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Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


I

Forewords It is a great pity that our nation has entangled by various social and economical problems and drug abuse is one of them. Approximately, there are more than 7 million drug abusers in Pakistan and its prevalence is rapidly increasing. Drug abuse is a social evil which has ruined the nation economically, morally and psychologically. Every segment of life is under the influence places, workplaces

and

educational

of drugs . Our homes, public

institution

have been entangled by drug

abuse. Due to poor knowledge and insufficient information , every day a large number of people are being trapped by all sorts of drugs . Unfortunately, insufficient IEC (information, education, communication) material is available regarding drug abuse problems. The time demands the IEC material in national language in order to make people aware of hazardous associated with all kinds of drug abuse. Keeping it in view, Drug free Nation (DFN) has planned to publish books and other IEC materials in this regard. The book in your hand is a first step towards the upcoming change nationwide. This book

contains articles addressing drug abuse problems which already have

been published in online magazine SADA (Society

against

drug

addiction )

during the period of 2010 to 2012 Finally, I pray Allah Almighty to grant whole nation the divine guidance to learn from the information available in the book and also grant energy and passion to the team of Drug Free Nation (DFN)to continue its services for the betterment of society , Ameen

Haider Ali President Drug Free Nation Haider.meher@gmail.com

Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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Contents

Page

1

Forewords

I

2

Aftercare Services for Recovering drug addicts By Riffat Sadiq

1

3

Ramadan helps to quit drugs and evil actions By Ayesha Faisal

3

4

Parental Addiction and Dropout of their children from Schools By Safia Rafiq

4

5

Importance of Community Mobilization in Preventing Drug Abuse Problems By Haider Ali

5

6

Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy in Treating Drug Abuse Problems By Riffat Sadiq

6

7

Psychosocial Impact of Drug Abusers on their Children By Rifat Sadiq

7

8

Your Life Is Not Only Your Life By Safia Rafiq

8

9

Drug Addiction: Open the door of crimes By Haider Ali

9

10

Make Your Students Drug Free By Safia Rafiq

10

11

Get benefit from Ramadan to overcome addiction By Nasreen Kausar

11

12

Drug Abuse Problems and Marital Relations By Dr. Amena Zehra Ali & Riffat Sadiq

12

13

Preventing drug addiction among teen age children By Riffat Sadiq

14

14

Use of betel nut in young children By Safia Rafiq

15

14

Effectiveness of Family Therapy By Munnaza Mehmood

16

15

Parents: Helping Hands for Children By Safia Rafiq

17

16

5- Strategies to deal traumatic events By Riffat Sadiq

18

17

Introduction of Drugs By Dr.Abdullah Wardak

20

18

Ethical Responsibility of Health Professionals By Riffat Sadiq

21

19

Role of electronic Media in Preventing Drug Abuse Problems By Haider Ali

23

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Drug Addiction and our Economy By Ubaid-u-Rehman

24

21

Fashion of Smoking and our students By Safia Rafiq

25

22

Sleepy Nation, Biggest Disaster By Haider Ali

26

23

A Chain of Destruction By Rifat Sadiq

27

24

7-Ways for Staying Away from drugs By Shireen Ismail

28

25

Patterns and Consequences of Drug Abuse Problems at workplace By Haider Ali & Riffat Sadiq

30

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Psychological Risk Factors for Drug Abuse Problems By Shireen Ismail

31

27

Poverty and Drug Abuse By Riffat Sadiq

32

28

Consequences of Tobacco Use (Gutka) By Haider Ali

33

29

Myths about drug abuse By Haider Ali

34

30

Drug Abuse among Professional Students By Safia Rafiq

35

31

Positive Self –image Prevents Drug Abuse By Riffat Sadiq

36

Drug Free Nation © 2012-2013


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AFTERCARE SERVICES FOR RECOVERING DRUG ADDICTS By Riffat Sadiq Drug abuse is a disease which needs to be focused of intensive care even after providing quality of detoxification and rehabilitation services to drug abusers. In order to sustain long term recovery, patients are provided aftercare services by same treatment and rehabilitation centers. Following services are included in a comprehensive aftercare program; Follow up: Follow up is conducted by treatment centers in order to keep in touch with patient and his/her family. Patient is bound to visit for consultation regarding his or her disease and other problem as well. His family is also taken into consideration to make the patient merge in the mainstream. Family Support Group: Drug addiction is a disease that harms not only patient but also the whole family psychological, economically and emotionally. As a result, family becomes co-dependent and develops certain emotional and behavioral problems. Along this, family has to play a vital role in sustaining the recovery of patient. Therefore, family support groups are conducted in order to address the issues and problems pertaining to recovering drug addict and his whole family. Ex-Addict Support Group: Recovering addicts need to be closed to those who are either saved from drug abuse problems or trying to overcoming their drug addiction. They also need to be a part of group that has more or less similar problems so that they can share their feelings, emotions and problems on the same level. Considering this, ex-addict support groups are conducted to provide emotional supportive environment that further help in staying away from drug abusers. Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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Life Skill Training: Owing to be indulged in drug addiction, an addict deteriorates his skills that help him to be a part of mainstream. Therefore, life skill training (e.g, stress management, problem solving) is provided to recovering addicts so that they can re-construct their skills to be survive in their external environment Vocational Training: In order to make an addict self-supporting, vocational training is provided to enhance his or her occupational skills. Usually, recovering addicts are referred to vocational institutes where they learn different technical occupation to earn money.

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Ramadan Helps To Quit Drugs and Evil Actions By Ayesha Faisal 1. "O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint."[al-Baqarah, 2:183] Self control means to be stayed away from food and water. An addict can learn to stop taking drug while fasting. 2. ''Allah is with those who restrain themselves'' [AlQuran 16:128] If addict promises to do fast in Ramadan and finds it difficult to control his addiction, he should pray to Allah, He will help him and provide enough tolerance to beat addiction. 3. The Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) said, "Whoever does not give up forged speech and evil actions, Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink (i.e. Allah will not accept his fasting.)" [Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 31, Number 127]. Ramadan is not confined to be stayed away from eating but it also demands to be stop evil actions. An addict can stop lying, stealing and gambling in the month of Ramadan. 4. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, "Fasting is a shield (or a screen or a shelter). So, the person observing fasting should avoid sexual relation with his wife and should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should tell him twice, 'I am fasting." [Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 31, Number 118]. In Ramadan, an addict can overcome his addiction and illegal acts. He can control his sexual desires and get rid of illicit sexual relation. He can also be able to control his aggression and abusive behavior that make family environment stressful for other family members

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Parental Addiction & Dropout of Their Children from Schools By Safia Rafiq Parents are like a tree that protects from sunlight, rain and other hazardous who comes to stand under it. It is pity to see that parents who are abusing drugs failed to protect their innocent children from external danger. They are dependent on their innocent children instead to providing good food and education to them. Besides hunger, rejection from society, they are also deprived of proper education. The dropout ratio of these children from school is rapidly increasing. The reason is that they are not being provided money by fathers to run home, therefore, they have to work to bear household expenses. They can not bear school fee, books and are not having sufficient time to pay attention to their studies. After paying 6 to 8 hours duty, they do not have enough energy for study. For these children, doing job and school can not get along. Eventually, they have no choice to sacrifice their education despite having great desire to continue their studies. In fact, they sacrifice their dreams along with educations. Via this article, I request concerned authority and non-governmental organization (working for children rights) to save these innocent children too. Otherwise, they will be like their father, will abuse drugs and may get involved in crimes related to drug abuse problems.

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Importance of Community Mobilization in Preventing Drug Abuse Problems By Haider Ali Meher By definition, community mobilization is a process through which a strong and effective relationship with commitment and enthusiasm is build among stakeholders and communities in order to achieve the same. Usually community members take actions to stimulate, plan and evaluate the whole of process so that common living standards of the people can be enhanced. Like other issues such as education; drug abuse problems is a social issue which can be solved by taking stern action and complete involvement of communities. Because, drug addiction is not only the problem of individual but family and whole society has been affected badly. It has appeared as a global problem. Therefore, without mobilizing the whole community , we can't make our society drug free. In order to mobilize the community to stand against the drug abuse, following community members can play a vital role; Teachers Religious leaders NGOs Government official Community leaders Health Facility ( service providers, support staff, outreach workers) All these community members can be approached via different channels such as; NGOs Local government Local leaders - traditional and formal Community Resource persons Special clubs or interest groups Media Industrial and trade association Through this, community members will take responsibility and ownership to eradicate the drug addiction from the society. A strong community support will be available. Appropriate drug abuse prevention strategies will be generated that will further help in implementing policy pertaining to drug abuse prevention in future. Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy in Treating Drug Abuse Problems By Riffat Sadiq Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is being widely used in treating people suffering from drug abuse problems because it works with both cognitive and behavior patterns of the patients. It focuses on negative schemas, beliefs which lead to maladaptive behavior such as addictive behavior. Therapist, via conducting cognitive -behavior therapy, tries to focus on deficit coping skills of drug abusers. Drug abusers think of them unable to cope with the problematic situation and when they saw others to take drugs to get rid of the problem, they prefer to take drugs instead of facing problems. Cognitive-behavior therapist works on their sense of self-efficacy identifies strengths in order to enhance adaptive skills. It also makes aware of antecedents and consequences of drug abuse problems. Patient learns to identify those psychological, social and physiological factors which lead to drug addiction and understands the consequences in case of indulging in drug addiction. He or she also learns to identify high risk factors and situation that may bring him/her close to drugs. Cognitive-behavior therapy is effective in relapse prevention. Its helps to identify high risk factors of relapse, decrease sense of helplessness in front of problematic situation and enhance self-control in recovering addicts. They identify their negative thoughts, beliefs and work on their coping skills. Techniques included in cognitive-behavior therapy deal with craving, relapse and other problems. It can be used during rehabilitation and aftercare services. It appeared to be an effective tool to treat variety of drug abuse problems.

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Psychosocial Impact of Drug Abusers On their Children By Riffat Sadiq Addiction to drugs burns every thing like a fire. Wealth, family and every aspect of life is deteriorated. In family, parents, spouses and children of drug abusers are severely affected. Though, children are fully dependent on their parents and caregivers, therefore, they are at great risk of psychosocial problems. Children expect all of their needs to be gratified by their parents. When they see their parents, a source of satisfaction for them, involved in unhealthy and useless activities, they become insecure and frustrated. When their physiological and affectional needs are not satisfied, they do not grow emotionally. Finally, they develop psychological problems. Dr. Uzmat Ali (2003) has empirically proved that adult children of substance abuser fathers suffer from depression, psychasthenia, paranoia, hypomania, psychopathic personality disorder and aggression. Due to drug abuse problems in parents, they also have to face economic and social problems. They receive rejection from society, feel deprived of basic amenities, and could not get benefit from health and educational facilities. There are number of children who are compelled to work to run their home at the cost of sacrificing their academic career. They are working in factories, polishing shoes, selling newspaper. Some of them are involved in begging, stealing and other minor crimes. The most dangerous impact on these innocent children is seen in the form of their interest in using drugs like their parents. Many children started taking drugs after observing their parents. They are using all kinds of drugs. Just for drugs and money, some of them are being used as sex worker. These children also found to be giving drugs to others children and sexually abuse them. Parent must realize that their each action, way of life affect their children. Parents are like an umbrella for their children. Dear Parents: Please realize your duty assigned to you by the nature

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Your Life Is Not Only Your Life By Safia Rafiq Oh dear! You usually say these words while answering people, "This is my life. Don't interrupt in my matters; I will live my life as I wish". You really think that this life is only your life. If you think so, then look at the following points; 1. You live with your family (wife and children). You smoke in front of your innocent child. Your child starts copying you in every thing and one day he/she tests a cigarette. What will happen? 2. You go to a park, throw wrapper on the floor, spit on the green grass after eating betel nut (gutka). Innocent children, women and other people watch you smoking, drinking and eating pan and gutka. What will happen? 3. You work in an office. You eat supari, gutka, use cigarette. Your customers and other staff members observe you. What will happen? 4. You go to mosque to offer your prayer. While returning home, you purchase cigarette, pan, supari in front of others/children/people? What will happen 5. You sit in your mohalla or street with your friends and neighbors. Youngsters and children are also playing in the street. You smoke, eat supari and gutka. Your friends, children and youth observe you using drugs. What will happen? Result: When people including youth, children, men and women observe you using pan, gutka, supari and cigarette, they will feel no harm in using these things. That means, you will be responsible to develop unhealthy habits in others. Your way of life and decisions affect others too. I hope that you will not think any more that this life is only your own life. So please , Be Alert, Be Aware and Be Alive

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Drug Addiction: Open The Door Of Crimes By Haider Ali Once, my teacher had said, "Addiction to drugs is a mother of crimes. When I started working in the field of addiction, I realized that drug addiction is indeed a mother of all crimes and sins. In Pakistan, numbers of crimes are increasing with the rapid increase in drug abusers. Drug abuser usually gets involved in theft, robbery to get money not only for drugs but also for different groups. Sometimes, they kill their family members to get money. It was reported that a drug addict killed his two daughters and wounded his wife and another daughter for not giving him money for drugs. A drug addict killed another drug addict to over heroin token. It was also reported in newspaper that money gained from drug trafficking is being utilized in terrorist activities to destabilize the country. Drug addicts seem to be involved in terrorist activities. Drugs are also being commonly used by drivers of public transport. Sometimes, their intoxication became the cause of road accidents. We all must request to government, non-governmental agencies and media to pay attention to this issue. Because, addiction of drug is not only a disease but it opens the door of other crimes which are destabilizing our whole society.

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Make Your Students Drug Free By Safia Rafiq After parents, teacher is a person who plays a vital role in character building of his students. Teacher is not only there to teach curriculum but also is responsible to make inform his students about the positive and negative aspects of social changes. Teacher is also responsible to impart knowledge about social diseases. Drug abuse problem is one of social diseases. Though, use of drugs is increasing among students, therefore, teacher should take preventive steps to save future builders of our nation. Here are some strategies which teacher should act upon to make students drug free; 1. Get Knowledge about drug addiction: First you get information to have deep understanding of drug abuse problems, its causes and consequences before talking to students. Without having complete information and understanding, you will not be able to convince your students 2. Accept all kinds of addiction: You should accept all kinds of addiction. Many people don not consider betel nut, alcohol as addiction. Besides heroin/ cannabis, alcohol, betel nut, tobacco, prescribed medicines are also included in addiction. Even smoking cigarette is an addiction. 3. Be a role model: Before talking to students about addiction, you should present yourself as a role model for them. If you are smoking cigarette in front of your students, then your suggestions will not be effective for them. 4. Impart knowledge to your students: You should impart information to your students during class. If you do not have enough time, then talk to your students about drug abuse problems just for 5 minutes. In few minutes you can at least make them alert. 5. Teach them healthy activities You can arrange activities which can be source of learning more about drug abuse problems besides expressing their talents, potentials. You can arrange speech competition, paintings dramas, related to drug abuse problems

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Get Benefit from Ramadan to Overcome Addiction By Nasreen Kausar Ramadan is not only a month of offering prayers, stayed away from food and water but it is a month of controlling habits, wishes and desires. Addiction of drugs weakens the man in terms of controlling self, destroying thoughts. Need to take drug again and again impair his ability to manage his behavior and he fully becomes dependent on a substance which can never benefit him. In the Holy month of Ramadan, people stay away from all kinds of food and water from dawn to dusk. They stop themselves from fulfilling basic needs for a definite time and gain full control over their desires. Not only food but they also refrain from illegal acts and evils that is a sign of controlled impulses. Ramadan teaches us how to manage and control self. An addict craves for drugs and stopping his need to use drug seems to be difficult to him. By fasting, he can stop himself from any kind of drugs and other acts by only thinking about Allah Almighty. A Muslim who feels hunger and thirst but his thinking of being closed to Allah gives him tolerance and energy to pass the time successfully. Next day, he again likes to go through the same experience. Similarly, an addict can overcome his addictive behavior by fasting. He can pray Allah to give him energy and power to tolerate this pain. Initially, it will be difficult but continuous efforts will bring positive change. From dawn to dusk, he will not only stop himself from taking drugs but offering prayers on time and reciting Quran will teach him self-management like hygiene. He will also be able to stop himself from lying, stealing and other crimes associated to drug addiction. So, Ramadan is the best month to learn self-control and time-management besides overcoming bad habits, drug addiction and associated problems. It is a gift from Allah Almighty for us to learn a lot besides fasting and offering prayer, if we think.

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Drug Abuse Problems and Marital Relations By Dr. Amena Zehra Ali & Riffat Sadiq Nature has created men and women to share love and to fulfill commitments to each other. As mentioned in Sura Al-Baqara (2:228), "And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses, etc.) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect, etc.) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allâh is AllMighty, All-Wise''. Strong commitments strengthen marital relationship, promotes adaptive social comparison, relationship superiority and effective management of jealousy (Rusbult & Buunk, 1993). One also shows willingness to be with his/her partner. If one of them fails to fulfill commitment, then distress in marital relation appears. Researches reveal that chronic illness in one of the family members results in psychological problems( i.e, depression, chronic stress) in rest of the family member specifically who assumes a role of care giver, either s/he is a friend or relative of patient ( Schulz & Sherwood., 2008). Drug abuse problems also affect the whole family. In Pakistan, the yearly estimated rate of increase of drug addicts is 100,000 that also seem to affect approximately 20 million family members psychologically, socially and economically as well (Muhammad, 2003). When an earning member of a family indulges in addictive behavior, his wife and children have to be dependent on others, such as their parents and grandparents, for the gratification of their basic needs. As a result, they feel deprived of food and good education (Dean, 1984). Drug abuse problems result in destruction of marital relationship. Fals-Stewart and Birchler (1998) measured dyadic adjustment in couples. Among four groups of couples, 94 couples were having drug dependent husbands, 36 were having drug dependent wives, 87 were having drug dependent husband and wives and 70 couples were getting family therapy for their marital distress. Results showed that all groups appeared to be dissatisfied with their marital relationship, used maladaptive methods to resolve their conflicts, and took steps for relationship dissolution. They were having shortage in communication skills, problems solving skills, general relationship commitment and stability. Marital Satisfaction also appeared to be inversely related to socio-behavioral consequences of drinking (Zweben, 1986). Drug abuse problems also lead to violence. Women who were victim of physical violence during pregnancy reported that their husbands were either drug addicts or unemployed and were intolerable toward them as investigated by Rehman & Shahid (2008). Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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Thus, in the light of empirical studies, it is argued that drug abuse leads to destruction in marital life that further destroys the whole family. It is essential of address this problems in order to save not only a person but his immediate family too. References: Dean, B. (1984). The physiological, socioeconomic and psychological factors of drug abuse. Reflection of drug abuse. In U. Farhat.(2003), Substance addicts Fathers and Psychological Problems of their Adult Children. Unpublished dissertation, Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi. Fals-Stewart, W., & Birchler, G. R. (1998). Marital Interaction of Drug-Abusing Patients and their Partner: Comparison with distressed Couples and Relation to Drug Using Behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 12(1), 28-38 Muhammad, G. (2003). A sociological study of drug abuse in Pakistani Society with special references to Heroin addicts, its courses and consequences. Retrieved on July 19, 2011 from http//:www.eprints.hec.gov.pk Rehman, S. A., & Shahid, M. (2008). Over half of the pregnant wives are subjected to domestic violence in Pakistan. Retrieved on July 19, 2011 from http/:wwwthiaindian.com Rusbult, C. E, & Buunk, B. P. (1993).Commitment Process in Close Relationship. An Interdependence Analysis. Journal of Personal and Social Relationship, 10(2), 175- 204 Schulz, R., & Sherwood, P. R. (2008). Physical and Mental Health Effects on Family Care giving. The American Journal of Nursing, 108(9), 23-7 Zweben, A. (1986). Problem drinking and Marital Adjustment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47(2), 167-72

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Preventing Drug Addiction among Teen Age Children By Riffat Sadiq Our teens are at great risk of drug addiction as shown by empirical studies. This age is a puberty age therefore, certain physical and emotional changes occur in the personality. Parents should be alert all the time to not only keep an eye on them but also provide emotional support and should understand their feelings. If they do so, they children will be less likely to be influenced by others. Moreover, they will be prevented from drug addiction. There are some strategies or tips for parents to save their children 1. Build healthy communication: Parent should build healthy and clear communication with their teen age children in order to have understanding what they feel and think. Healthy, positive and clear communication reduces confusion in parent-child relationship and boosts the confidence in children. Healthy communication also includes the friendly discussion regarding social issues and addiction is one of them. 2. Provide appropriate information Parents are responsible to provide age-appropriate information pertaining to social problems. Information related to all kinds of drugs, its causes and consequences should be discussed with children in order to prevent them from drugs. 3. Keep an eye on their activities and friends Responsible parents have knowledge about the children's activities and their friends too. Parents must be aware of the time their children spend with their friends, teach them to deal peer pressure and say no when they are offered to be involved any illicit activity. 4.Set rules Parents should set rules and implement these rules in family. Rules must be ageappropriate and for whole family. Rules should not be imposed but gradually taught with understanding. If they follow rules, then parents should appreciate them. 5. Be a role model Parents are role model for their children. If parents, themselves, use drugs, they will not be able to save their children from this disease. Parents should avoid all kinds of drugs and become a good example for their children Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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Use of Betel Nut in Young Children By Safia Rafiq During a training program conducted in a school, it was inquired about the use of betel nut from school children in daily routine. It was observed that 65 percent of them were using bĂŞte nut. Some of them were using 2 to 3 small size of packet and some of them were using 7 to 8 once a day. Children also reported that sometimes, they used betel nut in front of their family and sometimes, they hid from their parents. It is a great concern for all of us that the use of betel nut in young children is rapidly increasing. Betel nut is easily available at tuck shop on cheap prices. A single small packet costs 1 rupee and young children can easily buy that. Another great concern is that their families do not consider the use of betel nut as addiction. In some families, mothers, sisters and elder brothers also use it and send these innocent children to tuck shop to buy betel nut for their use. They put the example of using betel nut for them and as a result, these young children also test it. Though, this betel nut (supari) gives sweet taste, therefore, children like it very much. Unfortunately, they become addicted to these supari (betel nut) that gradually and slowly impair their health. It was also reported by the children that after continuous use of betel nut, they had headache and chest pain. They lost their interest in studies too. No one is paying attention to this problem. Perhaps, we are living in supari and gutka culture. When elder do not hesitate to take gutka and betel nut then it is not possible for these young children to be stayed away from that. In order to prevent our young children from drug addiction and use of supari and to eliminate supari and gutka culture, we all will have to work

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Effectiveness of Family Therapy By Munnaza Mehmood It is fact that if one family member is addicted, the whole family environment is badly affected. Drug abuse problems make other family members mentally, physically and socially ill. For this reason, family members become themselves codependents and suffer from numbers of psychological problems. They provide money to their patient to escape from the problematic situation. Therefore, health professionals, besides treating addicts, recommend family therapy so that family can play its role in the treatment of family member. Family therapy focuses on entire family, treat psychological problems and assist in facing social problems. Unhealthy coping mechanism in family members of drug addicts affects the treatment process. When patient, after detoxification, goes back home and faces same dysfunctional patterns, he can not stay away from drugs too long. In order to have addict in long term recovery, a healthy change is needed in family patterns. Hence, Family therapists focus on entire family. Psychological problems which are oblivious in family members are fear and rejection. Usually, drug addict's family receives rejection and criticism from society which results in psychological problems like depression, aggression and hopelessness. They could not perform their social roles and become dysfunctional. Therefore, it is necessary to treat their psychological problems so that they become functional member of society besides working hard for the recovery of their addict family member. Researches have shown that dysfunctional family in one cause of indulging in drug addiction. Additionally, family dysfunctional patterns are hindrance in the treatment and recovery of patient. And family therapy facilitates the treatment and rehabilitation process of drug addicts and also improves the mental health of whole family.

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Parents: Helping Hands for Children By Safia Rafiq Though, it is very shocking for parents to know that their child is taking drugs. Initially, they are in complete denial by rejecting the reality, later on start cursing their fate in spite of taking step to resolve this matter realistically. They are overwhelmed by feeling of guilt and shame. Here, parents must understand that their guilt, shame and anger will not work out at all, though it is very painful for them. If they want their child to be recovering from this disease, they should first understand the nature of the problem, identify the causing factors and should get help from significant others. Being good parents, first positively communicate with your child over this sensitive issue. Try to rule out how their child started taking drugs and why. It will help you to identify the problem on one hand and to reduce the communication gap between you and your child on the other hand. Putting blame on child and your fate will increase the distance; as a result, chances of recovery will be minimized. Try to forgive your child and encourage him or her to get help from professionals. In order to take back child on the right path, it is essential to forgive his first mistake along with providing realistic solutions for his problems. Follow instructions of professional regarding treatment of your child, provide positive environment that can facilitate his recovery. All those factors responsible for his addictive behavior must be discussed in healthy way in order to have long term recovery from drugs. Parents are basically helping hands for children. Unhealthy and insecure attitude of parents increases the chances among children to go astray. Therefore, parents should understand their role in preventing and treating drug abuse problems in their children.

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5- Strategies to Deal Traumatic Events By Riffat Sadiq Any trauma in our lives leaves behind negative feelings, anger, hopelessness and sadness. If these feelings and thoughts are not overcome on time may lead to psychological disorders in future. All kinds of psychological disorders impair personal, social and occupational life. Traumatic experiences such as; death of loved one, divorce, physical and sexual abuse have profound impact on our memories. In order to escape from these painful memories, a person either accepts death or indulges himself in those activities which stop him from thinking about the trauma. Addiction is one of the behavior or activity that seems to be a solution for escape to addicts. There are many people who became addict after traumatic experiences which were not endurable for them. Being obsessed by drugs, for them, was better than to think about painful past experience. Realistically, addiction is not a solution but brings several problems that make human being like a slum dog that is beaten and kicked by every one. Following are 5 strategies that can you help to overcome your negative thoughts and feelings associated with past experience; 1- I am not the only one: Think for a while, you are not the only one who has experience such trauma. So many people around you are having same problems. It will keep happening when you will be no more in this world. You are not the only one who has been cheated, kicked, tortured or abused by significant or insignificant one. This way of thinking will reduce your negative feelings and emotions. 2It is a trial: Any trauma, accident is from Almighty as a trial for us in this world. Almighty puts human being in different kinds of problematic situations to test them. You, too, have been selected for this trial, for a definite time, which you are presently facing. When time gets over, your trial will be disappeared and Almighty will open new door for you.

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3Ask for tolerance and Patience: Seek help from Almighty and request him to provide you enough patience and tolerance to endure this pain. He will open your mind and make you patient to face all hurdles and pain regarding your problem.

4Talk To Significant One: Do not hide your feelings and pain from others. Concealing inner feelings make our inner like a volcano which can be burst any time. By discussing whatever you are feeling and thinking with significant one will help you to feel relaxed and to overcome your negative emotions. 5Get Help From Professionals: Pertaining to your problems, try to get help from professional (psychologist). Professional help will facilitate you to express all hidden feelings and emotions associated with traumatic experience. An emotionally supportive environment provided by professional will encourage you to look ahead and progress further.

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Introduction of Drugs By Dr.Abdullah Wardak Drug abuse is consumption of drugs, other than for medicinal purposes or in unnecessary quantities .people who abuse and develop dependence on narcotics drugs and psychoses substances are generally known as ''drug addicts'' From the sociologist point of view ''drug addiction is the state of assimilation into a specific life style of drug taking ''where is from the psychiatric and medical point of view. it implies physical ,psychological and psychic dependence on the tolerance of drug with tendency to increase the doses, legally in several countries it is explained as ''habitual use of drugs ,associated with their loss of self control and consequences detrimental to the individual and harmful to the public morals, safety ,health and welfare of the society . The world health organization (WHO, 1973) has defined drug abuse as a stat of periodic, chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to the society, produced by repeated consumption of drugs either natural or synthetic. The value loaded meanings of terms like drug abuse, drug addiction, drug habituation etc .forced the WHO( 1974)to replace this concept with the new one called ''DRUG DPENDENCE" the WHO defies this as a state arising from the above conceptualization of drug abuse. It is not a new problem to be takeled, it is being dealt globally since so many decades but now it demands specials emphasis and integrated by developing countries that require extensive programs but have limited resources as compared to developed countries that have well planned principles to follow.

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Ethical Responsibility of Health Professionals By Riffat Sadiq Healing refers to make an ill person free from all kinds of pain and distress. Years ago, hakeem (herbalist) was there to treat patients. Many people used to visit spiritual healer for their illnesses having thought of being victim of witch craft (black magic). With the passage of time, proper institutes have been established to train those who were interested in healing sick person. Now, people have different options to visit health professionals according to their need. Healing itself is not just confined to treat a patient or make prescriptions but it is a way to dealing an ill person. Therefore, health professionals are ethically responsible to go in depth while attending patients pertaining to their presenting problems. Researches have proved that behind physical problems/diseases, number of psychological and social factors work. Unfortunately, there are health professionals, not all, who do not bother to uncover the hidden factors and merely treat the problem as it appears. As being happened in the case of addiction of tranquilizers/painkiller which is killing our nation slowly and silently. Unfortunately, it is not easily recognized by a common man. Usually, tranquilizers/painkillers are prescribed by health professionals to overcome excessive worries, sleep disorders and severe pain. But continuous use of these medicines/injection, by own self, result in addiction. During working experience in an addiction treatment centre, my female addicted patients reported that when they consulted doctors in case of severe tension and disturbed sleep, they were recommended tranquilizers to have sound sleep and reduce the level of tension. But frequent use of tranquilizers eventuated in addiction. One of my patient also reported that she used to remain disturbed and could not sleep all the night owing to having severe conflicts with husband and in-laws. Doctor prescribed her laxotanil. Initially, she used to take one tablet at night but gradually, she became habituated. Whenever, she got tensed, she took medicine and now she could not go to bed without taking laxotanil. Medicine did not solve her problems but made her addicted that ruined her marital life one day. She couldn't do her household chores properly and take care of her children. As a result, she lost her family, husband and every thing. A primary school teacher was overwhelmed by feelings of apprehension and inferiority complex owing to poverty at home, frequent bickers between parents since her childhood, not having suitable proposal and lack of gratification of her Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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need for affection. Her mother was on bed for many years and used to take tranquilizer as prescribed by her physician. One night, she thought to take same medicine to reduce her tension. That made her addict and she could not be recovered yet. In order to get quick relief from pain, people are also injecting painkillers. One of my addicted patient reported to me that, ''I feel to be more relaxed and tension free after injecting sosegon, because I do not want to face frequent quarrels at home.'' Actually, doctor had injected her that painkiller after surgery and since then she was using it by her own self. The trend of taking tranquilizers and painkillers is also common in men. They also were recommended by their doctors to use them to overcome their tension. Even, people working in hospitals and clinics are also using these medicines by their own. They reported that they saw doctors prescribing these medicines to psychologically disturbed patients for stopping their worrying habits and poor sleep. Therefore, they did not feel any harm of using it to treat same problems they had.Researches revealed that causing factors for tension and disturbed sleep vary among men and women. In men, earning bread for family is a major stressor in South Asian Countries. Along with job stress, other family problems like conflict between wife and parents also make them disturbed. One of my acquaintances reported me that he was disturbed and could not concentrate on his work owing to quarrel between his mother/sister and wife and he asked me to recommend him psychotropic medication. On the other hand, conflicts with in laws, sarcasm frequently received from partner, lack of amenities in life, overburden by household chores and not having enough time to be socialized are adversely affecting women' mental health. Furthermore, in our society, unmarried women seem to be overwhelmed by feelings of loneliness and deprivation owing to not having proper match or either they are compelled to tie a knot with mismatch, a compromise for whole life. All these factors make ground for emotional turmoil that is reported to doctors in form of headache, tension, disturbed sleep, tiredness, body aches, loss of appetite, etc. At this stage, health professionals must counsel these patients and take time to make prescription. In this way, patients will understand their problems and will be able to find a rational solution instead of trying to escape from reality. Moreover, collaboration of physical and mental health problems can save people and prevent our nation from indulging in addiction of tranquilizers/painkillers. Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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Role of Electronic Media in Preventing Drug Abuse Problems By Haider Ali Media always has a profound effect on masses. In current era, electronic media is being used as a powerful tool to address social issues. Competition among different channels made it easy for a common man to share his problem with rest of the world. For this reason, numbers of cases, today, are being reported that could not be brought on the surface due to fear, feelings of shame and guilt. Via talk shows, intellectual discussions and documentaries, electronic media is successfully highlighting the issues regarding education, health, crimes, corruption etc. Along this, there is need to put reflection on the most dangerous issue (drug addiction) which has affected our educational and health sector too. Despite involvement of law and enforcement agencies and strict policies, no reduction in demand of illicit use of drugs is seen. As a result, more than 6 million people have become addicted to different kinds of drugs in Pakistan. Electronic media can play a vital role in educating people regarding drug abuse problems and its consequences by showing documentaries of drug addicts and their destroyed lives, discussions of experts and establishing youth forum Furthermore, media must also stop showing those ads and movies which promoting use of tranquilizers/painkillers, smoking, alcoholism and use of betel nut (supari). Celebrities (filmi heroes) using cigarette inclined many youngsters to be smokers. An actor playing leading role in Pakistani drama Dastaan was looking a smart young man while smoking. Similarly, another actor in an Indian film Tere Naam has been a centre of attention of many youngsters due to his stylish and unique smoking behavior. In short, electronic media, positively or negatively, affect our decision making abilities. Positive characters, messages, advertisement result in positive and healthy attitude. Portraying characters merely for making money and fame ruin thousands of lives. We all should pray Almighty to prevent us from ruining other lives.

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Drug Addiction and Our Economy By Ubaid-u-Rehman About 6 million drug addicts in Pakistan are destroying their lives besides affecting every sector of society, specifically, the business sector in terms of causing accidents, reducing or causing loss of productivity, poor work and absenteeism, etc. The number of drug addicts in the business sector has gone up with the labor class and lower middle class by taking drugs for various reasons. The economy of Pakistan is paying a big price for it owing to employee accident and errors, high illness rates, wastage of time, low productivity and absenteeism. A survey conducted by Drug Free Nation in Karachi city indicates that drug abuse workers affected their organization in terms of loss of productivity, poor work and absenteeism. Among them 76% workers committed mistakes, 56% wasted raw material, 24% remained absent from work 3 to 4 days a week that impaired 86% of total productivity. Their speed of work was slow, 48% did not satisfy their employers whereas 78% impaired their quality of work. Furthermore, 40% of them quarreled with their colleagues at their workplaces. Above mentioned consequences of drug abuse problems are confined to merely Karachi city. A survey conducted on national level will further clear the impact of addiction on total economy of Pakistan. Furthermore, there is a great need to launch a program to make our workplaces drug free.

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Fashion of Smoking and our students By Safia Rafiq Few days back, I saw 3 students smoking cigarette standing near by their tuition academy, holding bags and books in their hands. Their actions and style of smoking reminded me of a celebrity of Indian film industry, Salman Khan, who used to smoke in one of his film that captured the attention of our youth. After that many young boys appeared to be copying his hair style, attire and particularly his style of smoking cigarette. I thought for a while that their parents, at that time, were satisfied believing that their sons went out for studies and trying hard to make their future bright. But if they saw them holding cigarette in one hand and books on another hand while standing outside their academy, certainly they would die on the spot. Unfortunately, smoking cigarette has become a fashion among school and college going students. It is a great concern for all those parents who are keen to make their children educated and competent persons of their community. Because habit of smoking slowly and gradually destroys a person's health and its smoke also irritates those who are sitting near by the smoker. A student who smokes is also responsible to pollute the whole educational environment besides destroying his own health. Moreover, smoking habit increases the chance of being tilted toward addiction of drugs. Researches proved that many addicted people were used to be smoking before taking cannabis or heroin. Therefore, Parents, teachers and other well wishers of our students and youth must discourage this bad habit in order to save them from incurable diseases (drug addiction) and as well as to make them able to play their vital role in building a healthy nation of Pakistan.

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Sleepy Nation, Biggest Disaster By Haider Ali "Don't kill any one by bullet; just give him a free token of drug (small token of Heroin) on daily basis. He will die himself'', said a street addict. "People are ready to give food to dogs but not to addicts" another street addict told Now, I take drugs because I have wasted my life. At the age of 50, I am alone, no family, no love, no respect, an addict regrets Availability of drugs increases the chance of being indulged in addictive behavior. We find people taking drugs sitting in the corner of streets, near the bus stops and under the bridges. We all pass them inadvertently, sometimes show disdain and treat them like slum dogs. They are called by different funny names, teased and mocked by our children. Drugs bring disaster for individual, family and then for whole nation. Unfortunately, being a nation, we are overwhelmed by ignorance, not bother to ask where these drugs are coming from, and how much drugs have severely affected our society. No place is safe now. Our industries, educational institutes and public places have been affected by this menace. Our youth, future builders of Pakistan, are ruining their lives. Many are addicted to prescribed drugs. Cigarette, gutka (tobacco) and supari (betel nut) are not considered as addiction. Smoking has become a fashion for teenagers. No one is noticing it. Who is to be blamed? Only our government or we all I think the whole nation is responsible, our teachers, parents, health professionals, preachers and media also. It is time to take preventive measures to save our future from being trapped by drugs. But when will be wake up?

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A Chain of Destruction By Rifat Sadiq Addiction to drugs leads to gradual destruction of physical, mental, social and spiritual health of an individual. Continuous use of any drug results in biochemical changes; impair all internal system of human body. When this epidemic weakens the immune system, the human body becomes vulnerable to chronic or incurable diseases. Being indulge in addiction, an addict ruins not only his physical health but also embraces psychological problems as well. Addiction deteriorates the addict's ability to manage his stress and to solve his problems. Feelings of hostility, anger, guilt and hopelessness are vividly seen in addict's personality. A drug addict remains isolated from significant one, does not fulfill social responsibilities that further lead to disturbed interpersonal relationships. Avoiding family and relatives, absence from workplace and deterioration of family finances and assets bring disharmony in all aspects of life. An addict seems to deviate from social norms, religious rituals, looses a sense of right and wrong and appears as a socially dysfunction person. Unfortunately, an addict ruins himself and his whole family by impacting adversely their mental and emotional health. As a result, they seem to avoid facing society. Deviant behaviors like stealing, pick pocketing, quarreling, using abusing language and involvement in sexual behaviors generate feelings of shame and guilt in family members. Sometimes, they have to give money to their addicted family member and become co-dependent. In South Asian countries, daughters and sisters of addicts are having problems of suitable proposal for marriage. People do not like to have any relation with addict's family. For this reason, family seems to hide the reality and refuses to provide any kind of support to its addicted family member. After the destruction of family life, addicts have to live away from family, spend time with street addicts, and indulge more and more in drugs that, eventually, put them to death. Sometimes, their funerals are attended by family, relatives and friends and sometimes, these poor addicts are buried by welfare organizations.

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7-Ways for Staying Away From Drugs By Shireen Ismail 1-Seek guidance of Allah Almighty Always pray to Allah Almighty to guide you regarding making friends because He only knows the intentions of people. He is the only one who knows what is going on behind the scene. Therefore, ask Him to help you to be stayed away from all kinds of evils. 2- Try to be a part of good company Try to find a company of good friends. Good friends not in term of appearance, status or extra ordinary talent but in term of good attitude. A friend having good self esteem help you to build self confidence, sense of right and wrong and exhibits tolerance, if something bad happens in life. Being a part of good company, you will prevent your self from going astray, for instance, drug addiction. 3.Don't copy others Try to know yourself, who are you? What do you want? Focus on your abilities, talent and resources not on what others are doing. Don't copy others and try to be satisfied what actually you are. Attire, make up and particular style of people of showbiz and other fields never make you satisfied as your own unique personality can. 4. Express yourself Express your feelings and emotions in positive ways such as writing essays, poems, painting, designing, making recipes, sharing with significant one, If no one is there to share your feelings, then try to write a story about your self. Also talk to Almighty after prayer, He will listen your and make you relaxed. 5. Do some exercises Do some physical and mental exercises such as yoga, meditation, deep breathing to be relaxed. These exercises will make you energetic and confident to deal with life problems and tension.

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6. Dare to ask question If some one offers you cigarette or something else then you ask questions like, what is this?. What is the benefit of it? Why is he using that? Don't care of loosing such kinds of friends. Don't be fearful of being rejected by others. 7. Dare to say ' No' Refuse to experiment a cigarette even you are being made fun of others, rejected or deemed a coward person. Dare to say no and go on another way and you will find people having positive attitude. Don't be scared of being alone.

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Patterns and Consequences of Drug Abuse Problems at workplace Abstract By Haider Ali & Riffat Sadiq Drug abuse problems severely hit the economy of Pakistan that resulted in poor work on the part of employees, incidents, wastage of time and material and loss of productivity. Therefore, the objective of this survey was to examine the patterns and consequences of drug abuse problems at workplaces. For this purpose, 150 drug abusers working in industries, companies and hospital of Karachi city were approached. A questionnaire was used to get information regarding demographics characteristics, their patterns of drug abuse at workplaces and its consequences they and their employers were facing. Results reveal that among 150 drug abusers, most of the abusers (30%) were taking drugs either in the washroom or in the cafeteria of their organizations . 60% preferred to take drugs in official break time, 70% liked sitting with their colleagues. Most of them (28%) were using cannabis, 25.33% were on heroin and 24.67% were poly drug abusers. Smoke was mode of drug intake among 40% abusers. Moreover, 18 drug abusers were using injection and 27.7% of them shared syringes with their working drug partners. As far as consequences of drug abuse are concerned, 86% abusers accepted to impact total productivity of their organizations, 76% committed serious mistakes, 56% wasted raw material, 88% reported slow speed of their work, and 78% reported impaired quality of work. 25.33% remained absent for 3- 4 days in a months except holidays, and 54% did not satisfy their employers. Statistical analysis of the results also reveals that 40% quarreled with their colleagues, and 18% became cause of incident at their workplaces. Before indulging in addiction, 24% abusers were earning 8000 to 10000 but after addiction 20% were earning that amount. Among 150 drug abusers, 16% were earning 10 to 12 thousands but after getting drugs, 4% earning between 10 to 12 thousands per month. Furthermore, 12% abusers were earning more than 20 thousands per month but after addiction only 2% abusers out of total 150 were able to earn more than 20 thousands in a month. The present survey highlights the impact of drug addiction not only on employees but also on the productivity of organizations. Further researches should be conducted to address this serious issue.

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Psychological Risk Factors for Drug Abuse Problems By Shireen Ismail Following are the psychological factors that lead to drug abuse problems among people; 1. Stress: American Psychological Association (APA) defines stress as, "The pattern of specific and nonspecific responses of an organism that tax or exceed his ability to cope". In response to stressors, physiological changes occur in the body that lead to psychological changes and person feels to be under stressed and could not cope with the stressors. Sometimes, he finds the solutions of his problems in useless things and get involved in the addictive behavior. He uses different kinds of drugs just to feel relax and to escape from reality. 2. Anger control problems: Anger control problem is also risk factor for drug abuse problems. Anger can be toward self or others and ranges from minimal arousal to rage. When a person could not control his angry feelings either toward self or others may lead to drug abuse. People use drugs to release their anger. 3. Poor self image: Self image is defined as the person's perception of self. There are two types of self-image; good self image and poor self image. When a person perceives him in negative way and feels inferior or underestimates his qualities, he gets emotionally disturbed. He sees his self worthless in comparison to others. As a result, he becomes dependent on drugs 4. Revenge: Revenge is also considered a risk factor of drug abuse problems. It also has two forms. One is toward self and second is toward others. Some times, an individual develop extreme guilt feelings and decides to punish himself and uses drugs. Sometimes, he uses drugs to take revenge from others (parents, siblings, spouse, and society). He uses drugs and tries to respond to evils by getting involved in evil acts. 5. Poor Self control : Poor self control is defined as the inability to individual to control his impulses or desires. It is a strong risk factor of drug abuse problems. A person's who is unable to control his desires, behaviors and emotion as well is more likely to be indulged in drug abuse behavior.

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Poverty and Drug Abuse By Riffat Sadiq A renowned personality in the field of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow (1954) had suggested that a man's personality growth takes place successfully and smoothly as his needs are gratified. If first of his need is not met appropriately, the second one will effected. The most important need is physiological need like need for hunger and thirst. People deprived of food, water and shelter are having difficulty in achieving secondary and higher level needs (need to be selfactualized) which are essential to have positive attitude toward others and self as well. Based on this concept, one can claim that, deprivation of basic amenities or in other words, poverty results in number of emotional and social problems. Several real life examples and researches revealed adverse impact of poverty and deprivation of basic amenities on human being and society and drug abuse is one of those adverse impacts. Besides impairing an individual growth, poverty seems to impair living environment, family functioning and social norms. Because, when a person faces difficulties in achieving his desired goals and finds other getting success, achieving status and wealth, he, obliviously, feels helpless and frustrated. These feelings further lead to anger and resentment; as a result, he tries to get access to his goal by following wrong paths, for instance, drug abuse. Even, children could not be refrained from indulging in drug addiction. Economic condition of family impairs children emotional well-being. Being deprived of social resources, they develop delinquent behaviors like drug abuse. World Health Organization (WHO) also has reported that drug abuse problems are rapidly increasing in developing countries where most of the people are leading from hand to mouth life. In order to minimize the use to drugs, poverty must be considered contributing factor. Government should launch program to enhance the living standards of people to save whole nation.

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Consequences of Tobacco Use (Gutka) By Haider Ali Tobacco is frequently being used in two ways. Some people use smoke tobacco by using cigarette/ hukka, whereas some chew tobacco (gutka). Both methods of using tobacco are harmful for health. A myth about hukka is that it is good for health. It is also taken as tradition and has been using for a long time. No empirical data is available to address the health effects associated with hukka use. But researchers have explored the effects of tobacco in form of cigarette on physical and psychological health. Chewing tobacco (gutka) is also being frequently used specially in middle and lower class. Tobacco chew (gutka) has profound impact on the physical health. Numbers of cases have been reported to hospitals that show the strongest link of tobacco with physical health problems, for examples mouth cancer, dental problems, stomach related problems etc, etc. Despite this, people are still using and also selling tobacco (gutka). Observing parents/elders, children and adolescents are using it. Parents send their children to buy gutka from shops. They daily observe their parents, relatives, neighbors and shopkeepers using and spiting on the walls, roads and from the window of public transport. They are learning multiple negative behaviors from their elders. Later in life, they will be like them and make unhealthy nation. We will have to change our self if we want to save future generation in order to make healthy nation

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Myths about drug abuse By Haider Ali

People adhered to different myths regarding drug abuse problems. Some myths are culture or tradition related, some are deemed as demand of the situation and some of them are adhered according to own interest. More or less, all kinds of drugs have been associated with different kinds of myth. These myths are as follows; Taking alcohol is permitted in my religion. There is no harm to use it in appropriate way By taking this medicine I will be more energetic to study beyond my optimal level. I am medical student and need it a lot. By taking cannabis, I can drive on long route. My duty is tough. I am a driver and can’t afford to get tired and go for bed. Without taking cannabis, I will not be able to perform my duty well. I have sleep problems and remain anxious because of stressful living environment. This medicine gives me relief and I go to bed easily. I am a player. It is my compulsion to take cannabis and medicine. I feel more energetic and play well. I am just abusing cannabis. It has negative effects on health but heroin is more dangerous. Only cannabis can not put me to death. I do job and leading a normal life. Heroin addicts need to be worried not cannabis users. Everybody eats betel nut. It is not addiction. It is just a habit not as dangerous as you are saying. I am using it for last 3 years but still I am healthy. Hukka (a traditional way of using tobacco) is healthy because it reduces gastric problem. Just taking cigarette is not dangerous. People from upper class, even professionals and highly qualified people use it. They are fit in their lives and profession So, try to be alert. All kinds of addiction from betel nut to heroin are dangerous for health. Numerous pernicious effects are associated with that. Gradually and slowly, these drugs affect your health. Drug Free Nation Š 2012-2013


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Drug Abuse among Professional Students By Safia Rafiq All kinds of drugs illicit or licit are being used in all over the world. Pakistan also has been entangled and ration of drug abusers has gone up to the 6 million. Children, adolescents and adult including men and women have addicted to various kinds of drugs. Students also have been addicted to different drugs. Unfortunately, students of professional institutes are also abusing drugs. Although, no a single research has been conducted to find fact and figures of drug abuse among professional students but real cases reported to drug treatment and rehabilitation centers highlighted this problem. The most common use drugs among professional students (future doctors/engineers) is prescribed drug abuse and analgesic. They have to study a lot to compete their fellows. Though, professional education is daunting task and they need to get high to study late night. In order to overcome fatigue and study more and more, they take medicines that enhance their stamina to work hard. They also use painkillers to be relaxed. But they do not realize that the use of such kind of medical will make them addict one day. Students should keep in mind that they have to compete others within the resources (talent, energy, skills) they have been gifted by nature It is also the responsibilities of parents and teachers of professionals institutes to make aware the students of effects of inappropriate use of tranquilizers, painkillers and medicines. Media should also play their role in the prevention of drug abuse among students.

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Positive Self –image Prevents Drug Abuse By Riffat Sadiq

Self-image is defined as the person’s perception of self or self-portrait. A person who perceives him self good enough to be the part of his environment indicates his positive self-image. This positive self- image helps to grow successfully, develop skills and reduces the risk of psycho-social diseases; e.g drug abuse. Self-image is the combination of four components which are as follows’ Physical Self-Image refers to how a person perceives his body and appearance. Allah has created people of different faces, structures and complexion. People themselves are not responsible for their appearance. If a person feels satisfied with his appearance and complexion, he will be having positive physical self image. Then he will be no need to show him stronger in front of his friends who are in favor of using drugs to fit in. Emotional Self-Image refers to whether a person is aware of his emotional needs, understands his personality, skills and talents, attitudes etc. If a person thinks him self competent enough to do a job, to face a situation and trust himself, then he will be having positive emotional self-image. Having positive emotional image, a person can deal effectively with peer pressure, face life stressor and will be able to find the solution of a problem instead of taking drugs. Social Self-Image refers to how a person perceives his position in the environment, people and interpersonal relations. If a person thinks to be able enough to interact with people, make proper relationships and having balance perception of society, he will be having positive social self-image. This positive social self-image will prevent inferiority feelings, hopelessness, feeling of rejection and loneliness. Sense of being able to be part of social environment reduces the risk of drug abuse. Spiritual Self-Image refers to whether a person has a sense of right and wrong, his responsibilities, rights and perceives Almighty to be there to support him in time of adversity. If a person knows appropriated way of gratifying his needs, rely on decisions, asks for help from Almighty in time of need, he will be having positive spiritual self-image. By improving spiritual self image, one can fulfill his responsibilities, strives for his rights, forgives self and others and seeks helps from Allah when there is no one to help him. By doing so, he will be able to fight drug abuse problems.

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drug Abuse A biggest Disaster Vol 1