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Examples of composite materials are:

Materials and Composite action

Fibre reinforced cement (FRC)

Structural materials that are often used in buildings are -

Metals Concrete Timber (Considered as a core material)

It was also mentioned that different building eras concentrated on different types of materials such as : -

19th century- steel 20th century- concrete 21st century – timber (creates more efficient products)

Composite beams

They are two types of materials and they are Monolithic - which is made from a single materials or different materials compressed together until it is not distinguishable such as an alloy

Various types of Materials were explained during the E-learning and the reading by Ching

Composite Concrete - 2 or more materials that are combined in such a way that the materials can be easily identified. - the components are different when bonded together but the individual materials still retain their identities and properties - This can be seen in an reinforce concrete


Concrete usually takes the shape of its mould in which the mould is usually called a form work It is strong in compression (Ching, 2008), but weak in tensile strength It is a mixture of cement, aggregates, water


The common concrete mix is 1 part cement, 2 parts fine aggregate and 4 parts aggregate or according to Ching (2008) the water to cement ratio ranges from 0.45 to 0.60.

In the elearning, the famous roman architecture, the pantheon was discussed It consists of 3 main elements which are the portico, drum and dome

The types of concrete that were discussed are: In-stitu concrete 窶田oncrete that are poured in a mould on site Precast concrete- Concrete made in a factory Reinforced concrete -

The drum -

To create a structure that is strong in both its compressive and tensile structure The reinforced rods and reinforced mesh takes the tensile strength while the concrete takes the compressive strength the steel rods or mesh creates a ribbing structure where it helps to grip the concrete

uses crick face concrete The walls are thick to support the weight from the dome in which the lateral forces tries to push the wall out wards

Steel -

usually coated to avoid rusting encased to prevent fire -


Pumice- concrete from volcano


- What type of information is shown in this floor plan?

This week’s tutorial focuses on the class picking a building that we visited last week and were required to study its plan.

- walls

I picked the Ormond theology reception centre along with Chun, Sam and Max. Together we studied the plan and tried to figure out the questions given.




List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page. - Architects

- function

- Locations - Cross-sections -dimensions -materials -access

- Scale - Date - Project name

Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on this floor plan? What units are used for the dimensions?

- drawing numbers

Millimeters (mm)

- Revision

- Is there a grid? What system is used for identifying the grid lines?

- Responsible and authority

Yes. The system used is the alphabetical system

Why might this information be important?

-Why is some information found in General Notes?

So that the reader will know what it is, what type of building it is , who drew it and how to get contact to find more source on it.

- some of the information isn’t quantitave

What is the purpose of the legend? To show graphic information as well as the materials used 2


- Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. To show something that can’t be graphically presented

- How are windows and doors identified? Provide and example of each. Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings?

- Illustrate how the locations of sections are identified on the plan. What do these symbols mean? The number means which door to refer to

Using alphabets

- Illustrate how floor levels are noted on the plan?

- Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean?

Using alphabetical symbols which then provides the page number to the references

- Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? No. None of the drawings were changed or revivsed.



- What type of information is shown in this elevation? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan? - materials

- What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done.

- height

- Materials

- footing

-reference details (data)

- reference details Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? Provide an example of the dimensions as they relate to the elevation.

- Illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations.

Yes. Some are horizontal

- What types of levels are shown on the elevations? Illustrate how levels are shown in relation to the elevation.

Floor and ceiling levels

- Is there a grid? If so, how / where is it shown? Yes. On the drawings of the building. - Are any parts of the elevation clouded? Why? No. The drawings weren’t changed or revised - Is there a legend? What does it identify and how is it used? No



- Illustrate where this elevation is located in relation to the plan?

- What sorts of things are detailed?

It is looking north east

- door - windows -fences and gates



- wall (types and materials)

- What type of information is shown in this section? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan and elevation? - Are the details compressed using break lines? Why? - wall thickness Yes. To show that the walls or structure is actually bigger than they are -location of the cut -ceiling structure - footing

- Are dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the elevation? No dimensions showed What types of information on the sections are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done. Existing buildings and buildings

- Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale.

Week 4 constructing