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Three subjects of Psychology Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.

children and find a solution for their problems so they can be happy. When you’re a child you shouldn’t have to worry about anything and just enjoy your life. Also, when you grow up you should be able to take a look back at your childhood and smile because of all the good memories. Children shouldn’t be unhappy, and I want to be able to help some of them to find happiness. HGR

Personality psychology I chose to talk about personality psychology mainly because I‘m interested in the subparagraph. Another reason why I chose to write about it is because I had been learning about it in my psychology class, so I decided to use that advantage to take it further and write about it. What think makes the subject interesting is that it focuses on why people behave as they do and how the person comes together as a whole. Also, there are personalities all around us in daily basis. For instance we see it in movies, in plays etc. It is amusing to speculate each character we find interesting and how he is connected to other characters. HVS Child Development I chose Child Development. I like this subject because I’ve always loved working with children. During the last few summers I’ve been a temp employee at a kindergarten. I also want to help

Personality psychology The specialty that follows up on people’s

Did you know…? That each person reacts differently to one situation? And also, reacts differently to different situations? That our behavior affects how others respond, and the response of others influences our behavior? That there are two dimensions of personality, introversion-extroversion on the other hand and stability-instability on the other hand? That it is easier to remember someone you’ve just met by sorting them in categories? That Freud believed that personality was made up of three main systems: id, ego and superego?


characteristics behavior such as emotions and thoughts

persona, which stands for the different theatrical masks that were used by theatreperformers to disguise their identities. Today the concept’s meaning is individual differences in characteristic patterns, so as to; temper, thoughts, actions and behaviour that make the person unique and different from others individuals. In summary, personality psychology focuses on understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, for instance, sociability or irritability. Also understanding how the various part of a person comes together as a whole. Theories Certain factors in people’s personality,

Whether we notice it or not, we are almost everyday describing and assessing personalities of the people around us. We do this unconsciously but it is also a way to remember and distinguish people from others. Besides, it is easier to remember individuals, perhaps someone you‘ve just met, by putting the person in a category that indicates certain stereotype. Those daily amusements, on how and why people behave in a Personality consists of individual certain way differences and behavioral are similar patterns which set themselves to what together as a whole and put their personality mark on the individual. Also, it is considered to control the adjustment to the environment psychologists do. Originally the word “personality” is drawn from the Latin word,

for instance temperament, can be attributed to biological factors that

are innate. Personality is formed of experience, which is connected to cultures and in interactions with innate tendencies. The main ideas and theories in the field of personality psychology are theories about traits, social learning, psychoanalysis and phenomenology. It is assumed, in theories of traits, to describe the personality with location on several continuous dimensions or scales, but each of which is comparable with one personality-trait. Factor analysis has been used to find fundamental-traits in the human personality. In factor analysis there are two main dimensions; introvertextravert and steadfastness – inconstant. Social learning theory focuses on differences on personality of each individual being rooted to different experience. Response can be learned with observation, but reinforcement is important to decide whether this learned

response is performed or not. The individual behavior is placed under special factors of situations and their interaction with sensation of the individual of them as well as his previous reinforcement.

Sigmund Freud was an Aust neurologist. He is often referr psychoanalysis because of his which he developed for over 5 his medical degree in 1881 an after. He had six children, of w daughter Anna became a psyc Freud graduated he set up a p began treating various psycho

Carl Rogers is the main spok phenomenology. His theory is experience and his career with He was fascinated with peopl and change in a positive way. each person has a desire to ch each one is the best expert to medical doctors is only to be the client while he examines a problems. This is different fr psychoanalysis theory where the examination. The most im Roger‘s theory about the pers concepts meaning is all the id opinions characterizes what m who has a positive self looks different way than a person th In the psychoanalysis theory, Freud considered that people‘s impulses are subconscious and that they recruit indirectly their behavior. Freud


believed that the personality was composed of three working systems – id, ego and superego – which sometimes work together but other times it can cause conflict of the soul. Id works on the basis of pleasure principle which demands immediate gratification of needs. The ego operates based on the reality principle and tries to avoid gratification until it is propiate. Superego plays the role of conscience and holds the rains of the ego. Personality tests are primarily about the examinee answering questions about his feelings and reactions to certain situations. There are several different personality tests. The sixteen factor test reduces the overall personality profiles by showing individual points for a variety of different personality traits. The Rorschach test involves showing people a number of cards with different ink blots on them. The examinee says what the ink blots reminds

him of , than the person who takes the test goes over each answer and ask the examinee to explain in further. The TAT test (The Thematic Apperception Test which involves showing people pictures with „scenes” on them asking them to tell a story on each scene they are presented. This is done to seek out what people would in a situation because no one handles one situation in the same way. People handle situations differently. The California Psychological Inventory or CPI measures normal personality characteristics such as bossiness, sociality, responsibility, selfacceptance and more. This is not a complete list because there are many inventories out there, for example on the internet. In longterm studies it has been shown that various personality traits are stable in time, although the personality are formed early in life in some people, while for others it takes a striking change later

in life. Raymond Cattel

Jean Piaget: Jean Piaget was born August Raymond Cattel researched personality among Switzerland. He was the great motivation and intelligence. Raymond Cattel modern He researched two types of personality. Hechild camepsychology. with systematic study of the acquis the 16-factor personality model, which he developed in children. He studies zoolog with his colleagues, that identifies 16 different the University of Neuchâtel. S fundamental components of personality. became interested in psycholo Zürich and then he began two Sorbonne in Paris. Piaget had career, he developed his idea child evolves through a series adulthood. Piaget wrote over died September 16, 1980, in G

Charles Darwin: Charles Darwin was born February 12, 1809, in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. In 1840 he began a record of the growth and development of one of his own children, collecting the data much as if he had been studying an unknown species, and some would say that was when child psychology was initiated. Between 1818 and 1825, he studied the learning of Classics at the traditional Anglican Shrewsbury School. In 1825 he studied medicine at Edinburgh University. Charles Darwin died April 19, 1882, Downe, Kent.


Anna Freud: Anna Freud was born December 3, 1895, in Vienna. She was Sigmund Freud‘s youngest daughter. Anna was the founder of child psychoanalysis. She made fundamental contributions to understanding how the ego, or consicousness, functions in averting painful ideas, Frequent childhood nightmares may indicate an impulses and feelings. She taught elementary increased of psychotic traits: school and her daily observation to childrenrisk drew Child her to child psychology. She wrote a lot of books during the second world war. Children who suffer from nightmares or night terrors you know....? be at(1943), an increased risk of psychotic Did experiences Wartime (1942), Infants withoutmay families that shows and War and children (1943) in adolescence, according to new research • Did you knowthe that people are more that children frequent nightmares before sold books. Anna Freud died October 9, 1982,reporting in age of 12 were three and a half times likely more to likely cry to at night because lack of London. suffer from psychotic experiences in early makes people more emotional? adolescence. Also, experiencing night sleep terrors doubled the risk of problems, including hallucinations, • The average person tells around 4 interrupted thoughts or delusions. Younger children, lies everyday between two and nine years old, who had nightmares reported by parents, had up to one•and a half times Mental pain is increased when you increased risk of developing psychotic experiences. keep pretending that you’re fine and HGR Young children form first impressions from faces you’re not Just like adults, children from 3 years old tend to judge an individual's character traits, such as trustworthiness and competence, by looking at a person's face. And they show remarkable consensus in the judgments they make, the findings suggest. Overall, children seemed to be most consistent in judging trustworthiness. This suggests that children may tend to pay particular attention to the demeanor of a face. That is, whether it is positive or negative. HGR

You make most of your decisions unconsciously

You reconstruct your memories

Blue and red together is hard for your eyes

What we wear affects how we behave.

Having siblings is proven to help Word with list peers. socialization

Olfactophobia – Fear of smells • People are more likely to return a lost Mnemophobia – Fear of memories wallet if there is a baby picture found

Catoptrophobia – Fear of mirrors inside of it

Geliophobia – Fear of laughter

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psychology, also called child development, was initiated in 1840. It discusses how children develop from birth to the end of adolescence, and how children are different from adults. To become a child psychologist, find a college with a good 4-year degree program in the field of psychology. Take as many psychology courses as you can while you’re an undergraduate, and focus on child development. Before you can get into graduate school, you have to take the Graduate Readiness Exam (GRE). Graduate schools decide who gets accepted by comparing the scores from the exam. Once you’ve been accepted into your graduate program, you need to take specialized classes connected to your subject. In graduate school you can get a master’s degree (Master of Science degree) in psychology concentrating in child development,

or you can obtain the Doctor of Philosophy in Child Psychology. Once you’ve completed graduate school you need to apply for a state licensing in the state you want to practice in. Now you will be able to call yourself a psychologist, although you have to complete more steps to become a real Child psychologist. You need to continue to focus on specializing with children and adolescents. You will be required to pass a specialty board exam. You’ll need to complete 2 years of experience in a practice that focuses on treating children. Then you can start working in the field of child psychology, you can work as a social worker or therapist, become a teacher, or begin working for an existing child psychology practice. HGR

Behaviorism Behaviorism was a very popular school of thought in the U.S. around the 1950s. It was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and was embraced by many revered psychologists, notably B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull and Edward C. Tolman. According to John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, as well as many others, psychology should concern it self only with observable behavior of humans and other animals, instead of unobservable events that happen in their minds. Behaviorism is often described as an „out of the box“ way of thinking. That is, if you think of the mind as a box, behavioral psychology is primeraly concerned about what is going on outside of it, since according to that viewpoint, anything


that happens in our mind is reflected by our behavior, where as mentalistic psychology is mostly concerned about what happens inside of that box. It was based on the idea that methodology could make it a science. It is an oposing viewpoint to „mentalistic“ psychology.

Wordlist Behaviorism – cause and effect – out of the box – classical conditioning – methodology – educational psychology – connectionism – instrumental learning. "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations,

and race of his ancestors." -John Watson • 1863 - Ivan Sechenov's Refle xes of the Brain was published. Sechenov introduced the concept of inhibitory responses in the central nervous system. •1900 - Ivan Pavlov began studying the salivary response and other reflexes. •1913 - John Watson's Psychol ogy as a Behaviorist Views It was published. The article outlined the many of the main points of behaviorism. •1920 - Watson and assistant Rosalie Rayner conducted the famous "Little Albert" experiment.

•1943 - Clark Hull's Principles of Behavior was published. •1948 - B.F. Skinner published Walde n II in which he described a utopian society founded upon behaviorist principles. •1959 - Noam Chomsky published his criticism of Skinner's behaviorism, "Review of Verbal Behavior." •1971 - B.F. Skinner published his book Beyond Freedom and Dignity, in which he argued that free will is an illusion.

Burrhus Frederic Skinner was psychologist, and one of the m that all action was a result of behaviorism and called it "rad published 21 books, most not Dignity", as well as nearly 200 he was even regarded as a bi

Edward Lee Thornedike (bo father of modern educational progress led to the theory of c research on instrumental learn wooden box that had a lever i succeed until he hit the lever. the lever and got out immedia develop and it provided a fram 1949 at age 74.

John B. Watson was born on the 9th. of January, 1878 in Travellers rest, a small town in Greenville county, South Carolina, and was a behavioral psychologist. He founded bahaviorism, a form of psychology based on the idea that methodology could make psychology a science. His work was greatly influenced by Ivan Pavlov, and some of his most famous work included a simpler


version of Pavlovs principles. He conducted what was possibly the most controversial experiment in psychology history: The little Albert experiment. The goal was to show ho principles of classical conditioning could be aplied to condition fear of white rats in an 11 month old emotionally stable child. In 1957 he won a Gold Medal from the American Psychology Association for his work. At some point before his death he burned his collection of letters and papers so not much is known about his unpublished work and personal life. He died on September 25. 1958.

The twelve infants quotation: Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years. BBS


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