A M E R I C A ’ S
H I S T O R Y
History of American Journalism How They Came to Be
Muckrakers Theodore Roosevelt first attached the name muckraker to this type of investigative journalism. 1906 Speech:
Magazines in Muckraking McClure’s Magazine is considered to be the first official, and widely circulated, publisher of muckraking journalism. October 1902- “Tweed Days in St. Louis” Lincoln Steffens January 1903“The History of Standard Oil” Ida M. Tarbell “The Shame of Minneapolis” Lincoln Steffens “The Right to Work” Ray Stannard Baker
Yellow Journalism and Newspapers Duis varius:
New York World
New York Journal
[Date] Joseph Pulitzer William Hearst Many exaggerations were used, however, “real” reporting still existed. Cartoonist Richard F. Outcault’s, “Hogan’s Alley” cartoon strip The fight over “Yellow Kid”
“In Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” you may recall the description of the Man with the Muck Rake, the man who could look no way but downward, with the muck rake in his hand; who was offered a celestial crown for his muck rake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, but continued to rake to himself the filth of the floor.” “The man who did nothing else was certain to become a force of evil.”
Influential People and Their Goals Lincoln Steffens McClure’s: “Tweed Days in St. Louis” His passion to reveal Municipal Government Corruption
Upton Sinclair The Jungle Meat Packing Industry Leads to the Pure Food and Drug Act
Ida M. Tarbell “The History of The Standard Oil Company” Rockefeller’s Monopoly of Standard Oil Leads to The Supreme Court’s Decision of the Standard Oil Company violating the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman) “Inside the Madhouse” Faked Insanity to gain access into an insane asylum in order to write about the inside. ý
Treatment of the Patients
Joseph Pulitzer vs. William Randolph Hearst Spanish American War Yellow Journalism hits an all time high in 1898 when an explosion sinks the Maine. Does a good job rallying the public’s support for the war.
“You furnish the pictures, I’ll provide the war!” -Hearst (New York Journal)
Muckrakers Make an Impact The main impact muckraking journalism had on the U.S. society was Progressive Legislation Changes Pure Food and Drug Act Standard Oil’s Monopoly Child Labor Laws Grand Jury Investigations Insane Asylum
Many of these changes in legislation occurred while Woodrow Wilson was in office.
And Finally… Through their investigative reporting, muckrakers grasped public attention and directed it to many corrupt problems, which initiated change. Yellow journalism also captured many peoples’ attention, but portrayed more exaggerated stories for the purpose of sales, rather than change.
Why It’s Important Today Both muckraking and yellow journalism have had an impact to get us to where we are today. Both of these types of reporting are still in use today, and have and will continue to have an impact on the United States of America.
Haley Johnson History 152 Final Project Presentation
Bibliography Anderson, Jack. Confessions of a Muckraker: The inside Story of Life in Was. New York, NY: Random House, 1979 This book tells a first hand account from a well-known muckraker during the Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson years in Washington. The author, Jack Anderson, is a very credible source; he work started working for Drew Pearson (known muckraker) on the famous “Washington Merry-Go-Round” in 1947 and then took over the publication in 1969. Anderson also became involved in many other areas of journalism, such as, Parade magazine, ABC Good Morning America, and the Mutual Radio Network. He also won the Pulitzer Prize for National Journalism. It is very helpful in understanding how and why muckrakers exposed secrets. Chalmers, David Mark. The Social and Political Ideas of the Muckrakers. New York: Citadel, 1964. This book profiles 13-muckraker journalist in the beginning of the twentieth century. This book tries to show how the exposing done helped to open up the road to the reforms of the progressive era. I found it interesting that the book included the possible reform solutions that each muckraker offered. Regier, C. C. The Era of the Muckrakers. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1957. This is a very old book on muckraking. It was originally printed in 1932, and then reprinted in 1957. I found it to be very interesting, and surprisingly easy to follow. It also offers many good quotes from muckrakers who were still alive when it was originally written. Ritchie, Donald A. American Journalists: Getting the Story. New York: Oxford UP, 1997. American Journalists is made up of 60 essays profiling various American journalists in history. One of best profiles in this book is on Nellie Bly, a yellow journalist who wrote many exposés, and went undercover write here first widely recognized piece. While there are many profiles that are not of use to me, the ones that are, are full of useful information. Swados, Harvey. Years of Conscience: The Muckrakers; an Anthology of Reform Journalism. Cleveland: World Pub., 1962. This book offers a supporting view on the muckrakers from the time period of 1902-1912. The author uses words like “honesty” and “compassion” to describe what the journalist brought back into the American society by exposing the corporate and government corruption. Although I need to be careful of the author’s opinion, there are many good points and facts to learn from this book. There is a good profile of Lincoln Steffens in this book as well.