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DADA ever ything

you need to

k now about Dada and

its inf luence on other movements

By Ha nna h Dobbie Apr il 2 018


A A vi D va D DA i iva A A a v AD a v D v D v D i i A A A a v a v D D v D v A vi vi DA DA va DA i iv A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v D v D i AD aD viv DA va DA D v D i i A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A A A a v a v AD viv viv DA va D iva DAD DADA i A A A v vi D D D A A A a A a v D v D D v D i v vi DA DA va DA iva i A A a v a v D v D v DA i i A A A a v a v D D v D v i i A A A A D A v A viva viva D AD Av Av AD D D D D A a A a D v D A vi A viva viva DA a DADA ADA viv A viva D iva DAD D D iv iva Av AD a v v DAD DADA D v D i A A A a v A AD AD aD viv D va D DA v D i i A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A A A a v iv A A v A viva viva D AD aD v D D v D i A A A a v D A A aD AD aD viv D D v D i A A a ADA ADA a v D v D v D i i A A a v a v viv aD viv DA va D iva DAD DADA v i i A A v v D D iva A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v v D iv AD a v va D iva DAD DADA v D i i A v AD a v D v D i A A A a v a v D D v D A vi viv DA DA va DA i iv A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v viv AD aD viv va D iva DAD DADA v D i i A v AD a v D v D i A A A a v a v D D v D v i A v vi DA DA va DA i i A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v D v D D v vi A aD vi DA va DA v D i i A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A A A a v a v D D v D v i i A DA DA iva Av AD ADA ADA v a v D D v D i A A Av a a v D v D D v D i i A A a v A a v A viv aD viv va D iva DAD DADA v i i A A v aD v D D v i A A A a v v D DA D v D vi DA DA DA va DA i A A a A a v D v D DA v D i i A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A A A D D iva iva Av Av AD a v v D D v D i iva A A A A a v v D D v D i A A A aD A a v D AD aD viv DA va D iva DA DA v D i i A A v A a v D D v D i A A A a v a v D iv viv v DA va D iva DAD DADA va i i A A A v v D D D A A A a A v va D iva DAD DADA v DA viva viva D va DAD DAD i v A A vi D va D va i i ADA ADA v A A a v v D v D i A A A v viv D D D va D i A A A a A a v D v D D v D i i v v DA DA va DA iva i A A a v a v D v D v DA i i A A A a v a v D D v D v i i A A A A a v D D iv A AD A v A vi AD a v D D D v D i A A a A a v D viv AD aD viv DA va D iva DA v D i i A A v a v D D v DA i A A A a v a v D D v D v i i A A A A a v v D A AD AD aD viv v D D DA v D i A A A a A a v D v D D v D i i A A a v A a A viv aD va D iva DAD DADA v DA viv v i i A v aD v D v i A A A A a v v D D D v a vi DA DA DA va D iva DA i A A a A v D v D DA D i A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A D A v A viva viva DA a DADA ADA v A viva D iva A v D D D v D i A A A a A a v v AD aD viv va D iva DAD DADA DA v D i i A v A a v D v D i A A A a v D D iv A A v A viva viva AD a v D D v D i A A A a v viv va D iva DAD DADA iva D iva DAD DADA i A v D D A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A A A a v a v AD viv viv DA va D iva DAD DADA i iv A A A v D D D v DA DA DA v va DA iva


i iv A A a v v DA D v D va i i A A A a v v D D v D va i i A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A v va D iva DAD DADA v DA viva viva D va DAD DADA i v A A v vi DA D va D va i i A A A a v v D D v D i iva A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v iv AD aD viv va D iva DAD DADA v D i i A v AD a v D v D i A A A a v a v D D v D v A vi vi DA DA va DA i iv A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v D v vi AD aD viv DA va D iva DA v D i i A A v A a v D D v D i A A A a v a v D D v D v i DA ADA ADA v A viva viva DA a DADA ADA vi A v D a D iv viv AD a v va D iva DAD DADA v D i i A v a v D v DA i A A A a v a v D D v D v i i A A A D A v A viva viva DA a DAD AD Av Av D D D A a A D v D A vi A viva viva DA a DADA ADA viv A viva D iva DAD D v D D v D va a DA a DADA ADA vi A viva viva DA a DADA ADA vi A D iv A AD a v AD aD viv D v D v D i i A A A a v a v D D v D v vi vi DA DA va DA va i i A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A A va va D iva DAD DADA v DA viva viva D va DAD DADA i v DA A v A viva viva DA a DADA ADA vi A viva D va i A v D D D v D i A A A a A iv va D iva DAD DADA v DA viva viva D va DAD DAD i v ADA ADA v A viva viva DA a DADA ADA vi A viva viv D D D v D viva viva DA a DADA ADA vi A viva viva DA a DADA A D iv A AD a v aD viv D DA v D v i i A A A A a v v D D D v D i v v DA DA DA va DA i A A A a A a v D v D D v D i i A A A v A viva viva D A v A viva viva DA a D AD D D A a viv viv DAD DADA va D iva DAD DADA i A A v D D A A a v DA va DA D v D i i A A a v A a v D v D v D i A vi DA DA va iva i Av A A a v aD v D D v D v i i A A A A a v v D D D v D a vi DA DA DA va DA i A A a A a v D v D DA v D i i A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A A D DA iva iva Av Av AD a v v D D v D i iva A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v v AD aD viv va D iva DAD DADA v D i i A v AD a v D v D i A A A a v a v D D v D v i A v vi DA DA va DA i iv A A A A a v v D D D v D i A A A a A a v D v D D v i A aD vi DA va DA v D i i A A a v AD a v D v D v D i i A A A a v a v D A viv viv DA va D iva DAD DADA i A A A v vi D D D A A A a A a v D v D D v D i v vi DA DA va DA iva i A A a v a v D v D v DA i i A A A a v a v D D v D v i i A A A A D A v A viva viva D AD Av Av AD D D D D A a A a D v D A vi A viva viva DA a DADA ADA viv A viva D iva DAD D viv DAD DADA va D iva DAD DADA v DA viva i A v D A A D va D i A v A viva viva DA a DADA A a v D v D i A A a v D iv viv a v DA va D iva DAD DADA v i i A A A v v D D A a AD v DA DA D va D i A A a A a v D v D DA v D i i A A a v A a v D v D v D i i A D A v A viva viva DA a DADA ADA v A viva D iva A v D D D v D i A A A a A a v v D D D iv AD ADA viva AD a DA viva DA v va D


Photographs: Tzara, Tristan. Dada. Zurich, Paris, 1918. Issue 3, pages 5-6. Held in The International Dada Archive, University of Iowa.


This page, front, and back covers: Tzara, Tristan. Dada. Zurich, Paris, 1917. Issue 1. Held in The International Dada Archive, University of Iowa.


DA DA

TRISTAN TZARA CHANGED THE ART WORLD WITH A MAGAZINE CALLED

1917-1921

Dada was an avantgarde publication that spread the radical ar tistic philosophy of the Dada movement, directly inf luencing later periods of ar t histor y. by h a n na h dobbi e


8 | DADAISM | April 2018

Photographs: Tzara, Tristan. Dada. Zurich, Paris, 1918, 1920. Issues 3,6. Held in The International Dada Archive, University of Iowa.

T

he year was 1916. The city, Zurich. A community of artists gathered in neutral Switzerland out of hatred for the war.1 To give these disillusioned creatives a place to gather, Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings opened the Cabaret Voltaire.2 Jean Arp, Richard Huelsenbeck, Marcel Janco, and Tristan Tzara were existed.8 Dadaists relied on absurdity, spontaneity, and among the founding members of the revolutionary negation to show their support for impulsive freedom group that was born from this cabaret. They felt that and their nihilistic belief that nothing had value.9 They protest was the only way to revitalize the broken soci- disseminated these ideas through collage, montage, ety that brought about such devastating destruction, performance, the readymade, and, most importantly, so they developed Dada.3 Marcel Janco said, “We had the journal.10 Tristan Tzara, one of Dada’s founding lost confidence in our culture. Everything had to be members, decided that a print publication was the best way for the artists demolished…. We of Cabaret Voltaire to began by shocking spread their message of the Bourgeois, derevolt to the masses, so molishing his idea of he started a journal and art, attacking comnamed it Dada.11 This timon sense, public tle captured the essence opinion, education, of the yet unnamed institutions, mumovement so well that seums, good taste; it became the group’s in short, the whole epithet.12 By editing this prevailing order”. 4 magazine and designing In 1932, Georges its graphic identity, Tzara Hugnet developed realized his Dada vision, on this concept, using the magazine as a saying, “Dada was DADA ISSUE 6, back cover. Paris, 1920. strategy for artistic develborn from what it opment.13 He displayed hated… Dada was Dadaist works within his the sickness of the 5 world”. Dadaists used their art to criticize the ratio- publication’s pages, but the journal itself was a work nal society that allowed the first world war to occur, of Dada art.14 Dada became a manifestation of the advocating for multiplicity and peace through paradox movement, allowing Tzara to bring discordant and bizarre works together, thus challenging the preconand politics.6 Those were their motivations, but what ex- ceived artistic hierarchy and conception of artistic actly was Dada? It is a difficult movement to define movements.15 Dadaism was occurring at the same time as because every member had a different idea of what it meant to be a Dadaist.7 Ultimately, they were a group Cubism, Futurism, and Expressionism, but Dadaists of artists that believed their movement was a riotous believed they were different.16 Each of these movestate of mind and an opposition to everything that ments experimented with collage, typography, performance, and politics, however the Dadaists felt their movement was unique and that is because of Tzara’s strategic use of the magazine.17 He distinguished Dadaism as a kind of atypical anti-art meta-movement that was best disseminated through the journal.18 Tzara also used this platform to navigate the relationship between


Dada and the other contemporary art movements, marketing Dada as being fundamentally different from other art groups (Expressionism, Cubism, and Futurism), which he criticized for being too dogmatic.19 Tzara positioned Dada outside of these rule-driven styles, using his magazine to embody the differences between Dadaism and other movements, thus placing his publication at the core of Dada practice.20 So, Tzara used Dada’s seven issues to record past events and display existing works of art, but he also designed it as its own art piece that spread the Dada identity to a growing international audience.21 He presented Dada as an alternative to art, as a site for avant-garde practice that could be continually advanced, refined, and redefined.22 Tzara used the magazine as a platform for reproductions of paintings, drawings, poems, and essays created by diverse and relatively unknown artists. These works were brought together through eclecticism, with no (Hage, 132.) organizing set of aesthetic principles.23 Tzara printed text at sharp angles and unconventional orientations, juxtaposing typography with images and expressing the importance of graphic design to Dada’s visual identity.24 His eccentric and experimental designs broke all the established typographic conventions, bringing a new graphic style to the DADA ISSUE 3, page 14. Zurich, 1918. established centrality of the 20th century print industry.25 Tzara expressed his Dada ideology in both form and content, as his graphic design was a visual portrayal of the anarchic, anti-establishment Dada philosophy. The first two issues of Dada introduced Dadaism to artistic communities, also including works from contemporary art movements as it was

“The beginnings of Dada were not the beginnings of art, but of disgust.” -Tristan Tzara

April 2018 | DADAISM | 9


10 | DADAISM | April 2018

Photographs: Tzara, Tristan. Dada. Zurich, Paris, 1917-1921. Issues 1-7. Held in The International Dada Archive, University of Iowa.

a space for many types of artistic production to coexist and interact.26 In these early stages, Tzara refused to publish any Dadaist mission statements or manifestoes because he advocated that Dada was intentionally meaningless from its inception.27 As the magazine’s issues progressed, however, Tzara began to focus more on expressing the Dada identity. In Dada 3, he wrote a manifesto saying, “Dada means nothing”.28 By the fourth issue, Tzara turned away from discussing other contemporary art movements, focussing exclusively on Dada.29 As the definition of Dadaism became more narrow and explicit, a divide between Dadaist leaders occurred. Some of them wanted to further define and organize the movement, while others, such as Tzara, wanted to perpetuate Dada’s non-hierarchical individualism. 30 The sixth and seventh issues of Dada were moved from Zurich to Paris, where these disputes were taking place. 31 The last two volumes, Bulletin Dada and Dadaphone, displayed a more exclusive attitude, only showcasing work by the core group of Dada artists. 32 These issues became a platform for Tzara to share his own Dadaist point of view; expressing his chaotic, non-sensical, and anarchic vision for the movement. 33 It has been said that “the true Dadas are against Dada”; this self-destructive philosophy heralded the short-lived movement’s demise.34 André Breton, a Dadaist who contributed to the variety of Dada magazines in circulation, was growing tired of Tzara’s promotion of nihilistic anti-art. 35 Dada is often considered “a precursor, an unruly child who matures into the properly codified movement of Surrealism,” and, in keeping with this notion of progression, Breton sought a productive, rather than anarchistic, response to the Dadaist desire for revolution.36 So, he renounced Dada, developed his “Manifesto of Surrealism”, and formed a group of artists who sought to free people from their modern intelligence by returning them to their instincts and unconscious desires through art, building on Freudian psychoanalysis. 37 This movement maintained Dadaism’s postwar disillusionment, but created art that highlighted the weaknesses of the rational world and the value of an alternative approach. 38 Surrealism still attacked conventional society like Tzara’s Dada did, however, it did so by bringing “to consciousness the revelation of the unconscious being”. 39 Coming from the world of Dada, Breton knew the power of the magazine. He used journals to spread Surrealism’s presence and politics across Europe.40 This began with the dissemination of the Surrealist manifesto, but grew into something more, just as the Dada journals had.41 The Surrealist publications, such as La Révolution surréaliste and Minotaure, were more typographically traditional, but they maintained Dada’s revolutionary spirit.42 These magazines focussed on thoughts and dreams, attempting to reproduce the unconscious with as little interference from the conscious mind as possible.43 This was done by reproducing and distributing Surrealist paintings, illustrations, and essays to a broad audience, following Tzara’s strategic model. Both Tzara and Breton recognized the power of print magazines, as well as their ability to spread art and build connections despite censorship and restrictions on travel and exhibition opportunities.44 In addition to Surrealism, Dada influenced movements such as Neo-Dada, Pop art, Bauhaus, Conceptual art, and Constructivism. Dadaists challenged painting and highlighted problems with the picture plane in their magazines, often taking what already existed and recontextualizing it to create art.45 This new approach to creation turned into the concept of the artist-as-machine, which sought to demolish and change the capitalist terms of labour and life.46 This contributed to Dadaist strategies of art production trying to render art obsolete, which was only enhanced by the printing press and Dada’s adoption of a typically commercial mode of circulation. The Neo-Dada period of the 1960s continued this Dadaist trend towards innovative, new relationships


From left to right: Dada 1 cover, Zurich, 1917. Dada 2 cover, Zurich, 1917. Dada 3 cover, Zurich, 1918. Dada 4/5 cover, Zurich, 1919. Dada 6 cover, Paris, 1920. Dada 7 cover, Paria, 1920.

April 2018 | DADAISM | 11


the other

DADA

PUBLICATIONS

Tristan Tzara’s Dada was the first official Dada publication, but around the world, Dadaists were creating rule-breaking journals in a similar style, showing the magazine’s farreaching influence.

12 | DADAISM | April 2018

Photographs: Tzara, Tristan. Dada. Zurich, 1919. Issues 4-5; Der Dada. Berlin, 1919. Issue 1; Duchamp, Marcel, Henri-Pierre Roche, Beatrice Wood. Blindman. New York, 1917. No. 2; Ernst, Max, Johannes Baargeld. Die Schammade. Cologne, 1920. No. 1. Held in The International Dada Archive, University of Iowa.

art, spreading it to international audiences in an inventive way. Dada was designed without any guiding stylistic conventions, thus redefining graphic design and its ability to convey meaning in both form and content. This revolutionary magazine with artistic labour, using abstract form 47 format directly inspired the development of Surrealism, also for the sake of satiric image. Dada also connecting to later moveinfluenced Pop art through their recon48 textualizations and satire. Pop art simiDadaism: an avant- ments such as Neo-Dada larly adopted kitsch, popular art sources, garde moment of and Pop. Although Dada was short-lived, it had a and advertising rebellious creative lasting effect that is still to create fine art, DADA 4-5 innovation relevant today because of directly relating page 8. Zurich, 1919. the movement’s avant-garto Dadaist magde nature. Avant-gardism azines, as both can be recognized by anapproaches recontagonism, agonism, activtextualized the ism, and nihilism, as well everyday, twisting as a resistance of tradition, it into something a reliance on shock, and unexpected.49 The the distribution of maniDadaist magazine festoes. 50 Dadaism clearly played an integral fits these characteristics, role in the influsecuring its place in history ence of many latas a moment of rebellious er movements beinnovation. By opposing cause it was such bourgeois society, Daa revolutionary daists were able to break approach to arfrom conventional art to tistic production, find new aesthetic and contrarianism, ideological approaches to and creative ex51 creativity. They acted as agents of change by defying pression. Dadaism was a radical art movement society’s growing corruption and promoting new ways of that grew from a hatred of war and flourished thinking through the creation of experimental art, which through Tristan Tzara’s use of the magazine as was then made accessible through publications such as a strategy to promote the anti-everything Dada Dada. philosophy. Tzara’s journal showcased Dada


ENDNOTES: 1. Irene Hofmann,

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Dada Movement.”

35. Hofmann, 140.

“Documents of

The Journal of

36. Helen Molesworth,

Dada and Surre-

Modern Periodical

“From Dada to

Vol. 5, No. 2 (May, 1990): 217-230. http://

alism: Dada and

Studies, Vol. 2, No.

Neo-Dada and

www.jstor.org/stable/656457.

Surrealist Journals

1 (2011): 34.

Back Again.”

in the Mary Reyn-

7. Hage, “The Maga-

October, Vol. 105,

Cameron, Catherine M. “Avant-Gardism as a Mode of Culture Change.” Cultural Anthropology,

Hage, Emily. “The Magazine as Strategy: Tristan

olds Collection.”

zine as Strategy:

Art Institute of

Tristan Tzara’s

Chicago Museum

Dada and the Sem-

Studies, Vol. 22,

inal Role of Dada

Hoffman, “From

No. 1 (2011): 33-53. http://www.jstor.org/

No. 2, Mary Reyn-

Art Journals in the

Surrealism to “The

stable/10.5325/jmodeperistud.2.1.0033.

olds and the Spirit

Dada Movement”:

Apocalypse”: A

of Surrealism

34.

Development in

(1996):132. 2. Hofmann, “Docu-

8. Kristiansen, “What Is Dada?”, 457, 459.

Dada (Summer,

Tzara’s Dada and the Seminal Role of Dada

2003): 177.

Art Journals in the Dada Movement.” The

37. Frederick J.

Journal of Modern Periodical Studies, Vol. 2,

Hofmann, Irene E. “Documents of Dada and

Twentieth Century

Surrealism: Dada and Surrealist Journals in

Irrationalism”:

the Mary Reynolds Collection.” Art Institute

ments of Dada and

9. Kristiansen, 458-460.

147, 153-154;

of Chicago Museum Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2,

Surrealism: Dada

10. Hage, 34.

Hofmann, 140.

Mary Reynolds and the Spirit of Surrealism

and Surrealist

11. Hage, 36.

38. Hoffman, 148, 154.

(1996):130-149, 197. http://www.jstor.org/

Journals in the

12. Hage, 36.

39. Hoffman, 151, 153.

stable/ 4104318.

Mary Reynolds

13. Hage, 33.

40. Hofmann, 131.

Collection”: 132.

14. Hage, 34.

41. Hoffman, 152.

3. Donna M. Kristian-

Hoffman, Frederick J. “From Surrealism to “The

15. Hage, 34.

42. Hoffman, 149, 154.

Apocalypse”: A Development in Twentieth

sen, “What Is

16. Hage, 35.

43. Hoffman, 152.

Century Irrationalism.” ELH, Vol. 15, No. 2

Dada?” Education-

17. Hage, 35.

44. Hage, 34.

(Jun., 1948): 147-165. http://www.jstor.org/

al Theatre Journal,

18. Hage, 35, 38.

45. Helen Molesworth,

stable/ 2871487.

Vol. 20, No. 3

19. Hage, 33.

“From Dada to

(Oct., 1968): 457.

20. Hage, 33, 35.

Neo-Dada and

4. Hofmann, 132.

21. Hage, 36.

Back Again”: 178-

Art.” Art Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Spring, 1964):

5. Edward T. Kelly,

22. Hage, 50.

179.

192-201. http://www.jstor.org/stable/77447.

“Neo-Dada: A Cri-

23. Hage, 38.

46. Molesworth, 179.

tique of Pop Art.”

24. Hage, 46.

47. Edward T. Kelly,

Art Journal, Vol.

25. Hage, 34; Hofmann,

23, No. 3 (Spring, 1964): 196. 6. Frederick J. Hoffman,

Kelly, Edward T. “Neo-Dada: A Critique of Pop

Kristiansen, Donna M. “What Is Dada?” Educa-

“Neo-Dada: A Cri-

tional Theatre Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Oct.,

tique of Pop Art”:

1968): 457-462. http://www.jstor.org/sta-

26. Hage, 36, 38.

199; Molesworth,

ble/3205188.

27. Hage, 36.

199.

133-134.

“From Surrealism

28. Hage, 39.

48. Molesworth, 180.

to “The Apoca-

29. Hage, 40.

49. Kelly, 192.

Back Again.” October, Vol. 105, Dada (Sum-

lypse”: A Develop-

30. Hage, 44.

50. Catherine M. Cam-

mer, 2003): 177-181. http://www.jstor.org/

ment in Twentieth

31. Hage, 44.

eron, “Avant-Gard-

Century Irratio-

32. Hage, 45.

ism as a Mode of

nalism.” ELH, Vol.

33. Hage, 46.

Culture Change.”

15, No. 2 (Jun.,

34. Hage, 45; Burton

Cultural Anthro-

Call Him ‘Pop’.” Art Education, Vol. 19, No.

pology, Vol. 5, No.

5 (May, 1966): 12-16. http://www.jstor.org/

2 (May, 1990): 227.

stable/3190805.

1948): 148; Emily

Wasserman,

Hage, “The Mag-

“Remember Dada?

azine as Strategy:

Today We Call

Tristan Tzara’s

Him ‘Pop’.” Art

eron, “Avant-Gard-

Dada and the Sem-

Education, Vol. 19,

ism as a Mode of

inal Role of Dada

No. 5 (May, 1966):

Culture Change”:

Art Journals in the

12.

221.

Molesworth, Helen. “From Dada to Neo-Dada and

stable/3397693. Wasserman, Burton. “Remember Dada? Today We

51. Catherine M. Cam-

April 2018 | DADAISM | 13


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