References........................................... 40-41 List of Illustrations............................. 42-43 Bibliography...................................... 44-47 Ethical Form..................................... 48 Appendices ....................................... 50-97
Introduction......................................... 4-5 Methodology......................................... 6-9 Trend Research
Appendix 2 Tutorial sheets.................................. 52-57
Storytelling.......................................... 10-15 Harley Davidson Case Study............ 16-23 Mass Personalisation........................ 24-27
Appendix 3 Team minutes................................. 58-65
The Consumer.................................... 28-29 Future Recommendations Fred Perry Case Study........................ 30-35 Being MINI.......................................... 36 Dealership Environment.................. 37 Why Now?............................................ 38-39
Appendix 1 Critical Path..................................... 50-51
Appendix 4 Blank Questionnaire................... 66 Questionnaire results.................. 67-69 Appendix 5 Consent forms.............................. 71 Interview 1................................... 72-73 Interview 2................................... 74-75 Appendix 6 Consent Forms............................ 78-81 Interview 1.................................. 82-87 Interview 2.................................. 88-91 Appendix 7 Consent........................................ 92 Interview 1.................................. 93-95 Interview 2.................................. 96
INTRODUCTION From the rocking sixties to the rally circuit, the MINI brand has become celebrated all over since its launch in 1959. In 2001 BMW decided to re-launch the MINI, mixing the old with the new design to create a new cult classic. What was brought to life was a brand that was fun, energetic and vibrant; BMW created a premium car that was different than any other car brand in the market. From then MINI has grown in success since its initial launch, now with over nine types of MINIâ€™s, and the option the customise and change your car to suit you, consumers now get an even better MINI experience. The brand has developed its own product range and branched out to a non-car market for the first time. The lifestyle collection sells clothing to jewellery, suitcases to mugs and even kidswear. The collection is an extension of the car brand, with its own online website, being available in dealerships and most recently in standalone lifestyle stores. FIG 1: Woman in a MINI, 1959
MINI now has dedicated fans, followers and drivers across the world, not just buying in to these products but choosing the MINI way of life. The brand has been able to capture the imagination of the public and become to some a brand they aspire to. Part of the MINI brief was to develop this relationship further and look at how to encourage more customer interaction. The main aims of the brief were to encourage more lifestyle consumers in to the dealership, determine other routes to market, identify trends relevant to MINI lifestyle and determine how consumers relate to the lifestyle range. Throughout, research has been collected to answer these questions in the brief, hoping to recreate MINI as a relatable brand for consumers, focusing on the lifestyle elements, looking to the future but also connecting the communication to MINIâ€™s long running history.
METHODOLOGY There were many goals I hoped to achieve from the research conducted; these were to have a clearer understanding of the MINI brand, both the car and the lifestyle collection. Having no previous knowledge or experience with the lifestyle collection, it was important to find out as much information about the range. Research in to the MINI consumer was a key finding which was vital to inform the future recommendation. I wanted to understand whether there were differences in terms of the MINI car consumer versus who bought in to the lifestyle collection. All of this research was conducted through different research methods, hoping to achieve research which correctly informed the next stage of the project. Firstly to find out a more comprehensive understanding of the car market, secondary sources were used to broaden my own knowledge. These sources included reports from sites such as Mintel and WGSN, which provided me with valuable insider information. All these opinions allowed me to build on my own understanding of MINI as a brand, which I then incorporated in to the primary research I found.
FIG 2: Woman posing on old MINI cooper, 1970's
As part of my secondary research, I wanted to find out competitors in the market for MINI, not simply car brands but brands that are focusing on lifestyle as the main driver behind their brand. This included looking at the motorbike brand Harley Davidson, a bike brand that have become an iconic image in motoring history in America and also sell a lifestyle range. This case study is analysed further in the storytelling trend research.
FIG 3,4,5: Ferrari merchandise in store, 2012
For primary research, it was important to use both quantitative and qualitative methods to establish the facts but also gain the consumer insight that was vital for the recommendation. To start the initial research process, a questionnaire was produced, aimed at current MINI drivers to understand why they chose MINI. To ensure the best results, the questionnaire was piloted first to five people, allowing us to make any last changes. This questionnaire was sent out via email and Facebook, allowing us to get almost instant responses from over the web. In total we questioned 52 MINI car owners, all questions and results can be seen in appendix 4. From this initial questionnaire, it was important to gain more consumer insight, not just from current MINI owners but from consumers who have decided against buying in to the brand. This led us to interview two more consumers in more detail (appendix 5), who for various reasons decided against MINI. We were able to discover their experience in the dealership, their relationship with the lifestyle range and their opinions on the brand in general. From asking about MINI from a consumer perspective, it was important to gather knowledge from employees, the people who understand their core values. To achieve this, my group and I visited the local Nottingham dealership to interview members of staff. These staff included the brand manager, branch manager and sales manager, as well as a sales assistant; all interviews conducted were transcribed and are in appendix 6.
In November 2012 my group and I visited the Ferrari store on Regent Street; this was beneficial for this project because we got to see how another car brand in the premium market have been able to make their brand more than simply the car but a way of life. On the visit, we looked around the store and took photographs (see opposite), noting the customer interaction and any ideas that MINI could take forward. All of the above research was carried out ethically and each participant was willing and fully informed about the project prior to interviewing. All participants filled out consent forms which are in the appendix with the corresponding results of each research method.
FIG6,7,8: Photographs from Nottingham Dealership, 2012
Another Interview we conducted was with the Fashion brand Fred Perry, we spoke to a manager from a Nottingham store about their lifestyle image and how they successfully connect to their consumer base. These interviews are fully transcribed in appendix 7.
STORYTELLING FIG 9: Rose sitting in MINI cooper, Venus, 2012
We found two key trends emerging in to 2013/14 that we thought were most relevant to the MINI brand and how they can develop their lifestyle collection. The first was the idea of storytelling within a brand’s communication. More and more consumers want to immerse themselves in to the story behind a brand or product; this has been seen most recently in different TV campaigns and visual merchandising in store windows. This trend sees the move away from simply stating the brand functionalities and attributes but engaging in a more personal relationship with the consumer. Daye (2013) commented that ‘Storytelling is at the very heart of how we humans share and connect what we value about our heritage, communities and ourselves’. From this, it shows how creating stories is intrinsic to everyday communication, it is something we are naturally inclined to do, so this can be used effectively within a brand’s message.
This shift was seen most prominently during Christmas 2012, there was a move away from price-led campaigns to more emotional adverts that conveyed a story. In an article on the ‘UK Retail Predictions for 2013’ Ashton (2013) observes that this trend will continue in to the new year ‘and the key to success will be brands staying true to themselves and their customers’. Adverts such as John Lewis’ Christmas campaign provoked an emotion whilst telling a story and focused on building the brand to consumer report instead of promoting discounts and sales which so many brands do nowadays. It is this differentiation which sets brands like John Lewis apart from the rest. John Lewis was one of the first to incorporate this type of communication in to their advertising, with their ‘Always a Woman’ campaign in 2010. Now many other brands have followed suit, such as Boots and Debenhams respectively. However, it can be noted that there is a level of risk involved with this type of communication; the John Lewis Marketing Director Craig Inglis stated that ‘if the authenticity wasn’t there our customers would see right through it, they are pretty discerning’ (Inglis in Brooks, 2012).
FIG 11: John Lewis Christmas Advert, 2010
FIG 10: John Lewis Christmas Advert, 2012
FIG 12: Lightowler's five levels of storytelling
Using this method effectively all amounts to a brand connecting to their audience correctly, if they use it well brands have the opportunity to create happiness for the people interacting with their product and create communities around them. Lightowler (2012) writes about the idea of storytelling to create ‘impact brands’ and has described stories that ‘motivate, inspire and persuade people are important. You can’t trust and authenticity without desire’. He goes on to define five levels of storytelling that brands need to consider when building a story, as seen in figure. Lightowler argues that great brands are able to build this pyramid of stories through level one to five and that good customer service, a product or brand all connect back to the five types of storytelling.
WHY AND HOW? MINI has a great consumer following that all love the MINI way of life. Their consumers immerse themselves in to the MINI lifestyle, customising their cars, buying different products and engaging online. The storytelling trend could potentially hold exciting new opportunities for MINI; if they were able to use this trend in their own communication it could not only benefit the brand but also create a more personal relationship with their consumer. From the questionnaire we found a great deal of MINI owners that were more than happy to share their MINI stories as visualised below. Each consumer had their own story to tell, whether it was telling us about Mickey the MINI or describing their favourite road trip to date (questionnaire results, see appendix 4b). What we found was that each consumer had a different association with the brand and their own anecdote about their experience. I think MINI do not use this quality to their advantage, if they focused their advertising and communication more on the consumer and their connotations of the brand then I think they would achieve greater success as a lifestyle brand.
‘Driving to Sheffield for a girl’s weekend with a few friends, me driving in my MINI, my friend following behind driving her MINI, both convertibles with the roofs down’ Anonymous, 2012
‘The first drive home after buying it’ Anonymous, 2012
‘I love it, I feel like i'm in a go cart!!! In a modern and stylish car, but still feel young when driving it. Having a mini feels like the world is your oyster and you can go anywhere....the mini is so reliable that distance is never an issue’ Anonymous, 2012
‘My first drive in my new mini’
HARLEY DAVIDSON CASE STUDY
Harley Davidson is a brand that cleverly promotes their products through focusing on the customers’ own personal connection to the brand. They use the storytelling trend throughout their communication and are able to connect with their consumer base. With over 102 year’s history in the motorbike industry, the brand has developed its own brand ethos and message which resonates with their customers. It is now an American icon; Harley’s mantra is ‘It’s a journey, not a destination’ and this is something they preach throughout their entire brand communication. The brand is associated with freedom, adventure and belonging, their customers’ range from business men to southern bikers but all have one thing in common; the love for the brand and what it stands for. It is this diverse range of consumers that makes lifestyle brands like Harley different than many brands in the market, they target a large group of people yet still manage to connect to the consumer personally.
FIG 13: Dashboard on old MINI cooper, circa 1960
“What we sell is the ability for a 43-yearold accountant to dress in black leather, ride through small towns and have people be afraid of him.” Richard Teerlink FIG 14: HARLEY DAVIDSON ADVERT, 2012
'Harley Davidson is a person in disguise. Harley Davidson appeals to you as an individual, appeals to your need for escape and adventure. The whole spirit is the ability to take that individuality to customisation'
Hackley (2010) in ‘Advertising and Promotion – An integrated marketing communications’ says these brand communities are important in achieving a ‘lifestyle status’ as consumers are ‘united by a shared love of the brand’.
Harley Davidson President and CEO
Harley now have a large fan base of not only dedicated bikers who ride everyday but brand enthusiasts that don’t necessarily ride but the brand image appeals to them. The products they now sell accommodate for this, their collection now stocks T-shirts to leather jackets, mugs and gifts. Cooney (2004) in License magazine commented that these products appeal to ‘the “aspirational” customer who hopes to someday own a Harley-Davidson, but in the meantime wants Harley-Davidson-associated products’.
(Ruth Crowley in Licence Magazine, 2004)
FIG 16: 'Fastest MINI ever' Advert, 2012
In comparison the MINI adverts are predominately focused on the car, although they do show the playful and fun nature of the brand, it fails to show to customer interaction and love that consumers connect with the British brand. Most of the adverts simply state the car attributes and stick to the same layout and colours throughout.
FIG 15: Harley Strip Club Advert, 2009
Interestingly most of their adverts do not show the iconic vehicle, instead they show the connotations of the brand and highlight Harleyâ€™s long standing heritage. Harley understand their consumer, therefore targeting them by using specific images and emotions, Thompson (2006) observes that over 93% of bikers are male, so the Harley Davidson advertising campaigns regularly focus on female images, a theme which has proved successful for years.
FIG 17: MINI Lifestyle Advert, 2012
Everything Harley now says and does is focused on the lifestyle; all of their communication concentrates on the values and beliefs they want to convey to American society. The adverts pull you in and leave you longing for more information about the brand. At noted previously, Lightowler defined the five levels to consider when building a story within branding and advertising. Harley successful achieve the lifestyle brand image because they have kept the authenticity of the brand; they use the bikeâ€™s heritage and history to create trust between them and the consumer, they have a clear philosophy which is never altered and have managed to create a strong personal relationship between brand and consumer.
When looking through Harley’s lifestyle brochure, what we found was the storytelling theme continuing in to their lifestyle products. As well as the functionality of the product, they showed the product “brought to life” by the customer, as seen in figure. For example they first showed the qualities of the jacket then compared it to the memories from the consumer; the jacket worn on a road trip to Ireland, or travelling from London to Paris is one day while turning 40. We felt more of a connection with Harley’s lifestyle range than MINI’s, simply because we felt more emotion from the way they sold the products.
FIG 18: Harley Davidson Lifestyle brochure, 2012
We feel MINI can improve their lifestyle range to better promote the MINI experience, using their strong heritage and consumer memories to highlight how iconic MINI has become in British society. This will be looked at further throughout this research document and a solution will begin to be proposed in the recommendations.
FIG 19: Harley Davidson Lifestyle brochure, 2012
FIG 20: MINI in workshop, circa 1970
Another future trend that we thought could positively influence MINI and help them develop their lifestyle image was the idea of mass personalisation. This trend corresponds very closely to the first trend mentioned, storytelling. The personalisation customers want with brands will be ever more demanding in the coming years, as consumers want brands to speak to them as an individual instead of to the masses.
of MINI owners customised their car
‘each consumer is his own market’ ( Joseph Pine in Eliason, 2012)
Instead of brands collectively targeting their consumers on a large scale, the trend for mass personalisation sees the rise of the individual and how a brand connects one to one with their consumer base. This trend is being pushed by consumers and brands have to respond to their needs to ensure customer sustainability. Eliason (2012) commented that ‘…many consumers have desired products that meet their exact needs. No longer does “one size fit all”.
MINI is already actively encouraging this aspect of personalisation in to their brand, by offering customisable choices to all their vehicles. When questioned, over 61% of MINI owners had chosen to customise their car (questionnaire result, see appendix 4b) showing how this aspect of the MINI brand is a feature which is important for consumers. However, this personalisation the brand offers is only available through changing the car features; what this trend suggests is more one to one communication all round is necessary. Joseph Pine (2012 in Eliason) states that ‘every customer is his own market’ and brands need to somehow target the individual, but keep their brand message the same throughout. The one to one communication consumers’ desire might seem unattainable to many brands, however by merging this trend with the storytelling theme I discussed earlier, I believe MINI can create a more personal relationship with their consumer. The MINI consumer have shown signs of interacting with the brand more intimately, through their customisation figures and stories they share. These elements shall be brought together in the recommendation for MINI.
THE CONSUMER Looking in to the MINI consumer, it was clear to see how varied MINI lovers and drivers are. We found it difficult to segment the consumer demographically, as each MINI consumer seemed to be different from the first. From speaking to the brand manager in the Nottingham dealership, he commented that they ‘get everything from 18 year old students with wealthy parents to people in their 80’s who had a MINI in the 1960’s…’ (appendix 6b). From gathering the information from the questionnaire and the dealership interview, we decided to analysis the consumer in terms of their ‘lifestyle’ and how they more and more want brands that represent their values and opinions. From speaking to MINI employees, they constantly mentioned the connotations that owning a MINI portrays, with one employee stating that when you see a person in a MINI ‘…its making a positive statement about that person. I think see a MINI there’s nothing negative about that car or person, it’s very positive’. This was interesting for us to explore, as it is becoming more apparent that the lifestyle choices consumers make are defining them more now than the traditional categories of class or gender.
Brands now have the ability to become a ‘signalling system’ for consumers, which allow them to project and advertise their own personal values and objective’s (Polhemus, 2013). Brands like MINI that involve a lifestyle choice have the capacity to become this, as having a MINI says a lot about who you are, what you like and your outlook on life. We have created a consumer profile that we think epitomizes who the MINI buyer is. This consumer is based on all the qualities they live by, not necessarily their age or nationality.
REVERSED VANILLA The reversed vanilla’s are anything but a follower. They lead the way and are effortless different. Fun and experimental, they are always on trend but stay unique. This group are not defined by gender, their jobs or where they live, and age; well age is just a number. These consumers don’t measure life by the years checked off. They live in the now. Never getting trapped by the norm, they choose to break it. From the skyline and dazzling lights of the city where they live, to driving carefree in to the rural lanes of the countryside; they love the best of both worlds, the urban and rustic, the new and old.
Ted Polhemus is a writer on the language of brands and how brands are increasingly being used to express consumers’ beliefs and values. He describes how ‘only a generation or two ago one’s identity was prescribed according to traditional grouping of class, religion, nationality, region, race, ethnic background and so forth’ whereas now identity is increasingly being defined by ‘the styles of clothing which they wear, their body decoration, the furniture and interior décor of their homes, their choice of car, what they eat and drink…’ (2013).
FIG 21: MINI deserted in Road, circa 1970.
From all the research so far, we have developed an idea and area of focus we want to continue on and create a possible recommendation. We think that MINI should focus on the experience of the brand not the product. Since looking at Harley Davidson, we believe MINI can achieve the same connotations and lifestyle image, by using their heritage, strong visual identity and the emotional connection consumersâ€™ attach with the brand. As mentioned the personalisation customers want with brands is rising, and we think MINI can create an identity that speaks to the heart of the consumer, focusing less on the functionalities and more on the memories having the car can create.
When thinking about how MINI could achieve a more established clothing range for their brand, we looked at existing clothing brands in the market that use heritage and nostalgia to create a personal connection with their customers. Fred Perry is a brand immersed in history, starting in 1952 as a tennis brand; they now have become a British icon, using subcultures and different eras to influence their brand image. Fred Perry also have a very personal connection with their consumers, it is seen much more than just a clothing brand but a lifestyle choice. From speaking to a manager from the Nottingham branch, she noted how it’s ‘quite a nostalgic thing, but I think it’s quite a personal thing as well. People will always say I always remember buying my first Fred Perry shirt’ (appendix 7b).
Over 76% of MINI owners are unaware of the lifestyle brand Within our recommendation, there are two key areas we have identified to change and develop the theme ‘experience not product’ throughout MINI’s communication. From conducting research from consumers about the lifestyle range, the response wasn’t all positive. Over 76% of MINI owners hadn’t even heard of the collection (appendix 4b), emphasising how little relevance the collection currently has for MINI lovers. At present MINI is known more for the iconic car image than it is a lifestyle brand, yet their customers are more than willing to buy in to the brand and have a more personal connection.
FIG 22: 'My first Fred Perry' Advert, 2012
Fred Perry has used this customer intimacy to create a campaign ‘Tell us your story’. The brand realised that customer stories are prevalent throughout their large fan base and have incorporated these anecdotes in to their advertising. The campaign asks for customers to upload their special images and stories online wearing a Fred Perry item. Whether it is their first shirt aged 10, or an image from the good old days dancing in a nightclub; Fred Perry wanted to see the different touch points of their brand. The campaign was a real success, consumers new and old uploaded their stories and memories of the brand, with one employee telling us ‘You know people get quite connected to our brand, it’s quite a passionate brand in the sense that people are really passionate about it’ (appendix 7b). This quality is what made the campaign a success and what continues to make Fred Perry popular with today’s consumers.
FIG 23: Fred Perry 'Tell us your story' advert, 2012
WHAT CAN MINI DO? MINI is an iconic brand within Britain, the old MINI started in 1959 with images of Mary Quant and the Beatles helping the brand reach an aspirational status. Since the re-brand in 2001, MINI has managed to re-launch the MINI to reach its past success, but has left its history and long standing heritage behind. Customers all have fond stories and memories of the car as MINI is a brand that invokes feelings and conjures images of a certain time and place.
FIG 24: Oliver, Fred Perry 'Tell us your story' advert, 2012
BEING MINI From all the research found, we think MINI should create a new campaign that focuses on the consumer and their experiences of the MINI brand. Currently the MINI adverts do not express any memories or consumer stories; instead it focuses on the attributes of the car. MINI are a fun and playful brand and we want to keep this attribute, but focus it more on the consumer and make MINI more relatable.
The campaign we propose would be called ‘Being MINI’ and would involve different customer stories evolving around the brand. For example it would show a consumer’s favourite memory in their car, why they chose to name their MINI or even memoirs about their classic MINI years ago. These photographs and anecdotes would form the basis of the campaign and would celebrate MINI’s existence in people’s life’s; both in the past and now, new and old. As previously mentioned, from our questionnaire, consumers were actively telling us memories they have shared in their car, Lightowler (2013) comments that ‘Whether you intend to tell a story as part of your communication or not, consumers are wired to tell a story anyway. Storytelling only becomes persuasive when it is authentic and resonates.’ These stories we will share will be authentic, as we will use real owners to communicate the brand message and values. To communicate this message, we have decided to visually change from the black and coloured graphic borders to create more inviting visuals, as seen throughout. We have still kept MINI’s personality by using eight bold colours but used them in a more subtle way. We looked a lot in to future trends regarding colour palettes and graphics and what we found was a move towards ‘simple geometric shapes; flat, bright, bold colours; and clean typography’ (Kittle, 2013).
‘...It’s like a car dealership were affectively here to sell cars not clothing...’ Daniel, Brand Manager, Nottingham MINI, 2012
FIG 25: Adidas Promotional display, 2012
From focusing on developing MINI’s lifestyle image through the ‘Being MINI’ campaign, it is also important to connect all of MINI’s touch points together to create a coherent brand message throughout. The dealership environment is a key role in the car buying process, therefore creating better solutions for the lifestyle range is essential. From speaking to employees from the dealership, they seemed reluctant to push the lifestyle sales, instead commenting ‘were affectively here to sell cars not clothing’ (Blagg, see appendix 6b). The dealership is one of the first destinations a potential lifestyle consumer will see, thus making this space one which should be used correctly. Having seen for ourselves the lack of involvement dealerships have with the lifestyle collection, we would propose that MINI focus promoting their lifestyle range online, but begin to start the involvement in store. As seen in figure 25, we would suggest that a similar promotional pack could be created to begin the consumers’ MINI experience. The pack would turn the boring paper work in to a fun and interactive way to start their own MINI journey. Linking back to the trends we touched on, this pack would be creating a more personal interaction with MINI consumers by creating a fun experience in store.
Understandably, the pack we propose could be a printed document they receive, or due to costs, become a virtual account that they can tap in to and access instantly. We suggest the pack would include a miniature model of a MINI, then possibly other items which will make their MINI journey more enjoyable, i.e. A cd, an air freshener, and a map to plan their next road trip. Also included would be a lifestyle brochure, which would contain the new ‘Being MINI’ campaign and ask customers to also get involved. Not only would this pack encourage more consumers to connect with MINI as a lifestyle choice but will also hopefully trigger consumers’ awareness of the lifestyle collection. BJ Fogg discusses the model of behavior and within this are three elements that must happen to change what a consumer currently does. He states these are motivation, ability and trigger. We have found that the lifestyle collection is inaccessible to most consumers and not brought to their attention enough. Through our promotional pack, we would be motivating the consumer to get involved by giving them something to go away and interact with. With MINI only offering one lifestyle standalone store, they are potentially losing customers who would like to access the collection more freely, without the barriers of location. Our proposal would solve this barrier and allow customers instant access to a brand they love. In turn, this ease of access for the lifestyle collection will positively influence MINI’s status as a lifestyle brand.
FIG 26: BJ Fogg Model of Behaviour
WHY IS THIS RELEVANT
‘The idea that consumers use brands to express their identities has led many companies to reposition their products from focusing on functional attributes to focusing on how they fit into a consumer’s lifestyle.’
MINI has created a successful brand that proves to be increasingly popular with many different consumers. However, to ensure new consumers and retain loyal consumer relationships, MINI needs to develop their image as a lifestyle brand. As explained throughout, customers are increasingly demanding more from the brands they interact with, with Chernev (2012) describing how brands are repositioning ‘their products from focusing on functional attributes to focusing on how they fit into a consumer’s lifestyle’. However, there is a danger in creating a lifestyle brand similar to Harley Davidson, not only does the brand have competition from their current market but from non-direct rivals in unrelated categories (Chernev, 2012). This means there is much more competition and opportunity to fail, however MINI have the heritage and authenticity that resonates with the consumer; they have proved that they can be a lifestyle brand but need to develop this further to become more connected their consumer. Developing and sustaining these connections will mean longer lasting relationships with consumers and make MINI an even bigger threat in years to come.
(Chernev, A et al, 2011)
FIG 27: Black and White MINI, circa 1960
REFERENCES Daye, D (2013). The Drivers of Brand Storytelling Strategy [online] Social Media Today, Available at: http://socialmediatoday.com/derrickdaye/1147846/drivers-brand-storytelling-strategy Last Accessed January 4th 2013 Ashton, N. (2013) UK Retail Predictions for 2013 [online] IAB UK. Available at: http://www.iabuk.net/blog/ukretail-predictions-for-2013 Accessed 1/1/13
Kittle, A (2013) Why less is more will dominate digital creativity in 2013, [online] Wall blog, Available at: http:// wallblog.co.uk/2013/01/03/why-less-is-more-will-dominate-digital-creativity-in-2013/#ixzz2H1WE7XJw Accessed 4th January 2013 Chernev, A, Hamilton R, Gal, D. (2011) Competing for Consumer Identity: Limits to Self-Expression and the Perils of Lifestyle Branding [Journal] Journal of Marketing, Vol.75, 66-82. Last Accessed December 15th 2012.
Brooks, D. (2012) John Lewis director of marketing shy to admit influence, yet hails shift from price-led ads [online] Retail Week, Available via: http://www.retail-week.com/companies/john-lewis/blog-john-lewis-director-of-marketing-shy-to-admit-influence-yet-hails-shift-from-price-led-ads/5043653.blog Last Accessed November 24th 2012 Lightowler, M (2012). The Need for Story [online] New Brand Stories, Available at: http://newbrandstories. com/2012/11/08/connected-the-story-of-brands/ Last accessed February Cooney, J (2005). Why and how Harley-Davidson has maintained consumer brand loyalty. [online] License Magazine, available at: http://www.licensemag.com/licensemag/data/articlestandard//licensemag/332005/174785/article.pdf Last Accessed January 29th 2013 Hackley, C. (2010) Advertising and Promotion â€“ An integrated marketing communications approach. 2nd Edition, p146, Sage Publications Ltd. London
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Cooney, J (2005). Why and how Harley-Davidson has maintained consumer brand loyalty. [online] License Magazine, available at: http://www.licensemag.com/licensemag/data/articlestandard//licensemag/332005/174785/article.pdf Last Accessed January 29th 2013 Thompson, K (2006). Harley Davidsonâ€™s Marketing Strategy Overcome Competition. [online] Yahoo Voices, Available at: http://voices.yahoo.com/harley-davidsons-marketing-strategy-overcame-competition-141043. html?cat=35 Eliason, E, in Huffington Post Business, 2012, Three reasons why mass Customisation is the Future of Consumer Products [Online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/erik-eliason/ masscustomization_b_1313875.html [Accessed 12th November 2012] Polhemus, T. (2013) The Language of Brands [online] Ted Polhemus, Available at: http://www.tedpolhemus. com/main_concept7%20467.html Last accessed January 16th 2013
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: Woman in a MINI, 1959, Available at: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_qOtHWwviO50/SxFxgWN0tmI/ AAAAAAAAEUI/OHpPDeEomiM/s1600/Marianne+June+27+in+car.jpg Figure 2: Old Mini Cooper, Available at: http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/6900000/The-Old-Minimini-cooper-6977218-1797-1226.jpg Figure 3: Ferrari Merchandise, taken in store, 2012, own image Figure 4: Ferrari Merchandise, taken in store, 2012, own image Figure 5: Ferrari logo, taken in store, 2012, own image Figure 6: MINI Dealership in Nottingham, 2012, own image Figure 7: MINI Tshirt, 2012, own image
Figure 16: ‘Fastest MINI ever’ advert, 2010, Available at: http://files.coloribus.com/files/adsarchive/part_1230/12301455/file/minicooper-braking-parachute-step-1-original-66903.jpg Figure 17: MINI lifestyle advert, 2012, Available at: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/--ZSfab08iNE/TyQC3Iss5XI/AAAAAAAABCo/ OOHcwPmpE0w/s1600/MINI+Pop+Sac+Shoulder+Bag+-+%C2%A368.jpg Figure 18: Harley Davidson Lifestyle brochure, 2012, scanned image Figure 19: Harley Davidson Lifestyle brochure, 2012, scanned image Figure 20: Red MINI in Workshop, circa 1970, Available at: http://www.classic-british-cars.com/austin-mini-pictures.jpg Figure 21: MINI deserted in road, circa 1970, Available at: http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/6900000/The-Old-Minimini-cooper-6977217-1797-1208.jpg
Figure 8: MINI logo outside dealership, 2012, own image
Figure 22: ‘My first Fred Perry’ advert, 2012, Available at: http://www.fredperrytellusyourstory.com/featured-stories/view/firstfredperry
Figure 9: Rose sitting in MINI Cooper, Venus, 2012, Available at: http://tumblr.jakestangel.com/image/35720769413
Figure 23: Fred Perry ‘Tell us your story’ advert, 2012, Available at: http://www.fredperrytellusyourstory.com/featured-stories/ view/dancing
Figure 10: John Lewis Snowmen advert, 2012, Available at: http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/commercials/2012/11/john_lewis_ journey_snowman.jpg
Figure 24: Oliver, Fred Perry ‘Tell us your story’ advert, 2012, Available at: http://www.fredperrytellusyourstory.com/featuredstories/view/olivers-tiger
Figure 11: John Lewis Christmas advert, 2010, available at: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/ About/General/2011/11/11/1321044776150/John-Lewis-advert-007.jpg
Figure 25: Adidas Promotional display, 2012, own image
Figure 12: Lightowler Five levels of Storytelling, own image Figure 13: Dashboard on old MINI Cooper, circa 1960, Available at: http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/6900000/The-Old-Mini-mini-cooper-6977247-1762-1208.jpg
Figure 26: BJ Fogg Model of Behaviour, own image Figure 27: Black and white image of MINI, circa 1960, Available at: http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/7200000/1968Mini-Cooper-S-MkII-mini-cooper-7272819-440-317.jpg
Figure 14: Harley Davidson ‘Driven by History’ Advert, 2012, Available at: http://www.ibelieveinadv.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/Harley_Davidson_Driven_By_History_ibelieveinadv.jpg Figure 15: Harley Davidson Strip Club Advert, 2009, Available at: http://files.coloribus.com/files/adsarchive/ part_1515/15154105/file/harley-davidson-motorcycles-the-strip-club-1600-53819.jpg
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School of Art & Design
Declaration Form 2012/13
I confirm that this work has gained ethical approval and that I have faithfully observed the terms of the approval in the conduct of this project.
This submission is the result of my own work. All help and advice other than that received from tutors has been acknowledged and primary and secondary sources of information have been properly attributed. Should this statement prove to be untrue I recognise the right and duty of the board of examiners to recommend what action should be taken in line with the Universityâ€™s regulations on assessment contained in its handbook. signed ............................................................................................................... 8/2/13 date ..................................................................................................................
TUTORIAL SHEETS Date: 5th November 2012 Name : Hanna Fowler Learning outcomes Produce a self determined body of work that demonstrates cultural and global discourses around theories and ideas in relation to fashion, communication and promotion Use appropriate levels of research and methods of analysis relevant to the production of your proposal Make informed selections and develop appropriate and creative solutions in relation to the application of visual communication Question assumptions within the area of study through the ability to formulate independent judgment, contribute to discussions and articulate reasoned arguments
Date: 19th November 2012 Name : Hanna Fowler Learning outcomes Produce a self determined body of work that demonstrates cultural and global discourses around theories and ideas in relation to fashion, communication and promotion Use appropriate levels of research and methods of analysis relevant to the production of your proposal Make informed selections and develop appropriate and creative solutions in relation to the application of visual communication Question assumptions within the area of study through the ability to formulate independent judgment, contribute to discussions and articulate reasoned arguments
Tutorial / Seminar Record Sheet Work Relevant work to date. Learning issues to discuss in session:
Tutorial / Seminar Record Sheet Work to bring / prepare for session: Critical path, group and individual. List of questions for Paul. Case study to present – Harley Davidson. Not to bring but self target- get recommended books from library by this tutorial.
Ethics forms for primary research. Learning issues to discuss in session: Feedback from session:
Critical path – do we need a excel version?
Book recommendations – Harriet Posner, 100 visuals from around the world? Outcomes for project from module brief.
Feedback from session:
Tasks for next session:
Good case study – continue research. Should start thinking about chapter plans. Presentation to Paul – Date confirmed.
Email Matt asap with blog URL. Critical path, individual and group. List of questions to ask Paul. Highlight one case study and present next week. (5 minutes)
Tasks for next session: Construct a chapter plan / thoughts on writing structure. Email Matt a copy of critical path.
Please indicate progress to hand in (1 = Not ready / 5 = Ready and Prepared) 1 2 3 4 5
Please indicate progress to hand in (1 = Not ready / 5 = Ready and Prepared) 1 2 3 4 5
Signed (Tutor) Matthew Gill
Signed (Tutor) Matthew Gill
Signed (student) Hanna Fowler
Signed (student) Hanna Fowler
Date: 7th December 2012 Name : Hanna Fowler Learning outcomes Produce a self determined body of work that demonstrates cultural and global discourses around theories and ideas in relation to fashion, communication and promotion Use appropriate levels of research and methods of analysis relevant to the production of your proposal Make informed selections and develop appropriate and creative solutions in relation to the application of visual communication Question assumptions within the area of study through the ability to formulate independent judgment, contribute to discussions and articulate reasoned arguments
Date: 11th January 2013 Name : Hanna Fowler Learning outcomes Produce a self determined body of work that demonstrates cultural and global discourses around theories and ideas in relation to fashion, communication and promotion Use appropriate levels of research and methods of analysis relevant to the production of your proposal Make informed selections and develop appropriate and creative solutions in relation to the application of visual communication Question assumptions within the area of study through the ability to formulate independent judgment, contribute to discussions and articulate reasoned arguments
Tutorial / Seminar Record Sheet
Tutorial / Seminar Record Sheet
Work to bring / prepare for session:
Work to bring / prepare for session:
Presentation to Paul. Questions to ask Paul.
Work to date. Any questions for Matt regarding outcome. Learning issues to discuss in session:
Learning issues to discuss in session: When is our next presentation date? What we’ve don’t to date and where we plan to go next. Should the visuals of the group be the same even though were writing individually? Feedback from session: We are on the right track, liked the two case studies of Fred Perry and Harley Davidson – told to expand on this further for report.
Feedback from session: Continue what were all doing. Questions cleared up.
Tasks for next session: Tasks for next session: By next tutorial contact Fred Perry to arrange interview. Begin writing / creating a strong detailed chapter plan.
Please indicate progress to hand in (1 = Not ready / 5 = Ready and Prepared) 1 2 3 4 5
Send Matt a copy of chapter plan to date. Send Matt a sample piece of writing. Prepare visuals – bring Pintrest boards and mood boards that we have previously created. Please indicate progress to hand in (1 = Not ready / 5 = Ready and Prepared) 1 2 3 4 5
Signed (Tutor) Matthew Gill Signed (student) Hanna Fowler
Signed (Tutor) Matthew Gill Signed (student) Hanna Fowler
Date: 24th January 2013 Name : Hanna Fowler Learning outcomes Produce a self determined body of work that demonstrates cultural and global discourses around theories and ideas in relation to fashion, communication and promotion Use appropriate levels of research and methods of analysis relevant to the production of your proposal Make informed selections and develop appropriate and creative solutions in relation to the application of visual communication Question assumptions within the area of study through the ability to formulate independent judgment, contribute to discussions and articulate reasoned arguments Tutorial / Seminar Record Sheet Work to bring / prepare for session: Visual inspiration: Color direction mood board, fonts, layout ideas.
Learning issues to discuss in session: Explain front cover idea to gain feedback. Feedback from session: Agreed and was happy with our progress and chosen directing to take after viewing the blog and Pintrest boards. Matt gave us ideas to think about on how the â€˜Adidas caseâ€™ could be implemented futher.
Tasks for next session: This was the last tutorial before hand in and to contact Matt via email if there are any further issues to discuss.
Please indicate progress to hand in (1 = Not ready / 5 = Ready and Prepared) 1 2 3 4 5 Signed (Tutor) Matthew Gill Signed (student) Hanna Fowler
APPENDIX 3 - TEAM MINUTE SHEETS Minutes: 9th November 2012 Meeting time: 11-3 Minutes: 7th November 2012 Meeting time: 13.30-14.30 Duration: 1 Hour Goals: • To create a critical path highlighting; • The important deadline dates • Dates we will focus on Mini and meet up Achieved: • Started the critical path on Photoshop • Highlighted important deadline dates • Began to colour code dates
Duration: 4 Hours Goals: • • • •
Generate ideas for Case study To share individual research Generate questions for dealership and Paul Contact Dealership
Achieved: • Chosen Case study as Harley Davidson • Pin pointed relevant research • Contacted MINI dealership in Nottingham, arranging a meeting • Collected research questions to ask dealership and Paul at S&X media Tasks for Monday 12th meeting: • Hanna: Print Ethics form and create sheet to use for primary research, start research blog • Amiee and Michelle: Research Harley Davidson case study • Everyone; Photographing MINI’s with relevant information i.e. location etc.
Tasks for next meeting: To all continue researching selected area; Michelle: Research past collaborations, what worked, positive/negative reviews. Both collaborations from Mini and competitors Amiee: Research Mini’s history and what their past campaigns have been. (some overlapping may occur between Michelle and Amiee) Hanna: Research the Mini consumer, concentrating on gender, and whether there is a difference between the lifestyle and car consumers. • Everyone to do a little more background research on Mini, and general topic areas around our ideas. Remember to add to shared Bibliography and Blog. • Finish the critical path with all meeting and deadline dates filled in.
Minutes: 11th November 2012
Minutes: 12th November 2012
Meeting time: 2 – 4pm
Meeting time: 11-3
Duration: 2 Hours
Duration: 4 Hours
Goals: • Brainstorm more research ideas • Add to and update critical path • Identify the focus for the project
Goals: • • • •
Achieved: • Splitting up research sections for each team member • Updated critical path • Identified more primary research methods (and divided up in team) • Generated questions for a survey to give to MINI customers Tasks for next meeting: • Michelle: Trend Research at Designer Forum on Customisation and Cars in general. (Prints, motifs, graphics etc) • Hanna: Blog URL. Contact dealership regarding ‘Post purchase’ of a MINI. Information packs? Online/Offline trend research Contact MINI lovers via Facebook fans • Amiee: Generate a survey for MINI customers. • Everyone: Do general research on lifestyle collection. Upload to blog. Everyone send out survey to friends who own MINI car.
Research the Harley Davidson brand focusing on customisation, community and lifestyle Fill out the ethics forms for Wednesday’s MINI meeting Contact Dealership Start Case study power point for 19th November tutorial Contact MINI dealership to finalise meet up
Achieved: • Researched Harley Davidson for our case study • Collected ethics sheets for primary research • Started the case study power point for next week’s tutorial Tasks for Friday 16th meeting: • Rearrange questions for Paul • Amiee: Finding images for power point • Everyone; Photographing MINI’s with relevant information i.e. location etc. • Continue MINI research
Minutes: 14th November 2012
Meeting time: 9-3
Minutes: 21st November 2012
Meeting time: 2 – 4pm
Duration: 6 Hours
Duration: 2 Hours Goals: • Finalise MINI interview questions • Print out the ethics forms for MINI meeting • Print out brief for interview respondents We all went to the MINI Nottingham dealership to interview members of staff about their relationship with the brand, both in terms of the car and lifestyle range. We wanted to understand who they see the MINI consumer to be, their interaction with the lifestyle collection and their thoughts on the product range and dealership environment. We interviewed four members of staff in total; a sales executive, the brand manager, Achieved: • Interviewed 4 members of staff from Nottingham MINI dealership • Collected images from MINI dealership
Tasks for Wednesday 21st meeting: • Amiee and Hanna to transcribe interviews from dealership; ready to analyse in next meeting • Finish Case study for Monday 19th tutorial with Matt • Finalise critical path for tutorial and any questions for Paul • Generate blog URL for Matt
Goals: • Brainstorm more research ideas • Add to and update critical path • Identify the focus for the project Achieved: • Splitting up research sections for each team member • Updated critical path • Identified more primary research methods (and divided up in team) • Generated questions for a survey to give to MINI customers Tasks for next meeting: • Michelle: Trend Research at Designer Forum on Customisation and Cars in general. (Prints, motifs, graphics etc) • Hanna: Blog URL. Contact dealership regarding ‘Post purchase’ of a MINI. Information packs? Online/Offline trend research Contact MINI lovers via Facebook fans • Amiee: Generate a survey for MINI customers. • Everyone: Do general research on lifestyle collection. Upload to blog. Everyone send out survey to friends who own MINI car.
Minutes: 23rd November 2012
Minutes: 15th January 2013
Meeting time: Didn’t meet up – All to do specified research in different areas today
Meeting time: 1.45 – 3.30pm
Duration: 2-3 hours each during the day
Duration: 1 hour and 45minutes
Goals: • Michelle: Research the Customisation of cars, The Future of Customisation, The Car market in general, any other relevant research. • Hanna: Blog URL. Contact dealership regarding ‘Post purchase’ of a MINI. Information packs? Online/Offline trend research Contact MINI lovers via Facebook fans • Amiee: Generate a survey for MINI customers. • Everyone: Do general research on lifestyle collection. Upload to blog. Everyone send out survey to friends who own MINI car.
Goals: • Add to critical path • Plan London trip • Anything that’s missed needs to be divided between group
Achieved: • Michelle: Research on American/Japanese inspired customisation of cars. Also big influence from the music scene and gangsters too. • Hanna: Contacted dealership regarding ‘Post purchase’ of a MINI, with response! • Amiee: Created Survey on MINI customers
Tasks for next meeting: • Michelle and Amiee: Scan consent forms and save to a file • Hanna: Print consent forms ready for London trip • Hanna/Amiee: Ring MINI lifestyle store to ask about interview with staff member • Hanna: Update Bibliography • Michelle: Transcripts • All: Add to pinterest board, visuals for layout/front cover/ design/ graphics etc • Michelle: Find out about CD printing • Hanna: Sketch and mock up the model car idea • All: Fill in Chapter plan with quotes and references • Amiee: Update critical path
Tasks for next meeting: • Everyone: Do general research on lifestyle collection. General research on MINI and the market etc, upload to blog. Everyone send out survey to friends who own MINI car.
Achieved: • Updated critical path, so we know what’s planned in more detail for the next few weeks • London research planned in detail • Divided up the rest of outstanding bits of work
APPENDIX 4A -BLANK QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX 4B - QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS 52 respondents
1. Please select your gender Male Female 2. Which age bracket do you fit into? 17-24 25-34 45-54 55+ 3. What was it that made you choose to buy a MINI? (Comment box) 4. How does it make you fell when you’re out driving your MINI? (Comment box) 5. What is your favourite memory with your MINI? (e.g. a destination you’ve drove to in it, certain music you play when you’re driving) (Comment box) 6. Do you have a name for your MINI? Yes No 7. Did you come up with a name at first sight? (e.g. place of purchase) Yes I knew the perfect name straight away No It took me a while I’ve changed the name since I first bought it to something else As stated I haven’t named by MINI 8. If you bought your MINI from a dealership, how did you find the experience of buying from there? (Comment box) 9. MINI is a customisable car, have you customised yours and if so what did you customise? 10. Are you aware MINI has a lifestyle collection? (Clothing Range) Yes I know about it I’ve heard about it but never actually seen No I’ve never heard about it 66
1. Mini owners Male 15.4% Female 84.6% 2. Age groups 17-24 = 84.6% 25-34 = 7.7% 35-44 = 7.7% 45-54 = 0.0% 55+ = 0.0% 3. What made you choose a MINI? (Top 10 answers throughout) Because no two minis are the same and they are fun to drive Cute car, looks good and modern It was very nice looking , and is quite fast The look and style of the car Nice to drive It’s a small car and is easy for young people to drive and maintain! It runs really well, I’ve hardly had any problems and holds it’s value. I love the overall design on the mini! The ‘look’ of the mini, I think they are really cute cars! How it looks. They are amazing! My sister has a MINI which I loved, I’ve always liked how they look. the fact it’s convertible, and loved the inside shape of all the features such as dashboard and dials. It’s fun, desirable and looks like it’s for a ‘young’ market
4. How does it make you feel when you’re out driving your MINI? Like I am the shiz! Feel proud to drive it! trendy Good Happy and comfortable Comfortable I love it, I feel like i’m in a go cart!!! In a modern and stylish car, but still feel young when driving it. Having a mini (well any car really) feels like the world is your oyster and you can go anywhere....the mini is so reliable that distance is never an issue, and you don’t have to worry about breaking down. (especially with run flats on) I feel very privileged to be driving my MINI, I am very proud of it! Fashionable Amazing Comfortable, stylish happy and proud Amazing Makes me feel free, adventurous and ready for a challenge! 67
5. What’s your favourite memory with your MINI? (e.g destination you’ve drove to, certain music you play when your driving) When I am driving around country roads with my music loud (mainly r&b), windows down and singing along Driving to Newquay Playing the beatles - drive my car Driving to Sheffield for a girls weekend with a few friends, me driving my mini, my friend following behind driving her mini, both convertibles with the roofs down my minis been all over the place, but my favourite memory is heading to anglesey and the lake district for a weekend away with my boyfriend. The views driving are amazing, and the mini handles the country roads so well! Plus it’s small so can fit through smaller spaces than other cars :D When i drive through the Irish countryside at uni! Any current popular music normally blasting from the radio! The first drive home after buying it. Driving to goodwood to drive another mini! When I first bought it and found out that I could change the colour of the lights inside capital FM, in the sun with the roof down My first drive in my new mini I play music that makes me feel happy, fond memories and upbeat! 6. Do you have a name for your MINI? Yes = 30.8% No = 69.2% If yes, name: Lemar, Dennis, Mickey, Mickey 7. Did you come up with a name at first sight?
9. MINI is a customisable car, have you customised yours and if so what did you customise? I have had red leather seats and upgraded speakers. it was already customised, red half leather, chequered rear view mirror and wing mirrors, spot lights and white bonnet stripes. No No No i got my mini second hand so it was already customised with the peppermint pack (i think it’s that one). But since having the car I’ve added a few mini extra things....mini tax disc, mini dust caps, mini dog teddy for the car, and i have a personalised reg. My mini is not customized, it is simply cream all over It was already customised when bought. New set of wheels and a new set of custom springs more planned in the future Part leather seats, slightly tinted back windows, two stripes down the bonnet yes added stripes I haven’t customised Yes I customised the wing-mirros a different colour, however I feel that someone else may have the same design, it’s not all that unique and personal as i’d like. Maybe something to do with interiors could be put in place 10. Are you aware MINI has a lifestyle collection (Clothing range)? Yes I know about it 23.1% I’ve heard about it but never actually seen 0.0% No I’ve never heard about it 76.9%
Yes I knew the perfect name straight away 15.4% No it took me a while to think about it 23.1% I’ve changed the name since I first bought it 0.0% As stated I haven’t named my MINI 61.5%
8. If you bought your MINI from a dealership, how did you find the experience of buying from there? Great. didnt buy from a mini dealership Good n/a I bought my mini from the Liverpool city center dealership. The staff were amazing, really helpful showing me everything about the car, taking us out for a test drive and the price was really good! My parents bought it for me but it was bought from a dealership N/A I thought it was a good experience and would recommend them to anyone. I bought mine from Available Car, I knew I wanted it from the beginning so was easy to buy. very helpful, sometimes pushy at points Perfect The dealership itself was quirky, modern and not ordinary looking, it felt more fun, which I feel matches the MINI brand. I did however, feel that it was mainly men selling the cars, not many women and it felt very ‘business’ like in terms of clothing, male salesmen, and masculine environment in general.
APPENDIX 5 - CONSUMER INTERVIEWS
APPENDIX 5A- CONSENT FORMS
APPENDIX 5B - CONSUMER INTERVIEWS Interview with Matt Gill 11am 19th December 2012
Matt: Umm, Michelle: In general, from past experiences, how does it compare to the MINI car buying experience? Matt: I think I would have liked to have brought the MINI, but I wasn’t put off by the salesperson… but I thought it is a shame that they are so predictably the same, sort of ‘same old same old’. But I would have liked to have brought a car from there, because I was really impressed by the showroom and I really liked the whole level of individuality and the experience that you
Michelle: Why did you consider buying a MINI? Matt: Umm well I’ve always loved MINI’s, and quite a few friends have got them, and they’re iconic and very cool, and I just love them, I’ve always wanted to have one. Michelle: Okay…Would you say that buying into MINI is a lifestyle choice? Matt: I think it definitely is now, umm because you are aware that the brand is bigger than some of its parts you know? It’s not just a car, so it’s just there is that whole lifestyle element to it that isn’t part of the old MINI as much I don’t think anyway… Michelle: Okay, did you go to a MINI dealership when you looked at buying into a MINI? Matt: Yes, yeah I went to the one in Nottingham, the main dealership. Michelle: How would you rate the experience of the dealership? Matt: Probably, kind of half and half really… sort of fifty percent of it was really good… this was a few years ago, about three years ago… As I went in, it was kind of different to anything that I’d seen before in a dealership, It looked very modern and bright, quite exciting. And umm, it was incredibly clean and sort of slick and everything… But then, the bad side of it was when the car salesperson looked exactly the same, the sort of stereotypical car salesman, giving a hard sale and a bit too sort of slick and shiny… and sleazy. So that was sort of off-putting, and I was trying to not let that affect me, and see beyond it, and just think the car is what I want, don’t be put off by the person selling you the car. But that was a downside to it, and then they did hassle me a lot afterwards aswell which was very off-putting. Michelle: Okay, so the next question is after you’d been to the dealership, was there any contact from the dealership after the browsing of the car? Matt: Yeah, yeah they kept phoning me, and e-mailing me. The phone calls were about … you know really about the car, or about getting me to buy the car or whatever. Or to come back and test drive others, things like that. Michelle: Okay Matt: And the emails were about … just highlighting new products things like that, or new offers and what have you. Michelle: Do you enjoy the car buying experience in general? And if so, why? Also how does it compare to a MINI car buying experience? Matt: Umm, weirdly I do actually quite enjoy it Michelle: Okay, what are your reasons for that? Matt: I’m not a typical kind of ‘lad’, or difficult bloke in the sense of just being interested in ‘blokey’ type of things, so I wouldn’t normally bother about watching cars, or watch Top Gear or anything like that. But actually, I like cars in terms of you know, the
could buy into…in terms of the customer…even though the choice was overwhelming. I think if we had decided to go down that route, it would have been really interesting to kind of choose all the different parts of the car and different colour schemes and all of that. Michelle: Would you recognise a MINI advert if it didn’t have the car on it? What things do you think of when you see a MINI advert? (without the MINI?) Matt: It’s quite difficult to project, but when I see a MINI advert I’m always struck by the colour palette that they use, and the amount of black that they use. And it’s black in a kind of glossy way. I’d like to think that you could use that black, take the car out of it, and I could still recognise it. Even if it just said a strapline that it would have about the MINI, and it didn’t have the logo on. If that was said in a particular colour of the MINI, say the ‘racing green’ or the yellow or something. So I think it’s that combination of the black that they use, which is very dominant, it would be like seventy percent overall. Then with those accent colours, that are really sort of bright, umm I think I could see how that would work, and how they could bring in other visual metaphors and imagery to play with, and not even use the car at all. Or maybe even using a reference to cars, such as the engine noise, or what the door sounds like when you close the door, or even using music that might reference their iconic status in terms of the history, so looking at the sixties and things like that – that would be quite good. Michelle: Okay, so the last two questions. Did you know about the lifestyle range that MINI do? And have you ever brought any of the products? Matt: Umm, I knew about it from going in that showroom a couple of times, two or three years ago. I wasn’t aware of it before, and I didn’t then go and look at it any further after that. So, I’ve never brought anything, I’ve never browsed it online or cared to find out more about it. Michelle: What do you think about it, what are your opinions on the lifestyle range? Matt: My opinions of it are, that what they’ve got, is fairly generic – the car merchandise Michelle: A bit gimmicky? Matt: Yeah. Not too bad, but just predictable. Umm having said that, what I’ve seen recently from you know working on the project, and things like the parker that they’ve done – I immediately thought if they could follow that at all, that would be more interesting. And I could see how they could do things that would be a bit more genuine and authentic, so maybe could borrow ideas from people like Fred Perry, like you’ve done Michelle: Yeah, Okay, that’s all of the questions, thank you! Matt: Okay, thank you.
product and the design. You know, some cars are the most beautiful things ever designed, so I quite like looking at cars and I enjoy driving. I quite like the excitement of getting a new car… but I don’t enjoy spending that kind of money because you’ve got to worry about the money. But I also quite like the cut and thrust of the discussions with the dealers…Normally it is quite awful because they are very slimey, but I’ve also had some really nice experiences because going through all of the cars that I have brought, being from dealerships where I have clicked with the salesperson and I have quite liked them. Umm what was the 72
rest of the question?
APPENDIX 5C - INTERVIEW 2 Telephone Interview with Michelle Hughes 19th December 2012
Michelle Hughes: Erm yes I think I owned it for I think about two years, and I got rid of it because I had a baby, and it was just … I kept it for a while… I kept it for maybe 3 or 4 months after I had a baby, but it was just such a pain. I had to keep putting the pushchair down, and because it was only three door, I had to keep bending over with the car seat… Interviewer: Was it not practical then? Michelle Hughes: No it just wasn’t practical.
Interviewer: Ok so there’s about 14 questions but they’re quite small ones, so it should probably only last about then minutes or so. Michelle Hughes: Okay Interviewer: Okay, so what was it that you liked about MINI that made you buy it? Michelle Hughes: Erm, I liked the look of it (pause) it was… the one that I had was quite sporty, erm it was the John Cooper version. So it was really ‘whippy’ erm it was just really, I dunno it was the look of it mainly. Interviewer: Okay… Would you say that buying into MINI is a lifestyle choice? Michelle Hughes: I suppose yes, more so than a kind of practical choice. Erm yeah I guess so, I suppose I thought at the time the MINI brand was. It represented something about creativity. Most of the people at the time that had one were creative people, that worked in ad agencies so yeah, I suppose yeah! Interviewer: Do you enjoy the car buying experience in general? Why or why not? And how does it compare to the MINI car buying experience? Michelle Hughes: Erm (pause) I don’t really love the car buying experience as much as, say to purchase clothing, because I’m a bit out of my depth, so I don’t really know. And there’s quite a lot of information, and I can’t take all of that in. So, erm, so really I brought it because I liked the look of the car, and when I test drove it, it felt nice and it felt quite ‘whippy’. Erm and I didn’t really take anything else into consideration, but my husband was talking about petrol consumption and all of that sort of stuff, so erm I didn’t really take that into consideration, and I didn’t really look at all of the literature. I didn’t go onto the website, and do all of the, you know you can do all of the kind of, mess around with the colour blocks that kind of business? Interviewer: Yeah. Michelle Hughes: My husband did all of that, but ultimately I just went in and went ‘Oh yeah I like that one!’ (laughter) Michelle Hughes: So I don’t think I really enjoyed it, cause I find most car sales people (pause) I don’t know, there’s something about them, that makes me think ‘Ohh you’re just after my money’, Interviewer: Yeah Michelle Hughes: Yeah Interviewer: Okay, Did you get your MINI from a MINI dealership? Michelle Hughes: No. I did test drive some at a MINI dealership, but in the end I actually didn’t, because it wasn’t brand new Interviewer: Okay, I can take out a few questions about the Dealership now… Did you get anything with the car, like a key ring or anything, or was it literally just the paperwork that was given to you? Michelle Hughes: Erm I just got the paperwork, I think… yeah Interviewer: Okay, so we understand that you got rid of your MINI… How long did you own it for, and could you tell me the reasons behind getting rid of it?
Interviewer: Okay…Do you have a particular story or memory of being in your MINI? Michelle Hughes: Erm, not that I can think of… I got my MINI when I was kind of erm, late twenties, early thirties, so I had my own business, so I mainly used it for kind of you know getting to clients and things like that. I didn’t really have many MINI adventures or anything in it like that, not really, I think I was too old! I do remember though, when I was working somewhere, there was two people who were quite high up in the company, kind of Product Directors, well actually one was Marketing Director, one was Product Director, and erm… I do remember we were in London, and we had to get back to Nottingham, and I was in the Marketing Director’s MINI, and the Product Director had a MINI aswell… they were both blokes… and I do remember both of them, without really discussing it, seem to be sort of racing each other on the M1, it was quite late at night… and they were like in their fourties! Interviewer: Yeah, ooh! Did you give your MINI a name? Michell Hughes: Erm…No, and I give all of my cars names, so I don’t know why I didn’t ! (Laughter) Interviewer: Okay! What car did you choose to get instead, when you got rid of your MINI, and why did you choose that car over the MINI in the end? Michelle Hughes: Erm in the end I got an Audi A4 Estate… and I think I got it because we go skiing quite a lot and we drive to the Alps, and erm it was just practical Interviewer: Yeah okay, Michelle Hughes: …And because I have children yeah Interviewer: Okay, was that the main reason? Because that’s why you got rid of the MINI? Was that the reason why you ended up getting a bigger car? Michelle Hughes: Yeah, because I knew I was going to have another baby so I just thought ‘Oh I may aswell just get one now’ Interviewer: Yeah ooh okay…Do you feel any different driving the car you have now, over the MINI, in terms of emotional feeling? Michelle Hughes: Yeah, I think actually yes. The car I’ve got now, I’ve swopped it again, I’ve now got a Ford focus, which I really love, it’s really practical, and it’s just dead easy to drive…but definitely the MINI was erm… it was more adventurous, although as I mentioned I didn’t do many adventures in it…yeah but it did feel a bit like that… it felt a bit more mischievous I suppose… I think it was just because it was so whippy and erm my husband, for various reasons, worth us getting a new car at the moment, with his work, and he was discussing how on their car list they have a lot of MINI’s, and it’s mainly the women, young girls, about 20, that work in product, or in the stores, that have to kind of drive round around doing visual merchandising, that get the MINI’s, they love it! Interviewer: Ohh, okay!
Michelle Hughes: And I think people do tend to look at you when you’re in a MINI, or they used to…maybe not so much now, but when they were quite new…yeah, it did feel a bit kind of trendy I suppose… I don’t know if they might do now…but yeah
APPENDIX 6 - DEALERSHIP INTERVIEWS
definitely you would think all of those girls used the MINI. Interviewer: Yeah… Erm, What would be your ideal MINI, for example the colours, interiors and the customisation and what would be your choices? Michelle Hughes: Erm… I dunno… the one that I had I really liked, which was a blue metallic MINI, with a white top, and two white stripes…and inside it was like quite sporty, it was the John Cooper version… so the seats were kind of ‘bucket’ but I have to say they were a bit uncomfortable for long journeys… so I think I’d want a bit more comfort. Interviewer: Would you recognise a MINI advert, if it didn’t actually have the MINI car in the advert? If you think back to maybe the TV ones, or anything… Michelle Hughes: I think I would yeah, but I think that’s because I’ve worked in advertising, and yeah I think I would recognise it. Interviewer: What sort of things do you think of when you think of the adverts, if the car wasn’t in it? Michelle Hughes: Erm…mischievousness, slightly tongue in cheek… I don’t really think British, particularly… yeah that’s what I think! Interviewer: Okay… Did you know about the lifestyle range that MINI do? Michelle Hughes: No. Interviewer: Okay, and last question Have you ever brought any of the lifestyle range? Obviously that’s a No if you’ve never seen it?! Michelle Hughes: No, I haven’t. When I went into the MINI dealership, I used to have a BMW aswell, and I used to take it to the dealership quite often to get serviced and it was in the same bit as the MINI dealership, and so I do remember doing you know like key rings and all sorts, but I always think ‘Ohh are they for real’ you know, like I just think the sales people are into like leather gloves and things like that…yeah… I don’t really think of it as kind of a separate line… it’s more like things you can buy in a dealership…maybe like a naff Christmas present you can buy for someone Interviewer: Do you think it’s a bit sort of ‘gimmicky’?! Michelle Hughes: Yes. Interviewer: Ohh okay. Alright, well that sums up the questions that I had for you…Thankyou so much for your help Michelle Hughes: Okay! Interviewer: See you soon, thanks again Michelle Hughes: No worries, thank you Bye Interviewer: Bye!
APPENDIX 6A- CONSENT FORMS
APPENDIX 6B- INTERVIEW 1 Matt, Daniel, Simon - Brand, Branch and Store Manager from the Nottingham Dealership What do you think MINI stands for as a brand? Daniel: erm... What does MINI stand for as a brand? Simon what would you say? Simons the brand manager Simon: I think it stands for fun, activity, it requires outward thinking, we like to think differently. Daniel: Your buying into a lifestyle choice as well, it’s kinda... Simon: Yeh Daniel: it’s not like a run of the mill car, It’s more something if you were a suppose little bit affluent, you’d sort of look at a MINI because that’s something you’d want to buy into that, buy into that lifestyle Simon: If you think about it whenever you see a car you naturally can tell the type of person that buys the car you pigeon hole it, so you do you know we stereotype people quite easily when you see someone in a clapped out ford focus you think oh god their having a tough time, but in a rolls Royce their [positive face expression] but in a MINI its making a positive statement about that person. I think see a MINI there’s nothing negative about that car or person its very positive they’ve either got loads of money and buying a cheap little run around car or their buying a good car from where they’ve got, it’s like an accessory almost isn’t it? a positive accessory to have. So from this dealership and the customers that you get coming in who would you say the most popular customer is for MINI? Daniel: What’s the average age Simon? Is it 42? Simon: Yeh it’s really weird, Hanna: Oh really Daniel: Yeh [speaks over top of Simon and Hanna] Simon: Really weird Daniel: The average of a MINI customer is 42 Simon: You get everything from 18 year old students with wealthy parents to people in their 80’s who had a MINI in the 1960 to people in Europe Hanna: Yeh like the MINI classic moving on to the [interrupts] Simon: Yeh so there’s absolutely no real... sort of, their a MINI customer they are kinda everyone’s a MINI customer Daniel: Yeh literally you see all sorts people in the car, in the servicing area just getting the car ...sorted Hanna: So it’s not really defined by a gender it’s more of a lifestyle choice Daniel: I suppose you’d think it was younger people but the average of the MINI UK did a study [Simon Interrupts] Simon: How many of your girlfriends drive MINIs’? [All Laugh] Simon: All of them drive a MINI don’t they? At some point in their relationship they do get an upgrade of wheels don’t they? Daniel: I have to pay for them all though [All Laugh] Hanna: Because I know that we found a statistic that women over men, women prefer the car would you say that’s... Daniel: I would say that’s probably true 82
Matt: You’d think so yeh Daniel: is there a split of how many men vs. women? Simon: It’s about 70% Hanna: Yeh I think we read online that it was 74% Amiee: Do you think that’s interesting as all the advertising has a masculine concept? Daniel: I think it’s more to try and win more men back on side it’s like they changed the 4x4 one they tried to make it look more aggressive by making it more chunky to get more men to buy into the brand rather than I suppose say convertible mini which is I suppose going to attract more women. When selling a car to different customers do you find it easier to sell a car to a certain gender or is it not an issue? Daniel: Ermm... Simon: Dan’s quite good with both, aren’t you? I suppose really you are though aren’t you? You’re quite a confident guy Daniel: Yeh I look dead confident now whilst getting recorded, Erm no at the end of the day I don’t think it’s difficult, there coming in to buy a service as well aren’t they, not just buy a car it’s just that as long as you apply a friendly attitude it doesn’t make a difference to a woman or a man ermm... the majority of or sales people we’ve got about 5..6 men and one woman, it would be good if we could get more of a 50/50 split with sales execs because then as I say the people that come in the women might want to buy of a lady rather than a man that could be a “aggressive car salesman” Hanna: That leads on to the next question, do you speak to men/woman buyers differently when trying to sell a car? Daniel: Erm...Not really I think it’s more just if you’re on that sort of level, you know what I mean if you’re talking to someone erm... it doesn’t make a difference whether there a man or a woman or whether I’m a man or a woman. I think as long as when they come in with questions and they are answered in the correct and appropriate way, yeh so at the end of the day I don’t think it makes that much of a difference, you might if you have a friend or you might be on certain level with them where as speaking to somebody else you might not click with them and not get on with them it might not be the person you’d want to go and have a beer ... glass of wine with on a Fridays night. There’s that as well when you click with someone because just to be sociable really Hanna: What do you think works best about a dealership environment when selling cars? Do you think it works well? Daniel: Well yeh obviously people have got to come in and if there coming in to look at a convertible you’ve got to have convertibles on show. Erm... so yeh we try to have one of every type of car in the showroom and then there’s all the used cars outside so we do try to display one of everything so then people can see if there looking for a 4 x4 they can have a sit in one and take them for a test drive in a different car. Yea you’ve got to have the dealership as part of the... it’s like when you go to look at a TV you want to look at the selection have a bit of a choice, the colours so that’s what we try and have here. Do you think there are any areas of improvement that can enhance a dealership and other dealerships in general? 83
Daniel: What do you mean?
Amiee: Yeh in Westfield’s we seen that
Amiee: On our brief one of our main areas of focus is improving the car buying experience and a later stage next year suggest a
Daniel: Yeh that’s the one, well we kinda have a selection of that but if you did want to order anything we do have a brochure
recommendation on how this can be improved and as you know this environment and consumers best we wonder if there was any
Amiee: Yeh we’ve received a copy of one
obvious feelings you had
Daniel: Yeh you can buy into all of that and get yourself a t-shirt, a bag, and an umbrella anything associated with MINI really yeh
Daniel: What would you say Matt? ...Well I suppose making it bigger and making it all indoors I guess
there is sort of the lifestyle stuff. Some people might like to buy a MINI t-shirt [pause] I wouldn’t but some people will like to.
Matt: You want a bigger variety one of every single model and style Daniel: Having it bigger, well if it was raining and the model was outside customers might not want to go see it
Hanna: What is the customer’s reaction to it, do customers like buying into it store or do they not really bother?
Matt: For instance yesterday we need more models to test drive a customer wanted to test drive a coupe convertible and our demo
Daniel: We don’t do enough of it really, Do we Simon? We don’t do enough selling of the lifestyle products like the t-shirts?
was out and we didn’t have one so we had to book them an appointment for a couple of days’ time so yea this shows how more
Simon: No we don’t
stock would help
Matt: It’s expensive though, its really expensive stuff
Hanna: So this is more of a practical level which use need as a store
Simon: I don’t think it is, it’s just not on show
Daniel: Yea, because MINIs’ gone from [Phone rings and interrupts] Get that Matt... a sort of ermm... MINI what you would expect
Matt: For what it is its expensive
to erm...to a convertible to a coupe, to a roadster to a 4x4 so there’s quite a few different brands well few different models within
Simon: twenty quid for a t-shirt
the brand it’s just a case of erm having one of each like the MINI one [counts on finger] there’s probably a four different models
Daniel: How much do you pay for one of your t-shirts Matt?
to that MINI one so yeh at the minute we can’t have one of everything but it would be good if you could so yea... I suppose it’s just
Matt: How much do I pay?
having what suits the customers I guess, we need to make it like home for them
Daniel: you’d spend fifty quid on a t-shirt wouldn’t you?
Hanna: Yea cause MINI is all about having the ability to customize and make things different [Phone interrupts]
Matt: Yeh but
Daniel: So as I was saying yeh make feel at home so when you walk in, I guess when you walked in today you felt looked a little a
Simon: No I think the main problem is we don’t have them on display, there nowhere that you can try them on, if staff wore
bit apprehensive nervous and when you a customer you get that exact same feeling even though you’re coming to look at some-
them we could sell more of them, if you want staff to look quite smart and
thing that you’re going to pay ten thousand quid for erm.. you are a bit nervous when you walk in the door and it is things that
Amiee: Do none of use were any of the products as part of your uniform?
make you feel comfortable, I guess that’s why we try to employ well make sure the sales execs team make you feel comfortable
Simon: No we don’t, the problem is if you do that people will forget to put the t-shirt on one day and replace it with a random t-
rather than just walking in the door and it feeling daunting, looking at cars is a bit scary you know what I mean I guess...
shirt so at least with a stripy shirt people know we all work for mini compared to guessing with people just in t-shirts. No I think if we had them on display a bit like a boutique someone manning that boutique
Hanna: How do you compete with other retail options for car buying? With the rise of people buying for the likes of ebay and other
Daniel: With changing rooms
selling outlets do you have to up your game?
Simon: Because when people buy a MINI they are making a lifestyle choice and they might buy the winter jackets the t-shirts, cufflinks, usb sticks the pens, I mean there not expensive they are good quality we just don’t sell them and people have to be
Daniel: No not really, were like the main manufacturer like the main dealer so it’s kind of like people come to us because were
sold to in appose to buy something, If people are just walking around a shop in town to buy something if somebody comes over
the experts, ermm, we’ve got all the cars and they know if they come to us you’re going to get a better level of service things like
and says oh can I help you at all you might get sold to, to buy something
warranties, we give a longer warranty than other dealerships they might give a 28 day guarantee where as we give a year with every
Daniel: And sometimes when you’re in that frame of mind you know when you walk in somewhere and you go in to buy a TV
car minimum, we give a year’s break down service also. So we give a better service granted you may expect to pay a little more than
buy you see and think oh a could do with a new DVD and while you’re there your like oh what about this and this you start
if you bought one of somebody on Ebay, but obviously I wouldn’t say were competing because on a price point they have to sell a
grabbing stuff it’s like a free fall sort of this, when you buy a car it’s that sort of thing and when you start to see other things, like
car cheaper because there not giving the same level of cover and service.
I agree we should sell more and we should have more on display so people can at least have a look at it Hanna: So customers don’t really come in here to see the lifestyle products they come in here to buy a car
Daniel: Yeh affectively it’s more if someone is buying a car and they see a couple of t-shirts they might say chuck us that in
Hanna: Just moving on to our other point of focus the MINI lifestyle range and I’ve seen that you have a few products
Amiee: Would you feel happy if you had more stock in of the lifestyle range to push sales further and promote it?
Daniel: Yeh I would need more of a selection to show them it, if we had like an area, but we’d defiantly need someone to man it
Hanna: Another part of the products was to determine how customers connect with MINI lifestyle, do you stock a lot of products
and be on that all the time to sort of show people show people around it so yeh there is difficult aspects to it
in store or is it just the few selected outside?
Matt: We did used to have a rack outside though didn’t we?
Daniel: There is actually a MINI store in London 84
Daniel: With a few bits on
Daniel: There’s quite a lot in there if you look at the brochure, you can go out and buy like an outdoor it
Matt: Well where has that gone
Hanna: Yeh there’s a whole festival collection
Daniel: Its round the corner I think
Daniel: Yeh there’s quite a lot of stuff, the umbrellas and chairs and all sort of random stuff that you wouldn’t really associate
Matt: Is it? is it still a round there? Some people used to come and ask for stuff of that didn’t they
with MINI but it’s there but no there’s nothing that anyone has ever asked for specifically. It is that lifestyle brand though isn’t
Daniel: Yeh, that’s more we got a separate parts department next door and thats more of a display for the people erm... say if
it, it goes miles beyond just a car.
you’re coming in and you want a tshirt and this this and this and they will order you one we don’t really tend to keep a stock of the lifestyle range.
Hanna: Do you know any other dealerships that stock the lifestyle range in a bigger scale or have it more on show? Daniel: Ermm no not really there all very similar it’s not something we push, manufacturers don’t push us to have a large col-
Hanna: So do you think the lifestyle range is relevant to MINI and it’s good to have there?
lection they just push us ermm...
Daniel: Erm... I think erm... It’s like a car dealership were affectively here to sell cars not clothing so yeh I guess that more why
Amiee: Just a small sample of the products
they have the store in London for that because you think while I’m in London I’ll go look at the mini clothing because there
Daniel: Yeh, we only need those obviously if we have a large collection we have to buy the stock and then you have, there’s a
looking at buying the lifestyle of that, where as if you’re coming here to buy it, I don’t think people will go on a Saturday after-
number of impacts like staff and stock loss what if possibly someone stole something, there’s quite a lot of complications that
noon oh I’m going to go buy some new jeans I nip into MINI see if they’ve got some new t-shirts as well you probably would
would need dealing with first, buy it is something that we don’t probably push as much as we probably should or could.
never associate them two together.
Hanna: That’s all our questions, thank you for your help Daniel: Yeh well yeh just let us know if you need anything else and I’ll give you business cards in case you want to get n contact
Hanna: We’ve kind of already touched upon this but would you yourself see yourself wearing any of the MINI lifestyle range
Daniel: yeh yeh there some stuff but I think it would just be a bit obvious because I would here I work for mini and then if I start walking around in MINI t-shirt and a mini jacket [pulls face] but yeh I’ve got a MINI coat so but I suppose I see that more as a uniform than as , but I yeh suppose if i wouldn’t erm yeh, I’d buy a MINI if I didn’t work MINI, I’d buy one and yeh id probably see myself in a MINI jacket but because I work for the its a bit obvious Amiee: Do you think the t-shirts and the other items need to be toned down and not so MINI in your face with the motif Daniel: The could work better if it was more like Paul Smith you know with like an old style mini on it and things like that, that’s cool, and if you did something like that and the design was a little bit more ermm.. and you look at it and think yeh that’s cool because it’s Paul Smith and it’s a mini yeh something along those lines and not just having MINI. I’ve look through the brochure and yeh a lot of it is just simple MINI whereas.... Hanna: it’s really popular in Japan because they like the motifs whereas in the UK the most popular products are the parker and the coats because there not excessively MINI Daniel: Yeh there not over the top yeh I totally agree, I would, I mean I just haven’t and it’s because of the point I was saying a minute ago I haven’t actually seen them, if they were on display you get a coat or a hat or umbrella or something, you’d probably go oh that coats alright it just says MINI just there, yeh id wear that Hanna: Kinda like a more impulse buy Daniel: Yeh but certainly I wouldn’t just go buy a t-shirt that says MINI massive on it Hanna: Do customers ever ask for something to buy along with the car? Do you think anything is missing from the lifestyle collection?
APPENDIX 6C - INTERVIEW 2
H: Do you think there will be a change in the car buying experience cos like obviously the rise of people going to ebay to buy
Interview Transcript – Majid Wahid (MINI sales Executive)
their cars and different other second hand outlets, do you think that’s competition for dealerships, or not? M: not, not for our brand no, the thing with MINI is, it’s, if you’re gonna spend 10, 8, 9, 20,000 pounds on a car, you’d rather go
Hanna: So what do you think MINI stands for as a brand, the perceptions of it?
somewhere and pay that fraction more to get the customer satisfaction…of a large dealership, the problem with buying on ebay
Maj: Joy…Feel good fun...that’s what people think of mini, it’s fun and …premium brand product so it appeals to people who
is, as with any auction site…most of the cars, you’re buying them blind basically, there’s no warranty, if something goes wrong
want something dynamic and fun…and that’s what mini is
it’s down to you, so you may as well pay that extra...a bit more and get yourself a car which is right and prepared to a really nice
Hanna: From the customers you get coming in to store, would you say there’s a certain type of customer that keeps coming in,
standard…so sytner is a big company so it’s kind of…the biggest in the country…we prepare the cars at a very high standard
any gender or age?
H: They mentioned the events that you hold in store, that get customers in, do you think these are really beneficial for –
M: No, one of my oldest customers is 92…so It’s...I think it doesn’t appeal to a certain market, you get a few young people who
M: yeah, I mean the last event we sold was it, the weekend just gone, we sold something like [pause] 28 cars in 3 days [pause]
buy MINI’s but then again you get some older people as well so…I think its people that want something that’s different…
but yeah I think that’s really good, I think beforehand, the last time we did it was about 30, because it’s getting closer to Christ-
erm..a bit fun...and erm MINI gives you that experience and that’s why they buy it
mas now it’s getting a little bit quieter, these events are very good because they get people in the doors, create footfall, err we
H: When you’re selling a product do you think it’s easier to sell to a certain gender or is it just easy to do?
have lots of offers on, every cars marked down erm and we genuinely are getting a bargain…and we tend to have mini here
M: [pause] umm...sometimes yeah I mean if it’s a woman than it’s slightly easier to sell to than a bloke I suppose
themselves …to do some really good deals, you know it is, it’s not a gimmick, it is a proper event
H: Why would you say that is?
H: Are all the events held in the dealership or do you go to different areas or?
M: because the women sometimes wear the trousers so it’s quite easier to sell to the women with a bloke…it’s a bit more…you
M: it’s normally held here but we sometimes have one here and one in BMW…but it’s normally held at a MINI, er, site…we
haven’t got to sell to the woman not the bloke, if she pulls the strings [laughter] …so you have to get her on your side [laugh-
have like champagne on offer as well, you can have a drink or get something to eat…
H: So it’s kinda like the experience?
H: erm when you kind of selling to a man or a woman do you have to use a different approach or a different language, or is it
M: yeah, it’s the whole ambiance of being in a showroom
kind of the same?
H: Yeah okay, kind of another aspect of our project is to look at the lifestyle range, like the clothes and all the different gadgets
M: No…not really no, just be yourself, I mean MINI customers kind to buy off people that sorta erm, good at relation- creat-
they do, erm do you think, like you obviously stock a small selection in store, do customers like relate it, do they see it, do they
ing relationships and building rapport, umm so you have to find more about them than the car, you don’t want them to feel as
though it’s...your just a sales person and you’re a number…we’ve got to find out more about them, you know have you got any
M: yeah we could do with a slightly bigger shop there I think, erm, cos I think the accessory section is tucked away in the corner
dogs, any pets, what they like doing that sort of thing, and come across as a human being not just like you know a sales per-
there, it’s more of an afterthought, isn’t it? I think we could do with more bigger displays, more accessories available to custom-
son…but that’s what I find anyway that works
ers that want to buy from us, and I know we’ve got some teddy bears and bulldogs and that sort of thing there should be more
H: erm…what do you think is best about a dealership environment when achieving sales? Do you think it’s a good environment
Amiee: more practical things that can go with the car do you think?
M: yeah I mean Sytner obviously is quite a big site, this is quite a warm showroom, people are really friendly, friendly and smiley,
M: yeah…yeah…and I think there should be a brochure for alloy wheels as well…we get people that come in and say what
you know there’s quite a lot of cars out where you can have a sit inside and you know it’s, we’ve got lots of cars that you can
alloys can you have on a MINI, err, they haven’t bought the car from here but are looking at buying just some wheels, it’s good to
have a sit inside and stuff and that like that and have a look at all the colours and so on…and with the speckled cars and on our
have a brochure for it to actually erm, tell them what’s available
website as well
H: Have you had any experience of selling the lifestyle range yourself, has any customer actually been interested in it?
H: Oh okay, Do you think there’s any areas of improvement within a car dealership that you can see that would improve peo-
M: yeah…yeah…I’ve sold err tshirts [pause] I’ve sold err teddy bears [laughter] jackets, all sorts…alloy wheels
H: Is there kind of like a customer, maybe when a customer doesn’t realise they have a lifestyle collection, is there response
M: we could probably employ more women
quite positive to it? Something they would be interested in?
H: more women?
M: yeah, cos MINI customers tend to be customers that have a, an emotional connection to the product, they even give their
M: yeah…cos it’s predominately blokes isn’t it? [laughter] so…sometimes you get a woman that comes in that prefers to deal
car a name, it’s a car, it’s a friend, so they want to be part of that MINI family…and having the brochure and having accessories
with a woman…but may not say so but just…
available to it, just give, give that customer that extra experience that you wouldn’t get from a BMW customer…cos they’re not
H: a bit off putting?
interested in giving a car a name, it’s just a car, whereas MINI customers are slightly more different than MINI, er bmw custom-
M: yeah…I mean I can tell cos I can…I’m good at reading body language and stuff sometimes it’s easy to deal with a woman
ers…its quite hard to sell [pause] its quite hard to take a customer out of a MINI that they’ve had for 3 years…and get them to
than a bloke, erm but yeah that’s it
buy a new one, cos that’s part of the family, it’s like a cat…very hard [laughter] 89
H: You said kind of like the lifestyle range is an afterthought – M: It is yeah
APPENDIX 7 - FRED PERRY INTERVIEWS
H: Do you think it could be made to be more aspirational so people that clearly can’t afford a MINI as yet could buy in to the brand and maybe have a MINI T shirt or teddy bear? M: yeah…I think they should be some erm, competitions we need to do, where we give like things away, create a bit more of an awareness, we’re doing a bit of campaigning on the radio at the moment, a £199 offer for a brand new mini, I think it should also include, like…free Ipad’s or something in to that or t-shirts…or yano if you come and have a test drive we’ll give you err, a goodie bag or whatever, yano we really need to…that’s the good thing, we need to get people in, in to the door H: You said that MINI is a lifestyle brand, so you do think that the collection is relevant to MINI as a whole? M: Yeah…absolutely, you know most of our customers tend to be, err, they just want that extra, erm…bit that you don’t get without being a MINI customer, they want to have the little gadgets and they want to have a t-shirt and they want to have nice wing mirrors and stripes and things like that, and that’s what MINI’s customer is like, so we have the upgrades like wing mirrors and stripes and so on, because they want is bespoke, they want it quite customised H: When you’re not in work, could you see yourself wearing any of the MINI collection? M: probably not [laughs] H: No? M: well I’ve got a MINI T-shirt at home but I’ve probably wore it to the gym actually I don’t know…I don’t tend to wear it out… a night out [laughs] I wore my MINI jacket to work…no I don’t wear them H: Do you think there’s room to change some of the products then? Because a lot of them are very motif, like ‘MINI’ on the front of them, whereas the best-selling product was the parka that hasn’t really got any motifs on it… A: It says it really small on the arm… do you think if the T-shirts were more toned down a bit, they could be more like successful? M: Do you mean put a bigger symbol on or something? A: Like, a lot of the t-shirts just have MINI plastered on the front of them, whereas the parka was more successful and the parka only says MINI dead small on the arm, so do you think if the T-shirts didn’t have MINI plastered over them they could be more successful and could have added a different print on them M: oh yeah…cos I think what MINI’s, MINI sponsored the Olympics as well and we did a lot of excess reach for the Olympics, I think to a lot of customers out there, it’s quite often…customers didn’t like the Olympics being associated with MINI…erm so I think it should be more concentrated on MINI itself as a brand not just focusing on the Olympics H: Okay, so would you, say for work, if they introduced that you had to wear a MINI uniform, would you be- would you like that or do you prefer to wear a suit to work? M: erm, I’d probably wear a t-shirt…a MINI t-shirt and just smart trousers…if you go to some dealers they wear like t-shirts with the white MINI badge, so that, it looks a bit casual doesn’t it…but it’s good…cos some people don’t like the suits and ties and all that deal, it’s too formal isn’t it…with t-shirts it’s a bit more chilled out, relaxed, yeah… A: like keep your suits maybe for your events and stuff wear M: yeah I totally agree with you yeah, I would much rather not wear a suit if I can avoid it - End 90
APPENDIX 7A- CONSENT FORM
Interview with Fred Perry employee
7B- INTERVIEW 1
30th December 2012 Michelle: Who or what do you feel are the main influences of the Fred Perry brand, and why? Jazmin: I think for us, it’s mostly about Heritage, so obviously we became a clothing brand in 1952. So it was adopted by all the mods and all that sort of thing. So the music sub-culture is very important for us aswell, umm we’ve done collaborations with The Specials, Amy Winehouse. Michelle: Okay, Jazmin: Obviously originally we were a tennis brand, and now we’ve sort of branched out into sport with our Bradley Wiggins collaboration aswell. Michelle: Yeah, Jazmin: So, anything from music, sub-cultures, to people who sort of get influenced by our brand aswell… Michelle: Okay, yeah… So, could you explain in your opinion who the Fred Perry consumer is? We’d like to get an opinion from an employee’s perspective, aswell as our own. Jazmin: So the sort of people that buy our brand? Michelle: Yeah, and who is into it Jazmin: Yeah, umm everybody. I know that sounds like a really open thing but you’ve got the original mods from back in the day, but it’s also become quite a modern brand aswell. You find a lot of dads that their sons wear it, Michelle: Yeah, Jazmin: We’re quite with the times, so our fashion will represent what’s going on in the fashion industry at the time aswell… Michelle: Yeah Jazmin: We try and keep on with the trend…but we do kids wear aswell now, so it’s like even the little kids from ‘My First Fred Perry’ which is six months old, will wear it aswell. So it’s a nice family brand aswell as a fashion brand. Michelle: Yeah, okay… Why do you think the consumers like the Fred Perry brand? Jazmin: I think it’s because we’ve got heritage… So we started in 1952, so it’s the brand that has progressed. Everybody can relate to it through music sub-culture, or you know through the fashion side of it… so that’s probably why it’s so popular Michelle: Yeah, okay… What do you think Fred Perry stands for? Jazmin: In what way? Michelle: As in the brand perspective, what do you think Fred Perry’s brand values are? Like you said about the Heritage, things like that. Jazmin: I think it’s the heritage side, mixing modern fashion with the vintage and retro values aswell. A lot of our stuff we look at fifties and sixties trends, especially with the womens-wear and Amy Winehouse, Michelle: Yeah Jazmin: But I think it’s all about the retro side to it, with a modern twist aswell. But just keeping our heritage very apparent is a big thing for us. Michelle: Yeah, okay… So this is a long question! We’re doing a project with MINI the car brand, and we’d like to take inspiration from British heritage brands such as Fred Perry. What aspects do you feel could be relevant or innovative for the MINI brand to take on?
Jazmin: I think you need to re-release the original 60’s Mini’s! (laughter) Especially the Mary Quant ones, because they’re my
Jazmin: Yeah, so I think the feeling of being a kid. And obviously for kids growing up in that sort of era…you know your clothes
were really important to you …like the fashion and being individual. So that sort of side ‘ Oh I really want one again’…so I
think that’s the main side of it.
Jazmin: Yeah…but I think you’ve just got to look at how you’ve developed as a company. I mean for us, we look back to the
Michelle: Yeah, okay. So we feel that MINI need to look back at its heritage, and create a new and innovative campaign to engage
original shirts, and then we re-release them and people find those really popular because they like the ones that they had when
people more with the brand. Do you think this is what Fred Perry already do? And how successful is it, for example do you have
they were younger.
existing customers as well as new ones? Again, you have already explained this area already…
Michelle: Yeah, that’s sort of what we’ve been looking at with MINI already.
Jazmin: Yeah I mean like I say, our heritage is quite important. If you go on our website, you can see the development of Fred
Jazmin: Yeah, so you’ve got to think what your brand was originally, and how you’ve grown.
Perry, like how we started out, and originally Fred Perry was a tennis player and it came from that sort of clothing.
Jazmin: If that’s the sort of thing you’re looking at?
Jazmin: And you can go through the ages, and see what sub-cultures developed it like the mods, and obviously the scar routes to
its skin head routes, so you get to see that progression
Jazmin: And I think it’s about your development as a brand. Like I say it’s important for us to look at our original values and see
how we can build upon them, and how we can make them modern aswell…
Jazmin: Umm, so obviously we do have our existing customers like the mods from back in the day and people that used to wear
Michelle: Okay, so in terms of MINI, how do you think this brand relates to Fred Perry?
it as a kid. And you get your new kids that see it as a fashion brand,
Jazmin: I think you’ve got a very good heritage aswell…especially with the sixties side of it. Obviously Mini’s were out in the six-
ties and so were we. So like I say, you’ve developed as a company, and aswell you’re still a very modern thing… a lot of people
Jazmin: So like you know ‘Fred Bloggs has worn it and it looks really cool and I’m going to wear it aswell.’ So like a fashionable
have Mini’s nowadays aswell.
brand. So all the school kids have our Fred Perry messenger style bags, so it obviously appeals to the young, aswell as the older
Jazmin: So I think you’ve got that heritage side, which is probably our relation with you…that’s about it really!
Michelle: Okay… So we feel that buying into the MINI brand is a lifestyle choice, do you feel this is the same for Fred Perry? Jazmin: Definitely. (laughter) You get people and they come in and say ‘God I’ve got every single colour of this wool, and I could
Michelle: Okay. So, according to a MINI salesman, MINI has varied consumers, so ranging from 17 to late 80’s, because of their
buy everything in this shop.’ You know people get quite connected to our brand, it’s quite a passionate brand in the sense that
love for the brand when they were younger… like with the sixties cars…Do you feel this is the same with Fred Perry? Please
people are really passionate about it.
could you explain your answer, I know you have already touched upon that a bit already…
already touched upon that a bit already…
Jazmin: Like the people in the sub-cultures aswell, that’s their way of life. So, say the mods they really love that sort of clothing
Jazmin: Yeah definitely, I mean it’s like people used to wear it as a kid, and now they want to wear it again because it’s what they
and we’re probably one of the only brands that will do it. So it’s sort of their way of life to buy our clothing, because it’s what
were into when they were younger.
appeals to them… if you understand what I mean?
Michelle: Yeah! Okay, and finally, storytelling and narrative are becoming a popular marketing tool, has Fred Perry already taken
Jazmin: It’s one of those brands where you grow up with it, and it grows up with you. So I mean I know I started wearing mine at
this on? Also what do you think is Fred Perry’s most successful campaign and why?
13, and I’m nearly 20 and I’m still into the brand.
Jazmin: I’d probably say the ‘Tell us your story’ campaign we did a couple of years ago, it was really popular. People could send in
their stories and pictures, like of how they felt about Fred Perry. So we had people sending in stuff like ‘This was me in my first
Jazmin: Even more so now I work here. But a lot of people, you find that they come in the shop and they go; ‘God I had that
Fred Perry shirt when I was thirteen back in the 80’s.’ Or you know kids now send in ‘This was when I met Suggs at the Madness
polo when I was thirteen… and I used to love it. I’m going to get one because I really loved it.’
gig, and I was wearing my Fred Perry shirt.’ So you know that storytelling idea has been quite popular for us aswell.
Michelle: A bit nostalgic then?
Jazmin: Yeah quite a nostalgic thing, but I think it’s quite a personal thing aswell. People will always say I always remember buy-
Jazmin: So we did it as an online competition… so I think it’s getting people involved with your brand that’s quite important,
ing my first Fred Perry shirt,
so telling your stories. So it’s funny how you see how it affects different people and how different people’s stories relate to your
brand…yet it’s just one brand.
Jazmin: Yeah, so…
Michelle: So that memory do you mean?
Jazmin: So it’s quite interesting really, Michelle: Yeah! So that’s it! Thankyou for your help!
Jazmin: That’s alright!
7C - FOLLOW UP INTERVIEW: 2 Transcript for follow up Interview with Fred Perry staff member ( Jazmin Hill) 12th January 2013
Michelle: With regards to the Fred Perry brand, a few years ago we noticed a change in your consumer. For example, at one point we associated Fred Perry with the ‘Chav’ stereotype. What are your thoughts on this? Jazmin: I mean like we’ve said to you before, Fred Perry appeals to so many different sub cultures, it’s hard to label our particular consumer. I mean I think with the sort of ‘Chav’ stereotype that you’re talking about, it’s probably going to be that they’ve got into the brand and it’s become like a fad. Michelle: Yeah Jazmin: Instead of us appealing to that sort of person. Umm I think probably we did notice a change, you know you see the people that come in the shop…Umm but to be honest as an employee sort of thing, you see so many different people that our brand is associated with Michelle: Yeah Jazmin: It’s not surprising… I don’t think there is a thing of overcoming it…but you know fads come and go. So maybe it’s a thing that they like Fred Perry, and therefore everybody wore it in that sub culture, and they’ve gone on to something else. So umm… I think it’s difficult to sort of y’know… Michelle: Yeah. So what influences the look of Fred Perry Jazmin: For us, it’s definitely like your music sub-cultures, I mean we spoke about Heritage before, but umm bands that wear Fred Perry Michelle: Yeah Jazmin: Umm like their fans will wear it because they see it on bands. Umm so y’know you’ve got all like the sixties influences, but then you’ve got your modern day bands aswell. Umm you know people like Miles Kane, and things like that, that are that sort of Mod look Michelle: Yeah Jazmin: Umm so music is definitely a strong part of it Michelle: Yeah. So how do you feel about Fred Perry being franchised in stores such as JD? Jazmin: Umm well basically we design a certain line of clothing for JD that will be stocked in their stores, I mean they will have some of our mainline stuff aswell, but its more the sort of sporty gear, umm they also stock a youth range which we don’t do in our store particularly. It’s purely for sports shops and catalogue shops. Michelle: Yeah Jazmin: So I don’t think it’s devaluing the brand as you’ve hinted on, I think it’s more of opening up the brand to different types of people and sort of enlarging your customer base. I don’t think it’s a negative thing. I think it’s you want your brand to be as popular as possible and to do so you’ve got to appeal to as many different people as you can Michelle: Yeah, okay thankyou! Brill 96