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Test Bank for Personality 9th Edition by Burger Chapter 4: The Freudian Approach: Relevant Research


According to Freud, the content of our dreams reveals A. B. C. D.



unacceptable ideas that are actually acceptable. unconscious conflicts and desires. anxieties with which we were born. much useless information. ANS: B

REF: 70

In dream research, sleepers are sometimes awakened when __________ indicates they are probably dreaming. A. B. C. D.

a physiological measure respiration rate the time of night none of the above

ANS: A 4.


If your friend the therapist agrees with Freud, she would say that the content of our dreams reveals A. B. C. D.


what has been on our mind when we are awake. implicit punishments and rewards. unconscious conflicts and desires. what we value the most about ourselves.

REF: 70

Which of the following best summarizes research on the frequency of male and female characters in dreams? A. Both men and women have more male than female characters in their dreams. B. Men have more male than female characters in their dreams, whereas women have more female than male characters in their dreams. C. Men have more female than male characters in their dreams, whereas women have more male than female characters in their dreams. D. Men have more male than female characters in their dreams, but women have approximately equal numbers of male and female characters in their dreams. ANS: D

REF: 71


When people have dreams about falling or being chased that they have dreamed before, we call these dreams A. B. C. D.

conscious. paradoxical. surreal. recurrent.

ANS: D 6.

Some psychoanalytic researchers have argued that dreams represent unresolved conflicts. As evidence for this interpretation, they point to A. B. C. D.


REF: 71

how much more men sleep than women. the results of sleep-deprivation studies. recurrent dreams. how much babies dream compared to adults.


REF: 72

Which of the following best describes the cross-cultural findings when comparing the frequencies of male and female characters in dreams? A. Although there are a few exceptions, the frequencies found in American samples tend to be found in other cultures as well. B. American and European samples show different frequencies than non-Western samples. C. Male characters tend to show up in dreams more frequently in male-dominated societies. D. Although a consistent pattern is found in the results from different American samples, no clear pattern emerges when looking at studies using participants from other cultures. ANS: A


REF: 71

Which statement best summarizes what researchers have found about the changes in frequencies of male and female dream characters at different age levels? A. The adult pattern of frequencies of dream characters does not emerge until the teenage years. B. The pattern changes for males as they pass through the Oedipus complex. C. The frequencies of male and female characters completely reverse for both males and females as they age from childhood to adulthood. D. The pattern found in adult males and females is also found in samples of children of various ages. ANS: D

REF: 71


Psychoanalytic researchers have used the results of studies on the frequencies of male and female dream characters to support which aspect of Freud's theory? A. B. C. D.


Repression The Oedipus complex Projection The pleasure principle


REF: 71

In one dream study, researchers compared the dreams of Palestinian children who lived in the Gaza Strip where they had experienced years of violence with children living in the more peaceful Galilee area. The findings from dream reports revealed that A. children living under constant stress had fewer dreams. B. the dreams of children living under constant stress included more threatening events. C. those who received suggestions prior to sleep had more threatening events in their dreams regardless of living circumstances. D. both a and b ANS: B


Suppose you had to go all night without sleep in order to study for a final exam. If you suffer from _________, you will receive more REM sleep the next night. A. B. C. D.


recurrent dream phenomenon the rebound effect extreme relaxation associated with having the final exam finished the paradox of sleep ANS: B REF: 74

Which of the following findings challenges the Freudian interpretation of dreams? A. B. C. D.

People often dream during REM sleep. Newborn babies experience large amounts of REM sleep. People deprived of REM sleep have difficulty with anxiety-provoking material. People have longer periods of REM sleep as the night progresses.

ANS: B 13.

REF: 74

According to recent research findings, REM sleep appears to be necessary to A. B. C. D.

maintain one’s mental health. guard against serious psychological disturbances. prepare us for dealing with anxiety-arousing events. all of the above

ANS: C 14.

REF: 71

REF: 74

Which of the following is true about REM sleep?

A. We are more likely to dream during REM sleep than at any other time during the night. B. Adults spend most of their sleeping hours in REM sleep. C. Muscles are more tense and active during REM sleep than non-REM sleep. D. Only about half of all adults experience REM sleep. ANS: A REF: 73 15.

Which of the following conclusions has been supported by the results of REM sleep research? A. B. C. D.

Depriving someone of REM sleep leads to severe psychological disturbances. Reduced REM sleep is associated with emotional disorders. Greater than average amounts of REM sleep indicate psychological problems. Without REM sleep it is impossible to perform stressful tasks.

ANS: B 16.

Freud identified which defense mechanism as the cornerstone of psychoanalysis? A. B. C. D.

Sublimation Dreaming Repression Denial

ANS: C 17.


Researchers draw a distinction between defense mechanisms and coping strategies, in that defense mechanisms are ________ whereas coping strategies are _________. A. B. C. D.


REF: 74

negative; positive ineffective; effective innate; learned unconscious; conscious ANS: D

REF: 75

Some male participants in one study were told that they scored high in femininity on a personality test. The investigator then asked the participants to tell stories about pictures in TAT cards. The investigator was studying A. masculinity and femininity. B. coping strategies. C. aggression. D. defense mechanisms. ANS: D REF: 77


Which of the following do researchers commonly use to measure defense mechanisms? A. Self-report inventories

B. Projective tests C. Behavioral interviews D. Hypnosis ANS: B 20.

Based on research findings, which of the following defense mechanisms would we expect to find children use most frequently? A. B. C. D.

Denial Identification Reaction formation Sublimation

ANS: A 21.

Denial Projection Identification Sublimation


Sublimation Reaction formation Denial Projection


REF: 78

Researchers find that each of us tends to rely on some defense mechanisms more than others. They refer to these individual patterns as the person’s A. B. C. D.


REF: 78

Which of the following defense mechanisms is said to protect the individual by attributing unacceptable thoughts to someone else? A. B. C. D.


REF: 78

Sammy is twelve years old. Which of the following defense mechanisms is he likely to resort to when dealing with anxiety-provoking situations? A. B. C. D.


REF: 76

coping style. developmental level. emotional maturity level. defensive style.

ANS: D REF: 79 Whether use of a defense mechanism is adaptive or maladaptive often depends on A. the user’s age. B. whether the user distorts reality.

C. whether the user is aware of the defense mechanism. D. the user’s gender. ANS: A 25.

Each person relies more on some defense mechanisms and less on others when the ego is threatened. Psychologists refer to this contrast as differences in A. B. C. D.

defensive style. ego strength. preferred id impulses. mental health.

ANS: A 26.

sublimation immature defense mechanisms coping strategies hostile humor


mature defense mechanisms. strong defense mechanisms. denial. conscious rather than unconscious strategies.


REF: 80

According to Freud, which of the following functions is served by telling or listening to jokes? A. B. C. D.

One’s enemy can be attacked through humor. The punch line of a joke provides the satisfaction that comes with tension release. Sexual thoughts can be expressed in socially acceptable outlets. All of the above

ANS: D 29.

REF: 79

When Tony was three years old, he experienced a great deal of stress at home. As an adult, his defensive style is likely to rely on A. B. C. D.


REF: 79

Researchers find frequent use of ___________ is associated with problems in psychological functioning. A. B. C. D.


REF: 79

REF: 81


Which of the following is false about sexual jokes? A. Freud suggested we laugh at sexual jokes to reduce tension. B. Jokes are often tolerated when open discussions of sex are inappropriate. C. Most sexually oriented jokes contain a great deal of humor. D. Freud argued that the humor content of a sexual joke rarely justifies the laughter.

ANS: C 30.

After a tragic event, like Hurricane Katrina, people often make jokes about the tragedy. Freud might explain this behavior in terms of A. B. C. D.

denial. symbolic expression of hostility. reaction formation. tension reduction.

ANS: D 31.

REF: 81

REF: 81

When researchers asked people to rate cartoons for funniness, they found that A. each participant experienced a cathartic release of tension. B. cartoons with sexual and aggressive themes were rated as funnier than cartoons with other themes. C. the likelihood of participants acting aggressively significantly increased. D. funniness ratings were inconsistent with predictions from Freudian theory. ANS: B


According to Freud, presenting angry people with hostile humor should A. B. C. D.


REF: 82

lead to an increase in aggression. lead to a cathartic release of tension and an increase in aggression. lead to a cathartic release of tension and a decrease in aggression. increase anger, but not aggression. ANS: C REF: 83

Research on Freud's theory of humor has found all of the following results except one. Which one? A. People find mildly hostile humor funnier when it is aimed at a person or group they do not like. B. Angry people find hostile humor funnier than nonangry people. C. The greater the tension build-up to a joke, the funnier people find the punch line. D. Anxious people are not able to enjoy a joke. ANS: D


REF: 83

According to Freud, a good joke teller should A. get to the punch line quickly. B. get people to relax as the punch line approaches.

C. build tension in the audience as the joke is told. D. avoid jokes with hostile or aggressive content. ANS: C 35.

According to Freud, which type of joke should you tell an angry person to reduce that person’s likelihood of acting aggressive? A. B. C. D.


REF: 83

A hostile joke A sexual joke An insulting joke A really funny joke


REF: 83

Which statement best summarizes the results of research that presents hostile humor to angry participants? A. The findings are almost completely consistent with Freud’s theory. B. The findings support the Freudian prediction about catharsis, but not the prediction about reducing aggression. C. The findings are mixed, sometimes supporting Freud’s predictions, sometimes not. D. The findings are almost completely at odds with Freud’s theory. ANS: C


Many of the research findings in support of Freud's theory of humor can also be explained by the fact that people find ________ funny. A. B. C. D.

incongruity all forms of humor what others laugh at to be what society tells them to laugh at to be

ANS: A 38.

REF: 83

REF: 85

Based on the results of research on humor, under which condition would you expect people to laugh the loudest at a joke? A. B. C. D.

When at an otherwise boring party After finishing a five-mile race After watching an anxiety-provoking film When relaxing


A. B. C.

REF: 84 39.

Which statement best summarizes the results of research on Freud’s theory of humor? Very few of the research findings are consistent with Freud’s predictions. Almost all of this research supports Freud’s theory of humor. Although a few of the minor predictions from Freud’s theory are supported, most of the major predictions have not been supported. D. Although many of the research findings are consistent with Freud’s predictions, they are subject to alternative interpretations. ANS: D


From Freud’s view of tension reduction, one can conclude that a joke will be funnier when A. B. C. D.

it is sexual than when it is hostile. more tension is experienced before the punch line. tension increases rapidly. less tension is experienced before the punch line.

ANS: B 41.

many of the findings are subject to alternative explanations. predictions can’t be derived from Freud’s theory. very few, if any, of the findings have been replicated. researchers are unable to manipulate the participant’s unconscious thoughts.


REF: 85

The influence of psychoanalytic theory can be seen most clearly in which explanation of hypnosis? A. B. C. D.

Absorption theory Neodissociation theory Nontrance theory Role theory

ANS: B 43.

REF: 84

One problem researchers have had in finding experimental evidence in support of Freud’s theory of humor is that A. B. C. D.


REF: 84

REF: 87

According to the textbook, the many theories of hypnosis can be roughly placed along a continuum depending on how they deal with the question of what is

A. B. C.

A. B. C. D. 44.

posthypnotic amnesia. the hypnotic trance. the motivation behind hypnosis. modifiability of susceptibility.

REF: 87

The “hidden observer” demonstrations are used to support which theory of hypnosis? A. B. C. D.

Absorption theory Neodissociation theory Nontrance theory Role theory

ANS: B 46.

REF: 86

The view that deeply hypnotized people experience a division of their consciousness is known as neodissociation theory. sociocognitive theory. trance theory. D. neonatal theory. ANS: A




Participants in the “hidden observer” demonstrations placed their arms in painfully cold water. Researchers found that highly hypnotized participants A. reported experiencing no pain. B. could only experience pain after the experimenter told them they could. C. left their arm in the water, but reported through their “hidden observer” that the experience was painful. D. experienced no pain while hypnotized, but recalled the pain after the hypnosis was over. ANS: C


REF: 87

Which of the following concepts do sociocognitive theorists often use to explain the behavior of hypnotic subjects? A. B. C. D.

Expectancy Motivation Concentration all of the above


A. B. C.

REF: 88 48.

According to sociocognitive theorists, participants in hypnosis demonstrations act the way they do because A. B. C. D.

the controlling influence of the ego is temporarily removed under hypnosis. consciousness has been divided into accessible and nonaccessible pockets. participants act the way they think they are supposed to act. participants act on the pleasure principle.

ANS: C 49.

REF: 88

Critics of the neodissociation theory of hypnosis challenge the interpretation of the “hidden observer” demonstrations by conducting experiments in which they tell the “hidden observer” he or she will experience less pain when hypnotized. ask the “hidden observer” to report experiences through “automatic writing.” tell the participant that the experimenter’s machine can determine if he or she is lying.

A. B. C.

D. give the same instructions to people who are not hypnotized. ANS: A 50.

Hypnotic subjects told that the experimenter’s machinery can determine if they are lying or not often fail to show posthypnotic amnesia. This finding is seen as evidence for A. B. C. D.


REF: 88

neodissociation theory. psychoanalytic theories of hypnosis. sociocognitive theories of hypnosis. the “hidden observer” phenomenon.


REF: 89

Psychoanalytically oriented theorists explain posthypnotic amnesia by arguing that A. the experience has been recorded in a part of the mind not accessible to consciousness. B. participants do what they think they are supposed to do. C. participants have not been given an adequate incentive to report the experience. D. participants do not record the experience anywhere in memory. ANS: A


“Posthypnotic amnesia” refers to the hypnotic subjects’ inability to recall A. B. C. D.


REF: 89

whether or not they have been hypnotized. what happened under hypnosis. what happened under hypnosis when the hypnotist tells them they cannot remember. events that happen after hypnosis. ANS: C REF: 89

Research on the relationship between personality trait measures and hypnotic responsiveness generally has found A. personality traits such as sensation-seeking and extraversion are moderately correlated with hypnotic responsiveness. B. hypnotic responsiveness is related to a person’s ability to become highly involved in sensory or imaginative experiences. C. no consistent evidence relating personality trait measures to hypnotic responsiveness. D. hypnotic responsiveness has more to do with the hypnotist’s talent than the subject’s ability to become hypnotized. ANS: B



How responsive you are to hypnotic suggestions A. depends largely on how good the hypnotist is. B. is fairly stable over time, like a personality trait. C. changes with your amount of experience with hypnosis. D. can be predicted from personality trait measures like intelligence and extraversion. ANS: B REF: 90 55.

In which of the following circumstances are people more responsive to hypnosis? A. B. C. D.

When the situation is not defined as hypnosis When the participant has not been responsive to hypnosis in the past When the cooperation and trust of the participant is established Both a and b

ANS: C 56.

REF: 90

Based on past research, who do you suppose would respond best to hypnotic suggestions? A. B. C. D.

A highly extraverted person An intelligent person A person who gets highly involved in a book or movie A person who has gone through a hypnotic induction before


REF: 91 57.

A stage hypnotist arranges chairs so that only a few of the many volunteers who rush to the stage are able to participate in the show. She does this to capitalize on which responsiveness-enhancing variable? A. B. C. D.

Expectancy Attitude Motivation Absorption

ANS: C 58.

Which of the following has been found effective for improving a person's hypnotic responsiveness? A. B. C. D.


Finding a compatible hypnotist Giving the subject more experience with hypnosis Changing the subject’s expectancy to one of active involvement and response Changing the subject’s personality ANS: C REF: 91

All but which of the following has been found to enhance hypnotic responsiveness? A. B. C. D.


REF: 92

Positive attitudes toward hypnosis An expectation that one will become highly hypnotized A high level of motivation to become hypnotized A high extraversion score ANS: D REF: 91

Numerous studies find that people who score high on measures of ________ are more responsive to hypnotic suggestion than those who score low.

A. B. C. D.

Psychosis Expectancy Extraversion Absorption

ANS: D 61.

REF: 91

Write about a dream you have had and give an example of a psychoanalytic interpretation of it. Why do people dream, according to Freud? Summarize the research findings on dreams that challenge Freud’s theory of dreaming. REF: 70-75


Give a description of your own of the defense mechanisms used by children and contrast them with those used by adults. Give examples of different individual differences in defense mechanisms. REF: 75-79


State three specific predictions of Freud’s theory about hostile humor. Summarize the evidence for a preference for hostile humor, the reduction of aggression with hostile humor, and the relationship between tension reduction and funniness. REF: 80-85


List and describe the techniques used to increase hypnotic responsiveness. Explain why it can be said that hypnosis is largely a participant variable. REF: 90-92


In dream research, sleepers are sometimes awakened when physiological measures indicate they are probably dreaming. ANS: TRUE


One function of dreams that Freud maintained was they provide a safe and healthy outlet for expressing aggressive desires. ANS: FALSE


REF: 74

Before the use of more sophisticated defense mechanisms, children most often use projection as a defense mechanism. ANS: FALSE


REF: 71

REF: 78

According to one explanation of hypnosis, the superego forms a new subsystem when a person is under hypnosis. ANS: FALSE

REF: 87


Sociocognitive theories of hypnosis point out that a person cannot do under hypnosis what they would not do without it. ANS: TRUE

REF: 88

Test Bank for Personality 9th Edition by Burger  

Download full: Test Bank for Personality 9th Edition by Burger

Test Bank for Personality 9th Edition by Burger  

Download full: Test Bank for Personality 9th Edition by Burger