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STUDIO AIR STUDENT JOURNAL HAMISH COLLINS 539498 SEMESTER ONE, 2014 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO TUTORS: R. GUNZBURG & C. NEWNHAM


‘TABLE OF CONTENTS’ About Me

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Part A: Conceptualisation A.1 Design Futuring A.2 Design Computing A.3 Composition/Generation A.4 Conclusion A.5 Learning Outcomes A.6 Algorithmic Sketches Part A References

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Part B: Criteria Design B.1 Research Field B.2 Case Study 1.0 B.3 Case Study 2.0 B.4 Technique Development B.5 Technique Prototypes B.6 Technique Proposal B.7 Learning Objectives & Outcomes B.8 Algorithmic Sketches Part B References

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Part C: Detailed Design C.1 Design Concept C.2 Tectonic Elements C.3 Final Design & Model C.4 L.A.G.I Brief Requirements Feedback & Modified Design C.5 Learning Objectives & Outcomes Part C References

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‘ABOUT ME’

My name is Hamish Collins and I am a third year architecture major student at The University of Melbourne. I have a keen interest in all things design and have always had a passion for architecture. What I would like to get out of this subject is a better understanding of the programming used in the architecture field and to see the possibilities it can create. As I have never used Rhino or Grasshopper before, I am excited yet nervous to see what this semester has in store. The reason I chose to study this course is to achieve a solid base understanding of the architectural world and one day I plan to have a career in the field. I have a strong passion for heritage architecture and hope to continue studying after my degree to specialise in the conservation, restoration and extension of prized historic possessions. As much as I love my home city of Melbourne, when not studying I try to travel as often as possible, which only continues to fuel my interest in all different kinds of architecture.

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PART A CONCEPTUALISATION


A.1 ‘DESIGN FUTURING’

PRECEDENT A.1.01: CLOUD GATE, CHICAGO

Public art is a broad spectrum referring to any kind of art that can be found in the public domain. There are no restrictions in size, material or construction of these pieces so the possibilities of what can be created are endless. As stated by the Association for Public Art[1], the use of public art is not only a part of our history but also ‘a part of our evolving culture and our collective memory’. It adds meaning to our cities and can reflect societies attitudes at the time whilst creating an authentic public experience. It creates attention within society and can certainly cause controversy, but is a sign that the public environment is not being ignored. The Land Art Generator Initiative in Copenhagen[2] is a competition where the city of Copenhagen is calling for ‘designers from around the world’ to submit ideas of what public art in a modern sustainable city should look like. The competition entails creating a piece of artwork that can sustainably generate clean energy for the city of Copenhagen, therefore reflecting the change of attitudes in current Danish society. As the city plans to be carbon neutral by 2025 it can use the form of public art to advertise and promote this approach to a wide array of people in the public domain. This tactic of using public art can be a clever way to show the city and the world the way of the future.

When studying precedents it is clear that people are curious about street art and want to interact. Whether it be small or large, people always seem to flock to something that stands out from the norms of a city. ‘Cloud Gate’ is an interesting piece of public art created by British artist Anish Kapoor and is located in Millennium Park, Chicago[3]. The jelly bean shaped design is 66-feet long, 33-feet high and weighs in at 110tons. And although this piece of art doesn’t physically do anything, the form seems to be incredibly interactive with its surrounding people. The reflective mirrored surface and 12-foot high arch makes people want to approach and interact by touching, feeling and walking underneath the bean like shape. This clever piece of art is forever changing with the weather and lighting, but always has a strong connection as it reflects the people and city. The use of a design that is ever-changing keeps the piece of art interesting for the people of Chicago. The highly interactive piece of public art emphasises the purpose of placing sculptures in public areas, not just for aesthetics but as they can be seen to bring people together. It is clear public art can obviously create a lot of attention, therefore it is a smart way of conveying a strong message to the public. Cloud Gate is proof that when people see something interesting they will approach it to try and understand it better.

PEOPLE INTERACTING WITH PUBLIC ART [1]

UNDERSIDE REFLECTION OF PEOPLE [2]

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CLOUD GATE, MILLENIUM PARK, CHICAGO [3]

Anish Kapoor Artist

[4]

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A.1 ‘DESIGN FUTURING’

PRECEDENT A.1.02: SWING, GUIMARAES

Moradavaga Architect Collective

SWING INSTALLATION IN GUIMARAES, PORTUGAL [6]

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[5]


Humans have reached a point in time where we need to act in a more sustainable manner. The excessive use of resources has brought society to its knees in a way that there may be no such thing as a ‘future’[4]. It is clear that resources are dwindling and through design it is important that architects promote the idea of sustainable living and development. Designers play a powerful role in the advancement of design technologies and advertising this to the general public. Schemes such as the Copenhagen Land Art Initiative are successful in promoting sustainability and carbon neutrality to the general public. Obviously the promotion of a sustainable future shouldn’t be limited to designers, but we have the power to improve infrastructure as major developments and globalization have previously played a large role in the diminishment of some of our most important resources. Although the word ‘sustainability’ gets thrown around a lot in design, the lifestyle humans now demand does not necessarily fit the criteria of sustainable living. In advertising through initiatives such as public art, a better understanding of how we must develop with as little impact as possible can be conveyed to the people.

‘Swing’ is a public art project created by Berlin and Oporto based architectural design collective Moradavaga[5]. The project, which is located in Guimarães, Portugal, is made from renewable materials including wooden palettes and hemp rope. The idea of the design is to interact with those passing by whilst also creating energy. The installation, which looks like a playground, encourages people to interact with it. When people choose to use the swing the wheels turn creating electricity from an inbuilt dynamo illuminating lights underneath the seats[6]. Whilst enjoying the normal leisurely activity the users are putting their energy into creating a positive and free output; energy. The project would obviously be popular with children as its fun but it gives them an early understanding of ways that energy can be produced in a sustainable way. Teaching children about these practices at a young age could assist in a sustainable mind frame for a healthy future. Not only is this installation exciting for children but also would spark an interest in adult’s aswell as they have a curiosity to understand how it works. The entirely self-sustaining installation was built to engage its audience and is successful in promoting sustainable ways of energy production for the future.

MAN SWINGING ON INSTALLATION & CREATING ELECTRICITY [7]

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A.2 ‘DESIGN COMPUTING’

PRECEDENT A.2.01: GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, BILBAO

[8]

Frank Owen Gehry Architect

[9]

Computers play a significant role in the modern architectural world. Since their introduction in recent years they have assisted in developing architecture to an unimaginable level. Computers have become the norm in architectural practice but can be used in two different ways, through a ‘computerisation’ or a ‘computational’ approach to design[7].

time in terms of editing and allow for changes to be made with little time wasted. The reason a majority of modern architects reproduce their designs through some form of computer programming is because it creates an incredibly interactive design to understand the project in its 3D form. This can be helpful in selling a design to a client or helping one understand the spaces being created.

The ‘Computerisation’ approach to design refers to the method where the elements of a pre-conceived design are reassembled in a computer program[8]. Computers are incredibly analytical machines that when understood can be significantly used to the advantage of architects. The accuracy of computers provides architects with exact precision in the representation of a design. This can save

The most important thing to understand about computerisation in design is that the computer doesn’t do any designing. The architect is the creative member in this approach and the computer is used to represent that design or solution in a more versatile form than that of paper. It simply is a means used to express a design idea.

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GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, BILBAO, SPAIN [10]

In terms of a precedent Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain provides a perfect example of a design that’s idea looks to have been conceived in assistance with computers, but wasn’t[9]. The CanadianAmerican architect is well known for his controversial deconstructive designs and although many people may not like Gehry’s style, his practice in architecture is an ideal study to analyse on the topic of computing. The extreme complexity in Gehry’s designs generally formulates the opinion that his ideas are merely the product of a computer-based program. But Frank Gehry is a strong believer in paper-based architecture, which refers to architectural design starting solely on a piece of paper. He develops the ideas on his own with paper and also modeling before

working with his associate architects to reproduce the design in computer programming where it is later refined. Although his designs can be considered to completely disregard cultural, historical and many other factors, there is no denying Gehry has incredible creativity and vision in the field of architecture. The design for the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao started with what looks to be a few squiggles but once transferred into computer programming it could be developed further. The plausibility of a number of factors including materials and structural elements could then be experiemented to understand the absolute possibilities of the original design, all before construction. In this instance the use of computing assisted in developing the shape into an achievable tactile construction.

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A.2 ‘DESIGN COMPUTING’

PRECEDENT A.2.02: TORI TORI RESTAURANT, MEXICO CITY

TORI TORI JAPANESE RESTAURANT, MEXICO CITY [11]

The ‘Computational’ approach to architecture refers to the use of computers in order to develop a design idea. A positive reason in taking a computational approach to architecture is that a number of alternatives can be created when developing a design using specific forms of computer generation. With a full understanding of the systems of certain programming it can be a ‘medium that supports a continuous logic of design thinking and making’ leading to advanced innovation[9]. The use of computers as a means of design has revolutionised the way we approach a problem and with clever understanding we can formulate unimaginable digital architecture. By using a computer rather than personal creativity as the formal means of developing an idea we can be faced with a number of new outcomes, which

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PARAMETRIC PATTERNED STEEL FACADE [12]

can in turn widen the scope of architectural design. Although many skeptics believe that using a computer as a creative means is cheating creativity and design [10], there is no debating the incredible possibilities it can create. By experimenting, researching and exploring with the possibilities of computers we can achieve innovative developments and ideas in architecture, creating new precedents in architectural thinking. However, It is not necessary to let a computer design by itself but important to use it as a tool to grasp a wider understanding of the possiblities in design and develop these to unimaginable new heights. As demonstrated in the Tori Tori facade project directed by kokkugia’s Roland Snooks and Robert Stuart-Smith,

a computational approach to design can result in an amazing outcome. This project used parametric variables on the façade to create interesting reflections of light and shadow on the internal spaces[11]. Through the use of computers an algorithm was developed to create a façade with internal and external visibility aswell as an interesting pattern to create an identity for the Japanese Restaurant. To fabricate the design, the façade was laser cut from incredibly thin pieces of steel to create two boxes that wrapped around an existing dwelling[12]. In this instance the team used digital design and fabrication techniques illustrating the possibilities of technology and in effect its unprecedented aesthetic. Without the use of computer generation during the design process a project like this would not have been possible.

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A.3 ‘COMPOSITION / GENERATION’ PRECEDENT A.3.01: DRAGON SKIN PAVILLION

LIGHT FILTERING THROUGH DRAGON SKIN PAVILLION [13]

‘parametric’ design comes from[9]. With the use of specific rules and methods computers can create incredibly complex results whilst still fulfilling a required criteria. The biggest advantage with this is that original parameters can easily be changed and a design will recalculate itself in seconds. This allows for easy development in projects An ‘algorithm’ refers to the method of doing something and creates the potential to reach a number of completely and is made up of a set of procedures that are generally different possibilities. In conjunction with this the use of easy to follow[13]. Algorithms in the format of a code are parametric design allows for complete precision, making commonly used in computers in order to make the devices fabrication a much smoother and accurate process. carry out a certain set of actions. Algorithms are applied systematically to objects to create a series of outcomes. The Dragon Skin Pavilion is a collaboration between To have greater control over the results from algorithms, architects Emmi Keskisarja and Pekka Tynkkynen with architects can apply parameters to programming in order LEAD’s Kristof Crolla and Sebastien Delagrange. to create a more specific design. This is where the term The design was created for the 2012 Hong Kong & Computing certainly plays a large role in the architectural world and it is evident a computational approach can lead to incredibly innovative design outcomes. But to have a better understanding of the specifics of the approach it is important to know some of the key terms.

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Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism/Architecture and explores the possibilities of digital fabrication and material technologies [14]. The main key of the project was to experiment with the idea of a boundary, similar to the previous precedent the architects wanted to create a connection between inside and out through the use of light. Using a parametric script the architects created an arrangement of thin elements that looked to create a solid wall but allowed for light to weave from one side to the other. The digital scripting created this effect through the assembly of shaped components with accurately calculated slots that differed from piece to piece. After fabrication these pieces could be slotted together to create the desired effect. The 163 digital pieces were laser cut out of Grada plywood, a post-formable plywood that can be molded once produced[15]. Once fabricated the pieces were pressed/molded then slotted into place resulting in a dome like pavilion. Through the use of a parametric script this design was made possible in a very quick time frame. The arrangement of pieces precisely fitted together to create a flawless system that allowed for light to stream through the dragon like skin. The computational approach to this design allowed for a precise outcome that met the ideas discussed in the brief. GIRL TOUCHING FABRICATED PLYWOOD SCALES [14]

[15]

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A.3 ‘COMPOSITION / GENERATION’ PRECEDENT A.3.02: BAKER D. CHIRICO, MELBOURNE

The use of plywood in fabrication is becoming very common in architectural fit outs as it is an attractive material due to its low cost and flexibility. The material can easily be laser cut from large panels in order to create shapes that can be assembled together. As evident in March Studio’s fit out of Carlton’s Baker D. Chirico the results can be very interesting and dynamic[16]. This studio was challenged with the task of creating a functional interior skin for an award winning bakery located in an old narrow shop. The studio took a computational approach to the design creating an organically shaped interior that could be fitted to the building with no need for structural changes. The dynamic 3D design was created in computer programming and by turning it into 2D strips

FABRICATED PLYWOOD INTERIOR, BAKER D. CHIRICO [16]

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it could be flattened then fabricated and laser cut from large pieces of thin plywood. The use of computers allowed for the precise positioning of cut outs so the design would slot together. What the bakery required was a shelving system that was changable in order to fit different sized loaves of bread on different days. The use of the plywood slot system allows for shelving to be moved up and down the wall without affecting the rest of the interior fit out. A similar approach was taken for the interior of SPAR Supermarket, Budapest by Hungarian architects LAB5[17]. The shape of the plywood fit out and its linear nature was designed to direct customers to the back of the store. The ribs that run up the walls and across the ceiling also provide an area for shelving products.


PRECEDENT A.3.03: SPAR SUPERMARKET, BUDAPEST As represented by these precedents parametric design can result in the creation of some incredibly dynamic fabricated objects and architecture. The approach to design can be positive in numerous ways as it can allow for quick and easy construction of interesting shapes and geometry through fabrication. The use of parametric computing allows for speed in construction as elements are digitally created with absolute precision. The precision is a result of the computer organising the complex mathematics and geometry of the design, in a way that could potentially be impossible by a human. A positive of having a computer complete the complex equations in a design means it allows for a range of further outcomes to be possible. Dimensions of these outcomes can be

modified and related features will automatically update creating the possibily of a whole range of new iterations. Parametric outcomes can also be tested for performance capabilities within programming before manufacturing, which allows for the possibility to flatten out imperfections. One major downfall of parametric design is that computer programming is only as good as its user. A solid understanding of the inputs and processes of programming is required for parametric design to be successful. It has endless possibilities but to create a design that meets a required brief adequate training and understanding of the systems involved is required. This is to ensure that restraints included in the design dont restrict the outcome.

FABRICATED PLYWOOD INTERIOR, SPAR SUPERMARKET, BUDAPEST [18]

BAKER D. CHIRICO, CARLTON, MELBOURNE [17]

FABRICATED PLYWOOD SHELVING & CEILING, SPAR [19]

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A.4 ‘CONCLUSION’ Designing for a more sustainable future is essential in the field of architecture and design. Architects play an important role in promoting the idea as their work is showcased at an international level. Although the world’s resources are still somewhat diminishing, initiatives including the Land Art Generator in Copenhagen are successful in spreading and promoting the notion of a less damaging impact on our precious earth. The use of design in a public domain attracts attention and can create awareness about the possibilities we are capable of as humans. It is important that as designers we are not only innovative but use good design to convey and promote a basic understanding of a sustainable future to the public in order to move forward. Furthermore, computers are important tools for architects to ensure innovative design can be created. Using a ‘computerisation’ approach to design is merely projecting an idea to a digital means and limits the possibilities of architecture. To achieve sustainability a computational approach is vital as it can interweave energy production technologies into the design process. Through the use of algorithmic and parametric developments, designers can incorporate functional technologies into structures during

the design process creating a larger number of possibilities. The development of designs using a computational approach allows for higher experimentation of the possibilities of what can successfully be expressed in fabricated/constructed form; functionally and creatively. In Part B, the plan is to continue to experiment with the computational creation of form, and to create a greater understanding of the incorporation of material technologies into the design process. By merging the developments of complex geometry and energy producing materials the hope is to reach an intricate design that in turn can be fabricated. It is important to design in this way as it has come to a time where infrastructure needs to have as little impact on the earth’s resources as possible. In the context of this studio innovative design like this can be used for the Copenhagen Land Art Initiative in order to promote sustainable design to a global scale. In the grand scheme of things the two major beneficiaries of this sustainable approach to design are humans and the earth itself. If humans can innovatively design in a way that doesn’t significantly affect the earth’s natural skin, the two can live healthily and harmoniously together for many years to come.

A.5 ‘LEARNING OUTCOMES’ I have thoroughly enjoyed learning about the theory and practice of architectural computing. Exploring precedents about the involvement of computing in architecture has opened my eyes to the significance of their use in modern practice. My view towards a computational approach to design has completely changed from my past belief that the method was an excuse for people who lacked creativity and vision. It is obvious that the use of computers during the design process can result in numerous extra possibilities and advanced innovation, expanding the realm of architecture. However, I do still

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believe that a full understanding and grasp of a program is required to ensure the computer doesn’t limit a design. Personally, my experience with Grasshopper thus far has been incredibly difficult, mainly due to a poor understanding of terminology and functions. Therefore the knowledge I have learnt so far explicitly from the programming, I don’t believe would not have significantly helped in improving previous designs. In saying this, I do hope that my knowledge of Grasshopper will expand and I will feel confident using it throughout the process of many designs in the future.


A.6 ‘ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES’ I included this sketch in my journal as populating a 3D object with Voronoi intrigued me. Having no previous computer programming knowledge, I had always thought anything with Voronoi would be so complex and difficult to create. Suprisingly it was relatively easy to make. This sketch represents how computers can easily calculate complex equations quickly.

Through splitting geometry into individual pieces this sketch made it easier for me to understand how 3D objects from computer programming can be fabricated. Similar to the precedents studied in A.3 this organic form is created from a number of 2D elements. This design could be laser cut & fabricated from materials such as plywood.

After creating gridshells and patterns I was interested in taking that pattern to a 3D surface. This sketch represents a Voronoi pattern projected from a flat plain onto a curvaceous surface. As my understanding of Grasshopper is still significantly lacking, part of this process was trial and error.

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PART A ‘REFERENCES’ 1. Association for Public Art, What is public art (Philidelphia, WordPress), 2013 <http://associationforpublicart.org/public-art-gateway/what-is-public-art/> [accessed 8 March 2014]. 2. Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Design Guidelines’, Land Art Generator Initiative (Copenhagen), 2014. pp 1 - 10 3. The City of Chicago, Millenium Park Chicago (Chicago: City of Chicago), 2014 <http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/dca/suppinfo/millenniumpark.html> [accessed 8 March 2014] 4. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 5. Eccli, Manfred & Cavaco Leitão, Pedro, Moradavaga (Berlin; Porto), 2013 <http://moradavaga.com/startpage> [accessed 9 March 2014] 6. Australian Research Council, Curating Cities - a database of eco public art (UNSW: Sydney), 2014 <http://eco-publicart.org/swing/> [accessed 9 March 2014] 7. Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston: Architectural Press) 8. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 9. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 10. Lawson, Bryan (1999). “Fake” and “Real” creativity using computer aided design: some lessons from Herman Hertzberger, C&C ‘99 Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Creativity & cognition (New York, ACM), pp. 174-179 11. Snooks, Roland, Project: Tori Tori (Fitzroy North), 2011 <http://www.rolandsnooks.com/#/tori-tori/> [accessed 17 March 2014] 12. Stuart-Smith, Robert, Tori Tori Japanese Restaurant (Melbourne: Cargo), 2011 <http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/filter/about> [accessed 17 March 2014] 13. Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 14. LEAD - Laboratory for Explorative Architecture and Design, Dragon Skin Pavilion (Antwerp; Hong Kong: LEAD), 2014 <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> [accessed 22 March 2014] 15. Arch Daily, Dragon Skin Pavilion (Plataforma Networks), 2014 <http://www.archdaily.com/215249/dragon-skin-pavilion-emmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead/> [accessed 22 March 2014] 16. Dezeen Magazine Online, ‘Baker D. Chirico by March Studio’ (London: Dezeen), 2012 <http://www.dezeen.com/2012/02/23/baker-d-chirico-by-march-studio/> [accessed 22 March 2014] 17. Dezeen Magazine Online, ‘Spar Superment displays groceries between curved wooden ribs’ (London: Dezeen), 2013 <http://www.dezeen.com/2013/12/24/spar-supermarket-displays-groceries-between-curved-wooden-ribs/> [accessed 22 March 2014]

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‘IMAGE REFERENCES’ 1. Art Mag, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor (Frankfurt: Deutsch Bank AG), 2006 <http://db-artmag.de/cms/upload/57/feature/kapoor/25anishkapoor10k.jpg> [accessed 8 March, 2014] 2. Madden, Robert Photography, Under Bean (Washington: National Geographic Creative), 2012 <http://www.bobmadden.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Underbean.jpg> [accessed 8 March, 2014) 3. The City of Chicago, Cloud Gate, Millenium Park Lights (Chicago: City of Chicago), 2006 <http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/dca/suppinfo/millenniumpark.html> [accessed 8 March, 2014] 4. Situated, Anish Kapoor (India), 2014 <http://situated.in/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/AnishKapoor.jpg> [accessed 8 March, 2014] 5. Australian Research Council, Swing Technical Drawings 2 (UNSW: Sydney), 2012 <http://eco-publicart.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Swingtech2-web-1000x500.jpg> [accessed 9 March, 2014] 6. Australian Research Council, Swing 1 (UNSW: Sydney), 2012 <http://eco-publicart.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/swing-1-web-1000x500.jpg> [accessed 9 March, 2014] 7. Australian Research Council, Swing 9 (UNSW: Sydney), 2012 <http://eco-publicart.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/swing-9-web-1000x500.jpg> [accessed 9 March, 2014] 8. Sony Pictures Classic, Gehry’s Sketch of the Guggenheim, Bilbao (New York: Sony Pictures Entertainment) 2006 <http://wodumedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Gehrys-Sketch-of-The-Guggenheim-Bilbao-Spain.-Photo-by- Fernando-Gomez-courtesy-of-Sony-Pictures-Classics-0-960x462.jpg> [accessed 17 March, 2014] 9. Behdarvand, Pej, Frank Gehry (Los Angeles), 2010 <http://www.pejbehdarvand.com/> [accessed 17 March, 2014] 10. Luminary Collective, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (New York: WordPress), 2011 <http://luminarynyc.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/banner.jpg> [accessed 17 March, 2014] 11. Rojkind Arquitectos, Tori Tori Mexico City (Mexico), 2011 <http://www.rojkindarquitectos.com/> [accessed 17 March, 2014] 12. Snooks, Roland, Tori Tori Facade (Fitzroy North), 2011 <http://www.rolandsnooks.com/#/tori-tori/> [accessed 17 March 2014] 13. Lo, Dennis, Exterior Perspective by Night (Cambell: IT Systems) 2012 <http://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/arch-showcase/2012/03/27/dragon-skin-pavilion-in-kowloon-park-hong-kong-by-emmi keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead/?interstitialdisplayed=Yes> [accessed 22 March 2014] 14. Pekka Tynkkynen, Dragon Skin Paviliion (Plataforma Networks), 2012 <http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/1331304055-24-pekka-tynkkynen.jpg> [accessed 22 March, 2014] 15. Dragon Skin Project, 2D Fabricated Elements (Antwerp; Hong Kong: LEAD) 2012 <http://dragonskinproject.com/image/20770448757> [accessed 22 March 2014] 16. Bennets, Peter, Baker D. Chirco, Carlton Interior (South Melbourne, Australian Design Review Publications) 2011 <http://www.australiandesignreview.com/interiors/18820-baker-d-chirico-carlton> [accessed 22 March, 2014] 17. Bennets, Peter, Baker D. Chirico, Carlton (Prahran, Fabio Ongarato Design) 2011 <http://www.fabioongaratodesign.com.au/cms-baker-d-chirico/index.phps> [accessed 22 March, 2014] 18. Dezeen Magazine Online, Fabricated Wine Island Bench (London: Dezeen), 2013 <http://www.dezeen.com/2013/12/24/spar-supermarket-displays-groceries-between-curved-wooden-ribs/> [accessed 22 March 2014] 19. Dezeen Magazine Online, Fabricated Wall & Ceiling Ribs (London: Dezeen), 2013 <http://www.dezeen.com/2013/12/24/spar-supermarket-displays-groceries-between-curved-wooden-ribs/> [accessed 22 March 2014]

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PART B CRITERIA DESIGN


B.1 ‘RESEARCH FIELD’ MATERIAL SYSTEM: GEOMETRY

GREEN VOID, CUSTOM’S HOUSE, SYDNEY [1]

Following on from Part A, a design team including myself, Aleksandra Swilo and Benjamin Ryding will explore the design possibilities for the Copenhagen Land Art Generator Initiative project. With an understanding of the key ideas discussed in the previous study about computational design, the team has decided to further explore the system of ‘geometry’. By exploring a number of case studies related to geometry the team will develop an increased understanding and gain further knowledge about the creation of form to apply it to the Land Art Generator project. This in turn will develop our skillset in computational design. The reason the group is intrigued by the material

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system ‘geometry’ is its great flexibility and the possiblities it creates. Geometry unlike many other material systems is not stricly limited to a base form. The system of geometry itself plays a significant role in many of the research fields provided for Part B such as Tesselation, Stripping, Sectioning & Structure. In many of these systems a shape or form is essential in taking a design to fabrication. Therefore with the use of computational programming such as grasshopper, a created 3D form can be divided into elements that in turn can be fabricated via printing or other means. By studying precedents we can understand the possibilities of form and its fabrication and apply it to our brief.


Green Void is an installation in Customâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s House Sydney by the Laboratory for Visionary Architecture (LAVA) that explores the possibilites of geometry. The computer modelled design is based on the complexity of natural evolving systems and was designed to fill a large void located in the centre of the building [1]. Through the use of piping and mesh in Grasshopper with the Kangaroo plugin, the form could be developed to fit within the parameters of the provided space. The Kangaroo physics function was necessary in this project as it can control the tension of a mesh between a series of points or shapes. The function is successful in creating an organic form that does not look to be limited by the cubular void it is located within. The function creates smooth and undulating curves by toying with the relaxation and tension of the mesh. To fabricate, the design was material cut out of high-tech ultra thin nylon using sail-making software. To further develop an understanding of how different forms can be created with assistance from these functions, the team will create a series of iterations exploring the creation of form whilst trying to learn the possibilities of Grasshopper. The most successful designs will be selected and analysed. We hope in turn these explorations can help with the development of our future design.

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B.1 ‘RESEARCH FIELD’ MINIMAL SURFACES

Before playing with the Green Void definition it is important to have a key understanding of the basic principle behind the design, that being a minimal surface. The first research ever conducted into minimal surface took place in 1768 by J.L Lagrange, he challenged himself to find a surface of least area stretched across a given closed contour [2]. Through a range of equations Lagrange discovered that minimality on a surface leads to the condition ‘H=0’, therefore surfaces that are ‘H=0’ are classified as minimal. The theory behind minimal surfaces again became popular amongst mathematicians during the 19th and 20th centuries as it stimulated developments into neighbouring forms of

CHANEL MOBILE ART PAVILION BY ZAHA HADID [2]

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mathematics. In terms of architecture, minimal surfaces became prominent in the 20th century, generally used for lightweight roof constructions[3]. Architects such as Barry Patten and Frei Otto made minimal surface roofs worldwide. Examples such as the Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Melbourne from 1959, and the Olympic Stadium in Munich from 1972 were instrumental in showing the world a new kind of architecture. Lightweight material would be spanned across a boundary with a number of anchored points to create a dynamic design. The method for constructing minimal surface roofs was much quicker than conventional roofs, as the material was fabricated off site, and required fewer supporting elements.


Minimal surface roof structures remained popular throughout the late 20th century, and the technique has become popular again in more recent times. Through the use of computational design in particular parametrics, the possibility for minimal surface design has dramatically expanded. The use of minimal surfaces is no longer limited to lightweight roof constructions but can be used as structural elements also. As evident in Zaha Hadidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Chanel Mobile Art Pavilion, a series of minimal surface steel elements are connected in order to create a frame that holds up the lightweight plastic outer skin[4]. Not only is this use of minimal surface aesthetically pleasing, but the network of elements are incredibly functional in supporting the structure without a significant amount of unrequired framing. The Pavilion was designed in order to showcase the work of Hadid and her research within the parametric paradigm, in particular the use of minimal surfaces. Hadid has been a pioneer of minimal surface architecture during the past few decades, expanding the possibilities of the field. Another example of a modern minimal surface installation is the NorthGate project in San Gennaro by Two Bridges in conjunction with The They Co. The design is simply based around two tubes, one facing upwards and one facing down. With a range of anchor points on the side a minimal surface could be suspended between the points and elements to create an incredibly interesting form. The geometry was created in computer programming and was primarily done through the blending of a minimal surface. To fabricate the design 4224 flat elements were laser cut and connected with over 6000 aluminium grommet connections[5]. The skin is then held in complete tension with cables and wires attached to exisiting buildings, therefore the design is very site specific. By studying precedents such as these, the team can develop a further understanding of minimal surfaces and apply it whilst exploring the material system of geometry in grasshopper 3D.

SIDNEY MYER MUSIC BOWL, MELBOURNE BY BARRY PATTEN [3]

MUNICH OLYMPIC STADIUM BY FREI OTTO [4]

NORTHGATE, SAN GENNARO BY THE THEY CO. [5]

21


B.2 ‘CASE STUDY 1.0’ GEOMETRY EXPLORATIONS

[1]

SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE

5 17 12

SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE

15 17 12

SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE

10 11 12

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[2]

RELAXATION

1.00

POINTS SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE RELAXATION

8 4 1 0 0.88

RELAXATION

0.80

RELAXATION

0.60

POINTS SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE RELAXATION

4 6 1 6.3 0.97

POINTS SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE RELAXATION

10 3 1 3.8 0.87

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[3]

Species One explores the possibilities provided by the ExoSkeleton function. By adjusting the Number of Sides, Thickness and Node Size of an existing pipe, the shape can be munipulated to create a different form. The function is somewhat limiting on it’s own so further exploration with the function occured. Species Two

22

explores the Kangaroo Physics Engine which assists with interactive simulation. The species represents how a form can change in terms of elasticity. By adjusting the relaxation of a mesh the form can be stretched or relaxed in order to change it. Species Three uses the Kangaroo, ExoSkeleton and Weaverbird functions


SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE

15 11 12

SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE

5 11 34

SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE

15 11 34

___________________________________________________________________________________________

RELAXATION

0.40

RELAXATION

0.20

RELAXATION

0.00

POINTS SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE RELAXATION

14 5 2 0 0.92

POINTS SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE RELAXATION

6 10 2 10 0.98

POINTS SIDES THICKNESS NODE SIZE RELAXATION

9 5 1 5.8 0.85

___________________________________________________________________________________________

in order to completely change the orginal shape to an unrecognisable new form. A base shape of a pentagonal pyramid was populated with a series of points which were joined by polylines. The number of points was another parameter that could be adjusted in conjunction with those of the ExoSkeleton and Kangaroo relaxation. This

experimentation resulted in many interesting outcomes of unique forms, however problems were encountered. The pipe tension between the points tended to collapse when the relaxation parameter was adjusted to smaller values. Not all of the points were acting as ancors which meant the mesh couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be stretched to its maximum.

23


B.2 ‘CASE STUDY 1.0’ GEOMETRY EXPLORATIONS

[4]

SIDES 7 THICKNESS 15 NODE SIZE 12.5 KNUCKLE 5 SPACING 30 RELAXATION 0.7

SIDES 10 THICKNESS 12 NODE SIZE 8.3 KNUCKLE 4.7 SPACING 26.6 RELAXATION 0.58

SIDES 9 THICKNESS 9 NODE SIZE 14.5 KNUCKLE 3.8 SPACING 27 RELAXATION 0.6

SMOOTH [STRENGTH] 5000 STIFFENING 600 STRENGTH [EQUATION] 712 PLASTICITY 0 LEVEL 1

SMOOTH [STRENGTH] 4800 STIFFENING 810 STRENGTH [EQUATION] 830 PLASTICITY 5 LEVEL 1

SMOOTH [STRENGTH] 1780 STIFFENING 810 STRENGTH [EQUATION] 930 PLASTICITY 5 LEVEL 1

SCALE [EXPLODE] 0.15 SCALE [VOL] 0.09 SCALE [VOL2VOL] 0.34 POINTS 7 SEED 139

SCALE [EXPLODE] 0.49 SCALE [VOL] 0.15 SCALE [VOL2VOL] 0.88 POINTS 19 SEED 394

SCALE [EXPLODE] 0.26 SCALE [VOL] 0.04 SCALE [VOL2VOL] 0.67 POINTS 55 SEED 200

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[5]

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[6]

Species Four, Five & Six by Aleksandra Swilo further experiment with the creation of geometry and form. The iterations explore the use of the Kangaroo and Weaverbird plug-ins for grasshopper in order to create flexible forms that can be applied to delaunay meshes and curves. Adjusting the parameters allowed

24

for the original shapes to be quickly changed into new more dynamic forms. Species Four can be realted to Species Three as it explores how a form can change by adjusting the parameters of its surface, such as the number of sides, nodes size and more. This was a more successful attempt than on the previous page as it seems


SIDES 10 THICKNESS 11 NODE SIZE 10.4 KNUCKLE 1.0 SPACING 25.1 RELAXATION 0.49

SIDES 10 THICKNESS 8 NODE SIZE 11.6 KNUCKLE 2.1 SPACING 19 RELAXATION 0.28

SMOOTH [STRENGTH] 8790 STIFFENING 940 STRENGTH [EQUATION] 590 LEVEL 1 OFFSET 1

SMOOTH [STRENGTH] 4800 STIFFENING 810 STRENGTH [EQUATION] 830 PLASTICITY 5 LEVEL 1 EXTRUDE 1

SIDES 10 THICKNESS 3 NODE SIZE 8.3 KNUCKLE 4.7 SPACING 26.6 RELAXATION 0.32

___________________________________________________________________________________________

SMOOTH [STRENGTH] 1780 STIFFENING 810 STRENGTH [EQUATION] 930 PLASTICITY 5 LEVEL 1 EXTRUDE 1

___________________________________________________________________________________________

SCALE [EXPLODE] 0.25 SCALE [VOL] 0.09 SCALE [VOL2VOL] 0.84 POINTS 40 SEED 139

to retain its elasticity somewhat. Species Five was created using a simple mesh face however was baked in order to develop it further. The curves of baked meshes were offset and extruded to create a more dynamic and interesting mesh. Species 6 was generated by populating a cube with a range of points,

SCALE [EXPLODE] 0.33 SCALE [VOL] 0.13 SCALE [VOL2VOL] 0.62 POINTS 30 SEED 280

SCALE [EXPLODE] 0.21 SCALE [VOL] 0.22 SCALE [VOL2VOL] 0.71 POINTS 44 SEED 280

then applying a 3D voronoi component. The use of voronoi allowed for some interesting and complex shapes to be created that are dynamic and visually interesting. The most successful iterations from this page were those that were complex but still refined in order to consider as a form that could be fabricated.

25


B.2 ‘CASE STUDY 1.0’ GEOMETRY EXPLORATIONS

[7]

SPRING RADIUS SIDES NODE SIZE

0.7 17 10 25

SPRING RADIUS SIDES NODE SIZE

0.5 23 7 32

SPRING RADIUS SIDES NODE SIZE

0.2 25 9 25

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[8]

BASE GEOMETRY: BASE POINTS: SPRING: RADIUS: SLIDES: NODE SIZE:

SPHERE 32 0.7 20 6 15

BASE GEOMETRY: BASE POINTS: SPRING: RADIUS: SLIDES: NODE SIZE:

SPHERE 16 0.25 40 8 38

BASE GEOMETRY: BASE POINTS: SPRING: RADIUS: SLIDES: NODE SIZE:

SPHERE 13 0.5 25 8 6.5

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[9]

MESH SUBDIVISION: SHRINK VALUE: SUBDIVISION LEVEL: STIFFNESS: REST FACTOR: PRESSURE LEVEL: PIPE RADIUS: POINTS:

4 0.34 3 1 0.3 -70 5.0 15

Species Seven, Eight & Nine by Benjamin Ryding continue to explore the possibilites of form generation by pushing the definition of LAVA’s Green Void Installation. Species Seven is created using a hexagonal mesh centre with lines drawn from its joints to the edges of a box constraint. It creates a minimal surface around

26

MESH SUBDIVISION: SHRINK VALUE: SUBDIVISION LEVEL: STIFFNESS: REST FACTOR: PRESSURE LEVEL: PIPE RADIUS: POINTS:

5 0.11 5 3 0.65 -90 2.5 30

MESH SUBDIVISION: SHRINK VALUE: SUBDIVISION LEVEL: STIFFNESS: REST FACTOR: PRESSURE LEVEL: PIPE RADIUS: POINTS:

8 0.90 4 1 0.15 -98 4.0 10

the lines which produces a similar effect to the Green Void but much more complex and interesting. The iterations with a high spring factor and low radius were more successful in creating a stretchy minimal surface. Species Eight is similar to species Species Seven however includes a few more parameters to allow for


SPRING RADIUS SIDES NODE SIZE

0.1 10 8 45

SPRING RADIUS SIDES NODE SIZE

0.05 25 6 15

SPRING RADIUS SIDES NODE SIZE

0.3 24 6 40

___________________________________________________________________________________________

BASE GEOMETRY: BASE POINTS: SPRING: RADIUS: SLIDES: NODE SIZE:

CYLINDER 36 0.2 36 7 30

BASE GEOMETRY: BASE POINTS: SPRING: RADIUS: SLIDES: NODE SIZE:

CONE 24 0.35 28 6 30

BASE GEOMETRY: BASE POINTS: SPRING: RADIUS: SLIDES: NODE SIZE:

CONE 10 0.25 35 9 25

___________________________________________________________________________________________

MESH SUBDIVISION: SHRINK VALUE: SUBDIVISION LEVEL: STIFFNESS: REST FACTOR: PRESSURE LEVEL: PIPE RADIUS: POINTS:

6 0.60 5 2 0.8 -45 1.5 10

further exploration. The forms are branched off a singular polyline that had been drawn between an arrangement of points on a base geometry. The number of points on the geometry can be adjusted completely changing the form and its complexity. Species Nine explores the possibility of covering a base frame with a shrink

MESH SUBDIVISION: SHRINK VALUE: SUBDIVISION LEVEL: STIFFNESS: REST FACTOR: PRESSURE LEVEL: PIPE RADIUS: POINTS:

5 0.20 2 3 0.2 -70 1.0 5

MESH SUBDIVISION: SHRINK VALUE: SUBDIVISION LEVEL: STIFFNESS: REST FACTOR: PRESSURE LEVEL: PIPE RADIUS: POINTS:

6 0.5 3 1 1.0 -30 0.5 50

wrap in order to create a new form. The exploration was somewhat successful as it significantly differes from other species however, the underlying frame was hard to significantly change to the point were the overlaying shrink wrap created significantly different and new forms. This may be something the team explores further.

27


B.2 ‘CASE STUDY 1.0’ SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

SELECTION CRITERIA:

1. FABRICATION POSSIBILITIES

2. DEVELOPMENTAL POSSIBILITIES

3. RELAVANCE TO BRIEF

In relation to the project at hand, a design needs to be physically possible to fabric in order to create a real life structure.

Successful iterations require the possibility to be developed further and pushed to the absolute limits, to ensure an innovative design that takes full advantage of the computational approach.

28

The exploration needs to be relevant and be directly relatable to the Copenhagen Land Art Generator Innitiative brief.

4. VISUAL AESTHETICS

Obviously the team would like to create a design that is aesthetically pleasing, as this can be a successful tool in sparking interest and attracting people to the site.


[1]

The success of this iteration lies in the ease of fabrication. The design has flat panels that could be put together to create the 3D form. Flat panels would allow for energy production elements such as solar panels to easily be placed on the design therefore relating to the Copenhagen LAGI brief.

[2]

This iteration is mainly successful due to itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fantastic aesthetics. The design is pleasing to the eye however would be very hard to habitate. The design may be somewhat hard to fabricate but the idea could certainly be developed into something very well suited to the Copenhagen LAGI brief.

[3]

The team classified this iteration as successful due to its unique form and complexity. The exploration which was developed from the Green Void project provides a much more interesting and dynamic arrangement. The iteration could be fabricated and would definitely draw attention and people to a site.

[4]

This iteration is considered successful due to its interest and potential for further development. The wrapped design could be easily fabricated and could be habitable. The iteration looks to be somewhat inflated, which allows for further research and development into the interesting field of inflation.

29


B.3 ‘CASE STUDY 2.0’ REVERSE ENGINEERING

NON LIN/LIN PAVILION, FRAC CENTRE, ORLEANS [6]

30


The Non Lin/ Lin Pavilion is a fabricated structure created by architect Marc Fornes of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Very Manyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and is located in the Orleans FRAC Centre, France. The project was generated through computational protocols that explored form finding through the composition of developable linear elements and information modelling. Once modelled the pavilion was fabricated from 27 flat aluminium components that could be connected together to create its sculptural form[6]. The design was intended to look similar to sea coral, which evidently it is successful in achieving. The unusual form and patterned surface seems to mymic natural composition, patterns and structure. The simple pattern on the pavilion is made from 155,000 asterisk shaped cut outs on the surface which create a rough texture similar to that of coral. The use of this pattern on the dynamic form is incredibly successful in conveying the desired design intent. To develop our skillset further from Case Study 1.0 and apply the knowledge we have learnt thus far, the team is going to attempt to reverse engineer the pavilion. As the original pavilion was created in Rhino with the Grasshopper plugin, it should be possible to create an outcome that looks similar to the form achieved by Fornes. INTERNAL VIEW OF PAVILION [7]

31


B.3 ‘CASE STUDY 2.0’ REVERSE ENGINEERING

CREATE BOX REGION POPULATE 3D REGION CULL UNWANTED POINTS APPLY 3D VORONOI DECONSTRUCT VORONOI SCALE DOWN PARTS FIND & EXTRACT END POINTS CREATE MESH FROM POINTS JOIN/WELD MESH TOGETHER POPULATE NURB WITH SPHERES TRIM SPHERES FROM SURFACE

32


In order to recreate the Fornes Non Lin/Lin Pavilion the first idea was to create a 3D box and fill it with voronoi as it produced a similar tubular effect to the design. Once a final mesh had been developed the design was populated with spheres which were trimmed from the surface to create the perforated effect. Unlike the orginal pavilion, the recreation does not have asterisk shaped perforations that follow a routine pattern, these perforations are more randomised. Also, unlike Fornesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; pavilion, the design is not an arched

tunnel shape which therefore makes it uninhabitable. Although it may not be exactly the same, the attempt mimics several design elements & principles from the original pavilion. A similar algorithm would have been used to create the intertwining tubular effect, however a more efficient and regulated way of perforating the surface wouldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been used in the Fornes design. In order to take this algorithm further, the design will be munipulated further to create different intersting forms.

33


B.4 ‘TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT’ FURTHER RESEARCH: INFLATION

After Case Study 1.0 the design team has decided to develop our understanding of form generation through the field of inflation. By researching the history of inflation and its surrounding precendents the team will gain a greater understanding of the unique field and apply it to the developmental process of the project. The idea of inflatable architecture started in the 1960’s by avant-garde British architectural group Archigram, who proposed a range of futuristic approaches to habitable spaces. The ‘Cushicle’ idea was developed by Michael Webb in 1964 and proposed the idea of having a habitable space inside an inflatable, this allowed for a portable home[7]. The design was a direct

ARK NOVA, JAPAN BY TOYO ITO & ANISH KAPOOR [8]

34

result of Archigram’s focus on Mobile Urbanity and the desire for architecture to move rather than be locked to one space. At the time these proposals for future living caused immense controversy, however, since the 1960’s inflatable architecture has come a very long way. Ark Nova is an inflatable concert hall created by Japanaese architect Toyo Ito and British artist Anish Kapoor for a region in Northern Japan that was affected by the 2011 severe earthquake and tsunami[8]. The reason the concert hall was made an inflatable was to allow for mobility so the venue could be transported around the devasted area, giving the residents happiness through music and performance. The minimal surface


CUSHICLE BY MICHAEL WEBB [9]

inflatable is a clever way of creating quick fix architecture for a once completely devastated area. Inflatable architecture is now completely pre fabricated, delivered to site and erected. This can be helpful in saving time and money on the construction process of a building, proving that the idea of inflatable architecture by Michael Webb was actually an ingenius idea. The firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Various Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; also explores the possibilities of inflation with its mobile sporting stadiums and pavilions. Through inflated piping the designs look visually interesting but can be packed into a limited number of trucks and transported elsewhere[9]. And by having an inflatable skin the building does not remain static as it is every changing with surrounding weather conditions. The fact that an inflatable structure is forever changing is a feature the team would like to transfer into the final design. A design that is effected by its surroundings and always changing will attract people to the site regularly. This may be achieved by varying airflow speeds through interaction with visitors or a number of other factors. Throughout Section B.4 the team will work on developing an inflatable form that can succesffully incorporate renewable energy sources. With the understanding of precedents studied, the team can apply the knowledge to the Land Art Generator Innitiative in order to create a dynamic design.

MOBILE PERFORMACE VENUE BY VARIOUS ARCHITECTS [10]

YORKSHIRE RENAISSANCE PAVILION BY VARIOUS ARCHITECTS [11]

35


B.4 ‘TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT’ DEVELOPMENTAL ITERATIONS

[1]

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

BOX 0.350 0.680 0.600

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

BOX 0.350 0.680 1.000

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

BOX 0.554 0.138 1.000

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

CONE 0.950 0.950 0.950

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

CONE 0.900 0.750 0.600

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

LOFTED 0.350 0.680 0.600

ROTATION FACTOR: SCALE FACTOR: THICKNESS: REPITITION FACTOR:

0.719 0.494 0.2 3

ROTATION FACTOR: SCALE FACTOR: THICKNESS: REPITITION FACTOR:

0.789 0.600 0.4 4

ROTATION FACTOR: SCALE FACTOR: THICKNESS: REPITITION FACTOR:

0.700 1.000 0.5 4

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[2]

Species One uses the definition from Case Study 2.0 as a starting point. The original parameters were munipulated in order to create a different looking design. The basis of the species is a voronoi box but by changing the original geometry in conjunction with the parameters a different form was developed. In terms

36

of inflation the design would be difficult to inflate as it is not closed, but this could be developed further. In terms of the brief the design could be interesting as a pavilion as it could work similar to a maze for visitors. As we do want a pavilion that is visual interesting and fun for visitors, we may take this iteration further.


BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

BOX 0.350 0.680 0.600

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

CONE 0.200 0.600 0.950

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

CONE 0.200 0.600 0.950

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

LOFTED 0.350 0.760 1.000

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

LOFTED 0.800 0.760 1.000

BASE GEOMETRY: SCALE FACTOR 1: SCALE FACTOR 2: SCALE FACTOR 3:

LOFTED 0.950 0.500 0.800

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

ROTATION FACTOR: SCALE FACTOR: THICKNESS: REPITITION FACTOR:

0.789 1.000 0.7 5

Species Two is created using a fractal pattern system. By creating a few simple curves, rotating, scaling and replicating them it is possible to create a tree like pattern. Piping the curves helped the design take a more interesting form which would be easier to inflate. Even though some of the iterations are quite interesting,

ROTATION FACTOR: SCALE FACTOR: THICKNESS: REPITITION FACTOR:

0.700 0.800 1.5 3

ROTATION FACTOR: SCALE FACTOR: THICKNESS: REPITITION FACTOR:

0.118 0.800 0.2 3

it is not necessarily a form the team would like to take any further. The iterations were successful in exploring a different approach to form generation however this method of branching seems to steer away from our original design intent. In further developments the team will explore thicker more solid ways of form generation.

37


B.4 ‘TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT’ DEVELOPMENTAL ITERATIONS

[3]

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 22 Y-SEED: 324 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 22 Z-SEED: 396 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 43 Y-SEED: 324 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 43 Z-SEED: 396 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 29 Y-SEED: 250 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 29 Z-SEED: 500 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 58 Y-SEED: 450 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 58 Z-SEED: 500 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 43 Y-SEED: 497 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 43 Z-SEED: 396 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

___________________________________________________________________________________________

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 29 Y-SEED: 500 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 29 Z-SEED: 500 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[4]

NO. OF POINTS: MESH THICKNESS: FACE SUBDIVISIONS:

55 0.09 3

Species Three, Four, Five & Six by Aleksandra Swilo continue to explore different ways of creating inflatable geometry. Species Three is a further development of Species One. Created from a voronoi box these iterations do have the possibility of inflation as they are closed objects. As the species was continually

38

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS:

500 0.5

developed it began to create very complex and visually interesting forms. If these were to be fabricated, the surface could be subdivided into flat elements to create a tesselated mesh. Species Four experiments with patterning and perforations rather than just form generation. Similar to the Fornes Pavilion in


X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 43 Y-SEED: 497 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 43 Z-SEED: 424 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 63 Y-SEED: 329 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 63 Z-SEED: 424 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 80 Y-SEED: 300 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 80 Z-SEED: 424 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 29 Y-SEED: 490 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 29 Z-SEED: 490 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 29 Y-SEED: 379 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 29 Z-SEED: 379 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

X-RANGE: 51 X-NUMBER: 51 Y-RANGE: 51 Y-NUMBER: 94 Y-SEED: 379 Z-RANGE: 51 Z-NUMBER: 94 Z-SEED: 379 VORONOI SCALE: 0.17

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

NO. OF POINTS: MESH THICKNESS: FACE SUBDIVISIONS:

600 0.5 632

Case Study 2.0, the teams design may require a series of perforations. By creating an inflatable object with perforations, changes in airflow upon the design can allow for the form to change and munipulate quicker. Having a range of perforations on an inflatable design can also provide safety, as it allows for air to

NO. OF POINTS: MESH THICKNESS: FACE SUBDIVISIONS:

750 0.2 759

pass through the design, lowering the stresses from natural winds on the structure. Another benefit of perforations is the possibility to allow light to flow inside the pavilion, by placing small perforations in the gridshell these iterations would allow light to shoot through the skin which could create an interesting internal effect.

39


B.4 ‘TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT’ DEVELOPMENTAL ITERATIONS

[5]

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

400 0.2 440

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

489 0.1 481

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

50 1.0 440

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

0 0 0

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

134 1.5 200

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

200 3.0 150

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

23 11 21 29 20

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[6]

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[7]

Species Five & Six continue to experiment with perforations. Using a simple double skin lofted form and trimming spheres from the surfaces, creates a range of holes but also an interesting visual effect. If the designs were to be developed into a habitable space, they would create a very interesting visual effect with the

40

60 19 21 54 45

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

40 10 21 60 11

natural light that would flood the internal space of the pavilion. Although perforations may be a crucial part of the proposed inflatable design, the team will continue to look at ways of generating interesting forms. Species Seven by Benjamin Ryding explores an interesting way of creating solid forms using a recursive definition and clusters.


NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

150 1.0 600

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

150 2.0 626

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

700 0.1 650

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

700 0.2 650

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

150 3.0 702

___________________________________________________________________________________________

NO. OF POINTS: SPHERE RADIUS: SEED:

700 0.3 650

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

69 36 20 12 100

___________________________________________________________________________________________

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

20 8 10 35 70

By using curves and rotating them around different points, a surface could be lofted. The lofted design created an interesting mesh which looks similar to silky fabric. The team was very pleased with the visual effect of the designs and how they look to be inflated. The natural flow of the curves created a desired

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

22 8 66 44 2

effect that the team would like to develop further. The material look of the design makes it easy for the team to see the fabrication possibilities and then in turn the possibility to inflate. The range of iterations were all relatively successful and will be looked at further and considered as a basis for the design proposal.

41


B.4 ‘TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT’ DEVELOPMENTAL ITERATIONS

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

50 10 10 93 40

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

20 12 50 17 10

DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

25 25 25 25 25

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

2 2 30 2

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

2 1 39 1

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

1 1 19 2

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

1 2 15 2

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

0 3 53 1

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

1 2 10 2

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[8]

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Species Eight by Benjamin Ryding is an extension of Species Seven but more randomised. It is a recursive definition using input points, measuring for distance between points and creating curves between the points. Each cluster created a secondary output curve providing a basis for the next cluster. The iterations are

42

a further development from the previous species and were also successful in exploring the field of inflation.. The unusual shapes created could be habitable or act as an arched pavilion if they were at a larger scale. As materiality is incredibly important in inflation, these iterations would perfectly suit the criteria for an inflatable.


DISTANCE: DIV. POINTS: SCALE: MAX VALUE: ROTATION:

35 18 45 34 20

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

2 1 42 2

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

2 2 12 1

___________________________________________________________________________________________

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

1 1 17 0

DEGREE ONE: DEGREE TWO: MAX VALUE: ADDITION:

1 1 17 1

___________________________________________________________________________________________

In conclusion of the technique development phase some of the iterations were plugged into the Kangaroo and Geometry Gym Inflation functions. Unfortuantely the result didnt achieve the desired effect that we were searching for. The object just seemed to grow in size rather than acting how a normal inflatable would under real world

circumstances. During the prototyping phase the team is excited to see the effects inflation can have on lightweight membranes and how it can munipulate an original shape. With a field like inflation the prototyping phase is essential in seeing if it si physically possible to produce a design.

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B.4 ‘TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT’ SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

SELECTION CRITERIA: 1. FABRICATION POSSIBILITIES

In relation to the project at hand, a design needs to be physically possible to fabric in order to create a real life structure.

2. DEVELOPMENTAL POSSIBILITIES

Successful iterations require the possibility to be developed further and pushed to the absolute limits, to ensure an innovative design that takes full advantage of the computational approach.

3. RELAVANCE TO BRIEF

The exploration needs to be relevant and be directly relatable to the Copenhagen Land Art Generator Innitiative brief.

4. VISUAL AESTHETICS

Obviously the team would like to create a design that is aesthetically pleasing, as this can be a successful tool in sparking interest and attracting people to the site.

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[1]

The team considered this design which was a further development from Species Seven, as the most successful iteration. With the incorporation of renewable energy production, this design will be well suited to the LAGI brief. Its unique and interesting form as an inflatable will attract people towards the site, and therefore being educated about the messages that will be communicated through the design, a key requirement of the brief.

The team triangulated the design as flat elements are easier to fabricate. This image shows how an inflatable could be put together with triangle elements joined on the edges. By doing this the geometry would keep its form when inflated rather than just expanding and losing its overall dynamic shape.

45


B.5 ‘TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPING’

46


As the team has chosen to follow the field of inflation, creating a prototype was essential to test the limitations and possibilities of fabrication. In order to do so the team found a material that could be related to those used for plastic inflatable architecture membranes, but of course at a smaller scale. Thin white plastic table cloth was used in order to experiment with design potential. Firstly, we tested how plastic elements could be joined together in order to create a dynamic form. This was done using a soldering iron and a ruler to ensure clean cut junctions were created. By welding surface edges together the whole shape became stronger meaning when inflated it would not completely lose its original form. In terms of fabrication, this prototype took an incredibly long time with over 40 panels being joined at 100+ joints. This made the team realise a limitation with the technique. If a triangulated design were to have a significant number of panels, time restraints could effect fabrication. Conveniently when putting the mesh together, small mistakes created tiny perforations in the surface. This meant the design could not inflate to its absolute maximum, but also ensured the inflatable didnt explode under large bursts of air. The reason we chose to use triangles was the fact that a computationally conceived design could easily be triangulated and flattened in order to fabricate. Once the design team had created the triangulated mesh, it was clamped to a miniature fan to test the effects of air flow. Different air speeds were directed into the mesh which resulted in a range of effects. When the air speed was modified the prototype looked to shake and slightly change. This discovery is something the team would like to incorporate into our proposal. Visitors to the site could potentially have the ability to somehow change the airspeed, therefore forever changing the form. By creating a design thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parameters change depending on how the site is used can result in a design that remains attractive on a local and also international scale. The process of prototyping proved to be incredible succesful in discovering and learning possibilities for an inflatable object. Although the prototype doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t directly reflect the chosen design iteration, its has been succesful in educating the team of fabrication possibilities and limitations.

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B.6 ‘TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL’ SITE PLAN NORTHERN WIND DIRECTION

332.5

2

154

.63

SITE ACCESS/PATH

WATER TAXI TERMINAL

N COPENHAGEN HARBOUR

The site of the 2014 Land Art Generator Innitiative is located on the harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. The teams proposed design is to be placed on the harbours edge, close to the water taxi terminal but also so it is easily visable from Copenhagen’s most visited attraction across the harbour, that being ‘The Little Mermaid’. The proposed design has been generated through algorithmic technique in computational programming in particular Grasshopper 3D in order to create a design that is unique and interesting for its visitors. The brief calls for an attractive design that sparks attention but also educates visitors on site about the possibilities of

48

renewable energy production. The interesting form that was chosen by the team is created from algorithmic clustering. The technique made a repetitive form thats parameters could be changed and rotated in order to create a unique unpredicted form. The developed form doesn’t look to be conceived through patterning as it was altered to create the smooth curvacious design that was intended. The proposed design is an inflatable pavilion that directly interacts with visitors to the site. When approaching the inflatable people will be able to walk underneath and around the pavilion where a number of strategically placed trigger panels/buttons will be found.


INTERACTIVE ENERGY SYSTEM

C When touched, the panels will release strong bursts of air into the already inflated design, causing the membrane to ripple and shake. These trigger panels which are linked to fans will be powered by a series of OPVC (Organic Photovaltaic Cell) solar panels located on the eastern side of the design. The reason the team chose to use these particular panels was primarily the fact that they were flexible so could be incorporated on the inflated plastic membrane surface. In conjunction to this, the panels are still functional in very low light conditions, which Copenhagen is exposed to for many months of the year. Located underneath the ground

of the design are a series of peizoelectric panels that respond to the vibrations of people within and around the pavilion, which in turn creates more energy. The energy created from these panels along with the left over energy from the solar panels will be sent towards the Copenhagen city electricity grid. This design is innovative because it eductes the public about modern ways of renewable energy production but also is a piece of architecture that changes in relation to parameters set by the visitors. The design allows visitors to have a direct contribution to the energy production process and feel as though they too are helping the environment.

49


B.6 â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;TECHNIQUE PROPOSALâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; AESTHETIC EFFECTS The organic form is aesthetically pleasing and to ensure this in not ruined the fans will be placed underneath the design in order to ensure the form is continually inflated. To make the site safe yet aesthetically pleasing, the fan systems will be placed underground, with the fan blades at ground level covered by a grill. The fans will require underground ducts to extract air from the atmosphere. Tiny perforations in the design will also be required to limit the chance of breakage from the strong bursts of air that will be directed from underneath. The trigger panels/buttons will be placed on poles protruding from the ground.

The ripple effect created by the trigger panels is an important part of the design. It ensures the proposal remains fun and ever changing for its local and international visitors. Yes, always having the design inflated and also shooting stronger bursts of air into the membrane will spend electricity. However, the team believes the small amount of energy spent, will make the design incredibly dynamic and interesting for people, attracting large amounts of visitors. The more people attracted to site, the more energy the peizoelectric panels can send back into the Copenhagen grid. Visitors to the site are allowed to have an enjoyable time whilst being educated about the simple ways energy can be produced in order to build a more sustainable future for Denmark.

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PROPOSED ‘KØBENHAVN INFLATABLE PAVILION’

51


INTERIM PRESENTATION FEEDBACK After the interim presentation the team realised some flaws in the design. The final concept needs some tweeking in order to create a design that fits the brief perfectly and is feasible as a structure. Criticisms included the lack of structural support or ties in order to keep the inflated pavilion from losing its desired form. This will need to be developed further, maybe an internal framing system or a range of points that are anchored to the ground in order to keep the unique geometry. In terms of the provocative image on the previous page, a criticism was the inabilty to hold its form when inflated. This will need to be developed further or even triangulated as we had previously trialled, as the connections of flat elements

would keep the design together holding its form. Other criticisms included the usage of energy in the design. The team will need to develop and understand how energy can be implemented in a more sufficient manner that is more suitably tailored to the brief. However, a small usage of energy in order to make the design more dynamic and interesting is a clever way in attracting visitors to the site to create more energy. This will be something that needs to be discussed with the tutorial leaders. In conlcusion, the interim presentation was a good way to learn the faults of our design and to discover how as a team we can develop our ideas into a flawless concept for the Land Art Generator Innitiative Final Proposal.

B.7 ‘LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES’ At the beginning of semester a range of Learning Objectives were set for the students of ‘Architectural Design Studio: Air’ to achieve through the development of this journal. The objectives and how they have been met are described as follows: Objective 1. “interrogating a brief” A solid understanding of the brief was required in order to create and develop our ideas for the design proposal for the Land Art Generator Innitiative. A Site Plan is one significant part of interrogating a brief. Objective 2. developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” This was explored through Section B.1 and B.4 where the team experimented with a range of geometrical shapes that could be applied to the specific brief at hand. Objective 3. developing “skills in various three- dimensional media” This was explored through 3D parametric modelling in Rhino & Grasshopper aswell as through physical explorations with prototyping. Objective 4. developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” This can be related the the prototyping phase aswell as the development of the design, there were some flaws but the team experimented signifcantly with how air itself can affect our inflatable design

52

and how the design will work in a real situation. Objective 5. developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” Through a range of diagrams and images for the proposal the team succinctly explained the details of the design intent and the suggested concept. Objective 6. develop “capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects” Through analysising precedents throughout Part B such as minimal surfaces and inflation, well informed decisions could be made to develop our ideas further into architecture. Objective 7. develop “foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming” A greater knowledge has been gauged about computer programming and how it can be used to create geometry. It plays a significan role in modern architecture. Objective 8. begin developing “a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application” A basis understanding of the programming has been achieved in order to create a somewhat limited computational technique, I am developing an understanding of the limitations and advantages it provides in the production of architectural design.


B.8 ‘ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES’ This sketch was inculded in my journal as it was a new exploration that hadn’t been tried before. The creation of fractal patterns and branching creates an interesting effect and a unique way of creating structural elements. Even though the algorithm follows a pattern I like the fact that it looks somewhat randomised.

This sketch was created by evaluating fields, that being a range of curves. A very interesting effect was achieved when the curves were subdivided and more curves were generated outwards. The reason this sketch intrigued me was the fact that it looks to mimic natural processes, such as the joining of tiny cells.

I chose to include this algorithmic sketch as I believe I expanded my knowledge on 3D Voronoi in Part B. It was an instrumental tool in form generation, and the possibilities I can create with the tool has expanded from Part A. I now feel as though I am becoming more confident and firmiliar with Grasshopper.

53


PART B ‘REFERENCES’ 1. Arch Daily, ‘Green Void/LAVA’ (Plataforma Networks), 2014 <http://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/> [accessed 1 April 2014] 2. Encyclopedia of Mathematics, ‘Minimal Surface’ (Kluwer Academic Publishers), 2012 <http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php/Minimalsurface> [accessed 1 April 2014] 3. Freie Universtat Berlin, ‘Architecture and Tent Roofs’ (Berlin: Freie Universtat Berlin), 2013 <http://page.mi.fu-berlin.de/polthier/booklet/architecture.html> [accessed 1 April 2014] 4. Digicult, ‘Zaha Hadid Une Architecture’ (MetaDesign) 2014 <http://www.digicult.it/news/zaha-hadid-une-architecture/> [accessed 3 April 2014] 5. Behance, ‘San Gennaro North Gate’ (New York City: Behance), 2014 <https://www.behance.net/gallery/San-Gennaro-North-Gate/2357886> [accessed 3 April 2014] 6. Dezeen Magazine Online, ‘Non Lin/Lin Pavilion by Marc Fornes & The Very Many’ (London: Dezeen) 2011 <http://www.dezeen.com/2011/08/02/nonlinlin-pavilion-by-marc-fornestheverymany/> [accessed 7 April 2014] 7. Archigram, ‘Cushicle’ (UK: Archigram), 1964 <http://www.archigram.net/projectspages/cuishicle.html> [accessed 15 April 2014] 8. Arc Space, ‘Ark Nova’ (Copenhagen: Dac-Danish Architecture Centre), 2011 <http://www.arcspace.com/features/arata-isozaki--associates/ark-nova/> [accessed 15 April 2014] 9. Arch Daily, ‘Mobile Performance Venue/Various Architects’ (Plataforma Networks), 2014 <http://www.arcspace.com/features/arata-isozaki--associates/ark-nova/> [accessed 15 April 2014]

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;IMAGE REFERENCESâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 1. LAVA, Green Void (Sydney: Toko), 2014 <http://www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/green-void/> 2. Domus, Zaha Hadid Chanel Art Pavilion (Italy: Domusweb), 2007 <https://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2011/05/11/zaha-hadid-s-mobile-art-for-chanel.html> 3. Takver, Sidney Myer Music Bowl (Melbourne: Wikipedia), 2005 <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/SidneyMyerMusicBowl.jpg> 4. Arch Daily, Munich Olympic Stadium (Plataforma Networks), 2006 <http://ad009cdnb.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/1297389372-olympic-munich-5-528x358.jpg> 5. Madigan, Sean, North Gate San Gennaro (New York: Gensler), 2011 <http://www.sean-madigan.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/6160637462cbb8084995o.jpg> 6. Lauginie, Francois, nonLin/Lin Pavilion 1 (Orleans: The Very Many), 2011 <http://theverymany.com/constructs/10-frac-centre/tvmf-lauginie010s/> 7. Lauginie, Francois, nonLin/Lin Pavilion 2 (Orleans: The Very Many), 2011 <http://theverymany.com/constructs/10-frac-centre/tvmf-lauginie021s/> 8. Design Boom, Inflatable Concert Hall (Milan: Design Boom), 2011 <http://www.designboom.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/japan-opens-ark-nova-worlds-first-inflatable-concert-hall- designboom-05.jpg> 9. Archigram, Cushicle 4 (UK: Archigram), 1964 <http://www.archigram.net/projectspages/cuishicle4.html> 10. Basulto, David, Various Architects Mobile Performance Venue (Plataforma Networks), 2008 <http://www.archdaily.com/4333/mobile-performance-venue-various-architects/> 11. Inhabitat, Various Architects Yorkshire Pavilion (El Segundo, Inhabitat), 2009 <http://inhabitat.com/yorkshire-renaissance-pavilion-by-various-architects>

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PART C DETAILED DESIGN


C.1 ‘DESIGN CONCEPT’ ENERGY SYSTEM

To address the feedback given from the mid semester presentation the team has had to rework parts of the design, inparticular the energy systems and structural integrity of the project. A more intergrated energy system is required to create a cohesive design. Energy needs to be part of the design rather than tacked on as an after thought. Also, Instead of spending energy by running powerful fans to inflate a structure the team

researched into wind capturing units as an alternative, when the Sheerwind Invelox system was discovered. The Invelox system is design by Sheerwind in order to capture, accelerate and concentrate air flow. The unique wind tower’s use a funnel system to capture wind and accelerate it in order to turn small turbines that are located at the foot of the funnel. These turbines create energy that can be sent to a smart grid or directly to an individual user.

INVELOX WIND DELIVERY: 1. Intake captures wind

2. Collected wind is channelled to pick up speed.

4. Turbine or generator spins to create electrical energy. 5. Air continues. 3. Cinched pipe where Venturi effect begins.

The system is a better alternative to traditional wind turbines as it is 50% shorter with blades that are 84% smaller[1]. The system can create more energy with much lower windspeeds, also fewer generators are required so maintenance, installation and operating costs are much lower (50%). The Invelox systems operates at winds as low as 1 mile per hour and can produce 600% more electrical energy than traditional mounted turbines. The reason the team was interested in the Invelox is because

56

it is the perfect answer for a system that creates concentrated high powered winds. This is achieved through the use of the Venturi effect, which occurs when air is concentrated into a smaller area of pipe which increases its speed. This pipe system which exits the Invelox Wind tower will be the incorporated into our design and act as a piped structural support system for the inflatable membrane. Perforations located along the piped system will allow for the LAGI design to inflate and flutter.


MATERIAL SYSTEM Another criticism from the Interim presentation was the inability for the design to support itself when not fully inflated. To fix this issue the team has decided to develop a steel skeleton base structure for an inflatable membrane to sit upon. Sheerwind offers a galvanised steel invelox system which will be the basis of the piped skeleton. The end of the invelox systems will continue into a piped steel skeleton feeding accelerated winds into the design. Hot-dipped galvanised steel has been chosen as an appropriate material due to its strength, flexibility and its anti-corrosion properties. Hot-dip galvanising refers to the process of dipping fabricated steel into a kettle containing molten zinc, which reacts with the steel to create a tightlybonded alloy coating with high corrosion protection[2]. As the site is located on the harbour of Copenhagen, anti corrosive materials are essential in ensuring the longevity of the structure. To fabricate a design, steel pipes can be welded together to form any desired skeleton, and also perforation holes in the surface are possible in order to allow wind to escape from the pipes. SEFAR速 Architecture TENARA速 environmentally friendly Fabric has been chosen to be used for the inflatable membrane. Similar to the piped system the material is very strong against natural elements. The durable material is incredibly lightweight and is unaffected by damaging UV Rays, Acid Rain, salt water and many other environmental impacts[3]. The material is made from high strength fibers, allowing the fabric to fold and stretch countless times without breaking or losing its strength. TENARA速 remains clean with stain resistance and comes with a 15-year warranty when used for architectural projects. The material has been used for many years in stadiums to create retractable roof systems, as it takes up very minimal space and is incredibly flexible. The fabric is also commonly used for art installations, especially the works by American sculptor Janet Echelman. Echelman swears by the fabric for its breathing quality, and its ability to become alive by moving when effected by differing weather conditions[4].

HOT-DIPPED GALVANISED STEEL PIPES [1]

FESTUNGSARENA KUFSTEIN RETRACTABLE ROOF, KUFSTEIN [2]

JANET ECHELMAN ART INSTALLATION, AMSTERDAM [3]

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C.1 ‘DESIGN CONCEPT’ MATERIAL SYSTEM

JANET ECHELMAN ART INSTALLATION, SYDNEY [4]

The amazing works of Janet Echelman are important to take into consideration for the development of this project as they reflect many aspects the team is trying to convey. Echelman uses TENARA® fiber for her designs as it is an unusual material that is interesting and creates a focal point for urban spaces to bring people together. She uses cutting edge technology in order to create large scale installations that continually remain interesting amongst their urban surrounds. To create her designs Echelman uses rope and ties to attach her membrane designs directly to buildings or she drapes the sculptures from galvanised steel rings[4]. The technique of tying

58

the membrane to steel will be adopted for the LAGI design. Small ties placed along the pipes will keep the membrane attached, but still allow for it to fluctuate and move with natural winds and concentrated winds escaping from the piping. The team hopes that the LAGI design has a similar effect to the works of Echelman, in creating a breathing sculpture that is always moving and changing, keeping it an interesting installation for tourists aswell as locals. The design will stand out from the normalities of the urban landscape, aswell as having the added bonus of educating people about renewable wind energy.


RESOLVED DESIGN In response to the LAGI brief the team has chosen a simple design that generates energy, education and public interest in Copenhagen. The simple design consists of a range of pipes fed by Invelox wind capture units that accelerate wind speed, which in turn will result in the overlaying membrane to fluctuate and inflate. The design will also be successful at creating energy from low windspeeds.

HOT-DIPPED GALVANISED STEEL PROCESS

[5]

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS GALVANISED HOT-DIPPED STEEL MADE OFF SITE (MATTE BLACK)

PERFORATIONS DRILLED DURING PRE-FABRICATION CONCRETE FOOTINGS FOR INVELOX’S POURED ON SITE

INVELOX’S PLACED IN CONCRETE FOOTINGS PIPES WELDED TOGETHER ON SITE MEMBRANE CUT TO SIZE AND STITCHED OFF SITE MEMBRANE TIED AND PINNED TO PIPES ON SITE FOOTPATHS PAVED AFTER INSTALLATION

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C.1 ‘DESIGN CONCEPT’ ALGORITHMIC TECHNIQUE

DRAW CURVE

CREATE RECURSIVE CLUSTER & REPEAT (x5)

LOFT CURVES

MAP POINT OF MAXIMUM CURVATURE ON LOFTED FORM

GENERATE CURVES AND PIPE

CONNECT RHINO MADE INVELOX’S

POPULATE CORRESPONDING PIPES WITH SPHERES

TRIM SPHERES FROM PIPE SURFACE (PERFORATIONS)

PLACE MEMBRANE & INFLATE

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GRASSHOPPER SIMULATION To create the finished design the team developed several definitions and then compiled these steps in order to reach the desired outcome. Once the desired design had been created it was important to test the limits of the project by using computational simulations. With the use of Geometry Gym Mesh Inflation tool (Jon Mirtschin)[5], it was possible to simulate how the membrane would inflate. By arranging a series of anchor points the membrane would stay attached to the steel frame, similar to how it would in a real life construction. Some issues were encountered with the use of Geometry Gym as anchor points could only be placed along the edge of the membrane and not anywhere in the centre. However, The desired inflated effect was still somewhat created, but would look slightly different in real life, as it would be pinned on central pipes rather than just the exterior pipes. Also, this simulation indicates how the membrane may react to the concentrated air that has been captured by the invelox systems, accelerated through the pipes and projected upwards through perforations. In addition to this effect on the membrane, natural winds would also directly effect it, meaning on really windy days the design will truly live and breathe similar to the works of Janet Echelman, which were discussed earlier. The desired effect of a fluctuating membrane was achieved and could be tested with the help of computational programming. This simulation allowed the team to test how the design would work before construction, giving an idea of the visual effects that could be created.

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C.2 ‘TECHTONIC ELEMENTS’ PROTOTYPING

The team created a range of prototypes in order to test the fabrication and assembly possibilities of the design. Firstly, a simple pipe with small perforations was created, with a cap on the end to ensure the concentrated air would escape through the perforations. When tested with a fan at the base of the pipe the fabric fluttered which was to the desired effect. By soldering hoops onto the membrane it could easily be slid onto the pipe, these hoops were then fastened to the pipe to ensure the membrane remained in its position. A second prototype was developed to further explore the connection of the membrane to the piping system, and also to trial the jointing of the pipes. The membrane on this protoype was simply adhesed to the pipe with glue, which was not as successful as the previously trialled connection. The jointing of the pipes was also trialled with a range of purchased joints through soldering and gluing. Although using plastic in the prototypes, it was discovered that pipes can be joined through welding and connections, similarly to how it would be done with steel. Caps again were placed on the ends of the pipes and perforations were drilled to allow air to escape. The second prototype was not as successful in terms of the membrane fluctuating, therefore the hooping and bolting method of attaching the membrane will be used as it’s more effective in covering the perforations and also looks much cleaner.

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PIPE CONNECTION & MEMBRANE ATTACHMENT

GALVANISED STEEL INVELOX SYSTEM WIND INTAKE FROM WEST & EAST

OMNIDIRECTIONAL INVELOX

CINCHED IN PIPE CREATING VENTURI EFFECT

CleanWatt VERTICAL AXIS TURBINE

[6]

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C.2 ‘TECHTONIC ELEMENTS’ COMPILATION OF ELEMENTS

The Invelox systems are an important educational tool for the design and an aesthetic feature on their on. The innovative system will feed into the piped structure that has been created through algorithmic technique. Two different thicknesses of pipes will be used for the design, as only a range of the pipes will have air flowing through them. The pipes which are attached to the Invelox’s intakes will be 1.5 metres in diameter with varying sized perforations located underneath the membrane. These pipes will feed the design with accelerated winds in order to make the skin look as though it is breathing. A

INHALATION The second range of pipes in the design are the skeletal support structure. These pipes are 0.75 metres in diameter and in conjunction with the thicker pipes will support the membrane when it is not inflated. The interesting arrangement of the pipes creates a unique visual effect when the membrane is sagging on the structure. The pipes were created by finding the maximum curvature of the membrane, and were included in the design for their support and aesthetic effect.

B

SKELETAL STRUCTURE

The breathing skin is made from TENARA fabric, which was deliberately selected as it is lightweight, durable and flexible. The material is somewhat transparent in order to showcase the skeletal support structure underneath. The membrane will be directly effected by weather conditions and will be forever changing with different wind speeds to create many different aesthetic effects. The design will respond directly to strong bursts of air and also soft winds. C

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BREATHING SKIN


ENERGY STATISTICS & FIGURES N

In developing the design around the Invelox wind intake system it was important to ensure their placement resulted in maximum wind capture in order to create as much electrical energy as possible. The Copenhagen wind rose was analysed to discover that a majority of winds in the city come from the westerly direction[6]. To take advantage of this the Invelox systems were placed around the westerly sides of the design. Not only will this result in maximum wind capture but it will allow the membrane to fluctuate as much as possible, creating a dynamic and interesting design. [7]

Located within the pipes at the foot of the Invelox systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s will be single offset vertical wind turbines[7]. The average wind speed of Copenhagen is 4.5 m/s (10.6 mph) which will be accelerated to 18 m/s through the Invelox system before it reaches the turbine. By using a wind power output calculator the team found that with the use of four Invelox systems, an average of 630,720 MW/h/y would be harvested and sent into the Copenhagen city electrical grid. Fluctuations and changes in windspeed would obviously effect this number potentionally increasing or decreasing the yield of the design. However, as Copenhagen receives steady winds, the average calculation would be relatively accurate.

1.5m

1.2m

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C.3 ‘FINAL DESIGN & MODEL’ SITE DIAGRAMS

INVELOX WIND

EASTERN LAND ENTRY

WESTERLY WIND

WATER TAXI TERMINAL

N

w

ENTRY POINTS

WESTERLY WIND DIRECTION

INVELOX WIND

NARROW PATHS NAVIGATING SITE TO DIFFERENT VIEWS

WIDER PATHWAYS THROUGH PAVILION

N

CIRCULATION: A MIMICRY OF THE STRUCTURE

[8]

66


SITE CONTEXT - COPENHAGEN HARBOUR The site for the Land Art Generator Innitiative is located on the Copenhagen harbour on a flat planar field surrounded by industrial and commercial facilities. When developing the project a number of factors were taken into consideration to ensure the design was suited perfectly to the brief and the site. Measuring roughly 100m x 300m the site is long and large and needed to be well thought out. The design was placed directly in the centre of the field to make it easily accessible from both the water taxi terminal and the eastern land entry. Another important factor was the wind conditions in Copenhagen, which as mentioned previously are dominant from a westerly direction, so the Invelox systems are orientated towards this side of the site to ensure maximum winds are picked up from the water and the west. The designs largest elevation spans approximately 60 metres across the site which would make it clearly visable from the opposite side of the

N

harbour. This was an important consideration due to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Little Mermaidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; sculpture located directly across the harbour. Labelled as one of Copenhagenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most iconic tourist attractions, the site would receive alot of foot traffic, therefore the teams large spanning design would be successful in gaining attention from people far away. Once on site there are a range of footpaths that lead from the main entry points to the pavilion. The strategically placed pathways were derived directly from the curves that form the structure of the design, they were stretched and projected onto the entire site. All of the pathways direct visitors to focal viewing points of the design and through the pavilion itself. Views from outside and underneath the pavilion are important in educating the sites visitors about how easily renewable wind energy can be created. A greater understanding of the Invelox system and its effects can be gained by circulating the design.

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C.3 ‘FINAL DESIGN & MODEL’

NORTH ELEVATION

WEST ELEVATION

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[9]

[10]


SECTION A-A

SAGGING MEMBRANE

INFLATED MEMBRANE

[11]

[12]

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CRITTER A BREATHING, UNDULATING CREATURE FED BY RENEWABLE wind ENERGY

[13]

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CRITTER A BREATHING, UNDULATING CREATURE FED BY RENEWABLE wind ENERGY

[14]

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C.4 ‘L.A.G.I BRIEF REQUIREMENTS’ PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Critter is an undulating, breathing creature that is fed by renewable wind energy. The free standing structure works as a pavilion to educate visitors about environmentally friendly ways to help Copenhagen reach carbon neutrality. The design is fed by innovative Invelox wind intake systems that act as aesthetic yet functional sculptures on site. The project fulfils the brief in generating significant amounts of free electrical energy from wind that can then be sent towards the Copenhagen city grid. Unlike the neighbouring wind farm, the design acts as an architectural art installation that sparks interest and thoughts into sustainable energy creation. Critter is ever changing with wind conditions which means it remains interesting for tourists and locals alike. The project combines the use of algorthmic computational development and innovative new energy technology, proving that the sustainable future ahead, will be very exciting.

ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

The project uses the Sheerwind designed Invelox Omnidirectional Energy System and CleanWatt 1500W Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to create its energy. The Invelox system is an innovative design that accelerates air using the Venturi effect in order to spin in-built turbines at a faster pace in order to create maximum energy output. By using the Venturi effect wind speeds can be quadrupled, enhancing the performance of the turbines. - AVERAGE WIND SPEED IN COPENHAGEN: 4.7 m/s (10mph) - INVELOX WIND SPEED CREATED (PER INVELOX): 18.8 m/s - INVELOX OUTPUT INTO PIPED STRUCTURE (PER INVELOX): 7.2 m/s - YEARLY ENERGY GENERATION (FOUR INVELOX’S): 630,720 M/W/h/y

MATERIALS

A range of different materials were compiled to create the unique design: - PIPED SKELETON: Galvanised Hot-Dipped Steel 1.5m diameter pipes (0.5m Perforations at 2m spacings) Galvanised Hot-Dipped Steel 0.75m diameter pipes - MEMBRANE: SEFAR® Architecture TENARA® environmentally friendly Fabric 55x65m Hooped and bolted (5m spacing) - INVELOX: Galvanised Steel System (12.5m in height) - TURBINE: 1500 W CleanWatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbine 1.5m height x 1.2m rotar diameter - STRUCTURE: 60x70m (4200m2)

- FOOTINGS:

A small amount of concrete is required to support the Invelox’s and surface pipes

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

Critter is a design made to be educational about sustainable ways of energy production. In terms of fabrication and materials, compromises were required to design a structure that was of significant size. Galvanized Steel and small amounts of concrete and steel will be used to build the structure, and where possible environmentally friendly materials were used (such as the TENARA® membrane). Materials were all deliberately selected to ensure the longevity and strength of the design, so the sculptural wind farm is producing energy for the city of Copenhagen for many years to come. Although some material choices are environmentally questionable, they will ensure safety, and the significant amount of energy created will compensate for many years to come.

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FINAL PRESENTATION FEEDBACK Feedback from the Crits included a range of positive and negative comments that were taken into account to develop the design further. Compliments on the design included its innovation and design interest, crits were generally pleased by the technique as they thought it was interesting and unique compared to other student projects. However, were critical of scale and structural elements aswell as sceptical of the energy production technologies used. They believed the design should have filled the entire site and been at a more dramatic scale, which is a valid argument that had previously been discussed by the team. Differing design ideas within the team resulted in the pavilion being at a smaller scale than personally desired. Furthermore, The structural support system was labelled as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;restrictiveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and suggestions were made that it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t required. This was somewhat contradictory of the Interim Presentation where it was discussed that this element was required to make a feasible structure. Finally, criticisms were made about the technologies used, but the Sheerwind Invelox system is a proven wind harvesting mechanism that has been tested and approved for its wind accelerating and energy production capabilities. All in all the feedback was constructive, and was implemented in order to tweak the project to make a more resolved design.

MODIFIED DESIGN The feedback from the Final Presentation was taken into account to slightly modify the design so it is better suited to the brief. As suggested the design was increased in scale to take up a majority of the site. This will make the design more visable from across the harbour, and create a more dramatic impression on site. As the design is larger more Invelox wind intake systems were required to generate enough winds to inflate the membrane. This also means that the design will now double its energy production capabilities resulting in a yield of 1,261,440 MW/h/y. All materials as specified earlier will be used, however the footprint of the design on the site will be much larger measuring in at 170x190m. After these small modifications the team has created a design that we are incredibly pleased with as we believe it fulfils the requirements of the brief and beyond. Critter is a design that can successfully educate and spark interest in the people of Copenhagen whilst producing a significant amount energy. Critter provides an aesthetically interesting alternative to traditional wind farms.

236m

179m

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C.5 ‘LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES’ A range of Learning Objectives were set for the students of ‘Architectural Design Studio: Air’ to achieve through the development of this journal and subject, they are listed and reflected upon as follows: Objective 1. “interrogating a brief” It was important for the team to interrogate the brief and also the site in order to create the perfect design for the Land Art Generator Inniative. The team successfully did so by creating an interesting piece of public art that was capable of educating people and creating significant amounts of energy. Objective 2. developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” Through algorithmic development in Grasshopper the team could adjust the parameters of the design to create a desired functional and aesthetic effect. A range of possibilities were explored for the given brief before deciding on the final concept. Objective 3. developing “skills in various three-dimensional media” During Part C the team decided to 3D print the design on a 14x14cm square. This included formatting a digital design in prepartion for fabrication. Although very risky with 1mm piping, the design was successfully printed. Through the creation of prototypes the team also explored Tectonic Elements and Details of the design. Objective 4. developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” Throughout Part C an understanding of real life elements in architecture were understood. Developing prototypes made it easier to understand the relationship between a conceived architectural idea and building it in real life. With the use of inflation the team generated a design that created a connection between architecture and the environment itself. Objective 5. developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” By creating convincing diagrams and images in Part C it was possible to argue a proposal for the Copenhagen Land Art Generator Innitiative. Ensuring the brief was interogated and met, it was possible to do this successfully. Objective 6. develop “capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects” A range of precedents were explored at the beginning of Part C to ensure that the teams design was inline with physical buildable structures. The use of technical construction and design can be adopted to create a feasible design. Objective 7. develop “foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming” During this subject I have been exposed to Grasshopper and Rhinoceros for the first time. Through Parts B and C along with weekly algorithmic exercises, a wider grasp of the computational programming behind architecture has been achieved. Whilst learning this programming it has been implemented into the design process, exposing the possibilities computational architecture can create, such as the teams design which couldnt have been created without it. Objective 8. begin developing “a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application” A basis understanding of computational techniques have been grasped, and whilst still learning the programming, it is obvious that it can be advantageous, but also be a disadvantage when not fully understood. Programming, like a pencil is a tool for design that is only as good as its user. However, I do hope to improve and use this tool when designing.

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PART C ‘REFERENCES’ 1. Sheerwind, ‘Invelox: Changing the Course of Power Generation’ (Chaska, Sheerwind), 2012 <http://sheerwind.com/technology> [accessed 12 May 2014] 2. Galvanize It, ‘Hot-Dip Galvanizing’ (Colorado: American Galvanizers Association), 2014 <http://www.galvanizeit.org/hot-dip-galvanizing/what-is-hot-dip-galvanizing-hdg/hdg-process> [accessed 14 May 2014] 3. Tenara Fabric, ‘Sefar Tenara Architecture Fabric’ (Florida: W.L Gore & Associates), 2014 <http://www.tenarafabric.com/> [accessed 14 May 2014] 4. Janet Echelman, ‘Janet Echelman Portfolio’ (Brookline, Art Studio), 2014 <http://www.echelman.com/> [accessed 16 May 2014] 5. Geometry Gym, ‘gbXML for Rhino/Grasshopper’ (Melbourne, Blogspot), 2014 <http://geometrygym.blogspot.com.au/ [accessed 15 May 2014] 6.

Iowa Environmental Mesonet (IEM), ‘Copenhagen Wind Information’ (Ames: Iowa State University of Science and Technology), 2014 <http://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/onsite/windrose/climate/yearly/EKRKyearly.png> [accessed 20 May 2014]

7. Clean Energy Australia Corporation, ‘Cleanwatt Wind Turbine System’ (Australia, Cleanwatt) <http://www.cleanwatt.com.au/products/53-small-wind-turbine-system-1500watts-vertical-axis-wind-turbine.html> [accessed 20 May 2014]

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;IMAGE REFERENCESâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 1. Galvanized Tubes, Galvanised Pipes (Tianjin: Galvanized Tubes), 2012 <http://www.galvanized-tube.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/CR-kVfBuvqB2c.jpg> 2. Hightex, Kufstein Stadium Austria (ArchiExpo), 2014 <http://img.archiexpo.com/imagesae/photo-g/tenara-fabrics-retractable-tensile-structure-61070-3646961.jpg> 3. Van Dan Eijinden, Janus, Janet Echelman Amsterdam (Cambridge: LOEBlog Harvard), 2012 <http://blogs.gsd.harvard.edu/loeb-fellows/janet-echelman-flies-high-in-amsterdam/> 4. Beautiful Surface, Janet Echelman Sydney (Beautiful Surface), 2014 <http://beautifulsurface.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Janet-Echelman-6.jpg> 5. Galvanize It, Galvanization Process (Colorado: American Galvanizers Association), 2014 <http://www.galvanizeit.org/uploads/seminars/galv.jpg> 6.

Swilo, Aleksandra, Invelox Diagram (Melbourne), 2014

7. Iowa Environmental Mesonet (IEM), Copenhagen Wind Rose (Ames: Iowa State University of Science and Technology) <http://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/onsite/windrose/climate/yearly/EKRKyearly.png>

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8.

Swilo, Aleksandra, Site Diagrams (Melbourne), 2014

9.

Ryding, Benjamin, North Elevation (Melbourne), 2014

10.

Ryding, Benjamin, West Elevation (Melbourne), 2014

11.

Ryding, Benjamin, Sagging Membrane (Melbourne), 2014

12.

Ryding, Benjamin, Inflated Membrane (Melbourne), 2014

13.

Ryding, Benjamin, Site Render 1 (Melbourne), 2014

14.

Ryding, Benjamin, Site Render 2 (Melbourne), 2014


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STUDIOAIR

HAMISH COLLINS


Hamish Collins 539498 - Student Journal