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Topic: Knowledge, intellect and education in social context

‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحیم‬ 1.a)Knowledge: data received from the outside world through different means such as hearing and seeing= input b)Intellect: The ability of deduction, induction, and reasoning using the input to obtain a thoughtful and reflective output. c)These two elements go hand in hand and non of them comes into use individually unless is accompanied by the second factor. d)Therefore many people are knowledgeable but not many are thoughtful and reflective. 34‫"و تلک االمثال نضربها للناس و ما یعقلها اال العالمون"عنکبوت‬ 2.Some characteristics of being intellectual: a)Having a scientific morale/mentality: Going from reasoning to conclusion not from conclusion to reasoning. b)Not being proud and arrogant: according to one narration: “ Knowledge (or intellect) is of three inches: if you reach the first inch you feel proud, then if you reach second inch you feel humble and modest, and if you reach the third inch you know that you don not know anything.” c)The courage to comment and criticize: constructive critizism with pure intention."‫"کونوا نقاد الکالم‬ d)The ability of passing the knowledge through a sieve to demarcate bad and good. 81‫"الذین یستمعون القول فیتبعون احسنه اولئک الذین هدئهم هللا و اولئک هم اولوااللباب"زمر‬ 3.Some barriers of being intellectual a)Being free from some traditions and social habits: ‫"و اذا قیل لهم اتبعوا ما انزل هللا قالوا بل نتبع ما الفینا علیه ابائنا او لو کان اباوهم ال یعقلون شئیا و ال‬ 871‫یهتدون"بقره‬ b)Following the majority 881 ‫"و ان تطع اکثر من فی االرض یضلوک عن سبیل هللا"انعام‬ c)Not being affected by others criticism and judgments: independence and freedom of mind and thoughts. 4.Theoretical or practical characteristics a)Nature: genetic influences on behavior and temperament e.g. 5-HTT

Topic: Knowledge, intellect and education in social context

gene b)Nurture: environment( parental and society), cultural context and life events shape our values: some sociologist and psychologists’ claim e.g. Aschs’ experiments in 1950s on the concept of social conformity c)Definition of personality: “the pervasive, persistant and characteristic way a person thinks, feels and behaves.” Personality= nature( temperament)+ nurture(environmental factors) d)So, we are by-product of some of the genes which lie dormant unless they are exposed to a certain environmental factors. e)In conclusion, the mentioned characteristics and barriers are just theoretical. 5. Solution: Power of Will and determination a)Absolute freedom and will b)Fatalism or determinism c) A way in between 6.What should be educated? a) Body: requirement but not enough b)Spirit: Also, known as the human’s talents and capabilities. 7.The four dimensions of spirit or the four talents according to scholars ( such as Alexis Carrel) a)Intellect: truth and science seeking b)Moral: A very controversial topic which resides in our innate: i)relative ii)absolute c)Aesthetics d)Religion Marty Ayattolah Motahari said that we may add one more dimension know as capability of creativity and innovation. Researched by : Hassan Al Dabbagh


Topic: Knowledge, intellect and education in social context ‫الرحیم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫بسم‬ 6.What should be educated? a) Body: requirement b...