Page 1

4 INTERMEDIATE - CEF: B1

Grammar Genius 4

Genius

4

Join the inventor Eugenius, his robot Dax and his friends and have fun discovering English grammar and d structure!

Grammar Genius is a series

Genius

Student’s Book

of beautifully illustrated books of grammar reference and practice, taking g students from Beginner to Intermediatee level. Thanks to its thoroughly researched syllabus, it can be used alongside any coursebook at this level.

INTERMEDIATE

Grammar Genius features: • grammar presented through interesting web style pages that motivate learners • grammar structures taught in short, learner-friendly steps • a wide variety of carefully graded practice exercises • writing and speaking tasks at the end of each unit • special 'be a genius' boxes with helpful tips

Lee Coveney

• detailed, clear and easy-to-follow reference sections

• regular revision units • extra interactive CD-ROM with additional practice exercises Components Student’s Book with interactive CD-ROM Teacher’s Book with overprinted answers

Lee Coveney int er a

hG Englis App! Genius

with free

HAMILTON HOUSE ELT

load Down w the ne ar ramm

ROM CDe iv ct


Contents

Unit

Page Present simple and present continuous, stative verbs

4

Past simple, past continuous, (be (be / get) get) used to, would

10

Present perfect simple, present perfect continuous

18

Past perfect simple, past perfect continuous

26

Revision 1: Units 1–4

30

5

The future

32

6

Adjectives, adverbs

40

7

Nouns, quantifiers, articles

48

8

Modal verbs (1)

58

Revision 2: Units 5–8

64

9

Modal verbs (2)

66

10

Gerunds and infinitives

74

11

Conditionals

82

12

Wishes, preferences

90

1

2

3

4

2

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Contents

Unit

Page Revision 3: Units 9–12

96

13

Reported speech

98

14

Reporting verbs

108

15

Relative clauses

112

16

The passive

118

Revision 4: Units 13–16

124

17

Causative form

126

18

Question tags, indirect questions

130

19

Sentence linking

134

20

Phrasal verbs

144

Revision 5: Units 17–20

148

Verb forms

150

Spelling rules

152

Irregular verbs

154

Phrasal verbs

156

Wordlist

157 3

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1

Present simple and present continuous, stative verbs

About me My name is Dax and I’m a robot. I live with my friend Eugenius. He’s an inventor.

Love it? Hate it?

• I love cooking and watching TV. • I hate housework. But Eugenius is always finding more jobs for me to do! Today ... Today I’m staying at home. I’m working on my website. What about you? What are you doing today? Post your comments and share your thoughts here!

My friends

This is Ginny. She’s Eugenius’ best friend and she often helps him with his inventions.

This is Eugenius. He’s a genius!

And this is Woof, my robot dog.

Present simple and present continuous Affirmative

Negative

Question

Present simple

Ben walks to school every day.

Ben doesn’t walk to school every day.

Does Ben walk to school every day?

Present continuous

Ben is cycling to school today.

Ben isn’t cycling to school today.

Is Ben cycling to school today?

4

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Present simple Use We use the present simple: • to talk about habits and things that happen regularly. I often take my neighbour’s dog for a walk. • to talk about situations or states that are always or usually true. Katy doesn’t live with her parents. • to talk about facts, general truths. Water freezes at 0OC. • when we describe a series of events or actions (e.g. when we tell a story or in sports commentaries). Then the man jumps up and leaps out of the window. Time expressions • We often use the present simple with adverbs of frequency (always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, hardly ever, seldom). Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb but after the verb to be. Anna always brushes her teeth before bed. I am usually late for school. • We also use the present simple with these time words and phrases: every day / week / year, in the morning / afternoon / evening, at night, at the weekend, on Monday, on Fridays, in (the) winter, in August, once / twice / three times a week, etc. They usually come at the beginning or end of the sentence. On Fridays Peter visits his cousins. We lock all the doors at night.

Present continuous Use We use the present continuous to talk about: • something that is happening now, at exactly this moment. Are you watching this film or can I turn off the TV? • temporary situations. Simon is working in his dad’s restaurant this summer. • situations that are changing. The economic crisis is becoming worse. • annoying habits, often with always. My sister is always borrowing my clothes! It’s really annoying! Time expressions We often use the present continuous with these time words and phrases: now, right now, at the moment, today / tonight, these days, this week, at present, nowadays, for now, for the time being. Lots of people are staying in our hotel this week.

Present simple and present continuous Be careful: we use the present simple for things that happen regularly or things that are always true. We use the present continuous for things that are happening now or things that are temporary. Compare the following sentences: My grandmother always bakes a cake on Saturdays but today she’s making biscuits. Phoebe usually stays at home on Fridays but today she’s visiting her friend.

5

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1

Complete. Use the present simple. 3

Do you live

near here? (you / live)

4

Does your mum help you with your

5

homework? (your mum / help) usually carries Simon Mrs Harper’s

6

groceries for her. (usually / carry) don’t get up We early on Saturdays. (not get up)

7 8 1 2

don’t see Did you know that cats very well in the daytime? (not see) kisses And so the girl her disappears friend goodbye and . (kiss, disappear)

9 10

goes My brother practice twice a week. (go) doesn’t work Mrs Evans

to football at

weekends. (not work) paint Τhey the classrooms every two years. (paint) do you spell How this word? (you / spell)

2 Write sentences. Use the present simple. Put the words in brackets in the correct place.

1

you / get up / late? (at the weekend) Do you get up late at the weekend?

2

we / eat / our dinner in front of the television (never) We never eat our dinner in front of the television.

7

Dad / be / tired after work (often)

8

we / go out (on Sundays)

9

3 4 5

Dad is often tired after work.

We go out on Sundays. / On Sundays we go out.

she / have / eggs for breakfast (rarely)

She rarely has eggs for breakfast.

6

10

my best friend / be / cheerful and happy (usually) My best friend is usually cheerful and happy. we / walk / to school (every day)

We walk to school every day. / Every day we walk to school.

I / brush / my teeth in the morning (always)

I always brush my teeth in the morning.

my mum / watch / TV (hardly ever)

My mum hardly ever watches TV.

he / be / late for work (never)

He is never late for work.

3 Read and complete. Use the present continuous. is shining It’s Saturday morning and the sun 1 (shine). As usual, it’s is driving a busy day at Oak Tree Farm. Mr Taylor 2 (drive) his tractor 3 is milking out into the fields and Mrs Taylor (milk) the cows. David, is fixing their son, 4 (fix) the farm gate and some holes in the fence. His sister Mary is only ten but she has jobs to do, too. At the moment is feeding she 5 (feed) the chickens. Rover, the dog, is with her. He 6 is barking (bark) at the chickens! Even the farm cats are busy are chasing today: they 7 (chase) mice in the barn!

6

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4 Circle the correct answer. 1

Does this lake freeze / Is this lake freezing in winter?

6

No, this can’t be true! You lie / are lying!

7

My brother checks / is checking his e-mails every day.

2

She usually goes / is usually going to bed late on Saturdays.

8

3

Mark doesn’t work / isn’t working today. He’s at home.

Nadia is in her room. She gets / is getting ready for bed.

9

4

I’m sorry, I don’t live / am not living here, so I can’t give you directions.

What does your sister do / is your sister doing these days?

10

5

It rains / is raining. Let’s stay at home.

Dad always waters / is watering the flowers on Sunday afternoons.

5 Read and complete. Use the present simple or present continuous.

Hi Jade, am having I1 2 lives

(have) a fantastic time here at my cousin’s house! She (live) in a flat right in the middle of Paris. It’s amazing! At are sitting the moment we 3 (sit) on her balcony and we 4 are drinking gets (drink) hot chocolate. She’s so lucky! She 5 (get) to see the is studying 6 Eiffel Tower on her way home every day! She (study) at speaks college here in Paris and she 7 (speak) fantastic French. Later

today she’s taking me to the Louvre Museum. Hundreds of people visit (visit) it every day, so it must be good! I hope you are enjoying (enjoy) your holiday in Scotland and that it 10 isn’t raining 9 (not rain) at the moment! See you back home. 8

Lots of love, Andy

Stative verbs Stative verbs describe states, not actions. We do not usually use them in continuous tenses, even when we want to talk about something that is happening now, at exactly this moment. Here are some common stative verbs: • sense verbs: feel, hear, see, smell, taste • thinking verbs: know, notice, realise, remember, think, understand • verbs that express emotions: dislike, hate, like, love, not mind, prefer • other verbs: appear (= seem), be, believe, belong, cost, forget, have (= own), hope, look (= seem), mean, need, own, seem, sound, want What do you want? I don’t mind staying here to look after the baby.

7

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Some verbs have two meanings: one that describes an action and one that describes a state. When these verbs describe actions, we can use them in continuous tenses. Compare: The baby’s skin feels really soft. (= It seems soft when you touch it.)

The doctor is feeling her head. (= He / She is touching it.)

Do you see that house? (= Can you notice it with your eyes?)

I’m seeing the doctor at four o’clock. (I’m meeting him / her.)

Your perfume smells lovely. (= It has a particular smell.)

The dog is smelling my clothes. (It’s trying to recognise how my clothes smell.)

This soup tastes delicious. (= It has a particular taste.)

The chef is tasting the soup. (He / She is trying to see what it tastes like.)

I think you’re wrong. (= I believe you’re wrong.)

We’re thinking about moving house. (= We’re considering it.)

He has a car and a motorbike. (= He owns a car and a motorbike.)

Sandy is having lunch at the moment. (= She is eating.)

She looks happy. (= She appears to be happy.)

He’s looking at Eve. (= He’s watching her.)

Our new teacher appears to be nice. (= He / She seems to be nice.)

He’s appearing at the Majestic Theatre. (= He’s taking part in a play there.)

The boys are in their room. (= They are present in a particular space.)

You’re being very difficult. (= You are behaving in a particular way.)

6 Complete. Use the present simple or present continuous. 1

realise Now I mistake. (realise)

2

belongs That red car to my uncle. (belong) They are building a new road around

3

that I made a

the town. (build)

5

is working Be quiet, boys! Your dad (work) like We walking in the

6

countryside. (like) owns Mr Parker

4

!

all the houses

in this street! (own)

7 Read and complete. Use the present simple or present continuous. What 1 is Zac doing ? (Zac / do) Jade: He 2 is smelling (smell) some plastic flowers! Tom: But plastic flowers 3 don’t smell (not smell) of anything! Jade: Look! Now he 4 is talking (talk) Tom:

to the wall.

He 5 is smiling (smile) at it, too! think I6 (think) he’s gone mad! know Jade: Oh, I 7 (know) what he’s doing! He’s appearing in the school play on Saturday, so now he 8 is practising (practise) his role!

Tom:

8

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8 Read and circle the correct answer. Dear Genius Club, My name is Mark and I’m twelve years old. I 1 live / am living in a town called Dover in England. I 2 don’t have / am not having any brothers or sisters but I’ve got a dog called Hermes. 3 Usually / At the moment he’s sleeping on my feet! His fur 4 feels / is feeling really nice and warm! My favourite sport is skateboarding. I’m quite a good student and my favourite subject is Art. 5 Every year / This week we’re designing a poster for the school play. I 6 love / am loving cartoons and funny stories, so will you please print some more in next month’s magazine? Thank you! Mark

Let’s write! 9 Write a letter to your favourite magazine. Use these ideas. You can also look at Exercise 8 for help. Students’ own answers

t: Write abou ou live • where y ily and • your fam your pet(s) bies • your hob ool and • your sch rite your favou subject

Let’s talk! 10 Work with a partner. Ask and answer. Student A: Choose a verb from the box and use it to ask Student B a question. Use the present simple or present continuous. Student B: Answer Student A’s questions.

Do you often cycle to school? No, I don’t. I usually take the bus.

Do this five times. Then swap roles and do the same. cycle

listen to

read

watch

dance

make

sleep

wear

get up

play

visit

write

Do you think your best friend is watching TV right now?

No, he’s in the park. He’s playing football. 9

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2

Past simple, past continuous, (be / get) used to, would

Hi All! I found this very interesting article while I was looking for some information for my History project the other day. I’ve copied and pasted it for you here. Enjoy!

Did children go to school in ancient Rome? Only rich children went to school. Boys would learn Latin and Greek. Girls would learn how to cook and clean – they had to get used to running a home.

What did Roman children wear? Children in ancient Rome wore a simple tunic made of linen or wool.

Did Roman children have toys? Yes, they did. They used to play with model animals and people, kites, dolls and balls.

Past simple, past continuous Affirmative

Negative

Question

Past simple

Rebecca drew a picture.

Rebecca didn’t draw a picture.

Did Rebecca draw a picture?

Past continuous

Tim was watching TV at six o’clock.

Tim wasn’t watching TV at six o’clock.

Was Tim watching TV at six o’clock?

10

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2 Past simple Use We use the past simple to talk about: • something that started and finished in the past, often with a definite time expression. Stacy took the train to London this morning. • situations or states that were true in the past but are not true now. The Smiths lived in Africa for a long time. • past habits, things that we did regularly in the past. We went to the beach every day and collected shells. • things that happened one after the other in the past. Carl parked the car, got out and shut the door. Time expressions We often use the past simple with these time words and phrases: yesterday, yesterday morning / afternoon / evening, the other day, last night / week / month, ten minutes / days / years ago, in 2008 / May, on 24th April / my birthday, at eight o’clock, etc. Sarah arrived ten minutes ago. They moved to our village last August.

Past continuous Use We use the past continuous: • to talk about an action that was in progress at a particular time in the past. I was driving home from work at eight o’clock yesterday evening. • to talk about two or more actions happening at the same time in the past. My parents were watching TV while I was doing my homework. • to talk about a past action that was was interrupted. We use the past continuous for the longer action that was in progress. We use the past simple for the shorter action, the one that happened while the first one was in progress. While I was studying for my test, the lights went out. • to set the scene in a story. It was a beautiful spring morning. A gentle breeze was blowing and the birds were singing in the trees. Time expressions • We often use the past continuous with these time words and phrases: ° all day / morning / evening She was crying all evening. ° at six o’clock I was sleeping at six o’clock. ° at the time Simon wasn’t living here at the time. ° while While we were working, they were watching TV. While I was studying, the phone rang. ° as As she was running, she dropped her purse. • When we use the past simple and past continuous together, we often use when. We use the past simple after when. They were sitting in the kitchen when the earthquake happened.

11

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2 1

Write sentences. Use the past simple. 2 3 4 5 6 7

1

the sun / set / at half past six yesterday The sun set at half past six yesterday.

8

what / you / do / on your birthday?

What did you do on your birthday?

we / not go / on holiday last summer

We didn’t go on holiday last summer.

Beth / phone / two hours ago

Beth phoned two hours ago.

your parents / be / happy with your marks?

Were your parents happy with your marks?

I / not have / enough money to buy the CD

I didn’t have enough money to buy the CD.

what time / he / start / work this morning?

What time did he start work this morning?

I / get up / late yesterday

I got up late yesterday.

2 Read and complete. Use the past continuous. An earthquake measuring 6.5 on the Richter scale struck at eleven o’clock last night. We asked local people what they were doing when the earthquake struck. embarrassing! I 6 was wearing (wear) my bathrobe and my hair was full of shampoo!

Mrs A. I 1 was getting (get) ready for bed. My children 2 were sleeping (sleep) and my husband 3 was watching (watch) TV. We were really scared!

Sam I 7 was playing (play) chess on my computer. The electricity went off, so I didn’t finish my game. I didn’t mind, though, because I 8 wasn’t winning (not win)!

Jilly What 4 was I doing (I / do)? I 5 was having (have) a shower and I ran outside into the road. It was really

3 Circle the correct answer. 1

She screamed / was screaming and dropped the plates.

6

I felt sick, so I didn’t eat / wasn’t eating any breakfast this morning.

2

While I washed / was washing the dishes, I broke a glass.

7

As Stephen came / was coming down the stairs, he tripped and fell.

3

My mother didn’t have / wasn’t having a room of her own when she was little.

8

My parents were having lunch when my sister and I were getting / got home.

4

Chris fixed / was fixing his bike while his dad was washing the car.

9

I found the CD you were looking for while I tidied / was tidying my room.

5

What did you do / were you doing when I called you this morning?

10

We got bored, so we decided / were deciding to go for a walk.

12

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2 4 Complete. Use the past simple or past continuous. 1 2 3 4

dropped My brother his keys as he was running for the bus. (drop) I was working at half past six yesterday afternoon. (work) knew Carla how to read when she was five years old. (know) It was past midnight. A strong wind was blowing across the mountains. (blow)

5 6

Mel slipped on the ice as she was walking to school. (walk) took off Mike his coat and made himself some coffee. (take off)

7

Grandad was reading his newspaper while we were playing chess. (play)

8

We were talking about Helen when she arrived at the café. (arrive)

5 Complete. Use the past simple or past continuous. 1

As we were walking in the woods, we saw a fox. (walk, see)

2

Charlie mother

asleep while his to him. (fall, read)

6

3

Jenny was slicing the bread when she cut her finger. (slice, cut)

7

4

met We Harry the other day were shopping while we . (meet, shop)

8

fell was reading

5

The children were playing in the garden started when the rain . (play, start) was studying While I for my test, I heard a strange noise. (study, hear) Nick

put on

his sunglasses and the house. (put on, leave) While we were working , the boys were watching TV. (work, watch) left

6 Read and complete. Use the past simple or past continuous. O = Officer O:

M = Man were you doing

What 1 (you / do) at two o’clock on Monday afternoon? was watching M: I 2 (watch) TV. Um ... was shopping no, I 3 (shop) in town.

O:

4

Did you go

(you / go) into

Sparkles Jeweller’s? M: I don’t remember. Why? O:

The security guard at the shop says you were standing (stand) outside the shop window all afternoon.

5

M: Oh, yes. Now I remember. was thinking I6 (think) about buying a ring for my ... um ... girlfriend was waiting while I 7 (wait) for her. did you buy O: And 8 (you / buy) a ring? M: No. Why are you asking? O:

Well, while you were there, somebody stole (steal) a diamond ring. We think it was you. You wanted 10 (want) one for your girlfriend, right? 9

M: But I haven’t got a girlfriend! O:

So, you lied to us! You’re under arrest!

13

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2 Used to, would, be / get used to Affirmative

Negative

Question

Used to

My grandad used to live on a farm.

My grandad didn’t use to live on a farm.

Did your grandad use to live on a farm?

Would

My mum would let me stay up late on Friday nights.

My mum wouldn’t let me stay up late on Friday nights.

Would your mum let you stay up late on Friday nights?

Be used to

I’m not used to living in such a quiet place.

Get used to

You’ll soon get used to living in such a quiet place.

Used to • We use used to to talk about: ° past habits, things that we did regularly in the past. We used to go to the cinema every Sunday. ° situations or states that were true in the past but are not true now. Liz didn’t use to like healthy food but now she eats lots of fruit and vegetables. • We can use the past simple and used to in the same way. Paul worked in a shoe factory. Paul used to work in a shoe factory. • But: when we talk about an action that that happened at a particular time in the past (not a situation or state), we can only use the past simple, not used to. They came back last night. ✓ (They used to come back last night. ✗)

Would • We use would like used to, to talk about past habits, things that we did regularly in the past. We would go to the cinema every Sunday. • But: when we describe situations or states (not actions), we can only use used to, not would. Jo used to be very unhappy as a child. ✓ (Jo would be very unhappy as a child. ✗)

Be / Get used to • We use be used to + -ing / noun to talk about something that no longer seems new, strange or unusual because we have seen or experienced it before. He’s used to getting up early. She is used to the bad weather in London. • We use get used to + -ing / noun to say that something becomes or starts to feel normal because we often see or experience it. We are getting used to living here. We have got used to the loud music. • Note the difference between used to and be / get used to: He used to work here. (= He doesn’t work here any more.) He is used to working here. (= It’s no longer new, strange or difficult for him.) He is getting used to working here. (= It’s starting to feel normal, easier, etc.)

14

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2 7 Complete. Use used to or the past simple. Use used to wherever possible.

be a

4

Remember: when we talk about actions (not situations or states) we use the past simple, not used to.

5

arrived My cousin in London two days ago. (arrive) I didn’t use to play football when I was

6

your age. (not play) What time did Lisa phone

2

used to walk She to school but she bought a bike two months ago. (walk) went Brian and Mike to bed

3

late last night. (go) Did you use to cycle to school every day

1

7

you yesterday? (Lisa / phone) didn’t finish I my project last night. (not finish)

8

when you were a student? (you / cycle)

used to love My dad playing cowboys when he was little. (love)

8 Complete. Use used to or would. Use would wherever possible.

be a

4

Remember: for situations or states, we use used to, not would. We only use would for actions.

weekends. (sleep)

6

used to be That building over there a hotel. (be) would get up We early and start work

7

at seven every day. (get up) used to have I a cat when I was your

5

2

would spend When I was younger, I hours drawing and painting. (spend) I didn’t use to like chocolate very much

3

but I now I love it. (not like) used to live Mr and Mrs Robinson

1

in India but they moved here two years ago. (live)

When my brother was at university, he would sleep until noon at

age. (have) 8

would bake Grandma every Sunday. (bake)

a cake for us

9 Circle the forms that can be used in each sentence. If both forms are correct, circle them both.

1

Our dog used to / would hide under the bed whenever there was a storm.

2

Zoe used to / would hate school when she was little.

3

My uncle worked / used to work for that company.

4

I had / used to have a terrible headache yesterday.

5

Aunt Lucy used to / would buy me a pair of socks every Christmas.

6

I used to / would have short hair when I was your age.

7

They were / used to be good friends when they were at school.

8

Andy left / used to leave his bag on the bus yesterday evening.

15

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2 10 Complete. Use am / is / are used to or used to. 1 2 3 4

Tom has been a lorry driver for ten years. He is used to driving long distances. used to Kim be allergic to cats when she was little. We are used to living in a big city. We’ve lived here for years. used to My mother sing in the school

used to

5

Mr and Mrs Bower that house.

6 7

No, I don’t mind getting up at half past six. I am used to getting up early. used to I go to the gym three times

8

a week when I was younger. She’s a doctor, so she is used to

live in

working long hours.

choir when she was a student.

11 Circle the correct answer. 1

Mr Roberts used / is used to live in Australia.

5

I can’t be / get used to sleeping in my new bed. It’s too hard.

2

She didn’t like the weather at first but now she is / gets used to it.

6

We used / were used to play hide-and-seek at school.

3

I used to sleep / sleeping with my teddy in my arms when I was little.

7

When he first moved here, he wasn’t / didn’t used to speaking English all the time.

4

I’m not used to eat / eating this kind of food. I feel sick.

8

Have you got used to cycle / cycling to work yet?

12 Read and complete. Use one word in each space.

Harry lives in a beautiful villa in Spain. He enjoys sailing and buying old paintings. But his life didn’t 1 use to be so good. Harry used 2 to be a dustman. In fact, he was a dustman for twenty-five years. He 3 would get up at five o’clock every morning and work for eight hours collecting rubbish from the city streets. Two years 4 ago , on a cold winter morning, Harry’s life changed forever. It was still dark and a freezing wind 5 was blowing along the streets. Harry 6 did n’t mind, though. He was 7 used to the cold. At about six o’clock he 8 was collecting the rubbish from a big old house on Dover Street 9 when an old handbag fell out of

the bin. He opened it. It was full of banknotes – hundreds of them! Harry took the bag to the police station but nobody came to collect it. After two months the police gave the money to Harry! ‘I love my new life,’ Harry told us. ‘But I still haven’t 10 got used to waking up late. I still get up at five o’clock every morning!’

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2 13 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

We went out every Saturday when we were teenagers. used used to go out We every Saturday when we were teenagers.

4

I still find it hard to get up early in the morning. got I still haven’t got used to getting up early in the morning.

2

He hadn’t finished his work when I came back. working was (still) working He when I came back.

5

They hadn’t finished their breakfast when I got up. having were (still) having They breakfast when I got up.

3

My mum used to pick me up from school every day. would would pick me up My mum from school every day.

6

Did you play golf when you were at school? use you use to play Did golf when you were at school?

Let’s write! 14 Look at Exercise 6 again. Imagine you are the security guard at Sparkles Jeweller’s. Write a short paragraph describing what happened on the day the diamond ring was stolen. You can use these ideas.

did you see

When the man? u What were yo me? ti e doing at th e man What was th doing? do What did you him? w when you sa What did he

It was one o’clock in the afternoon. I was Students’ own answers

do?

Let’s talk! 15 Work with a partner. Student A: Write down four inventions which have changed our way of life. Show them to Student B. Student B: Say what people did and didn’t do before those inventions existed. Use used to. Now swap roles and do the same. • Students’ own answers • •

The car. People used to walk everywhere. They didn’t use to travel far.

17

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3

Present perfect simple, present perfect continuous

by Ginny Lewis

Have you ever watched the Eurovision Song Contest? Of course you have! Learn more by checking out these amazing facts and figures! More than 1,500 songs have taken part in the contest.

Singers from more than forty countries have been singing in the contest for more than fifty years. There have been more winners than contests. There were four winners in 1969.

The youngest singer that has ever taken part in the contest was thirteen-year-old Sandra Kim from Belgium. She sang in the 1986 contest and won!

Affirmative

Negative

Question

Present perfect simple

She has finished her homework.

She hasn’t finished her homework.

Has she finished her homework?

Present perfect continuous

They have been working hard.

They haven’t been working hard.

Have they been working hard?

18

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3 Present perfect simple Use • We use the present perfect simple to talk about: ° something that started and finished past, when we do not know or are not interested in when it happened. Sharon has baked a cake. ° something that happened in the past and has a result in the present. I’ve dropped chocolate on my shirt and now it’s dirty. ° something that happened a very short time ago, with just. The boys have just come back from school. ° something that started in the past and continues in the present. Dad has worked for that company since 2005. ° something that happened during a period that is not finished at the time of speaking. I’ve been to the cinema four times this week. ° experiences, things we have or have not done in our lives. He has climbed Mont Blanc but he hasn’t climbed Mount Everest. • We often use the present perfect simple with ever to ask about people’s experiences. Have you ever met somebody famous? • We often use the present perfect simple with never to talk about things we have not done in our lives. Danny has never travelled abroad. • We often use never ... before or It’s / This is the first time ... ever ... with the present perfect simple, to talk about the first time something happens. I’ve never played chess before. This is the first time I’ve ever played chess.

Time expressions We often use the present perfect simple with these time words and phrases: • ever Have you ever seen a tiger? • never

I have never tried Chinese food.

• just

Our cousins have just arrived.

• already

They’ve already made their beds.

• yet

Robbie hasn’t sent me a text yet. Have you finished yet?

• for

Clare has worked there for three years.

• since

Clare has worked there since 2006.

• How long ...?

How long have you known David?

• so far

We’ve visited three islands so far.

• lately

Have you read any good books lately?

• recently

I haven’t seen Natalie recently.

• always

Andy has always wanted to be a doctor.

• today

I haven’t had anything to eat today.

• this month

I’ve bought five CDs this month.

19

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3 Have gone to, have been to We use have gone to to say that someone has gone to a place and has not come back yet. We use have been to to say that someone went to a place in the past but has come back now. She has gone to Italy. (She is in Italy now.) She has been to Italy. (She went to Italy but she is back now.)

1

Write sentences. Use the present perfect simple. Put the words in brackets in the correct place. 2 3 4 5 6 7

1

it / not stop / raining (yet) It hasn’t stopped raining yet.

8

you / hear from / Fred? (lately)

Have you heard from Fred lately?

she / arrive / in London (just)

She’s just arrived in London.

I / clean / the living room (already)

I’ve already cleaned the living room.

you / bake / a cake? (ever)

Have you ever baked a cake?

I / want / to try Mexican food (always)

I’ve always wanted to try Mexican food.

he / use / this program before (never)

He’s never used this program before.

we / not see / Sarah (since Monday)

We haven’t seen Sarah since Monday.

2 Read and complete. Use the present perfect simple. The Sunset Hotel is opening tomorrow. Mr Hill, the hotel manager, wants to check that everything is ready. Mr Hill: Jenny:

Has Cathy put

(Cathy / put) clean towels in the bathrooms?

4

Yes, she has but we have run out (run out) of has gone soap. Cathy 6

5

Mr Hill:

1

Have you made

(you / make)

the beds? Jenny:

have hoovered Yes, and I 2 (hoover) the carpets, too. But I 3 haven’t filled (not fill) the vases with fresh flowers yet.

Mr Hill:

(go) to the storeroom to get some more. Also, the air conditioning in room 101 7 has broken down (break down). Yes, I know. I 8 have already phoned (already / phone) the technician.

Jenny:

OK. I’ll finish the flowers and then we’ll be ready.

Mr Hill:

Good work, Jenny.

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3 3 Circle the correct answer. 1

Carol has A yet C ever

2

How has Mr Carter lived next door to you? A often B much time C long time D long

3

fed the baby. B already D lately

We haven’t heard from Anna A never B always C lately D ever

.

4

, three people have phoned about the job. A So far B So long C Yet D Since lately

5

Steve’s A yet C never

6

I’ve known Vicky ten years. A for B since C in D from

ridden a horse. B ever D always

4 Tick (✓) the correct sentence. 1

Have you ever gone to Spain? Have you ever been to Spain?

5

We’ve never gone to that new café. We’ve never been to that new café.

2

I’ve gone here before. I came last week. I’ve been here before. I came last week.

6

Rebecca’s gone to bed. She was exhausted. Rebecca’s been to bed. She was exhausted.

3

Shelley has gone out. She’ll be back later. Shelley has been out. She’ll be back later.

7

I’ve gone to four shops but I haven’t found the dress I want. I’ve been to four shops but I haven’t found the dress I want.

4

No, Dad isn’t here. He’s gone to the library. No, Dad isn’t here. He’s been to the library.

8

They’re on holiday. They’ve gone to France for a week. They’re on holiday. They’ve been to France for a week.

5 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words.

1

This is the first time Eugenius has made a cake. never has never made Eugenius a cake before.

2

I’ve never seen such a boring film before! ever That is the most boring film I have ever seen!

3

I last saw Jenny a month ago. seen I haven’t seen Terry for a month.

4

He’s never played chess before. first This is the first time he has (ever) played chess.

5

I met Liz seven years ago. known I have known Liz for seven years.

6

Ken started working here in 2007. since Ken has worked here since 2007.

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3 Past simple and present perfect simple Past simple We use the past simple to talk about: • something that started and finished in the past, when we say or know when it happened. I read this book two weeks ago. • something that was true in the past but is not true in the present. They lived in Madrid many years ago. • something that happened during a period that is finished at the time of speaking. I phoned him four times this morning. (It is not morning now.)

Present perfect simple • We use the present perfect simple to talk about: ° something that started and finished past, when we do not say or know when it happened. I’ve read this book. ° something that started in the past and continues in the present. They’ve lived in Madrid since 2006. ° something that happened during a period that is not finished at the time of speaking. I’ve phoned him four times this morning. (It’s still morning.) ° something that happened in the past and has a result in the present. I’ve finished my homework, so I can watch TV now. • Remember: the past simple tells us about the past. The present perfect simple may also tell us about the present.

6 Circle the correct answer. 1

You’ve spent £500 on clothes this month / last month!

5

Sam and Niki have been very busy last week / lately.

2

I saw this film a few weeks ago / already.

6

3

How many goals have they scored yesterday / so far?

I didn’t check my e-mails this morning / since this morning.

7

I didn’t see Nick and Samantha yesterday / since Wednesday.

We haven’t had a holiday last year / for years.

8

My brother sold his car in May / already.

4

7 Complete. Use the past simple or present perfect simple.

2

were Where you at six o’clock on Monday afternoon? (be) I haven’t packed my bag yet. (not pack)

3

We

1

4

5

have read I (read)

6 7

left Mike isn’t here. He minutes ago. (leave) I haven’t seen Jo lately. (see)

8

I

went out

yesterday. (go out) Mum has already made the sandwiches for the party. (already / make)

e-mailed

six books since August. twenty

Τim last night. (e-mail)

22

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3 Present perfect continuous Use We use the present perfect continuous to talk about: • something that started in the past and continues until now. She’s been working hard all week. • something that has just finished and has a result that we can see in the present. Maria’s hair is wet. She’s been swimming in the lake.

Time expressions We often use the present perfect continuous with these time words and phrases: all morning / day / night, for, since, lately, recently, how long, etc. We’ve been waiting for ages. She’s been getting a lot of headaches recently.

8 Read and complete. Use the present perfect continuous. Jim 1 has been studying (study) for his exams all day, so he’s feeling quite tired. His sister Lily 2 has been playing (play) with her dolls in her bedroom since this morning. Their mother, Mrs Grey, usually spends a lot of time sending e-mails but today she 3 hasn’t been using (not use) her computer. She 4 has been planting (plant) flowers in the garden all morning. Mr Grey 5 hasn’t been helping (not help) her, though. He 6 has been working (work) hard lately and he’s really tired, so he’s taking a nap in the shade of a tree. Fluffy, Jim’s cat, is in the garden, too. He 7 has been watching (watch) a little bird for half an hour now. He hasn’t caught it yet, though!

9 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

We started using this book in September. been have been using We this book since September.

5

We first came to this restaurant years ago. have We have been coming to this restaurant for years.

2

When did Chloe start learning English? has How long has Chloe been learning English?

6

It’s been two hours and we’re still waiting! been We have been waiting for two hours!

3

He fell asleep at noon and he hasn’t woken up yet. sleeping He has been sleeping since noon.

7

It started snowing two days ago. for It has been snowing for two days.

8

He started collecting stamps when he was eight. has He has been collecting stamps since he was eight.

4

She began working at ten o’clock. since She has been working since ten o’clock.

23

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3 Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous • With the present perfect simple we focus on the result of an action. The action is complete. She’s cleaned her room. She can go out now. • With the present perfect continuous we focus on the action itself (not its result), or on how long something has been going on. The action may or may not be complete. Mum has been cleaning the house all morning.

10 Circle the correct answer. 1

We have danced / have been dancing all evening. This party is great!

5

Simon hasn’t phoned / hasn’t been phoning since Monday.

2

I’m tired because I have worked / have been working long hours recently.

6

I don’t want a sandwich. I have just had / have just been having one.

3

Jodie has never lied / has never been lying to me.

7

Dad has finished / has been finishing painting the kitchen.

4

Jack has gone / has been going to the gym a lot recently.

8

My sister has travelled / has been travelling around Europe since June.

11 Complete. Use the present perfect simple or present perfect continuous.

2

How long have you been learning French? (you / learn) Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long?

3

(you / wait) haven’t finished I

1

my Maths project

yet. (not finish)

4 5 6

I haven’t been sleeping very well lately. (not sleep) Have you met Tim, this is Lee. before? (you / meet) Have the children had breakfast yet? (the children / have)

12 Read and complete. Use the present perfect simple or present perfect continuous.

Growing schools: gardening for children ‘I used to hate vegetables but now I really like them,’ Emily Carter told our reporter. So why has Emily started 1 (Emily / start) eating vegetables? The answer is simple. For the last six months, Emily and her classmates 2 have been taking part (take part) in an exciting new school project called Growing schools. ‘We grow potatoes, peas and lettuce,’ Emily haven’t had explained. ‘We 3

(not have) lunch yet today but later we are going to eat salad made with our own lettuce! Lettuce tastes different when you 4 have grown (grow) it yourself!’ Teacher Dominic Murphy began the Growing schools project. ‘At first only a few pupils were interested. But recently more and more children 5 have been coming (come) to the club. They 6 have been working (work) really hard in the garden for the last few weeks and the whole school 7 has been eating (eat) fresh vegetables and salads all winter!’

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3 13 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

I’ve never read such a good book before. best This is the best book I have ever read.

5

This is the funniest story I’ve ever heard. never have never heard I such a funny story.

2

I saw Kirsty on Friday. since I haven’t seen Kirsty since Friday.

6

3

Mum started studying Italian two years ago. been has been studying Mum Italian for two years.

The rain started at noon and it’s still raining. has It has been raining since noon.

7

It’s two weeks since I last phoned Ben. for I haven’t phoned Ben for two weeks.

8

He started studying for his test at five. been has been studying He for his test since five.

4

I started playing football when I was six. have have been playing I football since I was six.

Let’s write! 14 Imagine that you are interviewing your favourite star. Write down the questions that you would ask him / her. Ask about the things he / she has or hasn’t done up to now in his / her life and the things he / she has been doing recently. Use the present perfect simple and present perfect continuous. Have you ever Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 15 Work with a partner. Ask and answer. Student A: Look at the list below. Ask Student B if he / she has ever done these things and tick (✓) or cross (✗) the boxes. Student B: Answer Student A’s questions. Now swap roles and do the same. When you have finished, report to the rest of the class.

Have you ever flown in a plane? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.

fly / in a plane eat / Chinese food play / in a football team meet / a famous person have / breakfast in bed stay up / all night

Maria has never flown in a plane but she has ... . She hasn’t ... Nick has never ... 25

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4

Past perfect simple, past perfect continuous

Photos uploaded by:

Ginny Lewis, London

My favourite! Eugenius after he had seen a spider!

Dax’s first photo! He had just bought his first camera.

Greece 2009. We had been lying on the beach all day.

Dax didn’t know there was a hole until he had fallen into it!

Send your photos to :

teenswcameras.com

Affirmative

Negative

Question

Past perfect simple

They had met before.

They hadn’t met before.

Had they met before?

Past perfect continuous

They had been working hard.

They hadn’t been working hard.

Had they been working hard?

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4 Past perfect simple Use We use the past perfect simple to talk about: • an action that happened before a particular time in the past. Carla had finished her homework by nine o’clock. • an action that happened before another action in the past. We use the past perfect simple for the action that happened first and the past simple for the action that happened second. Mrs Philips had left for work by the time her children got up. Time expressions We often use the past perfect simple with these time words and phrases: before, after, when, by, by the time, already, just, as soon as, until, ever, never, the day / week / month before, the previous day / week / month, etc. As soon as Carla had finished her homework, she went to bed.

Past perfect continuous Use We use the past perfect continuous to talk about: • an action that happened before another action in the past, when we want to emphasise how long it lasted. We use the past perfect continuous for the action that happened first and the past simple for the action that happened second. She had been waiting for two hours when he finally arrived. • an action that finished before a particular time in the past and had a result that we could see. Ian had been swimming and his hair was wet. Time expressions We often use the past perfect continuous with these time words and phrases: for, since, all day / week / evening, how long, etc. Maria had been studying for her test all day.

1

Complete. Use the past perfect simple.

4

Stephen had already driven ten kilometres when he realised he was lost. (already / drive) had answered By ten o’clock I the

5

first four questions of the History exam. (answer) Had you looked in your rear-view mirror

6

before you turned left? (you / look) hadn’t arrived Our train when we got

7

to the station. (not arrive) Mrs Owen had never used

a computer

8

before. (never / use) had packed Samantha

her suitcase

3

1 2

had watered

Mr Andrews the flowers before he went to bed. (water) Had they left by the time you got back? (they / leave)

before I got up. (pack)

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4 2 Complete. Use the past simple or past perfect simple. 1

2 3

4

reached By the time we the had already left . bus stop, the bus (reach, already / leave) I had already gone to bed when my parents got home. (already / go, get) We didn’t know his name because we had never met him before. (not know, never / meet) felt She sick after she had eaten the chocolate cake.

5

6

didn’t go I to the cinema with the others because I had already seen the film. (not go, already / see) had done I my homework before came Mum home from work.

(do, come) 7

8

(feel, eat)

As soon as the rain had stopped , we hurried back to the car. (stop, hurry) After we had finished lunch, Carol washed the dishes. (finish, wash)

3 Complete. Use the past perfect continuous of the verbs in the box. cry

eat

lie

not feel

1

Jason had been waiting His friend was late.

2

rain

run

wait

work 5

The children were out of breath. They had been running in the garden.

Becky’s eyes were red. She had been crying .

6

He went to see the doctor. He hadn’t been feeling well for weeks.

3

Toby had chocolate around his mouth. He had been eating ice cream.

7

4

The garden was flooded. It had been raining all week.

8

Sarah was tired. She had been working all day. My face was red. I had been lying in

for two hours.

the sun for hours.

4 Read and complete. Use the past simple, past perfect simple or past perfect continuous.

Rory 1

set off

(set off) very early in the morning on his long journey. He went (check) the car tyres and the oil before he 3 (go) to 4 had also looked (also / look) at the map to be sure of his route. It bed the night before. He left got (left) his house. By the time it 6 was still dark when he 5 7 had already been driving (already / drive) for two hours. (get) light, he 2

had checked

The countryside was wild and beautiful. The snow on the mountains 8 had not yet melted had packed (pack) (yet / not melt) and they looked lovely in the morning light. Rory 9 10 stopped (stop) at about eight o’clock to eat them. He felt some sandwiches and he wonderful. He 11 had been planning (plan) this trip for months and now he was finally on the turned (turn) the key. Nothing road! He got back into the car and 12 13 happened (happen). He checked the oil – everything was fine. Or was it? There was no petrol! He 14 had organised (organise) everything perfectly except for one thing: he 15 hadn’t bought (not buy) petrol!

28

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4 5 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

My brother had never seen a lion before. ever It was the first time my brother had ever seen a lion.

4

We finished our meal and paid the bill straightaway. soon We paid the bill as soon as we had finished our meal.

2

I started working and two hours later Kim got up. been had been working I for two hours when Kim got up.

5

We went out and then he called. already We had already gone out when he called.

3

It was the first time I had seen such a beautiful place. never had never seen I such a beautiful place before.

6

I had wanted to tell her the truth for a long time. thinking had been thinking I about telling her the truth for a long time.

Let’s write! 6 Read the story in Exercise 4 again and write your own story about a trip that went wrong. You can use these ideas.

u go? Where did yo get there? How did you go with? Who did you u done What had yo urney? before the jo you been How long had trip? planning the rong? What went w

Students’ own answers

Let’s talk!

7

Work with a partner. Student A: Look at the situations in A. Read them out to Student B. Student B: Listen to Student A and explain what caused each situation. Use the past perfect simple or past perfect continuous.

You felt tired. Yes. I had been working hard for weeks.

Now swap roles and do the same with B. A B You felt tired.

You felt sad.

You felt sick.

You felt very excited.

You failed your English test.

You forgot your friend’s birthday.

You had a fight with your brother.

Your friend was angry with you.

You felt sad. That’s right. I had had some very bad news.

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1

Revision: Units 1–4

1

Complete. Use the present simple or present continuous.

0

gets up My dad at six every morning. (get up) Are you watching this programme or can

1 2 3

I turn the TV off? (you / watch) What do you mean ? I don’t understand . (you / mean, not understand) I am not working . You can come in.

3 Circle the forms that can be used

in each sentence. If both forms are correct, circle them both.

0

Peter lived / used to live in Australia but he moved back to England last year.

1

When we were children, we used to play / would play at pirates whenever we went to the beach.

2

I’m not used to get up / getting up so early in the morning.

3

Did you use to have / having a lot of friends when you were at college?

4

Nick didn’t use to / wouldn’t be bossy.

5

I had / used to have a bike just like yours.

6

Becky is slowly getting used to live / living in the country.

(not work) smells

4

This rose (smell)

5

is staying Fred with his grandparents for a few weeks. (stay) Do you play football at the

6

wonderful!

weekends? (you / play)

.......... / 6

.......... / 7

2 Read and complete. Use the past simple or past continuous.

left It 0 was raining (rain) when I 1 (leave) the office last night. I got into the drove (drive) out of the car and 2 3 was getting (get) dark office car park. It as I approached the bridge over the river. Suddenly, I saw a woman standing in the middle of the road. She 4 was waving (wave) her arms in the air. I hit the brakes and jumped out of the car. I looked up and down the road but there was nobody there. Just then, a police car 5 stopped (stop) beside me. ‘Watch out!’ he 6 shouted (shout). ‘The bridge is broken!’ I don’t know who that woman was and I never saw her again but I know one thing: she saved my life!

4 Complete. Use the past simple or present perfect simple.

0

I have just tidied

2

my room. (just / tidy) got Jenny and Nick married last month. (get) left George a while ago.

3

(leave) We haven’t had

1

4 5 6 7

a test in Physics recently. (not have) bought They this car in 2006. (buy) has worked Claire here since February. (work) I have already written the new words in my notebook. (already / write) Mike didn’t have a party on his birthday last year. (not have) .......... / 7

.......... / 6

30

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Revision

1 5 Complete. Use the present perfect

simple or present perfect continuous.

1

2

3

A: I have been waiting for an hour to see the doctor. Is there a problem? (wait) hasn’t arrived B: I’m afraid he yet. There was an emergency at the hospital and he’s going to be late. (not arrive) A: Please don’t invite Carl to your party. B: Why not? You two have always been friends, haven’t you? (always / be) A: Yes, but he has been acting very strangely recently. He hasn’t spoken to me for a week. (act, not speak) A: How long have you been studying Italian? (you / study) B: For four years. My Italian has improved a lot this year, though. (improve) A: Why is that? have been B: I to Italy three times since January. (be)

7 Complete. Use the past perfect

simple or past perfect continuous.

1

How long had you been learning English when you first moved to London? (you / learn) She had already gone home when I got

2

back. (already / go) The actors had been filming

0

3

she made dinner. (clean) 4

Jamie was out of breath because he had been running . (run)

5

They had already heard the news when I saw them. (already / hear) I had been waiting for two hours and

6

I was starting to get worried. (wait) .......... / 6

8 Complete. Use one word in each space.

.......... / 7 0

A: Why are you looking at me like that? B: Because you look really funny in that hat!

1

A: Have you been waiting long? B: Yes! Where have you been?

2

A:

you have a good time at the party last night? B: No, it was horrible!

3

A: So, have you got used to working nights? B: No, not really.

4

A: Was he working when you called? B: Yes, and he asked me to call him back later.

5

A: That building over there used a hotel. B: Yes, I know.

6 Circle the correct answer. 0

I never travelled / had never travelled on my own before I went / had gone to Africa last year.

1

By the time we arrived / had arrived, he already left / had already left.

2

As soon as she finished / had finished her homework, she went out / had gone out.

3

I had / had had a stomach ache because I ate / had eaten too much ice cream the night before.

4

Ben and Liz already got / had already got married when we met / had met them.

5

Their daughter already finished / had already finished school when they moved / had moved to Oxford.

6

Harry went / had gone to bed by the time they phoned / had phoned. .......... / 6

all day but they still couldn’t get the scene right. (film) had cleaned After she the house,

Did

to

be

.......... / 5

Total:

.......... / 50

31

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5

The future

Games Projects Field trips Photos Blog

Summer

Sunday, fun day!

i-camp

Are you coming to i-camp this summer? Fill in the application form and send it NOW! At this year’s summer i-camp we will be learning about video animation and digital technology. By the end of the week-long workshop you will have designed your own video game! Click here for more information.

Click here to learn more about our Sunday science workshops. This week’s workshop begins at ten o’clock. You will build a hot-air balloon and learn about rockets! Town Mayor Colin Davies will be presenting prizes for the best project.

Future simple, be going to, to, present continuous, present simple Affirmative

Negative

Question

Future simple

She’ll pass the test.

She won’t pass the test.

Will she pass the test?

Be going to

He’s going to sell his car.

He isn’t going to sell his car.

Is he going to sell his car?

Present continuous

They’re having a party on Saturday.

They aren’t having a party on Saturday.

Are they having a party on Saturday?

Present simple

The train leaves at half past twelve.

The train doesn’t leave at half past twelve.

Does the train leave at half past twelve?

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5 Future simple • We use the future simple: ° for predictions, to say what we think will happen in the future, often with phrases like I think, I know, I believe, I’m sure, I bet, I’m afraid, I expect, I suppose, or with adverbs like probably, certainly, possibly, perhaps. I’m sure he’ll be late for school. ° for decisions we make at the time of speaking. Is that Ben? I’ll go and say hello. ° when we offer to do something for somebody. We’ll drive you to the station. ° for promises. I’ll send you the money as soon as I can. ° when we ask someone to do something for us. Will you get the phone, please? ° to warn or threaten someone. Stop! You’ll hurt yourself! Leave now or I’ll call the police! ° to express our hopes for the future. I hope Carrie will be alright. • We often use these time words and phrases when we talk about the future: today, this afternoon, tomorrow, tomorrow morning, next month, on Tuesday, at eight o’clock, in the future, soon, one day, etc. I’ll be back at eight o’clock.

Be going to • We use be going to: ° for intentions, things we have decided to do in the future. I’m going to buy a new bike next week. ° for predictions, things we expect to happen in the future because of something we know or can see now. There are huge black clouds in the sky. It’s going to rain. • Note the difference between will and be going to for predictions: ° We use will to say what we think will happen, to express our opinion or belief. I’m sure my team will win the cup! ° We use be going to when we can see that something is going to happen, based on a present situation. Mind the baby! He’s going to fall down the stairs!

Present continuous We can use the present continuous to talk about the future. We use it to talk about things we have planned and arranged to do in the future. Dave and Emma are leaving this afternoon.

Present simple We can use the present simple to talk about the future. We use it when we are talking about programmes (theatres, cinemas, etc.) and timetables (trains, buses, etc.). The film doesn’t start until seven o’clock. The bus leaves at five past ten.

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5 1

Circle the correct answer.

1

It will probably / is probably going to take longer than we thought.

6

And then my parents will / are going to take me bowling. Do you want to come?

2

So, have you decided yet? What will you / are you going to do about the problem?

7

Bye. I promise I will / am going to send you a postcard from Paris!

3

Will you / Are you going to pass me the salt, please?

8

We will / are going to paint the kitchen. I’ve just bought the paint.

4

I will / am going to fix your bike for you. Don’t worry, it won’t take long.

9

I hope Peter will / is going to let us know when he hears from her.

5

Last night Jamie told me that he won’t / isn’t going to sell his car after all.

10

Nicole will / is going to visit her aunt in Oxford this summer.

2 Complete. Use the future simple or be going to. 4

be a Remember: we use the future simple for predictions that are based on what we think or believe. We use be going to for predictions that are based on what we can see now.

1 2

Look at that blue sky. It really hot today. (be) will forget I’m sure he

is going to be to come to the

5

(crash) 6 7

I’m sure she won’t mind computer. (not mind) will be I expect they

if we use her back by

noon. (be)

meeting. (forget) 3

will pass I don’t think Nina the exam next week. She isn’t very good at Maths. (pass) He’s driving too fast. He is going to crash !

I feel terrible. Oh no! I am going to be sick! (be)

8

She’s gone completely white! She is going to faint ! (faint)

3 Complete. Use the future simple or present continuous. 2 3

I am meeting my friends after school. (meet) Jenny’s just called. She is coming to dinner tonight. (come)

5

I’m exhausted. I think I will take a nap. (take) will ask Oh no, I’m late! I Dad to drive

6

me to the station. (ask) Nick and Katie are flying

4

to Paris on

Saturday. (fly)

1

She’s very good. I’m sure she the job. (get)

will get

will shoot !

7

Give me the money or I (shoot)

8

We can’t join you, I’m afraid. We are going out with Terry tonight. (go out)

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5 4 Complete. Use the present simple or present continuous. 1 2

leaves The train to London at half past eight. (leave) am taking I my cousin out to dinner

4 5

(Sarah / come)

tonight. (take) 3

is picking My dad Rob up from the station this afternoon. (pick) Is Sarah coming with us on Sunday?

Hurry up! Our film (start)

starts

at six!

6

lands Their plane tomorrow. (land)

at noon

5 Circle the correct answer. 1

I just know he will / is going to get back safe and sound.

5

What will you do / are you doing this evening? Do you want to join us?

2

We will have / are having a party on Sunday. Here’s your invitation.

6

I love you! Will you / Are you going to marry me?

3

The lesson starts / is starting at half past eight. Don’t be late.

7

The festival ends / is ending on Saturday, I think.

4

Stop! You are going to fall / are falling off the ladder!

8

I’ve just phoned Andrew. He will come / is coming back tonight.

Future continuous Affirmative

He’ll be working at half past five.

Negative

He won’t be working at half past five.

Question

Will he be working at half past five?

Use We use the future continuous: • to talk about an action that will be in progress at a particular time in the future. At eight o’clock this evening we’ll be driving to London. • to ask someone about their plans for the future. Will you be joining us for dinner? • to talk about something that we are sure will happen because it is part of a routine, part of a plan or part of a schedule of future events. We’ll be staying in London for three weeks.

Time expressions We often use the future continuous with these time words and phrases: tomorrow, tomorrow evening, this time tomorrow, at eight o’clock, on Monday, in two weeks, etc.

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5 6 Complete. Use the future continuous of the verbs in the box. go

lie

move

not stay

revise

wait

will be revising I can’t come with you. I for my exams all weekend. I will be waiting for you outside the

1 2

4

Will you be moving house now that you’ve

5

got a new job? (you) will be going I to the shops later. Do

6

you need anything? I won’t be staying here for Christmas.

school gates. Don’t be late. 3

Just think! This time tomorrow we will be lying on a beach in Miami.

I’m going to Rome.

7 Circle the correct answer. 1

What will you do / be doing at this time tomorrow?

4

I’ll see / be seeing Matt tomorrow. I can give him your message.

2

I will shut / be shutting the window if you’re cold.

5

Sarah will work / be working at noon tomorrow.

3

Will you help / be helping me with my homework, please?

6

Wait. I’ll show / be showing you how this program works.

Future perfect simple, future perfect continuous Affirmative

Negative

Question

Future perfect simple

She will have finished by then.

She won’t have finished by then.

Will she have finished by then?

Future perfect continuous

Robbie will have been working for three hours.

Robbie won’t have been working for three hours.

Will Robbie have been working for three hours?

Future perfect simple We use the future perfect simple to talk about something that will be over before a particular time in the future. By the time you get up, I will have left for work.

Future perfect continuous We use the future perfect continuous to talk about something that will continue up to a particular time in the future. Grandad will have been working at Grantchester Shoes for thirty years in August.

Time expressions We often use the future perfect simple and future perfect continuous with these time words and phrases: by, by the time, before, in a year’s time, in ten minutes, soon, etc. The boys will have gone to bed by the time we come back.

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5 8 Read and complete. Use the future perfect simple. Amy:

I 1 will have become (become) a famous actress by the time I’m thirty.

Ben: Amy:

Right. And 2 will you have made (you / make) loads of money, too? Of course! I 3 will have bought (buy) a mansion in Hollywood and I will have married (marry) a famous pop star! What about you?

4

Ben:

Let me see. By the time I’m thirty, I 5 will have played (play) football for all the best teams in the world. will have won I6 (win) the World Cup as captain of my team and I 7 will have started (start) a football school for poor children.

Amy:

Right. There’s just one problem with our plans.

Ben:

What’s that?

Amy:

I can’t act and you can’t play football!

9 Write sentences. Use the future perfect continuous. 1

by 2020 / Mr Hollis / live / in that house for fifty years By 2020 Mr Hollis will have been living in that house for fifty years.

4

in two minutes’ time / you / brush / your hair for fifteen minutes! In two minutes’ time you will have been brushing your hair for fifteen minutes!

2

how long / you / study / Italian by the time you go to Italy? How long will you have been studying Italian by the time you go to Italy?

5

Harry / stay / with us for three weeks on Monday Harry will have been staying with us for three weeks on Monday.

3

by four o’clock / we / walk / for five hours! By four o’clock we will have been walking for five hours!

6

Katie / not wait / long by the time we arrive Katie won’t have been waiting long by the time we arrive.

Future time clauses Future time clauses • We often use words and phrases like when, before, after, until, as soon as, by, by the time, etc. in sentences that are about the future. I’ll buy your medicine when I go into town. • We use the present simple (not the future simple) after these time words and phrases. We’ll phone you when we get there. ✓ (We’ll phone you when we’ll get there. ✗)

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5 10 Circle the correct answer. 1

I do / will do the shopping after I go / will go to the bank.

5

She knows / will know the truth as soon as she sees / will see his face.

2

Do / Will you bring me the letters as soon as they arrive / will arrive?

6

When Jamie enters / will enter the room, we shout / will shout ‘Surprise’!

3

When I find / will find your glasses, I tell / will tell you.

7

I wait / will wait here until she phones / will phone.

4

I look after / will look after the children until she gets / will get back from work.

8

I start / will start doing my homework as soon as I get / will get home.

11 Complete. Use the future simple, future perfect simple or present simple. 1

2 3

4

get By the time we to the will have started . cinema, the film (get, start) won’t be He happy until his arrives girlfriend . (not be, arrive) The children will have gone to bed by comes back the time their father . (go, come back) see When we Sarah, we will give her your message.

5

6

7 8

(see, give)

gets up By the time Tommy , his will have wrapped up mum his birthday presents. (get up, wrap up) leave As soon as my parents will lock the house, I the door and

close the windows. (leave, lock) We will clean up the mess before Mum sees it. (clean up, see) Dad will have finished painting the deliver bedrooms by the time they the new beds. (finish, deliver)

12 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words.

1

2

They’ve decided to visit Egypt this summer. going They are going to visit Egypt this summer. We will finish our lunch before you get home. have We will have finished our lunch by the time you get home.

3

We can’t call her at four because that’s when she has her piano lesson. having We can’t call her at four because she will be having her piano lesson then.

4

Let me carry your bags for you. will will carry I your bags for you.

5

Jeff moved here almost two years ago. living Soon Jeff will have been living here for two years.

6

He will do fifteen driving lessons before he takes his test. done He will have done fifteen driving lessons by the time he takes his test.

7

Would you like to order a dessert, Madam? ordering Will you be ordering a dessert, Madam?

8

Fiona has decided to move to Belgium. going Fiona is going to move to Belgium.

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5 13 Read and complete. Use one word in each space.

This summer I’m 1 going to work as a waitress in my uncle’s restaurant. I hate the job but I’m going 2 to earn enough money to buy a laptop computer! By July 20th I will have 3 been working there for one month and by the end of August I will 4 have earned enough money to buy my laptop. Hooray! In three months’ time my uncle 5 will have been running this restaurant for twenty years! He has lots of English customers, so he’s started taking English lessons. However, by the 6 time I start working there, he will 7 have been learning English for only a few weeks, so I’ll 8 be taking all the orders from our English customers!

Let’s write! 14 Imagine that you have decided to take a summer job. Write about the things you will be doing as part of your job and the things you will have done by the time you start school in September. You can look at Exercise 13 for help. Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 15 Work with a partner. Ask and answer. What will you have done by the time you’re

What will you have done by the time you’re twenty?

• twenty? • thirty-five? • fifty

I will have finished school. I will have ...

• sixty-five?

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6

Adjectives, adverbs

Whether you want a pet which is fairly unusual, quite strange or completely weird, you’ve come to the right place! All you need to know is here at Crazy pets!

Piranhas

Tarantulas

Stick insects

Definitely more exciting than a goldfish but more dangerous, too.

These beautiful spiders are not as dangerous as people think and can be kept in small glass tanks.

One of the most popular insects to keep as pets. They can hide so well that you won’t know they’re there!

Adjectives, adverbs Adjectives • We use adjectives to describe someone or something. Adjectives usually come before the noun they describe, or after verbs like be, feel, look, smell, sound, taste etc. She’s wearing her new glasses. The view is beautiful. • When there is more than one adjective before a noun, we use them in this order: Opinion

Size

Age

Shape

Colour

Origin

Material

Type

beautiful

large

old

square

black

Italian

wooden

digital

fantastic

small

new

round

pink

German

velvet

electric

a large round wooden table

a beautiful new black dress

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6 Adverbs Form • To make some adverbs, we add -ly at the end of an adjective. (See page 153 for spelling rules.) quick  quickly bad  badly complete  completely extreme  extremely • Some adjectives and adverbs have the same form. Some adverbs are irregular. good  well fast  fast late  late hard  hard early  early high  high • Be careful: some adjectives form two adverbs with different meanings. Look at these examples: They worked hard. (hard = using great effort) I hardly know them. (hardly = almost not) I got up late. (late = after the usual / right time) Have you seen Jack lately? (lately = recently) We flew high above the city. (high = a long way above the ground) He’s a highly intelligent boy. (highly = very) Αdverbs of manner We use adverbs of manner (quickly, fast, carefully, etc.) to describe how someone or something does something. Adverbs of manner usually come after the verb or after the object, if there is one. She writes carefully. David plays the piano beautifully. Adverbs of place We use adverbs of place (here, outside, etc.) to say where someone or something is, or where something happens. Adverbs of place usually come after the verb or the object. I’ll wait here. Leave your shoes outside. Adverbs of time We use adverbs of time (now, yesterday, tomorrow, etc.) to say when something happens. Adverbs of time usually come at the beginning or end of the sentence. Yesterday I stayed at home and watched TV. They’re leaving tomorrow. Adverbs of degree • We use adverbs of degree to make adjectives or adverbs stronger or weaker. Here are some common adverbs of degree: absolutely, almost, completely, extremely, fairly, incredibly, quite, rather, really, very. • Adverbs of degree usually come: ° before an adjective or adverb. I feel really tired. He ran very fast. ° before the main verb. I completely agree with you. ° after an auxiliary or modal verb. She didn’t quite understand the situation. Adverbs of frequency • We use adverbs of frequency (always, usually, never, etc.) to say how often something happens. Adverbs of frequency usually come: ° before the main verb. I usually get up at half past seven. ° after to be, when it is the main verb in a sentence. He is never late for school. ° after an auxiliary or modal verb. I don’t always have cereal for breakfast.

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6 Order of adverbs When there is more than one adverb in a sentence, we usually use them in this order: manner  place  time. Jenny played beautifully at the concert yesterday.

1

Put the adjectives in the correct order. Add a or an. 2 3 4 5 6 7

1

huge, ancient, stone a huge ancient stone

8 castle

pretty, oval, cotton a pretty oval cotton

tablecloth

leather, green, horrible a horrible green leather

bag

silk, expensive, new an expensive new silk

shirt

American, red, old an old red American

car

tiny, wooden, black a tiny black wooden

box

paper, small, brown a small brown paper

bag

amazing, Persian, colourful an amazing colourful Persian

rug

2 Rewrite the sentences. Put the adverb in the correct place. 1 2 3 4

I’ll call you back. (later) I’ll call you back later.

5

My sister loves chocolate. (absolutely)

6

We go to a nearby café at lunchtime. (often)

7

It was raining. (heavily)

8

My sister absolutely loves chocolate.

We often go to a nearby café at lunchtime. It was raining heavily.

We don’t get up early. (usually)

We don’t usually get up early.

Sam sounded disappointed. (rather)

Sam sounded rather disappointed.

Dad’s busy. (always)

Dad’s always busy.

Emma looked at me. (angrily)

Emma looked at me angrily.

3 Put the words in the correct order. 1

he / patiently / in the hall / waited / for three hours He waited patiently in the hall for three hours .

4

often / visits / he / at Christmas / his friend / in Oxford He often visits his friend in Oxford at Christmas .

2

lately / Mandy / has been working / at school / hard Mandy has been working hard at school lately .

5

I / at half past twelve / to the station / got I got to the station at half past twelve

.

we / tennis / play / usually / on Sundays / in the park We usually play tennis in the park on Sundays .

6

a lovely time / in London / had / we / last week We had a lovely time in London last week

.

3

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6 Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs Adjective / Quantifier

Comparative

Superlative

Adverb

Comparative

Superlative

Regular forms

Regular forms large

larger

the largest

hot

hotter

the hottest

happy

happier

the happiest

beautiful

more beautiful

the most beautiful

Irregular forms

quietly

more quietly

the most quietly

loudly

more loudly

the most loudly

Irregular forms well

better

the best

badly

worse

the worst

hard

harder

the hardest

good

better

the best

fast

faster

the fastest

bad

worse

the worst

late

later

the latest

many / much

more

the most

early

earlier

the earliest

a lot

more

the most

high

higher

the highest

a little

less

the least

far

farther / further

the farthest / furthest

Adjectives Comparative form • We use the comparative form of adjectives to compare two or more people, things, animals, etc. Sally is taller than her sister. • To make the comparative form of an adjective with one or two syllables, we add -er at the end of the adjective. We often use than after the adjective. (See page 153 for spelling rules.) My best friend is older than me. • To make the comparative form of an adjective with more than two syllables, we add more before the adjective. We often use than after the adjective. These shoes were more expensive than the ones I wanted. Superlative form • We use the superlative form of adjectives to compare one or more people, things, animals, etc. with a group of people, things, animals, etc. Peter is the best chess player in the school. • To make the superlative form of an adjective with one or more syllables, we add -est at the end of the adjective. We use the before the adjective. (See page 153 for spelling rules.) Andy is the funniest boy in our class. • To make the superlative form of an adjective with more than two syllables, we add the most before the adjective. That was the most difficult exercise in the test. • We can use both -er / -est and more / the most with some two-syllable adjectives: clever, common, friendly, quiet, narrow, simple. Dogs are friendlier / more friendly than cats.

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6 Adverbs Comparative form • To make the comparative form of adverbs that end in -ly, we add more before the adverb. We often use than after the adverb. Dad laughed more loudly than the others. • To make the comparative form of adverbs that have the same form as the adjectives, we add -er at the end of the adverb. We often use than after the adverb. Kelly runs faster than Sarah. Superlative form • To make the superlative form of adverbs that end in -ly, we add the most before the adverb. My dad reacted the most angrily to the news. • To make the superlative form of adverbs that have the same form as the adjectives, we add -est the end of the adverb. We use the before the adverb. Katie worked the hardest of all the students.

4 Read and complete. Use the comparative or the superlative form of the adjective.

the slowest • The sea horse is 1 fish in the world. (slow) • Pigs are 2 more intelligent than cats and dogs. (intelligent) • The Columbian frog is 3 the most poisonous creature in the world. (poisonous) faster

• An ostrich is 4 • Bats have

5

better

• The blue whale is 6

than a cat. (fast)

hearing than humans. (good) the loudest animal on Earth. (loud)

5 Read and complete. Use the comparative or the superlative form of the adverb. Andy:

Who do you think will do the best (well) in this year’s exams?

Andy:

1

Kim:

(quickly) others and still do worse than (badly) their

Definitely Sharon. She understands better than (well) Maths 2 anyone else in the class.

Andy:

Maybe you’re right, but Jason works harder than 3 (hard) Sharon.

Kim:

Yes, but Jason isn’t very good at spelling. And he usually works 4 more slowly than (slowly) Sharon.

I don’t think it matters who works the fastest (fast) in the class. Some students work 6 more quickly than

5

7

classmates. Mr Fox: Andy and Kim! Maybe if you talked less than 8 (little) Sharon and Jason, you would be top of the class, too! Kim:

Sorry!

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6 Other types of comparison As ... as, not as ... as

Helen doesn’t work as hard as Fiona.

Less + adjective / adverb (+ than)

The exam was less difficult than I had expected.

Comparative + and + comparative

His pain got worse and worse.

The + comparative, the + comparative

The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you’ll make.

As ... as, not as ... as • We use as + adjective / adverb + as to say that two people, things, animals, etc. are the same or equal. He is as clever as his sister. Jenny can draw as well as Hannah. • We use not as + adjective / adverb + as to say that two people, things, animals, etc. are not the same. This book isn’t as good as that one. I can’t shout as loudly as you!

Less + adjective / adverb (+ than) We use less + adjective / adverb (+ than) to say that a person, thing, animal, etc. has a particular quality to a smaller degree than another person, thing, animal, etc. The dish I ordered is less tasty than yours.

Comparative + and + comparative We use comparative + and + comparative to show that something is increasing or decreasing all the time. Harry is getting taller and taller.

Τhe + comparative, the + comparative We use the + comparative, the + comparative to say that a change in something depends on a change in something else. The less you eat, the thinner you’ll get.

6 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words.

1

A cheetah is faster than a tiger. as isn’t as fast as A tiger a cheetah.

2

Becky isn’t as pretty as Carol. than Carol is prettier than Becky.

3

Diane sings better than Ella. well Ella doesn’t sing as well as Diane.

4

He’s less happy than he seems. as He isn’t as happy as he seems.

5

Mark and Pete are the same age. is as old as Mark Pete.

6

I didn’t enjoy the game as much as Eric did. more more than Eric enjoyed the game I did.

old

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6 7 Rewrite the sentences. Use the + comparative, the + comparative. 1 2 3

If you try harder, you’ll get better. The harder you try, the better you’ll get.

4

If we leave sooner, we’ll get there sooner.

5

If you eat less, you’ll lose more weight.

6

The sooner we leave, the sooner we’ll get there. The less you eat, the more weight you’ll lose.

If we wait longer, it will be worse.

The longer we wait, the worse it will be.

If you’re tired, you work more slowly.

The more tired you are, the more slowly you work.

If you eat a lot of junk food, you’ll get fat.

The more junk food you eat, the fatter you’ll get.

8 Circle the correct answer. 1

The tomatoes I planted are getting bigger as / and bigger.

4

The weather is getting cold / colder and colder.

2

She plays the piano as / more well as her sister.

5

The earrings were as / less expensive than the ring.

3

It looks like Colin isn’t as / less shy as he used to be.

6

The slower we walk, the later / latest we’ll be!

9 Read and circle the correct answer.

What is an iPod? The young are always the first to have the 1 gadgets and today many young people have an iPod. But what exactly is it? An iPod is a device for storing and playing music. It can hold thousands of songs – the bigger the memory on your iPod, 2 songs it can hold. iPods come in different colours, shapes and sizes. 3 member of the ‘iPod family’ is about 4 as a packet of chewing gum! iPods are becoming more 5 more popular because 6 they are easy to use. You can connect one to your computer and the computer then 7 reads all the songs on your iPod, using a very simple program.

1

A more modern

B moderner

C most modern

D most modernest

2

A more

B the more

C the most

D more than

3

A Smaller

B The smaller

C The smallest

D The most small

4

A as big

B bigger

C the bigger

D biggest

5

A than

B the

C of

D and

6

A incredible

B more incredible

C incredibly

D as incredible

7

A quick

B quickly

C more quickly

D the quickest

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6 10 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

I’ve never seen such a beautiful picture before! most the most beautiful This is picture I’ve ever seen!

5

His second film wasn’t as successful as his first film. less His second film was less successful than his first film.

2

Olivia’s behaviour was very bad last night. behaved Olivia behaved very badly last night.

6

Amanda is taller than Carol. as isn’t as tall as Carol Amanda.

7

3

He plays very well. a a very good He’s

The boots aren’t as comfortable as the trainers. than The trainers are more comfortable than the boots.

8

I’ve never heard such a silly excuse! the the silliest excuse I’ve This is ever heard!

4

player.

If you work harder, you’ll do better at school. the The harder you work, the better you’ll do at school.

Let’s write! 11 Write a short paragraph comparing you and your best friend. You can use these ideas. My best friend’s name is out: You can write ab eight • age, height, w • appearance

Students’ own answers

• abilities c.) (music, sport, et ndly, • character (frie c.) hard-working, et terests • hobbies and in ic, (computers, mus etc.)

Let’s talk! 12 Play a game. Student A: Think of an adverb of manner (e.g. angrily, happily). Stand up and mime a simple action (e.g. brush hair, clean teeth) using that adverb. Student B: Try to guess the action and the adverb. Get one point for each correct guess. Take it in turns to be Student A and B. Each student must mime at least one action. Then count your points and find the winner(s)!

You’re looking at me angrily! That’s right. One point for you.

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7

Nouns, quantifiers, articles

The costumes: The food: The costumes: Sew a few patches on an old pair of trousers, make a hat from paper and paint some scars on your face! Easy, isn’t it?

Eat fruit kebabs (pieces of fruit on wooden sticks). You can dip them into chocolate sauce if you like. Delicious!

The drinks: Drink red lemonade! How? Easy: add a little red food colouring to some water and freeze. Put the red ice cubes into some lemonade and watch it turn red!

Nouns Countable nouns Singular

Plural

computer country child

computers countries children

Uncountable nouns

Plural nouns

flour oil plastic

trousers jeans pyjamas

health advice furniture

binoculars sunglasses scissors

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7 Countable and uncountable nouns • Countable nouns are things we can count. They can be singular or plural. a brush  two brushes a book  three books • Uncountable nouns do not have a plural form. We cannot count them. We use a singular verb after uncountable nouns. The water is cold. Your advice was very useful. • We can use different words and phrases to count some uncountable nouns: a bar of chocolate a bottle of lemonade a bowl of popcorn a can of cola a carton of juice

a cup of coffee a glass of water a gram of salt a jar of jam a jug of water

a kilo of meat a litre of milk a loaf of bread a packet of sugar a piece of cheese

a sack of flour a slice of bread a tin of soup a tube of toothpaste

• We use a piece of / pieces of with uncountable nouns like advice, equipment, furniture, information, luggage, news, paper, etc. That was a very interesting piece of news! Can I have a piece of paper? • We can also use a bit of / bits of with some uncountable nouns. With a bit of luck, we’ll finish on time. I found some useful bits of information on that site. • Some nouns can be countable or uncountable, with a change in meaning: Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

a coffee (= a cup of coffee)

coffee (= the drink in general)

a glass (= the container)

glass (= the substance)

a hair (= one hair)

hair (= all the hair on your head)

an iron (= electrical equipment)

iron (= the metal)

a paper (= a newspaper)

paper (= the material)

a room (= one room in, e.g. a house)

room (= space)

a tea (= a cup of tea)

tea (= the drink in general)

one time (= once)

time (= minutes, hours, years, etc.)

Plural nouns • Some nouns are only plural. They are usually things with two parts (e.g. trousers) or a group of things (e.g. clothes). Are these your jeans? • Here are some common plural nouns: binoculars, clothes, contents, glasses, goods, jeans, pyjamas, scissors, shorts, stairs, sunglasses, tights, trousers, sunglasses, tights, trousers, etc. • We can use a pair of / pairs of with these nouns. There’s a pair of scissors in that drawer.

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7 Singular nouns • Some nouns end in -s but are singular. Be careful: we use a singular verb with these nouns. Here are some common singular nouns ending in -s: athletics, economics, electronics, gymnastics, Μaths, news, Physics, politics, etc. The news isn’t very good. ✓ (The news aren’t very good. ✗) • Some nouns refer to groups of people. They are singular but we can use a singular or a plural verb with them. Here are some of these nouns: class, company, family, government, police, staff, team, etc. The government have / has promised to deal with this problem.

1

Circle the correct answer.

1

I don’t watch the news. It’s / They’re too boring.

4

Mum and Dad have bought a lot of new furniture / furnitures.

2

My advice is / are to tell him the truth about what happened.

5

You can leave your luggage / luggages here.

3

Could you give me some information / informations about this offer, please?

6

She keeps all her jewellery / jewelleries in that box.

2 Read and circle the correct answer. A:

I’d like a 1 carton / sack of apple juice.

B:

Yes, it’s delicious!

B:

Certainly. Here you are.

A:

A:

Thanks. And I wanted a 2 bar / packet of cereal, too.

Could I have three hundred 4 litres / grams , please?

B:

Here you are. Anything else?

B:

Here you are. Is this jar / gram of jam yours?

A:

A:

Yes. I’ll put it in my basket. Is this cheese good?

Yes. I need a 5 bottle / can of shampoo and a 6 bar / tube of toothpaste and that’s it.

B:

That will be twelve pounds, please.

3

3 Choose and complete. 1

(a hair, hair) I’m almost ready. I just need to brush my hair . a hair in my soup! There’s

4

(a paper, paper) We need paper for the printer. Will you buy a paper when you’re at the newsagent’s?

2

(a room, room) I’ve booked a room at the Dorchester Hotel. Have you got room for me in the car?

5

(a glass, glass) Could you pass me a glass cupboard? That coffee table is made of

(an iron, iron) I need an iron to press my shirt. iron The door is made of .

6

3

from the glass

.

(a coffee, coffee) I don’t drink coffee . I don’t like it. Who wants a coffee ?

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7 4 Circle the correct answer. 1

Maths has / have always been her favourite subject.

5

Physics is / are really difficult!

6

A good pair of glasses is / are usually expensive.

2

Is / Are my pyjamas in the drawer?

3

Please get me a scissors / pair of scissors.

7

4

This trousers is / Those trousers are too short for you.

Her clothes is / are always very fashionable.

8

I can’t find my binocular / binoculars.

Quantifiers Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

I would like some biscuits. She hasn’t got any friends here. We’ve got no apples. I haven’t got many friends here. There were lots of children at the party. We stayed in London for a few days. Few students passed the test.

There’s some ice cream in the freezer. Is there any cake left for me? There’s no time to waste. Have you got much luggage? She drinks a lot of milk. There’s a little honey in that jar. I have very little money at the moment.

• We use some, any, no, many, a lot of / lots of, few and a few with plural countable nouns. • We use some, any, no, much, a lot of / lots of, little and a little with uncountable nouns. • To see how we use each quantifier, study the table below: Some

in affirmative sentences or in questions, when we offer something to someone or ask something from someone

I’ll buy some apples. Would you like some tea? Can I have some water?

Any

in negative sentences and questions

We haven’t got any milk. Did you get any presents?

No

in affirmative sentences but with a negative meaning

We’ve got no biscuits. I’ve got no money.

Many / Much

usually in negative sentences and questions

He hasn’t got many friends. Have you got much work?

A lot of / Lots of

usually in affirmative sentences

He’s got a lot of CDs. We’ve got lots of time.

A few / A little

usually in affirmative sentences, to say that there is a small number or a small amount of something

I’ve made a few sandwiches. I speak a little French.

Few / Little

usually in affirmative sentences, to mean ‘almost none’

Few people know about this. We’ve got very little time.

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7 Note the difference between a few / a little and few / little: • A few and a little have a positive meaning. We use them to show that there is a small but sufficient number or amount of something. I got a few things from the supermarket. Let’s take a little food with us – some sandwiches and apples. • Few and little have a negative meaning. We use them to show that there is a very small and insufficient number or amount of something. Few students got good marks. Only two out of the whole class. The people of that African village have little food to live on.

5 Complete. Use a, some, any or no. 1

any A: Is there 1 apple pie left? some ? 2 B: Yes, do you want any A: Yes, please. Is there 3 cream to go with it? any B: There isn’t 4 cream but 5 some I’ve got vanilla ice cream. Would you like some?

2

3

no A: There’s still 8 news, I’m afraid. But Helen might know what happened. a B: Yes, but she’s in 9 meeting right now. I’ll call her later.

4

A: I need 10 some my project. no B: There’s 11 a 12 I’ll buy

a A: Can I ask you 6 question? no 7 B: I’m sorry, I have time to talk right now. Can’t it wait?

paper to print out paper left, sorry. packet when I go

shopping later.

6 Complete. Use a few, few, a little or little. 1

2

There is no bus or train service to our few village, so tourists ever come here. Would you like a little more chocolate

5

Clare forgot to e-mail everyone, so few people came to the meeting.

6

7

She has little interest in her schoolwork. She prefers listening to music. Will you give me a few biscuits to take

8

to school? Add a little

5

I didn’t bring no / any luggage with me.

6

Could I have some / any more juice, please?

7

A few / A little children stayed behind after class.

8

Would you like a / some glass of lemonade?

cake? 3 4

I’m expecting a few friends to come round – about six of them. You’ve got very little time to finish, so hurry up!

salt to the sauce and boil it for thirty minutes.

7 Circle the correct answer. 1

I didn’t get many / much information from that website.

2

There were lot / lots of children at the party.

3

There are any / no tickets left, I’m afraid.

4

How many / much CDs did you buy?

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7 8 Read and complete. Use one word in each space.

MY CLASS

b y Jo di e S l a t e r

Hi! I’m Jodie and I’m going to tell you about my class at school. There are 1 a lot of children in my class. There aren’t 2 many girls, though – only eight of us are girls. We’ve got 3 a fantastic teacher! She doesn’t give us 4 much homework. And we do lots 5 of projects about nature, which I love. Our classroom is quite small but it looks great. We’ve decorated the walls with posters and 6 a few photos from our school trips. What about you? 7 How many children are there in your class? Does your teacher give you a 8 lot of homework? Send your news and views to slater@myclass.com.

Articles A / An

The

a table a uniform an hour

the US the sun the Star Hotel

Oxford Mount Everest Friday

A / An • We use the indefinite article (a / an) with singular countable nouns. We use a before words that begin with a consonant (b, d, f, m, p, etc.) and an before words that begin with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u). a snake a computer an advert an umbrella • Be careful: some words begin with a vowel but the first sound is a consonant sound. We use a (not an) with these words. a university a euro • Be careful: some words begin with a consonant but the first sound is a vowel sound. We use an (not a) with these words. an hour an FBI agent • We use a / an: ° to talk about people and things in general. A doll is a nice present for a little girl. ° to talk about a person’s job. Stan is a teacher. ° with the verb to be and adjectives, to describe someone or something. It’s a very old house. She’s a lively young woman.

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7 The We use the definite article (the) with singular and plural countable nouns and with uncountable nouns. We use it: • to talk about something or someone for the second time. We use a / an when we talk about something or someone for the first time. A man and a woman were standing outside the shop. The man was really tall. • when we are talking about something specific or unique. The girl in the picture is my cousin. We watched the sun come up. • with the names of oceans (the Atlantic Ocean), rivers (the Thames), seas (the Black Sea), deserts (the Sahara Desert), mountain ranges (the Andes) and with the names of some countries: the United Kingdom (the UK), the United States (the US), the Netherlands, the Bahamas, the Philippines, the Czech Republic. • with the names of hotels (the Grand Hotel), cinemas (the Odeon), theatres (the Majestic Theatre), museums (the British Museum), newspapers (the Guardian), buildings or monuments (the Parthenon) and ships (the Titanic). • with plural nationality adjectives (the Chinese) or with surnames, when we are talking about the members of a family (the Smiths). • with musical instruments. My mother used to play the piano. • with adjectives that have a plural meaning, when we are talking about a group of people. The old don’t understand the young. • with words like cinema, theatre, bank, airport, station, etc., when we are thinking of the general idea of these places and what they are used for. We do not necessarily mean a specific cinema, theatre, bank, etc. I’m going to the library. (But: There’s a library in West Street.) • in some time expressions: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, at the weekend.

Zero article We do not use an article: • with the names of people (Helen), continents (Europe), countries (Scotland), cities or towns (London), languages (French), nationalities (Greek) or mountains (Mount Kilimanjaro). • with the names of streets (Rose Street), squares (Berkeley Square), parks (Central Park), sports (tennis), games (chess), school subjects (Geography) or meals (breakfast). • with plural countable nouns or uncountable nouns, when we are talking about something in general. Hippos can move very fast. Life is wonderful! • with adjectives that are not followed by a noun. The book was very interesting. (but: It was an interesting book.) • with the words bed, church, college, home, hospital, prison, school, university and work, when we are thinking of the general idea of these places and what they are used for. Compare: My sister is at university. (She is a student.) Ι went to the university to help my sister. (I went there as a visitor.)

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7 9 Complete. Use a, an or the. 3

Could you lend me an umbrella? He’s an MP. That means he’s a

4

Member of Parliament. Do you have a car?

2

6

There’s a cat in the garden. I think it’s the cat from next door. The government should help the

7

poor in this country. That’s a funny hat you’re wearing!

5

1

Karen is hospital.

a

doctor at

the

local

The

8

dark clouds hid the

sun.

10 Read and complete. Use the or – .

Quiztime! 1 What is 1 the capital of 2 — 2 3 4 5

3

Scotland?

The Netherlands is another name for which

country? The Danube is the longest river in 5 the world. 4 True or false? On which continent can you find 6 — kangaroos and 7 — koala bears? Phoenix Park in 9 — Ireland is the largest — Europe. True or false? park in The University of Cambridge is in 12 the US. 11 8

10

6

True or false? Answers: 1 Edinburgh 2 Holland 3 False 4 Australia 5 True 6 False

11 Complete. Use a, an, the or – . 1 2 3 4 5

Is there

a

post office near here? We’re staying at the Sunview Hotel on — Elm Square. More than two thousand people came to the music festival. Did you read the headlines in the Times this morning? Nick’s in — hospital. He had an accident last night.

6 7 8 9 10

We received a letter this morning. It was from our cousin in — Oxford. The Robinsons are having a party on — Saturday. Shall I make you a sandwich? He’s an honest, hard-working man. I bought a new outfit yesterday. The top is blue and the skirt is pink.

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7 12 Are the sentences right or wrong? Tick (✓) or cross (✗). 1

They live in a lovely old house.

6

She goes to church every Sunday.

2

He loves playing the chess.

7

3

We visited the Natural History Museum in London.

Dad isn’t at home. He’s still at the office.

8

They should send that man to the prison!

9

The Browns live in Green Street.

4

What do you want for the lunch?

5

They got lost in Sahara Desert and nearly died!

10

I’m not very good swimmer.

13 Complete. Use one word in each space. few

1

A: Would you like some water? B: Yes, please. I’m really thirsty.

4

A: I need to ask you a B: OK.

2

A: I need a pair B: Here you are.

5

A: Have you ever been to the B: Yes, I’ve been to New York.

3

is A: The good news going to help us. B: And the bad news?

6

a A: Do you have to wear uniform at school? B: No, we don’t. What about you?

of scissors. that they’re

questions. US?

14 Read and circle the correct answer.

is fun and creative. But don’t forget that there are 2 dangers in the kitchen, too. Here are 3 simple rules that will help you avoid accidents in the kitchen.

1

◆ If you spill something on 4 ◆ Don’t climb on 5

, clean it up immediately.

to reach high places. Ask 6

◆ Don’t use electrical appliances near ◆ If you have

8

7

to help you!

.

, always tie it back.

◆ Always use a pair of oven gloves to carry hot things 1

A A cooking

B The cooking

C Much cooking

D Cooking

2

A some

B no

C much

D a little

3

A few

B a few

C a little

D much

4

A a floor

B the floor

C some floor

D floor

5

A chair

B the chair

C chairs

D some chairs

6

A grown-up

B a grown-up

C the grown-up

D a grown-ups

7

A water

B a water

C waters

D the waters

8

A long hair

B a long hair

C long hairs

D the long hairs

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7 15 Read and circle the correct answer.

Chocolate Fridge Cake Ingredients ✦ 1 1 packet / carton of chocolate biscuits

✦ Break 6 biscuits / the biscuits into small pieces.

✦ 1 jar / bar of dark chocolate

✦ Melt 7 a / the chocolate, butter and honey.

✦ 120 3 cans / grams of butter

✦ Add the biscuits and apricots.

✦ 1 4 jar / loaf of honey

✦ Put the mixture into 8 a / the tin and leave it in the fridge for two hours.

2

5

a few / a little dried apricots

Let’s write! 16 Write a simple recipe. You can look at Exercise 15 for help. Students’ own answers

Let’s talk!

17 Work with a partner. Student A: Pretend you are in the kitchen at home. Make a list of everything in your fridge. Student B: Try to guess what’s in Student A’s fridge. Now swap roles and do the same.

Is there any juice in your fridge? Have you got any eggs? No, I haven’t got any eggs.

Yes, there’s a carton of apple juice.

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8

Modal verbs (1)

From JennyL13

From Ben_ES

Teacher: Can you name five farm animals?

Teacher: Ben, could you please pay a little attention?

Mary:

Yes, of course I can: three cows and two goats.

I’m paying as little attention as I can.

Ben:

From alan-d

From xtreme01

Father: Why did you put a frog in your sister’s bed?

Girl 1: Let’s eat our homework.

Son:

Because I couldn’t find a spider!

Girl 2: Why? Girl 1: Because the teacher said it was a piece of cake!

From cybergirl

From fairy732

Patient: Doctor, doctor, I think I’m a dog!

Teacher: What can you tell me about the people of the eighteenth century?

Doctor: Why don’t you sit on the couch and I’ll examine you.

Matt:

They’re all dead now, sir.

Patient: But I’m not allowed to sit on the couch!

Ability Affirmative

Negative

Question

Can

He can swim.

He can’t swim.

Can he swim?

Could

They could see us.

They couldn’t see us.

Could they see us?

Be able to

She is able to walk. She was able to walk. She’ll be able to walk. She’s been able to walk.

She isn’t able to walk. She wasn’t able to walk. She won’t be able to walk. She hasn’t been able to walk.

Is she able to walk? Was she able to walk? Will she be able to walk? Has she been able to walk?

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8 Can, could, be able to • We use can to talk about ability in the present. Look, Mum! I can climb really high! I can’t speak English very well. • We use could to talk about ability in the past. She could walk when she was one. He couldn’t play tennis two years ago. • We can use be able to to talk about ability in the present, past or future. We can use it in different tenses. I’m not able to talk at the moment. He was able to get help. Will you be able to come out to play? She hasn’t been able to talk to him yet.

Could and was / were able to • We can use could or was / were able to to to talk about general ability in the past. Could is more common. I could ride a bike when I was four. I was able to ride a bike when I was four. • We use was / were able to (not could) for a single completed action. We were able to free the cat from the net. ✓ (We could free the cat from the net. ✗) • In negative sentences, we can use couldn’t or wasn’t / weren’t able to in the same way for both general ability and single actions. I couldn’t swim / wasn’t able to swim when I was five. (general ability) They couldn’t fix / weren’t able to fix the broken toy. (single action)

1

Complete. Use the correct form of be able to.

1

won’t be able to I’m sorry but I pay you the money until next week. I haven’t been able to find that book yet.

2 3 4

Were

you able to finish all those exercises yesterday evening? won’t be able to I’m afraid I take

Are

5 6

all animals able to think?

I had my mobile phone with me, so was able to I call my parents. Have they been able to solve the

7

problem yet? 8

Do you think you help us tomorrow?

any time off next year.

will be able to

2 Circle the forms that can be used in each sentence. If both forms are correct, circle them both.

1

I couldn’t / wasn’t able to answer the last question in the History test.

6

We couldn’t / weren’t able to get tickets for tomorrow’s game.

2

My sister can’t / couldn’t drive but she would like to learn.

7

Luckily, Sheena could / was able to save the cat from drowning.

3

They could / were able to get into the garden by climbing over the wall.

8

I won’t be / wasn’t able to do this if you don’t help me.

4

We couldn’t / weren’t able to visit the museum because it was closed.

9

We couldn’t / weren’t able to call her because we didn’t have her number.

5

Of course he can / could speak Italian. His mum is Italian.

10

I couldn’t / haven’t been able to write that report yet.

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8 Permission Affirmative

Negative

Question

Can

You can park here.

You can’t park here.

Can I park here?

Could

Could I park here?

May

You may park here.

You may not park here.

May I park here?

Be allowed to

You are allowed to park here.

You are not allowed to park here.

Am I allowed to park here?

Can, could, may • We use can, could or may to ask for permission. Could is more polite than can. May is more polite and formal than can and could. Can I have a biscuit, Dad? Could I use the phone? May I leave? • We use can or may (but not could) to give permission. You can sit down. ✓ You may sit down. ✓ (You could sit down. ✗) • We use can’t or may not (but not couldn’t) to refuse permission. You can’t come in. ✓ You may not come in. ✓ (You couldn’t come in. ✗)

Be allowed to • We use can, could or be allowed to to talk about things we have or do not have permission to do. You can’t bring your dog in here. You’re not allowed to bring your dog in here. • To talk about the present or future, we use can or be allowed to. You can’t go / aren’t allowed to go into that part of the building. Can we park / Will we be allowed to park outside the entrance? • To talk about the past, we use: ° could or was / were allowed to to talk about general permission. When I was fourteen, I could go out / was allowed to go out with my friends. ° was / were allowed to (but not could) to talk about permission in a particular occasion. I was allowed to go out with my friends yesterday. ✓ (I could go out with my friends yesterday. ✗)

3 Complete. Use the correct form of be allowed to. 1 2 3 4

We weren’t allowed to use calculators in yesterday’s Maths exam. (not use) Excuse me, are we allowed to take photographs? (we / take) You will be allowed to leave early tomorrow if you finish this today. (leave) Attention: visitors are not allowed to touch the paintings. (not touch)

5

We weren’t allowed to bring our own food into the café, so we left. (not bring)

6

He was twenty-one, so he was allowed to hire a motorbike. (hire)

7

She’s leaving because she isn’t allowed to stay out after ten. (not stay out)

8

Tim won’t be allowed to go out later if he doesn’t finish his homework. (not go out)

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8 4 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in brackets. 1 2 3

4 5

6 7 8

Is it OK if I borrow your laptop? (can) Can I borrow your laptop?

Can I borrow your laptop?

Visitors can’t use the computers. (allowed)

Visitors aren’t allowed to use the computers.

Is it OK if I ask you a few questions? (could) Could I ask you a few questions? Is it OK if I close the window? (may)

May I close the window?

Hotel guests are allowed to use the gym. (can) Hotel guests can use the gym. They didn’t let us stay. (allowed)

We weren’t allowed to stay.

Is it OK if I come in? (may)

May I come in?

9

They won’t let you enter the room. (allowed) You won’t be allowed to enter the room.

10

Is it OK if I come in? (can)

Can I come in?

Is it OK if I leave now? (could)

Could I leave now?

Requests Can / Will

Can / Will you drive me to the bus stop?

Could / Would

Could / Would you lend me some money?

We use can, could, will or would to ask someone to do something for us. Could and would are more polite than can. Can you give me my umbrella? Will you get me a drink of water? Could you tell me the time? Would you call Mr Hatton into the office?

5 Make requests. Use the verb in brackets. 1 2 3 4

Please get me an aspirin. (can) Can you get me an aspirin?

5

Please call me after school. (will)

6

Please give this to Harry. (could)

7

Please open the door for me. (would)

8

Will you call me after school (, please)? Could you give this to Harry (, please)? Would you open the door for me (, please)?

Please do the washing-up. (will)

Will you do the washing-up (, please)?

Please help me with these bags. (can)

Can you help me with these bags (, please)?

Please wait a moment. (could)

Could you wait a moment (, please)?

Please answer the door. (would)

Would you answer the door (, please)?

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8 Offers, suggestions Offers

Suggestions

Shall I ...?

Shall I help you?

Let’s ...

Let’s go out.

Can / Could I ...?

Can I help you?

Shall we ...?

Shall we go out?

I’ll ...

I’ll help you.

We can / could ...

We could go out.

Would you like me to ...?

Would you like me to help you?

Why don’t we / you ...?

Why don’t we go out?

What / How about ...?

How about going out?

Would you like ...?

Would you like some water?

Offers • We can use shall I ...?, can / could I ...?, I’ll ... or would you like me to + infinitive to offer to do something for someone. Shall I wash the dishes? Can I help with the lunch? Could I carry that bag for you? Would you like me to take the rubbish out? • We use would you like + noun to offer something to someone. Would you like some coffee?

Suggestions We use let’s ..., shall we ...?, we can / could ..., why don’t we / you ...? or what / how about ...? to make suggestions. Be careful: all these phrases are followed by an infinitive, except what / how about ...?, which is followed by -ing. Let’s stay here. Why don’t we have some tea? How about going for a swim?

6 Complete. Use one word in each space. 1 2

A: We’re never going to be ready in time! Can B: I help with anything? A: What shall we do at the weekend? B: We can / could go for a picnic in the park on Saturday. like

3

A: Would you cake? B: Yes, please.

4

A: Pete’s organising a surprise party for Mandy. Why B: don’t you call him and see if he needs any help?

5

another piece of

A: Dinner’s nearly ready. I B: Shall set the table?

6

7

A: I’m bored! B: How about woods? A: I’m hungry. Let B: Me too.

going for a walk in the

’s order a pizza.

8

A: Would you like me doctor? B: No, I’m fine.

9

we A: Shall tomorrow? B: Sure.

10

A:

to

call a

meet at half past seven

Would

you like me to pick you up from the station? B: No, that’s OK. I’ll get a taxi.

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8 7 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

2

How about getting Mum some earrings for her birthday? we don’t we get Why Mum some earrings for her birthday? They won’t let us get on the bus without a ticket. be We won’t be allowed to get on the bus without a ticket.

3

Kate, I need you to carry my bag. will will you carry Kate, my bag, please?

4

Shall I wait for you? like Would you like me to wait for you?

5

Excuse me, am I allowed to take my laptop onto the plane? may may I take Excuse me, my laptop onto the plane?

6

He couldn’t fix his car himself. able He wasn’t able to fix his car himself.

7

Let’s go to the beach this afternoon. about about going What to the beach this afternoon?

8

How about going for a walk? we we go Shall for a walk?

9

Do you want some more orange juice? like you like Would some more orange juice?

10

Is it OK if we use a dictionary during the exam? allowed allowed to use Are we a dictionary during the exam?

Let’s write! 8 Write a short paragraph about what you could / couldn’t do when you were younger, what you can / can’t do now and what you think or hope you will be able to do in the future. Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 9 Work with a partner. Imagine that a friend is coming to visit you this weekend. With your partner, plan the weekend, making suggestions about what to do with your friend.

We could go to the zoo on Saturday morning. Great idea! And how about ... after that? 63

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2

Revision: Units 5–8

1

Circle the correct answer.

0

Don’t worry. I won’t forget / am not forgetting what you told me.

0

We meet / are meeting our new neighbours for the first time this evening.

Lee is a better dancer than Zoe. (as) as well as Zoe can’t dance Lee.

1

David will have finished / been finishing his work before you leave.

I’m not as hard-working as Jo. (more) Jo is more hard-working than me.

2

His work is improving all the time. (and) better and His work is getting better.

1 2

3 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in brackets.

3

My sister travels / will be travelling around Europe after her exams.

4

Oh no! Look at those cars! They will / are going to crash!

3

If you try harder, you’ll get better. (the) The harder you try, the better you’ll get.

5

What time does your plane leave / is your plane leaving?

4

6

Sasha will have learnt / been learning Italian for three years by the time she sits the exam.

The first exercise isn’t as difficult as the second one. (less) The first exercise is less difficult than the second one.

5

He’s a slow worker. (works) works slowly He .

6

My brother is taller than me. (not) not as tall as I’m my brother.

.......... / 6

.......... / 6

2 Read and complete. Use one word in each space.

Kelly is 0 going to take part in a TV reality show. She is talking to her friend Sally about it. S: So, this time next week, you will 1 be

4 Circle the correct answer. 0

Mr Davies looked angrily at his son / at his son angrily.

exploring the Australian jungle! K: That’s right. We 2 are flying to Brisbane tomorrow afternoon. S: What are you going 3 to do when you

1

Mum is usually at work in the mornings / at work usually in the mornings.

2

Carlos speaks excellent English and his French is completely / fairly good, too.

arrive in the jungle? K: Well, 4 as soon as we get there, we will go to the river to fish! Fish will 5

3

Dad bought me a fantastic new silver / new fantastic silver iPod for my birthday.

4

Cynthia works very hard / hardly in her job as manager.

5

We loved absolutely / absolutely loved the film!

be our only food in the jungle. But before I board the plane tomorrow, I 6 am going to hide a chocolate bar in my bag! .......... / 6

.......... / 5

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Revision

2 5 Choose and complete.

7 Circle the correct answer.

0

0

Don’t let Timmy near the pool. He can’t / couldn’t swim.

1

The fireman could / was able to get the woman out of the burning building.

2

May I / Am I able to use your phone?

3

What are you doing? You couldn’t / are not allowed to park here.

4

Shall / Would we meet at half past six, then?

5

After the concert, the fans could / were allowed to go backstage and meet the band.

6

Would / May you tell Tessa that I’m going to be late?

7

Will / Shall you get me a can of cola from the supermarket?

1

(is, are) Where

are

the scissors?

(one, some) We need some printer.

more paper for the

2

(glass, a glass) Our new coffee table is made of glass .

3

(any, no) There isn’t

4 5

6 7

any

(a few, a little) I’ve got a little (have, has) My pyjamas on them.

tea left, I’m afraid. time. How can I help?

have

(was, were) was The news

got blue elephants

very worrying.

.......... / 7

(information, informations) There’s a lot of interesting information on that site. .......... / 7

8 Complete. Use one or two words in each space.

0

6 Complete. Use a / an, the or – . 0

The

new shopping mall is great, isn’t

it? 1 2 3

an

We have to leave in hour. — Have you had breakfast yet? The Smiths have just bought a new house.

4 5

How long have you been Mrs White? Mr Owen’s shop is in —

a

doctor? 2 3

5

I don’t think you’ll be allowed to enter the building. I May come in, sir? I’d like to talk to

6

you about something. How about getting Corinne a T-shirt for

nurse,

Oxford

6

Is that party?

7

The doctor told her to stay in for two days.

dress you bought for Sam’s —

Jim will be able to use a computer when he finishes his course next month. Why don’t we stay at home and watch a DVD?

4

Street. the

1

That bag looks heavy. Shall I carry it for you? Are you OK? Would you like me to call a

her birthday? .......... / 6

bed

.......... / 7

Total:

.......... / 50

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9

Modal verbs (2)

HOME

FORUM

SEARCH

LOG IN

I’m really bad at sports. I mean really bad! Help! Carol Age: 14 From: Exeter

Ken Age: 15 From: London

Adam Age: 13 From: Oxford

Here’s my suggestion: pick one skill you can apply to several sports and practise it every day. For example, because you have to use a ball in many sports, it might help to work on catching or throwing. If you want to practise alone, you should bounce a ball against a wall or your garage door outside. Yes. And remember: you don’t have to be good at everything! There must be something else you’re really good at, so don’t worry too much!

Obligation, necessity, lack of obligation, prohibition Affirmative

Negative

Question

Must

We must leave.

We mustn’t leave.

Must we leave?

Have to

We have to leave. We had to leave. We’ll have to leave.

We don’t have to leave. We didn’t have to leave. We won’t have to leave.

Do we have to leave? Did we have to leave? Will we have to leave?

Need (to)

We need to leave. We needed to leave.

We don’t need to / needn’t leave. We didn’t need to leave. We needn’t have left. We won’t need to leave.

Do we need to leave? Did we need to leave?

We’ll need to leave.

Will we need to leave?

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9 Obligation, necessity • We use must, have (got) to or need to to express obligation, to say that something is important or necessary. • We can use must to talk about the present or future. We must buy some bread. You must phone Jessie tomorrow. • We can use have to and need to to talk about the present, past or future. We can use them in different tenses. We need to tidy the kitchen. She had to stay at home yesterday. I will need to buy a new coat. You’ve never had to work hard. • We use have got to like have to. But we can only use it to talk about the present or future. I’ve got to take my medicine. • Must shows that the speaker feels an action is necessary or important. Have to and have got to show that an action is necessary because someone else says so, because there is a rule, or because a situation makes it necessary. I must talk to Sam. (I think it’s necessary.) I have to finish my project today. (It’s necessary because my teacher said so.)

Lack of obligation • To talk about something that is not necessary, we use: ° don’t have to: You don’t have to phone him yet. ° don’t need to: You don’t need to phone him yet. ° needn’t: You needn’t phone him yet. Be careful: we use an infinitive without to after needn’t. • To talk about something that was not necessary in the past, we use: ° didn’t have to: I didn’t have to get up early. ° didn’t need to: I didn’t need to get up early. ° needn’t have: I needn’t have got up early. Be careful: we use a past participle after needn’t have. • Note the difference between didn’t need to and needn’t have: We use didn’t need to (and didn’t have to), to say that something did not happen because it was not necessary. We use needn’t have to say that something happened although it was not necessary. She didn’t need to leave. (It was not necessary, so she did not leave.) She needn’t have left. (She left even though it was not necessary.)

Prohibition • We use mustn’t to say that something is forbidden, to say that it is important or necessary not to do something. You mustn’t forget to tell her about this. We mustn’t be late. • Note the difference between don’t have to and mustn’t: we use mustn’t to talk about something that is forbidden. We use don’t have to to talk about something that is not necessary. You mustn’t eat this. (It is important that you don’t eat this. You can’t eat this.) You don’t have to eat this. (It is not necessary for you to eat this.)

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9 1

Complete. Use the correct form of have to.

1 2

Dad didn’t have to drive the kids to school. They took the bus. has to Fiona is a nurse. She wear

6

has had to Kelly stay in hospital since the accident. My mum didn’t have to work yesterday,

3

a uniform at work. I (will) have to get up early next

7

so we went shopping. had to Mr Powell

4

Saturday to catch the seven o’clock train. Why do you have to stay at home

8

5

tonight? (you)

walk home after his car broke down last night. I won’t / don’t have to make a pudding for tomorrow. Polly is bringing an apple pie.

2 Complete. Use must or have / has to.

be a Remember: • must for something that we feel is necessary • have to for something that is necessary because someone else says so

5

You have to show your ID card to get into the building. I made too many mistakes. I must be

6

more careful in the future. My hair looks awful! I must

4

cut. 7

2

Mum says you have to eat this. We must visit Uncle Rob. I’ve missed

8

3

him so much! I must remember to phone Debbie.

1

have it

We have to wear a uniform at our school. Dave has to be at work at half past seven tomorrow.

3 Circle the correct answer.

be a Remember: • don’t have to = it is not necessary • mustn’t = it is forbidden

1

Eugenius is at home. He mustn’t / doesn’t have to go to school today because it’s the weekend.

2

You mustn’t / don’t have to tell Sue about the surprise party. It’s a secret.

3

You mustn’t / don’t have to leave the baby on his own.

4

We can stay a bit longer. We mustn’t / don’t have to be back before six.

5

The boys mustn’t / don’t have to tidy their rooms now. They can do it later.

6

I mustn’t / don’t have to forget to wake Jenny up at eight.

7

We mustn’t / don’t have to be late.

8

You mustn’t / don’t have to pay to get into the concert. It’s free.

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9 4 Complete. Use didn’t need to or needn’t have and the correct form of the verb.

be a Remember: • didn’t need to for something that was not necessary and did not happen • needn’t have for something that happened even though it was not necessary

1 2

4

I didn’t need to fix my bike because Max had already done it for me. (fix) She needn’t have hidden the truth. Rob

5

would have forgiven her anyway. (hide) We didn’t need to stay at home, so we

6

went out with our friends. (stay) You needn’t have phoned Anna with the

7

news. She knew already. (phone) Pam didn’t need to go to work yesterday,

3

You needn’t have bought that book. You could have borrowed my copy. (buy) Dad didn’t need to drive Kitty home. She

so she visited her cousin. (go)

took a taxi. (drive)

Possibility Present / Future

Past

May

It may rain. It may not rain.

He may have gone home. He may not have gone home.

Might

It might rain. It might not rain.

He might have gone home. He might not have gone home.

Could

It could rain.

He could have gone home.

• We use may, might or could to express possibility, to talk about something that is possible now or in the future. This may be the right way. Alfie’s cousins might come over this weekend. She’s not answering her phone. She could be asleep. • We use may / might / could + have + past participle to talk about the past, when we think it is possible that something happened. Nobody is answering the door. They may not have heard us knock. I can’t find my phone. I might have left it on the bus. There are no lights on. They could have gone to bed already. • We do not use could in negative sentences. She may / might not pass the exam. ✓ (She could not pass the exam. ✗) He may / might not have woken up yet. ✓ (He could not have woken up yet. ✗)

5 Circle the correct answer. 1

They’re late. They may miss / have missed the bus.

4

They might help / have helped you if you ask them.

2

You might / could not like the film.

5

3

She looks pale. She could be / may have been ill.

I can’t find my keys. I might leave / may have left them in the car.

6

She might / could not know the truth.

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9 6 Complete. Use the correct form of the verbs. 1

A: Dad can’t find his credit card. B: Somebody might have stolen it. (might / steal)

2

A: Are we still going to the park on Saturday? may not go B: Well, we if it rains. (may not / go)

3

4

A: Chrissie sounded really annoyed on the phone. B: She could have had an argument with her friend. (could / have) A: Why isn’t he here yet? B: He may have changed his mind. (may / change)

5

A: Brigit says she hasn’t finished her History project yet. B: I know. She might not come with us after all. (might not / come)

6

A: Nathan said he would call me but he didn’t. B: He could have lost your number. (could / lose)

7

may walk A: I into town. I need some fresh air. (may / walk) B: OK. I’ll come with you.

8

A: I think this is the right answer. could be B: You wrong, you know. (could / be)

Advice, criticism Present / Future

Past

Should

You should ask him. You shouldn’t ask him. Should I ask him?

You should have asked him. You shouldn’t have asked him. Should I have asked him?

Ought to

You ought to ask him. You ought not to ask him. Ought I to ask him?

You ought to have asked him. You ought not to have asked him. Ought I to have asked him?

Advice • We use should and ought to to give advice, to tell someone what is the best thing or the right thing to do. You should study harder. You ought to run or you’ll miss the bus. • We often use should and ought to to express our opinion, to say that we think something is right or wrong / a good or bad idea. I think she should try again. They ought to provide something for young people to do. • Like should, ought to only has a short form in the negative: oughtn’t to. You oughtn’t to eat so much junk food.

Criticism We use should / ought to + have + past participle to express criticism of someone’s actions or behaviour. We use them to tell someone what would have been the best thing or the right thing to do, showing them that we think they should have done things differently. You shouldn’t have shouted at him. You ought to have bought her a present.

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9 7 Circle the correct answer. 3

They ought to phone / have phoned before they went there.

4

If you’re not feeling well, you should call / have called a doctor.

5

Ought I to wear / have worn a suit tomorrow?

6

He shouldn’t have speak / spoken to her like that.

1

You shouldn’t / oughtn’t eat so many sweets. They’re really bad for your teeth.

7

I think you should / ought to apologise to your friend.

2

I left at six. Do you think I should wait / have waited a little longer?

8

If you want to lose weight, you ought to exercise / have exercised more often.

8 Complete. Use the correct form of the verbs. 1 2

We missed the bus. We ought to have left home earlier. (ought to / leave) should go It’s getting late. We

5

You look really tired. You shouldn’t work so hard. (shouldn’t / work)

6

She might be able to help you. You ought to talk to her. (ought to / talk) She was very upset. You shouldn’t have told her what happened. (shouldn’t / tell) Ian got wet. He ought to have taken an

home. (should / go) 3

Susie was angry with him. He shouldn’t have lied to her. (shouldn’t / lie)

7

4

Ken might know the answer. You should ask him when you see him.

8

umbrella with him. (ought to / take)

(should / ask)

Deduction Present

Past

Must

He must be busy.

They must have left.

Can’t

She can’t be right.

She can’t have known about this.

• We use must or can’t to show that we are almost certain that something is or is not true. We use must in affirmative sentences, to show that we are sure that something is true. We use can’t in negative sentences, to show that we think something is impossible. He’s a famous film star. He must be very rich. Your neighbour can’t be on holiday. I’ve just seen her walking down the street! • We use must / can’t + have + past participle to talk about the past. She’s crying. She must have had some bad news. They can’t have seen David Beckham in the village shop!

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9 9 Circle the correct answer. 1

She mustn’t / can’t have gone far. She only left five minutes ago.

4

I’m sorry, you must make / have made a mistake. My name is not Dylan.

2

Go swimming in this cold weather? You must / can’t be joking!

5

But his leg is broken! He must / can’t have walked to the park!

3

You mustn’t / can’t be tired! You’ve only just woken up.

6

I can’t find my bag. I must leave / have left it on the school bus.

10 Rewrite the sentences. Use must (have) or can’t (have). 1 2 3

4

I’m sure she knows what happened. She must know what happened

I’m sure that’s not Sam’s brother. That can’t be Sam’s brother

.

I’m sure he wasn’t at home. He can’t have been at home

5

I’m sure they have a lot of friends here. . They must have a lot of friends here

6

I’m sure she didn’t take the money. She can’t have taken the money

.

I’m sure they missed their bus. They must have missed their bus

.

.

.

11 Read and circle the correct answer.

Ken Watkins, reptile wrangler What’s your job, Ken? I’m a reptile wrangler. I train snakes, frogs, lizards and even alligators. It’s a great job and it also pays really well. And I 1 go to college to do it! be difficult, though. Training reptiles be easy! Do the animals need special care? Yes. I 4 give them special food and also keep their cages at the right temperature. It 2 3

spend a lot of money on all that You 5 food. Yes, hundreds of dollars a month.

wear any special clothes or use special equipment to protect yourself? No, the animals know my smell and never try to attack me. Thanks for talking to us, Ken! 6

1

A mustn’t

B shouldn’t

C needn’t have

D didn’t have to

2

A can

B should

C must

D might

3

A can’t

B oughtn’t

C mustn’t

D may not

4

A must

B have to

C have got

D need

5

A should

B must

C need

D might

6

A Need you to

B Ought you to

C Have you got

D Do you have to

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9 12 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

Doctor, is it necessary for me to take this medicine? have Doctor, do I have to take this medicine?

2

Maybe she has turned her mobile off. might She might have turned her mobile off.

3

4

Jamie is very good at Maths, so I’m sure he passed the test. must Jamie is very good at Maths, so he must have passed the test. I don’t have to finish this today. I don’t need to finish this today.

need

5

It wasn’t necessary to go to so much trouble. gone You needn’t have gone to so much trouble.

6

Why didn’t you ask Ian to help you? should You should have asked Ian to help you.

7

If I were you, I would be more careful. ought ought to be You more careful.

8

Perhaps she’s at the office. could could be She at the office.

Let’s write! 13 Think of two jobs and write sentences about what you have to / don’t have to do to train for them, or what you need to be able to do in order to do them well. Job: • You have to

Job: •

• You also need to

• Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 14 Work with a partner. Student A: Think of a difficult or unpleasant situation. Describe it to Student B. Student B: Listen to Student A. Say what you think the person in each situation should do / should have done. Do this four times. Then swap roles and do the same.

I forgot my best friend’s birthday. You should apologise and also get him / her a present.

I failed my Maths test. You should have studied harder for it.

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10 Gerunds and infinitives

Failing an exam or not doing well at school can make you feel down, so ... take a look at some of these ‘famous failures’ and cheer yourself up! Thomas Edison: inventor of the light bulb He was forced to leave school at a young age because he behaved very badly. Albert Einstein: physicist

Ludwig van Beethoven: composer

He had difficulty in passing his school exams but went on to become one of the greatest scientists ever.

His music teacher once said, ‘He is really bad at composing music!’ Michael Jordan: basketball star His school basketball coach decided to cut him from the school team.

Gerund

Infinitive

Eating junk food is bad for you. I hate walking! I couldn’t help laughing. Are you good at swimming? He left without saying goodbye. We go sailing every summer.

I hope to get into a good university. It’s good to know he’s OK. I’m surprised to hear that. It’s too cold to swim today. He made me tell him the truth. I would rather go home.

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10 Gerund • To form the gerund, we add -ing to a verb. (See page 152 for spelling rules.) fly  flying hope  hoping run  running • We use the gerund: ° as the subject or object of a sentence, like a noun. Talking too much is one of her faults. Can you do the washing-up? ° after certain verbs: admit, avoid, begin, consider, continue, dislike, enjoy, finish, forget, go on, hate, imagine, keep, like, look forward to, love, mean, mention, mind, miss, practise, prefer, regret, remember, start, stop, suggest, try. I avoid travelling by plane. I’m considering leaving my job. ° after certain phrases: be used to, can’t help, can’t stand, feel like, get used to, have difficulty (in), it’s no good, it’s no use, it’s not worth, spend time, there’s no point (in). There’s no point in waiting any longer. We had difficulty understanding him. ° after adjectives that are followed by prepositions: afraid of, bad at, bored with, crazy about, fed up with, fond of, good at, interested in, keen on, sorry for, tired of. I’m sorry for shouting at you. I’ve never been very good at spelling. ° after prepositions. After locking the doors, he left the house. They’re thinking about moving. ° after go, when we are talking about activities, e.g. go fishing, go sailing, go shopping, go skiing, go swimming, go walking. They went swimming. He goes fishing with his dad in the summer.

1

Rewrite the sentences. Use gerunds.

1

It’s hard to look after a garden. Looking after a garden is hard.

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

It’s fun to take part in competitions.

Taking part in competitions is fun.

It’s not easy to get up early every day.

Getting up early every day is not easy.

It was a surprise to see him there.

Seeing him there was a surprise.

It’s bad manners to talk with your mouth full. Talking with your mouth full is bad manners. It’s interesting to meet new people.

Meeting new people is interesting.

It’s easy to learn how to use a computer.

Learning how to use a computer is easy.

It would be wonderful to visit the Louvre!

Visiting the Louvre would be wonderful!

It’s helpful to talk about your problems.

Talking about your problems is helpful.

It wasn’t a good idea to invite her.

Inviting her wasn’t a good idea.

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10 2 Circle the correct answer. Then complete. Use the correct form of the verb. 1 2

taking the car I’m sorry for / at without asking. (take) I don’t / can’t stand living in this

It’s no / not use (try)

5

I’m fed up with / out of Let’s go! (wait)

6

You’ll have to be / get used to getting up early. (get up)

village! (live) 3

I’m not used to / of evening. (work)

working

in the

trying

4

to talk to her. waiting

for him!

Infinitive The infinitive is the base form of a verb. There are two types of infinitive: the infinitive with to (full infinitive), e.g. to go, to live, to walk, and the infinitive without to (bare infinitive), e.g. go, live, walk.

Full infinitive We use the full infinitive: • after certain verbs: advise, afford, agree, allow, appear, arrange, ask, begin, choose, continue, decide, deserve, expect, force, forget, go on, hate, help, hope, intend, invite, learn, like, love, manage, mean, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, remember, remind, refuse, regret, seem, start, stop, try, want, would like, would love. I arranged to meet them after school. He didn’t manage to finish his work. • in the structure it + to be + adjective + full infinitive. It’s difficult to understand him. It’s good to see you. • in the structure subject + to be + adjective + full infinitive, after adjectives like afraid, amazed, anxious, delighted, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry, surprised, upset, willing, etc. I’m pleased to meet you. We were sorry to see her go. • in the structure too + adjective / adverb (+ for somebody) + full infinitive. You’re too young to see this film. These shoes are too expensive for you to buy. • in the structure (not +) adjective / adverb + enough (+ for somebody) + full infinitive. You’re old enough to vote. It isn’t warm enough for us to swim today. • in the structure enough + noun + full infinitive. They didn’t give me enough time to finish.

Bare infinitive We use the bare infinitive: • after modal verbs (can, must, should, may, etc.). You must hurry. You should work harder. • after let (= allow someone to do something). My mum won’t let me come to your party. • after make (= force someone to do something). My teacher made me stay behind after class to finish the test. • after would rather and had better. I would rather stay at home tonight.

You’d better get to bed early tonight.

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10 3 Circle the correct answer. 1

Are you going to the sports centre? Can I come / to come with you?

2

They refused give / to give me my money.

3

Do you think Andy will let us borrow / to borrow his camera?

4

My sister offered help / to help me with my Maths homework.

5

You’d better put on / to put on your coat. It’s freezing outside.

6

We can’t afford buy / to buy a new car at the moment.

Are you going to the sports centre? Can I come with you?

4 Complete. Use the correct form of the verbs in the box. answer

come

go out

to come

see

sell

stay

1

I’ve invited Jen cinema.

2

stay My dad made me at home and finish my homework. work You’d better harder if you

3

with us to the

take 5

They didn’t give us enough time to answer all the questions.

6 7

I thought he was in France, so I was surprised to see him at the party. Mum won’t let me go out with my

8

friends unless I tidy my room. They’ve decided to sell their flat and

want to pass your exam. 4

I don’t want to walk. I’d rather the bus.

take

work

move to Oxford.

5 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in brackets. 1

They were speaking quietly. Liz couldn’t hear what they were saying. (too) They were speaking too quietly for Liz to hear what they were saying.

5

It isn’t warm. We can’t eat outside. (enough) It isn’t warm enough (for us) to eat outside.

2

My brother doesn’t work hard. He won’t pass his exams. (enough) My brother doesn’t work hard enough to pass his exams.

6

We were walking slowly. We couldn’t catch up with the others. (too) We were walking too slowly to catch up with the others.

3

I was excited. I couldn’t think clearly. (too) I was too excited to think clearly.

7

I’m not tall. I can’t reach the top shelf. (enough) I’m not tall enough to reach the top shelf.

4

This bag isn’t big. It won’t hold all my things. (enough) This bag isn’t big enough to hold all my things.

8

This suitcase is heavy. Christine can’t lift it. (too) This suitcase is too heavy for Christine to lift.

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10 6 Circle the correct answer. 1

Amanda is very bad at remember / remembering people’s names.

5

When was the last time you went ski / skiing?

2

I would love to visit / visiting Paris.

6

3

We haven’t got used to live / living in a big city yet.

We had better hurry / to hurry or we’ll miss the bus.

7

The police officer made us stop / to stop the car.

After to do / doing my homework, I went to the park.

8

Are you ready to go / going?

4

7 Read and complete. Use the correct form of the verbs.

Lyrics

Videos

Photo gallery

News

Live in Central Park, 11th July

We are delighted 1 to announce (announce) that The Singing Experiment will be performing live in Manhattan on 11th July! The band have just finished 2 touring to give (tour) Europe and have decided 3 (give) one last 4 seeing concert in Central Park. We’re all looking forward to (see) them perform some of our favourite songs! The concert is free but if you want 5 to get arrive (get) a good seat, you’d better 6 (arrive) early.

Meet the band!

Have you ever imagined 7 meeting (meet) the band themselves? Wait no meet longer! You can 8 (meet) them at the Hollywood Café, where they 9 to sign have arranged (sign) autographs after the concert. Fans are not allowed 10 to bring (bring) cameras.

8 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

2

3

4

We would prefer to do this later. We would rather do this later.

5

You should try not to work late in the evening. avoid You should avoid working late in the evening.

She didn’t go out because she was very tired. too She was too tired to go out.

6

I can’t wait to see them again! forward I’m really looking forward to seeing them again!

I’m really sorry I lost your pen. for for losing I’m really sorry your pen.

7

Getting a good job is difficult. It is difficult to get a good job.

My parents let me stay up late on Saturday nights. allowed I am allowed to stay up late on Saturday nights.

rather

get

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10 Gerund and infinitive • We can use a gerund or an infinitive after certain verbs, with no change in meaning. Some of these verbs are: begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start. He continued to ignore me. He continued ignoring me. They prefer to take the train. They prefer taking the train. • We can use a gerund or an infinitive after certain verbs, but with a change in meaning. Compare: Gerund

Infinitive

I forget taking this photo. (= I took the photo but I don’t remember this now.)

I forgot to lock the door. (= I forgot, so I didn’t lock the door.)

She went on talking for two hours! (= She didn’t stop talking for two hours.)

He went on to talk about his trip. (= He talked about his trip after he had talked about something else.)

His decision means starting a new life. (= If he makes this decision, he will need to start a new life.)

I didn’t mean to upset you. (= It wasn’t my intention to upset you.)

My grandmother regrets leaving school at sixteen. (= She left school at sixteen and now she is sorry about it.)

I regret to inform you that you did not pass the exam. (= I am sorry but I have to tell you that you did not pass the exam.)

I remember posting the letter. (= I posted the letter and I remember this now.)

I remembered to phone Ken. (= I remembered that I had to phone him, so I phoned him.)

They stopped talking. (= They were talking and they stopped.)

We stopped to get something to eat. (= We stopped what we were doing in order to get something to eat.)

Try pushing the car to make it start. (= Push the car and see if you can make it start.)

Try to remember what she said. (= Make an effort to remember what she said.)

9 Read and complete. Use the correct form of the verb. 1

A: I’ll never forget seeing the Statue of Liberty for the first time! (see) B: That was four years ago, wasn’t it?

5

A: Did you remember to call Jon? (call) B: Oh no! I forgot! I’ll call him now.

2

A: The DVD player won’t work. B: Try pushing the red button. (push)

6

3

A: Is this it? Have we arrived? B: No, I’ve just stopped to buy petrol. (buy)

A: I forgot to tell Anna about the meeting. (tell) B: You can tell her tomorrow.

7

A: Stop making so much noise! (make) B: Sorry.

8

A: I want to catch the first bus. B: OK, but that will mean leaving the house at six. (leave)

4

some

A: What you did was horrible! B: I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to hurt you. (hurt)

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10 10 Are the sentences right or wrong? Tick (✓) or cross (✗). 1

Swimming is a great way to keep fit.

6

2

You’d better to leave now or your mum will be worried.

George isn’t old enough to drive a car.

7

She was anxious hearing the news.

3

There’s no point in getting so angry with her.

8

I really regret not going to the concert.

4

Don’t forget calling me when you arrive.

9

Harry didn’t let me to borrow his car.

5

Apart from fly a kite, what else did you do?

10

Christine is always willing to try new things.

11 Circle the forms that can be used in each sentence. If both forms are correct, circle them both.

1

Suddenly, it began to rain / raining.

5

2

Chantelle has decided to study / studying Biology.

They continued to talk / talking about their plans for the future.

6

I started to feel / feeling ill a few hours after I had eaten the fish.

It’s too late to say / saying you’re sorry now!

7

I think he deserves win / to win first prize.

8

I really miss to go out / going out with my friends.

3 4

Will they let me take / to take my mobile phone onto the plane?

12 Read and complete. Use the correct form of the verbs.

Volunteering

by J as o n St e p h e n s

Molly Brown loves 1 helping (help) others and wants 2 to make (make) the world a better place. We talked to her about 3 being (be) a volunteer.

It helps but instead of 10 giving (give) money, you can 11 give (give) your time!

What is volunteering, Molly?

Where can I volunteer?

Volunteering is about 4 giving (give) your time to help others without 5 being (be) told that you must do it. It’s all about offering 6 to help (help) people.

Why did you become a volunteer?

I was fed up with 7 watching (watch) the bad news on TV. It made me 8 feel (feel) sad to see people in pain or in trouble. It’s hard 9 to see (see) people suffer and not be able to help out.

Do you have to give money?

If you’re interested in 12 working (work) with animals, you can choose 13 to volunteer (volunteer) at an animal shelter. People who enjoy 14 being (be) with children can do volunteer work in schools or hospitals.

What’s your message for other young people?

It is possible 15 to make (make) the world a better place!

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10 13 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

He can’t talk right now because he’s very upset. too He’s too upset to talk right now.

2

We weren’t allowed to enter the room. let let us enter They didn’t the room.

3

Peter sold his car and now he’s sorry. regrets regrets selling Peter his car.

4

We can’t make an omelette because we haven’t got enough eggs. to We haven’t got enough eggs to make an omelette.

5

I don’t want to go out tonight. like like going out I don’t feel tonight.

6

I know that it won’t be easy to find a job. finding I know that finding a job won’t be easy.

7

If we don’t leave now, we’ll be late for the meeting. better better leave We’d now or we’ll be late for the meeting.

8

She didn’t win the game because she didn’t play well. enough She didn’t play well enough to win the game.

Let’s write! 14 Write a short paragraph describing your hobbies, your interests and how you spend your free time. Use as many of these verbs and phrases as you can. be bad at hate

be crazy about be interested in

dislike

not mind

be keen on

like

enjoy love

be good at

prefer

try

Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 15 Work with a partner. Ask and answer. Student A: Look at the verbs and phrases in Exercise 14. Ask Student B about his / her hobbies and interests. Student B: Answer Student A’s questions. Now swap roles and do the same.

Tell me two things you’re really bad at.

What do you enjoy doing in your free time? I like ...

I’m bad at ... and ... 81

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11

Conditionals

Would you manage to survive if you were lost in the wilderness? Take our quiz and find out. Click on the answers that you think are correct for each question. 1

Well, the first thing you should know is that you may not have got lost if you had taken a map with you. taken a compass with you.

2

If you’re lost in the jungle, a ... is a very useful object to have. knife torch

3

A wild animal might attack you if you start running away from it. start screaming when you see it.

Did you click on all the answers? If you did, well done! They’re all correct! Now click here for the next set of questions.

Zero conditional If / When + present simple  present simple

If you heat water to 100°C, it boils. When my sister gets angry, she cries.

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11 Form • Conditional sentences have two parts: ° the if clause and ° the main clause. • In zero conditional sentences we use the present simple in both the if clause and the main clause. If Sarah goes to bed late, she feels terrible in the morning. • We can use when instead of if in the if clause. If a stranger comes to our door, the dog always barks. When a stranger comes to our door, the dog always barks. • The if clause can come at the beginning of the sentence or after the main clause. When it comes at the beginning, we put a comma after it. We do not use a comma when the if clause comes after the main clause. If Jerry doesn’t wear his glasses, he can’t see anything. Jerry can’t see anything if he doesn’t wear his glasses.

Use We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are always or generally true. If you mix yellow and red, you get orange.

1

Complete. Use the zero conditional.

1

put If you glass, the glass (put, break)

hot water into a breaks .

2

3

4

don’t get The boys pocket money don’t do if they well at school. (not get, not do) has If he the television on, he doesn’t concentrate on his homework.

(have, not concentrate) gets Our teacher really angry are if we late for class. (get, be)

5

6

shouts My mum at me when don’t tidy I my room. (shout, not tidy) If I don’t have to go to school, stay I in bed until noon.

(not have to, stay)

First conditional If + present simple  will

If I miss the bus, I’ll walk.

If + present simple  modal verb

If you’re late, you should apologise.

If + present simple  imperative

If you see him, tell him to call me.

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11 Form • In first conditional sentences we use the present simple in the if clause and will in the main clause. If the baby starts crying, I’ll call Mum. • We can also use a modal verb (can, must, should, etc.) or imperative in the main clause. If the baby starts crying, you should call Mum. If the baby starts crying, call Mum. • In the if clause of first conditional sentences we also can use: ° unless to mean ‘if not’. If you don’t hurry up, we’ll miss the beginning of the film. Unless you hurry up, we’ll miss the beginning of the film. ° provided / providing (that) and as / so long as to mean ‘if’, ‘on condition that’. If the weather is good, we’ll go to the beach. Provided / Providing (that) the weather is good, we’ll go to the beach. As / So long as the weather is good, we’ll go to the beach.

Use We use the first conditional to talk about something that is possible, something that may happen in the future. If I pass all my exams, Mum and Dad will buy me a new bicycle. You can go out with your friends if you finish your homework.

2 Complete. Use the first conditional. 1

will feel You some rest. (feel)

2

If you want to win, you harder. (should / train)

3

He’ll be very disappointed if he doesn’t pass the test. (not pass)

4

If I can’t do it on my own, I Kim to help me. (ask) hear from I’ll call you if I

5

You will feel better if you get some rest.

better if you get should train

will ask

Christine.

6

won’t get He better if he doesn’t take the medicine. (not get)

4

I will never speak to you again unless you apologise ! (never / speak, apologise)

5

don’t work If you harder, you won’t get better marks at school.

(hear from)

3 Complete. Use the first conditional. 1

2

3

don’t lend If they us the money, will have to we sell our car. (not lend, have to) will tell I you as long as you promise to keep the secret. (tell, promise) save up If you enough money, you can buy a new printer next month.

6

(not work, not get) see If you give please

Andy tonight, him my message.

(see, give)

(save up, can / buy)

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11 4 Read and circle the correct answer. Mum:

Unless you 1 finish / don’t finish packing soon, you’ll miss your flight!

Sam:

Nothing is going to go wrong!

Mum:

5

If / So long you don’t like the hotel, or your room isn’t clean, we 6 book / can book another one.

Sam:

It’s OK, Mum. I’ve still got plenty of time.

Sam:

Mum:

Now, you know what to do 2 if / unless your flight is late, right?

OK. Can I borrow your video camera?

Mum:

Yes, Mum. If the plane is delayed, I 3 wait / will wait in the departure lounge.

Well, you can borrow it 7 provided / as long that you promise to be very careful with it.

Sam:

Great, thanks! If I go diving, I 8 use / will use it to film the sharks.

Mum:

What?

Sam:

Only joking, Mum!

Sam:

Mum:

And if anything goes wrong, 4 call / will call Dad and he’ll come to the airport and bring you home.

5 Rewrite the sentences. Use the words in brackets. 1 2 3

4

5

I’ll come with you unless I’m busy. (if) I’ll come with you if I’m not busy. I’ll go if you come with me. (providing)

I’ll go providing (that) you come with me.

6

I won’t say anything if he doesn’t ask me. (unless) I won’t say anything unless he asks me.

7

He’ll win if he does his best. (as long as)

8

He’ll win as long as he does his best.

She’ll forgive him if he apologises. (provided) She’ll forgive him provided (that) he apologises. We’ll be late unless we hurry up. (if)

We’ll be late if we don’t hurry up.

Jo will help us if we ask her. (unless)

Jo won’t help us unless we ask her.

I’ll tell him if I see him. (providing)

I’ll tell him providing (that) I see him.

Second conditional If + past simple  would

If I had time, I would visit her.

If + past simple  modal verb

If I were rich, I could buy that car.

Form • In second conditional sentences we use the past simple in the if clause and would in the main clause. The short form of would is ’d. We use an infinitive after would. If she knew the truth, she would tell us. • We can also use a modal verb (could, might, etc.) in the main clause. If she knew the truth, she might tell us. • We can use were instead of was in the if clause. If I was / were wrong, I would apologise at once.

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11 Use We use the second conditional: • to talk about something that is impossible. If dogs had wings, they would fly! • to talk about something that is possible but unlikely. If you asked her, she would help you. • to give advice, usually with If I were you. If I were you, I would call the police.

6 Complete. Use the second conditional. 1 2

spoke I would be furious if she to me like that! (speak) was / were If I a famous actor, I would

5

If dolphins could speak, we would learn a lot from them. (learn) If I didn’t have to look after my little

6

brother, I would come out. (not have to) could sing I you a song if I had my

4

live in Hollywood. (be) 3

would look If her hair was black, she completely different. (look)

guitar with me. (could / sing)

7 Complete. Use the second conditional. 1

2 3

worked If you a little harder, would do you better at school. (work, do) would tell I her about this if I trusted her. (tell, trust) did If my best friend to me, I would never forgive her! (do, never / forgive)

that

4

5 6

would send I him the photos if had I his e-mail address. (send, have) would be My mum furious if failed I the test. (be, fail) could go We swimming if the was / were weather warm enough. (could / go, be)

8 Give advice. Use if I were you and your own ideas. 1

Your friend wants to lose weight. If I were you, I would join a gym.

5

Your cousin feels tired all the time.

6

3

Your friend has just found a bag full of money in the street. Students’ own answers

7

Your friend hasn’t been feeling very well lately. Students’ own answers

4

Your mum / dad has been working too hard lately. Students’ own answers

8

Your cousin had a fight with his / her best friend. Students’ own answers

2

Students’ own answers

Your cousin forgot his friend’s birthday.

Students’ own answers

Your friend wants to do better at school.

Students’ own answers

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11 Third conditional If + past perfect  would + have + past participle

If you had got here earlier, you would have seen Peggy and Alex.

If + past perfect  modal verb + have + past participle

If he had been more careful, he might not have made so many mistakes.

Form • In third conditional sentences we use the past perfect in the if clause and would + have + past participle in the main clause. If I had known the truth about him, I wouldn’t have made friends with him. • We can also use a modal verb (could, might, etc.) + have + past participle in the main clause. If she had left at six, she might not have missed the bus.

Use We use the third conditional to talk about things in the past that were possible but did not happen. If I had known you were going shopping, I would have come with you.

9 Complete. Use the third conditional. 1 2

Tim would have come with us if he had been free that evening. (come) had known If I you were coming,

4

hadn’t left If he the car unlocked, it wouldn’t have got stolen. (not leave)

5

I would have gone to the party if they had invited me. (invite)

6

If Sally hadn’t lost my number, she would have called me. (call)

5

We wouldn’t have been late for the had got up meeting if you earlier. (not be, get up) You would have passed your History test if had revised you for it. (pass, revise)

I would have baked a cake. (know) 3

If she hadn’t always been late for work, she wouldn’t have lost her job. (not lose)

10 Complete. Use the third conditional. 1

I wouldn’t have known about this if Jenny hadn’t told me. (not know, not tell)

2

Jason and Chris might have come with had phoned us if we them. (might / come, phone) hadn’t spent If you all your money could have bought on CDs, you those

3

4

jeans. (not spend, could / buy) had known If I you were hungry, would have made some sandwiches. I (know, make)

6 7

8

I would have gone out with my friends if had finished I my homework. (go out, finish) had played If we a little better, we could have won the game. (play, could / win)

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11 11 Write sentences. Use the third conditional. Begin with if. 1

My alarm clock didn’t go off. I overslept. If my alarm clock had gone off, I wouldn’t have overslept.

2

She didn’t use oven gloves. She burnt her hand. If she had used oven gloves, she wouldn’t have burnt her hand.

3

We didn’t listen to the weather forecast. We didn’t take an umbrella with us. If we had listened to the weather forecast, we would have taken an umbrella with us.

4

5

6

I didn’t know it was your birthday. I didn’t buy you a present. If I had known it was your birthday, I would have bought you a present. Fiona was busy. She didn’t go out.

If Fiona hadn’t been busy, she would have gone out.

Stephen didn’t give me his e-mail address. I didn’t send him the photos. If Stephen had given me his e-mail address, I would have sent him the photos.

12 Are the sentences right or wrong? Tick (✓) or cross (✗). 1

Unless she finishes her homework, her mum won’t let her go out.

2

When you will heat ice, it melts.

3 4

5

What would you say if he asked you?

6

Providing that you do the job well, they’ll pay you a bonus.

I wouldn’t open the present if I’d known it wasn’t for me.

7

Dad lets me use his computer when he doesn’t need it.

If I were you, I’ll talk to Mr Edwards about this.

8

If you told me you couldn’t do it, I would have helped you.

13 Read and circle the correct answer.

Lee, 14, London I hate my bedroom because it’s tiny and it’s always a mess! Have you got any ideas?

Nikki, 15, Cambridge Don’t worry. Your room 1 looks / will look great if you 2 follow / will follow these two very simple steps. • First of all, providing 3 as / that your parents are OK with it, 4 paint / can paint the walls white. When you 5 paint / will paint the walls of a room white, it 6 seems / would seem bigger. • Next, the mess: if I 7 am / were you, I 8 will / would buy some cheap plastic bins in bright colours at the supermarket. They don’t cost much and you can use them to store your books, CDs, clothes and shoes. For more tips and ideas, visit this website: www.bedroom-makeovers-for-teens.co.uk. I wouldn’t 9 redecorate / have redecorated my own room if I 10 wouldn’t find / hadn’t found so many great ideas on this site! It’s fantastic!

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11 14 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

She was really upset because you shouted at her. if She wouldn’t have been so upset if you hadn’t shouted at her.

4

I think you should tell Sarah the truth. would were you, I would If I tell Sarah the truth.

2

I can’t buy this dress because I don’t have enough money. could could buy I this dress if I had enough money.

5

Follow the path and you won’t get lost. providing You won’t get lost providing (that) you follow the path.

3

I can’t help you if you don’t tell me all the details. unless unless you tell I can’t help you me all the details.

6

I didn’t call him because you didn’t give me his phone number. have would have called I him if you had given me his phone number.

Let’s write! 15 Think of five things you have or haven’t done this month which you wish you could change. Write about them using the third conditional. Then think of five things you wish were different in your life. Write about them using the second conditional. • I would have passed my Maths test if I had

• If I lived in a bigger house, I would have a

studied harder for it.

bigger room.

• Students’ own answers

• Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 16 Work with a partner. Student A: Think of a problem or difficult situation and tell Student B. Student B: Give Student A advice. Use if I were you. Do this five times. Then swap roles and do the same.

I haven’t been doing well at school lately. If I were you, I’d work harder.

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12 Wishes, preferences

Teen

HOME

SEARCH

FORUM

E-MAIL

I wish I hadn’t left school at fifteen. Andy Age: 17 From: Norwich

Emma Age: 14 From: Leeds

Fred Age: 13 From: Bradford

bat_girl says: It’s never too late, Andy! Ask your local school about evening classes.

I hate crowds. I’d rather stay at home than go out with my friends. nick_313 says: So you prefer quiet evenings at home to going out. There’s nothing wrong with that. You can invite your friends to your house!

I wish my parents wouldn’t treat me like a child! echo2 says: Fred, you need to prove to your parents that you’re not a child. Show them that they can trust you!

Wishes Wish / If only + past simple

I wish I had a bigger bedroom. If only I didn’t have so much homework. They wish they could go on holiday.

Wish / If only + would

I wish you wouldn’t ask so many questions! If only you would stop lying to me!

Wish / If only + past perfect simple

I wish I hadn’t lied to my best friend. Clara wishes she hadn’t left her job. If only we hadn’t lost our way!

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12 Wish / If only + past simple • We use wish / if only + past simple to express a wish, to say that something is not as we would like it to be. I wish I didn’t have to get up so early. If only I lived nearer to my school. • We can use wish and if only in the same way. But if only is stronger than wish. We use it to give more emphasis. I wish I had more money. If only I had more money! • We can use wish to express our own wishes or talk about somebody else’s wishes. We only use if only to talk about our own wishes. Compare: Kate wishes she spoke French. (Kate’s wish) If only I spoke French. (my own wish) • We often use could after wish / if only. Joe wishes he could drive. If only I could make some new friends! • We can use were instead of was after wish / if only. I wish it wasn’t / weren’t so hot today.

Wish / If only + would We use wish / if only + would to complain about a situation, to talk about something that annoys us. We often use it to complain about things that someone does repeatedly, all the time. I wish you would stop complaining all the time!

Wish / If only + past perfect simple We use wish / if only + past perfect simple to express a wish about the past. We use it to say that we are sorry that something happened or did not happen, to talk about something we regret. I wish I hadn’t lied to my best friend. If only he had told me about this sooner!

1

What do these people wish? Write sentences. Use I wish.

1

I have to wear glasses. I wish I didn’t have to wear glasses.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

I can’t understand my homework.

I wish I didn’t have to wear glasses.

I wish I could understand my homework.

My teacher is so strict!

I wish my teacher wasn’t / weren’t so strict.

I don’t get on well with my sister.

I wish I got on well with my sister.

I don’t know how to cook.

I wish I knew how to cook.

I can’t dance.

I wish I could dance.

I’m not old enough to drive a car.

I wish I was / were old enough to drive a car.

I don’t have anything to do.

I wish I had something to do.

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12 2 Complete. Use would and the phrases in the box. he / go away he / not speak she / stop you / be you / not drive you / not play you / not wear you / put 1

I wish you wouldn’t wear house, Rob!

2

You’ve broken my camera! I wish you would be more careful with my

your shoes in the

5

the wash basket! 6

things! 3 4

This room is a mess! I wish you would put your dirty clothes in

That was a mean thing to say! I wish he wouldn’t speak to me like that.

7

She’s so bossy! I wish she would stop telling me what to do!

8

I don’t want him here! If only he would go away ! If only you wouldn’t drive so fast! Can you please slow down? If only you wouldn’t play your music so loud! I’m trying to do my homework!

3 What do these people wish? Write sentences. 1

Mark was late for school because he stayed up late yesterday. I wish I hadn’t been late for school If only I hadn’t stayed up late yesterday

4

Sarah got lost because she got off at the wrong bus stop. I wish I hadn’t got lost . If only I hadn’t got off at the wrong bus stop !

. !

2

Fiona missed her bus because her mum didn’t wake her up. I wish I hadn’t missed my bus . ! If only Mum / my mum had woken me up

5

Pete didn’t go to the concert because he hadn’t bought a ticket. I wish I had gone to the concert . ! If only I had bought a ticket

3

Harry crashed his car because he wasn’t careful. I wish I hadn’t crashed my car . ! If only I had been (more) careful

6

Tessa’s plant died because her sister didn’t water it. I wish my plant hadn’t died . ! If only my sister had watered it

4 Circle the correct answer. Jim:

I wish I 1 were / had been at the sports centre with my friends! If only Mum 2 lets / would let me swim in the rain!

Mum:

If only I 3 listened / had listened to the weather forecast before we left! I wish we 4 stayed / had stayed at home.

Amy:

I wish I 5 brought / had brought my iPod with me. I wish I 6 were / had been somewhere warm and dry!

Dad:

I wish we 7 can / could go home. If only the car 8 didn’t break down / hadn’t broken down!

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12 5 Complete. Use the correct form of the verb. 1

had told I wish you last night. (tell)

2

3

I miss my grandparents so much! If only didn’t live they so far away! (not live) If only I hadn’t been so rude to her last

4

night! Will she ever forgive me? (not be) I wish I didn’t have to go to school

me about this

5

I’m having a terrible time. I wish we hadn’t agreed to come here. (not agree)

6

could help I wish I I’m busy. (can / help)

7

I can’t buy the dress because I don’t have hadn’t left any money. If only I my purse at home! (not leave) were If only Carl and Susan here

8

you but I’m afraid

right now. (be)

tomorrow. (not have to)

Preferences Prefer

I prefer listening to music to playing computer games. I prefer to listen to music rather than play computer games. I would prefer to listen to music rather than play a computer game.

Would rather

I would rather listen to music than play a computer game.

• To talk about what we prefer in general, we use: ° prefer + noun / gerund (+ to + noun / gerund) We prefer Italy. We prefer Italy to Spain. She prefers walking. She prefers walking to cycling. ° prefer + full infinitive (+ rather than + bare infinitive) I prefer to watch TV. I prefer to watch TV rather than listen to music. • To talk about what someone wants in a particular situation, we use: ° would prefer + full infinitive (+ rather than + bare infinitive) I would prefer to stay here. I would prefer to stay here rather than go home. ° would rather + full infinitive (+ than + bare infinitive) I would rather stay here. I would rather stay here than go home.

6 Complete. Use the correct form of the verb. In some sentences, more than one answer is possible.

be a Remember: • prefer + gerund / full infinitive • would prefer + full infinitive • would rather + bare infinitive

4 5

by car? (travel) 6

1 2 3

to do I would prefer this now. (do) I prefer walking / to walk to school. (walk) She prefers wearing / to wear jeans. (wear)

watch I would rather a DVD tonight. (watch) Do you prefer travelling / to travel by train or

7

to finish We would prefer this tomorrow if you don’t mind. (finish) wait Would you rather here?

(wait) 8

I would rather card. (pay)

pay

by credit

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12 7 Complete. Use the correct form of the verb. 2 3 4 5 6 7

drive I prefer to cycle rather than to work in the mornings. (cycle, drive) leave We would rather now than wait for Amy. (leave, wait)

In her free time, she prefers to read rather than watch TV. (read, watch) stay I would rather at home than go out with Trevor! (stay, go out) Mum prefers swimming to playing tennis. (swim, play) I’d prefer to talk to him rather than send him an e-mail. (talk, send)

8

Would you rather watch a DVD or play a game? (watch, play)

I would prefer to do this myself rather than ask Christine to help me. I would rather do this myself than ask Christine to help me .

4

I would prefer to listen to some music rather than watch TV. I would rather listen to some music than watch TV

2

I would rather phone him tonight than talk to him tomorrow. I would prefer to phone him tonight rather than talk to him tomorrow .

5

I would prefer to do this now rather than wait till Sunday. I would rather do this now than wait till Sunday .

3

I would rather come with you than wait for them here. I would prefer to come with you rather than wait for them here .

6

I would rather go for a walk than stay in all day. I would prefer to go for a walk rather than stay in all day .

A: I wish you would n’t leave your clothes all over the floor! B: Sorry, Mum. to A: I prefer tea coffee.

1

Jeremy prefers windsurfing to waterskiing . (windsurf, waterski)

8 Rewrite the sentences. 1

.

9 Complete. Use one word in each space. 1

A: Are you coming with us? B: No. I’m really tired. I would prefer to go to bed early tonight.

5

2

A: If only you had phoned me earlier! B: I couldn’t. I was busy.

6

3

A: Shall we watch a DVD? B: Sure. Would you rather watch an action film or a comedy?

7

4

A: Did you win? If B: No. only I’d answered that last question!

8

B: Me too. A: So, are you going out with him? B: Of course not! I’d rather die than go out with Ben! A: I would prefer to stay in a hotel rather than sleep in a tent. B: But you used to love camping.

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12 10 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

I should have been more careful. wish wish I had been I more careful.

2

My brother likes orange juice more than apple juice. prefers My brother prefers orange juice to apple juice.

3

4

It’s annoying that she complains all the time! stop would stop I wish she complaining all the time! Clare regrets breaking up with her boyfriend. broken hadn’t broken up Clare wishes she with her boyfriend.

5

I’d prefer to stay here rather than go with them. rather I would rather stay here than go with them.

6

I would rather play chess than watch TV. than I would prefer to play chess rather than watch TV.

7

I would love to have a bike like yours! only If only I had / could have a bike like yours!

8

I would love to be able to travel through time! could I could travel I wish through time!

Let’s write!

11 Think about your life over the last three years and your life today. First, write sentences about the things you regret doing or not doing in the past. Then write about the things you wish were different today. Use I wish / if only. • I wish I had

• I wish I could

• Students’ own answers

• Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 12 Work with a partner. Imagine you are going to spend a whole day with your partner. Student A: Make suggestions about things to do. Student B: You don’t want to do what Student A suggests. Say what you would rather do / would prefer to do instead. Do this four times. Then swap roles and do the same.

Why don’t we watch the new James Bond film? I hate action films. I would rather watch a comedy.

We could go to the cinema. I would prefer to ... rather than go to the cinema.

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3

Revision: Units 9–12

1

Circle the correct answer.

3 Complete. Use the correct form of

0

He mustn’t / can’t have driven to the party! He doesn’t know how to drive!

the verb.

You mustn’t / needn’t have bought any juice. There are four cartons in the fridge.

1

Alfie hates getting up early. (get up) She’s too upset to talk right now. (talk)

2

They’re used to

2

You may / should see the doctor about that cough. It sounds really bad.

3

3

Tina is late. She must / should have missed the train.

4

4

You mustn’t / don’t have to eat those mushrooms. They’re poisonous.

5

park They will let you here for five minutes only. (park) It’s not worth spoiling your friendship over a silly argument. (spoil) go David would rather by plane

5

I’m sorry but I might / have got to go. I have a dentist’s appointment in half an hour.

6

6

You mustn’t / don’t have to buy her a present but I think she would like one.

1

0

hard. (work)

than by boat. (go)

7

We’re really looking forward to seeing them next week. (see) They tried to put out the fire but it was too late and the house burnt down. (put out) .......... / 7

.......... / 6

2 Rewrite the sentences. Use the

working

4 Circle the forms that can be used

in each sentence. If both forms are correct, circle them both.

verb in brackets.

0

Should I take an umbrella? (ought to) Ought I to take an umbrella?

0

I forgot to bring / bringing my wallet and now I can’t pay for the shopping!

1

Maybe they’re out. (might) might be They out.

1

I prefer to cycle / cycling to school every day.

2

It’s not necessary for you to stay here. (have) You don’t have to stay here.

2

Barbara remembers to come / coming on holiday here when she was a little girl.

3

Why didn’t you tell me? (should) You should have told me.

3

The poor boy went on to become / becoming a Hollywood star.

4

Maybe he forgot about the party. (may) He may have forgotten about the party.

4

You seem to be / being a bit upset.

5

5

You don’t have to finish that work today. (needn’t) needn’t finish You that work today.

The rain continued to fall / falling all afternoon.

6

You’d better start / starting now or you won’t finish in time for the meeting.

.......... / 5

.......... / 6

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Revision

3 5 Complete. Use the zero, first, second or third conditional.

7 Complete. Use the correct form of the verb.

0

If it hadn’t rained , we would have had the party in the garden. (not rain)

0

You’ve ruined my life! I wish I had never met you! (never / meet)

1

When he finishes work early, he goes to the gym. (go)

1

2

You’ll be tired tonight unless you lie down for a while. (lie down)

2

I prefer to read a good book rather than play computer games. (play) stay I would rather at home if you

3

The soup would taste better if you added some pepper. (taste)

3

don’t mind. (stay) I wish I could go

4

If she had seen the robber, she would have called the police. (call)

5 6

I would make another pizza if I had more cheese. (have) won’t get If you wear a hat, you

7

sunburnt. (not get) is If my mum

4

to the party on Saturday but Mum won’t let me. (can / go) to sing I would prefer rather than

5

play the guitar. (sing) If only I hadn’t lost my diamond ring at the beach! (not lose)

6

at home on Sundays, she bakes us cookies. (be)

We can’t pay the bills. If only we had more money! (have) .......... / 6

.......... / 7

8 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word

in bold. Use no more than five words.

6 Circle the correct answer. 0

We can / could bake the cake ourselves if we knew / would know the recipe.

1

If your message didn’t / hadn’t come, we won’t / wouldn’t have known you were here.

2

3

You can / could take my camera as long as you promise / will promise to bring it back tomorrow. What will / would you do if you found / would find a wallet full of money in the street?

0

Maybe she’s at home. could could be She at home.

1

I want to be alone right now. rather I would rather be alone right now.

2

I won’t go if he doesn’t come with us. unless I won’t go unless he comes with us.

3

You shouldn’t trust her. were I were you , I wouldn’t trust her. If

4

I regret not talking to him. If only I had talked to him!

only

4

She didn’t shout / wouldn’t have shouted at us if we weren’t / hadn’t been late.

5

Amy isn’t old enough to vote. Amy is too young to vote.

5

I didn’t / wouldn’t wear that hat if I were / would be you!

6

Why don’t you leave me alone? would I wish you would leave me alone!

6

You will / would be late unless you leave / will leave now.

7

If you leave / will leave ice in the sun, it melts / would melt.

young

.......... / 6

Total:

.......... / 50

.......... / 7

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13 Reported speech

Fourteen-year-old Harry was working in his uncle’s shop when a tall man walked in. ‘He asked me if I had that day’s newspaper and then he asked me how much it cost,’ Harry said. Suddenly, he realised that the man was Edward Tessi, the famous football player! Harry explained that Tessi was his favourite player and that he had been following Tessi’s career for years. ‘I asked him to give me his autograph, of course! And then I asked my uncle to take our picture!’ Harry told me. Here it is: a photo of our very own Harry Miller with football star Edward Tessi!

Reported statements Direct speech

Reported speech

Mike said, ‘I love rock music.’ Faith said, ‘We’re having a great time.’ Jim said, ‘I lost my wallet.’ Jess said, ‘We have finished.’ Mark said, ‘I’ll be back at six.’ Nadia said, ‘I may be late.’

Mike said (that) he loved rock music. Faith said (that) they were having a great time. Jim said (that) he had lost his wallet. Jess said (that) they had finished. Mark said (that) he would be back at six. Nadia said (that) she might be late.

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13 • We use reported speech to tell someone what another person said. Phoebe said that she was hungry. • We use reporting verbs such as say and tell in reported speech. We can use that after the reporting verb. When we do not mention who the speaker was talking to, we use say. When we mention who the speaker was talking to, we use tell. We use an object after tell. He said (that) he knew the answer. He told me (that) he knew the answer. • When we report what someone said: ° we change personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, possessive adjectives, etc. Eddie said, ‘I’ve fixed my bike.’ (direct speech) Eddie said (that) he had fixed his bike. (reported speech) ° the verb tenses change as follows:

°

Direct speech

Reported speech

Present simple Daniel said, ‘I collect stamps.’

Past simple Daniel said (that) he collected stamps.

Present continuous Jo said, ‘I’m staying with my aunt.’

Past continuous Jo said (that) she was staying with her aunt.

Past simple Charlie said, ‘I read the book.’

Past perfect simple Charlie said (that) he had read the book.

Past continuous Di said, ‘I was skateboarding.’

Past perfect continuous Di said (that) she had been skateboarding.

Present perfect simple Carl said, ‘They have arrived.’

Past perfect simple Carl said (that) they had arrived.

Present perfect continuous Mo said, ‘He has been training hard.’

Past perfect continuous Mo said (that) he had been training hard.

Past perfect simple Kate said, ‘They had already left.’

Past perfect simple Kate said (that) they had already left.

Past perfect continuous Andy said, ‘I had been working.’

Past perfect continuous Andy said (that) he had been working.

will Ann said, ‘We’ll let you know.’ Tim said, ‘I’ll be working at six.’

would Ann said (that) they would let us know. Tim said (that) he would be working at six.

am / is / are going to Bill said, ‘I’m going to cook lunch.’

was / were going to Bill said (that) he was going to cook lunch.

can Zoe said, ‘I can’t stay.’

could Zoe said (that) she couldn’t stay.

must Kevin said, ‘I must stop.’

had to Kevin said (that) he had to stop.

may Jill said, ‘He may forget.’

might Jill said (that) he might forget.

the modal verbs could, might, should, ought to and would do not change. Matt said, ‘We should hurry.’  Matt said (that) they should hurry.

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13 • If the reporting verb is in the past simple (e.g. she said), the tense changes in reported speech. If the reporting verb is in the present simple (e.g. she says), the tense does not change. Mum said, ‘You are late.’  Mum said (that) you were late. Mum says, ‘You are late.’  Mum says (that) you are late. • Time words and phrases also change in reported speech: Direct speech

Reported speech

today

that day

tonight

that night

this week / month / year

that week / month / year

now

then

yesterday

the day before, the previous day

last week / month / year

the week / month / year before, the previous week / month / year

two weeks / months / years ago

two weeks / months / years before

tomorrow

the next day, the following day

next week / month / year

the following week / month / year

I said, ‘I’ll see you tomorrow.’  I said (that) I would see her the next day. • Some other words also change in reported speech: Direct speech

Reported speech

this / these

that / those

here

there

come

go

Jamie said, ‘This is my house.’  Jamie said (that) that was his house.

1

Complete. Use said or told.

be a Remember: we use an object after told. We do not use an object after said.

2

told Ann me that she loved dogs. said I that I didn’t know the answer.

3

We

1

4 5 6

told

the man that he had to leave. said The police officer that a man had been arrested. Mum said that she was tired. told They me that there weren’t any

7

tickets left.

8

told Our teacher us that she wasn’t happy with our exam results. said She that the TV was broken.

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13 2 Complete. Use one or two words in each space.

1

Jane: ‘The exam was difficult.’ Jane said that the exam had been difficult.

2

Peter: ‘I’m sure I’ve failed.’ he Peter said that was sure had failed.

he

3

Alex: ‘The results will be out soon.’ Alex said that the results would be out soon.

4

John: ‘My mum will be angry if I don’t pass.’ John said that his mum would be he angry if didn’t pass.

5

Tina: ‘You worry too much, John.’ he Tina told John that worried too much.

6

Carol: ‘I didn’t answer the last question.’ Carol said that she hadn’t answered the last question.

7

Mark: ‘I’m sure we will all pass.’ Mark said that he was sure they would all pass.

8

Mrs Hall: ‘You’ve all passed the exam!’ Mrs Hall said that they had all passed the exam.

3 Report the statements. 1 2 3 4

Kim said, ‘I’m exhausted!’ Kim said that she was exhausted.

5

Adam said, ‘I don’t want to watch TV.’

6

Lee said, ‘We weren’t paying attention.’

7

Trevor said, ‘I haven’t had lunch yet.’

8

Adam said (that) he didn’t want to watch TV. Lee said (that) they hadn’t been paying attention. Trevor said (that) he hadn’t had lunch yet.

Sandy said, ‘I’m going to call him.’

Sandy said (that) she was going to call him.

Ian said, ‘I got up at half past eight.’

Ian said (that) he had got up at half past eight.

Dave said, ‘I’ll be ready at four.’

Dave said (that) he would be ready at four.

Natalie said, ‘They had already left.’

Natalie said (that) they had already left.

4 Report the statements.

1 2 3

be a

4

Remember: some modal verbs do not change in reported speech.

5

Abbie said, ‘We may move to Oxford.’ Abbie said that they might move to Oxford.

6

My dad said, ‘We must hurry up.’

My dad said (that) we had to hurry up.

Emily said, ‘He wouldn’t answer my question.’ Emily said (that) he wouldn’t answer her question.

7 8

Leo said, ‘She ought to apologise.’

Leo said (that) she ought to apologise.

Lydia said, ‘He should stay in bed.’

Lydia said (that) he should stay in bed.

Owen said, ‘I might invite Laura to my party.’ Owen said (that) he might invite Laura to his party. Eve said, ‘I can’t help them.’

Eve said (that) she couldn’t help them.

Ben said, ‘Sarah could be wrong.’

Ben said (that) Sarah could be wrong.

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13 5 Complete. Use one or two words in each space. 1

Henry: ‘I’ll see you tomorrow.’ Henry said that he would see us the following day.

5

Jenny: ‘They’re leaving today.’ Jenny said that they were leaving that day .

2

Holly: ‘We lived there ten years ago.’ Holly said that they had lived there ten before years .

6

Celia: ‘I saw Lucy last week.’ Celia said that she had seen Lucy the previous week.

3

Simon: ‘We’re going to the cinema tonight.’ Simon said that they were going to the cinema that night .

7

Mrs Davis: ‘These are my daughters.’ those Mrs Davis told us that were her daughters.

8

Andrew: ‘We hope to go to Spain next summer.’ Andrew said that they hoped to go to Spain the following summer.

4

Dan: ‘I’m going to stay here.’ Dan said that he was going to stay there .

6 Read and complete. Use one or two words in each space. Mrs Jennings, the headmistress of Oak Ridge School, is welcoming new students to the school. ‘I 1 hope you will all be very happy 2 here. Remember: your teachers 3 are here to help you. And remember that you 4 must wear your uniform to school every day. Girls, if you 5 are wearing long earrings, you 6 can give them to Mr Evans. He will return them to you 7 this afternoon. You 8 should remember not to wear them to school again. Welcome to Oak Ridge School, everyone!’

hoped they would all be very Mrs Jennings told the students that she 1 there . She told them that their teachers 3 were there to help happy 2 had to wear their uniform to school every day. them. She said that they 4 5 were wearing could long earrings, they 6 Then she said that if the girls give them to Mr Evans, and that he would return them 7 that afternoon . She said should remember not to wear them to school again. And then that they 8 she welcomed everyone to Oak Ridge School.

7 Report the statements.

1 2

be a

3

Remember: the tense does not change if the reporting verb is in the present simple.

4

‘I’m feeling very tired.’ Εlla says that she is feeling very tired ‘My mum will pick me up.’ He said (that) his mum would pick him up

5 . 6 .

‘We aren’t ready yet.’ They said (that) they weren’t ready yet

.

‘My son is a doctor.’ She says (that) her son is a doctor

.

‘Liz left at half past eight.’ He says (that) Liz left at half past eight

.

‘They arrived at noon.’ She said (that) they had arrived at noon

.

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13 Reported commands and requests Direct speech

Reported speech

Commands ‘Sit down!’ Mum said to me. ‘Don’t talk!’ our teacher said to us.

Mum told me to sit down. Our teacher told us not to talk.

Requests ‘Pass me the salt, please,’ I said to her. ‘Please don’t leave,’ he said to me.

I asked her to pass me the salt. He asked me not to leave.

• When we report commands and requests, we change the imperative to a full infinitive (to + infinitive). ‘Run!’ she said to them.  She told them to run. ‘Please stay,’ I said to him.  I asked him to stay. • For negative commands and requests we add not before the full infinitive (not + to + infinitive). ‘Don’t touch that!’ she said to him.  She told him not to touch that. • We use tell to report commands. We use an object after tell. ‘Stand still!’ he said to me.  He told me to stand still. • We use ask to report requests. We use an object after ask. ‘Please calm down,’ he said to me.  He asked me to calm down.

8 Report the commands and requests. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Please tidy up my room.

‘Please tidy up my room.’ Εugenius asked Dax to tidy up his room

.

‘Don’t fight!’ She told the boys not to fight

.

‘Get out!’ She told me to get out

.

‘Please listen to me.’ He asked me to listen to him

.

‘Don’t close the door.’ I told her not to close the door

.

‘Please don’t leave me.’ He asked her not to leave him

.

‘Phone the police!’ He told his wife to phone the police

.

‘Please don’t drive so fast.’ I asked my dad not to drive so fast

.

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13 9 Report the commands and requests. Use the verb in brackets. 2

1

‘Please do not touch the paintings,’ the man said to them. (asked) The man asked them not to touch the paintings.

‘Lie down!’ she said to her dog. (told)

She told her dog to lie down.

3

‘Please don’t tell Louis about the party,’ he said to me. (asked) He asked me not to tell Louis about the party.

4

‘Please take me with you,’ he said to Jessica. (asked) He asked Jessica to take him with her.

5

‘Don’t speak to me like that!’ she said to him. (told) She told him not to speak to her like that.

6

‘Keep quiet,’ she said to us. (told)

She told us to keep quiet.

10 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

‘Don’t move!’ the man said to them. not them not to The man told move.

2

‘Please pick me up from the station,’ I said to her. asked I asked her to pick me up from the station.

5

‘Open all the windows,’ Connor said to Mia. told Connor told Mia to open all the windows.

6

‘Please be quiet,’ Mrs Davies said to us. asked us to be Mrs Davies quiet.

to

3

‘Do your homework,’ his dad said to him. his him to do his His dad told homework.

7

‘Stay here and wait for me,’ she said to her son. there to stay there She told her son and wait for her.

4

‘Please don’t leave me here alone,’ she said to Jack. her She asked Jack not to leave her there alone.

8

‘Please don’t give away our secret,’ they said to her. their They asked her not to give away their secret.

Reported questions Direct speech

Reported speech

Yes / No questions ‘Do you live here?’ he asked me. ‘Has he phoned?’ I asked her. ‘Is Fiona coming?’ we asked him.

He asked me if / whether I lived there. I asked her if / whether he had phoned. We asked him if / whether Fiona was coming.

Wh- questions ‘What do you want?’ we asked her. ‘Why did you lie?’ I asked him. ‘Where are you going?’ she asked me.

We asked her what she wanted. I asked him why he had lied. She asked me where I was going.

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13 • Reported questions have the same tense and word changes as reported statements. In reported questions the verb is not in question form. It is the same as in statements. ‘Is Liz ready?’ I asked.  I asked if Liz was ready. ✓ (I asked if was Liz ready. ✗) • When the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (do / does, have / has, etc.) or a modal verb (can, should, etc.), the reported question begins with if or whether. ‘Is he at home?’ she asked me.  She asked me if / whether he was at home. • When the direct question begins with a question word (what, where, how much, etc.), the reported question begins with the question word. ‘What did they say?’ Jill asked.  Jill asked what they had said. • We often use ask to report questions. We can use an object after ask. ‘Have they arrived?’ I asked (her).  I asked (her) if they had arrived.’

11 Report the questions.

be a Remember: the verb is not in question form in reported questions.

1 2 3 4

5 6

‘Did you see Emily?’ I asked him. I asked him if he had seen Emily.

7

‘Can you help me?’ she asked me.

8

‘Has Rob phoned yet?’ he asked Amy.

9

She asked me if / whether I could help her. He asked Amy if / whether Rob had phoned yet.

‘Are you busy?’ she asked Jim.

She asked Jim if / whether he was busy.

10

‘Are you going to stay?’ I asked her.

I asked her if / whether she was going to stay.

‘Do you like it here?’ he asked them.

He asked them if / whether they liked it there.

‘Have you been crying?’ I asked Sue.

I asked Sue if / whether she had been crying.

‘Should I take the job?’ he asked me.

He asked me if / whether he should take the job.

‘Did Emma call?’ I asked Brian.

I asked Brian if / whether Emma had called.

‘Is Dad watching TV?’ Mum asked me.

Mum asked me if / whether Dad was watching TV.

12 Report the questions. 1

‘What’s your project about?’ Jo asked me. Jo asked me what my project was about.

2

3

4 5

6

‘When do you have to leave?’ I asked them. I asked them when they had to leave.

‘How long have you been a teacher?’ I asked Mr Fox. I asked Mr Fox how long he had been a teacher.

7

‘How much did you pay for the CD?’ he asked me. He asked me how much I had paid for the CD.

‘How often do you go to the gym?’ she asked him. She asked him how often he went to the gym.

8

‘Why were they shouting?’ he asked us.

9

He asked us why they had been shouting.

‘Who is this boy?’ Freddie asked Lee.

Freddie asked Lee who that boy was.

10

‘Where should I go?’ she asked me.

She asked me where she should go.

‘What did Keith do?’ I asked her.

I asked her what Keith had done.

‘Why are you laughing?’ He asked me.

He asked me why I was laughing.

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13 13 Report the questions. Eugenius is getting ready for a school trip. Dax is helping him. 1

‘Is Ginny here yet?’

2

‘What time is it?’

3

‘Where’s my MP3 player?’

4

‘Can you iron my T-shirt?’

5

‘Have you made the sandwiches?’

6

‘Where did you put my camera?’

7

‘Should I wear my cap?’

8

‘Does my hair look OK?’

1

Eugenius asked Dax if Ginny was there yet.

5

He asked him if / whether he had made the sandwiches.

2

He asked him what time it was.

6

He asked him where he had put his camera.

3

He asked him where his MP3 player was.

7

He asked him if / whether he should wear his cap.

4

He asked him if / whether he could iron his T-shirt.

8

He asked him if / whether his hair looked OK.

14 Are the sentences right or wrong? Tick (✓) or cross (✗). 1

Amber told me that she had already phoned her parents.

6

Christopher says that he’s looking forward to his birthday party.

2

Mum told me to don’t make a mess in the kitchen.

7

Morgan asked Becky why she had been crying.

3

I asked Sean if had he ever been to the US.

8

Francesca told her brother to not touch her CDs.

4

They said they had been studying for their exam the day previous.

9

My mum asked me did I need help with my project.

5

We told them not to wait for us because we might be late.

10

I told Ben that I had met Sarah four years before.

15 Rewrite the sentences in direct speech. 1 2 3 4 5

6

She told me that Mr Jones was busy. She told me, ‘ Mr Jones is busy

.’

I asked him if he wanted to join us. I asked him, ‘ Do you want to join us

?’

Maria told me not to worry. Maria told me, ‘ Don’t worry

.’

He said that she was leaving that day. He said, ‘ She’s leaving today

.’

7

We asked them where they were going. ?’ We asked them, ‘ Where are you going

I told Pete not to be afraid. I told Pete, ‘ Don’t be afraid

.’

They asked me who I was. They asked me, ‘ Who are you

?’

8

She said that she had never been abroad. .’ She said, ‘ I’ve never been abroad

9

Mia asked me if I lived in London. Mia asked me, ‘ Do you live in London

?’

He told me that I looked beautiful. He told me, ‘ You look beautiful

.’

10

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13 16 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

‘We hadn’t been waiting long,’ the boys said. they The boys said that they hadn’t been waiting long.

5

‘They left yesterday,’ the man told me. had The man told me that they had left the previous day.

2

‘I’ll be back tomorrow,’ she said. the She said that she would be back the following day.

6

3

‘What do you like doing in your free time?’ he asked me. liked what I liked He asked me doing in my free time.

‘Please answer my questions,’ the policeman said to him. asked The policeman asked him to answer his questions.

7

‘Don’t talk,’ Rebecca said to the boy. told Rebecca told the boy not to talk.

8

‘Can you help me?’ she asked me. whether She asked me whether I could help her.

4

‘They may be a bit late,’ the girls said. that The girls said that they might be a bit late.

Let’s write!

17 Imagine that you had an interview for a Saturday job last week. Report the questions the interviewer asked you and the answers you gave. Last week I had an interview for a Saturday job at The interviewer asked me I said that Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 18 Work with a partner. Student A: Student B is staying with you for a few days and you are letting him / her stay in your room. Tell him / her what to do or not to do while he / she is staying with you. Student B: Listen to Student A. Then tell the rest of the class what he / she told you to do or not to do.

Be very careful with my CDs. Please don’t feed my iguana. Please ... Ann told me to be very careful with her CDs. She asked me not to feed her iguana. She also asked me ...

Now swap roles and do the same.

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14 Reporting verbs

A man tried to rob the National Bank. He wrote this note and handed it to the cashier:

This iz a robry. Put all your muny in the bag. He ordered the cashier to read the note and then warned her not to shout for help. ‘I don’t understand,’ the cashier said and then complained that the note wasn’t spelled correctly. She advised the man to improve his spelling and suggested that he should come back the following day, with a correctlyspelled note! The robber ran out of the bank and was never seen again! Ginny Lewis, London

We do not always use say or tell to report what someone said. We can use different reporting verbs to summarise what they said, describing their tone or feelings. We use the following structures after reporting verbs. The verbs marked with an asterisk (*) can be followed by more than one structure. Verb + full infinitive Direct speech

Reported speech

agree *

‘OK, I’ll help you.’

He agreed to help me.

demand

‘I want to know the truth!’

He demanded to know the truth.

offer

‘I’ll carry your bag.’

He offered to carry my bag.

promise *

‘I’ll stay with you.’

He promised to stay with me.

refuse

‘No! I won’t tell you!’

He refused to tell me.

threaten *

‘I’ll call the police!’

He threatened to call the police.

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14 Verb + object + full infinitive Direct speech

Reported speech

advise

‘You should eat less salt.’

He advised me to eat less salt.

beg

‘Please don’t go!’

He begged me not to go.

invite

‘Come with us.’

He invited me to go with them.

order

‘Get out!’

He ordered me to get out.

remind *

‘Don’t forget to call Tim.’

He reminded me to call Tim.

warn *

‘Don’t go near the edge!’

He warned me not to go near the edge.

Verb (+ preposition) + -ing Direct speech

Reported speech

admit *

‘Yes, I broke the mirror.’

He admitted breaking the mirror.

accuse sb of

‘You lied!’

He accused me of lying.

apologise for

‘I’m sorry I’m late.’

He apologised for being late.

deny *

‘I didn’t take the money.’

He denied taking the money.

Verb (+ object) + that Direct speech

Reported speech

admit *

‘I lied.’

He admitted that he had lied.

agree *

‘Yes, we should tell her.’

He agreed that we should tell her.

complain

‘My food is cold!’

He complained that his food was cold.

deny *

‘I didn’t lie to you.’

He denied that he had lied to me.

explain

‘Nobody had told me.’

He explained that nobody had told him.

inform

‘They have left.’

He informed us that they had left.

promise *

‘I’ll be back soon.’

He promised that he’d be back soon.

remind *

‘Don’t forget that we have to leave at half past eight.’

He reminded me that we had to leave at half past eight.

threaten *

‘I’ll tell Mum!’

He threatened that he’d tell Mum.

warn *

‘The dog is dangerous!’

He warned me that the dog was dangerous.

Suggest We can use these structures with suggest: Direct speech

Reported speech

suggest + -ing

‘Why don’t we buy her a CD for her birthday?’

He suggested buying her a CD for her birthday.

suggest + that + present simple

‘Why don’t we buy her a CD for her birthday?’

He suggested that we buy her a CD for her birthday.

suggest + that + subject + should

‘Why don’t we buy her a CD for her birthday?’

He suggested that we should buy her a CD for her birthday.

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14 1

Report the statements. Use the verb in brackets.

1

‘I’ll be back by six,’ she said. (promised) She promised to be back by six.

4

‘I’ll do the shopping,’ he said. (offered)

5

‘I want to see the manager!’ Mrs Bower said. (demanded) Mrs Bower demanded to see the manager.

6

2 3

He offered to do the shopping.

‘OK, I’ll go with him,’ Jo said. (agreed)

Jo agreed to go with him.

‘No, I won’t give them the money!’ Eddie said. (refused) Eddie refused to give them the money. ‘I’ll fire you!’ her boss said. (threatened)

Her boss threatened to / that he / she would fire her.

2 Report the statements. Use the verb in brackets. 1

‘Don’t press the red button,’ Mike told me. (warned) Mike warned me not to press the red button.

4

‘Please let me stay with you,’ she told Adam. (begged) She begged Adam to let her stay with him.

2

‘Stay for lunch,’ Mrs Cooper told us. (invited) Mrs Cooper invited us to stay for lunch.

5

‘You ought to work harder,’ he told me. (advised) He advised me to work harder.

3

‘Don’t forget to take the pie out of the oven,’ I told him. (reminded) I reminded him to take the pie out of the oven.

6

‘Leave the classroom!’ the teacher told her. (ordered) The teacher ordered her to leave the classroom.

3 Report the statements. Use the verb in brackets. 1

‘I made a mistake,’ Alison said. (admitted) Alison admitted that she had made a mistake.

2

‘I didn’t see the sign,’ the driver said. (explained) The driver explained that he / she hadn’t seen the sign.

3

‘You’ve passed the test,’ Mrs Owen told me. (informed) Mrs Owen informed me that I had passed the test.

4

5 6

‘The bridge isn’t safe,’ the man told us. (warned) The man warned us that the bridge wasn’t safe. ‘Yes, it’s a bad idea,’ Bob said. (agreed)

Bob agreed that it was a bad idea.

‘They hadn’t warned me!’ Amy said. (complained) Amy complained that they hadn’t warned her.

4 Circle the forms that can be used in each sentence. If both forms are correct, circle them both.

1

He promised to write / that he would write every day.

5

Jerry apologised for hurting / that he had hurt my feelings.

2

The police officer demanded to see / that he saw my ID card.

6

Carol offered to help / that she would help us with the housework.

3

Jamie and his brother denied breaking / that they had broken the window.

7

Gemma admitted lying / that she had lied to the police.

4

Christine and Ben suggested watching / that we should watch the action film.

8

Matt advised me to talk / that I would talk to my father about what had happened.

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14 5 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

‘He’s going to be late,’ she told me. informed She informed me that he was going to be late.

4

‘You cheated in the exam!’ Charlie told her. accused Charlie accused her of cheating in the exam.

2

‘We’d better think about the problem again,’ David said. should David suggested that we should think about the problem again.

5

‘I’m sorry I lost your CD,’ Jane said to me. apologised Jane apologised for losing my CD.

6

‘No, I didn’t start the fight!’ he said. started He denied that he had started the fight.

3

‘I won’t stay here!’ she said. refused refused to stay She there.

Let’s write!

6 Think of different things people have told you this month. Report them using the verbs in the box. Write as many sentences as you can. You can use each verb more than once. accuse admit advise agree apologise invite offer order promise refuse

complain demand inform remind suggest warn

Last week my mum agreed to buy me a new computer. Students’ own answers

Let’s talk!

7

Play a game. Student A: Look at the box in Exercise 6. Whisper one sentence to Student B. Make sure it is a sentence he / she can report using a verb from the box. Student B: Report what Student A said to Student C using a verb from the box in Exercise 6. Student C: Try to guess Student A’s exact words. Get one point for each correct guess. Take it in turns to be Student A, B and C. Then count your points and find the winner(s).

You shouldn’t watch so much TV. Nick advised me not to watch so much TV. You shouldn’t watch so much TV. Correct! One point for you!

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15 Relative clauses

Neanderthals, who became extinct about 30,000 years ago, lived in Europe and Asia during the Stone Age. Scientists still don’t know the reason why they disappeared.

This picture shows one of the 2,300 Neanderthal tools that were discovered recently in the south of England. These tools, which the Neanderthals used to kill wild animals, were made of a hard stone called flint.

Since 1856, when the first Neanderthal fossil was discovered, hundreds of fossils have been found but scientists have not yet found a complete Neanderthal skeleton.

Defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses

The people who live next door are from Spain.

Phoebe, who is crazy about the theatre, loved the show.

The letter which is on my desk is for Mr Harrison.

The party, which started at nine o’clock, was a great success.

The boy whose bicycle I borrowed is really nice.

Mr Willis, whose daughter is a famous singer, can’t sing a note!

The hotel where we stayed was quite expensive.

The house is in Norwich, where my mum was born.

That was the day when I met Eric, my best friend.

She worked there until November, when she got a new job.

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15 Defining relative clauses Relative pronouns Relative pronouns are words that refer to a person, thing, animal, place, etc. that we have mentioned before. We use them in relative clauses. We use: • who for people. That’s the girl who lost her dog. • whom for people, when the relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause. Whom is rather formal and not very common in everyday speech. The man whom we met last night is Andy’s father. • which for things and animals. The DVD which comes with the magazine is free. • that for people, things or animals. We can use it instead of who, which or whom. That’s the girl that lost her dog. The DVD that comes with the magazine is free. • whose for possession. We can use it to talk about people, things or animals. The man whose car was stolen went to the police. • where for places. That’s the place where the accident happened. • when for a time. That was the day when I found out the truth. • why for a reason. That’s not the reason why I’m here.

Defining relative clauses • There are two kinds of relative clause: defining relative clauses and non-defining relative clauses. They begin with a relative pronoun and they come after the noun they refer to. She has a car which is always breaking down. • We use defining relative clauses to give essential information about a person, thing, animal, place, etc. and to make it clear which one we are talking about. Without the non-defining relative clause, the sentence would be incomplete. That’s the restaurant where we had dinner last night. (The sentence would not make sense if we left out where we had dinner last night.) • We can leave out the relative pronoun when it is the object of the relative clause. That’s the film. We saw it yesterday. (We is the subject of the second sentence. it is the object.) That’s the film that we saw yesterday. ✓ That’s the film we saw yesterday. ✓ (The relative pronoun (that) refers to the object (it). We can leave it out.) • We cannot leave out the relative pronoun when it is the subject of the relative clause. That’s the girl. She took my book. (She is the subject of the second sentence. my book is the object.) That’s the girl that took my book. ✓ (That’s the girl took my book. ✗) (The relative pronoun (that) refers to the subject (she). We cannot leave it out.)

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15 1

Complete. Use who, which, whose, where, when or why.

1

Is that the woman car?

2

why Is there any reason I should lend you more money? The cup which broke was Mum’s

3

who

bought your

5

This is the time comes home.

when

Julia usually

6

Is this the place purse? who The man

where

you lost your

7

favourite. 4

Carol is the girl whose me with my bike.

stole our car has been

arrested. brother helped

8

The boy whose bike had been stolen was really upset.

2 Join the sentences. Use defining relative clauses. 3

4 5

6

1

That’s the college. I studied Spanish there. That’s the college where I studied Spanish.

2

Press the button. It’s on the right. Press the button which / that is on the right.

What’s the name of the actor? He played Hamlet. What’s the name of the actor who / that played Hamlet? That’s the boy. His sister won the contest.

That’s the boy whose sister won the contest.

That was the day. She started her new job then. That was the day when she started her new job. That’s the park. We play football there.

That’s the park where we play football.

7

Who was the girl? She answered the phone. Who was the girl who / that answered the phone?

8

Where’s the man? His car is blocking the street. Where’s the man whose car is blocking the street?

3 Join the sentences. Use defining relative clauses. Use a relative pronoun only where necessary.

be a Remember: We can leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the relative clause. If it is the subject of the relative clause, we cannot leave it out. We have to use it.

1 2 3

That’s the boy. Jen met him at the party. That’s the boy Jen met at the party.

4 5 6

Monopoly is a game. I find it really boring.

Monopoly is a game I find really boring.

I loved the song. Eddie sang it.

I loved the song Eddie sang.

She’s the girl. She runs the art club.

She’s the girl who / that runs the art club.

7

Beyoncé is the singer. I wrote about her in my project. Beyonce is the singer I wrote about in my project.

8

Look at the laptop. It is in that shop window. Look at the laptop which / that is in that shop window.

How old was the painting? It was stolen.

How old was the painting which / that was stolen?

What’s in the box? It is on that chair.

What’s in the box which / that is on that chair?

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15 Non-defining relative clauses • We use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about a person, thing, animal, place, etc. that we have mentioned before. The information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. It would make sense without the relative clause. My uncle, who lives in Cambridge, is an architect. • Non-defining relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun. They come after the noun they refer to. We use commas to separate a non-defining relative clause from the main clause. When the relative clause is at the end of the sentence, we only use one comma. Nicole, who has been his friend for years, organised a surprise party for him. She invited all his friends, who brought him presents. • We do not use that in non-defining relative clauses. Nicole, who has been his friend for years, organised a surprise party for him. ✓ (Nicole, that has been his friend for years, organised a surprise party for him. ✗) • We cannot leave out the relative pronoun in non-defining relative clauses.

4 Join the sentences. Use non-defining relative clauses. Use the second sentence in the relative clause.

3

My new computer is much faster than my old one. I bought it last week. My new computer, which I bought last week, is much faster than my old one.

4

My penfriend is coming to visit me this summer. His name is Pedro. My penfriend, whose name is Pedro, is coming to visit me this summer.

5

We left Oxford in 2008. My sister finished college then. We left Oxford in 2008, when my sister finished college.

6

Jeremy showed us round the school. He’s our Science teacher’s son. Jeremy, who is our Science teacher’s son, showed us round the school.

1

Christine is a brilliant dancer. She went to ballet school. Christine, who went to ballet school, is a brilliant dancer.

7

My favourite TV programme is called Tomorrow. I never miss it. My favourite TV programme, which I never miss, is called Tomorrow.

2

We stayed in a beautiful house. A famous writer had once lived here. We stayed in a beautiful house, where a famous writer had once lived.

8

That day was the happiest day of her life. Tim asked her to marry him then. That day, when Tim asked her to marry him, was the happiest day of her life.

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15 Prepositions in relative clauses • Prepositions usually come at the end of a relative clause. That’s the picture. I was looking at it. That’s the picture that I was looking at. That’s the picture I was looking at. • Prepositions can also come before whom and which. But this is rather formal and not very common in everyday speech. This is the box. I keep my CDs in it. This is the box in which I keep my CDs. • We cannot use a preposition before who or that. The girl is Sam’s cousin. I was speaking to her. The girl to whom I was speaking is Sam’s cousin. ✓ (The girl to who / to that I was speaking is Sam’s cousin.) ✗ The girl (who / that) I was speaking to is Sam’s cousin. ✓

5 Join the sentences in two different ways. Use a relative pronoun only where necessary.

1

That’s the girl. I told you about her. That’s the girl I told you about. That’s the girl about whom I told you.

2

That’s the woman. We gave the money to her. That’s the woman we gave the money to. That’s the woman to whom we gave the money.

3

4

5

6

Tennis is a sport. I’m not very keen on it.

7

That’s the boy. I sold my bike to him.

8

Tennis is a sport I’m not very keen on. Tennis is a sport on which I’m not very keen. That’s the boy I sold my bike to. That’s the boy to whom I sold my bike.

He’s the man. They were talking about him. He’s the man they were talking about. He’s the man about whom they were talking. This is the room. I slept in it.

This is the room I slept in. This is the room in which I slept.

This is the skirt. I spent all my money on it.

This is the skirt I spent all my money on. This is the skirt on which I spent all my money.

Politics is a subject. I’m not interested in it.

Politics is a subject I’m not interested in. Politics is a subject in which I’m not interested.

6 Tick (✓) the sentences in which the relative pronoun is not necessary. 1

This is the dress that I bought for the party.

6

We met a man who has climbed Mount Everest!

2

Sam, who had been working for twelve hours, was exhausted.

7

I think I’ve just found the key that you’ve been looking for.

3

Is this the picture that you were talking about?

8

Zac Efron is the young actor who starred in High School Musical.

4

The girl that we asked didn’t know where the library was.

9

Keith, who was sitting next to Liz, heard what she said.

5

Their new house, which they only bought a week ago, is huge!

10

Is that the bike that you wanted to buy?

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15 7 Read and circle the correct answer. O = Officer

S = Suspect

serviced. So, my sister, 4 who / whom doesn’t work on Mondays, lent me hers.

O: So, are you sure you left the house at seven o’clock? S:

Yes, that’s the time 1 when / then I always leave the house.

O: Are you sure it was seven exactly? S:

Yes. My watch, which I looked 2 at / at it as I left the house, said seven o’clock.

O: And you got into your car? S:

Well, no. My car was in the garage, which / where I had left it to be

3

O: Is there somebody at the garage who 5 can / they can confirm that? S:

Yes, um ... Jerry. But I’ve lost the phone number he 6 gave it to me / gave me.

O: I see. Well, then maybe you can explain what your car was doing outside the National Bank at exactly seven o’clock, when a robbery 7 took place / took place then!

Let’s write! 8 Write true sentences about the people, things, places and times in the box. Use relative clauses. my best friend

My best friend is the person who

my English teacher

Students’ own answers

a dictionary a computer my room a park my birthday Christmas

Let’s talk! 9 Play a game. Student A: Choose a word from the list. Describe it to Student B without using the words in brackets. Use relative clauses. Student B: Try to guess what the word is. Get one point for each correct guess. Do this four times. Then swap roles and do the same. • actor (theatre, film) • postman (letter, post) • chef (food, cook) • car (travel, drive) • cup (tea, coffee) • hospital (doctor, sick) • hotel (room, stay)

This is a person who plays different roles. It’s a person who wears make-up and different costumes. An actor. Correct! One point for you!

• school (teacher, student)

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16 The passive

_ The art of perfume-making was first practised in ancient Egypt. _ Perfume was first brought to Europe in the sixteenth century.

Here are some interesting facts about perfume.

_ King Louis XIV of France used perfume so much that he was known as ‘the perfume king’. _ Grasse, a small town in Provence, France, is known as the perfume capital of the world. _ As many as eight hundred different ingredients may be used to create a perfume. _ Perfume lasts longer if it’s kept in a cool, dry place.

Active

Passive

Present simple

They water the plants.

The plants are watered.

Present continuous

They are watering the plants.

The plants are being watered.

Past simple

They watered the plants.

The plants were watered.

Past continuous

They were watering the plants.

The plants were being watered.

Present perfect simple

They have watered the plants.

The plants have been watered.

Past perfect simple

They had watered the plants.

The plants had been watered.

Future simple

They will water the plants.

The plants will be watered.

Future perfect

They will have watered the plants.

The plants will have been watered.

Be going to

They are going to water the plants.

The plants are going to be watered.

Modal verbs

They must water the plants.

The plants must be watered.

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16 Form • We form the passive voice with the appropriate tense of the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb. This house was built in 1920. • In negative sentences, we add not after the verb to be. This house was not built in 1920. • In questions, we put the verb to be at the beginning of the sentence. Was this house built in 1920? • We can also use the verb to get instead of to be in the passive voice. We often use it in everyday speech, to talk about something unpleasant that happens by accident or unexpectedly. He got stung by a bee.

Use We use the passive voice when we want to focus on the action itself and not the person who does it. We usually do not know or are not interested in who does the action. The main focus is the action itself. This book was printed in Spain. The letters are delivered every morning.

Agent • In a passive sentence, we sometimes mention the agent (= the person who does the action). To do this, we use by + a name / a noun / a pronoun. Her dress was made by a top designer. • We only mention the agent when we know who does the action we are talking about, and only when it adds new or important information. Compare: The paintings were stolen. (We do not know who stole them. We do not mention the agent.) She was badly injured. (The important information here is the fact that she was injured. We are not interested in who injured her. We do not mention the agent.) The man was arrested. (We know that the police arrested him. We do not need to mention the agent.) This film was directed by Samuel Norton. (The agent adds new, important information, so we mention it.) • Be careful: we use with (not by) when we want to mention the tool, object or instrument that was used for something. Jane Eyre was written by Charlotte Brontë. The lock was broken with a hammer.

Active and passive sentences When we change an active sentence into a passive sentence: • The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Jane Summers gave the talk.  The talk was given by Jane Summers. • We use the appropriate tense of the verb to be and the past participle of the verb in the active sentence. Jane Summers gave the talk.  The talk was given by Jane Summers. • If we want to mention the agent, we use by + the subject of the active sentence. Jane Summers gave the talk.  The talk was given by Jane Summers.

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16 1

1

Tick (✓) the passive sentences.

The animals were being fed when we arrived.

2

Mary was exhausted, so she went straight to bed.

3

They’re going to book their tickets tomorrow morning.

4

Cars and motorbikes are made in this factory.

5

The parcel has already been delivered.

6

The Robinsons have been in Moscow since last Wednesday.

7

The invitations were sent electronically.

8

They open the garden gates at half past eight every morning.

5

All the rooms in the hotel are cleaned every day. (clean)

6

I’m sorry, the computer is being used at the moment. (use) His book had already been published when we

2 Complete. Use the passive. 1

2

will be asked You to talk about your career plans at tomorrow’s interview. (ask) was held The meeting last Friday. (hold)

3 4

The exam results have just been announced . (just / announce) may be filmed The carnival for national TV. (may / film)

7 8

met him. (already / publish) The meal was still being prepared when the guests arrived. (still / prepare)

3 Read and complete. Use the passive.

The Louvre Museum: factfile • The Louvre Museum in Paris 1 was opened (open) for the first time in 1793. Since then it 2 has been visited (visit) by millions of people. Today the is visited (visit) by more museum 3 than 10,000 people every day. • The Louvre Pyramid, the glass pyramid at the entrance of the museum, 4 was completed (complete) in 1989. It 5 is surrounded (surround) by smaller pyramids.

• Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, the most famous painting in the world, can be seen (can / see) at the Louvre. 6 In 1911 the painting 7 was stolen (steal) from the museum by one of its employees, who 8 was arrested (arrest) a few years later. • Up to seventy thousand plants are planted (plant) in the museum 9 gardens every year. Some of the trees in the gardens 10 were planted (plant) more than 200 years ago!

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16 4 Write questions. Use the passive. 1

Spanish is taught at that school. (German) Is German taught at that school?

5

2

The bathroom is going to be painted. (kitchen) Is the kitchen going to be painted?

6

3

The Science tests have been marked. (Maths tests) Have the Maths tests been marked?

4

Her car can be repaired. (his motorbike)

Can his motorbike be repaired?

Kate will be interviewed for the job. (Nikki)

Will Nikki be interviewed for the job?

7

The rooms were booked last week. (the tickets) Were the tickets booked last week?

8

The penguins are fed twice a day. (monkeys) Are the monkeys fed twice a day?

4

The movie is going to be filmed this summer. (this spring) No, it isn’t going to be filmed this summer. It is going to be filmed this spring.

5

This photo was taken by Amanda Richards. (Sam Graham) No, it wasn’t taken by Amanda Richards. It was taken by Sam Graham.

6

Mrs Edwards has been informed. (Mr Taylor) No, she hasn’t been informed. Mr Taylor has been informed. The new computers will be delivered on Tuesday. (Friday) No, they won’t be delivered on Tuesday. They will be delivered on Friday.

Mr Atkinson had been paid. (Mr Brown)

Had Mr Brown been paid?

5 Write sentences. Use the passive.

1

Kimonos are worn in China. (Japan) No, they aren’t worn in China. They are worn in Japan.

2

The report was written in March. (September) No, it wasn’t written in March. It was written in September.

7

Coffee is grown in Alaska. (Brazil)

8

3

No, it isn’t grown in Alaska. It is grown in Brazil.

The invitations will be sent by post. (e-mail)

No, they won’t be sent by post. They will be sent by e-mail.

6 Rewrite the sentences in the passive. Include the agent only where necessary. 1

They are repairing Peter’s car at the moment. Peter’s car is being repaired at the moment.

2

A cat set off the burglar alarm. The burglar alarm was set off by a cat.

3 4

5 6

They have made the book into a film.

7

A famous sportsman will present the prize.

8

The book has been made into a film.

The prize will be presented by a famous sportsman.

They may cancel the meeting.

The meeting may be cancelled.

The pupils organise the school Christmas party. The school Christmas party is organised by the pupils. They will pay the employees next month.

The employees will be paid next month.

Mr Fox was interviewing the candidates.

The candidates were being interviewed by Mr Fox.

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16 7 Rewrite the sentences in the active or passive. Active

Passive

A ďŹ reman rescued the dog.

The dog was rescued by a fireman.

Mrs Smith must sign the letter.

The letter must be signed by Mrs Smith.

Somebody had changed the light bulb.

The light bulb had been changed.

A dog was chasing the cat.

The cat was being chased by a dog.

They have redecorated the room.

The room has been redecorated.

They may hold the meeting on Monday.

The meeting may be held on Monday.

Tom White had stolen the ring.

The ring had been stolen by Tom White.

Mrs Holley will direct the school play.

The school play will be directed by Mrs Holley.

8 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

They grow organic vegetables on this farm. are are grown Organic vegetables on this farm.

5

They’re building a new hospital in our town. is is being built A new hospital in our town.

2

A dog bit Claire. got got bitten by Claire

6

An artist will design the posters. be The posters will be designed by an artist.

7

They use eggs, sugar and flour to make these biscuits. made are made with These biscuits eggs, sugar and flour.

8

The mayor opened the new school. was opened by The new school mayor.

3

4

a dog.

They will have painted all the rooms by the time we move in. been All the rooms will have been painted by the time we move in. He uses a digital camera to take the photos. taken are taken with The photos a digital camera.

by the

9 Read and circle the correct answer.

Earthquake hits Italian village Several houses in a small village in the south of Italy 1 destroyed / were destroyed yesterday in a strong earthquake that measured 4.7 on the Richter scale. Fortunately, the villagers 2 did not / were not hurt. The school building 3 damaged / was damaged, too but luckily, there were no students in the building when the earthquake 4 struck / was struck, as the school was 5 repainting / being repainted. The government has promised that the people of the village will 6 give / be given money to rebuild their homes. School lessons are 7 holding / being held in the town hall for now and teachers 8 fear / are feared that the school will not 9 have repaired / have been repaired by the time pupils 10 sit / are sat for their summer exams.

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16 10 Read and complete. Use one word in each space.

Mount Everest: factfile • Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, 1 was named after Sir George Everest. • The mountain is called Chomolungma by the Tibetan people. 2 • The name Chomolungma has 3 been used by local Tibetan people for centuries. • The mountain is 8,839 metres high. It was measured in 1856 4 with a special piece of equipment called a theodolite.

• It 5 is located in the Himalayan mountains. • It 6 was climbed for the first time in 1953 7 by Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary. • By the end of the year 2008 Mount Everest 8 had been climbed 9 by 2,700 people. • 210 people have 10 been killed trying to climb the mountain.

Let’s write! 11 Look at Exercises 3 and 10 and make a factfile about a famous place or building in your country. Use the passive.

: factfile • Students’ own answers • • • • • •

Let’s talk! 12 Play a game. Student A: Think of a famous place, building, book, film, work of art, invention, etc. Use the passive to give Student B clues about it. Student B: Listen to Student A and try to guess what he / she is talking about. Get one point for each correct guess.

It was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. The telephone!

Do this four times. Then swap roles and do the same.

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4

Revision: Units 13–16

1

Report the statements.

3 Report the questions.

0

‘I’ve forgotten my keys,’ Mike said. Mike said that he had forgotten his keys.

0

‘You’re going to be late,’ Mum told me.

1

‘I’ll help you,’ Rachel told him.

2

‘I’m training to be a dancer,’ she said.

3

‘We must work harder,’ I told them.

4

‘Jim isn’t here,’ Mr Fox told us.

5

‘They’re leaving today,’ he said.

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

Mum told me (that) I was going to be late.

Rachel told him (that) she would help him. She said (that) she was training to be a dancer. I told them (that) we had to work harder. Mr Fox told us (that) Jim wasn’t there. He said (that) they were leaving that day.

‘Where have you been?’ she asked him. She asked him where he had been. ‘Can you pick me up?’ I asked her.

I asked her if / whether she could pick me up.

‘Why did you come here? he asked me.

He asked me why I had gone there.

‘Do you live in Spain?’ I asked them.

I asked them if / whether they lived in Spain.

‘What are you doing tonight?’ I asked her.

I asked her what she was doing that night.

‘Have you finished?’ they asked him.

They asked him if / whether he had finished.

‘How are you?’ she asked me.

She asked me how I was.

.......... / 6

.......... / 6

2 Report the command and requests. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

4 Report the statements. Use the verb in brackets.

‘Please leave.’ She asked him to leave

.

0

‘Don’t be late.’ I told them not to be late

.

1

‘Don’t work so hard.’ He told me not to work so hard

.

2

‘Please open the window.’ She asked me to open the window

.

3

‘Listen to me, please.’ He asked her to listen to him

.

4

‘Don’t move!’ The man told us not to move

.

5

‘Meet me at the station.’ I told her to meet me at the station

.

6

.......... / 6

7

‘I’ll write every day,’ she said. (promised) She promised to write every day. ‘My soup is cold!’ he said. (complained)

He complained that his soup was cold.

‘I’m sorry I was late,’ I said. (apologised)

I apologised for being late.

‘Please stay,’ she said to him. (begged)

She begged him to stay.

‘Talk to Ian,’ he told me. (advised)

He advised me to talk to Ian.

‘I’ll call the police!’ I said. (threatened)

I threatened to call / that I would call the police.

‘I didn’t understand,’ she said. (explained)

She explained that she hadn’t understood.

‘I took the money,’ he said. (admitted)

He admitted taking / that he had taken the money.

.......... / 7

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Revision

4 5 Join the sentences. Use defining

7 Rewrite the sentences in the

0

He’s got a dog. It barks all the time! He’s got a dog that barks all the time!

0

That’s the park. I lost my ring there.

1

I ate all the biscuits. Mum made them.

2

That’s the car. I saw it.

3

She’s the girl. Her dad called the police.

4

That’s the man. He stole my purse!

5

Show me the boy. He hurt you.

6

relative clauses. Use a relative pronoun only where necessary.

1 2 3 4 5 6

passive. Include the agent only where necessary.

That’s the park where I lost my ring. I ate all the biscuits Mum made. That’s the car I saw.

She’s the girl whose dad called the police. That’s the man who / that stole my purse! Show me the boy who / that hurt you.

They were painting the house at the time. The house was being painted at the time. They are going to cancel the match.

The match is going to be cancelled.

They have built a new school.

A new school has been built.

A huge dog bit Mr Jenkins.

Mr Jenkins was / got bitten by a huge dog.

They will have fixed the car by now.

The car will have been fixed by now.

Mrs Bower teaches the Science class.

The Science class is taught by Mrs Bower.

Dave Gillan will direct the film.

The film will be directed by Dave Gillan.

.......... / 6

.......... / 6

6 Join the sentences. Use non-defining relative clauses. Use the second sentence in the relative clause.

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word

in bold. Use no more than five words.

0

They’ve moved to London. Their son lives there. They’ve moved to London, where their son lives.

‘I may be late,’ he said. that He said that he might be late.

1

Detective Johnson arrested the thief. by The thief was arrested by Detective Johnson.

Her mum is in Paris. She’s a doctor.

2

There’s a jacket on the armchair and I think it’s Kate’s. that I think the jacket that is on the armchair is Kate’s.

Claire left the room. She was really upset.

3

They make cars here. are are made Cars here.

Ken was crying. His bike had been stolen.

4

Their son is a doctor and he lives in Paris. who Their son, who is a doctor , lives in Paris.

5

They will hold the party in a hotel. The party will be held in a hotel.

6

‘Don’t go near that dog!’ he said to us. warned He warned us not to go near that dog.

Her mum, who is a doctor, is in Paris.

I met him in 2008. I finished school then.

I met him in 2008, when I finished school.

Claire, who was really upset, left the room.

Ken, whose bike had been stolen, was crying.

Rome is a beautiful city. I grew up there.

Rome, where I grew up, is a beautiful city.

My cat sleeps on my bed. I love it.

My cat, which I love, sleeps on my bed.

This book is my favourite. It came out in 1991. This book, which came out in 1991, is my favourite.

be

.......... / 6

.......... / 7

Total:

.......... / 50

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17 Causative form

He’s also just had his hooves cleaned with a special tool called a hoof pick. Lightning has just had his coat brushed. Doesn’t he look beautiful?

He had his mane trimmed this morning. Nice, isn’t it? Lightning is almost ready for his next race.

A few minutes before his race, he’s going to have his eyes and ears wiped with a damp cloth.

He still needs to have his tail combed.

Present simple

We have the house painted every two years.

Present continuous

We are having the house painted at the moment.

Past simple

We had the house painted last month.

Past continuous

We were having the house painted at the time.

Present perfect simple

We have just had the house painted.

Present perfect continuous

We have been having the house painted.

Past perfect simple

We had already had the house painted by then.

Past perfect continuous

We had been having the house painted for days.

Future simple

We will have the house painted soon.

Future continuous

We will be having the house painted when they come.

Future perfect simple

We will have had the house painted by September.

Be going to

We are going to have the house painted next week.

Modal verbs

We must have the house painted soon.

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17 Form •

We form the causative form with the appropriate tense of the verb have, an object and the past participle of the main verb. The form is: subject + have + object + past participle. She has her eyes tested every two years. (present simple) She has just had her eyes tested. (present perfect simple) She had her eyes tested last month. (past simple) She will have her eyes tested soon. (future simple)

We form negative sentences and questions according to the tense used each time. She hasn’t had her eyes tested yet. How often does she have her eyes tested?

We can also use get instead of have in the causative form. We often use it in everyday speech. She’s getting her eyes tested tomorrow.

To mention the agent (= the person doing the action) we use by, as in the passive voice. We only mention the agent when it adds new or important information. She had her eyes tested by Dr Smith.

Use

1

We use the causative form to talk about something that we do not do ourselves but arrange for someone else (e.g. a professional) to do it for us. Compare: Jim installed the new cooker. (He installed it himself.) Jim had the new cooker installed. (He arranged for someone else to install it for him.)

We often use the causative form to talk about something unpleasant that happens to someone. When we use the causative form in this way, we can only use have (not get). They had all the money stolen! ✓ (They got all their money stolen! ✗)

Complete. Use the causative form. 2 3 4 5

1

had the pool cleaned They morning. (the pool / clean)

this

had their photo taken The children at school yesterday. (their photo / take) We must have that window fixed soon.

(that window / must / fix) I will have the invitations printed tomorrow, I promise! (the invitations / print)

6

Jilly is at the hairdresser’s at the moment. is having her hair cut She . (her hair / cut) have their milk delivered They to their

7

house every morning. (their milk / deliver) They had just had the house painted when

8

we moved in. (the house / just / paint) You should have that carpet cleaned . (that carpet / should / clean)

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17 2 Write sentences. Use the causative form. 1

Jim had his car fixed. (his motorbike) No, he didn’t have his car fixed. He had his motorbike fixed.

2

Mrs Hatton is going to have the letter typed. (the report) No, she isn’t going to have the letter typed. She’s going to have the report typed.

3

Jennifer has had her wallet stolen. (her MP3 player) No, she hasn’t had her wallet stolen. She’s had her MP3 player stolen.

4

He was having his motorbike serviced. (his car) No, he wasn’t having his motorbike serviced. He was having his car serviced.

5

They’ve had the printer fixed. (the scanner) No, they haven’t had the printer fixed. They’ve had the scanner fixed.

6

They’re having a garage built. (a gym)

No, they aren’t having a garage built. They’re having a gym built.

3 Write questions. Use the causative form. Then write short answers that are true for you.

1

you / ever / something / steal / from you? Have you ever had something stolen from you? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.

2

you / a cake / make / for your last birthday? Did you have a cake made for your last birthday? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

3

you / often / your clothes / dry-clean?

Do you often have your clothes dry-cleaned? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

4

5

6

you / ever / a tooth / pull out / by the dentist? Have you ever had a tooth pulled out by the dentist? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. you / need to / your room / repaint?

Do you need to have your room repainted? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

you / your hair / cut / last month?

Did you have your hair cut last month? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

4 Rewrite the sentences in the causative form. Include the agent only where necessary.

1

An American journalist wrote Cindy Lewis’ biography. Cindy Lewis had her biography written by an American journalist.

5

We must ask someone to fix the roof as soon as possible. We must have the roof fixed as soon as possible.

2

A famous artist is painting the Queen’s portrait. The Queen is having her portrait painted by a famous artist.

6

Someone redecorates their house every three years. They have their house redecorated every three years.

3

The hairdresser was doing my mum’s hair when I phoned her. My mum was having her hair done when I phoned her.

7

Someone cleans their swimming pool every week. They have their swimming pool cleaned every week.

4

Mr Hartley asks a neighbour to do his shopping. Mr Hartley has his shopping done by a neighbour.

8

She asked a German architect to design her new house. She had her new house designed by a German architect.

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17 5 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

Christine always asks someone to cook her meals for her. cooked always has her meals cooked Christine for her.

5

She asked a professional photographer to take her photo. by had her photo taken by She a professional photographer.

2

Someone is delivering my new computer tomorrow. having I’m having my new computer delivered tomorrow.

6

I will ask someone to fix the TV tomorrow. fixed will have the TV fixed I tomorrow.

7

3

We must ask someone to clean up the garden. get We must get the garden cleaned up.

I’ve asked someone to type all the letters, don’t worry. had had all the letters typed I’ve , don’t worry.

4

The hairdresser was cutting my hair when Anna called. was was having my hair cut I when Anna called.

8

She’s going to ask someone to pierce her ears tomorrow. pierced have her ears pierced She’s going to tomorrow.

Let’s write! 6 Imagine you have just won £500,000. Write about all the things you will have done for you. Use the causative form. I will have a swimming pool built in my garden. I’m going to I might also Students’ own answers

Let’s talk!

7

Work with a partner. Ask and answer. Student A: Ask Student B what things he / she has or hasn’t had done for him / her. Use the causative form. Student B: Answer Student A’s questions.

Have you ever had your hair dyed? No, I haven’t.

Do this four times. Then swap roles and do the same.

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Question tags, indirect questions

18

Home Gallery Questions & answers Question: Answer: Question: Answer: Question: Answer: Question: Answer:

Tyrannosaurus Rex was a carnivore, wasn’t it? mar k3 4 _bt Yes, it was one of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs. Can you tell me how big T-Rex was? brainbox 1 2 About twelve metres long and up to six metres tall. I would like to know where it lived. d ax-the-ro bo t It lived in what is now western North America. It became extinct six million years ago, didn’t it? xtreme0 1 No, that’s not correct. It became extinct about sixty-five million years ago.

Question tags Affirmative sentence + negative tag

Negative sentence + affirmative tag

She’s French, isn’t she? They live here, don’t they? You forgot, didn’t you? He’s been working all day, hasn’t he? You can help me, can’t you? She will come, won’t she?

She isn’t French, is she? They don’t live here, do they? You didn’t forget, did you? He hasn’t been working all day, has he? You can’t help me, can you? She won’t come, will she?

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18 Form • Question tags are short questions that we add to the end of statements. We form question tags with the auxiliary / modal verb of the statement + a pronoun. We use a comma before question tags. They were laughing at me, weren’t they? • We use negative question tags after positive statements and positive question tags after negative statements. You went to the party, didn’t you? You didn’t go to the party, did you? • We use positive question tags after ‘negative words’ like never, seldom, rarely, nothing, etc. She never says ‘thank you’, does she? Nothing happened, did it? • The question tag for I am is aren’t I? I’m too late, aren’t I? • The question tag for let’s is shall we? Let’s have lunch, shall we? Let’s not tell her about this, shall we? • The question tag for imperatives is will you? Pass me that book, will you? Don’t be late, will you? • When the sentence begins with there (e.g. there is / are, there was / were), we use there in the question tag. There isn’t any coffee, is there? • When the sentence begins with this / that or these / those, we use it or they in the question tag. That’s strange, isn’t it? Those earrings are pretty, aren’t they? • When the sentence begins with somebody, everyone, no one, nobody, etc., we use a plural verb + they in the question tag. Nobody wants this old car, do they? Everybody was happy, weren’t they?

Use We use question tags: • when we think or know that something is true and expect the listener to agree with us. A: It was really hot today, wasn’t it? B: Yes, it was! • when we are not sure if something is true and want to check. A: You’re not hungry, are you? B: No, I’ve only just had lunch.

1

Complete. Use question tags.

1

The Colosseum is in Rome,

2 3

There weren’t any letters for me this morning, were there ? has he Ηe hasn’t called, ?

4

Close the window,

will you

5

Jamie failed his driving test,

6

Let’s have something to eat,

isn’t it

?

? didn’t he ? shall we ?

were they ?

7

They weren’t sleeping,

8

Someone left a message for Mr Harper, didn’t they ?

9

You like Green Day, aren’t I I’m right,

10 11 12

don’t you ?

?

Everyone’s ready, aren’t they ? did it Nothing went wrong,

?

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18 Indirect questions Yes / No questions

Wh- questions

I wonder if you could help me. Do you know if this is right?

Have you any idea where he went? Could you tell me what this word means?

• We often use indirect questions when we want to sound more polite. Indirect questions are introduced by phrases like Do you know ...?, Can / Could you tell me ...?, Have you any idea ...?, I would like to know ... , I would like to ask ... , Do you remember ...?, Would you mind telling me ...?, I wonder ..., etc. Could you tell me where the post office is? Do you remember what she said? • In indirect questions the word order is the same as in statements. We do not use the question form of the verb. Where is he?  Do you know where he is? What did she say?  Do you remember what she said? • When the question begins with an auxiliary or modal verb, the indirect question begins with if or whether. Have they left?  Do you know if / whether they have left? • When the question begins with a question word (what, where, how, etc.), the indirect question begins with the question word. Where is the station?  Could you tell me where the station is?

2 Write indirect questions. Use the phrases in brackets. 1

Have they found the missing child yet? (do you know) Do you know if they’ve found the missing child yet?

7

2

How does this program work? (would you mind telling me) Would you mind telling me how this program works?

8

3

Who was that? (have you any idea) Have you any idea who that was?

4

What time did he say he’d be back? (do you remember) Do you remember what time he said he’d be back?

10

Where’s the library? (can you tell me)

11

What do you think? (I’d like to know)

12

5

6

Can you tell me where the library is?

I’d like to know what you think.

9

Does this bus stop at Trafalgar Square? (could you tell me) Could you tell me if / whether this bus stops at Trafalgar Square? Have they finished? (do you know)

Do you know if / whether they’ve finished?

Is Jenny coming with us tomorrow? (have you any idea) Have you any idea if / whether Jenny is coming with us tomorrow? When will the meeting take place? (could you tell me) Could you tell me when the meeting will take place? Where are they? (I wonder)

I wonder where they are.

Is he back yet? (Do you know)

Do you know if / whether he’s back yet?

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18 3 Read and complete. Use one or two words in each space. B:

4

Would you mind telling me how old

they are? A: Nine and four. B: Right. Let’s have a look at the Kids’ shall World brochure, 5 we? We’ve got story time every day at five o’clock. A: That sounds perfect! Now, could you 6 tell me if there’s anything for older children? A: This is the hotel information desk, 1 isn’t it? B: Yes, that’s right. How can I help you? A: I would 2 like to know what activities are available for children. B: Yes, of course. You’ve got two children, 3 haven’t you? A: Yes.

B: We’ve got fun pool activities in the afternoon. A: 7 Have you any idea what time that starts? B: At half past five. A: And I can book now, 8

can’t

I?

B: Yes, and it’s free for all guests at our hotel.

Let’s write! 4 Imagine you are going to interview a famous person. Write down the questions you are going to ask him / her. Use indirect questions. Could you tell me Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 5 Work with a partner. Ask and answer. Student A: Think about things you think you know about famous people. They should be things you are not sure about. Check if Student B knows if they are true, using question tags. Student B: Answer Student A’s questions.

Justin Timberlake is Australian, isn’t he? No, I don’t think so. I think he’s American.

Do this five times. Then swap roles and do the same.

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19 Sentence linking

What is the biggest environmental problem? Global warming. We are creating such a lot of carbon dioxide that the Earth’s temperature is rising. As a result, the polar ice caps are melting and sea levels are rising.

What can I do in order to help the environment?

Here are a few ideas:

Turn off the lights when you leave a room so as to use less energy.

! Although cars are important for everyone, they create

pollution. Cycle or walk instead of going everywhere by car.

Since just about anything in your home can be recycled or reused, don’t throw away the things that you don’t need. Save them so that they can be recycled, or try to find new ways to use old things.

In case • We use in case to talk about something that we do because something else is possible. • We use in case + present tense to talk about the present or future. Let’s wait a little longer in case David comes. • We use in case + past tense to talk about the past. She took a warm jumper with her in case the weather turned cold.

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19 1

Join the sentences. Use in case. Mary is getting ready for a trip.

1

I’ll pack a raincoat and an umbrella. It might rain. I’ll pack a raincoat and an umbrella in case it rains.

4

I’ll make some sandwiches. We might get hungry on the way. I’ll make some sandwiches in case we get hungry on the way.

2

I’ll put my camera in my handbag. I might want to take photos on the way. I’ll put my camera in my handbag in case I want to take photos on the way.

5

I’ll leave my phone number with Mrs Fox. She might need to contact me. I’ll leave my phone number with Mrs Fox in case she needs to contact me.

3

I’ll put in some aspirins. I might get a headache. I’ll put in some aspirins in case I get a headache.

6

I’ll take my video camera, too. Cindy might forget hers. I’ll take my video camera, too in case Cindy forgets hers.

2 Join the sentences. Use in case. 1

She gave him a key. She thought he might need to get into the house. She gave him a key in case he needed to get into the house.

4

I took my swimsuit with me. I thought we might go swimming. I took my swimsuit with me in case we went swimming.

2

I bought a map. I thought we might get lost. I bought a map in case we got lost.

5

I stayed with her. I thought she might need my help. I stayed with her in case she needed my help.

3

I saved my work on a memory stick. I thought the computer might crash. I saved my work on a memory stick in case the computer crashed.

6

We took our keys. We thought Mum and Dad might be out when we got back. We took our keys in case Mum and Dad were out when we got back.

Clauses of purpose Clauses of purpose explain why someone does something. They are introduced by words and phrases like: • to + infinitive I called Sarah to tell her about the party. • in order (not) to + infinitive We left early in order to catch the first train. • so as (not) to + infinitive We went there early so as to get good seats. • so that + subject + can / will / could / would. We use can / will to talk about the present or future and could / would to talk about the past. I’ll give her my phone number so that she can phone me. I gave her my phone number so that she could phone me.

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19 3 Join the sentences. Use the words in brackets. 1

She stayed at home. She wanted to help her mother with the housework. (to) She stayed at home to help her mother with the housework.

5

She went to Oxford. She wanted to visit her friend. (to) She went to Oxford to visit her friend.

2

I went to the library. I wanted to borrow some books for my project. (in order to) I went to the library in order to borrow some books for my project.

6

They took a taxi. They didn’t want to be late. (so as not to) They took a taxi so as not to be late.

3

He studied hard. He wanted to get a good mark in the test. (so as to) He studied hard so as to get a good mark in the test.

7

Ian quit his job. He wanted to travel around the world. (in order to) Ian quit his job in order to travel around the world.

4

They whispered. They didn’t want to wake the baby. (in order not to) They whispered in order not to wake the baby.

8

I came here. I wanted to talk to you about something. (to) I came here to talk to you about something.

4 Join the sentences. Use so that and the verb in brackets. 1

Dad gave me some money. I wanted to buy a new camera. (could) Dad gave me some money so that I could buy a new camera.

4

I won’t show him the letter. I don’t want him to be disappointed. (won’t) I won’t show him the letter so that he won’t be disappointed.

2

I hid the box. I didn’t want Sean to see it. (wouldn’t) I hid the box so that Sean wouldn’t see it.

5

Give them your e-mail address. They can contact you. (can) Give them your e-mail address so that they can contact you.

3

She came home early. She wanted to see her son before he left. (could) She came home early so that she could see her son before he left.

6

She’s having her hair done. She wants to look nice for the party. (will) She’s having her hair done so that she will look nice for the party.

5 Read and circle the correct answer. Mum:

Steve: Mum:

Mrs Evans is coming for dinner tomorrow. I’ll need your help 1 in order to / so that get everything ready in time. OK, Mum. Right. I’ll give you some money to / so that you can do the shopping, OK?

Steve:

So, what are you going to cook?

Mum:

I thought roast chicken and a salad.

Steve:

Yes, but she might be a vegetarian. Why don’t you cook some spaghetti, too 4 in case / so that she doesn’t eat meat?

Mum:

Yes, you’re right. I will. OK, I’m going to clean the living room now 5 to not / so as not to have too many jobs to do tomorrow.

2

Steve:

OK. I’ll write a list 3 in case / so that I won’t forget anything.

Mum:

Good idea.

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19 Clauses of reason Clauses of reason explain why something happened. They are introduced by words and phrases like: • because + clause We didn’t go out because it was raining. Because it was raining, we didn’t go out. • because of + noun / pronoun We didn’t go out because of the rain. Because of the rain, we didn’t go out. • because of the fact that + clause We didn’t go out because of the fact that it was raining. Because of the fact that it was raining, we didn’t go out. • due to + noun We didn’t go out due to the rain. Due to the rain, we didn’t go out. • due to the fact that + clause We didn’t go out due to the fact that it was raining. Due to the fact that it was raining, we didn’t go out. • as / since + clause We didn’t go out as / since it was raining. As / Since it was raining, we didn’t go out.

6 Complete. Use because or because of. because

1

He’s got no money it all on CDs.

2

We couldn’t sleep because of the noise. She burnt the photographs because of

3

he spent

4 5

I’m worried

because

they’re late. Emily hid behind her mother because she was frightened.

6

the bad memories they brought back.

He couldn’t play in last week’s game because of a knee injury.

7 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

I was feeling sick, so I went to bed. because I went to bed because I was feeling sick.

2

The car didn’t have any petrol, so he couldn’t start it. as He couldn’t start the car as it didn’t have any petrol.

3

She lost her job because she was always late. fact She lost her job due to the fact that she was always late.

4

We had nothing to do, so we watched a DVD. since We watched a DVD since we had nothing to do.

5

You got me into a lot of trouble! because because of I got into a lot of trouble you!

6

She was new at that school, so she felt lonely. that She felt lonely because of the fact that she was new at that school.

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19 Clauses of result Clauses of result tell us the result or consequence of an action. They are introduced by words and phrases like: • so + clause I was hungry, so I made some sandwiches. • as a result + clause She went out in the rain. As a result, she caught a cold. She went out in the rain and as a result she caught a cold. • therefore + clause He forgot his passport. Therefore, they wouldn’t let him on the plane. He forgot his passport and therefore they wouldn’t let him on the plane. • so + adjective / adverb + that + clause We were so late that we missed the whole film! • such a / an + adjective + singular noun + that + clause He’s such a horrible boy that nobody ever plays with him. • such + adjective + plural / uncountable noun + that + clause They’re such lazy students that they never do any homework. It’s such hard work that we’ll need two more weeks to finish it. • so many / few + plural noun + that + clause She got so many e-mails that it took her three hours to reply to them all. • so much / little + uncountable noun + that + clause He ate so much ice cream that he felt sick. • such a lot of + plural / uncountable noun + that + clause There was such a lot of noise outside that I couldn’t hear what he was saying.

8 Join the sentences. Use so that and the verb in brackets. 1

2

They missed their flight because they got stuck in traffic. (so) They got stuck in traffic, so they missed their flight. I was tired, so I left early. (because)

I left early because I was tired.

3

We didn’t see him because he wasn’t there. (so) He wasn’t there, so we didn’t see him.

4

They were late, so we started without them. (because) We started without them because they were late.

5

She shouted at him because she was angry. (so) She was angry, so she shouted at him.

6

He has to work late, so he can’t join us. (because) He can’t join us because he has to work late.

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19 9 Complete. Use so, such or such a / an. 1 2 3

so He was walking fast that we couldn’t keep up. It was such an old book that the pages were falling out. They’re such good friends that they go everywhere together.

5

so She was hot that she dived straight into the pool. That restaurant serves such good

6

food that it’s always full. It had been such a long, tiring day that

4

we all felt exhausted.

10 Circle the correct answer. 1

We had so / such little time that we had to run all the way.

4

He gave me so / such a lot of help and support that I feel really grateful.

2

They were making so / such a lot of noise that their neighbours called the police.

5

She has so / such few friends that she rarely gets out of the house.

3

I have so / such much work to do that I’ll have to work on Sunday.

6

Nick bought so / such many things that he couldn’t carry them all.

11 Join the sentences. Use so ... that or such (a) ... that. 1

2

3

His headache was bad. He took two aspirins. His headache was so bad that he took two aspirins.

4

5

Monkeys are funny animals. They always make me laugh. Monkeys are such funny animals that they always make me laugh.

6

She made too many mistakes. She got an F in her test. She made so many mistakes that she got an F in her test.

There was a lot of noise. I couldn’t sleep.

There was such a lot of / so much noise that I couldn’t sleep.

It was a beautiful day. We decided to have a picnic. It was such a beautiful day that we decided to have a picnic.

It’s a very good film. I’ve seen it four times.

It’s such a good film that I’ve seen it four times.

12 Are the sentences right or wrong? Tick (✓) or cross (✗). 3

The man was driving too fast and as a result he therefore caused an accident.

4

This printer is faster and therefore it’s more expensive.

5

There were so many people in the room that we could hardly breathe.

6

She made a huge mistake, so as the result she lost her job.

1

It was so cold that we had to stay inside the whole day.

7

You’re only sixteen. Therefore, so you can’t vote.

2

There are such few books on the subject that I couldn’t find enough information.

8

It’s very hot, so you should drink plenty of water.

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19 Clauses of contrast and concession Clauses of contrast and clauses of concession link two opposite or contrasting ideas. They show some kind of ‘disagreement’ in a sentence. They are introduced by words and phrases like: • but + clause I was hungry but I didn’t want to eat the sandwich. • although / though / even though + clause Although / Though / Even though I was tired, I didn’t go to bed. I didn’t go to bed although / though / even though I was tired. • however (+ clause) She revised a lot. However, she didn’t get a good mark in the exam. She revised a lot. She didn’t get a good mark in the exam, however. • in spite of / despite + noun In spite of / Despite the rain, they went to the beach. They went to the beach in spite of / despite the rain. • in spite of / despite + -ing In spite of / Despite being injured, he played the match. He played the match in spite of / despite being injured. • in spite of / despite the fact that + clause In spite of / Despite the fact that she was angry, she didn’t say anything. She didn’t say anything in spite of / despite the fact that she was angry. • while + clause This CD-ROM is free while those ones cost £10,50 each. • whereas + clause Jane likes sports whereas her sister prefers music.

13 Circle the correct answer. 4

He said he was sorry. However / Even though, she didn’t forgive him.

5

My sister’s really outgoing however / while I’m quite shy.

6

Although / Despite he had eaten four sandwiches, he still had room for pudding!

7

Christine was really upset but / in spite she didn’t cry.

1

Ginny got up late today but / in spite she still feels tired.

8

Even though / In spite they’ve lived here for years, they don’t know many people.

2

Dad left school at sixteen, however / whereas his sister went to university.

9

I trust her. Despite / However, I’d rather not tell her about this.

3

Although / In spite of her age, my grandma cycles everywhere.

10

He’s good at Maths in spite / despite the fact that he finds it boring.

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19 14 Join the sentences. Use the words in brackets. Do not change the order of the sentences.

3

She’s sixteen. She looks younger than me. (but) She’s sixteen but she looks younger than me.

4

They live in France. They don’t speak French. (despite) Despite living / the fact that they live in France, they don’t speak French.

1

My sister’s room is always tidy. Mine is always a mess. (whereas) My sister’s room is always tidy whereas mine is always a mess.

5

I really liked the book. My brother found it rather boring. (while) I really liked the book while my brother found it rather boring.

2

I had studied really hard. I failed my Chemistry test. (although) Although I had studied really hard, I failed my Chemistry test.

6

Grandma wears glasses. She can’t see very well. (even though) Even though Grandma wears glasses, she can’t see very well.

15 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

I had told him to wait for me but he wasn’t there when I arrived. even He wasn’t there when I arrived even though I had told him to wait for me.

4

He had trained really hard but he didn’t win. although He didn’t win although he had trained really hard.

2

Despite the fact that they were exhausted, they offered to help us. spite In spite of being exhausted, they offered to help us.

5

Although she was ill, she was always cheerful. despite She was always cheerful despite her illness.

3

Although I wanted to help her, I didn’t know what to do. but I wanted to help her but I didn’t know what to do.

6

In spite of working really hard, he didn’t finish on time. fact In spite of the fact that he worked really hard, he didn’t finish on time.

16 Are the sentences right or wrong? Tick (✓) or cross (✗). 1

I gave him my phone number so that he could call me.

5

In spite the fact that she was late, she didn’t hurry.

2

They speak perfect English because of they grew up in Canada.

6

We left early in order to catch the first bus.

3

We were so excited about the trip that we couldn’t sleep.

7

Christian lost weight because of his illness.

4

I’ll check my shopping list in case if I’ve forgotten something.

8

He’s such strange person that you never know what he’s going to do next.

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19 17 Complete. Use the words in the box. because

however

in case

in order to

2

so I was busy that I didn’t even have time to phone Kevin. We left them a note so that they

3

would know where we were. In spite of knowing it would upset him,

1

4

in spite of

so that

therefore

5

I’ll take my mobile phone with me in case I need to ring you.

6

They fired twenty-five people in order to cut costs. She’s only five years old. However , she

7

she told him what had happened. Jamie was disappointed because he didn’t win the game.

so

can read very well. 8

They needed the money and therefore they decided to sell their house.

18 Complete. Use one word in each space. 1

Even though they live next door, we hardly ever see them.

5

2

She packed plenty of games and books in case the children got bored.

6

as I caught a bad cold and a result I missed the trip. In spite of the fact that it was

3

so

7

freezing, he was wearing a T-shirt. to She got up early in order help

8

her mum with the cooking. so The test was difficult that only

4

He worked late as to finish the report in time for the meeting. to The match was cancelled due bad weather.

one student passed it.

19 Read and circle the correct answer.

What can I do to become a professional football player? Some football clubs hold talent days 1 find the best young players. 2 , these are becoming less common. Instead, most clubs have talent scouts who visit schools and local teams in order to find people who are good at football. Roger Skene, a football scout, told us, ‘3 talent is important, I’m also looking for team players. The world of football is tough, so you have to have something

special to succeed. There are 4 talented young players out there that you have to have something special.’ Andy Jones, a twelve-year-old student who dreams of becoming a professional football player one day, told us, ‘My friends spend their evenings watching TV 5 I’m always at football practice! I’m 6 tired at bedtime that I always go straight to sleep. My advice: practise, practise and practise!’

1

A so as to

B so as they

C so that

D in order that

2

A Despite

B In spite

C However

D Although

3

A However

B Although

C In spite of

D Despite that

4

A so much

B such many

C so lot of

D such a lot of

5

A since

B therefore

C whereas

D despite

6

A so

B so much

C such

D such a

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19 20 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word in bold. Use no more than five words. 1

The interview went well but I don’t think they’ll give me the job. fact the fact that Despite the interview went well, I don’t think they’ll give me the job.

2

She lay down because she wanted to get some rest. order in order to She lay down get some rest.

3

The boat trip was cancelled because it was raining heavily. due The boat trip was cancelled due to the heavy rain.

4

Here, take this money because you might need it. case Here, take this money in case you need it.

5

Although she was careful, she made a lot of mistakes. spite In spite of being careful, she made a lot of mistakes.

6

He failed his exams, so he didn’t get into university. result as a result He failed his exams and he didn’t get into university.

7

They talked quietly because they didn’t want to wake the baby. as They talked quietly so as not to wake the baby.

8

I had to do it myself because nobody offered to help me. so Nobody offered to help me, so I had to do it myself.

Let’s write!

21 Write a short article for your school newspaper entitled What can I do to become a good student? Use the clauses you have learned in this unit to write your article. You can look at Exercise 19 for help. Students’ own answers

Let’s talk! 22 Work with a partner. Student A: Start a sentence that Student B can complete using one of the words in the box and ask him / her to finish it. Student B: Finish Student A’s sentence using one of the words / phrases in the box.

I’m going to stay at home ... ... because I have to finish my project.

Do this five times. Then swap roles and do the same. although as a result because despite due to however in case in order to so that therefore

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20 Phrasal verbs

You’re all looking forward to the summer holidays but what if you get bored and have nothing to do? Well, to make sure this doesn’t happen, join our Summer Holiday Club! We never run out of ideas for great games, sports and fun activities!

v

Take up a new hobby: we offer dance, art and pottery classes for children and teenagers.

v

Put on a show: be a director, make-up artist or actor in our fantastic musical show!

v

Join our brand new i-club and learn how to design your own website!

So turn the TV off, fill in the form with your name, age and address and join the fun!

Intransitive phrasal verbs

Transitive phrasal verbs

He was late because his car broke down. Please speak up. I can’t hear you. My dad grew up in Manchester. I got up at half past eight today.

Can you turn down the radio, please? I’ll wake you up when it’s time to leave. It’s freezing outside. Put on your coat. Natalie takes after her mother.

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20 • Most phrasal verbs have two parts: a verb and a preposition or adverb (particle). What time did you get up this morning? I’ll look after the children for you. • Some phrasal verbs have three parts: a verb, an adverb and a preposition. Nikki is really looking forward to her birthday party. • There is a list of common phrasal verbs on page 156.

Intransitive phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs that have no object are called intransitive phrasal verbs. My alarm clock went off at six o’clock. The plane took off at half past four.

Transitive phrasal verbs • Phrasal verbs that have an object are called transitive phrasal verbs. He switched off the cooker. Try the shirt on before you buy it. • When the object is a noun, it can come between the verb and the particle or after the particle. You can take your coat off. You can take off your coat. • When the object is a pronoun, it can only come between the verb and the particle (not after the particle). You can take it off. ✓ (You can take off it. ✗) • Some transitive phrasal verbs cannot be separated. Their object can only come after the particle, even when it is a pronoun. Some of these phrasal verbs are: count on, deal with, hear from, hear of, get over, look after, run across, take after. I haven’t heard from him lately. ✓ (I haven’t heard him from lately. ✗) • When the phrasal verb has three parts, the object can only come after the phrasal verb (and not between its parts). Carl came up with a brilliant idea.

1

Write T (transitive phrasal verb) or I (intransitive phrasal verb). If the phrasal verb is transitive, circle the object.

1

Lisa has taken up yoga.

T

2

Things will turn out fine, you’ll see.

Ι

3

Her new book is coming out next week.

Ι

4

I came across this old book in the attic.

Τ

5

Penny takes after her father.

Τ

6

What time do you think you’ll get back?

Ι

7

Watch out! There’s a car coming!

Ι

8

Do you think he made the whole story up?

Τ

Where do you come from?

Ι

She turned on the radio to listen to the news.

Τ

9 10

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20 2 Tick (✓) the correct sentences. In some questions, both sentences are correct. 1

Clean up this mess! Clean this mess up!

5

Please put away your things. Please put your things away.

2

Shall I drop off you at the station? Shall I drop you off at the station?

6

Who’s looking after the kids? Who’s looking the kids after?

3

I’ve never heard of her. I’ve never heard her of.

7

They might call off the game. They might call the game off.

4

They haven’t put out the fire yet. They haven’t put the fire out yet.

8

I’ll ring up him later. I’ll ring him up later.

4

A: Why did you turn off the TV? turn it off B: I didn’t . It’s on.

5

A: I’ll throw away these old books. B: No! Don’t throw them away ! I need them!

6

A: Write down the address before you forget it. B: OK, I’ll write it down now.

3 Complete. Use pronouns. 1

A: Have you tidied up your room? tidy it up B: No, not yet. I’ll after lunch.

2

A: Don’t forget to fill in the form. fill it in B: OK, I’ll in a minute.

3

A: Take off your coat. take it off B: I don’t want to cold!

. I’m

4 Complete. Use the words in the box. away 1 2 3

back

down

into

off

on

out

If we set off early, we’ll get there by noon. I ran into an old friend in town yesterday. Jenny is counting on David and Alex

5

Suddenly, all the lights went out and we were left in the dark.

6

I lent him £150 and he promised to pay me back by Wednesday. I won’t let you get away with this! I’m

7

to help her. 4

Oh no! I think I’m coming down with a

up

calling the police! 8

They had an argument but they’ve made up now.

4

His parents died when he was two, so he was brought up by his aunt. Don’t forget to switch off the lights

cold!

5 Complete. Use one word in each space. 1 2 3

What’s going on ? What are you two doing in here? We’ve run out of sugar. Will you get some from the supermarket? She looks down on anybody who isn’t as rich as she is.

5

when you go to bed. 6

The children are looking forward the summer holidays.

to

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20 6 Read and circle the correct answer.

How a dog changed my life Hilda Winters is almost completely blind. She can make 1 up / out light and dark and some shapes, but not more. She had 2 put / given up hope of ever being able to lead a normal life until she met Bianca, her wonderful guide dog. Now every morning Bianca and her new owner 3 set / come off into town with no worries at all. ‘I know I can count 4 at / on Bianca,’ Hilda says. ‘I know she’ll never 5 let / break me down. She always walks slowly so I can 6 keep up / down with her and she always walks in a straight line down the middle of the pavement. It’s very easy for me to trip over a rubbish bin or a bicycle left on the pavement, so she 7 looks / makes out for things like that and walks around them. She always brings me 8 on / back safely at the end of the day. Bianca has completely changed my life!’

Let’s write! 7 Write a short article entitled How ... changed my life for your school newspaper. Use at least six phrasal verbs from this unit and from the list of phrasal verbs on page 156. Students’ own answers

Let’s talk!

8 Play a game. Work with a partner. Try to make as many sentences as you can using the phrasal verbs on page 156. You’ve only got two minutes! Then read your sentences to the rest of the class. The pair with the most correct sentences are the winners.

I got up at ten o’clock on Saturday. Correct. One point for you.

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5 1 0 1

Revision: Units 17–20

Rewrite the sentences in the causative form.

3 Complete the indirect questions. 0

Someone mended my shoes last week. I had my shoes mended last week.

1

The hairdresser is doing Liz’s hair.

Liz is having her hair done.

Does he speak French? Do you know if he speaks French

?

Why did she leave so early? I wonder why she left so early

.

We must ask someone to chop down that old tree. We must have that old tree chopped down.

2

Can she help us? Do you know if / whether she can help us ?

3

3

Someone has just fixed their roof. They’ve just had their roof fixed.

What’s this? Could you tell me what this is

?

4

4

We’re going to ask someone to paint the kitchen. We’re going to have the kitchen painted.

What did he say? Do you remember what he said

?

5

Why are they laughing? Have you any idea why they’re laughing

?

Is this right? I’d like to know if / whether this is right

.

2

5

Someone repaired his car yesterday. He had his car repaired yesterday.

6

I will ask someone to cut the lawn tomorrow. I will have the lawn cut tomorrow.

6

.......... / 6

.......... / 6

2 Complete. Use question tags. 0 1

You won’t tell anyone about the surprise will you ? party, You speak two languages, don’t you ?

2

I’m wrong,

3 4

The boys have been getting into trouble again, haven’t they ? isn’t it ? That’s your brother,

5

Wake me up at two,

6

He didn’t steal the money, Let’s go out tonight, shall we

7

aren’t I

4 Circle the correct answer. 0

The boy was so / such hungry that he fainted.

1

Stella can’t come to the party although / as she has the flu.

2

Take an umbrella in case / so that it rains.

3

I’m saving up my pocket money so that / in order to buy an MP3 player.

4

He went out despite / in spite of being tired.

5

They didn’t play well. As a result / However, they lost the game.

6

She always goes to bed early whereas / in case I often stay up late.

7

It was so / such a boring play that we both fell asleep!

?

will you

? did he

?

?

.......... / 7

.......... / 7

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Revision

5 5 Complete. Use the words in the box. even though as due to however in case so so that 0 1

so I had to revise for my test, I didn’t go out with my friends. as I stayed at home I was really tired.

2

We got there in time for the meeting even though our car broke down on the way.

3

She put a scarf over her head so that her hair wouldn’t get wet. Take your phone with you in case you need to call your parents. The match was cancelled due to the

4 5

7 Are the sentences write or wrong? Tick (✓) or cross (✗).

0 00

You won’t let me down, will you? Will you look the children after?

1

Do you know what does he want?

2

I’ve just had cut my hair.

3

Who is he? I’ve never heard of him.

4

The new teacher is nice but she is also very strict.

5

I laughed in spite of I was rather annoyed.

6

Nobody liked my idea, did he? .......... / 6

rain. 6

She worked hard. However , she failed. .......... / 6

8 Rewrite the sentences. Use the word

in bold. Use no more than five words.

0

He laughed very loudly and everybody stared at him. so so loudly that He laughed everybody stared at him.

1

It was snowing, so we couldn’t go out. because because of We couldn’t go out the snow.

2

Someone cleans his pool for him every week. has He has his pool cleaned every week.

3

What did she mean by that? what she meant I wonder

4

Who’s taking care of his cat now that he’s away? looking looking after Who’s his cat now that he’s away?

5

She was disappointed but she smiled. spite spite of being In disappointed, she smiled.

6 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

bring up call off come down with count on fill in get on go off set off 0

Remember: I’m depending on you!

1

I feel terrible. I think I’m getting a cold.

2

Why did you have to mention the subject of money?

3

Do you have a good relationship with your brother?

4

The alarm clock rang at half past eight.

5

The meeting might be cancelled.

6

Please complete this form.

7

We began our journey at noon.

0

counting on

4

went off

1

coming down with

5

called off

2

bring up

6

fill in

3

get on

7

set off

wonder by that.

.......... / 5

Total:

.......... / 50

.......... / 7

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Verb forms Present simple Affirmative I / you / we / they go

he / she / it goes

Negative

I / you / we / they do not go

he / she / it does not go

Question

Do I / you / we / they go?

Does he / she / it go?

Present continuous Affirmative I am going

you / we / they are going

he / she / it is going

Negative

I am not going

you / we / they are not going

he / she / it is not going

Question

Am I going?

Are you / we / they going?

Is he / she / it going?

Past simple Affirmative I / you / he / she / it / we / they went Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they did not go

Question

Did I / you / he / she / it / we / they go?

Past continuous Affirmative I / he / she / it was going

you / we / they were going

Negative

I / he / she / it was not going

you / we / they were not going

Question

Was I / he / she / it going?

Were you / we / they going?

Present perfect simple Affirmative I / you / we / they have gone

he / she / it has gone

Negative

I / you / we / they have not gone

he / she / it has not gone

Question

Have I / you / we / they gone?

Has he / she / it gone?

Present perfect continuous Affirmative I / you / we / they have been going

he / she / it has been going

Negative

I / you / we / they have not been going

he / she / it has not been going

Question

Have I / you / we / they been going?

Has he / she / it been going?

150

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Verb forms Past perfect simple Affirmative I / you / he / she / it / we / they had gone Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they had not gone

Question

Had I / you / he / she / it / we / they gone?

Past perfect continuous Affirmative I / you / he / she / it / we / they had been going I / you / he / she / it / we / they had not been going Negative Had I / you / he / she / it / we / they been going? Question

Future simple

Future continuous

Affirmative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will go

Affirmative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will be going

Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will not go

Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will not be going

Question

Will I / you / he / she / it / we / they go?

Question

Will I / you / he / she / it / we / they be going?

Future perfect simple

Future perfect continuous

Affirmative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will have gone

Affirmative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will have been going

Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will not have gone

Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they will not have been going

Question

Will I / you / he / she / it / we / they have gone?

Question

Will I / you / he / she / it / we / they have been going?

Be going to you / we / they are going to go he / she / it is going to go Affirmative I am going to go I am not going to go you / we / they are not going to go he / she / it is not going to go Negative Am I going to go? Are you / we / they going to go? Is he / she / it going to go? Question

Modal verbs (present)

Modal verbs (past)

Affirmative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they should go

Affirmative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they should have gone

Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they should not go

Negative

I / you / he / she / it / we / they should not have gone

Question

Should I / you / he / she / it / we / they go?

Question

Should I / you / he / she / it / we / they have gone?

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Spelling rules

Present simple In the third person singular of the present simple, in affirmative sentences: • We add -es to verbs ending in -ch, -ss, -sh, -x and -o. touch  touches wash  washes fix  fixes • If a verb ends in a consonant + -y, we take out the -y and add -ies. hurry  hurries study  studies fly  flies Be careful: If the verb ends in a vowel + -y we add -s. pay  pays buy  buys say  says

Verb + -ing To form the -ing form of a verb: • If a verb ends in -e, we take out the -e and add -ing. drive  driving ride  riding smile  smiling • If a verb has one syllable and ends in one vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant and add -ing. hit  hitting win  winning swim  swimming Be careful: if the verb ends in two vowels + consonant, we do not double the final consonant. wait  waiting wear  wearing rain  raining • If a verb has two or more syllables and ends in one vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant and add -ing if the stress is on the final syllable. begin  beginning If the stress is not on the final syllable, we do not double the final consonant. open  opening • If a verb ends in -l, we double the -l and add -ing. travel  travelling

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Spelling rules Verb + -ed To form the past simple of regular verbs: • We add -d to verbs ending in -e. dance  danced hope  hoped

live  lived

• If a verb ends in a consonant + -y, we take out the -y and add -ied. cry  cried study  studied hurry  hurried Be careful: If the verb ends in a vowel + -y, we add -ed. stay  stayed enjoy  enjoyed play  played • If a verb has one syllable and ends in one vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant and add -ed. plan  planned stop  stopped rob  robbed Be careful: if a verb ends in -w or -x, we do not doule the final consonant. snow  snowed fix  fixed mix  mixed • If a verb ends in -l, we double the -l and add -ed. travel  travelled

Comparison of adjectives To form the comparative and superlative form of adjectives: • If an adjective ends in -e, we add -r for the comparative form and -st for the superlative form. nice  nicer  nicest large  larger  largest • If an adjective has one syllable and ends in one vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant and add -er or -est. hot  hotter  hottest big  bigger  biggest • If an adjective ends in -y, we take out the -y and add -er or -est. happy  happier  happiest heavy  heavier  heaviest

Adverbs of manner • If an adjective ends in -y, we take out the -y and add -ily to form the adverb of manner. noisy  noisily happy  happily • Be careful: if an adjective ends in -l we add -ly. wonderful  wonderfully ✓ (wonderfuly ✗) beautiful  beautifully ✓ (beautifuly ✗)

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Irregular verbs Infinitive be beat become begin bend bet bite blow break bring broadcast build burn burst buy catch choose come cost cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lay

Past simple was / were beat became began bent bet bit blew broke brought broadcast built burned / burnt burst bought caught chose came cost cut dealt dug did drew dreamed / dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid

Past participle been beaten become begun bent bet bitten blown broken brought broadcast built burned / burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost cut dealt dug done drawn dreamed / dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid

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Irregular verbs Infinitive

Past simple

Past participle

lead learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set shake shine shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep smell speak spell spend spill split spread stand steal stick sting strike swear sweep swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear win write

led learned / learnt left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept smelled / smelt spoke spelled / spelt spent spilled / spilt split spread stood stole stuck stung struck swore swept swam took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote

led learned / learnt left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat slept smelled / smelt spoken spelled / spelt spent spilled / spilt split spread stood stolen stuck stung struck sworn swept swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written

155

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Phrasal verbs break down

give out

put up

break in / into

give up

put up with

break up

go down with

ring up

bring along

go off

run across

bring back

go on

run into

bring up

go out

run out of

call off

grow up

set off

carry on

hand in

show off

clean up

hear from

shut down

come across

hear of

speak up

come back

hold on

stay up

come down with

keep up

switch off

come from

leave out

switch on

come out

let down

take after

come round

look after

take in

come up with

look down on

take off

count on

look forward to

take out

deal with

look into

take up

drop by

look out

tell off

drop off

look out for

throw away

fill in

look up

tidy up

get along (with)

look up to

try on

get away

make out

turn down

get away with

make up

turn into

get back

pay back

turn off

get on (with)

pick up

turn on

get over

put away

turn out

get round to

put off

turn up

get up

put on

watch out

give away

put out

write down

156

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Wordlist slip

application form

strike

crash

barn

trip

customer

cheerful

tunic

deliver

crisis

You’re under arrest!

dessert

Unit

1

directions

digital

fur

Unit

gate

3

enter field trip

go mad

check out

fill in

groceries

contest

ladder

inventor

figure

leap

gardening

milk

hear from

own

hoover

realise

lettuce

share

nap

loads (of) look after mansion mayor medicine order

pea

pass

run out of

Unit

2

present

shade

banknote

storeroom

bathrobe

towel

run safe and sound shoot

breeze choir collect distance dustman gentle go out hide-and-seek linen measure paste Richter scale run

workshop

Unit

4

bill flooded

Unit

melt

shell slice

6

connect

petrol

creature

reach rear-view mirror route

definitely gadget incredible

set off straightaway tyre

memory nearby ostrich

security guard set

wrap up

patiently

Unit

5

sea horse

after all

situation

animation

stick insect

157

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Wordlist store

hire

perform

tablecloth

pay attention

physicist pretend

tank velvet

Unit

weird

9

refuse shelter

annoyed

suffer

apply

there’s no point (in)

argument

tour

agent

attack

volunteer

appliance

bounce

willing

apricot

break down

avoid

credit card

colouring

equipment

come round

forum

compass

creative

lizard

departure lounge

decorate

log in

furious

dip

pale

go diving

drawer

pick

go off

fashionable

provide

makeover

headline

pudding

pocket money

ice cube

reptile wrangler

wilderness

ingredient

skill

luggage

temperature

Unit

7

Unit

mixture MP (Member of Parliament) outfit patch safety scar

toothpaste top

8

be a piece of cake

entrance

break up crowd

announce

mean

arrange

strict

consider

tin

drown

bossy

admit

composer

spill

calculator

10

12

cheer up

sew

Unit

Unit

Unit

11

Unit

13

delighted

cap

deserve

career

experiment

give away

failure

headmistress

force

iron

intend light bulb lyrics

Unit

manner

accuse

mention

cashier

14

158

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Wordlist cheat

prepare

demand

publish

deny

rescue

carbon dioxide

hand

sit

contact

ID card

sting

crash

threaten

surround

get stuck (in)

theodolite

global warming

Tibetan

grateful

Unit

15

become extinct block

Unit

19

injury keep up

Unit

17

level

confirm

cloth

memory stick

flint

comb

polar ice caps

fossil

damp

pollution

service

dry-clean

quit

show round

dye

recycle

Stone Age

hoof

succeed

hoof pick

talent scout

mane

tough

pierce

vegetarian

cancel

pull out

whisper

candidate

trim

damage

wipe

Unit

16

Unit

employee fear Himalayan

20

guide

Unit

18

in a straight line

hold

available

lead

mark

brochure

pavement

organic

carnivore

pottery

parcel

information desk

159

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First published by Hamilton House Publishers, 2011 Hamilton House Publishers Ltd 2 Prespas Street Nicosia 1082 Cyprus E-mail: enquiries@hamiltonhousepublishers.com Website: www.hamiltonhousepublishers.com Text, design, artwork and characters © Hamilton House Publishers, 2011 ISBN: 978-9963-687-62-6 Student’s Book ISBN: 978-9963-687-61-9 Teacher’s Book All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers. Any person who carries out any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. Acknowledgements The publishers and authors would like to thank all the schools and teachers that took part in the testing and piloting of the original material. Their feedback and comments were invaluable in the development of this course. Illustrations by: Carmen Pérez Colour by: Isabel Cervelló / Comicup Photo credits: page 18, left © Aleksandar Levajkovic/Dreamstime.com; page 18, middle and right © Photo4dreams/Dreamstime.com; page 74, top left, courtesy of Library of Congress; page 74, top right, courtesy of Library of Congress; page 74, bottom right © answers.com. All other photos by Dreamstime.com, istockphoto.com, photos.com.

28_GrGeniusD_endmatter.indd 160

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