Page 1

De-constructing the Mississippi Restoring A Continental System

Mississippi Sub-Basin

Ecological Systems are Defined By Two Key Characteristics:

Tributaries and Dam network

(1.) the unit of nature is often defined in terms of a geographical boundary, such as a watershed, and (2.) abiotic components, plants, animals, and humans within this unit are considered to be interlinked.

The Mississippi River Ecosystem FACTS Length: 2,320 miles Stretches the North American Continent spanning 2 countries The Watershed : drains 41% of the US = 1.25 million sq mi includes 31 states; 2 Canadian provinces The River: Falls 725 feet Touches 10 states Is separated into 2 Regions, upper and lower defined by the convergence of the Ohio River

Mississippi Political Juggernaut There is a disconnect in the design disciplines between the scale in which we affect ecological systems and the conventional scale professionals address urban problems. In order to address the challenges that have arisen out of the Mississippi River, designers need to operate beyond geopolitical boundaries and begin planning at a mega-region and even the continental scale.

Mississippi River Valley 26 Navigational Dams

Mississippi River Commission U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers

Minneapolis St. Paul

Secretary of War

Lock & Dam System

$ Sub-Commissions-2 o

is

lI lin

UPPER

Mis

sou

Upper Mississippi River

r e iv

iver o

i h O

r e iv

R

Minnesota

$

Wisconsin $

Iowa $

Illinois

$

iver

Ri

$

$

Tennessee $

Governor

Kentucy

Arkansas $

Mississippi $

Louisiana

$

Cities- 125 Mayor

as R

d

States- 10 Missouri $

Memphis

Re

$

St. Louis

ri R

ans

Lower Mississippi River

R

LOWER

Ark

$

ve

r

Baton Rouge New Orleans

Bemidji, Minnesota

Prescott, Wisconsin

Preston, Iowa

Galena, Illinois

Hannibal, Missouri

Columbus, Kentucky

Tiptonville, Tennessee

Barfield, Arkansas

Tunica, Mississippi

Morganza, Louisiana

Grand Rapids, Minnesota

Diamond Bluff, Wisconsin

Lansing, Iowa

Savanna, Illinois

Louisiana, Missouri

Hickman, Kentucky

Reverie, Tennessee

Tomato, Arkansas

Greenville, Mississippi

St. Francisville, Louisiana

Jacobson, Minnesota

Hager City, Wisconsin

Marquette, Iowa

Fulton, Illinois

Clarksville, Missouri

Memphis, Tennessee

Osceola, Arkansas

Vicksburg, Mississippi

New Roads, Louisiana

Palisade, Minnesota

Maiden Rock, Wisconsin

McGregor, Iowa

Cordova, Illinois

Portage Des Sioux, Missouri

West Memphis, AR

Natchez, Mississippi

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Hassman, Minnesota

Stockholm, Wisconsin

Guttenberg, Iowa

Moline, Illinois

St. Louis, Missouri

Helena-West Helena, AR

Donaldsonville, Louisiana

Aitkin, Minnesota

Pepin, Wisconsin

Dubuque, Iowa

Rock Island, Illinois

Ste. Genevieve, Missouri

Arkansas City, Arkansas

Lutcher, Louisiana

Riverton, Minnesota

Nelson, Wisconsin

Bellevue, Iowa

New Boston, Illinois

Cape Girardeau, Missouri

New Orleans, Louisiana

Brainerd, Minnesota

Alma, Wisconsin

Sabula, Iowa

Keithsburg, Illinois

Commerce, Missouri

Pilottown, Louisiana

Fort Ripley, Minnesota

Buffalo City, Wisconsin

Clinton, Iowa

Oquawka, Illinois

New Madrid, Missouri

Little Falls, Minnesota

Fountain City, Wisconsin

Le Claire, Iowa

Dallas City, Illinois

Caruthersville, Missouri

Sartell, Minnesota

Trempealeau, Wisconsin

Bettendorf, Iowa

Nauvoo, Illinois

St. Cloud, Minnesota

La Crosse, Wisconsin

Davenport, Iowa

Warsaw, Illinois

Coon Rapids, Minnesota

Stoddard, Wisconsin

Buffalo, Iowa

Quincy, Illinois

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Genoa, Wisconsin

Muscatine, Iowa

Alton, Illinois

Saint Paul, Minnesota

Victory, Wisconsin

Burlington, Iowa

Kaskaskia, Illinois

Nininger, Minnesota

Potosi, Wisconsin

Fort Madison, Iowa

Chester, Illinois

Hastings, Minnesota

De Soto, Wisconsin

Keokuk, Iowa

Grand Tower, Illinois

Prairie Island, Minnesota

Ferryville, Wisconsin

Thebes, Illinois

Red Wing, Minnesota

Lynxville, Wisconsin

Cairo, Illinois

Lake City, Minnesota

Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin

Maple Springs, Minnesota

Wyalusing, Wisconsin

Camp Lacupolis, Minnesota

Cassville, Wisconsin

Reads Landing, Minnesota Wabasha, Minnesota Weaver, Minnesota Minneiska, Minnesota Winona, Minnesota Homer, Minnesota


Threats to the System Runoff (kilograms per square kilometer per year) Suspended Total sediment phosphorus Nitrate

Wheat Urban Forest Rangeland Mixed crops Corn and soybeans

3503 8056 10,858 11,559 27,671

3.5 41.7 22.1 6.0 23.1

Arkansas River

Coarse sediment trapped behind dam structure

11.2 192 89.3 10.9 107

Iowa

158

Arkansas River

Red River

Red River

Illinois

Creating America’s Super Highway 57.1

Elevation in meters

35,026

1983

156

152

Source:Smith et al. (1996).

6000 8000 10,000 Distance in meters

5 27

78

12,000

12

3

Illinois

65 75 9 1 19

Missouri Kentucky

,7 92

n, IA -

500

02 90 -4

Lake bed at different years

Agriculture 135

River Mile 175.0

cultivated crops hay/pasture

Wisconsin

Minnesota

9,

39

3

24

54

n

-3

to St

.L

400

ou is ,M O

Al

26

Iowa

1985 133

132

1975

Illinois

1965

Missouri Kentucky

Arkansas

350 130

129

650

600

550

500

450

System Wide Threats 1. Geologic Factors

a. Sea Level Rise- Regional Levels are higher than Eustatic Levels (18-24 cm/yr above global level) b. Susidence and Compaction: -Primary Consolidation- consolidation occurring in only one-dimension due to vertical

stresses and settlement of voids

Mississippi

400

350

300

250

200

150

The Tale of Two Rivers Reality

Runoff (kilograms per square kilometer per year) Suspended Total sediment phosphorus Nitrate

Land use

Wheat 3503 3.5 11.2 0 Urban 8056 41.7 192 1930 Forest 10,858 22.1 89.3 Rangeland 11,559 6.0 10.9 Mixed crops 27,671 23.1 107 Corn and Annual suspended-sediment discharge at Tarbert soybeans 35,026 57.1 326 Landing and

Perception

1

-Secondary Compression-

2

700

3

4 5

650

5a

6

7

8 9

2. Catastrophic Factors

1. Landslides 2. Floods 3. Hurricanes- highest surge and intense waves at the right of hurricane path--causing erosion and saltwater inundation

10

11

600

550

3. Biological Factors

500

- Marsh maintenance and growth >= decomposition - Wetland Types: 1. Saline 2. Brackish- experiencing highest rate of erosion 3. Freshwater 4. Swamp Forest

450

400

4. Human Factors

1. Flood & Navigation Control- reduced sediment a. Dams - 434x106 tons(1850) reduced to 255x106 = 41% Reduction - Reduction in amount and in texture (coarser grain foundation sediment no longer passes dams) b. Levees - All sediment directed out of the mouth of distributaries - Overbank flooding- deprives marshes of nourishment, maintenance and subsidence compaction. c. Cutoffs d. Revetments e. Dredging 2. Pollution a. Agricultural runoff: pesticides, nutrient runoff b. Sewage effluents 3. Highway and Canal Construction a. Highways- North-South highways built on natural levees (minimal impact), East-West block natural drainage courses. b. Canals - Hunting and trapping (historical use) - General Navigation - Petroleum Exploration Access Direct Impact: Wetlands are converted to waterways, spoilbanks, widening from canal bank erosion. Indirect Impact: Canals create an artificial drainage network which alters marsh hydrology--changes surface and ground water flows--restricting nutrient and sediment to some areas while over exposing other areas.

100

750

-Oxidation of Organic Matter c. Change in Deposition Centers

300

799

compression of soil that takes place after primary consolidation. Secondary consolidation is caused by creep, viscous behavior of the clay-water system, compression of organic matter, and other processes.

400

Lower Mississippi River, 1920-2007. Solid circles correspond and the trend lines been fit by least-squares regression. Source:Smith et al.have (1996). Memphis District of the lower Mississippi River and the upper Vicksburg District of the Lower Mississippi.

Louisiana

1903 Lake bed at different years

700

-

Tennessee

131

300

500

Suspended sediment, total phosphorus, and nitrate yields in runoff by dominant land use in the United States for 1980–1989. 200

134

,3

IL

61

-2

25

450

750

0 1950

600

129

Cl

22

800

200

,4 n, M O to

21

Sa ve r

20

850

400

130

-4

ku k, Ke o 19

900

600

7 18

550

950

Water

1903

lle ,M O

17

ar ks vi

16

69

15

131

0,

14

Mississippi

Louisiana

-1

600

13

Arkansas

132

IA

in to 12

Tennessee

133

D 48 Ro ave ,9 ck np 42 Is ort la , nd IA , I -2 4 L 6, 88 6

IA -

11

Cl

10

1985

24

91 1, rg ,I A-

9

Sediment

Iowa

River Mile 175.0

134

D eb uq ue ,

en be

8

350

300 950

900

850

800

750

700

650

600

Mississippi Flyway

America’s Landmark America has a romantic vision of the Mississippi River that has been historically portrayed by authors such as Mark Twain. It is one of America’s most prized landmarks.

America’s Economic Conduit In reality the river has been augmented to promote economic progress. The governing bodies of the Mississippi River value the economy of the river over the river’s ecological health and have altered it to run as efficiently as possible.

3. Fluid Withdrawal: depressurization of

a. Aquifers- mainly in Metropolitan areas (ie. New Orleans)-- ground water withdrawal next to the largest fresh water source in North America b. Hydrocarbon- Subsidence from oil and gas fields.

Threatened, Endangered, & Sensitive Species

Due to Man-Made Alterations to the River The Mississippi River Valley is critical habitat for 286 state-listed or candidate species and 36 federal-listed or candidate species of rare, threatened or endangered plants and animals endemic to the Mississippi River Basin. Vertebrates

Invertebrates

Major causes of decline to mussel species is attributed to destruction of habitat (deforestation, riparian zone destruction) by siltation, dredging, channelization, impoundments, and pollution.

Major causes of decline to most of the vertebrates within the Mississippi River Valley have been directly related to man-made alterations to the river (i.e., dams, levees, channelization, etc.) This has caused loss and/or unsuitable habitat, as well as, loss of diversification and pollution.

Marine Mammal West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus: Endangered

The primary cause of death is watercraft collision (30%); other deaths may be attributed to water control structures and navigational locks. Threats also include coastal development, alteration of water flow to natural springs, loss of seagrass beds, and natural causes such as red tide and cold events.

Birds

Interior least tern Sterna antillarum athalassos: Endangered

Man-made alterations (i.e., dams, channelization) affecting the natural processes of erosion and inundation of interior river systems have caused increased vegetation along shorelines thus, creating unsuitable habitat for the species

Colonial Waterbirds Various Species: Specie of Concern

Terrestrial Mammal Louisiana Black Bear Ursus americanus luteolus: Threatened

Gray Bat Myotis grisescens Endangered

Many important caves were flooded and submerged by reservoirs. Other caves are in danger of natural flooding. Even if the bats escape the flood, they have difficulty finding a new cave that is suitable

Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis: Endangered

Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Threatened

Present threats include loss of nesting habitat mainly to development in coastal areas and waterways, electrocution, and shooting

Piping plover Charadrius melodus Threatened

10

Wisconsin

,6

6, M N -2 7

ut t

650

G

6

Cr os se ,

5a

4000

2000

135

La

5

W in on a,

4

0

Cross-sectional profile of the Upper Misssissippi River

2

3

144

America’s Bread-Basket 1891 Damming the Mississippi River allows the transport of 472-million tons of cargo (petroleum, coal, chemicals, and grain ) worth $54 14,000 16,000 billion each year Minnesota

1

700

146

W I1

750

20

Gulf of Mexico

Cubic kilometers per year

M m inn St illi ea . P on po lis au ,M l, Re M N d N -p W in op g, ul M at N io -1 n 2. 5, 85 68 7

799

30

DECLINE OF SEDIMENT DISCHARGE IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

148

142

40

1928

150

Lock and Dam System Elevation of Upper Mississippi River

600

50

Suspended-sediment discharge, in millions of metric tons per year

1946

154

326

0

Gulf of Mexico

Annual suspended-sediment discharge, million of metric tons

Land use

Missouri River

Ohio River

Millions of metric tons per ye

United States for 1980–1989.

Marine Turtles Loggerhead Caretta caretta: Endangered

Freshwater Turtles Western Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta bellii Rare

The primary causes of decline in this species are shrimp trawling, coastal development, increased human use of nesting beaches, and pollution

Kemp’s Ridley Lepidochelys kempii: Endangered

Spiny Softshell Turtle Apalone spinifera Species of Concern

Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata: Endangered

Smooth Softshell Apalone mutica: Rare

Green turtle Chelonia mydas: Threatened

Ringed-sawback Turtle Graptemys oculifera: Threatened

The major cause of the decline is the commercial harvest of food, eggs, and calipee. Other threats include commercial shrimp trawling and degradation of habitat.

Common Map Turtle Graptemys geographica: Endangered

Populations may be substantial in waterways with abundant mollusks. Mature males outnumber mature females (Pluto and Bellis 1986).

Common Snapping Turtle Chelydra serpentina: Sensitive Species

Chemical pollution is linked to population decline (Ryan et al. 1986).

Primary threat has been the increase of trawling in the Gulf which impacted a large portion of the reproducing population.

Commercial exploitation which is primarily shells but also includes leather, oil, perfume, and cosmetics.

Fish

Density indicates a sex ratio of males to females of 2.5:1. Some studies have indicated that 37 percent of the population is composed of immature individuals.

Papermill effluents, sewage, industrial waste, habitat modification and water quality degradation are the most often cited reasons for declining numbers of ringed map (McCoy and Vogt 1980; Stewart 1988).

Ouachita Map Turtle Graptemys ouachitensis: Species of Concern

False Map Turtle Graptemys pseudogeographica Threatened

Declining populations are attributed to several factors, including water pollution, river channelization, reduction of suitable nesting sites, siltation, and unlawful shooting

Blanding’s Turtle Emydoidea blandingi: Species of Concern

Mississippi Basin Migratory Patterns Source: US Wildlife and Fisheries

Freshwater Mussels Yellow sandshell Lampsillisteres: Endangered

Strange Floater Strophitus undulatus: Threatened

Monkeyface Quadrula metanevra: Endangered

Washboard Megalonaias nervosa: Endangered

Strange Floater Strophitus undulatus: Threatened

Higgins eye pearlymussel Lampsilis higginsii: Endangered

Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchusdesotoi Threatened

Wartyback Quadrula nodulata: Endangered

Spike Elliptio dilatata: Endangered

Hickorynut Obovaria olivaria: Extirpated / Endangered

Paddlefish Polyodon spathula: Species of Concern

Strange Floater Strophitus undulatus: Threatened

Round pigtoe Pleurobema plenum: Extirpated/ Endangered

Butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata: Endangered

Rough pigtoe Pleurobema plenum: Extirpated/ Endangered

Black sandshell Ligumia recta:

Walleye Stizostedion vitreum: Species of Concern

Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu: Species of Concern

Wetland alteration or destruction is believed to be an important factor in the decline of several populations of Blanding’s turtles (Kofron and Schreiber 1985).

Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus: Species of Concern

Rock-pocketbook Arcidens confragosus Endangered

Some studies have shown a large female-biased sex ratio (3:1), which may be due to either the effects of temperature-dependent gender determination (Shively and Jackson

1985).

Pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: Endangered

Decline is due to degradation of habitat, mainly due to impoundments and channelization. Dams and channelization have altered the functions and have produced a less diverse ecosystem of which the pallid sturgeon is dependant on. Regular widths, constant velocities, and control of erosion produced by channelization have limited the assemblage of backwaters, sloughs, and sandbars required by the species. Dams have altered the natural river dynamics by modifying flows and reducing diversity to the system. Levee construction has eliminated natural flooding and reduced floodplains. Increased clarity from decreased sediment transport of once very turbid waters makes the pallid sturgeon more susceptible to predation. The removal of snags has reduced the amount of organic material limiting habitat for aquatic insects, a major food source for pallid sturgeon (USFWS 1993).

55


Environmental degradation from river construction and alterations leads to new policies to protect the Mississippi River.

ENVIRONMENT RESPONSE

War time commerce and flood events leads to reactionary policies to institute river engineering and construction

CONSTRUCTION ERA

Destruction from floods leads to reactionary policies increasing more engineering

FLOODS & POLICIES

Destruction from floods leads to the beginning of Mississippi River Commission

RIVER COMMERCE & GOVERNANCE The Mississippi River’s potential of commerce and trade, as well as flooding and devastation is discovered

RIVER POTENTIAL The Mississippi River’s potential of commerce and trade, as well as flooding and devastation is discovered

RIVER DISCOVERY Prehistoric inhabitants of North America who constructed earthen mounds for burial, residential and ceremonial purposes. Predates pyramids 1000 years.

MOUND-BUILDERS

Political & Geo-Ecologies

Time line: political augmentation of the river

Every political Act implemented along the river has been a reaction due to a crises or economic stimulousNo comprehensive plan or master vision

CHRONOLOGY OF RIVER AND POLICY CULTURAL AND GEO-ECOLOGIES

30 years

80 years


d e in the

Threats at Every Scale

rate

+

1 Local: Engineering

11.2Navigational Dams 192 89.3 10.9 07

Sediment Backfilling at Lock and Dams

Sediment Separation

Cross-sectional profile of the Upper Mississippi River

Sediment Classification Magnified x 60

size x 20

Coarse 2mm

326

Illinois 1983

156

Fine 1/16mm (silt)

(Sand)

Iowa

158

Elevation in meters

ar)

1946

154

Source: USACE Willow revetment mattress construction used for bank protection from 1800-1900s. The willow revetment was found not to be an effective technique to control bank erosion along the Mississippi River.

11 meter rise (lost capacity)

152

1928

150 148

** Coarse sediment is the primary foundation for the coastal marshlands. Since the construction of the dams, the sediment is blocked and settles, creating lost capacity behind the dams and deficiencies below the dam.

1891

146

Source: USACE Construction of Lock and Dam no. 22 on the Mississippi River

144 142

0

2000

4000

6000 8000 10,000 Distance in meters

2 Regional: Compounding

14,000

16,000

+

Cross-sectional profile of the Upper Mis 135

1989

1891

Decline of Sediment Discharge

12,000

River Mile 175.0

145 million tons

400 million tons

134

Mississippi River

Ohio River

11 12

Arkansas River

13

Coarse sediment trapped behind 14 dam structure

15

Arkansas River

Red River

16

linois

Red River

17

18 Gulf of Mexico

0

600

Gulf of Mexico

500

131

400 300 200

130

100 1950

Suspended-sediment discharge, in millions of metric tons per year

Sediment deposition behind dams on Upper 19 Mississippi River is blocking blocking 20 navigational channels as well as causing lost 21 RIVER DECLINE OF SEDIMENT DISCHARGE IN THE MISSISSIPPI capacity for reserviors, which many cities, 22 farms and industries rely on for their water supply

6,000

Missouri River

1960

3 Continental: System Collapse Cubic kilometers per year

5 5 6 19 197

Missouri Kentucky

Tennessee Arkansas

Mississippi

Louisiana

Water

400 200

450

400

0 The state is losing 25 to 35 square miles of wetlands each year, nearly 1950 1960 1970 a football field every 30 minutes Louisiana is spending $28.3 million to attempt to restore the 600 coastal wetlands.

sediment backfilling decreased250 water capacity 300 200 150 top soil & nutrient loss 500 pollution from agriculture and propagating channel degradation in the upstream direction. Channel deepening and widening have caused problems at stream crossings and have resulted in gully development encroachment into cultivated fields. A diffusion model and a hyperbolic model, each

350

Lake bed at different years

UPPER

0

LOWER

1975

Illinois

1965

Missouri Kentucky

1990

129

Louisiana Wetland Loss Source: USGS

revetments

2000

dikes Decline = - 1.1 million metric tons per year

1903

400

300

R2 = 0.42

200

R2 = 0.14

100

New Orleans after hurricane Katrina Source: Colligan Wordpress

0 1930

Arkansas

1980

100

brought about by man. Intensive agriculture, land clearing, urban construction, drainage of wetlands, levee construction and alteration of stream segments in both the Illinois River Basin and lower Mississippi Valley have significantly increased the rate of erosion and the amount of sediment entering stream tributaries, the Illinois River and its backwater lakes and sloughs (Figure 8).

Tennessee

130

Decline = - 15 million metric tons per year

habitat loss sinking marshes 300 Upland Erosion hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico Agricultural landscapes have been more sensitive to climatic variability than natural landscapes because tillage and grazing typically reduce water infiltration and increase coastal rates and exposure magnitudes of surface runoff. Studies have been completed to determine how agricultural land use has influenced the relative responsiveness of floods, erosion, and200 sedimentation toloss extreme and nonextreme hydrologic activity occurring in watersheds of economic the upper Mississippi Valley. The Illinois River Basin has been of particular interest due to its land use characteristics and size. Soil erosion and deposition of sediment into vulnerable surface waters is acities natural process that has been accelerated by land altering changes

Iowa

1985

400

describing channel degradation, were solved using a Laplace transform approach. A close-form solution was obtained for the diffusion model, but numerical methods were necessary for evaluation of the inverse transform of the hyperbolic model. A closed-form asymptotic solution was found for the hyperbolic case. Both solutions were found to be in very good agreement with actual results (Hjelmfelt and Lenau 1992).

Wisconsin

Minnesota

Louisiana has 40% of America’s wetlands, yet is experiencing 90% of the loss.

Annual suspended-sediment discharge, million of metric tons

500

131

600

1903

550

1965

132

Illinois

600

1975

Iowa

0

50

=

133

26

1985

2000

1985

Wisconsin

the Upper Misssissippi River

1990

134

25

Minnesota

1980

129 Sediment concentrations in the Mississippi River have decreased at least 70-80% from pre-development conditions135 River Mile 175.0

Sediment

24

1970

Cumulative Revetment or Dike Construction, kilometers

10

132

Ohio River Millions of metric tons per year

Missouri River

133

Mississippi River

1950

Dredging to clear navigation passages Source: USACE

1970 Year

1990

Turbidity after dredging Source: USACE

0 2010

Mississippi

Louisiana

1903 Lake bed at different years

Annual suspended-sediment discharge at Tarbert Landing and construction of engineered dikes and bank revetment along the Lower Mississippi River, 1920-2007. Solid circles correspond to the annual suspended-sediment discharge at Tarbert Landing and the trend lines have been fit by least-squares regression. The lower dased line corresponds to dike construction in the Memphis District of the lower Mississippi River and the upper dashed line correspondes to the bank revetment construction in the Vicksburg District of the Lower Mississippi. Industrial waste on Upper Mississippi River Source: US Fish and Wildlife Service

Figure 8: Sheet erosion theUpper Upper Mississippi River River basin Basin Sheet Erosion in in the Mississippi Source: U.S. Departmentof of Agriculture Source: US Department Agriculture

9

Louisiana Wetland Loss Source: USGS

Louisiana Coast, Gulf of Mexico ‘Dead Zone’ Source: Louisiana University Marine Cosortium

Gulf of Mexico hypoxic ‘Dead Zone’ Source: NOAA


Dirt Economies

Sediment Transfer Strategy & Network Commodity is sediment shift the value system- harness, exploit, the river’s natural processes to promote the health of the river and create a new economy coupling natural infrastructure with the man-made infrastructure that has been a detriment to the river for over 100 years in order to create new clean industries depending on surrounding land uses.

PROBLEM

OPPORTUNITY

SOLUTION Adjacent Land Use

Dams create to opportunity to harvest sediment

Agriculture runoff on the Upper Mississippi River creates sediment

Urban Sludge

Urban

1

Diminished Capacity

2

Polluted/ Toxic

1 2 3 Systemic Sediment Harvesting

Green Economies

Waste

Sediment

Agriculture

Ecological Restoration

Agri. Pollution Sediment

Sediment

Forest

Sediment

Wetland

Separation

Commodity

A

Organic Fertilizer Fill

B

Compost/ Topsoil

C

Clear Cut Reclamation

D

Foundation Sand

Process Moving Dirt- Each step of the sediment transfer process creates new jobs which will facilitate economic gain. Creating a sediment network along the river helps to re-imagine industries that have a positive effect on the river while still growing the economy.

1Dam 1

In areas where the river bed has trapped and accumulated sediment, a hopper boat sucks dredged material and pumps it through an intake pipe (drag arm) to hoppers where it is stored. The slurry water is drained and discharged during the dredge operation.

2Dredging 2 Once the hoppers are full, the vessel moves to a sediment discharge station, where the sediment is pumped out of the hoppers.

3Train 3 After the sediment is unloaded, it is moved by a conveyer belt to an on-site silo.

4 4 Sediment is stored in the silo until the train arrives, where it is dispensed from above.

5 the train transports the sediment to the different areas of the park to be distributed accordingly.

Sediment Plant 5 The sediment is transported by train from the dredging station using existing rail lines. From there, it is delivered to the unloading station at the sediment park.

AUrban

BAgriculture Sediment that has a high level of toxicity is ran through a detoxification process.

6 Once the sediment arrives at the park, it is unloaded, tested, and separated according to its toxicity level.

CForest

After detoxification, the clean soil is moved and separated according to its future use. 10 Sediment from the A Mississippi River is full of nutrients and is considered by some the most fertile soil in the world. Some of the sediment extracted is packaged and sold to farmers as a source of fertilizer and top soil restoration.

Some sediment will be loaded into a dump truck and transferred to allocated areas throughout the park.

A

B

DWetland

C

10 Sediment is used to build new habitat around the park until it is eventually eroded and washed back into the river to be carried to the delta marshlands. Thus helping to restoring the natural sediment load and deposition rate of the river.

D


Site Selection Criteria

Incorporating Sediment Network Locally o Illin is R

Site Selection Criteria

iver

1.

Convergence of the 3 rivers- Mississippi, Illinois, Missouri

M is siss

2. Oldest River Testing Gage- USACE- St. Louis division Mi

ver i Ri

ipp

ssi

ssi

3. One of the largest cities on the Upper Mississippi River

pp

iR

ive r

4. Last navigational dam 5. Area of Most significant change in past 100 years- from sedimentation and urbanization

Lock and Dam No.26

Mi

ss

ou

6. 1993 Flood- considered the worst flood on Mississippi

ri

Riv er

7. Environmental Legacy of the Engineering- dams, levees, embankments, cutoffs 8. Existing infrastructure- rail, highway, canals, etc. 9. East St. Louis is a dried-up industrial city in need of new industry for economic development

East St. Louis, IL

St. Louis, MO

scale 1:1,000 scale 1:10,000 scale 1:1mile

Miss i s s ip r

p i R ive

Symbolic gesture to reconnect / deconstruct the river Flood Control system Restore natural processes Create park to absorb obnoxious recreational uses Utilize “suburban� existential/ wasted spaces Job creation

SITE Analysis

Utilize stimulus money- for green industry

Sedimentation Program and Process -Park development to incorporate/ mitigate existing uses. Project Boundary Road Railroad Proposed River Connection 4

Channel

2

1

Dam 5

Catalogue of Existing Uses

6

1. U.S. Steel -mill and coking factory 3

2. U.S. Steel -cooling pond

7

3. Agriculture inside River cutoff 8

4. Lake Horseshoe- Oxbo Lake 5. Sediment Island

St. Louis, MO

East St. Louis, IL 12

15

11 13 16 14

10

6. Agriculture 7. Runoff diversion channel 8. Existing Wetlands

9

9. Existing Wetlands 10. Abandoned Gravel Pit 11. Race Track 12. Golf Course

17

13. Empty Land 14. Abandoned Foundation Pad 15. Blighted Neighborhood 16. Water Treatment Plant 17. Existing Riparian edge


East St. Louis

Urban Revitalization through Sediment Network The sediment network can be implemented locally at a continental scale

2

3

Organic Fertilizer

Topsoil Replacement

Urban Forestry

4

1

2

Organic Fertilizer: The nutrients from agricultural sediment can be sequestered to create a rich, organic fertilizer. This fertilizer is a non-toxic alternative for the environment, while safe for the adjacent communities Top Soil Replacement: Due to improper farming and land cultivation, much of America’s fertile topsoil has eroded away into the Mississippi River over the past 100 years. However, harvesting the nutrient-rich soil from the river can replenish agricultural top soil.

Wetland Reconstruction

Brownfield Reclamation

4

Brown Field Reclamation: The existing U.S. Steel site is cleaned with sediment and sludge mixture to remediate the soil, allowing for future housing and retail development Strip Mine Reclamation: The strip mine and gravel pit are filled with the urban sediment mixture. The nutrientrich mixture expedites the reclamation process

Forest Reclamation

2 3

1

3

Wetland Reconstruction

Strip Mine Reclamation

1

Urban Forestry: Planting forests within the urban realm creates a buffer between communities and less desirable land uses, mitigates storm water runoff, acts as a wildlife corridor, while creating an interconnected openspace network for the city. Planting these forest with a forest sediment mixture will promote growth in a hinderingly environment. Forest Reclamation: Clear-cut forest are very susceptible to erosion and nutrient loss, making it difficult to regenerate. Replenishing the topsoil and adding nutrient-rich sediment can expediate grown cycle, so that certain areas will be more productive, and virgin forest less susceptible to clear cutting.

4

1 Urban

2 Agriculture

3 Forest

Wetland Reconstruction: Wetlands are a vital habitat along the Mississippi River, offering a respite for migratory birds and a home for many of North America’s most vulnerable wildlife. Wetlands also act as a riparian buffer, filtering water before it enters the river. The coarse sediment is a foundation for wetland plants and can be used to rebuild the 60% of wetlands that have laredy been lost in North America

4 Wetland

Dirt Economies- What is Dirt Worth? Proposed industries to spur economic development Landscape Urban

Agriculture

Forest

Commodity

Client

Brownfield Reclamation Medium

Cities Developers

$

Land Fill

Cities Developers

$

Organic Fertilizer

Farmers Gardeners

$

Topsoil/ Compost

Farmers Gardeners

$

City Park Dept.

$

Lumber Companies U.S. FWS U.S.A.C.E. Nature Conservancy Gulf Coast States

$

Urban Forestry Base Forest Reclamation Medium

Wetlands

unit price

Wetland Reconstruction Foundation Material

$

Local Economy

National Economy

$

$

$

$

$

$6.1 Billion

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$


What is Dirt Worth?

Waste Commodity based on Adjacent Land Use

1 Urban spatial component economic component environmental component

2 Agriculture spatial component economic component environmental component

3 Forest spatial component economic component environmental component

4 Wetland spatial component economic component environmental component

Thesis Defense  

Thesis Defese Boards

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