of the plane ink, that is to say, it is not tinged to give volume, neither the plicronĂ­a exists. The paintings were carried out with fine paintbrushes of bird feather and the used colors are red, black, white. They were obtained mixing mineral pigments with some type of organic exicipient, probably clear of egg or animal fat. At the moment the technical drawing is carried out with computers or computers, because it is easier the modification phase and adaptation on the screen that it has more than enough the paper; they also have since production you can calculate and to observe like the work would be seen finished without more setbacks. Programs like the AutoCAD that it facilitates the technical drawing extraordinarily in many aspects exist. " MATERIALS AND USED TEAMS IN THE DRAWING. It is of great importance for the designer to develop the drawing, because the ideas and initial designs are made by hand before precise drawings are made with instruments. The main instruments in the drawing are: Table and you Scheme of drawing (Board), T Rules, Squads of 30, 45, and 60, drawing paper; Compass, Climbs, Eraser. TABLE - BOARD: It is where he/she is carried out the graphic representation, he/she has to be of a totally flat surface, it can be wooden or of sheet, plastic or some other flat material. The table has some supports that allow the inclination of the same one it leaves bigger comfort. It is important the since illumination should be from right to left and of the front back for not producing shades. It can also be a board of independent work and the work border should be right and it can be proven with a steel rule. IT RULES: It is a rule with a head in one of the ends. When it is used he/she should stay the head of the instrument strong in form against the song of the board to make sure that the lines that are drawn are parallel, also it serves from support to those, you square to trace angle. Of being wooden it is necessary to make sure that their leaf is perfectly direct. SQUADS: The most common that are used are of 60, 30 and that of 45, these they are used together with the rule T or parallel rule when vertical or inclined


lines are drawn. Triangles are also called and they are made of transparent celluloid or of other plastic materials. THE SCALE OR ESCALÍMETRO: The scales are usually referred to the meter, being those most used ones: Esc. 1:100, Esc. 1:75, Esc. 1:50, Esc. 1: 20. The scales are used to measure, it is very important that the designers are precise with the scale. The used scale should be indicated in the ribbon or square for him I title. The escalímetros is metric rules graduated in centimeters and millimeters. He/she has pyramidal form and it has two different scales. THE COMPASS: This instrument is good to draw circumferences and arches. It consists of two arms, in one he/she is the tip and in the other one a narrow lace edging or mine that it rotates having like center the arm with the tip. The provided compass of jetty with screw of central adjustment is used more and more; for the rigidity with which it maintains their opening. For the arches and big circumferences the designers use the bar compass. In some of them the inferior part of an arm is detachable and I know it provides two accessory: One for the mine and another to draw to ink. PENCILS OF DRAWING: To draw it is necessary to use pencils with special mines, this graduates for numbers and letters according to the hardness of the mine. A hard pencil paints softer lines that a soft pencil to equality of pressure. It is the basic instrument for the representation. INSOLES: They are used to draw squared standard forms, hexagonal, triangular and elliptic. These they are used to save time and for further accuracy in the drawing. INSOLES TO ERASE: These are thin metallic pieces that have several openings that allow to erase small details without playing what must be in the drawing. To fade they use rubbers, the most advisable are the calls rubber pencil that exist in the current market. YOU CURVE IRREGULAR: The contours of these they are based on several ellipse combinations, hairsprings and other mathematical curves. These they are used to draw curved lines in which their bend radio is not constant, these they are also called curve gun or curvígrafo. SHARPENER: After having cut the wood of a pencil with a knife or mechanical sharpener, the bar of graphite of the pencil should be tuned and to give him a long conical tip. RUBBER OF ERASING: The soft eraser or of artist that you/they call of milk and of Nysón, it is useful to clean the paper or the cloth of the marks and dirts left by the fingers that harm the aspect of the finished drawing. It also exists the it erases powdered that is for ulterior outrages with the perspiration the graphite left without intention.


IT TINTS FOR DRAWING: The ink for drawing is a powder of finely divided coal, in suspension, with a natural or synthetic rubber attachĂŠ to impede that the mixture one runs easily with the water. The norms for the drawings facilitate the architect their ordination in the office and in the shop for you laud consult5as and remissions. CLOTH TO TRACE OR PAPER CLOTH: A finely knitted cloth is used and recovered by a special starch or for plastic; to either make drawings to pencil or ink. " THE LETTERS. For the complete description of a plane it is required: the graphic language to show the form and disposition, and the writing to indicate the measures, work methods, material types and another information. Therefore, the good draftsman, besides knowing how to draw to the perfection, he/she should have a lot of ease by hand in the writing. The letter class more used averagely it is the Gothic one commercial, with the help of simple line. The letters can be uppercase or of high and minuscule box or of low box, both with the help of inclined type or vertical. In some companies it is used the vertical type exclusively; in other the inclined type. And, finally, they sometimes use vertical letters for the titles and letters bowed for dimensions and notes, or other combinations. The draftsman that wants to occupy a square in some company will adapt to the habit of the same one. The study and the practice give the perfect domain in the way and dimensions of each letter. Short periods of practice, but frequent, they give master in the labeled one. Finally it is necessary to combine the letters evenly to obtain words easy to read. Right of guide. To get uniform letters, guide lines should be traced that they defined the height of the letters. These lines will be of very fine line and to pencil. The distance among lines of letters generally takes from half time to time and the height of the capitals mediates. You begins pointing out the height of the capitals in the first line, and next he/she puts on in the compass of dry tips the chosen distance among inferior borders of letters, marking this way statements inferior borders. Making the same thing with the superior borders, we will have located guide's lines that we need. The practice of writing of the letters should proceed logically to the writing of words and sentences. It is convenient to put special attention to the numbers and fractions that constitute essential part of the enclosed one of a drawing. Labeled to pencil. The order of the lines and the dimensions of the letters should memorize practicing firstly with the pencil before rehearsing with ink. The mine should be sharpened so that a long conical tip it is obtained. The pressure of the pencil on the paper should be the most uniform thing possible


and it is convenient to get used to make rotate the pencil among the fingers each three or four lines, to get a bigger uniformity. The pencil should be sustained in the hand with the necessary minimum force to control the lines. Labeled to ink. The term simple line means that the thick of the sticks and hooks of the letters is uniform and similar to the thick of the line of the feather. The feather of labeling, therefore, he/she should make appropriate uniform lines of the thick one to the size of the letter, in all addresses. Uppercase vertical of simple lines. The vertical lines are executed from top to bottom and the horizontal ones of left to right. The numbers. They require, special attention. Notice you that their form differs enough, as those of the letters, of those used in the normal writing. Broken. They are always made with the line of horizontal quotient. The terms of the fraction have the two thirds of the height of the whole numbers approximately. It is necessary to leave a small space for above and below the line of having broken. Minuscule vertical. The height of the body of some two thirds of the capitals. Inclined capitals. Two points are to always have present in this writing type: first, to conserve an uniform inclination in all the letters and second, to get the correct form of the curved parts of the rounded letters. The inclined lower-case. They get used to use in the explanatory notes to give speed in the writing and clarity in the reading. Their bodies have a height of the two thirds of the capitals with the sticks for up until the superior guide and the sticks down of the same longitude. "The letters that constitute a word don't put on to similar to distance some to other, but rather it is necessary to offer that their relative separations, that is to say, the areas of the white spaces among them are same, what produces the impression evenly of being separate. This way, two letters of right lines will be more distant to each other that other two rounded." Apparatuses and insoles to label. They allow the layout of normalized letters of diverse heights with great uniformity. They are in the thick different market of plumillas for the corresponding sizes. The guides and the insoles also contain many symbols used in the planes, such as welding symbols, architectural, electric, etc. " THE CARD. The card is in the right inferior side of the paper. This contains all the relating informations to the project to carry out, as which designed it, the engineer that will build the work, the proprietor or the proprietors of this work, the used scale, among other important things. " THE NORMALIZATION FOR FORMATS AND BENT OF PAPER IN DRAWING TECHNICIAN.


The norms for the drawings facilitate the architect their ordination in the office and in the shop for the consultations and remissions. The margin of the cover is: 1) in the formats A0-A3 =10mm 2) in the formats A4 - A6 = 5mm In the small drawings a margin of 25 mm is allowed for the one sewn. The narrow formats can be composed exceptionally by succession of same sizes or in immediate ways of the same series. For the one sewn it is left to the left a margin of 5 cm in which one doesn't draw. It is indicated in the sign to the right the drawing class, outline, preliminary design, project. or Indication of the different figures of the building or of the elements of the works represented by situation plane, plants, sections, views, perspective. or Indication of the scale. or sometimes indication of dimensions. The planes that are remitted to the authority in application off of construction should indicate, also: 1) it names of the proprietor (it signs) 2) it names of the architect (it signs) 3) it names of the director of the work (it signs) 4) it names of the manufacturer (it signs) Besides all this in the use of the graphite and the ink should be had special care with the implementation of the rule and the squads. " THE GRAPH OF ELEMENTS OF THE DRAWING. (LINES OF BENCH MARK) The institute of norms in USA and the North American society for Education in Engineering, among other, they have sponsored to the Standard manual of drawing in USA that contains sections with the modern, important terms, as well as the guides more authorized for the uniform practice of drawing. The formats represent the base for dimensions of great part of the furniture and of the material that will use. The norms and knowledge of formats are of great importance for the designer in the architecture, because they facilitated their ordination in the shop for the consultations and remissions. They compose an effective graphic language. For example: or Bench marks and Indications: The bench marks refer to the rough construction (thickness of the wall). The inferior bench marks to a meter in the construction drawings are generally expressed in cm. The superiors in m. they are Lately also admitted in mm. The bench marks of height they refer at the level of the pavement of the low plant that takes as origin.


The dimensions of the steps are written down above along the axis of the print and the against print under. The numbers of rooms are contained in an I circulate. The surface of the rooms is expressed in m2 locked in a square or rectangle. The openings of doors and windows are delimited along the axis of the same ones writing the free width above and under the free height. All the bench mark lines refer to the rough construction (thickness of walls). The inferior bench marks to 1 MT. In the construction drawings they are generally expressed Lately in cm. according to Bowl bench marks they are also admitted in mm. The bench mark lines will be limited by arrows, more in representation of buildings, it is also usual the limitation for inclined lines or normal. The numbers will be placed in such form that their reading is easy without having to return the drawing. All bench mark line with inclination of 0 at 90 (inclusive), measure in the sense of the trigonometrical quadrants, will take the numbers to be read by the observer placed to the right of the drawing. In those of inclination of 90 at 180, to be read from the left. Some types of bench mark lines: 1) lines of bench marks for Arrows 2) lines of bench marks for Inclined Lines. 3) lines of Normal bench marks. " Lines of bench marks for Points. OR DIMENSIONAMIENTO OR DEMARCATION. It is not necessary to forget that and value of a drawing not only resides in a correct representation in the ways, but also in the exact indication and white of the dimensions or demarcations. The omission of an alone one of these can disable the executed better design, and a mistaken demarcation can have serious consequences. Therefore, the demarcation should be made with much care. Bench mark and indications. All the bench marks refer to the rough construction (thickness of walls). The inferior bench marks at 1m in the construction drawings are generally expressed in cm, the superiors in m. Lately according to Bowl bench marks are admitted also in mm. The sections of chimneys and ventilation channels were indicated as a broken of the lights in form of wide / long; if they are circular, the same thing that the pipes, it is indicated by their diameter, with the sign Ă˜. The escuadrias, was also indicated with the one broken wide / long. The dimensions of the steps are written down along the axis of the stairway; the print above and the riser under.


The openings of doors and windows are delimited along the axis of the same ones, writing the free width up and under the free height. The bench marks of height refer at the level of pavement of the low plant that takes as origin. The numbers of the rooms are locked in a circle. The surface of the rooms is expressed m2 locked in a square or rectangle. " LINES OF IT CUTS They are represented in the line plants and point and they are designated with uppercase letters in placed alphabetical order of agreement with the sense in that he/she looks at himself the cut. According to the norms, the lines of bench marks were limited by arrows, but in the representation of buildings it is also usual the limitation for inclined lines or normal. The numbers were placed in such form that their reading is easy without having to return the drawing. All bench mark line with zero inclination to ninety grades (inclusive) measure in the sense of the trigonometrical quadrants, took the numbers to be read by the observer placed to the right of the drawing. In the inclination of ninety to hundred eighty grades, to be read from the left. YOU LINE OF AXIS: They are also called of contour they can be used as reference lines of that of bench mark. " WALLS In the walls depending on the representation of the grosor the implementation of the material is deduced where decides the block type. All the walls are equally proportional and in each window representation or door is made notice on this the thickness and its material for the graphic thing. Example: In the windows they are projected the mochetas also made in the wall and the turn and projection of the door the visible one on these. IN WALLS OF STONE: It is necessary to pay attention to the good connection or union of the apparel in longitude and in depth, each 1.5 to 2 m of height will couch to a spun one to regulate, that is to say, successive heights of the floor of the scaffold. The meetings, according to the roughness and the work of the stone, will have a thickness <or = 3cm the mortar of lime was used or of lime and cement that of cement originates stains since, only in some stones. IN WALLS: For their function we denominate them: " Subject with mocheta and threshold, their measure is exactly similar to the opening. b) Sliding when being you hold up and below used for garages in their majority. and) Revolvable sustained by an axis that at the same time it is held under and it arrives for the mark. Used for commercial centers. " Plegadiza works in wide spaces and they are used for security in trade and if this made with resistant metal.


OR THE DOORS (FOR THEIR CONTRUCCION OR THEIR MATTER PREVAILS): The doors can be wooden, metal, glass, etc., they exist: " Of united planks to each other that in turn they can form drum, of a board or two, of a leaf among other types of the realizable ones in wood. 2) of a drum with glass window. " Of metal termorresistente, sliding employees in drivers. " WINDOWS For the windows the mochetas and the average form are used of this it is the interior but in the very windy countries the external one is used, that is to say that in this the wind pushes the window against the mark; this in turn gives more useful surface of windowsill. The double windows or of box they are two windows of independent maneuver mounted in the same mark. The glasses bend they form with two glass sheets mounted in metallic wing. The windows enrollables require a higher lintel for the roll. For their matter it prevails we can say that there are wooden windows, glass, aluminum among other and they differ in the representation form in the architectural plants. In the vain corresponding to the metallic windows they can be inserted with mochetas the wooden windows. " FLOORS (RECUBRIMIENTOS IN GENERAL). The pavements exercise a great influence in the aspect of the rooms and the cost of the same ones has preponderance in the value of the housing. or Pavements of Tiles: Of natural or artificial stone, terrazo, ceramic, sandstone, glass, xilolita, asphalt, plastic, etc., in general of good aspect and easy to clean, but colds and hard to the footfall (good with heating in the floor). or Natural Stone: to) The flagstones of calcareous stone, slate and gritty stone are used with natural surface, semipulida or refined. b) sawed Flagstones of limestone (marble), gritty and all the eruptive rocks with it works it superficial that wants: 25.75 cm, thickness 20-50 mm. or wooden Pavements: Parquets of charts of 2.5 cm of thick, rough or brushed by an or for both faces, with songs to the end, had measured wood and fluke, etc., width of the charts 10-15 cm. or Mosaics: Of small pieces, with diverse colors, of stone, glass or ceramic, embedidas in cement mortar. or Linings: Tightened that they cover all the surfaces of the floor and they notice for the borders with tacks, hooks or wooden lists or I steel. or I Pave: hard of cement for traffic of great waste. or Pavement of Slight Concrete: With good thermal isolation as floating layer also of concrete of foam. Esperso <or = 45mm.


or Bricked: Where the cork pieces and plastic of 3-5 mm of thickness stick to a concrete channel. or The Continuous Pavements of cement to be inelastic: You they divide by means of dilation meetings with lists, in fields of about 16 m2. or Terrazo: With normal cement for gray tones or with cement target for clear tones and dilation meetings with brass lists or of plastic forming fields of = 1 m =1 m2 or Parquet: to) Of splints, it is placed with nails on a parquet or floor clavable or hit with asphalt or line has more than enough concrete channel. " Of mosaics, with splints of 35 to 70 cm of long and badges of noble wood forming ornamental drawings, and he/she sticks with line. OR TYPES OF NORTH. For the orientation, it is given in the plane an elementary information, indicating the situation of a construction in connection with the sun. The strict form of the date exists without decorations and of the guided triangle; then they present more developed intermediate forms, to arrive to the rose of the artistic compass of a designer of fertile imagination. In all the situation planes, plants, etc., the North address should be indicated. " FURNITURE. or Bathrooms: in the bathroom it should be furnished with Toilets with I deposit of discharge, the showers that are mounted in a corner, separating them of the rest of the room with a window or a waterproof curtain. The rest rooms, the since pavement should be waterproof, another team is the pipes, closets, lavamanos, among others. or you Cook: the furniture and teams for the kitchen are represented for the determination of spaces and forms it is for what is projected refrigerator, stove, sink, colander, cabinets, among others. or you Salt: they are equipped with sometimes the useful one, lobby, furniture, shelves, stools, armchairs, tables with flowers, lamp among other and also the dining room has its proportional dining room to the construction, carpets among others. " THE TREES. For tradition, the architectural planes have included the area that surrounds to the building, designing it. Those paved, those that have plants, the trees and the recubrimiento of the land. To draw environments two techniques they are used: The realist in which the abstract forms are chosen because the character of the contour in the total way simply suggests the character of the units. " THE VEHICLES


This is projected for the convincing of the spaces and that the client verifies and certify the implementation of these. " YOU FIGURE HUMAN. The figures should adapt to the building type in what refers to number, composition (man - woman, adult - children), posture and dress. They are located so that they use the space (the piece of furniture, the doors), but without hiding decisive architectural features (corners, details). they are formed groups of figures of appropriate size and it is to avoid a room full with "isolated people". he/she Draws whole figures and agree them on the floor. It is necessary to avoid to cut them to the height of the waist or of the legs. The figures should be less detailed than the building, because it is not sought to sell clothes. We use them to create a visual rhythm that goes toward the entrance of the building. " TEXTURES OF WALLS AND ROOFS. RECUBRIMIENTOS OF WALLS: In the brick walls and stone will be considered included in the resistant section the seat recubrimiento if he/she has this a bigger thickness or similar to 12 cm. The linings of flagstones of stone of 2, 5 - 5, cm of thickness like: The travertino, limestone, conchĂ­fera, granite, they are not counted as resistant section of the wall and the flagstones notice to this separate 2 cm, with stainless anchorages; then the hole is stuffed with strained mortar. The dimensions of the ashlars should be disagreement with the size of the building. RECUBRIMIENTOS OF ROOF. In the first place it is necessary to generally mention the roofs that are covered with flake tiles, as tiled double. Covered with Straw: of cement thrashed by hand or of canes of 1. 2 at 1, 4 m of long. They are placed with the tips up and have more than enough lists. Screeched: The shingles are charts of 1, 5 at 2, 5 cm of thick, 10 to 25 cm of wide and 80 to 100 cm of long, of oak, elera, fir and more strange of pine than they are nailed on lists. The oak lasts from 90 to 100 years. Slatings: The slates are nailed to a boarding formed with charts of 2,5 cm of thick as minimum and 16 width cm like maximum protected against the entrance of wind and powder with a layer of cardboard of 200 g/m2. Covered Metallic: Of black iron foil of zinc, of copper or of aluminum with diverse forms. Covered with Cardboard with adhesive mass: They are placed parallel to the eaves with slopes until of 30% and perpendicular to this with more slope. Cardboards are usually used #500 at 333 and this number indicates the weight in grams for m2.


As roofs, the best are those of hollow bricks or concrete blocks according to the construction of the floors and superior layer of concrete with necessary slopes for drainages. Those of glass or skylights formed by a grilled of concrete arming and glass tiles, all hormigonado jointly, or filling the hole previously left with mark prefabricado of armed concrete and placing in this the glass tiles. " YOU CLIMB AND GRAPHICS. The indications of scales, leaving of the simple graduate scale, they can be varied to adapt them to the graphic style of the plane. The relationship between graduate scale and human figure, he/she can even give the human scale and the third dimension like supplementary informations. " MODERN METHODS OF THE DRAWING. The modernization of the technical drawing resides in the years 1850 with the first company manufacturer of drawing instruments in the USA In 1876 the procedure of copies heliogr谩ficas begins, discarding this way the drawing techniques in fine lines by means of the shade use or shades and the employment of having diluted in watercolor. Until approximately the beginning of the XX century, the drawings were generally made in what calls you projection of first angle in which the view of the plant was placed under the front view, the view of the left side, it was placed to the right of the front view. Etc. For then USA The practice gradually, was defined in favor of the current projection of third angle in the which seen or elevations are located in what we consider as possible logics or natural. Several drawing techniques exist like they are: or Technique to pencil or Technique to ink or down Technique or gonache Technique or watercolor Technique or color Technique or aer贸grafo Technique The most modern and up-to-date are the AutoCAD and the MiniCAD. " EXERCISE OF THE DRAWING IN REPUBLIC OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 1. - what systems do the architects and engineers use to design or to draw in the Republic Of the Dominican Republic (traditional or for computers)?. Mainly to draw (preparation of planes of a project) the architects use more the help of the computers. . In the country the architects work with diverse drawing programs, those most used ones are Autocad, miniCad and MacroStation, but others exist. Advantages (main and general):


- The time of preparation of the planes of a complete project decreases considerably. - It facilitates the corrections and modifications in the planes of a project. - To file the projects in perfect state single squatter some bytes in a zipdrive. Disadvantages: - It requires a period of learning and to buy a drawing team but expensive that the traditional one and a drawing program (as the Autocad) quite expensive (although up to now, the students manage it to copy it, but soon he/she can that it is no longer possible) - Although he/she helps when designing, we still think better with a pencil and paper of the hand. It is question of time. Advantages of the traditional drawing: - To design, to capture quick ideas, to make skeches, it is still more comfortable with the hand. - The drawings have a special warmth when they are made by hand. They seem less cold. Disadvantages: - More time to elaborate the complete project. - The corrections and modifications are uncomfortable and they need a lot but time. - The storage of planes in paper bears to the gradual deterioration of these, and to the use of big spaces. - The posture when drawing on a drawing table can tire much more and to affect to the column. Conclusions: In the country during the last 15 years, and with more force in the last 10 years, the on-line aided drawing has gone displacing to the drawing made on paper in a drawing table in the prepaci贸n of the planes for projects. It is question of little time so that all draftsman uses some drawing program in a computer to draw the planes. All the companies of Engineering and architecture already almost use in their drawing shops to the computers. - The drawing table doesn't disappear, he/she decreases of size, and it is of where they leave (still) the basic ideas for the projects. These ideas then are captured in the planes that are elaborated with the computer. - All engineering student and architecture should learn how to dominate this tool (I draw on-line) with the same dexterity with which it manages to the triangle and the rule T. " CLASSIFICATION Assisting to that one draws is classified in: & I draw civil or structural & I draw architectural


& I draw industrial & I draw electric & I draw sanitarium. Assisting to how it is drawn it is classified in: & I draw continuous & I draw natural. " I DRAW STRUCTURAL This it is applied to the drawings of the works of steel, wooden, of masonry, of concrete, etc..., for bridges, buildings and preys. Solely practical Defieren of the other ones that have been developed as peculiar to the materials with those that one works and to their procedure and production. " STRUCTURES OF WOOD The representation of the structures wooden reticuladas doesn't understand new principles, but it requires particular attention in the details or unions. The wooden members are generally of rectangular section and they are specified in nominal sizes of inches, wall, as 8" and 12." The general drawings should give the distances to the axes or centers. The drawings of details facts to great scale give for separate the specific information for the pieces or parts. The particularities of the meetings should be detailed (you connect, assemble), the methods of union, etc. " YOU STRUCTURE MASONRY. The used symbols keep some likeness with the material represented. The drawings of pillars, foundations for machineries, it is in all the classes of engineering work. The levels of the rasantes of the land, those of the floor and other fixed heights should be given together with the exact situation costs of the anchorage dogs. All the materials owe marks in a simple way with names of notes. " STRUCTURES OF ARMED CONCRETE. This is an important division of the factory of the work that he/she needs careful attention in their representation and specification. It is almost impossible to represent the forms of the bars concretely of armed or I reinforce that takes the concrete or concrete for the orthographic views of the system usual diĂŠtrico, without the employment of a systematic outline of symbols and marked conventional. " STRUCTURES OF SHOP. The separate drawings and facts to a sufficiently big scale to contain certain complete information call themselves drawings of details for shop. All the parts are represented to scale and they should be observed particularly that the rivets and their heads are drawn exactly to scale. In the steel construction, a member can be formed well by an it only profiles laminate or to be composed of two or more than these profiles.


" HANDLING OF INSTRUMENTS. When you grieve he/she begins to draw, the best thing is to simply work with the rule T and a drawing chart. He/she will allow to be possible "to Feel" this instruments, besides being able to "to Square" with smaller difficulty the drawing paper on the chart, for the first drawings is recommended to use a paper size letter. An or several squads and a roll of adhesive tape, etc. will also be used The squads are used to trace vertical lines, horizontal lines and angles. The basic squads used for drawing are those of 450y of 6O0. The transporter can have form to circulate or semicircular and he/she is used to measure angles. The compass is an instrument used for the line of circles and arches, as much to pencil as to ink. The compasses for divisions resemble the common compass, only the first ones have the two metal tips. They are used to take measures, to transport stockings or to divide lines. The drawing can be carried out better if he/she covers the work surface with a leaf of thick paper and if we have within our reach all the materials and teams that will use. The reason for which the use of the thick paper is recommended as cover is due to the fact that the wood of the drawing chart or of the restirador he/she can have small perforations or ruggedness in the surface, due to the veins of the wood. This covered with paper will provide a surface of soft work and without irregularities. When it is placed the covered with paper on the restirador, it is necessary to make sure that this doesn't cover the border for which the head of the rule that is generally the left border of the stretcher runs. " CLASSIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS. General plane. This includes a profile of the land; the employment of the structures, elevations of the basic points of the structure; spaces udders and slopes; senses of the current and all the necessary one to project the subestructura and the superestructura. " DIAGRAM OF REINFORCEMENT. This will give the main dimensions of the structure, the positions, the efforts taken place in all the members by the dead, alive loads, the due ones to the wind, etc. " DRAWING OF SHOP. Drawings of details of all the iron parts should be made and of steel, as well as all the wooden works, factory and concrete. " PLANE OF FOUNDATION.


It should contain the detailed drawings of all the parts of the foundation, the walls, the pillars, etc. that you/they support the structure. " OUTLINE OF ERECTION, ARMED OR CONSTRUCTION. It should illustrate the relative relationship, of each part of the structure, the shipment marks or expeditions of the diverse members, all the main costs, the number (#) of piece that each member, packing of the pins, takes grab and longitude of it presses of these and any information that he can help to the armador or land linker. " PLANE OF FALSE OR TRANSITORY WORKS. These when it is ordinary structures, they are not made in the office, but rather it is left to the armador of the work so that it solves in the land; but in the event of being complicated works, they should be carried out these planes in the office and to detail the steps required for the armador applies it in the land. " HE/SHE NOTICES OF MATERIALS They should include the different parts or pieces of the structure with their marks and expedition weight. This is necessary to allow the confirmation of the expeditions and their pesos and the arrival of materials. " IT LISTS OF RIVETS. This should show the dimensions and number (#) of all those that must place in the work, and of all the dogs, spikes, etc. that you/they should be used in the construction or structural creation. " IT LISTS OF DRAWINGS. They should be made a list of all the drawings that you/they correspond to the structure. " YOU DETAIL THAT THEY FORM THE CONTENT OF THE PLANES. The planes are made up of the plant elevations, sections, termination chart, plants structural, some require: Foundation plant, plants electric, sanitary, it plants isometric and architectural detail. The electric, sanitary and structural plants, take details that are characteristic of her. The planes can be divided them in irons: The first iron: It is where the following graphics are composed. or localization Plant or location Plant or it Plants of roof or Chart of determination or Index of the irons The second iron: This consists of: or it Plants dimensionada


or architectural Plant or it Plants furnished or Charts of doors and of windows It plants architectural: It is the imaginary cut that we project from the construction to window level. Charts: They are the squares where they put on the informations of the following elements. or Charts of doors or Charts of windows or sanitary Legends or electric Legends or termination Chart and finish. The third iron. It is the one that is composed of the elevations and sections. Elevations. It is the third iron, four elevations appear, frontal, lateral right, later and lateral left. Cut: They are the cuts pointed out in the architectural plant to observe the interior and the given structural behavior vertically. Fourth iron. The content of this it is the following one: He/she irons sanitary. It is the plant where it is placed the whole pipe of drinkable water and black waters as well as the games of sanitary apparatuses, as: Lavamanos, toilets, bathtubs, sinks, laundries, etc. Registration or inspection box. This is to register or to inspect when there are detained objects in a pipe, their dimensions are generally of IMT X IMT which is forged in short. Trap of fat. It is where he/she accumulates all the fat of the kitchen. or Detail of kitchen or Detail of bathroom Legends. It is where all the written informations are placed and symbolic. It plants isometric. Fifth iron. Their content is the following one: It plants electric: It is where the whole wire fence is placed specifically in the given moment, the switches, he/she takes he/she comments, exit of light, etc.


Diagram united filiar: The panel is the box of distribution of the circuits formed in certain projects, this box is placed in the kitchen. He/she notices: When the construction is big, the case can be given of making the independent plant, dividing electric plant would illuminate and electric plant of switches. - Distribution panel - Electric legend. Sixth iron. This contains. It plants structural: It is where the design of the structure is made in steel (bars), three games of bars can appear. oEncamelladas oAdicionales reinforcement oPlanos Detail structural: These details are the projections of columns, beams, halfboots, lintels, stairways and walls. " YOU STRUCTURE OF STEEL. ADVANTAGES OF THE STEEL LIKE STRUCTURAL MATERIAL: High resistance: the high resistance of the steel for unit of weight, allows relatively light structures, that which is of great importance in the construction of bridges, high buildings and you structure laid the foundation in soft floors. Homogeneity: the properties of the steel don't lose temper with the time, neither they vary with the localization in the structural elements. Elasticity: the steel is the material that more he/she comes closer lineally to a behavior elastic (Law of Hooke) until reaching considerable efforts. Dimensional precision: the laminate profiles are manufactured low standards that allow to settle down in a very precise way the geometric properties of the section. Ductility: the steel allows to support big deformations without flaw, reaching high efforts in tension, helping to that the flaws are evident. Tenacity: the steel has the capacity to absorb big quantities of energy in deformation (elastic and inelastic). Easiness of union with other members: the steel in profiles you can connect easily through rivets, screws or welding with other profiles. Assembly speed: the construction speed in steel is very superior to the rest of the materials. Readiness of sections and sizes: the steel is available in profiles to optimize its use in great quantity of sizes and forms. Recovery cost: the structures of waste steel, have a recovery cost in the worst in the cases like steel scrap.


Recyclable: the steel is a material 100 recyclable% besides being degradable for what doesn't contaminate. It allows amplifications easily: the steel allows modifications and/or amplifications in projects in a relatively simple way. Prefabricar structures is been able to: the steel allows to carry out most possible of a structure in shop and the minimum one in work getting bigger accuracy. DISADVANTAGES OF THE STEEL: Corrosion: the exposed steel to bleakness suffers corrosion for what you/they should always be recovered with enamels alquid谩licos (primary anticorrosive) excepting to the special steels as the stainless one. Heat, fire: in the case of fires, the heat spreads quickly for the structures making diminish its resistance until reaching temperatures where the steel behaves plastically, should be protected with insulating recubrimientos of the heat and of the fire (retardantes) as mortar, concrete, asbestos, etc. I bulge elastic: due to their high resistencia/peso the employment of slender profiles subject to compression, those make susceptible to the I bulge elastic, for what you/they are not economic in occasions the steel columns. It tires: the resistance of the steel (as well as of the rest of the materials), it can diminish when he/she undergoes a great number of load investments or frequent changes of magnitude of efforts to tension (you load pulsantes and alternative). Plastificaci贸n resistance only for short columns.


THE DRAWING IN OUR MEANS. At the present time the drawing had reached a grade of incredible importance, in our means, the drawing of most of the architectural offices and engineering is carried out by means of a called calculation program (autocad), this program began with the version No.14 and at the present time it has arrived until the version No.2000, but this it has not been so welcomed by its cost and complexity. The use of the system computerized in S.D. it began in the offices of the Arq. PlĂĄcido Pineapple, with the program (Minicad), this program is compatible only in machines apple, this program can be passed to the (autocad). Another design program and drawing that it is still using more than the (autocad) it is the SAI> 2000, which a sinnĂşmero of options that facilitate the designs, toasts as well as the drawing of structural members as they are beams, columns, foundations, walls of blocks, etc. I draw Architectural The architecture drawing is a graphic language built by lines and conceived symbols you have such a form that is not possible to give place to different interpretations. An architectural drawing is made with the purpose of indicating how a housing will be built to a building, and to demonstrate which its aspect will be finished once

Construction of a Housing For the construction of a housing answer should be given to a series of defendants: The programs of necessities determined by the proprietor will derive of the number of members of the family group that will be a decisive factor in the number of bedrooms and bathrooms q they will project


The conditions fixed by the construction ordinances that regulate the construction of properties and they limit the construction surface inside the parcel, the possible heights the number of allowed plants, the facade, etc. The conditions that it presents the nature: the topography of the land, the climate, the vegetation, etc.

Program of Necessities It can be classified in three groups: Area of being: it is conformed by the living room the dining room and the terrace being this the minimum composition of a housing habitual unifamiliar. Area of Bedrooms: it is the place of being night, the most intimate and private part in the housing and in that sense it should be projected The they integrate the bedrooms and bathrooms Area of Services: they conform it the kitchen the laundry, other bathrooms the tradesman, the garage, etc.

Plane of Work The work planes contain the data referred to the structure and the same building. These data constitute the instructions that the planner gives to the manufacturer and they should work freely without interrupting the work to formulate consultations The work planes commonly include the drawing of plants roofs, basements, foundation of the four elevations, an or more sections and the location of the building. The following ones should be in all work plane: - Dimensions of the visible parts of the structure and contours of the objects that are in planes located under that in that the cut has been made. - Type and termination of the construction and description of the materials to be used. - Indication and dimensions of the limits of all special team, as well as the location of openings, stairways, etc.

Topographical planes (T)


They contemplate the situation-location planes.

Structural planes (AND) They contemplate the planes of foundations, of envigado and detail of beams.

Architectural planes (TO) They contemplate the planes of floor plant and of roof; of court facades and of perspective.

Planes of Electric Facilities (IE) It contemplates the planes of electric assaults, electric net in plants and planes of main board.

Topographical planes (T) The topographical plane of the land provides information on its relief. In occasions he/she appears included in the own location plane by means of drawing with fine lines of the corresponding level curves. The topographical planes contemplate situation planes and location. The used scales will depend on the size of the construction and of the land it roasted as the environment urbanĂ­stico; the most usual are 1:500, 1:750 and 1:1000.

Architectural planes (TO) They are those that allow to visualize how it will be inside and on the outside the housing or building. The architectural ones are: Planes of floor plant and of roof, Planes of Facades, Planes of Court and Perspective.

Plant planes.


It is the section where walls are represented, doors, windows etc., to a such height that allows the numerous particularities that refer to their construction to settle down. The planes of it plants of floor they are carried out as that if the housing or building had been cut by a horizontal plane. When eliminating the superior part it is visible all that was cut and what is below that cut.

Roofs In accordance with their form, the roofs can be: - With a single decline. - With two declines - Four declines - Horizontal - Facades They are the three views of a housing: - Previous (frontal or main) - Later (of behind) - Lateral (right or left) They also receive the name from having run off with or elevations and their primordial purpose is the one of providing us the heights of doors windows floors and roofs.

Planes of Elevation They are the vertical projections on parallel planes to the facades or fronts. To demonstrate in total form the facades of a housing or building four elevations they are required.

Planes of court of sections A section is the plane that represents the projection of a building cut in vertical sense, or what is same a perpendicular cut to the plant plane. He/she has for object to show those aspects that are not sufficiently explained or understood through the facades and the plants. These planes are generally carried out scale of 1:50.


It is not always enough a section to demonstrate the whole interior construction is needed two sections at least; one in longitudinal sense (to the long thing) and another in traverse sense (to the wide thing).

Perspective The planes in perspective give an impression of the housing finished with a sanction of third dimension. They are used to demonstrate the appearance of future constructions and they are used with the purpose of obtaining promotion effects and sale. PICTURES


Bridge reticulado of armed concrete. Additionally, the bridge has curved plant. The slender section of the diagonals forces the use of a double system of diagonals so that the cut is always taken by a diagonal traccionada.

Bridge of armed concrete with suspenders. This outline could be considered as an antecedent of the bridges with obenques. The picture shows half of the structure.


Tank circular pretensado with tendons circunferenciales. The picture shows the area of anchorages with the steel small cases dedicated to generate after the hormigonado the necessary space for tesar the cables

I roof pretensado. In a first stage elements leaning concrete premoldeados are placed in the cables. Later on you hormigonan the meetings to constitute the final shell.


" CONCLUSION. It is surprising all that we could observe then doesn't notice before the important thing that they are the norms for the drawing and all the materials that we can use and their implementation without ulterior damages, the knowledge to use the drawing farm tools for a better projection is aspects that he/she should keep in mind a good designer, besides wanting the client's pleasure. The forms of graphic presentation of the elements of the drawing should be well managed I don't only eat an end aesthetic but also as measure in pro of the spaces that the man owes and it will use. In Rep. Dom. this field is very demanding and one also has a notorious advance and development longings are perceived that wait they are obtained automated architectural programs then they are already implemented as the Car CAD that helps the architect and it facilitates him the work so that I sent this way their energy to the creation of useful and beneficial spaces with its great imaginative potential, for very common.


" BIBLIOGRAPHY: ART OF TAKING ADVANTAGE IN ARCHITECTURE. Ernest Neufert. pamphlet dnrs. I DRAW BASIC: Editorial town and education, Havana, 1976. RESIDENCE PLAZOLA BEFORE THE PROJECT. E. Neufert. PROVISIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE SEOPC. I regulate of drawing technician. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE CONSTRUCTION. Editions DAL and S.L. I take I-II-IIIIV-V-VI-VII-VIII.


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