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Hams Fathy Instructor: M.Gibson 18 march 2012 Section 31 First Draft

Stereotyping Saudi Arabians Introduction: My journey began when I got off the plane for the first time knowing my life was going to be completely different. Coming from Saudi Arabia, a country I lived in all my life, to Egypt for University was something I was not ready for. The only thing I knew about Egypt was that it had a lot of spirit and it was crowded literally all the time! After my first year experience at university, I met a lot of people and realized things about Egyptians that I never knew before. Not only were people diverse and had different opinions about everyday topics but also the people were not afraid to share their different points of views, which in Saudi required a lot of courage considering it’s a conservative country. The research topic I had initially was perception and memory. I wanted to research about it because we took a lot of physcological facts and stories about how we see and remember different people and events in my previous Rhet class.; However, I wanted to choose a topic that was new to me and that relates


to my story. I also wanted to talk about Saudi Arabia and differentiate between what people thought of the country and what the country really is. So the idea of researching stereotypes and why people stereotype to begin with came to mind and this is how I knew my research topic would be about this. The story of my search: Apart from perception and memory, the topic I wanted had to do with how people around us are different and how we deal with these differences and opposing point of views. The most things I was worried about were the fact that there's not much diversity in Egypt, or at least what I think. Then again, this is the whole point of researching and finding more about something that interests me. There might not be much diversity but there still is and that’s what I want to know more about. I also thought of adding how diversity and different point of views affects how the society is. The main question that I wishes to answer by the end of my research at first was how do people deal with the diversity that takes place all around them and does diversity and how open minded people are about diversity affect how they think about what the recent events that have been happening? At first, I found articles that talked about citizens with and against the strike and also about the recent civil disobedience that took place. I also went to the library and found 4 books that related to diversity consciousness. In addition to the books and articles that I found, I researched quotes related to diversity and found one that I liked by John Fitzgerald


Kennedy, who was the 35th president of the United States who served from 1961 till 1963 until his assassination. He stated that if we cannot now end our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. I researched Egypt Then and Now to get a better idea of how the revolution affected people. It was nice to see how people of different backgrounds and religions came together in order to ask and protest for the same purpose, which was freedom and a lack of injustice in the country. This is how it relates to me talking about diversity as well. Besides the articles and books that I found, I talked to a friend of mine who happens to be the editorial in chief in the independent magazine and asked her if I can interview her later on and she agreed and also offered to give me related articles that have to do with my topic, which was great. In one of Obama’s speeches he said “There are some who advocate for democracy only when they’re out of power; once in power, they are ruthless in suppressing the rights of others. So no matter where it takes hold, government of the people and by the people sets a single standard for all who would hold power: You must maintain your power through consent, not coercion; you must respect the rights of minorities, and participate with a spirit of tolerance and compromise; you must place the interests of your people and the legitimate workings of the political process above your party. Without these ingredients, elections alone do not make true democracy.”


I think after reading this statement, I got motivated to continue researching more and more! I also showed it to a few classmates and their reaction was the same as when I first read it which got me slightly excited honestly. =p Hillary Clinton went on by mentioning that we have to find a way to celebrate our diversity and debate our differences without fracturing our communities. Political diversity is an important topic to have a general idea about regardless of anyone’s interest because due to the recent events that have been taking place in the Middle East, understanding and dealing with all these diversities is becoming crucial. The books I found relevant at first along with their annoted bibliographies were: Work cited for diversity: Bucher,Richard. Diversity Consciousness. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. Brislin,Richard. Working with Cultural Differences. Westport: Praeger, 2008.Print. Mentor,Pocket. Managing Diversity. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print. Page,Scott. The Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. Print. Stilman,David. When Generations Collide. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Print.


Even tho I found a lot of books and articles related to what I wanted, I still had my doubts because I’m interested in psychology and the things I was finding related a lot to politics. This is because I wanted diversity to be focused on Egypt and because of the revolution that happened, it was hard to find out how people were and what people thought of diversity because whenever I researched it was “what people thought of the revolution” instead. That was also interesting but not something I wanted to base my research on because it’s not something I could relate to, especially that we were given a chance to do LITERALLY WHAT WE WANTED TO DO! I’m determined in not missing the chance to research about something interesting to me and something I could convey to the class as well. --------------------After my conference: After I researched about diversity, I had my conference and I realized that I wanted to focus on people’s understanding on Saudi Arabia and their understanding of the culture and the people who live there. I felt like in the conference I kept relating my ideas to how people in Saudi are and what people thought of people in Saudi Arabia so I knew my topic had to be changed. What I knew about my topic was that we stereotype of a daily basis subconsciously whether it’s when we meet new people, see people we don’t even know, or be around people we dislike. I basically knew what stereotyping is by definition in


that we generalize an individual based on previous experiences or what other people tell us. I also knew that people stereotype people in Saudi Arabia because I got a few comments coming there myself! Like why I’m not veiled or how I could live in a country that’s so restricted, which in my point of view was not difficult at all. I also had a lot of people tell me I look Saudi because my hair is SO long and dark =p, which doesn’t even make sense if you think about it. Basically I didn’t know much but I wanted to know more and more about it so I decided to make it my research topic and I’m glad I did. I also knew that its human nature to judge people we first meet, or feel a certain way about someone because after all categorizing someone isn’t always wrong because we meet and deal with so many people on a daily basis. So when is stereotyping acceptable? I wanted to find out more about that. What I found: I began by researching about stereotypes and why people stereotype. To start off, many stereotypes begin because people are unwilling or unable to get the information they want in order to get a fair assessment about certain people or situations. Stereotypes are a shortcut that people generally use to fill the gaps in their information about a group. Then I tried to link it to Saudi Arabia so I researched about the culture and how the people are like and looked up statistics and experiments done.


Saudi Arabia is known to have Islam as its main religion and the Islamic "Sharee'ah" governs all aspects of life including the legislation of civil laws; however, the country is not necessary like that. Being part of the country for so long, there are many things that happen that people are unaware of. These include things that are illegal in the country such as drugs, drinking, and other illegal activities. A certain survey was taken recently and the study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. This not only shows people were stereotyping about how the country is but also that drug abuse and alcohol were a problem because they were banned, and this makes people want it more. I went on to search for books talking about stereotyping specifically and I found more than what I asked for. I went to the library website and searched for books and articles. Stereotypes reflect ideas that groups of people hold about others who are different from them.


A stereotype can be embedded in single word or phrase , an image, or a combination of words and images. The image created is easily recognized and understood by others who share the same views. Many of the most common stereotypes are relating to gender, age, ethnicity, nationality and sub-cultures (i.e. nerds, punks, goths, jocks, etc.). There are, however, good and bad stereotypes. Media stereotypes are inevitable specifically when it comes to advertising, news and industries. This is because the media needs an audience to quickly understand information once it is presented. These stereotypes given act like codes and often relate to class, ethnicity or race, gender, and social role and occupation.

Work cited for stereotypes: Hinton, Perry R. Stereotypes, Cognition, and Culture. Philadelphia: Psychology, 2000. Print. Bar-Tal, Daniel. Stereotyping and Prejudice: Changing Conceptions. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

Print.

Saloom, Rachel. "Arab Stereotyping." A Multi Disciplinary Perspective (2006): 24-27. Print.


Schneider, David J. The Psychology Of Stereotyping. New York: Guilford, 2004. Print. Hilton, James L. "Stereotypes." Annual Review of Psychology 47.1 (1996): 237-40. Print. The book I found most interesting tho was stereotypes, cognition, and culture. It had exactly what I wanted and it was psychology based which I loved. I began reading it and I started working on my presentation as a power point because I think that’s going to be much more interesting. Gender stereotypes: http://stereotypebyinternet.wordpress.com/2010/02/08/genderstereotypes/

I also found a lot of related quotes that im going to add.

Quotes: “We are much too much inclined in these days to divide people into permanent categories, forgetting that a category only exists for its special purpose and must


be forgotten as soon as that purpose is served.” ― Dorothy L. Sayers, Are Women Human? “When a man gives his opinion, he's a man. When a woman gives her opinion, she's a bitch.” ― Bette Davis “A stereotype is not a stereotype if it's true.” ― Ron DeLegge II, Gents with no cents

SECOND DRAFT Stereotyping Saudi Arabians Introduction: My journey began when I got off the plane for the first time knowing my life was going to be completely different. Coming from Saudi Arabia, a country I lived in all my life, to Egypt for University was something I was not ready for. The only thing I knew about Egypt was that it had a lot of spirit and it was crowded literally all the time! After my first year experience at university, I met a lot of people and realized things about Egyptians that I never knew before. Not only were people diverse and had different opinions about everyday topics but also the people were not afraid to share their different points of views, which in Saudi required a lot of courage considering it’s a conservative country.


The research topic I had initially was perception and memory. I wanted to research about it because we took a lot of physcological facts and stories about how we see and remember different people and events in my previous Rhet class.; However, I wanted to choose a topic that was new to me and that relates to my story. I also wanted to talk about Saudi Arabia and differentiate between what people thought of the country and what the country really is. So the idea of researching stereotypes and why people stereotype to begin with came to mind and this is how I knew my research topic would be about this. The story of my search: Apart from perception and memory, the topic I wanted had to do with how people around us are different and how we deal with these differences and opposing point of views. The most things I was worried about were the fact that there's not much diversity in Egypt, or at least what I think. Then again, this is the whole point of researching and finding more about something that interests me. There might not be much diversity but there still is and that’s what I want to know more about. I also thought of adding how diversity and different point of views affects how the society is. The main question that I wishes to answer by the end of my research at first was how do people deal with the diversity that takes place all around them and does diversity and how open minded people are about diversity affect how they think about what the recent events that have been happening? At first, I found articles that talked about citizens with and


against the strike and also about the recent civil disobedience that took place. I also went to the library and found 4 books that related to diversity consciousness. In addition to the books and articles that I found, I researched quotes related to diversity and found one that I liked by John Fitzgerald Kennedy, who was the 35th president of the United States who served from 1961 till 1963 until his assassination. He stated that if we cannot now end our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. I researched Egypt Then and Now to get a better idea of how the revolution affected people. It was nice to see how people of different backgrounds and religions came together in order to ask and protest for the same purpose, which was freedom and a lack of injustice in the country. This is how it relates to me talking about diversity as well. Besides the articles and books that I found, I talked to a friend of mine who happens to be the editorial in chief in the independent magazine and asked her if I can interview her later on and she agreed and also offered to give me related articles that have to do with my topic, which was great. In one of Obama’s speeches he said “There are some who advocate for democracy only when they’re out of power; once in power, they are ruthless in suppressing the rights of others. So no matter where it takes hold, government of the people and by the people sets a single standard for all who would hold power: You must maintain your power through consent, not coercion; you must respect the rights of minorities, and participate with a spirit of tolerance and compromise; you must place the interests of your people and the legitimate workings of the


political process above your party. Without these ingredients, elections alone do not make true democracy.� I think after reading this statement, I got motivated to continue researching more and more! I also showed it to a few classmates and their reaction was the same as when I first read it which got me slightly excited honestly. =p Hillary Clinton went on by mentioning that we have to find a way to celebrate our diversity and debate our differences without fracturing our communities. Political diversity is an important topic to have a general idea about regardless of anyone’s interest because due to the recent events that have been taking place in the Middle East, understanding and dealing with all these diversities is becoming crucial. The books I found relevant at first along with their annoted bibliographies were: Work cited for diversity: Bucher,Richard. Diversity Consciousness. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. Brislin,Richard. Working with Cultural Differences. Westport: Praeger, 2008.Print. Mentor,Pocket. Managing Diversity. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print. Page,Scott. The Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. Print.


Stilman,David. When Generations Collide. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Print. Even tho I found a lot of books and articles related to what I wanted, I still had my doubts because I’m interested in psychology and the things I was finding related a lot to politics. This is because I wanted diversity to be focused on Egypt and because of the revolution that happened, it was hard to find out how people were and what people thought of diversity because whenever I researched it was “what people thought of the revolution” instead. That was also interesting but not something I wanted to base my research on because it’s not something I could relate to, especially that we were given a chance to do LITERALLY WHAT WE WANTED TO DO! I’m determined in not missing the chance to research about something interesting to me and something I could convey to the class as well. --------------------After my conference: After I researched about diversity, I had my conference and I realized that I wanted to focus on people’s understanding on Saudi Arabia and their understanding of the culture and the people who live there. I felt like in the conference I kept relating my ideas to how people in Saudi are and what people thought of people in Saudi Arabia so I knew my topic had to be changed. What


I knew about my topic was that we stereotype of a daily basis subconsciously whether it’s when we meet new people, see people we don’t even know, or be around people we dislike. I basically knew what stereotyping is by definition in that we generalize an individual based on previous experiences or what other people tell us. I also knew that people stereotype people in Saudi Arabia because I got a few comments coming there myself! Like why I’m not veiled or how I could live in a country that’s so restricted, which in my point of view was not difficult at all. I also had a lot of people tell me I look Saudi because my hair is SO long and dark =p, which doesn’t even make sense if you think about it. Basically I didn’t know much but I wanted to know more and more about it so I decided to make it my research topic and I’m glad I did. I also knew that its human nature to judge people we first meet, or feel a certain way about someone because after all categorizing someone isn’t always wrong because we meet and deal with so many people on a daily basis. So when is stereotyping acceptable? I wanted to find out more about that. What I found: I began by researching about stereotypes and why people stereotype. To start off, many stereotypes begin because people are unwilling or unable to get the information they want in order to get a fair assessment about certain people or situations. Stereotypes are a shortcut that people generally use to fill the gaps in their information about a group. Then I tried to link it to Saudi Arabia so I


researched about the culture and how the people are like and looked up statistics and experiments done. Saudi Arabia is known to have Islam as its main religion and the Islamic "Sharee'ah" governs all aspects of life including the legislation of civil laws; however, the country is not necessary like that. Being part of the country for so long, there are many things that happen that people are unaware of. These include things that are illegal in the country such as drugs, drinking, and other illegal activities. A certain survey was taken recently and the study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. This not only shows people were stereotyping about how the country is but also that drug abuse and alcohol were a problem because they were banned, and this makes people want it more. I went on to search for books talking about stereotyping specifically and I found more than what I asked for. I went to the library website and searched for books and articles. Stereotypes reflect ideas that groups of people hold about others who are different from them.


A stereotype can be embedded in single word or phrase , an image, or a combination of words and images. The image created is easily recognized and understood by others who share the same views. Many of the most common stereotypes are relating to gender, age, ethnicity, nationality and sub-cultures (i.e. nerds, punks, goths, jocks, etc.). There are, however, good and bad stereotypes. Media stereotypes are inevitable specifically when it comes to advertising, news and industries. This is because the media needs an audience to quickly understand information once it is presented. These stereotypes given act like codes and often relate to class, ethnicity or race, gender, and social role and occupation.

Work cited for stereotypes: Hinton, Perry R. Stereotypes, Cognition, and Culture. Philadelphia: Psychology, 2000. Print. Bar-Tal, Daniel. Stereotyping and Prejudice: Changing Conceptions. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

Print.

Saloom, Rachel. "Arab Stereotyping." A Multi Disciplinary Perspective (2006): 24-27. Print.


Schneider, David J. The Psychology Of Stereotyping. New York: Guilford, 2004. Print. Hilton, James L. "Stereotypes." Annual Review of Psychology 47.1 (1996): 237-40. Print. The book I found most interesting tho was stereotypes, cognition, and culture. It had exactly what I wanted and it was psychology based which I loved. I began reading it and I started working on my presentation as a power point because I think that’s going to be much more interesting. Gender stereotypes: http://stereotypebyinternet.wordpress.com/2010/02/08/genderstereotypes/

I also found a lot of related quotes that im going to add.

Quotes: “We are much too much inclined in these days to divide people into permanent categories, forgetting that a category only exists for its special purpose and must


be forgotten as soon as that purpose is served.” ― Dorothy L. Sayers, Are Women Human? “When a man gives his opinion, he's a man. When a woman gives her opinion, she's a bitch.” ― Bette Davis “A stereotype is not a stereotype if it's true.” ― Ron DeLegge II, Gents with no cents

Final draft Stereotyping Saudi Arabians Introduction: My journey began when I got off the plane for the first time knowing my life was going to be completely different. Coming from Saudi Arabia, a country I lived in all my life, to Egypt for University was something I was not ready for. The only thing I knew about Egypt was that it had a lot of spirit and it was crowded literally all the time! After my first year experience at university, I met a lot of people and realized things about Egyptians that I never knew before. Not only were people diverse and had different opinions about everyday topics but also the people were not afraid to share their different points of view, which in Saudi required a lot of courage considering it’s a conservative country. The


research topic I had initially was perception and memory. I wanted to research about it because we took a lot of physcological facts and stories about how we see and remember different people and events in my previous Rhet class.; However, I wanted to choose a topic that was new to me and that relates to my story. I also wanted to talk about Saudi Arabia and differentiate between what people thought of the country and what the country really is. So the idea of researching stereotypes and why people stereotype to begin with came to mind and this is how I knew my research topic would be about this. The story of my search: Apart from perception and memory, the topic I wanted had to do with how people around us are different and how we deal with these differences and opposing point of views. The most things I was worried about were the fact that there's not much diversity in Egypt, or at least what I think. Then again, this is the whole point of researching and finding more about something that interests me. There might not be much diversity but there still is and that’s what I want to know more about. I also thought of adding how diversity and different point of views affects how the society is. The main question that I wish to answer by the end of my research at first was how do people deal with the diversity that takes place all around ? At first, I found articles that talked about citizens with and against the strike and also about the recent civil disobedience that took place. I also went to the library and found four books that related to diversity


consciousness. In addition to the books and articles that I found, I researched quotes related to diversity and found one that I liked by John Fitzgerald Kennedy, who was the 35th president of the United States who served from 1961 till 1963 until his assassination. He stated that if we cannot now end our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. I researched Egypt Then and Now to get a better idea of how the revolution affected people. It was nice to see how people of different backgrounds and religions came together in order to ask and protest for the same purpose, which was freedom and a lack of injustice in the country. This is how it relates to me talking about diversity as well. Besides the articles and books that I found, I talked to a friend of mine who happens to be the editorial in chief in the independent magazine and asked her if I can interview her later on and she agreed and also offered to give me related articles that have to do with my topic, which was great. In one of Obama’s speeches he said “There are some who advocate for democracy only when they’re out of power; once in power, they are ruthless in suppressing the rights of others. So no matter where it takes hold, government of the people and by the people sets a single standard for all who would hold power: You must maintain your power through consent, not coercion; you must respect the rights of minorities, and participate with a spirit of tolerance and compromise; you must place the interests of your people and the legitimate workings of the political process above your party. Without these ingredients, elections alone do not make true democracy.”


I think after reading this statement, I got motivated to continue researching more and more! I also showed it to a few classmates and their reaction was the same as when I first read it which got me slightly excited honestly. =p Hillary Clinton also emphasizes this point of view by mentioning that we have to find a way to celebrate our diversity and debate our differences without fracturing our communities. Political diversity is an important topic to have a general idea about regardless of anyone’s interest because due to the recent events that have been taking place in the Middle East, understanding and dealing with all these diversities is becoming crucial. I went to the library website and started looking for books and found many! The books I found relevant at first were: Diversity Consciousness Working with Cultural Differences Managing Diversity The Difference. When Generations Collide. Even though finding these books excited me at first, they were not focusing on the things I wanted to discuss in my paper. Working with Cultural Differences, for instance, was talking about how to manage diversity at work and the problems people face at work. It was nice to have found things, but I didn’t


think they were what I was looking for. I continued to have my doubts because I’m interested in psychology and the things I was finding related a lot to politics. This is because I wanted diversity to be focused on Egypt and because of the revolution that happened, it was hard to find out how people were and what people thought of diversity because whenever I researched it was “what people thought of the revolution” instead. That was also interesting but not something I wanted to base my research on because it’s not something I could relate to, especially that we were given a chance to do LITERALLY WHAT WE WANTED TO DO! I’m determined in not missing the chance to research about something interesting to me and something I could convey to the class as well. --------------------After my First conference: After I researched about diversity, I had my conference and I realized that I wanted to focus on people’s understanding on Saudi Arabia and their understanding of the culture and the people who live there. I felt like in the conference I kept relating my ideas to how people in Saudi are and what people thought of people in Saudi Arabia so I knew my topic had to be changed. What I knew about my topic was that we stereotype on a daily basis subconsciously whether it’s when we meet new people, see people we don’t even know, or be around people we dislike. I basically knew what stereotyping is by definition.


Stereotyping is generalizing an individual based on previous experiences or what other people tell us. I also knew that people stereotype people in Saudi Arabia because I got a few comments coming from there myself! Like why I’m not veiled or how I could live in a country that’s so restricted, which in my point of view was not difficult at all. I also had a lot of people tell me I look Saudi because my hair is SO long and dark, which doesn’t even make sense if you think about it. Basically I didn’t know much but I wanted to know more and more about it so I decided to make it my research topic and I’m glad I did. I also knew that its human nature to judge people we first meet, or feel a certain way about someone because after all categorizing someone isn’t always wrong because we meet and deal with so many people on a daily basis. So when is stereotyping acceptable? I wanted to find out more about that. What I found: I began by researching about stereotypes and why people stereotype. To start off, many stereotypes begin because people are unwilling or unable to get the information they want in order to get a fair assessment about certain people or situations. Stereotypes are a shortcut that people generally use to fill the gaps in their information about a group. Stereotypes generally reflect ideas that groups of people hold about others who are different from them. A stereotype can be embedded in single word or phrase , an image, or a combination of words and images. The image created is easily recognized and understood by


others who share the same views. These stereotypes given act like codes and often relate to class, ethnicity or race, gender, and social role and occupation. I always like to search quotes about individuals who have opinions on a topic I’m researching about. It makes it easier for me to relate and understand my topic more simply because it is not just information said that isn’t applied anywhere. These are quotes said by people in speeches, in movies, in interviews, etc. the first quote I found most relevant was: “We are much too much inclined in these days to divide people into permanent categories, forgetting that a category only exists for its special purpose and must be forgotten as soon as that purpose is served.” ― Dorothy L. Sayers, Are Women Human? Then, I went on to search for books talking about stereotyping specifically and I found more than what I asked for. I went to the library website and searched for books and articles. The information I found included the definition of a stereotype, the different types of stereotypes, and the common stereotypes that take place. Many of the most common stereotypes are relating to gender, age, ethnicity, nationality and sub-cultures (i.e. nerds, punks, goths, jocks, etc.). There are, however, good and bad stereotypes.


This led me to ask myself when stereotypes are acceptable and where is the most place stereotypes are advocated. Media stereotypes are inevitable specifically when it comes to advertising, news and industries. This is because the media needs an audience to quickly understand information once it is presented. This made a lot of sense because if a person goes to watch a movie, they are not going to sit the entire time trying to analyze the character in front of them. They are going to want information that’s already presented and easy to keep up with.Media stereotypes are one type of stereotypes that take place on a daily basis, but that’s not it. Two other stereotypes that I researched about and included in my presentation were gender stereotypes and culture stereotypes. Gender stereotypes really interested me because especially in Saudi Arabia, judging a person based on her gender is very common. A man is generally the supporter of the family and the one who makes all the decisions and the woman is not required to work, not because she can’t but because she’s not as many people believe “capable”. I completely disagree with this type of stereotype because the more this belief continues, the more the women are going to believe that they don’t have the ability to do what a man can do. Even if they disagree that’s not enough because the conditions of the country always benefit the man. For instance, when it comes to work the jobs that a woman can find are very limited. So unless she is committed to make a difference, there will be no difference. I got a really funny picture that I also included in my presentation.


There are two men standing and they don’t know if the cat on the sidewalk is a male or female so they ask her to park! Finally at the bottom the picture says, stereotypes are bad, which in this case they clearly are! I loved this quote and shared it with the class when we were discussing our work and everyone seemed to agree with it. “When a man gives his opinion, he's a man. When a woman gives her opinion, she's a bitch.” ― Bette Davis Gender stereotypes: http://stereotypebyinternet.wordpress.com/2010/02/08/genderstereotypes/ The last type of stereotypes that I’m discussing is cultural stereotypes. Cultural stereotype means that a person has an opinion about another person, cultural, or a group of people simply because their culture thinks in a certain way. For instance, Saudi Arabia, of course known as a conservative country, believes that all Americans dress inappropriately, don’t fear God, and have a completely different mentality that how Saudi Arabians are in general. So a person will start to automatically believe that because people they talk to and are constantly exposed to think that way so they are bound to get affected. This is completely not true for many reasons. First of all, there are many Americans who aren’t they way people make them seem to be. Yes their mentality is different;


however, dealing with diverse people doesn’t necessarily mean judging them is the answer. It also doesn’t mean that they don’t have a religion and they don’t fear God. It simply means that they think in a different way and respecting other people will not only make Americans respect Saudi Arabians in return but will also make them more aware of the beliefs of people in Saudi. In the same way Americans are stereotyped, so are Saudis. People think that because Saudis are in a closed minded country, the citizens are automatically limited in the way they think and deal with everyone around them. They don’t drink, smoke, engage in any illegal activities and so on. I tried to link this way of how people think to find a statistic that disproves all of this. Saudi Arabia is known to have Islam as its main religion and the Islamic "Sharee'ah" governs all aspects of life including the legislation of civil laws; however, the country is not necessary like that. Being part of the country for so long, there are many things that happen that people are unaware of. These include things that are illegal in the country such as drugs, drinking, and other illegal activities. A certain survey was taken recently and the study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common


problem in the community. This not only shows people were stereotyping about how the country is but also that drug abuse and alcohol were a problem because they were banned, and this makes people want it more. I also realized that this statistics proves that what we think about someone or our opinions about a country should not be based on appearance. If people continue to generalize about Saudi Arabia, they are going to become completely unaware of all these problems and they are not going to be solved. The book I found most interesting though was stereotypes, cognition, and culture. It had exactly what I wanted and it was psychology based which I loved. I began reading it and I started working on my presentation as a power point because I think that’s going to be much more interesting. My Power Point began by the discussion of the definition of a stereotype and the types. But my research was more focused on the psychology of why people stereotype when they know that most of the type it’s not true. I began by finding out that there are two components to a stereotype. The first one is that a group of people are identified by a specific characteristic, distinguishing them from other groups based on this characteristic. For example, as soon as a student walks into a classroom in university, I automatically categorize him/her as an Aucian. This means that I’m distinguishing that student from other


students who go to different universities such as BUE or GUC. The second component is attributing a set of characteristics to that group as a whole. For instance, according to what most people think (which is again completely not true), Aucians are shallow. So I learned that you don’t just start stereotyping someone. Basically you categorize just like you are categorized and based on that categorization, a set of characteristics are given and a stereotype is formed. I was mostly interested by the explanation of a stereotype that was given by Water Lippman. He was an American public intellectual, writer, and a reporter who believed that stereotypes are simplified pictures in our heads or events that take place all around us. He published a book called Public Opinion where he states that “Our actions are not based on a direct knowledge of the “Real” world because the” real environment is altogether too big , too complex, and too fleeting for direct acquaintance”(Lippman,1922,p.16) . So our knowledge is based on these simplified pictures. Of course because our knowledge is based on the simplified pictures that we create on our own based on our everyday lives and based on people we encounter and deal with, this leads to the problems of stereotyping. 1) Reduces a wide range of differences in people to simplistic categorizations. This not only takes away from the individuality of each individual but reduces diversity between groups of people all around the world.


2) Transforms assumptions about particular groups of people into “Realities”. For example if we don’t know a person well and depend on what other people are telling us, we turn the assumptions that we have in our head, that aren’t necessary true , into realities because of what other people are telling us to believe. 3) Perpetuate social prejudice and inequality, which means that when we stereotype someone and convince ourselves of something that isn’t true we are advocating inequality and social prejudice. 4)What stereotypes represent, however, are not the beliefs based upon reality but ideas which reflect the distribution of power in society. A very important aspect that I discussed in my presentation and learned a lot from is a question I couldn’t answer in the beginning of my research paper. If stereotypes are false why do people continue to hold them? This is based on three psychological reasons. 1)Frustration and Aggression. The person might direct their aggression at another social group who are a weaker target. For example, if an employee gets fired from a job, he/she will start of by directing their anger at other employees or people who are weaker them. They won’t blame themselves or try to understand the reasons they were fired from their manager or boss because (Unemployment)


2) The Authoritarian Personality. Research has proven that people who stereotype the most are people who are around authoritarian personalities that are of a certain class in society. For example, if I’m part of a family that has the authoritarian characteristics and that have a certain reputation, I wouldn’t want to change that. Basically, I will start to direct all my frustration that I feel when I fight with my family on other people to maintain the reputation within my family. 3) Intergroup competition. This is the most common reason of why people judge, stereotype, bitch, and gossip. When were competing with people, regardless of why we are competing, our main aim is to make people around us against them. This can be at school, in our jobs, or in university. It applies to all age groups, or at least based on what I think.

My reflection: After all the research that I’ve done this semester, I not only realized that I learned more about a topic I was interested in, I learned to judge and see people the way I want to see them and not the way people want me to think and act. It’s difficult to be around people who constantly want you to change but it’s even harder to live your life not knowing what your individual opinion is. Just like how stereotypes takes away from a person uniqueness, when a person is stereotyping and being is part of generalizations and continuous judgments, they


are taking away from their own individuality. This is because they are conforming to other peoples’ beliefs and opinions and not their own. We deal with people every single day and sometimes listening to other peoples’ opinions is something we cannot control. This can be in class, in a lecture, on the way back home (Yes you’re stuck), and even to our families; however it is our job to decide what we want to do with all the information we hear every day. We can either choose to ignore it, or even better we can acknowledge and understand why people think the way they do and decide based on our OWN experiences how we want to act and think of people around us. I realized that my topic doesn’t just relate to people around us, I found out that this also related to my Scientific Thinking course. We learned about logical fallacies and how we can detect pseudo science from scientific credible evidence. One of the ways we can learn to do so is to read and research and be critical of what you hear/read. The same applies to us. We can hear what other people think but know that if there isn’t enough evidence for their reasons then there isn’t enough reason to believe them. I started of this course believing the quote: “A stereotype is not a stereotype if it's true.” ― Ron DeLegge II, Gents with no cents I’d like to end my final draft by saying that I disagree because a stereotype can be true depending on what the stereotype is and depending on how extreme it is.


Sometimes what other people or what our culture tells us to believe is true. The only way to find out is through our own experiences and dealings with others and not through other peoples’.

Work cited Bucher,Richard. Diversity Consciousness. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. Brislin,Richard. Working with Cultural Differences. Westport: Praeger, 2008.Print.

Mentor,Pocket. Managing Diversity. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print.

Page,Scott. The Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. Print.

Stilman,David. When Generations Collide. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Print.

Hinton, Perry R. Stereotypes, Cognition, and Culture. Philadelphia: Psychology, 2000. Print.

Bar-Tal, Daniel. Stereotyping and Prejudice: Changing Conceptions. New York: SpringerVerlag, 1989. Print. Saloom, Rachel. "Arab Stereotyping." A Multi Disciplinary Perspective (2006): 24-27. Print.


Schneider, David J. The Psychology Of Stereotyping. New York: Guilford, 2004. Print.

Hilton, James L. "Stereotypes." Annual Review of Psychology 47.1 (1996): 237-40. Print.

Annoted Bibliography Bucher,Richard. Diversity Consciousness. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. This was the first book that I found in the library when I started my research. I was so happy I found something relevant, until I realized it wasn’t. =p it was relevant at first because my aim was to talk about diversity and how it relates to political events, mainly in Egypt. Bucher joins personal and organizational perspectives and discusses teamwork, communication, leadership, conflicts and other issues in a diverse organization. This helps any learner develop awareness and understand diversity within as well as between groups. This could also be related to understanding diversity not just within a workplace but also in the society that we live in and how we could manage and handle those differences. Brislin,Richard. Working with Cultural Differences. Westport: Praeger, 2008.Print. Dealing with people who are different is something we face every single day and this is why I liked this book. Richard focused on dealing with cultural differences, mainly in a workplace. It still relates because discussing stereotypes has to do with overcoming those generalizations. And working with cultural differences and knowing how to deal with people is pretty related. Mentor,Pocket. Managing Diversity. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print. Pocket offers handy tools, self-tests, and real-life examples to help a person identify strengths and weaknesses and develop critical skills. Many organizations encourage diversity because providing equal opportunity for everyone is the right thing to do. When I first started, I linked this to equal opportunities that Egyptians are asking for and that’s why they continue to struggle and fight for their rights and what they believe in. Page,Scott. The Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. Print. Scott Page redefines the way we understand ourselves in relation to one another. The Difference is about how we think in groups and how our collective wisdom exceeds how we think individually. I chose this book to show that during the revolution the more and more people joined and become part of the change that many Egyptians wanted, there was faster progress in the country. And now, I personally believe that the more we are around different


people and different cultures, the better we become as individuals because it’s not only important to understand ourselves, but the people around us as well, especially if they are people we care about.

Stilman,David. When Generations Collide. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Print. This book talks about what happens when people of different generations and cultural backgrounds come together and make a change for the better. David goes on to mention the benefits and the advantages of generations colliding, which again at first seemed relevant. But now since I’m discussing stereotypes and the different types of stereotypes, I won’t be using any of the information I found from this book. Hinton, Perry R. Stereotypes, Cognition, and Culture. Philadelphia: Psychology, 2000. Print. This book talks about what stereotypes are and why do we use them. It also discusses if people are able to stop generalizing and stereotyping. This is exactly the book that I wanted. And based on the information I find here, along with the internet, I will be able to continuing working on my presentation. What I also like about this book is that its psychology based. I was excited when I learned that because the whole point of this course is to learn something new and I want to learn about my topic from a psychology perspective so this was great. Bar-Tal, Daniel. Stereotyping and Prejudice: Changing Conceptions. New York: SpringerVerlag, 1989. Print. Daniel Bar-Tal also goes on to discuss stereotypes; however, he includes prejudice as well, which are of course related. The book mentions these relations and also points towards future directions based on the information provided. Again, this book is somewhat psychology based. Perfect again! Saloom, Rachel. "Arab Stereotyping." A Multi Disciplinary Perspective (2006): 24-27. Print. This is a big part of my research, considering I’m including stereotyping Saudi Arabians. This article is more general that focuses on stereotyping Arabs in general. Schneider, David J. The Psychology Of Stereotyping. New York: Guilford, 2004. Print. This book talks about literally everything! It’s very long so I went through it and basically it gives a brief description about everything to do with stereotyping and prejudice. It also talks about discrimination bias, features of stereotypes, and why stereotypes are used. This is probably the most relevant book since I’ve started my research. Hilton, James L. "Stereotypes." Annual Review of Psychology 47.1 (1996): 237-40. Print.


This is the last journal article in my annoted bibliography. It wasn’t the best article because it doesn’t mention stereotyping certain groups of people, but it was a bit relevant in the sense that it was psychology based as well.

Journals Journal 1: ( first day of class) The first thought that came to mind was perception and memory. It was a topic that was brought up in my previous Rhet class last semester. We took about how every individual perceives and remembers certain ideas and events better than other. This is due to the fact that every person has certain morals, beliefs, interests and ideas that trigger their concentration and makes him/her more interested in a conversation or topic. I would love to make that my main aim because it would be nice to know why we remember and see things and people in a certain way and why we have different ideas and opinions than people who could also be close to us. Another topic that came to mind was researching about diversity. Because I came from another country even though I’m fully Egyptian, Im still curious to learn about other cultures and places all around the world and most importantly the diversity that’s taking place in AUC. I would start of by asking my family and my sisters because we shared the same experience living abroad. I would also like to ask people who also come from other countries and people who didn’t and see their point of views as well. It is always interesting to learn something new, regardless of my interests. My academic research could be based on how our memory and perception works and the main reason that causes us to prefer certain beliefs and even people over others. I could also research about diversity in a famous country and see the common beliefs and disadvantages of being faced with a lot of differences and circumstances every day. I’m thinking of other topics that come to mind and this also relates to how people judge certain people even tho they might not know anything about them. This is because every person views and remembers things in certain way and when they meet someone for the first time, they try to fit their point of views with how they want the person to be and not necessarily who they are. Not only will this help me understand other people better, but also will give me an advantage of knowing how to deal with different people later on in my life.


Journal2:

This is the second time I write in my journal and I've done a few things ever since I thought of a topic to write about. The topic that I wanted to research or know more about was Diversity. This has to do with how people around us are different and how we deal with these differences and opposing point of views. The most things I was worried about were the fact that there's not much diversity in Egypt, or at least what I think. Then again, this is the whole point of researching and finding more about something that interests me. There might not be much diversity but there still is and that’s what I want to know more about. I also thought of adding how diversity and different point of views affects how the society is. This has a lot to do with what's happening in the country. Many people, including myself, did not agree to the concept of civil disobedience as did many others. On the other hand, many people that I know supported it and were willing to do whatever it takes. I found 6 sources that have to do with diversity and the next thing I have to do is limit my research to diversity in Egypt. Journal3: I’m thinking of my research questions and I already came up with two: The first one is why diversity isn’t widely accepted in Egypt? How do people deal with the diversity that takes place all around them? Does diversity and how open minded people are about diversity affect how they think about what the recent events that have been happening in Egypt? I also wanted to interview a few people to see how they react to the topic and what they think about what goes on in Egypt. Also, I Plan on making a video about the diversity that takes place in AUC specifically. Come up with 4 more sources.

Jounral4:


4 more sources: http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/4/12466/Opinion/Unity-despitediversity-in-Egypt%E2%80%99s-history.aspx Unity despite diversity in Egypt’s history- ahramonline

http://213.158.162.45/~egyptian/index.php? action=news&id=22759&title=Culture:%20Richness%20in%20diversity http://www.tulane.edu/~rouxbee/kids98/egypt6.html http://technorati.com/lifestyle/article/the-diversity-of-the-egyptian-movement/ "The Diversity of the Egyptian Movement - Technorati Lifestyle." Technorati. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://technorati.com/lifestyle/article/the-diversity-of-theegyptian-movement/>.

Journal5: I’m in the library at the moment and last class made it kind of clear about what I want to write about and the things that I want to do for my paper. I’m going to start by researching about the different types of diversities that are taking place in Egypt. Then I’m going to see what I find most interesting and apply it in my paper. After I have found enough information I will start by making surveys and interviews about my topic and see how people react to what I’m asking them. I Found an article about the strike against the strike which I found really interesting. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2012/1085/eg5.htm

http://www.aucegypt.edu/GAPP/CairoReview/Pages/topiclisting.aspx? t=Politics & Society


journal6:

Today I went to the library and reserved 2 books that included in my sources. I read the table of contexts for each and read a bit of each book. I also talked to the president at the MUN club, who happens to be an economics major and a very political student, and he helped me narrow down my search and also gave me advice about what I need to do for later. I also looked at the articles that I saved and read them carefully and made notes to share with the class and also added a quote I found very interesting.

Journal 7 The quote that I found interesting was: "If we cannot now end our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity." -John Fitzgerald Kennedy I shared my thoughts and ideas in class this week and it got me motivated to learn more and continue my research and readings on my topic. The books that I got were very relevant and each chapter I read so far said something new that made me see something in a different way. For instance, In Diversity consciousness the author talked about how team work and the most innovative business projects are ones in which a person said something in a new way. This is the main purpose of my research. I want to combine both diversity and current events to relate how the two led to how Egypt is today.

Journal 8 Today I was in plaza with a friend and realized all the clubs that a person could be a part of in during their experience at AUC. I noticed that people who started a club that has to do with making a difference as opposed to a club that wants people to meet people and have a great time has a lot to do with I the conclusion


I want to reach. For instance, Resala, which is a charity club, aims at performing different things with the aim of getting people aware of the poverty that many Egyptians are going through. This type of club shows that the people in it are ones who want a difference in the country and want people to be part of that difference.

Journal 9: I researched Egypt Then and Now to get a better idea of how the revolution affected people. It was very exciting to see how people of different backgrounds and religions came together in order to ask and protest for the same purpose, which was freedom and a lack of injustice in the country. This is how it relates to me talking about diversity as well. Journal 10: I talked to a friend of mine who happens to be the editorial in chief in the independent magazine and asked her if I can interview her later on and she agreed and also offered to give me related articles that have to do with my topic, which is great.

Journal11:

I found an article that includes a part of what Obama said in his speech that I found very intriguing. â&#x20AC;&#x153;There are some who advocate for democracy only when theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re out of power; once in power, they are ruthless in suppressing the rights of others. So no matter where it takes hold, government of the people and by the people sets a single standard for all who would hold power: You must maintain your power through consent, not coercion; you must respect the rights of minorities, and participate with a spirit of tolerance and compromise; you must place the interests of your people and the legitimate workings of the political process above your party. Without these ingredients, elections alone do not make true democracy.â&#x20AC;?


http://diversity.prsa.org/index.php/2011/02/a-social-media-revolution-theegypt-protests-and-the-role-of-new-media/

Jounral 12: I found more articles and sources that I wanted to add but I still haven’t read them carefully. I will do that before Sunday’s class, when I share my thoughts and ideas with them. So far I’m feeling like I’m making progress but I still want to find more articles that further relate and focus on the diversity that led to the revolution and vice versa. http://worldpress.org/Mideast/3697.cfm http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/5257/Egypt/Politics-/Egyptrevolution-youth-form-national-coalition.aspx http://www.asanet.org/footnotes/julyaugust11/intl_persp_0711.html

After my conference (Journals): Journal 13: I just had my conference and realized a few things that made me see my research topic in a completely new way. In my introduction of my first draft, I was discussing why I chose diversity to begin with and noticed that I included my experience of being completely new in Egypt. I decided I wanted to add how people view Saudi Arabians and the stereotypes that come along with telling people you came from such a conservative country. The reactions I got from university alone made me want to write more and more about it. Some of the reactions were asking me how I’m not veiled and shocked that I’m not as close minded as a lot of Saudi people are. I can’t believe I didn’t think of adding that from the beginning!

Journal 14: Today I started my research about stereotypes and the different types of stereotyping. I got 4 pictures and one of them says “who says Asians can’t drive” hahaha. Another one was a quote by Michael cooper which states, “Those of us who have also considered ourselves ‘liberal’ and ‘tolerant’ have


discovered the prejudices and the stereotypes which each of us harbours. This has certainly been a learning experience for all of us and we are still learning.” Journal 15: Today I revised my first draft and included the information and ideas I had about stereotypes. I added more quotes “We are much too much inclined in these days to divide people into permanent categories, forgetting that a category only exists for its special purpose and must be forgotten as soon as that purpose is served.” ― Dorothy L. Sayers, Are Women Human? “When a man gives his opinion, he's a man. When a woman gives her opinion, she's a bitch.” ― Bette Davis “A stereotype is not a stereotype if it's true.” ― Ron DeLegge II, Gents with no cents I also added an introduction and a few statistics that I found very interesting. many stereotypes begin because people are unwilling or unable to get the information they want in order to get a fair assessment about certain people or situations. Stereotypes are a shortcut that people generally use to fill the gaps in their information about a group. Saudi Arabia is known to have Islam as its main religion and the Islamic "Sharee'ah" governs all aspects of life including the legislation of civil laws; however, the country is not necessary like that.


Being part of the country for so long, there are many things that happen that people are unaware of. These include things that are illegal in the country such as drugs, drinking, and other illegal activities. A certain survey was taken recently and the study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. This not only shows people were stereotyping about how the country is but also that drug abuse and alcohol were a problem because they were banned, and this makes people want it more. Journal 16: I found this statement online which I found relevant.

Stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims have been presented in various forms by the mass media in Western culture and American culture. Stereotypical representations of Arabs are often manifested in a society's media, literature, theater and other creative expressions. These representation , which have been historically and predominantly negative, often have adverse repercussions for Arab Americans and Muslims in daily interactions and in current events. Journal 17: I got 3 videos related to my topic. One about kids stereotyping and the other one was from a scene in legally blonde. The scene is about how the guy wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t


date her because she’s blonde and how she proves him wrong by winning the case in court =p Journal 18: Rajaa al Sanae is a very famous author of the book Girls of Riyadh. She was the first Saudi woman to publish a book that talks and discusses what really happens in Saudi Arabia. I’m going to include the things in her book that I find most relevant. I’m also going to email her since she is the aunt of a friend of mine in Saudi. If I can get in touch and quote her in my presentation, I will be so happpyyy! http://www.rajaa.net/girls-of-riyadh-review/ http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/girls-of-riyadhby-rajaa-alsanea-trans-marilyn-booth-460023.html http://readingthroughlife.ca/girls-of-riyadh-review/ http://racerelations.about.com/od/understandingrac1/a/WhatIsaStereotype.htm

Journal 19: I’m continuing my search and my aim is to find proper evidence and statistics about the examples I want to include about Saudi Arabians. It’s known that even tho it’s a “religious” country, Riyadh has the highest rates of gay people and this has to do with the constant separation of men and women in the country. Because people are so restricted, the result isn’t always what


people think it is. This is the whole point of what I’m trying to prove.

Journal 20: I researched stereotypes from a physiological point of view and from a sociological point of view. I also found information from Lippmann who is a well known journalist and media critic. He stresses on stereotypes as an ordering process, a 'short cut', referring to 'the world', and expressing 'our' values and beliefs. http://www.adamranson.plus.com/Mini%20Representation.pdf

Journal 21: I started on my powerpoint presentation and I’m trying to order my slides in the best way that would make my research topic clear and interesting. I’m having a hard time because there’s a lot of information I want to add and I want to stress on many things but because I started early, I’m hoping everything goes great =) http://bikyamasr.com/14092/saudi-women-agents-of-change-shattering-commonstereotypes/

Journal 22: My presentation when great! I loved how much I was interested in the topic and that alone made the class interested as well. Im so glad I did it!


My PowerPoint Presentation:

By: Hams Fathy

What I knew:

Stereotyping is basically generalizing a person based on experience or simply by judging them simply because we think we can. My research question: What are the psychological reasons behind stereotyping, and why do we stereotype people if we know it’s wrong?


What I wish to know by the end of my research: I wanted to research about the different types of stereotypes that take place. I also wanted to research about people stereotyping Saudi Arabians, since I came from there myself.

What is a stereotype? Stereotypes ref lect ideas that groups of people hold about others who are different from them. A stereotype can be embedded in single word or phrase ,an image, or a combination of words and images. The image created is easily recognized and understood by others who share the same views. It is can incorrect generalization or an overgeneralization.


The components of a stereotype. 1) A group of people are identified by a specific characteristic, distinguishing them from other groups based on this characteristic. 2) Attributing a set of characteristics to that group as a whole.

Lippman’s view Stereotypes are simplified pictures in our heads of people and events in the world. In Public opinion, He states that “Our actions are not based on a direct knowledge of the “Real” world because the” real environment is altogether too big , too complex, and too f leeting for direct acquaintance”(Lippman,1922,p.16) . So our knowledge is based on these simplified pictures.


Types of Stereotypes Many of the most common stereotypes are relating to, Gender Age Media Nationality  Sub-cultures ( nerds, punks, goths, jocks, etc.)

Media Stereotyping  Media stereotypes are unavoidable specifically when it comes to advertising, news and industries. This is because the media needs an audience to quickly understand information once it is presented. These stereotypes given act like codes and often relate to class, ethnicity or race, gender, and social role and occupation.


Gender stereotyping The weight of scientific evidence demonstrates that children learn gender stereotypes from adults. As with gender roles, socializing agentsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;parents, teachers, peers, religious leaders, and the mediaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;pass along gender stereotypes from one generation to the next.


Cultural Stereotypes Arabs – intelligent; modest; insecure; anxious; impulsive; “Billionaires, bombers and belly dancers“, men wear beards and are womanizers; have subservient and repressed women who wear a headscarf; “play & pray” attitude; love celebrations and ceremonies; tea and shisha are important; God is great!

 A certain survey was taken recently and the study was conducted

to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. This not only shows people were stereotyping about how the country is but also that drug abuse and alcohol were a problem because they were banned, and this makes people want it more.

Al-Haqwi Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2010, 5:2


The problem of Stereotyping Reduces a wide range of differences in people to

simplistic categorizations.  Transforms assumptions about particular groups of people into “Realities” Perpetuate social prejudice and inequality. What stereotypes represent, however, are not the beliefs based upon reality but ideas which ref lect the distribution of power in society.


The psychological view of the stereotype They were interested in how attitudes changed and why some seemed more resistant to change than others. The stereotype was seen as an exceptional type of attitude - one that was particularly difficult to change. Thus the study of stereotype was closely linked to the notion of prejudice.

The sociological view of stereotypes Sociologists ask, who benefits from the stereotyping of certain groups? Ideas and beliefs that are 'useful' in this way to those who hold them are what sociologists call ideologies — 'convenient' ideas that benefit some groups at the expense of others.


ď&#x201A;&#x2014;FINALLY, Stereotypes are not true or false bur ref lect a particular set of ideological values.


Stereotyping  

I loved my topic and how it was mainly pshycology based!

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