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My intentions: For my A Level Externally Set Task I intend to look at and analyse the subject of 'Flight' within in Historical Art as it can mean and lead to various topics and styles of Art such as Mythological or Religious. Furthermore, I will aim to discover and analyze a range of artists that successfully produce Art Pieces that is both well know over the world but also those that are a little less well known but still as creative and artistic. Some of the Artists I may look at include Leonardo Da Vinci, Pieter Bruegel, Gentile de Fabriano and others that I will research after deciding my theme within Flight.

Leonardo da Vinci, The Flying Machine, 15th Century.

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo was a Italian artist who specialized in painting, sculpture, and architecture. He also was an inventor, military engineer and draftsman and has been considered by many to be the perfect example of a 'Renaissance man and artist'. He had studied science and the laws of nature which had then greatly influenced and aided his masterpieces and work. Many of his pieces have deeply influenced artists of the time and after his death till this day, allowing Da Vinci to be considered 'The Leading Light of the Italian Renaissance'. His interests were so varied and wide that he could not be confined to one area of study. One of his most well-known and famous paintings is 'The Mona Lisa' and the artist has carried it around everywhere with him until the day that he died. Most art critics agree that the figure being shown is Mona Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, a Florentine silk merchant. However, other critics have said that it had been a selfportrait of Leonardo in his much later years of life, but has been proven through a early biography that it was in fact intended for Francesco as it was of his wife. There is clear harmony between the figure and the landscape behind her as there is similar colouring and similar use of brushstrokes – Sfumato, where harsh edges are blurred with shading. The work seems to be dull and mute in colour, consisting on yellows and browns but it was probably once much more colourful and vibrant in colour before it had been aged by time. You can also see the Renaissance art development coming through too with the use of depth and dimension.

15th Century Italy Italy during the 15th Century was extremely different to any other place in Europe at the time, it had been divided in to 'city-states', each lead and formed by a different Government. It had been in Florence where the Renaissance had fully begun and flourished with new ways of thinking and forming ideas leading to developments in the artistic, humanist, technological and scientific knowledge. The Renaissance mainly focused on the rediscovery of classical works including text and artefacts and looks predominantly to heroic and ideal buildings or works of art from older periods of time. Following and researching these then allowed innovations to occur in the regions of Maths, Medicine, Engineering, Architecture and the Visual Arts – all of which had helped Da Vinci with all his master pieces. Florence had also been the and commercial capital and, after London and Constantinople, and the third-largest city in Europe. Many of the wealthy Florentines had used and flaunted their money and power to become patrons, and/or supporters of artists and intellectuals. Due to this, Florence had become the City considered the centre of the culture on Europe and the Renaissance.  The Renaissance encouraged people to be curious and to frequently ask questions on all the words and knowledge they received. It allowed them to experiment and observe leading many of the artists of the time to try and understand the Laws of Nature and of the Physical World – such as Da Vinci. Da Vinci had created studies in scientific detail of objects such as flying machines and submarines as well as pioneering studies of the human body.

The Flying Machine by Leonardo Da Vinci Out of all the many subjects that Leonardo had studied, it is believed that his flight machine was the one he was most interested in. He was utterly fascinated by the thought of humans flying and soaring through the sky like the birds we so often see in the sky. His machine is commonly known as 'The Flying Machine', however, it has also been given the name 'Ornithopter', meaning a machine designed to fly through the use of wings and flapping of wings.

Da Vinci had use many flying animals to fuel and inspire his contraption and how it would work, which is typical of the Renaissance. In his recordings he even refers to birds and bats; bats more likely to have influenced his deign because of the structure of the wings and shaping of the body but also the shape of the tail resembling that of a bird.

The wingspan of this wonderful, Pine framed creation well exceeded 33 feet and had been covered in silk material to form a strong and sturdy mechanism but light weight to be able to fly high.

Although the machine had never been built within Da Vinci's lifetime he had created a extremely detailed and thought out design and plan as to how to create a flying machine for man to soar through the sky. He had started and sparked this new idea into society that there will be a machine to help us to fly through the sky and allowed us as humans to then further develop his designs into reality: Planes that can transport us across the world in a matter of hours.

Da Vinci had designed the machine so that the user -the pilot of the Ornithopter – would have the contraption attached to their back so when in the air their stomach would face the ground, making it easier to the see where they are flying and stirring to go. They'd lie straight in the centre of the machine and to then power the wings the pilot would pedal a crank that was connected to a rod-and-pulley system.

The flying machine also had a hand crank for increased energy output used to then further help the machine to stay in the air. To control the mechanism Da Vinci had produced a head piece that allowed steering – almost like a wheel in a car, to turn it either way or up and down. As the pilot uses the machine through spinning cranks with his hands and feet, the wings of the machine flap like the birds and bats Da Vinci had studied in order to design this piece. Furthermore, it is extremely clear the inspiration that Da Vinci had taken from the animals in nature from the way that the wings had been designed to twist as they flapped through the air I will now look at another form of wings and flight, around the same time period of time, of angels..



Gentile de Fabriano, The Adoration of the Magi, 1423.

Gentile de Fabriano

Gentile had first worked in Venice where he created his very first art works of frescos, however, they have now been destroyed through age and time. 1422, he moved from Venice to Florence where he joined the Florentine Guild – a corporation in Italy that dealt and controlled the arts – and he started a workshop. Just a few years later he moved over to Rome and started to work for Pope Martin V. Due to his successful and well appreciate career as an artist he was regarded as one of the leading figures in pursuing the art style of International Gothic – of which most of his surviving work is in the style of. His paintings are elegant and stylish and he even introduced the sense of time and movement within some of his paintings by showing a story within a canvas frame. He uses shading to portray lighting and this is suggested to predate Masaccio – a Florentine Artist who worked in the Italian Renaissance style – and has also been suggested that he had taught Jacopo Bellini – a founder of the Italian Renaissance. This is one of the paintings by Gentile called 'The Shimmer of Gold'. It uses a lot of gold making it appear very elegant, fancy and rich. The only other colours used is blue and red making the scene look very opulent and grand. Two figures sit facing each other one with their head bowed slightly and the other with their hands raised. They have faint circular halos behind their heads and the left figure is being topped with a crown and has been suggested to the Virgin Mary.

Pope Martin V

15th Century Italy During the 15th century of Italy, in art, the Italian Renaissance had begun to take place and change the way that art was formed and made. It was the rebirth of Art and Science and it represents and shows the development of artistic achievement that had been confidently produced over thousands of years. Capturing the glory of the classical and ancient past in Rome, the perception of power the scholars had portrayed intrigued and fascinated the artists during the Italian Renaissance and they wanted to restart this style, therefore concluding to the Italian Renaissance. The Renaissance began in the cities surrounding Florence and Siena, such as Tuscany but had a much bigger impact once it had reached Venice were there had been remains of Ancient Greek Culture. It had provided the Italian Artists with Scholar work that had specialized in Humanist texts and work. The biggest peak for the style of the Renaissance with during the late 15th century due to foreign invasions occurring more often and people looking for hope, inspiration and a new start – a 'rebirth'. The ideas of the Renaissance soon spread through the rest of Europe leading the 'Italian Renaissance' to become the 'Northern Renaissance' The Italian Renaissance was and still is best known for the achievements it gained through cultural and humanist views and was not only limited to paintings but also sculpture and architecture like the Duomo in Florence.


The Dome of Florence by Brunelleschi, 1420-36

The Birth Of Venus by Botticelli, 1485

The Adoration of the Magi by Gentile

This masterpiece created by Gentile was used as a altarpiece and depicts multiple gospel stories revolving around the Birth of Jesus as they had been told in the Middle ages and the Renaissance. There are several sections to the piece and looks as though it has been divided into three section vertically from the arches and the division in the bottom section. It also looks divided horizontally from the top, pointed sections with small paintings in, the main section and then the bottom triptych. Within the main and largest area of the painting it shows us the story of the of the shepherds and the kings making their way and following the star to Mary, Joseph and their child Jesus, the baby King of the Jews. It curves round to the more prominent image where the Magi's – three kings – give gifts to the child. It prominently use the colour of gold, increasing the sense of importance and religion in the painting and making it seem very luxurious and elegant. Other colours that stand out are red and blue, colours that together increase the luxury already made by the gold. The only blue being shown/ worn in the painting is on the Virgin Mary, the colour only used for Mary in Religious paintings. It was called Lapis Lazuli and was extremely expensive.

At the very top of the painting with gold backgrounds in spherical shapes are angels, Jesus grown and another religion figure. The Angel looks graceful and faces toward Jesus. They face toward the middle where Jesus sits, and their hands are raised almost as if they're praying toward him. They're dressed in a green and golden gown making them look very regal and elegant. Jesus is placed in the middle, and larger circle. He is dressed in a extremely dark blue and red tunic a lining of gold. By making him the larger of the three circles it increase the importance of him and the need to believe in him for all those going to church. Furthermore, by using three repeated circles it also has a link into the Holy Trinity.

The section below the circles, but within the main section of the painting at the very top we can see that there is a story being told. You can see the adventure of the Kings and people making their way and travelling across the land to see the new born Jesus Christ. They are shown in smaller scenes that start from the top left corner and go around to the right corner and down to the full and largest scene. Using the smaller scenes to fill the three arches from this unusual and mesmerizing effect that allows us as the viewer to follow them and understand the lead up to the main 'event' of Jesus and the gift giving and presents us with a continuous narrative.

The main event of the painting occurs much larger at the bottom of the main section. We can see the Magi finally arrive after their long journey to the new born Christ in the stable after no room in any inns. They each present three different gifts of Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh. They each take it in turn to present the gifts to the child, start with the oldest of the three who kneels before Jesus and removes his crown. Behind him is the middle aged of the Kings, who bends down about to remove his crown. However, the youngest, who presents the gold, stands behind both other Kings and has his crown still on his head. Much like older paintings with the Magi they are surrounded by a large number of people including The painting is opulent and feature not only people but also rare and varied courtiers and those who are riding on horseback. Gentile uses the journey of the Magi to increase his animals. There is a dog in on the right of the foreground and looks in fear artistic skill and push it to new extremes. He does toward a horse that is about to carelessly stand on him. There is a leopard preparing to jump up and pounce toward a deer it has just spotted and seen. not dress the kings or any figures in 'ancient' and There are farm animals surround Mary, Joseph and Jesus, such as cows, horses old looking clothing that would be typical for a and donkeys. There are even birds an monkeys amongst the crowd of people. biblical story, but rather imagines the costumes, Also, just behind the youngest of the kings, there is a man that stares out to the making them look highly luxurious and slightly viewer and it has been suggested that the Patron of the painting is this figure exotic, as if from another country and culture. The and is placed next to the King to associate himself with riches. figures all look as though they are crammed I will again discover another form of flight and also look into the theme of together and almost stacked on top of one another. Mythology and look at the story of Icarus.


Pieter Bruegel, The Fall of Icarus, 1558.

Pieter Bruegel Bruegel was also known as 'Brueghal the Elder' - after a few years of painting he dropped the 'h' when signing his work, however, his relatives continued to use the full and proper name –  or even 'Peasant Bruegel' and was considered to be one of the most influential and significant artists in Dutch and Flemish Renaissance. He was an artist that worked in painting and print making as was most well known for his work in painting landscapes and peasant scenes in his 'genre' painting. He had a big influence on the Dutch Golden Age Painting Style. He trained as a artist in Italy and after his travels around the country he returned to his home in Antwerp, Belgium where he worked mainly as a 'Prolific Designer' - working in the style of the time – of printing designs. In his later life he switched over into making painting his main style and form of work. His paintings often strengthen and 'reenergize' what was considered 'Medieval Subjects' such as the lives of ordinary people in their daily lives and landscapes – one of the reasons for being called 'Peasant Bruegel' -  that had often been shown and depicted in illuminated manuscripts. He would create his work on large scale canvases and would work with oil paints – the  most expensive of them all. To the right is one of the prints by Bruegel called 'The Battle about Money' in 1563. It is intended to show the state of the Netherland Political and Economical situation and how riots and rebellion kept spiraling out of control. How shows the men, not as men, but, rather as objects such as canons and chests of gold and riches. This could be to show how all that men are in the current time and situation is fight and anger but also self centered with the thought of money and riches needed to be considered a worthy man of life.

16th Century Netherlands The Netherlands in the 16th Century had a extremely dynamic landscape due to reoccurring storms and floods that created new and wide area full of just water. It was a rapid land change and out of necessity and need the farmers had to switch their ways to a large scale dairy faring production scheme. They would predominantly make cheeses as they proved to be a non-perishable food item. By 1500 more than half the population of the Netherlands had lived in towns rather than far and rural areas, causing the Netherlands to have the highest degree of urbanization in Europe. The Netherland Merchants slowly became some of the most important merchants there could be over seas and had Amsterdam as their main trading port. This especially occurred within Holland, however, they were not the most powerful by any means in the Netherlands as the much bigger towns in the south had much more strength in power, such as: Antwerp – where Bruegel was from -, Brussels, Ghent, and Bruges. Evolution towards unification was very slow. It's only in 1548 that all parts were formally joined in the 17 United Netherlands. Paintings often depicted the everyday life and did not glorify people or events.

The Fall of Icarus by Pieter Bruegel The overall atmosphere of the painting is serene and calming to look at with the land being tended to by people creating a sense of safeness and kindness toward the Earth. Not only this but the still water with the boats in the mid ground and background allow us to also feel still and calm in looking at the painting. What first we don't recognize the link between the painting and the title given to it but when you look in more detail and look closer at the painting you can see the bright sun slightly toward the right at the top of the painting, bright and hot – hot enough to melt wax – and at the bottom almost directly under is a pair of legs splashing and crashing down into the calm water disturbing the peace created there.

 Without being noticable and being discrete within the painting you can see a pair of legs stiucking out of the water behind the largest ship. The legs are intended to be that of Icarus, son of Daedalus. It shows us the aftermath of Icarus' demise after not paying attention to his Fathers wise words. He had worn wings made of wax and feathers to escape the dungeon that they had been trapped in because of King Minos being greedy and wanting to keep Daedalus and his mechanical skills to himself. Icarus' father made wings of wax and feathers to escape and warned Icarus not to fly too close to the sun for the wax would melt but not too close to the water because the waves would increase the weight of the wings. But Icarus didn't listen and flew too high from joy of soaring through air, and his wings melted and he fell to the sea and had died. His father landed as soon as he could but by the time he got to the ground all he could see remaining of his son was a few feathers laying atop the water. You can also see a figure on the side of the water reaching in close to where the legs are poking out, most likely intended to be Daedalus.

In the mid ground of the painting we can see that there is a Shepard tending to his small flock of sheep with what looks like is a dog sat next to him – probably a sheep dog to help herd. Using this scene makes the composition of the entire painting seem very natural and more of a landscape, 'everyday' painting rather than one of Mythological heritage about Icarus.

An  interpretation of the

painting is how everyone continues their everyday tasks forming this representation of mankind’s ignorance towards those around them that are suffering. However, it also links to the context of the time an dhow farming was an important part of the time. In the foreground of the painting, on the hill above the Shepard and his sheep we can see another person with a house that looks as though he is ploughing his terrain to grow crops as most of the poorer people of the time would have done. Bruegel almost deceive the audience into think, from the title, it will be a painting solely focused on that of Icarus falling after getting too close to his son, however, Bruegel shows us landscape filled with farming land, water and people going about their daily lives.


My Intentions After researching artists and their work within the theme of flight, and discovering many themes within, such as science, nature, religion and mythological I have decided on conducting my own research on mythological art works from over history both old and new to discover different interpretations and new and varying techniques artists use. After producing analysis into my chosen area of study I then intend to produce an exhibition that would present and show all the works I have studied as well as producing a poster for promotion of the Art Show, entrance tickets, a touring booklet, and a logo. I may even consider producing my own textiles inspired by and relating to the work I shall study to then scan and manipulate in photo shop for a new and unique outcome for my poster and exhibition. I chose to study the area of mythology because I was inspired by the work of Pieter Bruegel, The Fall of Icarus and the way that he was able to make it about normal, poor people and make you look for the details resembling Icarus. I also really like the way that at first glace it seems like a extremely peaceful painting but when you learn the details and thought behind it, it allows us as the viewers to understand the mind of the artist and arrogance of people and that others still live even during Mythological stories.

Icarus was the son of a talented craftsman called Daedalus who had created a wonderful and huge Labyrinth in the court yard of King Minos of Crete – A Greek Island, where half man, half bull creatures called Minatours lived. The King wanted to keep the route and Labyrinth a secret from everyone and decided to keep all the craftsman talent to himself for he was incredibly selfish. He imprisoned Daedalus and his son, Icarus in a tower above his Palace. Over the years Icarus came bored and tiresome of never being allowed to leave the tower and reminded his father of what really mattered. Daedalus, in secret, managed to create two sets of wings, one for himself and one for Icarus. They were made of wax to glue on the feathers to represent that of bird wings. Icarus was specifically told by his father not to fly too low because the water of the splashing sea would coat his wings and make them too heavy. And that he should not fly too high for the blazing heat of the sun would melt the wax that stuck everything together and balanced the wings, ultimately leading to a crash landing.  They flew out of the tower together but through the utter joy of soaring through the air, Icarus forgot his fathers words of wisdom and he began to fly higher and higher in the sky. The wax on his wings started to melt  and his wings started to drip and dissolve until so much disappeared he fell into the sea and drowned – he could not swim after being trapped in a tower for all his life. His father landed as soon as he heard the splash and reached into and searched for his son but all that was left of him was a few remaining feathers on the top of the water left from his wings.  The sea that Icarus fell into soon after took the name 'The Icarian Sea' and is located near a island called Icaria. 

Rubens, The Fall of Icarus, 1636.

Peter Paul Rubens Rubens is classed as one of the most famous and successful painters and artists after producing a monumental amount of work during his lifetime. Not only was ha a highly appreciated artist but also a Diplomat in the 17th Century European Politics. Many had described him as: "tall stature, a stately bearing, with a regularly shaped face, rosy cheeks, chestnut brown hair, sparkling eyes but with passion restrained, a laughing air, gentle and courteous." ​Rubens had been born in Germany but at the age of ten he moved to Antwerp in Belgium. He went to school and then at thirteen he got his first job as a court page to the Countess. Being a page for the Countess was a extremely high and respectable position for a boy so young but Rubens didn't like it and felt too suffocated in the role and therefore started to train as a artist to allow himself to be more free with his creativity. ​ ​ Once his training was complete he then went and moved to Italy to be part of the Renaissance and Classical works and to see the piece he had seen whilst in training. For the following eight years he travelled around and worked in Spain both copying and incorporating techniques for the  eight years, he travelled and worked in Spain, copying and incorporating the techniques of Renaissance and classical art into his own masterpieces.

17th Century Spain

The way that Philip Governed his country lead to continual During 17th Century Spain, it had been Phillip III that policies of hostility toward the ruled the country. He was not only the King of Spain but Turkish, and Italy faced the also Portugal and was in reign from 1598-1621. He had competition of The Republic of been distinguished by Peaceful Foreign Policy he Venice and The Duchy Savoy – conducted in Western Europe and internally forced the a state in Western Europe. The Moriscos (Christian of Moorish Ancestry) and the rest of the Western Europe was Government of the Kings favourites. Phillip had bee son where the Spanish Policy had of Phillip II of Spain, and as a boy he had been loving, ruled and the peace allowed the benevolent and virtuous, however, when he became Government to deal with the King on the 13th of September 1598, he became internal problems of the indifferent and unconcerned with his duties as a ruler. Moriscos and on the 9th of April He neglected the need to sort the economic defect his 1609, the Government decided countries had and instead spent the money of to exile them, then creating extravagant parties. His Father expressed his economic difficulties. Ony 8 disappointment in his son and even said he was "Unfit years later the peace was broken to Govern the Kingdoms God has given you.". A year by the start of The Thirty Years later he married his Austrian Cousin, Margaret. War where Phillip gave his Phillip relied upon the Duke of Lerma, Francisco Gómez unwavering support to the Holy de Sandoval y Rojas, marqués de Denia, to handle all of He had been an avid collector Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, his affairs and soon became the first in line of 'Royal of Mythological paintings and and the Catholic German Favourites' who governed Spain. hired Rubens to paint for his Princes. Hunting Lodge.

The Fall of Icarus by Peter Paul Rubens This is one of sketches by Peter Paul Rubens made in 1636 used as decoration for the Torre de la Parada – a hunting lodge. Rubens chooses the most dramatic moment of Ovid's narrative, – the author of Icarus a Daedalus – , which is suited to the style he paints in which is Baroque. Baroque is defined as 'exaggerated motion and clear detail to produce drama', all of which can be clearly seen within this painting. Daedalus looks over, only to see his son falling head first into the dark looking sea below them.  The figures look extremely life like with the shadowing and lighting Rubens has used to create a sense of form and dimension. He has been able to depict utter grief in Daedalus' face from the shock and knowing loss of his son. Both have been shown to be naked, another traditional way of painting a male figure in the style of Baroque.

In the painting you can see that Rubens focuses on the movement of the figures and makes them have a strong contrast to the calm and dark sea below them. Icarus is shown to be falling head first into the sea with his torso facing the viewer with only a small red cloth covering genitalia. This makes him seem very vulnerable and easy for harm to come his way. This is emphasised by the long and continuous lines that Rubens has created starting from the tip of his hands and going all the way down to his knees/feet. Icarus, unlike his father, has been bathed and basked in light from the sun showing and emphasising from the story that he flew too close and caused his own untimely demise. It makes him look extremely pale, almost the colour of a new born baby rather than a young man, increasing the sense of unprotection he has. The red cloth also creates a sense of danger as a warning and danger colour. The lighting also illuminates the shear fright on the face of Icarus as he realises what is about to happen and that he will die when he falls to the water.  You can also see the feathers from the wings on his back have started to fall off and look puny and deteriorated in comparison to Daedalus'. The drama in his figure and facial features is captivating to look at because of the way Rubens was able to convey so much emotion and detail in a single person.

I​ n contrast to his son, Daedalus is shown to be looking strong and in control of this wings and all that he does. His body is in shade and is darker in comparison to his son allowing us as the viewer to see that he listened to his own words of wisdom and didn't fly high in the sky to the sun and because of that was not lit by the rays of light. However, it also suggests and implies the mood and emotion of Daedalus in the moment that Rubens has created – utter horror and darkness at knowing his son will die befor ehis eyes and there is nothing he can do to help him.  The way that Daedalus is shown in the correct position to be flying with his wings facing the sky and his torso facing the see he looks bureaucratic and controlled. His muscular arms are spread out wide to support the wings he wears to be able to fly to freedom.  His face is turned slightly away from the viewer, distorting us from being able to clearly see what his expression is, however, we ca still tell from the small glimpse that we can see is that he has his eyebrows screwed together to form lines on his forehead increasing the sense of dispair he is feeling. His mouth even looks a little open like he is gawking at his son in knowing his death will soon be heavy on his shoulders.

In the background you can see a castle in the far distance resembling the one that they have flown away from to escape to safety after being held as captives by the King. It is small and can only just be seen, making it seem as though Daedalus and Icarus have made it far away from the place they were being with held and shows their successful escape.   You can also see two miniature figure in the background too walking along the beach front and has been suggested to be Daedalus and Icarus before they started their flight of escape. Furthermore, going against the original text of Ovid, Rubens depicts the day as cloudy with a raging sea, rather than a day with bright sun.

The painting aims to show the destiny and demise of man and how we will all die whether it is our fault or not. The painting is being conserved in a museum along with 'The Fall of Phaeton', a similar painting and theme to that of 'The Fall of Icarus'. Documents say that these two paintings faced each other in the first room in the ground floor of the Spanish Hunting Pavilion.


Frederic Leighton, Icarus and Daedalus, 1869.

Frederic Leighton Leighton was a Lord and was called 'Sir Frederic Leighton'. He had been an English sculptor and painter in the 19th century and his works would shows the viewer a range of themes such as Biblical stories, and Classical subject matters. He had been educated in a London College School but gained his artistic knowledge late on from an European Continent from Eduard Von Steinle and afterwards Giovanni Costa. For a few years he had moved to Florence, Italy where art was at its highest peak but, again, after a few years, moved back to England in London where he became a member of the Pre-Raphaelites – a group of people, 'brothers', who had aimed to revive the style and spirit of the Italian artists before the era of Raphael. Amongst his painting and artwork he also designed Elizabeth Barrett Browning's tomb for her body to be buried in in 1861. And then three years later in 1864 he became part of the Royal Academy, a institution based and solely focused on the arts. And then a few years later he became the President of the Royal Academy. He was Knighted for the masters of his work at Windsor and was created The Baronet of The Holland Park Road in the Parish of St Mary Abbot in Kensington, Middle Essex.

17th Century England England in the 1800's was the 'turn of the century', it had been turned into an Industrial Revolution. By the middle of the century the population increased dramatically to 9 million, and more than half the population had lived in towns. Only 100 years later the population increased again by more than4 times, to 41 million. This was not all Brits though, many people from North America and Australia had migrated to escape poverty, and people from Ireland fled to Britain to escape the famine of potatoes. The fact that the England and Britain had been taken over by 19th Century camera and this Industrial Revolution caused there to be a lot of working conditions. technological developments and industrial progress lead to the making of synthetic oil paints allowing artists to use a wider range of colours for their work that was easily affordable and available. The use of these paints also saved the artists a lot of time as they no longer had to waste time mixing paints. However, during this time the development of the camera was made and it had challenged the art of painting as many had thought 'Why buy a painting when you can take a photo?'. In response artists would aim to show the passing of time and movement in their paintings to show the uniqueness of the art and how they can depict much more than a still image form a camera.​

Icarus and Daedalus by Frederic Leighton Within this painting you can see that there are two main figures in the foreground representing Icarus and his father, Daedalus. They stand on the roof of a building overlooking water in a bay. It depicts the moments before they take flight and Icarus falls to his demise. In the background there is a bronze sculpture, the most expensive material as it could be displayed both inside and outside and the form would not be affected by the weather. Furthermore, the method of producing the sculpture takes a long time, which again, makes it a more expensive, thus, creating a sense of luxury and elegance on the roof of the palace and the surrounding land of the tower where they had been held captive, it shows the wealth of the King. There are varying textures in the frame as well from the long and thin brush strokes to form the wings on Icarus and the smooth stokes making the skin of the figures look ideal and perfect. The bends and folds in the material looks flowing and elegant, bending around the figure of Icarus, creating a kind of back ground to emphasis the stature and form of him.

Daedalus is shown to be crouching slightly down, under the arm of his son. He seems to be fitting the wings to the back of Icarus's back ready for their flight for escape. He looks up at his son and is a much darker skin colour, making him look as though he is in shade and makes it seem as though Icarus in bathing in the sunlight. The fact that he is also bending down slightly could also suggest the age of him to show a much more dramatic contrast between the two figures and their ages to glorify Icarus in his youth much more.

Daedalus wears a gold hat, with reflection of the sun bouncing off, creating a sense of space and depth due to this unknown light source. The hat is tightly hugging his head, covering the hair, which looks similar to a swimming cap, which he is here using for his flight to make himself more streamline. He also wears a dark, green coloured cloth that almost camouflages with his skin, but also slightly shines in the sun light creating more texture and depth to his figure and form. 

You can see the defined muscles he has on his arms and torso which would've been made by the continuous work he did for the King and the works he had done before he was caged in the Palace Tower.

By using darker colours on Daedalus could also be a foreshadowing of the darkness that will succumb to him and his life after the death of his son, a big contrast to his illuminated son.

​ Icarus stands tall above his father looking triumphant and strong with his right arm held up toward the sky allowing his father to attach the wings to his arms. His contrapposto composition also ignites this idea of strength and defiance against being held captive in a tower for so many years, and possibly against his fathers orders of what not to do when flying. ​His body has been utterly bathed in light creating this foreboding sensation of his upcoming death after drowning in the sea. The light not only makes him seem extremely young and creates shadows on his muscles, but represents the fact that the sun is what ultimately kills him after flying too close to it, even after the warnings from his father. He wears a red sash around his waist which could be a symbol of danger as the colour red is often used as a warning and emphasises the idea of his soon death. ​ he wings that Daedalus attach to Icarus are T white making them, and Icarus seem pure and innocent in all they do. They look strong and beautiful to match the form of Icarus, making him look all the more strong, graceful and 'ideal'.

​His head is turned to the right and he looks out toward the water where he will soon be flying over and he appears to look longingly at the distant lands like he has dreamed of leaving the palace for a long time and now the chance has finally arrived. He seems to hardly notice his father strapping the wings on him and hardly notices he is there at all because Icarus looks utterly captivated by the far and distant lands they will soon 'discover'.


Vlaho Bukovac , Icarus on the rocks, 1897, and The Fall of Icarus, 1898.

Vlaho Bukovac Till the age of eleven Bukovac lived in Bukovac House, Cavtat, Croatia, when he then moved to New York, America to live with his Uncle for 4 years. He had been training to be a sailor but he during his training he caused an injury which prevented him from fitting the requirements and restrained him from the physical education needed to become a sailor, thus, forcing him to return to his home and parents at the age of 15. To pass away the time after being injured he started to draw and paint, improving his skills and starting to form the style in which he liked to create art. However, it was not until the middle of the 1870's and he had travelled The America's that he decided to pursue Art as his career. He moved and lived in a studio apartment in Paris, where he created and studied art and participated in the period of time where Impressionism was at its peak.  Many considered his work to be 'electric' in style as he mastered impressionistic landscapes, as well as the literary and religious scenes, nudes and portraits. Yet he wanted to define himself even further, so returned home to Croatia and put himself in the middle of the 'art scene'. He was based in his childhood home and had converted it to a painting and art studio where he created most of his wonderful and masterful pieces of work. He died during 1922 and the house was then converted into a Public Artist Studio Museum by his daughters and was then reopened some years later in 2004 with the funding from 'The Museuma and Galleries of Konavale'.

19th Century Croatia Romantic Nationalism occurred in the middle of the 19th Century to fight against the Germanization and Hungarinization infecting Croatia. The Illyrian Movement of reviving young Croatian intellectuals, attracted many figures which ultimately produced important advances in the Croatian language and culture. However, when the First World War started it had brought an end to the Habsburg Empire and Croatia suffered a great loss and little effort had been made to establish the the Croatian Empire and ultimately the defeat of the army led to them establishing separate Slavic States which soon became Yugoslavia The way that the Croatian Movement had aimed to revive this sense of freedom they once owned and establishing an 'awakening of a new spirit' can link to the art at the time of Impressionism. The style of art aimed to be characterised by the movement and colour used. They wanted to achieve a sense of movement and experience rather than focusing on the realistic depiction of a scene. It links to the context of the time as they wanted to establish a new style of art just like they wanted to establish a new Empire.  

The Fall of Icarus and Icarus on the Rocks by Vlaho Bukovac During his very successful art career, Bukovac had created two paintings of Icarus, both very different yet also extremely similar when you look further into the detail of them. The first he used a palette of green colours, however, the latter painting he uses much more rusted and neutral colours to form the image. On the left you can see the first painting he created which is much truer to the Myth as it depicts Icarus falling into the water after falling to the sea from flying too close to the sun. He lies on the bottom of the sea floor and is surrounded by seaweed and bubbles formed from his collapse in the water. Where as the painting he created a year later differs from the Myth as he does not fall into the sea but rather on to the rocks. It shows an alternative ending to Icarus and allows the artist to experiment with a different colour palette for the same ending. Icarus lies on the rocks, surrounded by blood and brunt brown colours, very contrasting to the first where the colours were cold rather than warm. Although they are, at first look, very different due to the surrounding, when you look in closer detail you can see similarities through because of the positioning of the body of both Icarus' is extremely similar.

Icarus on The Rocks

This is the first painting of Icarus that Vlaho made and it shows us as the viewer and alternative ending to the Myth, where instead of plunging into the sea, Icarus falls to his death on the rocks. He lies in position similar to 'The Deposition of Christ', splayed out and unmoving, however, his body is shown in a much paler and brighter colour to the surroundings making him the centre and sole focus of the painting. I feel this is a much more gory looking painting because the colours used are all shades of browns and reds forming the atmosphere and sense of blood and dirt and that Icarus will never die peacefully. It also invokes this image of Hell and that he has been condemned for not listening to hos Father by using colours such as red, and browns. The wings have been utterly destroyed, revealing the structures underneath of wood, however, on this painting there are a few feathers left on the 'wings' making the viewer feel as though, although he is dead, like a few of the feathers have survived, his story and the Myth of him will live on as well. It gives a small glimpse of hope.

By the head you can see a pool of dripping red paint used to resemble the blood that has escaped from the wounds of Icarus and show that he has died. He has also been depicted as nude – in both – making it seem like he is much more vulnerable and exposed.

The Fall of Icarus

This is the second of the paintings of Icarus that Vlaho had painted and it shows a much realer interpretation of the story compared to the first. It depicts him lying at the bottom of the sea dead after crashing down from the sky. His body, from the waist down, starts to blend in with the background. His legs are floating in the water and almost turn into seaweed shaped objects and become almost camouflaged into the seaweed in the background. It creates this sense of loss for Daedaus and Icarus's life as he is already starting to fade away into death and the sea after living such a risky and full life – which had actually lead to his death. 

Critics have also said this similar composition to the first of his Icarus paintings s also similar to the resemblance 'The Deposition of Christ.'

On the shoulders of Icarus you can see the remains of his wings. There are no feathers left on them, unlike the first painting, and there is only the structure and wood left that had formed them – similar to Icarus, no life left but the structure of his body remains. His face is slightly blurred and his hair stand up, like seaweed, emphasising the loss of the boy.


Herbert James Draper, The Lament for Icarus, 1898.

Herbert James Draper Draper is an English Classical painter and his career took off in the era of the Victorians and proceeded through out 2 decades to the 20th Century. He was not a member of the 'Royal Academy' like most artists and didn't even attempt to associate with them, however, he was still well respected and appreciated by the public. He focused on Mythological stories and tales from Ancient Greece. He was fascinated with the tales and was captivated by the drama and morals of them. His painting of Icarus - 'The Lament for Icarus' had won a golden medal in the Exposition Universelle, a worlds fair to celebrate developments and art, in Paris. The painting was later taken to the Tate Gallery by the Chantrey Trustees. Draper had also been responsible for designing and painting the ceiling of 'The Drapers' Hall' in London. However, as society changed and developed the public began to loose interest in his theme of painting, leading him to start Portraits. He had been a famous portrait painter and was very popular with his new theme. Yet, again, his popularity started to fade with the people but recently there has been a revival and rebirth of interest and attention for his works.

19th Century England In 1897, the year before 'The Lament for Icarus', it had been Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee to celebrate her 60th year as the reigning Monarch of Britain and The Commonwealth. During 1898 and following into the year next year after there has been a Spanish American War that Britain took part in.  The War started in 1898 between the US and Spanish and had lasted a long three years due to the Cuban Revolutionaries pursuing to gain independence from the Spanish Colonial Rule. The American economical and political stability would've been compromised due to the country being geographically close to the utter brutality and carelessness of the Spanish. After a American Marine Battleship had sunk after an explosion in the Havana Harbor by mysterious and unknown causes in February it was clear that American intervention was a lot more likely in the War in Cuba. 

In the same year a few months later the president of America, William McKinley, asked Congress to end the fighting between Cuba and Spain and to establish "Peace and tranquility and the security" of Cuban and American citizens on the island. In April the request was granted, acknowledging Cuban Independence with a demand that the Spanish give up any control they have over the island. It has also been granted to use what ever military was needed and any measures needed necessary to ensure the Independence of the island, Cuba. It shows us never to aim to high for desires of control, much like Icarus aiming too high whilst in control of his wings as it came to his untimely and unfortunate death that could've been prevented.

The Lament for Icarus by Herbert James Draper This is Drapers most famous painting he ever made and he depicts a dead Icarus on a rock within the sea that had been below him. He is being surrounded by lamenting and grieving sea-nymphs that gaze upon him with sadness. Each and every figure being shown and depicted in the scene is young and healthy looking, even Icarus after falling from the sky to his untimely death. The nymphs appear with much lighter skin to Icarus making them seem extremely pure and innocent where as Icarus has darker coloured skin. ​The colours a predominantly neutral and warm forming a limited colour palette but using a small amount of colour allows us as the viewer to fully focus on the scene being depicted and not get distracted by a wide range of colours and hues. You can see the fading light of the sun in the background in a slighting brighter colour than those in the foreground to resemble what had caused his fate of death. ​ Even a sculpture was made based on the composition of the painting.

Considering the Myth says that Icarus's wings melted from the wax being too cloase to the sun leading to his fall, his wings look to be in remarkable condition. However, the wings are full and feathery to symbolize the eternal fame, glory and beauty. The painting, through full and lively wings, aim to allow Icarus to live on forever young and complete. The way they have been formed make them look extremely real as if they had been removed from an actual bird of a large size. At the wings get further to the edge they look rougher and they gradually get darker and darker creating this light, almost 'glow' around the body of Icarus. The Nymphs that surround Icarus are extremely pale creating this sense of purity and innocence of them. Their skin colouring contrasts dramatically to that of Icarus who is darker in colour. Their facial expression shows grief and horror of the event that has occurred and their delicate appearance with shimmering hair makes the atmosphere of sadness even greater.

The figure of Icarus is the centre and main figure of the painting. He is being framed by his pristine looking wings where the feathers closest to his body are pale, creating a contrast and glow around his body. The way that the wings are extremely large and curve in towards the figures leads the eyes of the viewer to the dead figure of Icarus. His draping arm leads to the arriving Nymph but her gaze returns the attention to Icarus. Similarly the left wing curves around to the other two Nymph's, but their gaze, again, leads back to Icarus, making his the sole focus of the entire painting. Icarus appears to be young and unharmed by his fall to the Earth after flying so high, and this is emphasised by the beautiful untouched wings he wears. It has been suggested that this is to resemble and symbolise "Live fast, Die young and leave a Beautiful Corpse". Around his waist, and cascading down on to the rock he wear a red thin piece of cloth which at first glance looks like blood but at closer inspection is clearly a form of clothing. By making it red it does create a sense of blood that should be covering Icarus after falling to his death, and in this painting, falling on to a large rock. It makes the death of Icarus look more elegant and keeps him looking unharmed whilst still hinting at the harm that came to his body.


Pablo Picasso, The Fall of Icarus, 1958.

Pablo Picasso

Picasso is one of the most important artists in the 20th century Art and especially as he, with his close friend Georges Braques produced and conducted the new style of art , Cubism, in their Art Movement. He was a Spanish artist who had moved to Paris during his adulthood and before he was even middleaged he had become the most well-known artist in Modern art due to his unique and new style of creation. More than 200,000 paintings were made by this wonderful mans hands as well as drawings, sketches, sculptures, etches, ceramics and much more like costumes and sets. His new style of art was radical for the time as it went against all conventional thoughts of art, but it had a extreme positive reaction from the public as it expressed figures, scene or what ever was being depicted in a much different way to normal and it had fascinated people. The style Picasso and Braques had created broke up the image into segments and geometrical shapes and would then be rearranged creating an extremely abstract and unusual outcome with no one fixed point perspective. They aimed to represent life in a much 'truer' way as they believed life was always constantly moving. Some say they had been inspired by the Theories of Henri Bergson or the artist Cezanne. During his life he was well respected and many artists wanted to join this new style he had formed, even after his death in 1973 the respect for him grew even further and many more artists as well as people wanted to learn about him and his way of painting. 

Guernica, 1937

This is one of Picasso's Cubist artworks and is made on a huge scale canvas. As part of the Cubist style artists would use monochromatic, or a limited colour palette, which can be seen here. This emphasises the work and scene being shown. The painting above depicts a moment from the Spanish Civil War in Guernica. Picasso uses strange and unusual shapes to form the shapes of people and animals suffering amongst the bombs pummeling to the ground about them and has them overlapping and intersecting one another. This creates a much bigger sense of movement, which was the aim of Cubism. The distortion of the figures was predominantly for the style it was created in, but, to me it also increases the sense of suffering the people and animals are feeling.

20th Century Spain and France In the very beginning of the 20th Century in Spain there was a bombing raid in Spanish due to the Spanish Civil War that had been ordered by Franciso Franco, The Nazi German Lufywaffe and the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. There had been many communication centers for all the front lines in the war allowing Franciso Franco to capture Bilbao, a City in Spain, causing the Northern Spanish to victory. In the years following there was a 35 year dictatorship by General Franco after 350,000 people died in the war. He made himself the Chief and Head of Government and destroyed anyone who went against him resulting in a further 100,000 executions. However, in France at the start of the 20th Century, it had been dominated by the World War and continual industrialization. Paris, always has been and will be, the centre of France for Economical, Political, Cultural and Social decisions and 'rule'.  France had then been hit by the Great Depression, much later than any other country, in the 1930's. Due to the lack of money income as the Depression caused no money increase for any business, the French tried desperately hard to get the Reparations from Germany as payment for 'causing' the war. As the Germans were reluctant to do so they would frequently have to invade their lands, but, in the end this ultimately failed. They soon had to make the Dawes Plan with America as a loan of money to help everyone in France to survive.  Not only for forming a new style of art but also to create something simple in a chaotic society, Cubism was made.

The Fall of Icarus by Pablo Picasso This painting by Picasso depicts the falling of Icarus after flying too close to the sun. It aims to put the 'era' of Guernica behind, put the darker themes behind and focus on making his Cubism much more abstract and unusual. It was created just after the war and was a mural made and commissioned for the hallway of Unesco's Batiment des Conferences, a conference building within Paris. It is an extremely abstract piece of art representing the myth of Icarus and Daedelus. It looks simple with the very basic shapes the Picasso has formed and the simple colour palette he has used. Some of the shapes look recogniseable as people, or objects, where as others, such as top right, are hard to define what it actually is. You can also see through the standing figure on the right, the sense of movement Picasso tried to create through shapes because it appears as though from his torso up is facing the viewer but from below, it facing in the complete opposite direction.

The figure in the very centre of the painting looks as though it is falling into the water, head first and has been suggested and recognised to be Icarus after he has flown too close to the sun, and his wings have melted leading him to fall to the waters. Picasso has shown his early death by using simple white lines to form the shape that looks like a skeleton and placed them upon a black 'blob'. By doing this it makes it seem like a electric or sudden shock. It forebodes the death of Icarus before he even hits the water The standing figure that looks twisted by the waist/hips, is a yellow-cream colour making him look like he is being bathed in sunlight. The figures face look unproportioned and unusual but you can make out that it doesn’t look happy. The figure could possibly be Icarus' father, however, it has never been confirmed which of the figures is actually Daedalus. Many have said that this is the most likely figure to represent that father, however, because he stands by the edge of the sea, possibly about to reach out for his son. The arms are raised to the middle of their back and the object behind, looks almost like a pair of wings that have been removed, although it is unclear.


Gabriel Picart, The Flight of Icarus, 2004.

Gabriel Picart Picart is a current and 'realist' painter, although he does not work through photographs. He predominantly produces urban landscapes and still life that has gained him high praise, but, his favourite work to produce is the human figure. Originally he is from Spain and still lives and works there to this day. He had an early career start to being an artist as he was only 20 years of age when he was an illustrator for companies throughout Europe and soon after was the publishing and advertising agent for the US and Canada, but since 1996 he paints for himself full time and doesn't do illustration or painting commissions. His works get shown around the world in some well known galleries, in the US in particular, but, nowadays they are mainly in Private Collections in Spain, and the US. In 2004, he was the first Spanish Artist to be featured in 'The International Artist Magazine'. And then in 2013, he was featured as the artist in 'The Art and Design' section in the October – November Edition of 'Gulf Connoisseur' of Dubaionor.

21th Century Art

Art these days does n ot have one or even two particular subjects that artists like 21st Century art is what we are in now and it has become this type to paint or form art for like years before of working field that requires practice, research, publication when many would create these Religious and dynamics. Artists use their art to portray important topics that paintings. They choose to cover Spirituality, provoke thought and debate within  the viewers and Scholars. Topics that Religion, Politics, Science, have been carried on after being used in the late 20th Century are ones such as Feminism and Culture. This new and most recent form of art is Culture, Film, and Equality, the list goes on... The culture of art, for completely different to that of art in the 17th Century as now they use a artists, to previous Centuries has variety of materials, including electronics, digital images and the internet. Art had once been considered 'handy-work' but had now developed to this become much more diverse and free to create whatever they want. much wider sense of creation where anything can be used to form a painting, not just paint and sculpture can be made of more than just Marble or Bronze. Artists now are able to make and create what ever they want without having the feeling of having to fit in with a particular genre or style that was popular in their time like so many in the past did - such as Rubens was Baroque. Now they can use mix media that enables them to create something that serve and provides a better concept of what they want to show. Yet one of the key themes that so often occur in the contemporary art we have today is big issues such ass the impact of Globalization and Equality for people and animals. Their work is then aided by the new communication and research devices we have produced over time – the internet. It allows their work to be seen from across the world but stops people from coming to see it in real life and getting that wonderful sense of awe when looking at it. 

The Flight of Icarus by Gabriel Picart This modern painting showing Icarus in the middle of the flight uses a mix of painting styles as the background of the sun looks simplistic and the feathers of the wings look very similar to Egyptian paintings yet the actual body of Icarus looks much more real. It forms this 'mishmash' look of art styles and it makes it much more interesting to look at because of the different and contrasting style that Picart has combined together to create this wonderful piece of art. He sticks to a simple colour palette consisting of predominantly three colours. The sun is painted in a bright gold colour that gets lighter the closer to the top of the canvas it gets. Below, to form the sky, the colour is a light blue, mixed with shades of white and grey making it look like wisps of cloud. Icarus himself looks golden and heroic.

The sun looks like real gold and as it gets closer to the centre top of the painting it becomes more dappled and bright in colour making it seem like it is getting brighter and brighter and that Icarus is getting higher into the sky and resembles the defiance toward Daedalus and his words of wisdom. The colouring of Icarus's skin, especially from his shoulders up, becomes more golden as he is basked in sunlight and flies closer and closer to the heat of the sun and top of the sky. This is only emphasised by the way his head has been positioned so it is falling backward like he is embracing his new gift of wings he has been given and the heat of the sun on his face and skin, like he is embracing this new found glory. The rays of the sun are shown through precisely made curves and bends, much like the Egyptians painted their suns and emphasise the curves and form of the feathers and the wings.  The background colour is a light blue with grey and white on the top almost like it had been 'sponged' on there to create a sense of clouds and movement in the painting.

The wings of Icarus is shaped very similar, again, to the way that the Egyptians portrayed their wings with the double layer of wings to form the texture of the flying contraptions. From the images below you can see dramatic similarities between the wings of Icarus and the Egyptian Sculptures. It links the image to the past, closer to when the myth was created, although it wasn't in the Egyptian times. 

By linking it to the Egyptians it also creates this idea of strength and Godliness as often in the Egyptian times only those with power or those worshipped had wings as beautiful and delicate as these. The shape of the wings intensifies the strong feeling already made by the stature of Icarus because of Within the wings you can see gaps that the simple shapes of them. They use of start to show the moments before gold, blue and white also uses the where Icarus flies too close to the sun natural colour of wings but the blue and he falls to the sea. Below the wings reflects the height of the sky he is in and you can see the feathers that are the gold then reflects the sun that he has missing from the gaps, outlined in gold reached high in the sky.

In the very centre of the painting is the body of Icarus. His head cannot be seen as is tilted back in such a way that appears as if he is embracing the light and sun that falls upon him. It makes him look very powerful and in control, not at all like he is about to fall to his death from ignoring his Father.

The very top of the body is in a much lighter and bright light showing his closeness to the sun. The positioning of the light as well creates definition on the abdominal muscles and increases the powerful force being emitted from him even more.

The torso of his body looks well defined, muscular and untouched by the fact he lived in a tower for the most of his life. The muscles of his torso carry on down his body into his legs and outward into the arms that hold up his wings. The strength in his body being shown make him look idyllic and powerful linking to a much newer style of painting, such as realism or impressionism, much like Fredric Leighton.

He wears a small cloth around his waist, so that he is not shown as a nude piece of art work. The material creates even more texture in the painting as it looks silky and shiny from the sun and the folds in the material make the painting come to life more as it create more dimension. The majority of the objects like the sun, feathers and wings are all flat, whereas, the material looks much more 3D, as does the figure, making it seem like a collage of painting styles.


Nicola Godden, Icarus VI, 2012.

Nicola Godden Godden has been a Sculptor for over 30 years and has sets herself projects for certain periods of time. During 2012 her Project was producing a range of sculptures that depicted the figure of Icarus so they could be placed within the Olympic Village for Sir Peter Scott in London Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre and for The Hammersmith Man   for the Hammersmith fly-over.  The majority of her work is predominantly based on the human figure, however, the style in which it is produced varies from realistic to abstract, but, she wanted to make the human figure in her sculptures because "...the feelings and emotions it conveys; there is usually a story behind every piece." Every piece that she makes is different and the way she produces it also change because she says "It depends on what is happening in my life and where the inspiration has come from. For example, during a marriage break up, my work changed from the calm, smooth and serene ‘Mother and Child’ and ‘Couple’ works I had been doing to pieces full of energy and angst which reflected my feelings at that time. There have been many other changes since." Godden gets her ideas from everywhere and anything that surrounds her such as bone wood, mythology, or even her dreams. To produce her work she starts with a metal framing structure made from aluminum and then using clay, she starts to apply the build and shape she wants. She works with clay or plaster because it's easier and allows her to apply it quicker so she can get all her ideas out fast. Whereas most artists would draw or at least sketch their ideas out first, Godden doesn't as she likes keeping everything spontaneous. Once finished she casts the work in Bronze so the light can reflect the surface and make it "irresistible to touch". The process takes a ling time but ultimately creates the effect that the artist wants and she likes the idea that the Bronze casting will enable it to survive much longer than any human life.

In the most recent years she has focused on the Mythological story of Icarus and made a series of figures to represent his figure and first became obsessed when she was learning to fly. So far she has made 10 figures.

21st Century Sculpture Just like paintings, sculpture was used as a way for countries and people, until the 1950's, to show off the wealth they owned. Whether the sculpture was made of Marble or Bronze didn't matter as they both created this sense of elegance and beauty as the materials are both labour intensive to work with and require years of training and skill building to complete a masterpiece of work. Although both materials, in an end result, give a different effect and also physically have different effects. Marble can portray a translucency like skin which is ideal for figure sculpting, but, the stone is soft and allows the sculptor to easily cut and carve the Marble. Whereas, Bronze sculptures are an alloy of Copper and Tin making it very strong and durable to outside weather, unlike Marble. When casting a model in the Bronze it captures the complex detail from the casting, creating a extremely detailed piece. Sculptors these days, however, have a harder time than in those in History, as it has become much harder to sell and find buyers. 

Icarus III


Icarus VIII

Icarus X

Icarus VII

Icarus VI by Nicola Godden This is the 6th version of the Mythological Icarus that Nicola has produce and it is a very small sculpture at the height of 55cm with a 'wing span' of 33cm. It depict Icarus as though he is the middle of a flight toward the sun and 'his escape'. Godden says that this sculpture is the closest, in movement, to the sculpture that she made life sized for the Olympics in 2012. By using Bronze as her material it has a high tensile strength allowing the wings to be spread apart wide, they're wider than the actual body.

The colours differ a lot as the life sized one, to the right, is a dark brown colour resembling the fact it was cast in Bronze, whereas, the smaller one to the left has varying colours or burnt orange and white.

The detail in the wings is extreme and full of texture, yet, also looks similar to that of paint brush strokes on a canvas also bringing in the style of painting and art into this sculpture. The colour of the wings change the closer to the edge it gets. It starts as a orangey-brown burnt colour and gradually fades into a white, making the sculpture much more like feathers and wings.

The fact that the colour toward the figure is a shade of orange makes it seem like Icarus is closer to the sun, resembling the part of the Myth where he flies to close to the sun and falls to his death. It also makes it appear as if the wings are melting or are on fire through ​the use of orange fading into white like the heat is spreading. The strokes of the wings not only look like brush strokes and feathers but also flames of a fire, increasing this sense of the wings being destroyed.

She has managed to capture the movement of Icarus in the taking off, or, middle of his flight, by the arching of his back, forming the definition of the bottom rib. Both legs are squeezed together making his body much more streamline to be able to fly quicker to his safety and escape from the king. His arms are spread wide to hold his wings out. He looks triumphant with the stature and pose of his figure, if there were no wings on the arms of Icarus, it would almost look like he had his hands raised in the air as if he was cheering. The body is a matching colour to the tops of the wings, but the closer to the top, near the head, of the body, the lighter the colour is, making it feel like he is heading up closer to the sun and that he is being shone upon. The closer to his feet that you go the darker the colour becomes, making it look like shadows but also creates a foreboding sensation of his demise.

The body is actually very plain and lacks detail in comparison to other Bronze sculptures she has made such as the kneeling lady below. However, the plain body creates a strong contrast to the deeply textured and detailed wings that Icarus wears, it keeps the focus on the important element of the Myth that leads Icarus to his death.

Bibliography: 5&sculptor=nicola_godden


Logo intentions

To start the process of making my exhibition I will start by analysing and producing my own logo. I will look at varied museum logos from around the world and then venture into looking at others that are not for museums to gain a wider understanding and knowledge of different style and forms of logos. Some will be more famous and well known logos so I can understand what makes them so much more successful but other will be less known so I can compare. Each and every logo has a different appearance which in the end creates a different mood and atmosphere for each. After researching in to ones already made I will aim to make my own successful logo to promote my exhibition company.Â

This is the logo for the Seoul Museum in Korea. The design and geometrical shaping of the Logo had been inspired by the spatial characteristics of the actual Museum space. To form the geometric shape they took the architecture of the building and formed 11 squares and created a result by connecting the corners of the squares. It formed a abstract appearance, which I really like as it makes look different, unique but also simplistic. It connects the use of the logo through to the exhibition and museum space and also continued on to their ticket designs. They use a simple font in capitals to name the logo and the museum they are promoting. It won a contest in 2013 for best Communication Design.

The logo for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York, has a composition and imagery that reminds me of apiece of work by Leonardo Da Vinici, shown to the left. It uses a simplistic colour palette of white, orange and black. The colour of the circle encasing the letter 'M', is similar to that of a sunset which had often been a symbolism of 'the light of knowledge. Yet, it also appears to be a brighter and more vivid colour of the background used in the work of Da Vinci. The letter 'M' had actually been created by Leonardo for 'De Divina Proportione', a mathematics book form 1497, making this logo very clear as to what it is all about if the name hadn't given a clue...Â

The 'Notos' Logo has been created for a Greecian Exhibition Company. It depicts a geometrical looking compass with the red needle, usually pointing North, is here pointing South making it seem a lot more interesting and captures the audiences interest. The word 'Notos' can also be translated from Greek to English to mean 'South' which also gives an emphasise as to why the South arrow is red, and not the North. It can also be interpreted to mean 'The World of Languages' which links to what they exhibit. They use natural colours of the rainbow to form points of the compass and are a representation of the natural forms of the world – sun, sea, and land.

The National History Museum in London actually has a variety of different logo design, this is just one of many. It's original logo, shown on the left, uses a plain and empty 'N', however, to make it more interesting, within the 'N' they company use different brightly coloured images of Natural things of Earth – Land, Animals, Skeletons, and Plants ect. The bright colours used grabs the attention of viewers and when on their website the logo changes as to what page you're on so the colour in the 'N' will compliment what other imagery is being shown on the page. The overall appearance is very professional yet simplistic with the consistent use of a capital font. The way the font is simple and plain allows the whole focus of the logo to be on the imagery shown in the letter.Â

This company called 'Icarus' say they focus on "improving access to air transportation" They identify and characterize the research for technical solutions. They aim to produce accessibility in the air for every person. Their name for the company uses the Myth of Icarus as he is well known for his unfortunate failed flight for escape. With their aims of improving flight and using the name of Icarus it gives a sense of irony and implication that they want to improve upon the failure of the boy in the Myth. The colours they use are simple yet also effective. The title, bar the 'S', is in a rich blue colour making me think of the sky he had started in but then the water that he ended up in. The last letter is a contrasting color and is shaped by the 3 layers of wings on the end. It uses the same colour for the first wing as it does for the title of the company forming a unity between the two. Behind there is another two wings, the middle being a lighter blue and the third being white. This fading effect used enhances the effect of the sky and the water.

I discovered a logo that uses my theme of Icarus within 'Flight' for a logo. The user and owner of it specifically desired a Greek themed logo for their company. Therefore the designer used the Myth of Icarus. He designed the boy in midflight with his wings spread out wide and his body curving in line with the circle that encases him. The circle around him has what looks like little waves being repeated around, resembling the fall into the sea after the wings wax had melted and Icarus fell to his death. The logo is being used for 'Construction Solution and Services' which also links to the way that Daedalus, Icarus' father, constructed and made these wonderful wings and had served the King he was captured by for so many years.Â

I started to make my logo by creating a geometric feather, both inspired by the Myth of Icarus and the geometry I had seen in other logos I had analysed. I really liked the sharp and unusual look of the geometric logos and wanted to incorporate this into my own.

I found an image of the sea I liked, shown above, to use with in the logo. I chose this image as it clearly depict the sea but also shows the white of crashing waves. I used this in Photoshop with the feather. I removed all the white and background from the feather and then created a clipping mask so the lines of the feather showed the image of the sea. This both shows the wings melting and the feathers falling into the sea and the actual death of Icarus. On the right is the outcome and I really like the way you can see that it is the water forming the lines but also looks like a blur just as it would appear if you crashed to the water, like Icarus had.

I would also like to try this with another photo behind of the sun to show the thing that had melted the wax of the wings leading to the death of Icarus. It would also form another colour scheme and appearance of the feather.

To the left is the second image I used to create a clipping mask. I used a photo with the sun clearly showing in it to be able to show the way in which Icarus had died. I also ensured that the photo had the sea in so the image had both components that lead to the demise of the boy in the Myth. I again used this to create a clipping mask with the same geometric feather as the previous. I tried combining the two feathers together to see how the two different images and colour schemes worked together. I erased the areas that overlapped so it didn’t look over crowded with lines and the outcome is on the right. I really like the contrasting colours because I feel that they still kind of compliment each other by making them stand out.

πτητικά φτερά ptitiká fterá The Greek for 'Flying Wings'.

This is the final design I have made for the logo of my exhibition. I reversed the layers of the feathers so that the blue sea feather was on the top and more prominent than the yellow sun one. I felt this worked better and looked more pleasing because blue image had more vary colours and textures to it where as the yellow had less of this. Next to the feathers I used the font 'SITKA' as it is still curvy, yet, solid and sharp to match the lines and geometry of the feathers. The words 'Ali Volanti' is Italian for 'Flying Wings'. I wanted to name my logo and company this but didn't sound very interesting, I therefore went on a translation website and tried to see what it sounded like in Italian, this being the result. I had tried Greek to link to the Mythology, however, For the writing I used a the title would have been very complicated to say and gradient effect with looked very complicated to write and work with. colours similar to the sun I therefore tried Italian. I did this because many artists feather to link them that I looked at and studied, including Da Vinci were together and make it Italian and I liked the way it sounded as a contrast to the more company/exhibition name and so I decided to use it. prominent feather.

Poster Intentions

The next step in producing my exhibition is producing a poster to promote the event. I will first of all look at and analysing existing posters of museum and exhibitions but also of films to gain more inspiration, see similarities and differences. I'll look at all variants but will try to focus on ones that will help me with my theme of flight and Icarus. After the analysis I will look at font styles to use for the title of the exhibition and try to come up with different titles before making a final decision on one. I will then focus on colours, and appearance – what will be the background of the poster – and the information I will include. I will want it to be bold and eye catching to grab the attention of the viewers to gain more appeal and to get more people to visit the exhibition. izigallery_189210/moviephotospostersÂ

This is the poster for the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. It uses a close up of the face of Venus from the painting 'The Birth of Venus' by Botticelli in 1484-86. It shows one of the most famous and well known painting in the world giving a glimpse into what their gallery holds within. The figure being shown is Venus and the painting this is taken from is 'The Birth of Venus' by Botticelli in 1486. There is no writing or logo being shown leaving her face to fill the majority of the poster frame. In much large writing taking up at least a third of the poster is the title and name of the gallery it is promoting. The words 'Florence' and 'Uffizi Gallery' are the largest words on the poster making it clear where the location is and what the Gallery is called. They are also put in a fancier font making it seem much more elegant. This is very simple yet effective in the way it only uses the name of the museum and gallery and one of the most famous paintings in the world to promote itself.

The poster shows the smooth skin of the female figure with her flowing red hair being moved by the wind. Her gaze settle upon the viewer making them feel invited to the gallery and if she is asking them to come. The colour palette of this poster is very simple. It uses the original colouring of the painting with no added effects making it seem authentic and, I feel, more captivating because of the true atmosphere projected from it. The writing on the top giving information about the exhibition is all in white making it very uniformed. The use of white also compliments the figure being shown as she looks very pure and innocent, which is then enhanced by the white that now surrounds her.

OWN PHOTO This is another University Gallery poster, not promoting a gallery but rather the Uni itself. They have used photograms of car parts and then photoshopped the white areas of the image to be different colours making it seem a little more unusual and different. I really like the use of this technique and feel it has a successful outcome in promoting the Uni. In both posters it uses the same layout allowing there to be a unity between them and although there are different backgrounds, let the audience recognize that they are both to promote the same thing. At the top in the left corner is the start of a quote which is then finished below the 'title' of the poster. This makes it feel like the poster and the Uni has a kind of motto they want to put on to the viewer and make them seem like a much better and positive place to be. Photograms had actually At the very bottom of the poster there is a paragraph of writing used to promote been formed by Fox Talbot the University even further by explaining the course of 'Design, Tools and in the 1800's Progress' and the successes they've had of people after they left.

The title of the poster is stated more as a fact: 'Plymouth builds great cars'. It looks like it had been written in a newspaper and had then been ripped out and layered on the top inhancing the sense of it being factual because they 'didn't' say it themselves it was a professional journalist from a newspaper company. The letters are all in capitals making it seem more legitimate that it was from a newspaper

Fox He had developed the process for Photographs called the 'Calotype', or Talbot Photograms also called the 'Talbotype' named after

William Henry Fox Talbot was an him. The process involved forming English Chemist, negatives that had been made through Linguist, Archaeologist, and one of the using paper coated with silver iodide, main pioneers of Photographs.  and multiple prints could be made. He is one f the main people considered to be a developer of Photography.

My own photograms inspired by Fox Talbot based on feathers to link to my theme of Icarus

My own photograms inspired by Fox Talbot based on feathers to link to my theme of IcarusÂ

I experimented further with the use of photograms and proceeded to use another feather of a peacock, as it has more movement and 'pattern' to it. I repeated the photogram so that it reflects itself from all angles to form this more dynamic and unusual appearance that still resembles the wings of Icarus, just differently. I feel I could use this as part of the final outcome of my poster.

This is another poster I found, however, it isn't promoting any event or business place. I really like the simplicity of the poster, it looks more decorative than one that would be used for a commercial use, but, I feel that with the theme I have of Icarus I could easily use this as inspiration to influence the final outcome. All the objects used are the same shape of a circle, each representing a different element of the Earth. The smallest, being shown as the furthest away is a block coloured black to show the moon in the far distance. The yellow circle slightly closer to the viewer has varying shades and textures within making it vary to the moon behind. The way the colour is a bright yellow contrasts to the rest of the monochromatic poster makes it stand out and resemble the sun in the solar system.

The closest filled circle to the viewer is filled with shades of grey and white in curved and abstract lines creating this sense of movement and texture. It could either show the water in black and white or the texture of the land and the Earth below. Filling the space between the sun and the closest circle is an empty sphere. With one edge being a lot thicker then the other. It also has a semi circle protruding from the top centre making it seem all the more obscure and varient in shapes and formation. The only other colour in the poster is a  line that dissects the overlapping circles  closest to the viewer. It is shown in a  yellow, the same colour used for the sun.  It links the two objects together but also  adds a contrasting shape to the constant  curves of the circles and spheres in the  poster. I really like the composition of this  poster will attempt a version of my own. The Royal Academy poster for the Uni of Arts is very visually captivating with the layers of contrasting colorus. The sky of the posters image is in a bright pale blue to resemble the sky which seems quite natural and realistic. However, the rest of the objects in the poster are quite obscure and make it more impacting and captivating to the viewer. The building in the background has been manipulated to be a vibrant pink colour to contrast to the green-aqua coloured floor it sits upon. The statue placed in the centre, standing tall is photoshopped to be a bright yellow colour that, again, contrasts to the other colours used in the poster, allowing it to stand out fully. The way it is central and brightly coloured gives an insight to what the exhibition being held may contain and with hold.

The logo of the University is at the top left, with the simple initials of 'RA'. It is shown is large, white, bold capitals making it prominent that they are the 'company' holding the exhibition. Below this, on the top of the plan flooring, in the same font but smaller writing, is what they are promoting – their summer exhibition. They also state the full name of the University and who it is Co-Ordinated with. On the bottom right corner of the poster is information of the exhibition. Including the dates of the exhibition, website to see more information, and logo of other companies that are supporting them. I like the formatting and layout  of this section as it looks very  professional yet informative and I  would like to use something similar to  this in my own poster. To widen my knowledge and understanding of posters and how they are used to promote things I have found a poster being used for a TV Series about Da Vinci – this also linking back to my theme of flight and Icarus. To widen my knowledge and understanding of posters and how they are used to promote things I have found a poster being used for a TV Series about Da Vinci – this also linking back to my theme of flight and Icarus. The main image shows the actor portraying Da Vinci in the air with his back arched matching the curve of his wings. The wings he wears are wide but look destroyed and like they are falling apart. Falling them is material but it looks like real feather making it seem like we are seeing what Leonardo had actually wanted to produce. The font for the title is all in capitals making it stand out more but is in thin lines making them look frail and easily damaged like the wings being worn by Da Vinci above them.

the colour palette of this poster is very limited and sticks on to the pale colours such as blue, and white in the sky, white, again, for the wings and a cream and brown outfit for the figure. The simple colour palette doesn’t distract from what is being shown where as a bolder and brighter palette would have.

Although the poster is to promote a Series based on Leonardo Da Vinci the composition and imagery dramatically reminds me of the Greek Myth I am basing my exhibition on, Icarus, and how he flew too high to the sun and then fell into the sea. The writing is limited again, like all the other posters I have analysed, and the most prominent words on the page is the title and name of the Series so that it easily seen by people and easy to remember. The only other information shown is what channel it will be on and when to indicate the audience to go and watch it. I like the simplicity of the writing and I intend to do something like this for my own.

Possible Titles:

• Icarus • The Fall of Icarus • Forsaken Feathers • Wings of Death • Angel of Death • The Myth of Icarus • Flight

Chosen Title:

'Forsaken Feathers'

I have chosen this as my title because it makes people focus on the wings and the feathers that had given flight to Icarus and how the boy abused the gift his father gave him. It creates an implication that the paintings within will have themes to do with wings and feathers and doesn't directly tell the viewer what the exhibition will be about but still gives them clues, hopefully, enticing them to go to it.

After anaylsing many different posters to promote a variety of events such as  museum, films and universities I looked into different fonts similar to the  ones already used to then influence the outcome of my poster. Above is a font similar to that of the font used on the Uffizi Gallery in  Florence, shown to the left. It curves the ends of each letter making it seem  much more fancy and posh than other fonts that could be used. On the  poster it makes it come across as though the gallery is very elegant and  sophisticated and I feel the font above also produces the same effect. The  curves and curls formed echo the curls seen so often in the rich homes of  people from the past in both wall décor and home furnishings, such as the  arm rest of their chairs.  Although the font, with evidence from the poster, clearly produces an effect  of subtle elegance I feel that I wont use it within my final poster because it  doesn’t produce the overall effect I want of intensity of the truth of the Myth  of Icarus and to link the entirety of it back to art and the history of the past.

From looking at the 'Da Vinci Demons' poster I really liked the font used because it  was basic yet sharp and easily eye catching to a viewer. At the top is a font that is  not dissimilar to that used to promote the TV Series. It is very different to the one  used for the Uffizi Gallery as the letters are all shown in capital letters with thin and  sharp lines used to form the letters. Although this is a basic font I feel that it is very  effective, especially if used in a particular way. Using a font similar to the one above  on the poster, to the left, doesn’t distract from the extravagant and breathtaking  visuals of Da Vinci falling after failure of his wings not working. Yet it adds this sharp  and contrasting composition to the constant curves formed by the arching of the  wings and body of Leonardo.  The font, as I previously said, creates a sharp and strong appearance for the letters  that contrasts to that of the falling and broken wings made by Da Vinci. I feel I could  use this style of wording in my final design poster because the style creates a sense  of olden history yet mixed with a newer style as well. It gives off an atmosphere of  stabability which would contradict my theme of Icarus and the capitalizaton of the  letter would emphasise the emergency of the death of Icarus.

This font is completely and utterly different to all those I have seen in posters but the style and  formatting of it reminded me of the human anatomy drawings produced by Da Vinci and the logo  design of the Metropolitan Museum. Each letter is within a box, much like the image shown to the  left. The letters are then surrounded by circles and intersecting lines making the letters seem  much more geometric and as though they have been formed through meticulous mathematics  and dissection. Although this type of font has not been used by an other poster I have seen or anaylsed, I really  like the style of it and the way that it clearly links into the artist of Da Vinci, one of the artists I had  previously studied. I could use this either as it remains in black and white for a monochromatic  effect or I could manipulate it within photoshop to use a clipping mask to gain a bigger, bolder  effect with the writing and increase the visual effect on the poster through the writing and not  just images and objects also used.

Chosen Font:

Above is the chosen font I have decided to use for the poster of my exhibition. After looking at a few different styles this is the one I have settled upon because I feel it links to the artists and paintings I have looked at that will be present within the exhibition I create but also adds a old yet modern looking style to the poster because of the geometry of lines used to create the letters. The styles used within the font produce an interesting outcome I feel would work well with my poster as it links to the past of when the Myth of Icarus was made, to the style of artists I have looked at but then also looks modern in the way it uses geometric shapes with shapes and intersecting lines combined with circles. Depending on the background and imagery of my poster will also depend on the sizing and colouring of the title, however, I would like the title, shown above, to be the most prominent words on the page to link to the inspiration I got from analysing posters for exhibitions and films ect. Also depending on the background and imagery of my poster will also effect the colouring of the title. I may use a bold block colour to fully stand out to the background or I may use a gradient to link in with the logo I have designed. However, I will defiantly trial is using a clipping mask in photoshop with the title to see if I can help it to link in better with the theme.

The second, on the right, is the design I will use as the figure stand out clearly against the background and there is clear definition between the two.

I started the designing of my poster with the repeated pattern I made with photograms and found a image of a man falling through the air to represent Icarus. I removed the background and placed it over the top of the peacock feathers which reminds me of a kaleidoscope. I imported the figure three times to start and fade them as the got closer to the end of the page to show him disappearing from existence. Yet I though it looked too busy with the repetitive background so changed it to a single, bold figure.

This is a design I have made for my poster to promote my exhibition. I used the background shown previously of the peacock feathers but over the top added the title in a bright and light blue colour. I used this colour so it would stick and stand out and stand out against the dark, monochromatic background. I had the title move around a little bit so it was all in one line and static, it created more movement in the poster and links to the inspiration I got from the 'Reaction' poster. The first word I made much larger to instantly grab the attention of viewers an the second word is only a little bit smaller and remains in a line for a less repetition. At the bottom of the poster in the left hand corner is the logo of my exhibition company. However, it seems to get lost in the midst of the geometric and complicated background I have formed. I had tried using a background for it to stand out more, but it didn't look right and didn’t flow with the rest of the poster so I removed it and left it how it is being shown here. I also, along the rest of the line by the logo put in the date of the exhibition – the opening day and the closing day – to inform the people when it will be open. After finishing this design I decided I didn’t like it and felt it didn't look like a real poster and therefore decided to use the 'lesson' from this one to then create another and improve it. On my next design I will aim to use a better font for the title so it links better with posters I have studied and the artists I have looked at as well as making it look more visually pleasing to see. I will also aim to enable my logo to be seen much easier and to make the information of the dates and times to look more professional.

This is the start to  my new poster,  using inspiration  from the layout of  one I have analysed  previously. I have  used all the  elements that are  key with in the  Myth of Icarus – the  sun, the sea, the  feathers and the  moon, each being a  different style of  Media.

The sun is painted, the moon is  drawn/sketched, as are the feathers and the  sea is a photo. This all together, I feel, makes  the composition more interesting because of  the different appearances and textures of  media I have used.  Within the circle of the feathers I have placed  a silhouette of a falling man so it's like the  wings are disintegrating around him causing  him to fall to his death in the sea – which is  the circle below him.  I used circles to show each element so they  have a defined line between each and it  specifically high lights each component to the  death of Icarus. If I had used images to fill the  whole page I feel that the message and idea of  the theme being Icarus may have been lost. It  also allows repetition from the shapes of the  sun and moon. At the bottom corner is the logo I had  designed to enable the viewers to know who  the company and museum is that is promoting  the exhibition. 

This is the second and final design I have made for my  exhibition. As I have previously said, I have used a poster to  inspire me, and filled each section. For the title of the poster, I  using the font that looked like that of Da Vinci and using  Photoshop, created a clipping mask with the same image used  for the sun, located just above. It fills the squares with the  colouring of the sun, making it stand out against the dark, black  background even more and leaves the letter black to then blend  with the background but also stand out again the bright  coloured box around it. Coming from the corner is two thin triangles or 'rays'. One is the  Above is the  poster I took  colour of yellow and the other is an orange to link to the colours  of the sun and balance the colours through out. I had tried with  the main  blue, considering that the title was the same as the sun,  inspiration for  however, it blended with the colour of the sea behind and so I  my poster from,  changed them. I feel that by using these it does balance the use  however, I  of oranges and yellows though the poster and links it all  changed it so  together better. each circle was  On the left in the little gap, I added information about the  completely full  exhibition, including the dates it is showing, where it is located,  and where people can find more information about it. Although  of a type of  the design is relatively simple I like that it highlights the  image and also  important elements that corrupted Icarus on his flight and the  included a title,  limited info I gave. I believe I gave enough but it also entices the  logo and  audience to find out even more about the exhibition.


This is a ticket for the Tate Modern museum in London. It's a very simple design without much colour but it is effective in getting  across the needed information for every ticket holder for the museum. I  has the location  and address so it easy for people to find. It has a  reference number beneath in a much small size and then the title is  shown in a much larger and bolder font to make it stand out to the rest  of the text. Other information included in the ticket is the day, date and  time of the entrance. It also allows the people to see what price they  have paid for the ticket option (adult or child). At the bottom right  corner is the logo of the museum to enable it to be clear that the ticket  is for that particular museum. The design of the ticket is very simple but it all links together as the font  of the text is all the same making it look very consistent throughout. It  also uses a very limited colour palette of black writing and a white  background making it easy to read. The only colour being shown is the  yellow from the logo at the bottom. By this being the only prominent  colour on the ticket, it makes it stick out and catch the ticket holders  eyes more I like the simplicity of the design, and especially the way that the writing  through out the ticket is consistent to link it all together and that the  sizes vary to make some more prominent than others, indicating their  importance.

This ticket is for a music festival and is very different to the Tate Modern Museum. It uses much more colour and a different  format because it is to promote a festival rather than a museum or exhibition. On the left it has a tear off section to enter and a  scan code to ensure the ticket holder can only enter once. One the right it the most colourful section of the ticket using pink,  purple, blue and green, with the title going across it in large bold lettering. This part taking up the majority of the ticket makes it  very visually captivating to look at. Within the middle section is all the important information. There is another barcode, the  date, time, gate, price, and a small logo at the top. It has all been placed within a semi-transparent box to help it read easily and  to also still see the background. I like the use of colour to make it look more interesting a vivid and the way half the ticket is  taken up by just pattern so it doesn’t all look like writing. I also like the way it uses a tear off section to be more 'professional'  and I feel I will use some of these ideas in my own ticket.

This is my final design of the ticket I will use for my exhibition. I used the same title as I did from my poster to make it link  together and used the water/feather and silhouette to create colour  and a similar style to the wireless ticket. I put the logo of  my museum in the centre-left, between the repeated titles. Then I also have information of the date, and whether a donation  was applied or not to the ticket – rather than the normal ticket price of £15, the donation has made it £20. It also has a note to  say the visitors only have 30 minutes to enter the exhibition after their booked time – a element of the Tate Modern Ticket I  liked – to make it more professional. It also has the area it is showing in and the original price of a ticket for an adult. The  background is black so it, again, links to the poster and is easily identifiable to link together. The writing in the middle is  consistent as it is all in the same colour - orange/yellow - to match the colouring of the title and is also in the same font – much  like the Tate Modern ticket I looked at. On the right I created a tear off section so the ticket can only be used once and it uses the circle on feathers and the water. I also  placed a barcode in the section to be scanned.

Brochure intentions

Before I start to create the brochure for my exhibition I will first  research different layouts and existing guides from exhibitions and  museums to then help me format my own. This will then enable me  to create a more realistic and professional looking brochure to then  help promote my 'Art of War' exhibition. When I design my own, I will  aim to make it look exciting and intriguing for people to read but to  also make it look like it links in with the theme of my exhibition and  other pieces that I have already made for it – such as the elements of  black and white and red to match the poster.

This is a Brochure from a museum in Bristol promoting different events  around the area. For each double page, they represent one event so they can give  enough information about the event, the title and imagery to promote  it even further. No matter which page you turn to the information is  clear and unified as the text is all in the same font, and most cases, size.  The increase the size of text that is shorter and 'snappier' to instantly  peak the readers interest, and the writing that follows is smaller so they  can fit it all in within the space they have. For each double page as well they create a different layout for each,  and I really like this  as it defines the difference between the events in  Bristol and show that the brochure isn't for a single ongoing thing. I also  really like the different fonts for each page creating an even wider  variety of creativity and an even clearer change between each page. There are many elements of this brochure I like but I think I am most  likely to use the idea of using different fonts – for my brochure probably  for each different artist to show the difference of each on. I will also use  the idea of having two pages per subject – mine being the artists – so  that I can allow the reader to gain more information and knowledge on  both the artist and the painting being exhibited.

This is a Brochure I found for the Scottish Heritage Trust. The entire booklet promotes a range of things to do around Scotland,  and all the pages, although vary, as link together and follow a type of  'theme'. They display the photos at the top of the page, below a red  border. I like that they display an image of a site before they explain  what it is as most people naturally look at the top of a page first and by  placing a photo at the top it is immediately seen. Below the photos  they put the name in large and bold writing, a different font and colour  to the information below, but the same colour as the border at the top.  They then use a smaller black font to give all the details to the reader  about the location in Scotland.  Another layout they use for displaying photos is using three triangular  cropped photos that are then split up by lines that look like they have  been painted with a brush. I really like all the layout of this brochure as I feel it looks sophisticated  but still modern with the added elements of paint brush effects and  different fonts for the titles. This brochure has given me a lot of  inspiration and I will use sections of this brochure within my own such  as the border on the pages, but I might use colours that suit the  painting/sculpture I am displaying to link to the inspiration from the  other brichure of making each double page look different to the last. I  might also try to include the paint brush effect on some of the pages to  add another effect and more detail into the brochure I produce.

This is the cover of my brochure for the exhibition I am producing. I  made it different to the poster to I made to create a difference  between the two but I used elements from the poster to link to the  poster. I used the same font for the title but used a clipping mask of  water rather than the sun so it would stand out to the background I  used of a sunset at sea. I put the title at the top so it is easily seen.  Below in a rounded and clear font I have put the dates the exhibition  is showing and then beneath I put the website in order for the viewer  to find out more about the event online.  I tried to make the cover simple but visually captivating by using a  photo of the sun set at sea as the background and then, overlaying a  figure of Icarus I cut out on photoshop. I used one from a painting  that is being shown in the exhibition, and used the one I felt would  be the most effective and 'breath-taking', it is 'The flight of Icarus' by  Gabriel Picart. The mixture of the posture of the figure tilting his  head back and basking in his glory of flight, with the way his wings  define the line between the sky and the sea creates a powerful image  in a simple way.  At the bottom in the left corner of the cover, I have placed the logo of  the museum I have created so people can easily recognise the  company producing the exhibition.

These are the first two  pages of the brochure.  On the first page to be  seen I put the events  the exhibition will hold  throughout the course  of its opening to allow  the audience to  decided if they'd like to  join on these days and  also increase the  enjoyment for the  public. On the second page I  explain what the  museum aim to do in  creating a good  experience for the  viewers and what the  audience can expect  when they visit to give  them an understanding  of the company and  exhibition.

Just like the previous two  pages, I used the theme of  water as it was one of the  elements that ended the life of  Icarus and I also chose water  because the colour blue is very  bright and eye catching.

On these pages I give a small  story into the Myth of Icarus  to give the people who visit  the exhibition some context on  what the art work they are  about to see it about and  understand the compositions  and stories behind each one  and their paint work. I have displayed it like this to  be similar to the brochure for  the Scottish Heritage I looked  at and mirrored it to create a  more aesthetically pleasing  appearance.

This is the first of all  the painting and art  work pages, detailing  about the artist on one  page and the painting  on the other,  highlighting important  details that the viewers  might miss.  I have laid it out similar  to the Scottish  Heritage again because  I feel it looked very  sophisticated and well  though out making it  easy to follow and read.  And I included  boarders on the top  and bottom to outline  the information and  create more colour in  the pages.

These are the other pages  giving information about  each individual artwork.  For each I used a different  background to highlight  colours being used in the  paintings but to also  create variety between  each, like the Bristol  brochures titles. I also did  this, for each artist and  title I used a different font  making a wider variety in  the pages.

This this the back page of the brochure and I have put all the general  information on there so it is easier for the reader to find. The logo is  placed larger at the top in the left hand corner as a form of 'title' for the  page and to enable the viewer to get a clearer view of the logo without  a patterned background of the sea. Beneath I have placed the  information regarding the brochures and their prices, and also audio  tours that can be purchased. I also note clearly that no photography is  permitted in the museum, else the person caught will have  consequences as this is an element of many brochures I have seen. At  the very bottom I have also put ways of contacting the company incase  of questions or needs. On the opposite I have put the opening times of the exhibition and  decided to have it closed on a Sunday and Monday as this is another  component of museums and brochures I have noticed and feel that this  makes it more professional. Under the times I have put the address of  the museum and a small image of a map showing the location so if  anyone gets lost they are able to quickly look it up online and find their  way to it.

Exhibition Study. To help me to develop and create my own Exhibition space for the paintings I have analysed I will now, in the next few slides, examine and study the layout and design of different exhibition spaces to then use elements and ideas to help me create my own. There will be a variety of spaces as all are specifically created to house particular artworks, and are formed in such a way to make it easy for the viewers to look and the paintings or any art and for it to flow in a logical way. By looking at many different exhibitions with many different layouts it will provide me with the knowledge and skills I need to be able to the produce my own, realistic looking exhibition space.

From looking at this design and layout I really like the way it uses walls to create individual areas and sections for different forms of social media and technology. It creates a sense of different rooms within a bigger one and allows the viewers to fully focus on one area in the room rather than being distracted by a lot of different elements when trying to look at one. I really like this and I may consider to use this technique within my own exhibition space design to allow the audience to stay in a single room but also have individual sections, almost like squares to see artworks.

This is a floor plan for an exhibition space that is being used to show technology and social media, which can be seen by the titles of particular areas such as 'Twitter Wall'.

The planning of the this space is also symmetrical with the spaces and colours used for the walls. I also like this as it makes it look easier to look at and follow. However, I am more likely, if I use walls within the middle of a room similar to this, is to use the same colour thro ughout so that it all flows and doesn’t cause any distraction from the paintings and art work I am displaying.​ I really like this exhibition layout because of the use of white walls. This is because it makes the room feel lighter and full of air, but, also it allows the viewer to put their full attention on to the art work being displayed without having any colours surrounding it to change the way it appears or looks. The white also reflects the light in the room and will then naturally highlight elements within the paintings/sculpture which emphasises their impact on the audience.

However, I don’t like how many pieces of art they are displaying within one area of the museum as it looks crowded and overloaded with historical and modern piece of art. By also mixing the ages of work together creates and unusual mix to look at which I don’t particulary like. From this I will use inspiration of white walls for light but not the amount they show in a space. For this exhibition they  have laid it out in a much  simpler but effective way.  They used a plain dark  coloured floor to contrast  to the bright white walls  that they paintings hang  on. It is a very open  space that doesn’t have  anything in the middle of  the room, other than a  supporting pillar. I like  that they have done this  as it makes the room  appear more calming,  clean and elegant as well  as looking very open,  which would hopefully to  the audience be much  more appealing to view  and be in. 

The use of white walls  enables the displays to  stand out more with all  the colour they possess,  and does not divert the  viewers attention in  anyway.  From this exhibition I will  take inspiration and ideas  from the use of white  walls to make it enhance  each painting being  shown and displayed. I  will also consider using a  darker coloured floor to  make definition between  the end of the wall and  the beginning of the floor.

The map is also not part of the brochure as some museums have the map separate so if the viewers did not want to by a brochure they still are able to take a free map with the, this is what I intend to do.



Toilet Room Two, Section B

Room Three Room Two, Section A



Room One

The layout for my exhibition is simple but easy to follow as it is a one way route. I have used three rooms to split up the paintings into different areas so the viewers aren't overwhelmed by the amount of artwork there is and so they can focus easier on the one they are viewing. I also included a storage room for 'spare' items that the exhibition will need over time. There are also toilets and a shop as these are elements often seen in exhibition spaces.

For the outside of the museum I have put grass  and a stone path to the entrance to make it look  nicer and more interesting to view as well as to  look more realistic. I have used a revolving door  so people may enter and exit in a easier and  much more effiecent way that won't cause traffic  jams of people. I added rocks in front to add  more nature to the surroundings and to then   add more texture and interest to the front of the  building.

For the reception area – photo to the right - I placed two  wooden and natural, dark desks to keep to the theme of  nature, which also links to the elements of the Earth leading  to Icarus' death. Each desk has a computer for bookings and  a rack to hold brochures and maps for anyone who wants  one. I used white walls through out to make the space seem  light and airy. In the back space of the room I put three  large plants hanging off the wall to give colour to the room  but also decoration to make the room more interesting and  welcoming.

The first piece of artwork in the first room after  the reception displayed in the exhibition is 'The  Flying Machine' by Da Vinci. Although it does not  directly link to the theme of Icarus, it shows the  development of wings and the idea of flying  humans.  Around the edge of the art work I put a gold  frame to make it look professional in the way  that every piece within museums and exhibitions  have one.

On the opposite side of the room is the painting of  'The Adoration of the Magi' by Gentile. This already  had a impressive and complicated design for a frame. I  put it on the opposite side of the room to face The  Flying Machine. At the very end is a painting by Pieter  Brugel of Icarus that then introduces the next room  where the full focus is on Icarus and not just the idea  of humans flying in general. I put a limited amount of  paintings in the room so it wasn’t overwhelming and  gives the people a glimpse into what's to come.

The image to the left is still within the first display  room of the paintings that create a build up to  the actual theme of Icarus. It allows you to see  the Pieter Bruegel painting closer but also gives a  quick glimpse into the room behind with a  painting on the wall and a seat loactaed just in  front of it. This is also a view of what the people  visiting the exhibition will see and forms a much  more realistic representation of how it will  appear to them.

To the right is the second room, section A, that the  viewers will walk into. Immediately the people will  understand and see a range of art styles that depict the  Myth of Icarus. I have located them so that they are all in  time order of their making so it is easier to see the  development and change in art over history and time.  They are all show cased in golden frames, much like any  museum or exhibition would, such as the National  Gallery. In the middle of the room is a seating area so  people may sit and admire the works of great artists.

Below is the last room the people will see. Alone in this  room is the sculpture by Niccola Godden. I have put this  alone in a room so people may be grabbed in awe by the  simplicity but powerful impact of the piece of art. I didn’t  want anything else in the room to take away the  attention of the viewers and also left in alone as it is the  only piece of art that isn't a painting, amking it all the  more exciting to witness and see without anything else  being present. 

Above, around the corner of room two, in section B, is the final  two paintings the exhibition holds. 'The Flight of Icarus' by  Picart is in a separate room, not only to stop all the paintings  being crammed together, but also as it celebrates his flight. All,  apart for Leighton's painting, they shows the demise and  unfortunate ending that Icarus is lead to, however, this one  celebrates the fact a man has wings to fly. It creates a much more  impacting effect of seeing the horrors of his journey and then  witnessing the triumph. Also in the room is Picasso's extremely  large painting leading me to putting it in another room so it could  have a full effect of intimidation and wonder on the viewer.

Exam Powerpoint: Flight  

This Portfolio shows a journey of analysis of paintings surrounding the theme of Flight and then focusing on the Myth of Icarus. I shows eva...

Exam Powerpoint: Flight  

This Portfolio shows a journey of analysis of paintings surrounding the theme of Flight and then focusing on the Myth of Icarus. I shows eva...