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A Culture of Inclusion There’s no question that one of the most enduring issues facing the aviation industry as a whole is the issue of personnel shortages and the demographics that point to trouble ahead. As discussed in two feature articles in this issue, the “trouble” is already here, with some US regional “In an age of airlines now seeing operations impacted by pilot shortages. ever growing And over the past several issues of CAT, we’ve discussed the role of “culture” in aviation personnel safety and operations, pointing out the different cultural influences on each of us, whether that’s shortages, we national culture, organisational, or professional. The desirable end goal of course is to blend all would do well these influences and build and nurture that allimportant “safety culture,” which I often refer to as to remember “Aviation Culture.” Thinking about culture naturally causes one to that female think about how much national cultures may – or may not – have changed over the years. Back in the 1970s there were still a number of World War participation II veterans in the industry, and many were flight instructing. In fact, as a teenager my first flight in our industry instructor was a woman in her 50s, and although I knew she was an extraordinary pilot immediately is not only – full of grace, diligence and solid competence – at the time I had no idea of her wartime exploits. desirable, it Turns out she was a member of a unique group of female ferry pilots that delivered front-line military may in fact be aircraft to operational units in England, and did so with little training, little recognition and even less essential.” respect. After the war, no airline would hire them. Culturally, our societies made them “go back” to being homemakers. Recently I’ve perused some of the literature that explores the attributes and characteristics of “successful people”, whatever the career or gender. It seems that self-regulation and control, ability to defer reward, conscientiousness and diligence are the best predictors Chris Lehman of whether one will be “successful” Editor in Chief and economically comfortable. And it’s no surprise that these characteristics are also required to pursue any kind of higher education, including flying credentials. Some believe that part of the reason why we have personnel shortages in many professions is that we’re not minting enough children grounded in these characteristics of self-discipline and
control. In an age of super-affluence, today’s kids face temptations our predecessors could never imagine. Daniel Akst, in his book “Temptation: Finding Self-Control in an Age of Excess” says it is a constant struggle to keep appetites of all kinds in check. “It’s not that we have less willpower than we used to, but rather modern life immerses us daily in a set of temptations far more evolved than we are...” Akst goes on to state that self-discipline is a far better predictor of college grades than IQ or SAT scores. Both research and anecdotal evidence has suggested that women often do better when it comes to the kind of characteristics needed for higher education and success, exhibit more cooperative and respectful styles, and may even have a greater tendency to embrace personal accountability, ethical clarity, and professional development. Perhaps that’s why female employment is on the rise, and male workforce participation is declining. In an age of ever growing personnel shortages, we would do well to remember that female participation in our industry is not only desirable, it may in fact be essential. Good business practice means inclusive organisational cultures, and organisational cultures are the bedrock of not only safety, but productivity and competitiveness. If any industry should be enlightened in this regard it should be this one, with its highly educated workforce, and international orientation. Despite her own self-discipline, diligence and conscientiousness, my primary flight instructor couldn’t become an airline pilot. National and organisational cultures wouldn’t permit it. Today, however, cultural barriers – whatever the type – must not prevent the full participation of women in our industry. They belong not only on the flight deck, but in the hangar, the cabin, the engineering department and the corner office. Wherever she is, I hope my first flight instructor is still dancing her feet on that rudder bar, precisely the way she taught me. Safe travels Chris Lehman CAT Editor in Chief
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A Culture of Inclusion. Editor in Chief Chris Lehman examines cultural influences within the aviation industry.
How Real Can You Make It? Chris Long reports on the training methods of Scandinavian carrier Novair.
JetBlue’s Training Strategy. Marty Kauchak speaks to Warren Christie, JetBlue’s vice president of Operational Planning and Training.
Technology Migration. A look at how new airline technology is migrating into flight crew learning curricula.
Talking About Cyber. Rick Adams investigates the potential for cyber attack on the gobal aviation system.
Regional Realities. Chuck Weirauch looks into pilot training issues surrounding the US regional airline industry.
Windscreen of Opportunity? Rick Adams explores the changing realities of airline flight deck jobs.
Embracing Technology. Fiona Greenyer examines how new technology is being used in cabin crew training.
Seen & Heard. Updates from the training and simulation community. Compiled and edited by Fiona Greenyer.
C A T M A G A Z INE 2 . 2 0 1 4
On the cover: Peering into the future. Image credit: Finnair.
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Airline Training Profile
How Real Can You Make It? Chris Long visits Scandinavian airline Novair and profiles the training expertise of this charter carrier.
or many cabin crew, making their way out of a smokefilled emergency evacuation trainer, with its noise (and in some cases movement) and escaping via the slide, is a construct that already provides a pretty convincing training scenario. Imagine, then, the effect of finding yourself at the end of the slide in the real outside world, on a ramp in ambient weather with Fire Rescue Crews putting out fires around you, and you being expected to switch to First Aid mode and to start treating “victims” scattered around the tarmac. Just getting your passengers and yourselves out of the aircraft is obviously not the whole story!
Imagination in Training For Novair, a small airline based at Stockholm, Sweden, the solutions to training needs start with a complete re-think. As Anna Mellberg, Chief Cabin Safety Instructor, describes, the initial plan is to identify and train for what the airline sees as being really important. Once that is done, a check is made to make sure that, embedded in the training package, all the regulatory requirements are satisfied. In 08
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other words - the course design is essentially driven by operational needs, not by some form of box-ticking of regulatory imperatives. That principle carries right through the training spectrum for both flight crew and, in particular, with the cabin crew.
Flexible & Innovative To help explain the evolution of this philosophy, Johan Bostrom, Director Flight Operations, talks through the origin of the airline, and its training arm – Novair Education. The airline was founded as part of the Apollo Group, a Swedish-based travel company, itself part of Kuoni Travel. With the boom in demand for travel between 1995 and 1997 it was becoming increasingly difficult to access a sufficient number of guaranteed seats with existing carriers. By acquiring a small number of aircraft (a couple of Tristars) supported by some leased A320 and B757 aircraft, Novair was able to provide the bourgeoning capacity demanded by the parent travel agency. Whilst that answered the immediate need, the requirement continued to expand to include longer routes beyond the initial European/Mediterranean destinations. The fleet now consists of three A321 aircraft, which are complemented by leased A330s for the peak seasons. The training was carried out by airline staff qualified to instruct, but after 2000 the volume increased as third party training became a regular feature. Training then became a major task, so a more formal approach was essential. Consequently the business plan for Novair Education was approved, and that organisation, still staffed by the airline, was created in 2008, since when training has been delivered to a wide range of customers, including some outside the aviation industry. Based in the northern hemisphere, the workload for the airline
Drills on life-rafts are not just theory and hangar-based – they include live drills in either a lake or the sea. Image credit: Novair.
tends to be concentrated on the two main holiday seasons which cater for winter skiing and summer sun. This means that the most convenient time to conduct the majority of the training is in the March to May and September to November periods. The attraction of concentrating on these months is not least that Novair crew members can switch to the training role, and of course they have great credibility given their immediate currency. The modest size of the airline does have a significant benefit, in that the small team involved in training can together fully debate optimum training patterns, work closely with the regulators and then implement any new processes very rapidly. This intimate planning also encourages unrestricted and unconventional thinking, so that innovative solutions can be considered and, where appropriate, be selected and implemented rapidly.
Pilot Training Tasks The route structure for charter/leisure airlines is very different from legacy international carriers. Frequently the destinations are away from capital cities and major population centres, with sometimes relatively small airfields and sometimes challenging arrivals at the holiday resorts. Novair flies not only on short haul routes, but even extends the footprint to Africa and Asia. Bostrom believes that these latter routes are the only routine operation of an A321 from Europe to that region. Crews have to be flexible in their skills, and routinely train for ETOPS, RNP, curved approaches etc. Not only that, but with little of the remote support infrastructure common in the larger carriers, the flight crews have to be prepared to complete their own load-sheets, and, on occasion,
the entire crew may need to help with baggage handling â€“ not a scenario that is often seen in the legacy airlines!
Cabin Crew Cabin crew too, have to be flexible in their approach. Beyond the core team retained throughout the year, many join the company on short term contracts for the four months of the peak seasons. This, coupled with the wide climate range of the destinations, requires a carefully-sculpted training process. With a very limited training budget there was a drive to find low-cost and locally available training solutions. These included acquiring the fuselage of a long-retired Caravelle narrow body parked on a hard standing close to the ramp. A little ingenuity saw it equipped with seats and both an audio system and smoke generation. Whilst this was a good start, the setup was further enhanced by co-locating the ground training with the Fire Rescue Services at Stockholm Arlanda airport. Initially driven simply by the search for a training facility, Mellberg has built on the close proximity of both
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Airline Training Profile elements to be very creative in the training for both parties. The fact that training of new cabin crew takes place at an airport, where the reality of real-time operation is all around, lends importance and relevance to the safety training. To see the fire crews themselves training is interesting, but to involve them directly in the cabin crew training is hugely powerful. Education for both flight crew and cabin crew in the internationally recognised hand signals to be used during an incident has more potency when delivered and demonstrated by the rescue crews themselves. This has become a two-way street, with some rescue personnel being trained, and operating, as cabin crew to better understand the perspective of that group. As mentioned earlier, when you find yourself post emergency evacuation outside the aircraft in the ambient weather you learn to consider other things – should the captain have worn his jacket or hat so that he could be identified by the rescue crews, should the cabin crew have brought their gloves with them? Drills on life-rafts are not just theory and hangar-based – they include live drills in the water (either lake or sea), albeit with dry suits – this is Northern Europe after all, and once again other services can be involved – the rescue services with their marine assets, or even search and rescue helicopters. Involving rescue crews is obviously beneficial, but the innovation does not stop there. Having prepared the trainee cabin crew for an emergency evacuation procedure, once aboard the aircraft they were confronted by a different scenario. Without pre-briefing this exercise, some of their number (pre-positioned by the security forces) went into the role-play of a hijack scenario, and the whole process was played through with the involvement of the real specialist security teams, who also completed a live training exercise. Many useful lessons for all parties came out of that. One common thread is the CRM which is delivered jointly by instructors from both cabin and flight crew, and it underscores most of the training exercises. Consequently the CRM scenarios involve both groups of trainees (and of course, has a strong supporting cast of the non-airline contributions mentioned above). Novair Education not only caters for its own training needs, but also delivers training to other airlines and, surprisingly perhaps – now uses its trained first aid instructors to give courses to supermarkets, dentists, gyms etc. Novair actively embraces the sharing of best practice, both by presenting at major training conferences, such as the Halldale
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events, and also uses those same venues to seek out and understand other ways of improving – they are very definitely active, not passive, players.
Continuous Innovation It is not necessarily the detail of these situations alone that is important, or even the lessons learnt. What is most critical is the search to put relevance and reality into all aspects of the training which shows – the innovation so frequently and clearly shown here is unlikely to stop. Even with modest resources the training value is enormous and is probably as close as it can be to the real thing. Perhaps the lasting proof of its effectiveness is best expressed by Mellberg: “When a customer we have trained gets in touch and tells me about an incident such as an unruly passenger incident, an emergency situation onboard or perhaps someone who has performed CPR and they tell me that what we trained them to do made them confident to act in a difficult situation – that is the proof or "the receipt" I get that our training makes a difference.” cat
The training course design is essentially driven by operational needs. Image credit: Novair.
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Airline Training Profile
JetBlue’s Training Strategy Warren Christie, JetBlue’s vice president of Operational Planning and Training, outlined his air carrier’s training strategy in a far ranging interview with Group Editor Marty Kauchak on February 21, 2014. Insights from their discussion are provided in this article.
etBlue’s ambitious business model includes fleet restructuring, route expansion and other activities. A rich mix of learning technologies will enable the New Yorkbased carrier’s pilots, cabin attendants and maintainers to safely operate their fleets of aircraft and help achieve the company’s strategic goals.
Technology Enabled Learning JetBlue continues to invest in simulators and other technologies for its learning audiences. The air carrier’s inventory of learning tools includes Level D flight simulators and Level 5 flight training devices (FTD) for its flight crews, and virtual cockpits and virtual maintenance trainers for its maintenance crews. “Unlike most other carriers, we also use our flight simulators for our maintenance crews in their training program as well, for taxi qualifications and aircraft starts,” 12
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the community training executive explained. In another instance an Embraer E190 Level 5 FTD is dedicated to maintenance training. The device allows technicians to learn and refresh their skills using the central maintenance computer for built-in test functionality. JetBlue’s maintenance training program is supported by a CAE-built virtual maintenance trainer. CAE is this airline’s largest supplier of training devices. Another strategy which sets JetBlue apart from many other air carriers is its significant investment in learning technologies for flight attendants, in particular E190 and Airbus A320 cabin trainers. “The A320 cabin trainer has a motion system on it,” Christie added. Additionally the cabin trainers for both aircraft models permit the programming of multiple scenarios. Visual systems for the cabin interior, smoke generators and an attached cockpit add fidelity to this group’s training sessions. Embraer provided the E190 cabin trainer, and Airbus Helicopters (formerly Eurocopter Group) manufactured the A320 cabin trainer. Christie acknowledged the rapid evolution of learning technologies, including serious gaming, for all learners. He further emphasized that JetBlue’s focus remains on bringing the
JetBlue has heavily invested in training devices and other technologies for its pilots (above) and other learning groups at the carrier. Image credit: JetBlue.
aircraft, and the flight deck in particular, into the training environment with as much realism as possible. “We’ve invested heavily in simulation. We don’t spend much time in the classroom any longer. We do all of our systems and procedures training in FTDs because we feel the pilot benefits from touching the knobs, pushing the buttons and seeing the impact it has on the aircraft. The tactile feedback is better than you would ever receive in a classroom.” Asked for his “help wanted list” on how the simulation and training industry can better respond to the civil aviation community’s requirements, Christie responded, “My general response is invest where it will bring value to the operator.” The airline official’s following example is one that should resonate with others in the civil and military aviation communities. “Spending a lot of money to provide a better visual model for raindrops does not have an impact on how a pilot will be trained or how they will perform. The money is better spent perfecting aerodynamic aero models to make the simulation as accurate as possible. And the same applies for in-flight and maintenance training – to invest only in areas that will provide value to the end user.” Last October JetBlue outlined its fleet restructuring plan, which includes converting 18 A320 positions to A321s and an incremental order for 15 A321ceo and 20 A321neo aircraft. As there are common type ratings among the A319/320/321 models, there are limited “differences training” requirements for flight deck crews in the restructuring plan. Indeed, JetBlue’s pilots completed their differences training via distributed learning (DL) last Fall for the A321. Similarly, maintainers are completing their differences training for this restructuring plan through DL. The passenger-cabin experience in the A321 will be upgraded, providing a requirement for a different, higher level and scope of learning. Christie pointed out, “We’ve invested in a premium cabin trainer which will replicate the functionality in our premium cabin. And we’ve
created a premium training program for our in-flight crew members who will serve our in-flight customers.” The Beta class for the enhanced inflight training started the week of February 24. While JetBlue does not anticipate a pilot shortage in the near-term, its longterm pilot acquisition strategy includes a ‘gateway program’. The effort includes partnering agreements with Embry-Riddle, the University of North Dakota, InterAmerican University and other institutions. “We have established a mentoring and flow-through program where students can apply to enter into the gateways with JetBlue after graduating and obtaining licenses and certificates. They will go on and fly for Cape Air for a few years. Once they meet the hour requirement we’ll look at them again. If they stay in the program and in good standing they will get an interview at JetBlue. We have had more than a dozen pilots that have come through that program. Several of them now flying in our aircraft have been very successful,” he recalled.
Airline-Wide AQP Effort JetBlue is also creating Advanced Qualification Program (AQP)-based learning models for all in house groups, from pilots, maintainers and cabin attendants, to customer support agents, ground operations members and others. “We’ve taken an AQP model along with evidence-based training and the data collection process, and have created AQP models for all of our crew member groups,” Christie explained, and added, “From a regulatory perspective, there are recognized pilot AQPs and dispatch AQPs which we have. But we have also created ‘AQP-like’ – using the same instructional system design methodology that we first used for our pilot AQP and have applied that to all of our curricula for the other crew member functions as well.” The expanded use of AQP models for other learning audiences is allowing JetBlue to make data-driven decisions on where to better invest its training resources. cat C A T M A G A Z INE 2 . 2 0 1 4
Technology Migration Airlines around the globe are equipping their cockpits with new technologies. At the same time, airline training organizations and training device OEMs are migrating these systems and devices into flight crew learning curricula, reports Group Editor Marty Kauchak.
n array of new systems and devices is being installed in cockpits throughout the civil aviation sector. Airline training departments and the simulation and training (S&T) industry are following the mantra “train as you operate” by migrating these technologies into courses and training devices which support flight crews’ training curricula.
Representative Technologies This February’s Singapore Air Show was the venue for significant sales of new avionics and other cockpit equipment to civil aviation carriers. In one instance, Rockwell Collins landed agreements at this conference to deliver its latest radar and avionics technologies to a number of airlines throughout the Pacific region including China Eastern Airlines. The Chinese carrier selected a comprehensive suite of Rockwell Collins’ communication, navigation and surveillance avionics, including Rockwell Collins’ new MultiScan ThreatTrack™, and SATCOM for 80 new aircraft, including 60 Airbus A320s and 20 Boeing 777s. The MultiScan ThreatTrack weather radar provides one glimpse of the capabilities that allow flight crews to more 14
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safely operate their aircraft. The weather radar delivers “unprecedented capabilities for assessing lightning, hail and turbulence…” according to a company document. Additionally, “MultiScan ThreatTrack goes beyond hail and lightning prediction within a thunderstorm cell and alerts pilots to these significant threats adjacent to the cell. If these thunderstorms are growing ahead of and below the aircraft, ThreatTrack’s Predictive Overflight™ protection warns the flight crew if the cells will be in the aircraft’s flight path.” Rockwell Collins further noted the MultiScan ThreatTrack “is the first in the industry to feature two levels of turbulence detection – severe and ride-quality – which more accurately informs flight crews of the type of turbulence in their path.” Beyond the new weather radar, other new and proven technologies were part of China Eastern’s selection, including Rockwell Collins’ GLU-925 Multi-Mode Receiver, reported to be the first ever certified GPS Landing System receiver, and an automatic detection finder, distance measuring equipment, VOR (VHF omnidirectional range) short-range radio navigation system and HF/VHF radios.
Operational Imperative Airlines and their S&T industry counterparts remain focused on transferring Rockwell Collins’ and other companies’ technologies into their training devices and other instructional media and with good reason. As Randy Gawenda, Frasca’s sales and marketing director, pointed out “We all know the cockpit is generally a bad classroom, whether learning to fly or a seasoned pilot learning a new piece of technology. Trying to figure something out on a dark, moonless night or IMC (instrument meteorological conditions) approaching a mountainous area or 1,000’ AGL
Instruction on a new cockpit device may be delivered in the classroom, through computer-based training, or in an integrated procedures trainer or full flight simulator (including one at Shanghai Eastern Flight Training Company, above). Image credit: Shanghai Eastern Flight Training Company.
(above ground level) in an orbit is not, and never will be, the right place for training. Honestly the simulator is really the only place to do some of this training.” That perspective resonates well within airline training departments. Warren Christie, JetBlue’s vice president of Operational Planning and Training, noted it is imperative that air crews be allowed to train with the systems and devices found in their cockpits. The community training subject matter expert pointed out that, in one instance, his airline’s Embraer E190’s cockpit is dual head-up display (HUD) configured. This equipping decision was driven by the operational imperative that some of the smaller cities served by this aircraft lacked infrastructure to provide adequate approach standards desired by JetBlue. “We also invested in the dual-HUD technology at that time for our simulators,” Christie said, and continued, “If you don’t make the investment in your training equipment, your pilots, flight attendants, mechanics and others will learn to do their job without them. The usage or adoption rate in the operational environment will be very low and in some cases considered a distraction, rather than an instrument to assist them. This is the primacy of learning – to provide them with the same tools in the beginning of their training that they will use in operations, otherwise you won’t be successful.” Another community insight was provided by Yue Xu, the general manager of the Engineering and Maintenance Department at Shanghai Eastern Flight Training Company. The community subject matter expert told CAT that when a new cockpit device is received, “normally a complementary section training will be setup and implemented to the training syllabus.” More significant, instruction may be delivered through different strategies. “Depending on the technology, the complemented training could be classroom, computer-based training, integrated procedures trainer, or full flight simulator. Training records will be kept,” he added.
OEM Insights The S&T industry equipment providers are responding to the expanding requirement of operators of rotary and fixed
wing aircraft to include flight deck technologies in their training devices. Frasca’s Gawenda said this February, that his team just delivered an EC155 flight training device (FTD) to the German Federal Police. He added, “This device incorporated dual-channel projectors that stimulate actual NVIS (night vision imaging system) equipment so the realism and fidelity is the highest level possible in simulation today for NVG training. It also contained one of the latest cutting-edge EuroNav systems available as well.” The Champaign, Illinois-based community subject matter expert provided another interesting dimension to this discussion when he emphasized that Frasca “strives for the highest accuracy possible to maximize the value and training return on investment.” Beyond the recent FTD delivery to the German Federal Police, Gawenda pointed out that Frasca has installed “FLIR simulation, Garmin G1000, Aspen avionics, Pro-Line 21, TCAS (traffic collision avoidance system) and other technologies” in its training devices. He added, “We’ve added Synthetic Vision to our devices with the FAA which is phenomenal cockpit technology to use. We upgraded our devices with the US Air Force in Afghanistan to add GWX 68 weather radar and currently we are the first and only simulator OEM to integrate Garmin GTN 650/750 hardware into our devices.” Frasca installs actual cockpit equipment or their high fidelity renderings in its training devices. It really depends on the training task and outcomes desired, Gawenda explained. “The proper solution is driven by this and this is where we really enjoy having a close working relationship with our customers. In general, we try to preserve the fit, form, and function to the highest level possible because after 55 years of business, we understand that our customers always want something to be as accurate as possible but that makes sense for their budget as well,” he added. Gawenda also recalled there are over 1.6 million lines of code in the Garmin G1000 and Garmin is an entire company dedicated to just avionics. “However, there are low cost, third-party versions of the G1000 C A T M A G A Z I NE 2 . 2 0 1 4
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Piecing together airline training for the region Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium 23-24 September 2014 Centara Grand Convention Centre Bangkok, Thailand The conference theme for APATS 2014 is Training for Resilience. The aim of training airline pilots should never be to satisfy minimum regulatory requirements alone. There are safety and commercial benefits from training beyond the basics and preparing crews for the reality of current operations including unpredictable events. Call for Papers APATS 2014 will examine best practices to enhance pilot training. Abstracts are now invited that address Training for Resilience or other relevant topics explored in the Call for Papers at halldale.com/apats2014/call-papers To propose a presentation please send an abstract of 200 words to Chris Long, Conference Chair at firstname.lastname@example.org by 25th April 2014. Exhibiting and Sponsorship If you are interested in exhibiting at APATS or joining our prestigious sponsors please contact: Europe, Middle East, Africa and Asia Pacific: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] email@example.com North America: Natalie Morris [t] +1 407 322 5605 [e] firstname.lastname@example.org Latin America and the Caribbean: Willem-Jan Derks [t] +1 954 406 4052 [e] email@example.com
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Rockwell Collins' new MultiScan ThreatTrack weather radar provides one glimpse of the capabilities that allow flight crews to more safely operate their aircraft. Image credit: Rockwell Collins.
for simulation, but you do have to ask yourself, ‘What are they missing’ because in a common sense, practical world, you know it is not the same regardless of how much marketing spin one puts on it,” he added. L-3 Link UK is similarly meeting its end users’ evolving requests for inserting the latest cockpit technologies in their training systems. Indeed, the company’s recent customers that have provided such requirements are Boeing Training & Flight Services, All Nippon Airways, Qatar Airways, Air India, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and Cathay Pacific. David White, the company’s chief scientist, observed that in one instance, Rockwell Collins’ ISS-2100 configurable Integrated Surveillance System (ISS) is the integrated form of that company’s WXR-2100 MultiScan ThreatTrack and is employed on Boeing 787 full flight simulators and lower level devices, both the flat panel trainers and the desk top trainers. The industry veteran further explained “While the aircraft Integrated Surveillance System Processing Units (ISSPUs) are employed on full flight simulators, they are stimulated from the same L-3 Link UK weather radar simulation as used on the lower level devices.” The current aircraft ISS which provides the WXR (weather radar transceiver), TAW (terrain awareness and warning), TCAS (traffic collision avoidance system) and transponder functions that are defined in ARINC 768-1 is currently being upgraded. The enhancement will provide additional functions that are defined in ARINC 768-2; e.g. ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast) (In), CDTI (Cockpit
Display of Traffic Information) and other functions in support of NextGen - SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) operations and procedures. As significant, White observed the end user requirements in this area are currently still in their infancy as they tend to be driven mainly by mandated functionality for new build and retrofit aircraft, and its impact on operations and procedures. “All of the above is also applicable to Airbus A350, although the aircraft and training device architectures and implementations are different to those of the Boeing 787,” he emphasized.
On the Horizon L-3 Link UK’s White further predicted the next big change in training devices will come with aircraft changes in the cockpit that will be necessary to operate in a NextGen - SESAR environment, especially the crew display of traffic information (Surveillance and Pilot Interaction) and the associated shift from voice communications to data communications. “One key element that we tried to get included in ARINC 439 (Simulated ATC Environment) was the recognition of this future shift from voice communications to data communications when operating in a NextGen - SESAR environment,” White recalled, and continued “We got the basic framework included in the document that was put up for approval by ARINC at the end of last year, but some of the detail was omitted and we plan to actively follow up on the detail of data communications in ARINC 439 when the balance from voice communications to data communications changes in day-today operations.” cat C A T M A G A Z I NE 2 . 2 0 1 4
Talking About Cyber Enterprises are hit by cyber attacks, on average, once every 1.5 seconds, twice as often as a year ago, according to the FireEye advanced threat report. It’s not just banks, retailers, healthcare providers, educational institutions, and government agencies... aviation systems, including aircraft, are vulnerable. Rick Adams analyzes the risks.
here’s a meme attributed to a champion boxer that seems apt for the issue of cyber security in aviation: "Everyone has a plan until they get punched in the mouth." Consider these “punches” which represent just a handful of the publicly known threats and breaches of digital information systems and networks worldwide: • Credit and debit card information for more than 40 million customers of retailer Target was stolen in a Thanksgiving weekend data theft. • The contractor-managed web portal for the US Department of Homeland Security was breached, exposing information such as bank accounts for more than 100 vendors. • An Australian 16-year-old alerted Public Transport Victoria (PTV) to a security flaw in their website. PTV manages the trains and trams in and around Melbourne. In return for raising this “white hat” alarm, authorities are considering charging the kid with a cyber-crime. • The US Transportation Security Agency (TSA) Pre-Check expedited screening system was reportedly storing 18
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passenger information in a barcode with no encryption. This opened the system to the possibility of fake boarding passes, which attackers could use to gain access to aircraft. • A University of Texas research team demonstrated how control of a remotely piloted vehicle could be hijacked using a miniature helicopter to feed alternate coordinates to the drone. They could then change the drone’s course to wherever they wanted it to fly … or crash. • Israel Airports Authority computer systems were broken into in January, and hackers acquired information on flights, flight routing software, maps, and flight briefs used by control towers and pilots. • A group of terrorists took over the air traffic control tower of Washington, DC’s Dulles International Airport. A flight from London Heathrow, low on fuel, was given priority to land. However, the fake controller re-set the instrument landing system (ILS) to 200 feet below ground level. A catastrophic crash resulted. Okay, that last example did not actually happen. (The other examples are all real and recent.) The Dulles crash scene is from the Bruce Willis movie, Die Hard 2.
However, the scenario is probably more plausible today than it was 24 years ago when the film was released. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has warned airlines to “remain on their guard,” noting that cyber terrorism is “no longer merely a fictional scenario.” According to Andrew Kemmetmueller, France-based managing director of AvIntel, an aviation consultancy which specializes in information technology issues, “There has been no documented cyber-attack to date” against commercial aircraft. “That doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen. It takes somebody to say something for an incident to get into the press.” Capt. Jeroen Kruse, KLM pilot and a member of the security committee of the International Federation of Air Line Pilots’ Associations (IFALPA), said, “All incidents that I am aware of have reached me through confidential channels, not public ones.” Kruse added, “Most incidents that have taken place are 'collateral damage,' meaning that the malware causing the incident was not specifically targeted against the aircraft or even the aviation
industry. Instead it was just trying to spread for other goals (e.g. gathering of private data), and as a side effect had an impact on the systems on board an aircraft.” Generally, if you have information that can be leveraged to steal money or secrets, for extortion, to instigate mischief, or to create terror, you may be a target for cyber-attacks. Aviation fits all these criteria. Qatar Airlines was a collateral factor recently in a Twitter hack attack on FC Barcelona of Spain. Qatar uses the football club in its advertising. The attack came from a group which calls itself the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA), which supports the embattled regime of President Bashar al-Assad. The SEA also attacked Forbes magazine, complaining about comments they’ve printed, and numerous other online sites.
Insecure Systems One area of concern, like the movie, is the physical security of air traffic control facilities. In a position paper issued last year, IFALPA advocated for identity verification and vetting, similar to what pilots go through entering the secure area of an airport. National aviation authorities “need to ensure that individuals allowed access to [ATC] facilities … must be fully trusted and have strict access controls, preferably using biometric access protocols.” As worrisome is the lack of security for key data transmission systems onboard commercial aircraft, particularly the aircraft communications addressing and reporting system (ACARS) and ADS-B (Automatic dependent surveillance - broadcast), part of next-generation navigation systems but
already deployed or installed on many of the world’s planes. The satellite-based ADS-B uses global positioning system (GPS) signals to transmit the aircraft’s location to ground receivers, which relay that information to controller screens and to the cockpit displays of other aircraft. Unlike radar, ADS-B enables pilots to see other aircraft in the sky, as well as weather cells and terrain. “ADS-B is using unsecured messages over an inherently broadcast medium. It is well known in the aviation community that … ADS-B has not been developed with security in mind and is susceptible to a number of different radio frequency (RF) attacks,” stated University of Oxford researchers Martin Strohmeier, Vincent Lenders, and Ivan Martinovic in their 2013 technical paper, “Security of ADS-B: State of the Art and Beyond.” Security consultant and trained commercial pilot Hugo Teso demonstrated the shortcomings of ADS-B a year ago by “hijacking” an airplane using a simple Android software application. Teso’s demo was featured at the Hack in the
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Aviation Security Box conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Using a mix of actual hardware systems and flight training-adapted systems, Teso showed how messages could be delivered via ACARS (which IFALPA calls “notoriously insecure”) to an aircraft’s flight management system (FMS) “to take complete control of the aircraft.” Some critics challenge Teso’s assertions because the aircraft he “took control of” was virtual rather than real. However, he explained early in his presentation that he would not intrude on a real-world aircraft for safety and ethical reasons. KLM’s Kruse confirmed to me, “Inserting ghost aircraft is actually possible.” In describing how he acquired the various components for his mini-lab (such as an ACARS on eBay for US$10), Teso advised, “Learn to love the salesman. They try to give you as much information as possible.” Training vendors, for example, would proudly claim, “We use the same software code as the aircraft.”
Plan in Progress So absent a “punch to the face,” as yet, what’s the plan in the civil aviation sector for preventing or responding to cyber threats? The short answer is that a lot of people are working on it. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the United Nations’ consensus guidance providers, noted in a working paper at their 12th Air Navigation Conference in November 2012, that “numerous industry groups are making standards in their own areas of expertise but there is no overall oversight so there is the potential for gaps, overlaps, and inconsistencies. Also, there is no overall global framework within which these groups can work.” A “cyber security task force” was proposed at the conference,
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Hugo Teso spent three years looking into the vulnerabilities in onboard flight management systems. Image credit: #HITB2013AMS.
and ICAO is in the process of “finalizing” the group’s composition. Meantime, other organizations are raising the visibility of the issue. Last August, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) stated, “Currently, there is no common vision, or common strategy, goals, standards, implementation models, or international policies defining cyber security for commercial aviation.” The group released a proposed “framework” for designing solutions to address cyber concerns. James Albaugh, AIAA’s president-elect and former president and CEO of Boeing Commercial Aircraft, declared, “Only a vigilant, unified, and coordinated approach will allow us to craft the best possible defenses against the sophisticated and everevolving range of threats we face. This will require that we reach beyond the aerospace industry, and incorporate experts on the front line of the cyber threat, as well as those from industry sectors who support the avionics and communications systems that enable a seamless aerospace system, in order to establish our best possible defenses against the threat.” IATA plans to release cyber security recommendations to its airline members later this year. Tony Tyler, director general and CEO, speaking at the group’s AVSEC World conference in Istanbul, Turkey in November, said, “We must work together to share best practices, identify known threats and vulnerabilities, and develop guidance, mitigation strategies, and training efforts.” IFALPA issued a position paper last June titled, “Cyber threats: who controls your aircraft?” The three-page paper, coauthored in part by Kruse, describes at a high level some of the issues which should be dealt with, and makes recommendations regarding hardware, software, data governance, aircraft design and operations, air traffic services, and training of flight crews. For example, the paper advises that training should address crew awareness of security vulnerabilities, how systems can be attacked, what an attack might look like, precautionary measures which might prevent an attack (or at least minimize its consequences), and possible actions if a crew member suspects any part of the “aviation infrastructure” has been compromised. Areas of training should include the FMS, the future air navigation system (FANS), ACARS, controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC), and electronic flight bags (EFBs)
Phishing for Passwords Clearly, once the advocacy, guidance, and rulemaking bodies determine how to deal with the plethora of cyber concerns, training of pilots will follow. Kruse says there is “hardly any training at this moment. Basically, we would like training to help crews to realize not all information can be trusted, how they can recognize an incident, and what actions they could take if they do.” Basic computer common sense is a start – simple things like choosing a password that's hard for someone else to guess and never using the same password on more than one site. Most malicious software (malware), viruses, “worms,” “bots,” scareware (ads which claim your computer is infected), and spyware ends up on your computer via the internet, email “phishing” schemes, downloading questionable files (music, videos, pornography, etc.), or through file-sharing such as USB hard drives. When I was consulting on an IT project for a global chemicals company, an employee in China, where downloading of pirated videos is a notorious practice, introduced a virus into their work computer via a personal USB drive. The virus was fortunately confined to the local network; however, it became imperative to physically intercept a traveling company executive who had visited the China office … and was unaware of the virus. Had he plugged his laptop into the network in the US headquarters, the entire company might have been shut down for days or weeks. Be careful, too, who you allow to access your computer or networks. The Target credit card breach is said to have started via stolen login credentials from a heating and air conditioning vendor who may have been granted access to Target’s network in order to monitor energy consumption. One notorious source for malware is internet advertising, referred to as “malvertising.” Bromium Labs recently alerted that ads appearing on YouTube were passing along a “Trojan horse” virus. "The user did not need to click on any ads on YouTube; the infection happens just by viewing the YouTube videos," Bromium's McEnroe Navaraj blogged. Even innocent-appearing games may be a risk. Fake versions of the popular “Angry Birds” and other games are laced with malware. RiskIQ said the number of malicious apps on the Google Play store grew by nearly 400% from 2011 to 2013. Now, more than 10% of the apps are considered malicious. Indeed, there’s a nearly endless stream of dire cyber news every day. Hold Security warns that hackers have compromised more than 7,000 file transfer protocol (FTP) sites. Redspin says the so-called protected health information (PHI) of almost 30 million Americans has been inadvertently disclosed since 2009. RSA researchers have announced the cleverly named “ChewBacca” point-of-sale malware has been stealing payment card information from several dozen retailers around the world since October. Yahoo acknowledged in January that its email service, including usernames and passwords, had been compromised (that one got my attention). If you’ll excuse me, I think I’ll go update my laptop’s virus protection software. And try to duck next time I see a punch coming. cat
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Regional Airline Training
Regional Realities Chuck Weirauch looks at pilot training issues surrounding the US regional airline industry and the Regional Airline Training sessions that will be taking place at WATS 2014.
ith Great Lakes Airlines ending service to a number of communities because of a shortage of pilots, United Airlines citing that shortage is a factor in cutting 60 percent of its flights out of its Cleveland, Ohio hub, and regional airlines having to ground some of their 50-passenger jet aircraft because of not enough pilots, it is no wonder that this issue will be a leading topic for discussion at the 2014 World Aviation Training Conference and Tradeshow (WATS) RATS (Regional Airline Training) pilot sessions. Other topics related to key safety and training issues and initiatives will also be addressed in RATS Pilot sessions and presented by members of the Regional Airline Association (RAA) and its Training Committee on Day 2 of the conference. Scott Foose, the RAA's senior VP for Operations & Safety, will lead off the RATS Pilot track and provide an overview of the current environment for regional airlines.
Pilot Shortage & Regulations While the concept of a coming world-wide pilot shortage has been the source of speculation in the aviation community for several years, several factors, including the recent implementation of new FAA rules and the re-deployment of smaller airliners, have led to the harsh fact that the shortage has become reality sooner than expected. "With the 1,500-hour First Officer Qualification rule, we realized that it was going to become more of a challenge to staff the cockpits," Foose said. "We assumed that the driving force would be pilot retirements caused by the age 65 rule, which would really ramp up in 2015. But what we are seeing now, and what you are 22
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seeing in the press, is that the shortage has really arrived sooner and with more vigor than we really anticipated. The public announcements by Great Lakes and United speak directly to the issue. That is the 1,500-hour rule is making it more difficult to find pilots, and as a result there are service reductions." Foose feels that the issue of service reductions because of the lack of pilots is only going to get worse before it gets better. And RAA president Roger Cohen pointed out that those reductions are not only going to affect smaller communities, but large urban areas as well. Besides fewer people taking an interest in an airline pilot career, other factors, such as how airlines deploy smaller 50-seat airliners on the air carrier network and then wind up not having enough pilots to fly them, as well as the reduction in the number of major airline customers for regionals through mergers have had an impact as well. "If you are not in the top 20 communities in this country, and if you are not concerned about your air service, then you ought to be," Cohen emphasized. "It does not need to be a small town.
"...the 1,500-hour rule is making it more difficult to find pilots, and as a result there are service reductions." Image credit: Bombardier.
We are talking about major-league cities that will be affected by the service reductions."
GAO Report With the release of the US Government Accountability Office (GAO)'s longawaited “Aviation Workforce - Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots” report on February 28, the RAA issued a call to action that day for Congress and the FAA to work together to fix the pilot supply challenges outlined in the document. According to the RAA, the report confirms that the traditional pilot supply pipeline has been completely severed by the “1500 hour rule” and has added an extraordinary time and financial burden for the nation’s highly trained pilots to enter the workforce. "The rule has unintentionally cost thousands of airline and related jobs, and dozens of communities their air service. These cuts will continue to grow over the coming years unless the government immediately addresses this issue," the RAA statement emphasized.
Rest Rules Impact Further compounding the problems for regionals in particular is the new FAA Flight Crew and Rest Requirements rule, which went into effect January 14, 2014. According to the RAA, its airlines hired an average of five percent more pilots to accommodate scheduling issues stemming from longer rest periods for pilots required by the rule. Foose said that this rule, combined with the unusually severe winter weather this year, has had an additional impact on flight delays and cancellations. "We long anticipated that this rule would make scheduling more complex and difficult for our member airlines to maintain and recover their schedules through winter events, and this has played out as expected," Foose said. "A problem is that these new rules don't provide any leeway in airline's operation. As a result we are finding out that the flight crews without any buffers are at risk of straining the airplane and crews in places where we are unable to provide the service. As a result, we are seeing
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Regional Airline Training more cancellations. It is not only difficult for the passengers, but most of the crew members as well. Ultimately, the lack of flexibility in the new rule is here to stay, and it is going to present some challenges going forward."
Feeding the Pipeline The pilot supply problem is almost certainly going to expand, with both regional and major airlines currently in hiring mode. But rather than simply let the marketplace take its course, the RAA has joined forces with the global Pilot Supply Consortium through its CEO Pilot Supply Task Force. "The goal of the Task Force is to identify measures that we can undertake within our control that will both increase the pilot pipeline and make sure that we get enough trained professional aviators into our cockpits," Cohen said. "Airlines are starting to provide some incentives for that. We are working to determine what can be done here through the RAA as a group, and our goal will be trying to make that environment as fertile as it can be. We are also looking for additional pathways or rules to provide good pilot
competence and team-based training programs to promote aviation as a career and to help get financial support for students." To further address the pilot supply issue, the RAA is anticipating that the FAA will stand up an Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) to look at several issues related to training. "One of the key issues that has emerged is the Multi-Crew Pilots License, or MPL," Foose reported. "Given the new rule, there is a great deal to look at with other pathways that are not common in the US that could actually work in the current FAA regulatory structure. It is still a leap for bringing MPL to the US given current laws and rules, though."
RATS Training Sessions Captain Paul Kolisch of Endeavor Air is chairman of the RAA Training Committee that will be presenting at WATS in the RATS Track on Conference Day 2. He will be leading the Session II Breakout entitled Pilot Training in Transition: Exploring the use of scenario-based training to better prepare pilots for RTOs, go-arounds, high altitude upsets, and
proficiency-based training regimes such as MPL. Kolisch feels that much can be done to improve pilot competency through implementing scenario-based training for such maneuvers with information that incorporate Airplane State Awareness SE210 and Stall Working Group data, for example. Such training is important, because there is a difference between reality and what Appendix F of the FAA Part 121 Proficiency Check Requirements calls for, Kolisch said. One example is that under Appendix F checks, missed approaches are typically done near or at minimums, whereas in actual Part 121 operations, most missed approaches are not initiated by the pilot. Instead, they are initiated by ATC sometime well before approaching minimums. "As a result, a number of these missed approaches have turned into a real mess because under Appendix F we train for the checking event," Kolisch emphasized. "So in our company, we have added a number of missedapproach scenarios which are nothing like the checking event in order to prepare people for what really happens out
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in the field. This is because a lot of times doing a missed approach procedure that we have learned for doing at the bottom is totally inappropriate for breaking off an approach up high." Rejected takeoffs is another area where Appendix F requirements don't match up to operational reality, since most happen before 80 knots, while a check calls for rejection between 80 knots and V1. "But because of the checking, we are spring-loaded to my mind to do the wrong thing," Kolisch declared. "And this has been a problem in certain areas of the industry, and once again a difference between the real world and what Appendix F requires."
TEM Professionalism Model In another RATS Breakout Session, a panel moderated by Captain Paul Preidecker, Chief Flight Instructor for Air Wisconsin will discuss Using Threat Error Management (TEM) Principles to Manage Professionalism. According to Preidecker, a number of airlines are using
(TEM) as a way for their aircrews to manage their flights. His goal is to expand on the TEM model and move it over to the management of pilot professionalism as well. "The issue is how do we take the same TEM principles, namely first recognizing a threat and then managing it, and use them as a way to manage professionalism, not just in a class and then checking that box," Preidecker said. "This would be a model that crewmembers can use all throughout the day even when they are not flying to do a better job of managing professionalism." Preidecker said that this approach would help pilots mitigate what he calls "threats to professionalism". While he has a longer list of just what these threats would be, he cited over-reliance on automation, or in the regionals world a lack of understanding of the fundamentals of automation and manual flying skills such as basic airmanship, flying and navigation, as a major threat. Another threat to professionalism Preidecker cited was repetition-induced complacency, where
crewmembers repeatedly flying into the same airports take for granted that everything will be the same every time they approach these airports. "The idea of connecting the dots between TEM and professionalism is that not only are we trying to manage a flight, but we are also trying a way of handling our professional lives on a day-to-day basis as well," Preidecker summed up.
Decrease in New Hire Skills The subject of RATS Session 6 will be The Collegiate Market: The Apparent Decrease in Airmanship Abilities of Today's New Hire Pilots. Moderated by Captain Al Barrios, Manager Flight Ops Training, Compass Airlines, this session looks at pilot supply coming from the collegiate market combined with the new regulatory requirements. Some topics of discussion in this session will be new regulatory requirements causing challenges with regards to ATP, restricted ATP and the creation of new CTP training programs. cat
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Windscreen of Opportunity? The oft-warned ‘airpocalypse’ appears to be starting. Air service cutbacks in the US blamed on a shortage of pilots. A captain’s crunch in Asia. But will aspiring young aviators endure the cost and time to pursue a flying career? Rick Adams looks at the changing dynamics of airline flight deck jobs.
he pilot shortage debate has raged for several years: there is, or isn’t, going to be a dearth of qualified pilots to fill the growing number of cockpit seats of the world’s commercial airlines. Doomsday forecasters cite Airbus and Boeing estimates of half a million new aircraft deliveries across the next two decades, the en masse retirement of aging pilots, the declining numbers of ex-military. Naysayers point to lists of furloughed airline veterans, previous shortage forebodings that never materialized, and caution about flight school cadets with inadequate experience. The situation is a bit more complex than broad generalizations. Like the maze of national pilot licensing regulations and irregular airline growth patterns around the world, the employment and training picture is a patchwork. One shortage/no shortage statement doesn’t fit all. The good news for aspiring pilots is that first officer jobs are available in the US, if you can afford the education and flight-log building. The good news for experienced pilots is that captains are in high demand at enticing salaries,
CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
especially in Asia and the Middle East. The bad news is that regional airlines in the US are throttling back service, and it’s a supply problem that cannot be solved just by throwing money at it.
Half-full or Half-empty? The shortage of right-seaters at US regional airlines stems from a combination of factors: new flight- and duty-time rules which limit the hours a pilot can be working; steady growth among the major air carriers, which has both reduced the pool of furloughed pilots and drained the regionals of many of their qualified crew members; an abnormal number of pilot retirements; and foremost the legislation passed by the US Congress, leading to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) mandate that all airline pilots have a minimum of 1500 flight hours. The FAA’s new “pilot fatigue” rule, which went into effect January 4, limits pilot flight time to 8-9 hours and stipulates a minimum 10-hour rest period prior to the flight duty period. JetBlue claimed the new rule was a cause of its cancellation of many flights during the recent winter storms. It may enhance safety, but the rule also has the effect of requiring more pilots on an airline’s roster to juggle scheduling. In late February, a US General Accounting Office (GAO) report concluded that indicators of a pilot shortage were mixed but “no major airlines were experiencing problems.” Certainly the majors have been dipping into the furloughed pilot pool. Between 2001 (9-11) and 2008 (recession), United Airlines eliminated more than 3,500 pilot jobs. Beginning
The merged American-US Airways, which has about 14,000 pilots, is expected to lose half of them to retirement in the next 10 years. Image credit: American Airlines.
after their 2010 merger with Continental, some pilots returned, and last fall United recalled the last of their laid-off pilots. American Airlines exhausted its available furlough roster last spring. Delta Air Lines recently called back all of its pilots, and plans to add about 50 new recruits monthly. The Air Line Pilots’ Association, International (ALPA) says more than 1,000 of their members in North America and over 1,600 other experienced airline pilots are still looking for cockpit jobs. A factor expected to come into play next year is an inordinate number of pilot retirements, triggered by the mandatory retirement age of 65. The FAA raised the age from 60 at the end of 2007, so the wave of gold-watch parties started last year and is expected to accelerate in 2015. United, for example, expects to lose more than 2,000 retiring pilots over the next five years. The merged American-US Airways, which has about 14,000 pilots, is expected to lose fully half of them to retirement in the next 10 years, according to Capt.
James Ray of the US Airline Pilots Association. The GAO report painted a more disturbing picture for regional airlines, which supply about half the passenger traffic in the US: 11 of 12 regional airlines “failed to meet their hiring targets for entry-level pilots last year.” “The new pilot classes at airlines are not being filled,” said Scott Foose, senior VP, operations and safety, for the Regional Airline Association (RAA). “That’s one of the first indicators that the supply is not keeping up with demand.” Great Lakes Airlines recently pulled out of several small-town markets, blaming “the severe industry-wide pilot shortage.” Many of the places Great Lakes has served, such as Devils Lake, North Dakota, are part of the US government Essential Air Service program, which subsidizes (at more than $240 million a year) certificated service to more than 100 smallish communities. Republic Airways Holdings, which has flown as American Connection, Delta Connection, United Express, and
US Airways Express, removed 27 aircraft from operation because it could not find enough qualified pilots. Florida-based Silver Airways plans to exit from Cleveland, Ohio due to the nationwide pilot shortage. They will retire five aircraft and end scheduled service to five cities in New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The GAO report acknowledged, “A continued shortage of pilots for these airlines could mean additional curtailment of services, and thus far, it is smaller communities that are experiencing reduced service, and over a longer term may result in a contraction of the industry.” Some 70% of the US relies on regional airlines for their only scheduled flights. Roger Cohen, president of the RAA, said, "Flights are going to get grounded and canceled; airplanes are going to be parked." The curtailment of small market services will not only raise the hackles of members of the US Congress in whose districts the cutbacks are occurring, it could impact the feeder traffic which the
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CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
AVIATION CAREERS major airlines depend on. United also cited “reduced new pilot availability” in slicing more than half of its service in Cleveland. Delta has cut hundreds of flights at its one-time sub-hub in Cincinnati, and put up for sale the former Northwest headquarters outside Minneapolis, Minnesota. In the wake of the GAO report, the RAA called for Congress and the FAA to work together “to fix the pilot supply challenges.” The “arbitrary ‘quantity versus quality’” 1500-hour rule, they said, “has unintentionally cost thousands of airline and related jobs. These cuts will continue to grow over the coming years unless the government immediately addresses this issue.”
Flying Career Still a Good ROI Like the pilot fatigue and 1500-hour rules, the widespread perception of low wages for regional pilots is debris from the 2009 Colgan Airways crash near Buffalo, New York. The co-pilot of the Colgan aircraft was reportedly paid only $16,000 a year, and the derisive “fast-food wages” label has tagged regional pilots since. “The focus on low regional first officer pay is misleading the world to believe that the job is not what it used to be,” said aviation consultant Kit Darby. It’s true that new-hire salaries at some regional airlines start as low as $20 per hour (Silver Airways), and the industry average starting salary for first officers is about $24K a year. However, that’s just the probationary first year. Wages for US regionals do get better over time. After five years’ experience, the average FO base is nearly $40,000. At 10 years’ experience and by then in the left seat, a US regional captain can expect to make $75,000. After perhaps 3-5 years, an experienced regional first officer might be hired by a major air carrier, where the average annual FO pay is around $100,000. A majors captain averages $175,000 and top captain pay can exceed $200,000. And even though average pilot salaries declined nearly 10% over the past 10 years, a three-decade majors career can still be worth $10 million or more in pay, benefits, and retirement, according to Darby.
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An aeronautical engineer, by comparison, is expected to earn perhaps $5 million over a lifetime. “Pay is excellent, time off is the best (15 days a month average), and retirement is better than ever,” Darby noted. American and United offer 16% defined contribution benefit plans, and others such as JetBlue and Southwest offer 401K matches up to 9.3%. The low starting salary is often contrasted with the educational cost in obtaining the various pilot licenses, and now additional required flight time, to even qualify for the right seat of a Bombardier Dash 8 or Embraer 145. Kent Lovelace, department of aviation chairman at the University of North Dakota, said the average debt load for a professional flying graduate from the four-year academic program is about $60,000. Darby has seen debt burdens as high as $200,000, especially when factoring the extra cost of logging flight time to reach the 1500hour level. In addition, after July 31, an Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) certificate will require another training program consisting of 30 hours of ground school and 10 hours of simulator – before taking the written and practical tests. The FAA estimates costs around $6,000 but others say such a program will be more like $1520,000. For the most part, university flight schools do not have the Level C motion-based multi-engine simulators required for the training. To ease the burden a bit, American Eagle began offering $5,000 hiring bonuses a year ago, and has now upped the ante to $10,000 for graduates of a dozen schools, provided the pilots make a two-year commitment to the airline. As part of a February agreement with its union, Republic Airways is also paying signing bonuses. Concerns about paying back student loan debt out of low entry-level salaries is not the only factor dampening Generation Y’s passion for flying. UND’s Lovelace says their surveys show today’s students “are more interested in friends and family,” which may not align with the on-the-road lifestyle of an airline pilot.
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Most airlines have a strong preference for home-grown pilots, but to address growth in China, India, elsewhere in Asia, the Middle East, and Russia, they’ve acquiesced to hiring experienced foreign pilots, many from America and Europe. Chinese airlines account for more than half of all recruitment postings for captains on career websites. Recent listings by Hong Kong-based Wasinc International showed openings for A330 and B777 captains for Air China, B737, A320, and A330 captains for China Eastern Airlines, A320 and B737 captains for Shenzhen Airlines, and A320 and EMB-190 captains for Tianjin Airlines. Boeing forecasts 192,300 new pilots will be required in the Asia-Pacific region by 2032, 40% of them in China. Chinese airlines have been hiring foreign pilots for more than 10 years, paying as much as $270,000 a year in salary and benefits, an increase of 30% in just the past 18 months. About 1,800 foreignpilot licenses have been issued by the
Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), or roughly six percent of the commercial pilot workforce. The dutytime workload is said be much heavier than elsewhere, especially on domestic flights, and the oppressive smog certainly diminishes the ambience. Some American ex-pat pilots have returned to the States, even at a lower pay rate, exacerbating the shortfall of captains in China. Cebu Pacific in the Philippines is hiring additional foreigners to fly its fleet of Airbus A330-300s after the airline was unable to find sufficient local candidates. Foreign pilots, however, receive the same compensation and benefits as local crews; for example, A320 captains are reportedly paid $96,000 per year gross. A draft law which would allow Russian airlines to hire foreign pilots has been submitted to the State Duma from Transport Minister Maksim Sokolov. The main reason: a shortage of qualified flying personnel, primarily captains. Passenger traffic in Russia is growing 13-15%, creating a need for 1,500
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new pilots a year, and in-country pilot schools can only manage about onetenth of the demand. Critics are concerned, though, that pay scales may only attract lower quality candidates, while cadets at the Ulyanovsk aviation school complain some airlines refuse to hire them in anticipation of recruiting experienced foreign pilots. Etihad Airlines, the United Arab Emirates flag carrier, hires foreign pilots to fill gaps as necessary but requires them to pay back the cost of their training. Local pilots are not required to reimburse training costs. Low-fare airline AirAsia intends to phase out its non-Malaysian pilots by 2019 in what it says is an effort to cut costs. Of AirAsia’s 700 A320 pilots, 100 are from 32 other countries. One irony of the pilot shortage dilemma in the US: several flight schools on American soil, both universities and independent academies, are training hundreds of pilots for airlines in Asia, limiting the slots available for potential pilots at US regional carriers. cat
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CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
Cabin Crew Training
Embracing Technology Fiona Greenyer explores the use of new technology for cabin crew training, and how it is currently being used in training departments.
-Learning, mobile learning and the use of social media is becoming more prevalent in today’s training departments. Cabin crew training has traditionally involved the more practical aspects of teaching, but with the development of virtual training programmes, there is far more scope to use e-learning as a significant method of teaching. Traditional e-learning is usually reserved for situations requiring firm, clear instructions and where there is limited opportunity for user experimentation or practice. e-learning in its various forms has been used for many years, but not by all. Many training departments are now seeing the benefits of using new technologies, both in cost and time savings. The Inflight Institute.com has been developing learning methodologies and programs for pre-qualification training for potential cabin crews for decades. That developmental knowledge moved to online recurrent training and testing, and at EATS 2013 Ivan Noël, president of Inflight Institute.com spoke about implementing an Integrated Learning Cycle to reach the next level of knowledge. “We have wonderful opportunities to develop, create and support our crew through the use of technology.” His company’s focus is now on post-training. The company objective is to create the most knowledgeable crew, using training technologies to reduce the cost of errors and training. The Integrated Learning Cycle at Inflight Institute.com provides an enhanced user experience and incorporates multiple learning styles which provide a blended learning approach. Instant feedback allows the instructor to alter the lesson dynamics as required and it can identify individual gaps in knowledge 32
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which can then be dealt with and reinforced to ensure complete understanding of a subject. Noël observed that a blended learning approach has been found to provide a superior platform to reach knowledge goals.
Interactive Learning Canadian company Teknoledge was founded in 2011 and provides out-ofthe-box multimedia, virtual reality and interactive immersive 3D products usable either as e-learning, m-learning or standalone instructional material. The company has developed an Airbus A320 cabin trainer which is a fully interactive 3D simulation tool and allows the user to move into the cabin and control seats, tablets, doors, overhead bins, slides, emergency exits, cabin attendant panels, oxygen masks, inter-phone and more. Fred Charleux, president of Teknoledge, commented: “We believe that immersive virtual reality and soft simulation will count for a huge percentage of the oncoming instructional products. This prediction is not only based on the growing potential of information
Virtual eTraining's ‘Course Model’ includes examination functionality, and feedback via an optional LMS. Image credit: Virtual eTraining Software.
technologies, but also takes into consideration that Internet-based immersive training is more cost effective, standardized, and ensures safer and cleaner reusable products than classic training.” Swedish company Virtual eTraining has developed an interactive, and affordable, 360° virtual training environment concept that can be used to interact in high resolution visual environments, specific to the customer. The 360° images can be used for students to explore, interact or train in scenarios in a life-like environment and can be applied to many different training areas. Depending on the product model used, the company can provide everything from simple walkaround solutions for pre-flight inspections and equipment location training to full course models with LMS integration, suitable for initial, conversion, service or recurrent training. The company’s ‘Tour Model’ is a scaled-down walk around solution that allows students to navigate in a virtual 360° environment, (inside or around an aircraft) and includes multimedia hot-
spots containing stills, instructional videos and texts. This can be used for preflight inspections, familiarization with aircraft systems or location of emergency equipment in preparation for a line check. ‘Course Model’ has the same functionality as the ‘Tour’ with the addition of an examination functionality and feedback via an optional Learning Management System (LMS). The learning methodology adopted by Virtual eTraining lets the user freely explore the virtual environment in a learning mode or allows them to be led through different scenarios prompted by the software. Unlike traditional e-learning, this training requires a high level of user activity which provides meaningful transfer and retention of knowledge. The user is left to learn, review and explore scenarios or environments at their own pace, while providing an appropriate level of challenge and intrinsic feedback on the users’ performance via the software’s test mode. Norwegian Air Shuttle has partnered with Virtual eTraining and co-produced a
walk-around course that aims to improve, modernize and create future cost savings in cabin crew training through the development of an online pre-course, as well as recurrent training based on a virtual 360° cabin interior. The course includes modules on the location and use of emergency equipment and the operative management of first aid and emergency procedures. The airline’s cabin crew undergo this e-learning course which includes a mandatory annual recurrent exam which they take before arriving at the training centre. This enables the airline to free up time for practical hands-on training and qualitative discussions, removes the stress related to the mandatory exam and reduces and automates administration. By implementing this course Norwegian Air Shuttle will be able to reduce their annual cabin crew recurrent training from two days in the classroom to only one day, which will save significant amounts annually for the airline. Members of the Norwegian Air Shuttle
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Cabin Crew Training training team and Virtual eTraining will be presenting more on this case study at WATS 2014. Air Berlin is also using the cabin interior walk-around product from Virtual eTraining. They use this as an interactive and web based tool for cabin crew to use in their initial and recurrent training program. The tool allows the cabin crew to navigate inside the aircraft and locate emergency equipment and get the necessary information about its functionality and use by visiting multimedia hotspots containing stills, instructional videos and text.
Application Both Delta Air Lines and GoJet Airlines have adopted new forms of learning recently. Following their merger with Northwest, Delta In-Flight Service are using new technology to improve the training experience for flight attendants, training department staff, instructors, and ultimately the customer. The airline was aware that it needed to better prepare their flight attendants for address-
ing problems associated with the In-Flight Entertainment system. An interactive ‘app’ was developed that could be installed on a tablet and the IFE system replicated in a hands-on learning environment. This resulted in the IFE Trainer. The end result of this training system was that flight attendants could more easily troubleshoot the system without causing a maintenance write-up. It gave Pursers and Flight Leaders
GoJet Airlines converted from hard copy Operations and Training manuals to issuing a Samsung Galaxy tablet to every employee and student. Image credit: Comply365.
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more confidence in the system, when previously their biggest issue was fear, and it improved customer service on board. In November of 2012, GoJet Airlines converted from hard copy Operations and Training manuals to issuing a Samsung Galaxy tablet to every employee and student, consequently changing the entire manual process. This move required a revision of the established processes internally, and most importantly, FAA approval. Establishing an email link with every employee was paramount to maintain communication, and ensuring compliance. Once these steps were accomplished, the launch, education, “training an old dog new tricks”, and ensuring a solid, comfortable working knowledge on-line, and in the classroom, followed. Challenges the airline has faced include instructor transition, personal use of the tablets, not just being used for training purposes! Updates to software can have an impact on tablet screens, therefore altering how the tablet is navigated. Tammy Hoevel and Michaela Green from GoJet Airlines will be at WATS 2014 and will be looking at how generation gaps, teaching style differences amongst instructors, and personnel changes can have an impact on the delivery of training and its outcome. How training departments can ensure consistency of the materials being provided whilst capitalizing on the strengths and value every generation brings to the process will also be explored.
Use of Technology The cabin crew conference at WATS 2014 will contain a number of presentations that are focusing on the use of technology, either at the training stage or on board the actual aircraft. Larry Parrigin, Manager of Curriculum and Program Development at Southwest Airlines will be focusing on ‘Providing Crewmembers with Skills to Deal with Social Media’. Passengers can and will document every facet of their airline experience from take-off to landing through various social media platforms. Questions being asked, and
answered, will include how do the allseeing social media networks impact the flight attendant’s ability to do their job? And are airlines adequately equipping crew members with the skills needed when dealing with social media on board the aircraft? The issue of managing social media use when passengers’ lives are at risk and how that use impacts a flight attendant’s decision-making process will also be examined and explored. Candace Kolander, Coordinator Air Safety, Health & Security, Association of Flight Attendants, Washington, DC office will present on the ‘Inflight use of passenger PEDs and cabin safety, flight attendant perspective’. The FAA recently published guidance to aircraft operators that allows expanded use of passenger portable electronic devices (PEDs) throughout the flight. Under these new policies, airlines are allowing passengers to use small, handheld devices during taxi, take-off and landing. This presentation will explore several concerns, from the flight attendant perspective, related to the potential impacts of these new policies on safety in the aircraft cabin. With passengers now able to use PEDs during all phases of flight, including during crewmember briefings, flight attendants are concerned that important safety information will be ignored. Safety issues also surround the use of PEDs onboard in the possibility that sudden crash forces could cause passengers to lose hold of their PEDs, resulting in ‘struck-by’ injuries to occupants. Kolander will also look at passenger behavior one might encounter during actual aircraft evacuations. Policies allowing PEDs to be ‘secured’ inhand may lead to various unintended consequences such as passengers needing to stop and search for their device in the aftermath of a crash, even at the cost of slowing down the cabin evacuation. There are many ways that technology is now being integrated into the training process, some of these will be highlighted at WATS 2014, while others continue to be developed, and no doubt will be the focus of future conference sessions. cat
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World News & Analysis
Seen&Heard A compendium of current news from the civil aviation training industry, compiled and edited by the CAT editorial team. For the latest breaking news and in-depth reports go to www.halldale.com.
Antycip Simulation has collaborated with eyevis to upgrade and modernise the tower simulator of Skyguide Training Centers (STC) in D체bendorf near Zurich. Fourteen new eyevis LED projectors now provide improved training simulation experience at the STC tower simulation with higher resolution, more detailed colour depiction and better brightness. Antycip Simulation worked with eyevis in the integration of the system as the previous projector solution was unable to meet the evolving requirements for life-cycle costs, serviceability and resolution. The tower simulator has 14 projectors which presents a 360째 simulation through rear projection onto screens of 9.5m diameter. The new eyevis ESP-LWXT-1000 projectors with its WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels enable a 30% higher pixel density per screen area, which allows trainees to better recognise smaller, training-relevant objects such as small airplanes on the horizon or points of reference in the landscape.
Monarch Aircraft Engineering Limited (MAEL) has launched its apprenticeship scheme for summer 2014. The four year scheme, which began in 1971, has produced over 700 high-calibre engineers for both MAEL and the wider aviation industry. MAEL is offering 20 apprenticeship positions for its summer 2014 intake. Successful applicants will study the NVQ Level 2 Diploma in Performing Engineering Operations at Monarch Aircraft Engineering Training Academy (MAETA) at London Luton Airport. From this phase of initial training, apprentices will then relocate to MAEL's Luton, Birmingham and Manchester bases where they will receive theoretical training on aircraft mechanical and electrical systems to the EASA 'A' licence standard. They will also complete the various elements that make up the City and Guilds Level 3 Aeronautical Engineering Advanced Apprenticeship (On-Aircraft Maintenance - Category A). In addition there will be practical on-site training, working alongside highly skilled mentors, who will pass on essential knowledge and experience.
Canada Participates in CAE Project Innovate The Government of Canada is going to participate in a CAE research and development (R&D) program through a repayable investment of $250 million. The goal of CAE's Project Innovate, which will span five and half years, is to develop and expand CAE's current modelling and simulation technologies, develop new ones and continue to differentiate its service offering. 36
CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
Under Project Innovate CAE will develop its next generation of simulation platforms for its civil aviation and defence markets. The company plans to create a state-of-the-art modular system that will be more efficient, easier to deploy and maintain, and will also enhance user experience. CAE will also develop technologies and training solutions geared towards joint and
networked operations in order to be a training systems integrator in air, sea and land domains. This investment is being made through Canada's Strategic Aerospace and Defence Initiative (SADI), which supports strategic industrial research and pre-competitive development projects in the aerospace, defence, space and security industries.
New Avionics & Triple Qualification
Training Services Agreement
Frasca International, Inc. has delivered a Diamond DA40 FTD that has received EASA/JAA FNPTII, FAA Level 5 FTD and JCAB Level 5 qualification to CAE Oxford Aviation Academy in Mesa, Arizona. The DA40 is one of several Frasca FTDs in use by the academy and was recently upgraded to achieve the level of fidelity required for these qualifications. The other Frasca flight training devices at the academy include two Piper Archer FTDs and Piper Seminole FTD that Frasca says are the first to feature Piper's newest avionics configurations including G1000 and Aspen standby instruments. Frasca is also building a CJ1+ Level 5 FTD for use in the academy's MPL program.
AA8 Capital Holdings (HK) Limited, Hong Kong Airlines (HKA) and Hong Kong Express Airways (HKEA) have entered into a comprehensive Training Services Agreement whereby HKA and HKEA shall utilise at least 5,000 simulator hours annually for a minimum of 10 years on each of the following simulators that are to be provided and located by AA8 in Hong Kong, an A320 Level D full flight simulator (FFS), an A330 Level D FFS and an A320/A330 virtual procedure trainer. The simulators will be progressively delivered to Hong Kong from mid-2014 to early 2015. Pritam Singh, Board Director of AA8 said: "This is part of a longer term strategic cooperation with HKA and HKEA whereby AA8 will undertake the training needs of both airlines in a sustainable, efficient and effective manner." SIMULATORS
Level D Certification L-3 Link Simulation & Training (L-3 Link) has been awarded Level D certifications from EASA and the Taiwan Civil Aviation Authority on an Airbus A320 full flight simulator (FFS) delivered to EVA Airways’ Flight Training Academy near Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. L-3 Link is also providing an enhanced flight crew debrief system to the airline along with a Boeing 777-300ER FFS that is expected to reach its ready-fortraining milestone during the first quarter of 2014.
Indra Completes First Airbus EC175 FFS Pilot training with the first Level D full flight simulator for Airbus Helicopters’ new EC175 rotorcraft will be available this summer with an Indra-built system at the Airbus Helicopters Training Services facility in Marignane, France. This will allow pilot training to begin before the first EC175 customer deliveries
later in 2014. The motion-based full flight simulator incorporates a state-of-the-art visual projection system with a 210° by 80° continuous field of view to recreate the most realistic flight conditions for immersive training. In addition to the Level D full flight simulator, a flight navigation procedure
training (FNPT) device also built by Indra will be installed at the Airbus Helicopters Training Services center in Marignane. Certification of the EC175 was issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) in January, clearing the way for Airbus Helicopters’ deliveries to the initial customers later this year.
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World News & Analysis
Aviation Centre Inauguration
ST Aerospace has opened its new aviation centre at Singapore's Seletar Aerospace Park (SAP), in the presence of guest of honour Singapore's Senior Minister of State for Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Transport, Mrs Josephine Teo. With an expanded Seletar
footprint occupying over 75,000 square metres, ST Aerospace becomes the second largest tenant and the only integrated aviation service provide in SAP. This milestone is the result of a $26.6m, two-year effort to enhance ST Aerospace's Seletar capabilities in
response to the growing international demand for aircraft maintenance, business aviation, air charter, commercial pilot training, as well as technical crew training services. ST Aerospace's current footprint in SAP includes hangars and facilities that can handle up to 11 narrow-body aircraft and 24 general aviation aircraft simultaneously. The newly built complex is equipped with state-of-the-art computer-based training suites for Air Transport Pilot Licence and entry level ground training, as well as a simulator centre that can accommodate up to six full flight simulators. Two training devices were recently commissioned to support ST Aerospace's Multi-Crew Pilot Licence (MPL) phase II training. One of them is an Airbus A320 full flight simulator, and the other a customised fixed-base A320 FFT X™ - MPL simulator. With the addition of the aviation centre, ST Aerospace will be expanding its technical crew training business in the next phase of development, which will add classrooms and computerbased training facilities in the complex.
Expansion of Training Agreement
EASA Authorization for Florida Tech
Boeing and Hainan Airlines have announced a five-year pilot training agreement to support Hainan's recent introduction of the 787 Dreamliner to its fleet. Under the agreement, Boeing Flight Services will extend the airline's existing contract for flight training at Boeing's Singapore and Shanghai training campuses on three Boeing models - the Next-Generation 737, 767 and 787. The 2013 Boeing Pilot & Technician Outlook cites a demand for 192,300 new commercial airline pilots and 215,300 new technicians in the Asia Pacific region through 2032. Hainan Airlines is the fourth largest airline in terms of fleet size in the People's Republic of China. Its current fleet includes 118 Boeing airplanes. COMPANY NEWS
Learning Services Contract Cathay Pacific Airways has awarded a new 5-year contract to Peak Pacific Limited for the provision of Learning and Learning Technology Services. Peak Pacific will provide the services to Cathay Pacific Airways and Dragonair. Under the new agreement, Peak Pacific will provide solutions through consultancy, managed Learning Technology and Content services to meet both Cathay Pacific and Dragonair vision and strategy for 'Learning and Learning Technology' requirements for the future. 38
CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
Florida Institute of Technology’s (Florida Tech) flight training organization, FIT Aviation, has earned authorization from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) to become the first Approved Training Organization (ATO) to achieve compliance under new European standards. “This gives us the authority to provide flight training towards EASA pilot certificates and ratings,” explained Ken Stackpoole, Florida Tech vice president for aviation programs. “Florida Tech is the first university with an independently approved EASA ATO certification in the United States. Florida Tech is now also working with Airbus to create a training solution that will appeal to Airbus’ customers.
New FBT at Cockpit4u
Pilot Pipeline Program Spartan College and American Eagle Airlines are partnering on a Pilot Pipeline Program in a strategy to help fill pilot positions for the airline. The Pilot Pipeline Program gives Spartan students the opportunity for employment as a commercial pilot at American Eagle Airlines. Students selected to enter the American Eagle First Officer Training Program will receive a $10,000 signing bonus for a two-year commitment and a guaranteed interview with American Airlines for future career development. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
Cockpit4u has brought a brand-new B737NG fixed base trainer (FBT) into service. The new device has been designed to bridge the gap between procedure training on ground and flight training in full flight simulators. The FBT features complete replica hardware, instructor station, worldwide airport and navigation database, and a flat screen based full HD visual system. The simulated aircraft system ensures maximum transfer of learning to subsequent training in Level D full flight simulators. This new device will replace the old-fashioned paper mock-up at the German company's training centre.
ATC Sim for Trinidad Adacel has been subcontracted by Aeronav Group to supply an air traffic control (ATC) simulator for the Trinidad and Tobago Civil Aviation Authority (TTCAA). Under terms of the contract Adacel will supply and install a MaxSim aerodrome/approach ATC simulator at the TTCAA Aviation Training Centre in Piarco, Trinidad. Adacel's simulator will be integrated into the extensive TTCAA ATC training program and will allow the region's air traffic controllers to have access to state-of-the-art simulation technology.
Florida Tech Partners with Four European FTOs Florida Institute of Technology Aviation Programs has joined forces with four European Approved Training Organisations (ATOs) to enhance the university’s pilot training capacity. FIT Aviation LLC, the flight training arm of the university, already has pilot training contracts with
clients like Turkish Airlines, serving 135 students. These new ATO partners will provide EASA Instrument Rating Conversion courses which are required to be completed in European airspace in order for pilots to earn their EASA pilot licenses, including a type rating. The four new part-
ners are Ben-Air Flight Academy (BAFA), Belgium, Flying Time Aviation, UK, CTC Aviation, UK and Aeros, UK. Pilots training at FIT Aviation will complete the program in approximately 16 months, training mostly in Melbourne, but spending several weeks with one of the ATOs in Europe
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Manuals & Training Materials
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
Addressing Global Shortage
Airways New Zealand and Emirates Aviation College are joining forces to deliver air traffic control training in Dubai. The joint venture will see Airways delivering air traffic control training to up to 200 students per year at the College's new purpose-built campus in Dubai over the next five years. Vice Chancellor of Emirates Aviation College, Dr Ahmad al Ali, said that
the partnership fills a critical gap in the Middle East region for the training for air traffic controllers. "There is a global shortage of air traffic controllers, which has serious repercussions for the aviation industry - particularly in this part of the world where air traffic is expected to continue growing" said Dr Ahmad al Ali. Airways will use its SureSelect controller selection programme to guarantee that only the very best students are selected, while its state-of-the-art Total Control simulators will provide students with opportunities to practice difference scenarios on real-world software. The partnership will offer air traffic control short courses from May, and will commence ab initio training from September 2014.
Training Starts at CAE Perth CAE has commenced training at its training centre in Perth, Australia. The centre currently houses three full flight simulators (FFS) providing training for airlines in Australia and the neighbouring regions. The centre will be able to train approximately 2,000 crew members and cadets per year at full capacity. The three CAE FFS's at the centre are a Fokker 50, Fokker 100 and Embraer Phenom 100 and are all qualified by the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA).
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World News & Analysis PILOT TRAINING
Establishing China Training Centre Bombardier Aerospace has signed a letter of intent (LOI) with Nantong Tongzhou Bay Aviation and FlightSafety International to establish a training centre for pilots of its Q400 NextGen aircraft in Jiangsu, China. Under the LOI, Bombardier would provide planning support for aircraft
training activities and FlightSafety International, Bombardier’s authorized provider of turboprop pilot training, would supply and operate a Q400 aircraft full flight simulator at the new training centre. The signing follows a December 2013 agreement in which Nantong
Tongzhou Bay Aviation declared its intention to acquire 30 Q400 NextGen aircraft to support the forthcoming launch of a new airline. Sutong Airlines plans to operate an all-Bombardier fleet of Q400 NextGen airliners when it starts operations in 2015.
L-3 Link to Supply Cathay Pacific A350 FFSs
New USA Training Centre
L-3 Link Simulation & Training (L-3 Link) has won a contract from Cathay Pacific to deliver two Airbus A350 full flight simulators (FFS), two pilot transition (PT) trainers, multiple flight management system (FMS) trainers and two brief/debrief stations. This award makes Cathay Pacific the first customer to select L-3 Link’s new A350 training product solutions. The simulators and trainers will be installed at Cathay Pacific’s Flight Training Centre located at Hong Kong International Airport, with all systems scheduled to be fully operational during the third quarter of 2015, in order to support fleet introduction the following year.
CTC Aviation, in co-operation with Lufthansa Flight Training (LFT), is using the infrastructure of the Airline Training Center Arizona Inc. (ATCA), a 100 percent subsidiary of Lufthansa Flight Training, to launch a new airline pilot training centre in Arizona, USA. CTC Aviation is investing US$7 million to equip the new facility, which will have a capacity for up to 200 trainee airline pilots per annum. CTC will initially station a fleet of eleven new training aircraft in Phoenix, while ATCA will support its new cooperation partner with flight instructors, planning and dispatch services, trainee accommodation, and office space. In addition, ATCA will take on the maintenance of the CTC aircraft fleet. The first trainee pilots will start their flight training in April 2014. PILOT TRAINING
Flight Crew Training Partnership Baltic Aviation Academy has entered into a partnership with Modern Logistics to provide high-quality flight crew training, in accordance with Modern Logistics’ safety-focused flight crew training program. Baltic Aviation Academy cooperated and worked closely with Modern Logistics to obtain certification by the Brazilian Civil Aviation Authority (ANAC), as an approved Training Center. Modern Logistics has developed a robust proficiency-based flight crew training program focused on safety and efficiency. Baltic Aviation Academy recently trained the first class of flight crews for the Boeing 737. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
BULATSA Selects BEST The Bulgarian Air Traffic Services Authority, BULATSA, has chosen BEST (Beginning to End for Simulation & Training) to support the development of its training courses and the evolution of its ATC systems. Micro Nav will install large simulator networks in their Sofia control centre during a project scheduled to be completed in less than a year. The contract includes 16 dual-role radar and tower controller workstations; a tower simulator with four controller positions and a 10 channel panoramic 3D display using large LCD panels in portrait mode; 16 pseudo-pilot workstations; the Fast Airport Builder and 3D modelling tools; speech recognition and synthesis; part-task trainers and a comprehensive package of user training, project services and support equipment. 42
CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
Rotorsim, owned equally by CAE and AgustaWestland, is continuing to expand with the purchase of two CAE 3000 Series Level D helicopter simulators. Rotorsim will add the world's first-ever AW169 full flight simulator to their Training Centre, which is part of the AgustaWestland 'A. Marchetti' Training Academy in Sesto Calende, Italy. The CAE 3000 Series AW169 simulator will be ready-for-training in mid-2015. Rotorsim is also acquiring its second AW189 FFS and will deploy this device to a training centre in Aberdeen, Scotland.
ST Aerospace Academy (STAA) has been awarded an extension contract to train another 60 cadet pilots for Xiamen Airlines. Starting from March 2014, the cadets will undergo a three-month intensive English language enhancement training in China, before embarking on a 14-month integrated Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL) programme, certified by the Civil Aviation Administration of China, in Ballarat, Australia. The signature of this second contract follows that of the first contract in late 2012 - the first two batches of cadets will be graduating in 2014.
Graduates Commencing Apprenticeships Five graduates from Aviation Australia's aircraft maintenance engineer training program have commenced their apprenticeships with Alliance Airlines. The graduates are now based at the airline's maintenance hangar located at Brisbane International Airport where they will complete the practical elements of their apprenticeships within their respective trades, maintaining the airline's Fokker Twinjet and Turboprop fleet. Aviation Australia and Alliance Airlines recently signed an agreement to enhance the organisations shared focus on aviation safety, operational excellence, and the long-term future of the industry. SIMULATORS
787 Simulator Certification L-3 Link Simulation & Training’s (L-3 Link) Crawley, UK-based operation has received EASA and FAA Level D certification on a Boeing 787-8 full flight simulator (FFS) installed at the Boeing Training and Flight Services Singapore training campus. In addi-
tion to the FFS, L-3 Link UK delivered a flight training device (FTD) that received EASA Level 2 and FAA Level 5 qualifications. The FTD has a fully functional avionics capability, including an electronic flight bag and headsup-display that allow all normal and
non-normal procedures to be safely practiced. Boeing instructors can change simulator software loads on the 787-8 FFS to replicate how the aircraft operates when equipped with either the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 or General Electric GEnx engines.
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World News & Analysis SIMULATORS
Capital Air Purchases entrol Sim
TRAINING CENTRES Falcon 5X Training Provider
Dassault has named CAE as the exclusive Dassault-Approved Training Provider (DATP) for the newly-launched Dassault Falcon 5X long-range business jet, including the provision of advanced pilot, maintenance and cabin crew training. To support this program, CAE will develop the first two Falcon 5X simulators and will work closely with Dassault to determine the best initial location for deployment of training services based on customer demand. APPROVAL UAE Accreditation
The Australian Airline Pilot Academy (AAPA) has received approval from the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) as an approved Flight Training Organisation to conduct Integrated Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) training for UAE carriers. TRAINING CENTRE Train in Brazil
FlightSafety International is to offer training for the Sikorsky S-92 in São Paulo, Brazil. Training using a new Level D qualified full flight simulator is expected to begin in Q3 2014. The Sikorsky S-92 FFS will be equipped with FlightSafety's latest advances in technology including the recently introduced VITAL 1100 visual system and Crewview glass mirror optical system. ARRIVALS & DEPARTURES
L-3 Link Simulation & Training (L-3 Link) has announced the promotion of Alan Crawford to managing director of its Crawley, UK-based operation. In his new leadership role, Mr. Crawford will assume general management responsibilities for the Link UK division, reporting directly to Lenny Genna, president of L-3 Link. Since L-3's acquisition of Thales' fixedwing civil aircraft simulation and training business in 2012, Mr. Crawford has served as director of commercial, strategy and sales. His expertise played a key role in increasing the organization's market share over the past year. Mr. Crawford succeeds Mark Gasson, who will serve as L-3 Link UK's vice president of civil business development, providing strategic coordination and support of business development activities across L-3 Link's US and UK operations. FlightSafety International has promoted Marin Todorov to Manager, Specialty and Enrichment Training Programs. Marin will oversee the design, development and distribution of all specialty and enrichment training programs, which includes all FlightSafety Learning Centers courses and those distributed through the company’s LiveLearning and eLearning programs. Micro Nav has appointed Stephen Williams as chief operating officer. Stephen joins Micro Nav from Cobham where he was director of their ATC business. 44
CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
Capital Air has purchased an entrol H01 FNPT II simulator, which is based on the Bell 206. This simulator will be installed in South Africa and be used for the CPL/ATPL, IR courses, Safety & Emergency procedures training, NVG training and Bell 206 cockpit familiarization training. The Bell 206 based simulator will be the first of its kind in the country, having a 180° x 80° six channel spherical visual system capable of multiple emergency, mission and instrument procedures. PILOT TRAINING
Pilot Loan Program CAE Oxford Aviation Academy (CAE OAA) and BBVA have introduced a special loan program to help aspiring pilots in France to fund their pilot training at one of CAE Oxford Aviation Academy's flight schools. Under the partnership with BBVA, candidates who apply to CAE OAA and successfully pass the skills assessment process will have the possibility of qualifying for a loan, subject to a number of other financial terms and conditions being met. Applicants can apply for up to 100% of the training fees to be covered by the BBVA loan plus additional funding towards accommodation and living expenses during training. A similar program offered by CAE OAA and BBVA in the UK has enabled hundreds of aspiring pilots to enrol in pilot training. CABIN CREW TRAINING
New Contracts for TFC TFC Simulatoren und Technik GmbH has signed contracts with Pegasus Airlines, Thai Airways and Virgin Atlantic. Pegasus Airlines has ordered an Airbus A320 CEET, a Boeing 737 door trainer and an RFFT (Interfire), for their new training centre in Istanbul, Turkey. Thai Airways has ordered a B787 door trainer, and Virgin Atlantic has also ordered a B787door trainer. All devices will be installed this summer. Logitudes ETR solution provides ATQP and AQP Management, Paperless Data Collection, Statistics and Reporting, Mobile Grading and Automatic Data Delivery to authorities.
Flight Training Joint Venture
Airbus and Singapore Airlines (SIA) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish a fight training joint venture in Singapore. The facility will be called Airbus Asia Training Centre (AATC) and will be 55%-owned by Airbus and 45%-owned by Singapore Airlines. The two parties will initially contribute approximately SGD 80 million towards AATC, in proportion to their respective shareholdings. Subject to regulatory approvals, operations are expected to begin before the end of 2014. The Singapore centre will initially operate from the SIA Training Centre near Changi Airport before moving to Seletar Aerospace Park when a dedicated facility is completed. It will provide type rating and recurrent training on full flight simulators for Airbus A320, A330, A340, A350 and A380 aircraft types.
Qantas has selected 14 graduates from Aviation Australia's aircraft maintenance training program, as apprentices to be based at their Brisbane and Sydney maintenance facilities. 13 of the graduates will commence their apprenticeships at the Brisbane Base Maintenance facility in February, and will complete the practical elements of their apprenticeships within their respective trades, working on Qantas' B737 and A320 fleet. The final graduate will commence their apprenticeship in Line Maintenance in Sydney, working on Qantas' B737; B747; B767; A330 and A380 fleet.
New Deal for Pelesys Pelesys has signed a deal with Logitude Limited of Finland as the exclusive re-seller and service provider of Logitudes ETR AQP/ATQP solution. "We are very excited to be able to support and offer Logitude's ETR solution to our customers. Integration of the ETR solution along with our Learning Management System, Training Scheduling System and Qualifications Management Systems will provide our customers with a comprehensive training management and deployment solution," said Allan Greene, Pelesys' VP sales and customer service. "Along with the technical solution, we will also offer ATQP and AQP consultancy services for anyone looking to implement ATQP/AQP or for anyone looking for a more robust and flexible electronic grading solution." Logitudes ETR solution provides ATQP and AQP Management, Paperless Data Collection, Statistics and Reporting, Mobile Grading and Automatic Data Delivery to authorities.
Engine Training FlightSafety International’s Pratt & Whitney Canada engine training programs in china will now be offered in Haikou through a cooperative agreement with Lufthansa HNA Technical Training. The courses will be provided by Lufthansa HNA Technical Training’s FlightSafety trained instructors. It will initially include PT6A Series and PW 100 Series turboprop engines. In addition to training the instructors, FlightSafety will provide all courseware and training engines that will enhance the classroom experience. This allows technicians to receive both theory and practical training and to meet the standards set by aviation regulatory agencies worldwide.
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CATC Optimizing Total Training Operation Czech Aviation Training Centre (CATC) has chosen Britannica Knowledge System and its training management system, 'Fox', to oversee the administration of its customer training operations. 'Fox' will replace several disconnected systems with a single, fully integrated and easy-to-use platform, which will optimize training operations while controlling costs and increasing throughput. Britannica is set to complete a migration to 'Fox' in June 2014 via a cloud-based/SaaS (Software as a Service) hosting solution. 'Fox' will enable CATC’s complete and integrated management of training resources, schedules and e-learning, as well as staff qualifications. CATC will take advantage of all of 'Fox's’ modules, dashboards, reports and notifications while reducing manual efforts and paperwork. It will give CATC’s customers easy online access to training history as well as their own schedules, alerts, and other information.
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World News & Analysis
FlightPath International Exhibiting at WATS 2014
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CAT MAGAZINE 2.2014
Calendar Other simulation & training events Airline simulation & training events organised by Halldale Group and CAT Magazine 1-3 April 2014 WATS 2014 – World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow Rosen Shingle Creek Resort Orlando, Florida, USA www.halldale.com/wats 23-24 September 2014 APATS 2014 – Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium Centara Grand Convention Centre Bangkok, Thailand www.halldale.com/apats 28-29 October 2014 EATS 2014 – European Airline Training Symposium Estrel Hotel, Berlin, Germany www.halldale.com/eats
13-15 May 2014 RAA Regional Airline Association 39th Annual Convention St Louis, Missouri, USA www.raa.org 4-5 June 2014 Keeping Flight Simulators Current and Capable London, UK www.aerosociety.com/events 25-26 June 2014 The International Pilot Training Consortium: A Unique Partnership Going Forward London, UK www.aerosociety.com/events 14-20 July 2014 Farnborough Air Show Farnborough, UK www.farnborough.com
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