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Meeting Meeting on on Cashew Cashew Sub-sector Sub-sector Development Development Dakar. Dakar. Feb Feb 8-9, 8-9, 2007. 2007.

Organized Organized by: by:

USAID USAID Economic Economic Growth Growth Program Program && The The African African Cashew Cashew Alliance Alliance

The International Value-chain of Cashew and

Alternative Paths to Development Presented by:

Hari Nair Western India Cashew Co. Pvt. Ltd., India


The Basic Value Chain of Cashew Value addition by Constituents The Market for Raw Cashew Maximizing value in Raw Cashew Cashew processing in West Africa Two paths to prosperity

The Cashew Value-Chain Africa Africa

India India

Growing Growing Collection Collection Transport Transport Drying Drying Jute JuteBagging Bagging Port PortCosts Costs Shipment Shipment

Import Import Shelling Shelling Peeling Peeling Grading Grading Quality QualityControl Control Inert InertPacking Packing Shipment Shipment

RCN RCN $650 $650 CK CK $3,000 $3,000

RCN RCN $1,000 $1,000 CK CK $$ 4,500 4,500

USA USA // EU EU Import Import Warehousing Warehousing Roasting Roasting Packing Packing Promotion Promotion Logistics Logistics Supermarket Supermarket Consumption Consumption RCN RCN $2,400 $2,400 CK CK $11,500 $11,500

RCN RCN==Raw RawCashew CashewCK CK==Cashew CashewKernels. Kernels.Yield Yieldof ofCK CKisis20% 20%Exportable Exportable(Value (ValueEquivalent) Equivalent) Price Sources: Price Sources: Africa: Africa:Trade TradeEst.; Est.; India: India:Export ExportPrices, Prices,Customs; Customs; USA: USA:Retail RetailPrice, Price,from fromIRI IRI2006. 2006.

The Cashew Value-Chain – USA Importer Importer

Roaster Roaster

Roasting Import Roasting Import Salting, Warehousing Salting,Flavouring Flavouring Warehousing Packing Credit Packing Credit Promotion Price Promotion PriceInsurance Insurance Branding Quality Branding Quality Logistics replacement Logistics replacement Long-term Long-termprices prices CK CK $5,500 $5,500

CK CK $$ 8,500 8,500

Retailer Retailer Logistics Logistics Warehousing Warehousing Real RealEstate Estate Merchandising Merchandising Promotion Promotion Price-banding Price-banding

CK CK $11,500 $11,500

Price PriceSources: Sources:Informed InformedEstimates Estimatesof ofMargins Marginsof ofUS USRetailers Retailersand andFood FoodCompanies. Companies.

USA / EU Value-chain     

Four to Six hands before the consumer. Costs & Margins comparable with other snacks. Most costs are 3rd party and have fixed rates. African RM Price > 25% of Retail Price. Much better value for Origin than any other African agri product, often sold at 10 or 20 times the ex-Africa price. Coffee, Cocoa, etc. That’s why cashew cultivation is growing fast in Africa.

USA / EU Value-chain    

Tight Chain. Price-fluctuations reach consumer. Supermarkets stock thousands of alt snacks. Promote cashew only when good value. Roasters can choose five other nuts, mixes of nuts and many other savoury snacks. Demand Fell in 2005-06 because cashew prices went up 30% in 2004-05. Caused misery last year when RCN prices fell.

Growing Niches in EU/USA 

15-20% higher values. Organic – certified.  Fair-trade – certified. 


Niche products are less price-elastic. Require good infrastructure, minimum size and strict controls.

Indian value-addition to chain 


Organized cluster of factories with about 500,000 people in a small rural region. Able to work with a 30-35% Value Addn. No other comparable int’l product processing. Partner for growing African cashew production.   

Ready buyer for cashews round the year. Able to manage shipment uncertainty. Able to process varying product on pro-rating.

Value-addition in Africa 


Minimum Volume for success = 100K MT? Regular grade standards. Regular supplies without delays - logistics. Responsive to major issues – pesticide-residue, packing materials, HACCP, ISO 9000 etc.

By Processing at origin, it is possible to get a 30% Value-addition in 5-10 years. But new clients mean new issues, competencies

Investing in the current product 

Production has been growing phenomenally.  

Ivory Coast: 50K MT in ’96 to 250K MT in 06 Prices have still held up – in comparison.

30% value-creation possible in RCN – do it well.      

Farm practices: Yield of 2 MT/HA demonstrated. Quality – Out-turns, Size of nuts, Defectives %. Drying of RCN – Success of Tanzania. Government Policies – Promote the trade. Logistics Infrastructure – Priority for development. Avoid high & multiple taxation. Nurture the sector.

Limited Resources, a lot to do Situation  Current crop-yield is being wasted.  Infrastructure is a major constraint.  Too much transactional costs.  RCN yields and crop can be grown.  Origin processing can increase incomes. Where and how do we start?

Worthwhile Principles 

Goal-setting: The lower hanging fruit is easier to reach. Sequential Development: Excellence at each sequential level makes the next step easier. Fly before going supersonic. Partnership: The customer who you know and who knows you or the stranger.

A Logical Sequence 1. 2.

Reduce waste – Dry the product. Make the turns quicker. 

3. 4.

Improve the Product - min 30% out-turn Grow the crop.  


Infrastructure and Finance

Increase yields – from 300kg / HA to 1 MT Plant more.

Add value at Origin – partner customers.

Partnerships for Development  

Partnerships for increasing value in Africa. Government and Private 

Farming – better tree-yields, out-turns, size of nuts. 


ICAR in India, FAO, etc.

Infrastructure – Logistics. Up-country and Ports. Procurement – Banking, Micro-credit, Certifications. Processing – Rural factories, Machinery, Training. Promotion – Contribution from African Aid Agencies.

Wish-list of Indian buyers 

Good drying of Raw Cashews can increase value by 10-20%. Farmer education – do it early.  Farmer credit – holding capacity.  Up-country collection centers.  Trader / collector training. Yields and Dryage.  Commercial – wet is heavier  Drying Facilities at port. Last control point. 

Wish-list of Indian buyers  

No Lot-mixing. Single origin = better yield Prompt transport and shipment. Inland transport – trucks.  Port infrastructure – costs, deterioration.  Port storage, drying, inspection facilities.  Container availability.  Enough Dry-bags in containers.  Weekly sailings and shorter transit. 

Wish-list of Indian buyers 

Government Policies – nurture the business.     

Good crop forecasts – aids Marketing plans. Crop Promotion – Low export-taxes. Infrastructure – reduce systemic costs. More exporters – better farmer prices. Security.

Contract Performance  

Both ways. Too many defaults and problems. Dispute settlement mechanisms. Bi-lateral.


Very tight value-chain. Higher value to Origin than other products.  Higher volatility year-on-year.  Better co-ordination and co-operation reqd. 

Value addition through Increasing value of RCN or thru processing?  Limited resources. Can’t do both together.  Sequenced Development. 

Thank You

Hari Nair Western India Cashew Company Pvt. Ltd., India

International Cashew Value Chain by Hari Nair ENG  
International Cashew Value Chain by Hari Nair ENG  

International Cashew Value Chain by Hari Nair ENG