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Volume 25

Issue 1/2014


Prepare to be Surprised

National Focus

Korea – Mapping the Future

Rotary Wing Training

Onwards and Upwards

Maintenance Training

Safety Meets Training

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ISSUE 1.2014

Editorial comment

WATS on the Horizon As we gear up for another WATS conference in sunny Orlando, it’s always instructive to consider the nature and origin of the presentation abstracts we receive. In my capacity as Editor of CAT, they provide me with not only a reminder of the “hottest” global training issues, they also point to the fact that however large we allow WATS to become, there will always be pressure to widen the net further, and to further address every nook and cranny of aviation Simulation & Training. Over the past 17 years the conference has grown to accommodate five simultaneous conference streams with the latest addition being a Spanish language stream delivering snapshots of the pilot, cabin and maintenance tracks in the language of our Latin American friends. All conference tracks have been carefully constructed to not only reflect the overall conference theme of “Training Cultures and Human Performance,” but to offer relevant “lessons-learned” from global experts who are designing, delivering and receiving training. It’s one thing to discuss and philosophize, but WATS has always been a conference where practical nuggets of value can be harvested by delegates and potentially put to use immediately. One of the areas of emphasis this year in the pilot training track is Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT) because the industry is in the midst of grappling with it. Operators will be discussing their current UPRT training initiatives, including the role of simulators with enhanced aero models, and the regulators – ICAO, FAA, EASA – will conduct a special panel on the ICAO Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training. In the main conference, a comprehensive range of presentations will be evident, including the practicalities of operating for Chris Lehman fuel efficiency, implementation of an Editor in Chief Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) Program, and the impact of the new US Part 121 training requirements, just to name a few. The regional airline sector will continue its tradition of having a full conference track, as supported by the Regional Airline Association (RAA). No other component of the US transportation industry has been more affected by

“... WATS has always been

a conference where practical nuggets of value can be harvested by delegates and potentially put to use immediately.”

changing training requirements over this past year, and comprehensive sessions will look at how the sector is dealing with the new F/O qualification requirements, the supply of candidates, issues surrounding airmanship, and the role of Threat and Error Management (TEM) to enhance professionalism. The long-standing maintenance and cabin crew tracks will also be all-encompassing, with an increased level of international participation, and enhancement of the human factors, regulatory and training technology content. A highlight of the maintenance track will be a look at the issues surrounding the creation of a safety culture as part of an operator’s Safety Management System (SMS), and a CAT article in this issue introduces that content. Over in the burgeoning cabin training track, I am struck by the level of international participation in the speaker lineup, as well as the targeted focus on the critical issues this community is dealing with. Wrapping up WATS 2014 will be two special joint expert panels on the last day. The first, “Peering in the Future with your Peers” will look at the key future pilot training needs and how science, technology and industry intends to respond to that need. The second will investigate the role of e-learning and mobile learning in air carrier operations and training, and build on the momentum established last year during a similar panel at the Berlin EATS conference. It shouldn’t be forgotten that the opportunity of “doing a years’ worth of international networking in three days” is no less important than the conference content. To that end, I look forward to renewing the friendships and relationships that are so important to those who work in this highly specialised and most exciting of industries. See you in Orlando. Chris Lehman WATS Conference Chair CAT Editor in Chief




ISSUE 1.2014



Editorial Editor in Chief Chris Lehman e. Group Editor Marty Kauchak e. US Affairs Chuck Weirauch e. European Affairs Chris Long e. US News Editor Lori Ponoroff e. RoW News Editor Fiona Greenyer e. Advertising Director of Sales Jeremy Humphreys & Marketing t. +44 (0)1252 532009 e. Sales Executive, Natalie Morris North America t. +1 407 322 5605 e. Sales & Marketing Karen Kettle Co-ordinator t. +44 (0)1252 532002 e. Marketing Manager Ian Macholl t. +44 (0)1252 532008 e.



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WATS on the Horizon. Editor in Chief Chris Lehman looks ahead to WATS 2014.


Korea – Mapping the Future. Chris Long takes a look at the Korean aviation training industry.


Onwards and Upwards for Helicopter Training. Chuck Weirauch reviews the helicopter simulation training industry.


Prepare to be Surprised. A summary of current thinking on upset prevention and recovery training.


Safety Meets Training. Robert W. Moorman provides an update on what’s in store for the maintenance training sessions at WATS 2014.


A New Paradigm for Training Provision? Chris Long profiles some new players in the European training market.


The Challenge of Growth. Willem-Jan Derks explores the training challenges faced by Latin American carrier Copa Airlines.


The International Pilot Training Consortium. Peter Barrett describes this new body, its goals and recent developments.



Seen & Heard. Updates from the training and simulation community. Compiled and edited by Fiona Greenyer.


On the cover: Properly designed and carefully instructed UPRT programs can be powerful in preventing upsets and avoiding Loss of Control In Flight. Image credit: Sunjoo Advani.

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Korea – Mapping the Future Chris Long travels to the Republic of Korea to explore the capabilities of the Korean aviation training industry.


or a country with a population of some 50 million, the Republic of Korea (ROK) has a considerable impact when measured against many global standards. From being in the top section of worldwide assessment of educational standards (PISA), to building the world's biggest ships, and with figures for 2012 that show that the exporting of high tech goods was worth in the region of US$85 billion, and automotive exports for the same year topping US$71 billion, there is very clear evidence that the ROK has both the skills and determination to build a very strong manufacturing presence on the world stage.

Civil Aviation With such a track record of achievement it is worth understanding what tasks and goals are being set in the realm of civil aviation – because the likelihood is that, in the long term, the ROK will again make its presence felt. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) is the Korean national aviation authority. MOLIT has for some time been building the essential support infrastructure for the industry. For instance, the need for an additional airport close to the capital, Seoul, was recognised early on, and this resulted in the opening of the first stage of the Incheon International Airport in 2001. On behalf of MOLIT, the Director General of Aviation Safety Policy in the Office of Civil Aviation, Mr Kwon Yong-bok, sets the scene from a Korean perspective when he points out that the ROK is bound by sea on three sides of the Korean peninsula, with a 08


virtually impenetrable land frontier to the north. Some 94% of all passengers, therefore, access the country by air, and, primarily driven by high tech exports such as memory chips and mobile phones, about 26% of international freight is carried by air. The Korean air transport industry is forecast to increase by 6.9% year-on-year, with international air cargo growing by 2.4%. By contrast, the air travel component of domestic transport is presently only 0.2%, and growth here is also expected to be strong as new Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) enter the market. The government's aim is to implement a coherent plan to draw together all the component parts of a strong aviation sector; that includes, for instance, updating national aviation law to embrace present and future realities. Kwon is enthusiastic in the overall vision of the industry in Korea. He sees the future as one where Incheon International Airport exploits what he identifies as its favourable geographic position to become a dominant regional international and domestic hub, with the earlier

The scale of Incheon International Airport is impressive. The land infill linking a group of 4 islands has resulted in a total surface area of 57km2, with 18km2 of airfield, which accommodates 3 runways. A working population of 40,000 is already in place and this will increase when Terminal 2 is ready for the Winter Olympics in 2018. There is also provision for a fourth runway. Image credit: Incheon International Airport.

airfield at Gimpo, in Seoul, continuing as a major provider of domestic services and a long-established international network.

Training Requirements MOLIT has acknowledged that such a rapidly expanding industry requires a strong training capability across all the disciplines in civil aviation. Often the first task that springs to mind is the training of flight crew. However, the equally essential need for a broader range of skills necessitates a correspondingly wide range of training capability. This is being fostered by several initiatives, involving 34 entities, including airlines, military organisations and academic inputs from universities and high schools. The Aviation Human Resources Development Project addresses four areas which cover training for commercial pilots, maintenance crew, expertise in administration of international aviation and aeronautical engineering, and aviation internship programmes in a broad range of disciplines. Whilst MOLIT shapes policy and pro-

vides the oversight of the projects, the coordination of the separate elements of this government initiative is the responsibility of the Korea Civil Aviation Development Association (KADA).

Pilot Supply A major challenge for Kwon is the shortage of Korean pilots and the cost of their training. At the present time some 12% (about 580) of the pilot workforce is expatriate, and the vast majority of young Korean pilots presently have to complete their training outside Korea. The understandable desire to facilitate the path of Korean pilots on their way to a career, and also to respond to the rapidly-growing demand for more pilots to operate the LCCs, are primary drivers to boost the local pilot training capacity to match the predicted annual requirement of 450 new pilots. Modern pilot training systems increasingly employ technology to improve instructional efficiency and, with some training patterns, significantly reduce airborne time. This means that training solutions which can work effectively within

Mr Kwon Yong-bok, Director General of Aviation Safety Policy in the Office of Civil Aviation. Image credit: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.

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NATIONAL FOCUS the geographic and weather constraints of Korean airspace are being evaluated. One avenue to developing self-sufficiency in ab initio pilot training could well be through cooperation with established international players.

Incheon International Airport The view in Korea is that aviation is very definitely a vital and significant contributor to the national and local economy, and as such has huge support at governmental level. The most visible evidence of that view is the Incheon International Airport. Opened in 2001, it has grown to see a throughput of 39 million passengers in 2012, and further extension is underway with the aim of being able to handle 100 million by 2025. Some scale of the operation is given by Mr Hong-Yeol Choi, Executive Vice President of Incheon Airport. He oversees an organisation of 40,000 people, and a whole new town (Airport Town) has been built nearby to provide accommodation for the entire Incheon airport population. Hong focusses on the duty free sales (USD$54 million in 2012) as a key indicator and trigger to continuing development. The aim is to create a virtuous circle whereby the revenue from those sales can be used to reduce airport charges, which would in turn attract more flights and therefore more passengers. Part of that same philosophy is to offer additional facilities, such as conference centres and golf courses, to attract further airport business. The Incheon Airport Training Academy, situated close to the airport perimeter, has been certified by the ICAO Trainair Plus programme for the delivery of Korean-government sponsored training for developing countries. This facility is part of the overall plan to make the hub airport even more attractive by offering a full range of training, not only for the increasing numbers of operating personnel at the airport, but, importantly, for the many airlines that routinely use the airport. A prime market is the increasing number of LCCs, who tend not to have their own training facilities. These will have easy access to training at a major operating base – and this is not just for Korean operators, but also for other airlines from the region. The academy, which delivers type rating and recurrent 10


training and is approved as a TRTO by EASA, offers courses on the Lockheed Martin manufactured A320 and B737 FFSs. ATC training is also provided using an in-house built simulator. Courses for ground-based disciplines are also running, with a strong emphasis on making the airport experience efficient and pleasurable for the travelling public. Immigration staff are taught to rapidly and effectively process passengers, as are security screening teams. Everything from baggage handling, ramp manoeuvring and promotion of welcoming airport guide teams is included.

The Incheon Airport Training Academy. Image credit: Incheon International Airport.

Korea Aerospace University With Government support, the principle training provider in Korea is the Korea Aerospace University (KAU). The KAU was founded as a specialist university in 1952, and continues to provide graduates for careers across the range of aerospace activities, from R&D, design, production and operation. For its pilot stream the campus at Susaek, near Seoul, under Mr Yoo, Byung-Sul, Managing Director Flight Training Center, caters for basic training of both military (120 hours) and civil pilots (60 hours) using Cessna 172R,172S and Mooney M20J aircraft, with Frasca 142 FTDs as training aids.

Uljin Flight Academy

Mr Hong-Yeol Choi, Executive Vice President of Incheon Airport. Image credit: Incheon International Airport.

In line with the government's active support and promotion of civil aviation, a further facility, the Uljin Flight Academy (UFA) has been delivering courses since July 2010. Established initially to address the local pilot demand, in particular for LCCs, this is a joint venture with the government being responsible for administrative and financial support as well as oversight of the whole project, and the airfield authority providing and operating all the airfield facilities. The KAU is the training provider, delivering the pilot training. The aircraft fleet consists of Cessna 172SP as the single-engine platform, with Diamond D42NG aircraft as the multi-engine trainer. These are supported by Mechronix FNPT2s. The build-up of the UFA is continuing, with the aim of achieving an annual throughput of 140 pilots.

Korean Air Korean Air has outsourced the in-country type rating and recurrent training to support its fleet of 145 aircraft and 2700 pilots (15%

Mr Baek Jung Sun, Executive Director of HR Management group. Image credit: Incheon International Airport.

of whom are expatriate) to the aircraft OEMs. Kang Keun Seop, Vice President Flight Crew Training Center, points out that the ground school is carried out at the headquarters of Korean Air near the airport at Gimpo, and Initial Type ratings are carried out using instructor-led Boeing customised CBT and FTD. For the Airbus A380 fleets the ground school uses an FTD supplied by CAE's Simfinity programme. Mechtronix have supplied a fixed base FTD for A330 training. Kang notes that MOLIT is now planning to accept competency-based training for Korean Air, and indicates that progress has been made in preparing adoption of EBT, initially using Korean Air's own data analysed by the training development team which has been routinely using feedback from training and operational sources. The data from the IATA EBT programme will also be assessed to evaluate its relevance to Korean Air training. Interestingly Korean Air allocates all its type rating and recurrent training through the respective OEMs Airbus and Boeing who both have training facilities at Incheon Airport. Additionally Korean Air and Boeing together broke ground for a new training facility near Incheon International Airport, where there will be provision for 12 FFSs. Korean Air have a requirement that

Maintenance training devices at Asiana. Image credit: Asiana.

all new recruits have at least 1000 hours total time (usually achieved by accumulating most of the flight time in the USA). KAU run an Airline Pilot Programme (APP) for those who wish to be recruited by Korean Air. After a stringent selection process, students are accepted at a KAU facility based at Jeung Seuk, an airfield on the southern Korean island of Jeju. This airfield is both owned and operated by Korean Air – a possibly unique situation where an airline not only owns a fully-instrumented training airfield, but can if necessary operate it as an international passenger handling facility. Here the training consists of an introduction to multi-crew and jet operation. Because it is not a regulatory requirement, this course is shaped directly to what Korean Air wants, and is based on the Cessna CJ1 (the CE-525), which has a configuration similar to that used by Lufthansa Flight Training. Graduates of this system

go straight onto a standard A320 or B737 type rating course.

Maintenance Training Mr Ahn, Soung Ju, General Manager Maintenance Training, Asiana, is delighted to show the state-of-the-art maintenance training facilities integrated into the impressive new hangar at Incheon airport. Because these are right alongside the real time maintenance facility, the relevance of training in skills demanded by modern technology and materials is evident to the trainees. The maintenance training center provides maintenance employees with 130 training courses including aircraft type rating as well as the diverse skill-up training. Annually more than 2,000 mechanics and engineers participate in these training programs to meet not only the demand of qualified maintenance staff due to expansion of company operation

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‘a Passion for Excellence’ CAT MAGAZINE 1.2014


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Piecing together airline training for the region Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium 23-24 September 2014 Centara Grand Convention Centre Bangkok, Thailand

2013 Event Statistics • 402 attendees from 42 countries • 87 representatives from 36 airlines • Regulators from 7 countries

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The FTDs at Korean Aviation College. Image credit: Korean Aviation College.

but also fulfill the requirement to maintain and improve their qualification and skill. One particularly interesting tool is shown off by Mr Ahn, Soung Ju, who, with his team, has developed a series of displays using actual aircraft electronic actuators, parts and wiring etc. in which realistic faults can be introduced and tracked, so that a wide range of practical fault diagnosis and tracking can be carried out. Besides the training program for employees, the training center runs a vocational training course which fosters more than 20 maintenance apprentices each year. During the first year is classroom-based theory and the second year is practical training at maintenance sites and workshops. Asiana hires most of the apprentices who complete the two year course, thus sourcing qualified maintenance personnel.

Korean Aviation College

ment of the market is the Korean Aviation College, which has been supplying safety training for cabin crew since 2009, and has recently started ab initio pilot training courses on Cessna 172s. It has sourced some interesting locally produced FTDs and will continue to build the capabilities by acquiring a FFS, yet to be selected.

The demand for aviation training has not gone unnoticed by non-government organisations. One example in this seg-

There is no doubt that the ROK is deter-


mined to feature on the regional and world map as a training provider. The initial goal is to support the burgeoning national LCCs, but that is running in parallel with ambition to extend the reach internationally. It will be interesting to see how far the Korean model of training and operating will grow, but one thing is in no doubt – there is the same application to this task as there was to other industrial disciplines, and those have set a strong precedent. cat

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Rotary Wing Training

Onwards and Upwards for Helicopter Training Chuck Weirauch explores the helicopter simulation and training industry and provides an update on recent progress.


ith commercial helicopter sales now anticipated to increase significantly in just about every major world market, and in China at an annual double digit rate, for example, it would only follow that the number of helicopter simulator sales would increase as well. The Global Helicopter Simulators Market 2014-2018 published by Sandler Research forecasts that this market will grow at an annual rate of 2.80 percent over the period 2014-2018. According to this report, one of the key factors contributing to this market growth is the growing demand for commercial helicopter aircraft, as well as an increasing demand for full flight simulators. But the flip side to all this good news is that, just like with the commercial fixed-wing market, there is a looming shortage of helicopter pilots. Recently Matt Zuccaro, President of the Helicopter Association International (HAI), warned there is a real chance that the industry could face a shortage of qualified pilots and mechanics in just a few years.


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While helicopter training device providers are gearing up to meet the challenges of a growing market, a major goal for them is to constantly improve the replication of the flight performance of newer and increasingly capable and sophisticated helicopters equipped with the latest in avionics and instrumentation. To gain an insight into some of the latest developments, technologies and trends, CAT solicited comments from several leaders in this industry.

More Accurate Performance Replication For John Frasca, president of Frasca International, a high-quality data package is essential to accurately replicate aircraft performance. OEMs often have data packages, but they can leave a lot to be desired, since sometimes they are based on pre-production aircraft and sometimes data is missing. To eliminate such discrepancies, Frasca has flight-tested a number of helicopters and collected comprehensive data packages to support up to Level D FFS’s. The next critical step is to develop the aero models, a bigger effort than the flight test, and a helicopter model and far more complex than that of a fixed-wing aircraft. Motion cueing breaks into two areas, vibration effects and acceleration effects, Frasca explained. Vibration is improved with the incorporation of independent vibration platforms, but both are very dependent on the data package and aero models, he added. According to Nidal Sammur, FlightSafety International's director of Engineering for Simulation, motion cueing is one

Frasca's Sikorsky S-92 Full Flight Simulator. Image credit: Frasca International.

of the most challenging areas of flight simulation because it is physically impossible to completely replicate this aspect of the aircraft environment. Even so, carefully crafted motion cueing can be a major contributor to creating an immersive simulation experience. Sammur explained that FlightSafety has developed new enhanced motion cueing for fixed-wing full flight simulators and is currently deploying the technology on those new devices. The new cueing relies on objective frequency-domain testing methods to quantify system performance. According to Sammur, the enhanced motion cueing for helicopter devices will be deployed in 2014. "Our customers will see the same or greater enhancements in performance for helicopters as we are seeing for the fixedwing devices," he said. According to Marc Hilaire, CAE’s VP for Technology and Innovation, the company puts an emphasis on the rotor model, validating the dynamic response of CAE’s Object-Oriented Blade Element Rotor Model flight test data in both time and frequency domains throughout the flight envelope to maximize the accuracy of aircraft handling qualities. To improve motion cueing, the newest advancements on CAE’s simulators include the use of electric vibration platforms, electric motion systems, and electric cockpit servos. These new electrical actuation systems bring the benefits of greater fidelity, higher bandwidth cues, and lower operational cost. For the AgustaWestland team of Captain Leonardo Mecca, Head of Training, Francesco Pasqualetto, director of Training and Helicopter Support Systems, along with Regional Business

manager Jon Sackett, the main current technology advantage has been the availability of good-quality commercialoff-the-shelf (COTS) products, which the company has been able to integrate successfully into its flight simulator solutions to produce high-fidelity products. That team also reported that by combining such products with AgustaWestland's own flight test and engineering data, the company has been able to produce devices to the standards required by the civil regulatory authorities. The multinational helicopter design and manufacturing company has also found that the new generation of electrical motion systems allow for significant reductions in maintenance and facility costs, while providing comparable performance standards to the traditional hydraulic motion systems.

Better Visuals and Terrain According to Mecca, Pasqualetto and Sackett, the use of flight simulation in helicopter flight training is becoming a must today for any part of training, even when flying VFR only. Modern visual systems are benefiting from continually

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Heli-Expo! C AT M AGA Z IN E 1 . 2 0 1 4


Rotary Wing Training improving update rates and resolution, with the ability to model more realistic scenarios and weather effects relevant to customers operations in fields such as oil and gas platforms, accident scenes and city landing platforms with associated hazards. To provide the highest quality visuals, AgustaWestland has been taking advantages of COTS solutions for direct projection visuals that have received regulatory authority acceptance at the highest levels of certification. This means that pilots flying the company's helicopter simulators experience very realistic height perception at low levels, making the simulator much more useful for training down to ground levels for difficult tasks. These tasks include such flight elements as confined area landings and the simulation of emergencies close to the ground. FlightSafety International's general manager of Visual Systems John Hester pointed out that increased field of view (FOV) with cross-cockpit viewing is dramatically improving the acceptance of simulator training. Helicopter cockpits generally have significantly more wind screen area than fixed wing aircraft, so greater FOV is extremely important as pilots need this extended viewing for many critical maneuvers such as hover/land. Then both the physical aspects and manufacturing resources, along with the ability to eliminate distortions as the FOV increases is paramount to creating a realistic environment, he explained. FlightSafety has accomplished both of these and more with its mirror CrewView display. Another major factor for enhancing out-the-window views in helicopter simulators besides increasing FOVs, is the development of higher resolution and more detailed terrain databases. According to Hilaire, CAE is seeing demand for higher resolution database content simultaneously covering larger training areas. Relying solely on satellite imagery becomes cost prohibitive under these conditions, so the company's “Motif” DB production technique has been a key factor in meeting recent program requirements, he said. Motif procedurally generates high resolution imagery suitable for both low and high level flight, with the company delivering Motif for country-sized areas. Frasca is also now frequently delivering country-size databases with high-resolution imagery. This capability is possible with the company's Vision Global image generator, which can handle virtually unlimited database sizes. Managing the data licenses when using commercially available data is becoming a part of the effort of providing such extensive databases, Frasca pointed out.

place concurrently with aircraft deliveries," Frasca continued. According to the AgustaWestland team, the major change from the company's perspective has been the acceptance of flight simulation by the regulators, with EASA allowing a Level D FFS to be used for the majority of a type rating, and the FAA allowing for zero-flight time conversion for such a device. Most recently, the company's customers are asking not only for instrument training, where the recognized credit towards the live helicopter from all Authorities stands as 100 percent, but also for more mission-orientated and multi-crew training to improve crew cooperation in the cockpit. Customers are also looking for courses and systems more tailored towards their operating procedures in their operating environment. Dave Welch, director of the FlightSafety International Lafayette Learning Center in Lafayette, LA, said that more and more countries around the world are requiring pilots to attend simulation training if the simulator exists. An even larger issue is that FlightSafety's customers require their pilots to undergo simulation training as part of their qualification. They have realized the importance of simulation training in protecting their people and assets, and in controlling their costs. The customer is demanding scene models in the area where they will operate, Welch added. In addition, Level D fidelity and scene detail is enabling more mission-oriented training tasks, such as confined area landings, realistic accident scenes, offshore platform operations, pinnacle landings, and NVG training. These more realistic training mission scenarios extrapolate to the real world, Welch noted.

More Simulation Acceptance Training Trends According to Hilaire, worker transport to offshore oil and gas facilities is the helicopter world’s version of the commercial airline business. Helicopter services and support companies offer scheduled service in large capacity helicopters and operate point to point in often difficult weather conditions. It is in this oil and gas transport domain that CAE sees the most significant and growing use of simulation training. "There seems to be an effort towards putting training where the pilots are," Frasca said. "Training centers are being announced all over the world. Simulation is being identified by OEM’s much earlier in the aircraft development programs. And overall, the goal seems to be to have the training programs in 16

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While flight schools and instructor pilots were reluctant in the past to employ helicopter FTDs and full flight simulators into their training curricula because they felt that those trainers did not replicate aircraft performance accurately enough, the consensus of the CAT sources for this article is that this trend has been largely reversed. In fact, they see even more growth in the use of simulators for flight training in the future. "As technology advances and more high-fidelity simulators are deployed globally, we are definitely seeing both

Modern visual systems are benefiting from continually improving update rates and resolution, with the ability to model more realistic scenarios and weather effects. Image credit: AgustaWestland.

increased acceptance and adoption of simulation training," Hilaire said. "The key to continuing – and even accelerating – the growth trend on the civil side is to bring that efficiency and safety mindset to bear while leveraging technology to enhance realism and improve training experience and capability while decreasing costs by deploying training assets locally." "Advanced cockpits are a significant

force pushing the use of simulation," Frasca said. "The high cost of operating the aircraft, but perhaps more importantly the limited availability of aircraft for training, also encourages the use of simulation. Helicopters are a huge capital investment, with owners wanting them earning revenue every single day. These benefits of simulation have always existed. Obviously there is an increase in formal safety programs. Frequently these

programs identify increased use of simulation as a strategy." The AgustaWestland team feels that regulation will remain a key factor driving customers towards simulation, supported by technological advances that continue to enhance realism and drive down cost. However, the industry is already approaching the stage where concerns are being raised about ensuring that pilots have sufficient time in the aircraft, and this will limit the extent to which simulation can take over. Another aspect will be to extend training into the full-crew environment to extend the multi-crew training to further enhance performance. Here, more low-cost solutions are emerging from gaming technology that could help to drive this forward, the team predicts. "More and more there is both the expectation and the requirement for simulation training around the globe both from regulators and customers," Welch summed up. "We are also seeing part 135 operators evaluating training programs with the goal of moving more training from the aircraft to the simulator." cat

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Prepare to be Surprised Sunjoo Advani, Jeffery Schroeder and Bryan Burks provide a summary of the current thinking and provide practical perspectives on upset prevention and recovery training.


he airplanes we operate are reliable by design, and training is so solid that we can respond to nearly all situations without allowing them to escalate beyond control. However, perfectly good airplanes can rapidly transgress from an upset state to a Loss-of-Control In-Flight (LOCI) condition when a pilot is not trained to react properly. LOC-I is still the number one threat, and while rare, LOC-I events are likely catastrophic. The Boeing/CAST (August 2012) indicates that LOC-I killed 1648 passengers during the past ten years, and EASA’s Annual Safety Review 2012 indicates that it is also the category with the highest fatalities. When faced with the unexpected, pilots will need to refer to their learned skills and apply best judgement within a very small window of time. It is no wonder that this subject has received focused attention during the past five years following a number of compelling accidents: Colgan Air 3407 (Q-400, Buffalo, 12 Feb. 2009), Turkish Airlines 1951 (B737, Amsterdam, 14 Mar. 2009) and Air France



447 (A330, Atlantic Ocean, 31 May 2009). While other causes of accidents have been systematically addressed through technology (CFIT, powerplant-related, mid-air collisions), LOC-I prevention requires better awareness, recognition and avoidance, and recovery training. In today’s cockpit, the pilot’s training is the final safety net to prevent LOC-I. While the seeds for the Royal Aeronautical Society’s ICATEE (International Committee for Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes) had already been planted prior to these events, a conference in London by that society launched an earnest effort to understand the causes of these upsets and to define the best training solutions. What triggers upsets? They can be triggered by pilot, environment or system-induced conditions as shown in the table opposite, based on Jacobson [2010].

Startle - the LOC-I Catalyst According to Lambregts [2008], aerodynamic stall is the leading cause of fatal LOC-I accidents, contributing to 36%.

Surprisingly, some crews (e.g. Colgan 3407 and AF 447) responded inappropriately to the stall warning and protection systems. Other flight crews appeared unaware of the flight condition, or reverted to maintaining altitude whatever the cost - a major systemic training deficiency. True, stall is an end product of poor energy management, inattention, inaccurate flight path monitoring, or weather-induced events. Yet, despite the escalation of the events leading to the stall, the recovery at any stage (prior to the g-break, or after loss of lift and the resulting unsteady aerodynamic conditions) remains the same: an immediate reduction of angle-of-attack is requisite. Why then do upsets invariably become Loss of Control events? When combined with a situation that causes a pilot to become alarmed, leading to an inability to properly resolve the problem - a condition commonly known as “startle,” the upset can rapidly become a LOC-I event. Most of the LOC-I events are believed to occur when an upset provokes a startle reaction. If this is true,

What triggers upsets? Based on Jacobson [2010].



System Induced

Improper/inadequate training

Weather (turbulence, icing, adverse winds, wind shear)

Reduced envelope/ mode protection

Poor energy management Wake vortices

Changing pilot skill base

Automation/mode confusion

Visibility (for VFR flights)


Foreign Object Damage

Erroneous sensor data

Destabilized approaches

Improper procedures (e.g. poor monitoring)

A/C systems failures

then unfortunately knowledge and the traditional maneuverbased training alone will not prevent LOC-I. Startling scenarios are needed. The crew’s startle reaction is the leading catalyst that can take an upset airplane into an LOC-I condition. Can we create startle in training? Yes. Can enough startle scenarios be developed and used appropriately so that they remain effective? Possibly. Do we need to train startle management? Absolutely.

Stall Tactics

Image credit: Sunjoo Advani.

Poor energy management (systems-induced)

Until 2012, the aeronautical community had a misplaced emphasis on minimizing altitude loss during a stall recovery. While the safety intentions of such an emphasis may have seemed sound, it led to the inappropriate establishment of specific standards for altitude loss in proficiency checks, and that was accompanied by an unintentional hiding of stalling physics. Training events that instilled minimizing altitude loss consisted of preplanned, announced, stall recovery maneuvers. Invariably, a pilot only needed to apply power, quickly break the stall with a short nose drop, and adjust the airplane attitude to continue recovery without compromising altitude. It was a hand-eye co-ordination task, and because the maneuver was planned, it caused no startle reaction or startle management from the pilot. However, if those are the ONLY skills that one has acquired, are they enough to prevent reoccurrences of the recent stall accidents? Perhaps not.

Math Model Upgrade Solution for Flight Simulators

Light aerobatic-capable aircraft can be a beneficial learning environment, and are recommended for at least initial training at the licensing level. A good instructor can demonstrate and hone the flying skills of the pilot in UPRT and provide the bridge of knowledge that pertains to transport category aircraft. Part of the complete initial UPRT program, and the subsequent type-specific training, must rely on flight simulators with a representative flight-deck environment, even for stall training. In a stall, the aircraft behaviour may be unpredictable as the aerodynamics are unsteady. No two airplanes or situations are the same, and no two stalls are the same. Unpredictability is not the kind of behaviour we commonly want from our simulation software, especially when qualification is required. However, with a major focus on stall training, simulator models that do represent stalls “accurately enough for the training objectives” are now becoming available. Boeing and “Stall Recovery, Simulator Improvements In New FAA Training Rule” Aviation Week, 5 November 2013


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UPRT Ab Initio Students There has been general recognition over the last few years that some form of upset prevention and recovery training should be introduced into ab-initio pilot training. Whilst such training forms a mandatory part of an approved MPL course, until recently there was no such regulatory requirement for the modular and integrated routes to professional pilot qualifications. The inclusion or otherwise of this training had therefore been left to individual training organisations or those airlines who want new pilots to have completed it. One training organisation which has gone ahead with the design of such training is CTC Aviation – based in the UK and New Zealand. In response to the specific request of British Airways, whose Future Pilot Programme (FPP) Ab Initio Pilot Training programme is overseen by CTC Aviation, and with the approval of easyJet, who also support an ab initio pilot course, a standardised upset prevention and recovery training package has now been integrated into the training. Presently delivered at Bournemouth, UK, this consists of one day of lectures/discussions on the reasons for the training and the theory behind it, followed by 3 hours in the aircraft. Some of that will be in an aerobatic aircraft – for the moment the platform is ex-RAF Bulldog aircraft, and part in a light aircraft, the Diamond DA 40. The two types are used because the stress is not on aerobatics as such, but rather on the skills which an airline pilot might have to call on during her/his career. The emphasis is very much on the relevance to airline operation, so the final part of the training is on a representative type – a Boeing 737 Full Flight Simulator. A cadre of specially qualified instructors is used to deliver this training, and increasingly airlines are requiring it to be incorporated into their bespoke cadet programmes. Maybe such a course should form part of best practice in all future ab initio pilot training programmes. – Chris Long 20


NASA Langley Research Centre developed an accurate stall model for one aircraft type nearly a decade ago. Boeing has developed a full stall model for the 737NG using data from hundreds of flight-test stalls. “Type representative” models, depicting the needed random behaviour are also becoming available (for example, from Bihrle Applied Research), while other consortia continue to develop convincingly realistic real-time models based on wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics data. Hence, there is no technical obstacle that prevents full stall training.

Simulator Stall Training Requirements Is training the recovery from an approach-to-stall in a simulator sufficient? The viewpoints differ. While US Public Law 111-216 and recent Part 121 revisions require training to full stalls and upsets, some argue that this could lead to negative training transfer. While they argue that improvements in prevention alone are sufficient, others believe training should go beyond that. As the aircraft comes close to the aerodynamic stall, the aircraft flight characteristics degrade and the controls become sluggish. Buffet cues may help the pilot to respond, and in some cases, the vibrations can be so severe that instruments become unreadable. Pilots could be drawn into a tendency to maintain the nose-up attitude or try to control bank angle at the expense of recognizing and recovering by reducing the angle-ofattack. Therefore, there is a strong argument in favour of exposing pilots to the complete threat environment in a properly controlled manner. The FAA conducted a study in Oklahoma City in late 2013 involving 45 Boeing 737 airline pilots who had been previously “approach-to-stall” trained in their company simulators. They were all briefed on, and indicated they were familiar with, the recently published OEM Stall Recovery Template explaining how to recover at first indication of stall by applying a nose-down pitch input until the stall warning is eliminated. During the study, the airline pilots were presented with an unexpected surprise stall situation. The result was as

startling for the researchers as it was for the pilots: Only one-fourth of the pilots applied the proper stall recovery procedure correctly when surprised. Most of the pilots - for a significant length of time - applied back pressure, worsening the stall. The advanced stall models also tempted pilots to deviate more from the proper recovery technique through actions such as applying significant pedal inputs. The bottom line of this eye-opener was that reverting to the old recovery technique was a dominant response when pilots were surprised. Clearly, the approach-to-stall maneuver-based training leaves something to be desired. Exposure to the startle effect acting as a psychophysical catalyst in combination with the stall reveals errors that simulator training can correct. Both aeronautical knowledge and exposure to the threat environment can be used to develop the confidence that is needed to avoid startle and learn to recover properly. In other words, remaining calm during an emergency can only be fully realized after one has been shown that they are indeed capable of resolving that emergency. Using today’s technology to get the most out of UPRT is strongly recommended. While modifications to stall models and the presentation of UPRTcritical information on the instructor operating station may involve time and investment, airlines should applaud the fact that over half of the required training can be accomplished by making better use of current-day simulators, when combined with proper knowledge-based training. The Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid (AURTA) is the distinguished source of the aeronautical knowledge, covering causes and cures for most upsets.

Investing in Risk Reduction UPRT can provide the biggest bang for the buck when properly implemented and quality assured. The forthcoming ICAO Manual of Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery, a manifestation of several international committees including ICATEE, promises to define the training elements necessary to ensure pilots develop the requisite knowledge and skills for a successful program. However,

the development or revision of those programs is left to the operators and local authorities themselves. An innovative development is taking place at South African Airways (SAA), whose underwriter has pledged assistance with the implementation of their UPRT program. According to their Chief Training Captain Johann Du Plessis, “Being faced with an upset condition which takes a pilot out of their comfort zone cannot be successfully recovered from, unless ingrained recovery techniques have been developed. Therefore, our insurers and underwriters appreciate the risk associated with loss of control in flight and have been extremely supportive with the introduction of a recognized and comprehensive upset prevention and recovery training programme”. This includes acquiring a tablet-based version of the AURTA, development of the entire training program, and a complete “Train-the-Trainer” program for their instructors utilizing on-aircraft and simulator training. “The airline industry recognizes that LOC-I is the leading cause of fatal accidents”, states SAA’s Chief Standards Pilot, Captain Sandy Bayne. “A lot of the actions you take in recovering from an upset are really counter-intuitive.” Following completion of the course at Aviation Performance Solutions in Mesa, Arizona, Captain Bayne felt “I now have the ability to impart this knowledge, to understand the concepts behind an upset and recovering from it.” While not every nation, airline or pilot may have the luxury to impart on-aircraft training (it is recommended though as part of CPL or MPL training), the message is clear: Properly designed and carefully instructed programs that integrate knowledge and

practical exposure to the upsets - that develop the confidence pilots need to bring an airplane back into its flight envelope - can be powerful in preventing upsets and avoiding Loss of Control In Flight. And don’t forget that important catalyst: Surprise! References: • Jacobson, S., “Aircraft Loss of Control Causal Factors and Mitigation Challenges”. In Proc. of AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, Toronto, Aug 2010, AIAA-2010-8007 CP. • Proceedings of AIAA GNC Conf., Toronto, 2010 • Lambregts, et al, “Airplane Upsets - Old Problem, New Issues”. In Proc. of AIAA Modeling & Simulation Technologies Conf., Honolulu, Aug 2008, AIAA-2008-6867 CP. About the authors: Dr. Sunjoo Advani, the owner and president of International Development of Technology b.v., is an aerospace engineer and pilot. He has chaired the ICATEE team in the development of the content that became the core of the ICAO Manual of Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery. Dr. Jeffery Schroeder is the FAA’s Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Flight Simulation Systems. He has served as Research & Technology Co-Chair of ICATEE. Capt. Bryan Burks is a Seattle based pilot and UPRT content developer with Alaska Airlines. He has served as Training & Regulatory Requirements Co-Chair of ICATEE. cat





Maintenance Training

Safety Meets Training As usual, there are numerous noteworthy sessions planned for WATS, but this year one should look for the big picture on maintenance and training. Robert W. Moorman explains.


hen WATS begins this spring in Orlando, Fla., those attending the maintenance sessions will hear a recurring theme: how creating a safety culture will lay a good foundation for training aircraft maintenance technicians (AMTs). While including the latest training aids and methods are helpful in developing a training program, they will be ineffective without a commitment to safety from the boardroom down to the maintenance floor. CAT Editor-in-Chief Chris Lehman said it best in one editorial: “The establishment of a Safety Culture starts at the top, and it is measured at the bottom." Embracing this concept applies aptly to issues and problems that deserve attention. Even with enhanced training, problems will reoccur without the development of a safety culture. William B. Johnson, Ph.D., Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for the FAA, who will lead the maintenance sessions at WATS, illustrates the point when discussing one of his major concerns. “The top issue is the continued failure to use technical documentation to get the job done,” he said. “We have a culture of not using documentation properly, whether it is on the ground or in the cockpit. We have a tendency to skip things.” Johnson’s concerns derive from the maintenance related data collected by the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP), NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System, internal FAA data that looks at administrative actions against AMTs, as well as other means of collecting and analyzing safety data. Collecting and analyzing maintenance data is a sound template for how to aug22

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ment maintenance training as well as creating a safety culture. Past-suggested solutions, such as reminding AMTs to use the documentation, or simplifying the instruction language are “good ideas that won’t work,” Johnson said candidly. Some suggest that the FAA fines AMTs or their employers for not using proper documentation. But levying punishments won’t get at the overall problem, said Johnson. A study by psychologist Patrick Hudson from the UK, who has researched the need to follow documentation, agrees with Johnson. What then? “We have to change the culture,” Johnson said, “which will require an extremely high level of corporate commitment.” Peer pressure would help, but creating a safety culture first as part of the company’s Safety Management System (SMS) as well enhancing AMT training is the way to make lasting change, said Johnson and other training experts CAT interviewed. One way to help create a safety culture within maintenance departments is to encourage the use of

Airlines regulated under Part 121 and Part 135 are required to keep maintenancetraining records. Image credit: Delta Air Lines.

a variety of reporting systems, and act on that data. “We are good at collecting [maintenance related] data, but not very good at analyzing it,” Johnson said. Aircraft manufacturers and airlines have initiated programs and offered products that make documentation readily available through the use of mobile devices, such as iPads. Gulfstream Aerospace, makers of high-end business jets, offers good readily available documentation for AMTs and other users. But these are tools. What is needed first is a change in mindset.

Safety Culture Johnson cited Miami Air International, a small Dade County, Fla.-based charter airline, as one operator with a high corporate commitment to its SMS. “Without a safety culture, you do not have a SMS program,” Armando Martinez, Senior Director of Safety and Security for Miami Air said. Miami Air was the first charter airline to have a fully implemented SMS program under FAA’s SMS Pilot Program. The program has been very successful. In 2012, Miami Air got a $30,000 credit from its insurance underwriters to use on safety initiatives. This year, it got $50,000 to use for the same purpose. Johnson points to Pratt & Whitney (P&W) as a good example of a large company within a larger corporation that has a good safety culture. P&W, the engine

manufacturing division of United Technologies, which also owns Sikorsky Aircraft, maintains a safety culture through its Accelerating Customer Excellence (ACE) program. All UTC companies, including Pratt’s engine manufacturing and MRO units, are part of ACE. One UTC-wide safety practice worth noting are the daily, so-called “standdowns,” where every staff member stops what they’re doing and inspects their work area for any safety problems. “On the engine floor, safety procedures are built into the standard practices,” said Curtis Ray Lowery, manager, Curriculum Design and Development, Customer Training, Pratt & Whitney. Maintaining a system wide safety culture within maintenance departments is particularly important today because of the changes that have occurred within the industry, particularly at airlines. “We are trying to do more with less,” said Joaquin Villarreal, senior manager FedEx TechOps Training. “We are all trying to perform maintenance more efficiently and effectively.” To deal with this new economic reality, FedEx Tech Ops instructs its mechanics to better troubleshoot maintenance problems the first time in order to avoid a major maintenance down the road. Aiding the troubleshooting task are easy access electronic logbooks. FedEx is in the process of acquiring iPad tablets for every AMT to use

on the aircraft. iPads can be checked out by AMTs before their shift begins. AMTs can access a parts manual or order replacement parts on the tablets. While these tools are a help, it is the top-down commitment to safety which is what drives FedEx Tech Ops and other carriers to evolve its maintenance practices and training, Villarreal said. In the last five years, FedEx TechOps Training has adopted a lean continual improvement culture, which has included updating the training program for AMTs. FedEx has implemented an aircraft strike prevention program as part of its SMS program, along with YouTube style videos to better train its AMTs. AMTs also can obtain additional training on various aircraft systems online. Like other carriers, FedEx Tech Ops uses CAE’s Simfinity program to simulate maintenance problems. “We try and duplicate real life scenarios as much as possible,” said Villarreal. “This has made a real difference in the quality of maintenance performed by FedEx mechanics.”

Safety Elements A key component of maintaining a safety culture is the inclusion of Human Factors. Gareth McGraw, Human Factors Advisor, Standards Division, Civil Aviation Safety Authority of Australia will discuss “Safety Behaviors - Human Factors for Engineers,” at WATS 2014.

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Maintenance While many think of human factors as it relates to piloting an aircraft, the concept for maintenance has been around for 30 years, said Johnson. Continental Airlines is credited with establishing the first human factors training program for maintenance, dubbed Crew Coordination Concepts. The program was modeled somewhat after the cockpit crew coordination program. Similar programs have been adopted by other major and regional airlines and independent MROs. Aviation associations are doing their part to promote a safety culture through better training within maintenance departments. Airlines for America is working with member airlines and industry participants to revise the ATA Specification (ATA Spec) 104, titled, “Guidelines for Aircraft Maintenance Training.” [FedEx’s Villarereal, chairman of the A4A maintenance Training Network (MTN) will discuss those plans at WATS.] In addition, ATA is producing a new spec that describes an industry best practice in identifying a continuous monitoring of maintenance instructions for operators to provide feedback when a safety related maintenance instruction exists. A4A does not sponsor or endorse maintenance-training programs. Nor do its members think a specific area of maintenance needs better training. “That said, specialized system training on NextGen avionics and aircraft troubleshooting are two areas upon which operators continue to focus their maintenance training efforts, “ said Mark Lopez, A4A director Technical Operations. Lopez said he would provide an overview of A4A maintenance training industry efforts on the revision of the ATA Spec and review maintenance training issues, such as combining training programs in response to recent industry consolidation. One question that is likely to be asked at WATS - how do you create, or re-create a safety culture at a merged airline, which had two different corporate cultures and maintenance processes?

Investment Creating a safety culture with the help of an SMS program can be particularly challenging if there aren’t enough 24

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William B. Johnson, Ph.D., Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for the FAA, will once again moderate the maintenance sessions at WATS. Image credit: David Malley/Halldale Group.

trained AMTs on staff. The Regional Airline Association (RAA) has been quoted nationwide saying the challenge of maintaining an “adequate supply of trained maintenance personnel is here today.” Even with personnel challenges, the association wants greater focus on practical training for AMTs to ensure they are prepared for work at a regional airline once they arrive. RAA would like trainers to integrate more non-technical training, such as fatigue, human factors and preventing non-compliance. RAA urges that technical training of AMTs keeps pace with technology. RAA is encouraging airlines to partner with educational institutions, such as high schools with vocational education as well as community colleges with aviation programs. It also wants to see a greater financial investment in training AMTs, particularly as it applies to NextGen related avionics and other equipment. “The US government will spend $12 billion on NextGen, and there should be a small percentage of that money invested in our ‘human’ capital since it’s the technicians, who are responsible to safely maintain this technology and support our industry,” said Stacey Bechdolt, senior director, Safety & Technical Affairs, Regulatory Counsel. Meantime, RAA member airlines are doing their part to help create a safety

culture within maintenance departments. The Association suggests: incorporating Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) into the Continuous Analysis and Surveillance System (CASS) audits; requiring human factors/behaviors training for leadership and supervisors; promoting safety by working to implement the Maintenance Aviation Safety Action Program (MASAP) and other voluntary programs; implementing company-wide InfoShares with maintenance breakout sessions focused on safety, training, technical and compliance issues; communicating the ‘whys’ of new policies and procedures to help technicians understand the importance of the safety risk.

Record Keeping Ric Peri, vice president of Government and Industry Affairs, Aircraft Electronics Association (AEA) said maintaining a safety culture in maintenance departments would be enhanced if FAAlicensed AMTs were required to keep a record of their ongoing training and experience. “We (in the US) do a great job of institutionalizing continuous improvement training, including maintenance, but a lousy job of documenting it,” Peri said. “Our deficiency is not in the fundamental requirements [for US AMTs], our deficiency is the ability to show what has been done.” In the US, the only record an AMT is required to keep is the qualification to get the certificate. No regulatory requirement exists for any record keeping of training beyond that, he said. Peri is correct when referring to Part 91 regulations, which pertain to the operation of small non-commercial aircraft within the US. However, airlines regulated under Part 121 and Part 135 are required to keep maintenancetraining records. This also applies to Part 145 MROs. Some of the larger corporate operators, which operate under Part 91, are likely to keep maintenance-training records, even when not required by the regulator. Some mechanics also keep their training and working requirements, which permits them to maintain their “Recency of Experience” as described

in Part 65.83. Nevertheless, Peri’s point is well taken. Better record keeping of training enhances and validates a maintenance operation, and augments the safety culture of a large segment of the aviation industry. Peri would like to see a provision to Part 65 to have record keeping of their continuing education/training so regulatory authorities or employers can evaluate the AMTs. “Fundamentally, we have a maintenance safety culture,” Peri said. Incorporating the SMS into the corporate culture - without fear of reprisals - would help advance the safety culture.” “At present, there are around 130,000 wrench turning mechanics in the aviation industry,” said Peri, of which 52% work for airlines. The rest of the AMTs are divided among manufacturing, FBOs and government. WATS 2014 attendees should not miss another session on new ways of delivering maintenance training. Professor Dennis Vincenzi, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide will discuss ERAU’s “Experience with Massive Open On-Line Courses (MOOC). Other sessions of note: D. Smith, Training Manager, US Department of Transportation Safety Institute, will address “SMS, Accident Investigation, and Non-technical Maintenance Training.” Michael Kalbow, Head of Maintenance Training, Airbus will talk on “How to Promote and Sustain Safety Culture Through International Technical Training Cooperation.” Dr. Maggie Ma, Senior Research Engineer, The Boeing Company will follow up with “Affecting Voluntary Reporting Across Many Cultures.” CAT contacted numerous airlines for their views on enhancing AMT training and creating a safety culture for maintenance departments. Many said they couldn’t answer one question without including the other in the answer. “Training and safety are intertwined in the same way that training and technical skill is,” said David T. Deveau, vice president Safety Quality & Environment, Jazz Aviation, a regional airline serving Air Canada with a fleet of over 130 aircraft. “In a modern safety culture, training is not separate activity. It is a safety activity.” Maintenance Training manager Rob-

ert Harpelle agreed. “In the past, safety training was almost like an add-on or a standalone training subject. We would cover specifics items such as human factors or safety reporting requirements.” “That has changed,” Harpelle continued, “we include safety as part of all training. The safety subjects are selected based on SMS inputs, which highlight areas of concern. This ensures that the training is focused on areas, which need attention, not just trying to tick a box off.” Deveau said the blending of training and safety could manifest itself in many ways, “including when training is part of the feedback cycle whereby risks and hazards and other issues identified

through SMS flow back through those who manage risk. “It also works the other way around, in that it is often during training that we learn about the realities and subtleties of what is happening on the front line,” Deveau continued. “Training is as much a safety process as any other part of SMS.” That is a message that is likely to be heard again and again at WATS. cat

wats2014 O R L A N D O

WATS 2014 will take place 1-3 April at the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort, Orlando, Florida. For the latest maintenance conference program and additional event details please visit

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A New Paradigm for Training Provision? Chris Long profiles some new players in the European training market.


ew providers are emerging now in response to the booming market for flight training. One case in point is Axis Flight Training Systems of Lebring, Austria. Martin Rossmann is CEO and founder of the company, and has long experience in the software industry as a developer and manager. During his 18 year tenure as CEO of APUS Software GmbH, the company expanded into the fields of Flight Data Processing, Aeronautical Data Networks, and Radar Tracking, with the software development focus on complex, failure-proof control and monitoring systems, including ATC voice communications. His enthusiasm for aviation led to his becoming a private pilot, soon progressed to a CPL/IFR and business jet type ratings. In 2004 he looked for further challenges and it was this which led him to start AXIS Flight Training Systems. Right from the start Rossmann wanted to shoot for the highest level of FTD – the full flight simulator (FFS). Not satisfied just with that task, he also believed that form should follow function, and that the final product should reflect 26


the clean look of modern lightweight design to create an environmentally friendly, effective and attractive training environment. Four years of development with a young team (average age 31) culminated in 2008 with the first device, a Fokker 100 FFS, which was certified and installed at Neusiedl am See – a town carefully identified as being well positioned between two capital cities – 20 minutes from the airport at Vienna (Austria) and 35 minutes from Bratislava Airport (Slovakia). Some basics were established – COTS solutions as requested by the customer were chosen for motion platforms (Moog is presently fitted) and visual systems (upgrades to RSI projection systems have recently been completed). The OEM performance package was used, but enhanced where appropriate. For instance the opportunity to employ Axis' own software skills was used to develop an improved and realistic simulation of the handling characteristics encountered during icing conditions especially in the ATR simulator. Legacy systems had simply had an On/

Off switch for the icing function, but Axis recognised that there was much more training value in replicating the effects of progressive accumulations of ice on aircraft operation. The underlying design uses in-house manufactured panels (built-in LRUs for replacement and simple spares supply) such that, for instance, a recently-installed FFS can rapidly be changed from an ATR 42 to an ATR 72 configuration. Real-time monitoring of component operation allows online predictive maintenance to be used to complete change-outs before failure, thus delivering uninterrupted training time to the customer.

Partners The key to the Axis development is the relationship with training providers. Two locally-based companies address complimentary parts of the market, and the close proximity and strong bonds between all three illustrate a new paradigm in training provision. The facility and infrastructure were newly built in 2007 by a training provider, the Aviation Academy Austria (AAA). This organisation was set


Farnair Training Center's dual-capable ATR FFS. Image credit: AXIS Flight Training Systems.

up by five pilots from Austrian Airlines in 2004, and established itself at Neusiedl where affordable hotels, access to a large pool of instructors and pleasant leisure facilities make the whole training package affordable and attractive. AAA now operates two Level D certified FFS built by Axis – the original Fokker 100 and a Cessna XLS, the latter operational since April 2013. Given the range of countries operating the Cessna, this FFS has to have a large number of national approvals. The Type Rating training and the dry lease packages are not the only product on offer, as the AAA has an ab initio programme which uses Aquila A211GX, Diamond DA 40 and D42 aircraft, and works to a syllabus based on the EASA Part FCL Integrated ATP course. The second organisation based at Neusiedl is the Farnair Training Center, which was born of the need for Farnair Switzerland AG, an airline which operates 17 ATR cargo aircraft and one ATR passenger aircraft, to complete its training close to base, rather than sending crews to more remote facilities. Axis manufactured the FFS in line with Farnair's specific requirements. It started operation in December 2012 with a dual-capable ATR FFS, and the device has delivered high reliability since then. The futuristic Forward Facing Instructor Operating Station operates intuitively and allows a full range of training scenarios. An Axis-produced FTD will provide the lead-in training from early 2014, and in-house CBT facilitates distance learning prior to the course. In September 2013 Austro Control re-certified the ATR 42 version to Level C (the highest level possible with the existing software release from the OEM) and the ATR 72 to Level D. With 20% of the capacity required for their own operations, there is a good margin available to offer to third parties as dry or wet lease, and the take up by customers Avanti Air, UTAir and Baltic Aviation Academy has been very well received. One interesting innovation by Farnair is the Line Experience Pilot Program (LEP). Here the new pilot goes through an intensive selection process, and then completes a Type Rating on the ATR, followed by a guaranteed 12 months or a minimum of 500 hours with an airline at a reduced salary to build operational time.

Manuals & Training Materials

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New Pattern The scale of training demand is now such that new players are moving into the arena. On the one hand there are the M & As in which historic FTD manufacturers have been taken over by major defence players – L3 for the civil arm of Thales, Lockheed Martin for Sim Industries, and Textron for Mechtronix and Opinicus. These bring massive legacy knowledge with matching R&D budgets, and ultimately produce very effective training solutions. The counter balance to those large-scale operations is the emergence of either individual organisations or groups of smaller new entrants. As represented by the small Neusiedl cluster, these latter systems tend to be more proactive - the decision-making process is frequently more responsive and agile, so they can react quickly to the market or customer demand. In many ways it is a new paradigm which reflects other 21st century industries and contemporary approaches, where young teams and entrepreneurial enterprise can bring innovative and effective results. Perhaps the sheer scale of global demand is such that there is room for both of these approaches – it will be interesting in the future to see where the balance lies. cat

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Manuals & Training Materials CAT MAGAZINE 1.2014


Airline Training Profile

The Challenge of Growth Willem-Jan Derks explores the challenges faced by Copa Airlines over the last several years and the solutions found by its Training Department to address the rapid growth of the company.


he general rapid expansion of commercial aviation in Latin America has seen a few companies experience particularly remarkable growth. Copa Airlines from Panama is one of those, having doubled its size in five years. At present, Copa Airlines and Copa Airlines Colombia operate 60 Boeing 737 aircraft plus 23 Embraer 190s with another 43 Boeing 737’s on order. This is rather impressive given that the airline originated in a country with a little over 3.5 million people. Panama’s strategic location in the continent has allowed Copa Airlines to build its ‘Hub of the Americas’ at Tocumen International Airport, transporting over 10 million passengers every year to 66 locations in 29 countries in the Americas, a number that is expected to grow significantly over the next few years. Expansions such as these obviously provide challenging tasks for the recruitment and training departments.


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Training Programme Since 2006, Copa Airlines has had a state-of-the-art training centre in Panama City equipped with three flat panel trainers (VPT), two FFS Level D simulators and one FTD Level 5 with motion cue system for their Boeing 737 and Embraer 190 fleet. This year, the centre plans to expand by incorporating another FFS, as well as two cockpit procedure trainers for the B737 fleet. “All this is planned to fulfill the airline’s training need for both Panama and Colombia at our own centre,” explained Capt. Pedro Herrera, Senior Training Manager. Agreements with other centres are in place for extra capacity if needed. The hundreds of new pilots that were trained over the last few years follow a very organized footprint that completes the initial training programme in just less than four months, including the Initial Operational Experience. After a month of ground school, provided with a mix of elearning (40%) and traditional classroom

Copa Airlines' Mechtronix-built Boeing 737NG simulator. Image credit: Copa Airlines.

teaching, the trainees have 24 hours on the virtual procedure trainer over a week, before completing between 40 and 52 hours on the FFS depending on the trainee’s previous experience. The programme is completed with line training of between 100 and 150 hours. Copa Airlines started incorporating e-learning into their training curriculum in 1999, expanding the use of this methodology gradually over the years until its current format which provides good results. A few years’ later virtual procedure trainers were incorporated, further developing the programme. The latest innovation came only recently after a close cooperation with the Civil Aviation Authorities of Panama. With the selection of the Level 5 FTD with motion cue system for the Boeing 737, Copa Airlines sought

to obtain credit for hours in these simulators in order to reduce the hours that were necessary in the FFS. Exploring the capacities of the device to define the maximum credit, currently the devices allow for credit for 50% of initial training, 50% of the recurrents (except for PIC), as well as CAT II/III and RNAV/RNP training, optimizing training processes and reducing the load on the full flight simulators. The progress through the programme was adjusted after the implementation of these new devices and the credit obtained for their use. Copa Airlines applied a methodology that allows it to take full advantage of the consolidation of knowledge and experience obtained throughout the training. Special training courses such as Low Visibility Operations (CAT II/ III), RNAV/RNP SAAAR and Cold Weather Operations are first seen in ground school to cover all theory aspects related to the operation before passing onto the VPT to start working to associated checklists for both normal and abnormal operations as well as specific conditions. Upon successful completion of this phase, the

students pass onto the FFS where more real-life scenarios are presented and the lessons learned in the previous two phases are consolidated before passing to the line flying experience. The Training Department will continue its development this year with full implementation of Evidence Based Training concepts into its curriculum. Another important addition to the programme planned for this year is the incorporation of two cockpit procedure trainers for the B737 fleet. Other than the exclusively touch screen VPT’s used by Copa Airlines, these devices include the actual cockpit hardware to enhance the realism of the procedures that will be taught and increase the effectiveness of training in this stage of the programme.

Copa Airlines Colombia In 2005, Copa Airlines acquired Colombian airline AeroRepublica, which in 2010 changed its name to Copa Airlines Colombia completing the incorporation of the airline into the Copa Airlines holding. The airline’s main focus is the Colombian

domestic market, which means there are some operational differences with the mostly international operation of Copa Airlines out of Panama. Operating under a different legislation than its Panamanian parent company requires some adjustments of the standardized training programmes. The airline has its own Training Department with courses that are approved by the Colombian Civil Aviation Authority. It does however, use the facilities and simulators at the Copa Airlines Training Centre in Panama, as well as instructors and check airmen of Copa Airlines that have Colombian licenses besides their Panamanian. There are slight differences in the training programme, allowing for the more domestic type of operation of Copa Airlines Colombia with shorter flights, smaller airports and higher turn-around rates, as well as regulations differences. Hiring qualified staff is even more challenging in Colombia since local legislation is very restrictive in terms of allowing Colombian companies to hire

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Airline Training Profile foreign pilots, resulting in a higher demand for pilots with Colombian nationality. Obviously there is competition to hire these pilots from other airlines in the country, including two of the other Latin American giants Avianca (based in Colombia) and LATAM Airlines through their subsidiary LAN Colombia.

Hiring and Integration The difficulties in finding sufficient and adequate personnel is a common problem for many airlines in the region, but even more so for a large airline based in a country with only 3.5 million inhabitants. With Copa Airlines’ rapid growth, the airline had to look outside its borders to provide sufficient crew for both flight deck and cabin. Like many countries, Panama had limitations on the number of ex-pats that could be employed by any Panamanian company. The airline once more worked closely with the authorities to solve this problem for one of the fastest growing companies in the country. At present, to hire foreign employees the company must demonstrate the need to hire them due to a lack of suitable local candidates. Approximately 50% of pilots in Panama are ex-pats from all over the world, leading to another challenge for the Training Department, integrating everyone into a single Copa Airlines culture and operating philosophy. Even though a large amount of the ex-pats are all from Spanish speaking countries, cultural differences within the region can be substantial and have to be considered. CRM is a vital tool for successful integration, and it is used on various levels. The flight crew CRM programme for example, includes important multicultural aspects affecting the flight deck, specifically emphasizing matters such as how things are interpreted by different cultures, how to manage various types of behaviours and attitudes, and how to react to various and changing circumstances. The cabin crew programme includes CRM factors that affect communication to the flight deck, since many cabin crew members are from the region, but in the flight deck pilots are from all over the world. Also, instructor training takes these factors into consideration, and spe30

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ALAS is equipped with a fleet of Cessna 172 (shown) and Piper PA34 Seneca aircraft. Image credit: Academia Latinoamericana de Aviación Superior.

cial attention is dedicated to cultural differences, ways of learning and reactions in the classroom that vary from one area to another. Instructors are an important factor in Copa Airlines’ training footprint, and finding qualified new instructors is a challenge for any operator worldwide, even more so in a growth scenario. In the past, instructors with vast experience could easily be found to be hired by the airlines, but current hiring rates and training demands have changed that. Copa Airlines runs its instructors through a thorough ‘teach the teacher’ programme to prepare them for the job and maintain the quality of instructors and therefore the training programme itself in spite of the differences in instructor profiles.

Latin American Superior Academy for Aviation In June 2013, Copa Airlines took another big step in the development of training the next generations of local pilots when it sponsored the Academia Latinoamericana de Aviación Superior (ALAS, meaning wings in Spanish). All applicants to the school must be Panamanians, or COPA employees with Panamanian residency. Students that successfully complete their training at ALAS have a slot reserved in Copa Airlines’ training programmes, but do not receive a job guarantee until they pass their training satisfactorily. ALAS is a co-operation with the University of Technology of Panama (UTP) and US-based Florida Institute of Technology (FIT). Besides promoting the pilot career amongst Panamanian youth, one of the main objectives for the creation of

ALAS was to control the quality of training. The level of education chosen for the school is one equivalent to a university level. All the training is delivered at Marcos A. Gelabert International Airport (Albrook), a former US Army base outside Panama City, using FIT instructors for both theory and flight. The first batch of 40 students was selected out of 100 applicants and they started their course in two groups of 20 students. The number of students was limited to 40 because of the classroom capacity the school presently has, explained Robert Katz, General Director of ALAS. The school plans to increase the number of students per year as its facility grows, and offering training to pupils from other countries is also amongst the future possibilities. Finding suitable candidates is ever more challenging however, mainly because of the general level of English of the applicants. This is a common issue in the region and a problem to be addressed in local primary and high schools. The English level is a requirement ALAS cannot waive (nor does it want to) since the entire programme is delivered in English to the students. The course at ALAS is delivered and audited by FIT before continuing onto the Jet Transition training delivered by Copa Airlines at their Training Centre in a specifically designed programme. The school is equipped with a fleet of Cessna 172 and Piper PA34 Seneca aircraft, as well as a Frasca TruFlite Level 1 device that can be configured for either of the two models and an Ascent XJ trainer that uses a combination of systems for the Boeing 737 and Embraer 190. cat

Pilot Training

The International Pilot Training Consortium Peter Barrett, chairman of the International Pilot Training Consortium, describes the background to this game-changing partnership, its organisation, goals and recent developments.


he International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), the International Federation of Air Line Pilots’ Associations (IFALPA) and the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS) agreed in September 2011 to establish a new body – the International Pilot Training Consortium (IPTC) – through which they would work together in partnership using their membership networks and facilities on certain issues relating to pilot, instructor and evaluator training and qualification in the commercial air transport sector. At its meeting in Paris in June 2013, the International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations (ICCAIA) agreed that it should also become a partner in the IPTC under the same terms as the four original partners.

Background Commercial aviation is the safest mode of public transport today. Advances in the design, manufacturing, maintenance and reliability of modern aircraft, together with investment in pilot training initiatives, have contributed to this impressive achievement. However, while the overall trend in the accident rate continues to improve, the volume of traffic continues to grow, especially in certain parts of the world, putting this impressive safety record under considerable pressure. Since the late 1940s, commercial aviation organisations worldwide have made significant investments in pilot training initiatives, with the aim of improving safety, largely independently. These initiatives, while generally successful, have stretched the resources of individual organisations and have often led to divergent solutions to shared challenges; moreover, they have not benefited from the synergies of a combined and

coordinated effort. A paradigm shift was needed through a sustained collaborative effort.

Recent Work A considerable body of work has been undertaken in recent years by IATA, ICAO, IFALPA, the RAeS and other organisations on standards, processes, systems and devices used in training and qualifying commercial pilots. This work includes the IATA Training & Qualification Initiative (ITQI), launched in 2007, which aims to provide civil aviation with the tools to develop more effective recruitment, selection and training processes for pilots and maintenance staff; the ITQI outcomes are being reflected in ICAO provisions. In addition, ICAO, recognising the need to extend the scope of the development of harmonised training and to address outreach and industry attractiveness, undertook the Next Generation of Aviation Professionals (NGAP) program in light of the forecast increased demand for pilots, and other aviation professionals, and the evidence of a reduction in the attractiveness of such careers to young people. At a workshop in Paris in November 2010, IFALPA developed a

IPTC has the potential to become a real game-changer in improving safety, quality and efficiency in commercial aviation worldwide. Image credit: Air France.

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Pilot Training be provided under the auspices of the International Pilot Training Consortium (IPTC). While not duplicating any existing or projected work, the Consortium aims to introduce measures to further reduce the accident rate, and at the same time, seek to ensure that there are sufficient competent pilots to meet the needs of the forecast growth in commercial aviation. IPTC has the potential to be a game changer. Its mission statement reads: The objective of the International Pilot Training Consortium is to improve safety, quality and efficiency of commercial aviation by developing international agreement on a common set of pilot training, instruction and evaluation standards and processes for the benefit of the industry worldwide and that will result in ICAO provisions. At a meeting in Paris in June 2013, the ICCAIA agreed in principle that it should become a partner organisation in IPTC under the same terms as the four original partner organisations. The original Consortium partners have agreed to this significant development and it is anticipated that a Letter of Agreement between all five partners will be signed shortly to implement that decision.

set of best practices, including instructor standards, to provide for the most effective pilot training programmes. The RAeS has led work internationally since 1989 on the qualification of flight simulation training devices (FSTDs) which culminated in the publication of ICAO Document 9625 ‘Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices’. The RAeS has also undertaken work since 2005 specifically targeted on flight crew training, instruction and evaluation which has been progressed under the auspices of the International Flight Crew Training Committee. Much of the work of these four organisations and other bodies is undertaken with a view to the outcomes being implemented by Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs), but it is also recognised that rulemaking alone is not sufficient.

Partnership To continue to build on the industry’s impressive safety record, modernised and harmonised training standards and processes are necessary. To be successful, these improvements need to be coordinated and implemented on a global scale. During the RAeS International Flight Crew Training Conference in September 2011, a meeting took place between the: • President of the RAeS • Director of the Air Navigation Bureau, ICAO • Vice-President Safety, Operations & Infrastructure, IATA • Administrator of the FAA • Rulemaking Director of EASA • Chief Executive of the CAA when it was agreed that theO necessary collaborative effort should R L A N D O

Organisation The IPTC executive is a Partners’ Board comprising a senior member of each of the partner organisations. In view of its charter, and its complete independence and impartiality from any other body or grouping in the industry, the RAeS provides the executive chairman. The day-to-day activities of the Consortium are coordinated by a Steering Committee which provides guidance and direction to a number of workstreams specialising in key



































Estrel Hotel, Berlin, Germany 28 - 29 October 2014


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The 13th European Airline B A N G K O K Training Symposium will return to Berlin on 28-29 October EATS 2014 will include training perspectives from European international and long haul carriers that operate into Asia and the Middle East. It will include a focus on training and professional culture with a special session on the “FTO-airline” relationship.

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See the presentations from 2013 at and photos at


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components of the IPTC work. The chairman of each workstream is an appropriate subject matter expert. The Steering Committee comprises the members of the Partners’ Board together with the workstream chairmen. The workstreams are: • Licensing & Regulation • Outreach & Recruitment • Pilot, Instructor & Evaluator Competencies • Prevention of Loss of Control in Flight • Training Devices • Training Practices A number of national and international Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs), key safety organisations and other major industry stakeholders are granted ‘Associate member’ status, working with the IPTC without compromising their sovereignty or independence.

Process IPTC deliverables, priorities and timelines are set by the Steering Committee. The Consortium is conscious that some promising initiatives have failed through inadequate engagement or a lack of transparency, or both. The combined, coordinated effort resulting from leveraging the capabilities, membership and global reach of the IPTC partner organisations can only go so far. It is essential that all stakeholders, including everyone in the worldwide pilot training community, have the opportunity to become engaged to the fullest possible

MPS_CAT2013_Ad01.indd 1

extent. The IPTC aims to be open and transparent, and business is conducted using shared workspace on its website. All the deliverables are published on the website, and are freely available to anyone in the industry who has registered as having a legitimate interest. In addition to the subject matter experts within the workstreams and stakeholder bodies that become Associate members, other subject matter experts are encouraged to contribute, using the shared IPTC workspace and, more directly, through the regional seminars that are planned.

Goals There are few silver bullets, and the IPTC makes no claim to be one. However, the partnership aims to make the necessary advances by leveraging the capabilities, membership and global reach of the partner organisations. The principal areas of IPTC work are: • Assisting with the proof of concept, validation and implementation of the Multi-Crew Pilot Licence (MPL) – the first new pilot licence since ICAO was formed. • Subsequent to the ICAO MPL Proof of Concept Symposium in Montréal on 10-12 December 2013, and using all available data, recommending to ICAO appropriate changes to ICAO provisions on the MPL. • Recommending how best to ensure that the number of pilot applicants worldwide and pilot training capacity matches

the demand for pilots through to 2030. • Reviewing the extant models for financing ab initio pilot training and making appropriate recommendations. • Recommending mechanisms to improve further the input standards of ab initio pilots • Developing a working definition of ‘core competency’ and validating the assumption that one set of core competencies applies to all pilots. • Validating and recommending appropriate amendments to the existing ICAO competency frameworks for pilots and instructors, and developing a competency framework for examiners to update the provisions of ICAO Doc 9868, ‘Procedures for Air Navigation Services: Training’ (PANS-TRG). • Taking forward work to improve further the initiatives to reduce accidents caused by Loss of Control in Flight. • Assisting CAAs worldwide with the implementation of ICAO Doc 9625 ‘Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices’. • Working with CAAs worldwide to expand the mutual recognition of flight simulation training devices (FSTD) qualifications. • Assisting CAAs worldwide with the implementation of ICAO Doc 9868 PANSTRG. • Assisting CAAs worldwide with the implementation of ICAO Doc 9995 (Manual of Evidence Based Training).

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Pilot Training • Developing harmonised guidance material for pilot training practices in Air Traffic Control voice communications in FSTDs. • Developing guidance material on mission specific helicopter pilot role training. • Developing guidance material on best practice in the application of core competencies in pilot training. • Increasing the adoption of best practice, innovation and excellence throughout the pilot training, instructing and qualification sector.

Resources There are resource implications for the IPTC. While the partner organisations are giving the Consortium their full support, including making staff and facilities freely available, they are unable to provide direct financial support. Much of the cost of the work is being offset by companies agreeing to support at no cost to IPTC, the subject matter experts assisting with the development of IPTC outputs, for which the Consortium is most grateful. Also, no consultancy fees are being paid. Moreover, although much of the work is being conducted electronically, the facilities for face to face meetings and regional seminars are being provided free of charge under the auspices of one of the partner organisations. Notwithstanding all these cost-reduction measures, certain costs remain for administration, travel and subsistence for Steering Committee members, a number of whom are no longer in paid employment and who are giving their time and expertise free of charge. Companies in the commercial aviation, aircraft and FSTD manufacturing, and pilot training provision sectors the main potential beneficiaries of the IPTC deliverables - have been approached for a modest level of financial support to defray

Flight Operations Conference

THE AIRCRAFT COMMANDER IN THE 21ST CENTURY DECISION-MAKING, ARE WE ON THE RIGHT PATH? LONDON / 25 - 26 MARCH 2014 This conference explores the vital task of making consistently sound decisions based upon effective leadership and the efficient management of resources, crew and communications, as well as avoiding the pitfalls associated with unrealistic expectations of aircraft performance or crew competencies. Sponsorship opportunities are available for this conference. Please contact for further details.


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these costs. This small amount of direct financial support is crucial to IPTC and will be recognised appropriately. However, as yet, no financial support has been forthcoming. This is impacting adversely on the Consortium’s progress by limiting essential travel and face-to-face meetings and workshops.

Progress Despite the lack of funds, all workstreams are making progress, albeit rather more slowly than originally planned. A program has been developed to analyse the data provided by States with a view to presenting the outcome of the analysis to the ICAO MPL Proof of Concept Symposium in December 2013. A table setting out the current ICAO provisions on pilot competencies was drawn up and published in December 2012, and good progress is being made on the pilot competencies framework. The initial work in outreach and recruitment has, amongst other things, taken note of the UK’s Higher Apprenticeship in Professional Aviation Pilot Practice that was launched in London on 20 April 2013. A conference held recently in London on ‘Aircraft Upset Prevention, Recognition and Recovery Training’ introduced some important material, and some significant feedback from delegates is being analysed to determine the next steps. An update to ICAO Doc 9625 ‘Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices’ to take account of a number of developments is about to be submitted to ICAO. Finally, a key strand of work has been the initial investigation of the potential to develop for ICAO’s consideration some draft high-level guidance material on helicopter pilot role training to improve the safety of operations, and a first draft is anticipated in the autumn of 2013.

Communications The Consortium has produced a flyer to alert the industry to its activities and to invite the involvement in IPTC of everyone in the worldwide pilot training community. The flyer has been printed in hard copy and made available online in the six ICAO languages. Members of IPTC continue to make presentations at appropriate industry events, and articles have appeared in industry periodicals and online. The IPTC website facilitates the publication of IPTC outputs and provides a convenient means for all members of the industry to comment on areas of IPTC work. Many members of the industry have registered on the IPTC website and more contributions would be most welcome. The IPTC website and appropriate international events will continue to be used to report further developments.

Conclusion IPTC is unique. Never before has such a significant partnership been developed, and the addition of the ICCAIA will serve to further strengthen the Consortium. The IPTC has the potential to become a real game-changer in improving safety, quality and efficiency in commercial aviation worldwide. It deserves the full support of everyone in the industry and it is hoped that funds can be made available to the Consortium very soon so that the rate of progress on this important work can return to that originally planned. cat

W o rld

A v i at i o n

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C o nference


T rade s h o w

The World's Largest Gathering of Aviation Training Professionals 1-3 April 2014 Rosen Shingle Creek Resort Orlando, Florida, USA • Networking opportunities with 1000 aviation training professionals • Five conference streams • Exhibition, Networking Reception and Golf Tournament • Discounted Early Bird tickets available until March 1


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The 17th World Aviation Training Conference and Tradeshow will be at the Rosen Shingle Creek Hotel in Orlando, Florida on 1-3 April 2014

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Conference With five conference streams, WATS is the biggest airline training event in the world. The overall theme for 2014 is “Aviation Training Cultures and Human Performance”. WATS is the ideal opportunity for learning and networking with new and old colleagues working in aviation training around the world. FAA Administrator Michael Huerta will deliver the Keynote Speech with other FAA personnel speaking on training, standards and simulator qualifications. The Regional Airline Pilot Training Conference will address the current issues associated with pilot shortage, training, rules and funding concerns in the US.

The Cabin Crew Training Conference includes perspectives from international operators and training providers. The Maintenance Training Stream will have a global emphasis on issues and techniques with plenty of audience participation. The Sesión en Lengua Española draws delegates mainly from Latin America to discuss the region’s training challenges. Special discounted rates are available for delegates from Latin America, please email for details.

Delegate Fees

Airlines/Government /Univ Simulation & Training Indus Option al Golf Day Supp

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Five Conference Tracks

* Golf Rate - Does not inclu

Over 80 speakers will cover the four dedicated conference streams:

Who will be there WATS 2013 saw over 930 attendees from 49 countries representing 390 organizations including 94 airlines. • Over 250 delegates from airlines included Training Managers, Chief Pilots, Flight Operations Managers, Engineers and Cabin Crew Trainers. • Aviation training organizations including simulator training, aviation universities and flight schools • Hardware manufacturers • Ground crew and air traffic controllers • National and international regulators and associations To be part of the world’s biggest gathering of aviation training professionals, book your place today! Silver Sponsors:



Gold Sponsor:

Gala Networking Reception The Networking Reception is open to all conference attendees on Tuesday 1st April with a free bar, canapĂŠs and entertainment. The reception takes place in the WATS exhibition hall and will be remembered by many as the highlight of the WATS 2014 social program. Attended by almost everyone at WATS, the event provides a wonderful relaxed atmosphere for networking, building new relationships and reinforcing existing friendships.



Regular rate


(to March 1)

(March 2-28)

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Special discounted rates are available for delegates from Latin America, please email for Registration enquiries

The Exhibition The WATS Tradeshow includes airlines, training providers, equipment manufacturers, airframe manufacturers, software and content providers plus representatives from regulators and government programs from around the world. Together the WATS conference and exhibition help you to make the best decisions, helping you find the right training equipment and the information you need to develop the most effective training processes for the future.

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WATS Golf Day Sponsored by

The WATS 2014 Golf Tournament is on Monday 31 March 2014 on the fabulous course alongside the historic Shingle Creek hotel. Named by Golfweek as One of America’s Top 40 New Courses, this spectacular challenge offers five-diamond service standards and an 18-hole, par 72 (7,228 yards) championship golf course. Teams of 4 players will compete in a Texas scramble round with a shotgun start. The day includes a relaxing hot lunch and prizes for the winning teams. This fantastic networking event allows WATS delegates, exhibitors and sponsors to unwind among spectacular surroundings in one of the social highlights of the conference. You can sign up for the WATS Golf Day at US$99 per player when you register for WATS.

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WATS 2014 Conference Program

Tuesday, April 1

Tuesday, April 1

world aviation training C O N F E R E N C E



0900-1000 Session 1: Opening Remarks and Keynote Addresses world aviation training • Michael Huerta, FAA Administrator • TBD C O N F E R E N C E



world aviation training C O N F E R E N C E

1000-1100 Coffee



world aviation training

1100-1230 Session 2: Industry Initiatives and Trend Lines • Bob Bellitto, Global Sales Director, world aviationBoeing training Flight Services • Captain Jacques Drappier, Senior Training Advisor, Airbus • Scott Nutter, General Manager - Research, AQP and Development, Delta Air Lines C O N F E R E N C E






This session is for all conference tracks

1230-1400 Lunch

world aviation training C O N F E R E N C E



1400-1530 Session 3: Global Pilot Supply and Primary Training Standards • Vashun Cole, Senior Policy Analyst, US Government Accountability Office (GAO) • Anthony Petteford, Executive Director, CTC Aviation • Dr. Janeen Kochan, FRAeS, Aviation Research, Training & Services Inc. 1530-1615 Coffee

world aviation training C O N F E R E N C E



1230-1400 Lunch 1400-1530 Session 3: Matching Training to Customer Cultures • Mr. Michael Kalbow, Head of Maintenance Training, Airbus • Dr. Maggie Ma, Senior Research Engineer, Boeing • Melissa Swearingen, Analyst, US Government Accounting Office (GAO) 1530-1615 Coffee 1615-1745 Session 4: Trade Associations and Training for Safety Culture - Roundtable Panel • Marshall Filler, Vice President, Aeronautical Repair Station Association • Stacey Bechdolt, Regional Airline Association • Mark Lopez, Director, Airlines for America • Wayne Gouveia, Air Transport Association of Canada • Ric Peri & Mike Adamson, Aircraft Electronics Association


1615-1745 Session 4: Views from the Training Providers world aviation training • Thomas Walby, Director Flight Training, Airbus Americas Customer Services Inc. • Scott Morris, F/O, Human Factors Department, Southwest Airlines • Wally Hines, Director of Standards, JetPubs C O N F E R E N C E

Sessions 1&2 See World Airline Pilot Conference

Wednesday, April 2


Combined conference tracks

Wednesday, April 2 0900-1030 Session 5: Air Carrier and Industry Training Insights • Captain Bryan Burks, Alaska Airlines & Dr. Sunjoo Advani, IDT • Glenn King, Director, NASTAR Advanced Pilot Training Program (APT), ETC • Captain Leonardo Mecca, Head of Training, AgustaWestland

0900-1030 Session 5: Emerging Trends in Training Design and Delivery • Mr. Denis Manson, Training Manager, Toll Aviation & Toll Aviation Engineering, Australia • Nusret Bulent Topcu, Chief of Engineering, Training Directorate, Turkish Habom, Istanbul. • Professor Dennis Vincenzi, ERAU Worldwide 1030-1115 Coffee

1115-1245 Session 6: Air Carrier and Industry Training Insights • Dave Kaiser, VP and Chief Learning Officer, Crew Training International • Captain Jim Green, Utah Valley University • Captain Tero Arra, Head of Training, Finnair Flight Academy Ltd

1115-1245 Session 6a: Non-Technical Maintenance Training Content • Dr. Bill Johnson, Chief Scientist Maintenance Human Factors, FAA • Gareth McGraw, Human Factors Advisor, Standards Division, Civil Aviation Safety Authority of Australia. • D. Smith, Training Manager, US Department of Transportation Safety Institute

1245-1415 Lunch

1245-1415 Lunch

1415-1545 Breakout Session I Special Panel on the ICAO Manual on Aeroplane Upset Prevention and Recovery

1415-1545 Session 6b: A Potpourri of Safety and Training • HansJoerg Lötter, CEO, Infowerk • Stephan Pineau, Founder and CEO of Training Orchestra Training Management • Joaquin Villarreal, Sr. Mgr. of Tech Ops Training, Federal Express Corporation, Chair of A4A Maintenance Training Network (MTN)

1030-1115 Coffee

1545-1615 Coffee 1615-1745 Breakout Session II • Special Panel on Implementing an EFB Program Moderatored by Patrick Lusch, Director of Regulatory Compliance and Flight Operations Project Manager, USA Jet Airlines. • Special Q&A Breakout conducted by the FAA National Simulator Program (NSP).

1545-1615 Coffee 1615-1745 Exhibit Time

Thursday, April 3 world aviation training 0900-1030 Session 7: Simulation Technology Panel ‘Peer into the Future with your Peers’ aviation training An International Panel of Experts moderated byworld Dr. Sunjoo Advani will pose the question: What are the key future needs for commercial pilot training and how does science, worldtoaviation technology and industry intend to respond thesetraining needs? C O N F E R E N C E





1030-1115 Coffee






1115-1245 Session 8: Mobile Technology and e-Learning for Air Carriers Panel world aviation training An International Panel will explore the issues surrounding the use of Mobile and elearning in aviation training. Moderated by the Aerospace Industries Computer-based Training Committee (AICC). C O N F E R E N C E


See World Airline Pilot Conference


world aviation training C O N F E R E N C E

Thursday, April 3


WATS 2014 Conference Chair and Moderators WATS Conference Chair: Chris Lehman Chief WATS Moderator: Dr. Michael Karim WATS Moderator: Peter Moxham Maintenance Moderator: Dr. Bill Johnson Cabin Moderators: Captain Al LaVoy and Jeanne Kenkel

These sessions are for all conference tracks

Stream Sponsors

Conference program subject to change. Please refer to for the latest conference information including detailed speaker and presentation information.

1-3 April 2014 • Rosen Shingle Creek Hotel, Orlando, Florida

Tuesday, April 1 Sessions 1&2 See World Airline Pilot Conference 1230-1400 Lunch 1400-1530 Session 3: Lessons Learned in Cabin Training • Thomas Kaminski, Manager Inflight Training Development, JetBlue University • Michelle Farkas, General Manager-Inflight Service Advanced Qualification Program, Delta Air Lines • Stephen Howell, Director of InFlight Services Training, US Airways 1530-1615 Coffee 1615-1745 Session 4: Evolving Concepts in Cabin Training • Stig Larsen, Head of Training, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Jarl H Berg, Chief Ground Instructor Cabin, Norwegian Air Shuttle & Patrick Savstrom, Managing Director, Virtual eTraining, • Michaela Green, Director Inflight Service & Tammy Novel, Manager Inflight Service, GoJet Airlines • Ivan Noël, President, Inflight Innovations

world aviation training C O N F E R E N C E



Wednesday, April 2 0900-1030 Session 5: Global Insights • Vladislav Bagranov, Head of Learning Development & Recruitment, Natalya Safonova & Dauren Patsayev, Safety Trainers, Air Astana • Kellie White, Inflight Training Manager, Emirates Aviation College • Andreas Bekiris, Cabin Safety Instructor, Novair Marcus Lindroth, Swedavia Stockhom-Arlanda Airport 1030-1115 Coffee 1115-1245 Session 6a: Current Challenges in the Cabin • Larry Parrigan, Manager of Curriculum and Program Development, Southwest Airlines • Candace Kolander, Coordinator Air Safety, Association of Flight Attendants AFA-CWA • Amelia Gomez Bucho, Cabin Safety Officer, IBERIA

Tuesday, April 1 See World Airline Pilot Conference

Wednesday, April 2 0900-1030 Entrenamiento de Pilotos para Línea Aérea • Captain Eric Greenhill, LAN Airline (LATAM Airlines) • Captain Diego Serra & Captain Eduardo Arsenio Laphitz, Austral Líneas Aéreas • TBD 1030-1115 Coffee 1115-1245 Session 6a: Entrenamiento de Tripulación de Cabina y Mantenimiento • Ing. Marcelo Gonzalez Kiryczun, Aerolineas Argentinas • Sara Ramírez Alemón, Asteca Escuela de Aviación • TBD 1245-1415 Lunch 1415-1545 Session 6b: Conceptos comunes de capacitación de personal aeronáutico • Ana Cristina Angelkos, Copa Airlines • Capt. Rick Valdes, United Airlines • Elizabeth Mathews, Elizabeth Mathews and Associates 1545-1615 Coffee 1615-1745 Session 6c: Panel de trabajo Panel de trabajo interactivo con expertos de la industria para revisar las ultimas tendencias en la capacitación y la instrucción aeronáutica, con un fuerte enfoque a las nuevas tecnologías, filosofías y técnicas disponibles (Entrenamiento Basado en las Competencias, Entrenamiento Basado en las Evidencias, Inglés Aeronáutico, etc). Se invita a todos los representantes de la región a enviar preguntas o temas que les gustaría que se tratasen en especifico al moderador -

Thursday, April 3 See World Airline Pilot Conference

Stream Sponsor

Tuesday, April 1 See World Airline Pilot Conference

Wednesday, April 2 0900-1030 Session 5: Regional Airline Industry Landscape 2013: A Year of Adapting to Challenges Session composed of Regional Airline Association (RAA) Training Committee members, moderated by Scott Foose, SVP Operations & Safety, RAA.

1245-1415 Lunch

1030-1115 Coffee

1415-1545 Session 6b: Fatigue… Challenges and Solutions • Lori Brown, Western Michigan University • Kris Hutchings, Manager of Inflight Safety, WestJet • Collette Hillary, FlightSafety International & Dr. Shari Frisinger, CornerStone Strategies LLC

1115-1245 Session 6: The Collegiate Market:The apparent decrease in Airmanship abilities of today’s New Hire Pilots Moderated by Captain Al Barrios, Manager Flight Ops Training, Compass Airlines. This session looks at Pilot supply coming from the collegiate market combined with the new regulatory requirements. What are the Regional Airlines seeing as some of the challenges with new pilot candidates?

1545-1615 Coffee

1415-1545 Breakout Session I: Using Threat Error Management Principles to Manage Professionalism Moderated by Captain Paul Preidecker, Chief Flight Instructor, Air Wisconsin Airlines Corporation

1615-1745 Session 6c: Current & Future Training Challenges • Richard Gomez, VP Education Services and Quality, MedAire Inc. • An Interactive Discussion with a Panel of Industry Training Experts on Cabin Crew Training Issues and Trends

1245-1415 Lunch

1545-1615 Coffee 1615-1745 Breakout Session II: Pilot Training in Transition Moderated by Captain Paul Kolisch, Flight Operations Training, Endeavor Air, this session explores the use of scenario-based training for RTOs, go-arounds, upsets, and whether the time is right for the Multi-Crew Pilot’s License in the US.

Thursday, April 3

Thursday, April 3

See World Airline Pilot Conference

See World Airline Pilot Conference

Stream Sponsors

The Exhibition In the WATS exhibition you will meet airlines, training providers, equipment manufacturers, airframe manufacturers, software and content providers plus representatives from regulators and government programs from around the world.



135 Extended Stay 130









Frasca 133




Studiocode 128 Scott Int. Proc. 627 Aerosim



Central Seating & Dining Area

Dyned 623


Nediar 120


AQT 118



Peak Pacific

617 Bihrle

114 Simtech

ECA Faros




Aviation Rep



Sim Industries FlightSafety International

Scandlearn JETPUBS

106 ATP 104

Comply 365 100

109 Smart eye 107




211 Britannica Knowledge 206

ASAP 209


309 HOLD




Pan Am

STS 205






Rockwell Collins








Virtual eTraining 509

Creative Lodging 407



Pratt & Whitney




615 Aims International 613

610 Symbiotics



609 Training Orchestra 607

F.I.T Aviation 606 DiSTI







Vision Safe





Buffet Tables

Exhibit your company at WATS For sponsorship and exhibiting opportunities please contact your local representative: USA & Canada: Natalie Morris [t] +1 407 322 5605 [e] Latin America and Caribbean: Willem-Jan Derks [t] +1 954 406 4052 or +56 9 7987 6808 [e] Europe, Middle East & Africa: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 1252 532009 [e] Asia Pacific: David Lim [t] +65 9680 5251 [e]

World News & Analysis

Seen&Heard A compendium of current news from the civil aviation training industry, compiled and edited by the CAT editorial team. For the latest breaking news and in-depth reports go to



CAE Sets New Record for FFS Sales

JAA TO and Indonesian DGCA/HRDTA renew MoU

CAE has set a new record for the sale of full flight simulators (FFS) with 43 FFS’s already sold year to date in fiscal 2014. The latest contracts include the sale of five full flight simulators - one B787 FFS to Air Canada, one B737NG simulator to an undisclosed customer in North America as well as two A320 simulators and one B737NG simulator to an undisclosed customer in Asia. The contracts are worth more than C$70 million at list prices. The Boeing 787 CAE 7000 Series FFS will be delivered to Air Canada's training centre in Toronto, Canada, in 2016. This is the second B787 FFS that CAE has sold to Air Canada and the 12th CAEbuilt simulator in the airline's training network. As part of a long-standing relationship with Air Canada, CAE also provides Air Canada with training centre operation services, including the sale of training hours on simulators to the third party market.

During the official Trade Visit of the Dutch Prime Minister in Jakarta, Mr. Joost Jonker, Director JAA TO, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Directorate General Civil Aviation (DGCA) Indonesia, represented by the Director General Mr. Harry Bakti, and the Human Resource Development Agency (HRDTA) of the Ministry of Transportation, represented by Mr. Santoso Eddy Wibowo. This MoU, which renews the MoU signed on May 6th 2011, aims to enhance aviation safety training in Indonesia and will increase the capabilities of Indonesian Civil Aviation Training Centres to meet international aviation safety standards. The MoU covers various areas of expertise like Air Navigation, Airworthiness, Aviation Security, and Environment. SIMULATORS

Sim Acquisition for Quadrant Systems Quadrant Systems Limited (QSL) has acquired an A320 Level D full flight simulator, recently in operation at the Boeing Training and Flight Services Campus in Crawley, near Gatwick, UK. The device is at Airbus standard 1.3.2 built by CAE and has a MaxVue Plus 3 channel 180 degree visual system. Suitable for a wide range of users, including training organisations and fleet operators, QSL looks forward to

continuing the high levels of availability at Burgess Hill. The relocation is now under way and it is anticipated that the device will be available to both existing and new customers with effect from late January 2014. The associated flat panel trainer is also being relocated to QSL which, when combined with the dedicated briefing rooms will provide a full A320 training suite on site.


Boeing to Expand Aviation Training in Russia Boeing will expand its flight and maintenance training capabilities in Russia with a new, state-of-the-art training campus. The new full-service training facility, set to open in 2015, will be located in the Skolkovo Innovation Center in Moscow. Boeing will work in cooperation with Industrial Investors Group and their subsidiary Transas on the project. Initial capability will include flight, maintenance and specialty training. Local maintenance training will be

available across the spectrum of Boeing aircraft currently in operation, and flight training capability will include locally based instructors.

The new facility will open with four simulator bays, featuring Next-Generation B737 full flight simulators and one B777 full flight simulator. Two of the simulators will be built by Transas. The facility is designed to allow for expansion to accommodate additional training capacity as required by customers. Groundbreaking on the new training and research campus is scheduled for spring 2014, with training beginning in mid-2015. CAT MAGAZINE 1.2014


World News & Analysis TRAINING CENTRES


Successful Business Partnership Marks 20 Years

APFT & Aviation Australia to Provide EASA Basic Maintenance Training

CAE and Emirates have marked a 20-year partnership, and celebrated a successful business relationship that has grown from strength to strength since 1993, when Emirates purchased its first CAE-built flight simulator. The airline has since gone on to acquire 11 more full flight simulators from CAE. In 2002, the two entered into a training joint venture with the establishment of Emirates-CAE Flight Training (ECFT) which now operates two centres in Dubai, and trains more than 10,000 pilots and technicians a year. "CAE is proud to have been Emirates' trusted training partner for the past 20 years and we hope to continue this successful relationship for the next 20," said Marc Parent, CAE president

and chief executive officer. "Emirates is the world's largest international airline, its growth is unique and we are proud to continue supporting Emirates' need for more and more sophisticated training technology. We are also happy to continue growing our successful joint venture and providing the region with the most advanced training solutions."


Campaign to Recruit Pilot Cadets CTC Aviation says that between now and 2020, the industry needs to find more than 235,000 new pilots to meet growing demand for air travel – and the company is embarking on its biggest ever global campaign to find pilot cadets. “Globally there are currently around 22,000 commercial jets and this is forecast to grow to 40,000 by 2030,” said Martin Hunt, managing director, CTC Aviation Training (UK) Limited. “Similarly, there are just under 150,000 pilots but over the next seven years, the aviation industry needs to find a further

235,000 not only to meet the demands for more airline travel, but also replace those who retire.” CTC is looking to find potential pilot cadets from around the world, according to Hunt, who says candidates should demonstrate the skills, knowledge and attitude required of an airline pilot. For those who want to test their flying skills before even submitting an application, CTC Aviation has launched an online aviation game to assess people’s aptitude for commercial flying at


CAAC Certification for CAE’s Gulfstream 450/550 Pilot Training Program CAE has received approval from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) for its Gulfstream 450/550 program at the Shanghai Eastern Flight Training Center (SEFTC) located in Shanghai, China. This program has already been approved by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Hong Kong's Civil Aviation Department (HKCAD). "CAE is proud to be the first fixed-wing business aviation training provider in China," said Nick Leontidis, CAE Group President, Civil Simulation Products, Training and Services. "China is an emerging business aviation market and we are delighted to continue helping business aviation operators in the region achieve their pilot training safety goals." 42


Aviation Australia and APFT (Asia Pacific Flight Training) have signed an agreement to deliver Aviation Australia's EASA Part 147 Basic Aircraft Maintenance Engineering courses with shared delivery in Malaysia and Australia. Subject to final regulatory approval, the program is due to commence in February 2014. Students who enrol in the program will be able to do the initial nine core theory modules in Malaysia at APFT facilities in Kota Bahru before transferring to Aviation Australia's facilities in Brisbane for the remaining intensive theory and practical training modules. The students will be able to complete either an EASA B1.1 Mechanical or an EASA B2 Avionics Diploma course, with an opportunity for students to also complete a Dual B1/B2 course at additional cost.


Approach & Go-Around Safety Seminar Globally, the number one cause of accidents shared by all aircraft operations is runway excursions, the majority of which result from unstable approaches. The RAA’s first Approach and GoAround Safety seminar will be taking place on March 18-19, 2014 in Orlando, FL. With the support of Flight Safety Foundation and JetBlue, this two-day flight operations seminar will bring together leaders of operations, training, and safety to examine the complex issues relating to stabilized approaches, go-around decision making, and execution. Open to 91, 135, and 121 operators, labor, regulators, ATC, and other aviation professionals interested in improving approach and go-around safety. Seating is limited so early registration is recommended.


CAE Signs Contracts Valued at More Than C$90 Million CAE has signed contracts for five full flight simulators (FFS), a series of flight training devices and update services. The contracts include the sale of one CRJ200 simulator to Sky Wings in Russia, one B787 simulator to the Zhuhai Flight Training Centre (ZFTC) in China, one Global Vision simulator to EmiratesCAE Flight Training in Dubai, UAE, one B787 simulator to an undisclosed customer in North America, and one helicopter full flight simulator to another undisclosed customer. The contracts are worth more than

C$90 million at list prices, and bring the total number of FFS sales announced to date for fiscal year 2014 to 38. The CRJ200 simulator sold to Sky Wings is a CAE 7000 Series model and it will be installed in Moscow, in a five-bay training centre currently undergoing construction. The centre is expected to become operational during the first quarter of 2015. The B787 FFS sold to ZFTC is the centre's first simulator for this aircraft type and the 27th CAE-built simulator to be deployed at the centre. The FFS is a

CAE 7000 Series model and it will serve the training needs of Chinese and Asian operators. The Boeing 787 FFS, along with a CAE Simfinity Integrated Procedures Trainer and CAE Simfinity desktop trainers (VSIMs), are expected to be delivered during the spring of 2015. The new Global Vision FFS sold to ECFT is a CAE 7000 Series and features the latest generation CAE Tropos-6000 XR visual system. The simulator will be the 16th CAE-built FFS to be installed in Dubai and will be available for training by the end of 2014.


VITAL 1100 Sims Qualified to Level D Five of FlightSafety International’s simulators equipped with the recently introduced VITAL 1100 visual system have been qualified to Level D by EASA and the FAA. Three additional VITAL 1100 equipped simulators are scheduled to receive Level D qualification in the next few months. The first VITAL 1100 visual system equipped simulator to receive Level D qualification from EASA was FlightSafety’s Sikorsky S-92 located in Stavanger, Norway. The first simulaMAINTENANCE

Aviation Australia Graduates Set to Fly into Apprenticeships Engineering graduates from Aviation Australia's aircraft maintenance training program are set to start 2014 with apprenticeships across Australia and overseas. The apprenticeships have been offered by some of Australia's leading aviation organisations such as Jetstar, Alliance Airlines, Hawker Pacific, Boeing Defence Australia and the RAAF. The graduates recently completed the theoretical and practical component of their Certificate IV in Aeroskills across one of three trades - Avionics, Mechanical or Structures, and will now complete the practical elements of their apprenticeships with their respective employers with a united goal of becoming a fully qualified aircraft maintenance engineer.

tors that feature the VITAL 1100 to be qualified to Level D and approved by the FAA include FlightSafety’s AgustaWestland AW-139 and Sikorsky S-92 simulators in Lafayette, Louisiana, an Embraer 190 simulator in St. Louis, Missouri, and a Night Vision Goggle qualified Eurocopter EC-135 simulator in Dallas, Texas. VITAL 1100 can provide system resolutions that are well over 20 million pixels for typical out the window field of view of 200 degrees horizontally.

Commercial Aircraft Sales


First ATR-600 FFS Qualified in Latin America ATR has set-up the very first ATR -600 series flight simulator in Latin America. The full flight simulator (FFS) is located at the training facilities of the Colombian carrier Avianca, in Bogota, and has recently obtained certification from both Europe's EASA and Colombia's UAEAC. The FFS features an electric-pneumatic motion system allowing for silent operation and reduced power consumption, and a front projection collimated 200° x 40° visual display system. The FFS is configured for training on the newest ATR 72-600 series version, and besides Avianca, is also available to all the other ATR -600 operators in the Latin America and Caribbean region.

Nov 30 2013 to Jan 26 2014

Aircraft type

Number Operator/Buyer

A320 ceo A320 neo A320 neo A330-300 A350-900 A350-1000

11 15 9 25 10 3

B737Max 8/9 B737Max8 B737-800 B737-800 B737-900ER B777-8 B777-800ER B777-9X

61-109 20 20 8 2 1 3 21

CS300 CS300 CRJ100 CRJ900 Q400


ATR72-600 ATR72-600

16 (11 Opt.) 26 (10 Opt.) 70 (40 Opt.) 3 (13 Opt.) 30

Zhejiang Loong Airlines Kuwait Airways Zhejiang Loong Airlines AirAsia X Kuwait Airways Air Caraibes Air Canada GECAS GECAS Air Algerie Alaska Airlines Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific Iraqi Airways SaudiGulf Airlines American Airlines China Express Sutong Airlines

150 (90 Opt.) American Airlines 3 5

Air Algerie Aviation PLC



World News & Analysis SIMULATORS


L-3 Link B787-8 FFS Certified Level D

SIMULATORS CAE Deploys B737NG FFS to Air France Training Centre

L-3 Link Simulation & Training’s (L-3 Link) Boeing 787-8 full flight simulator (FFS) that is providing aircrew training for a Middle Eastern airline has been certified Level D by the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), a milestone that the company says marks the first airline-operated Boeing 787-8 FFS to achieve Level D certification. L-3 Link also delivered a UK CAA Level 2-certified Boeing 787-8 flat panel trainer to the airline and two briefing and debriefing stations to improve training delivery efficiency and optimize use of the training suite. Each trainer is based on L-3 Link’s C2000X simulator technology. The training devices replicate how the Boeing 787-8 operates when equipped with General Electric GEnx engines.

CAE has relocated a Boeing 737NG full flight simulator (FFS) to the Air France training centre located in Orly, France. The FFS recently received qualification and is now ready for training. CAE is installing the simulator in Paris to primarily support the training needs of pilots from Transavia France, a carrier that is part of the Air France-KLM group. CABIN CREW DOOR TRAINER FOR ALLEGIANT AIR

Sim-Tech Manufacturing will be delivering an Airbus A320 L1 door trainer and an A320 over wing exit (OWE) trainer to Allegiant Air. Representatives from Allegiant Air were expected to give their in-plant acceptance of the trainers in early December 2013. This is the second set of Airbus door trainers that the airline has ordered from Sim-Tech Manufacturing. SOFTWARE MINT SOFTWARE SYSTEMS SIGNS ON WITH ATLAS AIR

German software provider MINT Software Systems has signed a service agreement with Atlas Air Inc., who will use the training management software for AQP management and FAA reporting. The software agreement covers the acquisition of a SaaS license (software as a service) of the MINT Training Management solution MINT TMS, which Atlas Air will use as an AQP database including record and compliance management. COMPANY NEWS TEXTRON ACQUIRES BEECH HOLDINGS

Textron Inc. has reached an agreement to purchase all outstanding equity interests in Beech Holdings, LLC, the parent of Beechcraft Corporation, for approximately $1.4 billion in cash. Beechcraft Corporation is a manufacturer of business, special mission, light attack and trainer aircraft with estimated 2013 revenues of $1.8 billion.


AATD Certification The FAA has awarded AATD certification to a new Model S623T twin turbine engine rotary wing trainer by ELITE Simulation Solutions. The S623T is a full cockpit, dual pilot flight training device based on the performance of the twin engine turbine Eurocopter AS355. Features include control loading that enables a fully coupled Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS), Garmin® GNS 430 WAAS GPS, radar altimeter, DME, ADF, Flight Director, Autopilot, WIFI tablet support, optional wheel carriage with retractable gear and a high definition worldwide visual scenery database. "The S623T is the most sophisticated, feature rich and comprehensive rotary wing trainer for ELITE to date," said Wayne Keyes, ELITE's director of Business Development. "In addition to AATD IFR accreditation, the high fidelity aero model and quality of the display and scenery makes the S623T an excellent procedural trainer for rotary wing specific maneuvers such as hover taxi, quick stops, confined area landings, just to name a few."


Eric Hinson has assumed the role of chief executive officer of SimCom Training Centers, leaving his role as president. Hinson replaces Wally David, Founder and (former) CEO, who will transition to the role of non-executive Board Chairman. As CEO, Hinson will oversee and direct the business activities of SimCom’s six training centers and 52 operational simulators. He will also be responsible for identifying future growth opportunities for SimCom, implementing strategic initiatives and expanding its global influence throughout the simulator training marketplace. CTC Aviation in New Zealand has appointed Air Vice-Marshal Peter Stockwell as its new managing director. Currently Chief of the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF), Peter joins CTC Aviation as managing director in mid-February upon his retirement from a distinguished 40-year military career.




B787 Sim Contract L-3 Link Simulation & Training’s (L-3 Link) Crawley, UK-based operation has won a contract to build and deliver a Boeing 787 full flight simulator (FFS) for KLM Royal Dutch Airlines. The FFS will be installed in KLM’s training facility at Schipol Airport, Netherlands, and will become ready for training during the fourth quarter of 2014



New Frasca Cessna CJ1+ Ready for China Delivery

Rockwell Collins Image Generation Systems Featured on Superjet 100 Sims

When Nanchan International Flight Academy in Longkou, China decided to add a Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) Level D Cessna CJ1+ full flight simulator to its rapidly expanding business, the flight school had a multitude of choices of training device providers to choose from in what has become a highly competitive market in that country. Instead, the Academy chose to ask its long-term partner Frasca International to develop the FFS to add to its fleet of seven other Frasca flight training devices. According to president, John Frasca, the new FFS is nearing completion and only awaits inspection by Nanchan before delivery. While the CJ1+ FFS is a step up for Nanchan, it is also one for Frasca, since this is the first entry for that company into the realm of Level D simulators. “Whereas Frasca is oftentimes thought of as a supplier of cost-effective FTDs, I would say that the Level D simulator that Nanchan is getting is the most advanced in the world, “Frasca said. Frasca backs up that statement by citing the work the company has done in obtaining its own flight test data and in the latest in cockpit instrumentation, visual systems and cockpit replication, as well as a new Graphical Instructor Station (GISt). The simulator features the company’s advanced FFS packaging, Collins Proline 21 Avionics Suite, a 60-inch-stroke Moog Electric Motion System, and RSI Visual Systems’ XT Series Image Generator with RSI CrossView 200 x 40 field of view display system. Frasca said that the new instructor station was two years in development, and features such advances as an interface with table computers. The GISt is particularly designed to reduce instructor workload, he pointed out. TRAINING TECHNOLOGY

Integrating iPad Technology More and more companies that deliver training as their core business are starting to think green and reverting to technology to deliver course material to students. FlightPath International has recently integrated the use of iPad technology into their technical courses to great success. "This is something our clients have asked for," said Garth Twitchell, vice president Technical Training Division. "Paper manuals for our courses which typically run for several weeks are cumbersome for our clients. We are pleased to integrate iPad technology into the classroom."

While still providing paper supplements, including an 11x17 printed schematics manual, students have the ability to zoom in on graphics, make notes, highlight text and make their own annotations right on the courseware presented to them on the iPads. The students are then provided electronic copies of the courseware with their own annotations they have made throughout the course. FlightPath International continues to increase the use of technology in the classroom and expects to make further announcements in the first quarter of 2014.


ANA Introducing MPL Training ANA plans to introduce Multi-crew Pilot License (MPL) training into its pilot education program. ANA will begin MPL training in the summer of 2014 and will outsource the training to Lufthansa Flight Training GmbH (LFT), the flight training subsidiary of Lufthansa – one of ANA’s Star Alliance partners and a Joint Venture partner. ANA expects the MPL training to result in a significant reduction in training time compared to previous training methods, and says it will effectively and efficiently allow trainees not only to acquire piloting skills, but also essential skills required for airline operations including supporting flight operations. ANA’s training team and LFT have been working together for more than a year to prepare for the introduction of MPL.

Three Sukhoi Superjet 100 full flight simulators featuring Rockwell Collins image generation and projection systems are successfully operating in SuperJet International training centers in Moscow and Venice, as well as in Aeroflot Airlines training facilities. Sukhoi Civil Aircraft Company, the manufacturer of Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft, purchased the simulators, which feature Rockwell Collins EP™-1000CT image generation system. The image generation systems are certified to meet FAA/JAA Level D (and equivalent) flight training standards and use graphic chip sets manufactured and designed at Rockwell Collins to provide superior graphics processing power and compatibility with commercial off-theshelf LCoS projectors.


New Order for Merlin Flight Simulation Group Merlin Fight Simulation Group has received an order from the School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering at the University of Manchester for an MP521 simulator, plus an upgrade of their existing MP520. This combined with the upgrade of two existing University workstations to the equivalent to Merlin's MP500-1 UAV/ simulation development stations will give Manchester students the extended facilities they require. Since a team from Manchester University' School of Engineering won Merlin's Aircraft Design and Handling Competition, IT FLIES UK in 2012, the students' interest in simulation has soared to new heights. The increased facilities in the simulation lab will ensure that the maximum number of students are able to work on their designs at the same time. CAT MAGAZINE 1.2014


World News & Analysis TRAINING CENTRES

Joint Venture Center of Excellence in China

Rockwell Collins and Beijing Bluesky Aviation Technology, an AVIC subsidiary, have signed a final agreement to establish ACCEL (Tianjin) Flight Simulation Co. Ltd. Joint Venture (JV). The JV, with equal shares owned by the two entities, will create a simulation and training center of excellence in China for commercial flight simulation and training solutions. Under the terms of the agreement both parties are contributing financing, tangible assets and intellectual property to design, manufacture, sell and support the commercial flight simulators for China and eventually the global market.

The JV has selected Tianjin Airport Economic Area as its location, a major and growing hub for the aviation and aerospace industry in China. "With this agreement, Rockwell Collins and Bluesky are transferring all of their commercial simulation systems business to the JV to create a global center of excellence," said LeAnn Ridgeway, vice president and general manager, Simulation and Training Solutions for Rockwell Collins. Upon approval by government and regulatory authorities, ACCEL will be incorporated in the city of Tianjin, with a grand opening anticipated by May 2014. ACCEL will be managed by Andrew Morris of Rockwell Collins, a 38-year veteran of the simulation and training industry with extensive experience in China. Mr. Jin Dongsheng, chairman, Beijing Bluesky Aviation Technology, will serve as Chairman of the Board of Directors for ACCEL.



APATS 2014


AXIS Flight Training Systems GmbH


Bihrle Applied Research Inc.


CAE OBC CTC Aviation Group 21 EATS 2014


ECA Faros


Elite Simulation Solutions




FlightSafety International


Florida Institute of Technology


New Sim for Global Training & Aviation Training company Global Training & Aviation has bought an ATR 42-300 / 72-200 flight simulator from the Greek airline Olympic Airways to incorporate it into its training center in Madrid, Spain. After several months, GTA, one of Olympic Airways Training Center's biggest clients, won the public tender

Index of Ads

of the ATR flight simulator (upgradeable to version 42-300 with PW120 engines and version 72-200 with PW124 engines) that until now had been operating in the Greek city of Thessaloniki. With this new addition to the Simulator Center in Madrid, the company expands its training offering, significantly improving its ATR training.



Frasca International


Gulf Aviation Academy



13 & 27

Multi Pilot Simulations B.V. 33 Pan Am International Flight Academy


Pratt & Whitney


RAeS Conference Airline simulation & training events organised by Halldale Group and CAT Magazine 1-3 April 2014 WATS 2014 – World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow Rosen Shingle Creek Resort Orlando, Florida, USA 23-24 September 2014 APATS 2014 – Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium Centara Grand Convention Centre Bangkok, Thailand 28-29 October 2014 EATS 2014 – European Airline Training Symposium Estrel Hotel, Berlin, Germany



Other simulation & training events

17-19 March 2014 TRAINAIR PLUS Course Developers and Instructors Standardization Meeting Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Sony Electronics

18-19 March 2014 Approach and Go-Around Safety Seminar Orlando, Florida, USA GoAroundSafety/tabid/267/Default.aspx 25-26 March 2014 Aircraft Commander in the 21st Century London, UK 13-15 May 2014 Regional Airline Association 39th Annual Convention St. Louis, Missouri, USA

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WATS 2014

Advertising contacts Director of Sales & Marketing Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 1252 532009 [e] Sales Representatives North America: Natalie Morris [t] 407 322 5605 [e] Asia Pacific: David Lim [t] +65 9680 5251 [e] South America: Willem-Jan Derks [t] +1 954 406 4052 [e]

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Airlines Expect Reliability, Efficiency, Performance

FlightSafety Simulators Deliver


hen you operate FlightSafety’s advancedtechnology simulation equipment, you benefit from our 60-plus years of aviation

training leadership. We deliver vertically integrated design,

manufacture and support of Level D-qualified full flight simulators, advanced flight training devices, superior visual systems and highest-fidelity displays, including those equipped with all-glass technology.

We’ve manufactured more than 780 full flight simulators and advanced training devices and 1,000 visual systems. We’re ready to build one for you.



• •













“FlightSafety’s simulators provide Azul with the quality, reliability and value we require.” – David Neeleman CEO, Azul Brazilian Airlines



A Berkshire Hathaway company

Trim: 206 mm w x 277 mm h


Higher Standards.

CAE Full Flight Simulators.

Innovation, quality, reliability

and over 65 years of experience.

For more information, visit

Profile for Halldale Media

CAT Magazine - Issue 1/2014  

The Journal for Civil Aviation Training.

CAT Magazine - Issue 1/2014  

The Journal for Civil Aviation Training.

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