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SALP Pavilion Bird and Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre

Henry Mulligan Gethin Harvey Peter Sproule Qijan Huang



Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill


Environmental and Wildlife



SALP Pavilion



HISTORY On August 27, 1859 Edwin Drake drilled the first successful oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania. The well struck oil at a depth of 69.5 feet and launched the modern oil industry. Drake’s well produced 20 barrels of oil per day. 150 years later we are dealing with the consequences of our oil fuelled lifestyle.

Opposite Page: Edwin Drake

Offshore Oil Production 2009

DEEPWATER DRILLING Drilling for offshore oil provides an increasing amount of the global supply. In 2020 wells more than 400 meters below the sea surface will likely provide 10% of the worlds oil. But going deep poses technical challenges and safety risks. As oil and gas reserves close to shore have been pumped dry, prospectors are plumbing a new frontier: the depths of the Gulf of Mexico. New technologies have made it possible to drill more than 35,000 ft down through water and rock. The Gulf of Mexico now accounts for 30% of US oil production.

Largest Offshore Platform Spills 1969-2010


Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL April 20, 2010 In February 2010, The Deepwater Horizon oil rig began drilling for oil in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth of 5000 feet. The plan was to drill 18,000 feet through the sea bed, and tap an oil reservoir containing over 50 million barrels of crude oil. On the morning of April 20, 2010, methane gas from the well, under high pressure, shot up and out of the drill column, onto the platform, and exploded, engulfing the platform in fire. On April 22nd the Deepwater Horizon sank and resulting from the blowout was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. 53,000 barrels of oil per day were released into the ocean, a total of 4.9 million barrels (185 million gallons) of crude oil. The slick covered at least 2,500 square miles which was affected greatly by the weather conditions. Costs were $7 million a day to contain disaster and a $20 billion spill response fund was put forward by BP.

BP COMPANY • Third largest energy company in the world, Fourth largest company in the world by revenues • Operates in over 80 countries, producing 3.8 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and is the biggest producer of oil and gas in the United States Opposite Page: Deepwater Horizon Blowout

• 80, 300 employees worldwide

Diagram Key 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Methane release to atmosphere Light petroleum hydrocarbons evaporate to the atmosphere Oil slick on surface Deposition of heavy petroleum hydrocarbons Prevailing current Oil droplets and methane bubbles migrate up through the water column Fallout plume

Chart Key 1) 2) 3)

Gulf of Mexico, illustrating ocean currents and site of disaster Extent of oil slick in the Gulf as of July 2010 Extent of water closed to marine industry as of Sep 2010

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Dead Animals Collected Total - 4,678 (as of August 13 2010)

Birds 4,080

Dolphins and mammals 72

Opposite Page: Severely Oiled Brown Pelican

Sea Turtles 525

Reptiles 1

The spill caused extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats as well as the Gulf’s fishing and tourism industries. Tourism provides over one third of annual revenues from the Gulf and 524,000 of 645,000 jobs in the region. This was greatly affected by the spill and many beaches were destroyed as the oily water swept the coastline. Louisiana was the regional leader in commercial fishing before the spill and normally harvests a third of the U.S. shrimp and oyster catch. As a result of the spill, eight U.S. national parks were threatened and 400 species that live in the Gulf islands and marshlands were at risk. The area of the oil spill includes 8,332 species, including more than 1,200 fish, 200 birds, 1,400 molluscs, 1,500 crustaceans, 4 sea turtles, and 29 marine mammals. In the national refuges most at risk, about 34,000 birds were counted, including gulls, pelican, rosate spoonbills, egrets and herons.

SITE - MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA Dead Animals Collected Total - 4,678 (as of August 13 2010)

Brown Pelicans

Blue-winged Teal Ducks

Rosate Spoonbills

Great Egrets

The delta was built up by alluvium deposited by the Mississippi River as it slows down and enters the Gulf of Mexico. Over the past 5,000 years, it has caused the coastline of south Louisiana, USA to advance gulfward from 15 to 50 miles. The delta is a biologically significant region, comprising 3 million acres of coastal wetlands. It is also a commercially significant region, supporting the economy of New Orleans and providing 16 to 18% of the oil supply in the US. 16% of the fisheries harvest in the U.S., including shrimp, crabs, and crayfish are also provided by the delta. The drainage basin of the roughly 2,350mile- river includes about 40,000 dams and levees built over the past century. Estimates suggest that as much as 5,200 square miles of delta land could disappear by 2100.

LOUISIANA WETLANDS The wetlands are 12,355 square miles of one of the most productive ecosystems in North America. The Louisiana coast has a diversity of habitats which provide homes for an abundance of migratory and yearround wildlife. Many endangered species exist within the region including the green sea turtle.

Opposite Page: Mississippi River Delta

The wetlands are nurseries for young fish and shellfish and the Louisiana coast is where the Central and Mississippi flyways meet for migratory birds. It provides a place to rest or feed before crossing the Gulf of Mexico and is a winter home to 70 percent of the waterfowl that migrate along these flyways.


Environment and Wildlife

Controlled burning

Watch & Wait

Pros- Can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water, if done properly. Burning requires a minimum amount of equipment, and because the oil is gasified during combustion, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered product is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning.

Pros- In some cases, natural attenuation of oil may be most appropriate, due to the invasive nature of facilitated methods of remediation, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas such as wetlands.

Cons- Slicks can only be burnt in low wind conditions. The plume of smoke contains a number of pollutants, burning is

Cons- This approach can take time allowing the oil to damage the coast line and marine ecosytems greatly. Evaporation requires strong sunlight. Only the lighter hydrocarbons will ever be lifted in this method.

considered a last resort.



Pros- Can effectively contain the spread of the oil slick, if reaction is quick enough.

Pros- Solidifiers clean up oil spills by changing the physical state of spilled oil from liquid to a semi-solid or a rubber-like material that floats on water. Solidifiers are insoluble in water, therefore the removal of the solidified oil is easy and the oil will n o t leach out. Solidifiers have been proven to be relatively non-toxic to aquatic and wild life.

Cons- But it can only be done in low wind, and can cause air pollution. A large amount of resources and euipment are required if containment is to be carried out effectively. Oil still requires burning or extracting in some way.

Cons- The reaction time for solidification of oil is controlled by the surf area or size of the polymer as well as the viscosity of the oil.

Dispersants Pros- Act as detergents clustering around oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water. This improves the surface aesthetically, and mobilizes the oil. Smaller oil droplets, scattered by currents, may cause less harm and may degrade more easily. Cons- But the dispersed oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral. Recent research indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals.

Environmental Cleanup: Current Methods


Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water (affecting evaporation and biodegradation), and the types of shorelines and beaches involved.

Vacuum and centrifuge Oil can be sucked up along with the water, and then a centrifuge used to separate the oil from the water - allowing a tanker to be filled with near pure oil. Usually, the water is returned to the sea, making the process more efficient. Very small amounts of oil are returned to the sea with the water. This issue has hampered the use of centrifuges due to a United States regulation limiting the amount of oil in water returned to the sea.

Ocean Therapy The first centrifuge dates back to the 1800s and was used to separate liquids from solids. Ocean Therapy Solutions’ Liquid-Liquid Centrifugal Separators utilize patented technology to refine and expand a proven formula for widespread use: by spinning two fluids of different densities within a rotating container, the lighter fluid is forced toward the center of the rotor.

Diagram of Centrifuge Process

WILDLIFE CLEANUP METHODS Physical Exam Treatment must commence with a complete physical exam: Veterinarians check for injuries and broken skin, swab oil from eyes and beaks, and administer medicines to reduce the toxicity of ingested oil in the digestive tract.

Recuperation Before the Cleanup This important step is one rescuers didn’t always know was critical to success. The animals are allowed to recuperate for several days, gaining strength and rehydrating, before they are thoroughly cleaned.

Washing Dawn dishwashing soap is the product of choice because it effectively removes oil even at low concentrations, doesn’t irritate skin, and rinses away easily. That last part is crucial, since animals are only washed once to limit the stress of being handled, and any traces of soap left behind can be just as damaging to feathers and fur as the oil. A bath typically lasts about 45 minutes, and for a large bird like a brown pelican, can use as much as 300 gallons of water.

Recovery Once clean, the birds are allowed to recover for five to seven days, regaining buoyancy and water resistance by preening, putting on weight, and readjusting to outdoor temperatures.


Opposite Page: Bird Rehabilitation

Once returned to good health, they are ready to be released to the wild. However, the wild may not be ready for them. In an environmental disaster like the Deepwater Horizon spill, wildlife cannot return to their contaminated homes.


Coastal Ecosystems

Tricoloured Heron

Wilson’s Storm Petrels

Bottle Nose Dolphins

Frigate Bird

Clapper Rail


Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

Leather Back Turtles


Elbowed Squid

Deep Sea Jellyfish

Tube Worms


Crevalle Jacks

Giant Isopod

Black Coral

Sea Fan

Bright Surface

French Angelfish

Twilight Zone


Dark and Teeming

Sperm Whales

Layers of Life

LAYERS OF LIFE The rich habitats of the Gulf of Mexico help make it one of the most ecologically and economically productive bodies of water in the world. Even before the oil spill, the Gulf was battling serious problems, including overfishing, extensive wetlands loss, and a huge oxygen-starved “dead zone” at the mouth of the Mississippi River. The oil spill is affecting every habitat.

Twilight Zone

Coastal Ecosystems

In the bathypelagic zone, more than two miles deep at its outer limit, live animals that have adapted to extreme cold and pressure, including elbowed squid, bioluminescent fish, and deep-sea jellyfish.

The meeting of land and sea along more than 16,000 miles of coastline from Texas to Florida creates a wealth of ecosystems, from mangrove forests to coral reefs. The dynamic mixing of salt water and fresh water and the daily infusions of sediments from rivers nourish areas that provide habitats for wildlife and protection from pollution and storms.

Marine Ecosystems Between its light flooded surface and dark, barely explored depths, the Gulf’s water world hosts an intricate web of life, from plankton to whales. Many inhabitants move between levels to feed. Others live on organic debris falling from above. Creatures composed mostly of water haunt the deep under crushing pressure, the darkness lit by bioluminescent hunters.

Bright Surface Plankton drifting in the sunlight epipelagic zone create a rich soup to start the marine food chain. Plant plankton account for roughly half of Earth’s photosynthesis, generating much of the atmosphere’s oxygen. Many fish, crustaceans,and mammals, hiding in deep water by day, rise at night to feed.

As sunlight fades, plants can’t survive, giving way in the mesopelagic zone to an animal realm of predators, scavengers, and filter feeders. Many of its inhabitants feed on organic matter falling from above.

Dark and Teeming

Salp Chains asexual production


1) Linear Salp Chain

Salps are semi-transparent,barrel shaped marine animals which can live for weeks or months as single globs or chains of 100 or more individuals. These organisms, found in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, are the fastest reproducing organisms on the planet. They do so by asexual production and get everything they need from the ocean waters to feed and propel themselves.

2) Linear Salp Chain (overlapping)

3) Spiral Salp Chain

Salps swim and eat in rhythmic pulses, each of which draws seawater in through an opening at the front end of the animal. Salps also play a role in carbon cycling by the process of ‘particle aggregation’.

Particle Aggregation Diagram

PARTICLE AGGREGATION The particle aggregation process starts with the mesh made of fine mucus fibers inside the salp’s hollow body. Salps eat small, as well as large, particles, consuming the entire ‘microbial loop’ and pack it into large, dense fecal pellets. The larger and denser carbon-containing pellets sink to the ocean bottom quickly. This removes carbon from the surface waters and brings it to a depth where it isn’t seen again for years to centuries. The more carbon that sinks to the bottom, the more space there is for the upper ocean to accommodate carbon, hence limiting the amount that rises into the atmosphere as CO2.

Salp Role in Carbon Cycling

Salp Internal Structure

THE SOLUTION Salp Pavilion

Exterior visual of SALP Pavilion

SALP PAVILION The Pavilion is a Wildlife and Bird Rehabilitation Centre that will be temporary and, therefore, able to move to different locations around the Gulf of Mexico. This will allow the Pavilion to locate to where it is most needed in terms of wildlife protection and clean-up operations. The sea salp, found in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, was used for inspiration for the design of the building and it’s biomimetic principles are translated into the sustainable operation of it. The form of the sea salp is evident in the shape of the building. This allowed us to create a lightweight structure which would be important for the temporary nature of the Pavilion. Large ETFE windows reflect the transparent nature of the salp and allow light to flood the interior spaces, as well as providing views out to the oily waters surrounding the building. The 3D section (opposite) illustrates the building programme. The stages of examination, washing and recovery are represented within the structure. A floating platform sits within the exterior structure, allowing for the creation of pools, vital in the recuperation of the wildlife. The upper level is where work will be carried out and the lower level houses the centrifuge facilities and also interactive zones for visitors which look into the recovery pools.

3D Section Illustrating Building Program

Tourism in the Gulf of Mexico has come under threat due to the oil slick reaching many of the beaches in the region. The Pavilion will welcome visitors by boat and provide ecotourism in terms of learning about environmental responsibility and the impact of human activities on the planet. These facilities are housed within the Pavilion on each level.

Stage 1

Stage 3

TIMELINE Stage 1 – Short Term Disaster Relief Initially the facility will be inundated with wildlife, it would concentrate on being able to help as many animals as possible. Animals would be given the minimum amount of recuperation time before and after cleaning in order to facilitate the maximum number of animals. Animals would be transported for release as soon as possible. The centre would constantly cycle its water, cleaning up the oil spill in the surrounding area.

Stage 2 – Mid Term Rehabilitation The facility would continue to clean sea water throughout its life time, in an attempt to re-instate a diverse marine environment.

Stage 3 – Long Term Sanctuary In the longer term, the facility would continue to operate at other locations and serve as a sanctuary offering shelter and provision for endangered species.

Pavilion Section D-D

Pavilion Section A-A

Pavilion Plan - Level 1

Pavilion Plan - Level 0

Internal View - Wildlife Rehabilitation

Internal View - Wildlife Rehabilitation

Interactive Zone - Oily Water

Interactive Zone - Clean Water


STRUCTURE The structure of the Pavilion is based on that of the sea salp. This cylindrical-shaped organism has a series of circular muscles going around the body, which provide a housing for the internal functioning organs. We used this concept to develop a lightweight structural frame composed of a series of circular steel spaceframes. A primary structure forms the shape of the building and a secondary structure will sit within the primary frames to provide extra support to the external skin. The internal functioning ‘organs’ will then sit within this stucture on the floating platform.

Salp Structure Concept

Pavilion Structure

Primary Structure

Secondary Structure and Hydraulic Rams

External Skin

Piezo Tube Network

Floor Plates

STRUCTURE The Primary and secondary structure is held in place by a series of hydraulic rams. As well as providing structural support, the rams also produce electricity which is utilised for the machinery and facilities within the building. The hydraulic rams rams move indepentdantly of one another, allowing the exterior shell of the building to move around the fixed internal floor plate. As the shell moves on the current of the waves the rams are pushed and pulled together, producing electricity and moving the primary and secondary steel structure. This process reflects the rhythmic pulses and movement of the sea salps as they move through the water. The external skin is a lightweight ETFE fabric, capable of streching to 3 times its length without loss of elasticity. The material also has recyclable properties and is self-cleaning, due to its non-stick surface. The walls of the internal structure of floor plates have windows made of toughened glass which look out onto the oily water coming in and the clean water in the recovery pools. This allows visitors to look out and view the wildlife in the recovery process. Other energies include a network of Piezo Tubes which sit within the structure. These utilise piezo-electricity in order to heat water which is used to wash the birds and wildlife in baths.

MODELLING THE STRUCTURE In order to test and develop the structure of the pavilion, a physical model was built. The structural frame was drawn using CAD software and transferred into software which allowed the frame to be laser cut from wood. The model is at 1:100 scale which allowed us to test the aesthetics of the structure as well as the practicalities. Our concepts for energies were also added to the model allowing us to test how they could be used and how they would fit within the structure. This was important in making sure that our energy systems fitted within the aesthetuc look for the building.


PRECEDENT Zaha Hadid’s Burnham Pavilion in Chicago, which can be dismantled and reinstalled elsewhere, is a tent-like structure made of light weight aluminum and dressed in a tensile fabric. The pavilion comprises of a skeletal aluminium frame of 24 ribs each consisting of 3 tubes. These tubes are cross braced and the ribs then tie in to an elevated perimter ring beam. The structure also includes an eliptical primary structure to facilitate the diaganol openings within the skin.

STRUCTURE The structure for the pavilion must have the ability to be pre fabricated off site. The structure should be able to be built from a kit of parts. Weight of the structure must be minimal to allow the flexible structure to gain maximum wave energy. The structure will be made from a minimum number of different sections, allowing the building to be repaired and replaced if necessary - possibly due to adverse weather and the associated rough seas.

Structural Concept

nb. during all movement the primary structure remains stationary - allowing the rams to oppose it

Structure Resolved

Structural Ribs and skin - entire Pavilion

SKIN Self-cleaning (due to its nonstick surface) and recyclable. Self cleaning is vital in such an environment to stop the pavilion becoming stained from the oil filled water which it inhabits. ETFE has the ability to stretch to three times its length without loss of elasticity. This ability to stretch is a necessity for the way the pavilion generates its power. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ETFE membrane Secondary structure Primary structure Hydraulic ram Hydraulic hose Piezo hot water tubes

Exploded 3D of Skin and Structure

Skin covering entire Pavilion

DETAIL KEY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Primary steel spaceframe Secondary steel spaceframe Steel connection pin Hydraulic ram Hydraulic hose from ram Perimeter hydraulics Stretchable ETFE skin Piezo lattice work Toughened glazing Connection to floorplate 50mm dia. stainless handrail Location of motors Location of hydr. reservoir Cut out for umbilical conns

Detail 1 Structure to Hydraulics

Detail 2 Structure to Floorplate

Section Structure

Stage 1 Stationary Rib

Stage 2 Expanding Rib

Stage 3 Fully Expanding Rib

Stage 4 Compressing Rib

Movement Energy Creation


ENERGIES The biomimetic operation of the Rehabilitation Centre relates to the sea salp’s ability to use the ocean waters for everything they need to feed and propel themselves. Energies utilised within the Pavilion are hydraulic rams (Pelamis) for electricity and Piezo Tubes which provide electricity and hot water for cleaning wildlife. All of the energies used within the building use the ocean water, providing a sustainable solution, much like the sea salp. Electricity is used within the building for the centrifuges which separate oil and water, for the cleaning facilities for the wildlife including information screens and lighting. The 3D section (opposite) represents a section of the building. The structure is illustrated with the Pelamis (hydraulic rams) and the Piezo Tube network winding through it. These tubes then hang down to feed the baths in which the birds and wildlife are washed in. The waterproof touchscreens can be seen at the side of the baths which provide information. The oily water from the baths is then fed into the centrifuges which separate the oil and water. The clean water is then fed into the recovery pools for the wildlife in a continuous cycle.

3D Section Illustrating Energies

PELAMIS WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER The structure encourages technology incorporated in the ‘Pelamis’ wave energy converter. Similarly to the ‘Pelamis’ the structure is a semi-submerged, articulated structure composed of cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints. The wave-induced motion of these joints is resisted by hydraulic rams, which pump high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors via smoothing accumulators. The hydraulic motors drive electrical generators to produce electricity.

Wave Direction

Side View

Wave Direction

The diagrams illustrate the structures ability to generate electricity from wave motion laterally and vertically. Top View

Diagram of Wave Enery Conversion

PRECEDENT The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is a semisubmerged, articulated structure composed of cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints. The wave-induced motion of these joints is resisted by hydraulic rams, which pump high-pressure fluid through hydraulic motors via smoothing accumulators. The hydraulic motors drive electrical generators to produce electricity. Power from all the joints is fed down a single umbilical cable to a junction on the sea bed. Several devices can be connected together and linked to shore through a single seabed cable.

Sway (vertical axis) hinged joint

Hydraulic Ram High Pressure Accumulators Motor/Generator Reservoir

Internal view of a Pelamis Power Conversion Module

Pelamis P-750 Wave Enery Converter



The floorplate of the building is anchored to the sea floor, this will maintain a relatively fixed position. The Primary structure and skin however is free to move around this with the motion of the waves to create energy for the building. 2. Vertical Movement The Primary frame and skin of the building is moved by the force of the waves this movement allows pressure to build up in the structures many hydraulic rams. 3.

Lateral movement

Due to the positioning of the rams, radiating around the structure, the building can take advantage of both lateral and vertical wave movement. nb. during all movement the primary structure remains stationary - allowing the rams to oppose it

Wave Direction


Wave Direction

Vertical Movement

Wave Direction

Lateral Movement

Plan - Energy Production Process

Environmental Requirements

CENTRIFUGES The first centrifuge dates back to the 1800s and was used to separate liquids from solids. Ocean Therapy Solutions’ Liquid-Liquid Centrifugal Separators utilize patented technology to refine and expand a proven formula for widespread use: by spinning two fluids of different densities within a rotating container, the lighter fluid is forced toward the center of the rotor.

Diagram of Centrifuge Oil/Water Separation

The centrifuge design included in the scheme is based upon the V20 CIP centrifuge designed by ‘Ocean Therapy Solutions’ which with a 500mm diameter rotor has a throughput of up to 200 GPM (Gallons per minute) and has bearings on both the top and bottom of the rotor. The incorporation of four of these centrifuges within the structure would enable the pavilion to clean up to 800 GPM of contaminated water.

3D section of Centrifuges and wash area

Plan of Centrifuges and wash area

CENTRIFUGES The centrifuge design included in the scheme is based upon the V20 CIP centrifuge designed by ‘Ocean Therapy Solutions’ which with a 500mm diameter rotor has a throughput of up to 200 GPM (Gallons per minute) and has bearings on both the top and bottom of the rotor. The incorporation of four of these centrifuges within the structure would enable the pavilion to clean up to 800 GPM of contaminated water.

Centrifuge Plan Key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Washing station Gaurd rail Motor Inner cylinder Outer casing Driveshaft Clean water output Rotor Rotor vanes Oil output Contaminated water mixture

Exploded diagram of Centrifuge


3. Centrifuge

5. Oil to tanker

Hot clean water enters the cleaning baths from the piezo tubes directly above.

The centrifuge separates the contaminated water in to clean water and crude oil. The oil is pumped to onboard tanks. Cleaned water is pumped to the rehabilitation pools.

In its crude state oil cannot be put to good use, as the oil has already been extracted it should be retained. Separated oil is pumped from the onboard tanks to a waiting oil tanker.

2. Cleaning water

4. Clean pool

6. Piezo tubes

Hot clean water is used to wash the wildlife then returned to the centrifuge to be de-contaminated. This process allows soap and oil to be removed from the water.

The rehabilitation pools are fed by clean water from the centrifuges. This water is constantly refreshed as further water is decontaminated. Water from the pools is then released in to the water surrounding the pavillion.

Cleaned water from the centrifuges can be used within the piezo tubes which will then heat the water and feeed it back into the baths for effective cleaning of the wildlife. This entire cycle is then repeated.

1. Cleaned water

Section through Centrifuges and wash area

PIEZO TUBES - PRECEDENT Piezo Tubes using nanotechnology heat water which is pushed through them. The hot water is then used to clean the wildlife. Electricity produced is used to power the information screens on the sides of the baths. The nanowires are being developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology and other scientists are developing the technology for use on clothing. A ‘Piezo Shower’ was designed at the Institute of Technology with piezoelectric nanowires installed in the shower’s tubing, generating electricity and heat from the friction occurring as the water circulates.

NANOTECHNOLOGY A series of pipes forms a “vein-like” network that mimics the human body’s blood circulation system. The pipes have fibers enclosed within them covered in piezoelectric nanowires and when water is pushed through the pipes friction on the fibers creates electricity and heat. The large number of pipes maximises the surface area for the fibres. Nanowires covering the fibres are made of zinc-oxide and alternating fibres are coated with gold. The piezoelectric charge is captured by the gold and can be fed into a circuit. The power derived from the tubes heats the water and powers the touchscreen display.

Wire diameter 50 nanometers 1,800 times thinner than a human hair


tube heating system

metal pipe

3D section through single Piezo Tube

water flow

gold nanowires

zinc-oxide nanowires

WATERPROOF TOUCHSCREEN Regulates the temperature and pressure and can monitor the water consumption and time spent using it. 1 m2 of nanowire infused fabric 80 milliwatts of electricity 50 milliwatts - charges a smartphone Pavilion - 81 m2 of piezo tubing 6480 milliwatts




Washing Temperature

Concept diagram of Piezo Tube function

COMPLETE OPERATION In operation the Rehabilitation Centre will provide washing and recovery facilities to many birds and wildlife in affected areas of the oil spill. The temporary pavilion will be pre-fabricated off site, allowing for easy construction and set up on a specified location. The diagram opposite illustrates how oily water flows along one side of the Pavilion before being fed into the Centrifuges, where it is mixed with the oily water washed from the birds and wildlife. As the centrifuges separate the oil from the water, the clean water is fed into the recovery pools where the animals can be monitored until they are ready to be released to the wild. Visitors to the Centre can view the oily water at one side and at the other, view the clean water recovery pools and the animals within them. The energies and processes utilised within the Centre spawn from biomimetic and sustainable principles. The Centre is a showcase for sustainability and also for the effect that human activity can have on the planet.

3D Section - Complete Operation


RELEASE BACK INTO WILD Eventually, after the birds and wildlife are examined, cleaned and recovered they can be released back into the wild in secure clean areas free of oil contamination. When the Rehabilitation Centre has done all that it can in a location it can be moved on the ocean water to a new location in need of its functions.

ECOTOURISM The Rehabilitation Centre can provide ecotourism in the Gulf of Mexico region where tourism has been affected by oiled beaches and contaminated air and land. Visitors who come to the Rehabilitation Centre will learn about the effects that human activity can have on the planet, especially important ecosystems. Learning about the effects of the Oil Spill and other global issues such as climate change and human interference in natural ecosystems will provide information and knowledge for people in sustainable practices. This will hopefully help to change the mindset of the population. Visitors will be given first hand experience through watching the oiled wildlife come into the centre by boat and go through the examination, cleaning and recovery processes. There will also be information about the effects of the Gulf Oil Spill.

Rehabilitated Pelicans released back into the wild


A biomimicry sea salp pavilion in response to the deepwater horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico 2010. A duplicable water pavilion for se...