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‫‪١٨١‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨِﻪ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭ‪‬ﺍﺣِﻠﺘﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻠِﻢ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﺑﺎﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻃﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﻏﺸ‪ ‬ﻮﻩ‪.(١)(‬‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟِﻴﺴﺄﻟﹸﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻃﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ٍﻦ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘِﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﲑ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺪﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑِﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ ﹸﻞ ﰲ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﻂﱡ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣﹶﻠﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ‪.(٣)‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻗﺪﻣﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﻳﺪ‪) :‬ﺃﻓﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺗﻰ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺖ ﻗﺪﻣﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺮﻛﻌﱵ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺿﺔ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﺃﺗﻰ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺿﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺘ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﱰﻭﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺖ ﻗﺪﻣﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺸﻌﺐ ﺣﲔ ﺑﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﰒ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﱰﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻣﺴﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﺭِﺿﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻒ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ(‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑِﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﺃﻓﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ‪-‬ج‪ -‬ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﱡﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﲟﻜﱠﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٢٧٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٨٨٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٢٤١/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٤١/٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢٧٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ )‪ ،(٣٦٤/١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢٦٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٨٩/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٠٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٩٩٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٤/٢‬‬


‫‪١٨٢‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﺃﺣ ِﺪ ﻫﺬﻳ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻭ‪‬ﺗِﺒﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟ‪‬ﺤﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻐﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻆ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﰎﱡ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹶﺔ ﻭﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﱠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﺰﻭ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﹶﻘﻀ‪‬ﻰ ﺣﺎﺟ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻮﺿﺄ ﻭﺿﻮﺀﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﻜﺎ ِﻥ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﺃﻭﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺁﺫﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﻴ ِﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺇﱃ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻄﺐ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﺮ ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪‬ﻧﹰﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﹶﺴﻤ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻃﹸِﺒ ‪‬ﺦ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳊﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻣﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺭﺃﺳ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﻴ‪‬ﺐ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻄﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺯﻣﺰﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣِﻦ ﻧﺒﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻘﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﺴﻘﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺚ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻣِﲎ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴ ُﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻇﻬﺮ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻘﻀﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﺍ ٍﺭ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ ِﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺪ ِﺭﻙ‪ ‬ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺁﺫﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔِ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺎ ِﻥ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗِﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺩﺗ‪‬ﻪ ‪-‬‬ ‫ج ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹶﺓ ﰲ ﻣﱰﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﺯِﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺒﻂ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺟ‪‬ﺤﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼﻞﱢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺑِﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﻧﹰﺎ ﻭ ‪‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﺍﻓﺎﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﱡﻬﺮ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﱂ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﳍﻢ ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺧﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺋﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﻂﱞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮﻻ ﻋﻠﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴ‪‬ﺼ ﱢﻞ ﺑﻜﻢ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻭﻟﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﻧﹰﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﻋﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱡﻮﺍ ِﻋﺰِﻳﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺻﻠﱡﻮﺍ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﻴﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻔﻪ‪ ‬ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬


‫‪١٨٣‬‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳِﺘﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﻞ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﻓﺄﲤﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺼ ﱢﻞ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﹸﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣﻜﱠﺔ ﹶﺃِﺗﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺻ‪‬ﻼ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻢ ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ ﻃﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﻊ ﺭﻛﻌﱵ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ ﻳﻘﺘﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺳﻜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻌﻠﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺭﻛﻊ ﺭﻛﻌﱵ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ ﻳﻘﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻇﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻥﱡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﻼ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺭﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ﺑِﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﲢﺘﻤِﻞ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻔﻆ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﲜﻮﻑ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﲟﱰﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪‬ﻣﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻮﺍ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺢ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﺗﻪ ﺃﺣﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺗﻘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻣِﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ؟‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﺿﻄﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻃﻮﺍﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻃﺎﻑ ‪‬ﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﻮﺍﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ِﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻀﺒﻂ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻼ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﻨﻌﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪-‬ج‪ -‬ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﱡﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪) :‬ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻣِﻦ ﺁ ِﺧ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻣ ِﻪ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻜﺚ ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺎﱄ ﺃﻳﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﺮﻣﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﲨﺮﺓ ﺑﺴﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻴﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ِ‬


‫‪١٨٤‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪) :‬ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ِﲟﻨ‪‬ﻰ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﺧ‪‬ﺘﻠِﻒ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪﻳ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲎ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﻭﻃﺎﻓﺖ ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﲑﻫﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﺎﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫)ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺯﻳﻨﺐ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﹸﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﹸﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺷﻜﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭ‪‬ﺍﻛﺒﺔ( ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻄﹸ ﹾﻔﺖ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ج‪ ،‬ﺃﱐ ﺃﺷﺘﻜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻃﹸﻮﰲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﺭﺍ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻄﹸﻮ ٍﺭ﴾‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﺖِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺃﹸ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻄﱡﻮ ِﺭ * ‪‬ﻭ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱢﻲ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﺣِﻴ‪‬ﻨِﺌ ٍﺬ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺿ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﱂ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﻃﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ‪ ،(١)[٢-١ :‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﻛﻌﱵ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺟﻬﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﻤﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻏﻠ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺑﹸﺄﻡ‪ ‬ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﻀﺖ ﻓﺄﻓﺎﺿﺖ)‪ (٢‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻠﺘﺌ ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻃﻮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻭﺭﺍ َﺀ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﻭﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﰲ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻄﱡﻮ ِﺭ * ‪‬ﻭ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺴﻄﹸﻮ ٍﺭ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ‪[٢-١ :‬؟ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﹸﺤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹶﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺻﻼﺓ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﲟﻜﺔ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻭﳘﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻄﺎﻓﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻃﻮﺍﻓﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺖ ﺳﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﺟﺰﺃﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻭﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺎﻓﺖ ﺻﻔﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺣﺎﺿﺖ ﻓﺄﺟﺰﺃﻫﺎ ﻃﻮﺍﻓﹸﻬﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻉ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻘﺮ‪‬ﺕ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﻪ ج ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﺿﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ‪ ،-‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ِﺮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺘﻔ ‪‬ﻲ ﺑﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﺰﺃﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢٤٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(١٩٤٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ )‪ ،(٤١٢/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤٦٨ ،٤٦٧/٣‬‬


‫‪١٨٥‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ رﺟﻮﻋﻪ ج إﻟﻰ ِﻣﻨَﻰ وﺑﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤﺲِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺻ‪‬ﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﺯﻭﺍ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ ج ﺇﱃ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺭﺣﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﹰﺓ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓٍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻊ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺣﺼﺎﺓ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴﻒِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﻊ ‪‬ﺣﺼ‪‬ﻴﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،(‬ﰒ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺳﻬﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﻳﺪﻳ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﹶﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺳﻄﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻫﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﳓﺪ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‪‬ﻋﺎﺀﹰﺍ ﹶﻃﻮِﻳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻘِﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﺭﺍﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﻭﹸﻗﻮﻓِﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻴ‪‬ﺴﺎ ِﺭ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝِ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻟﺜﹶﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﲨﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻘﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺒﻄﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳉﹶﻤﺮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭِﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﻊ ﺣﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳِﺮﻣِﻬﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻋﻼﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﻊ ﻣِﻦ ﻓﻮﺭﻩ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﳉﺒﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﺢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺩﻋﺎﺀﻩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﻣﻰ ﲨﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎ ُﺀ ﰲ ﺻ‪‬ﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻋﺎﺋﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﰲ ﺻ‪‬ﻠﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﹶﻏﻠِﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺭ‪‬ﻭﻯ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺑﺪﻋﺎ ٍﺀ ﻋﺎﺭِﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﺩﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﱠﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ..‬ﻓﻼ ﺭﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺩ‪‬ﺑ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺻ‪‬ﻼ ٍﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺻ‪‬ﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ِﻋﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ِﺫﻛﹾﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ﹾﻜ ِﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﻋِﺒﺎﺩﺗِﻚ()‪ ،(٢‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺗﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮﻭ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛ ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٦٥ ،٤٦٤/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٣٠٧)(٣٠٦)(١٢٩٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٥٢٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٥٣/٣‬‬


‫‪١٨٦‬‬ ‫ﻼ ٍﺓ(‪ (١)...‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﻤﺪﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺩ‪‬ﺑ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ هﻞ آﺎن ج ﻳﺮﻣﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻼة اﻟﻈﻬﺮ أو ﺑﻌﺪهﺎ؟‬

‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺰﻝ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻣﻰ ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ؟ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻐِﻠﺐ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻣﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﺮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻘﱠﺒﻮﺍ ﺯﻭﺍ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺑﺮﻣﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ ﻟﻠﺮﻣﻲ ﺃﻳﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺍﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﱂ‬ ‫ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻄﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻟﺮﻣﻰ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﳌﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪ ‬ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋِﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻳﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫)ﺳﻨﻨﻬﻤﺎ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﺮﻣﻰ ﺍﳉِﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺮﻍ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻴﻪ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻃﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻣﻰ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﺭﺍﻛﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻫﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺟﻮﻋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺠﺘﱠﻪ ج ﺳﺖ وﻗﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺣ َ‬

‫ﺖ ﻭﻗﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻀ ‪‬ﻤﻨﺖ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺘﻪ ج ِﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﲟﺰﺩﻟﻔﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺧﻄﺒﻪ ج ﻓﻲ أﻳﺎم اﻟﺤﺞ‬

‫ﻭﺧﻄﺐ ج ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ِﲟﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺧﻄﺒﺘﲔ‪ :‬ﺧﻄﺒ ﹰﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٢ ،٢٧٠/٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٥٩٥‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ )‪ ،(٢٠٩/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫)‪.(١٥٠٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٨٩٨‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٠٥٤‬‬


‫‪١٨٧‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳﻂ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺛﺎﱐ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﺳﻄﹸﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﺗﺪﺭﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﲝﺪﻳﺚ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻧﺒﻬﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ(؟ ‪-‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹶﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ُِﻡ ﺍﻟﱠﺬﻱ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺅﻭﺱ‪ -‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﺑﻠﹶﺪ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻂﹸ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﺸ‪‬ﺮﻳﻖِ‪ ،‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ(‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭِﻯ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱢﻰ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛﺤ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻣﻜﹸﻢ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﹶﻻ ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺩﻣ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺄﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻤﺎِﻟﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﹶﻻ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﱢﻠ ﹾﻎ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﻛﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﰲ ‪‬ﺑﹶﻠ ِﺪﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ج‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﹶﻗﻠِﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎﻛﹸﻢ ﺃﻗﺼﺎﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺑﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻐﺖ‪(‬؟ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺪِﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺒ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ)‪ .(١‬ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻭﺱ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺛﺎﱐ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﺬِﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﺘﺢ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ‪ ،[١ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻫﺬِﻩ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﺓﹸ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﹸ‪‬ﻧ ِﺰﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﺣﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺼ‪‬ﻮﺍﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺱ(‪ ...‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺒﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺣﹶﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ اﻟﻨﺒﻲ ج اﻟﺒﻴﺘﻮﺗﺔ ﺧﺎرج ِﻣﻨَﻰ ﻟﻤﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺬر‬

‫ﻟﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬

‫ﺱ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻴﺖ ﲟﻜﺔ ﻟﻴﺎﱄ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺳﻘﺎﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺫﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﺝ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺧﺺ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﻪ ﺭِﻋﺎﺀُ ﺍﻹِﺑ ِﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﻮﺗﺔ ﺧﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺭﻣ ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻳﺮﻣ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ)‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮِ‪ ،‬ﰒ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺮﻣ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻔ ِﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻇﻨﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﺧ‪‬ﺺ ﻟﻠﺮ‪‬ﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻣﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ )‪.(١٥١/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(١٥٢/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٩٢/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣١٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪ ،(٤٠٨/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٩٧٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٩٥٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫)‪ ،(٢٧٣/٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٠٣٧‬‬


‫‪١٨٨‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺗﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺖ ِﲟﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﹸﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﻟِﻠﻄﱠﺎﺋﻔﺘﲔ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺆﺧ‪‬ﺮﻭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻣ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺭﻣ ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج‬ ‫ﻑ ﺿﻴﺎﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮ‪‬ﻋﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﻮﺗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎﻝ ﳜﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺭ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ ﲣﻠﱡﻔﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻻ ﲤﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺘﻮﺗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أﻧﻪ ج ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻌﺠﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﻞ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ أآﻤﻞ رﻣﻰ أﻳﺎم اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬

‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺠﻞ ج ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺭﻣ ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻳﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﹶﺛﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺼﺐِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺑﻄﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ﺧﻴ‪‬ﻒ ﺑﲎ ﻛِﻨﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﻗﺪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﹸ‪‬ﺒ ﹰﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹶﺛ ﹶﻘﻠِﻪ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻣﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﱡﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌِﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻗﺪ ﺭﻗﺪﺓ)‪ (١‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺳﺤﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﻮﺍﻑِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﺗﻪ ﺻﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺾ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ(؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﺋﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﺣ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻌ ِﻤﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻃﻮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻏ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺼﻔﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺰﹶﺃ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺠ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻭﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺑﺖ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺘ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﱠﰒ ﻭﺍﹶﻓ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣِﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻌ ِﻤﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻌﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻏ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﺎ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺎﺩ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺃﺧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﻴﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺻ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺒﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺣِﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺭﲢ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻃﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﲡﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺞ‪ ....‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ِ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ( ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺧﺮﺟﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺠ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؛ ﻳﺮﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧٠ ،٤٦٧ ،٤٦٦/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣١٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٠٠٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ )‪ ،(٤١٢/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧٤ ،٤٦٨ ،٤٦٧/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪،٩٦٥ ،٩٦٤/٢‬‬ ‫‪.(٣٨٧ ،٣٨٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٣٤/٣) ،(٤٨٨/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢٣)(١٢١١‬‬


‫‪١٩١‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻣِﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳏﻔﻮﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶﻠﻒ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﺐ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﱰﻝ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ؟ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺑﲎ ِﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﻦ‪ ‬ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯﻟﹸﻮﻥ ﻏﹶﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ج ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﲔ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻨ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪) :‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻜﻔﹾﺮ()‪ .(١‬ﻳﻌﲎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﶈﺼ‪‬ﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﹰﺎ ﻭﺑﲎ ﻛﻨﺎﻧﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺳ‪‬ﻤﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﲎ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲎ ﺍﳌ ﱠﻄﻠِﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱠﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺎﻛﺤﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳﺴﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﺇﻇﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺷﻌﺎِﺋ ِﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻌﺎﺋِﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻭﺓ ﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﻴﻢ ﺷِﻌﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺷ‪‬ﻌﺎﺋِﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻼﱠﺕ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰ‪‬ﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ج ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﺴﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎِﺋ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﰱ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﱯ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻳﱰﻟﻮﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺤﺼِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﱰﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ‪ -‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ ‪ -‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺑﺸ‪‬ﻲﺀٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ِﺰ ﹲﻝ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹶﻟﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ(‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺮ‪‬ﻭ ِﺟ ِﻪ)‪.(٤‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ِﻟ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺢ ِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﱐ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﺰ ﹶﻝ ﲟﻦ ﻣﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﻗ‪‬ﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﱰﻝ)‪ .(٥‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻄﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺿﺮﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺑﲎ ِﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﻔِﻴﺬﹰﺍ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ﹰﺔ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﻦ‪ ‬ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻏﹶﺪﹰﺍ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮﻟِﻪ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٦١/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣١٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٣٣٨)(٣٣٧)(١٣١٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤٧٢/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧١/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣١٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣١٣‬‬


‫‪١٩٢‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ دﺧﻮﻟﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺙ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻭﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﺛﻼ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺒﺢ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺩﺍﻉ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺘِﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻋﻢ ﻛﺜ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱯ ج‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﻨﻦ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺍﻗﺘﺪﺍ ًﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻛﺜ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺧﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺘﻪ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪ِ ‬ﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺎﻗﺔ ﻷُﺳﺎﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﺃﻧﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺥ ﺑﻔﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻩ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻼﻝﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﻓﹸﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ‪‬ﻣِﻠ‪‬ﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻓﺘﺤﻮﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﻦ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﺒﺎﺩﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺄﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﲔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻧﺴﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻗﹶﺪﻡ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﰉ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻵِﻟﻬ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﺄﹸ ‪‬ﺧ ِﺮﺟ‪‬ﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺻ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺓ ﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪ ‬ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪِﻳ ِﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻻﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج‪) :‬ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺼﻞﱢ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﺴِﻤﺎ ﺑِﻬﺎ ﹶﻗﻂﱡ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ‪‬ﻧﻮ‪‬ﺍﺣِﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩ‪‬ﺧﻮﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺼ ﱢﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻟﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﺟﻌﻠﹸﻮﻩ ﻗِﺼﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﻣِﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﺀَﻩ ﻣِﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑ‪‬ﻌﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻣِﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺩﺍﻉ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺗﲔ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺑﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻏﺒ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚُ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻂ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺼﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐﹶﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺷﺎﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺩﺧﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﻪ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺮﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻏﺰﻭ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٧٢ ،٣٧١/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣٢٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٧٦ ،٣٧٥/٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٠٢٧‬‬


‫‪١٩٤‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻋﻄﺎﻩ ﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ج ﺻﻼة اﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﺻﺒﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ اﻟﻮداع‬

‫ﺿﻊ‪ ‬ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ج ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﺻﺒﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺭ‪‬ﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘﻜِﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ(‪ :‬ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺷﻜﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺣِﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﻛ‪‬ﺒ ﹲﺔ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﻄﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬ ‫)ﻃﹸﻮﰲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻄﹸﻮ ٍﺭ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ‪ (١)[٢-١ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﺖِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﺮ‪‬ﺃ ﺑـ ﴿ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻄﱡﻮ ِﺭ * ‪‬ﻭ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺟﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻭﻏﲑِﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﻤِﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﰱ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺩﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ( ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﳌﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﳋﹸﺮﻭﺝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﳋﹸﺮﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻃﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺩ ِ‬ ‫ﺼﻞﱢ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱡﻮ ﹶﻥ( ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺻ‪‬ﻼ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﺃﻗِﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﺢِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻄﹸﻮﻓِﻲ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ِﻌ ِﲑﻙِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ)‪ .(٢‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳏﺎﻝ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺩﺍﻉ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻳﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﹸﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﰒ ﺍﺭﲢﻞ ج ﺭﺍﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺮ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺎﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻰ ﺭﻛﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪‬؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪(‬؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ؛ ﹶﺃِﻟ ‪‬ﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﺣ‪‬ﺞ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹲﺓ ﺻ‪‬ﺒﻴﹼﺎ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣِﺤ ﱠﻔﺘِﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﹶﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺙ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺃﻯ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺪِﻳ‪‬ﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﺛﹶﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻔﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺫﹶﺍ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ٍﺊ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺁﻳِﺒﻮ‪‬ﻥ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟﹶﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ َ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗ‪‬ﺎﺋِﺒﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺑﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ِ ،‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺎﻣﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ ،‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٩٢/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢٧٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٣٩٠ ،٣٨٩/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )‪ ،(٢٨٩/١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٣٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٧٣٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪،٢١٩/١‬‬ ‫‪.(٢٤٤‬‬


‫‪١٩٥‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ)‪ (١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻩ(‪ .‬ﰒ ﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣِﻦ ﹶﻃﺮِﻳﻖ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺱِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﻣِﻦ ﻃﺮِﻳﻖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺣﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻷوهﺎم‬

‫ﱮ ج ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻷﰉ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹰﺔ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ )ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﰲ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣﻀ‪‬ﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪﻝﹸ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺟﻮﻋﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻗﺎﻝ ُﻷﻡ‪ِ ‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎﻥ ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎﺭِﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺞ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺪﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺑ‪‬ﲎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﺤ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﻨﺎ؟ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻮﱏ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺢ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣﻀ‪‬ﺎﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺘ‪‬ﻤﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺿﺢٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻧﺎﺿﺤﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹰﺔ( ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹾﻀﻰ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ُﻷﻡ‪ ‬ﻣﻌﻘ ِﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺟﻮﻋﻪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺗﻪ ﺃﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ِﻘﻞٍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﳌﺎ ﺣ ‪‬ﺞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‬ ‫ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪‬ﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻨﺎ ﲨﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻘِﻞ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻣﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺟﺌﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﻍ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻘِﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤﺞ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﻌﻘِﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻨﺎ ﲨﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺟﻰ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﻨﺎ(؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺄﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺞ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻴ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ؟ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﻘﻞ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬﻼﱠ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‪‬ﺔ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺇ ﹾﺫ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﳊﺠ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺘ‪‬ﻤﺮﻯ ﰲ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣﻀ‪‬ﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻫﺬِﻩ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺑﻘِﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻟِﺴ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺮﺝ ﳋﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﺒﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻯ ﰲ )ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﻟِﺴ ٍ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٩٢/٣) ،(٣١٠/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣٤٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢٥٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٩٨٩) ،(١٩٨٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٩٣٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪.(١٥/٢‬‬


‫‪١٩٦‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﲤﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺖ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺮﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭ ﹸﻝ ﺫﻯ ﺍﳊِﺠﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﺎﺣﺶ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﺭﻳﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺑﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﹸﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺛﺒﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻯ ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺘﻪ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺭﺟﺤﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻭﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻭﻫﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺬﻯ ﺍﳊﹸﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋ‪‬ﻘﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﺮﻡ ﺫﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺻﻼ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺣﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﹸﻠﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻔﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻠﹾﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻰ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﺗﻄﻴ‪‬ﺐ ﻫ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻏﺴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻏﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﱢﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺍﻏﺘﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣِﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‬ ‫ﻑ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻃﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻃﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻣﹰﺎ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧِﺴﺎﺋِﻪ ﺑ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟِﻚ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﻹﺣﺮﺍﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﹸﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺄﱏ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻃﻴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻄﱢﻴﺐ ‪ -‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻳﻘﻪ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﻣﻔﺎﺭِﻕ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﺮِﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻭﺑِﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺮﺍﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺮﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﻠﺒ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻭﳊﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻴ‪‬ﺐ ﺑﺄﻃﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻄﱢﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺭ‪‬ﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﺑﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻅ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺸﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻣﹰﺎ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎِﺋﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﻄﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ﹶﻃﻴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺣﺮﺍﻣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١١٩٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٤٤) ،(٤١) ،(٣٩)(١١٩٠) ،(٣٨)(١١٨٩‬‬


‫‪١٩٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻷﰉ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﺃﺣﺮﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﻞ ﰲ ﺷﻰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻫ ﱠﻞ ﻋﻘﻴﺐ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺼﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﻛﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻮﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺪﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻬﻞﱡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻯ ﺗﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭِﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻄﻼ ﹸﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﳌﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺮﺍﻣﻪ ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻜﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣَﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻤﺘﻌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ )ﺍﳌﻐﲎ(‬ ‫ﺠﹰﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﳎﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺘﻤِﺮ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﻴ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺠﹰﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻤﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻴﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻷﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻯ ﰲ )ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ( ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ِﺣﻤﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺣﺸﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳏﺮﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﹸﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﺒﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﺻ‪‬ﺒﺢ ﺭﺍﺑﻌ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻯ ﺍﳊِﺠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ج ﺣ ﱠﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﻮﺍﻓﻪ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻰ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺼ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺠﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﻘ ٍ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ِﺑ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬


‫‪١٩٨‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘﺒ‪‬ﻞ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﱏ ﰲ ﻃﻮﺍﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺠ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﱏ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻧﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﺎﱏ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﺎﺣﺶ ﻷﰉ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻮﺍﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﹸﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻃﺎﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﱠﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻌ ﹶﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺷﻮﻃﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻫﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻳﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻴﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻄﻼﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨﺪ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺤﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ج ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﻣﻴﻘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﻣﻴﻘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺩﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﻴ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺠ‪‬ﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺩﻟِﻔﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼﺓﹸ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻐﺮِﺏ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻻ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻗِﺘ ِﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻼﺗ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺠﺮ‪ . ‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﰲ ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺰ‪‬ﻍﹸ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺮ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺣﲔ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺑﹶﺄﺫﹶﺍ ٍﻥ ﻭ‪‬ﺇﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ٍﺔ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌِﺸﺎﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﱡﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟ ً‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﺫﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺻﻼﱠﳘﺎ ﺑﺈﻗﺎﻣﺘﲔ ﺑﻼ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺃﺻﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻼﻫ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﺫﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻟِﻜ ﱢﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲨﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺈﻗﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ٍﺔ ﻭﺍﺣِﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٢٤/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢٨٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤١٩ ،٤١٨/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٢١٨‬‬


‫‪١٩٩‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺐ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺧ‪‬ﻄﺒﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺟﻠﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ﺃﺫﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺆ ﱢﺫﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻍ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﳋﹸﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﱂ ﳚﺊ ﰲ ﺷﺊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺧ‪‬ﻄﺒﺘﻪ ﺃﺫﱠﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﹶﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺻ ِﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺫﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﱢﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﻓﺨﻄﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻷﰉ ﺛﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﻮﺍﻓﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻴﺎ ﹸﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻃﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪) :‬ﺃﻓﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﻃﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪ ِﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺤ ِﺮ ﻇﻬﲑﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﺍﺭ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪) ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ج ﻣﻊ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻪ ﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﻠﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ‪‬ﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺇﻓﺎﺿﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺧﻴﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺿِﻌﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﺫﻳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ )‪.(١٤٤/٥‬‬


‫‪٢٠٠‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻑ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻟﻠﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻃﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﻘﺪﻭﻡ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻃﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺑﻄﻼﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ﺳﻌﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻌﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻄﻼ ﹸﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺳﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭِﻥ ﳛﺘﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ ‪ -‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﲟﻜﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻼﻫﺎ ِﲟﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺴ ٍﺮ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﱃ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺩﻯ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ُﺀ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍﻟ ِﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ِﻗ‪‬ﺒ ِﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻘِﻔﻮﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﱴ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﱴ ﻋﻠﱠﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻌ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﺎﺿﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻌﻘﻌﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﻓﻨﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺅﻯ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻜِﻴﻨ‪‬ﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﻛﹶﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ‪‬؛ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺫ ﹾﻓﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﻧﺎﻗﺘﻪ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜِﻴ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺍِﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴ ِﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻹِﺑﻞِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑِﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺑِﺎﳚ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫)ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟِﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ ﻃﺎﻭﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﱮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱮ‪ :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﲎ ﺃﹸﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﺎﺽ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻣِﻦ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺭِﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﻳ ﹰﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺪﺛﲎ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﰲ ‪‬ﺟﻤ‪‬ﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺭﺟﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀ ﹸﻞ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺩﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﺒﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﻉ ﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﱂ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﹾﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﺮٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻔﺎ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻹﻳﻀﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺩﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺩﻯ ﳏﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ج‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(١٩٢٠‬‬


‫‪٢٠١‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺿِﻊ ﺃﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻹﻳﻀﺎﻉِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻫﻢ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻧﻔﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺾ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺎﱃ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻃﺎﻭﻭﺱ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ(‪ :‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻳﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ()‪ (١‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﺩﻓﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻌﺎ ﹸﺫ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ‬ ‫ج )ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺰﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺮﺃﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻃﺄﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪...‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج )ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺰﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻟﻴﻠ ٍﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ِﲟﻨ‪‬ﻰ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻯ ﰲ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻃﺎﻭﻭﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻣﺮﺳﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺎﻑ ﻟﻺﻓﺎﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻰ ﰲ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺣﲔ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻭﺩ‪‬ﻉ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺬﻯ ﹸﻃﻮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻼﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﶈﺼ‪‬ﺐ ﻋﻦ ﳝﲔ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻤﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺼ‪‬ﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻛﻠﱡﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﳎﻤﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﻧﺒﻬ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟﻬﺪاﻳﺎ واﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎ واﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻫﻰ ﳐﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ِﺓ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﻮﺭﺓ )ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ( ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﹸﺿﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻘﻴﻘ ﹲﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤٥٢/٣‬‬


‫‪٢٠٢‬‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ‪..‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺑﻬِﻴ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻷَﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[١ :‬‬ ‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺃﹸ ِﺣﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯﹶﻗﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬﻛﹸﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ِﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ٍﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫‪‬ﺑﻬِﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[٢٨ :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻮﹶﻟ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺷﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮﺍ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯﹶﻗﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘِﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﲔ * ﹶﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻧ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺯﻭ‪‬ﺍﺝ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ [١٤٣-١٤٢ :‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣِﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺧ‪‬ﻄﹸﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﹰﺎ ﺑ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ﹶﻎ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ِﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٩٥ :‬‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻓﺪ ﱠﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺒﻠﹸﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒ ﹶﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﻫﻮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻭﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺑﺎﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻫﻰ ﹸﻗﺮ‪‬ﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﻫﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶﳍ ‪‬ﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷُﺿﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘ ﹸﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻫﺪﻯ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺍﻟﻐﻨ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﺪﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﺪﻯ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﻘﻠﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺷﻰﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻨﻪ ﺣ‪‬ﻼ ﹰﻻ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺚ ‪ ‬ﺪﻳِﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﻘﻴﻢ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻖ‪ ‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎﻣِﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﳝ ِﻦ ﻳﺴﲑﹰﺍ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﱠﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺷﻌﺮ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺷﻰ ٌﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺤﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺚ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﹶﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ٍ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﺼ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻎ ﻧﻌﻠﹶﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳚﻌﻠﹶﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺭﻓﻘﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻢ‪ ‬ﳊﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﺳﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺬﺭﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻌﻠﱠﻪ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺼ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻳﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﹶﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺤﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺄﻛ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺘﻬ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴ‪‬ﺸﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻈﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧ ﹸﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮ ﹸﺓ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﻇﻬﺮﹰﺍ ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﻟﺴﺎﺋﻖ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺭﻛﻮﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٢٥١٨)(٢١٨٩)(١٨٩٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٢٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٧٦٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٠٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )‪.(١٣٢٤‬‬


‫‪٢٠٣‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣِﻦ ﻟﹶﺒﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻀ‪‬ﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ج ﳓ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻴ‪‬ﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻴ‪‬ﺴﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋِﻨﺪ ﳓﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺬﺑﺢ ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﻜﻪ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻭﻛﱠﻞ ﰲ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﺑﺢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣﻜﱠ ﹶﺔ ﹸﻛﱠﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺻِﻔﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﰒ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﻛﺒ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺑﺢ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳓﺮ ِﲟﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻓِﺠﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ()‪ (٣‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺎ ِﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺪﻥ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻳﻨﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ﲟﻜﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺡ ج ُﻷ ‪‬ﻣﺘِﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﹸﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻫ‪‬ﺪﺍﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﻭﺿﺤﺎﻳﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺰﻭ‪‬ﺩﻭﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﺮ ﹰﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻌﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺫﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﻟﺪﺍﻓﱠ ٍِﺔ ‪‬ﺩﱠﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧِﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ)‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺿﺤ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﻭﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟ‪‬ﺒﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻧﻔﲑ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻢ ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺓ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯﹾﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﺃﹸ ﹾﻃ ِﻌﻤ‪‬ﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺻِﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹶﳌﺪِﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ﹾﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﻛﹸﻞﹸ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑﹶﻠ ﹶﻎ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺪِﻳﻨ‪‬ﺔ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻢ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﹶﺄﺻ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻِﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻟﹸﺤﻮﻡ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻊ( ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻬﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺜﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺮﺱ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ذﺑﺢ َهﺪْى اﻟﻤﺘﻤﺘﻊ أو اﻟﻘﺎرن‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪.(٣٢٥/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٥/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩٦٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩٧١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨١٤‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٩٧٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪ ،(٧٩/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪،(٢٩١/٩‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٣٨٦/٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ )‪.(٣٠٨/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٤٤/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣١٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٧٦٥‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٥٠/٤‬‬


‫‪٢٠٤‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﺍﻟﻘِﺮﺍﻥ ِﲟ‪‬ﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺫﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻤﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ِ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺤﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ج ﻗﻂﱡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺣﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺤﺮﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺤﺮﻩ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﹸﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﹸﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻚ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺫﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺭﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺗ‪‬ﺒﻬﺎ ج ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺧ‪‬ﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﻠﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﳍ ‪‬ﺪﻳِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻜﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﺣﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷُﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﹸﲝﺖ ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﻃﻠﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫وأﻣﺎ هﺪﻳُﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻷﺿﺎﺣﻰ‬

‫ﻀﺤ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻜﺒﺸﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺤﺮ‪‬ﳘﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ج ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻉ‪ ‬ﺍﻷُﺿﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ﺷ‪‬ﻰﺀٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪َ ‬ﻷ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ِﻪ()‪ .(١‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﺬﻯ ﺩﻟﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺑﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﳉ ﹶﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﻨ‪‬ﻔﺲ ﻓِﻌﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻧﺪﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺬﲝﻮﺍ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹾﺄ ِﻥ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﱠﺜِﻨﻰ‪ِ ‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻘﻄ ‪‬ﻊ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒ‪‬ﺖ‬ ‫ﺸﺮِﻳ ِﻖ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺢ()‪ (٣‬ﻟﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﹶﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻠﹸﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺛﻼﺙٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺩ‪‬ﺧﺎ ِﺭ ﳊﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻷﺿﺎﺣﻰ ﻓﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺑﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣِﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺫﲝﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ ،‬ﳉﺎﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻻﺩ‪‬ﺧﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃﻭﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱠﺬﻳﻦ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺩﻭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺩ‪‬ﺧﺎﺭ ﻓﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﳛﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺦ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻓﺒﻘﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ ﲝﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺩ‪‬ﺧﺎ ِﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺛﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٦/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٧)(١٩٦١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤ ،٣/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٩٦٥‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٤٥ ،٤٤٤/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫)‪ ،(١٤٩٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(٢٧/٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٨٢/٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪.(١٠٠٨‬‬


‫‪٢٠٥‬‬ ‫ﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻼﺯﻡ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ‪..‬‬ ‫ﻍ ﺍﻟﺬﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﻮ ‪‬ﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻻﺩ‪‬ﺧﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﲤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﻮ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳِﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻ ﹸﻝ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺫﺑﺢ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺟﺰ ٍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﺴﺎﻍ ﻟﻪ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﺍﻻﺩ‪‬ﺧﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ِﺓ ﺍﳊﺴﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻄﺎ ِﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ِﻡ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ِﻡ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﻜﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹶﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﲣﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﺻﻴﺎﻣ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻰ ﺇﺧﻮﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺗﻔﺘﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺸﺪ‪ ‬ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﳘﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻧﺺ ﻭﻻ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﺃﹶﻳﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺸﺮِﻳ ِﻖ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺢ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺒﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻄﻌﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﹸﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﻌ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﻣﺎ ِﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺬﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﳏﻤ ٍﺪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﰉ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻏ ِﲑ ﻭﺍﺣ ٍﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺺ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﺧﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪ ﱠﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺣﻜﻤِﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺟﺎﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻴﻞ ﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺎ ٍ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺳﻌﻴ ِﺪ ﺑ ِﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺑ ِﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻋﻤﺎ ِﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣ ِﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﳊﻠﻖِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺬﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬


‫‪٢٠٦‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻀﺤﻰ أن ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻔﺮﻩ أو ﺷﻌﺮﻩ إذا دﺧﻞ اﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ذى‬ ‫ﻀﺤﱢﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﱠﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ُﻳ َ‬ ‫اﻟ ِ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻀﺤﻴﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ﻣِﻦ ﺷﻌﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻩ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ()‪ (١‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻷُﺿﺤﻴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻼﻣ‪‬ﺘﻬﺎ ِﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻴﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻀﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍ َﻷﺫﹸ ِﻥ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮﻥِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺫﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﺤ‪‬ﻰ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻴﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﺍ ُﻷ ﹸﺫﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﺤ‪‬ﻰ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍﺀَ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﻘﺎ‪‬ﺑﻠﹶﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻣﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﻗﺎﺀَ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹶﺎ َﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺑﹶﻠﺔﹸ‪ :‬ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﱴ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹶﺎ ُﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﱴ ‪‬ﺷ ﱠﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﹸ ِﻄ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻘﺪ‪ ‬ﻡ ﹸﺃ ﹸﺫﻧِﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹸ‪ :‬ﺍﱠﻟﺘِﻰ ﻗﹸ ِﻄ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆﺧ‪ ‬ﺮ ﺃﹸﺫﹸِﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﳋ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹶﺎ ُﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﱴ ﺧ‪ِ ‬ﺮﹶﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺰﺉ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍ َﻷﺿ‪‬ﺎﺣِﻰ‪ :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﳌﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻻ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺠﻔﹶﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﹶﺴ ‪‬ﲑﺓﹸ ﺍﻟﱠﱴ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﻘﻰ()‪ (٤‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺰﺍﳍﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﻣﺦ‪ ‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﺔِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺨﻘﹶﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶﻠﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻔﹶﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶﻠﺔﹸ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱴ‬ ‫ﺻﻤ‪‬ﺎﺧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﹸﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻔﹶﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘﺄﺻﻞ ﺃﺫﹸ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﺴ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻓﺎ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻘﹶﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱴ ﲞﻘﺖ ﻋﻴﻨ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻴ‪‬ﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱴ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻢ‬ ‫ﺻِﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘ‪‬ﺆ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﺴِﲑﺓ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﻔﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﺠ‪‬ﻔﹰﺎ ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٩٧٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )‪ ،(٨٣/٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٧٩١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪،(٢١٢ ،٢١١/٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٥٢٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٤٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٥٠ ،١٢٩ ،١٢٧ ،٨٣/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨٠٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪،(١٥٠٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢١٨ ،٢١٧/٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٤٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(١٠٨ ،٨٠/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨٠٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٤٩٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫)‪ ،(٢١٦/٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٣١٤٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪.(٧٧/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٢٨٩ ،٢٨٤/٤‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨٠٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٤٩٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫)‪ ،(٢١٦ ،٢١٤/٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٤٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٨٠٣‬‬


‫‪٢٠٧‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أن ﻣﻦ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج أن ﻳُﻀﺤﱢﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻤُﺼﻠﱠﻰ‬

‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺎﳌﹸﺼﻠﱠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﱠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ﺧ‪‬ﻄﺒﺘﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻣِﻦ ﻣﻨﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸﺗﻰ ِﺑ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺒﺶٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﲝﻪ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻀﺢ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻣﱴ()‪ (١‬ﻭﰱ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﺃ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱠﻰ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺑﺢ‪ ‬ﻭﻳﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺀَﻳﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﺑﺢ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻛﺒﺸ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﺃﻗﺮﻧﲔ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﺣﻨِﻴﻔﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻟﱠﻠﺬِﻯ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﺟ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺷ‪‬ﺮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎﺗﻰ ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜِﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹸﳌﺸ‪‬ﺮ ِﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺻ‪‬ﻼﺗﻰ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻣِﺘﻪِ‪ِ ،‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ِ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﺑ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ (‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺫﺑ‪‬ﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺴِﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘِﺘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﲝﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﺗ‪‬ﺠ ِﺰﺉ‪ ‬ﻋ ِ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘ ِﻪ ﻭﻟﻮ ﹶﻛﺜﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻯ‪) :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺤﺎﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺃﻳﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻄﺎ ُﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺤ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺓ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘ ِﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻛﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻬ ِﺪ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻄ ِﻌﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻕ( ﻛﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﰲ )ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ( ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﺳ‪ِ‬ﺌ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻘِﻴ ﹶﻘﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ﹸﺃ ِﺣﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨١٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(١٥٢١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٧/١٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢١٣/٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٦١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٧٩٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٢١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩٥٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬ )‪ ،(١٥٠٥‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪ ،(٣٧/٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٤٧‬‬


‫‪٢٠٨‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﹶﻛ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺣﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺒﺄ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺌﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻘِﻴ ﹶﻘﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻕ( ﻭ ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻛ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ؛ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﺪﻩِ؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﹸﺃ ِﺣﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﺪﻩِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻼﹶﻡ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﺎ ِﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﺐ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ ﺃ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪ ‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺓ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ) :‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻼﻡ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﺎ ِﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎِﺋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﺎﹲﺓ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺤﹶﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﺭﹾﺃﺳ‪‬ﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﹸﻏﻼﹶﻡ ‪‬ﺭﻫِﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻘِﻴ ﹶﻘِﺘ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺑﺢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎِﺑﻊِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻫﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱡﻐﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳏﺒﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﻫِﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ‪ ،[٣٨ :‬ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﺲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻉ ﳏﺒﻮﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺧﲑ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﻗﹶﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺭﻫﻴﻨ ﹲﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﳑﻨﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﹶﺪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺑﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﺑﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘ ﹶﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻟﹸﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻔﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺣ‪ِ‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺧﲑ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻔﺮﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣِﻦ ﻛﺴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉِﻤﺎﻉ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊ ﹾﻔﻆﹸ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﻟﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻﺯﻣﺔ ﻻ ﺑ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺒﻪ ﻟﺰﻭﻣ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻭﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻧﻔﻜﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِﺪﻝﱡ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻭﺟﻮﺑ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻫﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺗﺼﻨﻌﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳘﱠﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﻰ(‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳘﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﺳ‪ِ‬ﺌ ﹶﻞ ﻗﺘﺎﺩ ﹸﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻭ)‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﻰ( ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺼﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻡ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﺫِﺑﺤ‪‬ﺖ‬ ‫ﱮ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬‬ ‫ﺥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘ‪‬ﻘِﺒﻠﹶﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭﺩﺍﺟ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗ‪‬ﻮﺿ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺎﻓﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﺃﹸ ِﺧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ )‪ ،(٧٩٦١‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٦٨٢٢)(٦٧١٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪،(٢٨٤٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(١٦٣ ،١٦٢/٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٥١٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٣١٦٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪.(١٠٥٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٢٢ ،١٧ ،٧/٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨٣٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٥٢٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫)‪.(١٦٦/٧‬‬


‫‪٢٠٩‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﺴِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻣﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺍﳋﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﺴﻞ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤﻠﻖ‪ .‬ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﺧ‪‬ﺘﻠﹶﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺢ ﲰﺎﻋ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣِﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﲰﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤِﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺘِﺮﻣِﺬﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻯ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ( ﻋﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﱃ ﳏﻤ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﺫﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ؟ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﳑﻦ ﲰِﻊ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻞ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴ ِﺔ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻰ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﻠﻂ؟ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ( ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ )ﺳﻨﻨﻪ(‪ :‬ﻫﻰ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﳘﱠﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﳛﲕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﻰ(‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ )ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﹸﻟﹾﺜ ‪‬ﻐ ﹲﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﻰ( ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺼِﺢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﳘﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻘﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﻟِﺴﺎﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻔ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺏ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﲢﺘ ِﻤﻠﹸﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱡﻐﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻮﺍ ﻟﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪) :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﻰ( ﻏﻠﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ‪) :‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ(‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﻤ ِﻞ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺑﻄﻠﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺑ ِﻦ ﺍﳊﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﹶﺎ ِﻫِﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﺔ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻭ‪ِ‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ َﻷ ‪‬ﺣ ِﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﹸﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻄﱠ ‪‬ﺦ ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺤِﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﺭﹾﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﹶﻠ ﱢﻄﺨ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﺍﻥ)‪ .(٢‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻭﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹ ‪‬ﺳﻼﹶﻡ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺑﺢ‪ ‬ﺷ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻣِﻴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺞ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮج‬ ‫ﺍ َﻷﺫﹶﻯ()‪ (٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺃﺫﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻄﱢﺨﻮﻩ ﺑﺎﻷﺫﻯ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ِ‬ ‫ﺶ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺒﺶٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺫﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ِﺑ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺒ ٍ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺷﺎﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﻧﻈ ‪‬ﲑ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺭﺃ ِ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺗﻨﺠﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺘﻪ؟؟ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻠﻴﻖ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺄﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﳉﹶﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﱢﻪ ج ﻋﻦ اﻟﺤﺴﻦ واﻟﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥١٢/٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٨٤٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥١٠/٩‬‬


‫‪٢١٠‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺑِﻜﺒﺶ ﻛﺒﺶٍ‪ ،‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﱡﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﹸﺴ ِ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﻧ ٍ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺭﺃﺳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﺢ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻹﺷﺒﻴﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃ ِ‬ ‫ﺶ)‪ (١‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻣﻮﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﹸﺣ‪ٍ ‬ﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﲔ ِﺑ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺒ ٍ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻦ ِﺑ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺒﺶٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳊﹸﺴ ِ‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻖ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹰﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺯﻧ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﹶﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﻗِﻰ ِﺑ ِﺰ‪‬ﻧ ِﺔ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺮ ِﻩ ِﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴ ِﻦ ﺷﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍ ‪‬ﺣِﻠﻘِﻰ ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺃﹶﻧﺲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﺤﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺩِﺭﻫ ‪‬ﻢ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺘﺼ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺩِﺭﳘﹰﺎ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﻣﺜﻠﹸﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻷُﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺩ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻷﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎﺗﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷُﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‪..‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺜﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ُ‪‬ﻡ ﻛﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲰﺎ ُﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻛﹸﺮﺯ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎِﻓﹶﺌﺘ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﺎﺭِﻳ ِﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﹲﺓ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻜﺎﻓﺌﺘﺎ ِﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺘﺎ ِﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﻭﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻜﹶﺎﻓﹶﺄﺗﺎ ِﻥ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻜﹶﺎِﻓﺌﹶﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﻜﺴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺛﻮﻥ ﳜﺘﺎﺭﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻓﺄﹾﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻓﺄﹶﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﻓﻌ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃِﻗﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﱠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻜﻨ‪‬ﺎِﺗﻬ‪‬ﺎ( ﻭﲰﻌﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻢ ﺃﺫﹸ ﹾﻛﺮ‪‬ﺍﻧﹰﺎ ﹸﻛﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎﺛﹰﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺗﺮﻓﻌﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎِﻓﹶﺌﺘ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﺎ ِﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺓﹲ‪ ،‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ِﻣﺜﹾﻼﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﺎ ِﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﹲﺓ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺷ‪‬ﻌﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺎﺋِﺸﺔ ﺃ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨٤١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(١٦٦ ،١٦٥/٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(١٥١٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٨٣٦)(٢٨٣٥‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٢٢ ،٣٨١/٦‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫)‪ ،(١٤٥١)(٣٤٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ )‪ ،(١٦٣٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٣١٦٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪،(٨١/٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(١٦٥ ،١٦٤/٧‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ )‪ ،(٧٩٥٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(١٥١٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٥١٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٣١٦٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪.(١٠٥٨‬‬


‫‪٢١١‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺃﹶﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎِﻓﹶﺌﺘ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﺎﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑ ِﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻴ‪‬ﺎﺵ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺛﺎﺑ ِ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻖ‪ ‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎِﻓﹶﺌﺘ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﳉﹶﺎ ِﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﹲﺓ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻷﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﲰﺎ َﺀ ﺑﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻬﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻷﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺧ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺪ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧِﺪﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﻼﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻬﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻖ‪ ‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻼﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺲ‪ ‬ﺭﹾﺃﺳ‪‬ﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﺰﱏ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ٍﻡ()‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﰲ ﺍﻹِﺑ ِﻞ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﰱ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻨ ِﻢ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻉ‪ (‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻋ ِﺮﻑ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻨﻜﺮﻩ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮِﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼ ﹸﺔ ﺍﳊﺴ ِﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺰﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﹶﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻪ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺘﻀﻤ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺧ ﹸﺬ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧ ﹸﺬ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﳑﻜﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﻡ ﹸﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻡ ﻛﹸﺮﺯ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ج ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺗﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﹸﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﳌﺬﺑﻮﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ِﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﳊﺴ ِﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﹸﺴﲔ ﳛﺘﻤِﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺍﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺟﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜِﺒﺎﺵ ﻻ ﲣﺼﻴﺼﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﺿﺤ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻋﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﻘﺮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻦ ﺗِﺴﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﱠ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﻀ‪‬ﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﱠ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷُﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٤٥٦/٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣١٦٦‬‬


‫‪٢١٢‬‬ ‫ﻛﹶﺎ ُﻷ‪‬ﻧﺜﹶﻰ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،[٣٦ :‬ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻞ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷُﻧﺜﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﺔِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﹸﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺑﻌﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻔﻜﱡﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﺘﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺭﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘِﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻖ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺸﺎﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻷُﻧﺜﻰ ﺑﺸﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋِﺘﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷُﻧﺜﻴﲔ ﻳﻘﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﻋِﺘﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ )ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ( ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠِﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻛﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ٍﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺀﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺮﻯ ٍﺀ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧﺘ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ٍﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺘ‪‬ﻖ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺃ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻀ ٍﻮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﻋﻀ‪‬ﻮﹰﺍ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺮِﻯ ٍﺀ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰِﻯ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﻋ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹰﺓ‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ٍﻮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻀ‪‬ﻮﹰﺍ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ٍﺓ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ِﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻛﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺰﻯ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﻋ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻀ ٍﻮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻀ‪‬ﻮﹰﺍ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ()‪ (١‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ِﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻛﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺰﻯ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﻋ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ )ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ( ﻋﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻋ ﱠﻘﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻃِﻤ ﹸﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ِﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺜﹸﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻈﹾﻤﹰﺎ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﹶﺎِﺑﹶﻠ ِﺔ ِﺑ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹸﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻃ ِﻌﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻜ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﳝﻦ ﻣِﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﱠﺛﻬﻢ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ )ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻪ(‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺒﻮ‪‬ﺓﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻖ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺑ ِﻦ ﲨﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﻋﻦ ﺛﹸﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﺮﺯ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻖ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻬﻨﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌ‪‬ﻒ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺴ ِﻦ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋِﻠ ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﹶﺃﺫﱠ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ﺃﹸﺫﹸ ِﻥ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٥٤٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٩٦٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٢٥٢٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(٣٠٢/٩‬‬


‫‪٢١٣‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺑِﺎﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ‬ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﹶﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﻟﻮد وﺧِﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬

‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪) :‬ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﺬ‪‬ﺑﺢ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﱮ‪‬؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﻤﻮﱏ‪ :‬ﺗﺬﺍﻛﺮﻧﺎ ِﻟﻜﹶﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳًﺎِﺑ ِﻌ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳋﺘ‪‬ﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺪ ِﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻴﻤﻮﱏ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺳﺎﺑﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﱳ ﺍﻟﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺧ‪ِ‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺷﻰﺀ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻜﺤﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﱳ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﱳ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳋﻼﻝ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺧِﺘﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻣﱴ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﰲ ﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧِﺘﺎﻥ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﳋﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻷﺳﻤﺎء واﻟﻜُﻨﻰ‬

‫ﻼﻙِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ٍﻢ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪﹸﻗﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﹲﺓ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺎﺭﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎﺣﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻧﺠِﻴﺤﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﹶﻠﺢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻏﹸﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬؟ ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥١٠٥‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٣٩١ ،٩/٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٥١٤‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‬ ‫)‪ ،(٧٩٨٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(٣٠٥/٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٨٦/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٤٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٨٣٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٦١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٣٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٨٣٦)(٢٨٣٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٣٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٨٣٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٥٨‬‬


‫‪٢١٤‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺟ‪‬ﻤﻴﹶﻠ ﹲﺔ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﺎﺻﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺔ‪ :‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮﻩ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻳ ِﺮﻳ‪‬ﺔ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺑِﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺯﻳﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫) ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺰﻛﱡﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﳊﻜﹶﻢ ﺑﺄﰉ ﺷ‪ ‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ٍﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﺰ‪‬ﺭﻋ ﹶﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﰉ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﺄﺑ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ )ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﻬ ﹸﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﻃﹶﺄ‬ ‫ﻭﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺰ‪‬ﻥ ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺐ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺳ‪‬ﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪.(٦)(‬‬ ‫ﳊﻜﹶﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﺹِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺰِﻳﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻥ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﻭﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻏﹸﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷِﻬﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻤﺎﻩ ﻫِﺸﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺣﺮﺑﹰﺎ ِﺳﻠﹾﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﻀﻄﺠ ‪‬ﻊ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﳍﹸﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﻮ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﺷ ‪‬ﻌﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻼﹶﻟ ِﺔ ﲰﺎﻩ ِﺷ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺒ ِﻌﺚﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺿﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﲰﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﲎ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺷﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﲎ ﻣ‪‬ﻐ ِﻮ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺔ ﺑﲎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻓﻘﻪ هﺬا اﻟﺒﺎب‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺍﻟﱠ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﻀ ِ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﲰﺎ ُﺀ ﻗﻮﺍِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﱡ ‪‬ﻖ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻁ ﻭﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﱮ ﺍﶈ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎ ﹲ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣِﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺗﺄﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍِﻗﻊ‪ ‬ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ِﺑﺨ‪‬ﻼﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﺛ ‪‬ﲑ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳋﻔﱠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱢﺜﻘﹶﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻄﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺗﺄﺛﱡﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﹸﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻴ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﺜﹶﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﰲ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘِﺒ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﻥ ﹶﻓﻜﱠﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ٍ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﺴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺑﺮِﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ج ﻳﺴﺘ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٣٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٥٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢١٤٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩)(٢١٤٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٥٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٥٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٢٢٧ ،٢٢٦/٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧٤ ،٤٧٣/١٠‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٥٦‬‬


‫‪٢١٥‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﲰﺎِﺋﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎ ِﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ﻃﹶﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄﻭ‪‬ﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻌ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺐ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪ ‬ﹶﻃ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻋ‪‬ﻘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻓِﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﹸﺄﺗ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﺑﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻃ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ)‪،(١‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒ ﹶﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﳍﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺭﻃﺐ ﻭﻃﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗ‪‬ـﺄ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺳ‪‬ﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻣﺮِﻫﻢ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﳎﻴـﺊ ﺳ‪‬ﻬﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻚ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺪﺏ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻠﺐ ﺷﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﳛﻠﹸﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺲ (‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻇﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ(؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻌِﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﺣﻠﹸﺒﻬﺎ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺁﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻏﺰﻭﺍﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻜِﻨ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺑﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺢ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺨﺰٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪ ﹶﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺟﺒﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﲰﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻓﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻗﻮﺍﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻘﻞﹸ ﻣِﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎ ِﺀ ﻭﺣﻘﺎﺋِﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﲰ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻳﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﻤﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﻄﻰﺀُ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻚ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺷﻬ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﱰﻟﹸﻚ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺑِﺤﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺴﻜ‪‬ﻨﻚ‪‬؟‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ :‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﻦ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﻕ ﻣﺴﻜﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻷﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻟﻈﹶﻰ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺑﺬﹶﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﻭﺍﺣﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺳ‪‬ﻬﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻮ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﳊﹸﺪﻳﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﺗﻨﺒﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺴﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﺴﻦِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺎ ِﺳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻ ِ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻣِﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﲰﺎﻥ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺎﻥ ﳌﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﳏﻤ‪‬ﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﺷ‪‬ﺘﻖ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٧٠‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٢٥‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٢٨٦/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٥١/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪.(٩٧٣/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪.(٩٧٣/٢‬‬


‫‪٢١٦‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻤﻮﺩﺓ ﳏﻤ‪‬ﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟﺸﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻀﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻏﲑﻩ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺑﺎﳉﺴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﺘ‪‬ﻪ ج ﻷﰉ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳋ ﹾﻠ ِﻖ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟِﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﰉ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻛﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ ﳍﺐ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺑﺄﰉ ﳍﺐ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﲑﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺎﺭ ﺫﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﻭﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﻭﺃﺧﻠ ‪‬ﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲰﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻳﹾﺜ ِﺮﺏ‪ ‬ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮﻩ ﺑـ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﻃﻴﺒﺔ()‪ (١‬ﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻳﺜﺮِﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺮﻳﺐ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻃﹶﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﱢﻴﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺛﱠﺮ ﻃِﻴﺒ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻃِﻴﺒﹶﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻴﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳊﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻣﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ‪) :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﲎ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻜﹸﻢ ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﺑِﻴﻜﹸﻢ( ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺩﻋﺎﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﲝﺴﻦ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻟﻠﺪﻋﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺃﲰﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺭِﺯﻳﻦ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﺪﺭ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻷﺣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‪ :‬ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺘﺒﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﻟﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹰﺔ﴾‬ ‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﻔﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﺓ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﺓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﻒ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘﻜﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻳﻨﺎﻟﹸﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﺤﻞﱡ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪ [٥٤ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺘ‪‬ﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻟﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺘ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻗﺮﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺭِﺙ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻓﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺮﺙ ﻓ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺮﺙ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﹰﺎ ﳌﺴﻤﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺆﺛﱢﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻌﺒ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻷﲰﺎ ِﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﻰ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺍﶈﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﱡ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﺍﶈﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﱪﲪﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﹸﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺃﻭﺟﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٧٦/٤‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣٩٢‬‬


‫‪٢١٧‬‬ ‫ﻷﺟﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻟﹼﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﳏﺒ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺧﻮﻓﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﺀﹰﺍ ﻭﺇﺟﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻴ ﹸﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻏﻠﺒﺖ ﺭﲪﺘ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻏﻀ‪‬ﺒﻪ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﲪ ﹸﺔ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺤﻈﻮر ﻣﻦ اﻷﺳﻤﺎء‬

‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻞﱡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺒﺪﹸﺃ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣﺴﻤﺎﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﳘﱠﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﺎﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﻛﺴﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻙ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻨﻊ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺃﻭﺿ‪‬ﻌﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻏﻀ‪‬ﺒﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ )ﺷﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﻩ( ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﻣﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻃﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺴﻤﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃ ﹶﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‪) :‬ﻗﺎﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ( ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﺎﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﻘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻀﻰ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﻦ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ‪ :‬ﺳﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ(‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﺪ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻗﻂﱡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺳﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺳﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﻟ ِﺪ ﺁﺩﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺏ ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺃﻛﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺷﺊ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﻭﺃﻗ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻗﺒ ‪‬ﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﳊﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺣﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﻨﻈﻠﺔ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺰ‪‬ﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺒﻬﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺟﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻤﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﱠﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ) ‪‬ﺣﺰ‪‬ﻥ( ﺍﳊﺰﻭﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴ‪‬ﺐ ﻭﺃﻫ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٦٥ ،٢٦٤/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩٤‬‬


‫‪٢١٨‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻧﺪﺑﻪ ج ُأﻣﱠﺘﻪ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺄﺳﻤﺎء اﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎء‬

‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﹸﻬﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﲎ ﺁﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗﹸﻬﻢ ﺃﺷﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎ ُﺀ ﺳﺎﺩﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺄﲰﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺪﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﺃﺷﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﻧِﺒﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ()‪ (١‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺬﻛﱢ ‪‬ﺮ ﲟﺴ ‪‬ﻤﱠﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﱡ ‪‬ﻖ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻔﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺫِﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺬﻛﱢﺮ ﺃﲰﺎﺅ‪‬ﻫﻢ ﺑﺄﻭﺻﺎﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ اﻷﺳﻤﺎء‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻡ ﺑـ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻓﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ﻭﳒﻴﺢ ﻭﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻫﻮ؟ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ()‪ - (٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﺗﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﺭﺟ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺗ‪‬ﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﻄﻴ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﺗﻜﺮ‪‬ﻫﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻨﺪﻙ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻠﹶﺢ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ‪ ،‬ﺗﻄﻴ‪‬ﺮﺕ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣِﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺍﻟ ﱢﻄﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻴ‪‬ﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘ ﱠﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﻄﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ِﻃ ‪‬ﲑﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﻃﺎﺋﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ‪‬ﻴ ٍﺮ ﹶﻓﻬ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﱡﺜﺒ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻧﱠﻪ ﹶﻻ ﹶﻃ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇ ﱠﻻ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺗ‪‬ﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﺣﻜﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺀﻭﻑ ﺑﹸﺄﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴ ِﻢ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﳝﻨﻌ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺤﺼ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﻮﻋ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﲰﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻋﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﳒﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎﺣﹰﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺳﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﺎﻟﹶﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﲰﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﺬﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺳﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٥٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢١٩ ،٢١٨/٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٤٥/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢١٣٦‬‬


‫‪٢١٩‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ ﱠﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻙ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ِﻠﻬِـﻢ ﺳ‪‬ـﺪِﻳﺪﹰﺍ‬

‫ﻚ ﻣِﻦ ْ ﺳ‪‬ــﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﱠـﺬِﻯ ﻛﹶــ ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓﺴ‪‬ﺎﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﹶـ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻥ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﺴ‪‬ــﺎ ِﺩ‬

‫ﻓﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ِﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﻯ ﺳ‪‬ـﺎﺋِﺮﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺑِ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﹰﺎ ﻓﺎ ﹾﻏﺘ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﱠﻤﻴ‪‬ـﺘـُﻪ ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻷ ‪‬ﻭﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﻓ ِﻪ ﹶﻓﻐ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﺷ‪‬ـــﺎﻫِﺮﹰﺍ‬

‫‪‬ﻭﻇﹶــ ﱠﻦ ﺑﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎﺗِــﺮ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﺡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﺟِﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺪﻭﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻈﻨ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﲡﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﲟﺎ ﻣ‪ِ ‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺪﺡ ﲟﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘ‪‬ﻄﺎﻟﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻨﻘِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹾﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺸﺒﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﺐ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺪﺡ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﲢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺺﰲ‬ ‫ﻭِﻻﻳﺔ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﺺ‪ ‬ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨ ﹸﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻮﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻ ِﻔ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻗﺼِــ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻐﻞﹸ ﰲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ َﺀﹰﺍ ﻻﻣ‪‬ـﺮﺉٍ‬ ‫ﺻ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺈﱠ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻐ‪‬ـ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺗﻐ‪‬ـ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﱡﻨ‪‬ـﻮ‬

‫ﹸﻥ ﻓـﻴ ِﻪ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺪ ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ـ ِﺪ‬

‫ﺺ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ‪‬ﻋ ﱠﻈ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ـﻪ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸـ ‪‬‬

‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺸ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﻀ ِﻞ ﺍﳌﹶـﻐِﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻟِ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻇ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘ ‪‬ﻊ ﰲ ﺗﺰﻛﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻷﺟﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﻓﱡ ِﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟِﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺓ( ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺰﻛﱡﻮﺍ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺘ‪‬ﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑـ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘ‪‬ﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﹸﻄﻴﻊِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺿﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﹸﺤﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻠِﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺩ‪‬ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﺅﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺸﻲ ٍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﻳﻐﻀ‪‬ﺐ ﻣِﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟ ُﻜﻨَﻰ‬

‫ﻉ ﺗﻜﺮﱘ ﻟِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻳ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻜﻨ‪‬ﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻰ ﻧﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٩)(٢١٤٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪.(٤٩٥٣‬‬


‫‪٢٢٠‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹸﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻳـ ِﻪ ﻷُ ﹾﻛ ِﺮﻣ‪‬ـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﹶ ﹾﻛﻨِﻴ ِﻪ ﺣ ‪‬‬

‫ﺐ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﺃﹸِﻟ ﱢﻘﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺴﱠـ ‪‬ﻮ َﺀ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠﻘﹶـ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺻ‪‬ﻬﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﰉ ﳛﲕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ًﹶﻛﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺄﰉ ﺗﺮﺍﺏ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻐﲑﹰﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻛﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺧﺎ ﺃﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﰉ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺑﺄﰉ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ج ﺗﻜﻨﻴ ﹶﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺜﺒ‪‬ﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻛﹸﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﰉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺗﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺑِﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻤِﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻨﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺑ ﹸﻜﻨ‪‬ﻴِﺘﻰ(‬ ‫ﺱ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮ ‪‬ﺯ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻜﹸﻨﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﳏﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﳑﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺪﺗ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻋﻤﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻗﹸﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ َﻷﻥﱠ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﺼ ﹲﺔ ﺑﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻻ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄِﻰ ﹶﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻊ‪ ‬ﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻊ‪ ‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﺃﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪ (٢)(‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ِﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﺑﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻴﺰﻭﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﻠﱠﺔ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﻮﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﰱ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ( ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﻛﹸﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﹸﺃﻓِﺮﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳚﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺎﲰﻰ ﻓﻼ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﻜﹸﻨﻴﱴ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﲰﻰ()‪ (٣‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﹸﻨﻴﱴ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﲰ ِﻪ ﻭﻛﹸﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ‪ :‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧٣/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٣٤‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٦٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٥٢/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢١٣٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٦٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٨٤٥‬‬


‫‪٢٢١‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﻘﻴ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻔﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﳌﺎ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ)‪ .(١‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﲎ ﺑﻜﹸﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﹸﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﹸ ﹾﻓ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺯ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘ ‪‬ﺞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲟﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﻨِﻴ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؛ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻭ‪ِ‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﱃ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺑِﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺑ ﹸﻜ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴِﺘﻚ‪‬؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻧﻌﻢ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؛ ﺇﱏ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺕ‪ ‬ﻏﹸﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﺴﻤﻴﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻛ‪‬ﻨًﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﹸ ِﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﱃ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﺫﻟﻚ؟‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬﻯ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻞﱠ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻤِﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴﺘِﻰ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ )ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴﺘِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻞﱠ‬ ‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻤِﻰ(؟)‪ (٣‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ‪‬ﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﲎ ﺑﺄﰉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻨﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻬﻰ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳐﺘﺼﹰﺎ ﲝﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ( ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﺳﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺎﺩﻯ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒ‪‬ﻘﻴﻊ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻓﻼﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺗﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﺎ ‪‬ﺳﻤِﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﱏ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋِﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺩﻋﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻭ‪ِ‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻙ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﻜﹸﻨﻴﱴ()‪ (٤‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻋﻤﻦ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﱃ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷ ﱠﺬ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ ج‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﱠﲎ ﺑﻜﹸﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﲎ ﺑﻜﹸﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻻ‬ ‫ﳑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﳑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﺭ‪‬ﺽ ﲟﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٨٤٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٦٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٨٤٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٦٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٠٨/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٣١‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪،(١٨٩ ،١٢١ ،١١٤/٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٨٤٤‬‬


‫‪٢٢٢‬‬ ‫ﳌﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﳋﻠﹶﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺑﺄﰉ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﹶﻒ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﻗﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﺑﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﲎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﲑ ﹶﺓ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺄﰉ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺄﰉ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؟‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎﱏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻗﹶﺪ ﻏﹸ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧِﺒ ِﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺠِﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺰ‪‬ﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺄﰉ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻔﻰ ‪‬ﺟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﹸﺄﻡ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻛﹸﺄﻡ‪ ‬ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻨﺐ َآﺮْﻣًﺎ‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺐ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻡ‪ ‬ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﹸﺆ ِﻣ ِﻦ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻋﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ِﻌ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌِﻨﺐ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﻨ‪‬ﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﲣﺼﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹶﻜﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺲ(؟ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﳋﻤ ِﺮ ﺍﶈﺮ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫)ﺍﳌِﺴﻜﲔ( ﻭ)ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹸﻮﺏ( ﻭ)ﺍﳌﹸﻔِﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﶈ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺫﺭﻳﻌ ﹲﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻷﺻﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﳋﺒﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﻴ ِﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ؟ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ ﺷﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺐ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ آﺮاهﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻌِﺸﺎء ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺘﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺻ‪‬ﻼِﺗﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻻ ﻭ‪‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀُ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ج‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻐِﻠ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٦٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٧٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٦٧/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٤٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٧٤‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫)‪.(٥٠٩ ،٤٧٤ ،٤٦٤ ،٣١٦ ،٢٧٢ ،٢٥٩ ،٢٣٩/٢‬‬


‫‪٢٢٣‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﺢِ‪َ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ()‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻮ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﻮﹰﺍ()‪ (٢‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﺎﺳﺦ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺧﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﺘﻌﺬﱢﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﺭ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟ ﹸﻜﻠﱢﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺳ‪‬ﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﺸ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻭﺃﹸﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ج ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗ‪‬ﻬﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺠﺮﺍﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺸﺄ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻭﺗﺄﺧ ِﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻔﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪‬ﺃ ﲟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪‬ﺃ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ِﻪ()‪ (٣‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺛﺮ‪ [٢ :‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﱢﻞ ِﻟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ (‬ﺗﻘﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﻼ ﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﺧﲑﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺳﻴﻄﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻄﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺯﻛﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱠﻰ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ [١٤-١٣ :‬ﻭﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺰﻛﱠﻰ * ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ِﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ واﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻷﻟﻔﺎظ‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺧِﻄﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻷُﻣﺘﻪ ﺃﺣﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﹶﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲨﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻄﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻌ‪‬ﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺨ‪‬ﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﳉﻔﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻐِﻠﻈﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﹸﺤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺘﻔﺤ‪‬ﺸﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻈﱠﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﻮ ﹸﻥ ﰲ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٦/٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٦٤٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢٧٠/١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٧٠٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٧٩/٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٤٣٧‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪.(١٣١/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٢١٨‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪ ،(٣٧٢/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٨٦٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٩٠٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫)‪ ،(٢٣٩/٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٠٧٤‬‬


‫‪٢٢٤‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﰲ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﳌﹶﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻤِﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻓﻖ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ( ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹾﻄ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ()‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ ﺷﺠﺮ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻌِﻨﺐ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬ﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﰉ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﻜﹶﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻐﻴﲑﻩ ﻻﺳﻢ ﺃﰉ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﰉ ﺷﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﰉ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫)ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻜ ‪‬ﻢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣِﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﺴﻴ‪‬ﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺴﻴﺪﺗﻪ‪ :‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﺘِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻭﹶﻓﺘ‪‬ﺎﺗِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻮ ‪‬ﻙ‪ :‬ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﳌﻤﻠﻮ ِﻛ ِﻪ‪ :‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪِﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜِﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﳌﺎِﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺭﻓِﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻃﺒِﻴﺒ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘﻬ‪‬ﺎ( ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴ‪‬ﺪﺗﻰ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳌﻦ ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻋﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ‪) :‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻫِﻠﻮﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻟﻪ ِﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺸﺊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺣﻜﻴﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺖ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳋﻄِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺼ ِﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺪ ﹶﻏﻮ‪‬ﻯ‪) :‬ﺑﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻓﹸﻼﻥﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜِﻦ ﻗﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹲﻥ()‪ ،(٦‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ ِﺷﹾﺌﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘﻨِﻰ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ِﻧ ‪‬ﺪﺍﹰ؟ ﻗﹸﻞ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪.(٧)(‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭِﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺴِﺒﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱃ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﻛﱢﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﻣِﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺗِﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻕ ِﻧ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺃﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻨﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﹸﻗﺒ‪‬ﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﱴ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎِﺋﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺷﺌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺷﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٧٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٤٧ ،٣٤٦/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٥٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٢٢٧ ،٢٢٦/٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٤٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٧٥‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٤٩٦ ،٤٤٤/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٢٠٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(١٦٣/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٨٧٠‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٠٩٩‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٧٩ ،٢٥٦/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٨٠‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٩٨ ،٣٩٤ ،٣٨٤/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٤٧ ،٢٨٣ ،٢٢٤ ،٢١٤/١‬‬


‫‪٢٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻍ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼﹶ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﰒ ﺷﺎ َﺀ ﻓﻼﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺐ اﻟﺪهﺮ‬

‫ﻅ ﺍﻟﺬ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻴﻪ ج‬ ‫ﺴﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﻟﻔﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﺪ‪ ‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪) :‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫﺮ‪ِ ،‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴﺪِﻯ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻗﻠﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆﺫِﻳﲎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ )ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ِﺮ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﻣﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺳﺒ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺄﻫ ٍﻞ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻫ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺛﻼ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣِﻦ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻘﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻷﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺬﱠﻟ ﹲﻞ ﻟﺘﺴﺨﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺬ ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺳﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﺘﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺳﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻈﻨ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﻳﻨﻔﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﱂ ﻗﺪ ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﹶﺎﺀَ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﳊِﺮﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺷﺎﲤﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻇﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻌﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻓﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﻠﻌﻨﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺒﻴﺤِﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺳﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﺜﲑ ﹲﺓ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻘ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺍ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺅ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣ ِﻤﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨﻮ‪‬ﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀَﻫﻢ ﻟﻔﺴﺪ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻰ ﺍﳌﺎِﻧﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﺎِﻓﺾ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﳌ ِﺬﻝﱡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﺣﻘﻴﻘ ِﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺴﺒ‪‬ﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺪﻫﺮ ﻣﺴﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺆﺫ‪‬ﻳ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﹶﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺩﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺪ‪ ‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺎﻟﹶﻰ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆﺫِﻳﲎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩﻡ‪‬؛ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺳﺒ‪‬ﻪ ِﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧٠/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٩٦٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٨٩/١٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٤٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٢٧٤‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫)‪.(٢٧٢ ،٢٣٨/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٦٦ ،٤٦٥/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٤٦‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪ ،(٩٨٤/٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫)‪.(٣١٨ ،٢٧٥ ،٢٧٢ ،٢٥٩/٢‬‬


‫‪٢٢٦‬‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ج‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ‪ :‬ﺗ ِﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏﺮ‪ ‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﺖِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﻮﺗِﻰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ِﻣﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﱡﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﹶﻠﻌ‪‬ﻨﹰﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺰﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺒ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺮﺣﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺃﱏ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻠﺘﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﺗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻏﻮﺍﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﻪ ﺷﻰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﲰﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴﺬ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻔﻊ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻏﻴﻆ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮل اﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺧﺒﺜﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻰ‬

‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻴ‪‬ﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ) :‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﹶﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﳋﹸﺒﺚ ﳌﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺧﹸﻠﻘﹸﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺮﻩ ﳍﻢ ﻟﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ()‪ (٢‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﳘﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﹶﻏﹶﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻨ‪‬ﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺠﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﺄﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪) :‬ﻟﹶﻮ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ(‬ ‫ﻭﻣِﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻴﻪ ج ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ( ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ )ﻟﻮ( ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺢ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻛﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﻌﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ( ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺪﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﺋﺪ ﹰﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻔ‪‬ﺘﻨِﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﺗﲎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﺃﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒِﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘِﻴﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹾﺜ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﺑـ )ﻟﻮ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺿﻤﻦ )ﻟﻮ(‬ ‫ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﺭﻩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﻗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﺷﺎﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٨٥)(٤٩٨٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٦٥ ،٧١ ،٥٩/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٦٥/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٥١‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪،٢٣١ ،٢٠٩ ،٦٦ ،٥١/٦‬‬ ‫‪.(٢٨١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٦٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٧٩‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٧٠ ،٣٦٦/٢‬‬


‫‪٢٢٧‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺧﻼﻓﹶﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﺭِﻩ ﻭﻣﺸﻴﺌﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺃﱏ ﻓﻌﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﹾﻀ ‪‬ﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺧﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﹶﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺤﺎﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ‪‬ﺳِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺬﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ‪ ،‬ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺟﻬ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﺎ ﹶﻗﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺃﱏ ﻓﻌﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﺪﻓﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲤﻨ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻟﻠ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﻭﻻ ﺟ‪‬ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ‪ ،‬ﻻﻧﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻭﻗﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ‪‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻌﻀ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻓﻊ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻼﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﻗﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹲﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ ﺃﻭ ﲣﻔﻴﻔﻪ ﺑ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹶﻞ ﻓﻌﻠﹶﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﳜﻔﻒ ﺃﺛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻣﻄﻤﻊ ﰲ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻋﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﳏﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳﻠﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺒﺒﺎﺗِﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤﺐ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻴﺲ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺭﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺷﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺗﻔﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﲑِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻤ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻌ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﱏ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃِﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ ﻭ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﻓﻌﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﹶﻠﻊ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﺒﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺰﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ج ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﻣﻔﺘﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻏﹶﻠ‪‬ﺒﺔﹸ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎﻝِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺼﺪﺭ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻛﹸﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ )ﻟﻮ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪) :‬ﻓﺈﻥ )ﻟﻮ( ﺗﻔﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ( ﻓﺎﳌﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﻓﻠﺴﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻟﻴﺲِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺷﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﲎ ﺭﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻰ ﹸﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺠِﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻋﻤﺎ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱴ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ِﻌﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘ ‪‬ﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻤﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺗﻪ ‪ -‬ج ‪ -‬ﺃﹸﺻﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﻓﺮﻭﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺒﺎ ِﺩﻳ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﻏﺎﻳﺎﺗِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺍ ِﺭﺩ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲦﺎﱏ ﺧﺼﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﺧﺼﻠﺘﲔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺰ ِﻥ()‪ (١‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﻨﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٤٩ ،١٤٨/١١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٨٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢٥٨ ،٢٥٧/٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬

‫=‬


‫‪٢٢٨‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺰﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻤﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ ِﺪﺙﹸ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺪِﺙ ﺍﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﺰﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺿﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻓﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺣﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻟﺒﺎﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﺧ ﹸﺬ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺣﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳚﺰﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻠﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻦ ﲜ‪‬ﻨ ٍﺔ ﺣﺼﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺃﹸﻫﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻼﺋﻘﺔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﺪﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺄ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻄﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺑﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺭﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳛﺐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺰﻥﹸ ﻻ ﻳﻨ ﹶﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﻀ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺿﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ِﺪ ﻭﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺘﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻌﻔﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻮﻫﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻮﻻﻥ ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻌ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻄﻌﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻃﺮﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻜﺴﺎﻧﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻮﻗﹶﺎِﻧ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‪‬ﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻛﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ‪ ،‬ﴰﱠﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺳﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﺣِﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ِﻘﻔﹶﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻋﺎﻗﻪ ﺍﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺰﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻬﻮﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻀﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺷﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻠﱠﻂ ﻫ ﹶﺬﻳ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺿﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭ ﹶﻏ ِﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻮﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔِﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﲑ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﻤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷُﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍ ِﻥ ﻭﺍﻵﻻﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺷﻬﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﺮﺩِﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺤﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﲑ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻈﱡﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺤﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺨﻠﱠﺺ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺧﻮﺍﻃِﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﻭﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷُﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﳏﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﳏﻞ ﺩﺑﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﻬﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺫ ﹾﻛﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺧﻮﻓﹸﻪ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﺅ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻣﱴ ﻓﻘﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﹸﻮ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﻗِﻮﺍﻡ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻻﻡ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻫﻰ ﺃﻋﻈ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺿِﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﺴﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻼ ِ‬ ‫ﻍ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺣﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺻِﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫=‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(٢٤٠ ،٢٢٦ ،٢٢٠ ،١٥٩ ،١٢٢/٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(١٥٥٥‬‬


‫‪٢٢٩‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﺮِﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫَ‪‬ﻴﹶﺄﻩ‪ ‬ﻟﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺤﻤﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﲝﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﹸﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﺎﻧِﻊ ﳌﺎ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﻌ ِﻄ ‪‬ﻰ ﳌﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻋﺒﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﲟﻨﻌﻪ ﻇﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﻨﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻟِﻴﺘﻮﺳ‪‬ﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲟﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻴﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺘﻀﺮ‪‬ﻉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺬﻟﱠﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻤﻠﱠﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﻄﻰ ﻓﻘﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺫ ‪‬ﺭ ٍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﹶﺫﺭ‪‬ﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨ ِﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ِﺓ ﻓﺎﻗﺔ ﺗﺎﻣ ﹰﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﹸﺐ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﻘﺼﹰﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺧﺰﺍﺋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺜﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﳏﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲞ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺠﺒ‪ ‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻜﺴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﻟﲑﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟِﻴﻌﺰ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﺎﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﺬﻟﱡ ِﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴ‪‬ﻐﻨﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴ‪‬ﺬﻳﻘﹶﻪ ﲟﺮﺍﺭ ِﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﺣﻼﻭ ﹶﺓ ﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴ‪‬ﻠﺒﺴﻪ ﺧﻠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﻟﱢﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺸ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻗﹸﺪﺭﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲪﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺰﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﻟﻄﻔﹶﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟﻴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺰ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺷﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﻬﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻨﻌﻪ ﻋﻄﺎﺀٌ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺰﻟﹶﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﳏﺒ ﹲﺔ ﻭﻋﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻴ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺋﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺋ ‪‬ﻖ ﻳﺴﻮﻗﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻗﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﲪﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﺃﻗﺎﻣﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺚ ﳚﻌ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﻗ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﻄﺎِﺋ ِﻪ ﻭﻓﻀﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﻄﱠﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﻪ ِﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﱢﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺆ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬﻢ ِﺑ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﺚ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻟ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ﴿ ‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑِﺎﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎﻛِﺮﺑ ‪‬ﻦ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،[٥٣ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﲟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﻨﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎ ﱢﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎ ﱢﻝ ﺍﳊِﺮﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺤﻤﺪﻩ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﲝﻤﺪﻩ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺭﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﳌﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻟﱡ ِﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻠﱡﻘﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻋﻄﺎﺀﺍﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺷﻐﻠﻪ ﻋﻄﺎﺅﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎ ُﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻘﱢﻪ ﻣﻨﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞﱡ ﻣﺎ ﺷﻐﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺸﺆﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞﱡ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌ ﹸﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻴﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣ ﹶﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲣﺎ ﹶﺫ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﻧ‪‬ﺘﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻟﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻠِﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﺮ‪ [٢٩ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻧِﺴﺒﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺭﻭﺣِﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻰ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺭﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬


‫‪٢٣٠‬‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﺎﻋﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻤﺤﻠﱡﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑ ٍﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺇﻧﺎﺀ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺀُ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﻧﺎﺀٍ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﻊ ﺑﺎﳊِﺮﻣ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﻮﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻞِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺰﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺠ ِﺰ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﳘﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺨﻠﱡ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻛﻤﺎ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﺻﻼ ِﺣ ِﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟِﻌﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺘﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻠﹸﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ ﺑﺒﺪﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﱭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ ﲟﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﻠﺒﺘﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻏﻠﺒﺔ ﲝﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻏﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻠﺒﺔ ﺑﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻏﻠﺒ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞﱡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﲦﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴ ِﺢ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻴﺲِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻏﹶﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻛِﻴﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﻧِﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻴ ﹸﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺠﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻛِﻴ ﹸﻞ()‪ ،(١‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛﻴ‪‬ﺴﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﻴ‪‬ﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻀﻰ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺼﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻓﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻴﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤ ﹸﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱠﰒ ﻏﹸِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﺘﺮﻛِﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﺘﺮ ِﻙ ﺷﺊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﻛﻴﻞﹸ)‪ (٢‬ﻓﻮﻗﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟ ﹶﻘﻮ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤ ﹸﺔ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺕ ﰲ ﻣﻈﺎﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺛﱠﺮﺕ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗ‪‬ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﺎﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﹸﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪ ﳌﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺼﺮﺍﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﹸﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻓﺎﺧﺸﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺠﻬﺰﻭﺍ ﻭﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻄﹶﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻴ ﹸﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﻮﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ﱠﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺛﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠِﻤﺔ ﺃﺛ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﺒ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ِﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺐ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪ ،[٣-٢ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﱠﻛ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺟﹰﺎ * ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺯ‪ ‬ﹾﻗﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻴﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻮﻛﱠﻞ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱠ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ [١١ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺐ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺠﺰ ﳏﺾ‪،‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٦٢٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٢٥ ،٢٤/٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٧٢/٨‬‬


‫‪٢٣١‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺗﻮﻛﱡﻞ ﻋﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺗﻮﻛﱡﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﺑﻨﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﺰﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻌ ﹶﻞ ﻋﺠﺰ‪‬ﻩ ﺗﻮﻛﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺗﻮﻛﱡﻠﹶﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳِﺘ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺯﻋﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛ ﹶﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻑ ﰲ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻄﱠﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘ ﹼﻞ ﻛﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺘﻬﺎ ﺣِﻜﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﺿﻌ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺒ‪‬ﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻗﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻂ ﻭﻋﺠﺰ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻄﱠﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻛﱡﻠﹸﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻇﻨﻮﺍ ﻗﻮﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻛﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺻﻴ‪‬ﺮﻭﻩ ﳘﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﹸﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﺿ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻫﻮ ﳏﻞﱡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﺑﺈﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ ﺟﺎﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺷﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛ ﹶﻞ ﳏﻠﱡﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻟﹸﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﺍﳊﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒِﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﰲ ﺯﺭﻋﻪ ﻭﺇﻧﺒﺎﺗِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﱡﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻀﻌ‪‬ﻒ ﺗﻮﻛﱡﻠﻪ ﺑﺘﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﲣﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﻛﱡﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﰲ ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻛﱡﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮ ِﺯ ﺑﺜﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﺮﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺻﺎﺣِﺒﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﻛ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻂِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﺮﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻛﱢﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻘﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﺍﻩ ﻓﻌ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻋﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺒ‪‬ﺒﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ‪‬ﺭﺍﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱴ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻧﺎﻟﺖ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺎﻟﺘﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻗﻮ ﹸﺓ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻮ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﳍﻢ ﻭﻛﻔﺎﻳﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﻭﺩﻓﺎﻋ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﳐﺬﻭﻟ ﹲﺔ ﻋﺎﺟﺰﺓ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﹼﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﹶﻒ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮ‪ ‬ﹸﺓ ﻛﻞﱡ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﺓ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻮﻛﱢﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﺺ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﺺ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻤﻊ ﲢﻘﻘﻪ‬ ‫‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻪ ﳐﺮﺟﹰﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻣﺎ ﺿﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺣﺴﺒ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺃﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻏﺎﻳ ﹸﺔ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻴ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﻌ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒ ﹸﺬ ﹶﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﻬﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻳﻨﻔﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴ‪‬ﺐ ﻭﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳛﺮ ‪‬‬


‫‪٢٣٢‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒِﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻴ ﹸﻞ( ﲞﻼﻑ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺠﺰ ﻭﻓﺮ‪‬ﻁ ﺣﱴ ﻓﺎﺗﺘﻪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻘﺎﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﻛﻴ ٌﹸﻞ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳﻠﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻛﱠﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟ ﱢﺬآْﺮ‬

‫ﱮ ج ﺃﻛﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ِﺫﻛﹾﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﹼﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻼﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﻛﻠﱡ ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺫِﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﻭ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ ِﺫﻛﹾﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ِﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺧﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲰﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻِﻔﺎﺗِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎ ِﻣ ِﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻋﺪِﻩ ﻭﻭﻋﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺫِﻛﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻨﺎﺅ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺂﻻﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺠﻴﺪ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﲪﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﺗﺴﺒﻴﺤ‪‬ﻪ ﺫﻛﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺆﺍﻟﹸﻪ ﻭﺩﻋﺎﺅﻩ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺭﻫﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺫِﻛﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻜﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﺻﻤﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺫِﻛﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻘﻠﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﹼﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ِﺫ ﹾﻛﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠًﱠ ِﻪ ﳚﺮﻯ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻔﺎﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻣﺸﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻛﻮﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﻭﻟِﻪ ﻭﻇﻌﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﺃﺣ‪‬ﻴﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺸ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺐ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ‪‬ﻴﻞِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ( ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ِﻩ( ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ) ،‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍ ﹶﳌِﻠ ِ‬ ‫) ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺿِﻴ ِﻖ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿِﻴ ِﻖ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ(‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻠﱠ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻔِﺘﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﻆ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻞ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻀﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻘ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻍ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠﺒِﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻨِﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺩﻧِﻰ ِﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ِﺰ ﹾ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ِﻟ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻧﺒِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺫﻛﺮﳘﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻟِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻴ‪‬ﻞ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ٍﺊ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌِﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴ ِﻢ( ‪ -‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻏﻔِﺮ ﻟِﻰ ‪ -‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٩٧/١١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤١٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٤٩‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪،(٣٨٨٠‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٤٠٧ ،٣٩٩ ،٣٩٧ ،٣٨٧ ،٣٨٥/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٨٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢٠٩/٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٦١‬‬


‫‪٢٣٣‬‬ ‫ﻼﺗ‪‬ﻪ()‪ (١‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﹸِﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺩﻋﺎ ﺑﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ - ،‬ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘﺠِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﺒﻴِﺘ ِﻪ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻘﻆﹶ‪ ،‬ﺭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻪ‪ ‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﳋﹶﻮﺍﺗِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺓ )ﺁ ِﻝ ِﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻥ(‪﴿ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﰲ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ِﻖ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻵﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺽ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ [١٩٠ :‬ﺇﱃ ﺁ ِﺧﺮِﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓِﻴ ِﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪ ‬ﻙ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓِﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻗﻴ‪ ‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ‬ ‫ﳉﻨ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨِﺒﻴ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱠ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﳍِﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌِﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴ ِﻢ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻴ ِﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺸﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺓِ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺽِ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ِﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺍﺋِﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻣِﻴﻜﹶﺎﺋِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ‪‬ﺳﺮ‪‬ﺍﻓِﻴﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘِﻠﻔﹸﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﺇ ‪‬ﻫ ِﺪﻧِﻰ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧﺘ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ‪‬ﻙ ﻓِﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘِﻴ ٍﻢ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬﺪِﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ِ‬ ‫ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﺘِﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﺬﹶﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻭﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺧﺘﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﻩ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﹶﺮﺍ ِﻏ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺱ( ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻟﹶﺜ ِﺔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺪ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺑِﻘﻮﻟِﻪ‪ ) :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﳌِﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻣِﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱠ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺧ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ( ‪‬ﺣﺪِﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺃ ِﺯﻝﱠ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺯﻝﱠ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻇِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺃ ﹾﻇﹶﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ِ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱠ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﺝ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘ ِﻪ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ج‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑِﺎﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﺪِﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹸﻔِﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭ‪‬ﻗِﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٣/٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤١١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٦٠‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٨٧٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٧٧ ،١٧٦/٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩١)(٧٦٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٩١ ،٣١٥/١٣) ،(٣ ،٢/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٧٦٩‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٥٨/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٧٧٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤١٦‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(١٣٥٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٤٣٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢٣٥/٣‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(١٢٣/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٢٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٩٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٢٨٥/٨‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٨٨٤‬‬


‫‪٢٣٤‬‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﻣﺒﻴﺘﻪ ﻋِﻨﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺻ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ﰲ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠﺒِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ﰲ ِﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻌِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺼﺮِﻯ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠﻔِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎﻣِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﻗِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ‬ ‫‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺤﺘِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻈ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟِﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭﹰﺍ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳋ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺭﻯ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﹸﻀﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺯﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻄﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻮﻓِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺳﻌﻴ ٍﺪ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﺓ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧِﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﹶ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘ ِﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭ‪‬ﺳﻮﻝﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﺃﺷ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﺭﻳ‪‬ﺎﺀً‪،‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻤﺸ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎِﺋِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﺖ‪ ‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ِﻘ ﹶﺬﻧِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺨ ِﻄﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑِﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﺎِﺗﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻭﻛﱠ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻟﻰ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮﺑِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﱡﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻬ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﻀِﻰ ﺻ‪‬ﻼﺗ‪‬ﻪ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﹶﻠ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ج ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴﻢِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟِﻴﻢِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭِﺑ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻬ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ِﺮﱘِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎِﻧ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ِﺪﱘِ‪ِ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺳ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺣ‪ِ ‬ﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ج ‪‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺢ‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ج‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻚ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻀِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤِﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺝ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟِﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﺁِﻟ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱠﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﺁِﻟ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤِﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ ﺫﻧﻮﰉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﻟِﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻀِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠﻢ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮﺑِﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻓﺘ‪‬ﺢ ﻟِﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬﻛﹸﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﰲ ﻣ‪‬ﺼﻼﱠﻩ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺗﻄﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﺟﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٢٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٩٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٩٩ ،٩٨/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩١) ،(٧٦٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٧٧٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٢١/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٦٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٦٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻮﺍﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٧٧٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٧١٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(٢٨٣ ،٢٨٢/٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣١٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٧٧١‬‬


‫‪٢٣٥‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺸ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ()‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ً‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴﻮ‪‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮﺫﹸ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ‪ (...‬ﺇﱃ ﺁ ِﺧ ِﺮ ِﻩ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﻗﹸﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ ‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﺭﺿ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﱏ ِﺑ ﹶﻜِﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑ‪‬ﻜ ٍﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ‬ ‫ﺸﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺽِ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻠِﻴ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎﻟِﻜﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑِﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ٍﻢ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺷﺮ‪‬ﻛﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺃ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻧ‪‬ﻔﺴِﻰ ﺳ‪‬ﻮﺀﹰﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪ (٣‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ‬ ‫ﺡ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ٍﺔ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ج‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﰲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤِﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ -‬ﹶﺛ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ِﻪ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٌﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺷﻰ‪‬ﺀ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻡ ﺩِﻳ‪‬ﻨﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑِﺎﻹ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ‪ :‬ﺭﺿِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻭ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺿ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ (‬ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﻧِﺒ‪‬ﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣﻘﱠﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﺑﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺪﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬﺪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻭ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﻻ ﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻥﱠ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻼِﺋ ﹶﻜ‪‬ﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻤِﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹶﻔﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻦِ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ِﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹶﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﻋ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻌﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٣٨٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٦٨‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٨٦٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٧٥)(٢٧٢٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٣٨٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٦٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٣٨٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٨٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٤٧٤)(٤٤٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٣٨٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٧٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٦٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ )‪ ،(١٢٠١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٣٤٩٥‬‬


‫‪٢٣٦‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺑِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺑﺄ ‪‬ﺣ ٍﺪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ِﻘﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﺷ‪ ‬ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻣﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ِﻤ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﺷ‪ ‬ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠِﺘ ِﻪ()‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ِﻣﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎِﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ ‪ِ ‬ﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎﻟِﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﻓِﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺩِﻳﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵ ِﺧﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍﺗِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎﺗِﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﺣ‪‬ﻔ ﹾﻈﻨِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠﻔِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺤﺘِﻰ( ﺻﺤﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹸﺃ ﹾﻏﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳝﻴﲎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺷﻤ‪‬ﺎﻟِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﻗِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﻤِﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﻭﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛﺘ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻫﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ِﻣﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟِﺒﻌﺾ ﺑﻨﺎِﺗ ِﻪ‪) :‬ﻗﹸﻮﻟِﻰ ِﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌِﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴﻢِ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺄ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ِﺑ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ِﻋﻠﹾﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ﻗﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒ ‪‬ﺢ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻆ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ ﺣ‪ِ ‬ﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ِ ‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻆ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﺣ‪ِ ‬ﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ِ ‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻤﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻛﻼﹶﻣﹰﺎ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹸ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪) :‬ﺃ ﹶﻻ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻋﱢﻠﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﹶﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻗﹸﻞ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ(؟ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳉﹸ‪‬ﺒ ِﻦ‬ ‫ﺴﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺰ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺰﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏﹶﻠ‪‬ﺒ ِﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻝ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻠﺘ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﳘﱢﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻀًﻰ ﻋﲎ ‪‬ﺩﻳ‪‬ﲎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻛِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ ﺍﻹﺧ‪‬ﻼﺹِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩِﻳ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻧِﺒ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﻓ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٧٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪.(٢٣٦١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٧٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٨٧١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٨٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٧٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(١٥٥٥‬‬


‫‪٢٣٧‬‬ ‫ﲔ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮ ِﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠِﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣﻠﱠ ِﺔ ﺃﺑِﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﻨِﻴﻔﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :‬ﻭﺩﻳﻦ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤ‪‬ﺪ ج( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻬ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪) :‬ﺃﺷﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ج‬ ‫ﳋ ﹶﻄ ِ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﺋِﺮﻩ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻋﻈ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻠﱠﻒ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺳ‪‬ﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﱮ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍ ُﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺇﱃ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ِﻪ‪ :‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻌِﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭﺻِﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬ ﹶﻛﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟِﻔﺎﻃﻤﺔ ﺍﺑﻨﺘ ِﻪ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻌ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻰٌ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗﻴ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻚ ﺃﺳﺘﻐﻴﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﻠﺢ ﱃ ﺷﺄﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ِ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟِﻰ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ِﻜ ﹾﻠﻨِﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺴﻰ ﻃﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ٍﻦ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪) :‬ﻗﹸﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟِﺮﺟﻞ ﺷﻜﺎ ﺇﻟﻴ ِﻪ ﺇﺻﺎﺑ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻵﻓﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٌﺀ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎﻟِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻋﻠﹾﻤﹰﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﻓِﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﺭﺯ‪‬ﻗﹰﺎ ﹶﻃﻴ‪‬ﺒﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﹶﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪‬ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺓِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎِﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎِﻓ‪‬ﻴ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺳ‪‬ﺘﺮٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺗ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺫﻟِﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣﻘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ِﻪ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳِﺘﻢ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ‪ :‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻭ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﰲ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪ -‬ﹶﻛﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺵ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪ -‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟﹶﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺗ‪‬ﻮ ﱠﻛ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪ ‬ﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﻪ‪ ‬ﻣﺼِﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺕ ﰲ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻝ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﻩِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﺗ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜِﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒ ‪‬ﺢ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒﻪ‪ ‬ﻣﺼِﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺁ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ِﻩ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﺗ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٤٠٧ ،٤٠٦/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،(٥٤٥/١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٤٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٥٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٩٢٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺹ)‪.(١٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪ ،(٧٠‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٨١‬‬


‫‪٢٣٨‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﺄ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺵ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴﻢِ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ﱠﻛ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ ،‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌِﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴﻢِ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ٍﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ِﺑﻜﹸ ﱢﻞ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ِﻋﻠﹾﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘِﻴ ٍﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﹶﺪ ﻗِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻷﰉ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ‪ :‬ﻗ ِﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﺘ‪‬ﻚ‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻴِﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِ‬ ‫ﺁ ِﺧ ﹲﺬ ِﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﲰﻌﺘ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ج‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﻟِﻴﻔﻌﻞ‪ِ ،‬ﻟ ﹶﻜِﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﻨِﻰ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺳﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳِﺘ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹶﺎ ِﺭ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ُﺀ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ُﺀ ِﺑ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻧﺒِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ ﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﹸﺬﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑِﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤِﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﻗِﻨﹰﺎ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻣﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻣﻮﻗِﻨﹰﺎ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠِﺘﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ِﻩ ‪ -‬ﻣِﺎﹶﺋ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ٍﺓ ‪ -‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻰ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻭ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫)ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹶﻞ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﻣﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺯ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﹶﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ِﺑﹶﺄ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪ :‬ﹶﻻ ﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻛ ِﻌﺪ‪‬ﻝ ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮ ِﺭﻗﹶﺎﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ﺎﺭﻩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺎﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒ ‪‬ﺢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟِﻴﻢِ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻓ ِﻤﹾﺜﻞﹸ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ :‬ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟﹶﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﺣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ﺮ ِﺭﻗﹶﺎﺏٍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﻣِﺎﹶﺋ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺓٍ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺯﹰﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣِﺎﹶﺋﺔﹸ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣﺎﺋ ﹸﺔ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻛﹸِﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹶﻞ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪. (‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺑﹶﺄ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٥٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٨٤ ،٨٣/١١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٧٣/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٩٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٩١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٧٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٣٨٦٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٦٠/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٦٩ ،١٦٨/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٩١‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪ ،(٢٠٩/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫)‪.(٣٤٦٤‬‬


‫‪٢٣٩‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ( ﻭﻏﲑ ِﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪ -‬ج ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﱠﻢ ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ِﻪ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺻﺒﺎﺡ‪) :‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻝٍ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﹶﻠ ﹾﻔﺖ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣِﻠﻒٍ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭﺕ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﺬﺭٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤﺸِﻴﹶﺌﺘ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻛﹶﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹸﻛﻠﹼﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ِﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﺄ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ِﺑﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﱠﻠ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ٍﺓ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻘﻨِﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻠِﻤﹰﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭ‪‬ﻟﲕ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﱠﻓﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻝ ﻭﺍﻹ ﹾﻛﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﳉﹶ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺫﹶﺍ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤﺎﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺷﻬِﻴﺪﹰﺍ ‪ِ -‬ﺑﹶﺄﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ‬ ‫ﳊﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺓ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﻙ ‪ -‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﻔﹶﻰ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ‪‬ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟﻘﹶﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ِﻜ ﹾﻠﻨِﻰ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ِﻜ ﹾﻠﻨِﻰ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﺚﹸ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺒ‪‬ﻮﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺁِﺗ‪‬ﻴ ﹲﺔ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﻄِﻴﹶﺌﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻻ ﺃِﺛﻖ‪ ‬ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤِﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮﺑِﻰ ﹸﻛﱠﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ٍﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧ ٍ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺣِﻴﻢٍ‪. (‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﹸﺬﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟ ﱢﺬآْﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻟﺒﺲ اﻟﺜﻮب وﻧﺤ ِﻮ ِﻩ‬

‫ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ج ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﺛﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋِﻤﺎﻣﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻤﻴﺼﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ِﺭﺩ‪‬ﺍﺀً‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺻ‪ِ‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗﻨِﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺻ‪ِ‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ (‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﻛﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧِﻰ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯﹶﻗﻨِﻴ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﺛﻮ‪‬ﺑﹰﺎ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟِﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻝ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﹸﻗﻮ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﹶﻏ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧِﺒ ِﻪ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ( ﻋﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﻛﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧِﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍﺭِﻯ ِﺑ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﺛﻮ‪‬ﺑﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺟﺪِﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟِﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﺃ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﺗِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃ ﹶﲡﻤ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎﺗِﻰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﱠ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(١٩١/٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٤٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٧٦٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٠٢٠‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٠/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ‪.‬‬


‫‪٢٤٠‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓِﻰ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻴ‪‬ﺘﹰﺎ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ِﺣ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ﱠﺢ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ُﻷﻡ‪ ‬ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﳌﺎ ﺃﻟﺒﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‪) :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺑﻠِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧِﻠﻘِﻰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺑﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﻠﻘﻰ ‪ -‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ( ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﺭﺃﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺮ ﺛﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺷﻬِﻴﺪﹰﺍ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺶ ‪‬ﺣﻤِﻴﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﺟﺪِﻳﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻏﺴِﻴ ﹲﻞ(؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻏﺴِﻴﻞﹲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻋﻨﺪ دﺧﻮﻟﻪ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻪ‬

‫ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ج ﻟِﻴﻔﺠﺄ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﺑﻐﺘ ﹰﺔ ﻳﺘﺨ ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺧ ﹸﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ِﻋﻠﹾﻢ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺪﺧﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏﺪ‪‬ﺍ ٍﺀ(؟ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﺳﻜﺖ ﺣﱴ ﳛﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﺴ‪‬ﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﻛﻔﹶﺎﻧِﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻀﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻘﹶﺎﻧِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺁﻭ‪‬ﺍﻧِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﲑﻧِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻷﻧ‪‬ﺲ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺩ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻮﹶﻟﺞِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺞ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ِﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱠ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮﺝِ‪ِ ،‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﻏﹶﺎﺯﻳﹰﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺛﹶﻼﹶﺛ ﹲﺔ ﹸﻛﻠﱡ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺿ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﻩ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏﻨِﻴﻤﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹲﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺿ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻮﻓﱠﺎﻩ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ِﺧﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٥٥٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٥٥٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٣٥٦/١٠) ،(١٦٨/٦) ،(٢٥٦ ،٢٣٦/١٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٨٩/٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٥٥٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١١٥٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪.(١٥٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٦٩٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٩٦‬‬


‫‪٢٤٢‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘ ﹾﻘِﺒﻞﹸ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺪِﺑ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺒﻮ ٍﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺑﻐﺎﺋﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻣﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻴﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻣ ﹸﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﹸﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎ ِﺭﺽ‪ ‬ﳍﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋِﺮﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﺻﺮﻳ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺿﻌﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﺫﹸ ِﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻳﻜﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﺑﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺟﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻓﻌﻠﹸﻮﻫﺎ؟ ﺣﻮ‪‬ﻟﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺗﻰ ِﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ِﻘ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠ ِﺔ( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺭ‪‬ﻭﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺳﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻃﻌﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳﺜِﺒﺘ‪‬ﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻛﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﻻ ﲢﺴﻴﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ( ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻪ ِﻋﻠﱠﺔ ﺃﹸﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻋﻪ ﺑﲔ ﻋﺮﺍﻙ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻔﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﳊﺬﱠﺍﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ِﻋﻠﱠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺟﺎﺑ ٍﺮ‪) :‬ﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺑﺒﻮﻝٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻳﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺒﺾ ﺑﻌﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ()‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﺴﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻞ(‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ‪ -‬ﻳﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻜﻤ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﳌﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﻘﻀﻰ ﺣﺎﺟ‪‬ﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳛﺘ ِﻤﻞﹸ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﹰﺎ ﺳﺘﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﺴ ‪‬ﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻜﺴ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺼ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻪ ج‪،‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(٣٦/٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(١٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٢٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٣٧/٦‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٢٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٩‬‬


‫‪٢٤٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺼ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﺒﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﺑﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻻ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﻀﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﶈ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﲝﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺎﺭ‪‬ﺽ ﺑﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﰉ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﻗﻮ ِﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮ‪‬ﻗﲔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺰ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﳚﻮ ‪‬ﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ؟ ﻭﻻ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﳎﻮ‪‬ﺯﹰﺍ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﺰﻣﻬﻢ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﳛﻮﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﻈﲑﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ ﺗﻜﺮ ‪‬ﱘ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳉﻬﺔ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳐﺘﺼﹰﺎ ﺑﻨﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺃ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ﺣﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﲟﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺟ‪‬ﺪﺭﺍ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻬ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺄﻣﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎل ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺨﺮوج ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﻼء‬

‫ﻚ()‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻼﺀ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻏ ﹾﻔﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻷﺫﹶﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎﻓﹶﺎﻧِﻰ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﺃ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ أذآﺎر اﻟﻮﺿﻮء‬

‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ً) :‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﺆﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳉﺎﺑﺮ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮ ٍﺀ( ﻓﺠﺊ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٠‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٢٦٩/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪.(١٧٤/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٠١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ ﺹ)‪ ،(٢٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )‪ ،(٤٣/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٦١/١‬‬


‫‪٢٤٤‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺮﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺒﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺐ‪ ‬ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟ‪‬ﺎِﺑﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳ‪‬ﻔﻮﺭ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎﺑِﻌﻪ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰉ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻯ ﺭﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻭﺿ‪‬ﻮ َﺀ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﻦ ًﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬﻛﹸ ِﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ(‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮ َﺀ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﹸِﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻧ‪‬ﻴﺔﹸ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﻞﹸ‬ ‫ﺏﺍﹶ‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻬﺪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻮ‪‬ﺍِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ)‪ .(٤‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﲪﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻬﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ()‪ (٣‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ :‬ﱠﰒ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﻣﺨ‪‬ﻠﺪ ﰲ )ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻯ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﲝ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻙ ﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺿ‪‬ﻮِﺋﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﹶﺄ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﹸِﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ﻭﺃﺗ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺵ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭﻃﹸﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑﻄﹶﺎﺑﻊٍ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ‪ِ‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺃﰉ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻯ)‪،(٥‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺮﺍﻏﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻮﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺑﻮﺿﻮ ٍﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻯ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﺄﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻤﻌﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧﺒِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻊ ﻟِﻰ ﰲ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﻟِﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﱮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺘ‪‬ﻚ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺑﻜﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺯﻗِﻰ( ﻓﻘﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ(؟ ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲎ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﲔ ﻇﻬﺮﺍﱏ ﻭﺿﻮﺋﻪ ﻓﺬﻛﺮﻩ)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤١/٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٣٣٠٨/٤) ،(٣٠١٣‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٢٩ ،١٦٥/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٣٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٥٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(١٥١/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪.(٣٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪.(٢٨‬‬


‫‪٢٤٥‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻷذان وأذآﺎرﻩ‬

‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺫﻳﻦ ﺑﺘﺮﺟﻴﻊ ﻭﺑﻐﲑ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﻹﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ﻣﺜﲎ ﻭﻓﹸﺮﺍﺩﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹸﺓ( ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻋﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﻓﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﺜﻨﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻛﻠﻤ ِﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ‪) :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻜﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻷﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻮِﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻹﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ( ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺎﰱ‬ ‫ﺚ‪) :‬ﺃﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼ ﹲﻝ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻊ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺻﺮﳛﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﰉ ﳏﺬﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻓﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎ ُﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻷﺫﺍ ﹸﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺪ ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﹶﺎﻣ ﹸﺔ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﹸﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼﺓﹸ‪ ،‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺼﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻷﺫﹶﺍﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻮِﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻹﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣﺔﹶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪) :‬ﺃﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑِﻼ ﹲﻝ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻹﻗﹶﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻼﺓﹸ‪ ،‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺼﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ‪) :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ ﹸﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﳏﺬﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺜﻨﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻛﻠﻤ ِﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﳎﺰﺋﺔ ﻻ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﰲ ﺷﺊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﺄﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﺄﺫﺍﻥ ﺃﰉ ﳏﺬﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﺄﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﰉ ﳏﺬﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﺧﺬ ﲟﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺴـﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺭﲪﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺪﻭﺍ ﰲ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻷﻣﱠﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟ ﱢﺬ ْآ ِﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻷذان وﺑﻌﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ج ُ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ج ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﱢﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺮﻉ ُﻷﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٦٢/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٦٨ ،٦٧/٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٣٧٨‬‬


‫‪٢٤٦‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﱢﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ(‪،‬‬ ‫)ﺣ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺡ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻟﹸﻬﻤﺎ ﺑـ )ﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ()‪ (١‬ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﳚﺊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳉﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ‪) :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ(‪) ،‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺡ( ﻭﻻ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﻌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ج ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻟﹸﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﻮﻗﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﳍﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘ ِﺔ ﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ِﺫ ﹾﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻌﻠﺔ ﺩﻋﺎ ٌﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﳌﻦ ﲰﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﻫﻰ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱢﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻏﹸ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪. ‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻡ ﺩِﻳ‪‬ﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺭ‪‬ﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﺎﻹ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﹶﺮﺍﻏﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﱢﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻤﻞﹸ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹶﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻹﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﱠﻤﻪ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱡﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺻ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻛﻤ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﲢﺬﻟﻖ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺬﻟﻘﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﻻ‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺳِﻴﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﻀِﻴﹶﻠﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﹾﺜ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣﻘﹶﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﹶﺎِﺋ ‪‬ﻤﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺁ ِ‬ ‫ﺨِﻠﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﳌِﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ()‪ (٣‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﻣﻘﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﳏﻤﻮﺩﹰﺍ( ﺑﻼ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻭﻻ ﻻﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺠ‪‬ﺎﺏ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺄ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹾﻞ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪ -‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﻧﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ( ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪) :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪ -‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨِﻰ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬ﺆ ﱢﺫِﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻪ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻯ ﺍ ﹸﳌﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻯ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻂ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﹶ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻰ ﻻ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ﱢﻞ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎِﻓ ‪‬ﻌﺔِ‪ ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻪ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٧٤/٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٣٨٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٣٨٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢١٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ )‪.(٤١٠/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٢٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٣٧/٣‬‬


‫‪٢٤٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﹶﺎﻟﺖ ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﱠﻤﲎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺗﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻏ ِﻔﺮ‪‬ﱃ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺇ ﹾﻗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴِﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ‪‬ﺩﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ )ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲰﻊ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮ ِﺓ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺠ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ()‪،(٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻓﱠﲎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣِﻴﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺤِﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ج ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻠﻤ ِﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ‪) :‬ﺃﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺃﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻷﺫﹶﺍ ِﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ( ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺳﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﻓِﻴ ﹶﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻉ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﻭﹶﻗﻠﱠﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺘ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓِﻴﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻀ‪‬ﻮ ِﺭ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺪ‪‬ﺍﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺍﻷﺫﻛﺎ ِﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺫﻛﺎﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺼﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻣﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺰﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺣﱴ ﺣ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺒ‪‬ﺢ ﰲ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺭﺍﻓﻌﹰﺎ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻬﻠﱢﻞ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﱠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻹآﺜﺎر ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪﻋﺎء واﻟﺘﻬﻠﻴﻞ واﻟﺘﻜﺒﻴﺮ واﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺸﺮ ذى اﻟ ِ‬

‫ﳊﺠ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮ ﺫﻯ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ج ﻳ‪‬ﻜِﺜﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﰲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﺪ)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٣٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٣٥٨٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ )‪.(٤١١/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٢٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٣٥٨٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٥٤٠‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(١٩٨/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٨٣ ،٣٨١/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٧٥٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٦٣١‬‬


‫‪٢٤٨‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ (١)(‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ‬ﻭِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻣِﻦ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛِﻼﳘﺎ ﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻛ ‪‬ﱪ ﻛﺒﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍَ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺤﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺑ‪‬ﻜﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺃﺻﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﳐﻠﺼﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻛ ‪‬ﱪ( ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭﻋﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺰﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟ ﱢﺬ ْآ ِﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ رؤﻳﺔ اﻟﻬﻼل‬

‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳ‪‬ﻼﻡِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ِﻫﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑِﺎﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﻭﺍﻹﳝ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ()‪ (٢‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺃ ِﻫﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑِﺎ َﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻡ ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻓِﻴ ِﻖ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﳝ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﻭﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼﻝﹸ‬ ‫ﱮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ ) :‬ﻫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺙ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻚ( ‪ -‬ﺛﹶﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼﻝﹸ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺷﺪٍ‪ ،‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺖ‪ ‬ﺑِﺎﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺷﺪٍ‪ِ ،‬ﻫ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺮ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ( ‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﺃﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﺸﻬ ِﺮ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ أذآﺎر اﻟﻄﻌﺎم ﻗﺒﻠﻪ وﺑﻌﺪﻩ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )‪.(٥٠/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٤٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪.(٤/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٩٢‬‬


‫‪٢٤٩‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ( ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﻵﻛﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻳﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬﻛﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﰲ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭِﻟﻪِ‪،‬‬ ‫)ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺬﻛﹸ ِﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﺎﻟﹶﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﰲ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺁ ِﺧ ِﺮ ِﻩ()‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﲔ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺃﲪﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴ ‪‬ﺢ ﻭﺟﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻍ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻳﺴﻮ‪ ‬ﹸ‬ ‫ﺽ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﲨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﻌﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎ ِﺭ ﹸﻛﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺮﻳﻜ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻰ اﷲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ إذا ﻣﺎ آﺎن اﻵآﻠﻮن ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ آﻞ واﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ أن ﻳُﺴ ﱢﻤ َ‬

‫ﻭﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻵﻛﻠﲔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺰﻭ ﹸﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺣﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﺗﺰﻭﻝ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ؟ ﻓﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻟﻶﻛﻞ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻛﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻪ ﺗﺴﻤﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻀﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﺘﻀﻊ ﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧ ﹶﺬ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻃﻌﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺄﳕﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻓﹶﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺑﻴﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﰉ ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻞﱡ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻻ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﺬ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺑِﻬ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﳉﹶﺎ ِﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻞﱠ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﺕ‪ِ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﰉ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻞﱠ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬﺕ‪ِ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺠ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺑِﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ ِﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﹶﻟﻔِﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ( ﰒ ﺫﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺃﻛﻞ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺗﻜﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﺏ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻐ ِﲑ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻛﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤِﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻟﻜﹸﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻏﲑﻩ؟‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝﹶ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﺄﻛ ﹸﻞ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ِﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٨٥٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٣٧٦٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٥٧ ،٤٥٥/٩‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٠٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٠١٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٣٧٦٦‬‬


‫‪٢٥٠‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﰉ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹶﻛﹶﻠﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﹸﻠ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴﻦِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ﹶﻜﻔﹶﺎﻛﹸﻢ()‪ ،(١‬ﻭﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰉ ﻓﺄﻛﻞ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ﹸﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻛﻠﻪ ﻓﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ِﺑﻠﹸﻘﻤﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻔﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺴﺄﻟ ﹸﺔ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ (٢)(‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺤ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻇﺎ ِﻫﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳊﹸﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻵﻛِﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻛﻠﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﲡﹸﺰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﲰ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻤﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ِﻥ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ِﻘﻞﱡ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺑﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛ ﹸﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻘﺮ‪‬ﺃ‪﴿ :‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻍ( ﻭﰱ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﻈﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ‪ [١ :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﹶﻛﺜِﲑﹰﺍ ﻃﻴ‪‬ﺒﹰﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻛﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭ‪ِ‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲎ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨﺎ( ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ)‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻓِﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻜ ِﻔ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ٍ‬ ‫ﲔ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻟﱠﻠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﺃ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻘﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﲟ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺟﹰﺎ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﺃ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻘﹶﻰ ﻭﺳﻮ‪ ‬ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﻛﻔﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺁﻭ‪‬ﺍﻧﺎ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻟﹼﻠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ﻃﹶﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻝ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻮﺓٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻏ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧِﺒ ِﻪ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ)‪.(٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ )‪ (٢٩٢/١) ،(١٨٥٩‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )‪ (٥١٠/١٠‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪.(٤٦٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٥٠٢ ،٥٠١/٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٣٤٥٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﺋﻞ )‪ ،(٢٩٠ ،٢٨٩/١‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )‪ ،(٣٤٥٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٣٨٥٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٣٨٥١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥٠٢/٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٣٤٥٤‬‬


‫‪٢٥١‬‬ ‫ﻍ ﻣِﻦ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ( ﻓﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹲﻃ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ( ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺳ‪‬ﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﺍﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺮﻍ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﺍﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ﺁﺗ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِﻴﻪِ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻃ ِﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧﻴ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺯ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺷﺊ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺠﺰِﺉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﱭ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹶﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹶﺎﺱٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﻔﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜﹸﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺁ ِﺧ ِﺮ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻦ)‪.(٤‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﺲٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫِﻠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺴ ﹾﺄﻟﹸﻬﻢ‪ ) :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ(؟ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﻂﱞ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺃ ﹶﻛﹶﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻛ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻫﻪ‪ ‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻜﹶﺖ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﱏ‬ ‫ﺃﻋ‪‬ﺎﹸﻓ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘﻬِﻴ ِﻪ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﺪﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺃﻫﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻋِﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺧﻞﱞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳋﻞﱡ()‪ ،(٧‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻳﺄ ﹸﻛ ﹸﻞ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ُﻷ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱭ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﺤﻢ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺴ‪‬ﻞ ﻭﺍ ﹶﳌﺮ‪‬ﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﺡ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺣﻀﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﳊﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻟﱭ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺡ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺟﱪﹰﺍ ﻭﺗﻄﻴﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٣٥/٥ ،٦٢/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪.(٤٦٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٥١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٤٧٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪.(٤٧٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧٧/٩‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٦٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٧٣/٩‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٩٤٦‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٣٧٩٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٠٥٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٣٨٢٠‬‬


‫‪٢٥٢‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ‪‬ﻢ()‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﱢﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻯ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﳌﻦ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺗِﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ﻟِﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗﺄ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ِﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟِﺮﺑﻴﺒﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﰉ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﺍﻛِﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‪ ) :‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻛ ﹾﻞ ﳑ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻠﻴﻚ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣِﺮﺍﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺿﻴﺎﻓﻪ ﻋﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ(‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱭ ﻭﻗﻮِﻟ ِﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻣِﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ‪) :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﹶﻜﹰﺎ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ﻻ ﺃﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺑِﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺏ( ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﹶﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺯ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻡ ﱂ ﳜﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪ ‬ﻮ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﰲ ﻣﱰﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﺴﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻓِﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﰲ ﻣﱰﻝ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑ ِﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃ ﹾﻓ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﺋﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹸﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﹶﻼِﺋ ﹶﻜﺔﹸ()‪.(٧‬‬ ‫ﺻﱠﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ج ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻴﻬﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﻠﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻏﹸﻮﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﺛِﻴﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ( ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ؛ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﺛﺎﺑﺘﻪ‪‬؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇﺛﹶﺎ‪‬ﺑﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪.(٨)(‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟ ﹶﻞ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺧ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹸ ِﻛ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ج ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﱰﻟﻪ ﻟﻴﹶﻠﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻤﺲ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ﳚﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٩٨/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٤٣١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥٠٥/٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٥٦ ،٤٥٥/٩‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٢٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٤٦/١١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٤٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٨٥٤‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٣٨/٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ )‪،(٤٩٩ ،٤٩٨/١‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(٢٨٧/٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٣٨٥٣‬‬


‫‪٢٥٣‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻃ ِﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻨِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻘﹶﺎﻧِﻰ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﺒ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ِﻪ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﻤِﻖ ﺳﻘﺎﻩ ﻟﺒﻨﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣِﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺫﹸ ِﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺮﻭ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴﻀ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﳌﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺜﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪) :‬ﺃﻻ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻳﻀِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺻِﺒﻴﺎ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ﹶﺬ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ﺁﺛﺮﺍ ﺑﻘﹸﻮﺗِﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﹸﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺭ ِﺣ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻸﻧﺼﺎﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﻴ ِﻔ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺻﻨِﻴ ِﻌ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪) :‬ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ِ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻻ ﻳ ﹾﺄ‪‬ﻧﻒ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ ﻣﺆﺍﻛﻠﺔ ﺃﺣ ٍﺪ ﺻﻐﲑﹰﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺒﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺣ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﻴﺪ ﳎﺬﻭﻡ ﻓﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﺼﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ِﺛ ﹶﻘ ﹰﺔ ﺑِﺎﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱡ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻛ ﹾﻞ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻛﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِﻪ()‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲢﺮ ‪‬ﱘ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﺏ‪ ‬ﺑ ِ‬ ‫ﺸﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻟﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺄ ﹸﻛ ﹸﻞ ﺑ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻛ ﹶﻞ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺷﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﺸﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺖ( ﻓﻤﺎ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻳﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻛ ﹾﻞ ِﺑﻴ‪‬ﻤﻴِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ)‪ ،(٦‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻔﻌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ِﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﲪﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺑﻠ ﹸﻎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹶﻜﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳚﺘ ِﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹸﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺬﻛﹸﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﳍﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ)‪.(٧‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﹶﲑﺿ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﻛﹸﻞﹸ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ()‪.(٨‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٥٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪.(٤٧٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٨٥ ،٤٨٤/٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٥٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٨١٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٩٢٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٥٤٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٢٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٢١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٧٦٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٣٢٨٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٥٠١/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٧٣٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(١٨١٧‬‬


‫‪٢٥٤‬‬ ‫ﻼﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﺫِﻳﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹸﻢ ِﺑ ِﺬ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﺴ‪ ‬ﻮ ﻗﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﺑﻜﹸﻢ()‪ (١‬ﻭﺃﺣﺮﻯ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ن وﺗﺸﻤﻴﺖ اﻟﻌﺎﻃﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َه ْﺪﻳِﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻼم واﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬا ِ‬

‫ﻼ ِﻡ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﺇ ﹾﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫ‪‬ﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ )ﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄًﱠﻌ‪‬ﺎﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﹶﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ )ﺃﻥ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴﺔﹸ ﹸﺫ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﻳِﺘﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻔ ِﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﹶﻼِﺋ ﹶﻜﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺰ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻭﻩ‪ ) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑِﺈ ﹾﻓﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﺸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﺘﻰ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺤ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺙ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﲨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻹﳝ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ(‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﺛﻼ ﹲ‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻕ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻹ ﹾﻗﺘ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﺬﻝﹸ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ ﻟِﻠﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹ‪‬ﻧﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻹ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﻓﺮﻭﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻮﻓﱠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﺎﻟﺒﻬﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹸﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﻣِﻠﻮﻩ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﻔﻴﻬﻢ ﳑﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻤ‪‬ﻠﻬﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻭ‪‬ﺳﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎ ِﻣﻠﹶﻬﻢ ﲟﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﻜﻢ ﳍﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﲟﺎ ﳛ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧ ﹸﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻧﺼﺎﻓﹸﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺲ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺒﺜﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﺪﻧِﻴﺴﻪ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﻐﲑ ِﻩ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻘﲑِﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺪ‪‬ﻋﻰ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲟﻌﺎﺻﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻜ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻌ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺧﻮِﻓﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎِﺋﻪِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺜﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻣﺮﺿﺎِﺗ ِﻪ ﻭﳏﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺿﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﳏﺎﺑ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ )‪ ،(٤٨٩‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ )‪.(١٩٩/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٥٣ ،٥٢/١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٣٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٥ ،٢/١١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ )‪ ،(٩٨٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٥٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٧٧/١‬‬


‫‪٢٥٥‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻌ ِﺰﹸﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺰﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺒﻪ ﻭﺑ‪‬ﻐﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼ ِﻣ ِﻪ ﻭﺳﻜﻮِﺗﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﺧﻠ ِﻪ ﻭﳐﺮ ِﺟﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧ ﹰﺔ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﳑﻦ ﺫﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧِﺘﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﻫﻮﺩ‪] [١٢١ ،٩٣ :‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪] [١٣٥ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪ [٣٩ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﶈﺾ ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻟﺴﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻟﺴﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﺻﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﹸﻮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺩ‪‬ﻯ ﳒﻤﹰﺎ ﺣ ﱠﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳒ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﺎ‪‬ﺗﺐ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺊ ﻣﻦ ﳒﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻧﺼﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﹶﺔ ﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻘﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺰﺍﺣِﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹶﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻭﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋﻰ ﳍﺎ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ‪ِ‬ﻠ ﹶﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺰﺍﺣﻢ ﻣﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﺳﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻓﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﲟﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻭﻳﺆِﺛﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﺴِﻢ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺮﺍﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﺿِﻴﺰﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣِﺜﻞ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻤ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﻞﹸ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺼ ﹸﻞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ِﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎِﺋﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻟﺸ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻛﺎِﺋ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[١٣٦ :‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪ ‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎِﺋ ِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺷ‪‬ﺮﻛﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﳉﻬﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺧ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻇﻠﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺟﻬﻮ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﹶﻠﺐ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻟﹸ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﳋﹶﺎِﻟﻖ‪‬؟‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ ِ‬ ‫ﺼﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﻑ ﳑﻦ ﻭﺻ ﹸﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ؟‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱃ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯﻝﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺼ ﹾﻔﺘ‪‬ﲎ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮِﻯ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﹶﺛﺮ ﺇﳍﻰ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪) :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ِﻘ ‪‬ﲑ‬ ‫ﱃ ﺑِﺎ ﹶﳌﻌ‪‬ﺎﺻِﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺑِﺎﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌﻢِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏِﻨ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒﺐ‪ ‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﻞ ﹶﻗﺒِﻴ ٍﺢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﱃ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻝ ﺍ ﹶﳌﹶﻠﻚ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ِﺮﱘ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﺝ‪ ‬ﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﹸ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴﺮِﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺯ‪‬ﻗﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﻨِﻰ‪ ،‬ﺧﻠﹶﻘ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺃﺛﹶﺮ ﺁﺧﺮ‪) :‬ﺍﺑ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ(‪.‬‬ ‫ِﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻇﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻗﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟﻈﱡﻠﹾﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌ‪‬ﻰ ﰲ ﺿﺮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻒ‪ ‬ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻈ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻟﺬﱠﺍِﺗﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻇﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻄﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺷﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻇﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﳛﻬﺎ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳉ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺣِﺮﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻈﱠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﻈﻮﻇﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺳ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺳﻴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻈ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻜﱪﻫﺎ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨﻤﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻘﱠﺮﻫﺎ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻈ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻈﱢﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺟﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎ ‪‬‬


‫‪٢٥٦‬‬ ‫ﳑﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻧﺼﺎﻓﹸﻪ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ؟ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﲨﻌﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻟﹶﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺎﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻼﻡ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﻓﺮﻭﻋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺿﻌ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺒ ﹸﺬ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻴﻊِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﻌﺮِﻓﻪ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴ ِﻪ ﻛﱪﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺗِﻴﻬﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﺒ ﹸﺬ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟِﻜﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮ ِﺓ ﺛِﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺨِﻠﻔﹸﻪ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻔﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻳﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻛﱡﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﻫﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺨﺎ ِﺀ ﻧﻔﺲ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺛﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﻋﺪﻩ ﻣﻐﻔﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﻀﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﻮﻋﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﻌﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻼم ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺼِﺒﻴﺔ واﻟﻨﺴﺎء‬

‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ج ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑِﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ)‪ .(١‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﰲ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ( ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻳﻮ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﲜﻤﺎﻋ ِﺔ ﻧﺴﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻟﻮﻯ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‪) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﰲ ﻧﺴﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ(‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻨﺼ ِﺮﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺸ ِﻌ ِﲑ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻮﺯ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻴ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻤﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘ‪‬ﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﳍﻢ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹸﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟ ً‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻮﺯ ﻭﺫﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﺭﻡ ﺩﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٦٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٧/١١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٦٩٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٢٠٤‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٧٠١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٨/١١‬‬


‫‪٢٥٧‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ واﻟﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪ‬

‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ( ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﺗﺴﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻛﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺷﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴ ِﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ( ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺷﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺷﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺷﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋِﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﺍﺭ( ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﱢﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺷﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺃﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ( ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺼﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻷُﻭﻟﹶﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫ﺴ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹶﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻵ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﹾﻥ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣ‪‬ﺒﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﻀﹰﺎ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹲﺓ ﺃﻭ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ِﻘ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹲﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﺲ‪) :‬ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻀﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹲ‪ ،‬ﺗ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳﻤِﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺷﻤ‪‬ﺎﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍِﺋﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺉ ﺑﺮﻛﻌﺘﲔ ﲢﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳚ ﹸﺊ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧِﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻳﺒﺘﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﲢﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﲢﻴﺔ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻫﻮ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﺎﺟ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻵﺩﻣﻰ ﻭﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﳌﺎﱃ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻘﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﺧ ﹸﻞ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺼﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳚﺊﹸ‪،‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٣/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٦٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٧٠٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻊ )‪.(٣٦/٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٢٦٩ ،٢٦٤ ،٢٦١ ،٢٥٤/٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٩٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٢٠٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٠٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ‬ ‫)‪ ،(١٠٠٨)(١٠٠٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٣٩ ،٢٨٧ ،٢٣٠/٢‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﻱ )‪.(١١٦٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٢٠٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٢٤٥‬‬


‫‪٢٥٨‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﻮ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﻟِﺲ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺠ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻳﻮ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭِﻓﺎﻋﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺇﺫ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺪﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﱠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺼﻞﱢ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓﹶﺎﺭ‪‬ﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱠﰒ ﺍﻧﺼ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺼﻞﱠ(‪ ..‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﺄﻧﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻼﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﺄﺧ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ج ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﲢﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﻓ‪‬ﻴﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼ ﹸ‬ ‫ﲔ ﲢﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺧﻮﻟِﻪ‪ :‬ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻳﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﺭﻛﻌﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺴ ِﻤﻊ‪‬‬ ‫)ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﺗﺴﻠِﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻮِﻗﻆﹸ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎِﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻘﻈﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺪء ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼم ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻜﻼم‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﹶﻼﻡ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺁﺧﺮ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﻭﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺆﺍﻝِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺃﻛﹸﻢ‬ ‫ﻼﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻼ ﺗ‪‬ﺠِﻴﺒ‪‬ﻮﻩ‪.(٤)(‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﺆ‪‬ﺍﻝ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺄ ﹶﺫﻥﹸ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺒ‪‬ﺪﹾﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ﹶﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﺒ‪‬ﺪﹾﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٠٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٨٥٩) ،(٨٥٨) ،(٨٥٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٠٥٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٧٠٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ )‪.(٣٠٣/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﺻﺒﻬﺎﻥ )‪.(٣٥٧/١‬‬


‫‪٢٥٩‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻋﻦ ﹶﻛﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺓ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒﻞٍ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺻﻔﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﹸﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺜﻪ ِﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﺒ ٍﻦ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺿﻐ‪‬ﺎِﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺒﺄ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻳ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺳﱢﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﺘ‪‬ﺄ ِﺫﻥﹾ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺑﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍﺩِﻯ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻭﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ج‪) :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﻞ(؟‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻳﺐ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣِﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣِﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﻛﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﺒِﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺴﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﳝﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣَﻦ ﻳﻮاﺟﻬﻪ وﺗﺤﻤﻠﻪ اﻟﺴﻼم ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺋﺐ‬

‫ﺤﻤ‪ ‬ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﳌﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺍﺟﻬﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺒﲔ ﻋﻨﻪ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺒﻠﱢﻐﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﲢﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻳﻘ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺧﺪﳚ ﹶﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺟﱪﻳ ﹸﻞ‪ ) :‬ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ‪‬ﺧ ِﺪ ‪‬ﳚﺔﹸ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖﰲﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ﹶﻄﻌ‪‬ﺎﻡٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﺮﹾﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ( ﻭ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺪﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹶﺔ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ) :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ِﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮِﻳ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﹾﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻻ ﺃﺭ‪‬ﻯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ( ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻧﺘﻬﺎء اﻟﺴﻼم إﻟﻰ‪ :‬وﺑﺮآﺎﺗﻪ‬

‫ﻼ ﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺇﱃ‪) :‬ﻭﺑﺮﻛﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ )ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﹲﺓ( ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟﻠﺲ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ( ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ج ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ ) :‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧١١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥١٧٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٤١٤/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٨٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )‪.(١٨٩٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٠٥/٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٤٣٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٨٣/٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٤٤٧‬‬


‫‪٢٦٠‬‬ ‫)ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ( ﺭﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴﺎﺋﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴ‪‬ﻨﻪ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﻌﺎ ِﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ‪) :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﺗﻰ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺭً‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ( ﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻜﺬﹶﺍ ﺗﻜﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﻀ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ﹸﻞ()‪ .(٢‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻋﻠﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰉ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺳﻬ ﹶﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺗﻪ ﱂ ﳚﺰﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻇ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﱏ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﻞ ﳝ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣِﻦ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺿﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺳﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣ ٍﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﻮ‪‬ﺍﻧ‪‬ﻪ( ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؛ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻚ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻌ‪‬ﲎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹰ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ِﺮﻑ‪ِ ‬ﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺮ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ِﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﻋ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺛﻼﺛًﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج )ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻜﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ﹶﻜِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ﺃﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹰﺎ()‪ ،(٤‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻠﻐ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺇﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻇ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭ ﹶﻝ ﱂ ﳛﺼ‪‬ﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﲰﺎﻉ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﳌﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻣﱰﻝ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺒﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺭﺟﻊ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻤﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻘﻴﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٦٩٠‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٩٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٩٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٢٣٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٢/١١) ،(١٦٩/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٢٤‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(٢٧٣/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ )‪.(١٠٧٣‬‬


‫‪٢٦١‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻳ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠِﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼ ِﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﺎﺭﺿﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺋﻪ ﻣَﻦ ﻟﻘﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼم واﻟﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﺤﻴﺔ ﺑﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ أو أﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻘﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴ ِﻪ ﻣِﺜ ﹶﻞ ﲢﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻟِﻌﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ ِﻤﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺭﺩ‪ ‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺻﺒﻌﻪ ﺇﻻ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺛﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﳚﺊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺸﺊ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏﻄﻔﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﺭﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻼِﺗ ِﻪ ﺇﺷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﺗﻔﹾﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﰲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻼ‪‬ﺗﻪ‪ (١)(‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲎ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏﻄﻔﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺭﺟﻞ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ‬ ‫ج‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﺴﻼم‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ﰲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﹶﻓﻘﹸ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﹶﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮﻯ‪ ‬ﺍﳍﹸﺠﻴﻤ ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﻴﺔﹸ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ( ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ( ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻠﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ( ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏِﻠﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻏﻠﻄﹰﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﳍﻢ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ( ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻫﻢ ﳛﻴ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺗﻰ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٩٤٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ )‪.(٨٣/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٠٨٤) ،(٥٢٠٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٢٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٦٤ ،٦٣/٥‬‬


‫‪٢٦٢‬‬

‫‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻ ٍﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷـَﺎ َﺀ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺮﺣ‪‬ﻤــَﺎ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻭﺍ ِﺣ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻜــ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑ‪‬ﻨﻴ‪‬ـﺎﻥﹸ ﻗﹶــ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ‪ ‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻠﻜﹸﻪ ﻫ‪ ‬ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺘﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣِﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺘﻪ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﱢﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬

‫ﻚ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ( ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ) ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﹸﺴﱢﻠ ِﻢ‪ ) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻟﻮ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ( ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ( ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﹰ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﱃ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﳐﺎﻟِﻒ ﻟﺴ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲢﻴﺔ؟ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﳍﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻞﹸ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ()‪ (١‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﻨﺒﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ( ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺗﻘﺮﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ( ﹶﻓ ِﺬ ﹾﻛﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻭﺃﺣﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺣﺪِﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﲔ * ﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻼﹶﻣﹰﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،[٢٥-٢٤ :‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﹸ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﳊﺬﻑ‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﺴ‪ ‬ﻦ ﺍﳊﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺠﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﻃﹸﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺳﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﺫﺭ‪‬ﺍﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻔﹶﺮ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﹶﻼِﺋ ﹶﻜﺔِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴﺔﹸ ﹸﺫ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﻳِﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﲢﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﲢﻴ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺰ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻭﻩ‪ ) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ()‪ .(٢‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧ ‪‬ﱪ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﺫﺭ‪‬ﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﱠﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﹸﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﲟﺜﻞ ﲢﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﺪﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺄﺣﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲟﺜﻞ ﺳﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪ ِﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٦٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٣٦/١١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٦٠/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٨٤١‬‬


‫‪٢٦٣‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻓﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻞﹸ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻒ ﰲ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ( ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪) :‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻜﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﻴﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺑﺈﺳﻘﺎﻁ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ ﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﻋﻠﻴﻚ( ‪ -‬ﺑﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰉ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﻣ ﹸﺔ ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺛﲔ ﻳﺮﻭﻭﻧﻪ‪) :‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ( ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻪ‪) :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ( ﲝﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻟﻠﻌﻄﻒ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺌﲔ‪ ...‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺣﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻟﻴﺲ ﲟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ )ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﻡ( ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﺑﻴﺎ ﹲﻥ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺣﺬِﻓﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺗﻴﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻏ ‪‬ﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﹸﻓﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺂﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﳌﻼﻟﺔ ﻭﺳﺂﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ِﺷﻔﹶﺎ ٌﺀ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ٍﺀ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ( ﻭﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﹸﺘﺤﺬﻟﻘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ ‪ -‬ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﲔ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﲨﻊ ِﺳﻠﹶﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻣﺘﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻞ اﻟﻜِﺘﺎب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻼم ﻋﻠﻰ أه ِ‬

‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﺅﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑِﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻟﹶﻘﻴﺘ‪‬ﻤﻮﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﺮِﻳﻖِ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ‪‬ﻴ ِﻖ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﺮِﻳ ِﻖ(‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﹶﺪ ﻗِﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻗﻀﻴ ٍﺔ ﺧﺎﺻ ٍﺔ ﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻄﱠﺮﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺭ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺑﲎ ﻗﹸﺮﻳﻈﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﺅﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ( ﻓﻬﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻷ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻣ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٢٢/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢١٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٠٤٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪،(٢٤١/٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٤٤٧‬‬


‫‪٢٦٤‬‬ ‫ﺿﻊ‪ ‬ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺣﺎﻟﹸﻪ ﲟﺜﻞ ﺣﺎ ِﻝ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ؟ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺺ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳜ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﺅﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﻫ‪‬ﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ‪‬ﻴ ِﻘ ِﻪ()‪ (١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺿ ﹶﻄﺮ‪‬ﻭﻩ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺼ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳋﹶﻠﻒ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺪﺅﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﺴﹶﻠﻒ‪ ‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺭ‪‬ﻭﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰉ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻴﺮِﻳﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺟﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺻﺎﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺪﻭ ِﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﳚﻮ ‪‬ﺯ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍ ُﺀ ﻟِﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺭﺍﺟﺤﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﻮﻑ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﺫﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟِﻘﺮﺍﺑ ٍﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻳﻘﺘﻀِﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻭﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺨﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻘﻤ‪‬ﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋ ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻟِﺴﺒ ٍ‬ ‫ﺳﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎﻟِﺤﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻤﻬﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺃﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳚ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳚ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺠﺮ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺮﹰﺍ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺬﻳﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮ ِﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﻣِﻦ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻠﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺧﻼ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴ‪‬ﻬﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻭﺛﹶﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻮﺩِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺇﱃ ِﻫﺮ‪‬ﻗ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ِﻩ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍ ﹸﳍﺪ‪‬ﻯ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ هﻞ ﻳﺠﺰئ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ إذا ﻣﺮوا أن ﻳُﺴﻠﱢﻢ أﺣﺪهﻢ‬

‫ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳉﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ِﺔ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰِﻯ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﹸﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ( ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﳉﻠﹸﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺠﺰِﻯ ُﺀ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٦٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٢٠٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٦٠٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٤٦ ،٢٦٦/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٢/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٧٩٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٠/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٧٧٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٢١٠‬‬


‫‪٢٦٥‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻛِﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﻘﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻣِﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻋﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﱏ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻯ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﱏ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻯ‪ :‬ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲎ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ إذ ﺑﻠﱠﻐﻪ أﺣﺪ اﻟﺴﻼم ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ أن ﻳﺮد ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺒﻠﱢﻎ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻐﻪ‪ ‬ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﱢﻎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﺑِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺃﰉ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻘ ِﺮﺋﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ( ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣﻨﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ﺗﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ًﺀ ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺣﺪﺛﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺻﺎﺣ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻌﺐ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺭﻯ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﺠﺮ ﻛﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﻔﺘﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺎﺳﺮٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺧﻠﱠﻘﻪ ﺃﻫﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺰ‪‬ﻋﻔﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﺎ ﹾﻏ ِ‬ ‫)ﺍﺫﹾﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ‪) :‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄِﻰ ﺻﻔﻴ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺠﺮ ﺯﻳﻨﺐ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺟﺤﺶ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮ ِﺩ‪‬ﻳﺔﹶ؟‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﳘﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻇﻬ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ( ﳌﺎ ﺍﻋﺘ ﱠﻞ ﺑﻌﲑ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄِﻰ ِﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬان‬

‫ﻚ ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻊ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﻼﺙﹲ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﹾﻥ ﺃﹸ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳﺘِﺌﺬﹶﺍﻥﹸ ﹶﺛ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪ِ ‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳِﺘﹾﺌﺬﹶﺍ ﹸﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻞ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﺼ‪‬ﺮ( ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٢٣١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٨٩/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٦٠١) ،(٤١٧٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٢٠/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٦٠٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٣٨ ،٢٦١ ،١٣٢ ،١٣١/٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٣ ،٢٢/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٥٣‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٦/٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٨٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢١ ،٢٠/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٥٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧١٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫=‬


‫‪٢٦٦‬‬ ‫ﺤ ٍﺮ ﰲ ﺣﺠﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳ ﹶﻔﻘﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻧﻈﹶﺮ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪ ‬‬ ‫)ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪ِ ‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳِﺘﹾﺌﺬﹶﺍ ﹸﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻞ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﺼ‪‬ﺮ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺼ‪‬ﺎ ٍﺓ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ﹶﻘ ﹾﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ﺇ ﹾﺫﻥٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺮﺀﹰﺍ ﺍﻃﱠﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺡ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍﻃﱠﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﰲ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ﺇ ﹾﺫِﻧﻬِﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻞﱠ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔﻘﹶﺆﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪.(٣)(‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺩِﻳ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻟﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ﺇ ﹾﺫِﻧ ِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔﻘﹶﺆﻭﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍﻃﱠﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﰲ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺹ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ِﻗﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺟﻞﹲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳِﺘﹾﺌﺬﹶﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃﹶﺃِﻟﺞ‪‬؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ِﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪ٍ ‬ﻞ‪) :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﻞ؟ ﻓﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺧﻞﹸ؟ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪ِ‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ِﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺆﻟِﻴﹰﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎِﺋﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤﺮ‪ ‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﻞﹸ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬؟)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻗﻮﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ج ِﻟ ﹶﻜﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻨﺒ‪‬ﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻢ‪) :‬ﺍﺭ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ ﹶﺃﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﻞ(؟)‪.(٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻋﻴﻨ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫=‬

‫)‪.(٦١ ،٦٠/٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢١ ،٢٠/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٥٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧١٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫)‪.(٦١ ،٦٠/٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٩٠/١٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢١٥٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٥٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥١٧١‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٢٦٦/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٦١/٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٨٥/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥١٧٩) ،(٥١٧٨) ،(٥١٧٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٦٩/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٥٠٤ ،٥٠٣/٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٤٧٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٢٠١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧١١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٧١١‬‬


‫‪٢٦٧‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻻﻥ‪ ،‬ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺄ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺁﺧﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻇ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﻠﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻻﻥ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺌِﻞ ﻋﻦ اﺳﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄذِن آﻴﻒ ﻳﺮد إذا ُ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺄ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪‬؟ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻼ ﹸﻥ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﹸﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﹶﻘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ِﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮِﻳ ﹸﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺍﺝ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻮﻩ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ‪‬؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺟِﱪﻳﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﲰﺎﺀ ﲰﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺘ‪‬ﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺭﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﳌﺎ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﰲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺄﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ(؟‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺫﺍ(؟‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻗﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻛ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻫﻬ‪‬ﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﺖ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﻫﺎﻧﺊ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻫﺎﻧﺊ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺫِﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻷﰉ ﺫﺭ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ(؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺫﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻷﰉ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أن رﺳﻮل اﻟﺮﺟﻞ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ إذن ﻟﻪ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫ‪‬ﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪ِ ‬ﻞ ﺇ ﹾﺫﻧ‪‬ﻪ(‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺩ‪ِ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﺇﱃ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎﻡٍ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇ ﹾﺫ ﹲﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ .(٤)‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆﻯ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮﻝِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٤/٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٩) ،(٢٨)(٢٤٠٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٠/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٥٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥١٨٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٧١٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٣١/١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٣٣٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٩٠) ،(٥١٨٩‬‬


‫‪٢٦٨‬‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ(‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪) :‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﺫﻧﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻟﺒﻨﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺧﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﱃ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﻮﺗ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺒﻠﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﻮﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹼﻔﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺩ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺍ ﹾﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮﺍ)‪ .(١‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔ ﹲﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﻣِﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺗﺮﺍﺥ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﳛﺘﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﺧﻰ ﳎﻴﺌﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺃ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﳎﺊ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻮ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﳛﺘﺞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺃ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺫﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻚ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺐ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺧ ﹾﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺤﻠُﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ وﻣَﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ اﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬان اﻟﺬى أﻣﺮ اﷲ ﺑﻪ اﻟﻤﻤﺎﻟﻴ َ‬

‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﳊﹸﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﻟﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ِﻎ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻳﺄﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪ :‬ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﲝ‪‬ﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﻳ ﹸﺔ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺄ ِ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺣﺘﻢ ﻭﺇﳚﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎ ُﺀ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺄﺫِﻧﻮﻥ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻇﺎﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﲨﻊ )ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ( ﻻ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﹸﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﺒﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻳﺄﺑﺎﻩ ﻓﺘﺄﻣﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ( ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﻴﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٧/١١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٤/٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٤٠٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٨٨‬‬


‫‪٢٦٩‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﻠﱠ ٍﺔ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺑﺰﻭﺍﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ )ﺳﻨﻨﻪ( ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻻﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺮﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﹸﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‪] ﴾...‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪ [٥٨ :‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄ ِﺫ‪‬ﻧﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ﻳ‪‬ﺄﻳ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻟِﺒﻴ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﺘ‪‬ﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻟﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺣ‪‬ﻜﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﺣﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ِﺣﺠ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﲟ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﳋﺎ ِﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﻴﻤ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﳋﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﺭ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻞﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍﺕِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪.(١)‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻌﻦ ﰲ ﻋِﻜﺮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺑﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺛﺒﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻃﻌﻦ ﰲ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻜﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨ‪‬ﺖ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﳏﻜﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﻌﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺃﻛﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻘﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍ ِﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﺘﺤ‪‬ﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺳﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺩ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻣﻌﱠﻠ ﹲﻞ ﺑﻌﻠﱠﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ِﺟ ‪‬ﺪﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ِ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ أذآﺎر اﻟﻌﻄﺎس‬

‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻄﹶﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﺜﹶﺎﺅﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﺜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺅﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠِﻢ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ﹼﻘﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻄﹶﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﱠﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺗﺜﹶﺎ َﺀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿِ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﺜﹶﺎ َﺀﺏ‪ ،‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ(‪) :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﻠﺢ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻞ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪِﻳﻜﹸﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٩٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٥٠٥/١٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٤٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٥١٧ ،٤٢٨ ،٢٦٥/٢‬‬


‫‪٢٧٠‬‬ ‫ﺑ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﺲ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻼﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪) :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻨِﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻓﹸﻼ ﹲﻥ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻵﺧ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﺬﻯ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺤ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪) :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻢ‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ )ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ(‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ) :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎﻙ ﻓﹶﺄﺟ‪‬ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻟﻘِﻴ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛ ﱢﻞ‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﻠﺢ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪِﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺣ‪‬ﺎﻝٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺑ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋِﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹰ‬ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻜﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜِﻦ ‪‬ﻋﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻧﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺣﺎﻝ)‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻓﻘِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪) :‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ()‪.(٧‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﺲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻭﺀ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻤﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﻮﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﰉ‬ ‫ﺠﺰِﺉ ﺗﺸﻤﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳛ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰉ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٥٠٢/١٠‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٣٥٣/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٥٠٤/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٩٩١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٧٤٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٩٩٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٤١٢/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٩٠/٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(١٤٣٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٣٣‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٢٢ ،٤١٩/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٧٤٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٧٣٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪.(٩٦٥/٢‬‬


‫‪٢٧١‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ(‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ) :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﺩ ‪ -‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻨِﻰ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺤ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﺪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺑ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬِﻢ ‪ -‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﹸﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﻧ‪‬ﻜﺘ ﹲﺔ ﻟﻄﻴﻔﺔﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﺭ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺳﻼﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻼﺋﻖ ﺑِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻼﻣﻪ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﰲ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻫﻮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺗﺬﻛﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﹸﺄﻣ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻰ ﳏﺾ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻜﺘ ﹲﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻟﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷُﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺮﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍ ُﻷﻣ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷُﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ﺍ ُﻷﻣ‪‬ﻰ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ ِ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﺤﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ُﻷﻣ‪‬ﻰ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻈ ‪‬ﲑ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻷُﻡ ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﺫﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻦ ﺍﻷﺏ ﳌﻦ ﺗﻌﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺑﻌﺰﺍ ِﺀ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ)‪ (٢‬ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺾ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺑِﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺫِﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻦ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﺬﻛﲑﹰﺍ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺘﻜ‪‬ﺒ ِﺮ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒﻐِﻰ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﻃ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻫﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌ‪‬ﻀﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻴﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ج‪.‬‬ ‫ﺫِﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻷُﻡ ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﺣﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﺬﻛﲑﹰﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺑﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻧﻌﻤ ﹸﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻔﻌ ﹸﺔ ﲞﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻷﲞﺮﺓ ﺍﶈﺘﻘِﻨﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ِﻃﺲ‪ ‬ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌ‪‬ﻄﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻟﻪ ﲪ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﺷ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺩِﻣﺎﻏﻪ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺩﻭﺍ ًﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺌﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻴﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻟﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻫﻰ ﻟﻠﺒﺪﻥ ﻛﺰﻟﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﴰﺘﻪ ‪ -‬ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﲔ ‪ -‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﳘﺎ ﲟﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﻭ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﳌﻬﻤﻠﺔ ﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ ﲝ‪‬ﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﲞﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‪‬ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻞﱡ ﺩﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤﺖِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻮﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻄﺎﺱ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀَﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺰﻋﺎﺟﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻌﺠﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺼﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٤١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪ ،(١٩٤٨‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ ،(٢٦٧/٤‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٣١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٣٣ ،١٣٦/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ )‪.(٩٤٦)(٩٣٦‬‬


‫‪٢٧٢‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺯﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﺗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﺮ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻌ ‪‬ﲑ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺯﺍﻝ ﻗﹸﺮﺍﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺜﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻤﻪ ﰲ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻣِﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻹﻏﺎﻇﺘﻪ ﲝ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧِﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻄﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﺸﻤﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻄﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲪ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ُﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﹸﻛﻠﱡﻪ ﻏﺎﺋﻆ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎﺅﻩ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺎﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺻﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻐﻴﻆ ﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﻭﺣﺰﻧﻪ ﻭﻛﺂﺑﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎ ُﺀ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﺗﺸﻤﻴﺘﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﳏﺰﻥ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺸﻤﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺿﻤﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﴰﺎﺗﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻨﺒﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ِﻃﺲ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻤ‪‬ﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﳏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﻌ ﹸﺔ ﻧﻌﻤ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻄﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻌﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻈﹸ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓِﻠﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻫﻠﹸﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻭ ِﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﺟﻼﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﺾ اﻟﺼﻮت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌُﻄﺎس‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪ ج ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻄﺎﺱ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺾ ِﺑ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑﻪ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻓِﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻔﺾ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹶﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻪ()‪ .(١‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺓ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺪِﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﺜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻄﹶﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑِﺎﻟ‪‬ﺘﺜﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ِ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﺭ ﹾﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ(‪ .‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﺟﻞﹲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺰﻛﹸﻮﻡ(‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻮﻉ‪ :‬ﻋﻄﹶﺲ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﻋِﻨﺪ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻧ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻟﹶﺜﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ) :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ(‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٢٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٤٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٣٩/٢‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٢٦٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٢٦٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٢٦٨‬‬


‫‪٢٧٣‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺰﻛﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ()‪ .(١‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ) :‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺯ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺯﻛﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ..‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻣﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰱ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﻌ‪‬ﺼﻔﻮﺭ ﺍﳉﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﳛﲕ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ :‬ﺛﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻯ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺸﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺭِﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰﺭ‪‬ﻗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻒ‪ ،(٣)(‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ِﻋﻠﹼﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹾﻥ ِﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﹾﻥ ِﺷﹾﺌﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺻﺤﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻻﱏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠﻴ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﻼﺙ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪‬ﺟﻠِﻴﺴ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﹾﻥ ﺯﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﻼﹶﺛﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺰﻛﹸﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺃﰉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺯ‪‬ﻛﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻋﻰ ﻟﻪ ﳑﻦ ﻻ ِﻋﻠﱠﺔ ﺑﻪ؟ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻋﻰ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻋﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺑِﻪ ﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻭﺟﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻄﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧِﻌﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧِﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮ‪‬ﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲞﺮﺓ ﺍﶈ‪‬ﺘ ِﻘ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻋﻰ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺰﻛﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ( ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻛﻤﺔ ِﻋﻠﱠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺗﺸﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻨﺒﻴ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﻠﱠﺔ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻼﻣﻪ ج ﻛﻠﻪ ﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺭﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﺪﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺪﺍﺭﻛﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻬﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﻌ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٩٩٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٤٤‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٣٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٧١٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٣٥) ،(٥٠٣٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٣٦‬‬


‫‪٢٧٤‬‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﲔ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻦ‪ ‬ﳌﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﺗﺸﻤﻴﺘ‪‬ﻪ؟ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻻﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻇﻬﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﳌﺸﻤ‪‬ﺖ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﲢﻘﱠﻖ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﲰﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲪﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﱴ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻤﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻤﺖ ﺃﺧﺮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻔﺘﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳊﻤﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻤ‪‬ﺘﻮﻩ( ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﳌﻦ ﺣﻀﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺬ ﱢﻛﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰉ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﱢﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺟﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻯ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﱢﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻰ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﱮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻯ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰉ ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﱢﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺮ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻣﺎ ﹲﻥ ﻟﱪﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ج ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺃﻟﺴﻨﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺬﻛﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﻔﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤِﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻃﺴ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼِﻠﺢ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪِﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ أذآﺎر اﻟﺴﻔﺮ وﺁداﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻀﺔِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﺑِﺎﻷﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻀِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ِﺑ ِﻌ ﹾﻠ ِﻤﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘ ِﺪﺭ‪ ‬ﻙ ِﺑ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭِﺗﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻼﱠﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﻴﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ِﺪﺭ‪ ‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻗ ِﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴﻢِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺈ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﱃ ﰲ ﺩﻳﲎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎﺷِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎ ِﺟ ِﻞ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺮِﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﺁ ِﺟِﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻩ ﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭً‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﺷ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﱃ ﰲ ﺩِﻳﻨِﻰ ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎﺷﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎﺟ ِﻞ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺮِﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﺁ ِﺟِﻠﻪِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﱃ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٣٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٤٠‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤١١ ،٤٠٠/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ )‪.(٩٤٠‬‬


‫‪٢٧٥‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﻛﹶﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺭﺿ‪‬ﲎ ﺑﻪ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ِﺮ ﹾﻓﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪٌ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﱃ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺻ ِﺮ ﹾﻓ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻮ‪‬ﺽ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱠ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻘﺎ ِﻡ ﺑﺎﻷﺯﻻﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻧﻈﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﹸﻬﺎ ﺇﺧﻮﺍ ﹸﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻢ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺳ‪‬ﻤﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺴﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﹸﺒﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻗﹸ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻮ‪‬ﺿﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻮﺣﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼ ِﺮﻑ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻛﱡﻞﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺆﺍ ﹲﻝ ﻟِﻤﻦ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﳋ ‪‬ﲑ ﻛﻠﱡﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺇﻻ ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻟﻌﺒﺪﻩ ﺭﲪﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻄِﻊ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺣﺒﺴ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﺴﻜﻬﺎ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻟﹶﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄ ِﲑ ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺠﻴﻢِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎ ِﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀُ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎِﻟﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﻤﻮ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎِﻟﻊ‪ ‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﲎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻃﺎﻟِﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸِﺮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳋِﺬﻻﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳚﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﳍﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻛﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﺑﺼﻔﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧ ﹶﺔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﱡ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌِﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﹸﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻬﺪﺓ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻯ ﻣِﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺮﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﳊﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺠﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﲟﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩِﺗ ِﻪ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﱠﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓ ِﻄ ِﺮ ِﻩ ﻭﺇﳍ ِﻪ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫) ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳِﺘﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺓﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﺭﺿ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﲟﺎ ﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﻙ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻄﹸﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺳِﺘﺨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻭﺭ ﻣﻜﺘﻨﻔﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺿﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﻋﻨﻮﺍ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘِﻨﻔﹶﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﻂ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﹼﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﹸﺑﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﰎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ )ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٥٨ ،١٥٦/١١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(١٥٣٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(١٦٨/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢١٥٢‬‬


‫‪٢٧٦‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﻀ‪‬ﺎﺀ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ‪ ) :‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺰﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀُ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﳝﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺴ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﹸﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺎﺭﺓ ﺗ‪‬ﻮﻛﱡ ﹲﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻌﺒﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻭﻕ ﻃﻌﻢ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹾﻥ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺪﻭ ِﺭ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻼﻣ ﹸﺔ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ‪‬ﺳﻔﹶﺮﹰﺍ ﻗﻂﱡ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻰ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻨﻬﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻠﻮﺳﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ِﺛ ﹶﻘﺘِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ﱠﻛ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎﺋِﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻛﻔِﲎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻤﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ِﻪ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ .‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﹶﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎﺅﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﹶﻪ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺯﻭ‪‬ﺩﱏ‬ ‫ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬﺖ‪ ،(١)(‬ﰒ ﳜﺮﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧﺒِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬﻨِﻰ ِﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ إذا رآﺐ راﺣﻠﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻛﺐ ﺭﺍ ِﺣﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﺬﻯ ‪‬ﺳﺨ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ِﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪ ‬ﹾﻘ ِﺮِﻧﻴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘِﻠﺒ‪‬ﻮﻥ(‪ .‬ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟِﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ِﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻃﹾﻮ ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣﺐ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ِﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﹸﻠ ﹾﻔﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬‬ ‫ﳋﻠِﻴ ﹶﻔﺔﹸ ﰲ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻫﻞِ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ(‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻗﺎﳍ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻬ ‪‬ﻦ‪) :‬ﺁِﻳﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺗﺎِﺋﺒ‪‬ﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎِﺑﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ِﻟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﳋﻠِﻴ ﹶﻔﺔﹸ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺴﻔﹶﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔ ِﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺂ‪‬ﺑ ِﺔ ﰲ ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘﹶﻠﺐِ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻗِﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻫﻞِ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺒﻮﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺎِﺋﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺑﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ِﻟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻮ‪‬ﺑﺎﹰ‪ِ ،‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﺎ ِﺩﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻮ‪‬ﺑﹰﺎ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺜﹶﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ(‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )‪ ،(٢٥٠/٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٤٩٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٤٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٤٤‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٥٩٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٠٠ ،٢٩٩ ،٢٥٦/١‬‬


‫‪٢٧٧‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻮﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺓ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ﹾﻈﻠﹸﻮﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﺍ ﹶﳌ‪‬ﻨﻈﹶﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻛﺂ‪‬ﺑ ِﺔ ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘﹶﻠﺐِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻠَﻪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮآﺎب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ إذا وﺿﻊ ِر ْ‬

‫ﺴ ِﻢ ﺍﷲ(‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻮ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑِﺘﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ِﻟ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻊ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻠﹶﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ(‪ -‬ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹰﺎ‪) -‬ﺍﷲ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ -(‬ﺛﹶﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ِﺮِﻧﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘِﻠﺒ‪‬ﻮﻥ(‪ -‬ﱠﰒ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ(‪ -‬ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹰﺎ‪) -‬ﺍﷲ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ (‬ﺛﹶﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﷲ(‪ -‬ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﹶﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻇﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟِﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎِﻟ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﱡﻧﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻷﺣﺪﻫﻢ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺩﻉ‪ ‬ﺍﷲ ﺩِﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺧ‪‬ﻮﺍﺗﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﹸﺃﺭِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺳﻔﹶﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩﻧِﻰ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ):‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺯﺩﱏ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺩﻧِﻰ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻭ ﹶﻏ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﹸﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺭﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺳﻔﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﹸﻭﺻﻴﻚ ﺑﺘ ﹾﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜِﺒ ِﲑ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﻑ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻟﱠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺯ ِﻭ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺒﻄﹸﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺿﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﻓﹰﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺽِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻧﺸ‪‬ﺰﹰﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٤٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٥٩٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٤٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٦٠٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(١٠٥٦)(٩٣٠)(٧٥٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٣٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٦٠٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٤٠‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(٩٧/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٤١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٢٧٧١‬‬


‫‪٢٧٨‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻑٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﲑ ﻓﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﺠﻮﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﺭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﹶﻼِﺋ ﹶﻜﺔﹸ ﺭ ﹾﻓ ﹶﻘ ﹰﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬‬ ‫)ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﺎﻓﺮ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴ ‪‬ﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ُ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺳ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ ِﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ٍﻞ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﻼ ﺭﻓﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ‪) :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹲﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﹾﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻼﹶﺛﺔﹸ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﱠ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎﺕ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ِﺰ ﹰﻻ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﻜﹶﻠﻤﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﻞ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ .(‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ِﺰ ﹰﻻ ﰒ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﺷ‪‬ﺊ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺰﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٌﺀ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ﹶﻜِﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻏﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻛﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻚِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﷲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻙ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِﻴﻚِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺧ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻓِﻴﻚِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﺎ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﺎﷲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ٍﺪ ﻭﹶﺃﺳ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻛ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻠﹶﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﺪ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﳋﺼ‪‬ﺐ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﻄﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻹ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺣ ﱠﻈﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳ‪‬ﺎﹶﻓﺮ‪‬ﰎ ﰲ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﺘ‪‬ﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﺩﺭﻭﺍ ِﻧ ﹾﻘﻴ‪‬ﻬﺎ(‪ .‬ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﻓﺄ ‪‬ﺳ ِﺮﻋ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﺎﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺄﻭ‪‬ﻯ ﺍ ﹶﳍﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻞ()‪.(٧‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘِﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﺮِﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻃ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ِﻊ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻗﺮﻳ ﹰﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ ﺩﺧﻮﳍﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻳ ِﺢ‬ ‫ﺿﹶﻠ ﹾﻠﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻴﺎﻃ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ِﻊ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻗﹶﻠ ﹾﻠﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻷﺭ‪‬ﺿﲔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻇﹶﻠ ﹾﻠﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٢٣٩ ،١٢٧/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١١٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٧٠٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٥٥٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٩٦/٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٦٧٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪.(٢٨٩/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪ ،(٩٧٨/٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢٦٠٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٢١٤ ،١٨٦/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٧٠٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٣٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٦٠٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٢٤/٣ ،١٣٢/٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٦٠٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٩٢٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٨٦٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٥٦٩‬‬


‫‪٢٧٩‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ِﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﺭﻳ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﻼِﺋ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﺪﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻔﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﺋِﺬﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﳐﹶﺎﹶﻓ ﹶﺔ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪. ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺎﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ِﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮﻡٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺎﹶﻓ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺑﺮِﻳ ٍﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﻬﻰ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﺮﹶﺃ ﹶﺓ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺴ‪‬ﺎِﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﺔ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ِﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹸﳌﺴ‪‬ﺎِﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ِﺮﻩِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻜِﺒﲑ‪‬ﺍﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺛﹶﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻑ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗ ﹶﻔ ﹶﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ِﺮ ِﻩ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺷﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗﺪِﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺒﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺎِﺋﺒ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺑﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ِ ،‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ ،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪.(٤)(‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺣﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻃﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻄﺮ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ﹰﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﻞﹸ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻦ ﻏﹸ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹰﺓ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ(‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻄﺮ‪‬ﻕ‪ ‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻠﹶﻪ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ِﺮ ِﻩ ‪‬ﻳﹶﻠﻘﱠﻰ ﺑِﺎﹾﻟ ِﻮﹾﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﹶﻠﻨِﻰ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳﻪِ‪ ،‬ﰒ ِﺟ ﹶﺊ ﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺣ ِﺪ ﺍﺑﲎ ﻓﺎﻃ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻣِﻦ ﺳﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺴ‪ِ‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻖ ﰉ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺩﻓﻪ ﺧﻠﻔﹶﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺪﺧﻠﻨﺎ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺪِﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﺛﹶﻼﹶﺛ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ٍﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﻨِﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﺎ ِﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔ ِﺮﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﹶﺎﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ِﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻯ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺮﻭﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﰲ ﺑﻴﱴ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻋ‪‬ﺮﻳﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﻠﹶﻪ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﻋ‪‬ﺮﻳﺎﻧﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪ ،(٥٢٩‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪ ،(٢٣٧٧‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(٤٤٦/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٧١٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٨٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٩٣/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٨٦٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٦١ ،١٦٠/١١) ،(٤٩٢/٣‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪.(٤٢١/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٩٣/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٥٢٧/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٩٣/٣‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩٢٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٤٢٨‬‬


‫‪٢٨٠‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒﹶﻠﻪ‪.(١)‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ‪ :‬ﳌﺎ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺟﻌﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﷲ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﹶﻗ ِﺪﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﺮٍ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧﻘﹸﻮﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱮ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺠﺪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺮ‪‬ﻛ ‪‬ﻊ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻔﺮٍ‪ ،‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹶﺃ ﺑِﺎ ﹶﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ أذآﺎر اﻟﻨﻜﺎح‬

‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻌِﻴ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﱠﻤﻬﻢ ﺧ‪‬ﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺔ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀِﻠ ﹾﻞ‬ ‫ﻀﻞﱠ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻼ ﻣ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﺌﹶﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﻭ ِﺭ ﺃﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﺒﺪ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ(‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺃﹸ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻥ﴾‬ ‫ﺴِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺙ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﺎِﺗ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻤ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺗﻦ‪ ‬ﺇ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧﺘ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ٍﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶﻘﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ٍ‬ ‫]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪﴿ ،[١٠٢ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﺚﱠ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﻻ ﹶﻛﺜِﲑﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻭِﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀً‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺗﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﻭﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﻗِﻴﺒﹰﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪﴿ ،[١ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﻻ‬ ‫ﺼِﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪ِ ‬ﻄ ِﻊ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺯﹰﺍ‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ ِﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ * ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻈِﻴﻤﹰﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.(٣)[٧١-٧٠ :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻷﰉ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻴﺘِﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺃﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍ‪‬ﺑﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ﺑﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪ِ‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑِﺎﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺟ‪ِ‬ﺒﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٧٣٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٢٢٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٨٩/٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٧٦٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٧٨١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١١٠٥‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(١٨٩٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٣٧٢١)(٤١١٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫)‪.(٨٩/٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢١٦٠‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(١٩١٨‬‬


‫‪٢٨٢‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻛﹶﻌﺐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻻ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱡﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻨﺰ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﲑﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻭﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ِﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ ِﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪﻩِ‪ ،‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﺮﹾﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﺷ‪‬ﻰﺀ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﹸﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﻀِﻰ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻣَﻦ رأى ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺮهﻪ‬

‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺃﻯ ﺭ‪‬ﺅﻳ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﳊ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺔﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ج‪) :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺅﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ِﻩ ﺛﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻮ ﹾﺫ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ِ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹼﻠ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻔ ﹾ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪. (‬‬ ‫ﺨِﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﻯ ﺭ‪‬ﺅﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺼﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻨِﺒ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺃﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴ ﹶﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﲞﻤﺴ ِﺔ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻔﹸ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺨﱪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﺗﻀﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻫﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﹶﻓﻊ‪ ‬ﺷﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺇ ﱠﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺅﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻞ ﻃﹶﺎِﺋ ٍﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺫِﻯ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹾﻯ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻗﺼ‪‬ﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫‪‬ﺧﻴ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﻠ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺧﻴ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺅﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ( ﰒ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﺋﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﱪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ) :‬ﺧﻴ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭ‪‬ﺅﻳﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺭ‪‬ﺅﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮﺳﻮﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮَاسِ‪ ،‬وﻣَﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟُﻪ وﻳﻔﻌﻠُﻪ ﻣَﻦ اﺑﺘُﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻟ َﻮ ْ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٤/١٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٣)(٢٢٦١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٢٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫)‪.(٢٢٧٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٢٦٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٢٧٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٥٠٢٠‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٣٩١٤‬‬


‫‪٢٨٣‬‬ ‫ﱀ ﺑﻦ ﹶﻛﻴ‪‬ﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺻﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇﻳﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍ ﹶﳌﹶﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﳌ ‪‬ﻮﻛﱠ ِﻞ ِﺑ ﹶﻘ ﹾﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻟِﻠ ‪‬ﻤﹶﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻜﺬِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِﺢ ﺛﹶﻮﺍﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑِﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑِﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀِﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ﺍ ﹶﳌﹶﻠﻚِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎﺣ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹸﻮﻩ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻌِﻴﺬﹸﻭﺍ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﻩ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﷲ؛ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﲎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻮ ﹾﺫ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻼﺗِﻰ ﻭﻗِﺮﺍﺀﺗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹲﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ِ :‬ﺧ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺰﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻔ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﹰﺎ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ‪ -‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻰﺀ‪ -‬ﻷﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻧﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻜﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﺔﹸ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻜﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﷲ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﷲ ﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺣ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ ِﺔ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﺑﺸﻰ ٍﺀ ﻣِﻦ ﻭﺳﻮﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹶﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﷲ؟ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‪﴿ :‬ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍ َﻷﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻵ ِﺧﺮ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ِﺑ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪.[٣ :‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻷﰉ ﺯ‪‬ﻣﻴﻞ ﲰﺎﻙ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻰ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺄﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷﻰ ٌﺀ ﺃ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻻ ﺃﺗﻜﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﱃ‪ :‬ﺃﺷﻰﺀ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺻﺪﺭﻯ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﻮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺃﻧﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﱃ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﺠﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﻚ؟ ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪[٩٤ :‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣِﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺌ ِﻞ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺮﺀُﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﹸﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪﴿ :‬ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍ َﻷﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻵ ِﺧﺮ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎ ِﻫﺮ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﱃ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِﻃﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ِﺑ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪. [٣ :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺭﺷﺪﻫﻢ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻄﻼ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺑﺒﺪﻳﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺳﻠﺴﻠ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭ ٍﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﹶﺒﻠﹶﻪ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮِﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٩٩١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪ ،(٤٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ )‪.(٦١٧٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٢٠٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٢٣٥/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١١٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١١٠‬‬


‫‪٢٨٤‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌ‪‬ﺪﻩ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ‪‬ﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻮﻗﹶﻪ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑ‪‬ﻄﻮﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺷﺊ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺧﺎﻟ ٍﻖ ﻏ ِﲑ ﳐﻠﻮﻕٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲎ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞﱡ ﺷﻰﺀ ﻓﻘﲑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﺊ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﺊ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﱘ ﻻ ﺃﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﺎ ُﺀ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻰﺀ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻷﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ﻓﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺷﻰﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻮﻗﹶﻪ ﺷﺊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﺷﺊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳋ ﹾﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀﻟﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎِﺋﻠﹸﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ج‪) :‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺰﺍ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِﻌ ﹾﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ِﻪ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺧﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﷲ؟ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤِﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﻓﺼﻠﺖ‪.[٣٦ :‬‬ ‫ﻍ ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﻌ ﹾﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉﻻ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻯ ﻋﻴﺎﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﻴﻄﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ‪ :‬ﻧﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﻴﻄﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺍﳉﻦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻧﺒﻴ‪‬ﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘ‪‬ﻔ ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺷﺮ ﺷﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﱴ ﻫﻰ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻦ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﲔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺼﻠﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻊ ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓ ‪‬ﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﱢﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻠ ﹸﻎ ﰲ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺷﺮ ﺷﻴﺎﻃﲔ ﺍﳉﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻔ ‪‬ﻮ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺲ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻠ ﹸﻎ ﰲ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﺷﻴﺎﻃ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﳊﺴ‪‬ﲎ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ ﹾﻄﻠﹸﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺪ ﹾﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻻ ‪‬ﺳﺘِﻌﺎ ﹶﺫﺓﹸ ﺿ‪‬ـﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻋﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺠ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺩﻭ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﱠﺍﺀ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﹶﻬﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩﻭ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﱠﺍ ِﺀ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ وﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻣَﻦ اﺷﺘﺪ ﻏﻀﺒﻪ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ج ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻔﺊ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﻮﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻌﻮ ِﺩ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎِﺋ ‪‬ﻤﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟﻴ ِﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺿ ِﻄﺠ‪‬ﺎﻉ ﺇﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ِﻋ ‪‬ﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫ ِﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻔﺌﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮ ﹸﺓ ﲨﺮﺗﲔ ﻣِﻦ ﻧﺎ ٍﺭ ﰲ ﻗﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٤٠/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١٣٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٧٢١‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪،٣١٧ ،٢٩٢/٢‬‬ ‫‪.(٥٣٩ ،٣٨٧ ،٣٣١‬‬


‫‪٢٨٥‬‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫ ِﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ...[٤٤ :‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟِﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻔﺌﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﲨﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧ ﹸﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼ ِﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺰﻏﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻰ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻳ ﹸﺔ ﻗﻮ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﱏ‪ ،‬ﲨﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﱏ‪،‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺎﻳ ﹸﺔ ﻗﻮ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﻀ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺤﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮ ‪‬ﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺷﺪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﻮﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ إذا رأى ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺐ‬

‫ﺕ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ِﺑِﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤِﺘ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺗِﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ٍﻝ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أﻧﻪ ج آﺎن ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﻟﻤﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﱠب إﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﺐ وﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﺳِﺐ‬

‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻊ ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﻭﲟﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‪ -‬ج‪ -‬ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﻘﺮ‪‬ﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲟﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺱ ‪‬ﻭﺿ‪‬ﻮ َﺀﻩ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻘﱢ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﱢﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﺄﻭِﻳ ﹶﻞ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺑِﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﹶﻗﺘ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﺓ ﰲ ﻣ‪‬ﺴ ِﲑ ِﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﳌﱠﺎ ﻣﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺍﺣِﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺣ ِﻔ ﹶﻈ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻧِﺒﻴ‪‬ﻪ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ِﻔ ﹶﻈ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺻ‪ِ‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﻟﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ِﻟﻔﹶﺎ ِﻋِﻠ ِﻪ‪ :‬ﺟﺰ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﹶﻠ ﹶﻎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﺜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻚﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﺎﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻭﻓﱠﺎﻩ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﷲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٣٨٠٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٣٨٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٠٨/١٣ ،١٥٥/١) ،(٢١٤/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٦٨١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٠٣٦‬‬


‫‪٢٨٦‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻒﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﹶﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻭ‪‬ﻣﺎِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟﺰ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻨ ِﻢ ‪‬ﺩﻭ‪‬ﺱ‪ ،‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺼ ِﺔ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﳋﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻠِﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺫِﻯ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﳌﱠﺎ ﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻪ‪ ‬ﺟﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﹶﻗﺒِﻴﹶﻠِﺘ ِﻪ ﹶﺃﺣ‪‬ﻤﺲ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎِﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﹸﻫﺪﻳﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻓﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻓﺄ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪ‪) :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺟﺜﱠﺎﻣ ﹶﺔ ﳌﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬﺪِﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮِﻟ ِﻪ ج ﻟِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ()‪ (٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻣَﻦ ﺳﻤﻊ ﻧﻬﻴﻖ اﻟﺤﻤﺎر أو ﺻﻴﺎح اﻟ ﱢﺪﻳَﻜﺔ‬

‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟِﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌ ‪‬ﻮﺫﹸﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮ‪ -‬ج‪ -‬ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻧﻬِﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻀِﻠ ِﻪ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﳊﺮِﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜِﺒ ‪‬ﲑ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻄ ِﻔﺌﹸﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺮﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜِﺒ ِﲑ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻬ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺠِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺮﻩ ج ﻷَﻫﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﻠ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬﻛﹸﺮﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴ ِﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﻗﹶﺎﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻣﹾﺜ ِﻞ ﺟِﻴﻔ ِﺔ ﺍﳊِﻤﺎ ِﺭ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠِﻠ ٍ‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﻳﻘﻮﻣ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﷲ ِﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍﺿﻄﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﻘﻌ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﹸ ِﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺠﻌﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ِﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹲﺓ()‪.(٨‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺴﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(٩‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹲﺓ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻃﺮِﻳﻘﹰﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬﻛﹸ ِﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻓِﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﰲ ‪‬ﻣﺠ‪‬ﻠﺲٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻜﺜﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ﹸﻄﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻠﺴﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ج‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٣١٤/٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ ،(٢٤٢٤‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٦/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٣٦٢/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ,(٥٨ ،٥٧ ،٥٥/٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٣٧)(٢٤٧٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٤٥/٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٥٣٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(١٩٥٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٨ ،٢٦/٤‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(١١٩٣‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪.(٣٥٣/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٥١/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٧٢٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٢٩٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٨٥٥‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٥٢٧ ،٥١٥ ،٤٩٤ ،٣٨٩/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٨٥٦‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻨﺪﻩ )‪.(١١٥٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪ ،(١٧٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٣٢/٢‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(٥٥٠/١‬‬


‫‪٢٨٧‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻏﹸ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﲝ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺠﻠِﺴﻪ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ( ﻭ)ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ( ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﻓِﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠِﻠﺲِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﷲ؛ ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺲ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠِﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ﹲﺓ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹸﻥ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﻀ‪‬ﻰ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮل ﻣَﻦ ﺷﻜﺎ اﻷرق ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬

‫ﻚ ﻓﻘﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ِﻓﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻜﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺧﺎﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ِﻊ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﹶﻗﱠﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ِﻊ ﻭ‪‬ﻣﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻇﱠﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹸﻛﱢﻠﻬِﻢ ﺟ‪‬ﻤﻴﻌﹰﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﹶ‬ ‫ﺿﱠﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﱃ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺭﹰﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹾﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻴ‪‬ﺎﻃِﲔ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺖ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻄﹾﻐﻰ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﺛﹶﻨﺎﺅ‪‬ﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﺇﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀِﺒ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ج ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺰﻉ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑ ﹶﻜِﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﻀ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺸﻴ‪‬ﺎﻃِﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻤﺰ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ِﻓﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﺷﻜﹶﻰ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﺰﻉ ﰲ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎﻣِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻞ‪ (...‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﳍﺎ ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أﻟﻔﺎظ آﺎن ج َﻳ ْﻜ َﺮ ُﻩ أن ُﺗﻘَﺎل‬

‫ﺖ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ِﻤ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﹶﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬ﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺮﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ِﻌ‪‬ﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﳊﺒ‪‬ﻠ ﹸﺔ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﻟ ِﻌ‪‬ﻨﺐ‪ ‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٤٢٩‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٨٥٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٨٥٩‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(٥٣٧/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٣٥١٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٨١/٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٨٩٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٥١٩‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪.(٧٥٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٦٥/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢٢٥٠‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٤٩٧٩) ،(٤٩٧٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٢٤٨‬‬


‫‪٢٨٨‬‬ ‫ﺱ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫﹶﻠﻜﹸﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺮِﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﻓﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻭﳓﻮ ‪‬ﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻓﹸﻼﻥﹲ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻓﹸﻼﻥﹲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﷲ ِﻧ ‪‬ﺪﺍﹰ؟‪ ،‬ﻗﻞ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺷﹾﺌﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﺘﻨِﻰ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪.(٢)(‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‪ :‬ﻟﻮﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻓﻼﻥﹲ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺘﻜِﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﺑﻔﹸﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭﺑﻔﹸﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﷲ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﺋ ﹸﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻓﻼﻧﹰﺎ ِﻧ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻀ ِﻞ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻤﺘ ِﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ِﻄﺮ‪‬ﻧﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺀ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ ِﻄ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ﺍﷲ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ -‬ج‪ -‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳛِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣِﻠ ِﻔ ِﻪ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﻮﺩِﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﺮﺍﱏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻟِﻤﺴﻠ ٍﻢ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻛﹶﺎِﻓﺮ‪.(٦)‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻣِﻠﻚ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹸﳌﻠﹸﻮ ِﻙ)‪ .(٧‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﻟِﻐﻼﻣﻪ ﻭﺟﺎﺭِﻳﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪِﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺘِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﺴﻴﺪﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﰉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻘﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ‪ :‬ﹶﻓﺘ‪‬ﺎﻯ ﻭﻓﺘﺎﺗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻼ ‪‬ﻡ‪ :‬ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺪﻯ ﻭﺳﻴ‪‬ﺪﺗﻰ)‪.(٨‬‬ ‫ﺖ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻳ ِﺢ ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻫ‪‬ﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﺄ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺷﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﹸﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ)‪.(٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٦٢٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٢٨٣ ،٢٢٤ ،٢١٤/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٣٤ ،٤٣٣/٢‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٧١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(١٢٥ ،٩٨ ،٨٧ ،٦٩ ،٦٧ ،٣٤/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(١٥٣٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٣٢٥٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ،(٦/٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٢١٠٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٢٨/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٦٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٤٨٦/١٠‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ ،(٢١٤٣‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٦١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٨٢٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٣١/٥‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٢٤٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٢٢٥٣‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٤٣٧ ،٤٠٩ ،٢٦٨ ،٢٥٠/٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥٠٩٧‬‬


‫‪٢٨٩‬‬ ‫ﳊﻤ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﺬ ِﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﺧﻄﹶﺎﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻨِﻰ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﺬ ِﻫﺐ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐﺍﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﺪِﻳ ِﺪ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺚﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ِﻜ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻚِ‪ ،‬ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻮِﻗﻆﹸ ﻟﻠﺼ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺑﻌﺰﺍﺋﻬﻢ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻛﺎﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻟِﻠﻤﺬﺍﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍِﺋﻖِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻀﻴ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺼِﺒﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻟﻸﻧﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﺎﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﻨﺘﺴﺒﹰﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻮﺍﱃ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﺩِﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ِﺰﻥﹸ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣِﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﺮ‪ ‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻤﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﺑِﺎﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ)‪ (٤‬ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِﺒ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺴﻠِﻢ)‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺟﻰ ﺍﺛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺚ)‪ .(٦‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ِﺳﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃ ﹸﺓ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻬﺎ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻤﺤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺳ ِﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ ٍﺓ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ)‪.(٧‬‬ ‫ﺖ()‪.(٨‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﰲ ﺩ‪‬ﻋﺎﺋﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﱃ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ِﺷﹾﺌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﻨِﻰ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ِﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ)‪.(٩‬‬ ‫ﳊِﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻛﺜﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﺮﺍﻫ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﺱ‪ ‬ﹸﻗﺰ‪‬ﺡ)‪ ،(١٠‬ﻟِﻬﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ِﺑﻮ‪‬ﺟ ِﻪ ﺍﷲ)‪.(١١‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﻴﺜﺮﺏ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٥٧٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ،(١٩٣/٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٥١٠١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٣٦ ،١٣٣/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ )‪ ،(٩٦٤)(٩٦٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ )‪.(٢/٢٧/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٦٤٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٠٣/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٦٩ ،٦٨/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢١٨٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٦٩/٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١١٨/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٦٧٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٦٠٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (١٠‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ )‪.(٣٠٩/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (١١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(١٦٧١‬‬


‫‪٢٩٠‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ)‪ ،(٢‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺄ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﻓﻴﻢ ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹸﻛﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ)‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹸﻛﱠﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ آﺮاهﺔ اﻹﻓﺼﺎح ﻋﻦ اﻷﺷﻴﺎء اﻟﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ اﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﻤﺎﺋﻬﺎ اﻟﺼﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺡ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﻳ ﹸﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﲰﺎﺋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻅ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ِﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺮﳛﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ...‬ﻭﳓﻮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻃﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﺎﺀَﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋِﺸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺎِﺋﻢ‪ :‬ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﺗِﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻜﹸﻮﺱ‪ :‬ﺣﻘﻮﻗﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ِﻔﻘﹸﻪ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻃﺎﻋ ِﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ :‬ﹶﻏ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻣﺖ‪ ‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪ ‬ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻔﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻛﺬﹶﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﱴ‪ :‬ﺃﺣ ﱠﻞ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﳝﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺩﻟ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﻇﻮﺍ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﻭﳎﺎﺯﺍﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺒ ِﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻘﻂﹸ ﺣ‪‬ﺮﻣﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺿ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﲔ ﻣِﻦ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﻗﹶﻮﺍ ِﻃ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋ‪‬ﻘﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ آﺮاهﺔ أن ﻳُﺤﺪﱢث اﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺠِﻤﺎع أهﻠﻪ وﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن ﺑﻴﻨﻪ وﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ِﲜﻤ‪‬ﺎﻉ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ)‪ ،(٤‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔﹶﻠﺔﹸ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫=‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٧٥/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٢١٤٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٢٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﺹ)‪ ،(١٠‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(١٩٦٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٤١٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )‪ ،(١٤٣٧‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(٦٩/٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲏ )‪ ،(٦١٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‬ ‫)‪.(١٩٤ ،١٩٣/٧‬‬


‫‪٢٩١‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ‪ :‬ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ ...‬ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺧﻠﻴﻔ ﹸﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎِﺋﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺿﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻛﻴ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺧﻠﻴﻔ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻐﻴﺎن )أﻧﺎ(‪ ،‬و)ﻟﻰ(‪ ،‬و)ﻋﻨﺪى(‬ ‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺤﺬﺭ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺍﳊﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻐﻴﺎﻥ )ﺃﻧﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﱃ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﻋﻨﺪﻯ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺍﺑﺘ‪‬ﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺑﻠﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﻓـ ﴿ﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪] [١٢ :‬ﺹ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪ [٥١ :‬ﻟﻔﺮﻋﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻭﺗِﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﻋ ﹾﻠ ٍﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ [٧٦‬ﻹﺑﻠﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭ﴿ﻟِﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﺖ )ﺃﻧﺎ( ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ِﻋ‪‬ﻨﺪِﻯ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪ [٧٨ :‬ﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺣﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺬﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺨﻄﺊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺮِﻑ‪ ...‬ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪ .‬ﻭ)ﱃ(‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﱃ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﹸﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﻨﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻝ‪ .‬ﻭ)ﻋﻨﺪﻯ( ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﱃ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺰﻟِﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨﺪِﻯ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻄﺌِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺪِﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ ،(٤٩٧٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ )‪.(٧٦٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٦٧ ،١٦٥/١١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٧١٩‬‬


‫‪١‬‬

‫ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺪﻱ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ َهﺪْﻳﻪ ج ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﻬَﺎد واﻟﻤﻐَﺎزى واﻟﺴﱠﺮاﻳَﺎ وَاﻟ ُﺒﻌُﻮث‬

‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩ ﺫِﺭﻭ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﹸﻗ‪‬ﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺎ ِﺯﻝﹸ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻓﻌ ﹸﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧِﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﱠﺭﻭ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘﻮﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﹸﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ ﻓﺠﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﹶﻨﺎﻥِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻠﺒﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻒِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺫِﻛﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻤ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺎﳉِﻬﺎﺩ ﻣِﻦ ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺑﻌﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺷﹾﺌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﹾﺜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻧﺬِﻳﺮﹰﺍ‬ ‫* ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺗ‪ِ ‬ﻄ ِﻊ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎِﻓﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﹶﻛﺒِﲑﹰﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪ ،[٥٢-٥١ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓ ِﻘﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲜﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳊﹸﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻠﻴ ِﻎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳊﺠ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻬﻢ ﲢﺖ ﻗﻬﺮ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﻨِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ِ‬ ‫ﻆ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻨﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻏﹸﻠ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹸﻜﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﳌﻨ‪‬ﺎِﻓ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﲑ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ .[٧٣ :‬ﻓﺠﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﺹ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺭﺛ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣِﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺧﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﺃﺻﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺃﻓﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﹶﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎ ِﺭﻛﹸﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻭﻧﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﲔ ﻋﺪﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻈﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﹸﻌﺎ ِﺭﺽِ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺳﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﻆﱡ ﺍﻷﻭﹶﻓﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺎﻑ ﺳ‪‬ﻄﻮﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺃﺫﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠِﺮﺳ ِﻞ ﺻﻠﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺳﻼﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻛﻤ ﹸﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺃﲤﱡﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﺻﻠﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺃﻋﺪﺍ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻓﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎ ِﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺫﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻪ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻃﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﹸﻬﺎ ِﺟﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪) :‬ﺍ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ()‪ .(١‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ِﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢١/٦‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ‪.‬‬


‫‪٢‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤﺎ ِﺭ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﱂ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻬﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻟِﺘﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﹸﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤ ِﻜ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ ِﻜﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﻫﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺎﺭﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺑﲔ ﺟﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻫ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺴﱢﻠ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺮﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳﺠﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﻧﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﲜﻬﺎﺩﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ‪‬ﳘﺎ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍﻥ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﱢﺬﻟﹸﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟﻒ‪ ‬ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺰﺍ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲜﻬﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻒ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻳﹶﺜﺒ‪ ‬ﹸ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻬﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺨﻴ‪‬ﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﳘﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮ ِﻙ ﺍﳊﻈﻮﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻮ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ﺇﻻ ﲜﻬﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻ ﹶﻞ ﳉﻬﺎﺩﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺫ‪‬ﻳِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﹰﺍ﴾ ]ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪ .[٦ :‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻄﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﻓﺎ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﲣﺎﺫﻩ ﻋﺪﻭﹰﺍ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺳﻊ ﰲ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﺎﺭﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻋﺪﻭ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔﺘ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺼ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﲟﺤﺎﺭﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﲟﺤﺎﺭﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻼﺀً‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋ‪ ‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺃﻋﻮﺍﻧﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﱢﻠ ﹶﻄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﲔ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀﻩ ﻣﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋ‪ ‬ﺪ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺃﻋﻮﺍﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺳِﻼﺣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻼﺣﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻮﻻﱠﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻟﱠﻰ ﺭﺳ‪‬ﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﳑﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺾ ِﻓ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻟﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻭﺣِﺰﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺑﺼِﲑﹰﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪ ،[٢٠ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻻﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾ﴾ ]ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،[٤ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﹸﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﺼﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﺑﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﳏﻤﺪ‪ .[٣١ :‬ﻓﺄﻋﻄﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﺘﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳ ﹶﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹶﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺪ‪‬ﻫﻢ ﲟﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ‪﴿ :‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﹶﺜ‪‬ﺒﺘ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،[١٢ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮ ِﻥ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﺏ ﻋﺪﻭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻣﺎ ﺃﹸﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﻭﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺳﻠﱠﻄﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺘﺮﻛﻬﻢ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﻌﺼﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳﺆ‪‬ﻳﺴﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻘ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘِﺒﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺪﺍﻭﻭﺍ‬ ‫ِﺟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮﺩﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺎﻫﻀ ِﺔ ﻋﺪﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻨﺼ‪‬ﺮﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻈﻔﺮ‪‬ﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﲔ ﻣِﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﶈﺴﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺑﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‬


‫‪٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺍﻓﻌﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﺪﻓﺎﻋﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺮﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﺎﻋ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺨﻄﹼﻔﻬﻢ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﺎﺣﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﹸﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﻓﻌ ﹸﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺇﳝﺎﻧِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺭﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﹶﻗ ِﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺧﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﻮﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﻫﺪﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻘﻮﻩ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺬ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺸﻜﹶﺮ ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﹸﻛﻠﱡﻪ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﷲِ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻟﻨﻔﺴِﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠِﻢ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﻟِﺴﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺭِﺣﻪ ِ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻧﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻌﺪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﻋ ِﺪﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻴ ِﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﺷﻴﻄﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺘﻜﺬِﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎِﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﺮﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ِﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﹶﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻘﻰ ﻭﺍﳍﹸﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌِﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﻋﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻴ ِﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺸﹸﺄ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﹸﻛﱢﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺑﺘﻜﺬِﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﱪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻼ ِ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻗﻮ ﹲﺓ ﻭﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﻫﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻋﺪﺍ َﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﻘﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﻟﺴﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎﻟِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘِﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻛﻠﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﹶﻒ ﰲ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻮﻣ ﹶﺔ ﻻﺋﻢ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻍ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪) :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺮﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﻩ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﻋِﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ(‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ‪) :‬ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺗﻞ‪) :‬ﺍﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻈﻨﻪ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ(‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻩ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻴﻘﻪ ﻛﻞﱡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﱠﻔﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺪﺭﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬ ِﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳜﺘِﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟِﻢ ﺷﻰﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺷﻰﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻋﻘﱠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺴﻊ‪ ‬ﹸﻛﻞﹼ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﳊﺮ‪‬ﺝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﹰﺎ ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪ [٧٨ :‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺭِﺯﻗﻪ ﻳﺴﻊ ﹸﻛﻞﹼ ﺣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﱠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺴﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺯﻕ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴ ‪‬ﻊ‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻔﹶﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻌﻪ ﺭﺯﹸﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬


‫‪٤‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹲﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ِﺔ()‪ (١‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﺑﺎ ِﳌﻠﱠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻰ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﲰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﻨِﻴ ِﻔ‪‬ﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺑ‪ِ ‬ﻌﹾﺜﺖ‪ ‬ﺑِﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻏﺎﻳ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻮﺳِﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭِﺯﻗﹾﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻔﻮﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻻ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻐِﻠﻘﹸﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻐﻔﺮِﺗﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺴﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑ ﹶﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻐﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻜ ﱢﻞ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﻔﺎﺭ ﹰﺓ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﻔﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻄﻠﹸ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣ‪‬ﺼﻴﺒﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻜﻔﱢﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻌﻞ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻋِﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﺃﻧﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻃ‪‬ﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﺬﱠ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻪ ﻟِﻴﺴﺘﻐﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ ٍﺮ ﳝﺘﺤﻨ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺮﹰﺍ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪) ،‬ﻓﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻖ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻟِﻜﻞ ﻋ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ()‪ (٢‬ﻓﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﱢﻠﻔﹸﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘ ِﺪﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻌﻬﻢ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺗﺐ اﻟﺠﻬﺎد‬

‫ﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ‪ :‬ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺃﺭﺑ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﱡﻢ ﺍﳍﹸﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﻓﻼﺡ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﺷﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﻓﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﺷﻘﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍﺭﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﻫﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻤﺠﺮ‪ ‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺇﻥ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻔﻌ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﻫﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴ ِﻤ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘ‪‬ﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳍﹸﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺠِﻴﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺫﻯ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻪ )‪.(٢٠٩/٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪ ٥٢٨/٢‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺮ ﻳﺴﺮﺍ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺧﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ج ﻣﺴﺮﻭﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺣﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻀﺤﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻟﻦ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﺴﺮ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ(‪﴿ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﺮ ﻳﺴﺮﺍ﴾ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ‪.‬‬


‫‪٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﷲ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑ‪‬ﺎﻧِﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻤ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣ‪‬ﺠ ِﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﱢﻠﻤ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻤ ﹶﻞ ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﺬﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻋﻰ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻠﻜﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺮﺗﺒﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺟﻬﺎﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻠﻘﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻜﻮ ِﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻠﻘﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃِﺋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ِﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍﹾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑِﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎِﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻮِﻗﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ‪ ،[٢٤ :‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﱪ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻮﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱢﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﺃﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺃﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻴ ِﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒِﺪﻉِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻘﻠﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﻋﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﺒ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺠﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱢﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺷ‪ ‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴﻪ‪ ‬ﺑِﺎﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺰﻭِ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ) ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻔﹶﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻕ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺠﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍ ِﳍﺠ‪‬ﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﳝ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳِﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳉﻬِﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎ ِﳍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ‪ِ ‬ﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﹶﻏﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺭﺣِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢١٨ :‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻋﻠﻴ ِﻪ ﻫِﺠﺮﺗﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﺼﻸﻥ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٩١٠‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬


‫‪٦‬‬ ‫ﻫﺠﺮ ﹲﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻮﻛﱡﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟﺎﺀِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﺒﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫِﺠﺮ ﹲﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﹸﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎ ِﺩ ﻷﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺼﺪِﻳﻖ ﲞﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﺧﱪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻏ ِﲑ ِﻩ ﻭﺧﱪﻩ‪) :‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫِﺠﺮﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮِﻟﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ِﻬﺠ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻮِﻟﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ِﻫﺠ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺩ‪‬ﻧﻴﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻴﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ ٍﺓ ﻳﺘﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ِﻬﺠ‪‬ﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔﻻ‬ ‫ﺽﻋ ٍ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟِﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺷﻴﻄﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﹸﻛﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹶﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ِﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺘﻔﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺒﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣَﻦ آﻤﱠﻞ ﻣﺮاﺗﺐ اﻟﺠﻬﺎد آﻠﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺐ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻛﹸﻠﱠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭِﺗﻮ ﹶﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳋ ﹾﻠ ِﻖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ﻣﺮﺍِﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﻤ ﹸﻞ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺎﻭ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺍﳋﻠ ِﻖ ﻭﺃﻛﺮﻣﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎِﺗﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺋِﻪ ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳِﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻛﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﻣﺮﺍﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺑ‪ِ ‬ﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﳌﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺪ‪‬ﺛﱢ ‪‬ﺮ * ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺪﺛﺮ‪ [٤-١ :‬ﺷﻤ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ * ‪‬ﻭِﺛﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ِﺬ ‪‬ﺭ * ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃ ﱠﰎ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪ ،[٩٤ :‬ﻓﺼﺪﻉ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺄﺧﺬﻩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻮﻣﺔ ﻻﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳉ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﻹﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐ ‪‬ﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻛﹶﺮ ﻭﺍﻷُﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﲪ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺁﳍﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﺩﺍﻫﻢ ﺑﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺑﺄﻣ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﺃﺫﺍﻫﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﻟﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﻭﻧﺎﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺫﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻟِﻠ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪ِ ‬ﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬ ِﻩ ﺳ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ﹸﻝ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻹ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻟ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻧِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﹰﺍ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ﴾ ]ﻓﺼﻠﺖ‪ .[٤٣ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣِﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒِﻠﻬِﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻝ ِﺇﻻﱠ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻦ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ .[١١٢ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻃﹶﺎﻏﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.[٥٣-٥٢ :‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹲﻥ * ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬


‫‪٧‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﻌﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺒﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﹸﺳﻮ ﹰﺓ ﲟﻦ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ ﹾﺄِﺗﻜﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﹶﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧﹶﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒِﻠﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﹸﻠﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺣ ِ‬ ‫ﺼﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻻ ِﺇﻥﱠ‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯﹾﻟ ِﺰﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹾﺄﺳ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻗﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢١٤ :‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﺁﱂ * ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ * ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺣ ِ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪﻗﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﱠﺎ ِﺫِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣِﻦ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒِﻠ ِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹸﻜﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ِﻟﻘﹶﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻓﹶﺈ ﱠﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﺴِﺒﻘﹸﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﺌﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤِﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ * ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻵﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻪِ‪ِ ،‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻐِﻨ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺰ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﻜ ﱢﻔ ‪‬ﺮﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺳ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﺌﺎِﺗ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ * ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑِﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍِﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇﻥ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ِﻟﺘ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﻋ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﻼ ﺗ‪ِ ‬ﻄ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ِ ،‬ﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟﻌ‪‬ﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻓﹸﺄﻧ‪‬ـ‪‬ﺒﹸﺌ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ * ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺑِﺎﻟﱢﻠ ِﻪ ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﹸﻭ ِﺫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﺪ ِﺧﹶﻠ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﲔ * ‪‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﻟِﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻌﺬﹶﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ِﻓ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻭ ِﺭ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[١٠-١ :‬‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﳊﻜﹶﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻨ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ِﻌ‪‬ﺒ ِﺮ ﻭ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﻮﺯ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺄﻣ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺳﻴﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺃﹸﺭ ِﺳ ﹶﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺳ ﹸﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﺁﻣﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﹸﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺁﻣﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﺤﻨﻪ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴ‪‬ﺌﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺘﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎ ِﺩﻕ‪ِ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫِﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﺁﻣﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﻳﻔﻮﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴِﺒﻘﹸﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻄﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺮﺍ ِﺣ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪ ‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻳﻔِـ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳌ ‪‬ﺮ ُﺀ ﻋ‪‬ـ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ﹶﺬﻧ‪‬ـِﺒ ِﻪ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻄﹾﻮﻯ ﰲ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻪ ﺍﳌﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﹶﻴـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪ِ ‬ﻞ ﻭﺃﻃﺎﻋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﺩﺍﻩ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺅﻫﻢ ﻭﺁﺫﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺑﺘ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﲟﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﻟِﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺼ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﳌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆ ﹸﱂ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺆﻣﻦ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻄﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪‬ﻮِﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺁﻣﻨﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻏﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺃﻋ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﳌﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺩﻭ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﱂ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒﺎﻋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﱂ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﱂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀً‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒ ﹸﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﹸﻌ ِﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﲢﺼ ﹸﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﺬ ﹸﺓ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀً‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﱂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻰ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﱠﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺘﻠﻰ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﱠﻦ ﺣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺘﻠﻰ‪.‬‬


‫‪٨‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻣﻜﱠﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻈﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳜﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﺑﺘﻠﻰ ﺃﹸﻭﱃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺰ ِﻡ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻵﻻﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹸﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﻘﻠﹸﻬﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﺎﻉ ﺃﳌﹰﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻤِﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﱂ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﺎﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﱂ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻳﺴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻘﺎﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻘ ِﻄ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﲑ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻷﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗ ﹸﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ؟ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﻣ ﹸﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﺟ ِﻞ *‬ ‫ﺲ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﻛﻠ ﹲﺔ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫* ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‪ ‬ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﺟﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ * ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﺬﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻵ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ِ﴿ ،[٢١-٢٠ :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻫﺆ‪‬ﻻ ِﺀ‬ ‫﴿ ﹶﻛﻼﱠ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎ ِﺟﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﺬﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻮ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﹶﺛﻘِﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.[٢٧ :‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳛﺼ‪‬ﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﱏ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﱠﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﳍﻢ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻄﻠﺒ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺍﻓِﻘﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺁﺫﻭ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﺫﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺭ ﹰﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭ ﹰﺓ ﻣِﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺬﱠﺑﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ِﺩﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻘﻰ ﺣ ﱠﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻗﻮﻡ ﹸﻓﺠ‪‬ﺎ ٍﺭ ﹶﻇﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﻓﺠﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﻇﹸﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﲟﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻪ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﻜﻮﺗِﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﻜﺖ ﻋﻨ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺳِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺷﺮﻫﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﺎﻓ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺘﺴﱠﻠﻄﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﻫﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺫﻯ ﺃﺿﻌﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ‪‬ﺳِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻬﺎﻥ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﻗﹶﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺰ ‪‬ﻡ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺨِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺰﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﳌﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺿ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣ‪ ‬ﺆ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺿ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌﹰﺎ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﺳﺎ َﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻏﺮﺍﺿﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺃﺣﻮﺍ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﹶﻢ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑِﺪﻋﻬﻢ ‪‬ﻫﺮ‪‬ﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻘﻮﺑﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﺪﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﳍﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺃﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟِﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﺪﻭﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺭ‪‬ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﺎﻩ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓِﻌﻞ ﺍﶈﺮ‪‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒ ﹸﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟِﻠﺮ‪‬ﺳﻞ ﻭﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬِﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺑﺘ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﳊﻰ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﻻﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱠﰒ ﻋﺰ‪‬ﺍﻫﻢ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﻌﺰﺍ ٍﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺟِﻬﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲦﺮﺗﻪ ﻋﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﲎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﻠﺤ ﹸﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺧﻠﻬﻢ ﲜﻬﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺇﳝﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺯ‪‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٤١٦‬‬


‫‪٩‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻼ ﺑﺼﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﹸﻭﺫﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻓﺘﻨ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺃﺫﺍﻫﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻴﻠﹸﻬﻢ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﻭﺍﻷﱂ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳ ﹸﻞ ﻭﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﳑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻓﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮ ِﻛ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻧﺎﻟﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﻟِﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺼﲑ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﱂ‬ ‫ﻛﻌﺬﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴ ِﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﱂ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﹸﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﲑﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﱂ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣِﻦ ﺃ ِﱂ ﻋﺬﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃ ِﱂ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺃ ﹶﱂ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔِﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺃﱂ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﹸِﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﱭ ﺇﺫ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻣﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﱂ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﱂ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻌﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺍﻧﻄﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﺪﺭ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟ‪‬ﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﱏ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﻳﺒﺘ‪‬ﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﺣﻜﻤﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﹸﻴ ﹾﻈ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻃﱢﻴﺒ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺧﺒﻴﺜﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺼﻠﹸﺢ ﳌﻮﺍﻻﺗﻪ ﻭﻛﺮﺍﻣﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﹸﺢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺼﻠﹸﺢ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﻠﱢﺼﻬﺎ ِﺑﻜِﲑ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺬﱠﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻻ ﳜﻠﹸﺺ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴ‪‬ﻤﺤ‪‬ﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺟﺎﻫﻠﺔ ﻇﺎﳌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻔﻮ ﻣِﻦ ﻏِﺸﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﻨﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺧﺮﺝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳋﹸﺒﺚ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺒ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻔﻰ ﻛِﲑ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻫﺬﱢﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ﱢﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﹸ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺩﺧﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫]ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ[‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ج ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﻟﻪ ﻋِﺒﺎﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻜﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺣﺎِﺋ ‪‬ﺰ‬ ‫ﻗﺼ ِ‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻷُﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺒﻘﹸﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺂﺯﺭﻩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻘﻬِﻢ)‪ِ ،(١‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻷﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻠﺤ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺼﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺠﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴﺎ ِﺀ‪ :‬ﺧﺪﳚ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧ‪‬ﻮﻳﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺄﻋﺒﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻪ ج ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺨﺰِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻧﻔﹾﺴﻰ(‪ .‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳﻘ‪‬ﻴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ‪) :‬ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﺸِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﺯ ﻗﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻮﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪.‬‬


‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﺑ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ()‪ ،(١‬ﰒ ﺍﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﻟﱠﺖ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺨ ‪‬ﺰﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻤﺖ ﺑﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻓِﻄﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺎ ِﺳﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﺷﻜﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﻭﺍﳋِﺬﻻﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺃﺿﺪﺍﺩ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﻛﱠﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺣﺴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺎ ِﺳﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﺰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺴ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺇﲤﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻧﻌﻤﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮِﺇ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺒ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﻛﱠﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻡ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮِﻳﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﱠﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺮ ِﺳ ﹶﻞ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ج)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﲦﺎﻥ ﺳﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻔﺎﻟ ِﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤ ِﻪ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺇﻋﺎﻧ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺤ ٍﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﹸﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﳋﺪﳚﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻫﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﺩﺭ ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ)‪ِ (٣‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﳌﺎ ﺗﺰ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﻭﻋﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﻓِﺪﺍﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺧﻼ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺘ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺟﲑﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﻜﱡﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱏ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻄ ِﻌﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﲑ‪ ،‬ﺟﺌﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﰲ ﺍﺑﻨﻨﺎ ِﻋﻨﺪﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻣﻨ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻓِﺪﺍﺋِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﻮ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ)‪ ،(٤‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬﻼﱠ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺫﻟِﻚ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﻓﺄﹸﺧ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻥ ﺍﺧ‪‬ﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺭﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ‬ ‫ﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻥ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﱏ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﱏ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ( ﻗﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺭﺩﺩﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺼﻒِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎﻩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌ ِﺮﻑ‪ ‬ﻫﺆﻻﺀ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺻﺤﺒﱴ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﹶﺍ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﰉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻤﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﺄﻧﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢٧ ،٢١/١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٦٠‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٠٥/٧‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺐ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٤٣٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٣٩٨/٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ )‪.(٣٢٥/٥‬‬


‫‪١١‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﲎ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺮﱏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﳘﺎ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻯ ﺃﺧﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﺑﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﲣﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻴﻚ ﻭﻋﻤﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﻭﳛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻯ ﺃﺧﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﻚ؟‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﺑﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊِﺠﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫‪‬ﺯ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﺑﲎ‪ ،‬ﻳ ِﺮﺛﹸﲎ ﻭﺃ ِﺭﺛﹸﻪ( ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﻭﻋﻤ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎﺑﺖ ﻧﻔﻮﺳ‪‬ﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺼﺮﻓﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻟﺖ‪﴿ :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻵﺑ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪،[٥ :‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﺪ‪ِ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﻣﺌﺬ‪ :‬ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ﰲ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ( ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻯ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻧﻌﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻭﺭﻗ ﹸﺔ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧﻮﻓﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺟ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻋﹰﺎ ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ(‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺨ ِﺮﺝ‪ ‬ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻗﻮﻣ‪‬ﻪ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭﰱ )ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ( ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺭﺁﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ‪) :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺁﻩ ﰲ ﺛﻴﺎﺏ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ِﻜﺮ‪ ‬ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﺩﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪ ‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﴰﱠﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺁﳍﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺐ ﺩِﻳﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ ﻣﻌ ﱠﻈﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻄﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﺳ‪‬ﺮﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻜﺎﺷﻔﺘﻪ ﺑﺸﻰ ٍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺫﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺣﻜﻤ ِﺔ ﺃﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻤﲔ ﺑﻘﺎﺅ‪‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﳌﻦ ﺗﺄﻣ‪‬ﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺸﲑ ﹲﺓ ﲢﻤﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﺑﻌﺸﲑﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺫﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺎﺳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺬﱢﺑﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﻳﺎ ﺁ ﹶﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﺳﺮٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺬﱠﺑﻮﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ) :‬‬ ‫ﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﳉﻨ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٢٥ ،٢٤/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٢٨٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻣﻐﺎﺯﻳﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺳﺮ ﺃﻥ ﲰﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﻋﺬ‪‬ﺎ ﺁﻝ ﺑﲏ ﺍﳌﻐﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺄﰉ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺣﱴ ﻗﺘﻠﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﳝﺮ ﺑﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﺬﺑﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻄﺢ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺻﱪﺍ ﺁﻝ‬

‫=‬


‫‪١٢‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻼ ﹸﻝ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻋ‪ ‬ﱢﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺭﻗ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬﻧ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺣﻨ‪‬ﺎﻧﹰﺎ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﹶﻟﺌِﻦ ﻗﺘﹸﻠﺘ‪‬ﻤﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻼﻝ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻓﻞ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻯ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ هﺠﺮة اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺒﺸﺔ ﺣﻴﻦ اﺷﺘﺪ اﻷذى ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬

‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﺍﺷﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺫﻯ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﹸِﺘ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻓِﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣِﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﹸ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻴ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪ ‬ﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺇﳍﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻷﺣﺪﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣِﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻟﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﳍﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺎﺳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺗ‪‬ﻌ ﱠﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﻌﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ ٍﺔ ﰲ ﹶﻓﺮ‪‬ﺟﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺄﺣ ٍﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺬﱠﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺘﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻼﻝﹸ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎ ِﻣﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﻦ ﹸﻓ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻡ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﺯ‪‬ﻧﲑ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﲎ ﻋﺪﻯ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﲎ ﺃﺭﺍﻙ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌِﺘﻖ‪ ‬ﺭِﻗﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺿِﻌﺎﻓﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺬﱢ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺟ‪ ‬ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﳝﻨﻌﻮﻧﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﺇﱏ ﹸﺃﺭِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﺎ ﹸﺃﺭِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻋﺘﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﻓﻌﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀُ‪ ،‬ﺃ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺎﳍِﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﺯﻭﺟﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﺭ‪‬ﻗﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺑﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﺛﲎ ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺟﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻧﺴﻮﺓ‪ :‬ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺳﻬﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﰉ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻈﻌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﰉ ﺣ‪‬ﺜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ‪‬ﺭﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪،،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻬﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﻠﲔ ﺳﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻓﱠﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﳍﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻮﳍﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻞ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺘﲔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻤﻠﹸﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺶ ﰲ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﳐﺮﺟ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺭﺟﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﻌﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻗﺮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫=‬

‫ﻳﺎﺳﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻮﻋﺪﻛﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬


‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺅﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺪ ِﺭﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﹰﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻛﻔﱡﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺟﻌﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺑﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﹰﺎ ﺃﺷ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﺪﺍﻭ ﹰﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺧ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩﺧﻞ ﲜﻮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﺎ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺙ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺮ ِﻩ ﺃﻥ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻜﻠﱠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ()‪ (١‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻋﻢ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻭﲨﺎﻋ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﱂ ﻳﺪ ‪‬ﺧﻞﹾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺒﺸ ِﺔ ﺣﱴ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨ ِﺔ ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ِﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺩ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰉ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻫﺬ ِﻩ ﺍ ِﳍﺠ‪‬ﺮﺓ ﺇﳕﺎ ﹶﻗ ِﺪﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺃﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ِﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﻊ ﺳﻨﲔ ﺃﻭ ﲬﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻗﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺯﻳ ِﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ‪ :‬ﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﱠﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻜﻠﱢﻢ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﹸﻮﻣ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎِﻧِﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻡ()‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸﻮﺕِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﻬِﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[٢٣٨ :‬ﻓﹸﺄ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﻓﺎﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺘﺤﺮ ِﱘ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺗﻔﻖ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻄﻞﹸ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﳍِﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﹶﻗ ِﺪﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺧﻴﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﳑﻦ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻟِﻘﺪﻭﻣﻪ ﺫِﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﺪﻭ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮﻯ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺧﻴﱪ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﱴ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﲔ ﻭﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ؟ ﻭﺑﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺇﺳﻼ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺑﻠﻎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺒﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﳌﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻧﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺳﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻃﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣِﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺇﻻ ﲜﻮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻔﻴﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻗﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﹸﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ؟ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﹸﺟﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﲜﻮﺍﺑﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺗﺼﻨﻌﻮﻥ ﲝﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )‪ ،(٩٥/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٩٤‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٦٠ ،٥٩/٣‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪.‬‬


‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﹸ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧ‪ِ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺻﻐﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻭﲨﺎﻋ ﹲﺔ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﱠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﺍﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﱪ ﻋﻦ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﹸﻛﻠﱢﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﱠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺣﲔ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﳘﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼ ُﺀ ﻣِﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮﻯ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﻭﻏﲑِﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻄﺖ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻯ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﰲ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺎِﺋﺮ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ ﺃﺷ ‪‬ﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﺻﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﺗﻌﻨﻴﻔﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻌ‪‬ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﳍﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﻟﻮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺫﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ِﻋﺪ‪ ‬ﹸﺓ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺧﺮﺝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹰﺔ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﲔ ﺭﺟﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺎﺳﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗِﺴ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺫﹸﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ ﻭﲨﺎﻋ ﹲﺔ ﳑﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﳘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ﳍﻢ ﻗﺪﻣ ﹲﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺛﻼ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﻗﹶﺪﻣﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳍِﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺧﻴﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻢ ﳌﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹲﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺲ ﲟﻜﺔ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲦﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻧﺴﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺭﺟﻼﻥ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ‪ِ‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺭﺑﻌ ﹲﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﺒ ٍﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻫِﺠﺮﺓ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺠﺎﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺚ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺃﹸﻣﻴ‪‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻤﺮِﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﹸﻗﺮِﻯﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺕ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺁِﺗﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﻵِﺗ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪.(١)(‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﰉ ﺳ‪‬ﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻫﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﺑﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﻴ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑ ِﻦ ﺟﺤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺘﻨﺼ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫﻨ‪‬ﺎﻙ ﻭﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﻭ‪ ‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪ (٩٩ ،٩٨/٨‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪.‬‬


‫‪١٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﹶﺭﺑﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﺋِﺔ ﺩِﻳﻨﺎﺭٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﱃ ﺗﺰﻭﳚ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇﻟﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﻘﻰ ﻋِﻨﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛ ِﻤﻠﹶﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻤﺮِﻯ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ِﺪﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﲪﻠﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺘﲔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺃﹸﻣﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺪ ِﺧﻠﹸﻮﻫﻢ ﰲ ِﺳﻬ‪‬ﺎﻣِﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﱠﻢ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﲞ‪‬ﻴﺒ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪ‪‬ﻭﻩ ﻗﺪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺯﻳ ِﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺣﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻴﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳍِﺠﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪ ٍﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﲢﺮ ‪‬ﱘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻼ ِﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻧﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﲨﻊ ﻭﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﻮﻻ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻴﺘ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﲟﻜﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺟﻮﻋﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫)ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺗﻪ(‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﻜﺚ ﻳﺴﲑﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻇﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﲟﻜﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻤﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺧﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﻄﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍ ﹶﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﷲ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻯ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻯ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﳜﻔﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ؟‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻧﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﳜﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪ (٩٧/٨‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٣٧١/٧‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ‪.‬‬


‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﳌﺎ ﲰﻊ‬ ‫‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﲞﻴﱪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺼﺮ‪‬ﺣﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ﰲ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ( ﻓﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻷﰉ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻫِﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱄ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﳊﺒﺸﺔ ﻟﻴﻨﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺶ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻗﺮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳓﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﳑﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻰ ﺁ ِﻣﻨِﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻋِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣِﻦ ﺑﻠﺪﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺤ ٍ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺜﺖ ﰲ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﻢ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺪﺍﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻰ ﻟﲑﺩ‪‬ﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ﹶﻔﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﻈﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻗﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﳚﺒﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺷﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺪﻋﻰ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻠﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺄ ِﺫ ﹸﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ِﺣ ‪‬ﺰﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻶ ِﺫ ِﻥ‪ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ؟ ﻓﺘﻼ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺻﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫)ﻛﻬﻴﻌﺺ( ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺎﺧﺮﺕ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻗﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﳔﺮﰎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﻓﺄﻧﺘﻢ ﺳ‪‬ﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﺭﺿﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺒ‪‬ﻜﻢ ﹸﻏﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻟﺴﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮﻟﲔ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺘﻤﻮﱏ ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﻠﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻜﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎﳘﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺒ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺟﻌﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﺣﲔ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺶ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﲪﺰﺓ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺸﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﺕ ﻗﺮﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﻌﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺗﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﲎ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲎ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺎﻳﻌﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺎﻛِﺤﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﻠﱢﻤﻮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎِﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻠﱢﻤﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺒﻮﺍ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﱠﻘﻮﻫﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻘ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﱪ ﻣﻄﻮﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ )‪ (٢١٨ ،٢١٧/١‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫)‪ (٢٠٢/١‬ﻭ )‪ .(٢٩٢ ،٢٩٠/٥‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ‪.‬‬


‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺸﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻐﻴﺾ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳓﺎﺯ ﺑﻨﻮ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﻭﺑﻨﻮ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﺆﻣﻨ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺎﻓﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﺑﺎ ﳍﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﺑﲎ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲎ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ‪ِ‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔ ﹸﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻌﺐ ِﺷﻌ‪‬ﺐ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﻫِﻼﻝ ﺍﶈﺮ‪‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨ ﹶﺔ ﺳﺒﻊ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺒِﻌﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﱢﻠ ﹶﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻭﳏﺼﻮﺭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻴ‪‬ﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻄﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﳌِﲑ ﹸﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﳏﺒﻮﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺻِﺒﻴﺎﻧِﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒ‪‬ﻜﺎﺀ ﻣِﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﳉ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ‪ِ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺃﺻﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﺳﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺑﻠﻐﻬﻢ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓﹸ‪ ،‬ﳓ ‪‬ﻮ ﺛﻼ ِ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻗﺼﻴﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﳍﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﺁ ِﺟ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻋﻘﹸﻮﺑ‪‬ـ ﹶﺔ ﺷ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻮﹶﻓ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﺟﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔ ِﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻭﻛﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻌﻰ ﰲ ﻧﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭِﻫﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﺸﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺼﺮ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻰ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﹸﻄﻌِﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻯ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺑﻮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺿ ﹶﺔ ﻓﺄﻛﻠﺖ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﹶﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﻔﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺭ ﻭﻗﻄﻴﻌ ٍﺔ ﻭﻇﹸﻠﻢٍ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﹰﺎ ﺧﻠﱠﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻢ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺤِﻴﻔﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﻌﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻄﻴﻌﺘﻨﺎ ﻭﻇﹸﻠﻤِﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﻧﺼﻔﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﻛﹸﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻛﹸﻔﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻌﺐ)‪ .(٢‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﻌﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺗﺖ ﺧﺪﳚ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺕ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻣﻮﺕ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﲑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧ‪ِ ‬ﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺷﺘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻼ ُﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻣﻦ ﺳﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﺮﺅﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﺷﻔﹸﻮﻩ ﺑﺎﻷﺫﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺭﺟﺎ َﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﻭﻭﻩ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨﺼﺮﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻨﻌﻮﻩ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺨﺮﺝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ )‪ (٢٨٠ ،٢٧٢/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﺴﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﱪ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺳﲑﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ‪ ،٣٥٠/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫‪ ٧١ ،٤٣/٢‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﺪﻧﻴﺔ )‪.(٢٩٠ ،٢٧٨/١‬‬


‫‪١٨‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻋﺎﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻓﻠﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮ ﻧﺎﺻِﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺫﹶﻭﻩ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﺷ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺫﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻠﻪ ﻗﻮﻣ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﻣﻮﻻﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺮﺍﻓﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﻭﻛﻠﱠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺍﺧ‪‬ﺮﺝ ﻣِﻦ ﺑﻠﺪﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻏ ‪‬ﺮﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺩ ِﻣ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﻔﻬﺎﺀﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﲰ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻃﻴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻳﺮﻣ‪‬ﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋ ِ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﻴ ِﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﺷِﺠﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺼﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷﻜﹸﻮ‬ ‫ﻒ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳏﺰﻭﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮ ِﺭ ﺩ‪‬ﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎِﺋ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻮﺗِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻗﻠﱠ ﹶﺔ ﺣِﻴﹶﻠﺘِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍﱏ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ِﻜﹶﻠﻨِﻰ‪ِ ،‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑﻌِﻴ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻤﻨِﻰ؟ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺇﱃ ﻋ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻠﱠ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻌ ِﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻫِﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻊ‪ ‬ﱃ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﺫ ِﺑﻨ‪‬ﻮ ِﺭ‬ ‫ﻼ ﹸﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎﻟِﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻏ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﻓِﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺮِﻯ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﱠﻞ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﹸ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻵ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻈﱡﹸﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻄﹸﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺘﱮ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺓ ﺇِﻻ‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﺒﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ِﺰ ﹶﻝ ﰉ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃﻫ‪‬ﻞ‬ ‫ﳉﺒ‪‬ﺎﻝِ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺄ ِﻣﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻄِﺒ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﺍِ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻞ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ﱠﻜﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﺒﻼﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍ ِﻥ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻻﹶ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﺄﹾﱏ ﺑِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻌ‪‬ـ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﺨ ِﺮﺝ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼﺑِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﹶﻻ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮﻙ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺇﻟﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳉﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺼ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻨﺨﻠﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻧﻔﹶﺮﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﻓﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﹾﺫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭﱠﻟ ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻣﻬِﻢ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ِﺬﺭِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ * ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﺘ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹸ ِ‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻗﹰﺎ ﱢﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬﺪِﻯ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﺃﹸﻧ ِﺰ ﹶﻝ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘِﻴ ٍﻢ * ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ِﺟﻴ‪‬ﺒﻮﹾﺍ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ِﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺁ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮِﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﻃﺮِﻳ ٍﻖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ٍﺰ ﰲ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺲ ِﺑﻤ‪ ‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ِﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟِﻴ ِﻢ * ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ٍ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺑﻄﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ )‪ (٢٦٢ ،٢٦٠/١‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻇﻲ ﻣﺮﺳﻼ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢٢٥/٦‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪.‬‬


‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫ﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ‪.(١)[٣٢-٢٩ :‬‬ ‫ﻼ ٍﻝ ‪‬ﻣِﺒ ٍ‬ ‫ﺿﹶ‬ ‫ﻚﰲ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭِﻧ ِﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭِﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎﺀُ‪ ،‬ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﺨﻠﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺪﺧ ﹸﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻮﻙ؟‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲎ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﺯﻳﺪ‪‬؛ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺟﺎ ِﻋ ﹲﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ ﹶﻓﺮ‪‬ﺟﹰﺎ ﻭﳐﺮﺟﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻧﺎﺻ ‪‬ﺮ ﺩِﻳﻨ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣِﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺰﺍﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣ‪‬ﻄﻌﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻯ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﻞﹸ ﰲ ِﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺭﻙ‪‬؟‬ ‫ﰒ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻞ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﻼﹶﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮﻧﻮﺍ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺭﻛﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱏ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﺑﻨﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟِﺒﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﳏﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ ج ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﹶﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺎﺩﻯ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ؛ ﺇﱏ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻛﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻠﱠﻰ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻯ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﳏﺪِﻗﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﺡ ﺣﱴ ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺘﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﺍ ِﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﺑﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﹸﺳ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﱠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻛﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺮﺍﻕِ‪ ،‬ﺻ‪‬ﺤﺒﺔ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻝ ﻫ‪‬ﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﲝ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ِﺔ ﺑﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺇِﻣﺎﻣﹰﺎ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺢ ﺫﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﳊﻢٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻠﱠﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺒﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻔﺘﺢ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺟﺒ‪‬ﺮﻳﻞﹸ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺇِﱃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺝ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﺗِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱠﰒ ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺮِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻔﹸِﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺃﹶﻯ ‪‬ﻫﻨ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﻦ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺒﻌﺚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ج‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ )‪ (١٥٤ ،١٥٣/٢‬ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٦٢‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﰒ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻓﺼﻠﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٧٢‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﲏ ﰲ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺟﻌﺪ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻣﺸﻨﻮﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﱘ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻜﻢ )ﻳﻌﲏ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ(‪.‬‬


‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫ﺝ ِﺑ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﻩِ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻤِﻴِﻨﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺑﻨ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮﺗِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺯ ﹶﻛ ِﺮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻋِﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ِﻘ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻧ‪‬ﻴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺮ‪‬ﺃﻯ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻟﺜﹶﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺮﺃﻯ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺮﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺑِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﻗﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮِﺗﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﺮﺝ ﺑ ِﻪ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﺝ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻨﺒﻮﺗِﻪ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﺝ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑِﻨﺒ ‪‬ﻮِﺗﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍِﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺃﹶﻯ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﺩ‪‬ﺭﻳﺲ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮِﺗﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮﺝ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺃﹶﻯ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﺎﺭﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﹶﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮِﺗﻪِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺳﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﺑ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺮ‪‬ﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﺑ‪ِ ‬ﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻜﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﻜِﻴﻚ‪‬؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﻜِﻰ‪َ ،‬ﻷﻥﱠ ﻏﹸ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﺝ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺪِﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﻞﹸ ﺍﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻣِﺘ ِﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜﺮ‪ِ ‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﹸﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺘِﻰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮِﺗﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺭﻓِﻊ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ِﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇ‪‬ﺑﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫِﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﳉﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﺟ‪‬ﻼﻟﹸﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﹸ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺭ‪ِ‬ﻓ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹰﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻰ)‪ .(١‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﻰ ﺇِﱃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻼﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ِﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮِﻳ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ُﻷ ‪‬ﻣِﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻔِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﱃ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﺄﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻄِﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﹶﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ِﺇ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳉﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ‬ ‫ﻼ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮِﻳ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﻰ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺸﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ِﺷﹾﺌﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﹸ‪‬ﻧ ِﺰ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻯ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﰲ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎِﻧ ِﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺨﻔِﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ﹾﻝ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩﺩ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺭ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﺆ‪‬ﺍ ِﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺿ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹸﺳﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻢ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪ ‬ﺪ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ٍﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺨﻔِﻴﻒِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﺤ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻀﺘِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﻔﱠ ﹾﻔﺖ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑ ﹸﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻻ؟ ﻓﺼ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ )‪ (٤٠٦ ،٣٩٩/١٣‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﳕﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤٠٥/١٣‬‬


‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺭ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ِﺑ ﹸﻔﺆ‪‬ﺍ ِﺩ ِﻩ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺴﻌ‪‬ﻮ ٍﺩ ِﺇ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻜﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻻ‪ِ :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺭ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹶﻟ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﻭﺍﺑ‪‬ﻦ ً‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ * ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺓ ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﻰ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪ِ [١٤-١٣ :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ِﺟﺒ‪‬ﺮﻳﻞﹸ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻚ‪‬؟ ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ( ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﰉ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹶﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﺭ‪‬ﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﲎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ) :‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺖ‪ ‬ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﺤ‪‬ﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺍﺭﻣﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺷﻴ ‪‬ﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺭﻭﺣ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪) :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺭﺁﻩ(‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗِﻀﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ‪) :‬ﺭﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﻔﹸﺆﺍﺩﻩ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻰ( ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺣﺘ‪ِ‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹶﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺅﻳ ِﺔ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ)‪ِ (٤‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﲎ ﺍﻹﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺭﺁﻩ ﺣﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺣﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫‪‬ﺑﺪ‪ ،(‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺭﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻰ ﺭﺃ ِﺳ ِﻪ ﻳﻘﻈﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﻜﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪) :‬ﺭﺁﻩ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺭﺁﻩ ﺑﻔﺆﺍﺩﻩ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺤ‪ِ ‬ﻜ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺁﻩ ﺑﻌﻴﲎ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭِﻭﺍﻳﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻜﻴ‪‬ﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﺗﺼ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺹ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪) :‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺭﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﻔﹸﺆﺍ ِﺩ ِﻩ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻔﺆ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﻯ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪ ،[١١ :‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺭ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹶﻟ ﹰﺔ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ [١٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺋﻰ ﺟﱪﻳﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﺭﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺭﺁﻩ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺧ‪ِ‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺆﺍﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪﴿ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪﻟﱠﻰ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪ [٨ :‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻮ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (٢٨٤) (١٧٦‬ﻭ )‪ (٢٨٥‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪٤٦٦/٨‬ﻭ ‪ ٤٦٧‬ﻭ ‪.(٤٦٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ .(٢٩٢) (٢٩١) (١٧٨‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻄﻮﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٣٦٨/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (٣٢٣١‬ﻭ )‪.(٣٢٣٢‬‬


‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺪﱃ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﰲ )ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ( ﻫﻮ ﺩﻧ‪‬ﻮ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻭﺗﺪﻟﱢﻴﻪ‪ (١)،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ﴾‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻋﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﺷﺪِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺪﻟﱠﻰ﴾‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪ [٥ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﴿ﺫﹸﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ٍﺓ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘﻮ‪‬ﻯ * ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﺑِﺎﻷُﻓﹸ ِﻖ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ* ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ‪ ،[٨-٦ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﹸﻛﻠﱡﻬﺎ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﱢﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﹸﻭ ﺍ ِﳌﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﺎﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺩﱏ ﻓﺘﺪﻟﱠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ج ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﻗﻮﺳﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﱏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻮ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪ‪‬ﱃ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﺮﻳ ‪‬ﺢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﺪﻟﱢﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﰲ )ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻢ( ﻟِﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺁﻩ ﻧﺰﻟ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺩﻧ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﹸﺧﺮﻯ ﻋِﻨﺪ ﺳِﺪﺭ ِﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺟﱪﻳﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﺭﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ج ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻ‪‬ﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﰲ ﻗﻮﻣِﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺗ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻒ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﹾﺎ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺫﺍﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺿﺮﺍﻭﺗ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺄﻟﻮﻩ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻄِﻴﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪‬ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﺒ‪‬ﺮﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁﻳﺎِﺗﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻄ ِﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺍ ﹶﳌ ﹾﻘ ِﺪﺱِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠ ﱠ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﺌﹰﺎ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻗﹸﺪﻭ ِﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﺭﺟﻮ ِﻋﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋِﲑﻫﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ِﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻔﻮﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﰉ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﻛﹸﻔﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ‪) :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﺮﻭﺣﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔﻘِﺪ ﺟﺴﺪ‪‬ﻩ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻧ‪ِ ‬ﻘ ﹶﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺼﺮﻯ ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍ ُﺀ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻭﺣﻪ ﺩﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺟﺴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻓﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢٩٧/٨‬ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ )‪ (١٥٢/٧‬ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٧٠‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٧٤/١‬‬


‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫ﻯ ِﺑﺮ‪‬ﻭ ِﺣ ِﻪ ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ِﻘ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﱂ ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻻ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ‪) :‬ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺳ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻀﺮﻭﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ،(‬ﻭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺫﹸ ِﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻮﺭ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻯ ﻛﺄﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺣ‪‬ﻪ ﱂ ﺗﺼﻌ‪‬ﺪ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ‪‬ﻣﹶﻠﻚ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻟﻪ ﺍ ِﳌﺜﹶﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺑﺮﻭﺣﻪ ﻭﺑﺪﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺑﺮﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺘﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻃﺎﺋﻔ ﹲﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﺣﻪ ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔ ِﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﺪ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳﺮِﻳﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌِﻌﺮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺷﺮﺕ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟِﻨﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺎ ِﺷﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻯ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺳ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﹸﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺤﺎﳍﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺻ‪‬ﻌﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﲰﺎ ًﺀ ﲰﺎ ًﺀ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺘﻬﻰ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ِﻘﻒ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀُ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﱰﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺼ ﹸﻞ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟِﺮﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﻤ ﹸﻞ ﳑﺎ ﳛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﻓﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺑﺬﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍِﺋﺪِ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﺷﻖ‪ ‬ﺑﻄ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﻰ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﱂ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﹸﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺭﻭ ِﺣ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻌﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎ ِﺀ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳌﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺇﻣﺎﺗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺑﺬﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎ ُﺀ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ‪‬ﺕ ﺃﺭﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‬ ‫ﺻ ِﻌﺪ‪‬ﺕ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﻫﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﰒ ﻋﺎﺩ‪‬ﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ‪‬ﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﱡﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻥ ﻭﺇﺷﺮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ)‪ ،(١‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﲟﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﻗﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﰒ ‪‬ﺭﺩ‪ ‬ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻘﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺭ‪‬ﻭﺣِﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﱪ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻘﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﺡ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﰲ ﻗﱪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺁﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺳﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ج ﰲ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺴﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻘِﺮﹰﺍ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺿﺮﳛﻪ ﻏ ‪‬ﲑ ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﱢﻢ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺇﺩﺭﺍ ﹸﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﳌﻸ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﹶﻛﺜﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﰲ ‪‬ﻋﹸﻠﻮ‪ ‬ﳏﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﱡ ِﻘﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﻨﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺷﺄ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻬﺎ ﺷﺄﻥﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻸﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﺷﺄﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٠٤١‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ‪.‬‬


‫‪٢٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﳏﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺗﺆﺛﱢﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪ ِﻥ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻭﺃﻛﻤ ﹸﻞ ﻣِﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﰎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺄ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﱡ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻟﻄﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎِﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐﺸِﻰ ﹶﻇ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﻯ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹸــ ﹾﻞ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻌﻴ‪‬ــﻮ ِﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﻣ‪‬ــ ِﺪ ِﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻙ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺑ‪‬ﺮﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻘﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻯ‪) :‬ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺀ ﻗﺒ ﹶﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺷﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ ..‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍ ُﺀ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺗﲔ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﻈﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺑﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺪﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻈﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺳﺎﺋ ِﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻰ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻚ‪) :‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺣ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩﻟﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮ‪‬ﺗﲔ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﺛﻼ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹸﺔ ﺿﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻘ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺟﻌﻠﹸﻮﻩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺑﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺎِﻟﻒ‪ ‬ﺳﻴﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺋﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺍﺣِﺪ ﹰﺓ ﲟﻜﱠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪ‪‬ﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒِﻌﺜﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺎ ﻋﺠﺒﺎ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺳﺎﻍ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻈﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗ‪‬ﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﲬﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺘﺮﺩ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼ ‪‬ﲑ ﲬﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻯ( ﰒ ﻳﻌﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﱴ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻔﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺃﻣﻀﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊﻔﱠﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳛﻄﻬﺎ ﻋﺸﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻏﻠﱠﻂ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻅ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻣِﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ)‪ (١‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺍﺝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﰲ ﳏﻞ ﺳﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺷﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺫﻛﺮ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﱄ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﺮﳛﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ‬

‫=‬


‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻭﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﻭﻧﻘﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺮﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺩ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺒﺪأ اﻟﻬﺠﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﺮﱠق اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ أﻋﺪاﺋﻪ وأوﻟﻴﺎﺋﻪ‪،‬وﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺪًأ ﻹﻋﺰاز‬ ‫دﻳﻨﻪ وﻧﺼﺮ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ورﺳُﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻯ‪ :‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﲎ ﳏﻤ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻣِﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻝ ﻧ‪‬ﺒﻮﺗﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺴﺘﺨﻔﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺙ ِﺳِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ِﺑ ‪‬ﻤﻜﱠ ﹶﺔ ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺳِﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺍﰱ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﳊﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍﺑِﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻯ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺠ‪‬ﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳝ‪‬ﻨﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﺣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﱢﻠ ﹶﻎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺳﻢ ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻜﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪ ‬ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﻨﺼ‪‬ﺮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﻴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺴﺄ ﹸﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﳍﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ِﺭﺳ‪‬ﺎﻻ ِ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻗﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﹶﻻ ﺇِﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇِﻻ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔِﻠﺤ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹾﲤِﻠﻜﹸﻮﺍ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎ ِﺯﳍﹶﺎ ﻗﺒﻴﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ٍ‬ ‫ﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻛﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ِﺬﻝﱠ ﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺭﺍﺀَﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻄِﻴﻌ‪‬ﻮﻩ‪ ‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺻ‪‬ﺎﺑِﻰﺀ ﹶﻛﺬﱠﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺃﻗﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺆﺫﻭﻧﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘِﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﻳﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺣﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﺳﺮﺗ‪‬ﻚ ﻭﻋﺸﲑﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻫ ﹶﻜﺬﹶﺍ( ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎِﺋ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺷﹾﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺗﺎﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﺩﻋﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻌﺔﹶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻧﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺑﻨﻮ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﳏﺎﺭﺏ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺣﺼ‪‬ﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻓﺰ‪‬ﺍﺭ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺴ‪‬ﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻠﹶﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﻮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻀﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭِﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛِﻨﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺬﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺝ ﻛﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻳﺴﻤﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﻠﻔﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﺍﳋﺰﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣِﻤﺎ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟِﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺝ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘِﺒﻌ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﻧﻘﺘ‪‬ﻠﻜﹸﻢ ﻣﻌﻪ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﺙ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻬﻮ ِﺩ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨ ِﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺒﻌﻮ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺏ ﲢﺠ‪‬ﻪ ﺩﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ٍﺩ ﻭﺇ ‪‬ﺭﻡٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﳛﺠ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫=‬

‫ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻋﻪ ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻌﻼ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٤٠٤/١٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪ (٢١٧ ،٢١٦/١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ‪.‬‬


‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄ ‪‬ﻣﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﺣﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﺒ ﹸﻘ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻳﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪ :‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻗﺪ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣ ﱠﻜﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎﻩ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺳ‪‬ﻮﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎﻣِﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﻴﺴﺮ ﰲ ﻓِﺘﻴ ٍﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﻗﻮﻣ ِﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ِﻞ ﻳﻄﹸﻠﺒ‪‬ﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﺑﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺛﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊِﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎﻫﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳ‪‬ﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻳﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﷲ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣِﻤﺎ ﺟِﺌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﺮﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﻴﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻜﺖ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳِﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﳍﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻡ‪‬؛ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺍِ‬ ‫ﳊ ﹾﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺼ ‪‬ﺮﻓﹸﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨ ِﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﰒ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒ ِﺔ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺳ ِﻢ ِﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ٍﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎ ِﺭ ﹸﻛﻠﱡﻬﻢ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺍِﻓﻊ‪ ‬ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﺍﺭ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﹸﻄﺒ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﻘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺋﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ ﻓﺄﺳﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺭﺟﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺸﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﺩﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﺍ ُﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣِﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﺭﻓﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﺧﻮ ﻋﻮﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻗﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺫﹶﻛﻮﺍﻥ ﲟﻜﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻬﺎﺟﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺰﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻌﻠﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻴﻬﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﻮﳝﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱﰲ‬ ‫ﺚ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻤﻜﱠ ﹶﺔ ﻋﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﻨﲔ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﹶﻟِﺒ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻜﹶﺎﻅ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺆ‪‬ﻭﻳﲎ؟ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺼ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﱏ؟ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﹸ‪‬ﺑﱢﻠ ﹶﻎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺼ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻭِﻳﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪ ‬ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻞﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ِﺭﺳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻻ ِ‬ ‫ﺶ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔِﺘ‪‬ﻨﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻗﹸﺮ‪‬ﻳ ٍ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ِﻦ ﺇِﱃ ﺫِﻯ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺣ ِﻤﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺄﺗِﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﻗﻮ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﻏﹸ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸِﻰ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎِﻟﻬِﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺸﲑ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺑِﺎ َﻷﺻ‪‬ﺎﺑﻊِ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﹶﺜﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ )‪.(٤٢٨ ،٤٢٧/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ )‪.(٤٢٩ ،٤٢٨/١‬‬


‫‪٢٧‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﹾﺜ ِﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﺄﺗِﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻴ‪ ‬ﺆ ِﻣﻦ‪ ‬ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻘ ِﺮﺋﹸﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘِﻠﺐ‪ ‬ﺇِﱃ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻈﻬ‪‬ﺮﻭ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻂ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻣﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻖ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩﻭ ِﺭ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ِﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﻭﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺑِﺈ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﹶﺜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎﹾﺋ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻗﻠﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳ‪‬ﻄﺮ‪‬ﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ِﺟﺒ‪‬ﺎﻝ ‪‬ﻣﻜﱠ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﹶﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻮ ِﺳﻢِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻘﺒ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻟﻪ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺧِﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺩ‪‬ﺭﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺆ‪‬ﻻ ِﺀ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺅﻭﻙ‪ِ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺫﹸﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺮﹶﻓ ٍﺔ ِﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺱ ﰲ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ِﻫﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺆ‪‬ﻻ ِﺀ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﹾﺜ ِﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ٍ ‬ﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻦِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺮﻓﹸﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻫﺆ‪‬ﻻ ِﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍﺙﹲ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؛ ﻋ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻧﺒ‪‬ﺎِﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻚ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎِﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮﻧِﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺮ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻞ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻔ ﹶﻘ ِﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔِ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺑِﺎ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻭﻑِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹸﳌ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻜﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﺬﻛﹸﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﺔﹸ ﹶﻻِﺋﻢٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺯﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻛﹸﻢ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺼ‪‬ﺮﻭﱏ ﺇِﺫﺍ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻣﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻌ‪‬ﻮﻧِﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﻐﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻨ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺒ‪‬ﺎِﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ِﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ِﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻦ‪ ‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ِﻄ ‪‬ﻰ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻳﹾﺜ ِﺮﺏ‪ِ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧﻀ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻜﹸﻢ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓِﺈﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻛﹶﺎﱠﻓﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﻞﹸ ِﺧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﻛﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺇ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻣﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﻗﺔﹸ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸﻢ ﺧِﻴ ﹶﻔ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺨ‪‬ﺬﹸﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﺨ‪‬ﺎﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻂ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻙ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﺬﺭ‪ ‬ﻫ ِﺬ ِﻩ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ﹶﺬﺭ‪‬ﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﺬﺭ‪ ‬ﹶﻟﻜﹸﻢ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬؛ ﹶﺃ ِﻣ ﹾ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻄِﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘِﻴﻠﹸﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹸﻘ ‪‬ﻤﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻋﻤﺮ ‪‬ﻭ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﱠﰒ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺑ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﲑ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻤﺎﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰉ‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﻣ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻢ ﳌﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﻮﺍ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯ‪‬ﺭﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺼﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﺑ‪‬ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬ﻴﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ (٣٢٩ ،٣٢٢/٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ )‪ (٩/٩‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(٦٢٥ ،٦٢٤/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ )‪ ،(٤٣٥/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (١٠٦٩‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪ .(٢٨١/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(١٧٦/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺧﱪ ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﻭﺃﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻀﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ )‪.(٤٣٦ ،٤٣٥/١‬‬


‫‪٢٨‬‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺳﻼﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺑﲎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎ ﹸﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﹸﺻﲑﻡ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺶ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺗﺄﺧ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﹸﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻓ ﹸﻘﺘِﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺠﺪ ِ‬ ‫ﺳﺠﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹸﺧﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻋ ِﻤ ﹶﻞ ﻗﹶﻠﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸ ِﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛﺜِﲑﹰﺍ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﰱ ﺍﳌﻮ ِﺳ ‪‬ﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ﺼﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺧﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻋﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀُ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺴﻠﱠﻞ ﺇﱃ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺛﻼﺛ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻠ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺧِﻔﻴﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣِﻦ ﹸﻛﻔﱠﺎ ِﺭ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻨﻌ‪‬ﻮﻩ ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﳝﻨﻌﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣِﻨﻪ ﻧﺴﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﻭﺃ ‪‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﻟﻴﻠﺘﺌ ٍﺬ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻋ ‪‬ﻢ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻛﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫ ﺫﺍﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻳ ِﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﺛﲎ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻧﻘﻴﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺍِﻓﻊ‪ ‬ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺮﺍﺀُ ﺑﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﻌﺮﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﻼﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﺗِﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺬ ‪‬ﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﹸﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺗِﺴﻌ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺱ‪ :‬ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳊﻀﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻴﺜﻤﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭِﻓﺎﻋ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴﻠِﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﺑ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﱴ ﹶﻗﺘ‪‬ﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻛﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺗﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﹸﻡ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻧ‪‬ﺴﻴﺒﺔ ﺑﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺒﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﲤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻌ ﹸﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﻮﺍ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ ج ﺃﻥ ﳝﻴﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒ ِﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﻴﺎﻓﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒ ِﺔ ﺑﺄﻧ ﹶﻔ ِﺬ ﺻﻮﺕ ‪‬ﺳﻤِﻊ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻫ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺄ ﹶﺫ ﹾﻥ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺓ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﺑﻜﻢ؟ ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺟﺐ ﻫﻞ ﻟﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻣ‪ ‬ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻣ ٍﻢ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﻳﺎ ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﻷ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺯﻳ‪‬ﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ج‪) :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ِﺟﻠﱠﺔﹸ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻔﻀ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺣﺎﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻏ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺷﺮﺍﻓﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﱴ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﺷِﻌﺐ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝِ؛ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﹶﻟﻘِﻴﺘ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٩/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ )‪ (٤٤٧ ،٤٤٠/١‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٤٦٢ ،٤٦٠/٣‬‬


‫‪٢٩‬‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﺻﺎ ِﺣ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻋﺪﲤﹸﻮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺎﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﺑﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﱘ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺣ ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺃﺑﻐ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫ‪‬ﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺰﺭﺝ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣِﻨﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺒﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﳊﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﳛِﻠﻔﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻋِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﺑﻰ‪ ‬ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻣﻰ ﻟِﻴﻔﺘﺎﺗ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﻣِﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻣِﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﺍ ُﺀ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻨﻊ ﻗﻮﻣﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﺍﻣﺮﻭﱏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺟﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺜﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻄ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺟ‪‬ﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻼﺣﻖ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﻠﱠﺒﺘﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻊ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣﻠِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻳﻀ ِﺮﺑ‪‬ﻮﻧﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺩﺭﻛﻮﺍ ﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺑﻄﻮﺍ ﻳﺪﻳ ِﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻘ ِﻪ ﺑِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺬِﺑﻮ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﺠ‪ ‬ﻤِﺘ ِﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﹸﻮﻩ ﻣﻜﱠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﻣ‪ ‬ﹾﻄ ِﻌﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺠﺮ‪‬ﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺣﲔ ﻓﻘﺪ‪‬ﻭﻩ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻜﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺃﹸﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﻠﺼ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﻗﺪ ﹶﻃﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺻ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨ ِﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺄ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺎ ِﳍﺠ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺣ‪‬ﺘِﺒﺴ‪‬ﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣِﻨﻌ‪‬ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﺤ‪‬ﺎﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻭﻟﺪِﻫﺎ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﺑﻮﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻴ‪‬ﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﺜﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺃﺭﺳﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺘﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺑﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﲟﻜﺔ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺧ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﳍﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﺒﺴﻪ ﺍﳌﺸ ِﺮﻛﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻛﺮﻫﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯﻩ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻣﱴ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳋﺮﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻗﺪ ﲡ ‪‬ﻬﺰ‪‬ﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﲪﻠﹸﻮﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﹸﻮﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﺍﳋﺰﺭ‪‬ﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﻓﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﺩﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌﺔٍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﻗﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﱠﺭﺍﺭِﻯ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍ ﹶﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﳊﻮﻗﹶﻪ ‪‬ﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﹶﻫ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺣ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻛ ٍﺔ ﻭﺑﺄﺱٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺎﻓﻮﺍ ﺧﺮﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻯ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺸﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﺨﱠﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﰲ ﺻ‪‬ﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻟﻴﺘﺸﺎﻭﺭﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻀﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻟﻴ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻭﺷﻴﺨ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺇﺑﻠﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ )‪ (٤٦٩/١‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬


‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫ﺼﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛِﺴﺎﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺬﺍ ﹶﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻓﺄﺷﺎﺭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﳒﺪ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﱃ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﻛﻢ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺃﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴ ‪‬ﺦ ﻳﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺿﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻬﻞ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻓﹸ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻌﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻏﻼﻣﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺩﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬ ‫‪‬ﺟﻠﹾﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ﻧﻌﻄﻴِﻪ ‪‬ﺳﻴ‪‬ﻔﹰﺎ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻀﺮﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺿﺮﺑ ﹶﺔ ﺭﺟ ٍﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻯ ﺑﻨﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺼﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ ِﻜ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻯ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺘﻔﺮ‪‬ﻗﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﷲ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﱴ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺩﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ِ :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻩ ﺟﱪﻳ ﹸﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪﻩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣ‪‬ﻀﺠﻌِﻪ ﺗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺳﺎﻋ ٍﺔ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘﻨ‪‬ﻌﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻧِﺼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨﺪ‪‬ﻙ( ﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻫ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳋﺮ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻟِﻰ ﰲ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺝ( ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﻧﻌﻢ(‬ ‫ﱴ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﻓﺨﺬ ﺑﺄﰉ ﻭﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﺣﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺭﺍﺣﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻤﻦ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣِﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﺃﹸﻭﻟﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ِﻌ ِﻪ ﺗﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻴﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺮِﻳﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﲤﺮﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﻳﻜﻮ ﹸﻥ ﺃﺷﻘﺎﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻳﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﺨﺮﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺣ‪‬ﻔﻨ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﺬﺭ‪ ‬ﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻬﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻠﻮ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺪِﻳ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺳ‪‬ﺪﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ِﻔ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺳ‪‬ﺪﺍ ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻏ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ِ‬ ‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﻳﺲ‪ ،[٩ :‬ﻭﻣﻀﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺎ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺧ ٍﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻟﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﺟﻞﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮﻭﻥ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪:‬‬ ‫ﷲ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺫ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺧ‪‬ﺒﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﺑﺼﺮﻧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﻳﻨﻔﻀ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪ ‬ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺒﺔﹸ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻣ‪‬ﻌﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻀ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸﻣﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻣﻌ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ )‪.(٤٨٣ ،٤٨٠/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٨٣/٧‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ‪.‬‬


‫‪٣١‬‬ ‫ﻭﻃﹸﻌﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﳍﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﺃ‪‬ﺑﻰ‪ ‬ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻟﹸﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻋِﻠﻢ ﱃ ﺑﻪ)‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻣﻀﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺎﺭ ﺛﻮﺭٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺧﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻪ)‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﺩِﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻫِﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﻳ ِﻘ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩِﻳﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺘﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻋﺪﺍﻩ ﻏﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼﺙ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻭﺟﺪ‪‬ﺕ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺒﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﹶﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻰ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؛ ﻟﻮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺰ ﹾﻥ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺑِﺎﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺛﹶﺎِﻟﺜﹸﻬ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲢﺖ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﻷﺑﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜﺮٍ؛ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻇ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﺎ ِﻥ ﻛﻼﻣ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻓﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ()‪ (٤‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺮﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻣِﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻓﹸﻬﲑﺓ ﻳﺮﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻏﻨﻤﹰﺎ ﻷﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﺤ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎ ﹸﻝ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﳋﱪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﳍﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺳ‪‬ﻔﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺟِﺮﺍﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻬ‪‬ﺰﻧﺎﻫ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﺣﺚ ﺍﳉِﻬﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻷُﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺼﲑ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑ ِﻪ ﺍﳉِﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻗﻄﻌ ﹰﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧِﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﲰﺎ ُﺀ ﺑﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻗﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‪ :‬ﺫﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋِﺼﺎﻣﹰﺎ ِﻟﻔﻢ ﺍﻟﻘِﺮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ ﹸﻟﻘﱢﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ )ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ( ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﳝﺸﻰ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﹶﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﹶﻓ ِﻄ ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ج‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؛ ﺃﺫﻛﹸﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺸﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻚ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺫﻛﹸﺮ ﺍﻟﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ )‪ (٢٢٨ ،٢٢٧/١‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤٨٣/١‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻇﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﲣﺮﳚﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٨٦/٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ٨/٧‬ﻭ ‪ ٩‬ﻭ ‪ (١٠‬ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٨٥/٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ )‪ (٢٢٩/١‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(١٨٤ ،١٨٣/٧‬‬


‫‪٣٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊِﻤﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻛﹸﻔﻴﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳋﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﹸﻔﻴﺘﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻬﻨﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﱪﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻩ ﺣﺎﺭﺳﹰﺎ ﳍﻤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺨﺰَاﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ُﺛﻢﱠ َﻣ ﱠﺮ رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﻴﺮﻩ ذﻟﻚ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺑﺨﻴﻤﺘﻰ ُأمﱠ َﻣ ْﻌ َﺒ ٍﺪ اﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻦ َﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟ ْﻠ َﺪ ًة ﺗﺤﺘﺒﻰ ﺑﻔﻨﺎء اﻟﺨﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺗُﻄ ِﻌ ُﻢ وﺗَﺴﻘﻰ َﻣ ْ‬ ‫وآﺎﻧﺖ اﻣﺮأة َﺑ ْﺮ َز ًة َ‬ ‫ﻋ َﻮ َزآُﻢ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻟﻮ آﺎن ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺷﻰء ﻣﺎ أ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺄﻻهﺎ‪ :‬هﻞ ﻋﻨﺪهﺎ ﺷﻰء؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬وا ِ‬ ‫ل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج إﻟﻰ ﺷﺎة ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟ ِﻘﺮَى‪ ،‬واﻟﺸﱠﺎ ُء ﻋﺎزِب‪ ،‬وآﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺷﻬﺒﺎء‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻈَﺮ رﺳﻮ ُ‬ ‫ﺠ ْﻬ ُﺪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﺮ اﻟﺨﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎل‪) :‬ﻣﺎ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺸﺎة ﻳﺎ ُأمّ َﻣ ْﻌﺒَﺪ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺷﺎة ﺧﻠﻔﻬﺎ اﻟ َ‬ ‫ِآ ْ‬ ‫ﻦ ﻟﺒﻦ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬هﻰ أﺟﻬ ُﺪ ﻣِﻦ ذﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎل‪) :‬أﺗﺄذﻧﻴﻦ ﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻨﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎل‪) :‬هﻞ ِﺑﻬَﺎ ِﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺢ رﺳﻮل‬ ‫ﺣﻠْﺒًﺎ ﻓﺎﺣﻠُﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺴ َ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑﻬﺎ َ‬ ‫أن أَﺣﻠِﺒﻬَﺎ(؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﺑﻰ وأُﻣﻰ‪ ،‬إن رأﻳ َ‬ ‫ﺿ ْﺮﻋَﻬﺎ‪ ،‬وﺳﻤﱠﻰ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ودﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻔﺎﺟﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ودرﱠت‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﺈﻧﺎء ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺑِﻴ ِﺪ ِﻩ َ‬ ‫ﺾ اﻟﺮﱠهﻂَ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻋﻠﺘﻪ اﻟﺮﱠﻏﻮة‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻘﺎهﺎ ﻓﺸﺮﺑﺖ ﺣﺘﻰ َر ِوﻳَﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳُﺮ ِﺑ ُ‬ ‫وﺳﻘﻰ أﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ رَووْا‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺷﺮب‪ ،‬وﺣﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎً‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻸ اﻹﻧﺎء‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ أن ﺟﺎء زوﺟُﻬﺎ أﺑﻮ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ ﻳﺴﻮق أﻋﻨﺰًا‬ ‫ﻏﺎدرﻩ ﻋﻨﺪهﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎرﺗﺤﻠُﻮا‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﱠﻤﺎ َﻟﺒِﺜ ْ‬ ‫ﻋِﺠﺎﻓﺎً‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺴﺎوآﻦ هُﺰا ً‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺠﺐَ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎل‪ :‬ﻣِﻦ أﻳﻦ ﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻋِ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻻ ﻧِﻘﻰ ﺑﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ رأى اﻟﻠﱠﺒﻦ‪َ ،‬‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﷲ إﻻ أﻧﱠﻪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺑﻨﺎ رﺟ ٌ‬ ‫ﺣﻠُﻮﺑ َﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﻴﺖ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻻ وا ِ‬ ‫هﺬا‪ ،‬واﻟﺸﺎ ُة ﻋﺎزب؟ وﻻ َ‬ ‫ﷲ إﻧﻰ ﻷُراﻩ‬ ‫ك آﺎن ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ آﻴﺖ وآﻴﺖ‪ ،‬وﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ آﺬا وآﺬا‪ .‬ﻗﺎل‪ :‬وا ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎ َر ٌ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ اﻟﺬى ﺗﻄﻠُﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺻِﻔﻴﻪ ﻟﻰ ﻳﺎ ُأمّ َﻣ ْﻌﺒَﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪) :‬ﻇﺎ ِه ُﺮ اﻟ َﻮﺿَﺎءة‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣ َ‬ ‫ﺻﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺻ ْﻌﻠَﺔ‪ ،‬وﺳﻴﻢ َﻗﺴِﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻠَﺔ‪ ،‬وﻟﻢ ُﺗﺰْر ﺑﻪ ُ‬ ‫ﺨ ْﻠﻖِ‪ ،‬ﻟﻢ ﺗﻌﺒﻪ ُﺛ ْ‬ ‫ﻦ اﻟ َ‬ ‫ﺴُ‬ ‫ﺣَ‬ ‫ﺞ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ‪َ ،‬‬ ‫أﺑﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﻄﻊٌ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳَ‬ ‫ﻋ ُﻨ ِﻘ ِﻪ َ‬ ‫ﺻﺤَﻞ‪ ،‬وﻓﻰ ُ‬ ‫ﻃﻒٌ‪ ،‬وﻓﻰ ﺻْﻮﺗﻪ َ‬ ‫ﺷﻔَﺎر ِﻩ و َ‬ ‫ﻋﺞٌ‪ ،‬وﻓﻰ َأ ْ‬ ‫ﻋ ْﻴ َﻨ ْﻴ ِﻪ َد َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﺸﻌْﺮ‪ ،‬إذا ﺻﻤﺖ ﻋﻼﻩ اﻟﻮﻗﺎرُ‪ ،‬وإن‬ ‫أﺣﻮرُ‪ ،‬أآﺤﻞُ‪ ،‬أزجﱡ‪ ،‬أﻗﺮنُ‪ ،‬ﺷﺪﻳ ُﺪ ﺳﻮاد اﻟ َ‬ ‫ﻞ اﻟﻨﺎس وأﺑﻬﺎهُﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬وأﺣﺴﻨُﻪ وأﺣﻼﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻼﻩ اﻟﺒﻬﺎءُ‪ ،‬أﺟﻤ ُ‬ ‫ﺤ ﱠﺪ ْرنَ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻈ ٍﻢ َﻳ َﺘ َ‬ ‫ت َﻧ ْ‬ ‫ن ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺧﺮزا ُ‬ ‫ﻻ َهﺬْر‪ ،‬آﺄ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺼﻞٌ‪ ،‬ﻻ َﻧﺰْر و َ‬ ‫ﺣ ْﻠ ُﻮ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‪َ ،‬ﻓ ْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻏُﺼﻨﻴﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻦ ﻣِﻦ ﻗﺼﺮ‪ ،‬وﻻ ﺗﺸﻨﺆُﻩ ﻣِﻦ ﻃﻮل‪ ،‬ﻏﺼ ٌ‬ ‫رﺑﻌﺔٌ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﺤﻤُﻪ ﻋﻴ ٌ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ أﻧﻀ ُﺮ اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﺮاً‪ ،‬وأﺣﺴﻨُﻬﻢ َﻗ ْﺪ َراً‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ رُﻓﻘﺎء ﻳﺤﻔﱡﻮن ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬إذا ﻗﺎل‬ ‫ﺲ وﻻ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻤﻌﻮا ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬وإذا أﻣﺮ ﺗﺒﺎدرُوا إﻟﻰ أﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻔﻮ ٌد ﻣﺤﺸﻮدٌ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﺎﺑ ٌ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ اﻟﺬى ذآﺮوا ﻣﻦ أﻣﺮﻩ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﷲ هﺬا ﺻﺎﺣ ُ‬ ‫ُﻣ ْﻔ ِﻨ ٌﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎل أﺑﻮ َﻣ ْﻌﺒَﺪ‪) :‬وا ِ‬


‫‪٣٤‬‬ ‫ﻼ(‪ ،‬وأﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ت إﻟﻰ ذﻟﻚ ﺳﺒﻴ ً‬ ‫ﻦ إن وﺟﺪ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ أن أﺻﺤَﺒﻪ‪ ،‬وﻷﻓﻌﻠ ﱠ‬ ‫ذآﺮوا‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ هﻤﻤ ُ‬ ‫ﺻﻮت ﺑﻤﻜﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴًﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻌُﻮﻧﻪ وﻻ ﻳﺮون اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ‪:‬‬

‫ﺵ ‪‬ﺧﻴ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﺰ‪‬ﺍﺋِـ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭﻓِﻴﻘﹶـ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻼﱠ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻰ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﻣﻌ‪‬ـ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﺟﺰ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑِـ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭﻓِﻴ ‪‬ﻖ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺤﹶ‬ ‫ﻫ‪‬ـﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻧ‪‬ـﺰ ﹶﻻ ﺑِﺎﻟﺒِـ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺗ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻘﺼ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯﻭ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸــ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓﻌ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎﺯ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺩ‬ ‫ﺻ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﲔ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎ ﹸﻥ ﹶﻓﺘ‪‬ــﺎﺗِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻘﹾـ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﻟ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺆﻣِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨِﻰ ﹶﻛﻌ‪‬ـ ٍ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺘ‪‬ـ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷ‪‬ﺎِﺗﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭِﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎِﺋﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓِﺈﻧ‪‬ﻜﹸﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺸﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺒﻌﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﻭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻼﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﹶﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﺣﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺝ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻣِﻦ ﻣ ﱠﻜﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﳜﺮﺟﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﳐﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻳﻨﺘﻈِﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﺭﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﺛﺎﱏ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺭﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺳﻨ ﹰﺔ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺻ ِﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺭﺟﻌﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺰﻭ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻃﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻃﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺮﺥ ﺑﺄﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺗﻪ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺑﲎ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠﺔﹶ؛ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣﺒ‪‬ﻜﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﻟﻴﺘﻠ ﱠﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ‪ِ ‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﹾﻜِﺒ ‪‬ﲑ ﰲ ﺑﲎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﺣﹰﺎ ﺑﻘﹸﺪﻭﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻠ ﱠﻘﻮ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺣ‪‬ﻴﻮ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﺘﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺣﺪﻗﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﻴﻔﲔ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻜﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻐﺸﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﻰ ﻳﱰِﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻇ ِﻬ ‪‬ﲑ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ﹶﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮﻻ ‪‬ﻩ ﻭ ِﺟ‪‬ﺒﺮِﻳ ﹸﻞ ‪‬ﻭﺻ‪‬ﺎِﻟﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣِﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﳌﹶﻼِﺋ ﹶﻜﺔﹸ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ ،[٤‬ﻓﺴﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻘﹸﺒﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺑﲎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹸﻛ ﹾﻠﺜﹸﻮ ِﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ﺍ ِﳍ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪ ﺑﻦ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺑﲎ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(١٠ ،٩/٣‬‬


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‫ﺲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﻗﹸﺒﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﻣﺴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳ‪‬ﺲ ﻣﺴ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺩﺭﻛﺘﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻌ ﹸﺔ ﰲ ﺑﲎ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻤ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﰲ ﺑﻄﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨﻄﹶﺎﻡ ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﹸﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰒ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬﻭﺍ ِﺑ ِ‬ ‫) ‪‬ﺧﻠﱡﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﹲﺓ( ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺰﻝ ﻧﺎﻗﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻪ ﻻ ﲤ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺪﺍ ٍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺭ ِﻏﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱰﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﹲﺓ( ﻓﺴﺎﺭﺕ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻗﻠﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﺴﺠﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﻛﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺟﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﱪﻛﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺑﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﺧﻮﺍِﻟ ِﻪ ج‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﱰِﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺧﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺮﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﻜﻠﱢﻤﻮﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﰲ ﺍﻟﱰﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺣﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺩﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﺮﺀُ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣِﻠ ِﻪ( ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺰﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ)‪ (٢‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺻِﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻆ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳜﺘﻠِﻒ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﺘﺤ ﱠﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹰﺔ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹶﺬﻛﱠﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﻘﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺣﺒِﻴﺒﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﺗِــﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﺸ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺓ ِﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺶ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺛﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﰲ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ٍ‬ ‫ﺴﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﺆﻭِﻱ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﻋِـﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺽ ﰲ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍ ﹶﳌﻮ‪‬ﺍﺳِـ ِﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ـ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ ِﺑ ﹶﻄﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﺔ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ــﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﺸ‪‬ﻰ ﻇﹸ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﻏﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺸ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ﻇﹶـﺎ ٍﱂ ‪‬ﺑﻌِﻴ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻏﹶﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺂﺳِـﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﺑ ﹶﺬﹾﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ َﻷﻣ‪‬ـﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﻝ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺣ ﱢﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﻟِﻨـﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺼ‪‬ﺎِﻓﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﳊﺒِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻯ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻯ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱ ﹸﻛﱢﻠ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟﻤِﻴﻌﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺻﺒ‪‬ــ ‪‬ﺢ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩﻳ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻏﻴ‪‬ــ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻥﱠ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶـ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪) :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎ ِﳍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ﻭﺃﹸﻧﺰ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﹸﻞ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪ (٢٣٣/١‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻩ )‪.(١٨٩/٧‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٦٢٣/٣‬ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )‪ (١٧١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ١٩٦/٧‬ﻭ ‪(١٩٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪ (٢٣٧/١‬ﻭﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ )‪ (٦٣/٦‬ﻭﺳﲑﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ )‪ ٢٧٩/١‬ﻭ ‪ (٢٨٠‬ﻭﺳﲑﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺸﺎﻡ )‪.(٤٩٦ .٤٩٥/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺳﲑﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ )‪.(٥١٢/١‬‬


‫‪٣٦‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧﺼِﲑﹰﺍ﴾‬

‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻧﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻞ ﻟﱢﻰ ﻣِﻦ ﻟﱠﺪ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﺝ ِ‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻨِﻰ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺧ ﹾﻠﻨِﻰ ﻣ‪ ‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻞ ِ‬ ‫]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.(١)([٨٠ :‬‬ ‫ﱮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺻﺪﻕ ﻭﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪) :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﻣﻜﱠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﹾﳐ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻪ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳ‪‬ﻠﻄﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻧﺼﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ٍﺔ ﺫﹶﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮِﺗﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻫ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳍِﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﲟﻜﱠﺔ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹸﺃﺭِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ٍﻞ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻗﺎﻝ ﳉﱪﻳﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ )ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ( ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺟﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﻌِﻰ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺑ‪‬ﻜ ٍﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻖ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﻌﺐ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﲑ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﺍ ُﺀ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻭﺑِﻼ ﹸﻝ ﻭﺳﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻤ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻼ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻘﺮِﺋﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﻛﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﱠﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ِﺮﺣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﺸﻰ ٍﺀ ﹶﻛﻔﹶﺮ ِﺣ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﺖ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ـ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻭﺍ ِﻹﻣ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﻂﱡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺿﻮﹶﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﺲ‪) :‬ﺷﻬﺪﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺩﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﻂﱡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻗﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻇﻠ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺩﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪﺗ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﻳﻮ ِﻡ ﻣﺎﺕ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺠﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﻣﺴﺠﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﱰﻝ ﺃﰉ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺣﱴ ﺑﲎ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﱰﻝ ﺃﰉ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺯﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺎﺭِﺛﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﺎ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻄﺎﳘﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ِﻌﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ﻭﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸﺳﺎﻣ ﹶﺔ ﺑ ِﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ِﺪﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻔﺎﻃﻤﺔ ﻭﹸﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﻛﻠﺜﻮﻡ ﺍﺑﻨﺘﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﺓ ﺑﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﹸﻡ ﺃﳝﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺯﻳﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻓﻠﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ ﱢﻜ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺯﻭﺟ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧ‪‬ﺮﺝ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺑِﻌﻴﺎﻝ ﺃﰉ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻓﱰﻟﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺖ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (٣١٣٨‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ (٤ ،٣/٣‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢٠٤ ،٢٠٣/٧‬ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٢٢/٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪ ،(٤١/١‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬


‫‪٣٧‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻨﺎء اﻟﻤﺴﺠﺪ‬

‫ﱮ ج ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮﺿِﻊ ﻣﺴﺠﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻮﻣﺌﺬ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹲﻝ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻧﺎﻗ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻯ‪) :‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺮ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻬ ٍﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻬﻴ‪‬ﻞ ﻏﻼﻣﲔ ﻳﺘﻴﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻌﺪ ﺑ ِﻦ ﺯ‪‬ﺭﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻭﻡ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺍﻟﻐﻼ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﺑﺎ ِﳌ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﺪِ‪ ،‬ﻟِﻴﺘﺨ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﺴﺠﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻻ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ‪‬ﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎِﻧﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﺑ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﺑﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻪ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻤ‪ ‬ﻊ ﺃﺳﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﻘ ِﺪﺱِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺳ ﹾﻘﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗِﺒﻠﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇِﱃ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮ ِﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹸﺒﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﻟِﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹸ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻗ ٍﺪ ﻭ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻡ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﱠﺖ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺮ ﻓﻘﻄﻌﺖ ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻮ‪‬ﻳﺖ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﺨ ِﻞ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳋﺮﺏ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﺭ ﻓ‪‬ﻨِﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻗِﺒﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌ ﹶﻞ ﻃﻮﻟﹶﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﻩ ﻣﺎﺋ ﹶﺔ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﻣﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺫﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻨﻮﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﱠﻠﱭِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻳﺒﲎ‬ ‫ﳊﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺓ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﻞﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠِﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻸ‪‬ﻧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﳌﻬ‪‬ـﺎﺟِـ ‪‬ﺮ ﹾﺓ‬ ‫ﺶ ﺇ ﱠﻻ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴﺶ‪ ‬ﺍﻵﺧِﺮ ﹾﺓ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻏﻔِـ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻬﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﳊﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻝ ﻻ ﺣِـﻤ‪‬ﺎﻝﹸ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻫ‪‬ــﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ــﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻃ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﱠﻠِﺒﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺭﺟﺰﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻤـﻞ ﻟﹶـﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ﻣِـﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻤ ﹸﻞ ﺍ ﹸﳌﻀ‪‬ـﱠﻠ ُﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻗِﺒﻠﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺍﳉﺬﻭﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺶ ﻣ‪‬ﻮﺳ‪‬ﻰ( ﻭﺑﲎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺶ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻌﺮِﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻘﱢﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻘﻔﹶﻪ ﺑﺎﳉﺮﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﺑﻴﻮﺕ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﱠﻠﺒِﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻘﱠﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳉﺮﻳ ِﺪ ﻭﺍﳉﺬﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﺮﻍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﲎ ﺑﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻮ‪‬ﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺑﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﳍﺎ ﺷﺮﻗﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻗﺒﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ )‪.(٢٣٨ ،٢٣٧/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪.(٢٣٩/١‬‬


‫‪٣٨‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺯﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨ ِ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﱠﰒ ﺁﺧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟِﺮﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺃﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﲔ ﺭﺟﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻧِﺼﻔﻬﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧِﺼﻔﹸﻬﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﺁﺧﻰ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺳﺎﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺭﺣﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺣﲔ ﻭﻗﻌﺔ ﺑﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺭﺛﻮﻥ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳌﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪ [٧٥ :‬ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺾ ﰲ ِﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫﴿ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻭﹸﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻰ ِﺑ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ٍ‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺣِﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻷُﺧﻮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺁﺧﻰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﻀِﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺆﺍﺧﺎﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲣﺬ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﹰﺎ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ)‪ (٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟِﺮﻭﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻨﲔ ﺑﺄﺧﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺑ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻣﺆﺍﺧﺎﺓ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺁﺧﻰ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺭﻓﻴﻘﹸﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳍِﺠﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻴﺴ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﺄﹸﺧﻮﺗﻪ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘﺨِﺬﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﺪ‪‬ﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻛﺮﻣ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴ ِﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻡ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻜﹾﺮ ‪‬ﺧﻠِﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪ ‬ﹸﺓ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀﻞﹸ( ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻻ ﱠﲣ ﹾﺬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﺧﻠِﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺧِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﺻ‪‬ﺎ ِﺣﺒِﻰ( ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷُﺧﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎﰉ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪‬ﺍﻧِﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧﻚ‪‬؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﻭ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺩﺕ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧﻨ‪‬ﺎ( ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ )‪.(٢٤٠/١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٨٦/٨‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﱄ﴾ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﺭﺛﺔ‬ ‫﴿ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻗﺪﺕ ﺃﳝﺎﻧﻜﻢ﴾ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻭﻥ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻳﺮﺙ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻸﺧﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺁﺧﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﴿ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﱄ﴾ ﻧﺴﺨﺖ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﻘﺪﺕ ﺃﳝﺎﻧﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺂﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﻧﺼﻴﺒﻬﻢ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٥/٧‬ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (٢٤٩‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﲤﺎﻣﻪ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺘﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺃﺕ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻟﻪ ﺧﻴﻞ ﻏﺮ ﳏﺠﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻇﻬﺮﻱ ﺧﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﻢ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺧﻴﻠﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﻥ ﻏﺮﺍ ﳏﺠﻠﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺮﻃﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻟﻴﺬﺍﺩﻥ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻮﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺬﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﺎﺩﻳﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻻ ﻫﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺤﻘﺎ ﺳﺤﻘﺎ‪.‬‬


‫‪٤٠‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﰲ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻘِﺒﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﲢﻮﻳﻠِﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ ِﺣ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺳ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺃﻃﻌﻨﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪﴿ :‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﹸﻛ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ِﺪ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ [٧ :‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻛﺒﲑ ﹰﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺸ ِﺮﻛﹸﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺒﻠﺘﻨﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ِﺷﻚ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﻨﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ِﻗﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﺒﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻠﱢﻰ ﺇﱃ ِﻗﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﻯ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺣﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺕ ﺃﻗﺎﻭﻳ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ﹶﻜِﺒ ‪‬ﲑ ﹰﺓ ﺇِﻻ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[١٤٣ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣِﺤﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﻦ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻟﲑﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﳑﻦ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘِﻠﺐ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻘِﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﺷﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﱠـﹶﺄ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻭﻗﹸﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﲞ ٍﲑ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺜﻠِﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻋﻘﱠﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺑﻴﺦ ﳌﻦ ﺗﻌﻨ‪‬ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪،‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﹶﺓ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻛﹸﻔﺮﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻰﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﱠﺭ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺷِﺮﻛﹶﻬﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻨﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱢﻰ ِﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﺟﻮ ‪‬ﻫﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺟﻬ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳِﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻌﻈﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﺳﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﺣﺎﻃﺘﻪ ﺃﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺟ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﺧ ‪‬ﱪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺄﻝﹸ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﹶﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑِﻌﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﺪﻗﻮﻧﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣﻠﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜِﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻟﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﺎﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﻭﱃ ﻭﻻ ﻧﺼﲑ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﹶﺫﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻌﻤﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧ ‪‬ﻮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺑﺄﺳﻪ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ‪‬ﺧﻠِﻴﻠﹶﻪ ﺑﺎﱏ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺪﺣﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻴﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎ َﺀ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺑﻨﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺎﱏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ‪‬‬


‫‪٤١‬‬ ‫ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻏﺐ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ِﻣﻠﱠﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺳﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱِ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﲤﱡﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﰎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﺃﹸ‪‬ﻧ ِﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻫﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﺎﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﻮﻃﺌﺔ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻘﺪ‪‬ﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻯ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﹶﻛﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣِﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﱠﺪ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺓٍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣِﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺧﺮﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳ‪‬ﻬﺪﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺮﺍﻁ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻫﺪﺍﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻠﻴﻖ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﻠﹸﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻞ ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻠﹸﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻘِﺒﻞ ﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻷُﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻭﺳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﻀ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺼ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺤﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﲑ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺧ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﻗﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﺮﲪﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺱ ﲢﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺒﺤﺎﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﳜﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﺧ ‪‬ﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗ ﱟﻞ ﻋﺎﻝٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳﺆﺗﻴﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﺔﹲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟ ِﻜ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻟِﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺌﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟِﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻏﻮﻥ ﳛﺘﺠ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﱴ ﹸﺫ ِﻛ ‪‬ﺮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎ ِﺭﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻠﺤﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳ ﹶﻞ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺄﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺣﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺳِﻮﺍﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺲ ﺣ‪‬ﺠﺞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ِﻟﻴ‪ِ‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﻌﻤﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟِﻴﻬﺪﻳ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﹶﺫﻛﱠﺮﻫﻢ ﻧﻌﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍﳊِﻜﻤﺔﹶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺰﻛﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﱢﻠﻤ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﱢﻤﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ‪‬ﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻮ ِﺟﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺇِﲤﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻧﻌﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺰﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺠﻠﺒﻮﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺒﺘﻪ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺑﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺲ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃ ﱠﰎ ﻧﻌﻤﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺒ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺷﺮﻉ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻷﺫﺍ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﲬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺩﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ ﺃﹸﺧﺮﻳﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ)‪ ،(١‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٣٣٧ ،٣٣٦/٨‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﻗﺴﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪﴿ :‬ﻫﺬﺍﻥ‬

‫=‬


‫‪٤٢‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘ ‪‬ﺪﻣِﻪ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳ‪‬ﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻨﺼﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﱠﻟﻒ‪ ‬ﺑﲔ ﻗﻠﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﻧﺼﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﻛﺘﻴﺒ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﲪﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﻧﻔﻮﺳﻬﻢ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ‪‬ﻣﻮﺍ ﳏﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺒﺔ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺭﻣﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﺭﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﴰﱠﺮﻭﺍ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺼ ِﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺢ ﺣﱴ ﻗﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺮِﺿﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺃﹸ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ ِﻟﱠﻠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﻇِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺼ ِﺮ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟ ﹶﻘﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[٣٩ :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﻠﻂ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﲟﻜﺔ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﻢ ‪‬ﺷﻮ‪‬ﻛﺔ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﲟﻜﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﺎﺭﻫﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺳِﻴﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺧ ِﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺩﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺃﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪[٤٠ :‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻫﺆ‪‬ﻻﺀ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺟﺮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖﰲ‬ ‫ﺼﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪ [١٩ :‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ﺍ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ِﻥ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺯ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺑﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﻃﺒﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ﴾ ﻓﻤﺸﺘﺮﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﺪﱏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪﴿ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺭﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳊﺠ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﻼ‬ ‫=‬

‫ﺧﺼﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﻤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﲪﺰﺓ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﺯﻭﺍ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ )‪ (٦٦/٢‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﲔ‪.‬‬


‫‪٤٣‬‬ ‫ﺗ‪ِ ‬ﻄ ِﻊ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎِﻓﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪ [٥٢ :‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ ‫﴿ ِﺟﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﹶﻛﺒِﲑﹰﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪ ،[٥٢ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎﹸ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊﺠ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﰲ )ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺞ( ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺭﻭﻯ ﰲ )ﻣﺴﺘﺪﺭﻛﻪ( ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻄِﲔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑ ِﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﳌﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻜﱠﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻧﺒﻴ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻟﹶﻴ ‪‬ﻬِﻠ ﹸﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪﴿ :‬ﺃﹸ ِﺫ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ِﻟﱠﻠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﺑﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹸﻇِﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪ [٣٩ :‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ( ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ )ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﲔ( ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻜ ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﱏﱠ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﹸﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻣﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﻦ ﻗﺎﺗﻠﻬﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎِﺗﻠﹾﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎِﺗﻠﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎِﺗﹸﻠﻮ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[١٩٠ :‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﻛﺎﻓﱠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﺮ‪‬ﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺄﺫﻭﻧﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﻪ ﳌﻦ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻗﺘﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺮ ِﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ٍﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﻪ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻛِﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻋﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱢﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎ ِﺩ ﻓﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻨﻮﻉ ﻣِﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺮﺽ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺑ ِﻪ ﻗﻮﻻﻥِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﺫِﻟﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﱠﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫﴿ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ِﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ِﺧ ﹶﻔﺎﻓﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭِﺛﻘﹶﺎ ﹰﻻ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ِﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍِﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬ ‫ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[٤١ :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﱠﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎ ﹶﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻐﻔﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺧﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﷲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮِﻟ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﺃﻟِﻴ ٍﻢ * ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑِﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﹾﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻟﱡﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﺗﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ٍﺓ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺠِﻴﻜﹸﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﹸﻢ‪ ،‬ﹶﺫِﻟﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﱠﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇِﻥ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ * ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫َ‪‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺑﹶﺄ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍِﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪.(٣٩٥/٤‬‬


‫‪٤٤‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺤِﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺠﺮِﻯ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺧ ﹾﻠ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻮﺯ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻈِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‪.[١٢-١٠ :‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻥٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻄﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺒﻮﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘ ِﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‪ [١٣ :‬ﺃﻯ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻜﻢ ﺧﺼﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫﴿ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‪.[١٣ :‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺢ ﹶﻗﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹶﺄﻥﱠ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﱪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﴿ﺍ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺘﺮ‪‬ﻯ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ [١١١‬ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺿﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺩﻋﻪ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹶﻞ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﱰﱠﻟﺔ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﳒﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﻋﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﻭﰱ ﺑﻌﻬﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺒﺸِﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺒﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻋﺎﻗﺪﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮ ‪‬ﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴ ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺄﻣ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗِﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳ ِﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻈ ‪‬ﻢ ﺧ ﹶﻄﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﺃﺟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮ ‪‬ﺯ ﺑﺮﺿﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺟﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻤﻦ ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻛﺮﻣ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ِﺳ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹰﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﺷﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺟ‪‬ﺴﻴ ٍﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻷَﻣ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﻋﻈِﻴ ٍﻢ ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﻄ ٍ‬ ‫ﺷ ﹾﺄﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻟﻘﺪ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺮﻋ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ‪‬ﻤ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺎﺭ‪‬ﺑﺄ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﹶـ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻴﺆﻭ ‪‬ﻙ َﻷﻣ‪‬ـ ٍﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻓﻄِـ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﺑﺬ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﳌﺎﻟﻜﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﶈﺒ ِﺔ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻠﺴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ﹾﻔﻠِﺲ ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻫ‪ِ ‬ﺰﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠِﺠﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﹸﻌ ِﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺳﻮﻕ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺮِﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺪ‪‬ﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻴ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺜﻤﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﺬﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﱠﺎﻟﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺼﻠﹸﺢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﺃ ِﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ٍﺓ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﻔﺴ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﺍﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻠﻌﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﰲ ﻳﺪ ﴿ﹶﺃ ِﺫﻟﱠ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﹶﺎِﻓﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٥٤ :‬‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﹶﻛﺜﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳌﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻃﹸﻮِﻟﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﺈﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺩِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺜﺒ‪‬ﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺸِ‬ ‫ﳋِﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ِﺣ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻋﻮﺍﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻﺩ‪‬ﻋﻰ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤِﺒ‪‬ﺒﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪،[٣١ :‬‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗِﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﻧِﻰ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺇﻻ ﺑِﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨ ٍﺔ ﴿ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﺇِﻥ ﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟ ِﻪ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟ ِﻪ ﻭﻫﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻗِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﹸﻮِﻟﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺍﳋﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﹸﻛﻠﱡﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﺗﺒﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﺒ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟ ﹸﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘﺰﻛﻴﺔ ﴿ﻳ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬


‫‪٤٥‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻻِﺋ ٍﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،[٥٤ :‬ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺃﻛﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻫِﺪﻭﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﶈﺒ‪‬ﲔ ﻭﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻠﱠﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺃﻧﻔﺴ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻣﻮﺍﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺍﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻊ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ ِﺟﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻈﻤ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻼﻟ ﹶﺔ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺭ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻋﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﻓﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺷﺄﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟِﻐﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣِﻘﺪﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺃﹸﹾﺛِﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺨ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻭﺍ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳋﹸﺴﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﺒ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺶ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻴﻌﻮﻫﺎ ﺑﺜﻤﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻟ ﱠﺬ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺷﻬﻮ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ‪‬ﺗِﺒ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺣﺴ ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻘﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﺑﻴﻌ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﺿ ‪‬ﻰ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻣِﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِﻘﻴﹸﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﱠﰎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻠﱠﻤﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ‪‬ﻧﻘِﻴﹸﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻔﹸﺴﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﹸﻜﻢ ﻟﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺩﺩﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺃﻭﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﺃﺿﻌﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻗِﺘﻠﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﺗﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ٌﺀ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺯﻗﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،[١٦٩ :‬ﱂ ﻧﺒﺘﻊ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻧﻔﻮﺳ‪‬ﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻜﻢ ﻃﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺑﺢ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻟِﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺛ ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﻡ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺟ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻷﲦﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﲨﻌﻨﺎ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺜ ‪‬ﻤ ِﻦ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻗﺼ ﹶﺔ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ )ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻣﻨﻪ ج ﺑﻌﲑ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ﻭﻓﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺯﺍ ‪‬ﺩﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﰲ ﻭﻗﻌ ِﺔ ﹸﺃﺣ‪‬ﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﱠﺮﻩ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ()‪ (١‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﻗﺪ ﻗﹸِﺘ ﹶﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻩ )ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﱠﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ِﻛﻔﹶﺎﺣﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪِﻯ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ()‪ ،(٢‬ﻓﺴﺒﺤﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻈﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﺟﻮﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﻛﺮﻣ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳋﻼﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻓﱠ ‪‬ﻖ ﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺟ ﱠﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲦﺎﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻋﺒﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﲟﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﱠ ‪‬ﻤ ِﻦ ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌﹶﺜ ‪‬ﻤﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﺣﻪ‬ ‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻭﻓﱠﻘﻪ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺎﺀﻩ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻃ ِﻮ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺣ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻯ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺫﹶﺍ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ﹶﻓﻘﹶـ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﹶﺤﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻬ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ﹶﻔﹰﺎ ﹶﻛﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻣ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻞ ﳌﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﺟﺒﻬﻢ ﻭﺭﺿــﺎﻫﻢ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻣ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﻟـ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻝ ﻋ‪ ‬ﺪ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺣﻮ‪‬ﺍﺋِــ ﹶ‬ ‫ﱃ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻃ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ ِﺇ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻃﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (٣٠١٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (١٩٠‬ﻭ )‪.(٢٨٠٠‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٨٦/١‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬


‫‪٤٦‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﻔِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﲑ ﺭﻓﻘﺔ ﻗﺎﻋـــﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺻِـ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊﺐ‪ ‬ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺯﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺳـﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹶﻃﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍ ﹸﳍﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓﹶﺎﻟ ﱢﺬﻛﹾـﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﺗﻌِﻴﺪ‪‬ﻙ ﻋ‪‬ﺎﻣِـ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺣﻲ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﺍﻫـﻢ ﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻧﺖ ِﺭﻛﹶﺎﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺻ ﹶﻞ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﺑﻐِﻰ ﺍ ﹶﳌﻨ‪‬ﺎﻫِـ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹶﻝ ﹶﻓﻘﹸـ ﹾﻞ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﺨ‪‬ــﺎﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺸ‪‬ﺎ ِﻋ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﹰﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺭِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ ِﻪ ﻓﹶـﻨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻬ‪‬ـﺪِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺧ‪‬ـ ﹾﺬ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻗﹶﺎِﺋ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺩِﻯ ﺍ َﻷﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﻙ ﹶﻓﻘِـ ﹾﻞ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋﺴ‪‬ــﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺗﺮ‪‬ﺍﻫ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺳ‪‬ـﺎِﺋ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟـ ـﺄ ِﺣ‪‬ﺒ ِﺔ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﻃﹸﻠ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺇِﻻ ﹶﻓﻔِﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨﺪِﻯ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﲎ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻏﹶﺎﻓِـ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺇِﻻ ﻓﹶﻔﻰ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻤ ٍِﻊ ِﺑﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠﺘِــ ِﻪ ﹶﻓِﺈ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯ ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻷُﻭﻟﹶﻰ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋ‪‬ــ ‪‬ﺪ ٍﻥ ﹶﻓِﺈﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯﻟﹸــ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ ِﻝ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﻜِﻰ ﺍ ﹶﳌﻨ‪‬ـﺎ ِﺯ ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻃ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﻟﻜِﻦ ‪‬ﺳﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﹶﺎ ِﺷﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ َﻷ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻞ ﺫﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﺫ ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﺲ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﺑِﺎﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹸﻮ ِﺩ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪‬ـ ِﺔ ﺍﻟـ ـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺰِﻳ ِﺪ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ـــﺎ ِﺯ ﹶﻻ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻘِﻴ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻭ ‪‬ﺯﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ِﺭﺳ‪‬ﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﳋ ﹾﻠ ِﻖ ﻗﹶﺎﺗِـــ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳋ ﹾﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗﺘِﻴ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﻟﺬﹶﺍ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘﺎ‪‬ﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺭ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍ ﹶﳌ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺞ ﺍﻟﱠـﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺳ‪‬ـﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ﹾﻓﺪ‪ ‬ﺍ َﻷ ِﺣ‪‬ﺒ ِﺔ ﺁﻫِـــ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ِﺮ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹰﺔ ﹶﻓﻌِـ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱢﻠﻘﹶـﺎ ﺫﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﹶـ ‪‬ﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﺼ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺢ ﺯ‪‬ﺍﺋِﻼ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻋﺪِﻯ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺲ‪ ‬ﺑِﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼِﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﺫﹸﻭ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺣﺰ‪‬ﺍ ِﻥ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﺮﺣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺟ‪‬ـﺎﺫِﻻ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ـﺎ ﻫِـ ‪‬ﻰ ﺇِﻻ ﺳ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹲﺔ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻘﻀِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﻷﺑﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍِﻤ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲰﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻪ ﹸﺃ ﹸﺫ ﹲﻥ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺰ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﺍ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺣﻄﱠﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺭِﺣﺎﻟﹸﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺭ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ِﺑﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺮﺟ‪‬ﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺇﻻﱠ ِﺇﳝ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﻥ ﺑِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴِﻠ ِﻪ ﹶﻻ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)ﺍ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻏﻨِﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺧﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻻ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺃ ‪‬ﺷﻖ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺘِﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﺕ‪ ‬ﺧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ ِﺮ‪‬ﻳﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻮ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺩﺕ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﹸ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘﻞﹸ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺃ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺃ ﹾﻗﺘ‪‬ﻞ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔﺘ‪‬ﺮ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑﺂﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣﹶﺜﻞﹸ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫ ِﺪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﹶﺜ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﺎِﺋ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﺎِﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﹶﺓ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻛﱠ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫ ِﺪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴِﻠ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻴ‪‬ﺎ ٍﻡ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٦ ،٥/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬


‫‪٤٧‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎﻟِﻤﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﺮ ﺃﹶﻭ ﹶﻏﻨِﻴﻤ ٍﺔ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ِﺑﹶﺄ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻮﻓﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺪ ِﺧﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹲﺓ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎﻓﻴﻬﺎ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﻣ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﺎﻫِﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻯ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﺮ ﺃﻭ ﹶﻏﻨِﻴ ‪‬ﻤﺔٍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿ ِﻤ‪‬ﻨﺖ‪ ‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹸﺃﺭ‪‬ﺟﻌﻪ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺻﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺑﺘِﻐﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮﺿ‪‬ﺎﺗﻰ‪ ،‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻀﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻏ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﻟﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺧﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﺏﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺏ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺠِﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳍ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻢ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺯ‪‬ﻋﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻋﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳊﹶﻤﻴﻞﹸ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﰉ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺯﻋِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑِﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳﹶﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻂﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ِ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻑﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻏﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﻂﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ِ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﺾﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ِ‬ ‫ِﺑ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬ﺑﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﳝﻮﺕ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻄﻠﹶﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ِﻟ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﹶﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﻗﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ٍﻢ ﻓﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﻞ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﳉﻨ‪‬ﺔ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﻣِﺎﹶﺋ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺟ ٍﺔ ﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻟﻠﻤ‪‬ﺠﺎ ِﻫﺪِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﻭﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺽِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟﺘ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻓﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻂﹸ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺠﺮ‪ ‬ﺃ‪‬ﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﹶﻗﻪ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮﺵ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺗ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻷﰉ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺿ ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺭﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺳ‪‬ﻼ ِﻡ ﺩِﻳﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﳉﻨ‪‬ﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺠﺐ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺑ‪‬ﻮ ﺳﻌﻴﺪٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ِﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻔﻌ‪‬ﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪) :‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣِﺎﹶﺋ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﺔ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١١/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (١٨/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ٣١٤/٥‬ﻭ ‪٣١٦‬ﻭ ‪٣١٩‬ﻭ ‪٣٢٦‬ﻭ ‪ (٣٣٠‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (٢١/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (٢١/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥٤١‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٠ ،٩/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬


‫‪٤٨‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﺽ(‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﻭﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﹸﻓ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻧﺔﹸ ﺍﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻧ ِﺔ ﺑ‪‬ﺎﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻫﹸﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ِ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪ِ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏﺍِ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ِ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺼﻴ‪‬ﺎﻡِ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﰉ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍ َﻷﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺿﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺓٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍ َﻷ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪ِ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﹸﻛﱢﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺃﺭﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﺒ‪‬ﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺿﹶﻠ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ﹶﻘ ﹰﺔ ﻓﹶﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮ ﺃ ‪‬ﻣﺜﹶﺎِﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻨ ﹲﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔﹸ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﻷﺫﹶﻯ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻃﺮِﻳﻖٍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻀﹰﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻣﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺮ ﹾﻗﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻼﹶﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺣﻄﱠﺔﹸ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹶﻞ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻔ ﹶﻘ ٍﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﰲ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴِﺘ ِﻪ ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ﰲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻬ ِﻪ ﹶﺫِﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ‬ ‫ِﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ٍﻢ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﹶﺋ ِﺔ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫﻢٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻏﺰ‪‬ﺍ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ِﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ٍﻢ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﹶﺋ ِﺔ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﷲ ‪‬ﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ِﻋﻒ‪ِ ‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻒ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ٍﻢ( ﰒ ﺗﻼ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ُ‬ ‫‪.(٤)[٢٦١‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﺎﻫِﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﻏﹶﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻏﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ِﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺭﻗﹶﺒِﺘ ِﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻇﻠﱠﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﰲ ِﻇﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻻ ِﻇﻞﱠ ﺇﻻ ِﻇﻠﱡ ‪‬ﻪ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻏ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﺘ ِﻤﻊ‪ ‬ﹸﻏﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ٍ ‬ﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣﺪٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﺘ ِﻤﻊ‪ ‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺢ ‪‬ﻭِﺇﳝ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﻥ ﰲ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﰲ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻆ‪) :‬ﰲ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺟ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﹶﻟ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٨٨٤‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٩٦/٤‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ١٩٥/١‬ﻭ ‪.(١٩٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٧٦١‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ (٤٨٧/٣‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ )‪.(٢١٧/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ٣٢٥/٢‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪.‬‬


‫‪٤٩‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺴِﻠ ٍﻢ(‬ ‫ﻯ ﻣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺮِﺉ(‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﰲ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻏ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺕ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹰﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎﺭٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﻑ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ٍ ‬ﻞ ﹸﻏﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳ‪‬ﺎﺋِﺮ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺧﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻨﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍ ﹾﻏﺒ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ٍﺔ ﻟِﻠﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻛ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﲑ ﹶﺓ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍﺀِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪ ‬ﻬﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻥﹸ‬ ‫ﺡ ِﺟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪ِ‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﺨ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺗ ِﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺟ‪ِ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﺍﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﺭ ‪‬ﳛﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺭِﻳ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍ ِﳌﺴ‪‬ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺮﻓﹸﻪ ِﺑﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭﺍﻵ ِﺧﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‪ :‬ﻓﹸﻼ ﹲﻥ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﻃﹶﺎﺑﻊ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﻗﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹸﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻨ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺡ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ِﻤﺜﹸ ِﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ِﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻜﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺮِﻯ ٍﺀ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺞ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻂ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ ) :‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺻﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﻭِﻗﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮ‪‬ﻯ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻪ‪‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ ) :‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﹸﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﺃﺟ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺯﻗﹸﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﺘ‪‬ﺎﻥ()‪.(٧‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍِﺑ ﹶﻄﹰﺎ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻓِﺈ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻤ‪‬ﻮ‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﺘﻢ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤِﻠ ِﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ َﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹸﻛﻞﱡ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤﻠﹸﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺆﻣ‪ ‬ﻦ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻓ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒ ِﺮ()‪.(٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ١٢/٦‬ﻭ ‪١٣‬ﻭ ‪ .(١٤‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٢٢٦ ،٢٢٥/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٤٤٤ ،٤٤٣/٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٧٧٥‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ (٨٥/٦‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٦٤/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٩١٣‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٦٢١‬ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬


‫‪٥٠‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﻓِﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳌﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯ ِﻝ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ ) :‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺻﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻒ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ٍﺔ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻛﹶﺄﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﻗﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣﻬ‪‬ﺎ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ِﺪﻛﹸﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻋﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺓ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ِﺪﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ِﻪ ِﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺧﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻧ‪‬ﺎﹶﻗﺔٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻨ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻼﹶﺛ ﹶﺔ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺰﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﺛ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﰲ ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ِﻞ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ِ ‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ ٍﺔ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻠﹸﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺼ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻀﻞﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﹸ ِﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ ) :‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮﺱ‪ ‬ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﹶﻠ ٍﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﻫ‪‬ﺎ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ٍﻦ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ٍﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻋﹰﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﺧ‪‬ﺬﹸﻩ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴِﻠ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎﻥﹲ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺍ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪‬ﺎ﴾‬ ‫ﺤﻠﱠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﻣﺮﱘ‪.([٧١ :‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻔﺮﻫﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟِﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﻇ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺮ ﻓﺮﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻟِﺮﺟ ٍﻞ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (٤٠ ،٣٩/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٧٦٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ ٤٤٦/٢‬ﻭ ‪ (٥٢٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٦٥٠‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪ (١٦٠/٩‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪(٣٦٢/٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٦٥ ،٦١/١‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺼﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٣٤/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪ ،(٢٠٣/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (١٥/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪ (١٦٤٣‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﲞﻤﺴﺎﺋﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪.‬‬


‫‪٥١‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺃﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﺎ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﱂ ‪‬ﻳﻨِﺰ ﹾﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻟﺼﻼ ٍﺓ ﺃﻭ ﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﺎ ِﺀ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﺔ‪) :‬ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻬ ٍﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻪ‪ ‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﺔ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﹶﻠ ﹶﻎ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ ﹰﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺮﺭٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻬ ٍﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ِﻋ ‪‬ﺪﻝﹸ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﻣ‪‬ﻰ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﲟﺎﺋﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳋ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌِﺘ ِﻪ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﺔ‪ :‬ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﻧ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻬ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ِﺪ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺪ ِﺧﻞﹸ ﺑﺎﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺇﱃﱠ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻛﻞﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌ ِﻤﺪ‪ِ ‬ﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻰ ِﺑﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺭﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﻛﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﻣ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺷ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠﻬ‪‬ﻮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﻓﺒﺎﻃ ﹲﻞ ﺇﻻ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ ‬ﺑﻘﻮﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﺩِﻳﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﺮﺳ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻼﻋﺒﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﱠﻤ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻣﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﻛﻪ ﺭﻏﺒ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓِﻨ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ﹲﺔ ﻛﻔﺮﻫﺎ( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ)‪ .(٥‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﻣ‪‬ﻰ ﰒ ﺗ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﺼ‪‬ﺎﻧِﻰ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻘﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃﺱ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺻِﲎ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﹸﻭﺻِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻭ ِﺓ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮ‪‬ﺁﻥِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ِﺬ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻭِﺗ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩِ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺈﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫﺒ‪‬ﺎِﻧﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﺔ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺳﻼﹶﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺑِﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﹸﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺷ‪‬ﻰﺀٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓِﺈ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭ‪‬ﺽ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ()‪.(٨‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ ) :‬ﺫ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻭﺓﹸ ‪‬ﺳﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻹ ‪‬ﺳﻼﹶﻡ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻼﹶﺛ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹸﳌﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﺪ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﳌﻜﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ﻳﺮﻳ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺛ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍ َﻷﺩ‪‬ﺍﺀَ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻛﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻳﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ()‪.(٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٤٣٧/٣‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺍﳉﻬﲏ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٣٩٦٥‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١١٣/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٦٢٨‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪ (١٦٤٣‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﲞﻤﺴﺎﺋﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪١٤٤/٤‬ﻭ ‪١٤٦‬ﻭ ‪ ،١٤٨‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥١٣‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٨١٤‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٨٢/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻄﻮﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻄﺮﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (٢٦١٩‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢٣١/٥‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ٢٥١/٢‬ﻭ ‪ ،(٤٣٧‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٦٥٥‬ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬


‫‪٥٢‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻰ ﺷ‪ ‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺙ ِﺑ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺪ ﹾ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ِﻧﻔﹶﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻏﹶﺎ ِﺯ‪‬ﻳﹰﺎ ﰲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫِﻠ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﱢﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺰ ﻏﹶﺎ ِﺯ‪‬ﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﺰ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴﺮٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﺑﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺑﻘﹶﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻋ ٍﺔ ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ﹶﻘﺮِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻌِﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺃ ﹾﺫﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼﺀً‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺩِﻳﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ﹸﺛ ﹾﻠﻤ‪‬ﺔ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠﻘﹸﻮﺍ ِﺑﹶﺄ‪‬ﻳﺪِﻳ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬﻠﹸ ﹶﻜ ِﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[١٩٥ :‬ﻭﻓﺴﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ)‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻹﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻠﹸﻜ ِﺔ ِﺑﺘ‪‬ﺮ ِﻙ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻇﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ج‪ِ) :‬ﺇ ﹶﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹶﺎﺗ‪‬ﻞ ﻟِﺘﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻛِﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻬ‪ ‬ﻮ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺴﻌ‪ ‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِﻢ ﻭﺍ ﹶﳌ‪‬ﻨ ِﻔ ِﻖ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﳌ ﹾﻘﺘ‪‬ﻮ ِﻝ ﰲ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹶﺃﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻟﻴ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎﻝ()‪.(٨‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘﻐِﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻪ‪.(٩)(‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﹶﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻌﺒ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ِ) :‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٩١٠‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ .(٢٥٠٣‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٣٤٦٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ )‪.(٣١٦/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٧٦٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(١٦٦٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥١٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٩٧٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٩٠٢‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢٢ ،٢١/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﻄﻮﻻ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٩٠٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪(٢٣٨٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥١٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٣٦٦/٢‬‬


‫‪٥٣‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍِﺋ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎﺛِﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍﺋِﻴﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻣﻜﹶﺎِﺛ ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﹶﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﳊﹶﺎ ِﻝ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ِﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻗِﺘ ﹾﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﹶﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ٍﻪ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺮﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺴ ﹶﻔ ِﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﺈ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻟِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳋﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐﺍﹸ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺡ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ِﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗﻬ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎِﺗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻘﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗﺰ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻗﹶﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔﺴِﻰ ِﺑ‪‬ﻴ ِﺪ ِﻩ ﹶﻻ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻜﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺍﷲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻜﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺴ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴِﻠ ِﺔ ﺇِﻻ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻮﻥﹸ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱠﺮﻳ ‪‬ﺢ ﺭِﻳ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳﻦِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻗﻄﹾﺮ ِﺓ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﹶﻟﻴ‪‬ﺲ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٌﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷَﺛﺮﺍﻥِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﺛ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ‪‬ﺩ ٍﻡ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬﺮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ٍﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﹶﺮﺍِﺋ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻓﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ﺇِﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺪ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪ ‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﺓِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﺈ‪‬ﻧﻪ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ِﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇِﻻ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻬﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﳌﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟ ‪‬ﻊ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻴ‪ ‬ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﹸﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮﻯ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﹶﻓﻴ‪ ‬ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﻯ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﹶﺮﺍﻣ‪‬ﺔ()‪.(٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ُﻷﻡ‪ ‬ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﹶﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﹸﻗﺘِﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﺭٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺴ‪‬ﺄﹶﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)ِﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﺧﻀ‪‬ﺮ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻳﻞﹸ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻌﻠﱠ ﹶﻘ ﹲﺔ ﺑﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺵِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ﰲ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻳﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻃﱠﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ﱠﻃ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ ﺷ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﺕ‪ ،‬ﱠﰒ ﺗﺄﹾﻭﻯ ﺇﱃ ِﺗ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮﺡ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴﺚﹸ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮﺡ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻦ‪ ‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘﻬِﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ‪‬ﺘﻬ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴﹶﺌﺎﹰ؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻫ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٥١٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٦٠٦‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢٢١٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٨٧٦‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢٣١/٢‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٦٦٩‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢٥/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢١ ،٢٠/٦‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪.‬‬


‫‪٥٤‬‬ ‫ﺴﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺙ ‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺍﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﹶﺃﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﺛ ﹶ‬ ‫ِﺷﹾﺌﻨ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻔﹶﻌ ﹶﻞ ِﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﻯ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻧﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻧ‪ ‬ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﺔ ﺗ‪ِ ‬ﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻬِﻴ ِﺪ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺧﺼ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﻻ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻐ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻝ ‪‬ﺩ ﹾﻓ ‪‬ﻌ ٍﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺩ ِﻣﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﻟِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺝ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳊﹸﻮ ِﺭ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻴﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﱠﻰ ِﺣ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍ ِﻹ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪ ‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣ ﹾﻘﻌ‪‬ﺪﻩ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﹾﻮﻗﹶﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎﻗﹸﻮ‪‬ﺗﺔﹸ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻪ‪ ‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃ ِﺳ ِﻪ ﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺒﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺰ ِ‬ ‫ﲔ ِﺇ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧﹰﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﲔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻮ ِﺭ ﺍﻟﹾﻌﲔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺸﻔ ‪‬ﻊ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﹾﺛ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃﻗﹶﺎﺭِﺑ ِﻪ()‪ (٢‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﹶﻰ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱠﻠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳉﺎﺑﺮ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻻ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺧِﺒﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﻷﺑِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇِﻻ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺀ ِﺣﺠ‪‬ﺎﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻛﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﺑ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ِﻛﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪِﻯ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻰ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻄﻚ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺗ‪‬ﺤِﻴﻴِﲎ ﹶﻓﺄﹸ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ ﻓِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺛﹶﺎِﻧ‪‬ﻴﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ :‬ﺇﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻖ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻰ )ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ( ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹸِﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﺑِﻠ ﹾﻎ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﺭ‪‬ﺍﺋِﻰ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺎﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﺗﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ٌﺀ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺯﻗﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾)‪] (٣‬ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[١٦٩ :‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮٍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺇﺧ‪‬ﻮﺍﻧ‪‬ﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﹸﺄ ‪‬ﺣﺪٍ‪ ،‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ﰲ ﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃﺻِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ِﻇ ﹰﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺵِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄ ﹸﻛ ﹸﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭﻫ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻭِﻯ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹶﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎﺩِﻳ ﹶﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺫ ‪‬ﻫ ٍ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ِﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻊ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﺇ ‪‬ﺧﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻧﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣﻘِﻴِﻠ ِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﺮِﺑ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﺣ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺄ ﹶﻛِﻠ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻃِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻠﻮﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮ‪‬ﺏ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ‪‬ﺑﻠﱢ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻜﹸﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻟِﺌﻼ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻮ‪‬ﺍﺗﹰﺎ﴾‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﹸِﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﺄﹶﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻟِﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[١٦٩ :‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻗﹸ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺔ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ٍﺮ ِﺑﺒ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺑ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ( ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪) :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٨٨٧‬ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ،(١٣١/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(١٦٦٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٧٩٩‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪ ﻳﻜﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ ،(٣٠١٣‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٨٠٠‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢٣٨٨ (٢٦٦/١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥٢٠‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬


‫‪٥٥‬‬ ‫ﺸﻴ‪‬ﺔ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫ﳉ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﺑ‪ ‬ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ِ‬ ‫ﺨﺮ‪‬ﺝ‪ ‬ﻋﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺭﺯ‪‬ﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻬِﻴ ِﺪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘ ِﺪ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪ ‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﺘ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﹶﻛﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻃ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻥ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭﺽ‪ِ ‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺩ ِﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺑِﻴ ِﺪ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ٍﺓ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﱠﻠ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺿﱠﻠﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺼﻴﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓِﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ()‪.(٢‬‬ ‫ﺐ ِﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ‪َ ) :‬ﻷ ﹾﻥ ﺃﹸ ﹾﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻟِﻰ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻞﹸ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺭ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻮﺑ‪‬ﺮ()‪.(٣‬‬ ‫ﺻ ِﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﻬِﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺘ ِﻞ ﺇِﻻ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺠﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺸﻬِﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﻔﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ(‪) :‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ِﻞ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴﺘِﻪ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ِﻔﺘ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻭﺟﻮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺼ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍﺀ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ(‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻓﹾﻀ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻚ‪ِ ‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇﺫﹶﺍ‬ ‫ﻀ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﹶﻰ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠ‪‬ﺒﻄﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ﺍﹾﻟﻐ‪ ‬ﺮ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﻠﹸﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﹸﻭﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ٍﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﻼ ِﺣﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿِ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ﻪ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻌ ﹲﺔ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍ ِﻹ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴ ِﻪ‪) :‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻨ‪‬ﺎﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃ ‪‬ﺳﻪ‪ ‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﱠﻟﺬِﻯ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮﹶﻓﻊ‪ِ ‬ﺇﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﻗِﺘﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﱠ ﹾﻠ ِﺢ ﹶﺃﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﺏ‪ ‬ﺟِﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻗﹶﻠ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪ ‬ﻮﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍ ِﻹ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ﹶﻜﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻂ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﺮﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻘﹶـ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻧ‪‬ﻴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹲﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺟﻴ‪ ‬ﺪ ﺍ ِﻹ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﺧﹶﻠ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﻗﹸِﺘ ﹶﻞ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﱠﺎِﻟﹶﺜﺔِ‪َ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹲﻞ‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﹰﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺻ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚﰲ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﹸﻗِﺘﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ ِﺇﺳ‪‬ﺮﺍﻓﹰﺎ ﹶﻛﺜِﲑﹰﺍ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﱠﺮﺍِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺔ()‪.(٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ( ﻭ)ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ(‪) :‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺘﻠﹶﻰ ﺛﹶﻼﹶﺛ ﹲﺔ‪ :‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﻦ‪ ‬ﰲ‬ ‫ﺸﻬِﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﳌﹸ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗﹶﻠﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢٦٦/١‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ٢٩٧/٢‬ﻭ ‪ (٤٢٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٢٧٩٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪.(٢٩٧/٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺣﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥٢٢‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢٨٧/٥‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺎﺵ ﻋﻦ ﲝﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢٣ ،٢٢/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٦٤٤‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬


‫‪٥٦‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺷﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻔﻀ‪‬ﻠﹸﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨِﺒﻴ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺇِﻻ ِﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺔ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِﻪ ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺣ‪‬ـﺘ‪‬ﻰ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳋﻄﹶﺎﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻫﺪ ﺑِﻨﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﱡﻧ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﳋﻄﹶﺎﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻣﺤ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﺫﻧ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺑﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺧﻄﹶﺎﻳ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ِ ،‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ﹲﺔ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﺘ ﹾﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻬﻨ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﺔﹸ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍﺏٍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺀَ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺛﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻧ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﻭِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭﺃﹸ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺧ ﹶﻞ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎِﻟﻪِ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻀﻞﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﺾٍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹲﻞ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎِﻓ ‪‬ﻖ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﻀﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺤ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨﻔﹶﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ‪‬ﺘﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ()‪.(١‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ‪‬ﺘ ِﻤﻊ‪ ‬ﻛﹶﺎِﻓ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎِﺗﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻯ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻓﹶﺄ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎِﻟ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺸﺮِﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻞﹸ؟ ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﺍﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺳ‪‬ﺌﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀﻞﹸ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋ‪ِ ‬ﻘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺟﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ﰲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ‪‬ﺘ ِﻞ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉﻬ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩ ﹶﻛﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ﹶﺔ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ٍﻝ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻄﹶﺎ ٍﻥ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺋِﺮ(‬ ‫ﻭﰱ )ﺳﻨﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ(‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻈﹶﻢ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻷﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻰ ﻣﺮﺳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻖ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻ ‪‬ﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﹸﻝ ﻃﹶﺎِﺋ ﹶﻔ ﹲﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹸ ‪‬ﻣِﺘ ِﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎِﺗﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟ ﹶﻔﻬ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ(‬ ‫ﻭﰱ ﻟﻔﻆ‪) :‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎِﺗ ﹶﻞ ﺁ ِﺧﺮ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺴِﻴ ‪‬ﺢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻝ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺕِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﱮ ج ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺎﻳ ‪‬ﻊ ﺃﺻﺤ‪‬ﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻳﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻬﺎ ِﺩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻳﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍِﺠﺮ ِﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍ ِﻡ ﻃﺎﻋ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻳﻊ ﻧﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺴﻘﹸﻂﹸ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ِﺪ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ِﺪﻫِﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﱰ ﹸﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺑﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄ ‪‬ﺧ ﹸﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻷَﺣ ِﺪ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (١٨٥/٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪ (٢٠٧ ،٢٠٦/٢‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٨٩١‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٤٩٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (١٤٤٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪ ،(٣٣١/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٥٨/٥‬‬


‫‪٥٧‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻧ‪‬ﺎﻭﻟﹾﲎ ﺇﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﺎﻭِﺭ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ )ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺪﺭﻙ(‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺸﻮﺭ ﹰﺓ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﻘ ِﻄﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻒ ﰲ ﺳﺎﹶﻗﺘِﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ‪‬ﺰﺟﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺮ ِﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﱠﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺣﻨﲔ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﻭﺭ‪‬ﻯ ﺑﻐﲑﻫﺎ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳ ‪‬ﻖ ﳒﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻴﺎﻫ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ‪‬ﻭ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺮﺏ‪ ‬ﺧ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ﹲﺔ()‪.(٤‬‬ ‫ﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳊﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﻥ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﻧﻪ ﲞﱪ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻄِﻠ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺋ ‪‬ﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻘﻰ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻒ ﻭﺩﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻔﻀﻮﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺍ‪‬ﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺗﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌ ﹸﻞ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺟﻨﺒ ٍﺔ ﹸﻛﻔﹾﺌﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺯ‪ ‬ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻣ ِﺮﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻠﹸ‪‬ﺒﺲ‪ ‬ﻟِﻠﺤﺮﺏ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﲔ ِﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻳ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(٨‬‬ ‫ﺻِﺘ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺛﹶﻼﺛﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﻔﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﲰﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊ ‪‬ﻰ ﻣﺆﺫﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ِﻐ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺃﻏﺎ ‪‬ﺭ)‪ ،(٩‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٤٠١١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٢١٧٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٦٣٩‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٨٠/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(٢٧٦٩‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ )‪ (٩٤٨‬ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٩٠١‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٢٢٥/٧‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٧٦٣‬ﻭ )‪.(١٧٤٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥٩٠‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(٤٤٩/٣‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(٢٣٤/٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪.(٢٦٩٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٧٣/٥‬ﰲ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،(١٢٣ ،١٢٢/٥‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٧٣٠‬‬


‫‪٥٨‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺭﲟﺎ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﺖ ﻋﺪ ‪‬ﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﺟﺄﻫﻢ ‪‬ﺎﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺐ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ)‪ (٢‬ﺑﻜﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻧﻀ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻛﺴﺎﺀ ﻟﻌﻤ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺑ‪‬ﺴ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻮﻑ)‪ (٤‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﹸﺌﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﺧ‪‬ﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻟﻠﺮﺟ‪ِ ‬ﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﲢﺖ ﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﻗﻮﻣِﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﺤ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﺯ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﻯ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇِﺫﺍ ﹶﻟ ِﻘ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ِﺰ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺠ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ َﻷ ‪‬ﺣﺰ‪‬ﺍﺏِ‪ ،‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫ ِﺰ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮﻟﱡﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺪﺑ‪ ‬ﺮ *‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ﻬﻢ()‪ ،(٥‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺳﻴ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺰﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺑ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻋﺪ‪‬ﻫ‪ ‬ﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺔﹸ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﻫ‪‬ﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‪.[٤٦-٤٥ :‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ِﺰ ﹾﻝ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺼﲑِﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻀﺪِﻯ ﻭﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹸﺃﻗﹶﺎِﺗﻞﹸ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(٨‬‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨِﺒ ‪‬ﻰ ﻻ ﹶﻛﺬِﺏ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ِﺪ ﺍﳌﹸﻄﱠِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﳊ ‪‬ﺮﺏ‪ ‬ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻘﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺑﻪ ج)‪ (٩‬ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺃﻗﺮﺑ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ‪‬ﻭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻌ ﹸﻞ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ِﺷﻌ‪‬ﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺮﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻜﻠﱠﻤﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﺷﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫)‪(١٠‬‬ ‫ﺼﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮ ﹰﺓ‪) :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺼ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ‪) :‬ﺣ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ‪) :‬ﹶﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ .(٨٠/٦‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٦٢٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(١٩٤/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٦٢٨‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪.(١٩٤/٤‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٧٦/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٣١٣/٧‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ٢٢٦/٧‬ﻭ ‪.(٤٧٦/٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٦٣٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪.(٣٥٧٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٨‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ٧٦/٦‬ﻭ ‪ (٢٤/٨‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٧٧٦‬‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥٩٦‬ﻭ )‪.(٢٦٣٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (١٠‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٦٥٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ .(٧٩ ،٧٨/٥‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ )‪.(١٤٩/٢‬‬


‫‪٥٩‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤ ِﻤﻞﹸ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﻣﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﻭﺍﳋﹸﻮ ﹶﺫﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻘﱠﻠ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﹶﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺒ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﹸﻴﻼﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺏِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘ‪‬ﺮﺱِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺘ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻪ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﱢﻠﻘﹶﺎﺀِ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼﺀُ ﺍﱠﻟﺘِﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺒﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪ِ ‬ﻞ ِﺑ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻔ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻐﻀ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳋﹸ‪‬ﻴ ﹶ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺪﹶﻗﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺘِﻰ ﻳ‪‬ﺒ ِﻐﺾ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻞﱠ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺧِﺘﻴ‪‬ﺎﻟﹸﻪ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﻐﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺧِﺘﻴ‪‬ﺎﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ِﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺮ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎ ِﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺠﻨﻴﻖ ﻧﺼﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪﺍ ِﻥ)‪ ،(٢‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨ ﹸﻈ ‪‬ﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎِﺗﹶﻠﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺭﺁ ‪‬ﻩ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﹶﻗ‪‬ﺘﹶﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨِﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺳﺮﻳ‪‬ﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺻﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺳﲑ‪‬ﻭﺍ ِﺑﺴ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﰱ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎِﺗﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﱠﻠﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﱢﺜﻠﹸﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹶﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘﺘ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻭﻟِﻴ ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪ ‪‬ﻭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔ ِﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﹸﺮﺁ ِﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺃﻣ ‪‬ﲑ ﺳﺮﻳ‪‬ﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻋ ‪‬ﻮ ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘِﺘﺎﻝ ﺇﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼ ِﻡ ﻭﺍﳍِﺠﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻰﺀ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺬﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼ ِﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳍِﺠﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻛﺄﻋﺮﺍ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﻗﺎﺗﻠﻬﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉِﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺟﺎﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﹶﻗِﺒ ﹶﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻇﻔﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻭ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺩﻳﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﺎﺋ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻼ ِ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻷﻫﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺧ‪‬ﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﰒ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﺦ‪ (٦)‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻰ ﳌﻦ ﻻ ﺳﻬﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎ ِﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ـﺒﻴﺎ ِﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪِ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻰ‬ ‫)‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹸﺔ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺳﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻬﻤﺎ ِﻥ ﻟﻔﺮﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺍﺟﻞ ﺳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴ‪‬ﻮﻳ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻔﺎﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٦٥٩‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪.(٧٩ ،٧٨/٥‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ )‪ ،(٤٤٧/٢‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٠٤/٦‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٧٤٤‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٤٤٠٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٥٨٤‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ .(١٥٥/٦‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪(٢٥٤١‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻇﻲ ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٧٣١‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺦ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪.(١٤١٢‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٥١/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬


‫‪٦٠‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﹾﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤ ِﺔ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻔﻞﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻔﱢ ﹸﻞ ﻣِﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﲨﻊ ﻟِﺴﻠﻤ ﹶﺔ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﳋﹸﻤ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﳋﻤ‪‬ﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﻤ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﻣِﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻐﺎﺯﻳﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻬ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻋﻄﺎﻩ ﺃﺭﺑﻌ ﹶﺔ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﻟِﻌﻈﻢ ﻏﹶﻨﺎِﺋ ِﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺴﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘِﺴﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺚ ‪‬ﺳ ِﺮﻳ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﹶﻏﻨِﻤﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻏﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ﱠﻔﹶﻠﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﺑ‪ ‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻰ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺟﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﱠﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺿﻌِﻴ ِﻔ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﺍ ﹾﳌ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺚ)‪ (٣‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹶﻔﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﻟ‪‬ﻴﺮ‪ ‬ﺩ ﹶﻗ ِﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ِﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺃﻣﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻟﻪ ج ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﺔ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﻋ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﳋﻤ‪‬ﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﺎ َﺀ ﻓﺮﺳﹰﺎ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ‪‬ﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺻ ِﻔ‪‬ﻴﺔﹸ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹸﺔ‪) :‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ِﻔ ‪‬ﻰ()‪ (٦‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺑﲎ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﻦ ﹸﺃﹶﻗﻴ‪‬ﺶ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼﺓﹶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺼﹶ‬ ‫)ِﺇ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺪﺗ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﻻ ﺇِﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺇِﻻ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻥﱠ ‪‬ﳏﻤ‪‬ﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻤﺘ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺼ ِﻔ ‪‬ﻰ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﱮ ج‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻨ ِﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺁ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻴﺘ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺰﻛﹶﺎﺓﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﺩ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﹸﻤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺑﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮِﻟ ِﻪ()‪.(٧‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٨٠٧‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٧٣٩‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥٧٠‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻧﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻠﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻌﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٣٢٤ ،٣٢٣/٥‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺿﻌﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٩٩١‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻣﺮﺳﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٩٩٤‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ )‪ (٢٢٤٧‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ(‪ (٢٩٩٥‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٩٩٩‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬


‫‪٦١‬‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺼ ِﻔ ‪‬ﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴ ﹸﻔ ‪‬ﻪ ﹸﺫﻭ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﻘﹶﺎ ِﺭ ﻣِﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ ِﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﳌﻦ ﻏﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻌ ِﺔ ﳌﺼﻠﺤ ِﺔ ﺍﳌﹸﺴﻠ ِﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﻟِﻌﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻬﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﺮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻟِﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﲤﺮﻳﻀﻪ ﻻﻣﺮﺃِﺗ ِﻪ ﺭ‪‬ﻗ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻋﹾﺜﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳛ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٢‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﹶﻟﻪ‪ ‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻬﻤ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻀﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻄﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﰲ ﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﺣﺎﺟﺔ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮِﻟ ِﻪ(‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻭ ﻭﻳﺒﻴﻌﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻬﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻩ ﺭﺟﻞ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺖ‪‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺣﱴ ‪‬ﺭِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﺑﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﻭﺃﺑﺘﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ﺭﲝﹰﺎ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳﺮ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺢ ﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣِﺜﹶﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ(؟ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺯِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ‪‬ﻴ ِﺮ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ٍ ‬ﻞ ‪‬ﺭِﺑ ‪‬ﺢ( ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ :‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻫ‪ ‬ﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ؟ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﹶﻤﺎﺋ ِﺔ ﺃﹸﻭﻗﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎ ﹶﻝ‪) :‬ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺒﺌﹸ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫) ‪‬ﺭ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻴ ِﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻷُﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻟﻠﻐﺰﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪ‪‬ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﳜﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞﹸ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺨﺪِﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻔ ِﺮ ِﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﳜﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺄ ِﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﻌﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱮ ج‪) :‬ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯﻯ ﺃﺟﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺠﺎ ِﻋ ِﻞ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟﺮ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﺎﺯِﻯ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟ ﹸﻞ ﺑﻌﲑ‪‬ﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺳﻪ ﻳﻐﺰ‪‬ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻐﻨ ‪‬ﻢ ﺣﱴ ﺭﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻫ‪‬ﻤﺎ ِﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻧﺼﻠﹶﻪ ﻭﺭِﻳﺸ‪‬ﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﺪﺭٍ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﺠ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺼِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪) :‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ِﺑﹶﺄ ِﺳ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳﻦِ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﺟِﻰ ْﺀ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺑﺸ‪‬ﻰ ٍﺀ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻟِﻤﻦ ﹶﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﻡ ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻳ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﹸﺮﺳﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ِﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﻻ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﻌ ﹸ‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﺍ ﹶﳌ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺩ ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (٢٧١/١‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ )‪ (١٥٦١‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪ (٢٨٠٨‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٧٢٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٧٨٥‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ )‪ (١٧٤/٢‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٥٢٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٣٣٨٨‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ (٥٧/٧‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ )‪.(٢٢٨٨‬‬ ‫)‪ (٦‬ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (٣٧٧ ،٣٧٦/٧‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺯﻱ‪.‬‬


‫‪٦٢‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻄﻰ ﺳﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺫﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺮﰉ ﰲ ﺑﲎ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﻭﺑﲎ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺧﻮﺗِﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲎ ﻋﺒ ِﺪ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﺷ ٍﻢ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻰ ٌﺀ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِﺣ ‪‬ﺪ( ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﴰﺲ ﻭﺑﲎ ﻧﻮﻓﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺑﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﳌﹸﻄﱠِﻠ ِ‬ ‫)‪(١‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃﺻ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ِﻌﻪِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ‪ِ) :‬ﺇ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻔﹶﺎ ِﺭﻗﹸﻮﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫﻠِﻴ ٍﺔ ﻭ ﹶﻻ ِﺇ ‪‬ﺳﻼﹶﻡ(‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠﻄﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻓﻴﺄﻛﻠﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻞ ﻭﺍﻟ ِﻌ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻴﺒ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻐﺎﺯِﻳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﹰﺎ ﹶﻏِﻨﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﰲ ‪‬ﺯﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِﻥ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻓﻌ‪‬ﻮﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﱎ‪ (٢)،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ِ) :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﺲ( ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳋ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ‪‬ﺧ ﹾﺬ ِﻣ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻢٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻻ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻋﻄِﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﺮ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﱠﻞ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺧ‪‬ﻴﺒ‪‬ﺮ ِﺑ ِ‬ ‫)‪(٤‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻌﻪ‪ ‬ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺒﺴ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ﹸﻘ ﹾﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺃﻭﰱ‪ :‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺗ‪‬ﺨ ‪‬ﻤﺴ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ ج؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﺃﺻﺒﻨﺎ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺧﻴﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﳚﻰﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﺧ ﹸﺬ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣِﻘﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫)‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻑ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺟﻊ‪‬‬ ‫ﳉ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﺰﻭِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑ ِﺔ‪) :‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺄ ﹸﻛ ﹸﻞ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺭِﺣﺎِﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ِﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳑﻠﻮﺀﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫)‪(٧‬‬

‫ﺲ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻧ‪ ‬ﻬ‪‬ﺒ ﹰﺔ ﹶﻓﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﰲ ﻣﻐﺎﺯﻳﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬﺒ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﹸﹾﺜﹶﻠ ِﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﻣ ِﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ١٧٤/٦‬ﻭ ‪ ٣٨٩‬ﻭ ‪ (٣٧١/٧‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ )‪ (٢٩٧٨‬ﻭ )‪ (٢٩٧٩‬ﻭ )‪(٢٩٨٠‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺒﲑ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻄﻌﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ (١٨٢/٦‬ﰲ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٢٧٠١‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ )‪ ،١٨٢ ،١٨١/٦‬ﻭ ‪٣٦٩/٧‬ﻭ ‪ (٥٤٩/٩‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ )‪ (١٧٧٢‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ )‪ ٨٦/٤‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪ ،٥٦/٥‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ