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AIRLINE TRAINING PROFILE
Emirates Training – A 21st Century Model? SIMULATOR QUALIFICATION
Once is Rarely Enough AEROMEDICAL TRAINING
Aging and Flight Performance SHOW REPORT
WATS 2014 – Extracting and Enhancing Human Performance
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Reaping the Whirlwind? Each year in the period immediately after WATS, I find it very useful to use the reactions and “buzz” from the conference delegates as a real time barometer of the current industry. While the breadth of the WATS conference content was enormous, there was one subject that seemed to dominate the agenda, and that was personnel supply and demand. In past years, the issue was largely seen as specific to the US regional airline sector, while this year the impact is finally starting to be felt industry-wide. Even non-US operators have a growing understanding that in the new global market for pilots, they need to pay attention to the dynamics of the US pilot training sector. One senior industry executive stated at WATS: “The pilot shortage is here, it’s coming faster than we thought… it doesn’t matter what country, what culture… it’s a global problem.” Barely a month after WATS in mid-May, at the Regional Airline Association’s (RAA) conference in St. Louis, the subject was again top of mind, and similar to WATS, several airline representatives spoke of the declining pool of qualified candidates, the increasing demand, the high cost of training, and the problems with the F/O ATP requirements. US regional airlines operate 50 percent of the country’s flights, and most communities rely on regional operators as they are the exclusive source of scheduled service at 70 percent of US airports. Some smaller and medium sized cities have now lost some of their air service options due to the pilot shortage, and the economic impact is starting to become evident. On April 30, 2014, Bryan Bedford, President and CEO of Republic Airways noted in his testimony before a House Committee Hearing on Air Service to Chris Lehman Small and Rural Communities, that Editor in Chief 54,000 pilots will “age out” over the next decade, the new rest rule has increased staffing needs by 3,000-6,000 pilots in the US alone, and that the four largest carriers in the US are expected to retire 18,000 pilots in the next eight years; yet there are fewer than 18,000 pilots in the entire regional airline workforce today. And compared to the 1990s, the US is producing 60
“The pilot shortage is here, it’s coming faster than we
thought... it doesn’t matter
what country, what culture… it’s a global
percent fewer pilots yearly, with only about half of these intending to fly for a US domestic airline. Bedford went on to point out what has been stated so many times; the requirement for 1,500 hrs and an ATP for all F/Os has exacerbated the pilot shortage without actually improving flight safety. Pilot candidates must now accumulate hundreds more arbitrary flight hours, at significant cost, yet these hours won’t add to their professional enrichment. Even if they can find a way to add those hours – and pay for them – they are at least in a 12-18 month holding pattern before they can seek employment. At WATS, a well-attended panel was the Alternatives for Funding Pre-Employment Training of US Professional Pilots. One collegiate aviation student stood up and said he already had $60,000 in student loans and may have to discontinue his training. How he was going to accumulate the hours necessary to qualify for an ATP under the new rules was uncertain. The lack of student financing adds enormously to the problem. One seemingly simple solution offered in the WATS panel was a mere $1 per ticket surcharge on US airline tickets that could provide a $430 million fund to support workforce development and financing through a not-for-profit foundation. Clearly, time is running out to correct the course, particularly in the US. Bedford concluded his remarks to the House Committee by urging them to direct the FAA to allow structured training credit for a greater number of the required 1,500 flight hours, and to return the emphasis to quality of training over quantity of hours. More aviation institutions need to be granted credit for their structured training programs, the approval process needs to be streamlined, and critically, the industry must have a laser-focus on attracting new pilots and provide real funding support for training. There’s simply no more time to waste – or to be in denial. Safe travels, Chris Lehman CAT Editor in Chief
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Reaping the Whirlwind? Chris Lehman considers one of the key issues raised at this year's WATS.
Emirates Training – A 21st Century Model? Chris Long visited Emirates to examine its approach to training.
Once is Rarely Enough. Rick Adams reports on a critical flight simulation task that every regulator does a bit differently... flight simulation training device qualification.
Aging and Flight Performance. Chuck Weirauch investigates the issues of an aging pilot population and aeromedical concerns associated with it.
LMS 2.0. Learning management systems are increasingly capable platforms. Group Editor Marty Kauchak reports on the latest technology developments.
WATS 2014 – Extracting and Enhancing Human Performance. Conference Chair Chris Lehman provides a postevent review.
RealitySeven Update. Marty Kauchak and Chris Long learn more about L3 Link UK’s modular training device concept.
Supporting Global Training and Human Resources Development in Aviation. ICAO Secretary General Raymond Benjamin looks at the ICAO Global Aviation Training Office.
APATS 2014. The Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium will return to Bangkok this year, from 23-24 September.
On the cover: Emirates operates the largest global fleet of Boeing 777s. Image credit: Emirates Group.
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Seen & Heard. Updates from the training and simulation community. Compiled and edited by Fiona Greenyer.
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Airline Training Profile
Emirates Training â€“ A 21st Century Model?
Chris Long visited Emirates, the largest airline in the Middle East, to investigate its training expertise.
aptain Martin Mahoney, SVP Flight Training at Emirates, is very well aware that the ideal model for training pilots is constantly changing as it embraces new technology and, importantly, new understanding of human performance. Emirates operates the largest global fleet of Airbus A380s and Boeing 777s, and continues to build those numbers as it accepts one of each type per month during 2014. Whilst there will also be a gradual phasing out of the existing Airbus A330 and A340 fleet, the overall aircraft numbers will continue to increase, and consequently there will be a parallel growth in crew numbers, which currently stand at 3,700 pilots and 18,000 cabin crew. The task continues to expand to match that demand for initial and recurrent training. For over four years Emirates has been driving hard to further improve output standards in every training and checking session; the crews either reach those new standards or leave the airline. However at the heart of the programme is the increased training time made available to those crews in order to boost performance. Here the Emirates approach is
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characterised by the buy in of the senior management, including the president of Emirates, to the principle of investing resources to support the carefully targeted supplementary training.
Form and Focus Historically the start point for training has been to apply the regulatory programmes which defined the legal imperatives for operating. The regulations were largely driven by long-term experience of aircraft operation, at a time when the rate of innovation was much slower than today. Changes were often a result of lessons learnt from accidents and incidents, and the process of modifying training patterns was very lengthy. It is a matter of record that only one in ten of â€œroutineâ€? flights go as initially programmed into the flight management system, the rest requiring active intervention by the pilots to achieve an effective conclusion to the flight. Where training has now changed most dramatically is that the new focus is not simply on letting the accident/incident analysis drive the training needs, but rather to use the mass of data from all flights, including the overwhelming number of successful flights, to identify best practice and behaviour during routine and abnormal operations. Alongside this, human performance has been studied in great detail, and this, together with ongoing research, can help to refine both selection of appropriate personal characteristics desirable for operating crews, and adaptive training designed to enhance such characteristics and skills.
Automation An area which has for some years been a focus of attention, both
Emirates has recently placed an order for an additional 50 A380 aircraft, boosting its fleet to 140. Image credit: Emirates Group.
within the industry and, significantly, beyond the profession, is the seamless integration of automation with the skill sets of the flight crew. For many years the drive was frequently to impose automation over the more basic piloting skills, rather than integrate it within the range of competencies of the crews. It is here that Mahoney places particular emphasis. The FAA formed a Flight Deck Automation Working Group (FDAWG) to study this specific issue, and he believes the “presence of an Emirates representative on the Group meant that we were able to influence industry policy on this important topic. The vast majority of all the recommendations issued by the FDAWG have already been implemented at Emirates.” Mahoney’s comment is in response to an article in Flight International, which highlighted some of the concerns about the balance of baseline pilot handling skills and the increased use of automation. He points out several features on the present pilot training pattern employed at Emirates, which works its way through revisions of aerodynamic theory, through recovery from the approach to stall, both at low and high altitudes, overspeed situations and intervention training, both for First Officers and Captains. Many of these factors are introduced through an extended range of CAE-prepared training scenarios to enhance the “startle” factor. These are introduced throughout the training, including the two manual handling simulator sessions per year which are in addition to standard regulatory recurrent training. Such sessions are flown without the aid of the Autopilot, Flight Directors or Auto Throttle. In practice, then, Emirates pilots can expect a training session in the simulator on average every three months.
ATQP/EBT This new training philosophy is implemented through the Alternative Training Qualification Programme (ATQP), in which the content is largely defined by Evidence Based Training (EBT). This latter assembles data from real flight operations in the wide-ranging route network of Emirates as well as from the IATA database, and is able to focus on the skills deemed essential for this particular airline. ATQP, a programme conceived in close cooperation with the regulatory authority, addresses all of those skills over a three year cycle, the first one of which was completed in January 2014. This will run into the eventual adoption of the IATA Training Qualification Initiative (ITQI), a programme with which Emirates has been involved with IATA over the last three years. Because the start point is EBT, which uses continuing update of data from operating flights, the pattern has at its core a process of continuing evolution. The ultimate aim is to “move away from the base line manufacturers’ conversion courses: we will retain those
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Airline Training Profile aspects of these courses which remain relevant, add content to the courses, and realign existing content to reflect our data and evidence amassed over many, many Emirates pilot conversion courses. By so doing we all create conversion courses which better reflects the need of our new pilots when they join us.â€?
Ab Initio Emirates presently has an ab initio pilot training programme which recruits cadets from the UAE population, and numbers about 60 pilots a year. At the moment they attend courses at Flight Training Europe and at Oxford Aviation Academy, but from late 2015/early 2016 their successors will be trained at the new Emirates Training Academy, which will be established at the new airport Dubai World Central. Graduates of the ab initio programme have generally moved to the wide-body fleets, but some of the recent graduates have gone to the regional carrier - flydubai, to build time on the Boeing 737NG fleet. â€œThe rapid accumulation of sectors which such an airline offers is an excellent operational environment for the cadets to build experience before converting to the Emirates fleets of widebody aircraft. An objective assessment of this two year programme will take place this year when the first of these cadets transition from flydubai to our B777 fleet. Not only do the young pilots love the level of activity and hands-on flying which flydubai offers, but intuitively we believe their experience will stand them in very good stead flying our wide-body aircraft into six continents to some challenging destinations often in inclement weatherâ€?
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Fundamentals Mahoney is cautious about the effectiveness of the ICAO Aviation English Level 4 qualification. Experience has shown that all too frequently those holding that certificate simply do not have the language skills necessary to operate to the Emirates standard. Consequently all new joiners have a course on R/T to bring them to the required level. One encouraging point for those who would like to join is that it has been found that those pilots who have spent time with the European low cost carriers have mastered both the fundamental handling skills and spatial awareness as a result of their exposure to multi-sector days. This has proven to be an excellent starting point for the Emirates training.
Cabin Crew Innovation in training is not confined to the flight deck crew. Kellie White, Safety & Emergency Procedures Training Manager at Emirates, is keen to emphasise the robust nature of the safety training. Using a comprehensive range of high end training devices, largely sourced from TFC Simulation und Technik in Germany, the training is as realistic as she can make it. The emergency evacuation trainers provide a rich sensory environment to simulate as closely as possible a wide range
Emirates pilots can expect a training session in the simulator on average every three months. Image credit: Emirates Group.
of scenarios. Motion, sound, visual and startle inputs characterise training in turbulence/explosive decompression/emergency landings/ditching/onboard fires and smoke-filled cabins. Equally important is the understanding of other cultures, so the cabin crew are introduced to behaviours which may be alien to their home culture. The authority which must be shown by cabin crew during an emergency situation may not come naturally to some, but, with appropriate explanations of likely passenger and crew behaviours in challenging situations, training can help crews acquire the essential skills. A great deal of attention is given to building communication skills, so many of the training scenarios include both flight deck and cabin crew in robust CRM exercises the understanding of each others' tasks results in much improved interactions between the elements of the entire aircraft crew. One feature of the training is encouraging the crews to come up with original solutions to problems during the training
- open discussion between the crews and the trainers is an important element that is embedded in the training approach. For instance, the use of the checklist is an important primary tool, but in some timecritical situations it may be that an action has to be adapted to an unforeseen event – and training for that kind of resilience is also a key feature. The constant search for even more effective training often leads to the adoption of new and emerging technology – the idea of an avatar to lead some of the distance learning is intriguing. Such a solution could enhance standardisation and be particularly attractive to the new generation entrants, so the search is on to find and assess such an alternative. Much of this thinking is a result of encouraging input from current and new crews - the pool of experience is constantly evolving, and many of the innovations can be drawn out of this wider knowledge base.
operations means that many airlines now draw on a wide range of nationalities to provide both flight and cabin crews. Emirates is, by its very nature, a multi-national team, with over 140 different countries represented. Guiding them to a common operating culture is a delicate task, but an interesting observation by Dr. Nicklas Dahlstrom, Human Factors Manager, suggests that this very diversity is a strength. Because there is no dominant national culture across the airline, it has developed its own strong corporate culture in which such diversity is a given. Consequently everyone needs to understand and adapt to this core culture, and the selection processes have adaptability as a fundamental part of the makeup of candidates. Thereafter the training teams, themselves multicultural, serve as role models for the new arrivals as they find their feet in the new environment.
Does it Work? Cultural Diversity The global nature of international flight
Careful selection of new crews takes into account the major change of lifestyle
committed to excellence
TRAINING • RESOURCING • INNOVATION • PARTNERSHIP
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Airline Training Profile
TFC- Innovation Works One of the strengths of aviation is that individual innovators can still make an impact. Some 35 years ago Rolf Käufer, then a captain with the German airline LTU, decided to set up a flight school. Later his son Frank saw that the training devices for another discipline, cabin crew training, left a lot to be desired, so he manufactured his first device in 1997 – a wide body cabin crew trainer. The company, TFC Simulatoren und Technik GmbH, now has grown
The present range of door trainers (including the first door trainers for the A350) and CEETs covers all currently manufactured Airbus and Boeing aircraft together with some models for Embraer and Bombardier. Increasing the realism of the training is fundamental, so the CEETs use either an hydraulic or eco-friendly electrical motion platform where requested by the airline, and other inputs of noise, audio, smoke, smell
to the point where it is not only supplying a wide range of door trainers and full emergency evacuation trainers (CEETs) to some of the world’s major airlines, including Emirates, but is also running four centres for Cabin Crew training in Germany. Based in the pleasant north German town of Velbert, TFC is a self-contained organisation that can custom build these trainers to match an individual airline’s requirements. So far as the door trainers are concerned, once the exact dimensions have been obtained from the aircraft OEMs, the internal design of the door is mastered at Velbert. What may be new to those unfamiliar with this training task is that, in addition to normal operation, a range of abnormal situations have to be simulated – for instance door handles might become stiff to operate or doors reluctant to open. To simulate this, built in to the door structure itself are up to three powerful actuators which can be finetuned to vary the level of resistance. Consequently, the door has to be stronger to sustain repeated use of these greater than normal loads, and so must be designed and manufactured on-site.
and fire, and video of various outside scenarios can all be included in the device. Sophisticated training monitoring and video systems are installed, and all devices are supported at Velbert through the internet. This, for instance, shows that on the door trainers alone there are more than 1,000,000 operations annually by TFC customers. One TFC innovation embraced by Lufthansa is the “Virtual Slide”, which projects various malfunctions or hazards associated with slide operation. A critical strength of TFC is the tightly-knit 40 strong team. Here all departments, from design to manufacture to sales are all in close proximity in a flat hierarchy, through which change and adaptation can be quickly implemented. As a result they can respond rapidly to the increasing market presence in Europe, the Middle East and Asia, and increasingly, China. From what started as a bold initiative by one individual in building just one device, there is now another long-established global player in a very competitive market.
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which is required for pilots and their families. Specified experience and operating levels are expected to guarantee a baseline for piloting skills, but the three and a half days of familiarisation for prospective pilots and their families in Dubai before signing on are a critical part of the recruiting process, and it also allows Emirates to get a really good idea of the full personality of the individual. The very low training failure rate indicates that this whole process works well. Once the training starts, the emphasis is to introduce resilience; “the aim is to give our pilots the knowledge and confidence to buy themselves time whilst they fly the aircraft, assimilate the data, make a decision and land the aircraft. We have been held up as a leading example of EBT by the ITQI Steering Group. In fact, the ITQI Steering Group has stated publicly that Emirates support of the EBT programme was pivotal to its success. We have presented our ATQP/EBT programme to audiences including The Royal Aeronautical Society, the Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium and recently to TRAFI – the Finnish Regulatory Authority.” Mahoney is not complacent – far from it, and believes that much remains to be done to continue to be one of the leaders in the industry, and looks forward to the challenges that training will have to overcome in the future. One area to be explored is the goal of analysing current performance and behaviours in order to put in place predictive training, ideally adapted to individuals. As to the effectiveness of the present pattern, the last word rests with an Emirates captain, who reinforces the usefulness of the training that he had received during his manual (flying) training simulator sessions: “This morning, returning to Dubai in inclement weather, we experienced an auto flight degradation. Manually flying the aircraft in such environmental conditions was challenging – if there was ever justification for the manual handling training sessions, I can’t thank you enough” That says it all. cat
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Piecing together airline training for the region Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium 23-24 September 2014 Centara Grand Convention Centre Bangkok, Thailand Training for Resilience Incidents show that not every airborne challenge can be predicted â€“ occasionally crews face unusual circumstances which are not covered by checklists. APATS 2014 will discuss ways to prepare crews for such unexpected situations by extending some elements of the training beyond regulatory requirements.
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Once is Rarely Enough Flight simulation training device qualification is one of those common processes that every regulator does a bit differently... and separately. Global harmonization would save the training industry millions, but few seem to be in a rush to make it happen. Rick Adams reports on the status quo.
f it’s Tuesday, that must be the FAA National Simulator Program two-man evaluation team coming in the training center door. By Thursday afternoon, the duo will be headed for home, and another flight simulation training device (FSTD) will be qualified for use in a commercial airline, business aviation, or civil helicopter training curriculum. FSTD qualification has almost become that routine, at least in the United States and Europe where the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), respectively, handle hundreds of evaluations a year. In other parts of the world, though, where there may be less experience dealing with the myriad technical details of a full-motion Level D flight simulator, or where there are distinct culture differences from the Western norms of avia14
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tion training, sim qualification may be less streamlined and occasionally frustrating for simulator manufacturers and FSTD operators. (Note: the correct term for flight simulator approval is qualification, not certification as with aircraft types.) Most simulator manufacturers and training center operators are reluctant to mention any problems with specific national aviation authorities (NAAs). After all, their business is dependent on the multi-million dollar FSTDs being approved by the regulators. No sim qualification, no training customers. “The regulatory agencies play a large part in why we’re in business,” said FlightSafety International’s John Van Maren, vice president of Simulation. “It’s hard to argue that the regulations have not improved safety.” “It’s a very mature process,” noted Jim Takats, president and CEO of the new TRU Simulation + Training organization formed recently by Textron. “The examiners we’ve dealt with at the FAA and EASA are good people, knowledgeable. You know what to expect.” “FSTD certification is a difficult and long process,” JeanClaude Streel of new market entrant Venyo Aviation told me. Belgium-based Venyo hopes to certify its first flight simulator this year. “We’re working closely with the Belgian Civil
The national aviation authorities handle hundreds of evaluations every year. Image credit: Sim-Industries.
One Step at a Time The biggest frustration expressed by simulator operators about qualification is the variability in the process itself. Something as basic as different document formats for different NAAs. “At the end of the day, it’s the same device, the same process,” said Takats. “The differences add cost but they don’t really add value.” One NAA, whose name we won’t mention (not FAA or EASA), evaluating an FSTD for a training company, who shall also be nameless here, would not even reveal their qualification process
in advance. Instead, they insisted on meeting face-to-face with the training operator representatives, who were required to speak the NAA’s native language (not English). Only after revealing the first part of the process and receiving the operator’s feedback would the NAA unveil the next step in the process. After a couple of weeks of process iterations, the NAA revealed that the Qualification Test Guide (QTG), the data
sometimes, french make things a little too complicated.
Frasca's S76 FFS is the third certified helicopter device under JAA with both Level B FFS and Level III FTD approval. Image credit: Frasca International.
fortunately, we don’t.
Aviation Authority in order to clearly understand EASA legislation and rules.” Most everyone acknowledges that some of the qualification standards are subjective and therefore an individual examiner may apply his own interpretation. Or apply a lawyerly focus on an area where he/she has a great deal of expertise, such as instrument landing systems. “But there are no big differences, nothing horrendous,” said John Frasca, vice president at Frasca International. “The inspectors we see all seem to be very serious business people.” Examiners in some countries, most manufacturers told me, can be somewhat “more challenging.” For example, if an examiner has little experience in conducting simulator evaluations, he or she may be unsure of themselves and be inclined to “dot i’s and cross t’s.” Oftentimes if a test result is borderline, a newer evaluator will not allow it to pass, concerned about being held accountable by agency superiors for granting any leeway.
ALX, ALL YOUR AIRCRAFT IN ONE SIM WWW.ALSIM.COM
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
SIMULATOR QUALIFICATION document which reflects hundreds of performance parameters for the simulator and the central element of evaluation, was required to be translated into the country’s native language as well. Counting translation time, which required subcontracting to a third party with both the language fluency and technical aviation/simulation expertise, the entire qualification took about three months compared to the typical three days with the FAA or EASA. Once the translated QTG was completed, the onsite FSTD evaluation took only four days.
Slow Tempo to Harmony With the majority of new aviation growth ever-shifting to the non-Western world, simulator operators can expect more frequent dealings with less-experienced NAAs, some approving FSTDs for the first time. A word you’ll hear often in the aviation community, whether on training, pilot licensing, or other topics, is “harmonization.” This holy grail of standardization and common best practices, in the flight training domain, is represented by Document 9625. After several years of analysis, drafts, and comments by an industry working group under the auspices of the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) published the updated Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices, Volume I – Aeroplane (Doc 9625, 3rd Edition) in July 2009. This was followed in 2012 by Volume II, separately addressing helicopter FSTDs for the first time. Now under the banner of the International Pilot Training Consortium (IPTC) – a group sponsored by ICAO, the RAeS, the Inter-
International Flight Crew Training Conference
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LONDON / 23 - 25 SEPTEMBER 2014 The Annual International Flight Crew Training Conference will examine the work undertaken by the IPTC and will address the issues facing the flight crew training community from the perspectives of aircraft operators; manufacturers; makers, users & providers of training systems; researchers and regulators. www.aerosociety.com/events IPTC Partners
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national Air Transport Association (IATA), and the International Federation of Air Line Pilots’ Associations (IFALPA) – potential changes continue to be reviewed. An amendment to Volume 1 is expected this year. “We need to get together across the globe and harmonize the qualification process,” said Dr. Nidal Sammur, FlightSafety director of Engineering. TRU’s Takats, who has been active in both the fixed- and rotary-wing training device working groups, urged NAAs to “incorporate the guidance” in Doc 9625. “It’s not just about simulator qualification. The document addresses training needs, fidelity of features, and the performance of many training tasks. It has a lot of flexibility for the industry.” But not everyone is on board with the ICAO consensus guidance. One longtime Europe-based simulator engineer who has shepherded dozens of simulators through qualification believes Doc 9625 “is an unworkable and non-practical document.” The problem, he added, “is in how the inspectors interpret the current rules and standards and the ensuing quality of the end-product for training. It's still very, very subjective and quality is dependent on how good the individual inspector is.” He calls it “a missed opportunity to bring the FAA and EASA together.” To date, only one NAA has adopted the Doc 9625 standards, the Singapore Civil Aviation Authority. Despite being represented in the working groups which developed the documents, neither the FAA nor EASA has implemented the ICAO guidance (although it could be argued that elements of the in-development 9625 were incorporated into the FAA’s Part 60 rule issued in 2006 and Part 60 Change 1 in 2008). New EASA regulations for commercial air transport, including pilot licensing and training (EASA Ops instead of the former EU-Ops), became law in October 2012. However, the European states have taken a two-year derogation from applying the “Total System Approach” implementing rules, and even though the deadline is October 28, 2014, there’s an appeal process for further delay. John Frasca doubts the FAA or EASA “will ever adopt the ICAO guidance 100 percent. They’ll want to retain their own flavor and independence.” Last September, the triennial ICAO Assembly endorsed a working paper submitted by IATA, which represents 240 airlines, encouraging NAAs “to use common criteria, thus improving reciprocity of qualifications whilst allowing, at the same time, the inclusion of particular administrative needs of States.” IATA stated, “The absence of recognition of FSTD audits by the States where they are operated has resulted in a cost to the industry of millions of dollars and decreased the availability of training devices by a considerable amount.” A 2012 IATA study estimated the direct cost burden for the aviation training industry at US$32 million a year, not including lost business opportunities and the expenses of regulatory personnel. Some training centers cited examples in which a single FSTD was evaluated by as many as a dozen separate NAAs. Some of the overkill is attributed to the not-evaluated-here syndrome. Training operators have also complained over the years that multiple regulatory agencies, as well as larger than
necessary evaluation entourages, are more likely to show up in attractive travel and shopping destinations. Of course, the cost of the NAA qualification visit is borne by the simulator operator and, ultimately, by the organization whose pilots train there. One new simulator capability training operators are quickly moving to implement is upset prevention and recovery training (UPRT) as a means of mitigating the risk of loss of control inflight (LOCI), the leading cause of aviation fatalities. With ICAO’s Doc 10011, Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, published earlier this year, and the FAA’s proposed advisory circulars AC 120-UPRT and AC 120-109A, new guidelines for pilot upset training, FSTD manufacturers are scrambling to adapt simulators to provide validated stall and unusual attitude training capability, as well as instructor education on simulator limits so as to preclude any negative training transfer.
Trail Guides The larger simulator manufacturers such as CAE, FlightSafety, Frasca, L-3 Link, and Rockwell Collins have staff regulatory specialists to navigate the nuances of NAAs around the world. For manufacturers and operators who may not have sufficiency personnel or expertise to manage the process, there’s a cottage industry of independent consultants who provide FSTD qualification and training services. One of the better-known FSTD consultants is Montreal, Canada-based Training Technology International. TTI specializes in three- and five-day evaluator courses, held at locations in each major world region. The consultancy was founded by Brian Hampson, formerly simulator superintendent for British Airways and CAE; former American Airlines director of simulator support Joe DePaola; and Bob Earp, who managed CAE training centers in Canada. The UK CAA’s commercialized arm, CAA International, offers a “Technical Evaluation of Flight Simulation Training Devices Course,” covering the spectrum from generic flight navigation procedural trainers through type-specific full flight simulators.
UK company Highview Aeronautics, led by Andrew Brand, specializes in flight simulator qualification, flight test data matching, and quality control, and has worked with the former Thales (now L-3 Link), CAE, and others. SimHelp, part of Avia Solutions Group and connected with Baltic Aviation Academy in Lithuania, claims a network of 300 engineers by working with partners such as air traffic control simulation specialist Adacel and component support company Aerotron. Swiss-based Avigate, founded by Dr. Peter M. Lenhart, who led business development and qualification for Elite Simulation Solutions, has qualified numerous FNPT devices throughout Europe.
Two by Two Although the FAA sends two evaluators and EASA two or three, the simulator operator qualification team can include a dedicated qualification manager, the training center program manager, a quality manager, an aero engineer, a visual engineer, support technicians, and others. On the first morning, the regulators typically fly the simulator for an hour or so, and then take over a conference room to evaluate the objective data in the QTG. At the end of the day there’s a quick overview debrief and outline of the day two agenda, usually focused on manual testing. The third day is reserved to cover any gaps or areas the evaluators wish to further explore. For Level D helicopter simulators, of which many more are being produced the past few years, FlightSafety’s Dr. Sammur said autorotation maneuvers always trigger questions because quite often data from the aircraft manufacturers is incomplete in this area. One scenario simulator operators don’t like to see is evaluators from two regulatory agencies coming through the door at the same time. Adjusting in real time for the differences in a joint evaluation is “painful,” one training center manager told me. If you must qualify the FSTD with both, and one won’t accept the other’s professional opinion for harmony’s sake, better to deal with them separately. cat
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Manuals & Training Materials CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
Aging and Flight Performance Chuck Weirauch investigates the issues of an aging pilot population and aeromedical concerns associated with it.
ith more than half of US airline pilots now over the age of 50, and the average age trending higher each year (American Airlines reports that the average age of its pilots is 53), it may be time to take another look at some of the health issues that often emerge as these pilots move towards the FAA mandatory retirement age of 65. That's a bit harder to do now than it was back before December 13, 2007, when the Fair Treatment for Experienced Pilots Act was signed into law by President Bush to allow both pilots on a domestic flight to be up to age 65. In January of that year, backed by its own research and that of many supporters in the scientific, academic and airline industry communities, the FAA had determined that there was no statistical proof that older pilots posed a greater risk than younger, less-experienced peers.
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One such February 2007 study, conducted by the Stanford University/Veteran's Administration Aging Clinical Research Center in Palo Alto, California, verified the FAA's conclusion. The three-year study of non-commercial pilots found that the extent of aviation expertise and greater number of years of education resulted in higher flight simulator performance. The study also concluded that while older pilots initially performed worse than younger pilots, older pilots showed less of a decline in overall flight summary scores than younger pilots, and over time their traffic avoidance performances improved more than that of younger pilots. The conclusions, reported in Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology, also found pilots with advanced FAA pilot ratings and certifications showed less performance decline over time, regardless of age. But with the increasing complexity of commercial airline cockpits, more crowded skies and the rising average age of commercial pilots, have things changed much since 2007 as to how age may be affecting airline pilot performance? Are there any emerging health issues that pilots should know more about, so that they would become more aware of them and take steps to help address these issues on a personal level?
Is the increasing complexity of commercial airline cockpits changing how age may be affecting airline pilot performance? Image credit: United Airlines.
Should the FAA require more stringent rules for Class 1 medical certifications, based on more recent medical research? To try to discover answers to some of these questions, CAT conducted research to come up with more recent studies in these areas. While there seems to be a dearth of more recent investigations, representatives from two primary aeromedical organizations were able to provide some insights into the aging pilot issue.
No Medical Certification Changes Dr. Michael Berry is the past president of the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA). He is also the FAA's Deputy Federal Air Surgeon. According to Berry, the federal regulatory agency is currently not looking to change or add anything to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 67 Medical Standards and Certification concerning medical conditions related to aging commercial pilots. “I think that any of the conditions that we are concerned about in an aging pilot population are already taken care of, or covered in Part 67,” Berry said. “Do I think that there should be something different from an aging pilot perspective added in to the kind of standards that are covered in Part 67? At the present time, no, I don't think so.
Whether you are dealing with an age 60 or age 65 pilot, the current medical exam appears to be doing an adequate screening job in finding people with medical problems.”
CAMA Input Dr. Clayton Cowl is President-Elect of the Civil Aviation Medical Association (CAMA) and directs the Aerospace Medicine section at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. He is also Chair of the Division of Preventive Occupational and Aerospace Medicine at Mayo. While CAMA is not advocating more stringent or more frequent testing for older pilots holding FAA first-class and secondclass medical certificates, he cited a number of medical conditions that pilots might keep in mind to self-monitor that relate to advanced technology in the cockpit. “What is interesting is the increasing complexity of the cockpit, with some of the technology that we see becoming greater and greater,” Cowl said. “So there may be cognitive issues that perhaps were not in play 15 years ago, and with this technology being available even to the recreational pilot.” Cowl gave glass cockpits as an example. Just the colors in a glass cockpit can sometimes be problematic for the aging pilot, he reported. The glass
cockpit's red and green lighting has become much more of an issue with older pilots, particularly those who have a color-deficiency and never had a problem with gauges. With more tablet computers in the cockpit that provide navigational and other information, such as approach plates available on iPads, there can be some issues with coloration and adequate lighting with those devices for older pilots. And as people age, going back-and-forth between near vision on an iPad to distance vision repeatedly can be more challenging for pilots with presbyopia, or older-age sight depth reduction, he explained. “The issue of safety in an aging population is not unique to aviation,” Cowl summed up. “In general, as people age, there is a probability of various medical conditions that can arise, like high blood pressure and the risk for coronary disease. The risk of diabetes is particularly important as pilots increase their body mass index. As the aging pilots' weight increases, one thing to remember is sleep-disorder-related breathing in particular obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is related to cognitive abnormalities. The other thing that you have to think about, particularly in the GA population, is polypharmacy, or multiple prescriptions. And a lot of pilots don't
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AEROMEDICAL TRAINING recognize that some over-the-counter medications have sedating side effects.”
Hypoxia Training Although neither CAMA nor AsMA is calling for more extensive Class 1 and Class 2 medical certification, the aerospace medical organizations do advocate more hypoxia training. According to AsMA president Jeff Sventek, this may be more of an issue for newer commercial pilots who have no military experience, since many older pilots served in the military and received such training during that time. “There really isn't a trend that we are seeing more and more hypoxia because people have not been exposed to it in a chamber environment,” Sventek said. “However, earlier at one point, I felt very strongly that anyone working toward a commercial certification should be exposed to hypoxia, and it could be in an altitude chamber where you get the pressure phenomena or there are a lot of sophisticated mixed gases or reduce oxygen breathing sys-
tems. I still think that it would be very beneficial for those who are getting a commercial ticket, and believe that anybody who is flying for pay should probably be required to have that experience at least once in their flying career.” Cowl said that CAMA also advocates appropriate hypoxia awareness training through a mixed-gas paradigm or a chamber experience. Studies have shown that even at 5,000 feet above sea level, pilots can start getting nightvision decline, and at 7,000 to 8,000 feet, they can start seeing a reduction of their field of vision. What aerospace medicine may be missing are these sort of low-level hypoxia events where there may be some cognitive abnormalities that might not necessarily be able to be detected outside of large randomized clinical trials, Cowl added. “Flight departments that incorporate hypoxia awareness training recognize its importance, and thankfully hypoxia does not happen very frequently,” Cowl stated. “But if it does,
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you can have serious outcomes. It's always a risk-versus-benefit of the cost of doing the training. So the question is, are you going to invest in your people or not? People will invest thousands of dollars on the aircraft, but sometimes are not willing to invest the time, effort and expense on the most important part of the aircraft, which is the pilot. We know that in an unpressurized cockpit environment, even low-level hypoxia can play a role in cognitive impairment.”
Automated Warning To help prevent hypoxia events for general aviation pilots, Mayo Clinic is working with the FAA to develop an automated system that would sound a warning and flash a message on glass cockpit screens that tell a pilot to put on an oxygen mask when the system detects that cockpit oxygen levels are too low. While Cowl describes the technology as being “on the horizon”, initial tests will be conducted with the FAA during this June and July. cat
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LMS 2.0 Learning management systems are increasingly capable platforms. Technology enhancements allow LMSs to better manage and create, and track and report learning throughout a professional’s continuum of learning, reports Group Editor Marty Kauchak.
ew and enhanced learning management systems (LMSs) are entering service throughout civil aviation training organizations. These systems are achieving a higher plateau of performance as flight training devices are more fully integrated into LMS architectures and other trends evolve.
Sector Survey The 2014 WATS was again the venue for representatives across a broad swath of the simulation and training (S&T) industry to meet with their counterparts and the community customer base. Tero Arra, Finnair’s head of training for A320/A330/A340 TRI/TRE, and a speaker at one of this conference’s breakout sessions, noted the main advantages of an LMS. “Clearly they provide automatic training records and qualification control,” he noted, and added, “Automatic enrolling of courses reduces a workload of planners and follow up needs. Because all studies done by LMS are independent from time and place, there is less need for classroom learning, resulting in savings. It's very 22
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flexible from the student's point of view. LMS is also a quick and easy tool to respond to sudden training needs.” The state-of-the-art in this technology sector typically finds LMSs as part of an overarching training management system. Such is the case at Britannica Knowledge Systems, which delivers an LMS as part of its Fox advanced training management system. "Airlines and aviation training operations are now seeking an integrative cost-effective training management solution to meet all three essential management challenges: qualification, scheduling and learning," Miki Ringelhim, the company’s vice president for marketing and business development, told CAT. The industry expert provided his insights from the perspective of supplying the Fox system to diverse global customers including NASA, Boeing Flight Services, Czech Aviation Training Centre and the Canadian Air Force. “These organizations are trying to optimize training operations and enhance learning achievements, while reducing the total cost of ownership. They do this by replacing a variety of cumbersome, disconnected systems with a single, fully integrated and easy-to-use system," Ringelhim added. Ringelhim explained the rigor of his customers’ LMSs: "A modern training management solution must incorporate the essential functions of learning management, qualification management, flexible grading tools, and robust scheduling and resource management capabilities." Finnair’s Arra provided another example of a training organization’s use of an LMS. The airline and the Finnair Flight Academy (FFA) use an LMS which is part of Peak Pacific Group’s
By adopting some of the same principles that airlines use in their flight data monitoring and Flight Operations Quality Assurance programs, data generated by a full flight simulator mission can be used to objectively assess the results of a training session. Image credit: TRU Simulation + Training.
Talent Management System. Of note, through the last several years, FFA migrated its learning content delivery media from conventional CBT to online training. “We use this primarily as an eLearning platform for recurrent ground training. Additionally, we share preliminary information and material of type rating courses via LMS,” he explained, and continued, “About two or three weeks before the course starts the pilot will receive an email which directs him or her to go to the training portal. All the instructions, material, readings are all there – in one place.” Arra also observed the presence of different LMSs in a training organization’s technology infrastructure and the need to integrate them. “The biggest challenge is variety of operating systems and devices. Also, data integration might be challenging if you have to expand the system to communicate with other systems, like an airline crew management system,” he said. “In an ideal world the training organization will only have one
system to cover all of its responsibilities – crew management, training management and learning management, and others,” Arra added. The training subject matter expert further commented on the current configuration of most integrated training management systems. “It’s somewhat challenging. If you have a very big system that is covering everything then it might be too complicated to use. If you have a very simple system it might not support all of the requirements and then you need to integrate multiple systems.” Erik Tobler, the product marketing manager at Aerosim, presented another business development challenge. The subject matter expert noted some training organizations are balancing their requirement for enterprise LMSs with the requirement for unique content, while other companies need a turn-key solution that includes both. “There are different providers of focused content and different providers of LMSs, and a mix in between (including a dynamic set of different deployment platforms). That presents the challenge of how can Aerosim offer a robust LMS with the most relevant content, yet be in a position to offer interactive training tools and courseware to those organizations that want to leverage their existing LMS,” he noted. In collaborative agreements Aerosim has integrated some of its training content into other providers’ LMSs, to satisfy one set of customer demands. Aerosim also delivers its own LMS, as an option, with ETHOS Pilot Training. Tobler explained that ETHOS is a platform that
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Training TECHNOLOGY harnesses technology to help shift effectiveness earlier in the training continuum. “ETHOS uses the Aerosim LMS to update content and report progress. After a user goes through all of the content and different tools through the LMS, the user can record his or her progress and get credit for that work regardless of if they did the training while online or offline,” he added. Tobler told CAT that Aerosim would soon deliver customized training content for deployment via Southwest Airlines’ existing LMS. MINT Media Interactive’s software systems’ portfolio has recently expanded to include an LMS. When Jörg Latteier, the company’s managing director met with CAT at WATS, he indicated his Kiel, Germany-based company’s LMS is responding to the market demand for integrated learning and training management capabilities. Latteier was asked whether new and enhanced LMSs from MINT and other companies place the community on a better defined trajectory toward integrated systems. “Yes,” the industry leader initially responded and observed, “but on the other hand you will always have customers with existing solutions for learning or training management areas. It’s not only learning management and training management, but these have their links in the crew world to crew scheduling and other needs. You will never have one system that can do it all. There will still be a lot of room for individual solutions and in-between systems.”
Other Trends Britannica Knowledge Systems’ Ringelhim pointed out another emerging trend in this sector – the adoption of mobile platforms. While training organizations are in the initial stages of understanding the potential of this technology, Britannica has witnessed a wide consensus in two main training uses of mobile devices: delivering lessons and grading. “Lessons and even tests are now required to be fully accessible through mobile devices. Additionally, instructors, especially simulator and flight instructors, are adopting mobile devices for grading and course management. There is a growing demand for mobile offline grading applications for places without connectivity," he emphasized. Finnair’s Arra corroborated the migration toward mobile learning devices, “The mobile systems are here. I don’t know if we have one pilot at Finnair who does not own an iPad.” Jim Takats, the president and CEO of newly branded TRU Simulation + Training, commented further on the importance of mobile learning platforms and distributed learning, and also introduced yet another significant development – the more complete integration of full flight simulators (FFSs) and other training devices into LMS architectures. The industry executive pointed out that typically any LMS makes use of standard instructor operating system (IOS) features such as Lesson Plan, Snapshot, Record and Playback, Remote Debrief Utilities and others. While these have all been around for some time, perhaps the only real change is not in the tools themselves but the way they are used. “We now see both fixed and tablet computers and docking stations in the FFS capable of carrying out any of the above tasks as 24
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a remote IOS, while at the same time, linking into LMS tools and utilities,” he revealed. Bruno Cacciola the director of Product Strategy and Marketing, Simulation Products at Civil, CAE, remarked further on integrating training devices into LMSs. Cacciola was first asked to specify some FFS data of value to an LMS’ end users. He responded that by adopting some of the same principles that airlines use in their flight data monitoring and Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs, data generated by an FFS mission can be used to objectively assess the results of a training session. “Depending on the approach preferred by the airline, this assessment can be done at the aggregate level where pools of data are analyzed to determine trends or at the individual student level.” The community subject matter expert also told CAT, that in terms of an FFS, CAE is seeing an expanding need to extend the LMS concept beyond administration and tracking – towards the capability to objectively assess the results of a training session. “With the move towards Advanced Qualification Programs (AQP) and Evidence-Based Training, we are seeing an evolving need by our customers to gain further insight into the training effectiveness of FFS sessions. In particular, a need is evolving to improve the efficiency of the pilot training system and reduce operating costs; increase transfer of learning from the simulator to the aircraft; and
Above Aerosim delivers its own LMS, as an option, with ETHOS Pilot Training. ETHOS is a platform that harnesses technology to help shift effectiveness earlier in the training continuum. Image credit: Aerosim. Opposite The Simulator Operations Quality Assurance system is a significant capability offered in CAE's new 'instructor office' concept on the CAE 7000XR Series Full Flight Simulator. Image credit: CAE.
provide the training system with actionable safety and training information.” The integration of the FFS and specifically the instructor operator station (IOS), with objective scoring and event detection systems, can be a very effective way of assessing student progress and the effectiveness of a specific training program, the community subject matter expert added. On the topic of IOSs in the LMS architecture, TRU’s Takats reaffirmed the IOS’ role and noted some of the latest capabilities are valuable tools. “However we need to be careful as to how we use these capabilities,” he cautioned. “To largely rely on an IOS’ tools to determine and assess a student’s performance needs to be fully vetted and evaluated. Assessing a pilot’s competence, knowledge, attitude and skills in any flight simulation training device (FSTD) is a combination of many things, the primary focus of which is the instructor and how well he or she is able to use the FSTD environment, tools and utilities to support LMS and/or competency assessment. Having said that, the IOS remains a valuable tool to prepare scenarios, record certain performance specifics and to quickly and easily monitor – and I stress the word monitor – progress.” Indeed, the newest IOS interfaces developed by TRU Simulation + Training, in conjunction with one of its customers, includes valuable performance
analysis tools that can be used by a trained instructor to help assess student performance against the practical test standards. “More importantly, it allows solo practice by a student for most PTS [practical test standards] maneuvers, and graphs the performance against an actual test pilot recording, as well as the PTS grading criteria for the specific maneuver. This encourages and draws in the student to practice to perfection. This new technology has already proven
extremely valuable in our customers training programs,” Takats concluded. Back at CAE, the company has developed a Simulator Operations Quality Assurance (SOQA) capability which leverages the CAE Insight™ Flight Data Monitoring and Analysis System commonly used for airline FOQA programs. Cacciola continued, “The CAE Insight SOQA system is fully integrated with the instructor operating system and is capable of capturing a wide data set of flight mission parameter - very much like an aircraft flight data recorder. The SOQA event detection engine allows for the assessment of specific scenario-based training tasks against defined criteria and provides the instructor with an objective assessment of student performance.” The SOQA system is a significant capability offered in CAE’s new “instructor office” concept on the CAE 7000XR Series FFS. One air carrier perspective on training device-FFS integration was provided by Scott Nutter, the General Manager of Research, AQP & Development at Delta Air Lines’ Flight Operations. The community veteran noted Delta’s Information Technology team has developed internal systems to schedule FFS and flight training devices, as well as instructors and students, and does not have a requirement to integrate full flight simulators or flight training devices into a corporate LMS. cat
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WATS 2014 – Extracting and Enhancing Human Performance The 17th annual World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow (WATS) took place at the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort, in Orlando, April 1-3. Conference Chair Chris Lehman files this report.
ith over 1,000 attendees hailing from 48 countries and 80 airlines, WATS lived up to its status as the world’s largest gathering of aviation training professionals. The five conference tracks - pilot training, regional airline pilot training, cabin training, maintenance training, plus a new Spanish language track were supplemented by breakouts and expert panels. With Platinum Sponsor L-3 Link Simulation & Training, 65 exhibitors showcased their training and simulation know-how, and it was announced that a helicopter training track will be added in 2015.
maximum value they can from the conference content. He zeroed in on the international nature of the industry, stating that many of the training issues in the US airline industry “are global issues that require international harmonization.” He noted the airspace impact of unmanned air systems (UAS), the issues surrounding simulator qualification for full-stall maneuvers and the on-going pilot training rule making. These include duty time and rest rules and the new ATP and flight hour requirements which will be implemented in August. Christopher Hart focused on the critical need to always be promoting the virtues of judgement and professionalism, stating that human error is always 100 percent of the cause of accidents, whether it’s pilot error, maintenance error, management or system design error. “That is why training is critical. Especially for more complex systems, we need to improve the linkage to training.”
Extracting the Value Opening Keynote addresses were delivered by FAA Administrator Michael Huerta, and US NTSB Vice Chair Christopher Hart. Huerta emphasized that “safety is priority 1 for the FAA,” and challenged delegates to extract the Platinum Sponsor:
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Plenary Before breaking into the separate tracks, all delegates obtained a “high altitude” view of some major issues. Captain Jacques Drappier, Senior Training Advisor at Airbus, addressed the issue of culture in training, pointing out the reality of increased diversity in the workforce. Silver Sponsors:
Keynote speakers – FAA Administrator Michael Huerta (top), and US NTSB Vice Chair Christopher Hart. Image credit: David Malley.
Impressions from the WATS tradeshow floor. Images: David Malley & Chuck Weirauch.
While we all strive for safety, “...there are different ways to get there... we need to accept and understand cultural differences. We can use training to change positively our professionalism and organisational culture.” Scott Nutter of Delta followed up with the question “How good is our training?” explaining the answer has many responses. His organisation supplies the answers tailored to the needs of a head of training, a CFO, or in fact the FAA. He also discussed how the answer can explicitly address Return on Investment (ROI) variables. Finally, Heidi Giles MacFarlane and Paulo Alves of MedAire delivered some unique insights on training for inflight medical events (IFMEs), stating that responding to an IFME is part of the flight deck-cabin crew resource management process.
WATS Pilot Moderated by Peter Moxham and Dr. Michael Karim, the dedicated WATS Pilot sessions began with valuable perspectives on pilot supply and primary training standards, including the results of a US GAO study on pilot supply. While the study results were inconclusive, it did point to the fact that the flight experience of qualified pilot applicants is declining and much more needs to be done to help with the financial burdens of pilot training. The myths surrounding the Multi-Crew Pilot License (MPL) were explained by CTC Aviation, as well as commentary on whether the US will adopt this proficiency-based approach with its emphasis on selection, airline partnership, heavy use of simulation and training quality over prescriptive hours. The rest of the first day covered a large range of diverse topics including the nature of “digital natives” and how they use technology to learn. Southwest Airlines outlined its unique Pilot Monitoring program that uses a greenyellow-red scale to assess the potential for “consequential error,” while Airbus Miami discussed the impact of the new FAA rule revising training requirements for Part 121 carriers. The new require-
ments must be implemented by Training Centers which include flight simulation approval, pilot monitoring, remedial training and extended envelope training, amongst others. Day 1 closed with a unique perspective on the growing role of “Individualized Training” from Jetpubs Inc. By moving away from a one size fits all approach in recurrent training for example, it is possible to train to a common standard, but with customized training for a specific individual. The next two WATS Pilot sessions were chock full of content too detailed to report adequately in this space, and it is recommended that the WATS 2014 website be visited for the detailed Proceedings. The content included an excellent Alaska Airlines/ICATEE presentation on Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT), a discussion of the benefits of G-force producing simulators, and an AgustaWestland presentation on rotary wing training, and how a training emphasis has dramatically reduced accidents over just the past several years. The final WATS Pilot session included a presentation from Utah Valley University exploring how CRM must continue to evolve and how important it was to teach integrity and self-discipline. Crew Training International looked at how evidenced-based training interventions in USAF UAS crews promoted safety and performance. Finally, Finnair Flight Academy provided compelling evidence that training for fuel efficient operations is achievable and has high ROI.
RATS Pilot Led by the RAA’s Training Committee, with particular support from Scott Foose, Paul Preidecker, Al Barrios, Darrin Greubel, and Paul Kolisch, an entire day was devoted to regional airline training issues. If some are uncertain about whether there is a pilot shortage, this community does not share that uncertainty. ExpressJet reported that it is now not able to hire as many pilots as it needs, and most regionals cannot see the situation improving soon. A shortage of flight
Bronze Sponsors: - PMS 295 C = 00 45 7C - PMS 543 C = 8F C3 EA - PMS 1595 C = E8 7D 1E
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Pantone 280 U Pantone 2925 U
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
SHOW REPORT instructors is also apparent, and the new First Officer Qualification (FOQ) rules specifying new hires have 1,500 hrs and an ATP is exacerbating the situation. The point was made that the pay gap between regionals and the majors needs to be closed, as well as the need to find ways to help pilot candidates obtain the additional flight hours that the FOQ now requires. A session on Airmanship focused on the deficiencies regional carriers are now seeing in the applicant pool from aviation colleges, including lack of situational awareness and hand-flying skills. Some pointed to perceived attitudes in some of the younger generation including not taking responsibility for their deficiencies, and an entitlement orientation. The importance of aviation colleges having partnerships with carriers was stressed, and the University of North Dakota (UND) told delegates some 75 percent of surveyed student pilots planned on pursuing a long term career in aviation. A session on using Threat and Error (TEM) management principles to manage professionalism in regional operations was well-received. The main question was why some pilots do not do the things they are trained to do, and this was followed by a view of the threats to professionalism. Among them are automation-induced complacency, failures in risk mitigation, not learning the value of mistakes, and repetition-induced complacency. The consensus was that professionalism can be trained. The final RATS session concerned Pilot Training in Transition. Panelists advocated for training in unexpected events, such as unstable approaches, go-arounds, rejected take-offs, stalls and stick-pusher events.
Cabin Training Moderated by Jeanne and Al LaVoy, the cabin track dug into some of the most topical training issues impacting the community, and first up was a “Lessons Learned” session and a discussion on TEM from JetBlue University. The evolution of a training organization was presented by American Airlines – including the factors to consider during a merger. Southwest Airlines delivered an interactive session on the importance of teaching standards and consistency amongst instructor staff. 28
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
Above This year's cabin crew training track. Left The Simulation Technology Panel led by Dr. Sunjoo Advani. Image credit: David Malley.
The theme of instructor consistency and standards was carried on with a presentation from GoJet, particularly with regard to different instructor backgrounds and ages. Norwegian Air Shuttle spoke of the virtual eTraining that has been integrated with its crew management system, saving both time and money. Inflight Innovations spoke about licensing cabin crew and the benefits that can be realised both in Europe and elsewhere. ICAO kicked off a “Global Insights” session, describing the ICAO Competency-Based Approach to Cabin Crew Safety Training, and an overview of the ICAO training manual. Emirates provided an outline of its advanced training methods and
WATS Pilot Breakouts • Spanish Language Session on Latin American Training Issues - Presentations on the WATS 2014 website (www.halldale.com/wats-2014) • FAA National Simulator Program (NSP) - Q&A Session by Atlanta-based sim qualification team • CAE-led Special Panel on the ICAO Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery - Panelists from FAA, EASA and ICAO. See WATS 2014 website page • Special Panel on the Alternatives for Funding Pre-Employment Training of US Professional Pilots - Presentations on Halldale's WATS 2014 website page • Special Panel on Implementing an EFB Program - Led by USA Jet Airlines. See WATS 2014 website page Organised By:
facilities, while Novair and Swedavia Stockholm-Arlanda Airport explained how the airline works closely with the rescue services with jointly developed training. A “Current Challenges” session included “Training to Deal with Social Media” from Southwest Airlines. The AFA talked about passenger PEDs and a presentation from Ahead! pointed to the fact that security training and safety training should be trained together, and not separately as is often the case. Western Michigan University provided research results from a study on how light impacts crew alertness and WestJet outlined the issues surrounding implementing a fatigue management system for flight attendants. FlightSafety and CornerStone Strategies discussed “interpersonal emotional contamination” and included the results of an on-line poll that took place during the session. Finally, MedAire looked at training for the new US OSHA regulations and discussed the characteristics of a “super instructor.”
Maintenance Training Moderated by the FAA’s Dr Bill Johnson, the maintenance sessions kicked off with an Airbus presentation on the importance of building and cultivating a safety culture in maintenance training. Boeing chimed in by stating that safety culture must be organisation-wide, and voluntary reporting has to be encouraged, including removing fear of punishment. The session concluded with a report from the GAO which cast doubt on whether there actually was a shortage of technical personnel. The focus on safety culture and Safety Management Systems (SMS) was also part of a session that specifically looked at the role of industry Trade Associations, including the Aeronautical Repair Station Organisation (ARSA), Airlines for America (A4A), Air Transport Association of Canada (ATAC), and the Aircraft Electronics Association (AES). In the “Emerging Trends” session, Toll Aviation advocated for the use of well-designed serious games; they can have a significant effect on training outcomes, including “training by stealth.” Turkish Habom spoke on training needs analysis to fine tune his organisation’s training to emphasize learning rather than memorization. The result was a monetized ROI of about 170%, most of which was found in a reduction of maintenance error. The value of Massively Open Online Courses (MOOC’s) was demonstrated by Embry Riddle with a Human Factors course developed using the technology. Bill Johnson kicked off the next session on HF Curricula with his presentation on updating and aligning the Maintenance HF Curricula which is based on EASA Module 9 topics, but adds and expands on them. The Australian CASA presented their innovative training package “Safety Behaviours: Human Factors for Engineers,” including multimedia tools - more info at www. casa.gov.au. The final maintenance session addressed critical issues for the community. First up was infoWERK who reported on their program with Cargolux to determine the impact of Maintenance Simulation Training Devices (MSTD), some of which is in the area of increased student performance. Training Orchestra spoke to the challenges of delivering training in an era of “do more with less,” and Joaquin Villarreal, FedEx and Chair of the A4A Main-
tenance Training Network Committee, spoke of the upgrade of ATA Spec 104.
Peering into the Future with your Peers An extraordinary international panel on day 3 led by Dr. Sunjoo Advani with representatives from FlightSafety, FAA, ALPA, Alaska Airlines, Boeing and NASA, addressed the question: “What are the key future needs for commercial pilot training and how does science, technology and industry intend to respond to these needs?” A similar session is planned for the EATS conference in Berlin, October 28-29. A final session on e-learning kicked off with an excellent presentation on mobile and elearning from Dr. Suzanne Kearns, including valuable details on the four levels of elearning and what each level delivers and at what cost, details of which are on the WATS 2014 website pages. The follow-on panel with representatives of the FAA, Aegean Airlines and students from Western Michigan University offered delegates a dynamic Q&A session. cat
Above Key industry announcements and new business signings helped create a vibrant exhibition area over the three days. Image credit: David Malley.
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
RealitySeven Update Marty Kauchak and Chris Long learn more about L-3 Link Simulation & Training UK’s modular training device concept.
-3 Link Simulation & Training UK is going beyond advancing the state-of-the-art in full flight simulators (FFS) with its RealitySevenTM device. With a proven platform that can replicate a wide range of aircraft types, L-3 Link UK emphasizes its ability to also provide returns on investment (ROI) and other efficiencies, and modify the business model for civil aviation RealitySeven customers. Introduced in 2009, L-3 Link UK has delivered 23 RealitySeven FFSs to customers around the globe. A partial list of this FFSs customers includes Aeroflot, Airbus Training, Sichuan Airlines, HuaOu Aviation Training, Eva Airways, and Boeing Flight Services. Another 10 RealitySeven FFSs are on order. David White, L-3 Link UK’s Chief Scientist, told Group Editor Marty Kauchak during WATS 2014, this FFSs’ common components remain the visual module, docking station and motion system. The visual module’s field of view is in excess of 200(H) x 45(V), according to 30
C A T M A G A Z I NE 3 . 2 0 1 4
the company’s product brochure. “We have actually built it to allow for the projectors to increase their resolution – to 225[H] and even 50[V],” White noted. L-3 Link UK's design strategy for the visual module remains projector agnostic, allowing the OEM/end user to select bestof-breed projector solutions. The aircraft module, reproduced to the fidelity of increasing types of aircraft cockpits, is manufactured specific to the aircraft being simulated.
Enhancements The recent technology enhancements have allowed key RealitySeven components to remain generic. White pointed out, “This is what you are going to ‘fly’ for the next 10 or 20 years. And then what we do is what they do on an actual aircraft – a rolling block upgrade. As long as key components remain generic it doesn’t matter what aircraft you are going to put in it.” From a logistics perspective, this plug-and-play strategy presents ROIs and other efficiencies for the RealitySeven customer. White noted that for one current customer, generic components for an ATR FFS in Thailand are being sea-lifted to that nation while the cockpit remains under construction. In other instances, the RealitySeven offers the opportunity for airline training organizations to better respond to their airlines’ fleet refreshment or upgrade efforts.
L-3 Link has delivered 23 RealitySeven FFSs to customers around the globe. Image credit: L-3 Link UK.
Savings White was asked: at the end of the day what sort of projected savings does the RealitySeven FFS offer its end users? “Potentially we would like to provide somewhere around a 60-70% through the device’s 25-year life cycle,” he responded. Jim Gorman, Aviation Consultant at L-3 Link Simulation & Training, added that for a RealitySeven upgrade the end user should be able to retain threequarters of the original device. “And if you take out just the existing flight deck and put in a new flight deck in 14 days, that’s significant.” Gorman placed this in a larger context – for the support of a fleet upgrade to a new model aircraft, similar to which he recently observed at FedEx. “When you buy a new fleet and retire an old fleet it is not a linear equation. This allows us to not have as many bays. If I have three of each, let’s say, I can break down one [aircraft module] and put the other one on. A little while later break down the second one and put the other one on. And when I am turning off the lights I can tear down the last one and put on the new third one in the same footprint. Instead of having six bays I have three. That’s a significant expense savings to me. Not to mention the time to move from one facility to another.” Another prospective game changing business model made possible by RealitySeven is the feasibility of establishing a market place for residual flight decks and other components – with legacy aircraft modules swapped or sold as the market dictates. “This will completely change the way the game is played,” White concluded.
Company Overview The broad company overview is explained by Alan Crawford, the recently appointed Managing Director of L-3 Link Simulation & Training UK, based in Crawley near London Gatwick Airport. Recent M&A activity by several major suppliers of military training solutions have embraced established civilian aviation training companies. This shows a clear response to the
strength of demand to support the astonishing numbers of fleet renewals and LCC start-ups. This demand is reflected not only in the largest single market – North America, but also across the world in the rapidly growing markets of South East Asia, and of course China. The drive in L-3 Link Simulation & Training continues to achieve increased efficiency in manufacturing and service delivery so that costs to the customer can be reduced. Crawford says that this will be the primary driver to the organic growth for the company, which will expand both the product range and the services it provides. With a wellestablished range of FFSs for the present and future major types for both Airbus and Boeing, the regionalisation of the company now facilitates the immediate and geographically close support of the customers. An example of this is the continuing expansion of the facility in Bangkok, where a second ATR has been ordered, and where the capacity will be increased to a total of six bays. An additional area where both proximity and military expertise can be blended to support a new market is at Arlington, USA, where the company is working with the existing military training facility to support civil and helicopter customers in North America. Crawford sees the path forward as a streamlining of the manufacturing process, a robust and increasing engagement with the customers to provide a greater range of services, and the realisation of the modular concept of the RealitySeven device. This latter goal has got off to a very encouraging start already, with the first order from a customer for a dual-module option received from British Airways in December 2013. This shows that the idea has caught on, and that the full potential of the flagship RealitySeven design is now reaching the market place. cat
The simulator's common components remain the visual module, docking station and motion system. Image credit: L-3 Link UK.
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ICAO Secretary General Raymond Benjamin. Image credit: ICAO.
ICAO Training Office
Supporting Global Training and Human Resources Development in Aviation ICAO Secretary General Raymond Benjamin takes a detailed look at the creation of the ICAO Global Aviation Training Office.
he International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) works with its 191 Member States, the industry and other regional and international aviation organizations to develop international Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) which are used by States when they develop their legal frameworks addressing civil aviation. There are currently over 11,000 SARPs contained in the 19 Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) which are overseen by ICAO. It is through these SARPs, as well as ICAO’s global work programmes, auditing responsibilities and capacity-building efforts, that today’s global air transport network is able to operate over 100,000 daily flights safely, efficiently and securely in every region of the world. All of us in the international air transport community recognize that the benefits of our global network rely strongly on the availability of qualified and competent personnel. This poses further challenges, however, mainly as the audit results of ICAO’s Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) and Universal Security Audit Programme (USAP) indicate that both States and industry still need to address gaps in this area.
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To help address these concerns, ICAO conducted a 2013 assessment to determine how it could better assist States with their skilled-personnel needs. The 38th Session of the ICAO Assembly then further encouraged greater ICAO involvement on related priorities, and together these factors led to the development of a new ICAO Civil Aviation Training Policy and the establishment of our Global Aviation Training (GAT) Office. This office is responsible for the planning, management and coordination of all training and human resources activities at ICAO. This represents the first time in ICAO’s history that all training activities are now centralized under a single office. The GAT Office will henceforth serve as our Organization’s leading focal point for training and its mission is to bring greater leadership to the coordination of human resources development in aviation, in close collaboration with Member States, international organizations and the industry. ICAO has always been involved in training activities at various levels, ranging from a supporting facilitator role to being directly involved in the development and conduct of courses. The establishment of the GAT Office will allow the Secretariat to respond more consistently
and comprehensively to the needs of our Member States, as well as enhance the standardization of ICAO courses and the quality of the service provided by ICAO. Selection and training of the instructors who deliver ICAO courses will also be standardized. The implementation of the new ICAO Aviation Training Policy will be based on four main pillars, namely the ICAO TRAINAIR PLUS Programme1, our recognition of beneficial training offerings and best practices by other aviation stakeholders, specific training offerings developed by ICAO to meet sectoral priorities, and greater cooperation with Member States, United Nations organizations, international and regional organizations, and educational institutions. ICAO is also now organizing, with the contribution of its Member States and international organizations, global and regional aviation training events to promote greater capacity-building and training in aviation. I would encourage all training organizations and professionals to join our Member States and industry at these gatherings. I am confident the new ICAO training structure will help contribute to the effective implementation of SARPs and that it will send a strong signal to our sector that ICAO is determined to prioritize training as a key enabler. cat About the Author Mr. Raymond Benjamin has served as the Secretary General of the International Civil Aviation Organization since August 2009. His extensive career in civil aviation spans more than 30 years, including 13 years as Executive Secretary of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC). Prior to joining ECAC, Benjamin was Chief of the Aviation Security Branch of the Air Transport Bureau to ICAO, served as Air Transport Officer and Deputy Secretary of ECAC from 1982 to 1989, and held various positions in the Civil Aviation Administration of France from 1973 to 1982. 1
TRAINAIR PLUS was established by ICAO to serve as a cooperative global network of training centres. The programme supports its member training centres in developing high-quality competency-based training in civil aviation.
10-11 FEBRUARY â€˘ REPUBLIC OF KOREA
An international conference and tradeshow for the civil aviation training industry 10-11 February 2015 Incheon, Republic of Korea
The aim of AAETS is to develop professional training and educational support programmes for safer and more efficient operations in commercial aviation, airport and air traffic management.
For more information visit
halldale.com/aaets An Official Event of the South Korea Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MoLIT)
A sister event to:
asia pacific airline T R A I N I N G
S Y M P O S I U M
Taking a leading role in addressing the challenges to pilot training in Asia, APATS will bring the top level of expertise to share the latest in training wisdom. A wide range of world-renowned experts will give you the hot topics in the industry.
APATS 2014 The Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium (APATS) returns to Bangkok this year. From September 23-24, the show will explore aviation flight training and simulation from the Asia Pacific region.
he Call for Papers for 2014 has been very successful in eliciting responses to all the topics that were proposed, so the conference will address those current and important subjects, with the overall theme for the conference being ‘Training for Resilience’. Aviation globally is focussing on what training should really aim for - not only to satisfy the regulatory imperatives, but to embrace a deeper understanding of the operational tasks required. The key word is “Resilience”. Incidents and accidents have shown that not every airborne challenge can be predicted, from time to time the operating crew are faced with unusual circumstances, and these are not necessarily covered in the checklists. Resolving these problems can be achieved through a good situational awareness and, frequently, application of some basic flying skills and principles. Consequently there is a renewed focus on how to reinforce those basic elements and to train crews to, where necessary,
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
adapt to the live event when the formal guidance (check list) does not cover the precise situation. The wide range of knowledge, both from regional and global experts will bring fresh insights to these challenges and APATS will yet again provide the primary regional arena for both the presentations and debate on these key subjects. Conference sessions will include: • Encouraging a Resilient Culture in an Airline • Training a New Generation • Upset Avoidance and Recovery Training - Practical Solutions • Designing Training Using EBT Principles • Expanding Crew and Instructor Competence - PMS 295 C = 00 45 7C - PMS 543 C = 8F C3 EA - PMS 1595 C = E8 7D 1E
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Exhibition Running alongside the conference, the APATS exhibition offers a unique opportunity for companies to showcase their latest training products and services to the gathered senior aviation training professionals from airlines, regulators and industry, from right across the Asia Pacific region. Exhibitors at previous APATS exhibitions have included flight, maintenance and cabin crew training providers, training device and simulator manufacturers, software solutions providers, flight schools and aviation academies, aviation universities, language training providers, visual systems and projector companies, mobile training providers and airline and air operator training departments. The most recent initiatives in training systems, devices and providers will be on display from over 50 exhibiting companies at APATS 2014. APATS is the largest and most widely respected aviation training event in the Asia Pacific region and up to 500 delegates are expected to attend. Both the Conference and Exhibition will trigger discussion and debate, which will continue during the many networking opportunities, including the APATS 2014 Gala Networking Reception hosted by platinum sponsor L-3 Link Simulation & Training. Delegates will have plenty of time to follow up on their queries with speakers and exhibitors, all of whom are happy to share their knowledge and opinions. APATS will have a slightly less formal feel this year as we suggest that all attendees refrain from wearing ties to reflect a more Asian approach. Please visit halldale.com/APATS for the latest up-to-date conference programme, as well as further show information. We look forward to seeing you in Bangkok. cat Supported by:
World News & Analysis
Seen&Heard A compendium of current news from the civil aviation training industry, compiled and edited by the CAT editorial team. For the latest breaking news and in-depth reports go to www.halldale.com.
Textron Simulation & Training Systems Reveals New Name gress integrating the three legacy companies, we sought to develop a name that represents the value we can add to customers. Providing solutions that depict realistic environments and conditions that are TRUE to life – ensuring pilots are trained properly and feel confident when they do get in the air – was the basis for the new name,” said James Takats, TRU Simulation + Training Inc. president and CEO. “TRU Simulation + Training offers an exciting opportunity for Textron to be a major force in the rapidly growing market for providing pilot and aircrew simulation and training to both commercial and military customers,” said Takats. “I am thrilled to unveil TRU Simulation + Training, a unique company that will be able to combine Textron’s truly global footprint with an adaptive and highly responsive business model to put customer needs first.”
Textron Simulation & Training Systems launched its new name and brand TRU Simulation + Training Inc. at WATS 2014. TRU Simulation + Training Inc. is formed out of three legacy companies – Mechtronix Inc., located in Montreal, Quebec, and OPINICUS Corporation, located in Lutz, Florida, that were
acquired by Textron late last year, and a portion of AAI Logistics & Technical Services, an operating unit of Textron Systems, based in Goose Creek, South Carolina. The total annual revenue for the new business is expected to exceed $100 million. “As we continue to make good pro-
EASA MTO Approval
Peak Pacific Launches ‘clear’
Pelesys Aviation Maintenance Training (PAMT), a subsidiary of Pelesys Inc., has received EASA certification as an approved Maintenance Training Organization (MTO) under Part 147 of the EASA regulations. Pelesys will initially be able to provide EASA approved type endorsement courses for the Embraer 170/175 airframes. The company will also soon be able to offer other EASA approved training including A320, A330, B777, B737, with the first set of new courses being approved and ready for delivery fall of 2014.
Peak Pacific Limited has launched ‘clear’, a new suite of competency-based grading software aimed at providing quality training data and analysis for the aviation industry. Based on a modular-design, ‘clear’ is a competency-based grading system with seamless online and offline capabilities. Built with industry inputs, the ‘clear’ suite will enable airlines and flight training organisations manage their training administration and license management. Built on Java platform with jpa, jquery and HTML5, the ‘clear’ suite will be available on desktops, laptops and mobile devices. It is the first of a series of technology and mobility initiatives Peak Pacific plans to unveil in 2014-2015. Apart from grading and analysis, the ‘clear’ suite will include modules for Planning & Scheduling, Training Administration, Qualification Compliance Management, Resourcing & Facility Management, Document Management and License Management, among others. Peak Pacific will offer ‘clear’ as a behind-the-firewall installation as an Enterprise License and also as SaaS. The ‘clear’ product suite roadmap includes the Enterprise system, modular solutions, Managed Services and a set of productivity and support apps. CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
World News & Analysis SIMULATORS
FlightSafety’s New FFS Design
FlightSafety International has introduced its new FlightSafety FS1000 full flight simulator. "The all-new design and advances in technology incorporated into the FS1000 simulator will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the training FlightSafety and our commercial airline, government and military customers provide," said John Van Maren, vice president Simulation.
The simulator features tightly integrated computer hardware and software across subsystems which allows for more accurate and higher fidelity simulation than found in other current and previous generation simulators. It includes the latest multi-core 64-bit architecture and the supporting realtime tools. The simulator's new light weight and highly robust modular design offers added configuration flexibility and ease of systems integration. This will enable FlightSafety to respond quickly as new aircraft and advances in technology are introduced and will serve to increase reliability and reduce maintenance time. The completely new Instruction Operating Station has been designed to provide instructors with a highly productive and efficient work space equipped with an intuitive interface, scalable graphics, and large multi touch displays. The interior of the simulator offers close to twice the amount of interior space for flight instructors, and observers compared to previous generation simulators. The FS1000 has also been designed to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of FlightSafety's VITAL 1100 visual system, Crewview glass mirror display, and new electric Motion Cueing System.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
CAE Launches CAE 7000XR Series
Airways & CAMIC Announce Training Partnership
At the World Aviation Training Conference and Tradeshow (WATS) in Orlando CAE introduced the CAE 7000XR Series full flight simulator (FFS), the latest evolution of CAE's industry benchmark FFS. Leveraging the latest advancements in technology and training capabilities, the CAE 7000XR Series is designed to optimize life-cycle costs for customers and to address new and future training requirements. Enhanced features include a re-designed instructor office with support for mobile devices and real-time data analysis and feedback, embedded training capabilities to address the new FAA regulation related to Upset Prevention and Recovery Training, and the CAE Flightscape
Insight™ debriefing station with the Simulator Operational Quality Assurance (SOQA) system to assess training effectiveness. The CAE 7000XR Series also introduces the new CAE Sentinel diagnostic application, designed to optimize life-cycle operation by realtime monitoring, preventive and predicative maintenance, and advanced capabilities for support and troubleshooting. The CAE 7000XR Series will become the common platform for all CAE civil aircraft full flight simulators. The first CAE 7000XR Series FFSs, built for the B737NG and for the A320 aircraft types, will be ready for training during the third quarter of 2014.
The Piedmont Pilot Pathway Program includes a dedicated screening and selection process followed by flight training and preparation of the cadet for Piedmont Airlines. It is designed to ensure graduates meet the airlines’ hiring requirements and are prepared for an airline career by encouraging airline preparation from day one. The program
Pilot Pathway Program Aerosim Flight Academy has partnered with Piedmont Airlines to deliver first officer pilots via its Airline Pilot Pathway Program. The program provides cadets with a guaranteed job interview and the appropriate pilot training for successful employment at Piedmont Airlines.
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
Airways New Zealand has announced an exclusive partnership with the Civil Aviation Management Institute of China (CAMIC) for the delivery of air traffic control short courses in China. Madam Xiaomei Sun, president of CAMIC, said the partnership will expand business opportunities in the Chinese market for both organisations. Airways will supply CAMIC with its Total Control simulator as the centre point of the training short courses. The partnership with Airways will provide short courses for the professional development of air traffic controllers and airport managers, at CAMIC's Beijing campus.
emphasizes discipline and respect, leadership and communication, effective resource management, command authority, and decision making. Cadets enrolled in the Piedmont Pilot Pathway Program have the ability to meet milestone objectives, track progress, and work with Aerosim Flight Academy to prepare for a guaranteed job interview.
ATR Sim for AATC
TST Sales Increase
L-3 Link Simulation & Training (L-3 Link) will be adding a new ATR 72-600 full flight simulator (FFS) to the Asian Aviation Training Centre (AATC) in Bangkok, Thailand. The FFS, in addition to an ATR 72-600 flat panel trainer (FPT), will be ready for training before the end of the year. AATC is owned and operated by L-3 Link. The FFS, which is based on L-3 Link's RealitySeven™ simulation architecture, will be equipped with RSI Visual Systems' XT4 image generator and projectiondesign's FL35 DLP LED projection system. In addition, L-3 Link will be upgrading a currently installed ATR 42/72 FFS with a DiGITS™ instructor station. The instructor station upgrade to the ATR 42/72 FFS will reflect the same standard that will be used on the ATR 72-600 FFS, allowing instructors with mixed ATR 500/600 fleets to easily switch between each training device. This upgrade effort will be completed during the second quarter of 2014.
Eca Faros has recently delivered several Touch Screen Trainers (TST) to airlines and training centres. This list includes one A320 TST each to Spirit Airlines and Alpha Aviation Academy UAE and six A320/A330 TSTs to Russian universities. This latest generation of touch screen trainer integrates full functional hardware replicas for engine throttles with engine start switches, ECAM control panel and switching panel in addition to the traditional FCU and MCDU.
FAA Approves ADS-B Online Training Academy's ADS-B online training module and approve the training for the issuance Letter of Authorization (LOA) or Ops Spec A353. With the approval from AFS-430, the process has been streamlined and operators that use Advanced Aircrew Academy's ADS-B module do not require local FAA review of the training program.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Flight Technologies and Procedures Division, Future Flight Technologies Branch (AFS-430) has approved Advanced Aircrew Academy's Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) online training module. Previously, operators have had their local FSDO review Advanced Aircrew
The ADS-B module covers operating procedures, flight planning, MEL procedures, human factors considerations, ADS-B phraseology, normal and abnormal system operation, aircraft IDs, data source errors, and incident reporting. The training is in compliance with FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 90-114 and guidance in the 8900.1.
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The next CAT magazine is the Annual Training Sourcebook with these features: • Year in Review • Pilot Training Technology Roundup • Maintaining the Fleet • Cabin Training Roundup • e-Learning/Mobile Training Technology Focus • Security Training and Technology • EATS Preview • Plus the 2014 Simulator Census with details of over 1300 Full Flight Simulators around the world.
Advertising deadline: 21 July Publication date: 8 August To enquire about advertising in CAT magazine please contact your regional representative: In Europe, Middle East, Africa and Asia: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] email@example.com gy chnolo d ing Te ance Perform Embrac rprise In North America: Natalie Morris [t] +1 407 322 5605 [e] firstname.lastname@example.org Human ncing bouet CySbeur d Enha to Ab g re cting an pa Talkin gy – Extra ance re te rm 14 P ra 20 rfo St Pe In Latin America and the Caribbean: Willem-Jan Derks [t] +1 954 406 4052 [e] email@example.com aining WATS d Fli itghyt? ann ing u lue’s Tr Crew
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CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
World News & Analysis
Unique Aviation Undergraduate Programme
The University of Limerick (UL), Ireland, has recently launched its Bachelor of Technology in Aircraft Maintenance and Operations aimed initially at the international student undergraduate market. The Bachelor of Technology is a four-year honours degree programme offering a unique blend of academic and on-aircraft, industry-focused content, designed to equip students for senior positions in the aircraft maintenance industry. Student intake will commence in September 2014. Graduates will gain an unrivalled exposure to the aircraft industry, satisfy the basic knowledge requirements for the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Part 66 Aircraft Maintenance License (AML) in category C, and gain an honours Bachelor of Technology degree. The programme is a unique collaboration between UL and the Lufthansa Technik AG subsidiary, Shannon Aerospace, a certified EASA Part 147 Maintenance Training Organisation.
Peak Pacific Contract Air Arabia has signed a 5-year agreement with Peak Pacific Limited for the provision of Learning and Learning Technology Services. Under the agreement, Peak Pacific will provide consultancy services, mobile learning products and managed services for learning content to meet Air Arabia's rapidly expanding requirements for scalable training solutions as part of its overall strategy. CABIN CREW
CEET for SAT TFC Simulatoren und Technik GmbH have signed a contract with SwissAviation Training (SAT) to supply the first cabin emergency evacuation trainer for the new Bombardier CSeries Aircraft. The trainer is to be installed at the SwissAviation Training Center in Zurich, Switzerland. TRAINING DEVICE
Real Fire Fighting Trainer Interfire, a manufacturer of Real Fire Fighting Trainers (RFFT), has delivered a trainer for Flight Simulation Company (FSC) to their training center in Budapest. The RFFT will be used by WizzAir SEP department. The next new trainer is in progress and will be delivered in a few months to Pegasus Airlines' brand new premises in Istanbul, Turkey. Both trainers are custom-made to fulfil the training needs of the customer.Â COMPANY NEWS
Expanding Manufacturing Capabilities RSi Visual Systems Inc. has opened a new headquarters, engineering and manufacturing facility in Coppell, Texas. With this move RSi will double its manufacturing space to support the company's growing customer base and its expanded portfolio of visual systems products. HELICOPTER
Helicopter Trainer Debut In cooperation with Daedalus Technologies and Laminar Research, ELITE Simulation Solutions has introduced the newest addition to their fleet of helicopter training devices, the TH22 piston helicopter flight training device. ARRIVALS & DEPARTURES
Swiss AviationTraining Marcel Witzig has been appointed as the new CEO of Swiss AviationTraining. He succeeds Manfred Brennwald, who decided last summer to step down after seven years at the SAT helm. 38
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
AW189 FFS Level D Certified A joint team from ENAC (the Italian Civil Aviation Authority) and the European Aviation Safety Authority (EASA) has certified the world's first AW189 full flight simulator (FFS) to Level D. The new CAE 3000 Series AW189 FFS is installed in the new simulation building at AgustaWestland's A. Marchetti Training Academy in Sesto Calende, Italy. The Training Academy now has capacity for nine FFSs and five FTDs. The FFS being introduced by Rotorsim will support AgustaWestland in delivering operational training to its rapidly expanding number of AW189 operators. At present, the AW189 has been ordered in more than 130 units, including options and framework agreements. SIMULATORS
Cabin Crew Training Devices Following an international tender, Ethiopian Airlines has appointed EDM Ltd. to design, manufacture and install a comprehensive range of cabin crew training equipment comprising of narrowbody cabin emergency evacuation trainer on an electric motion system; widebody cabin emergency evacuation trainer; extended B767 door trainer; extended Q400 door trainer; and A350 door trainer. "This will be our first A350 door trainer project," Tony Bermingham, EDMâ€™s managing director said. "EDM has an excellent track record for developing and delivering training devices for new aircraft types and we are looking forward to applying our world-class engineering and manufacturing capabilities to this exciting new project." Work on the programme has already started and is expected to run for 18 months. Following this, EDM will install the training device at Ethiopian's training centre at Bola International Airport, Addis Ababa.
New Customer for MINT Software Systems
New Education and Training Symposium in Korea
MINT Software Systems signed a service agreement contract with JetBlue Airways at WATS 2014. The contract covers the delivery of the MINT System as a SaaS solution for the management of all training activities within JetBlue University with a focus on pilot, cabin crew and aircraft technician training. According to Brian North, director of JetBlueâ€™s Technical Training, "MINT provides a single platform for our scheduling, recordkeeping and data needs while remaining scalable for JetBlue's future growth." The agreement includes the training management for cockpit and cabin crew and AQP management and JetBlue intends to implement MINT across all functional workgroups within JetBlue University, the training arm of the airline.
IIAC (Incheon International Airport Corporation) and the Halldale Group signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) at WATS 2014 to launch a major new event for the international aviation training industry which will take place next year in Incheon, Korea. IIAC will host the event, called the APATS Aviation Education and Training Symposium (AAETS) and Halldale will organise it. AAETS will be an Official Event of the South Korea Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT), and will be a sister event to APATS, the Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium, also organised by Halldale. AAETS will take place at Incheon International Airport on the 10th and 11th February 2015. The signatories were Mr Andy Smith, president and CEO of the Halldale Group and Mr DongHwa Shin, director of Aviation Training Team of IIAC. The MOU was signed in the presence of Mr JinHO Choi, assistant director of Aviation Personnel Licensing Division from the Korea Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MoLIT). The aim of AAETS is to promote and develop professional training and education for safer and more efficient operations in commercial aviation, airport operations and air traffic management and to support and build on the principles expounded in the ICAO Next Generation of Aviation Professionals (NGAP) and TRAINAIR PLUS initiatives.
New FTD Guidance Published ARINC Industry Activities has published a new Project Paper entitled "Guidance on Simulated Air Traffic Control Environments for Flight Simulation Training Devices". The paper clarifies requirements for introducing a higher fidelity of Simulated Air Traffic Control Environment (SATCE) into flight simulation training devices (FSTDs), providing flight crews in training with realistic traffic on the ground and in the air, along with associated ATC radio and data communications. The ARINC document is the result of a 2-year collaborative effort by industry leaders in flight training under the auspices of FSEMC, including FlightSafety International, Boeing Flight
Training, L-3 Link, Rockwell Collins, Adacel, CAE, and Micro Nav Ltd. (Quadrant Group). FSI's Ted Chapman chaired the working group and Dr Jeremy Goodman from Micro Nav Ltd acted as Principal Editor. This new guidance presents a more defined set of requirements of SATCE and provides information on currently available technologies, integration, qualification, and maintenance. Over time and with validation through training, it is hoped that the benefits derived from an FSTD with integrated SATCE will become realised by industry, and with this, a significant improvement to training and ultimately flight safety.
CTC Wings easyJet MPL Route CTC Aviation has opened its first 2014 application window for the new CTC WINGS MPL Route in partnership with easyJet. The programme will see 36 successful applicants commence their training with CTC Aviation from July 2014 and begin operating as A320 First Officers for easyJet within two years. For the first time, this programme also offers trainee
pilots the chance to opt in to 'the easyJet degree' and add a BSc Honours Degree in Professional Aviation Pilot Practice to their qualifications when they graduate from CTC Aviation. The easyJet Degree, which is exclusively available through CTC Aviation, is an optional enhancement to the programme. Developed in partnership with
CTC Aviation, the Aviation Skills Partnership and Middlesex University, the first two years of the easyJet Degree will be undertaken through the normal CTC WINGS syllabus and the third year is achieved by undertaking jet type-rating, line training and two modules of easyJetcentred directed study whilst flying at easyJet. CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
World News & Analysis
RealitySeven Sim Solution for BA L-3 Link Simulation & Training (L-3 Link) has announced that its Crawley, UK-based operation has been awarded a contract from British Airways (BA) to build and deliver an Airbus A320 RealitySeven™ full flight simulator (FFS). BA also has the option to purchase an A350 aircraft module, which could replace the A320 aircraft module. The two platform types can be switched by leveraging RealitySeven's unique modular design to remove the A320 aircraft
module and replace it with one that represents Airbus' long-range, two-engine wide-body A350 jet airliner. The A320 FFS, which will be the first RealitySeven device L-3 Link delivers to BA, will be installed and ready for training at the airline's new Flight Training Centre at London's Heathrow Airport. Designed to Airbus standard 1.8, the simulator uses commercial-off-the-shelf technologies to reduce a trainer's lifecycle costs.
Human Factors Research
French simulator manufacturer, Alsim, has participated in an ongoing study into variable human factors in pilots' decision-making processes, using its 'pan-fleet' training devices. With Alsim's cooperation, Dr Lise Mégret, a graduate of the University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Defense, is continuing her work while an intern with the company, as part of her thesis on the 'Variability of pilots' cognitive and emotional processes in complex and dynamic situations'. Teaching decision making is a difficult but nevertheless essential task and as part of the study into human factors in flight safety pilots are confronted with demanding in-flight decisions. Dr Mégret said, "Allowing pilots to
explore those types of situations can be very revealing. In conjunction with the instructor, the pilots analyse the way they perceived and handled safety-dependent information, and so became aware of the cognitive mechanisms that guide them in their decision-making." By deepening self-knowledge, Alsim training is aimed at increasing the pilots' control of their own behaviour so as to engender more effective responses, specifically in unforeseen and ambiguous situations. Through this innovative use of their simulators and training staff, Alsim's purpose is to bring a new and crucial advancement to conventional pilot training in dealing with complex procedures and in rare breakdowns.
Record Sim Sales CAE has established an industry record of 48 Level D full flight simulators (FFS) sold during its fiscal year 2014 which ended on March 31, 2014. The latest contracts, valued at a total of approximately C$75 million, include the sales of five simulators to customers in North America, Europe and India as well as update services. CAE has sold a Boeing 737-800W to Southwest Airlines which will be delivered in 2015 to Southwest's training centre in Dallas, Texas. Lufthansa Flight Training GmbH (LFT) has ordered an Airbus A320 FFS. The CAE 7000 Series simulator is equipped with the new CAE Tropos-6000XR visual system. Delivery of this device will take place before the end of 2014 to LFT's training centre in Frankfurt, Germany. CAE Simulation Training Private Limited (CSTPL) in Greater Noida, NCR Delhi, India, a joint venture between CAE and InterGlobe Enterprises, has ordered an Airbus A320 FFS. The CAE 5000 Series simulator will be the third CAE A320 device to be installed at the CSTPL training centre, which has six simulator bays and will be able to train over 5,000 professionals per year, at full capacity. 40
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
Nanshan International Flight Academy has completed factory acceptance on their CAAC Level D Cessna CJ1+ full flight simulator (FFS) from Frasca International, Inc. The simulator will soon be installed at Nanshan's flight academy located in Longkou, China. The FFS includes Frasca's advanced FFS packaging, Frasca's Graphical Instructor Station (GISt), the Collins Proline 21 Avionics Suite, a 60 inch stroke Moog electric motion system, and RSI Visual Systems' XT Series image generator with RSI CrossView 200 x 40 field of view display system. The FFS also includes Frasca's reinforced motion platform base and other advanced engineering and manufacturing designs and processes.
Commercial Aircraft Sales Mar 13 2014 to May 13 2014
A320 ceo 4 SaudiGulf A320 neo 7 (3 opt.) Royal Brunei Airlines A320 neo 37 (13 opt.) Tigerair B737Max 34 Shandong Airlines B737NG 16 Shandong Airlines B737Max8 8 Comair Limited B737Max8 33 Air Canada B737Max9 27 Air Canada B737Max 18 opt. 30 pr. Air Canada B737-800 5 Ryanair B737-800 12 Japan Transocean Air B787-8 2 ILFC/Neos CRJ900 2 Adria Airways CRJ900 1 Falko/Adria Q400 2 (4 opt.) Hawaii Island Air Q400 5 WestJet Encore
Virtual Maintenance Trainer
Japan's First Helicopter FFS
Swiss AviationTraining (SAT) has become the first Approved Training Organisation (ATO) to offer its customers the latest version of the virtual maintenance trainer (VMT) for Airbus A320 technical training. This upgraded computer tool provides extremely realistic simulations of all the maintenance work required on the A320. The latest VMT software package offers even better image quality and even greater flexibility via its laptop applications. The VMT provides a 360° view of the entire aircraft and accurately and realistically presents its individual components. One of the prime innovations of the new VMT software package is the use of laptops instead of the previous desktop solution. This makes the corresponding training even more flexible, and will substantially simplify on-site training on the customer's premises.
Airbus Helicopters Japan has inaugurated Japan's first full flight simulator (FFS) for helicopters, now ready for service at its facilities located in the Kobe Airport vicinity. The simulator is configured to represent Airbus Helicopters' light twin-engine EC135 P2+ rotorcraft, and has received Level C certification from the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB). Airbus Helicopters Japan's training center, which is the first of its kind in the country, was officially established in 2012 at Kobe Airport. With qualified Japanese instructors, this facility provides courses such as emergency procedures training, recurrent training, type rating training and mission training through a wide variety of solutions. In 2013, 30 pilots and 185 maintenance technicians attended its training courses.
Providing Language Training All Nippon Airways (ANA) and EF Education First (EF) have signed a partnership agreement for EF to provide English language training via its cloud-based school to ANA employees, including cabin attendants, to enhance their ability to succeed in the global business environment. The agreement
is part of ANA’s plan to increase the productivity of its international passenger operations by 45 percent, in part by accelerating improvements to its service quality, including the skills of its cabin attendants and the development of other personnel who can contribute to its global expansion.
E 5 VE AT 2 0 1 SA D I L E pR A TH 2 3
f or 2 Ew
WATS will return to the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort on 21-23 April 2015. Next year’s event will include a sixth conference stream on Helicopter Pilot Training. 1021 people from 48 countries attended WATS 2014, 10% more than last year. Thanks to everyone who took part in the world’s biggest meeting for the aviation training industry. Conference presentations from WATS 2014 can be accessed at halldale.com/wats-2014
If you are interested in exhibiting at, or sponsoring WATS 2015 please contact us: North America: Natalie Morris [t] +1 407 322 5605 [e] firstname.lastname@example.org Latin America and the Caribbean: Willem-Jan Derks [t] +1 954 406 4052 [e] email@example.com RoW: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] firstname.lastname@example.org Conference by:
halldale.com/wats CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
World News & Analysis
Index of Ads
New Australian Training Campus The Airways Aviation Group has announced the opening of their new bespoke education and commercial facilities at Gold Coast Airport, Queensland, Australia. Airways Aviation brings together under one global brand a number of well-established aviation entities that offer world standard fixed wing and helicopter training and education via its Government approved facilities. "In Australia, Airways Aviation is the only Australian Government Approved Registered Training Organisation (RTO), and Commonwealth Register of Courses and Institutions for Overseas Students (CRICOS) provider in Australia offering Certificate IV and Diploma courses up to and including multi-engine instrument ratings for both fixed-wing and rotary-wing student pilots," said Romy Hawatt, Airways Aviation Group CEO. "This new bespoke education facility is the first of many important stages of our planned strategic growth over 2014 and beyond as our company responds to MAINTENANCE
Riyadh College of Excellence Aviation Australia has recently signed a five year contract with the Saudi Arabian Government's Colleges of Excellence to establish an Aviation College of Excellence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The College will be located at a purpose built facility located at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh. This facility includes a comprehensive hangar and aircraft maintenance training environment. Training will commence in September 2014 with an annual intake of 500 students who will undertake a three year course of training, graduating with qualifications that will enable employment in aviation aircraft maintenance and support roles in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Aviation Australia Riyadh College of Excellence leverages Aviation Australia's existing expertise in Aircraft Maintenance Engineer training at its existing campuses in Brisbane and Cairns. 42
CAT MAGAZINE 3.2014
both domestic and international market demand, and industry expectations." The Airways Aviation Group of companies currently conducts flight training and charter services in Australia, the United Kingdom and Montenegro with ground school teaching facilities in the process of being established in both the United Arab Emirates and Malaysia.
AAETS 2015 www.halldale.com/aaets 33 Aerosim www.aerosim.com
APATS 2014 www.halldale.com/apats
AXIS Flight Training Systems GmbH www.axis-simulation.com
Airline simulation & training events organised by Halldale Group and CAT Magazine
22-24 August 2014 HEATT 2014 – Healthcare Education Assessment Training & Technology Rosen Shingle Creek Resort, Orlando Florida, USA www.halldale.com/heatt
23-24 September 2014 APATS 2014 – Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium Centara Grand Convention Centre, Bangkok, Thailand www.halldale.com/apats
28-29 October 2014 EATS 2014 – European Airline Training Symposium Estrel Hotel, Berlin, Germany www.halldale.com/eats 10-11 February 2015 AAETS 2015 – APATS Aviation Education & Training Symposium Hyatt Regency Hilton, Incheon, Republic of Korea www.halldale.com/aaets 21-23 April 2015 WATS 2015 – World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow Rosen Shingle Creek Resort, Orlando Florida, USA www.halldale.com/wats
Other simulation & training events 2-4 July 2014 ICAO TRAINAIR PLUS - Course Developers and Instructors Standardization Meeting Hyderabad, India www.icao.int/safety/TrainairPlus 14-20 July 2014 Farnborough International Airshow Farnborough, UK www.farnborough.com 15-18 September 2014 2014 FSEMC Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA www.aviation-ia.com/fsemc 23-25 September 2014 The International Pilot Training Consortium: Next Steps? London, UK www.aerosociety.com/events
CAT Magazine CTC Aviation Group www.ctcaviation.com 11 EATS 2014 21
FlightSafety International www.flightsafety.com
Florida Institute of Technology http://aviation.fit.edu
Intl. Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) www.icao.int
17 & 23
Multi Pilot Simulations B.V. www.mps.aero 25 Pan Am International Flight Academy www.panamacademy.com
PWN Excellence Sdn Bhd www.pwne.com.my
RAeS Conference www.aerosociety.com/events
Turkish Airlines Flight Training Center www.turkishairlines.com
WATS 2015 www.halldale.com/wats 41
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