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Tapped In

Haley Smolenski


About the author: Haley is a passionate learner and is keen to let others see the way she views the world through her designs. This may be poetically through forms, her choice of metaphors or her campaigns that she engages in. Design has the ability to reach people and play on their characteristics and behaviors. Haley’s pre-major project investigates notions of why people can’t utilize systems in essence are essentially free and prefer the high cost of bottled water. With 35% growth in only three years in Australia’s consumption of bottled water is increasing at a rapid and unsustainable rate… So what can make a free system even more appealing to stop people buying bottled water?

你好。我姓Smolenski 叫Haley Smolenski。 我是澳大利亚人。 我是RMIT大学的学生。 我学习汉语。 我学习工业设计专业。


Tapped In:

This campaign project is to encourage and inform people to say, ‘No to Bottled Water’ and utilise the free water system of tap water, with new designs of drinking fountains making users more confident to use them and more convenient to fill up personal bottles.

By Haley Smolenski Under the guidance of Soumitri Varadarajan


Acknowledgements: I would mostly like to thank the people who have always believed in me, and could see things in me that I just hadn’t discovered yet. They have always helped me to stay on track and encouraged me to take risks and push myself out of my comfort zone into the unknown. Being a creative person I have needed a creative environment to grow within, this has been possible with the help of all students and lectures who I have met at RMIT. A special thanks to Soumitri Varadarajan who under his guidance I have created my final year project. I have been greatly influenced and supported by many other industrial design students and wish to thank everyone who has left me a comment for my work over the years and to a all my lectures though a few stand out whose patience and understanding has contributed to me directly. Paul Angus Simon Curlis Liam Fennessy Soumitri Varadarajan Malte Wagenfeld Also thanks to Patrick Jones who’s campaign Just Free Water has shown me I am not alone in my campaign.


Quotes to work and live by: “It is not easy to know what you like. Most people fool themselves their entire lives about this. Self-acquaintance is a rare condition. “ - Robert Henri “The important thing is not to stop questioning.” - Albert Einstein


Contents:

Capability Statement:

1-10

Aspirations Design Values Project Topic:

11-14

A campaign project No Bottled Water Learning contract:

15-19

What this project means Project Plan:

20-33

Detailed outline of all design goals Details of tasks and requirements in the project Research Approach:

34-43

Methods of investigation Areas of exploration Technology Approach:

44-57

Parts needed in drinking fountains Technology Materials Manufacture


58-209Research outcomes: Personal Assumptions Interviews Surveys Observations Stories Secondary Research Product context Visual Scrapbook 210-217Design Approach: Form Usability Function Sustainability Innovation The RMIT Model 234-235Design Development Form Inspiration Final Outcome 235-241 Reflections: Summary of the semester 1 My design thinking Feelings Summary of the year Glossery:


Capability Statement:

While reflecting upon past projects and design experiences, all achievements are highlighted along with what areas may need strengthening in order to develop all necessary design skills and gain the most from the remanding year within the Industrial Design Course.

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Capability Statement: Haley is a passionate and motivated designer who is striving for her best work in every task she undertakes. She is ever extending herself, taking the risks needed to meet and achieve various goals, to strengthen herself as an individual and emerging designer. She groups herself with other passionate minded people so never finds herself alone, no mater what task is ahead. She will now introduce some key life experiences and various design projects undertaken and lead you through the growth incurred. My proudest moment so far as a designer was coming third place in a ceramics competition for my drinking fountain in Foshan, China. This not only proved to myself how far I had come since entering the Industrial Design course at RMIT, but on a scale where I can compete worldwide, as not only did I come third in a design completion, but one that is not in my own country. As design differs greatly from country to country there needs to be a great appreciation of the people and culture for any success to be gained. Knowing my design had created much interest with manufactures over the technical side, along with the mixes of textures and shapes. There is great satisfaction from knowing my design had engaged others and they could see real potential within my work was a feeling that I had made it to a point of professionalism, and I can now take ownership of my own projects and critically discuss their own merits, with a sense of authority. This voice of authority is important as my designs must not only stand up strong and critical to myself but to all my peers and other designers out there. The beginnings of my voice started back in first year Design studies class where I was given the opportunity, to give a lecture in front of all my peers. Standing at the podium discussing cultural amplification, our topic of that semester was quite thrilling, my voice amplified around the room felt louder, stronger and more passionate than ever. Its one of those moments where you know that you are in the right place, and that you have all the energy and enthusiasm needed to reach any goal you set.


When faced with the challenges of working with others, it’s important to always remember that each person has a voice inside them to, often in group projects there needs to be a voice that has leadership to ensure we are not chasing ourselves around in circles and take charge of various situations. I have worked in a challenging group environment in China where language issues at first had become huge barriers. Taking the design process back to its basics of visual communication helped to maintain clarity between group members. Passionate people always excite me they see the possibilities ahead the world not as what it is but what it could be. My own passion for sustainability and the environment has always continued to grow, as there is a certain trust from the community that we are seeking for large leaps of improvement, better manufacturing practices and designs for the community. I believe there is never just one answer to a question the possibility for new solutions and ideas are endless. Having always enjoyed working within the grey areas and uncertainties of a project, it forces me out of my comfort zone. At the end I always feel I have learnt something substantial as I do things I never imagine or thought I could do. With an ongoing fascination on learning and discovering as many things around me as possible, I am not afraid to redefine my visual style, as I can’t stand to much repletion. While in university it is the safest place to play around and create, as I can always get as much feedback as possible. This is hopefully evident in my work helping me to become more creative and unique. Illustrations and graphics have always been an interest to me, as I can understand when used in the right context they generate simply beautiful stories themselves. My love for cultures and travelling inspired me to start, learning Mandarin a challenging prospect as the language isn’t based around phonetics like English but ideographic with each character formed from pictures. It such an old culture with so much history, many objects and animals had secondary meanings, and meant things like wealth good fortune and happiness. This inspired me with my designs in china as I could use these metaphors enriching my design.

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Design methods are vast in numbers, but the essential ones that have taken me through the course so far that I use repeatedly almost with an obsession are mind mapping and brainstorming, and more recently a photo journal. Helping to visualise out a bigger picture, and correctly places my projects into the right context. A photo journal proves that the objects I create are never a single entity, and is attached to people and other larger systems. A simple photo can capture any moment in time, activates we undertake and items we surround ourselves with, and when we think of new ideas it gives a good solid starting point. Materials can easily give a new level of delight to any product, as textures intertwine and the touch and feel of something engages us, experimenting with materials is something that I enjoy. Using both machined and fast techniques like laser cutting, and rapid prototype machines or slower more hand crafted techniques like sewing, or sanding pieces in the workshop to get the right surface finish. Making things by hand involves a personal enjoyment, as I get to interact with all sorts of material prototyping and creating final pieces. When using materials in various ways and something unexpected happens it can be very inspiring leading to a variety of new ideas. With the limited contacts I have made and used with manufactures, there is something different in getting someone else to make the end result for you and double check that everything is correct. In most cases I find they enjoy taking up new tasks, as with my sand casting project and are intrigued by its quirkiness. Visualising something, sitting down developing the technical drawings and prototypes then seeing the final piece in your hands feels like all your hard work is paid off plus seeing something that no one else can and then making it visible for everyone else is exciting.


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[5_6] Capability Statement


Manufacturing within China was a little less technical than I expected, and often a render as it depicts the surface quality and textures can be used, and then the piece created. Though these are for just one off pieces so I guess it’s more of a prototype for both you and the manufacture seeing how it would be done. I enjoy doing technical drawings, as it means that the end of the project is in sight, and you can visualise how big or small something is, and how parts all interconnect all coming together. A second pair of eyes at this stage is essential to see anything I have overlooked, I enjoy sitting in the computer lab at RMIT going over my technical drawings as others can easily see how it works and express ideas and improvements. Sketching is the one design tool which I have been working on the longest to master, I think because it’s the fastest and most effective way to communicate, and something we all start off as children doing. It’s just like story telling and highly intuitive. Using 2D CAD software assists with sketching and in the documentation of information, such as posters and books. I was thrilled when I almost received a job from my graphic design skills, and illustrative style. Working on books is some thing fairly new to me, as I have started off in the past with more of the written content and visual style contributing to the publication of the Corporation Game Book. Writing is such a strong form of communication, and has taught me to me more reflective and contemplative about situations, cultures and designs a good example is within my contribution to Lotus and the Fire of the Desert about my experiences and how it is to be a designer in China. The stage of design which seems to get the most engagement from everyone is during the 3D computer work as they visualise what is in your head by looking at the screen. Gaining input and feedback from other designers is always helpful as it makes me ask questions of myself that I might never have thought of and clarify if I really have achieved what I set out to do. Inspiration can come from everywhere not just other designers, I try to be as open as possible allowing me to see what problems are about and what new ideas can be developed. Even just in the way people get around small problems from being to short or using objects to sit and relax on.


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Design thinking has been one of the things I have most enjoyed about the course, as we question what is right in front of us. It has given me the ability to be critical and conscious of the world around me, pulling apart the world we live in, and various views which we have constructed zooming into problems at a micro and macro scale. Learning that we all start something with assumptions and hunches about a problem but learning this is never enough to start something, solid proof must be collected. It’s interesting to discover what is really happening as sometimes it can be surprising. I am constantly expanding and mastering the abilities that I have learnt within my time at RMIT, and like to think that I can tackle any problem, and having created a strong network of advice I can always turn to and trust. I always try to say yes to as many as many times as possible even if it starts eating into my own time, in way design sometimes can take over my live in a good way though where I am open to new ideas and possibilities from any situation, even in mundane tasks that seem surprisingly simple and normal. I am one who never knows where and when my next inspiration will come from and have mastered carrying around a notebook for these occasions.


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Project Topic:

An introduction into my project topic, all the information that needs to be researched along with my design thinking and what I wish to uncover and find along the way.

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Project Topic: Tapped In More people are turning towards bottled water, and the alternative of free water is slowly being forgotten as fear of hygiene is taking over and now the alternative, free water from a bubbler/drinking fountain is being ignored. Why is it we choose to pay for something that is essentially free? It’s provided by local councils tapping into our clean and fresh tap water captured in the Yarra Valley and transported in the mains pipes, we all enjoy this water at home but what about when we are out and about in the city. Have we all fallen for a great marketing campaign to convert us to paying for something which is free? Or is there more to it, has the alternative become less desirable and to troublesome to bother with. Patrick Jones noted in a map of drinking fountains he made in the CBD that many where hard to find and when you did they didn’t work. This means all the citizens and visitors to share them having only one for every 40,000 people after seeing which fountains where still in use and the amount of people in the city center each day.

A representation to show how much oil a 600ml bottle uses for manufacture intended for singles use.


So what’s wrong with bottled water, its taking a huge toll on the environment with 90% of bottled water coming from ground water and then trucked to factories for bottling this water can come from severely drought affected areas as large corporations like coca cola own 90 year leases on the water supply. So when water was plentiful there were no issues today even though there isn’t enough water for a community they are still entitled to take their share. 12% of bottled water in Australia is tap water which is infrastructure and water treatment paid by us then we are repaying for it again. The oil used in the bottle is unsustainable with nearly 50, 0000 barrels of oil involved, it’s designed for single use and PET chemicals start to leach after being in contact with sunlight after a bottled is opened, causing health problems only 65% of these bottles are recycled. One litre of bottled water produces 100 times more green house gases than if it was a litre of tap water, and in the end you are drinking the same thing. How can free water be more desirable to have a fighting chance to overtake and reduce the consumption of bottled water? Can it simply be a new design to fill up bottles and drink from? What is that people expect from their water and what are their real concerns they don’t wish to use what’s provided. This issue affects many people especially in a time of drought and when environmental issues are causing devastating effects, if this problem can be addressed then we are one step closer towards a sustainable future. The title Tapped In refers to the use of or existing drinking water system and moving away from plastic bottles, all we need to do is simply use what we have provided, and a better product to get the water from those pipes to our mouths.

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Learning Contract:

While studying through out the year, there are some personal goals in order to develop stronger design skills, along with clarifying the processes in order to refine the way I work as a designer. This document outlines the achievements I hope to make during my project.

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Learning Contract for Pre Major and Major project 2009: While undertaking a year long design project, there is an expectation of learning and gaining critical skills involved with large projects, and refining my own design process and way of commencing a professional career. This will mean developing and refining the ability of evaluating all steps and process in my design practice to find and maintain an effective, innovative, productive and creative way to work that I can continue outside of RMIT. Introduction: This learning contract is the bases for my research document, showing that as an individual I can take care of my own learning and gain assistance and feedback to stay on track. I am aiming for continual high marks and results through out my premajor and major project, in order to get the most out of this design course and to understand myself as a professional designer, how I work the methods used and become more reflective to critically analyse my work. Personality traits that I feel are beneficial to my project are a high level of passion and motivation for design, I am continually looking for inspiration and have a high level of work ethic which can push me to further refine projects pushing myself into areas which I have never been in and expanding my skill sets. I have a broad interest in all areas of design which has lead me to participate in a vast range of electives and studios which skills I believe can benefit in achieving the results I want to get from my final year. Current ways in which I undertake projects include positioning with other passionate and creative designers, along with other individuals who share similar goals and objectives such as the same passion for sustainable living and design, or are interested within the projects I undertake and have helpful feedback. This helps me to stay positive about my project and make sure I can articulate clearly what are the goals and motivations I wish to achieve. My strongest threat is dealing with deadlines and the refinement of projects, as often I can find myself getting up to a third or fourth draft or layouts for final documents, this is highly time consuming and although I do learn a lot the results may not always be visible to the viewer and better things could be done with the time. To over come this I find its best to verbalise and document a weekly goal and task list of things which are realistic and achievable. Otherwise it can seem overwhelming looking at a years or semester worth of work.


Major Project: Finalisation of concepts of drinking fountains/products where a selected few will be prototyped in order to take to a review panel, who will decide what designs work for them. Final refinement of designs before being taken into 3D design software and technical drawings created. Technical drawings will be used to create a final prototype of the design this may be rapid prototypes, model making or paying and sending off to a manufacture or skilled craftsman. Final supporting documentation will also be created, and if time prevails I hope to outline issues of the campaign of ‘No bottled water’ so the public can rightly be informed and know where to seek more information. Tasks: All tasks set by Soumitri are to be completed by the due date and later reviewed and revised. These documents will need to be written a minimum of two times/ drafts so I can ensure clarity and quality in what is written. Hopefully feedback can be given before I submit my final copies within my document. Writing is an important skill and can gain insightful and thought provoking scenarios. It can also help to clarify any issues and is excellent for further reference. Online Components: Blackboard: I will contribute to all online discussions and dialogues openly and critically, submitting all that is required. If there are other conversations created by my peers in class I will assist in their discussions and my thought processes. I will use all online resources that Soumitri has made available to us, and for more valuable pieces will write up my own reviews and critical dialogue. My Blog: With 15 weeks to work on this project I aim to have the equivalent of one post per day so in excess of 100 posts by the end of semester. http://restlessness.wordpress.com will be an online resource that anyone can comment on and access information from. Glass box effect: When I feel I can comment something valuable on other students blogs within the individual projects I will do so. I have set up feeds so I can instantly know when there is something new and all students have been added, along with other design resource blogs and sites. Using add-ons to firefox I can capture images already online, posts, videos using scribefire and vodpod. This will help me to work efficiently and correctly source where all information is collected from. Having my work openly available to others will hopefully allow me to network with other individuals.

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Primary and Secondary research: Starting off with information and research that I can gain first hand from other individuals, councils, people who run similar campaigns with the same goals, designs available, photographs, videos, surveys, design standards, interviews and questionaries and discussions with chemistry/science researchers will be used as Primary and first hand data and research. Secondary research including books from the library, online photos, products, technical drawings, material and manufacturing processes, information about bottled water, and plastic bottles, articles from newspapers, videos, blogs, personal written experiences, similar projects by other Australian councils will all be research and documented. Research: Semester one is heavily research based, used to design a product that fulfils the problems I have outlined in the most suitable way possible. The methods in which I will be using to undertake my research will be outlined and documented in my thesis. I believe that a significant portion of time is needed to be spent on research in on order to justify why this product is essentially needed who is paying for it or the market involved, and what to the people of society benefit from this, and to eliminate all personal assumptions. This gives a solid platform of knowledge to work from and can be used to answer all questions that people will have to ask about the products purpose/ or the purpose of the campaign.

Design Process: This is a list of skills I aim to be able to use compactly at the end of the year. • Design discussions (Talk with confidence and authority having knowledge and references to use, know when it’s my turn to sit back and listen, respond with respect and clarity to what is being said. Critical on the spot thinking and maintaining movement through the discussion) • Design writing (Talk with clarity, and authority, being reflective and critical. Others will be able to reference what I talk about) • Sketching (used to quickly generate concepts and visually communicate) • Illustrations (Tell stories/scenarios of my design, visually appealing and gets people to look and notice my work) • Questioning technique (Used in class) • Photo/Video documentation (Understanding and documenting the product, its context where it’s seen and found, its environment people interaction.) • Scrapbooking Inspiration (Collecting anything I see as inspiring, even if its not related for further use normally online and in magazines) • Clearing of assumptions (Being able to talk using facts and not based on what I think happens) • Brainstorming and mind mapping (To gain clarity of what I am doing and visualising the whole picture) • Competency in CAD software and 3D visualisation • Competency in material choices and the manufacturing techniques involved • Prototyping, using card board and foam for quick models, wood, casts, and other model making processes in the work shop, if need be tracking down other creative professionals to make it for me or manufactures • Competency in graphic design and the software used and the ability to create my own books. • Documentation, written and analytical skills • Video and photographic documentation, clear documentation on the processes used and the methods involved.


Outcomes from my final year include • My own visual and creative identity that can be shown to other designers and appreciated for quality and originality • A good depth of design knowledge, skills, process and my own practice and methods of working • Cultural understanding of people, where their fears are based from, understanding our increased consumption to bottled water • A well designed drinking fountain/product • Technical drawings of drinking fountain/product that are of a high and professional quality (Others expertise is needed to achieve this result) • A portfolio of quality projects to represent myself as a professional that can be placed online and printed. Penalty Clause: Failure to deliver these outcomes on time and to a satisfactory grade will mean a reduction of marks and loss of grades, or is suffice my first born child. (It seemed to work well with Rumpelstiltskin as a deal.) Clarification of grades High Distinction: A continues devotion the project and tasks at hand show casing a high standard of work and mastering of the skills outlined above along with detailed research. All goals are achieved, and others have also joined or willing to participate in my campaign. Distinction: There is evidence of devotion to the project all tasks and goals have been achieved. Research is to a high level. There is a showcase that most issues have been resolved, and the skills above have started to being implemented. Credit: A strong commitment to the project, tasks and research. There has been an attempt to contact others about the project, some of the skills outlined above have been met to a high level but there needs to be an improvement in others. Pass: A commitment to the project is evident, all tasks have been met, and there are examples of research. Only limited people have been approached the basics of the skills above have been used.

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Project Plan:

A detailed outlook of my final year including an outline of what the goals and targets for my campaign to stop using bottled water, what I hope this project will achieve and why I am doing it. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in the project. The methods involved along with final outcomes and objectives.

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Project Plan: Tapped In... Eliminating the use of bottled water and maximising the use of the free water system. By Haley Smolenski Project Synopsis Consumers need to start saying no to bottled water as it’s the only way to deal with the morality issues, and environmental issues buy stopping the use altogether. A challenging proposition as the alternative is already free. So how often do people utilise this free system of water, how do you improve the accessibility? Can it be as simple as a new drinking fountain design, or does a whole system need to be created to change consumer’s behaviours? We have developed these behaviours gradually over time, as it is more socially acceptable to drink bottled water it’s more available than ever making it convenient. Drinking fountains where not widely utilised before bottled water, because of access issues as it’s impractical to walk out of the office down the street to simply drink some water (where these drinking fountains are located.) Water was taken from taps or source of water provided by the company and filled into cups or reusable bottles. Project Aim & Objectives This is a campaign to stop the use bottled water and inturn increase the use of public faculties for drinking water, like drinking fountains. This means the community and councils are both happy to invest in a free system for all. This new design has to face the issues of hygiene and people’s perception of what is clean and safe to drink, so understanding people’s issues they face and not just atheistic form and function are critical. Many international people have never had the opportunity to drink water strait form a tap without first treating or boiling it so have no background to free drinking water and are unsure or sceptical as have never been brought up in that environment.

As we use the same water, to flush the toilet, wash our homes, and drinking from people are also unsure that this water is really ‘safe’ to drink. Which is unfortunate as Melbourne water is one of only 5 cities in the world that has their water catchments protected, and have mountain ash forests where the water filters through. Having access to such clean and pure water should be something we can celebrate and appreciate. My intention of this project is to create a product which facilitates the use of free drinking water, and analyse the system which this product is in. This means a collaborative investigative process involving all potential users. A detailed documented research document on the existing system and users, current designs for drinking fountains, critically analyse their successes and short comings, prototype my design, and understand all fundamentals and parts to a drinking fountain. Along with this I need support and evidence that Bottled water is bad for the people and environment to share with others to encourage behavioural change. Objectives of the project include: 1. To undertake research in the forms of questioners, observations, photo documentation, articles, books, internet sites, blogs and interviews to see what people think of the current system and how often its being used. What other drinking fountains are out there to choose from? The issues all public products face eg: vandalism, high use, been constantly exposed to water. Can indoor drinking Fountains be used within offices? 2. Document, question analyse findings of research and see if other organisations, offices or councils wish to be part of the project. 3. To design a drinking fountain that is coherent with our city of Melbourne’s culture and the future direction in which Melbourne is heading. Is there to be a serious of drinking fountains due to locations some for different purposes children, adult’s, taps for filling bottles? 4. The current locations and potential locations for its use where it would be in most demand and the logical way for people to map out and find in the CBD of Melbourne. 5. Upon completion of final concepts create CAD model/s of the final design and produce technical drawings.


6. Look into the manufacturing what is involved, what materials and costs. 7. Create a prototype of the drinking fountain, weather handmade or using rapid prototypes. 8. Take to potential uses and gain feed back. See if it is addressing all the problems identified, and most importantly do they feel comfortable using it. 9. Create a business/proposal of how to implement these drinking fountains around Melbourne. Brand the Drinking fountain project so it has a strong identity within Melbourne. 10. Create a thesis book. Project Rationale My previous studios and projects have all had a strong sustainability and community theme, so when undertaking the campaign studio I knew this would be the right environment to challenge myself and get the most out of my final year, and push forward something I strongly believe in and am passionate about. As with most sustainable design projects mine involves the changing of peoples behaviours. Bottled water is something that in times of drought and water scarcity large corporations can profit on something which is at the base of human survival and farmers, and agriculture practices struggle to survive on what little water allocations they are given. If we eliminate the use of bottled water there would be more water for the community and those within it. Plastic bottles are toxic to humans as they are carcinogenic, large emissions in green house gasses using 100 times more greenhouse gases than a litre of tap water, high oil use nearly half a million barrels of oil are involved in the production of plastic water bottles in production and contribute to landfill with only 35% in Australia being recycled. The Australasian Bottled Water Institute says we consume 28 litres per person each year of bottled water or 600 million litres , at a really rough guess that would mean we each spend $224 on 56 500ml bottles at $2. In times of severe drought, and with all business and homes encouraged to use less water we should be outrage that two thirds of the water taken are not put in bottles to be consumed but wasted. That represents three litres of water used for every litre of bottled water sold. The ABWI (Australian Bottled Water Institute) & ASDA recommend that PET containers not be reused by consumers and that after consumption of the product, the PET containers should be recycled.

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Within our current lifestyles we choose the most convenient service and product. Currently young singles and couples drink the most bottled water particularly females aged 14 to 35. Choosing a relatively simple product a drinking fountain and analysing where it sits within the free water system, the types of people already willing to use it, the barriers people face when using drinking fountains as often it’s a very emotional choice, when things affect our health. A drinking fountain once manufactured and installed produces hardly any emissions, unlike bottled water still needs transportation and refrigerating. I believe there is a need for a new design, and as Melbourne’s drinking fountains are approaching the end of their lifespan there is a need for a new product. People need to feel more connected to these public products and the system it’s in, and then they will be used more frequently and become a larger part of Melbourne. As funding from the Melbourne city council is already set aside I don’t need to convince them to buy more and as there are 60 drinking fountains in Melbourne’s CBD as long as my product a similar price, longer lifespan, and attractive design, and vandal resistant there is an opportunity to take on board and manufacture them. This project means I will have developed a product along with careful consideration of the systems its part of, will effectively work with communities, councils and tackle the issues of public ownership. Taking on a campaign project hopefully shows others how and why I am justifying the decisions I am making and what my end product represents not only a nice form and functional object but also the larger goal of eliminating bottled water. SWOT Analysis Strengths: The timing of the project is good as it fits in with Melbourne’s city council Street Furniture Plan 2005 – 2010 . As a campaign project it allows other people with similar goals to get on board and for discussion to form. It will allow me to technically explore in detail one product strengthening my portfolio. Promoting the use of water is good for health reasons as well. Drinking fountains have only being designed from a very functional view which is apparent in most designs, and people aren’t attached to the designs at all so there is a lot of opportunity to come up with something different. There is a lot of room to tackle some of the issues why people don’t use them and break down some of these barriers, more people cleaning and maintaining them so they are in working order and people can see they are clean. To make it easier to use for people with disabilities, as current designs are hard for the elderly.

Weaknesses: Currently my lack of material and manufacture knowledge, as the cost of manufacture will be high, even OEM parts sourced can be expensive, like bubbler heads and faucets. There a few standards to comply with, mostly the parts that deal with water and people with disability can easily access and use them. Melbourne is a fairly small city, so getting a higher amount of users can be difficult. Opposition from people who don’t see a problem with drinking bottled water, and the corporations and companies who own them. Opportunities: This project helps improve Melbourne’s city council buy being more sustainable, and helps to reduce the amount of waste as less plastic bottles are consumed, improving the community’s perception of Melbourne and the health issues as water is a healthy choice. There is potential to sell the design to other councils and shires, and go internationally with the design so it’s not just restricted to Melbourne. There is potential to expand the project looking into the waste water (such as watering plants in the parks) and the collection of water, so it can be self sustaining. Opportunity to have a few different products, a shorter system for children, and one which is easily fills up bottles. Threats: For this project to be successful there needs to be a slight change in people’s behaviour, this is always a difficult challenge. If the system or design is no better than the current one in place, or is equal to what is there. Cost of manufacture is high, and each unit will need to be maintained so there is an ongoing cost.


Project Methods 6 stage design process: 1. Researching peoples practices – Immersion within the project. Reading texts and literature related to the project. Including topic areas of public facilities, ownership and sharing, sustainability issues with plastic PET bottles, transportation systems of water, privatisation of water, where bottled water comes from, manufacturing and cost involved. – Collection of images of drinking fountains, and with other objects with interesting forms – Surveys will be conducted to produce Quantitative research which can be compared. This is an important part as if people are having a common attitude towards drinking fountains. User patterns and weather people think access to free water is important at all. – Photo documentation of existing drinking fountains a location map, people interacting with them, along with objects, situations and people of Melbourne that I see help to create the cities culture – Questing people about drinking fountains, what type of people do use them what type of people don’t, how often are they used and it what locations. This will be done in a questionnaire with open ended questions. – Participate in the use and testing of drinking fountains record using video how easy they are to operate/use I can reference my own experiences and concerns along with other users. – Interviews extracting out current issues with drinking fountains, what are common experiences about using them this process is done on a one on one and talk for a period of time. It will be an informal talk with only key notes taken and experiences as people feel less pressure and can talk freely without thinking. The same questions will be asked, but to a wide variety of people from different ages and cultures. – What do people think of Public Facilities and Products? Do they respect them? Do they feel they belong to them as they live in the area? – Videoing people using them, different ways or problems – Studying the people of Melbourne’s drinking culture and practices. Do we prefer to drink from an upwards or downwards from? – Document current locations and find out if people think there are enough.

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– When a design has been clarified I will develop a focus group of about 4 people to talk about the prototype and design. The interview will be recoded for later feedback and reference. – Historical reference, why free water is important part of communities, when did the use or high demands for bottled water take over, what is the tread or reasons for this. – Treatment of water, and additives. – Talking to the market buyers in this case are the councils to analyse their decision making process and to make sure my design is something they are looking for. 2.Working out Manufacturing processes and approach – Choosing Materials – Choosing processes – Life Cycle Assessment – Requirements of the materials – Material exploration, along with manufactures dealing with high use products and high resistance to breakage due to vandalism. 3. Working out the design approach – Brainstorming, Ideation and concept generation – Sketches and Exploration – The form of the fountain will be based around the context of Melbourne as a city, something which can be part of our streets – The usability, if it’s for all types of people how will they access it? People in wheelchairs, children. How do you make it so it’s harder to vandalise, easier to repair? – The function how it works part, where is the button located to turn the water on? Is it a sensor? – Sustainability and environment, long lasting materials, what happens with the waste water? LCA, effects of sun, rain and weather on materials. The system in place around the product, where the water comes from. Locations of the drinking fountains. – Working of the significance and innovation, what makes this drinking fountain better than the others?


– Meanings for the redesign, getting people to stop using bottled water. – Scenarios of drinking fountains and future locations 4.Designing the object – Drawings of the drinking fountain – Renderings, both hand and computer generated. – Digital Design, sketching using computers, CAD – Making models – Making prototypes – The internal workings of the drinking fountain, fitting everything inside. – Utilization of various prototyping techniques CNC machine, SLA Rapid prototyping, model making 1:1 scales – Final Prototype 5. Testing the design – User Testing & Feedback: seeing what is working and successful – Business opportunities, branding the drinking fountain so people know of the project. Potential Investors. – Taking it back to the people, what do they think? – Putting the drinking fountain in context, choosing a location where many people can have access to it. 6. Doing a show and tell – Writing the explanation – Why have I done the project, its purpose what is different, innovative about my drinking fountain? Getting people to stop using plastic bottles. – Illustrating the description – Making posters – Propose the concept to companies, councils and governments

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Primary research: Surveys and interviews on people’s thoughts and experiences with drinking fountains. Photo journals, videos documentation the current drinking fountain designs, how these are seen as part of Melbourne do they fit in with other street furniture. How these address vandalism, maintenance and user issues. Talking to the councils as these are the people who are going to buy them. Seeing what they say on cost maintenance and design. Talking to manufactures on how my design will be made. Taste of old bottled water. Secondary research: Peoples experiences, other drinking fountains online, books, other data collected about peoples use and experiences with drinking fountains. Online and book research of technical drawings, parts, literature, videos, photos and bottled water. Project Outcomes: Research report, product design, prototypes, final prototype, sketching development of my portfolio, information will be collated into a thesis. Budgeting & Costs Tasks Drawing supplies and new technologies eg: hard drives, software and tablet Printing Manufacture, Model making and materials Books and resources Extra unexpected costs Total

Anticipated costs semester 1

Anticipated costs semester 2

Total

$600

$400

$1000

$150 $200

$200 $900

$350 $1100

$50 $50 $1050

$50 $250 $1800

$100 $300 $2850


Key Activities and stages: Research: I plan to be heavily researched based within the first semester, to set out justifications of why this project has merit within the community and as a design project. To understand how gather campaigns people onboard and gain interest within communities. I will be directly working with the community to make sure I am objective within the rationality and can clearly define what issues maintain a common theme and a high priority to be addressed. As research is always on going it will continue within the next semester but the focus will shift to user groups and refinement of the product/design. My online blog will be used to network with other people, reference websites and dates accessed, and available for all to see and comment on. This is where my work can be accessed within the public’s eye and be used as reference by other people interested in these issues. Design needs and possibilities: Current drinking fountain lack public confidence for hygiene, it was evident the design is tamper-proof and that no other individual could have possible contaminated the water this would get more willing users. Current methods in doing so by having the drinking faucet drop down when not in use and pop up when they do want to use are expensive, and moving parts create maintenance issues.There is a possibility to create a serious of products to make public drinking fountains more convenient by new water bottled designs, making them convenient and alterative to single use water bottles if an identifiable market can be realised and there is a real need. Sketching and idea development: Firstly I will produce thumbnail sketches of forms and possibilities, being open to ideas. These rough sketches will be abstract and innovative responses to the problems. About 15 will be drawn up in detail with renderings so design considerations such as manufacturability can be addressed. The best solutions will be prototyped in 3D using card, and the final 3 will turned into full sized mock ups these can be produced from any materials that are essential to speed and effective communication such as form, cardboard. The final design will be put into 3D software and have accurate technical drawings. If it’s relevant a 3D prototype can be produced from the file.

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Technical Drawings: These will be for manufacturing purposes including all parts and components what OEM parts I am sourcing a selection of costs and suppliers, quantities supplies if more products a made how this brings down the costs. If possible and needed I will purchase a copy of the OEM part so my prototype can be as functional as possible. Final Prototype and production: If financial limitations along with manufactures and timelines, may mean my prototype will simply be made from wood/foam and fibreglass to sculpt the form in a visual purpose. The model will be done in a 1/1 scale so users can see how it would be to really use this product. Hopefully the internals can be hollow so the appropriate plumbing can be installed. Production should take roughly 6 weeks or longer if outsourcing parts and labour intensive sanding, cutting and drilling. Project Deliverables The deliverables for this project are: 1. A portfolio of concepts and research which are thoroughly investigated and documented in detail. 2. Detailed knowledge of parts and working to the functioning of drinking fountains this will be shown within the final concept. 3. A final concept of a drinking fountain or product for the city of Melbourne, that addresses all issues found in the best possible manner. This design can also be adapted to other cities worldwide, and incorporate a filtration system if needed. 4. A serious of posters and information to assist within the campaign against the use of bottled water. 5. A series of prototypes. 6. CAD model/s and technical drawings of the product/drinking fountain. 7. A prototype of the product/drinking fountain that will be displayed in the exhibition 8. Supplementary posters and branding to assist the campaign and inform Melbournians about drinking fountains and their locations. 9. A business/ implementation plan how to get my design out there, spread the word of my campaign and get others onboard, the where next outlook. This can be shown to councils and other businesses. 10. Research Report, Design & Manufacturing Report Contained in my illustrated thesis (Approximately 15,000 words.)


Project benefits: Product benefits from this project include less material and oil being used to make bottled water, less landfill waste, decreased amount of water used for drinking. (Currently two thirds of the water taken is been wasted.) Increased use/demand of public drinking fountains as confidence in users is satisfied due to the design and issues and fears of hygiene and cleanliness is met. The community will also benefit from a better free water system which is relevant and convenient to their lifestyles. Developing networks and contacts with others interested in this campaign of “No bottled water.” The council can also gain public confidence in creating a more sustainable community. Personal benefits include, being able to find the right people to help out on my projects whether it be plumbers, to work out pipes, manufactures to prototype and create my design or other people in the community who have experienced running a campaign to change people’s behaviours and attitudes. On completion of the project I can show others how my research has altered and enhanced my design process, appreciate the full complexities of a project, not only on technical, manufacturing and materials, but also users experiences participation in campaigns an effectively change peoples water consumption. I believe this is a strong and justified project that tackles many issues with one or a few solutions. Measures of Success Key Performance Indicators 1. Project delivered within specified time frame, within budget and to presented specifications, aims and objectives. 2. Detailed technical drawings and prototype that demonstrates a high level of detail and understanding of the final manufacturing process, that it can last its intended lifespan. 3. Market research, financial plan how much is the cost price, council purchase price, marketing plan that clearly demonstrate that the final design is a real investment for councils/cities, reasons why this project should be backed and supported. 4. Showing that the goal and campaign of ‘NO WATER BOTTLES’ is attainable though the right design solution. 5. A narrative document of the process and my experience, including visual and written records and extensive amount of personal skills & knowledge gained throughout the course.

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Research Plan:

This document outlines the methods that I have used to collect relevant information. It also outlines key research areas relevant to the project, and the issues connected.

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Research Plan: (Methods) Of the two types of research primary and secondary research I will be predominately focused primary collecting my own information. For primary research collection it is most effective to choose appropriate methods and have ideas of what are the questions I really want to answer, to be the most helpful and useful. Using the 6 stage design process I can outline a task breakdown and analyses of methods:

1. Researching peoples practices

– Immersion: The first methods within the immersion phase are observation and participation. Observation involves taking a photo diary, every time I see the product in different conditions, sun, rain etc, when some one is using the product. Capturing users discretely with photos is the best way to see their routine, where do they put their belongings, how long do they drink for, what do they use the water for drinking, washing. Look out for any misuse of the product like vandals and graffiti, what do current designs do to discourage this. Other misuse can be as simple as leaving litter on it like a bin, using it as a toilet, spitting in it. – My participation involves testing and using all drinking fountains I find to see if the different bubblers are harder to use. Using bubblers that have gum, dirt, spit, snot and other identifiable unclean items and seeing how this alters my experiences and thoughts. This will be documented with photos/film and written reflections. – Surveys/Questionaries will be conducted to produce Quantitative research which can be compared. This is a vital part to see who uses them if people notice they are there, are there enough for people, what do they think and feel when using them. Is there a high level of anxiety from germs? Do people feel this is relevant to them? The best way is to do this face to face, as often people want to clarify and discuss what the questions are. Online surveys are great for reaching large amounts of people.


– Interviews are a great way to extract out information. I feel the less formal you make them the more people stop thinking about what they are saying so you can get more insightful information, as some people feel like they have to be polite, or answer what they think others would also answer. The same questions will be asked, but to a wide variety of people from different ages and cultures. – Questioning technique answering four simple questions about bubblers, what is it, why is it the way it is, what could it be and what should it be. This is a great detachment process to realise all the history involved, what it function is how others use it what other objects can do something similar, then there is a list of what possible outcomes this new product can be. – Documentation of drinking fountains by walking around Melbourne, the locations, which areas have an abundance which does not, presenting this data as a map for reference. – Talking to councils and shires around Melbourne, to find the issues they face with public faculties, street furniture and mainly drinking fountains. What do they consider a good design to be, and something they wish to buy for Melbournians to use, how do they find their current designs. What do people think of Public Facilities and Products do they respect them and use them; they may have information from other user experiences. Do they feel they belong to them as they live in the area? – This will be conducted with a list of questions over the phone, emails or face to face as it depends on finding the right person with the information. – Talking to the market buyers in this case are the councils to analyse their decision making process and to make sure my design is something they are looking for. –Looking at product catalogues and drinking fountain brands online and in books. This will give an overview of what’s available and has been done already. The heights used dealing with vandalism, costs of their products and parts. – Seeking out OEM parts for drinking fountains from companies, where can they be brought from and how much. This will be important for the internal parts like pipes.

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– Australian Standards, public products often have a list of requirements that need to be met to ensure it is accessible to every one and safe. What materials are recommended to use for the parts which hold/carry clean drinking water. – Secondary research includes, looking at related text to water and how other designers approach design with water. Reading about projects involving public products and facilities. Review of appropriate literature related to my project and design. Sustainability issues of drinking fountains, bottled water, transport system of bottled water, manufacturing of bottles, resources needed. The real cost of bottled water, cost price of water from collection to retail. Statistics on consumption the increase use/sales. – Evidence that bottled water is harmful to environment and health of humans to support my campaign, from credible sources related to Australia. – Collections of drinking fountains/bubbler photos or videos taken buy other users to see what other countries and cultures use. Collection of objects with interesting forms. This can be used to compare all products out there, and how others may use drinking fountains in different ways, including children. – Treatment of water and additives basic knowledge of Melbourne’s water supply and quality as this will be the water used out of my drinking fountain.

– The rest of the exploration is heavily design related (sketching, concepts, prototypes, materials, and will look at forms, and other products for inspiration. More research from the above stages might need to be revisited for clarification or expanded upon. – Intervention: When a design has been clarified I will develop a focus group of about four people to talk about the prototype and design. The interview will be recoded for later feedback and reference. This will allow me to get feed back to see if there is enough difference between old designs and new ones. – Demonstration: With my new designs getting as much feedback from the public is important as if it hasn’t dealt with any of the problems electively there will not be an increase in users. This is the real campaign stage of informing people to change the solution (my product) this is informing people of why there is a need for themselves and the environment to change their behaviours. – This will be helpful in gauging peoples interests as if people feel uncomfortable with the solution, or that it remains to hard to do, or simply don’t feel necessary or relevant to them. 2. Working out Manufacturing processes and approach

– Getting in contact with people who run similar campaigns and interviewing them about their experiences, what others have been saying about the current system and their own personal experiences, their own reasons.

– Choosing Materials, the materials I am thinking are ceramics and metal as they are hygienic, water resistant and can last for many years which are all material requirements for outdoor drinking fountains.

– Filtration of water, how this works and how long the filters last for, their environmental damage.

– Choosing processes, what is the best way to create drinking fountains using these materials, what are the cost differences, can they make undercuts, and how labour intensive is the process and what finishes are needed.

– Exploration: Back casting is a method used to create desirable future scenarios, then looking back on how this desirable future can be achieved, then a list of actions and strategies are created to start down the path. This is a good method when doing sustainable projects where there is a lot of problems all interconnected, and change in behaviour and attitudes needs to occur.

– Life Cycle Assessment, as I am looking into a sustainable campaign project or eliminating bottled water it is important to tell the critics and people what the alternative choice does in the long run, this will depend on the material choice and whether a filtration system is included in the design as this will need to be replaced frequently. – Material exploration, along with manufactures dealing with high use products and high resistance to breakage due to vandalism.


– OEM parts, it is very appropriate to source pipes, and other internal components, the bubbler and push button/leaver may also be sourced depending on the design I choose. 3. Working out the design approach – Brainstorming, Ideation and concept generation – Sketches and Exploration – The form of the fountain will be based around the context of Melbourne as a city, something which can be part of our streets/parks and stands out from its surrounding environment. – The usability, if it’s for all types of people how will they access it? People in wheelchairs, children. How do you make it so it’s harder to vandalise, easier to repair? – The function how it works part, where is the button located to turn the water on? Is it a sensor? How does the water turn on off, where is the input of water from and the out put of water go. – Sustainability and environment, long lasting materials, what happens with the waste water? LCA, effects of sun, rain and weather on materials. The system in place around the product, where the water comes from. Locations of the drinking fountains. – Working of the significance and innovation, what makes this drinking fountain better than the others? – Campaign for the redesign, getting people to stop using bottled water, by making the alternative choice accessible and desirable. – Scenarios of my drinking fountains, the desirable future is it to see them in all cities? Scenarios of my drinking fountains what is my desirable future is it to see them in all cities?

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4. Designing the object – Drawings of the drinking fountain – Ieid - Immersion, Exploration, Intervention, and Demonstration – Renderings, both hand and computer generated. Important to get feed back from other people and potential users. – Digital Design, sketching using computers, CAD important skills within the design process. – Making models this can be out of foam, cardboard, and any other materials. – Making prototypes this is towards the end and finalisation of the process. – The internal workings of the drinking fountain, fitting everything inside, pipes do I need to build the internal workings to test water flow or is it based of current designs? – Utilization of various prototyping techniques CNC machine, SLA Rapid prototyping, model making 1:1 scales, the final will be exhibited at the end of year exhibition. 5. Testing the design – User Testing & Feedback: seeing what is working and successful, this will be done using focus groups and returning back to them as the design progresses. These people will be from different backgrounds and cultures to represent Melbourne. – Business opportunities, branding the drinking fountain so people know of the project. Potential Investors. Would Melbourne city council invest in this design, would media such as internet sites, newspapers and magazines want to publish articles and photos from my campaign? – Taking it back to the people, what do they think? Having many conversations and discussions on the progressions of the design, it will evolve with user feedback. – Testing the design using the final prototype for height access, wheel chair use.


– Putting the drinking fountain in context, choosing a location where many people can have access to it. What it looks like with surrounding environments, in parks on streets and footpaths. 6. Doing a show and tell – Writing and visualising an explanation of the campaign. – Collating the documents into a book for any one to pick up and read. – Why have I done the project, to stop people using bottled water, what are the things I get out from the project information about me and my interests. – Making posters to inform people, can hold events around drinking fountains and build public awareness. – Having an online blog or website people can visit for more information and data. – Propose the concept to companies, councils and governments.

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Semester one 2009 Researching peoples practices.

Working out Manufacturing processes and approach

The above methods will be used roughly in the order written.

Choosing Materials, based around durability, aesthetics, and requirements Choosing manufacturing processes

Week 4 to week 10 Week 10 to 13 will be reviews of data collected refinement of questions to get the most out of peoples answers as possible. Finding missing areas that may have been over looked

Semester two 2009 Implementing the design approach

Designing the object

Sketches, exploration and forms, usability, functions the sustainability issues involved.

Week 1 to week 4

Renderings, both hand and computer generated.

Week 4 to week 9

Digital Design, sketching using computers, CAD

Week 7 and 8

Making models

Week 13 will be refinement of technology approach

Making prototypes Internal workings Testing the design

User Testing & Feedback

Week 7 to week 13

Results of the project

Week 10 to week 15

Life Cycle Assessment Looking into OEM parts Working out the design approach

Brainstorming, Ideation and concept generation Sketches and Exploration Scenarios

Doing a show and tell Week 13 to week 15 This will be the beginnings of my design.

Week 6 to week 13

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Technology Approach:

Broken down into two sections, the first looks into manufacturing process for metal and ceramics, while the second document is directly related to how drinking fountains/ bubblers work, their parts and a detailed investigation of 6 processes that can be used to create my design.

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Manufacturing overview: As the right manufacturing process needs to be chosen carefully in order to meet the required volumes at the lowest cost it’s important to know all process, finishes and tools needed, the following is a brief introduction and overview for Metal and Ceramics. This will help assist in choosing the right process for my design. Manufacturing: Tooling, molds and dies refer to the cavity which the part is formed in. Tools for use in high volumes of parts, and to cope with high pressures are made using stainless steel. Multi-cavity molds produce multiple parts per cycle, these cavities may be identical, or they may be a family of parts intended for the same product (top and bottom housings.) Single-cavity moulds produce one part per cycle. Used for large scale products. Ceramic Overview: Ceramic is a continually evolving material, with many forming and techniques, to use to create the desired design. There are a few classifications of ceramics with green ware been unfired clay. Bone dry refers to the dryness of the green ware before its ready to be bisque fired. Clay body: the combination of clay ingredients calculated to a mature at a desired temperature and to have desired working or colour characteristics. Bisque: Clay that has been fired to red hot but hasn’t been glazed. Bisque firing is fired at 850°C - 1000°C the rapid rise in temperature at the beginning of the firing will cause steam pressure to build up inside the clay, causing it to shatter if there is no escape. Once fired it is no longer effected by water. Dry pressing, dry powdered clay formed using high pressure inside the mold, this process eliminates drying time prier to firing, enabling a quick turn around and no shrinkage, and little warping. Typically used with plats and low profile vessels, the pressure can be applied in one access or from all directions. (Isostatically) Slip casting: A process where a plaster mould is created that represents the intended external shape/geometry of the part. Clay slurry is pored into the plaster mold. As water from the slurry is absorbed into the mould clay collects on the surface mould. Once the right thickness is achieved excess slurry is poured out, the clay part is removed, dried and fired. The process is economical and allows for easy duplication of complex forms and decoration using the same mold.

Jigging: a flat batt of clay is laid over a rotating mold, and a template on a lever arm presses it down, forcing the clay onto the mold and applying a profile to the exposed outer surface at the same time. Injection Moulding: Is used with mass production of table ware, the slip is introduced under pressure into a press-mounted mold. Pressing: Malleable clay is placed into a press, which simply pushes mixture into a mold. Isostatic or hydrostatic pressing uses granulated mixture with low water content (4% to 8%) high pressure is then applied. Wet-bag isostatic pressing is used for solid pieces and is quite slow; the mold is constructed from a steel core lined with a polyurethane sheath. The kaolin mass is shaped first by the movement of the press, then by the application of hydraulic pressure under the sheath. Dry-bag pressing has a higher degree of automation, and faster output. It is used to manufacture hollow pieces of average depth. The mold itself is a semi-flexible with a metal core and is similar to those used for the compression of thermosetting synthetic materials. Along with improved speed from production there is no drying time and the piece can be fired strait away. Extrusion: the ceramic paste is pushed through a die, giving its shape. As it comes through a cutting machine is programmed to the required length. A conveyer belt takes the pieces off for drying and firing. Simple rough cuts shapes, open or closed can be made this way. Finishes of ceramic products include porcelain enamelling, powder coating, brushing and glazing. When cutting a finished piece laser cutting water jet machines are used. Metal Overview: Overview in processes in forming metals and finishes relating to aluminium and stainless steel: Metal casting: There are four main areas of the casting process, 1. Patternmaking including draft angles, shrinkage and machining allowances. As well as providing the gating and riser design, it is used to create the cavity into the mould where the metal is poured.


2. Moulding and core making includes production of the molds and cores, the insertion of the mould and cores, and the closing of the mold. Cores are typically made of sand, unless high pressures are involved as it’s a cheap material. 3. Melting of the metal and the pouring of molten metal into the cavity. 4. Cooling and solidification, are determined by the mould material and riser location, they affect the material properties and quality of the casting.

Shrinkage

Casting is where molten metal is poured into a mould and allowed to harden there are 5 types of casting including sand casting, permanent mold casting, investment casting, die casting and plaster mold casting. Sand casting involves creating a master mold in two parts placed into the sand mixed with a heat resistant binder, the mold includes a sprue where the molten metals are pored into, runners allowing for equal distribution of the molten metal around the mold, and vents for the air to escape. After the metal is cooled and hardens it is removed and the sand mold is destroyed. Further processing and finishing is required to remove metal from the sprue and runners.

wrong

right

Permanent mold casting: Uses a permanent mold constructed into two halves hinged or clamped together. It is limited to magnesium and aluminium. Though sometimes other metal alloys also use this process. Investment casting: involves creating a master pattern made of a material that melts or evaporates when subjected to heat. The pattern is packed into sand or dipped into ceramic slurry allowed to harden. The mould is inverted and heated allowing the pattern to melt away. Molten metal is pored into the mould then left to cool and harden. Further processing and finishing is required to trim away parts. Die casting involves forcing molten metal into reusable moulds using pressure, metal with a lower melting point like aluminium is used. Once the parts have cooled and hardened they are finished to remove flash. Plaster mould casting: moulds are made from slurry or gypsum; the castings have fine finishes and commonly used for small parts, larger parts are difficult. It is best for low volume production.

final product of hot-rolling

rolling ingot four-high mill

hot rolled plate or slab ( 6.3 mm thick) coil (re-roll stock) hot-rolled sheet

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Contour roll forming/Strip casting: involves metal strips or sheets with continuous section profiles through a sequence of mating rollers. Each set of rollers are in sequence which progressively bends the strip until it reaches the desired selection, adding strength and rigidity to flat materials. Hot rolling: The die is heated up to shape the metal. Cold rolling: Has controlled thicknesses, the die isn’t heated up. Deep draw or stamping produces hollow shapes from flat sheets of metal. The process involves a punch pushing a blank sheet of metal into a cavity. A stamping press is made up of a die and a punch. The die part is a cavity and this cavity is in the shape that mirrors the end result. Extrusion is a process where molten metal is forced through a die to form a long continuous profile section. Little scrap is produced from this process. Forging/bulk deformation process: Extensive plastic deformation occurs in this process a starting form of semifinished shapes with a high volume to surface area ratio, or high modulus. Controlled pressure is applied presses, hammers, dies or other related machinery. It is classified hot forging or cold forging depending on temperature. It may be done with an open die where the lateral movement of the metal is unrestricted, or a closed die, where it’s controlled on all sides. Impression die forging has recesses which form complex shapes and flash is formed needing secondary process to clean it away. Forging is a process of compressively deforming metal heated or cooled between two dies using impact and pressure. Forging can be used to create parts of almost any size shape or form. Hydro-forming is used to create complex formed parts without the need for costly machined die parts. The process utilises pressurised liquid to force sheet metal into a single die or cavity. Machining (metal removal or cutting) involves shaping the part through material removal. The metal is cut away using cutting tools either, hand or computer operated, creating a negative impression removing any unwanted material. A tool is made from material which is harder than the metal being used to ensure it cuts through. Used for both primary and secondary processing, it is the most common type of machining process. The basic mechanical machining are turning, drilling, milling and shaping. Turning is preformed on a lathe where the piece rotates and the tool moves parallel to the centre axis.

Shearing sheet metal is done using a guillotine or alligator shears, drawing is a process where the blank is pressed into a shaped die to form cylindrical shapes like cans. If the depth of the cylinder is longer than deeper drawing is used. Bending is a common process where a flat piece of metal is plastically deformed into an angle. Powder processing: is a primary process, ceramic products and powder metallurgy are two major processes that utilise powders. Unlike casting, forming and machining it isn’t classified as one of the major shape forming processes. It can produce hire yields, and used with small thin parts that are difficult to form with other processes though is more costly as the materials must first be turned into powdered form. Finishes for Metal: Abrasive finishes which removes small amounts of material from the surface to improve appearance or function. These processes include polishing, wire brushing, buffing and burnishing. Anodizing involves an electrochemical process which thickens the naturally occurring protective oxide on metal other finishes can still be applied over the top such as colouring. Coating: covers the surface of the metal improving performance, preventing corrosion or improving appearance. Finishes for Stainless steel: Hot rolled, annealed, cold rolled, pickled, highly polished rollers, Bright annealed (BA or 2R) under oxygen-free atmospheric conditions, Abrasive finishes include bushed finish, Satin finish, Matte finish, Reflective finish, Mirror finish, Bead blast finish, heat colored finish-wide and a range of electro-polished & heat colored surfaces. Electrostatic painting: positively charged paint particles and negatively charged metal parts are attracted to each other adhering to the part, is an efficient use of paint provides even coating. Metallic deposition applies thin layers of metal to the surrounding surface of the part, electroplating, sputtering, and vacuum metallising, each process having unique benefits and restrictions. Porcelain enamelling: enamel is applied to the surface then fired to harden the coating and fuse the surfaces. It’s extremely durable and heat resistant. Powder coating: is a process where parts are coated with a fine thermoplastic powder then heated until the powder melts. The particles fuse onto the surface, providing a durable coating. It often uses electrostatic charging for a smooth and


even coat and efficiency of the powder. Labels, warnings and instructions can be printed onto paper, plastic film or metal plates and attached using adhesives. Pad printing prints graphics on complex surfaces transferring ink from a printing plate, etched with the desired image using a silicone pad which contours to the shape of the part. Screen printing is a process of applying graphics using a silkscreen. Joining processes for metals include three categories fasteners, welding and adhesives. Fasteners are mechanical devices that join materials by clamping, pressure or friction for example rivets fasteners screws and pins. Collars are a device which permits free rotation of a shaft, while preventing it from moving axially. Integral joiners are features designed into metal parts allowing them to mechanically interlock. Pins are used for free rotation of a shaft. Retaining rings are used for free rotation of a shaft but prevents it from moving axially. Rivets are designed to permanently connect components. Snaps are a two part fastener of lanced tabs. Mechanical joining may be permanent or removable. Cohesion/Welding: involves the joining of two or more pieces of metal by heat, pressure or both which creates a localised union through fusion or recrystallisation creating a chemical bond. Soldering is where non ferrous low melting point filler (solder) is used to join metal components. The two categories for welding are fusion and solid state. Adhesion/gluing are the joining of two or more material components. Brazing is a method of adhering metal components with metallic adhesives. It’s formulated to melt well below the temperature of the metals being brazed flowing into joints preventing oxidation. It requires temperatures over 427 degrees Celsius to melt. Please go to the Bibliography at the back of this book for the full list of references. Images are from: Rober C. Creese (1999) Introduction to manufacturing processes and materials New York, Marcel Dekker & Daniel F. Cuffaro (2006) Process, materials, and measurements: all the details industrial designers need to know but can never find, Gloucester, Mass. Rockport Publishers

Contour roll forming Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

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Technology Approach Drinking fountains/ Bubblers are quite a simple product only needing a few essential parts to work a tap/faucet a handle to turn it on and off, pipes and of course water. Water comes from the mains pipes where its constantly pumped so once something is connected to the mains pipe it needs to be able to be turned on and of using valves (a tap is a type of valve) this controls the flow of water. All drinking fountains have an automatic shut off, where after the button, handle or leaver is released it turns off. Water can drain away in using pipes (usually made from PVC) down into the storm water or simply run onto the ground. Mains water has two additives one to firstly ensure it’s clean from contaminants this is a chemical called chlorine, secondly fluoride is added for health benefits to strengthen teeth. Water pressure is created to disperse the water around, and can vary in pressure due to location and how far it travels from the pumping/filtration station. Typical fountains are made from three materials, as these contain good levels of hygiene along with resistance to water, and are all durable these are ceramics including tiles, clays, metals mainly aluminium, stainless steel as and treated steel they have high levels of corrosion resistance and lastly concrete. They are fastened into place using different methods depending on the design and materials used. They main parts that break are the mechanical parts within the plumbing, so this has to be easily accessible for maintenance. Being vandal resistant is also an essential part of the design. Materials and processes: The two materials I wish to investigate for potential use of my drinking fountain are ceramic and metal mainly stainless steel or aluminium. As these are hygienic, and don’t harbour germs and can easily stand up to Melbourne’s weather conditions. The minimum life span councils look for is about 15 years. Aluminium (3g): is a nonferrous material (indicating that it’s not a bivalent iron compound) it has a melting temperature between 640 degrees Celsius-656 degrees Celsius It is a soft, lightweight and durable metal with a silver appearance. Its corrosion resistance is from a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the metal is exposed to air, though aqueous salts if in high concentration can reduce its effectiveness. Aluminium is also 100% recyclable and can be reused without any loss of its natural qualities.


Stainless Steels: are a broad class of material made from two or more separate elements characterised by their resistance to corrosion. All steels have metal iron, to which a small amount of carbon has been added. Stainless steel has about 11% or more of metal chromium added to steel, this creates a resistance to corrosion and staining making it low maintenance. There are 150 grades with 15 being the most common, number 304 (food grade) is the most common. It has antibacterial properties and can be cleaned, sterilised and doesn’t need painting or other surface finishes. Stainless steel is also 100% recyclable. It can also be used for water pipes as a cheaper option than brass. Ceramics: is an inorganic, non-metallic solid created by the heating a cooling of clay. Ceramics may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure. Types of ceramics include bricks, pipes, floor and roof tiles, white wares such as table ware, wall tiles, potter products and sanitary/bathroom ware. Ceramic materials are brittle, hard, and strong in compression, weak in shearing and tension. Withstanding chemical erosion, when exposed to heat (fired) it turns into a rocklike hard substance of enormous durability. Clay contains alumina and silica, combined with water. A range of performance ceramics have been created for unique environments called Technical ceramics. Exploration of forging for metal: Forging is the process where the metal is heated and shaped by plastic deformation, by applying a compressive force. This force is usually in the form of a press, hammer or power hammer. Forging refines the grain structure and improves the physical properties of the metal. The grain flow (direction of the crystals within plastic deformation) can be oriented, in the direction of the principal stresses encountered during use. This increases the physical properties such as strength, ductility and toughness than the base metal. A good surface finish is attached as it’s consistent. Open die forging/ hand forgings: Are made with repeated blows in an open die, manipulating the metal in the die, this is what a blacksmith does. Press Forging uses a slow squeezing action, to transfer compressive force to the part. The force is uniformly to the bulk of the material. Roll forging a bar stock, round or flat piece of metal is placed between die rollers which reduces the cross-section and increases the length to form parts such as axles, leaf springs etc.

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Swaging a tube or rod is forced inside a die and the diameter is reduced as the cylindrical object is fed. The die hammers the diameter and causes the metal to flow inward causing the outer diameter of the tube or the rod to take the shape of the die. Design Considerations: The parting line should be along a single plane, or follow the contour of the part. Parting surfaces should be through the center of the part. The use of undercuts should be avoided, as this makes the removal of the part difficult, or impossible. The draft angles for Aluminium is 0 – 2º and for stainless steel 5 - 8º. Generous fillets and radius, allow the material flow. Ribs if used should not be high or narrow. Dimension tolerances are usually positive and are approximately 0.3 % of the dimension, rounded off to the nearest 0.5mm.Die closure tolerances are in the direction of opening and for a larger part are 6.25mm Detailed manufacturing of perforated/stamped sheet metal: Perorated sheet metal has perforations which have been blanked out of the metal, the majority of perforated sheet metal comes in sheets between 16 and 24 gauge. It also can easily be manipulated to suit many purposes. There are two popular production methods; the first is a perforating press which perforates a row or pattern of holes across the material. The second is a sectional or two axis perforating press the machinery moves the raw material beneath a stationary punching head, using two axis, to guide the sheet, the end result is a pattern of holes based on the programmed machine. Die Casting: Die casting is only economical at high levels of production due to the hardened steels used for dies. It is the process of forcing molten metal under high pressure into mould cavities (which are machined into dies.) Molten metal is forced under high pressure into closed metallic dies. The complexity of the parts that can be produced using die casting is more limited than sand or investment casting as the dies are solid. It is suited for applications where large quantities, of small to medium sized parts are needed with good detail a fine surface quality and dimensional consistency. All die tools contain a parting line as this is how the part is removed after forming. Thermal expansion in the die must be considered, as well as the thermal contraction of the part during cooling in controlling the part dimensions.


There are four steps in the die casting process. First the mould is sprayed with lubricant and closed. Molten metal is shot into the die at high pressure to insure correct thickness, and solidified. The die is opened and the shot (there can be multiple cavities in a die, yielding multiple castings per shot) is ejected with ejector pins. Lastly the scrap metal, including the gate, runners, sprues and flash are separated from the cast is removed and can be reused again. The piece is then finished off harder features that are difficult to mold are also created now such as a tapping a hole. Machines for die casting are hot chamber or cold chamber and can apply between 400 and 4,000 short tons. Hot chamber machines use molten metal to feed the die, the piston once retracted starts the filling process forcing the metal into the die. Advantages include fast cycle times, and connivance of melting the metal in the casting machine. Disadvantages of this system are a high melting point, and aluminium can not be used, as it picks up some of the iron. Cold chamber machines work by melting the material first in a separate furnace, transported to the shot chamber where it is driven into the die by force. If there are undercuts within the design metal cores are used. There is little clearance between the die and core to prevent metal from escaping. When casting threaded holes loose cores are used and inserted into the die by hand before each cycle. Each die has a limited life due to erosion from wear with dies for casting brass the shortest of all. Investigation of Slip Casting/Pressure Slip casting ceramics: Liquid clay, called slip (fine ceramic powder and liquid or clays, silica and silicon compounds mixed with additives to promote densification, in the structure) is poured into plaster moulds, and forms a layer on the inside, solid casts are created using plaster to surround all sides. For a hollow cast mold the plaster absorbs most of the liquid from the clay, remaining slip is poured of for later use, it is then trimmed down and left to dry before being fired. This technique is suited to complex shapes and is often used for sanitary ware like toilets and basins. Often the original cast is constructed using a potter’s wheel.

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For large scale production pressure slip casting is used instead of using plaster moulds they are replaced with polymeric materials, they have a higher porosity with larger pores they don’t give the same capillary forces but require an external pressure to drive the filtration process. Air under high pressure of 4MPa is applied to the exposed interior surface of the layer deposit creating a much faster drying cycles, creating dry pieces that can be removed from the mould immediately and used again strait away. Polymeric materials have much better durability than plaster and, achieving products with better dimensional tolerances. Pressing Ceramics: Malleable clay is placed into a press the force applied shapes the clay into the die. There are a few types of pressing techniques including slip pressing, hydrostatic (isostatic) and dry pressing. Dry pressing is used for mass manufacture of precision ceramic products. As the dies used have a high cost it is quite expensive. Nonclumping granulated ceramic powder is compressed into the die the most common machine used is a single axis dry press which uses different compression within the die. If it is a more complex part then a double axis is used. It’s suitable for complex geometries, and can get to small thickness of about 1mm. Extrusion of ceramics: This process creates objects with a fixed cross-section profile the ceramic paste is pushed through a die creating its shape. It can easily create complex cross sections and has an excellent surface finish. It may be continuous, or semi continuous producing many pieces. A ram presses the paste out of the die. As it comes through a cutting machine is programmed to the required length. A conveyer belt takes the pieces off for drying and firing. In Direct extrusion the die is stationary and he ram moves toward it, while indirect extrusion the ram is stationary and the die moves towards it. The press can be held either vertical or horizontal. To produce hollows a floating mandrel and hollow billet are used. The solid billet may also be used with a spider die, porthole die or a bridge-die. Filters: With high water quality like Melbourne they are used to remove chlorine and metallic tastes that form from old pipes. They need to be continually placed and only have a limited lifespan of liters they can treat. Depending on the type of contaminants in the water, the filtration units can comprise of activated charcoal, copper or zinc.


Most filters are charcoal, or activated charcoal which is carbon. When chemical or special heating is used it is called activated charcoal, becoming more absorbent, filter work on absorption as the particles stick to the charcoal. To soften water an ion exchange filter is used, it only removing contaminants, such as calcium, magnesium, lime, and iron that make water taste metallic and salty. Another type of filter is called reverse osmosis, where the is pushed through an ultra fine semi permeable membrane, separating water and the brine concentration which is washed away into the drain, then filtered into through charcoal this filtration uses creates only one liter of clean water for every three liters that go in the other two liters end up as waste water. Ultra violet filtration uses UV radiation to killing bacteria. Mainly city council uses the Culligan cartage system has a pleated surface of activated carbon providing five times more surface area than conventional carbon block filters eliminating 99.9% of all particles 0.5 micron. Technology within the design process: Design involves a lot more technology than materials and manufacture so I am briefly going to talk about the software I plan on using. My main software for 3D modelling is Soildworks as not only can I get a 3D image but also a technical drawing. Rendering is also important as it gives the material life, you can notice intricate details and textures vital to a design, though I tend to avoid using Photoworks as it has limited options. Technical drawings are important and need to be very clear in order to communicate and all necessary lines dimensioned so it can be followed. The internet has become a vital tool for communication and information as there is so much content out there I am using a blog to keep track of the work I am doing and have done. 2D software programs such as Indesign, Illustrator and Photoshop are tools that I am constantly using as they help aid my designs and are great for refinement. The workshop offers a variety of machines to manipulate materials in various ways and is a great place to prototype, or get inspired by materials. I tend to almost live on my computer so it’s great to go low tech just pencils paper, cardboard and glue. This is the part of design I love the most as it just lets you run free and make mistakes that can’t be hidden unlike the undo functions on computers. Mistakes help you to learn and often unintentional outcomes can occur that are better than the original. Holding onto them and looking over everything lets you see new possibilities or understand why something may not work. I find that when I undo something it has also being erased from my memory.

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Reseach Outcomes:

Research was undertaken throughout the semester, and documented on an online visual blog to share this information with others who are interested in the project, and what more information. http://restlessness.wordpress.com

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The following examples of drinking fountains are located around Melbourne’s CBD. This drinking fountain is located in a large walkway, outside an office complex it wasn’t working at the time of the photo. As the tap/bubbler is located on the side it is easy to reach though the basin/sink of the design is really quite large and a small plug whole in the middle. The design is very plain, basic and functional as the material choice is long lasting and durable and nothing in the design would be easily broken. The rough stone like finish is coming off the concrete structure this could be due to time or vandalism. It’s not inspiring at all.


Founded by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) drinking fountain is of historical significance to the State of Victoria. The largest and oldest of the designs in Melbourne this drinking fountain has lots of character, and represents its value at the time. It would have cost a lot of money to make. The steps up to the drinking fountain allow for younger children to drink, as it makes it easier to reach. Four people can drink from this design though not all taps are currently working.

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This is an old style drinking fountain with a roof four people can also drink from this design at once. There is graffiti on the top of the dome roof. The design allows water to drain away inside the fountain and is ventilated with these holes. The stone material is long lasting and durable. This fountain is no longer working as no bubbler/faucets are installed.


59/60 This is near a large fountain, and obviously has been in its location for a while the steps at either side allow smaller children access to drink. Waste water is collected both inside these steps and gathers at the bottom next to the drain, this makes it look very dirty, this was also towards the end of a hot summer so would be worse in winter time, as there would be less chance of the puddles drying out.


This is outside federation square, and installed on top of the terrace wall next to the large steps. From a distance as the design is flush it can’t be spotted as only the faucet sticks out. Though when you know its there its in a convenient spot to drink from. It fits into its location nicely and isn’t obtrusive.


61/62 I almost missed this drinking fountain as it’s so small and walking along the street in a hurry, viewing it as something that you put the cigarettes out in, as the drainage holes and faucet are quite small. The height is also very low and it looks nothing like other designs through out the CBD.


This design is located in a park and offers a dog bowl at the bottom which can be filled and used with the tap at the side. The overall design is almost identical to a common design made with wood also seen through out parks in Melbourne.


This design is commonly seen in parks throughout Melbourne. There are also a few different styles as shown in my Photos, where waste water to come out of the side and down a drain or nearby gutter, and the other designs have the faucets in different locations, with the one being closest to the edge easier to reach from a wheelchair or a small child. The materials include treated messmate or spotted gum timber with a cast aluminium door. Perforated polished stainless steel for the bowl, the joining frame is mild steel finished with powder coating in Hawthorn green, the council’s signature colour.

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‘Green steel drinking’ fountain by the council also comes in a beige colour. The bowl is identical to the pervious design, though the base is fabricated in mild steel. The design of the bowl good as it doesn’t allow for people who are passing to dump rubbish inside them. It also allows for fast drainage of water. It also has a few different styles, with some even having a tap handles located on the side to control the flow. From researching online it seems Commercial Systems Australia is the company who designed this fountain. Manufacturer and fit out contractor of street furniture.


65/66 This stainless steel drinking fountain is the newest of all the designs, and placed along footpaths throughout the CBD. The design uses stainless steel 316 for the body of the fountain. Water drains away from the top down the side into the drain below. Water can end up on the footpath, making it slippery for people walking past. The drain at the base may be too small and this is why water ends up on the footpath. Polished stainless steel is easy to maintain, and has a life span of about 30 years. The only part of the drinking fountain which can be accessed by users and vandalized is the faucet and where the faucet is joined to the design.


Melbourne City council acknowledges these three following designs as the most common in Melbourne and they can be found throughout the city. Using a common design makes them easy to spot and locate rather than a hole lot of mismatching ones. The technical drawing are from their website.


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No 4.

No 1.

These designs have been spotted in other councils and shires towards the east of Melbourne. Drinking fountain No. 2 was seen at a construction site within the CBD provided cool water to workers at that site. No. 1 is a drinking fountain inside RMIT city campus. The most basic design for a drinking fountain is No. 7 where the pipe is simply strapped onto the timber, there is no drain for the water to collect and it is absorbed into the ground. No. 8 is similar though the pipes are inside the timber, and a step has been place to the side for children.

No 2.

No. 5 and No. 9 are both designed for a wheelchair to fit underneath so the legs can be placed under the fountain, and the user doesn’t have to lean in to drink.

No 7.

No 8.

No 9.

No 5. [68_69]


In 2008 a studio was undertaken called ‘No Bottled Water’ guided by Soumitri Varadarajan and Paul Angus, The following pages are a critic on their final designs.

Designer: Chris Hayes-Kossmann ‘Fill- Up Fountain’ The large size, standing 2 meters tall means its easily spotted from a distance which is great for out doors, though not necessary for indoors though has a footprint of 400mmx300mm. A lager design will use more materials making it heavier and more costly. The vibrant blue colour stands out from its surroundings. People may be discouraged to drink directly from the fountain as the roof is placed directly overhead feeling intimating and feel closed in, its ideal to fill up bottles. Using OEM fixtures reduces manufacturing costs the gal-dipped 1.2mm exterior is weather resistant. It has a small footprint of 400mmx300mm for its large height. The design inspiration “comes from strait lined construction of coke machines not pushing aesthetics to become gaudy or sculptural.”

Designer: Daniel Waugh ‘Spray’ Drinking fountain A large drinking fountain that is accessible to people of varying heights is an interesting concept, and how people might interact with such a scale design. I see this best in large spacious outdoor environments. A high level of technical knowledge is applied to the design of ‘Spray’, all parts have been considered along with how they connect both above and below the ground, the requirements to hold a larger drinking fountain in place, and what has been designed to prevent vandalism. A maintenance hatch means working parts under ground can easily be accessed. Some points that lack clarity are what happens to the water on a windy day, does the button used on the side need to be continually hold down during use, is it mostly designed to fill up water bottles. This would be more of a small scale production and wouldn’t be placed through out the city like other designs. 69/70


Designer: Nathan Hollins ‘H-Cube-O’ Deciding that his drinking fountain will only fill up bottles as users didn’t drink directly from them Nathan made the fountain taller. The H-Cube-Design is very visual pleasing and clean, though having so many open and exposed areas might prove difficult in the outdoor environment, and the wind blowing the water away from the drain. Using treated pine is interesting as with the precision of the blocks there needs to be high tolerances as the wood will expand and contract especially soaked in water, and then dried out in the heat. The design would be quite heavy to install. Having so many corners and sharp edges may also prove to be problematic as safety issues arise. Having the drinking fountains drain at 550mm is really short and difficult, if the user had a disability and had trouble holding the water bottle while filling,

Designer: Mayuko Yoshida “MIZUKI” Convenient with one side of the fountain to drink from and the other to fill up bottles, aesthetics strongly communicate this. The metaphor of Mizuki which is young seedling in Japanese, its meaning is about rich nature, water and greenness. Using a slender design there isn’t an excess of materials used, reducing costs and weight. A water timer means the button doesn’t have to be hold down in use. The third leaf is for placing the water bottle on so you don’t have to hold it to fill which is good if your hands are full. The material choice isn’t stated though I am presuming it is cast aluminium. The distance to the drain seems large creating water splashing when it hits the ground. It looks like the waste water from the side used to fill up bottle water is collected on the bottom leaf and drained away internally.

All images used are the designs created by individual students.


Designed for wheelchair accessibility by a local street furniture design company Commercial Systems Aust. Pty Ltd, there is a strong resemblance the design has been limited to this sole function in the form, as it bends over so the user can get up close. A dog drinking fountain is also an addition to some models. I think the most interesting design is the sinks this is where your eyes are drawn. The rest of the design looks like it’s just there just to encase the internals with a large maintenance hatch to the plumbing. It’s evident the user requirements are what is driving the design.

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These photos are a quick selection of designs from companies in Australia who specialises in street furniture, although there are many designs to pick from they all seem very basic and you can see the low cost for manufacture and materials coming through. It is hard to judge who is pushing the low cost, the councils as they just want to put something in that fills the requirements or the designers themselves by not challenging what is out there in the market place and seeing a gap or need for change. They all lack something to be desired for and I can’t see people getting exited or engaged with these designs.


When doing a redesign of an existing product there are three paths for a designer to follow. Most designers strive for a Modernistic/futuristic approach where there is nothing like it on the market and it can’t be compared to any other product within its range offering new services/functions. Most designs however fail to achieve this, I aim to place my drinking fountain in this category where no one has ever approached and created something similar within drinking fountains.

Business as usual

Retro

Business as usual is where the majority of fountains are designed. This simply means a form, where the internals are encased in a styled form that is aesthetically pleasing and for fills all requirements and functions. Manly and the new Melbourne city council designs both do this, as its no innovation to have water drain away externally or use the materials they have. The last category or product position is retro there are many examples of this in drinking fountains, as it is something people can instantly recognise and connect to, it fits in with existing street furniture and parks. The older style and forms are captured and recreated within the new designs offering nothing that is new and challenging.

Modernistic/Futuristic

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Modernistic/futuristic approach where there is nothing like it on the market and it can’t be compared to any other product within its range offering new services/ functions. As there re no clear examples I am just going to pick my favourite images to show in this category as there is nothing else like them out there, or something quirky about them.


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Business as usual is where the majority of fountains are designed, as they fit all requirements and encase the eternals into something which is aesthetically pleasing. These are the ones that are ingrained into your head as you have seen them or something similar else where.


Retro is a design people can easily recognize it fit into most environments and captures the older forms. This helps to create familiarity.


Stone and concrete Drinking Fountains: Stone/concrete drinking fountains are mostly seen in parks and gardens as they appear more natural and blend into their surroundings. The problem with using them in damp areas is that they encourage growth from lichen and moss, which can detract from people viewing them as pristine clean. Other problems with old stone fountains include cracking. Modern cast concrete drinking fountains often include a metal maintenance hatch for repairs, which I think personally detracts from the surface texture and the roughness. Some concrete also have stainless steel bowl fixtures attached rather than using the exposed concrete, this is because with such high volumes of water it ages the fastest, with growths of lichen. These metal bowls can also add to the design, if it done correctly for example a large metal arrow is also added on the ground next to the drinking fountain this makes as if its done deliberately others just look like a sink that’s being installed. Metal drinking fountains: Metal offers great durability and a long life span, there are many different types that can be used along with finishes and processes to create different forms. The newest designs that have been installed around Melbourne and also the same design can be seen in Perth are stainless steel. Manly has also installed new stainless drinking fountains that have filters inside them. The most common style that people have photographed is a Haws design and even comes in gold, along with a vast array of colours. This model has been adjusted many times with one having a lower bowl for dogs, one on an arm for children or people in a wheelchair which is lower towards the ground, and another on top for adults, and some even have taps sticking out underneath the arm.

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Basic Drinking Fountains: Basic Designs are cheaper to manufacture and use less materials, some are little more than pipes and a tap/bubbler head attached to wood or metal.Vandalism can be an issue as all elements are exposed, but showing the eternals also has a nice aesthetic and minimal look.


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People Drinking: Direction of the water changes how people drink/interact with the bubbler. Children face issues of height, and with no issues of hygiene don’t mind using their tongue. Adults hold their hair when drinking, and often carry bags. Secondary users include washing hands, faces and cooling down with water.


Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: Drinking with bags and backpacks


Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: Drinking with bags and backpacks. People are constantly carrying things on themselves, when carrying a large backpack or bag the bending position can become tricky as you have to maintain your balance with extra weight. This man rests is arm on his leg to ensure that he is stable and comfortable, he uses his other free hand to operate the drinking fountain. If there was a place to rest your bags on near the fountain and they would be kept dry would people use them? Or is there a personal risk they might get stolen? How does it feel to bend over with a heavy back pack on do you feel you may topple forward and if the height of the fountain increased would it make it more comfortable? This man said he didn’t mind carrying his bag on his back and undertaking tasks as he knew his valuables where safe and he had being carrying it around all day.

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Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: Drinking with a disability or impairment and body positions.


Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: Drinking with a disability or impairment and body positions. This lady had an injured arm that required it to be strapped into place with a sling, so it could be used at all.You can see in the film strip that it’s tightly against her body. This means she has no option but to operate the drinking fountain using one hand. This was easy to do as she still had a fully operational hand with full strength so pressing the button and holding it down was not difficult. People that have arthritis or other injuries where the hand isn’t fully operational would struggle. As her injury has been for a few weeks she said she adjusted to life one armed and drinking from the fountain was an easy task probably no different from how she would normally use it. Every person that I observed drinking had a slightly different technique to making them comfortable to operate and use the drinking fountain. Most people with bags on chose to hold onto them in one hand and or if a backpack didn’t bother to take them off. Some people chose to have their arm near their body close to them and others like in this filmstrip have it bent outwards towards the side of them. There are two different examples of this on the left hand page. This is important to note as you don’t want to feel entrapped within the design where you feel you self conscience when drinking. Space is important around the top part of the fountain to move your body into positions that feel most natural.

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Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: How do you drink?


85/86 Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: How do you drink? Having long hair that is loose seemed to be a problem for some people, and you can see this mans hair just touching the surface of the bowl. He also uses his hand to ensure his balance is correct. This man pushed his hair back out his face behind his ears only for it to come loose anyway. Most users tend to stand back from the base of the fountain, even when the bubbler is located in the centre. This man was a tourist from South Korea, and seemed quite comfortable drinking Melbourne’s water saying it tasted good.


Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: How do you drink?


Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: How do you drink? Most people would test the fountain to see if it works before bending over for a drink, I think this shows that people are aware that not all are working and kept well maintained. It also tests the water pressure as it varies greatly, this helps decide how close you must get to the fountain’s bubbler /faucet. Sometimes it’s not even worth trying for a drink if it’s a small trickle. This lady is carrying a shoulder bag which she keeps at her side not bothering to take it off holding it in place with her spare hand. She wipes her mouth dry using her hand, an action carried out by most people.

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Films capturing and observing users around Melbourne: How do you drink?


It’s quite common for people to want to refill an old water bottle or any bottle for that manner. The problem is the varying water pressure between drinking fountains means it’s almost impossible to fill them up at some fountains. There isn’t too much clearance for a bottle to fit as the sink gets in the way, often a bottle can only be half filled before the water starts to come out of the top as its positioned at the wrong angle, but is the only one where any water can get in at all. In this film you can see the pressure comes and goes some times only a few drops of water come out and don’t even make it inside the bottle, the bottle fills slowly so the user moves onto another fountain where it fills much quicker.You can also see her handbag tucked underneath her arm while she fills it up. Two hands are needed one to hold the button and the other the bottle. This is only bad if you have a lot of things to hold as there is no where to put them.

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Drinking behaviour: Overload, carrying more than one bag this user holds onto one in between his legs ensuring they are safe and out the way from other people.


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Drinking behaviour: Holding back hair and jewellery out of face while leaning down to drink from the bubbler ensure it will remain dry and not end up in the user’s mouth. Photo credit: Jacky


Drinking behaviour: Carrying books, papers and a camera tucking them securely under his arm and hold them in one hand before using the fountain.


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Drinking behaviour: A resting spot for heavy bags, this man uses the top edge of the fountain to rest his bags on.


95/96 Cities product branding: The Melbourne city council owns/provides these fountains having paid for product, water, installation and maintenance they use their logo to promote the council and what it provides for the communities benefit. Branding and ownership on public products helps to give uniformity especially to the street furniture they collect. The logo is located on the park design and located on the maintenance hatch and in one unique design on the bowl itself.


Survey:

Questions on Drinking Fountains? Have you ever used a drinking fountain?

Yes

No

If No is there are reason, please comment here. How often do you use drinking fountain?

Frequently

Did you use drinking fountains more as a child at school?

Yes

No

Do you know there are drinking fountains in Melbourne?

Yes

No

Do you think they are easy to find?

Yes

No

Do you often find damaged drinking fountains?

Frequently

Do you prefer to drink from an upwards or downwards flow of water? Are they easy to use?

Yes

Do you think there are enough drinking fountains in Melbourne?

Hardly ever

Occasionally

No

Upwards

Downwards

No preference

Tap water

Filtered water

No Yes

Do you choose not to use drinking fountains because of concern of hygiene? What taste of water do you prefer?

Occasionally

No Yes

No

No preference Bottled water

Do you use water bottles?

Yes

No

Do you refill/reuse water bottles?

Yes

No

How long would you keep the same bottle for?

A few days

Would you like more places to fill up water bottles?

Yes

How do you feel when you use a drinking fountain?

Anxious (germs) Not concerned Wish they where cleaner

Is the height of drinking fountains to low for adults?

Yes

No

Is the height of drinking fountains to high for children?

Yes

No

What materials do you prefer?

Ceramic

A few weeks

No

Do you think there is enough lighting around drinking fountains at night? Do people often talk about drinking fountains been unclean? Yes

A week

Metal

Concrete

Yes

No

No

Please fill in any comments or stories about what others have said about drinking fountains: Are you concerned about waste from bottled water and the impact on the environment? Do you like the current designs?

Yes

No

Yes

No

What design?

Do you think it’s important to have access to free drinking water in Melbourne? Yes Thank you for your time :)

No


I firstly conducted a face to face survey using the questions on the left this was done through asking random people outside in the street and in various locations around Melbourne for a period of three days in total I spoke to 18 people. This was highly valuable experience though time consuming as many people see some one asking questions and conducting a survey and head for the hills, others can be quite rude so you just have to not take the rejection personally. For those who where willing to participate I found I could draw out unexpected answers about their feelings towards drinking bottles and drinking fountains some people seemed to be vary knowledgeable and I met a young man who dates his bottles when they are opened he will use them for a period of two to three weeks and then recycle it and by a new one. Other people had no idea that reusing the same bottle for a long time could be bad for your health. There was a big cultural difference to those who are not from Australia as they have a hard time getting used to the idea that all water from taps here is drinkable as it isn’t in their hoe towns. This means they have to change their behaviour and trust in something they previously couldn’t which is a big barrier. They don’t know that free clean water is readily available to them. I only picked this up through talking to international students and people who recently moved to Melbourne. So even just simply informing people that they are there could increase the amount of users. As it was such a slow process I then went online and emailed most people in my contact list who I know lived in Melbourne and could provide insightful information in total I had about 55 responses to my questions. This was far easier on my part as I just had to sit back and wait for people to answer, but not as insightful and people where reluctant to comment so I gained less valuable information as to what people where thinking. On the online survey I eliminated the question about if they used the drinking fountain more as a child as I found this was irrelevant as I originally thought those who use them as children would continue on as Adults, I also put in a few more options as people couldn’t write on the edges of their sheets so I included a reusable bottle option but the survey stayed much the same. Here is the link to the survey it is still active: http://www.surveygizmo.com/s/146035/melbourne-s-drinking-fountains-

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1. Have you ever used a drinking fountain? Yes 84%

No 16%

2. If No is there are reason, please comment here... Never needed to. Dirty, Many in subburb area let their “dog� drink there! They are germy!!!

3. How often do you use drinking fountain? Hardly ever (28%) When dying of thirst (24%) Occasionally (31%)

Frequently (17%)


4. RMIT buiness 5. College of travel and Hospitality 6. ScottsCollege 7. College of advanced Education 8. Chinese Australian Hisorical Museum 9. Princess Thetre 10. Bourke Street Mall 11. Chinatown 12. City Experience Centre 13. Central Post Office 14. Melbourne Town Hall 15. City Square

4. Do you know there are drinking fountains in Melbourne?

Yes (90%)

No (10%)

5. Do you think they are easy to find?

No (60%)

Yes (40%)

98/99 6. Do you often find damaged drinking fountains? Rarely (20%) Occasionally (30%) No (20%)

Frequently (30%)


7. Do you prefer to drink from an upwards or downwards flow of water? Upwards (67%)

No Preference(30%)

Downwards (3%)

8. Are they easy to use?

No(13%) Yes (87%)

9. Do you think there are enough drinking fountains in Melbourne? No (74%)

Yes (26%)


10. Do you choose not to use drinking fountains because of concern of hygiene? No (43%)

Yes (57%)

11. What taste of water do you prefer? tap water (19%) Bottled water (26%) Filtered water (13%)

No Preference (32%)

Water has a taste? (10%) 100/101

12. Do you buy bottled water? No (29%)

Yes (71%)


13. Do you refill/reuse water bottles?

Yes (97%)

No (3%)

14. How long would you keep the same bottle for? A few weeks (39%) Months (10%) A week (6%) I own a reusable water bottle (10%) A Few days (35%)

15. Would you like more places to fill up water bottles?

Yes (77%)

No(23%)


16. How do you feel when you use a drinking fountain? Wish they were cleaner (52%)

Not concerned(26%)

Anxious (germs) (23%)

17. Is the height of drinking fountains to low for adults? No(71%)

Yes (29%) 102/103 18. Is the height of drinking fountains to high for children? Yes (52%) No(48%)


19. What materials do you prefer? Metal (33%)

Concrete/Stone Natural (23%)

Ceramic (30%)

20. Do you think there is enough lighting around drinking fountains at night?

No(68%)

Yes (32%)

21. Do people often talk about drinking fountains been unclean?

No(65%)

Yes (35%)


22. Do you like the current designs of drinking fountains? What Design (65%)

No(19%)

Yes (16%)

23. Are you concerned about waste from bottled water and the impact on the environment? (Plastics in landfill, lack of public recycling available, high use of oil in production)

Yes (74%)

No(26%)

104/105 24. Do you think it’s important to have access to free drinking water in Melbourne?

Yes (97%)

No(3%)


Conclusions to the survey: it was interesting to that most people had used the drinking fountains, but I wasn’t surprised with the answers given to those who hadn’t, they either see them as really unclean, unhygienic, been put off by stories or seeing dog drink from them or really have never need them. Only 24% would only use them when dying of thirst or really needed to for any of the reasons listed above. Most people are aware they are in Melbourne available to use. 60% think they are hard to find which I wasn’t surprised about unless you are really looking they are hard to find. Only 13% said they are hard to use which shows you that the current designs are working for most people. Only 20% of people haven’t found or noticed them damaged which shows that more maintenance is needed with one third of people finding them frequently. 74% of people think there needs to be more drinking fountains which match the findings on are they hard to find. Hygiene is a big concern for 57% of people and 52% wish they where cleaner, 23% are anxious about using them because of germs showing that there is a real physiological problem as a reason for not using them. Most people don’t really care about the taste of the tap water choosing to take what’s available to them and only 26% of people had a real preference for bottled water. Just over two thirds of people buy bottled water. Nearly all people questioned reused their bottles again. Keeping the same bottle for either a few days or weeks 13% of people have a reusable bottle they continually use.

These are various and helpful comments collected by people: Apparently it takes more water to make a bottle of bottled water than the amount it contains... which is odd. I think why people buy bottled water is for convenience... in that many people don’t want to carry their own water bottle to work/uni and also can’t be bothered refilling/boiling the water beforehand. If you are going to design a drink tap, I highly recommend one where ‘excess water won’t collect’...e.g. anything with a basin-like part, because garbage, stuff from peoples mouths, like gum and stuff collect there and it’s gross and unhygienic. There are some water fountains I’ve seen that are sphere shaped...clever, the water follows the ball down and the excess water collects under the ball where leaves and trash can’t collect. Also, levers seem to be easier to operate than taps (especially for people with arthritis). Also any public street furniture and faculties will run the risk of being vandalised if it is just that...whereas if the people using it can have some kind of positive emotional connection to it, they tend to take care of it better...how you achieve this is challenging of course. No stories, but we used to jam our school fountians with bits of tanbark. (This is very common and used to happen at my school all the time to, many people online have also stated this about Australian schools and seems like its very frequent. It means the water is totally blocked or squirts up extremely high into the air when the handle is pressed down.)

Over two thirds of people would like more places to fill up their bottles so this means making it easier to refill bottles from drinking fountains would be beneficial to these people and would mean they would most likely use it as its something they want. 71% of people are happy with the height of water fountains but just over half of people think they are too tall for children. This means that there could be the potential to have a smaller fountain for children near parks and playgrounds. As for the material its made out of every one is split almost equally into the different choices listed, this means it’s really a personal preference to what looks nice and that no one material appears to be cleaner than the others. This was surprising as all the new fountains are metal and it’s not really what everyone wants to see.

They need to be place more places than parks. Also maintaining them is very important.

At nigh time lighting is an issue with two thirds of people wanting them to be better lit. I was surprised that just only a third of people talk about drinking fountains been unclean which hopefully means an increase presence of maintenance ensuring that they are clean along with easy fill bottles along with more fountains around many more users will take to them.

The main problem I have with the design of a lot of drinking fountains is that the water pressure is too low, there by forcing you to just about put your mouth against the faucet in order to drink. Also, it is important to have variable valve on the tap so you can turn it on slowly rather than blasting yourself in the face by switching straight to full pressure as most drinking fountains do these days.

Pretty clean, not so well designed. I think bottled water is quite silly but I think drinking fountains should be better and should represent the service better. I think many people do not use them because they are unsure of the quality of the water. Most unclean drinking fountains I’ve seen were in RMIT, taste kinda funny too.


I only really use drinking fountains to fill up my water bottle, however not all that often. I would use them more, but they kinda seem to be dirty... I’d almost rather fill up a water bottle in a nasty dirty bathroom than a drinking fountain. I think that the water always tastes a little different to tap of bottled water (which both taste the same if you ask me) it seems less clean, as if it’s been running through really dirty pipes, maybe this could be looked into? I also think that the reason I perceive them as unclean is due to the materials used. They tend to be made of stainless steel a lot of the time and as a consequence always look really unclean when out in the elements (as dirt, mess etc shows up really obviously). I think a material such as stone like you mentioned earlier could work really well as it would mask a lot of the natural dust and dirt that these things accumulate from being outside 24/7. I dont rely on drinking fountains, it is kind of an added bonus when you come across one, like woo.. free water, better have some. Often however, they are located in places where you exercise, parks/beach ect. this is great and very handy. Some of them are as dirty as toilets. I use a refillable water bottle mostly to drink water. Cleanliness is a problem, make water cheaper. Water pressure varies...which is annoying. All these comments are quite valid and you can see that most my questions are shaped around these problems. As they go into more depth about their concerns and are highly valuable. I am not sure that I have seen too many drinking fountains shoved up with tanbark as the source of the tanbark is mostly near play grounds, or maybe the design of them is harder to shove it inside, but as that’s part of the children’s culture towards them I should be aware of them being blocked up frequently. Thank you to all those who participated.

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Apparently there are meant to be 114 drinking fountains in Melbourne City councils land with 60 of them located in the CBD so I asked myself where are they?

An extensive search made me start to collate my own, then I found out others had also made their own maps and selling them online for the price of one bottle of water. Until I stumbled across after many hours an old bike map from 2003 http:// www.bv.com.au/file/CityOfMelbourne-BikeMap2003.pdf revealed everything from public toilets, bike stands and routes and the drinking fountains! Drinking fountains located by Melbourne council

Drinking fountains that I have also located

1. Holmes College 2. William Angliss Insitute of Tafe 3.Victoria University of Technology city campus 4. RMIT buiness 5. College of travel and Hospitality 6. ScottsCollege 7. College of advanced Education 8. Chinese Australian Hisorical Museum 9. Princess Thetre 10. Bourke Street Mall 11. Chinatown 12. City Experience Centre 13. Central Post Office 14. Melbourne Town Hall 15. City Square

Areas of Interest in Melbourne CBD

Original map from: http://www.bv.com.au/file/CityOfMelbourne-BikeMap2003.pdf edits made to highlight only the drinking fountains, and add more by Haley

Key Drinking fountains found also located by Melb. city council

Key

Map of Drinking Fountains in Melbourne

Map of drinking fountains in Melbourne:


Map of Drinking Fountains in Melbourne Key Key Drinking fountains found also located by Melb. city council Drinking fountains that I have also located Drinking fountains located by Melbourne council

Map of drinking fountains in Melbourne: For some reason the drinking fountains near the shrine of remembrance and outside the royal botanic garden wasn’t marked on so I added them. I also confirmed which fountains I have easily spotted out too so I know where I have been looking. Hopefully people can find a drinking fountain when they need one now.

Original map from: http://www.bv.com.au/file/CityOfMelbourne-BikeMap2003.pdf edits made to highlight only the drinking fountains, and add more by Haley

Areas of Interest in Melbourne CBD 1. Holmes College 2. William Angliss Insitute of Tafe 3.Victoria University of Technology city campus 4. RMIT buiness 5. College of travel and Hospitality 6. ScottsCollege 7. College of advanced Education 8. Chinese Australian Hisorical Museum 9. Princess Thetre 10. Bourke Street Mall 11. Chinatown 12. City Experience Centre 13. Central Post Office 14. Melbourne Town Hall 15. City Square

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Problems with current drinking fountains: It seems like the council just gave up on fixing the faucets/ bubblers on this drinking fountain choosing to permanently seal them off. Unfortunately tagging still ocurrs in Melbourne and there are a few examples on public street furniture including drinking fountains. This means the surface material needs to deal with the harsh chemical or high pressures involved in its removal.


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Problems with current drinking fountains: Litter is a problem as you can see some one has seized the opportunity to stick some through the metal squares, this should also be considered with the design of the sink as not unintentionally collect rubbish. Old chewing gum is really unhygienic and unpleasant to look at there is also an old apple sticker. No much is done around the city for the cleaning of fountains.


Problems with current drinking fountains: Push Buttons on these bubbler/faucets is now old and well used the brass which the bubbler it’s manufactured from can now be seen through the chrome surface. This make them feel old and used where most people prefer the idea of it being new and clean and not used by thousands of different people.


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Problems with current drinking fountains: Harbouring the elements, the materials used along with the design promotes nature into creating their homes you can see the spiders web and the surface dirt making it feel extremely dirty and unhygienic. A screw is also missing showing that this type of fastening may not be the best choice.


Problems with current drinking fountains: Vandalism has damaged many drinking fountains. The perforated stainless steel cover on top of the bowl as been pried off opening it up so you can see inside. This is unsafe for users and children could get their hand stuck inside. The metal has been dented and tagged.


Problems with current drinking fountains: People always seen to notice the varying water pressure, it’s not really a problem unless it’s one extreme or the other if it’s to lower height you can’t drink from it at all, to much and it becomes a battle to navigate. The bubbler guard, designed to stop contact with people mouths and things being shoved down the hole also stops you from filling up bottles if the pressure is to low.

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Problems with current drinking fountains: Location with other street furniture these are a few examples where they are hidden from view or next to undesirable objects like smelly recycling and rubbish bins. I am not sure if its easy enough when planning to install to move them a few meters away as it makes a huge difference as to how you feel when taking a drink.


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Problems with current drinking fountains: Water has destroyed the base of these drinking fountains it could have been caused by an eternal leak or external water. It has soaked into the wood and caused the metal to rust. A better material choice and regular maintenance from the council will help prolong the life of the fountains.


Problems with current drinking fountains: Not so ‘stainless’ stainless steel, I am sure that this could easily be cleaned off the surface but it looks horrible and for only being installed for about 3 years it looks like it hasn’t been cleaned once not a nice thought when going for a drink. The drain where the water is channelled into holes has filled up with dirt, chewing gum and hair preventing water from draining away quickly and covers the surrounding path.


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Problems with current drinking fountains: Not part of Melbourne’s collection but a great photo to show the failure of a drinking fountain, it no longer has a faucet for people to drink from and had graffiti, stickers and the bowl is used as a rubbish bin. Large flat surfaces encourage misuse, as people leave rubbish on top having an open bowl mean opportunistic people leave cigarette butts inside along with other small items of waste.


Questioning Technique This list was started in class with the help of 3 other students, I have also added more points when I have thought of them, in answering 4 simple questions I am able to see all the possibilities of where the design has come from and where it can also head. Any products that have related functions are also included. What is it? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

A public service and product provide by the city Its paid for in taxes and rates, owned and shared by people of Melbourne Clean, reliable, free, safe drinking water Cleaning the body, healthy, body needs it to survive, need at least 8 glasses of water a day to be healthy and prevent dehydration, A public facility/product shared by every one It’s a permanent fixture connected to the mains, unmovable Costly no point to have one in your own home Costly to keep replacing and meant to last years Its exposed to all types of weather and to vandalism Its mistreated and used broken Frustrating when its not working Most effective when there are multiple/no need to walk to far. Corporate, then can afford to buy them for courtyards. An interaction Water feature Sculpture Convenient Part of streets and gardens the environment Not enough in the city to rely on to use, too many are not working Water is at room temperature A glorified tap Refreshing in the hot sun Annoying in the rain Slippery around base as water doesn’t always go down the drain Nurtures good healthy practices Appreciated by the community who use them A water vessel Non exclusive don’t have to be from Melbourne to use it Musical and rhythmic relaxing sound of water

• • • •

Awakening and energising Cleaning/washing hands A source of branding and promotion for the council Cool and refreshing

Why is it the way it is? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Cost Materials Hygiene issues Easy to use intuition to use street product which is defined by its environment can’t be too big or small size/height of humans semiotics recognise signs Permanent it stays in the one spot Needs to withstand the harsh environment, lots of sunlight, no sunlight, constant water Withstand vandals High water use Recognisable Iconic Curvy Form Clear transparent water to drink Heat restrictions can’t become hot in the sun outside Material restrictions Undervalued It’s a glorified tap to drink from To prevent people sticking sticks inside and been blocked To prevent peoples mouths touching where the water comes out People don’t trust other people from keeping it clean/misusing it People don’t like to think animals (dogs) wee on something they are drinking from Needs to be on the ground Advertising and promotion of the council


What else can it be?

What should it be?

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Toilet Soft drink instead of water Fire hydrant Mobile and transportable to where its needed Personalised Every one can have their own around the city We share every ones Each street can have one Integrated into buildings Integrated into walls Customisable Different colours so you know how far away you are from the city, so you know where north, south, east and west are a shop where you can select your beverage of choice Sprinkler A statuses quo produce something other than just fluids eg: toothpaste Bird bath Animal Bath shower/washing facility rise out from the ground used by dogs and other animals private not public suspended in the air Drink water as it falls Easy access Waste water used to water surrounding plants, gardens Generates its own water Not bulky (big and cumbersome) Provide somewhere to sit and drink Provide somewhere to put belongings while using it A meeting point Fills up cups and glasses Makes people want to move away from plastic bottles Provides choice of warm/cold water

Easily accessible Recognisable aesthetically pleasing Looks clean and hygienic fulfils the need to drink A statuses quo cool people want to use them promotes equality social statement Hands free no touch system on the street multi functional – showering, cleaning culturally friendly mechanics should be simple less repairs needed Always working or can tell by looking when its not overall simple not complicated to use easy to repair a service to clean them so people feel they are being looked after self cleaning own source of water generation not connected to the mains A meeting point A conversation point Part of Melbourne’s identity An interesting form Hygienic and clean A free source of water provided by the council. A system/ business for the council to use Located in a variety of areas all over Melbourne People can find them using their phones – all are mapped out and you know the closest ones to your location. Sculptural with an interesting form

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Talking to local shires and councils:

After talking with Brad Martin about drinking fountains within the Shire of Yarra Ranges here is what I found out. Contractors are used for carrying out maintenance of drinking fountains. The locations are wide spread from sporting grounds, play grounds, parks and other recreational areas. Wide spread through out the shire not just in the more urban areas closer towards the city. Vandalism of drinking fountains information is categorized with general vandalism, the most common is graffiti, and this occurs in drinking fountains too. It’s a daily event being more frequent in summer with the longer nights. It an infrequent event where some times there are lots and some times little so there is no predictability. It’s cleaned up weekly as soon as it’s reported or spotted by the shire. Generally when toilets, playgrounds and other public products and faculties are being vandalized it’s a serious event causing significant damaged and nothing is repair only replaced. It costs the shire $200,000 – $300,000 a year to clean and replace after vandalism and much of this is done with volunteer groups so the shires money isn’t wasted on clean up, there is also money from the government for assistance. Damage is wide spread though there is more within the urban areas, and closer toward the railways. It is less frequent further out. Conclusions are the damaged to the fountain is to such an extent where the whole thing needs to be replaced. It’s more frequent within the urban environment.


Talking to local shires and councils:

Melbourne City Council with one of the council engineers. (I forgot to get a name) The statistical data is not available as contractors carry out all maintenance work form part replacement, to plumbing. An annual fee is given and they just hope that the contractors are doing their job correctly. As some of the drinking fountains are over 40 years old they require more service and maintenance than the newer ones. They started installing the newest stainless steel design 3 years ago along Bourke street Mall, the design was by an in house team of industrial designers with Ian Dridained (Not sure about that spelling) since then a newer design has been manufactured as they where complaints about people in wheelchairs as the design is to tall for them, and they need to go under it to use it. These newer wheel chair friendly designs can be seen near City Square as these are the most recently installed and to suit all user requirements. Hardly any designs are outside of the Melbourne cities councils design team, so unlike other councils where less money is available they don’t order in designs from other catalogues. Only a few bollards have been from other designers. This helps to maintain a uniform image of designs and materials, with similar styles. Maintenance usually requires plumbing repairs and fixing hydraulic parts in the plumbing. Along with replacement of plumbing parts these are the main parts needing repair. There is little vandalism within the city so extensive damage is rare, there is also a little graffiti that may need to be removed. The council is moving towards stainless steel even though it is more expensive to use its easy to clean, can just wipe off graffiti and is as good as new, no problems with corrosion. The instillation of the drinking fountains is the same as the other designs, with most of the work belonging to the plumbers. They are also hard to remove, and little parts need replacing.

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Street Furniture Plan 2005 – 2010 Melbourne City Council November 2005

Service standards need to be designed for the following street furniture parameters: accessibility, safety, comfort, aesthetics, durability and heritage.

Drinking fountains are also considered high maintenance items. According to maintenance records, two to three fountains a week are being repaired. These repairs are mostly to the spindles that turn on the taps.

An intention of the Disability Discrimination Act is that people with disabilities should be able to enter and use any public building, facility or service in an equal manner.Australian Standards AS1428.2 sets out guidelines delineating disabled access in buildings and public spaces. This includes specific reference to seats, tables, drinking fountains, planter boxes and rubbish bins.

The City of Melbourne must also resolve its choice of materials for the next generation of street furniture. Powder coated items have not proved to be a durable option. Stainless steel is more expensive than painted steel, but would significantly reduce ongoing maintenance costs and with an asset life of up to 30 years, extend the furniture’s lifespan. The material is also fully recyclable. Stainless steel is also less prone to corrosion which is especially important in areas exposed to salt. Items to be replaced with stainless steel in the Central City include the 80L bin surrounds, 80L recycled bin surrounds, seats with back, bench seats and drinking fountains. A cost comparison has been undertaken between stainless steel and powder coated finishes that takes account of procurement price and on-going maintenance. In stainless steel these items cost 40% more than in powder coated steel. However maintenance costs for stainless steel are less than powder coated steel, with a whole of life cost for stainless steel over a 20 year period being up to 50% less than powder coated steel. These savings apply to seats/benches, bollards and drinking fountains.” “Street furniture items in non-Central City locations such as Carlton and North Melbourne wear less and therefore require minimal maintenance. Given the reduced wear and tear, items in non-Central City locations should continue to be manufactured from powder coated steel for the foreseeable future. This would also allow powder-coated street furniture removed from the Central City to be refurbished and used as replacement stock in non-Central City areas. An efficient database is a starting point for effective management of assets. The City’s Street Furniture and Sign Database contain information about asset location, type and condition. The condition assessment includes a rating of the state of the asset from 1 (excellent) to 5 (poor).The City of Melbourne’s service provider, on behalf of Council, has the task of updating the street furniture database as they install and/or remove items from the streets. The database currently carries a record of about 90% of all street furniture items although some of the past records are incomplete.

People with some disabilities may not be able to use them. The height of the drinking fountain makes it difficult for people in wheelchairs and the mechanism precludes people from operating the fountain who are not able to use their arms. New designs should be audited by an access consultant as part of the design and approvals process before implementing a program of replacing existing furniture. It is also helpful for furniture such as drinking fountains to be placed in a consistent manner because people develop an expectation about where to find them. A powder coated Brunswick Green has been the nominal standard colour for the City’s street furniture since 1985. The appearance of natural metal finishes such as brushed stainless steel are also sufficiently subtle. Wood feels warmer in cold weather and cooler in summer in comparison to metals. However, timber dries more slowly after rain, is harder to maintain and easier to vandalise – eg. by burning as well as through breakage and carved graffiti. The end user a broad sense, any person using or wanting to use the street furniture is an end user. Understanding the needs of the end user relies upon knowledge of the needs of the stakeholders seeking use of the footpath.


Standards for pipes and plumbing:

Standards for pipes and plumbing: this information was accessed to see what are the requirements are involved for drinking fountains, regulations on parts and components was accessed online on May 6 2009. Currently there is only one Standard online directly related to drinking fountains in the disability act. ATS 5200.473—2007 Technical Specification for plumbing and drainage products Aus8.2.2 Freedom from defects Fittings shall be clean, smooth and free from burrs, fins, irregularities and sharp edges that could affect the performance or function of the fitting in service and the safe handling of the fitting during installation and use. There shall be no imperfections that will score the pipe or cause damage to other fittings. The bore of the fittings shall be free from irregularities that may restrict the free flow of fluids. Connection ends shall be parallel within ¹2° of the appropriate axis of the fitting. Fittings, including components of metallic materials, shall be sound and free from folds, laps blisters, blowholes or other imperfections that would affect the performance or function of the fitting in service. Pitting shall not be present on sealing faces or thread faces. AS/NZS 3500.1:2003 (Incorporating Amendment No. 1) Plumbing and drainage Part 1: Water services1.1 SCOPE This Standard specifies the requirements for the design, installation and commissioning of cold water services from a point of connection to the points of discharge, and non-drinking water from a point of connection to the points of discharge. It applies to new installations as well as alterations, additions and repairs to existing installations.Materials and products in contact with drinking water, rainwater, recycled water, or any combination of these water supplies, shall comply with AS/NZS 4020.

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Design for access and mobility Part 2: Enhanced and additional requirements—Buildings and facilities: AS 1428.2 This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee ME/64, Access For People With disabilities. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 26 November 1991 and published 10 February 1992. Page 43 27.3 Drinking fountains and water coolers 27.3.1 General At each location where drinking fountains or water coolers are provided, at least one of these shall be in accordance with Figure 33. 27.3.2 Water outlet. The water outlet shall be as close as possible to the front of the unit. It shall direct the water flow to a height of 80 mm to 100 mm in a trajectory that is parallel or nearly parallel to the front of the unit (see Figure 33). 27.3.3 Controls Controls shall either be centrally positioned at the front of the unit or if positioned at the side, be on both sides and not more than 180 mm from the front of the unit. Controls operable by one hand shall require an operating force of not more than 19.5 N. NOTE: A foot-operated control is acceptable if installed in addition to, but not instead of, hand-operated controls. 27.3.4 Recessed drinking fountains. Where a drinking fountain is recessed, in addition to complying with the clearance requirements in Figure 33, a clear width of space underneath the unit not less than 800 mm shall be provided. 27.3.5 Cup dispensers. The height of the operative components of cup dispensers shall be not more than 1100 mm above the trafficable surface. AS/NZS 3718:2005 (Incorporating Amendment Nos 1 and 2) Water supply—Tap ware 1 June 2005. This standard specifies requirements for metallic taps, plastic taps, mixing taps, sensor taps, lever taps, timed flow taps, mixing taps mechanical (non-thermostatic), and tapsets in a range of nominal sizes from dn 6 to dn 50, generally for continuous operating temperatures not exceeding 80°c. 3.12.2 Flexible hose connectors flexible hose connectors shall comply with AS/NZS 3499.


ADA Guidelines for Drinking Fountains in America Guidelines for America: These are the drinking fountain requirements for ADAAG Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities. Figure 27a Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers – Spout Height and Knee Clearance In addition to clearances discussed in the text, the following knee clearance is required underneath the fountain: 27 inches (685 mm) minimum from the floor to the underside of the fountain which extends 8 inches (205 mm) minimum measured from the front edge underneath the fountain back towards the wall; if a minimum 9 inches (230 mm) of toe clearance is provided, a maximum of 6 inches (150 mm) of the 48 inches (1220 mm) of clear floor space required at the fixture may extend into the toe space. (4.15.2, 4.15.5) Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers – Free-Standing Fountain or Cooler 4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers. 4.15.2* Spout Height. Spouts shall be no higher than 36 in (915 mm), measured from the floor or ground surfaces to the spout outlet. 4.15.3 Spout Location. The spouts of drinking fountains and water coolers shall be at the front of the unit and shall direct the water flow in a trajectory that is parallel or nearly parallel to the front of the unit. The spout shall provide a flow of water at least 4 in (100 mm) high so as to allow the insertion of a cup or glass under the flow of water. On an accessible drinking fountain with a round or oval bowl, the spout must be positioned so the flow of water is within 3 in (75 mm) of the front edge of the fountain. 4.15.4 Controls. Controls shall comply with 4.27.4. Unit controls shall be front mounted or side mounted near the front edge. (1) Wall- and post-mounted cantilevered units shall have a clear knee space between the bottom of the apron and the floor or ground at least 27 in (685 mm) high, 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 17 in to 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm) deep (see Fig. 27(a) and (b)). Such units shall also have a minimum clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) to allow a person in a wheelchair to approach the unit facing forward. (2) Free-standing or built-in units not having a clear space under them shall have a clear floor space at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) that allows a person in a wheelchair to make a parallel approach to the unit (see Fig. 27(c) and (d)). This clear floor space shall comply with 4.2.4.

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Patents for Drinking Fountains: Looking into designs of other drinking fountains I thought I would see what patents are out there and if there was anything really interesting. Most are just attachments like sensors, easy maintenance push buttons or changing the flow of water. So there is room many more designs. The sensor does not activate until a user steps up to the unit and is within a preset range or distance from the unit. Use is made of an infrared sensor for controlling the operation of the unit. Circuitry is provided to control the time of commencement of the operation of the unit, the time period duration of operation‌�United States Patent number 4872485 United States Patent number 2747930Others are simply attachments for taps which make the water turn into an upwards motion. United States Patent 612929.1 A device for displaying advertising in association with a drinking fountain or water fountain is disclosed. A first embodiment of the invention comprises forming a clear plastic panel or laminate to conform to the splash guard and basin portions of a drinking fountain. U.S. Classification 251321000 Push buttons on top of taps. Most are just the designs and how they look rather than any really interesting ideas on the operation side. A pushbutton valve assembly for regulating water flow from a water supply to a point of use such as a bubbler head of a drinking fountain. The valve assembly includes a valve body adapted for mounting onto a suitable housing panel or the like, and includes an internal valve cartridge for on-off control of water flow. A pushbutton is rotatable carried by an escutcheon ring mounted rotatable onto an exposed outboard end of the valve body, and this pushbutton is axially movable between depressed and non-depressed positions for on-off operation of the valve cartridge.


What does Soumitri get out of teaching us? March 30, 2009 As we where all given this task last week I thought maybe I would try to answer it, though this would mostly be the reasons if I was a lecture dedicating late nights to marking, and the frustrations in getting every one motivated and working. I think the answer becomes clear if we firstly ask why teach? Soumtiri has made it clear to us that there will be a professional relationship, (I won’t be your friend and go out for drinks) and that he expects us all to work and complete all tasks he has listed. This means he will distance himself slightly, in a way he can observe us clearer and more objectively. Where there is a leadership type role the leader can gain credit for the guidance given and the results and outcomes achieved though I don’t think this is the reason why Soumitri teaches us. I think that the only outcome Soumitri seeks from us is not only to become better designers and hard workers is that we can see ourselves as designers, our weaknesses and limitations and strengths and ambitions and get to know and understand who we are and how we work. Secretly I think Soumitri is in for it when we all have our Eureka moments, when we know and can achieve something when all our efforts have gone into something, and he knew secretly all along we could get there but its not is job to tell us how. That moment when you know you are invincible and every second of the course you have poured and devoted your time to has all been worth it. 128/129

Why would some one want to lead and guide others, it’s personally for filling to watch someone grow and learn and become enthusiastic about this process. Growing and learning means many failures, wrong turns and mistakes getting to the point you want to give up, walk away angry and return willing not to be beaten by a task. It’s a rewarding process when steering someone else along this path as you to grow as a person, you come out changed along with them. It is not the same growth you don’t come out with the same knowledge but something different. It can sometimes be as challenging to be a leader. The worst kind of leader is someone who tells you the way it should be and how it is done. They over crowed you to the point where you have no movement and every deviance from the path set is a mistake, waste of time and not worthwhile. It leaves you feeling trapped, that you are not practicing as yourself.

These are all lovely forms for sinks for capturing the movement, and flow of water.


What is a drinking fountain? There are a few basic parts that are needed for the plumbing and operation of a drinking fountain. I have outlined any parts which you may come across and a few alternatives as they can perform similar functions at varying costs. At the top is the bubbler head/faucet or tap where the water comes out to drink from closely followed by a tap handle/button or leaver which turns the water on or off so there isn’t a continual flow, all taps are valves though some are more complicated than others to control the flow of water coming out. A basic tap uses a Gate valves which has a metal disc the same diameter as the pipe perpendicularly to the flow, cutting it off. When it’s open there is no resistance and the water is free to flow at full pressure. Gate valves open by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar. The gate faces can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Plug valves are valves with cylindrical plugs which can be rotated inside the valve body to control flow they are very economical as they involve few parts and mechanics. There are only two options on or off. As the valve is rotated it opens having only one passageway through. They are a quarter turn valve, often a mechanism limits the motion of the handle. Cone valves or ball valves are more expensive shut-off valves. They can only move 90 degrees. When the handle is in line with the pipe it is on, and when the handle is across the pipe it is closed. A hole through the cone or ball allows the fluid to pass if it is lined up with the openings in the socket through which the fluid enters and leaves.

Ball valve

Piping can be basic standard pipes or in some cases flexible stainless steel hose this is how water travels around in a water system. These are joined using threaded male/female parts or welded together. The pipe is connected to the mains water supply of fresh and clean water. The rest of the plumbing and pipe tap wear can be a variety of components/fittings depending on what the function is, as thee can be more than one water outlet. Pipes are made out of Brass for higher durability and a longer life span, or copper a cheaper alternative.


Fittings are used to connect straight pipe sections together, or smaller sizes and shapes together. A smaller pipe diameter has a different effect to water flow than a larger one. The pipes sizing is an easy way to change the pressure/flow of the water. Tee: A tee is used to either combine or split a fluid flow. Most common tees use the same inlet and outlet sizes, but ‘reducing’ tees are available as well. Cap: A type of pipe fitting which covers the end of a pipe. With plumbing systems that use threads the cap has female threads. Plug: A plug closes off the end of a pipe. It is similar to a cap but it fits inside the fitting it is mated to using male threads. Nipple: Short stub of pipe, usually threaded iron, brass or copper. A nipple is defined as being a short stub of pipe which has two male ends. Used commonly for plumbing and hoses, and as valves for funnels and pipes. Clean-outs: Clean-outs allow access to drains without removing plumbing fixtures. They are used with a ‘plumber’s snake’ to clean out a plugged drain. Types of Connections include: Threaded pipe which screw on and off for assembly/ disassembly. Coupling connects two pipes to each other, if they are not the same size they can be called a reducer, this how different sized pipes are joined together it’s welded or threaded together. A union is similar to coupling, though it’s designed for quick and convenient disconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement, using a simple nut transition it allows for easy release at any time. Additional parts for a drinking fountain include: A waste water pipe connected to storm water normally PVC pipe is sufficient this is used with a bowl/sink to collect waste water. Water filters to extract the chlorine used to treat contaminates in the water, in overseas countries they are also used to remove chemicals and other water borne bacteria. A water timer like any garden hose sets a time for how long the water will flow for continually before its shuts itself off. Coolers which are connected to a power supply they are only used for indoor fountains which chills the water.

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Semiotics in product design: by Sara Ilstedt Hjelm A litttle introduction to semiotics, the study of signs and symbols of all kinds, what they mean, and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to. To apply semiotics on product design has provided me with a set of invaluable tools for analysing issues like identity, metaphors and visibility in artefacts.One approach in product semiotics deals mainly with the correct way to design artefacts so that they are easy to use and to understand. This is both a result of modernist design theory (a product should communicate the correct way to handle it and its function) and a reaction against ’black box design’ of high modernism in the sixties and seventies. Contemporary Semiotics have moved away from the classification of sign systems to study how meanings are made and are not only being concerned with communication but also with the construction and maintenance of reality. The sign: Semiotics therefore studies not only ”signs” in everyday speech such as traffic signs, symbols or pictures but everything, which ”stands for” something else. This also includes our material culture such as buildings, furniture and products. Denotation refers to the literal, actual meaning of a sign – what the product is, i.e. a chair, a telephone, a book etc. Connotation is how you do it, the choice of words or media. Myths can be seen as extended metaphors. Their function is to make dominant historical and cultural values; attitudes and beliefs seem entirely “natural”, “normal”, obvious and commonsense – and thus objective and true reflections of “the way things are”. No sooner is a form seen than it must resemble something: humanity seems domed to analogy. A study showed that English speakers produced an average of 3 000 novel metaphors per week. In semiotic term, a metaphor is something that explains the unknown in wellknown terms.How may we recognise something new? The answer is that we cannot. The actual material in itself has references and gives the content a different meaning. That is why exactly the same mug in plastic means a different thing than one in ceramics. Function follows form: A chair in a smoking room looks very different from a chair in the ladies’ lounge not because men and women sat differently the chairs’ primary function was to state the differences between masculinity and femininity.


Backcasting as a method:

Backcasting as a method.

This is a great method for envisioning a new future away from the traditonal systems set up in plance. Here are a few extracts from varying articles to desribe the method.

Develop long term vision 1. Strategic problem orientation and definition 2. Develop future vision Develop short term actions Implementation 3. Backcasting 4. Explore solution options 5. Select among options: set up action plan 6. Set up cooperation agreement-define roles 7. Implement research agenda

Backcasting is particularly useful if it concerns highly complex problems, if there is a need for a major change, if dominant problems are part of the problem, and if the scope and time-horizon are wide enough to leave room for very different choices and directions of development. Backcasting can be defined as first creating a desirable (sustainable) future vision or normative scenario, followed by looking back at how this desirable future could be achieved, before defining and planning follow-up activities and developing strategies leading towards that desirable future. While quite some results of participatory backcasting have been reported so far, little has been done on comparing different backcasting studies and evaluating lasting impacts, and how it relates to other recently emerging approaches like transition management and strategic niche management. The origin of backcasting is in the 1970s, when Lovins proposed backcasting as an alternative planning technique for electricity supply and demand. Assuming that future energy demand is mainly a function of current policy decisions, Lovins suggested that it would be beneficial to describe a desirable future (or a range of futures) and to assess how such a future could be achieved instead of focusing only on likely futures. The assumption was that after having identified the strategic objective in a particular future, it would be possible to work backwards to determine what policy measures should be implemented to guide the energy industry in its transformation towards that future. Sustainable Households (SusHouse) project has been the next big implementation of backcasting. It ran from 1998 to 2000 creating methodological framework for participatory backcasting The five steps: 1. Strategic problem orientation; 2. Construction of sustainable future visions or scenarios; 3. Backcasting; 4. Elaboration, analysis and defining follow-up and (action) agenda; 5. Embedding of results and generating follow-up and implementation.

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Backcasting, drinking fountains: Drinking fountain economics: Needing more convenient drinking water the city of Melbourne was the first to claim that its people had access to a public drinking fountain on every street. Melbourne has is one of only 5 cities in the world that have such clean drinking water due to the water catchment areas being protected. After people grew sick of using plastic bottles claiming they where to expensive, the bottles are a single use item designed to be throw away after one use, before the bottles chemicals breakdown and are ingested. Needing to drink at least 2 liters of water a day if half came from bottled water this would cost $1456 at a reasonable price of $2 a bottle. The alterative to bottled water soon hit the streets with a newly design drinking fountain that made it easy to drink from, and fill up bottles. Before drinking fountains where scatted around the city outside the main shopping complexes in Bourke street, or in places that where had to find and you end up walking past them unnoticeably. They only place that seem sufficient where the parks, though with most of them not working it was disheartening. The 14 different models are sold to councils and cities all across the world with the first instalment given free to councils on the condition they are placed within the same proximities to each other so people can from a central hub of fountains. The colours are changeable to fit in with councils colour themes and there is room within the design for local council’s logos. After these drinking hubs begin to form in communities less bottled water was being consumed. In poorer communities people would monitor their public infrastructure to ensure it wasn’t damaged, the councils had to money to repair them when they are damaged we can’t go without water so we look after them and fix them ourselves. How is it that councils receive free drinking fountains, once they are manufactured in China they are shipped to their new cities worldwide, on the condition they are installed in public places that can be utilised by their people. They are placed within easy walking distance to offer more connivance. Replacement parts can easily be ordered and installed.

One Melbournian remembered times in her youth of using these drinking fountains, at school there where a number of places to drink from we never bothered lugging around heavy water bottles all day as when we needed a drink we simply walked up to them. No one has gotten sick from these drinking fountains, they are cleaned and maintained by the council regularly you often see the maintenance workers about doing their jobs. A real ownership has started to occur. Some people in lower social economic environments rely on these fountains to drink form as they can’t afford bottled water taps inside toilets are often not safe to drink from so they have little choice. The initial success came from more people utilising their public infrastructure this encouraged local councils to buy more of these fountains. The design is easy to find, can be sue by children, adults and those with disabilities and in wheelchairs. In buying them they are also contributing to other councils as with every order purchased free drinking fountains go on to other councils all around the world. These fountains are really common goods that belong to everyone, when I go travelling overseas I can easily find them as they look similar and they have treated water inside so you don’t get sick. In many countries tap water is unsafe these areas have many people line up to use them. In China where they drink more hot water than cold, there are special heated drinking fountains for filling up bottles. Business took a few years to develop as we couldn’t just give them all away and it took awhile for councils to add to their collection, we started off in Australia and it soon spread to other countries. Now there is high demand for our products with many people worldwide employed to manufacture, maintain and care for them. It is exciting to walk around a city and see every one using them, and it has helped to reduce the waste created by bottled water, and people are now using their local water again.


Observations and reflections on Drinking fountain photos: People and their interaction: As an adult you tend to bend over a long way to reach the water and drink from the drinking fountain, this offers a problem as when you bend over people with long hair that isn’t tied back find it to be in their face and way as they try to drink. To solve this problem with one hand the hair is kept back out of the face. People wearing a tie/scarf or other loose clothing around the neck find that they also have to hold these back with one hand in order not to get them wet. People also feel very in elegant when bending over and their bottom is exposed. Holding bags or anything in the hands is also problematic as people don’t like to put them on the ground or in the dirt, and if they did there is a chance they would also become wet as water runs off/around the drinking fountain. People who have multiple bags like backpacks, laptops, shoulder bags and camera bags find the problem that they have to carry them all in one hand in a big balancing act, opt to put them on the ground, surrounding areas/objects or in one case on top of the drinking fountain towards the side. This all makes the use inconvenient and unattractive for users. People don’t enjoy themselves or their belongings getting wet, or their belongings being far way from the person as they feel that it is in the way of others or would get stolen. When having a heavy backpack while using the drinking fountain it is hard to get down and up us the weight of the person has changed, and if the backpack moves can make people lose their balance. All drinking fountains are designed so your mouth doesn’t come in contact with the tap/bubbler for hygiene reasons. Though as a child if you really wanted to its still really easy, I remember I did this as a small child if the water wasn’t high enough to drink from as I had no idea about germs. Most people only drink for short periods of time, some people stop wipe their mouths then continue drinking. Every one wipes their mouth with their hand/wrist, some people use back of hand and others front. I only counted 6 people drinking from them and one large group of joggers in one of the parks. At this stage I had only found 17 drinking fountains and 6 where not working. Still wish I had my last report and numbers though.

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Can new-look fountains beat the plastic bottle? The Age Newspaper Annabel Stafford August 23, 2008 They were once the yuppy accessory of choice, but the days of the plastic water bottle may be numbered. If a national campaign initiated by a group of Sydneysiders is a success, the humble drinking fountain will take its place. Fountains offering free filtered water have been installed along Manly beach as part of a bid by the local council to slash bottle use and associated litter. As part of the pitch, filtered water company Culligan Australia — which provided free filters for the six Manly bubblers — will offer councils free filter equipment and half-price replacement filters into the future. Companies that provide filtered water in shopfronts or other public areas will also be offered the deal, Culligan general manager Tim Gordon said. The Bottled Water Alliance, which also includes Culligan, is expecting a good response. Since reports on the new Manly bubblers appeared in Sydney earlier this month, Culligan has been approached by another Sydney council, and two banks have expressed interest in offering filtered water to customers. Mr Dee has form — he was the head of Planet Ark when it spearheaded the campaign against plastic bags. He concedes water fountains have an image problem — they often don’t work or are thought to be germ-infested — but he says this is why the Alliance is urging councils to upgrade their fountains, even if they don’t embrace filters. “The aim is to reduce bottled water use by 20% over two years, or the equivalent of $100 million in market value,” Mr Dee said. Municipal Association of Victoria president Dick Gross — who also chairs the National Packaging Covenant Council, which aims to reduce packaging waste — described the Manly initiative as “a very innovative and exciting idea” and said he hoped Victoria councils would follow. He said funding could be sought from private sources.


Case study of Manly: Manly is one of the Northern Suburbs in Sydney, its 17 kilometres away from the CBD. Its mostly know for its beautiful beaches as a tourist destination. In October 2007 Manly Council’s motion at the Local Government Association Annual Conference they start a campaign to address the increasing consumption of bottled water. On the 10 December 2007 – Manly Council resolved to cease to purchase single serve bottles of water within its organization for environmental reasons, they decided they would implement a program to install additional bubblers for public use to encourage the drinking of tap water. 21 April 2008 – Manly Council resolved to work with Bottled Water Alliance on the viability of a project to encourage use of tap water on The Corso and discourage the use of plastic bottled water. 4 August 2008 – Manly Council resolved to partner with Culligan to install water filters in bubblers on The Corso, a major Manly tourist destination On 10th of August 2008 6 new designer bubblers/drinking fountains were opened for operation after the partnership of Street Furniture Australia who designed the bubbler with Tim Gordon from Culligan Water and Jon Dee from Planet Ark, who headed the Bottled Water Alliance. This was in response to the environmental problems of bottled water being washed up on the beach, as the waste of bottled water is increasing, along with the high amount of green house gases from manufacture. On the 9 February 2009 Manly Council resolved to install more filtered water stations due to their success. A public tender was put forward for the water fountains, the water filters and the filter replacements and the signage. The signage would promote the fountain’s free filtered water, house the fountain’s water filter equipment and would have taps on it that the public could use to refill bottles. It would also provide environmental education on the link between bottled water and climate change. Manly Council chose Street Furniture Australia for the water fountain and Culligan Water for the water filters and signs. The success of its implementation has seen the 6 water fountains saving the purchase of 150,000 litres of bottled water removing the need for quarter of a million plastic bottles, garbage in the area has decreases about 30% (about 50% of this is plastic bottles) Manly now wants to install 14 more drinking fountains in high use areas. It has been seen during summer people are lining up to refill bottles and that usage is across all demographics.

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The four key areas include a designer drinking fountain, more vandal resistant, wheel chair friendly and hygienic than old designs. Prominent signage making it easy to spot, these signs include the taps and the water filters where people can refill bottles, these filters remover the chorine this is part of the success of the fountains along with the new design overcoming the issues associated with the old bubblers. So why would Manly choose to invest in a campaign like this and what is in it for them? The cost of this project is ongoing so the council has to be dedicated, as after the initial cost of purchasing the drinking fountain and its instillation they have to continually provide new filter as they have a limited life span. Manly has received a lot of recognition both nationally and worldwide. They also have agreed to get half price replacement water filters into the future provided by Culligan Water. Being part of a successful environmental campaign where the council can be leaders and not followers is a good moral booster and they are being proactive and providing a good community service. The money for the councils is after all provided by the community so they need to invest in worthwhile projects for them. A little about Manly filters and filter equipment are provide free provided by Culligan Water, each filter provides 10,000 litres of filtered drinking water. The replacement filters cost about $60 per bubbler per quarter, or $240 annually per bubbler. This is half the price due to Culligan’s involvement with the bottled water campaign. They will provide this to any council or community in Australia in return all they require is a small logo on the water fountain signage. Cleaning requirements are minimal and simple, the replacement process is simple you simply screw out the filter panel, drop the new filter in, and screw it in. These filters do not remove fluoride. At the end of a filters life of 10,000 litres the flow rate decreases dramatically indicating that filter replacement is needed. So what’s behind the huge success? It mainly due to the approach towards hygiene, in Manly Corso fountains are disinfected twice a day by Council cleansing staff during their normal rounds, they use an environmentally responsible spray disinfectant on the bubbler nozzle, which leaves no aftertaste. The filters are hidden away so they are not exposed to the outside elements. The fountains design means no sticks, twigs and cigarette butts are collected in the sink which is where the bubbler head is located, making the fountain unhygienic and dirty in other designs. The Manly council remains dedicated to continually promoting that they are hygienic to ensure people continue to use them and have confidence in them. Not only do they spend time cleaning them daily to make sure the surface is visually

clean, and wipe the fountain to ensure germs can not multiply, with the out break of swine flu and the procedures in place, they chose to close down the fountains from public use. “Manly’s filtered water bubblers have been turned off until further notice amid concerns that if someone suffering from the virus were to put their mouth against the bubbler, another user could become infected.” Even though the changes of such an infection are remote the NSW Health advised to boost cleaning of public facilities such as bubblers. Manly council initially had increased its disinfection of the bubblers but decided to close them as the number of cases of the flu has risen. With such actions people feel that their council are listening to their concerns and acting on them even if it may be a little extreme. This changes people’s behaviour to trust they are clean and will make them feel safe when using them. Here is some information from the bottled water alliance: Australians have some of the best tap water in the world. Despite this, Australians spend half a billion dollars a year on bottled water. Bottled water damages the environment by consuming oil and other resources. In many cases, a litre of bottled water is more expensive than a litre of petrol. The Department of Environment and Climate Change estimates that 200ml of oil is used to produce, package, transport and refrigerate each litre bottle of bottled water. As a result, an estimated 50 million litres of oil is used ever year in the manufacture and distribution of bottled water in Australia. Australia recycles only 36% of PET plastic drink bottles. Australia’s use of bottled water generates more than 60,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per annum. We estimate that the Australian bottled water industry uses over a billion litres of water every year. Tap water contains added fluoride which is good for teeth. Bottled water doesn’t. Some dentists are concerned that bottled water may be causing increased cavities in young women and teenagers.


Bundy on Tap: The first town to ban bottled water in Australia is Bundanoon in NSW The tiny town, two hours south of Sydney. Bundanoon is the gateway to the 130,000 hectare Morton National Park, in NSW Southern Highlands a small town on a big mission. At a local council meeting on the 8th July 2008 they put forward a motion to ban bottled water in the entire town, even the shop residents who sell the bottled water agreed upon this. Last year Australians spent something like half a billion bucks on bottled water, and world-wide the sales figures are into the hundreds of billions. This is mostly to do with the effect bottled water has on the environment, and partly to send a message to a Sydney company (Norlex Holdings) proposing to build a water extraction plant in their town and truck the water to Sydney for bottling, where it would be distributed back to local supermarkets and cafes and other lucky towns. On September 26 2009 their decision which the voted upon back in July where 355 people voted in favour of a total ban on bottled water. Only 1 person voted against the ban, all retailers in the 2,500 population town had already agreed to stop the sale of single use bottled water. On Saturday all traces of bottled water have been removed from shelves and replaced with refillable bottles. For a small fee consumers can refill their bottles with chilled water in shops or alternatively head to the main street where with free filtered water fountains are waiting to be used. These hi-tech filtered water fountains have been donated to Bundanoon by the filter company Culligan Water and Street Furniture Australia. The sale of commercially bottled water is no longer allowed, other places in Australia and overseas have discouraged the sale of bottled water but Bundanoon is thought to be the first to move towards an outright ban. Retailers will sell the basic Bundy on Tap bottles will sell for $3.50 around the same as a commercial bottle of water while a commemorative bottle will sell for $29. The four filtered water stations on the street will operate 24 hours a day and another water station has been installed at Bundanoon Public School. Hundreds of people marched through Bundanoon to mark the first day of its bottled water ban as four drinking fountains have been installed. In the process of the campaign all residents where educated about the environmental impact of Bottled water states Jon Dee. “A local retailer came up with this idea of well why don’t we do something about that and actually stop selling the bottled water and it got a favourable reaction,� he said. The 2,000 person town had made international headlines with their campaign and hopefully more communities will now follow.

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My campaign – No Bottled Water:

I have always been interested in sustainable design as it holds the power to become more innovate, acceptable to change and feel like you are contributing something for every one. As my family has been affected by this long drought any water issues are close to my heart. Knowing the environmental cost of bottled water when there is a better and free system in place I hope to change peoples behaviour and to also decide to go bottle free.

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So why should we drink water at all? This is a question many of us may not think about as it’s such a common place thing to do, if you ask any parent it’s good for you. Here are a few articles about the health benefits. So how much water should we drink each day? Water is one of the main chemical components of our bodies, making up about 60% of our body weight. Our bodies systems rely on water to flush out toxins form our organs, carry nutrients to cells and provide a most environment for ear, nose and throat tissues. When the body doesn’t have enough water to complete these tasks you become dehydrated draining the body of energy. Making you feel tired. Everyday the body looses water through breathing, perspiration, urine and bowel movements this means it needs to be replenished daily to through drinking water, beverages and food which also contain water. The amount of water needed is also dependent on body weight but averages at 2.2 litres or 9 cups, the more you weigh the more you need to drink. Human blood is 95% water; bones are 22% water and 75% of the human brain is water. Melbourne’s Water Melbourne water tests completes 50,000 tests on water samples every year form 160 sites. It’s 100% free of E. coli bacteria. The treatment process involves disinfection using Chlorination, fluoridation and pH correction. The addition of chemicals is continuously monitored and controlled to ensure the correct amounts are added to our water. Small amounts of chlorine are added to destroy any waterborne disease-causing microorganisms. The amount of chlorine added is equivalent to less than half a teacup in an average-size backyard swimming pool. Fluoridation of drinking water helps prevent tooth decay and is supported by Australian Dental Association, the National Health and Medical Research Council and the World Health Organization. Chlorine and fluoride chemicals are slightly acidic, so lime is added to raise the pH level of the water back to neutral, limiting the possibility of corrosion to household pipes and fittings. Where does Melbourne’s Water come from? Most of our water comes from uninhabited mountain ash forests high up in the Yarra Ranges east of Melbourne, and more than 157,000 hectares has been reserved for the primary purpose of harvesting water. Melbourne is one of only about five cities in the world that has such protected catchments.

So why is bottled water so bad? What are the health impacts of bottles and what are the environmental impacts? This is a quick summery of many articles looking into bottled water there is a lot of information out there and it can get a little biased as people want to be heard, I have tried to look at it from all angles and be non-judgmental. Manufacturing: How bottled Water Works: From How Stuff Works online. So what’s the appeal? The three most common reasons given by bottled-water drinkers are healthiness, purity and taste. For a seemingly basic food product, bottled water has generated its share of controversy. Some of it focuses on the federal and state regulations governing the industry, some of it goes deeper into the ecological implications of bottling and transporting billions on billions of gallons of something that flows freely from the tap, and some of it calls into question the labeling practices of bottled-water companies. The manufacturing process for stretch blow molding for PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles. In the stretch blow molding process plastic is first molded into a preform using the injection molding process. These preforms or ‘baby soda bottles’ form the neck of the bottles including the threads for the lid. They are then fed into a reheat stretch blow molding machine heated typically with infrared heaters, and then blown using high pressure air into bottles using metal blow molds. The advantages are blow molding include low tool and die cost, low material cost, fast production rates and that the PET can be recycled and light weight. Disadvantages of blow molding include limited to hollow parts wall thickness is hard to control. Polyethylene terephthalate On Wikipedia Polyethylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. PET bottles account for 30% of the material demand. It contains the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. If fully burned, it produces only carbon dioxide and water. For specialist bottles polyvinyl alcohol is sandwiched with PET to educe its oxygen permeability. When produced as a thin film, PET can be coated with a thin film of aluminum metal to reduce is permeability, and to make it reflective and opaque.


Degradation: When PET degrades several things happen: discoloration, reduced molecular weight and formation of acetaldehyde, which is a colorless liquid with a fruity smell. It forms naturally in fruit, but it can cause an off-taste in bottled water. For bottled water, low acetaldehyde content is quite important, because if nothing masks the aroma, even extremely low concentrations (10-20 parts per billion parts of resin, by weight) of acetaldehyde can produce an off-taste. To avoid degradation a copolymer is used in the resin. Why people should avoid using bottled water: Five Reasons Not to Drink Bottled Water 1. Bottled water isn’t good value It costs considerably more than tap water and can be filtered onsite if that’s what the taste you prefer. All the money you pay for the bottles is mostly profits with a fraction for manufacture and the water itself. 2. No healthier than tap water There have been lots of talk about bottled water been cleaner and pollutant free but tap water is just the same and treated before been sent into municipal water systems. This water is regulated far more than bottled water. 3. Bottled water means garbage Bottled water produces up to 1.5 million tons of plastic waste per year that plastic requires up to 47 million gallons of oil per year to produce. And while the plastic used to bottle beverages is of high quality and in demand by recyclers, over 80 percent of plastic bottles are simply thrown away. 4. Bottled water means less attention to public systems Only the very affluent can afford to switch their water consumption to bottled sources. In California its estimated the requirement of $17.5 billion in improvements to the state’s drinking water infrastructure as recently as 2005, costing 222 million gallons of drinkable water to leaky pipes. 5. The corporatization of water In the documentary film Thirst, authors Alan Snitow and Deborah Kaufman demonstrated the rapid worldwide privatization of municipal water supplies, and the effect these purchases are having on local economies. Multinational corporations are stepping in to purchase groundwater and distribution rights wherever they can, and the bottled water industry is an important component in their drive to commoditize what many feel is a basic human right: the access to safe and affordable water.

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Plastic Mineral Water Bottles Contaminate Water with Estrogen. Researchers found evidence of estrogenic compounds leaching out of the plastic packaging into the water. What’s more, these chemicals are potent in vivo and result in an increased development of embryos in the New Zealand mud snail. These findings, which show for the first time that substances leaching out of plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens, are published in Springer’s journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Bottled Water Myths: Separating Fact from Fiction Reuse of plastic bottles is generally not recommended by commercial bottled water manufacturers, as it may pose a health risk from two perspectives. First, everyday wear and tear from repeated washings and reuse can lead to physical breakdown of the plastic, such as visible thinning or cracks. Secondly, reuse of plastic water bottles can lead to bacterial contamination unless washed regularly. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water. Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. Antimony can be released (i.e., leached) from the PET plastic used to make commercial and municipal water bottles. While the rate of leaching is low below storage temperatures of 60 degrees C, above this temperature antimony release can occur rapidly. Does sunlight change the material and content of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles? “A simple water treatment process called SODIS (solar water disinfection) consists of filling polluted water in PET bottles that are exposed to sunlight for 5–6 hours. However, sunlight does not only destroy disease-causing microorganisms found in the water but also transforms the plastic material into photoproducts.” Laboratory and field tests revealed that these photoproducts are generated at the outer surface of the bottles. As this is just a short period if time outside in the sunlight (5-6) a longer exposure could start to degrade the bottle internally.

re Think plastics intentional living for the sustainable future Suzanne Drake Plastic for food/beverages, synthetic/chemical bonds are not perfect and leaching does occur. Heat is a catalyst with caution and plastic is forever. The dose makes the poison newer findings suggest extremely low “doses” are relevant variables in the blame game total body load, low-dose effect, bioaccumulation, and the cocktail effect. Neither the FDA nor the EPA requires manufacturers to test for toxicity of ingredients one at a time new and old chemicals are regulated differently. A note on the TSCA those released prior to 1979 are considered safe (innocent until proven guilty – by the EPA) that is 99% of all chemicals. (By volume) on the market today (those chemicals listed in the TSCA Inventory after December 1979) most industrial chemicals have not undergone even basic toxicological testing. Common plastic linked to heart disease By Anna Saleh for ABC Science Online Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical commonly used in plastic food and beverage containers and in the coating of food cans, has been linked to heart disease. The study of 1,455 adults aged 18-74, found those with the highest concentrations of BPA in their urine had two to three times the odds of cardiovascular disease, compared with those with the least amounts of the compound in their systems. It also found an association between BPA and abnormal concentrations of liver enzymes. Think Outside the Bottle: the Responsible Purchasing Guide to Bottled Water Alternatives Responsible Purchasing Network 2008 It is important to note that PET bottles (#1 plastic) — the ones used for packaging most bottled water — are meant for one time use, not for reuse, so they should not be considered as a viable long-term reusable bottle option. While it is one of the safer plastics, PET is not meant for repeated use. Bottles made from this porous plastic are difficult to clean and can harbor bacteria, especially if reused multiple times. Additionally, studies suggest that with repeated use, PET containers may release di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an endocrinedisrupting compound and probable human carcinogen, as well as antimony, an eye, skin and lung irritant at high doses (Masterson, 2006). Studies also found that toxin concentrations increase the longer the water is in the bottle (Masterson, 2006). Fountains: Since water fountains already exist in many buildings, they are an easy alternative to bottled water. There are four basic types of drinking water fountains: Box-shaped floor models that stand alone or are connected to a wall Models with


a pedestal base (also known as ‘bubblers’) Wall-mounted units that do not touch the floor, allowing wheelchair access. Models built into and flush with the wall Key features to seek when purchasing drinking fountains include: Easy Installation: Choose fountains that provide quick access to the inside of the unit. Online article from Tree Hugger: A World of reasons to ditch Bottled Water. In reality tap water has far higher and more stringent quality standards than bottled water it also costs far less in some instances bottled water can cost 10,000 times more per gallon than tap water. In 2004 USA consumed more than 22 gallons per person, an unsustainable industry for the environment. “Approximately 1.5 million barrels of oil enough to run 100,000 cars for a whole year are used to make plastic water bottles, while transporting these bottles burns even more oil.” Mass volumes of water are wasted with its purification process, ‘two gallons of water are wasted in the purification process for every gallon that goes into the bottles.” Along with the decline of water tables as high volumes of water are being removed, nearly 90 percent of water bottles are not recycled and wind up in landfills where it takes thousands of years for the plastic to decompose. Extracts from the Times online: Bling-bling guzzlers are the new smokers. Thank me The Times February 16, 2008. In 2006 we bought three billion liters of bottled water. We spent £2 billion on the stuff. And then we grumble about water metering and annual domestic bills of a couple of hundred quid for water that is just as good, and whose consumption is unlimited. A restaurant critic says that only vain people drink bottled water, ‘While half the world dies of thirst, we have invested years and vast amounts of money in an ingenious system that cleanses water of all nasties and delivers it, dirt-cheap, to our homes and workplaces in pipes, which we can access at a tap.’ Bottled water industry is bordering on the immoral, says minister February 16, 2008 Scottish ministers have been spending £200,000 a year on bottled water while insisting that Scottish Water should remain in public ownership. Staff and guests consumed more than 460,000 litres of bottled water last year despite assurances that Scottish tap water is among the best in the world. In total, more than £1.3m was spent on bottled water by Scotland’s public bodies.

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On average, the carbon footprint of a glass of tap water is only about 0.3g of CO2 compared with some 175g for bottled water, which is also hundreds of times more expensive. Just 10% of plastic water bottles are recycled and the others are dumped in landfill sites, where they will take an estimated 450 years to break down. “Experts say we have the best water quality in the world so it begs the question why in terms of sustainability, we continue with this policy,” she said. “The government needs to lead the way, its public money that’s being spent.” It is estimated that 2.7m tons of plastic are used worldwide for bottles each year. Transporting bottled water has been estimated to release 33,200 tons of carbon dioxide annually.

Turn back to your taps - we all pay the price for bottled water February 18, 2006 By Jonathan Richards To supply the more than two billion litres of bottled water that is consumed by Britons every year, a quarter of which comes from abroad, bottled-water companies produce 33,200 tonnes of CO2 emissions, the electricity consumption of 20,000 households, and the equivalent of the energy needs of 6,000 households. The principal environmental cost comes from transport, manufacture and disposal of bottles. Most water bottles are made from PET plastic, a crude-oil extract that accounts for about 0.25 per cent of the world’s annual oil consumption. The majority end up in landfill sites, where they take about 450 years to break down, or are incinerated. Of the 10 per cent of bottles that are recycled, more than half are shipped to countries such as China, 13,000km away, to be processed, and produce around half a million kilos of CO2 emissions getting there. Environmental groups have urged consumers to return to tap water, which they say is 10,000 times cheaper, just as healthy and far less environmentally costly. A report by the Earth Policy Institute this week concluded that of the 154 billion litres of bottled water consumed globally each year, about a quarter had been imported. The

water-extraction facilities for Coca-Cola’s Dasani line in India, for example, had caused water shortages in more than 50 villages, it said. Thousands of bellyaches linked to bottled water Contaminated supplies could account for 12 per cent of cases of a serious illness By Oliver Wright Bottled water may be responsible for thousands of cases of food poisoning every year, it could be as high as 12% of cases. A study by public health specialists at the University of Wales found that contaminated water could account for more than one in ten infections involving campylobacter, the biggest cause of food-borne sickness in the Western world. “Drinking bottled water has not previously been recognised as a risk factor. But it is biologically plausible and could explain a substantial number of infections.” Campylobacter now infects about 50,000 people a year in England and Wales, yet until the mid-1970s only a couple of thousand cases a year were identified. Over the same period the consumption of bottled water has substantially increased. Today Britons drink 1.4 billion litres of bottled water every year. Campylobacter causes stomach pains, diarrhoea and weakness in most people. Mild cases can be treated by avoiding food and drinking lots of fluids. One in a thousand sufferers developed a devastating condition called GuillainBarré syndrome, which can lead to total paralysis.


Extracts from the Age newspapers: The real cost of bottled water Jason Koutsoukis August 19, 2007 Australia’s love affair with bottled water is costing the planet 314,000 barrels of oil a year, used to ship, refrigerate, manufacture and package. A product already piped for next to nothing, with bottled water 2500 times more expensive than the tap variety. Drinking water in Melbourne costs around $1.20 a tonne, Australian bottled water costs around $3000 a tonne. Italian bottled water is around $9000 a tonne. It’s more expensive than petrol. According to the Australasian Bottled Water Institute, we spend about $385 million a year on bottled water. Peter Gleick recently calculated that demand for bottled water in the United States was burning up at least 17 million barrels of oil a year that’s just the energy required to make the plastic resin and make it into bottles. He estimates that the total amount of energy required for every bottle of water is equivalent, on average, to filling a quarter of a plastic bottle with crude oil. Consumers are not aware of the economic, political and environmental impact of what it takes to produce a bottle of water. With only 35 per cent of water bottles being recycled, and 55 per cent going to landfill means bottles are creating thousands of tonnes of rubbish a year, this can easily be eliminated when next time your thirsty just turn on the tap. Sally Loane, spokeswoman for Coca-Cola Amatil, Australia’s largest producer of bottled water, said, “There is a market for it. Consumers like the convenience of bottled water. It’s nice and cold. That’s what consumers want, and that’s what we’re giving them.” • Australians spent $385 million on 250 million litres of bottled water in 2006. • It takes 3.4 megajoules of energy to make a typical one-litre plastic bottle – or 850 million megajoules to bottle 250 million litres of water. • A barrel of oil has 6000 megajoules, so it takes 141,666 barrels of oil to make the PET plastic. • The energy required to bring bottled water to market – converting the PET plastic into bottles, bottling the water, transporting and refrigerating the bottled water – means the amount of oil required equals 20 per cent of the bottle’s volume. • For 250 million litres of water equaling 50 million litres of oil or 314,465 barrels. • In addition to the water in bottles, twice as much water is used in the production process. Every litre sold represents three litres of water. Source: the Australasian bottled water institute inc.

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... and here’s how to bottle water Sushi Das June 28, 2008 Despite rumblings of dissent elsewhere in the world, why are Australians such keen supporters of the booming bottled water industry? Want to hear a joke? What’s Evian spelt backwards? Naive. Twenty years on, company profits are overflowing and the joke’s on Australians and their unquenchable thirst for bottled water. In the bottled water business, figures are fluid. Australians drink about 600 million litres a year, or 28 litres per person each year – that’s if you believe the numbers provided by the Australasian Bottled Water Institute. IBISWorld, a reputable business analyst, estimates the per capita figure is closer to 12 litres a year. The Australian Conservation Foundation will tell you Australians are spending more than half a billion dollars a year guzzling bottled water. One thing is certain: soft drink sales are down and bottled water consumption is expected to continue surging, certainly over the next five years. Petrol might have hit more than $1.70 a litre, yet Australians are happy to pay significantly more for a litre of bottled water. In Coles, 600mls of Mount Franklin, Australia’s most popular bottled water sells for $2.79. Coca-Cola Amatil, which largely buys its water from landowners at prices it keeps secret, says all its water is bottled about two hours’ drive away from its sources. Many bottled water manufacturers buy their water from farmers or landowners with whom they negotiate the price. Once the deal is done, there is no independent monitoring of how much water is actually taken out of aquifers or underground water supplies. Coca-Cola Amatil’s spokeswoman, Sally Loane, says the company reports to the relevant state government every drop it draws from groundwater sources it owns. Peats Ridge in NSW is a case in point. But the company does not own any sources in Victoria and so is not required to report details to the Government. Most Victorian spring water comes from the Daylesford area. He bristles when asked to respond to claims by environment groups that it is immoral to take water out of aquifers, a resource that belongs to all Australians, and sell it with huge markups when Australia is suffering one of its worst droughts and staring into a future where water will be a scarce commodity. “Water underground has as much right to be consumed by drinking as it has to be consumed by any other manner,” he says. “If Australian citizens want to buy their water in that manner, so long as the source is sustainable, there is absolutely no morality issue involved.”

There’s no doubt the industry has gained from an increasingly frantic pace of life. People pack more into one day, travel further and are more fashion conscious. Bottled water is convenient and healthier than high-sugar soft drinks. It is readily available, comes in a trendy bottle and it’s all yours. Like your iPod and mobile phone. So popular is bottled water, there is no need to advertise it, says Gentile. “Bottled water sells itself. It’s a product people want.” But the message from environment groups, such as the Australian Conservation Foundation, that the production and delivery of a litre of bottled water emits 100 times more greenhouse gases than a litre of tap water; that nearly half a million barrels of oil are involved in the production of plastic water bottles; or that 65% of water bottles, because they are largely bought on the go, end up in landfills rather than being recycled, is simply not getting any traction. Jon Dee from the Bottled Water Alliance argues that the campaign to educate Australians about the safety of tap water and the highly damaging environmental effects of bottled water production and distribution is still in its embryonic stages and consumers need to “wake up”. Among Australians, young singles and couples drink the most bottled water, particularly females aged 14 to 35. Bottled water the ‘new eco-disaster’ By Catharine Munro February 26, 2006 With 65 per cent of plastic drink bottles ending up in landfill, they are calling for better recycling services. The popularity of bottled water is rising at a rate of 10 per cent a year in Australia. About 550 million litres were consumed in 2004-05,. The plastic water bottles are becoming a major environmental hazard. They suck up valuable fuels to make. Environmental scientist Tim Grant said it was “counter intuitive” that bottled water was such a successful product. “People pay $2.50 for something that’s free,” he said. A recent report by the Washington-based Earth Policy Institute said global consumption of bottled water rose 57 per cent from 1999 to 2004 to 154 billion litres. Much of the growth came from countries such as Australia, where tap water is just as high a quality as anything that can be bought. Packaging worldwide required 2.7 million tonnes of plastic each year, Emily Arnold, said. “When aquifers are under pressure from a variety of interests, sucking water out of them and bottling it for a quick buck is probably not a great idea,” Bones says. But bottlers say they take only a tiny fraction. Coca-Cola Amatil, which bottles the leading brands Mount Franklin and Pump, has even supported calls by hydrogeologists for national reform of groundwater management.


Extracts from the ABC News Generation H2O By John Walsh Oct 29, 2008 You’d never know Australia was in drought. Water is being consumed in the cities like there is no tomorrow and if Generation H2O keep drinking it at this rate there will be no tomorrow. I don’t know how deep the reservoirs are at Mount Franklin but it will be sucked dry and collapse in on itself if the urban thirst for water doesn’t dry up soon. There was a time when the only people you saw drinking water out of a bottle were exhausted athletes but now it seems people are incapable of getting through even the most sedentary task without being equipped with a liquid side-arm. Passengers can’t get through a bus-ride without it; uni students can’t survive a lecture without it; movie-goers can’t make it to the final reel without it; schoolchildren, drivers, pedestrians, the sick, the elderly. There’s just no end to the need for a liquid feed. Bottled water, of course, provides convenience and portability but doesn’t explain why people today feel the need to be constantly hydrated.You won’t die if you don’t sink a Pump on the drive to work. In fact you can go for a very long time without water. But what about that other golden rule about drinking eight glasses of water a day? Most modern nutritionists have dismissed that as excessive.Your body certainly needs an amount somewhere equivalent to that but most people get about 20 per cent of their water requirement from food. Drinks like juice, milk and even coffee count towards your intake too so if you throw in a glass of water between meals you are just about where you need to be water-wise. But it’s hilariously old-fashioned to think that people are drinking water so copiously and so publicly only for survival. Maybe water’s the new black - more fashion accessory than necessary. At the very least, thanks to the spin doctors at the bottled water companies, it’s now a lifestyle choice. Somewhere, somehow drinking water has become a recreational activity. But despite the fact that sales of bottled water are up around the world and people are drinking it as fast as they can bottle it there is now the inevitable backlash. The environmental cost of producing somewhere north of 100 billion plastic bottles a year is the obvious one.

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Bottled water in green groups’ sights ABC News Nov 22, 2007 A coalition of environmental and community groups has launched a campaign to stop Australians drinking bottled water. The Bottled Water Alliance will initially try to influence drinking habits around the country by asking local councils to stop providing bottled water to workers and at functions. The alliance’s organiser, Jon Dee from Planet Ark, says people should be drinking water from the tap instead of damaging the environment by buying it in a bottle. “We’re spending $385 million on the stuff every single year and the impact environmentally is substantial,” he said.

he says, “doesn’t include the energy needed to get the bottled water to your local store. Converting the PET plastic into bottles, bottling the water, transporting and refrigerating the bottled water – means the amount of oil required is 20 percent of the bottle’s volume. Water fountains – Often water is just waiting for you on street corners or at your gym or school. Here in Melbourne, Australia, there’s a campaign to get more drinking fountains installed on street corners in a bid to ensure that people don’t have to resort to buying bottled water. A drinking fountains map is even available free online for your Melbourne drinking pleasure.

“It’s responsible for about 60,000 tonnes of greenhouse emissions every year just in Australia, and every single litre of bottled water produced is using about 200 millilitres of oil.”

Some advice from the Australasian Bottled Water Institute Statement by the Australasian Bottled Water Institute Inc and the Australian Soft Drinks Association Ltd. 1 October 2003

Message in a Bottle Brian Howard The Environmental Magazine The WWF argues that the distribution of bottled water requires substantially more fuel than delivering tap water, especially since over 22 million tons of the bottled liquid is transferred each year from country to country. They estimate that around 1.5 million tons of plastic are used globally each year in water bottles, leaving a sizable manufacturing footprint. Most water bottles are made of the oil-derived polyethylene terephthalate, which is known as PET, generating more than 100 times the toxic emissions. Water bottles for one year consumes more than 1.5 million barrels of oil, which is enough to generate electricity for more than 250,000 homes for a year, or enough to fuel 100,000 cars for a year.

Pet & Polycarbonate bottles In response to concerns of possible health risks involved with reusing water bottles, the Australasian Bottled Water Institute Inc (ABWI) and the Australian Soft Drinks Association Ltd (ASDA) would like to point out the following important facts:

Un-bottling Our Water Supply. The Australian Bottled Water Institute yesterday cited AC Neilsen research showing that Australians alone spent $385 million on 250 million litres of bottled water last year. Oil use – A huge amount of energy goes into bottling and distributing water to shops and vending machines across the world. But it’s not just the bottling process: plastic bottles themselves are made from crude oil. Peter Gleick, president of the Californian-based Pacific Institute, recently calculated that demand for bottles water in the United States is burning up at least 17 million bottles of oil a year. “And that,”

1) Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a single use packaging commonly used for commercially packaged bottled water and soft drinks. 2) Because beverages packed in PET containers are designed and intended for single use only and for easy recycling, after consumption of the product, PET containers should be placed in a recycling bin for collection or returned for deposit, where/if applicable. Although as mentioned above, PET containers are safe and if hygienically handled can be re-used, ABWI & ASDA recommend that PET containers not be reused by consumers and that after consumption of the product, the PET containers should be recycled. Extracts from the Sydney Morning Herald: Don’t buy bottled water, activists urge Hannah Edwards July 29, 2007 Environmentalists have pleaded with authorities to help cut waste caused by Australia’s increasing thirst for bottled water. Demand is growing by 10% annually,


adding to the 118,000 tonnes of plastic drink containers manufactured each year, with only 35% been recycled. For every tonne of one-litre bottles of Evian water shipped to Australia each year, for example, at least 84kilograms of harmful emissions are created. High quality tap water is available for $1.20 a tonne, while standard bottled water costs $3000 a tonne. About 150 million litres of bottled water is consumed in Australia each year. In New York, city officials have paid for advertising championing tap water, while in San Francisco officials are no longer able to use public money to buy water in plastic bottles if tap water is available. The New York City tap water is tested about 560,000 a tear and its infrastructure constantly needs upgrading with the loss of consumer confidence it’s hard for councils to justify extensive public water infrastructure when the people aren’t using it. Battle of the bottle: Rachel Browne May 11, 2008 The battle over the bottle has intensified with another Sydney council voting to ban bottled water from functions. Ashfield Council has joined Manly and Blacktown councils in the war on plastic, announcing bottled water will no longer be provided after existing supplies run out. The decision comes after Planet Ark environmental campaigner Jon Dee wrote to every Australian council urging them to banish the bottle following a similar move in San Francisco last year. “If local councils were really committed to the communities they serve perhaps they should look at providing their community with more bubblers and make sure they are kept clean. Counting the cost: 300 million litres of bottled water will be consumed by Australians in 2008. $465m is how much those bottles will cost. $512m is what researchers expect Australians to spend next year. 200ml oil will be required to create and transport a one-litre bottle from factory to customer. 544,000 barrels of oil will be required to fuel Australia’s annual bottled water needs. 72,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions will be created by this oil haul. $1.20 is the average cost of purifying and pumping one tonne of water to a household tap in the Sydney Basin. $3000 is what it costs to manufacture and transport one tonne of bottled water. 65% of water bottles end up as landfill. 13% of the national beverage market last year was bottled water.

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Message on a bottle labelled as greenwash Julian Lee February 23, 2008 Coca-Cola pays Landcare Australia $150,000 to plant 250,000 trees to offset greenhouse gas emissions generated by the manufacture and distribution of 8 million plastic bottles. “For them to use the logo is embarrassing for the volunteers and the grassroots people who work hard to repair the landscape,” said Ms Lamrock, who says other volunteers have expressed unease at companies whose operations damage the environment using the Landcare logo. “Landcare Australia has lost touch with its ethics,” she said. Mount Franklin dominates the $544 million bottled water market and is an expert in marketing campaigns that tap into community issues: its pink lid campaign to pledge $1 for cancer research for every wish made through its website is one of the most successful marketing campaigns in recent history. “One has to ask the question whether Coke has done this deal to distract attention away from the serious environmental questions that are now being asked of the bottled water industry. In particular the issues of water sourcing and the climate, waste and litter impact of bottled water, as well as the extremely low recycling rate for plastic water bottles. But the organiser of the Bottled Water Alliance, Jon Dee, said: “One has to ask the question whether Coke has done this deal to distract attention away from the serious environmental questions that are now being asked of the bottled water industry. In particular the issues of water sourcing and the climate, waste and litter impact of bottled water, as well as the extremely low recycling rate for plastic water bottles.

“The shire of Hepburn where I live, home to Mt Franklin (Lalgambook), is a water-generating region northwest of Melbourne. The cool water from the highlands supplies many lower catchments, including Melbourne’s. Coca-Cola Amatil pays the Hepburn Shire $2.05 per million-litres (mega) of water, which equates to about $95 per year for nearly 50 million litres – or about 5 cents per truck load.” Patrick Jones

Mount Franklin’s perspective Here is how they answer a few questions: I think yo can really make anything sound good and needed if you place your answers in the right context, like why bottles water is so good as it actually help to hydrate your body, and how good they are at helping Australian’s to recycle. How good are Australians at recycling? Our Refresh Recycle Renew campaigns, which were launched in 2004 and include the provision of recycling bins in major public places and at events such as the Tamworth Country Music festival and the recent Live Earth concerts, aim to help


people recycle containers when people are away from home. Why should I drink water over other drinks? For general day to day hydration, obtaining most of your fluid intake from water is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council’s Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Other drinks such as milk and tea, as well as some fruits and vegetables, can also help you reach your daily target of fluid intake.

Liquid Gold: 60 minutes

Isn’t it more environmentally friendly for people to refill their bottles? For health reasons, we recommend you do no not refill bottles because of potential bacteria. By selling bottled water, are companies trying to replace good water out of the tap or a bubbler? We are lucky in Australia to have access to clean water from the tap. With our bottled water brands, CCA provides something consumers want – a chilled, healthy and delicious beverage which is conveniently packaged for when they’re out and about or at their desk. Can you drink too much water? How much should I drink each day? You should drink water in accordance with the guidelines of the National Health and Medical Research Council. These guidelines recommend adult men drink 2.6 litres of fluid and adult women drink 2.1 litres of fluid per day. On top of this, your fluid intake can be increased if you’re living or working in extremely hot climates. Doesn’t bottled water contribute to a lot of carbon miles? All ‘Mount Franklin’ water is produced in plants across Australia near the water sources so that water is not freighted across the country (or shipped in from overseas like some water). This saves on carbon miles. Lagambook in central Victoria was renamed Mt Franklin after white occupation began in the 1830s. Mt Franklin is now the namesake of Australia’s biggest bottled water brand owned by Coca-Cola Amatil. The legacy of Lalgambook concerns an indigenous people living within the limits of the land. The legacy of Mt Franklin is of a grand scale corporation vacuuming Australia’s groundwater and bottling it in plastic. “If people will pay for water bottled in plastic they will suffer any indignity.” Derrick Jensen

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The Age online: The quest for answers in a dry argument Clay Lucas August 22 2007 Melbourne’s reputation as a drinking city might be growing, but try telling that to Patrick Jones. All he wants is a free drink of water. A search one afternoon for a drinking fountain in the city centre made Mr Jones angry. So angry that he spent 7½ hours trudging around the city marking drinking fountains on a map. Of the 27 drinking fountains found, only 18 worked. Greens councillor Fraser Brindley last week asked council officers to audit the state of the city’s fountains in response to Mr Jones’ campaign. Last night Cr Brindley said the council should back the drive so that city visitors would not have to buy bottled water. “Getting the city’s fountains we’ve got working properly is a good first step,” he said. “There is now this assumption that people will buy water if they need a drink.You should be able to get free water if you want it.” “In Rome there’s a water fountain on every corner. Here we’ve got one for every 40,000 people,” said Mr Jones, citing Melbourne City Council figures showing that 732,000 people come to the city centre each day. “One sold on eBay for $27,” said Mr Jones, a seasoned campaigner on local issues. Last year during the Commonwealth Games he launched a roaming wall of graffiti after the city council’s much-publicised graffiti crackdown. ” He wants to force the council, which said yesterday that there were in fact 46 drinking fountains in the city centre, to install fountains on every city corner to set an example to other councils around Victoria. Greens councillor Fraser Brindley last week asked council officers to audit the state of the city’s fountains in response to Mr Jones’ campaign. Last night Cr Brindley said the council should back the drive so that city visitors would not have to buy bottled water. “Getting the city’s fountains we’ve got working properly is a good first step,” he said.


Just Free Water Campaign lead by Patrick. Bring back the Bubbler! A little while ago I called Melbourne City Council and spoke to an environmental officer about free drinking water points in the city. As a regular visitor to Melbourne I wanted a map of the city showing free water points so as I knew where I could refill my stainless steel water flask. He told me there was no such map he could give me, but thought there were about 15 bubblers in non-park areas within the city. So I decided to map it out for myself. It took me about 7 hours to walk the CBD locating water bubblers. I found 27 of them, 9 of which required repairs, leaving 18 bubblers for an estimated 710,600 people who use the city each day (figure attained from the MCC website). In real terms this means there is one bubbler for approximately 40,000 people in the city. The start of the campaign: 1. Approach your local council to repair existing water fountains and supply new water fountains throughout your city or town. 2. Lobby your council/government to ban drinks bottled in plastic 3. Get your local council to advocate ethical water drinking by citizens – thus promoting the carrying of refillable flasks, refilling them at free water fountain points, or from home. Public necessity. Everything we buy is likely to be unsustainable and/or abusive in terms of its production and transportation. Water bottled in plastic is both. How to Do Words With Things By Patrick Jones Jones describes his artworks as “poetical terrorism” an example is Jones’s ongoing campaign against the Coca-Cola-owned bottled water, Mt Franklin, which is sourced (at a steal) from Jones’s local area in Victoria, bottled and branded as a consumer commodity and then sold for a massive profit.” Derrick Jensen: “If I had a thing of bottled water I would hold it up and say this is why we’re not going to have a revolution, because if people will pay for water bottled in plastic they will suffer any indignity. “It is not from a sense of hope that I carry out these physical poems,” he says, “but rather from the consideration: traditional forms of poetry seem ridiculous this late in history” Patrick Jones traces the impact on the environment of consumers’ preference for bottled ground water from traditional aboriginal grounds when they could get quality potable water at a fraction of the price from a tap.

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An interview and Discussion with Patrick Jones: After an initial introduction and break down of my project, Patrick discussed the issues of refillable/reusable drink bottles. The non plastic variety has little design need to be durable and gorgeous at the same time similar to flasks which can be filled with water and other drinking beverages. The materials that it could be made from include metals like stainless steel or aluminium and ceramics. Filters within the bubbler have a negative environmental impact and in cities like Melbourne are only there to take out the chlorine used to treat our water. This creates a negative image among those people who are environmentally vidual and might be creating a product which is only a little bit better that the wasteful bottled water industry. Depending on the filters used, waste water is also created. Humans have also originally created this problem or need to use filters, through the input of chemicals in water. We then need to remove them, green industries solve this problem and we wouldn’t have to use intensive cleaning/filtering process. As more people move to live in the cities globally, Melbourne is a good example where more people living in cities and urban areas than rural, city environments are artificial needing resources brought in. These resources are transported in with 95% from a long distance, as peak oil will start kicking in the next 10 years, the costs will increase. It’s best to start mimicking some ecological systems, real ecological systems. Universities have the best possible change of research into these ecological systems but are brought out by bigger issues and politics as that’s where the funding is coming from. Industrial designers should question what we shouldn’t be designing and stick to the things we should. Multifunctional products are good as they can eliminate the need for two products saving materials and resources.Yes we should change the world! Questioning how we as individuals and professionals contribute to this ecological crisis do develop less industry and more intelligence.Victoria needs four planets to continue the current lifestyle, resource and energy use. How can we do more with less, question what we can do without? How can we clean up the water industry? We can change people’s water drinking habits. Patrick discusses his Just free water campaign and what’s needed to be successful in getting the word and interest out. Activism is embedded in the creative practice. To start any campaign is easy to get others to join it needs to be engaging, creating events is a good opportunity

Patrick is planning one for bubbler for the coming summer called bitches and bubblers, with an authorised party and celebration around free water, within a burning man style. Fun and humour captivate people not having a political agenda. Most people’s behaviour and attitudes wants the government to tell them what to do. Though in our governments continual to fail to look after our best interests, it’s up to others to inform the public and let them make their own choices.You can’t relay rely on TV for information but your own research. Some people in the community want to find out information but most people just want to be told. Right information to tell people needs to be catchy like one statement, stance, sentence, gesture, graphic, artwork can trigger someone, a gut feeling that will make them want to be informed and do more, work out what the truth is, Mainly city council is still a privatised water source, home water use is profiting of how much we use. Cleaver environmentalism needs to be implemented in Victoria central highland where most of the bottled water is sourced from. Nasty big corporations own water rights, which don’t care about ecology and sends profits off overseas. Some corporations are also linked into the military like Halliburton, which only involves more ethical issues. Water should be clean, unlimited an available to everyone. One large corporation said that they would love to own 100% of the world’s water and that was a goal of theirs. Newer bubblers have relationships linked with giant corporations such as Manly, is linked to the company which supplies its water filters. As new water systems are created they solve one problem but also create social problems. Michael Pollan a food writer on health related issues, the words he uses often get twisted and turned into something else. 94% of the world’s worst food is mass advertised, which changes people’s relationship towards their food through high exposure. Making products that can’t be subverted, by big corporations which exploit the environment is crucial. Water has a high political agenda and many ethical issues. Often well meaning designs are brought out and changed, the environmental cost to filters, refrigeration of water and transport isn’t even accounted for. Filters have taken off in a huge way and people are more likely to drink water from a filter. Our water is chemically treated Patrick says the best water available is tank water collected at home, as the taste is pure, and untreated. Fluoride in water is good but the levels may be unnecessary high due to chemical company endorsement, as it’s constantly being put in the more used the more money they make.


The chemical world has now been around for about 80 years now and is a huge market, few science labs in universities aren’t brought out by, Dow’s chemicals is one example of doing this researching into crops to promote chemical farming. Industry trains up people to work in their systems, so people won’t question things as much. There is little independent research in labs, as no one wants to support funding. CSIRO has no research money that isn’t embedded with corporations as the data will help out the companies. No one knows the real impact of 50,000 barrels of oil and how much pollution that is equal to used by the bottled water companies or the pollution created by transporting bottled water around the country. Local councils are hard to approach about bottled water, as some corporations have leases with them for 44 years or 90 years. In Daylesford Victoria people are starting to notice huge water trucks going up and down their main street as they can be seen daily, they are then transported to be bottled by Cadbury, coca cola, to be brought by people. Can witness this physically happening, the mood in the area changes, when before people would just avoid the issue. Some of the ex councils have been quite helpful as there have been cases of bores drying up, which is something that has never happened before, smaller governments work pest with communities as the understand how this impacts on their lives. As Victoria gets dryer and dryer it shouldn’t be wasted on bottled water, as much of it is then wasted. Individuals who are interested in sustainability issues for example and organic farmer, can shift their behaviour to side with green minded people, this depends on different electorate areas. Government have been so keen on globalised industry, they sold off any ecological interest, and sold rights off. Changing our own behaviour is the only real answer, as governments and corporations can’t be stopped and are highly restrictive. We need to get back to art and design, and not depend on the government for change. Some greens people at Melbourne city council may be interested in my project, change can occur but very slowly by relying on others. Talking about all these issues can be grim Patrick views himself as an ecological anarchist, making change rapid, responsive and fun. This is through peaceful forms of anachronism, working together with close community. He focuses on relocalisation. There is a big movement in Daylesford on a transition re-localisation. A movement of culture, towns and villages saying no, we no longer will participate in petroleum is getting larger. Transition handbooks are helpful, in getting off the

grid with food, power, and water, relying on your own sources. There are anarchy communities globally, and they are the people who can do things. Having created massed grown seeds, it’s the less common variates that can survive droughts and cooler environments more genetically modified seeds don’t stand a chance. A systems approach using cyclical processes, not a liner process from start, middle to end such as ecological approach .The negative layer on the earth from humans has damaged so much ecology aboriginal culture should be the future model of living off the environment. Patrick embraces permaculture among indigenous plants this creates a balance between the right insects and bugs, where pests are eliminated. We have been growing food with out pesticide for thousands of years. Water activism is part of the whole system, corporations aim for 100% of seed ownership this sinister behaviour needs to be stopped, when involved with human rights, ecological rights people need to stand up and respond to the corporations. Looking into my bubbler I should ask how does this design function on numerous levels and participate in a cylindrical system. This was very insightful in realising how many of these issues are also faced by other industries and products, and how a good campaign can be designed to help other people to get onboard. Patrick also sent off and email with a few more websites for me to read. Thank you to Patrick for such an insightful interview.

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Do Something Campaign ‘Do Something’ was established by Planet Ark founders Jon Dee and Pat Cash in association with Tina Jackson, former Executive Director of the National Trust of Australia. Do Something is a partner of the botted water alliance.

Metropolitan Water Corporation For Victoria:

Bottled Water Alliance: Perceptions of bottled water * Over 89% or respondents said they believe bottled water is a costly marketing con, with over 97% saying they believe it is overpriced. * 80% believe that water has become a fashion accessory for the image conscious. (What does a fashion accessory mean? Are we drinking certain brands over others? Buying the nicer looking bottles? I know we are buying more bottled water these days but I think its more to do with marketing and being a product choice with meals, not that its fashionable.) * 73% think that people who buy expensive water are naive. * Over 77% do not believe that bottled water is safer and cleaner than filtered tap water. * Over 76% were concerned about the impact of bottled water litter on beaches during the summer. (A hard question to interpret as it could be more to do with the visual waste than environmental) * Over 85% said they did not believe bottled water should cost as much as petrol. (I have no idea why this isn’t almost at 97% (to match the over priced figure) as people always say petrol is over priced and that includes taxes in it. I bet they complain about their water bill when it comes in too.) Consumption of bottled water * The current economic turmoil has caused 40% to reconsider buying bottled water. (I don’t think this question is really accurate as those who can afford to buy bottled water every day, say one bottle at $2 would equal $730 wouldn’t stop, as they are least likely to be affected. A person who generally only spends $10 a month wouldn’t have to change their lifestyle at all to fit in one less bottle.) * 74% of people surveyed report that they spend up to $10 a month on bottled water, while close to 16% say they spend between $11 and $20 per month.


Bubblers/Drinking fountains * Over 78% percent of people believe there are not enough bubblers available to the public. * 90% do not know where their local water bubblers are, and do not believe they are easy to find. This is something I am looking into as I believe there needs to be more awareness that they exist and some logic to their location. * 85% are concerned about the safety or cleanliness of public bubblers. * 66% said that if greater number and quality of bubblers were available, they would buy less bottled water. This is very interesting, as this is what I am looking into, but it is worded “buy less” which can mean anything as what is buy less, one less bottle, refill up old bottles? Alternatives to bottled water * A total of 93% said they used a refillable water bottled at least occasionally, with 22% using them always, and 34% using them most of the time they want a drink. * Nearly 70% use, or are considering buying, a home water filter. School Water Fountains to Prevent Obesity The New York Times March 30, 2009 By Tara Parker-Pope The findings, published in today’s Pediatrics, are based on a unique intervention in 32 German grade schools. In the study, about 3,000 second and third graders were weighed and quizzed about their beverage consumption. In some of the schools, water fountains were added and children were given personal water bottles they could fill at the beginning of the school day. Teachers were also given lesson plans that included health messages about the benefits of water consumption. At the beginning of the study, there were no statistical differences in the prevalence of overweight kids in the different groups. By the end of the school year, however, children in the schools where water drinking was encouraged were 30 percent less likely to be overweight. Although water consumption from fountains was measured, overall beverage consumption was determined based on self-reports by students and parents. Small changes in drinking habits are unlikely to be detected using these methods. Another limit is the fact that daily food consumption wasn’t measured, so it’s not known whether drinking more water influenced a child’s eating habits.

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Design Approach:

How does an individual undertake the practice of design and what processes are used? Looking into function, usability, sustainability, innovation relating to drinking fountains and my own practice and understanding of form this is a quick incite as to what needs to be going on inside my head while I am designing.

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Design Approach RMIT has given the creative freedom for each of us to develop our own practice and mature as designers, this has meant a unique way that we individually work and a skill set of varying tasks. An interest in sustainable and social design has directed my creative energies but a deep love of materials and form has allowed me to develop the necessary skills to see a project through to its final stages. This has meant that my projects have always had a strong grounding back to communities, users and the environment. Looking into the future I hope to develop my own practice or studio where I can implement a range of skills and but before this I need to develop my confidence, belief in my own work and refine the many skills I have learnt so far. The opportunity to undertake a year long project has been a short glimpse as to how I could eventually achieve this, while developing a few project skills in order to make one idea successful. A project needs to have strong platform from where it can be launched from, this means the research needs to have been undertaken and the results found as to where the key problems lie, and what solutions that can be provided to address these. This project involves incremental changes of people behaviour where the final design will be implemented and people’s attitudes will change slowly with the solution. The final goal would be that people no longer wished to buy single use disposable plastic bottles as hygienic and safe tap water is provided. The function of Bubblers/drinking fountains where established to provide clean drinking water for people when they where away from their homes. They are placed around recreational areas and in main streets where they can be easily found or where people congregate often. As Melbourne has safe/clean water we don’t need to filter the water. Over time as people have more money and have grown more afraid of germs and the spread of germs people have needed drinking fountains less and distrust they are actually clean. Many people don’t wish to drink directly from the bubbler instead they choose to refill bottles to take away for convenience carried around to drink whenever they’re thirsty. Turning on/off the bubbler involves pressing or turning buttons, tap handles, foot presses, pushing a leaver/handle or sensors. The easiest to use for the elderly is a large leaver as its uses a push down motion and doesn’t require too much strength in fingers or hands. As the button/leaver/tap is let go the water shuts off in order


to conserve our precious resource. There needs to be an increase in the amount of drinking fountains, as there aren’t enough at the moment for the amount of people this can be done gradually when streets and public spaces are upgraded. Useability The current system of maintenance is not working as people can’t trust that they are clean, or even working as too many times when people go to use them they are broken there is also no evidence that the exterior has ever been cleaned with dirt and grime coating the outside. A better system would be to clean more frequently and even just wipe down the bubbler/facet head and buttons so people know they are disinfected. Bottles of all shapes and sizes should be able to be easily filled current designs around Melbourne don’t allow for this, though drinking directly from the drinking fountain should also be an option for all those light travellers. Drinking water for bubblers is provided by Melbourne’s mains, this water supply comes from a network of dams and catchments which are protected, and filter through mountain ash forest. Its treated with chlorine and then pumped into our pipes. These underground pipes are readily available, so the instillation only requires the location of the pipe, the attachment to the pipe (while the mains pressure is turned off by closing the pipe) and breaking through the surface to get to the pipe. Waste water directed into storm water drains/pipes or into open gutters. Some users dislike the taste of chlorine some councils installed filters to remove the chlorine, though the fluoride remains. The design should allow for easy identification and recognisable as people don’t want to go out of their way to use or find them. The height and ergonomics are based around adult users in wheelchairs to ensure it is accessible by every one. Smaller scale drinking fountains could be manufactured and placed near playgrounds for children to use. Cultural issues for drinking fountains may include the directional flow of water, as some users trust a downwards flow more. The knowledge on tap water/ free water if coming from a country where most water is unsafe and has to be boiled first or in brought bottles, discovering Melbourne’s water is different is difficult as they use habits formed from home. Misuse of the product which concern people’s safety and hygiene are vandals, drunks or others using them like urinals, as there is a lot of negative associated with the old design and system the new design needs to be considerably different with a unique form so people can feel like there has been a real change.

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Sustainability of bubblers compared to single use plastic bottles is far more sustainable creating 100 times less green house gases. They are manufactured from long life materials and have a minimum lifespan of 15 years. The only parts which may need to be replaced quite frequently are the internal plumbing as this copes with high water use, pressure and use. If the fountain is manufactured from metal it can be collected at the end of its life span and reused by melting it down after cleaning. Long lasting aesthetically pleasing drink bottles can also help to create a more sustainable system. Launching my campaign and encouraging people to change their behaviour and use drinking fountains is a good start to being more sustainable. As people realise that the system is being upgraded or properly provided like in Manly they will chose to use it more, as they know it hygienic and convenient. The most wasteful part if councils and users wish to use are filters as they need to be continually replaced generating waste. Innovation within the design comes from a new out look, within the system/ business it’s placed in and the design itself. If drinking fountains where regularly disinfected and cleaned people would no longer need to worry about catching something, and they could compete better with bottled water. Addressing the issues of why people’s attitude towards drinking fountains is so negative will help to change people’s behaviour and reduce anxiety. An innovative design such as a modular system where parts can be brought when needed depending on budgets and its intended locations such as dog bowls for parks, or a cheap and basic design that can be added to ensures that they can be updated with need and always feel modern and contemporary fitting into street scapes as they are updated by the council. This means as one part of the design ages and outdates it can be removed while the left is left behind. Having a few parts that can fit together allows councils to almost design their own fountains so they fit in the right environment for the right users, as cheaply as possible. There is also scope to set up an innovative business from these water fountains and install them globally in cities, and councils around the world. Biomimicry can inspire answers to the drain, as water is channelled away. Seeing how water is collected and channelled by plants is a great example as it can often travel over a long distance and droplets won’t disperse getting wasted. Water can move across surfaces in various ways and to ensure its not just going to end up all over the ground is important as it can make paths wet and slippery. Other


innovations could include a faucet that could change the water flow from upwards to downward to make it easier to fill up bottles, better designs for handles to turn the water on/off for people with. Technical innovations can be a self cleaning function where the user witnesses the surfaces being cleaned, or environmental chemicals are washed over the surface removing germs. Material innovations could simply be using a different manufacturing process where less material is used. The form of the design should be visually energising with different surfaces edges and lines to create beauty and poetry. I wish to create a large volume of space so people can see it from a distance, and also include subdominate surfaces so ensure that from all angles it still holds its 3D form. Curves from the lines help to create movement, the movement should reflect upon how water can move as it’s so dynamic. Pressures can propel the water high into the air, while a gentle stream can slowly meander around. As there are multiple modular parts to the product they need to communicate this through their forms, if a simple form is used then this should continue into the other parts. If lots of edges are used to bring out the form this should be communicated thorough out. Metaphors can be expressed in abstract ways through form providing familiarity and reference to environments. The process where I look at form is the most time consuming part of my design phase, I have all the research knowing what I need to create giving a few restrictions, along with manufacturing processes and a few materials. My form studies is mostly done in 3D using a variety of mixed media as each material you explore can return a different effect, soft edges, hard edges, fragility, rigidity, defined, liner, concave and convex. Sketching can only communicate this to a limited degree its not until a form is create with a material it can speak using planes, space the light can play across its surface and there is a real texture to it. Scale models are a great way to explore and refine as they can solve problems that a drawing or sketch can communicate unless there are multiples, to show the many views. One model can show all this information at once, you can photograph it print it off and sketch over it. This is what other designers and the end users will engage with as it needs to communicate to them where to put their hand where to look for the water to come out and where it’s going to drain away. How big will it look from a distance and how does it interact with the space around it. Form creates the basis for all design so should have the right amount of time to investigate many avenues.

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The innovation unfolds: A modular drinking fountain So what is unique about a drinking fountain, there are hundreds of designs out there how can I make mine better and make people want to use it. After looking at many different designs out there on the marketplace they could all compete at a competitive price, offer durability, fit required heights and provide new ideas to capture more of the marketplace (such as a hideaway facet so the hole wouldn’t get dirty.) I have talked and listened to potential users and what has this told me. People don’t choose to use or not use a drinking fountain because of its design, (unless it was deliberately designed to squirt users in the face or impossible to turn on or off) when first installed they all look new and clean what happens in a few years? Listening to people there where a few requirements that needed to be solved the problem of filling bottles, the bottles should fit under the sink and filled using on hand on the button. There should be a few drinking fountains that provided the choice of filtered water around the city as people like the taste, or tend to trust them more. Last which is nothing to do with the design is more the system of being visibly cleaned regularly. This is because dirt and grime builds up on the surface, who of us can say we like to drink from a dirt cup or clean dishes in a grimy dirty sink. Its our instinct to distrust a grimy stain covered surface even though no clean water comes in contact with it, its just an indication that maybe the faucet itself have never been cleaned, a refection on all the parts. What can be done differently for the design, how can I make the one product adjustable so councils can install water filters when people start to request them? My idea is a modular system based on 3 parts A, B and C. The council knows or can guess as to which of their drinking fountains are used frequently and can spend the money on designs that these people will use so they know their money is a good investment for the community. On the areas less used a basic design consisting of the bare essentials Part A is installed. It is the main part with basic plumbing, which all other parts are attached to as this is connected to the water supply. This is the mechanics of how all drinking fountains work, with the taps/handle/button and faucet. Councils can then choose to attach Part B which is a cover for Part A and encase the filter away from the harsh environment and weather which will impact dramatically on its lifespan. This can attach to either the ground or the base of the sink. Part B can be chosen in a few patterns and colours and has a large


maintenance hatch for easy removal and instillation of the filters, and to fix any leaks. As Australia has high quality drinking water filters are optional, in many overseas countries they are not. This means Australia can use Part A by itself if the pipes taps, and structure want to be exposed to show people how they work. Part C is a separate sink, in a sculptural form. No other drinking fountains have a separate sink to channel water to the drain. I have chosen to show the waste water as it shows the amount of waste water created and in turn helps us to be water wise realise how much is wasted. Part C can be created using a few different designs and the same process to manufacture. This means compact sinks can be placed on the streets and large ones out in the parks. A sink with a dog bowl can be chosen for parks that allow dogs. A modular system is beneficial as it becomes and inexpensive way to customise designs by mixing and matching, upgrading to filters as more people want them, replacing of the parts that wear the fastest in one go. Councils could easily choose from three different faucets, a tap/ button or leaver for Part A, the colour and pattern from Part B and one of three sink designs to start off with. As the company Tapped In expands and creates new designs these can be added as the same formwork and processes are used.

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The Business and working of Tapped In: Tapped In is a modular drinking fountain system designed to be customised by councils to fit specific needs and budgets. Current systems and design has left room for a design that can easily fill up bottles, provides filtered water and people know they are cleaned regularly making them hygienic and safe. Vision Statement: There is potential for this business to be launched globally to provide drinking water in councils for all members of the public to enjoy. Current drinking fountains lack usability, accessibility and fall short of hygiene concerns for the users. Atheistically they look cheap to manufacture as they are designed to be vandal resistant and accessible by wheelchairs. This has left the marketplace with little differences between design and little material choice to choose from leaving an open marketplace for something innovative. Each council looks for a different choice and purpose but as the leadership of the council changes much more frequently than the designs of the fountains, it would be nice if they could upgrade the new existing designs and add and remove elements such as filters, upgrade the look with a new cover. Scenario 1: At a council meeting it’s decided that 30 new drinking fountains need to be installed for a community as the current designs have reached the end of their life span. As two third of these are located in parks and local sporting grounds it would be useful if they provided a dog bow to fill with water, the other third is located on the main thoroughfares though the city around the shopping areas of town and next to the local university. After looking through brochures on offer, and the budget on offer the council isn’t sure which way to take. Some of the current locations require a small basic fountain as they are located on smaller foot paths, while its suggest a new design that is easy to locate and see in parks would be good for the people who often jog through, but how do you make them all look like they match? They can choose to go with one company though they don’t want to have 30 of the same thing like last time as in one park there where 5 drinking fountains, its vast open grounds left room to have a more sculptural design. It also made it difficult to upgrade and modernise as some of the fountains had worn out quicker due to high use, so there was a patchy system of new and old designs. People have also been asking for somewhere to fill up their water bottles, most designs

bowl prevent the user from doing so especially with a larger bottle. After stumbling upon Tapped In they discovered they could pick and choose the sinks they needed, which ones where to use filtered water, (a great expense to the council who have opted for a trial run of 5) who if they change their minds due to its success and increase in users can easily upgrade as they desire without the need of changing the design. Tapped in also provides contractors who will routinely clean the faucet and head of the fountains daily, and ensure repairs are organised if needed. Once a fortnight the sinks will be completely cleaned using environmentally friendly cleaning products, ensuring there is no visible build up grime and dirt which is off putting and not fitting the image of hygiene. The council can install the new designs with their own trusted plumbers, or tapped in can use their skilled employers to do this. When the filter needs replacing this is easy as they will take care of ordering the new ones changing and disposing of the old ones. Scenario 2: Tapped in approach a council that sees has a mismatch of drinking fountains that have been brought as demand increased, replaced when high frequently used designs come to the end of their lifespan, where the majority now sit needing to be replaced. After an initial look into their current locations discovering which ones are high use which can be seen with higher wear and tear, which ones are used less and talking to a few of the locals seen using them and what they would want they approach the council with their solution, of how they can upgrade and provide what the people desire to where its needed ensure the council isn’t overlooking and picking a pretty design from a book, but not providing what the users really want. After selecting three sink designs that would be ideal in parks as their sculptural form work add an atmosphere to the open grassy areas and complement the movement of water in their ponds. These also have a dog bowl attached that can be filled for the people who use it as the main location to let their dogs roam free. The local residences what to use filtered water outside in their main high use areas as they find it tastes better and can know what they are drinking is clean. This is easy as with one attachment this is done, if it’s not successful in one area it can be detached and moved to a new location, or if it its they can all have them added in. As Tapped In have noted there are some areas that are used far less frequent than


others but removing the drinking fountains completely would anger residents who use them a cheaper and basic design can be brought, this saves the council money but the residents are still happy as they still have their drinking fountain. Overtime the sinks can be upgraded with new forms and designs to keep in with the cities modernisation, but this wont look out of place as they will fit in with the old designs being produced using the same manufacturing method or using the same formwork and press by Tapped In designers. All of the maintenance including a daily clean/wash of the faucets and buttons with environmental friendly products, a fortnightly clean of the exteriors to remove grime and all plumbing and replacement parts is taken care of by Tapped In. They will also do half yearly reports of how they are running what are high use areas and how people are responding. Scenario 3: Tapped In has installed new drinking fountain around the council and are responsible for a daily clean/wash of the faucets and buttons, maintenance and fixing all plumbing to ensure they are working and safe and a fortnightly clean of the exteriors . If no one uses these drinking fountains it won’t cost the local council anything. As soon as people star to use them the council pays Tapped In for their services on a per litre basis. This can be easily monitored as to how frequent the water filters need to be changed or metered. This means the council only pays for what it uses and not a system of repairs on something that stands unused wasting away. The council also don’t have to pay for the drinking fountains and instillations outright so don’t have to save a large amount of money. The councils also have final say over any new locations of the drinking fountains so they are installed where they want them. The full business plan is not provided to ensure confidentiality and further devolopments:

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These are some of the books which I have found inspiring this year, and if any designer has time are worth a read:

“The well-intended, creative use of recycled materials for new products can be misguided. For example, people may feel that they are making an ecologically sound choice by buying and wearing clothing made of fibers from recycled plastic bottles. But the fibers from plastic bottles were not specifically designed to be next to human skin. Blindly adopting superficial “environmental” approaches without fully understanding their effects can be no better than doing nothing.” “First look at that comfortable chair you are sitting on. Did you know that the fabric contains mutagenic materials, heavy metals, dangerous chemicals, and dyes that are often labeled hazardous materials by regulators – except when they are presented and sold to a customer.” Page3 “The product itself contains on average only 5% of the raw materials involved in the process of making and delivering it. “ Page30 ‘Products that are not designed for human and ecological health are unintelligent and inelegant – what we call crude products.’ Page43

‘Tough problems usually don’t get solved peacefully. They either don’t get solved at all – they get stuck- or they get solved by force’ p1 There is another way to solve tough problems. The people involved can talk and listen to each other and there by work through a solution peacefully. But this way is often too difficult and too slow to produce results, and force the reform becomes the easier, default option.’ ‘Problems are tough because they are complex in three ways. They are dynamically complex which means that cause and effect are far apart in space and time, and are hard to grasp from first hand experience. They are generatively complex, which means that they are unfolding in unfamiliar and unpredictable ways. And they are socially complex, which means that the people involved see things very differently, and so problems become polarized and stuck.’ ‘Being Stuck – not listening to the other side stuck in the mindset you are right. ‘Even if they are silent and pretending to listen, they are only “reloading”, rehearsing their rebuttals. They are in fact listening only to themselves, to the tapes they play over and over in their heads about why they are right and others are wrong.’ P42 Not talking = Not listening’

‘From our perspective, these two things kinds of material flows on the planet are just biological and technical nutrients.’

‘The challenges of product development are not about products. They are about interpersonal relations: power trust alignment. If we listen in the normal closed way, for what is right and what is wrong, then we won’t be able to hear what is possible: what might be but not is yet. We won’t be able to create any thing new.’

McDonough, William & Braungart, Michael. (2002)Cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things, New York: North Point Press

Kahane ,Adam (2004) Solving Tough Problems-An open way of talking, listening and creating new realities San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler


‘The relationship that humans have with water is complex, ambivalent, and ever oscillating between to much and to little. Water is the foundation of life. Its energy, healing qualities, light and meditative inspiration is captivity for us all, yet water also contains elements of danger. ‘ ‘Water represents untamed nature and therefore absolute purity, freedom and infinite power, it symbolises the opposite of a world that is fettered by technology.’ ‘Designing with water is a very individual practice influenced by a variety of factors. These include a specific handling of the element of water, the actual site, the role it plays as an architectural element in space, the function of the element needs to fulfill, its various sensory aspects, as well as the symbolic power water can express. ‘ ‘The original function of the fountains was to supply drinking water. The development of a comprehensive public drinking water system, which ultimately included individual apartments, replaced the original function of public fountains as the towns or city’s water supply.’ ‘Designing with water is more expressive if the sensory experience is inter grated into the concept and recontextualized. It is difficult to say which of the senses is most or most intensely stimulated by water. But ultimately a harmonious, well balanced interplay is the key to a successful composition.’ Axel Lohrer (2008)Basics Designing With Water, Basel, Boston, MA: Birkhaeuser Verlag,

‘Exploring the poetics of the everyday and valuing what we have already does not mean a reactionary stance against progress. It means being reflective about the headlong pursuit of progress and innovation at all costs.’ ‘We like to think that we design for ourselves, and we do. But in the important ways we are really very much like a lot of other people. And if you are going to design for yourself then you have to make sure design deeply for yourself because otherwise you are just designing for eccentricities and that is where you are different.’ Charles Ermes ‘Trust in going ahead and doing something guided by intuition in order then to find out, post rationally, what the unconscious has revealed.’ ‘Poetry in objects:For an idea to really speak as an object, that is, a thing in three dimensions, it must have more than one dimension. Reference here, is to dimensions of meaning and association, correspondences of material and context, in addition to more obvious and inescapable physical dimensions. An ‘Idea’ with several ‘value’ dimensions or layers is more likely, on balance, to be rich and intriguing.’

Naylor Maxine, Ball Ralph (2005) Form follows idea: an introduction to design poetics London: Black Dog Publishing


Formlessness, ‘when you think of the word ‘vessel’, a vase or urn like pot probably springs to mind…I think this is what happens when something so ubiquitous that every one owns it. We take ceramics for granted.’ p2 ‘Form: I think ceramics has a potent and underused language of material sensuality. It asks that you notice the minute differences between textures, tones colours and forms. It does literally link us with our planet, with its earth, with our earliest ancestors making vessels to dry in the sun and wind. Its elemental stuff.’ p12 ‘They can make clay look like anything, as if making objects out of clay that looked like they where cast in epoxy resin, or built from leather, wood or bronze was some sort of aesthetic accomplishment in and of itself.’ p21

‘It’s important to be able to understand the business mind. The business mind is always looking at the broader picture. The business mind has to account for all the factors surrounding the idea. The business mind has a measure of detachment from its work. It gives a sense of purpose and realism and often applies logic that wellread people who aren’t designers don’t always consider. The creative mind has a tendency to confuse passion for an idea with emotional attachment to it.’ Page 58 ‘You constantly have to talk to manufacturers to understand their needs and what their goals are –they need to make money there are considerations that you might not have even dreamt of that go to make up the manufacturing model: fire regulations, health and safety guidelines, and shipping terms and conditions that must be satisfied before any customer actually sees the product.’ Page 60

‘The waterproof, hygienic properties of glazed stoneware make it a useful material for sanitary purposes.’ P46

‘The Chinese have an efficient system for turning a design sketch into a finished product. They also have the ability to copy exactly a product that has already being prototyped. They copy it so acuratly that they will even re-do an obvious error that is in the original unless instructed otherwise. I heard a story once from a friend of a friend who was making shoes in China. He sent his manufactures a sample copy that had a hole drilled in its sole to enable it to pass through customs easily as a sample. When he received the finished shoes, the whole shipment of shoes had had holes drilled in the soles – just like the original.’ Page 94

Hanor Ziggy (2007) Breaking the mould: new approaches to ceramics, Black Dog London

McCormack Lee, (2007) Designers are Wankers, London: About Face Publishing


Serra. Josep Ma. (2006) Elementos urbanos: mobiliario y microarquitectura Urban elements: furniture and microarchitecture, Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gili

‘The artist is primarily a visual person. I have always believed that there is no essential difference between the basic visual relationships that concern the fine artist, graphic artist, the industrial designer, and the architect. The difference is in the degree of complexity of visual organization demanded by each situation. Beyond that, there are the materials and techniques of each area. I am convinced that there is a visual discipline suitable for all these areas… It is the exciting concept that there can ne order and structure to the organization of visual expression. ‘ ‘If you can’t make it more beautiful, what’s the point? Almost anybody can do it the other way. ‘ ‘For those of you who have had three-dimensional experiences, and have know the frustration of never completely understanding what you were doing (as I have) or have become stuck at a certain point in the development of a product, the experience of going back to the beginning and proceeding from simple to complex relationships will provide great satisfaction, a sense of freedom, and the security that comes from knowing that you can realize the potential of your idea because you can study it objectively. ‘ ‘If you don’t have a strong design statement at the beginning, the analysis, rather than your visual intent, overtakes the idea. This is the passionate phase. Do it quickly, spontaneously, faster than your conscious mind can sensor. Afterwards, we’ll look at the ideas and refine them. ‘ Greet Hannah, Gail (2002) Elements of Design Rowena Reed Kostellow and the structure of visual relationships, Princeton Architectural Press, New York

1986 Madrid city council Publico 1986 Madrid city council

Atlantida (1991)

Corriente 1993

Sarastro (1993)


Bibliography:

Pages 13/14 Project Topic The Age, Sushi Das, June 28, 2008... and here’s how to bottle water URL http://www. theage.com.au/national/-and-heres-how-to-bottle-water-20080627-2y58.html?page=-1

Sydney Morning Herald, Rachel Browne, May 11, 2008 Battle of the bottle URL http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/homestyle/battle-of-the-bottle-20090403-9p4a.html

Pages 22/23 Project Plan Statement by the Australasian Bottled Water Institute Inc and the Australian Soft Drinks Association Ltd. 1 October 2003 Pet & Polycarbonate bottles PDF file URL

www.australianbeverages.org%2Flib%2Fpdf%2FPetBottles2.pdf&ei=ljPrSZyYGoLi7AOww6jZ Aw&usg=AFQjCNE4lUj5PK-MfNAqYbWqqwndFxo8Cg&sig2=QQ3mL48bxLgePK7MiEj-cw

The Age, Jason Koutsoukis, The real cost of bottled water August 19, 2007 URL http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2007/08/18/1186857841959.html

Pages 47 to 50 Manufacturing overview Daniel F. Cuffaro (2006) Process materials and measurements: all the details industrial designers need to know but can never find, Gloucester, Mass. Rockport Publishers Rober C. Creese (1999) Introduction to manufacturing processes and materials New York, Marcel Dekker Pages 50 to 53 Aluminum: D. Altenpohl (1982) Aluminum viewed from within: an introduction into the metallurgy of aluminum fabrication, DuĚˆsseldorf Stainless steel: Stainless Steel Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia URL http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stainless_steel

Australian stainless steel development association URL http://www.assda.asn.au/index.

php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=39

Process: Daniel F. Cuffaro (2006) Process materials and measurements: all the details industrial designers need to know but can never find, Gloucester, Mass. Rockport Publishers Rober C. Creese (1999) Introduction to manufacturing processes and materials New York, Marcel Dekker


Roozenburg, N.F.M. and J. Eekels (1996). Product Design: Fundamentals and Methods. Chichester, New york Raymond guidot, (2006) Industrial design techniques and materials, Paris: Flammarion Metal Processes: What is Die-Casting process, Sooper Articles URL: http://www.sooperarticles.com/ education-articles/science-articles/what-is-die-casting-process-2983.html Efunda Engineering fundamentals, Forging URL http://www.efunda.com/processes/ metal_processing/forging.cfm wiseGEEK articles, Different Metal Forging Techniques URL: http://www.wisegeek. com/what-are-different-metal-forging-techniques.htm wiseGEEK articles, Perforated Sheet Metal URL: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-isperforated-sheet-metal.htm Enzine @rticles, Design and Uses of Perforated Stainless Steel URL http:// ezinearticles.com/?Design-and-Uses-of-Perforated-Stainless-Steel&id=2088579 Ceramics: Breaking the mould: new approaches to ceramics editor Ziggy Hanor Ceramic Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia URL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceramic Ceramic Processes: Slip Casting, Svenska Keraministutet –Swedish Ceramic Institute PDF file, URL

http://www.keram.se%2Feng%2Fpdf%2Fslip_casting.pdf&ei=lWNVSujAPIHUMvnKncAC&usg =AFQjCNEm7EP6KzDH6U44O8kmSJb8Go3liQ&sig2=Dp0HHQWNtt7aEZ7XUuPFHw

Ceramic Industry Carl E. Frahme February 1, 2003 Forming Ceramics Through Vacuum Hot Extrusion URL http://www.ceramicindustry.com/CDA/Articles/Feature_Arti cle/80434af4d2ac7010VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____ Science Direct Ceramics International Volume 25, Issue 3, April 1999, Pages 201205, W. Bauer*, H. -J. Ritzhaupt-Kleissl and J. Hausselt 1999 Micropatterning of ceramics by slip pressing Isostatic Pressing of ceramics URL http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd ?code=lt0471t225082217&size=largest IEE Kp;pore EcoDesign for ceramic tiles and sanitary ware URL http://ieeexplore. ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel4%2F6041 %2F16131%2F00747596.pdf%3Farnumber%3D747596&authDecision=-203 Morgan, Isostatic Pressing URL http://www.morgantechnicalceramics.com/productsmaterials/process-animations/isostatic-pressing/

LCA: Life cycle analysis and assessment URL http://www.gdrc.org/uem/waste/life-cycle. html Pages 53-54 Filters: Culligan Water, How clean is the water you are drinking URL http://www. culliganwater.com.au/contentwithside.asp?menuid=24&artid=80 Photos used in document: Raymond guidot, (2006) Industrial design techniques and materials, Paris: Pages 67-68 Melbourne Current Drinking fountains 703.01 pdf file Green Steel Drinking Fountain http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/AboutCouncil/PlansandPublications/ Documents/703.01%20Green%20steel%20drinking%20fountain.pdf 703.02 pdf file Park Drinking Fountain http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/AboutCouncil/PlansandPublications/ Documents/703.03%20Stainless%20steel%20drinking%20fountain.pdf 703.03 pdf file Stainless http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/AboutCouncil/PlansandPublications/ Documents/703.03%20Stainless%20steel%20drinking%20fountain.pdf Pages 70-71 Students work from RMIT studio ‘No Bottled Warter’ 2008 Chris Hayes-Kossmann ‘Fill- Up Fountain’ Daniel Waugh ‘Spray’ Drinking fountain Nathan Hollins ‘H-Cube-O’ Mayuko Yoshida “MIZUKI” Page 72 Product images are from Commercial Systems Australia Pty. Lyd. Drinking Fountains URL http://www.commercialsystems.com.au/index.php?page=shop. browse&category_id=13&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=1


Page 73 Product photos are from the following sites: Town and Park Furniture by Adshel URL http://www.townandpark.com.au/Index_ pages/drinking.htm Cox Urban Furniture http://www.coxurbanfurniture.com.au/ Britex Metal Products Co. Pty Ltd http://www.spec-net.com.au/press/0208/bmp_060208.htm Alkina International Pty Ltd http://www.alkina.com/html/Fountains.htm urban fountains + furniture http://www.urbanfountainsfurniture.com.au/products/apollo400.htm Street Furniture Australia http://www.streetfurniture.com/index.php/image/display/233/280/assets/images/ news/2009_news/filtered_water_station_with_no_text.jpg http://www.streetfurniture.com/index.php/image/display/373/280/assets/images/ Page 75 Image Reference (From left to right, top to bottom) 1. http://lh6.ggpht.com/_NrWukh3nGpI/SiJJOJznzoI/AAAAAAAABDo/5_ Tl9W4NzbM/s400/may%2028%20141.jpg 2. http://img366.imageshack.us/img366/26/nvacbabpastor052cj2.jpg 3. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/101/288655554_66d1a370b3.jpg?v=0 4. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/23/27051561_e31075fa37.jpg?v=0 5. http://lh6.ggpht.com/_WRVSLpC_u_w/SSE9eBvcfDI/AAAAAAAAAFk/ R7rV8fAxOKw/s400/1226758985577.jpg 6. http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1095/3172433729_2163d0aaca.jpg?v=0 7. URL http://www.flickr.com/photos/mink/sets/231823/ 8. http://restlessness.wordpress.com/page/17/ Page 76 1.http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_rAfudQiLjfo/SNWuu-ZimnI/AAAAAAAACjE/ jyNpwVXrnp4/s400/kelvinator.jpg 2. http://lh4.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQpeTyuPgI/AAAAAAAAAjc/ toVLp5rxEeU/fdf.jpg 3. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3005/2594920861_5aa43fc744.jpg?v=0 4. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/77/212006322_73a75e6b62.jpg?v=0 5. http://lh5.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQpsgeWsaIAAAAAAAAAjs/3ygTvBhUN 7M/cdcdddd.jpg

6. http://lh5.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQolFcULPI/AAAAAAAAAiA/ CaWphCjJC7U/geelong.jpg 7. http://restlessness.wordpress.com/page/21/ 8. http://lh5.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/SjTRU4i9i9I/AAAAAAAAArU/ wk3KR93uLkk/DFS401D%20Green%20-RGB%20-%20250px%2072dpi.jpg 9. http://lh4.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/SjTQ5y_4fCI/ AAAAAAAAAq4/1krQoj2efOM/DF-tennis.jpg 10. http://lh3.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQpg8YzT6I/AAAAAAAAAjg/1GpCcmIowo/ddcdsd.jpg Page 77 1. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3282/2456784109_90153489c3.jpg?v=0 2. http://lh4.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/SgGfFsUQ92I/AAAAAAAAAWQ/b_ SW53jLqnY/1940s.jpg 3. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3165/3050846481_1aae67b682.jpg?v=0 4. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/178/445745873_212c5881e2.jpg?v=0 5. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3282/2456784109_90153489c3.jpg?v=0 6. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3282/2456784109_90153489c3.jpg?v=0 7. http://restlessness.wordpress.com/page/21/ 8. http://lh5.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQpM3sJ_MI/AAAAAAAAAjA/ HduC5AyNdJA/mdlod.jpg Pages 78-79 1. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3635/3410825945_3ccaa50c5b.jpg?v=0 2. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/38/90735288_49bf7c7c62.jpg?v=0 3. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3328/3226739865_29f4c6ceef.jpg?v=0 4. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3169/3051680244_dd73b5ebbf.jpg?v=0 5. http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2119/2206457988_ffa36a9af7.jpg?v=0 6. http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2185/3536746479_ea3c3b5548.jpg?v=0 7. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/48/132541218_2ed15e8a7e.jpg?v=0 http:// restlessness.wordpress.com/tag/images/ 8. http://lh3.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQpg8YzT6I/AAAAAAAAAjg/1GpCcmIowo/ddcdsd.jpg 9. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3182/2859518493_2773ddfdcb.jpg?v=0 11. http://restlessness.wordpress.com/page/21/ 12. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3134/2671698550_013f2fafc2.jpg?v=0 13. http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2187/2120800575_fe8fb991f9.jpg?v=0 14. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/138/353735691_bd66526e70.jpg?v=0 15. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3257/2539220465_842513da91.jpg?v=0


16. http://lh4.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQo74NAx0I/AAAAAAAAAio/ OvUGVSXj2ew/new.jpg Page 80 1. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/122/303868683_1bb2ad3699.jpg?v=0 2. http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1128/536232428_f3dffbc979.jpg?v=0 3. http://restlessness.wordpress.com/page/21/ 4. http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1069/1056649337_2ad7ddf114.jpg?v=1186631312 5. http://restlessness.wordpress.com/page/21/ 6. http://lh3.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQo6OVOtUI/AAAAAAAAAik/baVd5VokBE/tounge.jpg 7. http://lh3.ggpht.com/_8j6se1tHvn0/RzeNZbZuFtI/AAAAAAAAEZk/lA_J_ aHRmIs/s400/Picture%20049.jpg 8. http://lh4.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQp0fjih4I/AAAAAAAAAj4/1C8wxmqXZM/ssssssss.jpg 9. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/88/233901807_fd51729b2e.jpg?v=0 10. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3260/2630794289_537240666b.jpg?v=0 11. http://www6.worldisround.com/photos/25/582/578.jpg 12. http://lh5.ggpht.com/_oJFZRusH9m8/ShQot-JlcZI/AAAAAAAAAiQ/K6r_6XY_Yk/drink.jpg 13. http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3316/3508576365_699b6a73ce.jpg?v=0 Pafes 108-109 City of Melbourne Bike Map (2003) URL: http://www.bv.com.au/file/ CityOfMelbourne-BikeMap2003.pdf Page 124 Street Furniture Plan 2005 – 2010 Melbourne City Council November 2005 URL http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=145&pg=3032 Pages 125-127 Standards Australia Database accessed through RMIT Library AS 1428.2 Page 43 27.3 Drinking fountains and water coolers Australian Standards AS1428.2 United States Patent number 4872485, United States Patent number 2747930, United States Patent 612929, U.S. Classification 251321000 Images:Patents for Drinking Fountains: URL: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/ result.html?query_txt=drinking%20fountains&sort=relevance

URL:http://cache.gawker.com/assets/images/gizmodo/2009/03/hansa_latrava.jpg URL:http://cache.gawker.com/assets/images/gizmodo/2009/03/hegowaterdesignfaucet-flower-2.jpg Parts of drinking fountains. PCP Recessed Push Button URL: http://www.usadrinkingfountainparts.com/HawsPCP_Recessed_Push_Button.html Page 129 Images: Fluid Faucet URL http://unitedrotation.com/2009/05/19/fluid-faucet/ Page 129 http://www.access-board.gov/ada-aba/final.cfm http://unitedrotation.com/2009/05/19/fluid-faucet/ Images 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_%28plumbing%29#Cross 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug_valve 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tap_%28valve%29 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ball_valve Page 132 Semiotics in product design, September 2002, Sara Ilstedt Hjelm, CID, CENTRE FOR USER ORIENTED IT DESIGN URL: http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&sour ce=web&ct=res&cd=2&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcid.nada.kth.se%2Fpdf%2FCID175.pdf &ei=ErGMSvviBtefkQXettQ0&rct=j&q=Semiotics+in+product+design%3A+Sara+Il stedt+Hjelm+CID%2C+CENTRE+FOR+USER+ORIENTED+IT+DESIGN+Septem ber+2002&usg=AFQjCNH4aTNzDZAlrnt8im1qw4aiW8dBMg&sig2=cX9Stc2YY2jj ofWBtowekQ Page 133-134 Backcasting for Industrial Transformations and System Innovations Towards Sustainability: Relevance for Governance? URL: http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/ polwiss/forschung/systeme/ffu/akumwelt/bc2003/proceedings/409%20-%20437%20 quist.pdf Available online 4 July 2007 Accessed by science direct URL, www.sciencedirect. com www.elsevier.com/locate/futures Past and future of backcasting: The shift to stakeholder participation and a proposal for a methodological framework Jaco Quista,_, Philip Vergragtb Available online


Page 133-134 Continued April 2006 Accessed by science direct URL, www.sciencedirect.com Backcasting for sustainability in engineering education: the case of Delft University of Technology Jaco Quist*, Crelis Rammelt, Mariette Overschie, Gertjan de Werk 3 March 2006 Accessed by science direct URL, www.sciencedirect.com or www. elsevier.com/locate/jclepro Page 136 Can new-look fountains beat the plastic bottle? The Age Newspaper Annabel Stafford August 23, 2008 URL: http://www.theage.com.au/national/can-newlook-fountains-beat-the-plasticbottle-20080822-40eb.html?page=-1 Pages 137-138 URL: the manly council water fountain project How councils can reinvent the water fountain http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.bottledwateralliance.com.au%2Fen%2FSolutions%2520and%2520Tips%2F Case%2520Studies%2F~%2Fmedia%2FD91EE228DB2F4B97B75C888309C776D0. ashx&ei=fgiMSs6eDoPW7AObpuyUDw&rct=j&q=Culligan+5+years+of+free+filte rs+manly&usg=AFQjCNHdWijQTGTvQq4vbh2ar3nb93zFXg&sig2=cig1E0u8SW D-0_VUQ1XCbA Reduce bottle waste: Water fountains in Manly Posted in Models by Kate Archdeacon on July 27th, 2009 URL:http://www.manly.nsw.gov.au/Content.aspx?PageID=42&ItemID=406 http://manly-daily.whereilive.com.au/news/story/flu-causes-dry-throats-councilcrackdown-shuts-bubblers/ Page 139 Bundy votes on bottled water ban Ben Cubby July 8, 2009 URL: http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/breaking-news/town-votes-to-banbottled-water/story-e6frf7jx-1225747548729 Bundy on tap gives the Immigration Department a liquid lesson Sep 28, 2009 URL: http://www.theage.com.au/environment/water-issues/bundy-votes-on-bottledwater-ban-20090708-dc6f.html Bundanoon gives up bottled water By Laural-Lee Roderick 26/09/2009 http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/society-and-culture/bundyontap-gives-theimmigration-department-a-liquid-lesson-20090928-g8kc.html

Pages 142-144 How Bottled Water Works, URL: http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/bottled-water. htm Get rid of plastic water bottles McNally Shelagh URL:http://www.greenlivingonline. com/article/get-rid-plastic-water-bottles Plastic Mineral Water Bottles Contaminate Water with Estrogen. URL: http://www. azom.com/news.asp?newsID=16193 Bottled Water Myths: Separating Fact from Fiction URL:http://www.healthsystem. virginia.edu/internet/digestive-health/nutritionarticles/LeisingArticle.pdf Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water, Paul Westerhoff, Panjai Prapaipong, Everett Shock, Alice Hillaireau, URL:http://geopig.asu.edu/people/Prapaipong/publications/Westerhoff2007.pdf Does sunlight change the material and content of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles? M.Wegelin, S. Canonica, A. C. Alder, D. Marazuela, M. J.-F. Suter, Th. D. Bucheli, O. P. Haefliger, R. Zenobi, K. G. McGuigan, M. T. Kelly, P. Ibrahim and M. Larroque URL: http://www.environmental-expert.com/Files%5C5302%5Carticles%5 C9775%5CDoessunlightchangethematerial.pdf re Think plastics,2008, intentional living for the sustainable future, Suzanne Drake, DBA re: Think URL: http://www.rethinkyourworld.com/files/reThinkPlastics.pdf The New York Times, April 22, 2008, A Hard Plastic Is Raising Hard Questions , TARA PARKER-POPE URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/22/health/22well.html ABC Science Online Wed Sep 17, 2008, Common plastic linked to heart disease Anna Saleh URL: http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/09/17/2367355. htm?site=science&topic=latest Think Outside the Bottle: the Responsible Purchasing Guide to Bottled Water Alternatives 2008 URL:www.ResponsiblePurchasing.org Polyethylene terephthalate, the free encyclopedia URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Polyethylene_Terephthalate#Degradation’ Drinking Water URL:http://www.melbournewater.com.au/content/water_storages/ water_supply/water_catchments.asp URL:http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/water/nu00283 Chris Jordan photographs URL: http://www.chrisjordan.com/ Page 145 TreeHugger: A World of reasons to ditch Bottled Water. URL: http://www. treehugger.com/files/2007/07/reasons_to_ditch_bottled_water.php The Times February 16, 2008. Bling-bling guzzlers are the new smokers. Thank me URL: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/giles_coren/ article3379515.ece


The Times February 16, 2008. Bling-bling guzzlers are the new smokers. Thank me URL: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/giles_coren/ article3379515.ece

Sydney Morning Herald, May 11, 2008, Browne Rachel, Battle of the bottle: URL: http://www.smh.com.au/news/environment/cocacola-blasted-for-plant-a-treescheme/2008/02/22/1203467388904.html

Page 146 Turn back to your taps - we all pay the price for bottled water URL: http://www. timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article732079.ece The Times, Wright Oliver, Thousands of bellyaches linked to bottled water URL: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1165642.ece

Page 152 Sydney Morning Herald, February 23, 2008, Lee Julian, Message on a bottle labelled as greenwash URL: http://www.smh.com.au/news/environment/message-on-abottle-labelled-as-greenwash/2008/02/22/1203467388904.html Mount Franklin’s perspective URL: http://www.thewellofpositivity.com/

Page 147 The Age, August 19, 2007, Koutsoukis Jason, The real cost of bottled water URL: http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2007/08/18/1186857841959.html

Page 153 The Truth About Bottled Water URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfPAjUvvnIc&eurl=http%3A%2F%2Frestles sness.wordpress.com%2F2009%2F04%2Fpage%2F2%2F&feature=player_embedded Don’t Be Fooled URL: http://vodpod.com/watch/1542864-dont-be-fooled?pod=haleys Tap Water vs. Bottled Water URL: http://vodpod.com/watch/1542919-tap-water-vsbottled-water?pod=haleys Liquid Gold 60 Minutes: URL: http://sixtyminutes.ninemsn.com.au/article. aspx?id=799751

Page 148 The Age, June 28, 2008, Das Sushi URL: http://www.theage.com.au/national/-andheres-how-to-bottle-water-20080627-2y58.html The Age, February 26, 2006, Munro Catharine, Bottled water the ‘new ecodisaster’ URL: http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/bottled-water-the-newecodisaster/2006/02/25/1140670303250.html Pages 149150 ABC News online, Wed Oct 29, 2008 Walsh John, Generation H2O URL: http:// www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/10/29/2404165.htm ABC News Thu Nov 22, 2007, Bottled water in green groups’ sights URL: http:// www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/11/22/2097571.htm?section=justin E/The Environmental Magazine, Howard Brian, Message in a Bottle URLhttp://www. wvwd.com/Pages-Content/WaterQuality/MessageInBottle.htm Some advice from the Australasian Bottled Water Institute Statement by the Australasian Bottled Water Institute Inc and the Australian Soft Drinks Association Ltd.1 October 2003 URL: http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t& source=web&ct=res&cd=5&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.australianbeverages. org%2Flib%2Fpdf%2FPetBottles2.pdf&ei=ljPrSZyYGoLi7AOww6jZAw&usg=AFQjC NE4lUj5PK-MfNAqYbWqqwndFxo8Cg&sig2=QQ3mL48bxLgePK7MiEj-cw Page151 Sydney Morning Herald, July 29, 2007, Edwards Hannah, Don’t buy bottled water, activists urge URL: http://www.smh.com.au/news/environment/dont-buy-bottledwater-activists-urge/2007/07/28/1185339322381.html

Pages 154-155 The Age online, August 22, 2007 Clay Lucas URL: http://www.theage.com.au/news/ national/the-quest-for-answers-in-a-dry-argument/2007/08/21/1187462266591.html Just Free Water URL: www.myspace.com/justfreewater.com Patrick Jones Blog URL: http://gardenofselfdefence.blogspot.com/ http://www.dissent.com.au/dissent_27_summary.htm Pages 158-159 Do Something Campaign - URL: http://dosomething.net.au/ Bottled Water Alliance: URL: http://www.bottledwateralliance.com.au/ School Water Fountains to Prevent Obesity By Tara Parker-Pope URL: http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/30/school-water-fountains-to-preventobesity/?scp=4&sq=drinking%20fountains&st=cse The New York Times



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