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GSD Works Hankyu Kim M.Arch1 AP 2014







URBAN SYSTEM 'Cloud atlas' urban redevelopment, office, commercial

'Undulating corridors' market

'Variation on the scales' urban retreat

'Slow city' urban design

'Dismantling the corner' theater & dance school

2013 spring option studio Geometry of span and flight Rober Levit, Rudolphe el-Khoury

2012 Fall option studio Pursuing Figuration: Questions of Process, Structure, Scale and Enclosure Lawrence Scarpa, Brian Healy

2012 spring core studio Rafi Segal

2011 fall core studio Jonathan Levi

M.Arch Thesis Jorge Silvetti

Harvard GSD options studio market design, Boston MA Geometry of span and flight

Critic: Robert Levit, Rodolphe el-Khoury Spring 2013

UNDULATING CORRIDORS Large span market design

MARKET 1) directionality- rhombus figure (ruling geometry) 2) market display- 5 corridors 3) openess- hyperbolic parabloid surfaces 4) ventilation- fragmented surfaces

GEOMETRY & REASON When hyperbolic surfaces are controlled by two specific lines in perpendicular arrangement, there is a specific line which becomes a straight line, Hence however the surfaces undulate, these can be controlled in terms of structural point of view. In this project, 5 corridors are arranged in horizontal way to provide different products to be located. Hyperbolic surfaces are used in such corridors to provide openess and wideness for peope to feel pleasant in crowded market place. The surfaces are consisted of numerous wood bars, each skipping the next which create light cavities on the wall surface.

Hyperbolic surface

Ruling segements

Module surface


6 2




PLANNING CORRIDORS AND OPENINGS Five corridors are the main market place. The products are located at the center part of each cell and visitors walk by the corridor walls. To create the openings between each corridors, other lines were used as a ruling line to create openning surfaces. There are three types of openings in this market building as you can see in the plan.. SERVICE AREA Most of the service areas are located at the center corrior. The two big restrooms, offices, cafeteria, babysitting center are the main supporing programs of the building. By moving from one corridor to the other corridor, people can easily access to such areas.

5 7

Ground level plan

1 main entrance 2 restroom 3 inner court yard 4 day care center 5 cafeteria

Second level plan

6 office 7 cafe

rainwater gutter 5/8" plywood roof rigid thermal insulatioin

steel window frame

outdoor wood stair seating corridor geometry: non-0degree member frame



CORRIDOR MARKET There are total of five corridors in this market project. The geometry of the corridors get wider towards the opposite end. Hence it is not a symetrical space but a space with hierarchy whcih provides users to perceive the directionality in such place. Also every section of the corridors are different creating diverse environment for each section (corridor). Also, there is a center courtyard at the second corridor from the west that provides natural lights and air penetrate towards the building. Each end of the corridors, there are high clear windows that provide the sea scenary to the users. The whole market is not a solid, dark space but a space with natural lights and diverse view points.

90 degree veritcal support location

outdoor market corridor service corridor

90 degree vertical member least moment - member proifle:: 1' greatest moment - 1' 6"

HYPERBOLIC PARABLOID SURFACE & FUNCTIONS The height of the corridors are relatively high comparing to the width of the corridor. Such space create an open environment of the market where a lot of people gather. Also the porous corridor surfaces enable visual connection between the corridors that provides people to easily navigate in the market. The entrance facade (short facade) is enveloped by glass panes providing natural lights and views to the users. The width of the each wood bar is different while the vertical dimensions are the same. This is because the bending moment of the section of the corrior is the greatest at the mid level of each surface. There are glass blocks and operable windows located in between the wood bars for ventilation on the surface

section (east-west)

STRUCTURE & ROOF GEOMETRY The roof geometry is the arch from a circle. The lowest point of the roof where the loads are congregating is the location of the vertical column. This column is not a perfect solid vertical member but series of horizontal members stacked in vertical direction. Nhatural ventilation, natural lights can be utilized through the porous facade (east facade) of the market buildings which is composited of horizontal wood bars. The solid part of the facade is the location of wood bars stacking. This part is where the surface is creating straight line vertically and used as the main structure. south and north facade is the end of the corriors enveloped by glasses allowing natural light and water scenary in to the building.

elevation structure diagram

main load

main load



roof ruling geometry- arc (circle)

MATERIAL: WOOD The main material of the project is basically wood. The horizontal wood members for the hyperbolic parabloid surfaces are cut into particualar length for the structural clarity for easy construction. Each horizontal woods are stacked in vertical direction with the steel frame and joints at the inside the building. These joints are acting as a notch, a device to hold the wood members, not as a structural element

Harvard GSD Option Studio urban retreat/zoo, Venice, California Pursuing Figuration: Questions of Process, Structure, Scale and Enclosure critic: Lawrence Scarpa, Brian Healy fall 2012 nominated, harvard Platform 6, 2013


URBAN RETREAT SCALE AND SPACE PERCEPTION The aim of the project was to set a new relationship between the two very different program : zoo and meditation center. Through the new organization of the programs and with different scales and envelopes adapted, each space would benefit each other in terms of interaction. There are four types of combinations of zoo and meditation rooms: >meditation room between the zoo space >meditation room isolated inside the zoo space >meditation space hunged above the zoo space Each meditation rooms have exotic scales in order to provide different emotions to the users. The two big volumes in the builing are the big zoo space including aviary which becomes an iconic object at the site.

SITE & MEDITATION This facility is located right in front of pacaific ocean in Vence, California. The five meditating rooms are located at the facade to avoid massiveness at the main road. The building's main floor start at the 2nd level and the first level becomes a open public space providing shadowfor the sunny environment. The main individual meditating rooms are located at the facade of the building in order to provide the pacific scenary to the users. The scale of this room is very small but high providing coziness and exotic space perception to the meditating users. This small scale varies towards the center of the building where botanical garden and aviary is located.

SCALE AND SPACE PERCEPTION Due to the limitation of the rectangular land form, the project aims to explore different scale of spaces from the facade to the center. Five meditation rooms(2m*5m*5m) are located at the front and back facade and between each 2 rooms small zoo spaces are located. This in between zoo spaces are connected to the main zoo area which is at the second floor. Two big cubic figure spaces are at the center of the building, each funtions as a botanical garden and aviary. Due to the particualr height provided to the aviary, it creates an unique object in the city. The variation of different scales in the building provides various perception of space in the building.


roof structure concrete / white plaster

aviary cage structure- wood

group meditating room roof: terrace/meditating space

individual meditating room

outdoor meditating space Level 4: meditation center

main zoo space level zoo cage structure- wood

Level 3: meditation center

overhung zoo cage individual meditating room botanical garden parking, loading dock

THE ORGANIZATION The first level is the public space with no facade or envelope. The second level is the main zoo space with slim wood bar facade. The above two levels are solid concrete walls where various scales of meditating rooms are located. The main structure of the facility is the two relatively huge void space at the center part of the building where each four sides are erected by concrete wall. The aim of applying two different facade type is for the gradient effect of the perception.


main enterance

publice plaza

Level 2: zoo

Level 1: public space

section- arviary

CURVED MOVEMNT AND PERCEPTION Most of the meditating rooms are located at the front and back side of the building. The two big zoo spaces are located at the middle part of the building, hence if a user moves from back and front, he or she get chance to interact with such spaces. By walking along the curved pathway, a user can exprience diverse views of the spaces. In addition, there are two big volumes of zoo space at the center part of the building. If a user moves from the front to the back, he or she gets a chance to see the two big zoo space, the pond area and the aviary. Inside the Aviary, the fences are oriented linearly and vertically which provides relatively dynamic space.

aviary structure compostion

AVIARY AS AN INTERMIEDIATING VOID SPACE Two relatively big space volume is provided at the center part of the building where small scale meditating rooms are occupying each west and east facade. One is used as a botanical garden with animals and the other one is three stories hight aviary where canaries are habitating. Slim wood bars are used as a envelope as a zoo cage providing different enviroment comparing to smooth language of the whole building. WOOD STRIP FACADE The series of wood facde for the envelope of the zoo space provides visually lightness of the structure and clearity of the space. It can be transformed in veritcal direction for the opening purposes..

transformable wood skin experiments

aviary view

Harvard GSD core4 studio urban design Critic: Rafi Segal in collaboration with (urban design) : Bongjai Shin, Drothy Xu, Jielu Lu spring 2012 published, harvard Platform 5, 2013


urban design


I - Intersections

II. Urban Unit

1 All corners of every intersections are open space for rendezvous.

11 Urban unit is the space between 3 intersections and their connections.

16 Within the unit, there will be at most 10% of the building extending over the street and become urban furniture, such as a canopy or seating.

12 Each urban unit has to have at least two openings to allow access within the urban unit.

13 To maximize views between urban units, 15% of the edge of the urban units need to be opened.

17 Each building can protrude over the street but cannot cover the roads completely. 2 At least one of the sides needs to be oblique (not equal to 90 degrees). dictionary Pronunciation: [noun] a point or line common to lines or surfaces that intersect:the intersection of a plane and a cone a point at which two or more things intersect, especially a road junction

18 Height limit for the buildings follows code #6, #7, #8 and also a 1:2 ratio, where 1 refers to the longest side of urban unit. 6 The heights of the buildings should slope down towards the intersection.

III- Infrastructures

19 Every 150 feet, there needs to be a structure with seating, covering, and Internet (outlet).

7 Maximum height of buildings around the intersections in zone A is 30 ft, zone B is 50 ft, zone C is 70 ft. But, at the center part of the urban unit, the height can be doubled. i.e. center of zone A can be 60 ft.

8 Slope: 1: 5 (rise:run)

14 Building footprint can only occupy 70% of the urban unit; 30% dedicate toopen space.

15 Open spaces in the urban unit cannot contain a building.

3 The next intersection within the closest radius, one of the angles needs to be at least 5 degrees difference than the previous intersection angle.

IV. Elevation/city profile

4 No two intersections can be connected by one direct straight path (must turn at some angle).

9 Distance between the nearest two intersections : zone A (160'-220'), zone B(220'-280'), zone C(280'-320').

5 Speed definition intersection = zero speed kink = 50% speed straight path = 100% speed

10 Three types of intersections: x. Vehicle, bike, and pedestrian (20' - 40' Wide 2-4) y. Pedestrian and bikes (15' - 25' Wide) z. Pedestrian only (10' - 15' Wide) Can be a combination of x, y, z.

20 At least 5% of the whole open space has to be oblique of 1:20 (some can provide access to the buildings above ground level).

V. Movement

21 The location of the buildings within the urban unit is not defined(or restricted) by the streets. The paths of movement becomes a result of the locations of the buildings; they are dependent of each other.

22 Minimum distance between buildings: 6 ft 23 Maximum distance between buildings: 50 ft 24 At a dead end, if the lane is less than 30' (2 lane vehicle), there should be a turning point for at the end for vehicles to U-turn.

VI. VIews (5 predefined view spots based on site)

25 Every intersection should provide visual connection to the predefined view spots.

26 Buildings are conscious about not blocking the view spots by altering their height and form (could be further defined in architectural codes).

slow city speed control deisgn

speed gradient slow

vehicle/bike/pedestrian slow

bike/pedestrian slow

slow city master plan

pedestrian slow

block combintation concept


infrastructure slow

In this urban design, we did not approached as a general way. Instead of designing the sectors of the site, we chose the intersections first, then planned the width of the road and the angles of each intersections. These criteria, the angles and the width of the road, is meant to control the speed of the movements including vehicle to human speed. Hence the sector is no more important than the flow of the movements which allows us to design the slowness of the city in terms of user speed.

slow market design

Level 1 plan

Level 2 plan


culation meet is the fast area with vertical movements of the products which people bought. Also at this area This project was part of a bigger project named the occurs the entrance to the store. 'Slow City'. In this building, the slow market, the goal was to combine different speed of movements, making THE CONECTIVITY stop points and slow areas, in order to provide differ- The main circulation passes through different commerent types of commercial spaces. The main circulation of cial volumes at different level. Eventhough each enterthe building is the extension of the urban fabric where ances differ in place and level, they are eventually conpeople can naturally walk in and buy products while nected at the center area. This center area is relativly cars can move and park. The area where stores and the slow area comparing to rest of the building and also main used as a public space.

Harvard GSD core3 studio theater & dance school design Critic: Jonathan Levi fall 2012


performing arts center

COEXISTANCE BY CONTRAST The site is located right next to the Boston Government Service Center (GSC) which was designed by brutalist architect Paul Rudolph. Since the building was never finished, the goal of this project was to finish the edge of the existing GSC building. This project follows the form of the GSC building but fragmented while still provides the center court yard at the middle of the block. The main concpet of the design was to use the vertical languages of the GSC building, the exaggerated concete colums into another style of vertical element. At the main front of the building, instead of erecting massive and solid facade, I divided into two and dessolve the frontality which it can be seen at every corners of the existing GSC. main alley (amphitheater space) Front view

planning diagram


4 3 9






underground level 13


1 entrance 2 lobby 3 theater 4 stage 5 green room 6 scene shop 7 loading dock 8 amphitheater 9 restroom 10 costume shop 11 dress room 12 cafe 13 ouside lobby porch 14 car access

12 11 10

ground level plan

2nd level plan 2 3 1

5 2 8





The whole building is divided into two masses above the ground level, providing an alley which includes amphitheater. This alley is the main public space between the two buildings while provides the connection to the existing center court yard which Rudolp had designed. Hence there exist a grand stair at the roof of the theater, amphitheater stair at the alley and an arcade at the ground level of the dance school building.


3rd level plan

1 stair roof 2 elevator 3 2nd level seating (theater) 4 dance school lobby 5 cafeteria 6 class room 7 office 8 dance studio

CONTINUING VERTICAL ELEMENTS AMONGST BRUTALISM At the theater, the vertical element which I decided to continue from the GSC building, transform into a surface structure for the theater. Hence the form of the volume of theater can be also percieved from the outside. These vertical elements becomes higher toward the proscenium providing dynmic emotion to the both actors and audiences. The back of the house is located between the two buildings, under the alley which is underground level. Hence the theater can be approached both the two main buildings. theater interior- vertical structure surfaces dance school interior: transparency (contrast to the theater)

dance school


elevation vertical elements


existing Boston Government Center

Harvard GSD M.Arch Thesis urban redevelopment: office + commercial Thesis advisor: Jorge Silvetti 2013


urban redevelopment

urban redevelopment methodlogy

urban renewal plan: Seoul metropolitan government




'Cloud atlas' is a methodology of urban commercial block(CBD) redevelopment which preserves existing urban fabrics while providing an infrastructural cores and structures for the existing buildings to expand. In CBD area of Seoul, low rise, small scale buildings are being tore down while huge scale high rise buildings are built in such locations. However street friendly urban culture-cheap restaurants, bars, karaoke, etc- are dispersed in low rise, small scale areas.

design process

the system

Main structure : Service Core

Mat building steel truss structure Office zone Slim vertical steel structure module Mix-use zone (commercial + residential)

Expansion of low-rise buildings on Expansion zone

Main structure : Parking tower

Horizontal frame platform

Existing commerical building Existing accommodation building

Main public space 55m

Structure & expansion system



In order to remain the existing fabrics, slim columns are located at the specific points - along the allies, in between spaces of existing buildings. These columns hold up the floating office mass and at the same time it works as a expanding platform for the low rise buildings to expand. Small business are able to occupy the ground level where people can easily access and use.

Slim columns are used as main structure to hold the floating office mass. Instead of establishing mega columns for the structure, these types of slim columns are more adequet for preserving human scale environments.These columns not only act as structure but also as a expanding platform for existing low rise buildings. Hence the existing low rise builidings can literally grow on to these column systems using light steel structures.

verical organization: vertical platform(red), horizontal system for expan-

scaffolding system : expansion system for low rise buildings


The location of the columns are very carefully chosen. The two main areas are the sides of the allies and the in between space of the buildings. Here these columns, sturcutres are now reflecting the urban fabric in terms of roads and movements. Also, the columns are relatively thinner than mega concrete columns which the scale is in familiar with human scales. These steel columns are very flexible, some of additional steel members can be added on to these platform and provide space for expansion of the low rise commercial areas. The location of these columns are like the atlas of the old urban fabric. Some of the colums are in linear organization to tolerate the lateral loads.

lower zone design

location of the small retail stores

THE LOWER ZONE REMINISCENCE, REINCARNATION City has its own image. This image created by the scale of architecture and existing urban fabrics. Due to the modernization period in 1900’s, Seoul starts to lose its own identity. This project aims to keep the existing urban fabrics and the small scale of urban block in CBD while providing unique image of the past by vertical elements. Small scale buildings are kept its human familiar size at the lower part, street level, and huge scale office building is provided in the air to allow pedestrians to feel the city as it use to be. Hence it is not high rise buildings that are making the image of the urban block but the small fabrics that are still remained in such historical city site.

slim columns and city image

URBAN CONTEXT - HUMAN SCALE The center courtyard is the void space from lower level to upper level, each providing public space and natural sunlight path. The center courtyard used to be a parking lot where here it is moved to the roof of the upper building. Small allies are preserved and is linked from periphery of the huge roads to the inner side of the urban block. The plan of the block is very porous allowing the people to flow in.

expanded zone diagram

plan- lv2 (top), lv3 (bottom)

main horizontal circulation

new circulation for expanded zone (lv4)

main vertical circulation

new circulation for expanded zone (lv3) heirarchy of the zoning

primary facade


secondary facade

expanded commercial area

program organization (vertically)

roof top public space Section

Parking core

Light core

Stair core


6 5

Roof : public space for CBD residents


Office zone

3 8

one of the light holes

Roof 2 : parking lot 9

9 3 3

Office zone



11 2

office area and roof parking lot

lower level commercial zone


2 2

Small scale mix-use zone





1 court yard 2 small scale business 3 office area 4 lower zone pedestrian deck 5 roof garden 6 stair core 7 parking, elevator core 8 core 9 roof parking area 10 elevator core 11 lower zone roof deck

north view (rooves of each floating office layer)

critical solar angles (summer) floating office massing according to solar angles

FLOATING OFFICE SECTOR MASS DESIGN SOLAR OPTIMIZATION The massing of floating office buildings is controlled by critical solar angles. The critical angle point at each winter and summer is calculated and applied to the east, south facade of the building. There are also several voids through out the building where natural light can penetrate through. There are two rooves; top (public green space), middle (parking lot).








OFFICE & INFRASTRUCTURE LAYOUT, VERTICAL PLACEMENT Infrastruture such as parking lot is provided at the floating level (upper zone) of the project. As some of the cores are used as parking towers, the middle level roof is also used as the parking space. Three parking cores are all conected at this level and those all have access to the upper and lower office areas. The office layout also reflects the urban fabric due to the location of the columns which are located at the allies and in between spaces of buildings. Hence the office users can perceive his spot rather than lost himself in the air.

4 1 entrance parking core 2 mechanical room 3 cafeteria 4 roof deck 5 rest room 6 general service core

INFRASTRUCTURAL CORES Some of the couluns are aggregated to form a core for buildings service, vertical parking lot, and elevator, stair cores. There are seven main core in this building each of cores consisting 10 -30 different sizes of slim columns. Vertical parking lot is particularly important in this area (central business district) providing urban infrastructure. Other vertical movement cores create network among existing low rise buildings with different heights.

URBAN CONTEXT The urban context becomes totally different from present situation where non-human scale or car friendly scale is prevailing. People can still walk around the old fabrics and the new fabrics in similar scale where they can easily access to small scale retails. The slim colums are used as street lights, street furniture and a scaffolding for advertisments and also expansion for small retails at the lower existing buildings.

Redesigning St. Peter's Piazza (as if what Michelangelo would have done) HIS 04350 Michelangelo: Precedents, Innovations, Influence 2013 spring Christine Smith

REDESIGNING ST.PETER’S PIAZZA One of my intentions in proposing St. Peter’s Piazza (as if what Michelangelo would have done) was to make a sequence of objects from piazza to the façade of St.Peter’s. This sequence includes small size objects like a statue to larger size objects such as buildings. If seeing the plan (picture 1) of the piazza, there are two stair ways from the piazza level to the St.Peter’s. Hence the sequence would be (from the lowest level, picture2): statue in the existing piazza level – stairs – new piazza platform – stairs – façade of the St.Peters. These objects are deployed on the central axis of the St.Peters, hence even though the new piazza is asymmetrical in terms of its spatial boundary by existing contextual buidings, the axis could be read by the located objects. The other intention of designing a new piazza was to look like a separate project which intervene the existing context. If seeing the anonymous drawing of the Campidoglio in 1555, the piazza is rather asymmetrical and natural among the three surrounding buildings. Also the view from church to the Senator’s Palace looks like a series of objects or architecture elements which eventually forms a void space which could read as an urban space design. In addition, I tried to keep the existing adjacent buildings as possible and slightly located the new piazza platform between the lower large piazza and the St.Peters. Hence here, the new piazza platform which is in very simple geometry form can perform as large aggregating space at the same time providing a space for pope to make statements at the podium created by the two stair ways. In terms of creating a safe path from St.Peter’s to the Sistine chapel, I created a stair way from the right end of the façade which is behind the second row of columns and connected to the right left side of the chapel. In addition, the two big stair ways at each end of the piazza solves the level difference problem between the existing old piazza and the first level of new St.Peter’s.



Hankyu kim GSD Works