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Cashew farming: Research and Development trends

BY CRIG CASHEW RESEARCH TEAM


Introduction Priority Research Areas: • development of improved planting materials • appropriate plant production packages • plant protection packages • processing and by-products development


Presentation here focuses on: • Update of Activities undertaken • Achievement from 2003 to 2009 • Constraints • Challenges


Update of activities undertaken a. Development of Improved Planting Materials


Update of activities a) Development of Improved Planting Materials i. A survey up to 2006: 199 trees selected with yields of 7 kg and above. ii. In 2007, additional 134 trees selected with the following indicators: -Number of nuts per panicle -Nut size and shape -Presence or absence of disease -Ease of apple detachment -Yield per hectare


i. Establishment of germplasm plots

From 2004 - 2006 - Mozambique: 4 acres (Bole) - Local collections: Bole, 30 & Wenchi, 20 - Nigerian introductions: 1 acre (Bole) - Tanzania I: 1 acre, Bole and Wenchi


Establishment of germplasm plots cont’d

– Tanzania II: 25 acres Bole & Wenchi – Brazilian dwarf: 1.6 ha Bole & Wenchi – Brazilian common: 0.82 ha Bole & Wenchi – Benin: 30 acres Wenchi 10 acres Bole – Total: 152 acres: care and maintenance continued


Establishment of germplasm plots cont’d • Measurement of growth/yield parameters is still in progress for all the germplasm (Tanzanian, Mozambique, Brazilian dwarf & common, Benin etc) • No significant differences were observed in the performance of the Brazilian dwarf and common selections at Wenchi & Bole


Table 1: Yields (kg/tree) of outstanding Benin accessions Genotype

Yield kg/tree genotype

Yield kg/tree

B358

15.1

B349

12.9

B253

13.9

B296

12.8

B658

13.8

B575

12.8

B491

13.6

B203

12.7

B223

13.5

B276

13.0


ii) Establishment and maintenance of scion banks a. Three 1.6 ha scion bank plots have been established at Wenchi, Bole and Bunso using grafts from 40 elite trees at Wenchi. b. Two top worked scion bank plots consisting of 150 trees each established at Bole and Wenchi. .

c. Extra 30 stumped trees grafted and under observation


iii. Establishment of G X E trial

• Obj: To select genotypes that are adapted to specific agro ecologies. • Twenty high yielding outstanding mother trees/accessions were selected to establish this trial. • Two agro ecological zones were considered: Transitional (Wenchi) and Savannah (Bole) zones.


The way forward

• Studies on manual cashew pollinations. • Clones from cashew populations with complementary alleles for key traits will be hybridised in various combinations to generate new clones that match the various agroecological zones. • Development of Rootstocks that facilitate establishment and yield.


b) Development of appropriate plant production packages for cashew farmers i. Development of Nutrition and Soil Fertility Packages for Cashew


Objective To assess the influence of inorganic fertilizers and their application periods on the growth and yield of cashew and the economics of the practice in Ghana • (Different rates of TSP, MOP & AS)


Table 2:Effects of fertilizers and application periods on nut yield in 2008/2009 (5 years old)

Fertilizer treatment

T1 T2 T3 T4 Mean

Nut yield (kg/ha) Time of initial fertilizer application (months after transplanting) 0 26.7

6 19.0

12 15.3

18 15.7

19.2

78.3

47.0

20.7

28.2

43.5

41.0

48.2

19.4

21.2

32.5

28.3

30.4

16.7

16.9

23.1

43.6

36.1

18.0

9.4

-

Lsd (Fertilizer, F)

9.5

Lsd (Months, M)

9.5

Lsd (F x M)

Mean

19.1


Table 3: Effects of fertilizers and application periods on nut yield in 2007/2008 (4 years old)

Fertilizer treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 Mean Lsd (Fertilizer, F) Lsd (Months, M) Lsd (F x M)

Nut yield (kg/ha) Time of initial fertilizer application (months after transplanting)

Mean

0 18.9 64.9 35.1 24.2 35.8

10.4 29.8 18.3 12.4 -

6 5.5 20.4 9.5 5.2 10.2

12 9.6 20.1 18.5 13.8 15.5 5.3 5.3 10.7

18 7.5 14.0 10.2 5.9 9.4


- Fertilizer application, especially T2 (62.5g AS, 62.5g TSP, 12.5g MOP/plant) & T3 (125g AS, 125g TSP, 25g MOP/plant) promoted higher cashew nut yield. - The application of fertilizers at transplanting (0 month) and 6 months after transplanting resulted in significantly higher cashew nut yield than application at 12 and 18 months.


ii. Development of vegetative propagation techniques Using Cuttings Two experiments conducted: * Effect of cutting length, leaf area and hormone application on rooting performance *Effect of wood type and media on rooting performance- Trial is in progress

In addition:

(i) Top worked scion bank plot established to produce scions


(iii) Cashew cuttings of length 30cm with leaf area reduced to 1/3 and dipped in Dynaroot hormone gave better rooting (iv) Production of 10,450 cashew clones from trees with desirable traits for farmers in the Brong Ahafo and Northern regions. (v) Participated in the grafting training workshops organized for AEAs and farmers in cashew districts.


iii) Development of improved cropping systems Intercropping promoted the growth and development of the cashew tree (Table 4 & 5). Was economically beneficial in the first two years when yam was used (Table 4). Maize was profitable in the second and third years (Table 5)


Table 4. Effect of cropping systems on the growth (girth and height) and canopy span of cashew and cashew first yield. Cropping system

Girtha (mm)

Heighta (cm)

Spanb (cm)

Cashew yield (kg/ha)

Sole cashew

37.5

125.0

316.7

70.8

Cashew + groundnut

38.4

132.9

323.1

71.0

Cashew + maize

41.9

159.1

296.5

51.8

Cashew + sorghum

38.4

146.9

343.6

55.5

Cashew + yam

40.1

122.5

357.5

80.3

Cashew + 41.4 sorghum/groundnut Cashew + groundnut/maize 37.4

139.0

364.1

74.0

130.6

338.6

80.8

Lsd (5%)

16.65

3.13

Ns-not significant at P<0.05; a-measured at one year after intercropping; b- measured at three years after intercropping


Table 5: Economics of intercropping food crops with cashew at Bole Cropping system

Net revenue (GH¢) 2005

2006

2007

Sole cashew Cashew + groundnut

-52.17 -56.68

-61.90 -134.31

-88.00 -146.71

Cashew + maize

-158.06

+114.85

+238.37

Cashew + sorghum

-92.28

-149.13

-295.28

Cashew + yam Cashew + sorghum/groundnut Cashew + groundnut/maize

+50.14 -92.28 -59.58

+458.14 -1,3.45 +30.21

-18.18 -164.15 +167.69


iv. Development of thinning and pruning strategies Studies on developing thinning and pruning methods are on-going. Preliminary results indicates positive benefits of thinning


c. Development of plant protection packages i. Development of appropriate weed control packages Studies (on station and on farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; farms). On station - Slightly higher yields in glyphosate plots (Table 6). On farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; farms, chemical weed control 17.5% higher yield than manual weed control (Table 7).


Table 6: Yield of mature cashew under different weeding treatments (CRIG, Bole) Treatments T1 - Hoeing whole plot 2 times/year T2 - Hoeing whole plot 3 times/year T3 - High slashing whole plot 3 times/year T4 - Whole plot application of glyphosate (1.5 l/ha) 2 times/year

Cashew nut yield (Kg/ha). 186.00 223.6 225.32 281.25

T5 - Ring application of Glyphosate and high slashing, 2 times/year

221.75

P < 0.05

NS


Table 7: Yield of nuts (kg/ha) in weed control trial plots in the middle belt of Ghana (on farm). Location: Middle belt

Chemical weed control plot

Manual weed control plot

Tain District Brohani (Abiba Siata)

25.0

10.0

132.5

92.5

Nsawkaw Farm 1 (Kwasi Jarko)

17.5

23.8

Nsawkaw Farm 2 (Stephen (Addo)

30.0

75.0

Akrobi (K. Mensah)

217.5

135.0

Kobeda (Rose Kisiwaa)

412.5

352.5

Tromeso

172.5

150.0

52.5

65.0

Wenchi (Opuni)

333.8

282.3

Mean

154.9

131.8

Menji (Abu Mohammed)

Wenchi District

Droboso (Yaw Gyan)


The major weed succession in the chemical weed control plots were Tridax procumbens, Euphorbia spp., Ageratum conyzoides which are succulent, nonaggressive and shallow rooted and a few patches of Imperata cylindrica Generally, number of farmers out of ten spraying their farms with herbicides has increased from 5 to 7: Middle belt

-

(4)5

Northern belt

-

(1)2


Table 6: Yield of nuts (kg/ha) in weed control trial plots in the middle belt of Ghana. Location: Chemical weed Manual weed Middle belt control plot control plot Tain District Brohani (Abiba Siata)

25.0

10.0

132.5

92.5

17.5

23.8

-

-

30.0

75.0

Akrobi (K. Mensah)

217.5

135.0

Kobeda (Rose Kisiwaa)

412.5

352.5

Tromeso

172.5

150.0

52.5

65.0

Wenchi (Opuni)

333.8

282.3

Mean

154.9

131.8

Menji (Abu Mohammed) Nsawkaw Farm 1 (Kwasi Jarko) Nsuhunu Nsawkaw Farm 2 (Stephen (Addo) Wenchi District

Droboso (Yaw Gyan)


ii. Development of appropriate control packages for diseases Survey identified: a. leaf blight has been identified as the most prevalent disease of cashew. The disease causes rapid killing of tissues such as leaves, flowers and stems b. Due to the widespread nature of the disease a detail study has been initiated to look at the cause(s) of the disease and its control


Objectives - To describe the symptoms and identify the causal organisms of the blight disease(s) - To assess the severity and effect of leaf blight on yield of cashew - To search for effective control measures


Development of appropriate control packages for diseases cont’d • • • • • •

The following organisms have been isolated

Alternaria citri Pestalotia spp. Lasiodiplodia theobromae Aspergillus spp. Penicillium spp.


Development of appropriate control packages for diseases contâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d Severity increased from March to April and decreased thereafter to August. Chemical application to control the disease could be done in February and March to reduce severity in April


The way ay forward â&#x20AC;˘ Laboratory screening of fungicides for efficacy against the pathogens of the blight disease â&#x20AC;˘ Field application of fungicides to control the blight disease


c) Development of appropriate control packages for insect pests of major economic importance.

A survey recorded 170 insect species. 80 identified to the genus/species levels: Belonging to the following insect orders: 31 Hemiptera, 60 Coleoptera, 31 Hymenoptera, 5 Dictyoptera, 13 Orthoptera, 17 Lepidoptera, 5 Odonata, 4 Homoptera, 3 Diptera 1 Thysanoptera.


Studies on the population distribution of sap sucking bugs on cashew Population of bugs, generally, peaks in January and declines from April to September coinciding with: - the period of increasing availability of food, - low rainfall, - low relative humidity - and relatively high temperatures. It is recommended that monitoring should be intensified from September and February to forestall pest outbreaks


Helopeltis schoutedeni and their damage


Anoplocnemis curvipes and their damage


Pseudotheraptus devastans and their damage


Apate terebrans (stem borer) and its damage


Analeptes trifasciata (the branch girdler) cutting a branch of cashew


Experiments on Control strategies a) Chemical insecticides, Karate, and Cyperdim ( 4 and 3.5 ml /litre of water/ tree, respectively). Cyperdim more preferred due to its longer persistence. b) Biological Use of the ant, Oecophylla longinoda controlled H. schoutedeni and other sucking bugs during field trials.

O. longinoda can be successfully transferred and established on cashew trees. January and August (low rainfall) best month for transfer


O. longinoda workers on cashew fruit


Control of the stem borer, Apate telebrans on cashew Experiments on Gastoxin and wood plugging  To control the borer, A. telebrans, Gastoxin, which caused 100% mortality in all farms 15 and 30 days after treatment, was found most effective. The wood plugging treatment also had high borer mortality (75 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 100%) 30 days after treatment but was not effective within 15 days after treatment. Search for other control measures in progress.


Some chemical insecticides and application methods for stem borer control under investigation.

Three chemical insecticides  Acowood (Imidacloprid)  Perfikat (Dimethoate)  Bye bye (Amitraz)

Three application methods  stem injection  stem painting  stem spraying


Studies on the population dynamics of the stem borer, Apate telebrans Pall. and its control


Objectives i.

To determine the temporal and spatial distribution of A. telebrans on cashew in Ghana.

ii. To evaluate some insecticides for the control of the pest


Spatial distribution of A. telebrans in cashew â&#x20AC;˘ The spatial distribution study in 33 major cashew growing locations randomly selected along motorable roads within 11 districts - Northern (Bole district) - Upper West (Jirapa and Nadowli districts) - Brong-Ahafo (Jaman north, Jaman south, Nkoranza, Kintampo,Tain and Wenchi districts) - Ashanti (Ejura district) and - Eastern (Akwapim district) (Fig. 1)


Nkoranza

No. of infested trees/100 trees

Adamrobe Akorley 12

Aseseso

10 8 6 4 2 0 Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

No. of infested trees/100 trees

Akwapim

Prusu Dandwa Nkoranza

10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan

Sept

Feb

Mar

Apr

Month

10 8 6 4 2 0 Apr

May Jun Month

Jul

Aug Sept

No. of infested trees/100 trees

No. of infested trees/100 trees

12

Mar

Jul

Aug

Sept

Drobo Dawadawa Paniniamisa Kwabia

Feb

Jun

Month

Kintampo

Jan

May

Subrini Dwenem Ponko

10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May Month

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept


Tain Abu Kabile Duadaso

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

No. of infested trees/100 trees

No. of infested trees/100 trees

Sampa

Mendji Brohani B/Biema

12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Aug Sept

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Wenchi Droboso Subinso

Mar

Apr

May Jun Month

Jul

Aug

Ejura

Jul

Aug Sept

No. of infested trees/100trees

No. of infested trees/100 trees

Wenchi

Feb

Jun

Month

Month

Jan

May

2.5 Mampong Ejura Sekyere

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Jan

Feb Mar

Apr

May Jun Month

Jul

Aug Sept

Sept


Nadowli

No. of infested trees/100 trees

CRIG Catholic Farm Sawlawura

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May Jun

Jul

14 Takpo Nadowli Tabiasi

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan

Aug Sept

Feb

Mar

Apr

May Jun Month

Month

Jirapa

No. of infested trees/100 trees

No. of infested trees/100 trees

Bole

Sabuli Karni Tizza

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Month

Jun

Aug

Sept

Jul

Aug Sept


Spatial distribution of A. telebrans in cashew contâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d

â&#x20AC;˘ Borers was prevalent in all the selected cashew growing districts doing some substantial damage to the trees with peaks of pest infestation occurring from March to May.


d. Cashew processing and by-product development

i. Cashew Apple Processing a) 

Cashew Juice and Jam Astringency in cashew fruit juice can be removed with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at a rate 1.4g per a litre of juice.


Economic analysis showed that juice and jam produced from cashew apples can provide an acceptable level of additional income to the local women (Table 8). Table 8: Estimated production cost and revenue obtained from products Product

Qty produced

Est. prod. Cost (¢)

Cashew juice

240 l

2,100,000

Sell price (¢) Rev. obtained (¢) 4,000/250 ml 3,840,000

Cashew jam

342 kg

3,800,000

12,000/500g

7,796,000


d. Cashew processing and by-product development i. Alcohol (Gin & Brandy)

Juice from unwholesome apples was uesd to produce 45% alcoholic which was fractionally distillated to obtain 90% alcohol which was then blended into gin and brandy. ii. Wine and vinegar development Wine and vinegar development was initiated


d. Cashew processing and by-product

development contâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d

ii. Wine and vinegar development Monitoring of the wine development process from the juice was continued The maximum alcohol content has been achieved. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The maturation of the wine, involving the development of the esters responsible for the good aroma has been monitored for one year.


Wine and vinegar development contâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d â&#x20AC;˘ Wine is ready for pasteurizing and final bottling. Half of the wine at one stage was channeled into vinegar production. Since the process of conversion of the alcohol into vinegar is being done through natural means, the process will be monitored over the next year for completion of the process.


iii. Extraction of Cashew nut shell Liquid (CNSL) Average yield of liquid after extraction was 30%. Used in termite control in wood preservation and fungal and insect control experiments 

Very good wood protector

Length of protection offered from the oil in the case of the wood preservation is still under investigation.


iv.Cashew Nut shell liquid application • Attempts were made at saponifying the CNSL. Formulations in water of this saponified product were tested against mirids for control and found to be very effective. It’s effect on the cocoa leaves is yet to be tested • Also the effect of the CNSL was tested on termites in the laboratory and on blocks in the field for six months (Fig. 2)


9

Weight loss (g)

8 7 6 5 4

Ctrl

3 2

Treated

1 0 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

DAYS Fig. 2: A graph showing wood decay with time after treatment with CNSL


BLOCKS TREATED WITH CNSL AFTER 6 MONTHS IN THE FIELD


UNTREATED BLOCKS SHOWING VISIBLE TERMITE DAMAGE AFTER 8 WEEKS


v. Development of dried cashew pulp for animal feed 

Trial with cows initiated 2004 & ran for 2 yrs



Beneficial to supplement cows during the dry season.



Dried cashew pulp may form up to 25% of the feed.



Study being extended to pigs (rehabilitation of piggery in progress)


vi. Production of Briquette from Cashew nut shell. A small hand operated briquette molding machine was designed and constructed with assistance from the ITTC unit in Koforidua. Simple carbonizing technology was developed to convert the raw shell into a charred powder. Various ratios of binding material (Cassava starch: 8%) were tried and some good charcoal briquettes made as shown below.


SAMPLES OF MOLDED BRIQUETTE


vii. Development of chocolate pebbles using cashew gum as a coating â&#x20AC;˘

Physico-chemical analysis: high mineral contents just as in the apples.


Table 15 Comparative properties of cashew gum and gum arabica Parameter pH Ash (%) MC â&#x20AC;&#x153; Solubility in water Sugars

Gum Arabic 4.0-4.8 2.7-4.0 12-17 + trace

Cashew gum 3.8-4.2 0.5-1.0 9.8-13.2 + 0.96- 2.10mg/g


Rheological properties of cashew gum: - average viscosity 1% - cashew gum solution at 25 oC was 10.03 cPs compared with 5 cPs of gum Arabic. An indication of better quality than gum Arabic.


Achievements (In summary) a. 61 ha germplasm plots established. b. 5 Scion banks with high yielding materials established. c. Softwood grafting developed for a large scale application. d. Adaptation of top-working technique for upgrading of unproductive cashew farms. e. Growth enhancing effects of fertilizers on cashew seedlings in Ghana has been established.


Achievements cont’d f. The optimum age for transplanting cashew has been determined to be 1.5 to 2.5 months •

g. The beneficial effect of food crop intercropping established.

h. Weed control with the herbicide, Glyphosate, at 1.5-2l/ha has identified as a suitable alternative to manual weed control in cashew.


i. Cyperdim or Cypermethoate Super EC at rate of

35mls per 11litres of water, and karate at rate of 40mls (chemical insecticides) found to be very effective in the control of major pests of cashew

J. O. longinoda (a bio control agent) can control sap-sucking pests of cashew k. Gastoxin- effective against stem borers l. Cowpea, Okra, Cassava identified as unsuitable intercrops since it harbours pests.


Achievement contâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d m. Alternaria citri, Pestalotia spp. Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp.have been identified to be associated with leaf blight diseases of cashew in Ghana. n. Gummosis on cashew has also identified in the country. o. Non-traditional products such as jams, marmalade and fresh juice have been developed and found to be shelf stable. p. Gum found to be suitable for coating chocolate pebbles


q. Nuts from trees selected from germplasm collection found to be of good quality. r. It has been established that dried cashew pulp can form up to 25% of the supplementary feed for cattle in the dry season. s. CNSL as wood preservator demonstrated t. Briquttes developed from cashew nut shell. u. Cashew wine and vinegar developed


Constraints -Inadequate transport for execution of planned activities - Lack of co-operation of /and incentives to some farmers. - Erratic rainfall sometimes affected the establishment of trial plots.


Challenges Bush fires Availability of funding beyond project period for research long term research activities. Inadequate marketing avenues for cashew nuts (farmers commitment in on-farm trials)



OVERVIEW OF CASHEW RESEARCH AT CRIG (Usbert)