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The Roman Danube: An Archaeological Survey Author(s): J. J. Wilkes Source: The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 95 (2005), pp. 124-225 Published by: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20066820 . Accessed: 05/05/2013 21:44 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

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SURVEY ARTICLE

The Roman

An Archaeological

Danube:

Survey

J. J. WILKES Dis Manibus Andras M?csy Petar Petrovic Teofil Ivanov

The purpose of this survey is to present in summary form the present state of knowledge in the light of recent research and archaeological of the Roman Danube discoveries. The river itself is the core, as it was for the Roman presence in Central and Eastern Europe from early in the first century A.D. to the last decades of the fourth century. In its long course from its confluence with the Inn at Passau, the point from which it assumes its dominant role, to its delta on the Black Sea, Europe's greatest river impinges on the terri of

tory

several

states

modern

?

Austria,

Slovakia,

Croatia,

Hungary,

Serbia,

Romania,

to which can be added Moldova, and Bulgaria, and Russia, where the Roman Ukraine, the presence was extended along the coast north of the delta as far as the Crimea. Within of the middle and lower Empire the limits of this survey are the southern boundaries Danube basins, the eastern Alps, the Dinaric and the Balkan mountains. As a result, except for the passages of the major roads to the Danube, is given to those areas little attention to the Mediterranean, south of these limits that belong more Adriatic Dalmatia, Haemus and Thracia of the south these limits lie the Macedonia, (Stara planina). Within Roman provinces of Noricum, north of the watershed, Dalmatia both Pannonia, Moesia, later divided into Superior and Inferior, and Dacia beyond the Danube. Except for Dacia, bounded on the north and the east by the ring of the Carpathians, the river formed the limit of these provinces and for Dacia northern its southern boundary. in archaeology, The first section (i) reviews recent research and publication epigraphy, and frontier history. The descriptive sections (ii-vn) are supported by two topographical and appendices. The first (Appendix A) lists the major routes between the Mediterranean the Danube by seven regions: from north-east Italy by the Alpine passes (RI), by the Carnic across the Dinaric and Tauern Alps (RII), and by the Julian Alps (RIII), from the Adriatic and the Aegean by the Vardar-Morava corridor ranges (RIV), from the south Adriatic (RV), from the Strymon and Hebrus valleys across the Haemus range (RVI), and from the Black Sea coast (RVII). The second (Appendix B) lists places by Roman province along both banks of the river and along the coast of the Black Sea between the Inn and the in the first appendix sites are identified Crimea, and in Dacia beyond the Danube. Whereas by

ancient

second,

names since

where

many

of

these the

are

on

recorded sites

lesser

no

have

modern

itineraries, recorded

ancient

names name.

are

used

Wherever

for

the

possible,

in the descriptive sections (n-vii) consists of references to places in these lists. annotation In both appendices location references are given to the recently published Barrington Atlas these are available (B + map number + location of the Greek and Roman World where are state to in Here the outline map (Fig. i) which situated. and the modern they square) indicates the line of the major roads and the principal places along these and along the Danube, by references to the appendices. A significant number of publications relating to a more reason are not in for libraries and this the Danube available readily region is L'Ann?e wherever accessible (e.g. secondary publication Epigraphique) possible cited. seeks to report the significant This survey, though inevitably far from comprehensive, in research and major discoveries in several countries advances that have experienced major

political

changes

in the

last

twenty

years.

There

are

signs

everywhere

of the Roman the hope that over the next twenty years our understanding is presented here. much improved, compared with that which JRS 95 (2005), pp. 124-225. ? World Copyright Reserved. Exclusive Licence to Publish: The Society for the Promotion

of Roman

Studies 2005

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to encourage

Danube

will

be


THE

ROMAN

AN

DANUBE: I RESEARCH

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

AND

SURVEY

125

PUBLICATION

are available in the four relevant volumes of the General accounts of the Roman Danube on and in a recent French compilation second edition of the Cambridge Ancient History the Roman

provinces.1

In the matter

of maps

the

entire

area

of

the Roman

Danube

is now

in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. This supersedes for most that now cover most of the area but the purposes the sheets of the Tabula Imperil Romani detailed gazetteers of the latter still retain great value.2 As regards the individual Roman states and of modern provinces, most recent studies tend to be defined by the boundaries as ancient of national often multi-volume histories. The the rather than limits, part regions on to the monumental und contributed individual provinces Aufstieg Wiedergang chapters der r?mischen Welt, though of varying scope and quality, still retain value.3 For Noricum the work of G. Alf?ldy published more than thirty years ago is yet to be is now complemented Fischer. but by the richly illustrated work of Thomas superseded, in a recent collective volume that forms is now fully described The Roman era in Austria there is an archaeo part of a national history, and for the modern region of Carinthia G. Piccottini.4 studies scholars have tended to atlas edited Several by Hungarian logical by that lie within eastern Austria and in the northern districts of embrace areas of Pannonia in 1974, following his Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia. The synthesis of A. M?csy published to the IXth supplement of Pauly-Wissowa twelve years earlier, remains survey contributed on the archaeology of Pannonia edited by two American-based of value. A compendium scholars also retains value for some of the chapters contributed by leading Hungarian In Pannonia the historical the Severan era dominates and archaeological specialists.5 centres as in the above all frontier such and Carnuntum, record, major Brigetio, An account of this 'Great Age of Pannonia' by J. Fitz describes the prominence Aquincum. covered

1

XIII (1996), 545-85; XI (2001), 577-603; XII (all by J. J. Wilkes); (2005), 210-66 (1998), 482-6 (by et l'int?gration C. Lepelley de l'Empire 44 av. J.-C.-260 (ed.), Rome apr. J.-C. Tome 2. Approaches romain (1998), 231-97 r?gionales du Haut-empire (by J. J. Wilkes). 2 12 (H. Bender), R. J. A. Talbert Atlas and Roman World 13 (ed.), Barrington (2000), Map of the Greek 22 (A. G. Poulter), and L. Pitts), 19 (Bender), 20 (P. Kos and M. Sasel Kos), 21 (J. J. Wilkes), (A. Bursche 23 (D. a separate directory for each map. Tabula 49 (Wilkes), with Braund), Imperil Romani K34 Naissus-Serdica

M.

Vol.

X

Todd);

Thessalonike

(1976), X35 (1) Philippi, Greek territory only (1993), L32 Mediolanum-Aventicum-Brigantium (1966), (1961), L34 Aquincum-Sarmizegetusa-Sirmium L33 Tergeste (1968), L35 Romula-Durostorum-,Tomis (1969), M33 Castra Regina-Vindobona-Carnuntum (1986). For the course of the river the Handbook of the River Danube 1915; with supplement London, (Admiralty War Staff Intelligence Division, 1919) is still serviceable. On landscape in general see J. Chapman and P. Dolukhanov in Flux: Central and Eastern Europe in (eds), Landscapes changes Pontica 3 (1997). Antiquity, Colloquia 3 Ed. H. Temporini, // Prinzipat vol. 6 (1977): Noricum Pannonia Dalmatia (G.Winkler), (J. Fitz and A. M?csy), and M. Zaninovic), Moesia and N. Gudea), Dacia (M. Mirkovic (J. J. Wilkes (N. Gudea, H. Daicoviciu, Superior C. Daicoviciu and D. Protase); also vol. 7 (1979): Moesia Inferior and Thracia (B. Gerov and Chr. M. Danov). 4 recent reflections G. Alf?ldy, Noricum in Tyche 13 (1998), 1-18; T. Fischer, Noricum, (1974), with the author's zur Arch?ologie, see E. Ruprechtsberger, Zabernsbildbande series Orbis Provinciarum (2002) (on which JRA 17 V. Gassner, S. Jilek, Am Rande Die R?mer and S. Ladst?tter, des Reiches: in ?sterreich 697-8); n. Chr., ed. H. Wolfram) see M. Buora, JRA 17 (2004), Geschichte 15 v. Chr.~378 (2002) (on which (?sterreichische Atlas von K?rnten volumes include impor (ed.), Arch?ologischer 689?96); G. Piccottini (1989). Recent Festschrift tant items: A. Betz and E. Weber r?mischer Vergangenheit (eds), Aus ?sterreichs (1990) (for H. Vetters); Festschrift Dedicata Walter Modrijan Romana und die r?mische (1996); Corolla Memoriae (1997); Carinthia f?r H. Stiglitz Welt (for G. Piccottini) (2001). 5 A. M?csy, Pannonia in P-W Suppl.-Bd. and Upper Moesia IX (1962), cols 515-776 (the New (1974); 'Pannonia', (2004),

for its haphazard material: coverage of Pannonian Pauly has drawn criticism J Fitz, Alba Regia 31 (2003), 105-6); until his death in 1987, are listed in the volume of Acta Archaeologica dedi M?csy's published works, Hungarica as Pannonia cated to his memory und das r?mische Heer: (41 (1989), 9-15) and a selection have been republished as volume VII in the Mavors series edited by M. P. Speidel and G. T. B. ausgew?hlte Aufs?tze (1992). A. Lengyel on Pannonia Radan in 1980-1986 is surveyed by J. Fitz (eds), The Archaeology (1980). Research of Roman Pannonia in ActArchHung is also much of value in the published of an Italian 41 (1989), 533-58. There proceedings e l'impero romano see J. J. Wilkes, G. Hajn?czi (ed.), Pannonia (1995) (on which colloquium, JRA 9 (1996), 415-2.3).

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126

J.

J. WILKES

routes and stations to the Danube fig. i. The Roman Danube: (Appendix A) and principal the Danube (Appendix B). {Redrawn by Harry Buglass from original supplied by J. J. Wilkes)

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J. WILKES

and prosperity in the early third communities enjoyed by the Middle Danube provincial that echoes Andreas Alfoldi's tribute to the Illyrian soldier century A.D. in a manner emperors of the later third century.6 the archaeological Since the earlier studies by J. Dobi?s, record for Roman activity now the Czech in the territory of the former Czechoslovakia, north of the upper Danube and the Republic of Slovakia, has been transformed, partly through the increased Republic for cross-border collaboration but even more through the recent results of opportunities The import of Roman goods to this area and in Poland has long been aerial photography. context well documented, though the nature of this traffic in the social and economic to be debated. The discoveries of recent years have revealed a significant and continues in the basins of the rivers March/Morava lasting Roman presence, both civil and military, from central Europe to the Pannonian Danube.7 ancient highways and Waag/V?h, has led to the demise of a number of publi The break-up of the former Yugoslavia not destined for full sometimes cations reporting current research and new discoveries of the and the thematic conferences lugoslavica regular notably Archaeologia publication, Society (Materijali).8 In the new order, Slovenia in the south-east Yugoslav Archaeological of several important works under the aegis of either its Alps has seen the publication or in Ljubljana, Museum the latter through its series (Situla) of the National Academy on the foundations of the excellent National and monographs, building catalogues in which the record for the Roman era is but a part of the great Gazetteer, Archaeological the regular conferences of the scholarly legacy of Jaroslav Sasel.9 For Croatian Pannonia valuable Croatian Archaeological Society provide, through their published proceedings, surveys

for

all periods

concerning

the

areas

in question.10

No

recent

syntheses

are

available

but also the that embraces not only Croatian Dalmatia of Dalmatia for the province G. Since the volumes land of Bosnia-Hercegovina. troubled (1965) and by Alf?ldy in two major (1969) the ancient topography of the region has been examined J. J. Wilkes It is unfortunate that his and numerous papers by the late Ivo Bojanovski. monographs are for Centre the and the of libraries from many disappearance missing publications Balkan Studies created in Sarajevo by the late Alojz Benac makes it unlikely that this state 6

{AD 193-284) (1996)); compare J. Fitz, The Great Age ofPannonia (1982) (the author has received a Festschrift A. Alf?ldi, CAH XII (1939), 200. was surveyed for Bohemia recent discoveries in Aufstieg The state of research until the most by K. Motykova and for Slovakia und und Niedergang by T. Koln?k, R?mische (op. cit. (n. 3)), II vol. 5 (1) (1976), 143-99, in the Pannonian in Slovakia, stations frontier 'Vorland' Kunst in der Slowakei Germanische (1984), also on Roman are also two invaluable in 'Roman style buildings Arch. Roz. surveys by L. F. Pitts, 38 (1986), 411?34. There

with 7

and the 'Relations between Rome Barbaricum (Moravia and S. Slovakia)', Oxf Journ. Arch. 6 (2) (1987), 219-36; research in the first to fourth centuries A.D.', JRS 79 (1989), 45-58. Recent German "Kings" on the middle Danube of the Roman finds at Musov has been centred on the differing (Ps. 55) in the Czech Republic, interpretations of and followed by the published proceedings beginning with the report by J. Tejral, BerRGK 73 (1992), 377-468, ? Ursachen und and A. Stuppner H. Friesinger, various conferences: (eds), Markomannenkriege J. Tejral, der Lat?ne und R?mer von Ausklang (eds), Kelten, Germanen (1994); J. Tejral, K. Piet? and J. Rajt?r Wirkungen und die Barbaricum bis zum 2. Jh. im Mitteldonaugebiet zivilisation (ed.), Das mitteleuropaische (1995); J. Tejral K. Piet?, and B. Komorczy in 3. Jahrhunderts Krise des r?mischen Weltreiches (1999); J. Bouzek, H. Friesinger, (2000). J. Tejral Festschrift Anerkennung, Anpassung. (eds), Gentes, Reges und Rom: Auseinandersetzung, 8 three are of special value in 1987 and among the later volumes of Materijali The last issue of Arch. lug. appeared 18 (1978) (mosaics), and 20 (1985) (burials). for the Roman 17 (1980) (roads and communications), period, 9 in 1990 as vol. 41 for J. Sasel was published Arheoloska (1975) (text and maps). A Festschrift Slovenije Najdisca in 1992 by the and a volume of his collected Vestnik Arheoloski of the Academy papers was published periodical Sasel Kos, A Historical other works of general value is M. Museum in Ljubljana National {Situla 30). Among in Cassius Dio and Herodian and Sirmium the Adriatic between Aquileia, Outline (1986); also a full of the Region is: R. Bratoz on the Illyrike by the same author is in preparation. conference scale commentary Among publications and P. in der spatr?mischen Sasel-Kos Situla 34 (1996), and M. und Nordostitalien Zeit, (ed.), Westillyrikum see and Pannonia: Situla 40 (2002) (on which Towns Scherrer Noricum, (eds), The Autonomous of Noricum N. Christie, JRA 17 (2004), 699-705). 10 and area (1979), Eastern Slavonija value are those based on Varazdin those of particular (1978), Zagreb Among and the Sisak region at Karlovac and Baranja at Vukovar (1986), Podra vina and the region Kalnik (1984), Karlovac at Koprivnica (1990), Knin and region at Knin (1992), Slavonski Brod and region at SI. Brod (1993). Bilogora

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ROMAN

THE

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129

of affairs will be improved.11 In recent years there has been much activity in Croatian centred on the major cities of Salona (RIV.11) and Narona (RIV.37). At the

Dalmatia, former

a

has

collaboration

Franco-Croatian

focused

on

the

early

Christian

centres,

of all the early Christian in a series of major reports, including a catalogue resulting basilicas currently known in the Roman province of Dalmatia (excluding Salona); and at to the Julio-Claudian has recently revealed a major shrine dedicated the latter excavation the Moesia within borders of the Serbian of lies Most the of Superior province dynasty.12 includes the Skopje region in the south of and the former Yugoslav Macedonia Republic Moesia Superior, along with the northern districts of the province of Roman Macedonia. has accrued since Mocsy's syntheses of 1970 and 1974, Though much new information neither has been replaced, except in regard to the ancient topography of those areas now of the inscriptions of the province covered by the more recent publication (see below). In the 1960s and 1970s the Danube gorges below Belgrade were the scene of large-scale state on the many ancient sites threatened with inundation by the sponsored rescue archaeology Yugoslav-Romanian

dam

at Karatas,

and

also

further

downstream

by

a second

barrier

at

of this concentration there is less new work to report from Kusjak. Partly as a consequence on a the interior of the province, variety of topics continue to appear though monographs Institute of the Serbian Academy and of the National under the aegis of the Archaeological in Belgrade. For Macedonia Museum there is now available, thanks to the efforts of on the late Roman and early German colleagues, the monumental work of Ivan Mikulcic of the northern fortified settlements Byzantine region.13 Until a decade or so ago archaeological research in the Bulgarian part of Moesia Inferior was centred on the Danube sites of Novae (Mi.18) and Iatrus (Mi.24) in long-term with Polish and East German both of which have generated collaboration colleagues, while the major site of Oescus many publications, (Mi.12) has been a centre of research by Ivanov. for many years under the leadership of the late Teofil Bulgarian archaeologists on a ad the decade based the of past major Anglo-Bulgarian city During project Nicopolis Istrum (RVI.41) marks the beginning of a wider and more fruitful collaboration between a new

generation

of Bulgarian

archaeologists

and

foreign

colleagues.

New

syntheses

on

the

of the Bulgarian region of Moesia Inferior can now be expected, history and archaeology west some east river of the Iskar and of the river Yantra, remain areas, notably although to be fully explored. At the same time it seems likely that the works of an older generation are likely to remain in service for of scholars, V. Velkov, B. Gerov, and R. F. Hoddinott, some years to come.14 In the Dobrudja of Moesia Inferior that lies now in Romania region 11 mit einem Beitrag von A. M?csy G. Alf?ldy, und Gesellschaft der r?mischen Provinz Dalmatien, Bev?lkerung is published in Serbo-Croatian work Dalmatia but with (1969). Bojanovksi's (1965); J. J. Wilkes, lengthy French romaine de Dalmatia ? summaries: routier de Dolabella dans la province Systeme (1984); Bosnie et Hercegovine (1988). l'?poque antique 12 P. Chevallier, de la province romaine de Dalmatia Ecclesiae Dalmatiae: l'architecture (IVe?VIIe pal?ochr?tienne in the Franco-Croatian Salona series are listed s.), Salona II, Coll. Ec. Fr. Rome 194/2 (1995). The other volumes a volume of collected papers on religious under Salona in the gazetteer. There has also appeared topics by the late Branimir Gabricevic, i kultovima svijeta (1987). Studije i clanci o religiama antickog 13 A. M?csy, und Romanisation in der r?mischen and Provinz Moesia Gesellschaft (1970); Pannonia Superior studies include: S. Ercegovic-Pavlovic Les and D. Kostic, (1974). Recently Upper Moesia regional published et les sites arch?ologiques 20 (1988), covering a region Monuments dans le r?gion de Leskovac, Inst. Arch. Monogr. of south-west lower Drina

Serbia. For the north-western borderland of Moesia around the middle and Superior and Dalmatia and Economy Province there is now R. Zotovic, Population of the Eastern Part of the Roman of BAR Int. Ser. 1060 (2002). For the ancient region of Paeonia in north-west Roman Macedonia there is Dalmatia, now Zv. Bieldedovski, Basin in the Roman and Early Medieval Period (1990). I.Mikulcic, und Bregalnica Sp?tantike in Nordmakedonien: (2002). fr?hbyzantinische Befestigungen St?dte-V'ici-Refugien-Kastelle 14 V. Velkov, Cities in Thrace and Dada in Late Antiquity und {1977); Roman Cities in Bulgaria (1980); Geschichte Kultur Thrakiens und Moesiens zur Geschichte der r?mischen (Gesammelte (1988). B. Gerov, Beitr?ge Aufs?tze) und Thrakien Thracia Provinzen Moesiens and Moesia (Gesammelte (1980); Landowner Aufs?tze) ship in Roman an Archaeological in Antiquity: is Introduction (1988). R. F. Hoddinott, century) (ist~3rd Bulgaria (1975). There much of value in the conference et al. volumes: A. G. Poulter (ed.), Ancient Bulgaria vols 1-2 (1983); L. Slokoska (eds), The Roman and Late Roman City (2002).

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J.

130

between of

the lowest

research

in recent

section years,

of the Danube not

merely

on

}. WILKES

and the Black the well-known

Sea there has been a steady military

sites

along

the

river

rate and

the ancient Greek settlements along the Black Sea coast but also among the many settle ments of the ostensibly has become more less attractive interior, where aerial photography and A. Barnea is now joined by chapters readily available. A 1991 study by A. Suceveanu on the region in the Greek and Roman eras compiled for a new History that of Romania bids to replace the volumes by Pippidi and Berciu (1965) and Vulpe and Barnea (1968) for the

pre-Roman

and

Roman

periods.15

Since the Second World War there has appeared a large quantity of published research to to Dacia of the of the and north the Danube, support archaeology partly history relating cultural and historical identity, above political agenda relating to Romania's Daco-Roman Ceaucescu. There remains much of lasting value in the all under the regime of Nicolai but of those and years during the past decade or so there has been periodicals monographs a new wave of publication in which argument and debate have ranged more freely over the Roman inhabitants of Dacia such topics as the survival of the indigenous following Roman state of rule and in the decades the last of affairs also the and conquest during works those of the older evacuation under Aurelian. the formal Among century following on Dacia and the Danube Dumitru Inferior Tudor (Oltenia) between indefatigable is remain of great value. There and on the settlements of Dacia as a whole Carpathians new an that the has been for now, however, generated by a province entirely synthesis in field research and between Romanian and other European collaboration colleagues of I. P. Haynes and W. S. Hanson which has been edited by two British participants, in Dacian that have been made and indicates the great advances London and Glasgow, in recent Romanian is a detailed analysis of Dacia works studies in recent years. Among sources (D. Ruscu), a new synthesis of Dacian history from the time the ancient historical a study of material relations between of Burebista to the end of antiquity (C. C. Petolescu), both before and after the Roman Dacia and the regions beyond Roman conquest life in the province and an important study of municipal (R. Ardevan). (C. H. Opreanu), and colloquia have also produced valuable pub conferences New series of international on the army and urban development on and life rural (Alba Julia lications, (Tulcea 1998) 2000), both gaining much from not being restricted to Romanian material.16 The focus of this survey is the military and civil cordon along the Danube and the major routes between heartlands of the Roman world, that line and the Mediterranean starting in the west at the Inn confluence and extending beyond the delta as far as the Crimea to the early second century include military deployment along the Black Sea coast. Between settlements and the late third century A.D. the Roman military system and its associated

15

de Jos (1965); R. Vulpe and vol. i. Gefi ?i Greci la Dun?rea Pippidi and D. Berciu, Din Istoria Dobrogei La and A. Barnea, de Jos (1968); A. Suceveanu la Dun?rea Istoria Dobgrogei vol. 2. Romanii Din II Antiquity Romania: M. A. and I. romaine (ed. Petrescu, (eds), History Dambovi?a of Vulpe (1991); Dobrudja in the Dobrudja D. Protase and A. Suceveanu), (by D. Protase (by A. Avram et ai), pt. 2 Dacia pt. 1 Greek Colonies and and D. Radulescu and D. Radulescu and M. Barbulescu), century) (2nd?3rd (by A. Suceveanu Dobrudja A. Barnea (2001). (4th-6th century)) 16 en Dacie is a useful romaine D. Tudor, Oltenia Romana (1968). There (3rd edn, 1968); Villes, bourgs et villages D. M.

I. Barnea,

and A. Paki, Acta Mus. Nap. 32 (1995), 827-57. Society, JRA suppl. 56 (2004), with of a Provincial the supposed extermination citadels (K. Lockyear), burial monuments rural settlement (I. A. Oltean), antica in istoriografia Dacia Provincia D. Ruscu, belief (2003). (A. Sch?fer). (C. Ciongradi), religious Dacia si Imperiul Roman de la Burebista Dacia C. C. Petolescu, (1999). C. H. Opreanu, pana la sf?rsitul antichitatu romana in Dacia romana ?i barbaricum (ed.), La vie Viapa municipala (1998); V. H. Barman (1998). R. Ardevan, in the and V. Moga romaines rural dans les provinces (eds), Army and Urban Development (1998); H. Ciugudean of collected volumes Mus. Apul. Provinces Danubian papers 15 (2000). Among Empire, Bibliotheca of the Roman Collected Daco-Romana, Papers (1994); L. Baila, by older scholars relating to Dacia are: Em. Popescu, Christianitas in c?strele Polis studies 5 (2000); D. Isac, Viafa cotidiana Studia Dacica (collected papers, ed. E. Szab?), Hungarian

on Dacia for the years 1981-1989 by S. Cocis survey of works the Making W. S. Hanson and I. P. Haynes (eds), Roman Dacia: a historical introduction by the editors, Iron Age and the Dacian towns in recent research of Dacians (A. Diaconescu), (D. Ruscu),

Daciei

Porolissensis

(2001).

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to include Romanian and Oltenia, extended north of the Danube although Transylvania the stretch of the Danube cordon directly affected by this advance was limited to that in Serbia and the Olt in Romania. The history and the mouth of the Morava between and and associated of this huge complex of military deployment settlement, archaeology attention of its impact on the indigenous communities both has the banks, engaged along for

specialists

more

a

than

century

and

now

on

impacts

the

territories

of

ten

modern

and new research in this area political states. Since the Second World War new discoveries to of Roman the have been reported (and subsequently regular Congresses published) Frontier Studies (Lime sko ngr ess) that meet around three times each decade in different of the Danube cordon is now covered by frontier zones of the Roman Empire.17 Most states rather than section of individual for the Danube detailed guides and gazetteers some compiled specifically for a Frontier Congress and most published Roman provinces, also usually include valuable surveys of within the last decade or so. Congress proceedings recent

work

that

most

cover

of

the Danube

region.

section of the Danube between the Inn and the The Austrian comprises all of Noricum and around fifteen auxiliary with one legionary fortress (Lauriacum N.16) Wienerwald, section of the Pannonian Danube, forts, and the short but strategically important western Ps.2 with two legionary fortresses Carnuntum and (Vindobona Ps.13) and three auxiliary in the north of Austrian Danube forts.18 The increasing evidence for Roman the activity territories of the Czech and Slovakian Republics has been reported to recent Frontier Danube flows east to its great bend above Congresses.19 The long course of the Hungarian fortress and with the around ten auxiliary forts, then (Ps.30) Brigetio Budapest, legionary south to the Croatian frontier above the Drava confluence, with the legionary fortress than a century of research, including Aquincum (Pi.5) and thirteen auxiliary forts. More several large-scale excavations, full picture of the history and had provided a reasonably nature of the Roman Danube in Hungary but even that has been dramatically improved through the use of aerial photographs during the last twenty years, not so much of the lines of the Danube and road, numerous watchtowers, major sites but of the different above all the many temporary camps related to military operations that took place in the area.20

The

section

of

the

Pannonian

Danube

between

the

rivers

Drava

and

Sava,

17 in the series are: Limes XII (Stirling 1979), ed. W. S. Hanson Recent volumes and L. J. F. Keppie (1980); Limes see the excellent discussion XIII (Aalen 1983), ed. D. Planck and C. Unz (1986) (on which by V. A. Maxfield, JRA 2 (1980), 334-46); Limes XIV and M. Kandier (Carnuntum 1986), ed. E. Vetters (1990); Limes XV (Canterbury and M. J. Dobson (Kekrade 1995), ed. W. Groenmann-van 1989), ed. V. A. Maxfield (1991); Limes XVI Waateringe et al. (2.002.); (Zal?u), ed. N. Gudea (Amman 2000), ed. P. W. Freeman (1997); Limes XVII (1999); Limes XVIII Limes XIX The best general account of the Roman Danube in English is that (P?cs 2002), ed. Z. Visy (forthcoming). in J. Wacher (ed.), The Roman World (1987), Vol. 1, 171-93. by V. A. Maxfield 18 M. Kandier and H. Vetters ein F?hrer (eds), Der r?mische Limes in ?sterreich: (1986). For earlier research there is the monumental in der R?merzeit, work of Kurt Genser, Der ?sterreicherische Donaulimes Der r?mische Limes in ?sterreich and F. Krinzinger Limes ?sterreich: F?hrer zu den 33 (1986). H. Friesinger (eds), Der r?mische Denkm?lern in Noricum, {1997). (For a brief survey of the Danube arch?ologischen J. J. Wilkes, JRA 2 (1989), For Roman military sites in Austrian in Festgabe H. Vetters 347-52). territory north of the Danube, H. Friesinger see Limes XVII for 1986-1997 survey of research on Pannonia (1985), 258-9. For a valuable Superior (op. cit. (n. 17)), 122-9 (S. Jilek). 19 Limes XV (T. Kolnik); XVI, 417-23 473-7 (T. Kolnik); (op. cit. (n. 17)), 432-4 531-6 (J. Rajt?r); (J. Tejral); XV??, 131-8 (T. Kolnik), 829-51 (J. Tejral). 20 can be seen in Zs. Visy, The Ripa Pannonica The full impact of recent discoveries in Hungary (2003), with detailed maps the results of aerial photography. For earlier guides, J. Fitz (ed.), Der r?mische Limes in recording Limes in Ungarn (1976), and Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Ungarn (1988). Both works by Visy also contain useful data on the lesser known sections of the Pannonian Danube in Croatia in particular and Serbia. The late Roman Danube, above and below the Danube in two studies by the late Sandor Soproni, Der spatr?mische Limes bend, is described des pannonischen und Szentendre Limes (1985). The progress zwischen Esztergom (1978), and Die letzte Jahrzehnte can be followed of research and the interpretation of new discoveries the contributions through by Hungarian to the Congresses scholars of Roman Frontier Studies (A. M?csy), (op. cit. (n. 17)): Limes XII, 627-35 637-54 (D. Gabler), 671-9 (S. Soproni); Xffl, 369-76 (M?csy and Gabler); 219-24 (D. Gabler), (J. Fitz); XVI, 85-92 165-72 (G. Bertok); XVJ7,

X7V, 139-50

219-24

(J. Fitz), (Zs. Visy).

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547-60

(Zs. Visy);

XV,


132

J.

containing Vojvodina

around

nine auxiliary

and

received

has

little

forts, attention

J. WILKES

is now

divided

in recent

between

Croatia

and the Serbian

years.21

of Moesia the Serbian Superior begins at the Sava confluence opposite a site of fortress and below the second fortress of (Ms.4), capital Belgrade, legionary Viminacium (Ms. 14) flows for nearly one hundred miles through a succession of gorges often known as Djerdap for 'whirlpool'), after which come the double bends (the Turkish at the until frontier the river Timok. There is now a ('parrot's beak'), Serbian-Bulgarian most useful survey by the Romanian sites along the Danube scholar N. Gudea of military to the period up to c. A.D. 275 (the evacuation of Moesia of Dacia Superior assignable beyond the river). This includes not only all sites on the right bank in Serbia and Bulgaria, down to the mouth of the river Lorn where the river entered Moesia Inferior, but also all the sites adjacent to the left bank in the Banat region of Serbia and in Romania that lay in to the many interim and summary reports Trajan's Dacia beyond the river. In addition the proceedings of the major conference held at by Serbian archaeologists, produced in 1995, in place of a Congress Kladovo of Frontier Studies that had been planned for the region two years before, have been published.22 The Danube of Moesia Inferior is divided by the modern frontier east of Silistra section contains between Bulgaria and Romania. The Bulgarian three legionary bases, Oescus (Mi.12), Novae (Mi.18), and Durostorum (Mi.49), and perhaps as many as thirteen forts. A full account of the Danube sections of Moesia auxiliary Superior and Moesia the Inferior that lie within Bulgaria has been compiled scholar Roumen by Bulgarian for Moesia Ivanov; this offers a valuable Superior to that of Gudea noted supplement since it also includes sites of the late Roman and earlier Byzantine above, periods. are Conditions the lower Danube less favourable for the investigation along significantly of military deployment prior to the late third century A.D. compared with the Pannonian of the earlier sites lie beneath later fortified sites Danube of Austria and Hungary. Most the archaeological evidence for the earlier and, except for the legionary bases in Bulgaria, in quantity and insignificant when Roman era (first to third centuries A.D.) remains meagre set beside the more and military intelligible body of evidence provided by inscriptions inMoesia and Inferior, both along the Danube diplomas. A catalogue of the fortifications in the interior, from which there is evidence of occupation the late third before dating The Danube

century

A.D.,

has

been

compiled

by

two

Romanian

scholars,

M.

Zahariade

and

N.

Gudea.

in Bulgaria and Romania Included here are not only all sites known but also those that inMoesia of the Roman military Inferior along the indicate the extension arrangements in the modern territories of Black Sea coast north of the delta as far as the Crimea, at Svishtov and Russia. The published of a conference Moldova, Ukraine, proceedings in the held in 1998 have furnished a valuable synthesis on the late Roman lower Danube

21

A useful summary account of the former Yugoslav is furnished by Visy, op. cit. (n. 20,1988), Danube Pannonian 126-30 and 140 (bibliography). 22 zu ihrer Geschichte Provinz Obermoesien: 'Die Nordgrenze der r?mischen Materialien N. Gudea, (86?275 n. is critical Zentralmuseum author of apparent Mainz Chr.)', 48 (2001), 3-118. The Jhb. des. R?m.-Germ. in the identification P. Petrovic inconsistencies and naming of a number of sites along the Serbian Danube. (ed.), is an Roman Limes on the Middle and Lower Danube There JRA 11 (1998), 635-43). {1996) (see J. J. Wilkes, 220 (1997), 60-1. account in Dossiers sites in the region by P. Petrovic of the Roman illustrated d'Arch?ologie in the Belgrade periodical the past twenty years there have been many reports published Starinar, and in the in of arrangements series Djerdapske Sveske I Cahiers des Portes de Fer (Belgrade). For a recent discussion Limes XVIII, of Dacia based on the analysis of recent finds see M. Mirkovic, Superior during the occupation For the period prior to the Roman of a 1998 there are the published op. cit. (n. 17), 757-64. conquest proceedings M. Vasic I Les portes de fer ? la deuxi?me moiti? du premier (ed.), Le Djerdap Yugoslav-Romanian colloquium, av. J. Chr. jusqu'aux mill?naire guerres daciques {1999). During

special Moesia

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THE

DANUBE:

ROMAN

AN

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

133

to Heraclius.23 Below Silistra both banks of the Danube of Moesia period from Diocletian In until the apex of the delta and the frontier with Moldova. Inferior are Romanian to the legionary fortress of Troemis addition (Mi.70) there may have been as many as (south) channel of eighteen auxiliary forts between Silistra and the mouth of the St George the delta. This region was the scene of much military activity during the early and middle Byzantine eras and the dating of many remains continues to be far from certain, not only the Dobrudja of sites along the river but also of the several linear earthworks both within in the vicinity of Constanta and in the area north of the delta. Arguments for assigning any of these to the Roman period are not convincing.24 The evidence for a Roman military presence at places along the Black Sea coast north of the Danube delta during the late first and

second

centuries

A.D.

has

been

known

for more

than

a century,

but

in

recent

years

in the Crimea in and around Sevastopol there have been some remarkable discoveries to it excavation and since has become open (Mi.96), exploration.25 in Dacia beyond the Danube The Roman military deployment lasted for little more than a century and a half. As re-shaped within the Carpathians Hadrian and then modified by sites in the under the Antonines and Severi there are around one hundred military in Transylvania and securing the province, forming inner and outer security perimeters three major routes that linked Dacia with the rest of the Empire. At the centre was the at Potaissa (D.ioi), with a second being established (D.102) legionary base of Apulum under Marcus Aurelius. Though the overall military system is now well understood, many sites have been barely explored by excavation, if at all. A notable advance in recent years has been the identification of systems of intervisible towers and observation posts forming a protective screen linked with to provide early the outer perimeter of forts designed the last quarter of a passes. During warning of intruders moving through the Carpathian Nicolae Gudea and Ioanna Bogdan C?t?niciu have century Romanian archaeologists system in the province. The compiled and revised detailed surveys of the Roman military former has compiled the most recent account, while the latter has produced her detailed

23 an der unteren Donau R. Ivanov, 'Das r?mische Verteidigungssystem zwischen Dorticum und Durostorum von Augustus bis Maurikios', BerRGK M. Zahariade and N. Gudea, The (Bulgarian) 78 (1997), 468-640. there is still (AD 86?275) Fortifications (1997). Though of Lower Moesia covering only sites throughout Bulgaria, much of value in the study of the Polish scholar M. Biernacka-Lubanska, Roman Fortifications in Bulgaria (1990). von Diokletian G. von B?low and A. Milceva bis Heraklios (eds), Der Limes an den unteren Donau (Vortr?ge der int. Konf. Svishtov, Bulgarien. 1-5 Sept 1998) (1999). Most congress reports from this region relate to work on late Roman levels, Limes XIV, op. cit. (n. 17), 855?61 (T. Sarnowski), (A. Dimitrova-Milceva), 863-74 875-92 (A. Pissarev); XVII, 507-22 (R. Ivanov); XVIII, 673-84 (Sv. Conrad of survey in 1997-2000 in the region between Svishtov and Ruse. 24 its limitations the older synthesis of C. Scorpan, Limes Despite

and D.

Stanchev).

The

last describes

the results

BAR Int. ser. 88 (1980), is yet to be Scythiae, is also still much of value in H. Gajewska, romaines en Dobroudja des fortifications replaced. There Topographie is available inM. Zahariade, Moesia Secunda, Scythia and Notitia (1974), but a more recent gazetteer Dignitatum is provided of a 1996 symposium, M. Zahariade and (1988). A useful review of recent work by the publication I. Opis in the Lower Danube Frontier in 'The Roman frontier (eds), The Roman (1998), and also M. Zahariade, in Petrovic, and increasing amount of Scythia Minor op. cit. (n. 22, 1996), 223-34. The considerable 1980-1994', for construction in the province evidence of Scythia Minor under the Tetrarchy has recently been discussed by 101?2. Other M. Zahariade, Limes XIX (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts, reports relating to this region include Limes XVII, 485-6 907-12 (A. Barnea), (L. Otsa), (V. Lica); XIX, Abstracts 44-5 (J. Karavas). 885-94 25 For a summary of evidence in the area see T. Sarnowski, 'Das r?mische presence relating to the Roman military Heer im Norden des Schwarzen Meeres', (Warsaw) 38 (1987), 61-98. The same scholar has reported Archeologia new discoveries recent frontier Congress, to the most 'Die R?mer bei den Griechen auf der s?dlichen Krim. Neue Limes XIX, op. cit. (n. 17), Abstracts und Forschungen', Entdeckung 85-6.

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134 account

J.

of Roman

J. WILKES

in the Wallachian

activity

plain between

the Carpathians

and the lower

Danube.26

Since the second supplement to Volume III of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum was in in of the from the Danube 1902, progress published lands, both publication inscriptions Latin and Greek, has been organized on a national basis and has been defined by modern with the notable exception of the Inscriptions of Moesia boundaries, political Superior. Except

for

a

to

concordance

computer-generated

the

Inscriptions

of Noricum,

any

plans

to produce a new version of CIL now appear to have been abandoned in the face of rapidly An exception may be the systems of electronic advancing recording and dissemination. fascicule of Roman milestones for the western Danube (CIL XVII.4) compiled region by the late Gerold Walser. An attempt to provide a usable record of epigraphic publications relating to Eastern Europe and the Balkans covering the years 1902-1978, organized by in 1980 with contributors from eleven countries, remains an Jaroslav Sasel and published invaluable work of reference.27 Military bronze records of imperial consti diplomas, tutions granting citizenship to various categories of Roman and other privileges soldiers, are an important source of information in the Danube for military deployment region. loss of Many of those found in recent years have been exported illegally with consequent a H. and context. Their publication XVI for CIL Nesselhauf with provenance by (1936, in 1956) has been continued in four volumes Roxan supplement by the late Margaret the

covering

years

to

1954

c.

1998.28

Recent years have brought significant developments some of the Danube In the case of Austria, countries. for Noricum the inscriptions from already noted, catalogued Since 1979

and the

is also

there

of

harvest

texts

a

supplement is registered

for

in the publication of inscriptions in in addition to the CIL index volume are Steiermark (south-east Austria)

Carinthia

in surveys,

so

covering far six,

the covering

years the

1902?1971. years

up

to

2000. There has also been welcome to inscriptions on portable objects attention (Instru too in all often the menta), major collections, while the Austrian coverage of the neglected inscribed items is near (CSIR) that contains many Imperii Romani Corpus Signorum complete. The large collection of inscriptions from the Schloss Seggau near Solva (RIII.57) is now published. in Finally, many important texts are now republished with illustrations

26 in Roman Dacia, The earlier compilation Evolution BAR by Ioanna Bogdan C?t?niciu, of the Defence Works zu Int. ser. 116 (1981), has now for the most part been superseded 'Der dakische Limes. Materialien by N. Gudea, seiner Geschichte', Germ. Zentralmuseum Ioanna Bogdan Mainz 44 (1997), 497-609. C?t?niciu, Jhb. Rom. see Wallachia in the Defensive observation System of the Roman Empire (1997). For the system of forward I. Ferenczi, ActArchHung and in Limes XVII, op. cit. (n. 17), 443?61. For progress 41 (1989), 299?311, reports on see Limes XII, 799?814 Dacia 477?97 (N. Gudea); XIII, 461?8 (I. B. C?t?niciu), (Gudea), 510?13 (C. C. Petolescu); XVI,

XVII, 13-23 (Gudea), 101-7 (C?t?niciu), (M. Zahariade); 151-70 (D. Benea), (D. Isac), 172-86 603-8 187-97 for Dacia Porolissensis (D. Ruscu), (R. Avram and Petolescu), (L. Petolescu), 915-30 477-84 895-905 (bibliography (C?t?niciu). by N. Gudea); Limes XVIII, 719-36 27 Latinarum Provinciae Norici Indices usque ad annum MCMLXXXIV Inscriptionum repertarum Lapidariarum and P. Schubert, fase. 1-3 (1986). J. Sasel (ed.), 'Epigraphische (ILLPRON Indices), ed. M. Hainzmann Forschungen seit CIL III (1902)', Arheoloski Austria Vestnik Albania 31 (1980), 201-321: (Z. Mirdita), (E.Weber), Bulgaria

East Germany Czechoslovakia Greece 1945-1977 (V. Bozilova), (L. Vidman), (H. Krummrey), (M. Sasel-Kos), Minor Poland Romania/Dacia (B. L?rincz), (N. Gudea), Romania/Scythia (E. Dorutiu-Boil? (J. Kolendo), Hungary USSR and C. C. Petolescu), (Ju. G. Vinogradov), (J. Sasel). Yugoslavia 28 M. M. Roxan, Roman Military 1954-1977 (1978); 1978-1984 Diplomas (1985), 1985-1993 (1994), and with to military P. Holder, papers relating 1994-1998 (2003). A list of her many published by P. diplomas (compiled the Roman Army: Essays in Honour Roxan appears in J. J. Wilkes Holder) (ed.), Documenting (2003). of Margaret The same volume und die kaiserliche (55-87) contains W. Eck, 'Der Kaiser als Heer des Heeres. Milit?rdiplome of new diplomas, in ZPE and Current publications and others, can be found mainly by P. Weiss Reichsregierung'. are also

registered

in L'Ann?e

Epigraphique.

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THE

ROMAN

DANUBE:

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in Noricum.29 a volume of inscriptions For Hungary administration relating to municipal is is the diffi but such the publication of Roman {RIU) nearing completion inscriptions culty

of

and

reading

many

interpreting

texts

that

revisions

and

corrections

to

recent

are already appearing in addition to the regular surveys of new discoveries. The now texts Pannonia is Other from also of Greek small total (c. 150) published. relatively both those removed from include texts from beyond the Pannonian Danube, publications volumes

the

and

province

those

from

originating

Barbaricum.30

Some years before the break-up of Yugoslavia their three-part collection found of inscriptions 1902

and

1970

(ILlug),

and

there

are

signs

that

Anna and Jaroslav Sasel had completed in that territory between and published

some

of

the

successor

republics

are

genera

to this invaluable work for their own territories.31 For Slovenia there is ting supplements now a full catalogue of inscriptions (181 items) in the collection of the National Museum in Ljubljana and the corpus of texts for Slovenia has already been inaugurated with the volume covering Neviodunum (RIII.29) and its territory, to be followed by volumes on the cities that lie within the territory of Slovenia and three other Roman (Emona, Celeia, a scheme to continue In Croatia the collection of the Sasels has been Poetovio).32 so far that for 1991-1995 has been published while that for the intervening established; recent collection covers the late Roman is in preparation. Another (1971-1990) period a there is for Liburnia.33 and also valuable Adriatic The first volume of the survey period in the from Narona the texts incorporated corpus of inscriptions (RIV.37), containing Eresova Tower, For the territory of Bosnia-Hercegovina is published. there is a supple ment covering Latin and Greek texts for the years 1971-1997 (177 items) and from an

29 E. Weber, Die r?mer zeitlich en Inschriften in K?rnten der Steiermark seit 1902 (1969); P. S. Leber, Die see E. Weber, r?mischen Austriaca' R?misches (1972). For the 'Annona Epigraphica gefundenen Steininschriften Osterreich 8, 107-16 11/12, 377-90 (for 1979); 9/10, 271-88 (1982); 19/20, 177-251 (1980-1981); (1983-1992); et al. in Akten des 7. ?sterreichischen E. Weber (ed. Tauber) (2001), 49-127 (for 1993-1998); Althistorikertages et al., Tyche E. Weber 16 (2001), 221?78 For instrumenta the Testimonia Norica (for 1999?2000). Epigraphica M. Hainzmann) has already produced fascicules for a number of museum and private collections, (TENOR){ed. on the web: and P. Schubert edited by R. Wedenig (reported in AE (1997), 1207 and (2000), 1145; for the database CSIR Austria: http://www.kfunigraz.ac.at/agawww/Instrumenta/oberoesterreich/index.html). I.3-4 Carnuntum III.i Iuvavum (1970, 1972); J.j Scarbantia (1974); ' *>Aelium Cetium (1975); II.1?5 Virunum (1968-1994); (1975); III.2 Lauriacum (1976); HI.3 Ovilava (1981); III.4 Aguntum-Brigantium (1984 ). R. Wedenig, Epigraphische Quellen zur st?dtischen Administration in Noricum (1997). 30 et al.): 1 Savaria, Scarbantia Die r?mische Inschriften Ungarns and the Danube (ed. L. Bark?csi, A. M?csy from to Arrabona Ad Flexum revisions Mursella, (1972); 2 Salla, Mogentiana, {1.976), with Brigetio by G. Alf?ldy, 6 (1990), 85-108 8 (ed. C. Ertel et al.), for the territories of Salla and (also now CSIR Hungary Specimina Nova bend the Drava and the Danube (cont.), and Danube (1999)); 3 Brigetio Mogetiana, (1981); 4 Between from Lussonium and Altinum the same area; Index to vols 1-4 (ed. 7 (1991) covering (1984), also CSIR Hungary et al.) (1991); 5 Intercisa B. L?rincz (1991) with Index, B. L?rincz, ZPE 9s (1993), 269?95; 6 Aquincum Territory, Civitas Eraviscorum, to Annmatia the Danube and Gorsium (2001) with Index, B. L?rincz, front Matrica Territory ZPE 148 (2004), 291-312 16 (2000), many revisions and new readings by G. Alf?ldy, (incorporating Specimina Nova and Suppl to vols i?y, 11Milestones. Since the 1980 47-66). Future volumes are: 7-9 Aquincum I?HI; 10 Barbaricum the same author has produced two further surveys of epigraphy in Pannonia, survey (op. cit. (n. 27)) by B. L?rincz Act. Class. Debrecen and in Att XI Congr. Int. Epigr Greca e Latina Roma 30 (1994), 5-17 (covering 1979-1993) from the Danube recovered bed at B?lcske 1997 {1999), 435-49. Votives (Pi.29) are now published. Unpublished texts from the Sarmatian I (2000), 57-74. P. Kov?cs, plain are published by P. Kov?cs, Epigraphica Corpus Graecarum Pannonicarum Polis Studies 3) (1998). J. Ceska and H. Hosek, Inscriptionum (Hungarian Inscriptiones Pannoniae in Slovacia Transdanubiana conservatae Tituli Latini Pannoniae Superioris (1967); R. Hosek, Superioris annis 1967-1982 in Slovacia reperti (1985). 31 ... A. and J. Sasel, Inscriptiones Latinae quae in lugoslavia Inter annos MCMII repertae et editae sunt, Ljubljana: et MCMXL, et MCMLX, Situla 25 (1986); Inter annos MCMXL et Situla 5 (1963); Inter annos MCMLX MCMLXX: accedunt nonnullae ad annos MCMXL-MCMLX Situla 19 (1978). pertinentes, 32 M. Sasel Kos, The Roman in the National Museum Situla 35 (1997). Inscriptions of Slovenia, 33 M. Segvic, 'Croatiae schedae epigraphicae Latinae ab anno MCMXCI (CSEL): Inscriptiones quae in Croatia 20 (1996), 131-9; Z. Demo usque ad annum MCMXCV repertae et editae sunt', Opuscula (ed.), Early Archaeologica in Continental Croatia in G. Paci (ed.), Epigraf?a romana in area adriatica, Ichnia Christianity (1994); R. Matijasic 2 (1998).

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i36

J.

J. WILKES

earlier era an invaluable illustrated catalogue of religious and votive monuments by the then head of the Sarajevo National Museum.34 The publication of the Greek and Roman inscriptions of Serbia based on the territories and regions of Moesia Superior also includes the Skopje region that now lies within the former Yugoslav of Macedonia Republic and the north-east part of the province east of the river Timok that lies (already published) more or the is within Bulgaria Otherwise collection less (not yet published). complete, except for the Danube gorges in the north and the Kosovo region in the south. Since parts zone of the Latin and Greek of this region lie close to the boundary it is a languages, both of this collection that the inclusion of welcome (a strength particular precedent in the IG X fascicule covering followed the north-west of Roman Macedonia) makes visible the significant level of interaction visible in both Latin and Greek texts; this has in a monograph been well documented by the late Petar Petrovic, one of the editors of the series.35

of the Greek Inscriptions It remains a matter for regret that the magnificent publication now fully revised and up to date with the publi of Bulgaria by the late Georgi Mihailov, cation of a supplementary fifth volume, could not somehow have been integrated with the on which in recent years. By of Latin there has been little progress texts, publication the volume of the late B. Gerov, covering the Danube of Moesia Inferior and comparison its hinterland between the rivers Iskar and Yantra (447 items), falls a long way short of the While standard set by Mihailov. this volume covers the major sites of Oescus and Novae, remains to be done on those sections of the its restricted scope indicates how much Bulgarian Danube between the rivers Timok and Iskar in the west and between the Yantra border at Silistra in the east. This state of affairs makes all the more and the Romanian the record for Novae the catalogue of Latin texts edited in welcome (Mi.18), for which of 1997 that includes both Latin and 1992 has now been replaced by a new publication of both the Greek and Latin texts from the two Greek texts.36 For Romania publication and Dacia beyond of the the (Moesia Inferior/Scythia Minor) major regions Dobrudja now more is the well and and Danube Banat, advanced, Oltenia, Transylvania comprising recent

finds

and

publications

are

covered

by

regular

surveys.37

34

et Graecae et Hercegovinae Bosnia A. Skegro, Latinae (1971-1997)', 'Inscriptiones Opuscula Archaeologica 21 (1997), 85-116; E. Imamovic, Monuments et votifs antiques cultuels dans le territoire de la Bosnie (Zagreb) (1977). Hercegovine 35 et al. (eds), Inscri F. Papazoglu et le nord-ouest I Singidunum de la province and (ed. M. Mirkovic ptions de la M?sie sup?rieure, Belgrade: et la vall?e du Timok et Margum S. Dusanic) (ed.M. Mirkovic) (1986); IIII2 Timacum Minus (1976); // Viminacium (ed. P. Petrovic) (1979); VI Scupi et la r?gion de Margi (ed. P. Petrovic) (1995); IV Naissus-Remesiana-Horreum en M?sie romaines des inscriptions Kumanovo (ed. B. Dragojevic-Josifovska) (1982). P. Petrovic, Pal?ographie Graecae Vol. X, pars II Inscriptiones Inst. Arch. Monographies Macedoniae, 14 (1975). Inscriptiones sup?rieure, sect, prima Macedoniae Heracleae, Inscriptiones Pelagoniae, Lyncestidis, fase. II Inscriptiones Septentrionalis, et al.) {1999). For a summary of texts published since IMS and ILIug (op. cit. (ed. M. Papazoglu Lychnidi Derriopi, cited based on AE and publications of the provinces Dalmatia and Moesia (n. 31)) from the territories Superior, see J. J. Wilkes, Atti Congr. Int. Epigraphia Greca e Latina Roma above 1997 {1999), 451-60. (op. cit. (n. 33-34)), 36 in Vol. II of from the Danube Inferior in Bulgaria were published The Greek region of Moesia inscriptions now with Vol. V, Inscriptiones in Bulgaria Graecae (ed. G. Mihailov) (1958), nos 480-862, repertae Inscriptiones B. Gerov Latinae in et corrigenda novae, addenda (ed.), Inscriptiones (ed. K. Banev et al.) (1997) (5160-5394^5). in general there is a useful culture of the Moesian 1.2 (1983). On the epigraphic repertae, Vol. provinces Bulgaria Atti Cong. Greca e Latina Roma 1997 (1999), 461-72. Int. Epigraphia survey, based on statistics, by L. Mrozewicz, 37 Series 1: Inscriptiones et Scythiae Minoris Daciae (ed. D. M. Pippidi and I. I. Russu). Inscriptiones Antiquae et epigraphica, tabulae cereatae hist?rica Romanae militar?a, (ed. I. I. (IDR). I Prolegomena diplomata et C?rpatos montes and inter Danuvium (ed. G. Florescu (Oltenia and Muntenia) Russu) (1975); // Pars meridionalis C. C. Petolescu) Superior, pars occidentalis (ed. I. I. Russu) (1977); HI/2 Dacia Ulpia (1977); /// Dacia Superior, Traiana pars media (ed. I. I. Russu et al.) (1984); III/4 (ed. I. I. Russu) (1980); HI/3 Dacia Superior, Sarmizegetusa des de l'Acad?mie M?moires Dacia pars orientalis (ed. I. I. Russu) (1988); IIII5 Inscriptions d'Apulum, Superior, domesticum et Belles-Lettres (ed. 24 (ed. I. Piso) (2001); III/6 Dacia Superior, Apulum-Instrumentum Inscriptions et viciniae Histriae C. L. B?lut?) (ed. D. M. (IScM). I Inscriptiones (1999). Series 2: Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris et territorium et territorium (ed. A. Avram) (1999); IV (1987); III Callatis (ed. I. Stoian) (1983); JJ Tomis Pippidi) Daciae

Tropaeum

Traiani

et

territorium

(in preparation);

V Capidava-Troesmis-Noviodunum

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(ed. E. Doru?iu-Boila)


THE

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II EARLY

HISTORY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND

SURVEY

137

ADMINISTRATION

Recent research has had little impact on current reconstructions of events in the Danube lands between Caesar and Claudius, except in so far as the increasing body of material on simplified accounts based evidence furnishes a welcome deterrent against over-reliance on the manifestly record combined with the results of incomplete and distorted historical a

record

haphazard

often

little more

of

succession

unpredictable

research.

archaeological

than a succession of

of was

events

The

of

to a wider

wars

Roman

by which

headlines,

journalistic reported

narrative

is all

a complex

too

and

world.

For the period of Caesar and the Triumvirs early studies by Ronald Syme, edited and published by A. R. Birley, remind us of how much the reported schemes of Philip V of VI of Pontus to invade Italy by the overland Maced?n and Mithridates route remained fresh in the Roman memory. That will have been especially the case when rumours were in Italy during the early years of the Civil War that the Dacian ruler Burebista circulating was planning to send a barbarian horde into Italy. According to Syme, at the time of his death Caesar was planning not to seek glory by an attack on Parthia in the East but rather to make Rome and Italy secure by an expedition into the Danube lands directed against the power of the Dacians. The Triumvirs had this design in their minds in their own military

actions

during

the

years

of

rivalry.

Caesar

Octavianus'

attacks

on

the

Pannonians

and the Delmatae (35-33 b.c.) still occupy a prominent place in the record but little or in the direction of the central Balkans.38 nothing is now known of the activities of Antony and in particular the strategic crossroads of Naissus Only when the region of Dardania, in the Morava secured would it have been possible for the (Nis RV.11) valley, was to proconsul Crassus (29-28 b.c.) to make his spectacular foray down the lower Danube, in the Dobrudja and even, it seems likely, win a success avenge earlier Roman defeats to be a real challenge that was perceived to Caesar's heir. Recent against the Dacians studies have argued for the lasting impact of Crassus' both on the native campaigns, in the area but also on Rome's communities relations with the Black Sea cities.39 After affairs along the lower Danube as the regime of recede into the background Crassus, of the Pannonian Augustus engaged in the conquest of Illyricum. Subjugation peoples of the Drava and Sava valleys and of Bosnia was achieved at enormous cost in two series of campaigns

(14-9

circumstances under Roman

B.c.

and

A.D.

6-9).

Uncertainty

the peoples of Noricum control. Archaeological

still

persists

as

to when

and

under

what

and those of Pannonia north of the Drava came evidence indicate (notably dress) and onomastic

are published from Romania intra fines Dacoromaniae (1980). Late Roman inscriptions separately: Inscriptiones et Latinae anno CCLXXXIV recentiores repertae Graecae (ed. Em. Popescu) (1976). For surveys of recent see C C. Petolescu, ceret?ri de istorie veche?i arheologie publications Studii?i 44 (1993), 387-96 (XII nos 576-610); nos 631-91); 45 (1994), 369-73 (XIII nos 611-30); 47 (1996), 401-9 (XIV-XV (XVI nos 692-720); 48 (1997), 383-9 49 (1998), 277-89 The same scholar has also published (XVII nos 721-58); 50 (1999), 189-201 (XVIII nos 759-818). two volumes of inscriptions 1 Italy and the Western from other regions of the Empire, Provinces relating to Dacia {1996), 2 From the Areas of CIL III and CIL VIII (2000). 38 R. Syme, The Provincial at Rome and the Balkans 80 BC-AD and Rome 14 (ed. A. Birley) (1999), 174-92 in Macedonia). The editor adds a note (Caesar's designs), 145-50 from (Antony (150 n. 122) of an inscription in Macedonia M. Insteius L. f. (imperator), then probably a and subsequently Europus mentioning proconsul at Actium commander For a recent discussion of contacts between Mithridates and the {BCH 118 (1994), 215-28). Black Sea cities see L. Ruscu, Tyche A Suceveanu, 15 (2000), 119-35, an<? f?r those of Burebista, 13 (1998), Tyche of context of Acornion western advance against the Boii and the lasting 229?47 (discussion decree). On Burebista's of see the Dacians G. Dobesch in Tejral-Piet?-Rajt?r, memory among the Romans op. cit. (n. 7, 1995), 15-19. In the Adriatic it has been suggested that the so-called SC de Issaeis (Sherk no. 24) is not after all a Senatusconsultum but a response by Caesar to a petition by Tragurium and other communities in the area seeking help against attacks by the Delmatae: 12 (1993), 51-64. P. Culham, Classical Antiquity 39 In the view of C?t?niciu, op. cit. (n. 26, 1997), 150-1, Roles of the Getae was among the successors of Burebista For the developing Roman see M. Oppermann, relations with the Dobrudja, Klio ruling north of the Danube. and for the developing relations between the Romans and the Bosporan H. Heinen, (1985), 111-17, kingdom, Cahiers du Centre G. Glotz 7 (1996), 81-101.

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i38

J.

J. WILKES

in common with those Pannonians south of that these communities had little or nothing had directed. Their the Augustan been closest links the Drava against whom campaigns were

with

in

groups

the

on

south-west

the

of

fringes

the

south-eastern

Alps

(Varciani,

It has been suggested that most of the area came under some form and Latobici). Taurisci, of Roman the Alpine campaign of 15 b.c. and that submission of the control following easternmost

Pannonians

on

followed

the Roman

victories

south

of

the Drava

in 12-11

b.c.

(T. Nagy). The fact that there is no trace of any form of Roman administration along the can as an viewed before and Claudius be Danube Noricum, upper (Raetia, Pannonia) under control but yet to be formally towards communities example of Roman flexibility Another view (J. Fitz) links the formal annexation of peoples north annexed (G. Dobesch). in the early years of Tiberius. The move may have of the Drava with the mission of Drusus client ruler Maroboduus and the been necessitated by the collapse of Rome's German in territory north of the Danube bounded on the east by the river of Vannius establishment an action that marked Duria the start of Rome's long engagement with the (Waag/Vah), recent A Suebic Germans north of the Pannonian Danube survey and discussion (T. Nagy). 'German Empire', of the material evidence from the territory of Maroboduus' including on the base at Marktbreit the rich cremations and the Roman of Bohemia campaign Roman main that direction of both commercial and the middle Main, contact, suggests came

military,

from

the west.

Notions

of

a contemporary

Roman

presence

military

from

are discounted. Neither Devin the direction of the upper Danube (Ps.61), on the Danube nor Stare Hradisko have so far yielded left bank close to the mouth of the March/Morava, were remains from while the that evidence bases, any military Augustan military they are now to Antonine be of rather than Musov Augustan agreed (Ps.55) generally Burgstall date. It is also argued that the quantities of Roman military equipment recorded, including brooches

and

arrived

swords,

from

the west

rather

than

from

?

Noricum.40

annexation of Thrace and developments Notwithstanding a wholesale of provincial and municipal the ensuing Crimean reorganization expedition, of a new client regime among the Suebic and the successful establishment administration, ? Germans the attention of the Roman world was entirely directed to the invasion and conquest of Britain, another legacy from the dictator Caesar. The removal of troops from and later for the Armenian command for the British expedition the Danube campaigns under Claudius

the major

may

be

an

indicator

of

a confidence

recovered

after

the

disasters

of Augustus'

later

years

lack of interest in the region as a whole. Under Nero of the emperor's that survives for the activities of Ti. Plautius Silvanus inMoesia {ILS character and actions, mainly of a diplomatic range of responsibilities cause may involving peoples beyond the lower Danube and in the Crimea. The underlying movement allies of the Sarmatian Alani impacting upon Roman have been the westward on activities A of Dacians. similar but the and the Bastarnae, pattern among Roxolani, a few to Tampius of Pannonia, has been ascribed middle Danube Flavianus, governor years later (ILS 985), but here the surviving record is incomplete. Both commanders were awarded triumphal honours under the new Flavian regime.41 returned the the end of Nero and the accession of Hadrian between The half-century itwas to retain to the centre of Roman political and military affairs, a prominence Danube are reasonably well docu for almost three centuries. The principal episodes of warfare ? no more raids of the Sarmatian in doubt and their outline mented history or simply a measure the detailed record 986) reveals a wide

A.D.

68-70,

Domitian's

A.D.

85-92,

and

wars

Trajan's

two

against Dacian

the

Dacians,

expeditions

Suebic in A.D.

and

Germans, 101/102

and

40

105

in

Sarmatians leading

to

the

Limes XIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 308-15; J. Fitz, R? T. Nagy, ActArchHung 17/18 43 (1991), 57-85; G. Dobesch, and V. Sakar in Festschrift 41 (1989), 61-71. E. Doberjar Tejral, op. cit. 79-86; T. Nagy, ActArchHung (1989/1990), (n. 7), 21-42. 41 on Plautius Eos 87 (2000), 295-310; lands see L. Mrozevicz, towards the Danube On the policies of Claudius see P. Conole and R. D. Milns, Historia Flavianus Silvanus and Tampius 32 (1983), 183-200.

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THE

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139

kingdom. This phase of instability came to an end with a major successor Hadrian in the first years of Trajan's further hostilities reorganization following events from is a steadily of these evidence for (a.D. 117-118). There increasing body inscriptions, including epitaphs and career records, bricks and tiles stamped by military lists of army units stationed in provincial units, military diplomas containing commands, and the excavated remains of an increasing number of military stations. For both of the of the Dacian

annexation

series

major

of

Domitian

under

campaigns

and

and

Trajan

their

aftermath

are

there

the

In the imperial capital the reliefs on Trajan's Column studies of K. Strobel. two into Dacia have been subjected to detailed study the emperor's depicting expeditions events has been detected and commentary. Hitherto little or no trace of these momentous in the region where they took place but that is now changing. A series of Roman campaign bases identified in the hill country south-east of Dacian Sarmizegetusa has been associated with the attack of Lusius Quietus during the first campaign, while the Dacian occupation of some citadels has been linked with the period between the first and second campaigns valuable

the Roman

following

of

occupation

south-west

Dacia.42

No major finds can be reported relating to events during the half-century between wars of the lower Danube and the outbreak of theMarcomannic Hadrian's reorganization under Marcus Aurelius.43 Roman relations with the Suebic along the middle Danube Germans dwelling north of the upper Danube in the territories of the Czech Republic and are becoming more Slovakia understood Roman the documentation of fully through and burials. Rather than being simply the result of commerce, the objects in settlements on the part is viewed as tangible evidence for a political and cultural engagement material A.D. stone buildings of Roman design of native ?lites. The much debated second-century ? in several places beyond the Danube Devin (Ps.61), Stupava (Ps.62), and Cifer-P?c ? have an official character and may have played a formal role in Roman-German (Ps.64) relations. They may well relate to a period of co-existence before the friction developed that led to warfare under Marcus Aurelius. The precise nature of this relationship and the of Roman military stages of its demise remain uncertain.44 The directions operations wars

the Marcomannic

during

(a.D.

are

167-180)

of many temporary camps along identification have been identified at the major river crossing while the importance of the March/Morava-Thaya is indicated

was

by

numerous

established of

period

occupation,

has been argued

temporary

at Musov

Burgstall

remain

that the much

a matter

It now

camps.

(Ps.55), of

discussed

now

clearer

becoming

through

the

and beyond the Danube. Concentrations between Brigetio (Ps.33) and Iza (Ps.32), basin as a route into German territory seems

though

debate.45

command

clear

that

a

Away

from

Praetentura

base

semi-permanent

its role and function, the main

along with theatre

Italiae et Alpium

of war,

the it

held by

42

K. Strobel, Die Donaukriege Domitians zu den Dakerkriegen Traians (1989); Untersuchungen (1984); also a of the conquest and early history the province, Studi ?i cercet?ri de istorie general critique of other reconstructions y eche ?i arheologie and a discussion of the years A.D. 117-123 of the 49 (1998), 207-27, arising from the discovery Gherla military a New F. Lepper and S. Frere, Trajan's Column: diploma, Lauf fer (1986), 903-67. Festschrift Edition Plates. Introduction, and Notes Traiana of the Cichorius Commentary (1989); S. Settis (ed.), La Colonna in detail regarding For a (1988) (both discussed aspects by J. C. N. Coulston, sculptural JRA 3 (1990), 290-309). of Roman discussion A. Diaconescu, Acta Mus. Nap. strategy in the early stages of Trajan's 34 (1997), campaigns, 13-52; on the Roman camps at Jigur, V?rful lui Petru, and Pic de Com?rnicel (I-III), A. S. Stefan, Limes XVI (op. cit. (n. 17)), 517-25; on the occupation of Piatra Criarii citadel north-west of Apulum the limit of Roman beyond C. Acta Mus. 35 (1998), 187-94. territory, occupied Opreanu, Nap. 43 The historical in the Historia tradition preserved is examined Augusta 36 (1999), by D. Ruscu, Acta Mus. Nap. 59-79 44 Recent

to the Marcomannic wars discussions of the background include the contributions of G. Dobesch and in Friesinger, of the Tejral and Stuppner, op. cit. (n. 7, 1994), 17-21 and 109-14; and for a discussion from the perspective of Slovakia, T. Kolnik, Limes XV (op. cit. (n. 17)), 432-4, and XVI, 417-23. On the stone buildings see the discussion of Pitts, op. cit. (n. 7, 1987). Roman and for Musov, temporary camps see J. Rajt?r, Limes XVI (op. cit. (n. 17)), 473-7 (Slovakia), in the same volume, sites see J.Musil in Festschrift Tejral, 531-6; for a general survey of all Roman military (n. 7), 87-94.

G. Domanski evidence Roman 45 For J. Tejral op. cit.

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140

J.

J. WILKES

Antistius Adventus (ILS 8977) ismore likely to be connected with an invasion in A.D. 167, on the evidence of a dramatic fall in coin production coupled with the closure of the Dacian

than

mines,

with

the

events

A.D.

of

There

170.

is no

evidence

that

this

command

Iuliarum gave rise to any form of linear barriers similar to those of the Claustra Alpium based on the summit fort at Ad Pirum the focus of Aurelius (RIII.5). Under Marcus of that period at the activity military lay further east, indicated by new construction of Atrans and the established base at Ad pass Trojane (RIII.12) newly legionary near war In Medias/Locica Celeia. the aftermath of the another solution has been (RIII.13) offered to the enigma of the Commodus burgus inscriptions of A.D. 184, ten of which were found in the late Roman cemetery at Intercisa (Pi.24). Instead of an earlier suggestion that some of these stone plaques had never actually been placed in position and had remained in the mason's yard, Soproni has argued that, since the name of the emperor had been erased following A.D. 192, they were removed from public view until a few systematically years

later,

the

following

Severan

of

promulgation

an Antonine

descent

in A.D.

195,

an

act

as a 'brother' of Septimius Severus.46 that will have reinstated Commodus The close relationship the Severan dynasty and the Danube between region, above all to be revealed by discoveries continues of new construction, both civil and Pannonia, and increase also of that the statistical of records military, inscriptions predominance dating from between A.D. 193 and 235 when compared with all other eras. Some have suggested that much of this activity was linked directly with the passage through the area of Severus and his family in A.D. 202 on their return from the Parthian campaign. Other on the Danube in a.D. 213 en finds have also been linked with the presence of Caracalla route

for

his

Eastern

campaign.47

The principal of the Danube lands are reasonably changes in provincial organization well documented, but no new evidence bearing upon long-standing problems has come to arrangements, light in recent years. This is the case for the much debated pre-Claudian on the lower in the west based on Illyricum and the Thracia-Macedonia command to In Moesia. from which the of Danube, emerged province Illyricum, earlier regard of the record from Epidaurum doubts over the authenticity (RIV.42) indicating a division into Illyricum Superius and Illyricum Inferius (later Pannonia) around (later Dalmatia) A.D.

8/9

appear

to

have

been

Neither

misplaced.48

command

however

emerges

clearly

before Claudius while Pannonia continued for some years to be known as Illyricum. In the new evidence has come to light for the role of the Adriatic region of the later Dalmatia for the provincial map Dolabella (a.D. 14?20) in fixing boundaries legate P. Cornelius in in the communities well documented between Liburnia, (forma Dolabelliana), already in A.D. 45/46 marks the appear of Thrace hinterland of Salona (RIV.11). The annexation ance

of Moesia

province

after

as ceding

an

territory

In

command.

established on

the

east

to

place

the

west,

Carnuntum

Noricum

became

and

the military

a

separate of cordon

on the east was the river the Amber Road in consular Pannonia. The early limit of Moesia Utus (Vit) east of the Novae that the (Mi.18) but on the west is not certain. Indications was area Sava that marked the later below the first confluence, limit, Belgrade occupied from the direction of Pannonia suggest that the region above the Danube gorges was from the major centres at Mursa (RIII.43). In the (Pi.43) and Sirmium initially controlled in A.D. 85 or 86 the boundary between Superior on the west and Inferior division of Moesia on the east was fixed at the river Cebrus (Cibrica), but by around the middle of the second to the Almus (Lorn). A succession of changes century A.D. it had been moved westwards saw the line between Moesia until by the early Inferior and Thracia moved southwards 46 von Commodus', in Festschrift S. Soproni, 'Zu den Burgusinschriften J. Fitz, op. cit. (n. 6), 91?4. 47 see Fitz, op. cit. (n. 6, 1982); for recent epigraphic On the Severi and Pannonia finds relating to new construction see P. Kov?cs, Atti XI Congr. Int. Epigr. Greca e Latina (1999), 521-31. For details of the journey of Severus see im r?mischen Reich und Typologie der Kaiserreisen H. Halfmann, lunera Principum: Geschichte (1986), 216?23. 48 12 (1987), 101-10. A Claudian is I. Bojanovski, drustva date for the division arheoloskog Izdanja Hrvatskog favoured

by J. Fitz, Alba

Regia

29 (2000), 65-73.

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third century it ran along the top of the Haemus range. No new evidence has come to light for any temporary changes of the line between Pannonia Inferior and Moesia Superior that and Trajan or the may have been put into effect during the Dacian wars under Domitian German

and

wars

Sarmatian

of Marcus

It now

Aurelius.

seems

clear

that

the

tripartite

into Superior division of Trajan's Dacia Inferior (Malvensis), and Poroliss (Apulensis), ensis had already been put into effect by the time of the departure from the area of Q.

Marcius

Turbo

as

Hadrian's

praetorian

prefect

in

A.D.

118.49

The

votive

to

the

Inferior by a freedman of Turbo horseman deity near Dobric (Mi.50) inMoesia or his presence in the area in the command may belong to the period of his Dacian A.D. in of from Arrabona Milestones between Hadrian company 131. (Pi.22) and Mursella on A.D. to to name of a legate of 218 Savaria the road dated the (RIII.87) (RIII.24) bearing Pannonia that the early third-century Inferior suggest between change of boundary Pannonia Inferior and Superior placed the line along the Arabo (Raba) valley, that ismuch in the past. Later in the same century doubt farther to the west than has been assumed subsists over the record suggesting that a new province of Dacia was created south of the Thracian

river

at

the

time

of

the

evacuation

under

Aurelian.

In the reform of civil and military administration in the early fourth century A.D. all the Danube provinces were divided. In Noricum and Pannonia Superior areas adjacent to the Danube became the provinces Noricum Ripense and Pannonia Prima, now separated from and Savia. Pannonia the inner region of Noricum Mediterr?nea Inferior was divided into Pannonia Secunda and Valeria, both including stretches of the Danube. Moesia Superior was divided into Moesia Prima in the north and Dardania in the south, but the territory east of the rivers Margus (Morava) and Timacus (Timok) was ceded to the new province area of Moesia of Dacia Ripensis the western that also comprised Inferior as far as the Utus (Vit). What remained of the latter became Moesia Secunda, except that the Dobrudja region was detached as the province of Scythia.50 to appear of provincial New records continue with military governors, diplomas tenures new individual closer of and identities. An inscribed providing dating occasionally architrave from Iader (RIV.5) bears the name of the proconsul Cn. (Baebius) Tamphilus Vala the (Numonianus), perhaps one of the first to hold office in Illyricum following settlement of 27 B.c. In the Black Sea region P. Vinicius, inMacedonia and propraetor in the middle Thrace the patronage and other civic years of Augustus, appears with honours of Callatis (RVII.9). The careers of Sex. Aelius Catus (cos. A.D. 4) and A. Caecina on the lower Danube Severus late under (cos. A.D. 1), who both held high command recent the On been of the have the Adriatic, Augustus, subject study.51 imperial shrine at a votive to Divus Augustus Narona (RIV.37) has produced by P. (Cornelius) Dolabella Caesaris August(i) in the affairs involvement legatus pro pr(aetore). The increasing Roman that followed of the Bosporan kingdom the annexation of Thrace is recorded in several texts for local citizens who undertook honorific the costs and hazards of embassies on in one instance at Olbia behalf of their communities, in (Mi.94) to both the governor Moesia in the time of Plautius Inferior and the king of the Sarmatian Aorsi, possibly Silvanus Aelianus have been involved in registering the (see above). Polish colleagues names of high officials active in the lower Danube area, including, for the period before the division of Moesia, the names of eighteen senators, other than legates, serving as or more senatorial and than twice that number holding tribunes, legionary legates a number of new items equestrian posts, including auxiliary and fleet commands.52 While and refinements of detail can be added to the lists of B. E. Thomasson twenty compiled years ago, the only new volume of fasti for the region is that by I. Piso listing the senatorial

49 I. Piso in Festschrift Betz (1985), 471-81. 50 T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (1982), 209-25. 51 L. Mrozewicz, Eos 86 (1999), 103-5 (Aelius Catus) and 319-23 (Caecina Severus). 52 AE (1994), 1505 (Mrozewicz) and for other studies see the notices in AE (1995), 1173-4.

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J.

142

J. WILKES

to attract interest.54 In continue can now Ti. Claudius Constans

in Dacia.53 The legates of Trajanic Dacia office-holders Dacia Inferior the name of the newly identified procurator be

on

restored

a Hadrianic

construction

at

record

In

(D.41).

Hoghiz

the

same

province

what appear to be the drafts of a letter addressed to the consular legate of the Three Dacias, Arrius Antoninus, have come to light at Romula (D.67). It has recently been observed that the legates of Moesia Inferior, from the Flavian period to the third century A.D., tended to a similar status prevailing in the case of Hispania be selected from the sons of consulars, recorded Citerior.55 In regard to individual legates the remarkable amount of construction There with the name of T. Vitrasius Pollio (a.D. 156-159) has recently been documented.56 discussion of the decree of Chersonesus has also been prolonged (Mi.96) in A.D. 174 Inferior T. Aurelius Calpurnianus and his wife for their the legate of Moesia honouring in the Crimea. Lists of known conditions efforts to maintain legates have also peaceful been complied for this period (a.D. 161-175) and f?r tne reigns of Severus and Caracalla of the Pannonian provinces have been (a.D. 193-217).57 Most aspects of the administration that there was in the second covered in the volumes of J. Fitz. That scholar's suggestion A.D.

century

a

'Pannonian

career',

military

that

is

from

to

Inferior

via

Superior

the

can be that pattern of appointment has not been widely although consulship, accepted, of the legate's palace at Aquincum discerned.58 Finally, there has been renewed exploration (120 by 150 m). (P1.5); this has defined the overall extent of the complex in the region. At Several new items have come to light for late Roman administration a on statue base has in I. Piso the Teurnia of the Carinthia (RII.6) inscription re-reading by that is from the time of the Tetrarchy, identified a governor of Noricum Mediterr?nea lists have been compiled of the known military before A.D. 305. For the lower Danube commanders (duces) between the third and seventh centuries and also of civil and military in the area of Lower Moesia and the sixth century.59 The between Diocletian officials votives has several Sirmium (RIII.42) by senior officials of the produced imperial capital of a shrine to Bonus Eventus for the safety of including the dedication imperial bureaux, of the city council the patroni eminentissimi (ordo). Stamped bricks with the names of at Mautern to be found, for example continue Roman commanders (N.39) recording as Vir perfectissimus II Italicae', who may or may not be the Ursicinus dux leg(ionis) II. On the equitum and magister magister peditum of the same name under Constantius lower Danube a late tower at Batin (Mi.27) has produced a stamp of Fl(avius) Rumoridus, dux of Moesia Secunda, also recorded on stamps at Cius (Mi.67) in Scythia dated A.D. 369, and

who

may

be

the magister

militum

under

Theodosius

and

in A.D.

consul

403.

interest is the epitaph of an of particular level of service one document in the northern Dobrudja: from Ulmetum 'Val(erius) (RVII.29) imperial guardsman in sacro palatio ann(os) VII[...] Victorinus vix(it) ann(os) XL qui biarc(h)us qui militavi[t] contra adversarios Erected by his decessit'. in proe[lio] Roamnorum (sic) Calced[o]ni At

widow

a lower

the monument

Matrona,

records

defeated Bosphorus where Constantine reference to adversarii appears to refer theWest, and indicates that the deceased identified here as fighting for Licinius, pagan

53 I. 54 C. 55 A. 56 J. 57 E. 58 J.

rather

than

a

casualty

in

the

Battle

at

Chrysopolis

near

the

Licinius on 8 September A.D. 324. The widow's to the forces of Constantine, drawn largely from was among the predominantly soldiers Danubian the name of the deceased Romani, while appears

Christian.

I: Die senatorischer Daciae Piso, Fasti Provinciae Amtstr?ger C. Petolescu, Acta Mus. Nap. 45-8. 26?30 (1989-1993), R. Birley in Festschrift Fitz, op. cit. (n. 6), 47-50. cited in AE {1993), 1353. Kolendo, Dacia Dorutju-Boil?, 36 (1992.), 23-35; D. Boteva, ZPE 110 in der R?merzeit Pannoniens vols Fitz, Die Verwaltung 12 (1996), 127-38; contra M. Zyrominski, Eos 83 Specimina Nova 59 AE (1999), 1319; Eos 88 (2001), 351-60 {AE J. Wiewiorowski,

(1993).

(1996), 239-47. 1-4 (1993-1995).

On

(1995), 337?53. (2001), 1730).

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the

'Pannonian

career',


THE

ROMAN

AN

DANUBE:

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

143

coast in his native famous retirement villa near Salona on the Adriatic Diocletian's no constructed less edifice the is now matched Dalmatia by his Caesar by imposing eastern remote Serbia hills and named Romuliana in the of Galerius at Gamzigrad (RV.36) of the mausoleum and the place of the Augustus' Remains after his mother Romula. in A.D. 311 have been identified in the vicinity. A similar complex cremation ceremonial to Maximinus, Caesar of not far away at Sarkamen has been identified as belonging in the second tetrarchy. An imperial villa at Mediana Galerius (RV.8) not far from and Licinius arranged a division of their forces, and already Naissus, where Constantine in a has produced several votives by high officials known for its sumptuous decoration, and his wife Philippa, who may be the dux these include Roemetalkes shrine of Asclepius; et utriusque Libyarum in the period between A.D. 324 and 337. et Thebaidos Aegypti were statues and Hygiaea. A votive to I.O.M. of votives actual Asclepius porphyry Among a formation Batavians tetrarchic the of tribune Cohortalis (a brought from theWest by by domus'. from the ruins of the horreum has the formula 'ob dedidicatio[nem] Constantine) Here domus may denote the official seat of the tribune in the horreum, for which a parallel has been suggested by I. Piso with the official residence of the financial procurator of Dacia at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa. What may be an official residence of the late Apulensis fourth century has been identified outside one of the gates at Intercisa (Pi.24) in Valeria (Pannonia Inferior). Some new items of

of evidence have appeared relating to the staff and activities and stamped by the the large number of bricks produced governors. Despite provincial (pedites et ?quit?s singulares) of the Dacian governor at bodyguards infantry and mounted of their camp nor the residence of the legate has yet the neither location (D.101), Apulum who set from the legion at Vindobona been identified. In Pannonia Superior a speculator is likely to have been in the up an official votive at M?llendorf (RIII.84) near Carnuntum the epitaph service of the provincial (RII.16) inNoricum legate resident there. At Virunum of the entrails of of a father and son who were both special priests for the interpretation as well as lightning strikes and other unusual events, are animal sacrifices (haruspices), on to based there in the period of the governing procurator have served the staff likely before the arrival of the legion and its senatorial legate at Lauriacum on the Danube under at Carnuntum In the municipium Marcus Aurelius. (Ps.12) a votive was set up by a junior with the of title officer army (tubularius) who seems likely to (immunis) 'pipe-inspector' have

been

a

soldier

serving

someone

than

rather

seconded

to

the

or

provincial

municipal

administration. The

been service

most

visible

the police of

the

presence

posts governor

of

(stationes) as

the

governor's

manned

beneficiara

authority

by legionaries

consularis.

Usually

the

throughout

seconded located

on

or

will

province

from

their unit near

major

have

to the roads

individuals are frequently recorded on official votive altars to often precisely dated, on which they and their unit are named. Jupiter Optimus Maximus, A list published in 1990 records the following totals for individual provinces, including and epitaphs: Noricum both official votives (93), Pannonia (58), Pannonia Superior Inferior (64), Dalmatia Inferior, and the (69), Moesia (43), Moesia (71), Dacia Superior of for inland Thracia with much totals the lower (7) and provinces Bosporus (51), inscribed altars have been Inferior no less than seventy-nine Macedonia (3).60 In Pannonia found around the courtyard of the Jupiter shrine at Sirmium (Pi.42), dating from Trajan to A.D. 231. A hitherto unrecorded station has been identified at Abritus (RVII.26) on a an was dedi coast Danube. Here altar Sea and the lower Black road between the major in the Celtic-speaking cated to the equine-goddess world, and there is the Epona, common consularis whose wife came from the local city of Tomis. epitaph of another beneficiarius at Santicum New consularis records from other centres include a former beneficiarius and in major

60

E. Schallmeyer

Beneficiar-Inschriften

centres

these

et al., Der r?mische Weihebezirk des r?mischen Reiches (1990).

von Osterburken

I: Corpus

der griechischen

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und

lateinischen


144

J.

(RII.5) on the Norican A.D.,

century

highway

at Campona

(Pi.16)

J. WILKES

and an unusually on

late third or early fourth

late example, in Pannonia

the Danube

A

Inferior.

new

chronology

has been established for the two groups of votives erected between A.D. 158/159 and 257 at Praetorium Latobicorum (RIII.27) on the main road between Emona and Siscia, while the in formulae variation among the large numbers of records from the station at Celeia the various symbols of office used (RIII.14) on the Amber Road has been studied. Among were these and other of members the staff the lance and a variety of sword by governor's of which have been found at Albertfalva (Pi. 14) and Annamatia pendants, examples at Timacum Minus at the hands of death (Pi.26). An epitaph (RV.45) recording seems on to be linked with soldiers [_]tionarii unlikely guard duty (stationarii), despite in the late Roman their known unpopularity period and is perhaps more likely a term applied to local robbers. In the area of financial administration, of the procurator the headquarters of Dacia at identified has been Traiana votives with several Sarmizegetusa (D.17), Apulensis Ulpia of the early third century A.D. erected by Lucceius Felix. At Porolissum (D.24) the remains of the customs post for traffic in and out of the province have been excavated and identified by votives erected by local officials (vilici) to the Genius portorii publici. A similar votive, linked with the name of the chief managing agent (conductor) T. Iulius has now established the existence of a portorium office at Apulum Saturninus, (D.101), and there is another possible record from Tibiscum (D.15). A votive to Diana Regina by a slave vilicus at Montana Inferior late under Antoninus Pius records the (M1.4) inMoesia name

of

the

same

conductor

along

with

two

overseers

(circitores).

In

the west

a votive

to

Mithras Rufus has come from the station by a slave vilicus of the conductor Antonius at to Bilachiniensis located close the border between (RII.3) Camporosso Italy and On the Amber Road the two stations at Ad Publicanos Noricum. (RIII.11) close to the border between Noricum and Pannonia have also been examined. Other studies have examined the role of vilici in this and other imperial bureaux and the change from to a direct administration contracted managing under imperial pro agents (conductores) curators that occurred in the late second century A.D.61 The role of publicani in the collec tion of taxes in the area of the former Thracian kingdom may have originated with the institution of the coastal command under Augustus, based on (praefectus orae maritimae) the interpretation of a text from Dionysopolis (RVII.3) on the Black Sea coast. Remains area of the municipium, at Aquincum from the south-eastern later colonia, (Pi.5) have a in mint time of Severus. A group the that have there may temporary suggested operated of bronze weights with inlaid silver letters found in the bed of the Danube near Sexaginta Prista (Mi.30) has been linked with the Severan organization of the annona militaris. on near staves to line re-used wells the of wooden barrels Arrabona (Ps.22) and Stamps to to the record of the appear exemption Aquincum (Pi.5) legionary hospital at the supplies latter from customs duty (immune in r(ationem) val(etudinarii) leg(ionis) II Ad(iutricis)). at Chomakovci From the late Roman period the epitaph of a praefectus vehiculariorum son in Moesia in the ?lite the of north-west whose served Inferior, (Mi.5) mining region has been dated to the early fourth century A.D. A palace guard (protector domesticus), at Oescus similar dating is also proposed for the primipilares (Mi.12) and Novae (Mi.18) in from Asia Minor the of for the lower Danube armies. procuring engaged supplies at B?lcske The retrieval of large votive altars re-used in a late fortification (Pi.29) now to knowledge in the bed of the river south of Budapest has added significantly of the to I.O.M. Teutanus cult in Pannonia Inferior and in Pannonia Superior. Votives provincial for the well-being of the civitas of the Eravisci by the chief magistrates (incolumitas) were (Hviri) of the Aquincum erected, probably annually, on each 11 June during colony to the second and third centuries A.D. That is also the day when altars were dedicated on the Pfaffenberg hill (Ps.13). The date clearly had some significance I.O.M. Carnuntinus

61 M.

Sanader,

Opuscula

Archaeologica

(Zagreb)

19 (1995),

57-109.

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THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

145

of their creation by the sub and most for both provinces likely it was the anniversary the end of the Dacian wars. The fragments of a in A.D. 106 following division of Pannonia to

dedication

I.O.M.

to have

known

have

Karnuntinus

in A.D.

in the province

been

been

as

reconstructed

a votive

to Maximianus

in

of the Carnuntum colony. The imperial figure on a temple archi same at site has been recognized as L. Aelius Caesar, the precinct

A.D. 286 by a decuri?n trave from the Jupiter

In the past

136-137.

strong

were

arguments

put

in Pannonia Inferior lay at forward that the altar of the imperial cult (ara Augusti) a an once and later fort south-west of Gorsium major civilian auxiliary Budapest, (RIII.91) and for the ordo of Aquincum settlement. A votive for Commodus by the Ilviri of the on

municipium commander

who

11 was

June also

A.D. priest

from there. If, as now

known its exact

location

remains

178 at

seems

uncertain.

and

to

another

the

temple

Teutanus

I.O.M.

of Marcus

likely, the altar of the imperial association

The

of

the

A.D.

May

cult was

annual

an

by 1

on

Aurelius

at Aquincum,

with

altars

auxiliary 211 are

the

civitas

in the third century) might Eraviscorum (an entity whose nature is yet to be understood a on to centre Geliert native the the old hill, though Jupiter statue recently dis point covered in the vicinity of the canabae has suggested a location in that area closer to the town and the fortress. In Dacia recent excavations have produced more remains military of the imperial cult precinct at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa (D.17). At first the priesthood was but by the early third century A.D. had been titled simply sacerdos provinciae to sacerdos Augusti nostri coronatus. Far away from the Danube the precinct elaborated to the Julio-Claudians More at Narona dedicated (RIV.37) is now well documented. come an ara to at Oneum votives have similar (Omis) Augusta mentioning light recently on the coast a few miles south of Salona (RIV.11). The head from a statue of Tiberius may indicate a link with his son the Younger Drusus, known to have been in the area between A.D.

17 and

20.

Most of the documents that have recently come to administration relating to municipal zones and were incorporated as in the military light come from the towns that developed and

municipia

later,

in

some

instances,

as

coloniae.

In Dacia,

colonia

Trajan's

Dacica

(D.17) was founded on the site of a vacated legionary camp. Like settle Sarmizegetusa ments around the same time at Poetovio (Mi.12), (RIII.18), Ratiaria (Ms.73), and Oescus it was among the last of the veteran colonies that had been disposed the throughout In Dacia the colony appears at first to have been the Empire since the time of Augustus. that city and its territory appears to have included several settlements only constituted were later raised to the status of municipium and colonia, such as Tibiscum (D.15). There were as

families the

deputy

of

equestrian for Commodus

rank when

among the

the

upper

emperor

classes agreed

of

the

to assume

colony, one

one of

the

of whom annual

acted magis

in a ceremonial capacity. A recent find has been the lead pipes of the city's water system, dating from the time of Trajan and Hadrian, bearing the title of the city (col(onia) initials the chief and of Much less is the annual magistrates. Dac(ica) Sar(mizegetusa)) at Apulum known of the municipal (D.101). The existence of a municipium organization iswell documented, but the appearance of colonia Aurelia on locally-produced Septimium on in and pottery remains a mystery. The notion that two such settlements graffiti lamps existed site by side is hard to credit and most likely the colonia may have been some sort of the legionary canabae. Municipal both magistrates of transformation office-holders, and priests, are recorded in places later raised to city status, including Drobeta (Ms.50), On the lower (D.92), and Porolissum (D.24), also a municipium Septimium. Napoca in the fort of Sacidava Danube magistrates recorded on re-used blocks (Mi.58) almost Traiani of Tropaeum (R.VII.28). certainly belong to the municipium The apparent prominence of the permanent clerk (scriba) in the record of municipal at Napoca for example and at Delminium affairs in several places, (D.92) in Dacia in local administra is taken to reflect the weakness (RIV.30) in the interior of Dalmatia, tion caused by the shortage of individuals liable for the burdens of public office. More in the Black Sea cities, following evidence has accumulated the for the role of Pontarchs under Trajan. The special relationship with communities such as Tyras reorganization tracies

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146

J.

that lay outside

(Mi.91) that

have

of conferring taxes

of

the formal to

honorary

The

light.

citizenship

generated on conferred

honours

limits of the province well-known

Severan

on Roman

provincials

a number

to have

appears

record

come

recently

J. WILKES

a

of

embassies

who

Bosporan

lies behind

undertook

that

city's

practice

for some exemption

hoping and

several documents

on

restriction

as

petitions, more than

indicated

one

embassy

from by the in the

the Severan embargo. years following towns (canabae and vici) is now reflected The long recognized importance of military also in the extensive remains revealed in several places along the Danube. The most signifi cant

our

to

addition

of

understanding

such

comes

settlements

from

a

reconstruction

by

I. Piso of votives from the Pfaffenberg hill at Carnuntum (Ps.13) in which the inhabitants are formally described as 'Roman citizens dwelling within the first league' ('cives Roman consistentes intra leugam primam'), that is a defined area around the legionary camp to a relates not only to the Carnuntum distance of c. 2 km. This interpretation canabae, but seems also to be applicable as a definition of the areas reserved for the canabae of other that appears to administration legionary fortresses. Little is known of the quasi-municipal in the canabae and also in the vici. At Matrica have developed (Pi. 18) a text has been for the Aquincum settlement. The role of restored to record a m(agister) ca(nabarum) area of Moesia is perhaps Inferior for the military isolated vici in the Dobrudja economy of a Pius in A.D. 152 at Histria reflected in a votive to Antoninus (RVII.8) by the magistri is a local Thracian who had completed his service in a local cavalry vicus, one of whom unit.

to be reflected in The prominent role of guilds (collegia) in the affairs of cities continues of the guild of specialist building workers local records. At Virunum (RII.16) members (D.17) a (subaediani) were inscribed on a commemorative plaque and at Ulpia Traiana was set up on behalf of the guild of apple-growers monument (collegium pomarensium), an

otherwise

As

association.

unrecorded

noted,

already

the

survival

the

of

civitas

it may have been into the early third century A.D. remains a puzzle. Possibly into the municipium and colonia at Aquincum (P1.5) but survived as a separ incorporated to ate entity for purposes of religion because its original patron deity became assimilated in state cult as I.O.M. Teutanus. The restored record of a pr(inceps) Boiorum the Roman the vicinity of Carnuntum (Ps.13) may be connected with a similar relic of the once powerful Boii.

Eraviscorum

Ill ROADS

Roman

control

of

STATIONS

AND

the Danube

was

(SEE APPENDIX

TO THE DANUBE

based

on

a series

of major

A: RI-RVIl)

roads

across

the mountain

ranges that screened off its upper and lower basins. In the case of the former these were and Carnic Alps, and the Dinaric the eastern high Alps, the Tauern ranges behind the and Balkan Adriatic Dalmatian coast, and for the latter the Rhodope (Stara Planina) and ranges. The driving of roads over high passes, through forests, across marshlands, A.D. was a Some of the first river effort of century gorges during engineering huge along to fall into disuse as easier or more convenient roads were destined these great military routes requiring less upkeep came into use during the second and third centuries. The Via in 15 B.c., Claudia Augusta (RI), first opened by the Alpine campaign of the Elder Drusus via the was constructed in the reign of his son Claudius the Po and the Danube between and across the Resia/Reschen (1504 m) and the Fern (1216 m) upper Adige (Val Venosta) passes

(RI.1-22).

Among

recent

discoveries

along

its course

are

votives

and

other

material

near Foetes summit (RI.16) and an early imperial trading station at Dietringen (RI.18). Later, once the difficult approach from the south along the Eisack valley had been the more direct route over the Brenner pass (1374 m) came into regular use negotiated, m following (RI.23-33) place of the longer and more difficult Via Claudia Augusta, and the Friuli basin in the Severan period. An ancient transit from Aquileia reconstruction to the upper valley of the Drau crossed the Carnic Alps by the Pl?cken pass (1360 m). From at the Piller

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THE

the

junction

remains

of

with

the

ROMAN

the road

roadside

AN

DANUBE:

along

settlement

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

the Drau have

recently

valley come

SURVEY

at Oberdrauburg, to

light

(RI.46),

147

where a route

extensive ran west

via

to join the Brenner road near the later city of Aguntum (RI.47) through the Pustertal Bolzano (RI.37-49). An ancient route from north-east Italy crossed the Carnic Alps by the Saifnitz passage to the Villach area of Carinthia (RII.1-5). From here two major routes led north across the in the direction Tauern Alps of the Danube. in the west The more difficult reached Iuvavum (Salzburg) and Lentia (Linz) by the Katschberg (1641 m) and the Radstadt (1739 'Norican Highway' Further east the so-called crossed by the m) passes (RII.6-13). Hohentauern (1278 m) and Pyhrn (954 m) passes to Ovilava (Wels) and Lauriacum (Enns) on the Danube (RII. 14-32). Recent studies have produced new evidence for the use of even the high mountain in both the pre-Roman and Roman periods. Remains passes of Austria of the road settlement at Immurium/In Murio (RII.8) have recently come to light and there is now a full publication of the extensive remains of the road station Gabromagus (RII.28) on the Norican Highway north of the Pyhrn pass. The principal passage between north-east Italy and theMiddle Danube basin across the Julian Alps by the Pear Tree pass (867 m) was controlled by the road settlement and later fortification Ad Pirum (RIII.5). The road, following the line of the ancient Amber Road between the Baltic and the Adriatic, reached the upper Sava in the Alpine basin of Emona (RIII.9), crossed the Drava at Poeto vio (RUI. 18), and skirted the eastern fringes of the Alps via Savaria veteran colony, to reach the Danube at (RIII.24), the Claudian crossing Carnuntum (Ps.12/13) below Vienna (RIII.1-25). Many of the settlements along this road in pre-Roman had been well-established times. Branches from Emona down the Sava to Sirmium valley (RIII.26-48) and from Poetovio (RIII.62-75) (RIII.43) and Mursa (Pi.44) route between formed part of the overland Italy and the East, a vital link for unified control of the Danube late in the fourth century A.D. Road region that was broken settlements examined include Nauportus (RIII.67), a well-established pre-Roman trading centre on the north side of the Julian Alps, Halicanum (RIII.21), and the later municipium Sala (RUI.23), both north of Poetovio. Along the Drava remains of Piretis (RIII.66) have been located. Sections of the road itself have been examined in the area of Atrans (RIII.12) and Poetovio. The topography and settlements of the Sava valley road between Siscia, in detail by I. Bojanovski. Servitium, and Sirmium (RHI.49-56) have been examined The early military roads that traversed the Dinaric forests ranges and the Bosnian between the Adriatic and the Sava valley were constructed under Tiberius and Claudius also served a military function during the first (RIV). A route along the coast hinterland half of the first century A.D. Inscriptions at Salona record the construction of at least five roads by the two legions stationed in Dalmatia and under the governor (VII XI) P. Cornelius Dolabella in A.D. 16/17 an<? 19/2.0. Recent discoveries have not modified the identifications proposed by I. Bojanovski thirty years ago: (1) a road from Salona to the river Vrbas constructed of the two legions is that recorded on later by vexillations itineraries between Salona and Servitium (RIV. 11-28); (2) a Via Gabiniana (named from Caesar's commander the legionary Gabinius) camps at Burnum linking Salona with at (RIV.8) and Tilurium (RIV.29); (3) a road from Salona to eastern Bosnia terminating a castellum of the Daesitiates Hedum, between (RIV.29-36); (4) a road as yet unidentified Salona and the territory of the Breuci in the Sava valley; (5) a road to the foot of Mons Ulcirus in the territory of the Ditiones, the Via Gabiniana continuing (2) beyond Burnum. Milestones of A.D. 47 indicate the later continuation of the road across western Bosnia towards the Sana valley and Siscia (RIV.8-10). Two other roads are likely to represent the to central Bosnia via the Neretva routes, from Narona continuing use of pre-Roman valley and the 'salt road' between and the Drina valley (RIV.42-53), of (RIV.37-41) Epidaurum the first stage had been constructed which of most military by A.D. 47. The evacuation camps in Dalmatia by the middle of the first century A.D. will have led to some of these roads falling into disuse. The general absence of milestones of later periods from northern Dalmatia

appears

to confirm

this.

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148

J. WILKES

J.

The most direct route between the southern Adriatic and the central Balkans is that from Lissus at the mouth of the Albanian Drin to Naissus in the Morava valley (RV.1-11). More than once it has been suggested that some of the early Roman into the expeditions Balkans may have followed this line, following the Drin valley to reach Kosovo and the later mining district around Ulpianum and then the Toplica valley to Naissus. Though recorded on the Peutinger Map, few of its named stations have been located and there is no indication of its being constructed as a military road in the early Empire. Further east the

Axios-Morava

was

corridor

from

a

times

earliest

transit

the

between

and

Aegean

Central Europe. Starting from Thessalonica the road links a number of places likely to have figured in the Roman advance towards the Danube from Macedonia, including Stobi, on the Via Egnatia in (RV.12?24). A road starting from Heraclea Scupi, and Naissus north-west Macedonia crossed this road at Stobi then followed north the Bregalnica to cross the Osogovo in the eastwards range at the Velbazdski pass (1192 m) to Pautalia route upper Struma basin and Serdica on the Balkan highway (RV.25-30). An alternative between Scupi and Naissus, avoiding the difficult upper Morava valley, ran up the Lepenac road at Ulpianum. valley through the Kacanik defile (RV.31) to reach the Lissus-Naissus From

Naissus

there

were

two

routes

north

to

the Danube

(Ms.14) above the Danube valleys to Viminacium to Bononia (Ms.70) or Ratiaria (Ms.73) below century annexation

A.D.

the

latter

was

it seems

of Dacia

of that

?

the Morava

down

and Mlava

or down the Timok gorges (RV.32-43), the first the gorges (RV.44-47). During

as greater importance was the former developed

a

road, military came and into

after

but regular

the use

as

link between up the part of the overland Italy and the East, continuing beyond Naissus There are Nisava pass (1210 m) to Serdica (RV.48-57). valley and over the Dragoman milestones of Hadrian and later and several of the road stations were constructed with bricks from military factories. The route along the Strymon/Struma defile, to valley, passing through the Roupel have been used Serdica and then down the Iskar valley to Oescus (RVI.1-11) may by early No record exists for a route from Serdica north to Montana Roman (Mi.4) expeditions. and Augustae (M1.3) through the Haemus by the Petrohan pass (1420 m). Further east there were three routes through the Haemus linking places on or near the Balkan highway: Serdica and Hadrianopolis down between between the Maritsa (RVI.12-27), valley (Mi.12) by the Troian pass (1525 m); between Augusta (RVI.19) and Oescus Philippopolis ad Istrum (RVI.41), and Novae Traiana (Mi.21) on the Danube (RVI.38), Nicopolis from and the (1200 pass m); (RVI.38-41) (RVI.42) on the by Kabyle/Diospolis Shipka to Nicopolis ad Istrum by the Vratnik pass (1070 m). Only the second of these is Tundza link between Thrace and the the major recorded later with its stations. It was evidently is lower Danube and the central section between Sub Radices and Ad Radices (RVI.29-32) the

subject

of

a

recent

study.

There

is evidence

for

several

roads

in

this

area

being

con

as fortified military roads, with rest houses (tabernae) and police posts (praesidia), of Thrace, and for their repair in the following century. the Claudian occupation following to link of the Danube served mainly and the mouth A coast road between Odessus in the middle and numerous fortified sites generated by the increasing need for surveillance later Roman periods (RVII.1-23), but itwas from the major ports of Odessus (RVII.i) and to From former Danube. the there were led inland the lower that roads Tomis (RVII.12) to Sexaginta Prista and Abritus roads via Marcianopolis (Mi.30) and (RVII.24-27) Traiani Durostorum (Mi.55) via Tropaeum (Mi.48), and from the latter to Altinum to at to the fleet Novidunum via and base Carsium Ulmetum (Mi. 65) (RVII.29), (RVII.28), (RVII.30-32). (Mi.77) through inland settlements of the Dobrudja structed

IV THE DANUBE

MILITARY

CORDON

AND

LATER

HISTORY

Roman military deployment along the Danube between the Inn and the Black Sea has three an in stages during the century between Augustus and evolution historical (A) phases:

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THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

149

static and defensively-minded security cordon, originating Hadrian, (B) an increasingly late in the fourth century until its disintegration and (C) later modification under Hadrian, A.D.

The

for

evidence

archaeological

these

is vast

activities

and

increases

year

by

year,

and Romania) (e.g. Austria, Hungary, though more rapidly in the case of some countries than others (Croatia, Serbia, and Bulgaria). A great part of the current research dwells, of evidence recovered from hundreds of individual sites but the inevitably, on the minutiae sites in Austria, Hungary, of surveys covering military last decade has seen the publication and full bibliographies and Bulgaria, with details of topography (Section i Romania, of the course of events tend to oversimplification, reconstructions above). Historical such as that which occurred in the late first and especially in the case of prolonged warfare A.D. and the study For the fact that advances in excavation all centuries second that, early of finds, above all pottery, tend to make what once seemed clear to appear obscure, and a neat advance

of historical pattern in our understanding

A. Evolution

more development of the Roman

confused, Danube.

must

be

accepted

as

a welcome

to Hadrian62

from Augustus

of the Roman Danube between Augustus Four phases can be identified in the evolution in the context and and other related activities and Hadrian: (i) military movements aftermath of the Augustan wars of conquest; (2) a stationing of army units in bases along under Claudius; and at crossings of the river commencing roads leading to the Danube (3) and infantry units in camps along the river the placing of legions and auxiliary mounted cordon under the Flavians resulting in the creation of a more or less continuous military and and Trajan; system into Dacia north of the Danube (4) the extension of the military the

changes

from

resulting

that

expansion.

on the ground remains elusive. Evidence for Augustan activity military Imported pottery recovered from places in the Sava and Drava valleys, whose role in the conquest of ? Emona is historically documented the Pannonias (RIII.18), Siscia (RIII.9), Poetovio ? can reasonably be linked with a military (Pi.44), and Sirmium (RIII.43) (RIII.31), Mursa the stationing of a legion and auxiliaries at Oescus (Mi.12) presence. On the lower Danube on the river, once suggested on the basis of early military epitaphs, appears now to have in the Augustan period from levels beneath the been confirmed by evidence for occupation veteran in Moesia remains of the later Trajanic colony. The record of the legions some form of passage along the upper gorge of the Danube in A.D. 33/34 has constructing fortlets along the right bank of the been linked by Gudea with a series of earth-and-timber river

in the

same

area

(Ms.20,

25?26,

29?30,

32-34,

36-37).

first established for the watch on the Dacians following more likely identification for these is the concentration down

the

river

at Oescus

(see

They

may

be

tangible

evidence

the operations of Lentulus, of a legion and auxiliaries

but a lower

above).63

in the affairs of Germans intervention of new provincial commands, organization control down lower Danube that followed the the and the extended upper Danube, beyond of Thrace under Claudius are marked by the first visible placing of army units annexation at river crossings and along the roads leading to them. There is now no evidence to link nor is there of oppida in the middle Danube area with this development the abandonment centres of that the placing of Roman forts was influenced by existing any indication The former change was well underway before the end of the first century b.c. population. and was part of a process of social change rather than being caused by Roman or even The

62

is based on the following: This outline Kandier and Vetters, op. cit. (n. 18), for Austria; Jilek, op. for Pannonia and Slovakia; Visy, op. Superior; Tejral and Kolnik, op. cit. (n. 19), for the Czech Republic for Hungary, and op. cit. (n. 21), for Yugoslav Pannonia; Gudea, op. cit. (n. 22), for Moesia Superior; cit. (n. 23) for Bulgaria; Gudea-Zahariade, Inferior; Sarnowski, op. cit. (n. 23), for Moesia op. cit. (n. Black Sea coast and the Crimea; and Gudea, op. cit. (n. 26), for Dacia. 63 in the area of the Danube inM. Vasic, op. cit. (n. 22, 1999). Settlements gorges are reviewed

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cit. cit.

(n. 18),

(n. 20), Ivanov, op. 25), for the


i50

J.

J. WILKES

earlier Dacian military activity.64 Along the Amber Road an early fort has been identified at Sala (RUI.23), and there are likely to have been others at Savaria (RIII.24) and Scarbantia its Danube (RIII.25), and there was a legionary camp controlling crossing at Carnuntum were from Downstream there units at mobile of auxilia (Ps.13). placed Arrabona (Ps.22) and Brigetio (Ps.30), from where routes led into the territories of the Suebic Germans, and Solva (Ps.40). On the Sarmatian sector below the Danube bend a unit of auxiliary cavalry was placed at the Danube (Pi.8). This was crossing at Aquincum linked to Poetovio (RIII.18) by a branch from the Amber Road, along which lay a cavalry fort at Gorsium (RIII.91) and probably another at Tricciana (RIII.90). Below Aquincum, forts were placed at Lussonium into (Pi.30) and Lugio (Pi.39) to control Danube crossings the Sarmatian plain. In the west inNoricum both Lentia (N.15) and Lauriacum (N.16) are since they lay at the Danube termini of major transalpine likely to have been occupied, roads.65

For Moesia the evidence for Claudian deployment is more limited. It is still not certain when the second legionary camp on the lower Danube was established at Novae (Mi.18). This lay on a section of higher ground some distance west of the river Yantra and was to the south by a road through the Shipka pass (RVI.38-41). connected In the west there is evidence for three new forts, two in the area of the gorges at Novae (Ms.23) and Taliata the gorge at Davidovac-Karatas (Ms.35) and one below represent an (Ms.45). These extension of Roman control from the direction of the lower Danube, and there is currently no evidence for a Claudian Danube above the gorges. along the Moesian deployment Taliata between the and lower the name of while upper lay at a Danube gorges, crossing the first may be linked with that of the new legionary camp on the lower Danube.66 The on the lower Danube depended on road links with Thracia increased military deployment to the south. Scupi (RV.21), Naissus and Macedonia (RV.11), and Serdica (RV.30) are era.67 A unit of auxiliary cavalry was likely to have been military bases in the pre-Flavian and Ratiaria placed at Timacum Minus (RV.45) in the Timok valley between Naissus a a was veteran site of another base where established (Ms.73), likely military colony route under Trajan. The pre-Flavian military role of the Morava Naissus between valley and Viminacium has been (Ms.14) remains in doubt, although an early military occupation claimed for Velika Laole is a (RV.40), Kaliste (RV.42), and Cuprija (RV.37). There at that the initial occupation the force of Belgrade mouth of Sava the suggestion (Ms.4) of VIII Augusta may have arrived from the direction of Pannonia. An early brickstamp on the and arriving at Novae might indicate its location between departing from Poetovio It remains far from certain that VII Claudia, lower Danube. transferred to Moesia from Dalmatia the departure of IV Scythica for the East early under Nero, moved following station at Viminacium above the directly to its later permanent (Ms.14) on the Danube there is and gorges. The title of the latter legion suggests a sojourn in the Dobrudja region some evidence to link it with Durostorum (RVII.12), and its replace (Mi.49) and Tomis ment might be expected to have been located in the same area. Evidence for the early to seems to it of continues later be forts but reasonable occupation auxiliary lacking assume that the cavalry units known to have been active in the region were placed in the same area as the two legionary bases, at such locations as Augustae (Mi.3) and Utus as a to Roman The Danube had identified limit been (Mi.14). territory already under Augustus. Half a century later the placing of some legions and auxiliary units at crossings of the river does not yet indicate the concept of a frontier cordon based on the river. Down to the end of the Julio-Claudian period the visible Roman presence along the river itself and its major tributaries will have depended upon the fleets. Their role on both the upper

64

S. Jilek, Limes XVII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 122. see D. Gabler, Limes XVI On this Claudian and early Flavian development (op. cit. (n. 17)), 85-92. 66 M. Mirkovic in Petrovic, op. cit. (n. 22, 1996), 27-40, on the Roman from A.D. 33 to 117. occupation 67 in Petrovic, On the role of Scupi, S. Dusanic op. cit. (n. 22, 1996), 41-52.

65

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THE

ROMAN

AN

DANUBE:

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

onwards is well documented from Augustus and lower Danube is yet to come to light. their function and organization While never

creation

the have

of

defined

been

a cordon as

and

a

as

annexation

major

of

province

the

in

Empire

of war, with Roman

episodes the

re-crossed

such

concept,

but material

intervals regular an arrangement

along appears

evidence the

river

to have

for may been

In its

warfare along the Danube under the Flavians and Trajan. in A.D. 86 and of war with the Dacians the outbreak

the end result of prolonged the twenty years between witnessed

at

bases

of military

a strategic

151

Pannonian

and Moesian

A.D.

defeats Danube.

106,

the

middle

and victories Yet

the

next

and

lower

Danube

as huge armies crossed twenty

years

saw

the

set in a form that remained more or less of the Danube and Dacia occupation centuries. That involved the evacuation of all legionary and for process unchanged were as veteran in sites several of which chosen the for bases interior, colonies, auxiliary to this was on the lower and the stationing of all units along the river. The only exception Danube where the need for interior forts and roads protected by fortified stations within and around the Haemus from the outset. range appears to have been acknowledged are at In Noricum Lentia forts of earth and timber known (N.15), Mautern auxiliary (N.45), Tulln (N.52), Zwentendorf (N.50), and probably at Wallsee (N.39), Traismauer (N.20) and Zeiselmauer (N.54). The lack of forts west of Linz can be explained by the in the east facing the open dense forests beyond the river, just as there was a concentration A significant discovery in several forts of Pannonia where ground of the Tullnerfeld. evidence is available suggests that initial occupation ranged over a long period, from the to of the of Hadrian. years early Vespasian Early in the Flavian period an auxiliary period a short distance to the west of the Carnuntum fort was established fortress (Ps.12) and a (Ps.2), close to the site of the Trajanic cavalry fort was also placed upstream at Vindobona legionary base, while a second fort was added later c. 2 km to the east. A Flavian origin has also been suggested for Klosterneuburg and also for the fort (Ps.i) west of Vindobona at Schwechat At Aquincum from Vindobona. (Ps.6) downstream (Pi.7) a cavalry fort was Roman

under

in A.D.

construction

73

close

to

the

site

of

the Domitianic

legionary

fortress.

Above

bend forts were placed to face German territory at Gerulata (Ps.15) under and at Solva (Ps.40) in the Flavian period; but others, Domitian, including Ad Flexum not occupied until (Ps.20), and Ad Statuas (Ps.26), were evidently (Ps.17), Quadrata was a Castra Ulcisia Below the fort the but of bend, (Pi.i) Trajan. Trajanic occupation in A.D. 106. The earliest later than the occupation of Dacia (Pi.16) occurred Campona levels at Matrica samian that can be dated to either (Pi.18) have yielded South Gaulish the Danube

Trajan

or Hadrian.

it an admissible historical make fact, little new evidence has Though developments come to light regarding Flavian military organization inMoesia. Reorganization following civil war, coupled with at the start of the Flavian the aftermath of local emergencies period, brought a significant increase of both legions and auxilia, but the location of most and even the identities of some remain in doubt. The division of the province on the outbreak of war in A.D. 85/86 may have resulted in the placing of legions at Singidunum (Ms.4) and Viminacium (Ms.14), along with the placing of auxiliaries on both banks of the as far as the river Alutus river downstream of Viminacium, in (Olt). An earlier occupation the past identified with the fortress described (Or. 12), has been by Dio Chrysostom suggested on the evidence of lead water pipes with stamps of both Legions IIII and VII. In to continuing addition of the Claudian forts at Novae occupation (Ms.23), Taliata seems likely at Tekija (Ms.35), and Davidovac-Karatas (Ms.45), Flavian occupation (Ms.42), Kostol (Ms.49), and Brza Palanka (Ms.58); and down the left bank in the same area at Pojejena and other places. No further evidence has yet (Ms.18), Drobeta (Ms.50), come to light to support an earlier suggestion that the remains of a timber by Tudor Danube crossing between Dolni Vadin (Mi.9) and Orlea date from the time of Domitian. at Novae Trajan's first campaign had been preceded by new construction (Ms.23), by the cutting of the towpath through the lower gorges in A.D. 100, the digging of the 3.2 km long by-pass

canal

14 m

deep

at

the

Iron

Gate

below

Orsova

in A.D.

101,

and

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construction

of

a


J.

152

at Prahovo

fleet base military

deployment first

Trajan's areas

Dacian

to be lacking for Roman continues (Ms.63) in A.D. yy.68 Evidence on the lowest section of the Danube of prior to the conclusion war

in A.D.

A.D. 102 both Moesian

After

of Dacia

then

J. WILKES

Roman

under

102.

commands

were ?

extended the

occupation

to include

northwards

heartland

around

those and

Sarmizegetusa

in Superior, eastern Transylvania and the plains of Oltenia and Wallachia the south-west in Inferior. In the former, a chain of forts across the Banat between Viminacium (Ms. 14) and the region of Sarmizegetusa (D.17) via Tibiscum (D.15) was established along the screen of forts along the Mures and lower main invasion route (D.6-17), with a possible was This controlled Tisza defining the limit of occupied territory by a territory (D.1-5). at Berzovia Moesian (D.11) in (D.17) and subsequently legion placed first at Sarmizegetusa inscribed blocks from the Roman camp the Banat. At the principal Dacian fortress Muncel established there have the initial letters of the legion's titles F(lavia) f(elix) inscribed to from the swords. In the east the occupied resemble curved Dacian territory was controlled Danube by a legion (XI Claudia) at the major crossing at Durostorum (Mi.49). Here three the lower Danube and eastern forts (D.45-47) were placed to control the transit between Some of north into B?rza the Teleacu of Ploesti. and the valley region along Transylvania the forts in this annexed territory, Drajna de Sus (D.45), Bretcu (D.37), and Hoghiz (D.41), of forts of their perimeter defences that is characteristic construction have a double-wall in the

Danube

lower

area.69

The majority plain east of the Alutus, opinion holds that except for the Wallachian to Moesia all the Dacian until early under Hadrian, which remained attached territory new 102 was in A.D. 106 A.D. in Dacia in of established the included province occupied of the second war. What proved to be the final stage in the military organization following came in the early years of Hadrian, as a whole, Roman Dacia, and of the Roman Danube a settlement with the Sarmatians restoring to them the Banat and Wallachian following more a was less The result compact and closely integrated deployment exposed, plains. in its essentials until the that was to survive more or less unaltered within the Carpathians or not Hadrian in the third century.70 Whether evacuation of the province actually de some in famous his modified rather than way, molished, bridge over the predecessor's itwas from Drobeta in the interval between the two Dacian campaigns, Danube completed route led into Hadrian's reshaped province (Ms.50) at its northern end that the principal settlement of Dacia Superior to the legionary fortress at Apulum (or (D.101), principal west to at and settlement the north roads led which from (D.92) major Napoca Apulensis), into the gold-mining (D.19). Apulum lay on the river region around Alburnus Maior Mures through the east

at

the the

centre enclosing

(D.30-36).

of

an

outer

mountains, In the

south-east

perimeter on the a new

of

forts

north-west command

placed (D.20-24), of Dacia

to

the many

control the

north

Inferior

passages and

(D.25-29),

(or Malvensis)

was

and the Carpathians the Danube based on two security cordons between facing east into the Red river Alutus inner the line followed The the Wallachian (Olt) through plain. east along the upper course of the river through and continued Tower defile (D.63-81) eastern Transylvania (D.44-37). An outer line lay between 10 and 50 km beyond the higher between eastern bank of the river and consisted of a cordon of forts of varying dimensions In some areas of open and the Bran pass into eastern Transylvania the Danube (D.48-62). earth rampart. The two lines were comple plain the forts were linked by a continuous and linked a an river the followed inner road valley (so-called 'Limes Alutanus') mentary: 68

mittlere in H. Forster at Djerdap 'New data on Trajan's P. Petrovic, (ed.), Kulturraum (Iron Gate)', buildings und untere Donau (1995). 69 see into Transylvania to passages On the placing of forts at the southern approaches through the Carpathians Limes XIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 510-13. C. C. Petolescu, 70 Limes XVII M. Zahariade, in Dacian On Roman (op. cit. (n. 17)), 603-8. He identifies deployment, strategies Porolissum and the Timis; the key river passages, Micia (D.24) and (D.18) and Tibiscum (D.15) on the Mures on the inner for the upper thirteen forts for the Somes, passage; facing east seven forts on an outer line and three in the south the Jiu, the Olt, and the Bran pass. and T?rnava; Mures,

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THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

153

as well as military number of major settlements bases, while the outer cordon (so-called a tactical deployment was essentially in advance of the less easily 'Limes Transalutanus') in Hadrian's river The command third (Dacia Poroliss reshaped Dacia valley.71 protected detached from Dacia Superior and controlled ensis) was an area in the remote north-west from the strategic centre Porolissum (D.24). It acted from time to time in concert with the Sarmatian a.D.

106

of

command at

the

same

(in A.D.

Inferior

Pannonia as Trajan's

time

Dacia.

117-118 small

Though

and

169-180), in area the

in

established command

held

a

of auxiliary cavalry (D.93-95) and infantry (D.20-29). powerful concentration The occupation of Dacia north of the Danube impacted on three other areas of the Roman Danube: (1) evacuation of some forts along the section of the Danube where it now the border between Moesia marked (2) the placing of Superior and Inferior and Dacia; forts along the lowest section of the Danube between the Yantra and the Black Sea; (3) the in places along from Moesia Inferior stationed of Roman reinforcement troops detached the Black Sea coast between the Danube delta and the Crimea. The two legions of Moesia Superior were now in what proved to be their permanent stations above the gorges at Singidunum (Ms.14). Garrisons along (Ms.4) and Viminacium include Tricornium the right bank in the area likely to have been maintained (Ms.8), Lederata (Ms.19) where the upper gorge began. Several forts along (Ms.15), and Cuppae to the Dacian the left bank were now attached command, including Banatska Palanka Orsova and Drobeta (Ms.50). Some of the forts on the (Ms.16), Pojejena (Ms.18), (Ms.43), Moesian

bank

in the

area

of

the

gorges

appear

to have

remained

in occupation

?

Cezava

(Ms.49), (Ms.42), Davidovac-Karatas (Ms.35), Tekija (Ms.45), Kostol (Ms.23), Taliata numerous in the river make the land bends this Below and Brza Palanka point (Ms.58). control is passage difficult and there are no major crossing places. In this section military (Ms.62), Dorticum (Ms.65), likely to have been based on the fleet, from bases at Aquae Ratiaria Bononia and (Ms.70), (Ms.73).72 a new fortress at Durostorum On the lower Danube been (Mi.49) had probably occupied by XI Claudia from A.D. 102 and for certain after A.D. 118. By that time also V to a new base at Troesmis had been removed from Oescus Macedonia (Mi.70) on the east units of auxilia were placed wherever of the Dobrudja. Mobile possible on high ground to the and river crossings. the close tributaries river, major overlooking plains beyond Iatrus (Mi.24) at the mouth of the These included Dimum (Mi.19) west of the Yantra, same river on its east bank, Sexaginta Prista (Mi.30) at the mouth of the Rusenski Lorn, (Mi.66). Some of these were (Mi.36), and Carsium Appiaria (Mi.34), and Transmarisca placed

to operate

across

the

river

along

the

valleys

of

the Arges,,

Ialomi?a,

and

Siret.

Along

of the river, where the single channel often divides into two or three separate forts on the left played an important role. These included Pietrosani channels, bridgehead (Marisca? from the name (Mi.26) facing Scaidava (Mi.27) and a possible bridgehead on at Ulmeni near site that be the Transmarisca identified aerial may (Mi.36)) photographs a on the of the Arge?. The fort at Barbosj location the mouth key (Mi.75) occupied the mouth of the Siret, where began the major route promontory overlooking Tirighina this section

into

Transylvania

via

the Oituz

pass.73

evacuation of the Wallachian of Hadrian's by a strengthening plain was accompanied the Roman military presence along the coast of the Black Sea. A mixed force of c. 1,500 Inferior was commanded troops drawn from the army of Moesia by a tribune based at at with Olbia Chersonesus detachments Tyras (Mi.91), (Mi.94), and Charax (Mi.96),

71

I. B. C?t?niciu, Limes XIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 461?8, for dating evidence from forts on the outer line. Limes XVIII On the re-occupation of forts in this area, M. Mirkovic, (op. cit. (n. 17)), 757-64. 73 On bridgeheads, A. Barnea, Limes XVII that the 'Trans-' names are found on (op. cit. (n. 17)), 485-6, observing A. Dimitrova-Milceva, the Roman Limes XIV right bank. On excavations, (op. cit. (n. 17)), 863-74. On Roman contacts north of the delta see L. Ota, Limes XVII Sarmatian (op. cit. (n. 17)), 885-94. 72

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154

J.

J. WILKES

was based on a fleet detachment (Mi.97) in the southern Crimea.74 Communication seems was any land link between these coast it the and that there operating along unlikely Greek cities their purpose places, at least for military purposes. Based on long-established will have been to maintain relations with the cities but also to observe and report on the movements of peoples across the Pontic steppes. The effectiveness of this modest deploy ment is perhaps indicated by the increasing and recurring threats to the lower Danube its withdrawal around the middle of the third century a.d. region following B. The Static Cordon on the internal planning of tradition of excavation that tended to concentrate now a to and has broader that studies camps legionary auxiliary given way approach civil settlements and civil towns) in all phases of camps and associated (both military Recent excavations have not so far yielded any plans of occupation. along the Danube in those of Lauriacum (N.16) or Carnuntum (Ps.13) recovered legionary bases to match

An older

excavations.

earlier

Urban

rescue

excavations

continue

to

add

valuable

detail

to

the

at Vindobona arrangements (Ps.2) and Aquincum (Pi.5). On the lower Danube have of the headquarters the hospital investigation (principia), yielded the perimeter defences and other elements of the fortress at Novae (valetudinarium), (Mi.18). The outline plans and some internal structures have now been revealed at the fortress at Troesmis (Ms.4) and at Durostorum (Mi.49). Only (Mi.70), Singidunum c. a A.D. the earlier for is half after 118, century yet to be located. Neither only occupied nor the later legionary bases at Ratiaria (Mi.12) have yet been traced. (Ms.73) and Oescus In Dacia north of the Danube the Trajanic legionary camps at Berzo via (D.11) and Ulpia Traiana located and defined but their phases of (D.17) have been Sarmizegetusa occupation by Legion IIII Flavia remain a matter of debate. Both of the permanent legion ary fortresses in Dacia, Apulum (D.101) and Potaissa (D.102), have been defined and partly and activities of Danubian the early Empire legions throughout explored. The movements in a local context. Fortunately, that cannot properly be examined the pose many problems a an recent to have of conference furnished admirable supplement published proceedings article that covers almost all the Danubian classic Pauly-Wissowa legions. The Ritterling's to Bulgaria has furnished several useful catalogues of personnel for the Polish expedition in with Moesian and tribunes, legions, including legates publications though unfortunately a limited circulation.75 that lost their military Many of the auxiliary forts along the upper and middle Danube function at the end of the fourth century A.D. have since remained unoccupied and, except the occupation where eroded by the river, remain to be explored. Along the lower Danube into the middle of many forts continued until the end of the sixth century, and sometimes era remote situations of has been also the and inhibited Byzantine beyond. Exploration by frontier for many forts, along a river that has for some of its course been an international more than century. The considerable military deployment in the hinterland of the lower areas and along the routes through the Haemus in the mining (Stara Danube, notably in Dacia, where forts were evacu also remains Conditions Planina), largely unexplored. internal decades

74

On

323-8,

the details of Pontic vexillations, also Limes XIX (op. cit.

and

T. Sarnowski

in Y. Le Bohec

(n. 17)), Abstracts

85-6,

for

(ed.), La hi?rarchie de l'arm?e romaine (1995), recent from aerial finds and new evidence

photographs. 75 Y. Le Bohec

sous le Haut-Empire entries and C. Wolff (2000), with the following (eds), Les L?gions de Rome XIV Gemina X Gemina in the area: II It?lica (B. L?rincz), for legions stationed (J. Gomez-Pautoja), permanently inMoesia I Adiutrix II Adiutrix IV Flavia and VII Claudia (Y. Le (B. L?rincz), (B. L?rincz), Superior (T. Franke), V Maced?nica in Dacia I It?lica (M. Absil), XI Claudia and XIII Gemina Bohec and C. Wolff), (R. Fellmann), V Maced?nica: AE (1995), 1324 (M. Zyromski and of I It?lica: AE (1993), 1356 (J. Hatlas), (I. Piso). Legates tribunes of I It?lica: AE VII Claudia: AE 1357 {199}), (1995), 1308 (M. Zyromski). Equestrian J. Hatlas), in Moesia in first AE (1994), 1414?515 V Maced?nica and XI Claudia: (T. Sarnowski), (J. Hatlas). Legionaries century A.D.: AE (1995), 1307 (L.Mrozewicz).

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THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

ated in the third century A.D., have proved forts

auxiliary

their

and

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

for the investigation

favourable

particularly

155

of

settlements.

associated

so the internal layout of auxiliary As with legionary fortresses, forts no longer com of effort that was once the case. Still the total of fully explored mands the concentration a notable recent addition has been the cavalry fort at forts remains small, although now Carnuntum The headquarters, several barracks, internal (Ps.12), fully published. baths and other buildings have been revealed. A sequence of occupation has been estab that conjectured lished that appears to match for other forts where excavation has been more limited. An initial construction in earth and timber under Vespasian was replaced in stone late under Trajan or early under Hadrian. The garrison unit (ala I Thracum victrix) is listed on provincial diplomas between A.D. 125 and 163. Demolition followed by recon to struction has been linked with the Marcomannic after which the fort continued wars, be occupied for another century. Several enclosures outside the fort have been identified as and exercise pens for horses. At Gerulata paddocks (Ps.15) the timber barracks of a fort have been linked with military ditches located in the vicinity of a later fortification. The same site has also produced a section of stone wall belonging to a fort that was constructed not

than

earlier

the mid-second

A.D.

century

The

of

process

earth-and-timber

converting

forts into stone, either in part or in their entirety, is a familiar pattern along the Danube as elsewhere in the Empire. This change is no longer seen as part of a concerted refurbish or even haphazard process with local conditions ment but rather as a piecemeal and the that has emerged from factors, a conclusion availability of materials being the determining in several Pannonian excavation forts. Similarly the tidy arrangement of single auxiliary forts

spaced

or

at more

less

regular

now

must

intervals

be

of more

Remains

questioned.

than one auxiliary fort have come to light at Carnuntum (Ps.12), where double ditches and a rampart have been identified north-east of the cavalry fort beneath the later civil have been found in the same area of Pannonia. settlement, and other possible duplications to temporary construction Some of these remains will have belonged camps and even of earlier forts in locations that proved unsuitable for one reason or another. In Dacia double forts, sometimes conjoined, have been identified along the eastern and western perimeters of the province. Here the smaller of a pair is generally identified as that of a smaller unit later as a supplement for the established (numerus), introduced garrisons of cavalry and infantry

auxiliaries.76

InMoesia to any significant extent remains small, Superior the total of forts explored with accurate data of perimeters, and internal buildings not always available. dimensions, For many and the identity of a garrison depend on surface forts, their very existence indications and stray finds. Many forts along the Moesian Danube have yet to produce any evidence

whatsoever

location

of

a fort

for rests

an

occupation or no little

on

to

prior evidence.

c. A.D.

Some

forts

275. away

In

some

cases

from

the

the river

suggested are known

to have served a specific purpose, such as those established to under Marcus Aurelius protect the mining areas, manned at first by troops drawn from elsewhere but later by new inMoesia Inferior the garrison locally-recruited auxiliary units.77 Along the lower Danube units of several forts have not yet been identified. The number of forts that appear to have been

manned

the number

at one

of units

time

or

another

during

listed on provincial

the

late

diplomas.

second

There

and

third

is a clear

centuries

A.D.

impression

exceeds

that both

76 On the timber-to-stone conversion and the possibility of double forts, S. Jilek, Limes XVII (op. cit. (n. 17)), to evidence reference from the following: Carnuntum 123-4, with (Ps.12), Gerulata (Ps.22), (Ps.15), Arrabona Odiavum/Azaum forts (Ps.20), Ad Statuas (Ps.26), and Celamantia (Ps.35), Quadrata (Ps.32). Possible duplicate include Klosterneuburg (Ps.i), Ala Nova (Ps.6), and Gerulata (Ps.15). For a recent review of double forts in Dacia see F. Marcu, Limes XIX (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts 56-7. 77 to Gudea, inMoesia op. cit. (n. 22), forts examined According (Ms.18), Cezava/Novae Superior are: Pojejena and Turnu (Ms.23), Donji Milanovac (Ms.35), Tekija (Ms.42), Davidovac-Karatas (Ms.45), Kostol (Ms.49), no evidence Severin/Drobeta have so far produced for occupation before A.D. 275: Visnjica (Ms.50). The following Palanka and (Ms.5), Seona (Ms.9), Dubravica/Margum (Ms.16), Golubac/Cuppae (Ms.13), Banatska (Ms.19), Orsova/Dierna (Ms.43). On internal fort buildings, M. Vasic, Limes XV (op. cit. (n. 17)), 368-70.

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i56

J.

J. WILKES

was from the outset more widely dispersed than was legionary and auxiliary manpower in the case, for example, along the middle Danube. The dispersal of auxiliary manpower a larger number of smaller forts from the mid-second is in onwards reflected the century of bricks and tiles stamped by individual units.78 In Moesia remarkable proliferation Superior the stamped bricks and tiles of Legion VII Claudia, manufactured presumably close to its base at Viminacium somewhere (Ms.14), have been found in almost every and auxiliary soldiers are found not only in forts known fort of the province. Legionary along the river but also in the interior and in the coastal and inland cities. The papyrus record of a unit roster (Hunt's Pridianum) drawn up in the autumn of A.D. 105 for a cohort in different based inMacedonia reveals already a dispersal of manpower tasks engaged across the Danube So far the early campaigns. region at the height of Trajan's Dacian levels of forts here have not been explored but it is clear that some began their existence with the regular perimeter typical of the late first and early second centuries A.D., while others clearly had irregular plans from the start, usually dictated by a situation on high the river.79 ground overlooking of auxiliary units in the Danube The identities and movements region from the first to the third centuries A.D. rest on the evidence of unit lists on diplomas, stamped bricks, and inscriptions,

construction

votives,

including

records

and

epitaphs.

There

is now

available

a new synthesis for the auxilia of Pannonia and there are also lists for Dacia and both new that can either fill in gaps in our Moesian evidence Each year brings provinces. a or to is and changing what of confused add already problem understanding simply identities.80

and movement From the outset the Romans along ships for transportation employed the Danube and its major tributaries (Strabo 7.3.13), at first procured from allies but later as Roman

with

formations

permanent

bases

on

the

upper

and

lower

courses

of

the

river.

was based at Taurunum fleet (classis Flavia Pannonica) The Pannonian (Pi.61), the last and will have been active not only on station in the province close to the Sava confluence, the Drava and Sava. Beyond the river itself but on its major tributaries within Pannonia, activities appears closely linked the increasing evidence for Roman military the Danube and the role of the and the Waag/V?h, with the major rivers, notably the March/Morava can be assumed. Little is known of how the Danube fleet operated fleet in these operations except for the existence of hundreds of jetties and landing places, most now long vanished, such as those in the region of Bassianae (RIII.45) along the lower stretch of the Pannonian Taurunum and Danube between Cusum (Pi.61).81 (Pi.53) is a more visible The fleet operating (classis Flavia Moesiaca) along the lower Danube its first sixth centuries Roman the and the and role between presence throughout period, A.D.

is the

subject

of

a

recent

study,

covering

organization,

harbours,

and

the

practical

conditions, marshes aspects of river shipping. Here geographical along the left bank and of steep banks and broad river terrain along the right with an alternation undulating is that estuaries, make the river the most convenient means of passage. The probability even the smallest and military settlement post had some sort of access to the river, indicated by the results of investigations along the river bank in the area of the gorges and fleet above the gorges below prior to the raising of the river level. The role of the Moesian the it seems unlikely that the towpaths remains uncertain: gorges, cut out and through 78 and Gudea, Zahariade op. cit. (n. 23). 79 see R. Syme, Danubian of Fabius Pridianum On the date of Hunt's (with the governorship Papers (1971), 122-34 from Rasova Iustus being subsequently confirmed (Mi.59), AE (1981), 746). Forts on the lower by a milestone include: Nigriniana Danube with a regular perimeter (Mi.58), (Mi.56), Sacidava (Mi.54), Altinum (Mi.41), Sucidava (Mi.84). (Mi.75), and Salsovia (Mi.63), Barbosi Capidava 80 I Die Inschriften der Prinzipatzeit: in Pannonien w?hrend B. L?rincz, Die r?mischen Hilfstruppen (2001). Units are listed by Gudea, Inferior inMoesia attested op. cit. (nn. 22 and 26), for Moesia Superior and Dacia currently Inferior (Romania) op. cit. (n. 24). by Zahariade, (Bulgaria) by Ivanov, op. cit. (n. 23), and for Moesia 81 Croatian Arch. Soc. On the Pannonian (n. 10, 1993), 53-8; on the harbours fleet, M. Zaninovic, in Petrovic, op. cit. (n. 22, 1996), 143-57. D. Dimitrijevic Bassianae,

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around


THE

maintained Gate

by the legions in A.D.

completed

evidence strength

during

101,

AN

the first century, in use

remained

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

after

or Trajan's the

canal

to by-pass

of Dacia:

occupation

157

lack

the Iron of

any

I It?lica stationed at Novae tells against this. Legion (Mi.18) included on its a unit of marines, while some of its stamps on bricks show the legion's titles set the

within

DANUBE:

ROMAN

frame

of

a Roman

River

warship.

and

sea

passage

were

essential

for

this

and

Inferior in maintaining their detachments the other legions of Moesia along the Black Sea coast and in the Crimea at various times during the second and third centuries A.D. Here the sea-going fleet was evidently a separate formation based on Chersonesus (Mi.96) that at Tyras coast between the delta and the with harbours the Crimea, operated along (Mi.91) and Charax (Mi.97). Records of fleet personnel are also found in the coastal ports south of the delta as far as the provincial boundary with Thracia where began the province from the north coast of Asia Minor.82 of the Pontic fleet operating land route had been created along By the end of the second century A.D. a continuous the Danube between the Inn and the Black Sea, a passage recorded among the routes of the in the third century A.D. The road had greater importance Antonine Itinerary, compiled to traffic, except for the crossing of side where the Roman bank posed few obstructions ? in eastern Noricum, Pannonia Superior and Inferior except for the Danube valleys inMoesia bend, Moesia Superior below the gorges, and the lowest stretch of the Danube Inferior. The road was regularly maintained and formed the axis for increasing local surveillance that appear from the middle of the second through the use of watchtowers between the Danube road and the chain of towers has century onwards. This association some of which are included in been clearly revealed for Pannonia on aerial photographs, recent studies by Hungarian is likely to have by-passed scholars. Most traffic in Pannonia the Danube bend by using the direct road between Brigetio (Ps.30) and Aquincum (P1.5). Excavation of a villa on the outskirts of the latter revealed the make-up for this road, with several layers of surfacing and a coin of Hadrian from the earliest of these. InMoesia Superior

the

line

of

the

road,

along

with

the

remains

of

several

settlements,

watchtowers,

and a milestone, has been traced between Belgrade and Tricornium (Ms.8). The surviving traces of the towpaths were and the lower recorded upper gorges through prior to the level. Below the gorges the Danube road regained a strategic raising of the Danube the evacuation of Dacia and remained important for the operations importance following of Roman forces against the Avars in the last decade of the sixth century. The remains of but no further discoveries Trajan's bridge were also recorded during recent investigations, have been made relating to Constantine's (Mi.12).83 bridge near Oescus

82 O. Les forces navales du Bas-Danube et de la Mer Noire and M. Zahariade, aux 1er?Vie si?cles, Bounegru see P. Petrovic, Pontica 2 (1996). On the Moesian fleet inMoesia Starinar 40-41 Colloquia Superior (1989?1990), I It?lica see T. Sarnowski, Limes XIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 536?41. For the 207?16. On the warship stamps of Legion see O. Bounegru, role of the fleet in army supply along the lower Danube Limes XVI In (op. cit. (n. 17)), 311-13. to the legionary bases at Novae addition (Mi.18) and Durostorum (Mi.49), there were fleet stations at Sexaginta Prista (Mi.30), Appiaria (Mi.61), Dinogetia (Mi.34), Altinum (Mi.56), Axiopolis (Mi.74), and Aliobrix (Mi.79) on the left bank opposite base at Noviodunum the fleet's principal (Mi.78), and also the station at Barbos i (Mi.75) on are recorded down the coast at Histria the left bank overlooking the mouth of the Siret. Fleet personnel (RVII.18), Tomis (RVII.12), Callatis (RVII.i). (RVII.9), Dionysiopolis (RVII.3), and Odessus 83 see J. Stern, Wo Romerr'dder For the road in Austria, rollten. ?berlegungen zum Verlauf Strassen r?mische is fully road in Hungary (1994), also O. Harl, Limes XV (Vienna area). The Danube (op. cit. (n. 17)), 225-9 documented On the Aquincum-Brigetio by Visy, op. cit. (n. 20, 2003), with maps and aerial photographs. diagonal, O. T. Lang, Limes XIX in Moesia 51-2. For the road below Singidunum (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts Superior, D. Bojovic, Materijali 17 (1980), 85-99, and for the section through the gorges, P. Petrovic, Limes XIV (op. cit. (n. in their local context by D. Jankovic, La partie danubienne de 17)), 883?99. Events in the sixth century are analysed le r?gion d'Aquis au Vie et au debut du Vile si?cle (in Serbian) (1981). In A.D. 597 Priscus crossed the river either at Kostol Avars valley ponts

at Sapaja-Lederata In A.D. 602 the (Ms.49) or Tekija (Ms.42), and then re-crossed upstream (Ms.16-15). to seize the Danube cataracts but were forced to retreat westwards to Kovin attempted (Ms.12). The Timok was used by Slavs in A.D. 550 and again by Avars road to Naissus in 578?589. On the bridges, D. Tudor, Les romains du Bas-Danube (1974).

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J.

J. WILKES

west-east

route

i58 In Moesia

Inferior

the

preferred

was

not

that

the

along

river

but

rather

an inner line between Montana (RVII.i) on the Black Sea. Fortified (Mi.4) and Odessus at river crossings, road stations were established (RVI.4) on the including Discoduratera and Chomakovtsi Shoumen Melta Yantra, (RVII.25), (RVI.34), (Mi.5) on the Iskar. was

Montana

centre

the

a

for

security

operation

the

protecting

mines,

manned

by

from the provincial through garrison. The principal passages legionaries and auxiliaries the Haemus were controlled (Mi.5), by a large number of fortified sites, around Vratsa ad Istrum Pleven and Gabrovo (Mi.22), Nikiup/Nicopolis (Mi.25), (Mi.13), Lovech and Abritus Shoumen (Mi.50). Here a system of local commands (Mi.32), and Dobric A montis. few Haemi sites explored by a recent survey suggest that the controlled praesidia some of the fortifications were occupied from early in the Roman period.84 the garrisons of Dacia decided to withdraw Itmay well be the case that when Hadrian the band of territory by to a perimeter within and to reduce in width the Carpathians, the need for some form of linked to the rest of the Empire, the province was which was next century this protec Over the limits foreseen. these surveillance already beyond of barrier walls with watchtowers the construction tion was achieved by two means: across the main routes into and out of the province and a surveillance of the intervening around fortlets that were linked to the hills through networks of intervisible watchtowers a system of barrier in the rear. At Porolissum (D.24) in the north-west major garrisons in advance of the two forts and the civil town. The walls and towers was established continuous barrier, stone in some sections and earth elsewhere and with attached watch towers and fortlets, extended for c. 4 km. For a length of c. 225 m the wall was duplicated, with a stone tower on each line. A double line also fronted the forts of Pomet and Citera that,

the

with

along

earth

were

rampart,

to

placed

control

the

route

along

the

Ortelec

in the Meses, hills valley, or the Meses gate. This barrier linked the system of watchtowers on the west with that along the north side of the Samus (Somes) valley to the east. The at least sixty towers on high ground with fortlets down in the inter former comprised were linked to the mobile auxiliary units in the rear at Gil?u (D.93), These vening valleys. centre at Potaissa Gherla (D.102). That on the north (D.95), and the principal command a zone towers c. and fortlets in advance of of similar 180 km and consisted of extended for the forts at Tih?u (D.25), C?sei (D.26), and Ilisua (D.27). A defensive barrier has also been identified fronting the Apuseni hills on the west between the Mures and the Crisul Repede in the Hungarian to the system of late earthworks (see plain (D.18), earlier assigned below).

There

are

that

indications

a similar

system

existed

on

the

east,

where

some

fortlets

and towers have been identified. How the system was intended to function seems clear but the system. It seems likely that so far there is no evidence of the personnel who manned in the vicinity of garrison from the settlements local groups were involved or conscripted now being of Roman material forts and also in the forward zone itself. The quantities recovered from settlements beyond what had been accepted as the limits of Roman Dacia has

been

seen

as

evidence

for

an

involvement

in

the

security

of

the Roman

province

and

in the that of its external allies. So far there is no evidence for any form of zonal defence to watch cordon beyond the Alutus. Forts were concentrated south-east along the military the main routes across theWallachian valley was watched plain. That along the Calamatri on at the river by the inner line at the B?neasa and Putineiu and three forts, (D.49-50) by in there is at and elsewhere this On Sl?veni base Dacia, front, (D.66). large cavalry from formations of new mobile for the introduction evidence originating increasing there are many in the Empire, notably Africa and the East. South of the Danube elsewhere inMoesia routes through hill country, notably examples of similar barrier systems across Inferior along the Haemus range. Few have been investigated but the most likely period for

84 Zahariade

and Gudea,

op. cit.

(n. 23),

39-42.

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THE

movement

into

out

and

from

and most for

evidence

increasing

an

outset

the

of

Moesian

both

evidently

to

placed

provinces.85

town fortress (castra), associated military legionary two or three miles distant is now seen to be more (municipium) In recent years that emerged after Hadrian. along the Danube towns settlements and civil has identified several new military the extent and character of those already known. The same is settlement (vicus) attached to auxiliary forts along the Danube

tripartite complex (canabae), and civil town or less the standard pattern increased attention to both examples and also defined the case for the single civil that was

A.D. Some were

areas

the mining

159

of

The

for the smallest

of

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

and third centuries

is the late second

their creation control

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

essential

stations.

manufacture,

pottery

in the Roman

component

remote of military

and

metal-working,

even

organization,

military

economic

The

role is clear from the the

of

processing

crops

settlements also included a religious and animal products (see Section vi below). Most were in locations cemeteries and and civil serving military precinct, personnel provided of excavation (Ps.12) a renewed programme apart from the occupied areas. At Carnuntum among the remains of the civil town intended to establish its historical phases has revealed stone in the late first century A.D. The phase of large-scale its existence already is now dated to the Severan period with paved avenues flanked by porticos, construction, of (a shrine to Diana was inserted into one of these in the fourth century). Resumption on the site of the civil town at Brigetio excavations (Ps.30) is revealing substantial houses is also being with painted decoration including figures of animals. A closer association revealed

between

hinterland.

to

continued

the

centres

large

at

Some of these include prosper

into

the

fourth.

the

river

isolated

and

villas

the many

now

What

smaller

that began seems

even

in the

settlements

in the second

is that

clearer

near

century A.D. and the

Roman

cordon along the river was the core of a complex pattern of relationships based military on settlements and installations on either side of the river. In that sense the river Danube was no longer a line of demarcation but rather the spine for a military and civil association that grew up in the second century and continued more or less intact until the later decades of

the

fourth

century

C. The Late Roman

A.D.86

Danube

(Third

to Fourth Centuries

a.d.)

first hint of threat in the official records of construction is associated with the forts towers in and territories established the of the (praesidia) (burgi) larger cities either side of inMoesia the Haemus Inferior and Thracia from the middle of the second century A.D., including Serdica (RV.30), Marcianopolis (RVII.23), Augusta Traiana (RVI.38), and other centres in Thrace at Deutum was and Bizye. The proclaimed 'the safety of the purpose (ob tutelam Thraciae provinciae). Many of these centres were linked province of Thracia' increased military that closely with the now much deployment along the lower Danube

The

more than was depended of the passages through construction and repair

erected

the

case

of

city

on

elsewhere

the Haemus

by

defences

raiders in

the

the

routes

in A.D. region.87

to

the

170 was In Dacia

interior. also the

use

The a

stimulus

victory

of for

one the

monument

at Ulpia Traiana in a.d. 157 marks the first sign of a developing Sarmizegetusa in that quarter. The most direct route between central Dacia and the Danube,

insecurity

85

For a general summary, N. Gudea, Limes XVI (op. cit. die vorgeschobene Kleinfestungen auf dem westlichen Limes XVI barrier, A. V. Matei, (1997); on the Porolissum

Limes:

N. Gudea, Der Mese? (n. 17)), 13-23; on the Meses, Abschnitt des Limes der Provinz Dacia Porolissensis on northern I.M. (op. cit. (n. 17)), 93-100; defences, also ActArchHung 41 (1989), 299-311. On the role of barriers in the

Limes XVII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 443-61, Limes XIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 561-4. region, M. Werner, see S. Jilek, Limes XVII in Pannonia canabae in the area of Superior (op. cit. (n. 17)), 126. Settlements Carnuntum and Vindobona include and (Ps.2) Unteriaa, (Ps.12-13) Hoflein, Halbturn, Bruckneudorf, Deutschkreutz. 87 to Marcianopolis Zahariade and Gudea, op. cit. (n. 23), 37-40. The approach (RVII.23) by the Aitos pass was guarded by a barrier wall with several towers. Ferenczi,

mining 86 On

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16o

to Tibiscum pass, was now protected with (D.15) by the Teregova record the (D.14), an area where (D.13) and Teregova epitaphs at the hands of robbers (latrones). Security along the road from Dacia via the Jiu valley and the Vulcan pass was increased with the forts were also (D.87) at the crossing of the river Motru. Additional to Dacia along the Mures valley, including Micia (D.18) where a fort

from Dierna (Ms.43) new forts at Mehadia of travellers mishaps Drobeta (Ms.50) into new fort of C?tunele placed at the entrance of

J. WILKES

J.

exceptional

size

was

In

constructed.

area

same

the

there

was

increased

for

protection

the gold mines at Alburnus Maior (D.19). In the south-east an increasing level of localized created from time to time. The traces of military activity is indicated by special commands a at in the recorded number of major destruction centres, past including large-scale Tibiscum (D.18), and Porolissum (D.24), have tended to be linked directly (D.15), Micia to the Marcomannic wars, though local insecurity seems to be just as likely an explana to a new base in tion. The transfer of a legion (VMaced?nica) from the lower Danube at Marcommanic the time of the have taken northern Dacia at Potaissa may (D.102) place wars but its location points to a threat from the east as much as from the direction of the the upper Danube the destructive impact of the Hungarian plain to the west.88 Along has been Suebic Germans Aurelius and Sarmatians under Marcus with conflicts prolonged of older army units and their identified at many locations, including the disappearance (N.39) has, however, proved recently to be a by new formations; Mautern replacement notable exception. At the same time the overall concept of the single military cordon along the river remained unaltered, albeit with increased forces. New legions were placed on the in Raetia and in Noricum with the newly raised II It?lica at Lauriacum Danube (N.16). Further west a new small fort was placed at Schl?gen (N.8) on one of the serpentine river In Pannonia it was the centre for a series of watchtowers. bends west of Linz, where Inferior the military recovery resulted in the placing of some new and more powerful as garrisons in the older forts but no less significant was perhaps the formations Germans interior the Danube of from of the being beyond by groups replenishment not directly affected by the to settle within the province. Though apparently permitted wars

Marcomannic tion

of

The

some impact

be a matter Severan

era

new of

was

there smaller the

a

posts

significant the along crisis

third-century

of debate.

The

high

seems

in Pannonia

given

several

and military

way

to

a

forts

Superior.89 and upper

the middle

along

tide of civil

to have

of

re-occupation in Moesia river

to

that marks into

recession

construc

continues

Danube

construction

gradual

the

and

the

impoverish

ment reflected in a general dereliction. At Carnuntum (Ps. 12-13) burials were inserted into town. InNoricum raids by the Alamanni what had once been built-up areas of the military that impacted more on areas further west, have been held responsible and other Germans, at Lauriacum for an extensive destruction (N.16). The fate of Dacia appears to have been sealed by the repeated inroads of Goths and other groups, including the Carpi, across the In Dacia Inferior official inscriptions lower Danube. appear to cease under Philip and the the In Dacia within after Decius. of coins does not seem to have continued circulation to fall after the have ceased coins of circulation the earlier, appears possibly Carpathians recent discoveries the of the Maximini appear to complement (a.d. 238). These more documented already now forts abandoned

of Dacian

evacuation were

taken

over

by

garrisons the civilian

around population,

this

It seems

time. an

occupation

that

many was

that

of the province to continue twenty years by Aurelian long after the formal evacuation two legions to bases on the lower later. That event was signalled by the return of Dacia's there is barely a trace of this at Ratiaria Danube (Mi.12), although (Ms.73) and Oescus Dacia and the aftermath of of at The of these either military collapse places. redeployment the Gothic raids brought the start of renewed military occupation along the entire course

88 See Gudea, (op. cit. (n. 17)), 477?84. op. cit. (n. 26, 1997), for these changes; also D. Ruscu, Limes XVII 89 include Novae Forts known to have been re-occupied (Ms.45). (Ms.35), and Davidovac-Karatas (Ms.23), Taliata at Saldum New smaller forts were established (Ms.34). (Ms.26), Boljetin-Gradac (Ms.32), and Ravna

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THE

ROMAN

DANUBE:

AN

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

l6l

of the lower Danube that was to increase in intensity well into the fourth century a.d.90 since the The section of the river above Novae, hitherto more or less de-militarized once

of Dacia,

occupation

more

a part

became

the military

of

several

with

cordon,

forts

in this phase. Downstream between the Lorn and the Vit being established Barbo?i (Mi.75) as a station for the fleet and renewed construction at at the mouth of the Siret continued several places in the area of the delta has been dated to the last quarter of the third century A.D.

In the longer term the on both the middle and through ranges of hills, and the gorges in Serbia onwards by Tetrarchy Between

two

these

loss of Dacia had profound for the Roman position consequences the two sections where lower Danube. the river passed Along the Danube bend in Pannonia between Esztergom and Budapest below Belgrade, the level of surveillance was increased from the new forts and large numbers of closely-spaced watchtowers.

areas,

where

the

river

traverses

the

open

is a

there

plain,

general

of new fortifications along the Roman bank datable to this period. Instead several and towers were constructed with walls flanking landing-stages along the far bank and there are a small number of new forts of late Roman design in Sarmatian territory beyond the river. This state of affairs is seen as a new Roman strategy by which the lands of their Sarmatian allies were defined by the earthworks that run across the Hungarian plain and are connected on to the Danube at either end at places where late forts were constructed the left bank, at God (Pi.2) below the Danube bend and at Kovin (Ms.11) facing the mouth or in Moesia of the Morava of these earthworks Superior. The purpose (Ordog?rok 'Devil's Dyke') was to mark territory regarded as being under Roman protection from that of the German groups who had moved into Dacia since the Roman evacuation. The most absence

likely

is the

occasion

Sarmatian

of Constantine

campaigns

after

a.d.

324

or

those

possibly

a similar definition of protected II in A.D. 358. Moreover of his son Constantius territory is indicated by an earthwork of the same character beyond the lower Danube (Brazda lui that crosses the plains of Oltenia and Wallachia between Drobeta Novae) (Ms.50) and the is likely to have originated in the reign of delta. As with Pannonia this arrangement at least one new fort, who bridged the Danube near Oescus and constructed Constantine, (Mi.37), on the left bank of the river near the mouth of the Arges.91 Daphne In the forts along the middle Danube the only significant innovation of the early fourth century

A.D.

appears

to have

been

the

addition

of

external

fan-shaped

corner

towers

to

the

of existing forts.92 Around this time also two of the larger cavalry forts, perimeters Gerulata (Ps.22), were reduced in area by a wall across the rear part (Ps.15) and Arrabona two new designs of fortification of the fort (retentura). In Moesia appear under the a fortlet or tower (praesidium) with a central supporting pier and a larger Tetrarchy, fort with square was extensive also

massive

square reconstruction

towers of

to

attached existing

forts,

corners

the

in

both

the

(quadriburgium). area of the

There gorges

and

90 on the end of Dacia Recent contributions Limes XVIII include G. Gazdac, and (op. cit. (n. 17)), 737-56; P. Hugel, I. B. C?t?niciu, Limes XIX ibid., 719-36; 39; D. Ruscu, Acta Mus. Nap. 35 (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts arm of the delta include Salmorus (1998), 235-54 and 37 (2000), 265-75. Forts repaired along the St George (Mi.85), are listed by and Novidunum late forts between the Utus and Durostorum (Mi.81), Aegyssus (Mi.78). The R. Ivanov, Limes XVII evidence for new tetrarchic fortification has come from (op. cit. (n. 17)), 507-22. Epigraphic several places along the lowest section of the river, M. Zahariade, Limes for the same phase at Chersonesus there is now evidence (Mi.96) in the 91 The basic studies remain Soproni, op. cit. (n. 20, 1978 and 1985). see G. Bertok, Limes XVI Sarmatica (op. cit. (n. 17)), 165-72. No new

XIX

(op. cit.

(n. 17)), Abstracts

101-2,

and

Crimea.

on the Ripa the counter-fortifications evidence has accrued to cast doubt on the across the Hungarian general view that the earthworks date, plain are of tetrarchic or, more likely, of Constantinian E. Istvanovits and V. Kulcsar, Limes XVIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 625-8. 92 towers are known only at Carnuntum Among legionary bases fan-shaped (Ps.13) but appear in several auxiliary forts in Noricum, including Mautern (N.39), Traismauer (N.52), and Zeiselmauer (N.45), Tulln (N.54), and at listed by Visy, op. cit. (n. 20, 2003), 117-21. many forts in Pannonia, On

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162

J. WILKES

}.

further west in the direction of Belgrade.93 At the site of Trajan's bridge below the gorges, of Kostol what seems to have been a civilian occupation (Ms.49) that continued well into the fourth century a.d. has been linked with the arrival of refugees from Dacia beyond the Danube.

is linked with the A final phase in the Roman military cordon along the middle Danube Germans is marked by and Sarmatians and Suebic the of Valentinian against operations new construction It seems possible in the forts and by a new series of watchtowers. that based on the earthworks had by now ceased (itwill certainly not the security arrangement in a.d. 378) and that the bulk of Roman forces have survived the disaster of Hadrianopolis were based along the river. At the same time it has been argued that occupation of some of the forts across the river linked with the earthworks continued, including God (Pi.2) and is not clear. Some of the fortified landing-places were also Hatvan (Pi.3), though by whom to function as watchtowers retained but now modified (c. 10 by 10 m). There was also a concentration of forces in the south around the river crossing at Lugio (Pi.39). The most the innovation and lower Danube was of this period on both the middle distinctive one corner in of the older walls construction of small fortifications with massive enclosing of the smaller towers were now given up and only the larger ones auxiliary forts. Many to be occupied. In Pannonia the general frailty of the within a walled enclosure continued in the interior, either in the river cordon is linked with the appearance of new fortifications form of new walls for the major towns such as Scarbantia (RIII.25), Savaria (RIII.24), and at Fen?kpuszta fortifications Sirmium (RIII.77), large perimeter (RIII.43), or new to contain large numbers of people (RIII.89), and S?gv?r (RIII.90), designed Als?h?teny to be occupied into the following and their moveable century. In goods; these continued were still being added under Valentinian new fortifications in the area of the Moesia of many forts in the gorges but in this area the picture is complicated by the re-occupation late fifth and sixth centuries.94 By

now

the

character

and

of

composition

communities

along

the

Danube

was

much

altered even from what it had been a century before. That change seems to be illustrated between (Ps.i) where there was a form of cohabitation by the cemetery at Klosterneuburg ? ? that continued well into the fifth Romans the latter perhaps foederati and Germans a Roman north of Vienna a large residence resembling the Danube century a.d. Beyond a mixture of Roman and German villa in the fortified Oberleisburg (Ps.57) has produced a suggestion that this material dating from the end of the fourth century A.D., prompting was one of the centres of the Marcomanni settled along the river between Klosterneuburg The last decades of the fourth century saw the end of the unified Roman and Carnuntum. course The a in Noricum and Pannonia. in the case of its middle Danube, finality in the late fifth and sixth centuries restoration of Roman control along the lower Danube marks

the

start

of

a new

era

that form part of the history

93

as

the

first

of

a

long

succession

Balkan

of Byzantium's

of

and

advances

withdrawals

frontier.95

Vodenica (Ms.47), (Ms.41), Donje Butorke (op. cit. (n. 17)), 757-73. Praesidia: Hajducka Porecka reka Ravna and Mora (Ms.61). Quadriburgia: (Ms.34), Vagei (Ms.57), Ljubicevac (Ms.19). Late fortifications (Ms.17) and Cuppae (Ms.42) and Sip (Ms.44), and m tne west at Pincum (Ms.36), Tekija are also known at Viminacium (Ms.13). (Ms.14), Seona (Ms.9), and Margum 94 in Noricum, Wallsee in the angles of earlier forts include Late fortifications (N.20), Mautern (N.39), and Carnuntum Zeiselmauer (Ps.22), Odiavum/Azaum (Ps.30), Arrabona (Ps.13), Brigetio (N.54), and in Pannonia, are known on the lower (Ps.48), and Cirpi (Ps.52). Similar constructions (Ps.37), Visegr?d-Sibrik (Ps.35), Crumerum include Saldum forts inMoesia at Nova Cherna Danube (Mi.63). New (Mi.49), and Capidava (Mi.35), Durostorum new towers were added to the existing forts at Mihailovac and massive (Ms.26) and Malo Golubinje (Ms.37), P. Petrovic,

Rtkovo

Limes XII

(Ms.52),

near Radujevac (Ms.6o) and Bordzej (Ms.64). For M. Vasic in Petrovic, op. cit. (n. 22, 1996), 22-3. 95 On this topic see now P. Stephenson, Byzantium's (2000), 900?1204.

the

late fifth-sixth-century

Balkan

Frontier:

a Political

occupation Study

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see P. Petrovic

of the Northern

and

Balkans


THE

V

In comparison Danube and

attention

given

remains of the cities of Noricum Kos

and

P.

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL BURIALS

AND

SETTLEMENTS

163

to that directed to the settlements associated with military in the immediate there has been, with one hinterland, little

exceptions,

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

Scherrer

?

the

to

the

larger

are now

Claudian

centres

urban

fully described

municipia

of

the

interior.

in the volume

at Virunum

and

its

camps along the or two notable The

and

history

edited by M. predecessor

Sasel on

the

(RII.16-17), (RI.47), Iuvavum (RII.13), Teurnia (RIII.14), Aguntum Magdalensberg at Ovilava at Solva (RIII.57), the Hadrianic (RII.6), the Flavian municipium municipia at Cetium Lauriacum the Caracallan frontier and and (N.16). No (RII.32) (N.40), city Celeia

survey

comparable

exists

for

other

any

Danubian

province

or

region.

In Dalmatia the major centres of Salona (RIV.11) and Narona (RIV.37) continue to be explored and the first part of a corpus of the latter's inscriptions has appeared. Problems (RIV.50), at Skelani in the Drina valley or persist regarding the location of Malvesia further

east

in the Uzice

region

of

the western

Morava

valley.

In Pannonia

recent

studies

have revealed more of the topography of the early cities on the Amber route, the Claudian at Scarbantia Savaria (RIII.24) and the Flavian municipium (RIII.25). The colony texts the form the first of of from the of Neviodunum corpus part (RIII.29) inscriptions of cities in the interior of territory of Slovenia. The problems of the later development to the municipium Pannonia have been examined reference recently with Volgum a account at Sopianae is remains the of and there useful (RIII.78), capital (RIII.77), general the sites of several places on the road between of the later province Valeria. For Macedonia with new locations Thessalonica (RVI.12) and Scupi (RVI.21) have been examined, Stenas for and (RVI.16), (RVI.19), Antigoneia (RVI.15). The evidence Bylazora suggested of urban centres in inland Thrace for the emergence and Illyria during the Hellenistic and Cabyle has recently been (RVI.19) (RVI.42), period, including Philippopolis and major buildings of the colony Oescus reviewed.96 In Moesia Inferior the defences to be the subject of publications (Mi.12) continue though not of large-scale excavation. at Nicopolis excavations ad Istrum (RVI.41) have revealed the The major Anglo-Bulgarian in the middle of the fifth century and history and character of the castrum constructed some new detail of the development of the agora complex and of the defences of the a survey of the history, A.D. in centuries is the also second and third There Trajanic city and defences of Pautalia (RV.28) in western Thracia. For the Black Sea cities topography, of Moesia and Thrace there is now the useful catalogue of classical poleis from the a study of the history and political organization also of the western centre, Copenhagen account by Romanian Pontic cities, a collective scholars of the history and remains of Histria (RVII.18), and a study of the territory of Callatis (RVII.9) as defined in the reign of a For is of the there the Trajan.97 Bosporus region study impact of landscape changes on settlement on the Pontic coast, focusing on Olbia (Mi.94), and in the same volume reviews of recent work in Ukraine on the cities of Tyras (Mi.91) and Chersonesus (Mi.96). In Dacia the remains of Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa (D.17), the original colonial settlement out of whose territory it seems that most of the later municipia have been the scene of developed, that have radically altered the interpretation of the major public large-scale excavations buildings.98 There has also been new work on the civil areas of Porolissum (D.24), its now seems It and in clear that the absence economy, cults, major buildings. population, centres comparable with those in other provinces Dacia of native 'proto-urban' is to be stations for explained by the major role played by the vici attached to permanent military as a whole. the provincial population Several of these, for example Samum (D.26) on the

96

in den inneren Gebieten Chr. Popov, Urbanisierung und Illyriens Thrakiens inM. H. Hansen A. Avram, J. Hind and G. Tsetskhladze and T. H. Nielsen Classical Poleis The Western Pontic Cities: History (2004), 924-73; K. Nawotka, 98 I. Piso, Ephemeris Napocensis 5 (1995), 63-82 {AE (1995), 12-80). 97

im 6-1 Jahr. v. Chr (2002). (eds), An Inventory of Archaic and and Political Organisation (1997).

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164

J.

northern their

have

perimeter,

role

quasi-urban

J. WILKES

been with excavated, recently both the region, administrative

for

the

remains

and

and

economic.

finds

reflecting settlement

One

is Feldioara-Marienburg (D.41) north apparently not linked with the military deployment in a naturally fortified site of Brasov, where the remains indicate continuity of occupation and medieval periods. through the prehistoric, Roman, of public amendes The private provision (euergetism) has been the subject of recent (RVII.18), Ulpia Traiana studies, for Salona (RIV.11), Histria (D.17), and Sarmizegetusa in general. Using parallels in the of Dacia from other Trajanic colonies the province to restore at Poetovio it has the forum dedication Empire, proved possible original (RIII.18) as the traditional 'gift' of the emperor, in this instance Trajan, between a.d. 103 forum of and July 106. The same element has also been identified for the original Trajanic (D.17), formerly identified as the 'shrine of the Augustales' Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana on which a major monograph to the is due to appear. In addition (Aedes Augustalium), the colony's Capitolium and, in accordance original complex, a second precinct contained a third forum-type that enclosed the altar of the with arrangements elsewhere, precinct Dacia Recent here also for discoveries the bounds of the cult outside city. lay imperial include the lead pipes of the colony's water-supply dating from the period of Trajan and in the second There has also been a recent study of the aqueduct constructed Hadrian. a A.D. water km the for distance of from Fruska that 14 gora to the century conveyed at the Flavian colony at Sirmium (RIII.43), of which traces were first observed by Marsigli on the three known end of the seventeenth century. In Dacia there has been a monograph at Micia of the province (D.18), Porolissum (D.24), and Ulpia Trajana amphitheatres of Virunum The (RII.16), which has an unusual (D.17).99 Sarmizegetusa amphitheatre of a marble plaque record its has been examined; recently fragments elongated plan, in the time of the Severi (a.d. 198-209), (Ilvir) renovation, by the magistrate probably Sextus

Maximus

Sabineius

portas The

novas

during

the

de

suo and

condition fourth

fecit'). even

(Ms.73) social

there

is more

or Augustae and

economic

the A.D.

century

than local administrative region

('muros

existence continuing One uncertain. remain

agents of the provincial tangible

(Mi.3), centre.

for

evidence

though There

doubt

view

existence, that

of

of many

authorities,

their

not necessarily is no

tectorio

opera

amphitheatri

sees

renovavit

item

the

urban

their

though as

for

lesser function

places,

centres

as no more

in the lower Danube example

for their continuing many

et

aditus

especially

at

Ratiaria

role as a local those

on

or

as has been shown for several the major roads, will have had a military function, in the territory of Slovenia, settlements (RIII.9), Neviodunum major including Emona (RIII.18).100 (RIII.29), and Poetovio have been located and The remains of several road stations (mansiones and mutationes) in the eastern Alps. Along the Amber route these include Ad Pirum notably investigated, (RIII.7), already a transit centre in (RIII.5), at the summit of the Julian Alps, Nauportus that grew and Sala Halicanum times, (RIII.21), (RUI.23) where the settlement pre-Roman as a city later incorporated the removal of the military up following garrison was on major such as In Noricum roads and elsewhere, these settlements, (municipium). centre at Kalsdorf the Gleisdorf (RIII.58), (RIII.57), Kugelstein (RIII.57), textile-producing Immurium (RII.28), M?sendorf (RI.47), (RII.8), Gabromagus (RII.45), and Oberdrauburg In the first and early second centuries generally exhibit a similar pattern of development. traffic to the camps along the Danube was at its height, A.D., the time when long-distance but the settle the finds reflect the passage of imports. Later there is often a contraction a A similar more communities. ments continued, for the role localized surrounding serving near

99 D. Alicu and and (1998), 1071 (R. Ciobanu). in Dacia: AE (1995), 1279 (L. Teposu-Marinescu) On euergetism romaine de la Dacie Les amphitheatres C. Opreanu, (2000). On the spectacles, AE (1996), 1271 (C. Opreanu). 100 in J. Rich A. Poulter, 'The use and abuse of urbanism', (1992), 99-135. On the (ed.), The Late Roman City in Slovenia, I. Sivec, Limes XVII role of settlements (op. cit. (n. 17)), 663?5. military

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THE

ROMAN

AN

DANUBE:

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

165

function was served by the road station at Idimum (RV.39) inMoesia Superior on the main Here the role of the settlement and Viminacium. for traffic and road between Naissus into the fourth century A.D. continued garrisons and settlements supplies to the Danube The totals of coins recovered from the site far exceed those for other sites in the area and match those of road stations in the frontier zones of other provinces. A similar state of in the hinterland for the road stations of the lower Danube, for affairs is suggested on Carassura the Balkan between and Hadrian (RVI.23) highway example Philippopolis from which the coin lists run from the fourth to the seventh centuries. This opolis, role in long-distance traffic is also evident in the settlements recently examined prolonged in the mountain section of the road between Philippopolis (Mi.12). (RVI.19) and Oescus remote locations in more it can be observed, Where the development of settlements east of Salzburg there was a small settlement, perhaps InNoricum appears to be different. a single dwelling, near Bischofshofen in the early Roman period on the Gotschenberg A.D. was a into a small from the third onwards but there century (RII.13) rapid expansion defended hill town that survived until the seventh century. A similar pattern is apparent in the territory of Slovenia.101 among the many hill settlements in general the current state of affairs for Noricum For rural settlement and the Austrian area of Pannonia Superior is fully described in the recent volume by V. Gassner and others Rural settlement of the early Roman period (see n. 4), along with a detailed bibliography. in the Dobrudja region has been the subject of a recent catalogue registering 258 sites, including 68 identified as villae rusticae. In the north-east area of the province of Dalmatia, around the middle and lower course of the river Drina, the current picture of Roman and burials, is reviewed in the recent based almost entirely on inscriptions settlement, most R. Zotovic. The isolated but villa that distinctive rustica, study by well-appointed Roman

imprint

on

the

rural

continues

landscape,

to attract

attention

in many

areas

though

less in isolation from its local context than was the case. There are recent nowadays of identified Noricum villas for and for the Danube-Balkan the latter a registers province, a effort for where few have been available.102 pioneering region syntheses In Pannonia to a Roman the problem of the transition from local La T?ne settlements pattern continues to attract attention, notably in a succession of studies by D. Gabler. The impact on local settlement of the arrival of large numbers of Roman troops along the Danube appears now to have been less than was believed to be the case in the past, as are now less willing to rely on simple external explanations for the end of archaeologists this or that settlement. This is all the more the case for the interior of the province where even the longer-term effects of being in the Empire for centuries are in some areas hard to detect. Beyond the Pannonian Danube the nature and function of the stone buildings villas is still a topic for discussion. The evidence of finds, including coins, resembling pottery, early

and third

brick century

stamps, suggests A.D. that matches

an

occupation the pattern

over of many

a

long sites

with period, on the Roman

a

peak side

in of

the the

river. There now seems little doubt that the Pannonian 'Vorland' across the Danube was an intermediate or third zone between province and barbaricum in which highly produc tive areas were exploited through a villa system not very different from that known on the Roman side. A similar pattern is suggested by the excavation of settlements in the territory

101 aus der Zeit vom 3. bis 6. Jh. im Ostalpenraum S. Ciglenecki, Hohenbefestigungen (1987). 102 M. Barbulescu, La vie rurale dans la Dobroudja romaine (Ier-IIIe s. ap. J.-C.) (2001); R. Zotovic, Population and Economy Province BAR int. ser. 1060 (2002); H. Bender and of the Eastern Part of the Roman of Dalmatia, H. Wolff in den Rhein-Donauprovinzen des r?mischen zur Passauer Univ. (eds), Landliche Besiedlung Reiches, Arch. 2 (1994); St. Traxler, Guts- und Bauernh?fe R?mische in Ober?sterreich, Passauer Univ. zur Arch. 9 (2004); L. Mulvin, Late Roman Villas in the Danube-Balkan BAR int. ser. 1064 (2002). Region,

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166

J. WILKES

J.

of the Quadi finds,

where

including

are of German

the structures

domestic

are

pottery,

rather than Roman

of Roman

but where

design

the

character.103

What was once the highly contentious topic of the Roman impact on the native is now being more rationally addressed by analysis of an increasing of Dacia population for rural settlement recovered by various methods, body of evidence including aerial no extremes is The debate conducted between the of systematic photography. longer elimination and symbiotic harmony. The broader role of the vici at Roman forts, with as centres of production their many highly visible groups of immigrants, for the local is being revealed through excavation, of which a valuable survey by economy as a whole is now available. There is also some significant new evidence for communities A. Oltean the

bordering

Roman

In

province.

the

area

of

on

Arad,

the west

of

the

settle

province,

as belonging to the once semi-nomadic Sarmatians suggest an increasing a.d. in the second into the fourth. On and sedentarization, century beginning continuing the north-west frontier of Dacia the move to abandon hillforts had already taken place by In the late the first century A.D., some time before the Roman occupation of the province. area in second century new groups with more weapons the and have been identified appear with into this area took place with Roman the German Buri, whose move approval.

ments

identified

now

Settlements

appear

within

500?700

m

of

the

barrier

at Porolissum

even

and

closer

to

some of the watchtowers in the Mese? hills. Signs of contact with the Roman province to Dacians and Buri and that, it is suggested, belonged appear in a number of settlements to reach the area. An assimilation also to the first groups of Vandali of Dacians and Germans took place during the third century A.D. Settlements on terraces above the Crasna and the Roman province valley reflect increasing contacts between the Dacian population a survey of the hinterland south during the second century.104 South of the lower Danube in the early Roman of Novae (Mi.18) and Iatrus (Mi.24) has recorded 119 sites occupied in the pattern of settlement and 150 in the later period, with little change period discernable between the second and fifth centuries A.D. Villas recorded in the vicinity of Novae that prevailed until appear to exhibit a regular spatial planning of the countryside the shocks of the Hunnic period when most occupation was confined either to the Danube sites of the interior.105 forts or to the defended in the it may be that the memorials for Galerius and his Caesar Maximinus While remote hills of eastern Serbia are perhaps the most significant burial finds from the Danube that seems (Ps.55) in the Pannonian Vorland region, it is the single princely grave atMusov to have

attracted

argument

over

most the

attention. context

The of

this

question remarkable

recently posed In find.106

'friend

or the

general

foe'

sums excavation

up

the of

now involves more than the simple procuring cemeteries of intact and portable objects in some places). One suitable for museum (though an illicit trade does persist display of welcome has been the investment of time and effort in the publication development finds

obtained

from

earlier

cemetery

excavations,

sometimes

in very

large

quantities,

one

(RVII.18) retrieved during rescue excavations example being the large cemetery at Histria more than forty years ago. When properly examined the contents of a cemetery can display the character of its associated community more vividly than any other relics. Examples at Salurno (RI.11) south of the Brenner or include that of the isolated alpine community in the Lech valley engaged in the that at Dietringen (RI.18) on the Via Claudia Augusta

103 and in Tejral-Piet?-Rajt?r, D. Gabler, Limes XV op. cit. (n. 7, 1995), 63-81; S. Jilek, (op. cit. (n. 17)), 424-31; the Danube: T. Kolnik, Limes XIV (op. cit. (n. 17)), 779-87; K. Elschek, Limes XVII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 122-3. Beyond of Carnuntum, Limes XVI, 226-32; VI. Varsik, Limes XVII, 629-42 and Limes XIX, Abstracts 96. For the hinterland H. Zabehlicky, Limes XVII, 623-7. 104 n-12 I. A. Oltean in Hanson and Haynes, op. cit. (n. 16); M. Barbu, Limes XIX (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts Limes XIX, Abstracts hills); H. Pop, E. (settlements west of Mese? 89-90 (Arad area); I. Stanciu and A.V. Matei, 73-4 (Crasna valley). Pripon and Zs. Czok, Limes XIX, Abstracts 105 21. S. Conrad, Limes XIX (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts 106 C. von Carnap-Bornheim, Festschrift Tejral, op. cit. (n. 7), 59-65.

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167

an epitaph in the small In the Adriatic of Dalmatia hinterland of textiles. production recently cemetery at Imotski (RIV.29) reveals a surprising link with Germany. Cemeteries inNoricum include Bedaium from the Danube hinterland (RII.40) and Leonding published on

near

road

frontier

the

Linz

the

(N.15),

latter

seven

containing

cremations

three

and

there are of the second to third centuries A.D. In the south of the province inhumations (RII.16) and a larger cemetery at Katsch in the territory of family tombs near Klagenfurt Solva

where

(RIII.57),

are

cemeteries

other

several

The

known.

monuments

well-known

in

the cemetery at Sempeter near Celeia by a flood of the river Sava (RIII.14) preserved continue to attract attention as one of the most vivid records of a native Roman ?lite, in this instance of Claudian Celeia. The great western cemetery at Poetovio (RIII.18) is now at Praetorium a museum store at in and that the after around Graz, century published Latobicorum (RIII.27) on the road between Emona and Siscia is also now fully published. cemeteries from the territory of (former) of Roman After twenty years the catalogue remains a useful point of reference.107 Recent by A. Jovanovic Yugoslavia compiled at the legionary to the list include the cemeteries and towns of fortresses additions (Ms.14). The contents of the cemeteries at Sase can (Ms.4) and Viminacium Singidunum town Domavia be related to the growth of the mining (RIV.51) in north-east Dalmatia; S. and Malvesia with others from (R.50), they have been (RIV.47) Municipium along in detail by R. Zotovic tombs of eastern design at the fort examined (see n. 102). Chamber stationed Inferior can be linked with the Syrian auxiliaries of Intercisa (Pi.24) in Pannonia there

wars.

the Marcomannic

following

In

same

the

area

recent

at Matrica

excavations

a cemetery grave dated A.D. 380-430. Beyond the Danube (Pi.18) have revealed a Hunnic to Sarmatian in the upper Tisza basin at Tiszadob-Sziget has been identified as belonging (late fourth to early fifth groups in the period immediately prior to the arrival of the Huns on at to cemeteries rich continue and the varied Publications appear century).108 Carnuntum (Ps. 12-13), and tne same is the case for those at Gerulata (Ps.15) a little down stream.

A major

report

cemetery,

on

the

two

their different

reveals

the fort,

in the

commencing

second

at Mautern

cemeteries

large

characters.

Most

have

A.D.,

century

c.

both

(N.39),

of the 330 inhumations few

or

no

grave

500 m of

goods

from

the east

from

the

sort

found in either Roman or German graves of the fourth century. The earliest remains in the in use into the south cemetery date from the end of the third century a.d. and it continues area of middle of the fifth century. In the south the inventory of graves in the Croatian at Zsambek Pannonia includes wagon burials (comparable with that west of Budapest (RIII.84)), tumulus burials, and level cemeteries.109 A tumulus in Pannonia north of Lake Roman enfranchised Balaton several inscribed stelai recording (RIII.80) has produced a at citizens of the who decuri?n Claudian Savaria, may (Ti. Claudii), colony including It has been suggested that groups of have been linked with the nearby villa at Balaca. were

tombs

along Their

placed travellers.110

passing

the main

roads

contents

in Pannonia

indicate

a

continuing

tities of items in the grave, until the arrival of new groups first

century

cemetery inhumations

A.D.

In

the matter

at Deutschkreutz of

males,

of

orientation

(RIII.25) females,

and

the

in Burgenland children,

to

Inferior

graves

west

confirm

attract of

tradition

the

an

early

earlier

of quan

the end of the rural

fourth-century

of Scarbantia, an

large

placing

in the area around of

attention

containing

observation

fifteen that

the

at vici and isolated villas were generally aligned from the sky while those in towns the line of roads or similar local alignments. generally followed cemeteries have been examined for their external asso Several of the larger published ciations and for the identification of intrusive ethnic elements. In the case of the extensive burials

107 na territoriji Jugoslavije A. Jovanovic, Rimske nekropole (1984). aus dem 4-5 Jahrhundert von Tiszadob-Sziget', E. Istanovits, 'Das Graberfeld ActArchHung 109 20 (1985), ni-25; Z. Demo, 'Burial rite in north Croatia, Podravina, Materijali Koprivnica', I Saric in Croatian Arch. Soc. (n. 10, 1990) (on tumulus burials in Croatia). 110 L. Nagy, Alba Regia 31 (2003), 7-13. 108

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45 (1993), 91-141. also Z. Gregl and


i68

J.

J. WILKES

Emona the dominance of Italian influence during the early generations (RIII.9) cemeteries of the colonia later gives way to influence from theWestern provinces, despite the fact that from the Flavian or Hadrianic period the city was formally a part of Italy. An examination cemeteries of the Poetovio that there was little evidence of Roman (RIII.18) concluded influence emanating from the first-century A.D. military garrison in the area and in the later colonial period few indications of any association with centres along the Danube. The at Sirmium presence of different ethnic groups has been identified in the early cemeteries burials in the east cemetery include army veterans of Celtic origin (RIII.43). Pre-Flavian in Cremations and local Romanized the south-west and north-east west, Illyrians. centuries A.D. are identified as representing cemeteries of the first to mid-second the local Further east in Moesia forms in early burials at Illyrian Amantini. Superior Dacian locations along the Danube, (M.30) and Dobra (Ms.14), Boljetin including Viminacium that are recorded of Dacians (Ms.32), have been linked with the organized transportations to have taken place under Augustus and Nero.111 Similar discussions have concerned the was predominantly contents cemeteries. Here of the Pannonian the population Celtic and Eravisci), with from the south to the (Boii, Arabiates, Illyrian Azali transported area under Tiberius. This was followed and his of Vannius Brigetio by the settlement in the area of Lake Balaton around followers from the German Quadi beyond the Danube the middle of the first century A.D. The dominant burial rite is cremation with local varia the remains. A general tions, including the use of grave pits and the ways of depositing to be dominant in the north and Illyrians in is that Celtic elements continued conclusion in wealth. The evidence of the south, with grave goods indicating increasing differences brooches has been used to define Celtic Eravisci from local Pannonian-Illyrian and South west early

Pannonian fourth

groups. century

Non-Roman A.D.

the

begin cemeteries

contain bone combs, chessboard (Sarmatian) Suebic Germans. The last identifiable Roman the end of the fifth century A.D.112

VI

to appear

materials of

Many

PRODUCTION

continuing

in Roman in

use

from graves after Valentinian

the

silver hair pins, etc., indicating brooches, some time before groups had disappeared

AND

TRADE

at a Studies of plant and animal remains from the region are now being undertaken number of sites but as yet the results are fragmented with few overall patterns emerging. of animals inNoricum has been the subject of a recent The hunting and the domestication at Klagenfurt. The procuring of Paeonian bulls (bison) at Montana exhibition (Mi.4) for the Roman games under Pius has already been noted. The large deposit of anniversary from a ditch at Musov human and animal bones, including those of horses, recovered wars. a to examination Marcomannic The is of of harness, bits, be relic the (Ps.55) judged and Dacia, has led to and bridles, illustrated by remains from wagon burials in Pannonia of Celtic and Roman the identification major types.113 In the area of textile production centres have been identified in the eastern Alps, at Dietringen (RI.18) in the Lech valley on and at Kalsdorf north of Graz the Via Claudia Augusta 131 lead tags (RIII.57). Here of and processing inscribed with names in cursive were connected with the production of Bone was, it can be assumed, widely used and a large quantity cloth (fullonicae). at Brigetio The of value worked objects was collected from the older excavations (Ps.30). not only the diet but also the fuels and plant and faunal remains for determining has and civil communities construction materials used in the military along the Danube at the bridgehead in both Pannonia, fort Celamantia been demonstrated (Ps.32) opposite 111

20 (1985), 127-40. A. Jovanovic, Materijali 112 Limes XVI J. Top?l, (op. cit. (n. 17)), 537-45. 113 S. Pal?gyi, Limes XIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 389-97; Dacia).

XIV,

575-81;

XVI,

467-71;

C. Gazdac,

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Limes XVII,

743-53

(for


THE

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Brigetio, and on the lower Danube at Iatrus (Mi.24), where a large quantity of animal bone and also at the legionary fort of Novae (Mi.18). A com (2,241 items) was recovered, (Mi.96), including parative analysis of the remains from the latter and from Chersonesus in the Crimea, indicates the problems of sustaining a newly arrived legion in an Balaklava, on livestock and fishing. For around half a area where the economy was based mostly century

it seems

that

supplies

were

conveyed

from

the west

but

by

the

early

second

century

a.d. older supply routes had been revived to obtain more and more supplies from the Black to these Sea region and from the Aegean. Basic rations of grain and oil were conveyed the latter was replaced by lard. In due course grain was places, though in the Crimea locally in both areas and the lower Danube was supplied with quantities of salt produced was from the Bosporan and oil was this obtained fish; kingdom imported from Asia Minor. Cattle were bred at Novae (34 per cent pig, 19 per cent cattle) and fish were consumed (20 per cent). In the Crimea the proportions were significantly different (65 per cent sheep/goat, 30 per cent cattle, and pigs only 4 per cent). Here the locally bred animals were significantly smaller than those reared at Novae. Oil from Spain and wine from Italy reached both centres but never, it seems, in any significant quantities. in the the art nor the architecture of the Danube provinces figures prominently Neither overall picture for the Empire as a whole, and in many instances they tend to be ignored more or less completely, with the exception of a few choice items such as Trajan's Danube retirement villa near Split in Dalmatia. At Carnuntum (Ps.12) the bridge or Diocletian's great four-way arch (Heidentor) has been dated on the evidence of spolia still-standing II (a.d. 351-361) and may recovered from the structure to the last decade of Constantius have been erected to mark the successful conclusion of campaigns against the Sarmatians. to reconstruct At Aquincum the imposing (Pi.5) it has proved possible fa?ade of the on of the fortress the evidence of an architrave and pilaster principal gate (porta praetoria) the ornate architecture of capital recovered from the fortress ditch. On the lower Danube the forum in the Trajanic for the area. At (Mi.12) remains exceptional colony at Oescus a.d. were on Novae the the baths of dated based the gymnasium fortress, (Mi.18) 130-160, in the cities of Asia Minor and the influence may have come in the first type common instance from the Greek-speaking ad Istrum founded by Trajan following city of Nicopolis the Dacian wars. Several sets of baths, both public and private, have been identified in recent

excavations

of

the

canabae

at Durostorum

(Mi.49).

Another

example

of

eastern

influence in architecture in appears in the wall construction (emplekton) using orthostats the fourth-century fort at Sacidava elements have recently (Mi.58). Specific architectural at been the subjects of study, Corinthian and non-Corinthian including capitals Carnuntum

and

(Ps.12-13)

in the

rest

of

Pannonia,

and

also

palm-capitals

in Dacia.114

The

in Dalmatia late antique and early Christian architecture has been the subject of a major n. on recent linked work with remains at Salona the 12), major Christian study (see in volumes of the (RIV.11). For Noricum most of the figured sculpture is now catalogued international standard series (CSIR, see n. 29), while that from Histria (RVII.18) is the devoted to the remains of the city. subject of one of the series of monographs At Carnuntum of the god Jupiter between the (Ps.13) the different manifestations in the precinct on the Pfaffenberg official Optimus Maximus hill and that in the shrine of in the precinct of eastern gods attached to the canabae the Syrian Jupiter Heliopolitanus are fully represented in the surviving cult statues, presumably At locally produced. Lauriacum (N.16) the command area of the legionary base in the fourth century A.D. has been inferred from the distribution of a distinctive ('three-figure') relief sculpture produced there found up to a distance of 25 km away. A distinctive tradition of portraiture has also been identified on the lower Danube around Durostorum the absence of (Mi.49). Despite stone a in the Danube in types of rich areas, many high-quality region displays diversity as have the figured monuments These have been catalogued for Noricum grave monument.

114

Em. Bota, Acta Mus.

Nap.

36 (1999),

163-8.

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J.

170

J. WILKES

of Moesia show strong influences from Macedonia Superior which during the middle in the design of military monuments Roman period.115 In Pannonia traditions have been from Italy or the Rhineland, identified, one originating notably at Intercisa (Pi.24) and at at Carnuntum Gorsium In and Aquincum. (RIII.91), the other of local origin common Dacia a subject of recent study has been the details of dress and equipment of military on

figures

classification

comprehensive the

recent

on Roman

volume

in Pannonia

and

monuments,

grave

the

of grave monuments (see n.

Dacia

16),

rosettes

of

popularity

and

has been undertaken and

the

same

has

scholar

A

lunettes.116

in

by C. Ciongradi also

the

examined

aniconic stelai from Ulpia Traiana (D.17). Finally there is a new study of Sarmizegetusa the early cylindrical monuments found in the Liburnian area of Dalmatia, based on a study of examples from the area of Asseria (RIV.7). The most notable addition to the meagre total of wall-paintings from the area is that on the walls of the Mithraic shrine in the tribune's residence at Aquincum (Pi.5), created in the early third century a.d and including scenes of Mithraic ritual and initiation. There has of the wall-painting been a reconstruction found in a residence at Gorsium (RIII.91) and there are new finds from the villa at Balaca (RUI.82) in northern Pannonia. Painting and are among new finds from Singidunum stucco decoration there is now (Ms.4). For mosaics an excellent catalogue of floor-mosaics from Croatia, many of the later period, but for the rest of the territory of the former Yugoslavia there is little to report since the Materijali finds of moulds of votive suggest that large-scale production 1978 volume.117 Recent terracotta

statuettes,

depicting

gods,

people,

and

was

animals,

carried

on

at

in Dacia

Tibiscum (D.15) and at Drobeta (Ms.50). For jewellery there is now a catalogue of items found in the forts of Dacia Porolissensis.118 the past thirty years the rapid advance in pottery studies in the Danube region During and manufacture of all types of has provided clear pictures of the importing, distribution, for inter of pottery and the increased opportunities utensil. The emergence specialists to this progress. have all contributed national contacts through colloquia and workshops The studies of imported fine wares, mainly terra sigillata from Italy and theWest, bulk oil the Danube and wine containers (amphorae), and lamps can now draw on sites throughout the production and distribution of local region. The same is also the case in identifying wares

through

excavations

that

pay

increased

to

attention

the

zones

industrial

of

canabae,

Fabric analysis, for both pottery and brick, is now being con vici, and other settlements. ducted as a matter of routine in several areas. The value of terra sigillata in the study of of individual units in the first and early second and the deployment military movements centuries

a.d

has

been

long

acknowledged.

For

Pannonia

the

advances

major

of

recent

years have been led by D. Gabler; through studies of late Italic sigillata and that from has now been established for the Flavian and south and central Gaul, a refined chronology state of affairs in of the This the both eras, Trajanic military history key periods region.119 stations along the major routes to the Danube and provides also reveals the likely military contexts for the large-scale traffic of goods to areas outside the Empire. Pottery historical and demolitions dating has also added firm dating evidence for large-scale destructions observed

in many

places,

nowadays

though

there

is a

reluctance

to

characterize

such

as the deeds of invading tribes. The supply of late North Italian sigillata to the can be traced the the lower Danube bases though products of individual military along events

115 C. Kremer, Antike Grabbauten in Noricum (2001); N. Proeva, AE (1998), n 14 (Moesia Superior). 116 M. Nagy, AE (1993), 1281 N. Hurpuzeu, Limes XIX 39 (Dacian funeral monuments); (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts (rosettes, etc., in Pannonia). 117 1. od 6. stoljeca u Hrvatskoj Podni mozaice (2003). J. Meder, 118 A. Isac, Limes XVII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 755-76. 119 and Western include: ActArchHung Studies (Danube 38 (1986), 93-104 imports imports by D. Gabler in Friesing-Tejral-Stuppner, RO 17/18 (1989-1990), of TS in pottery op. 87?97 (proportions imports); compared); cit. (n. 7), 355-70 destruction levels); ActArchHung (onMarcomannic 48 (1996), 49?69 (late Italian TS in Pannonia); 54 (2003),

81-100

(workshop

of L. Mag.

Vir.

producing

late Italian

sigillata).

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in such centres as Singidunum (Ms.14), and Transdierna (Ms.4), Viminacium workshops is that the supply of Gallic sigillata was not simply an exten (Ms.42). Another discovery sion of theWestern system of supply that appears to have stopped at the border of Raetia. were conveyed by river, as indicated by the late the of products from Westerndorf Supplies a at from Pons Aeni (RI.36) on the river who of Brigetio (Ps.30) originated shipper epitaph Inn.

into the it emerges that the large-scale the Danube import of fine wares Beyond Sarmatian plains between Pannonia and Dacia did not begin until after the Marcomannic wars. The earlier traffic across the river into the territory of the Suebic Germans was the carried out on a local basis: Carnuntum basin, Gerulata supplied the Morava/March in Here of traffic all Nitra. the volume and of the and the Gran, Waag/V?h Brigetio valleys kinds of goods increased steadily during the second century a.d. to reach a peak in the early third century, falling away somewhat but still continuing until the end of the century. In Slovakian

territory

more

than

2,000

items

have

been

from

catalogued

around

200

sites,

some vessels being produced for the local market. Many of the bronze vessels were re-used following territory repair (356 from 25 sites). A survey of Austrian apparently in the Flavian period with a concen north of the Danube registers terra sigillata beginning from Carnuntum. Other surveys of recent finds tration along the river March originating the and for the Krakow have appeared for M?hren region of southern Poland.120 Within have been reports of the pottery finds from both older and recent excavation Empire, for Siscia (RIII.31), Sala (RUI.23), Gorsium (RIII.91), and from sites on the published at Schl?gen canabae Danube (Ps.2), (N.8), Lentia (N.15), Mautern (N.39), Vindobona Carnuntum canabae (Ps.32), and (Ps.13), Brigetio (Ps.30) and its bridgehead Celamantia the presence of North Italian and South Gaulish (Pi.5). On the lower Danube Aquincum source of fine wares for the newly the in of Novae the indicates initial levels early sigillata For the later period the arrived legion that was very soon replaced by local products. Inferior survey of imported and locally produced pottery in the Dobrudja region of Moesia local distribution of wares from the fourth to the sixth has illuminated the essentially

with

centuries

A.D.121

In Noricum

a

petrological

examination

of

late

pottery

from

graves

at

Teurnia has identified local sources for the fabrics. (RII.6) and the Hemmaberg a kiln found producing has At Carnuntum been (Ps.13) 'legionary ware', a distinctive that imitated closely metal and terra sigillata forms and which has been early production found also at Brigetio (Mi.18). This pottery appears (Ps.30), Aquincum (Pi.5), and Novae a group of legions that came to the Danube to be linked with from the Rhineland I It?lica, and I Adiutrix) where the tradition of production XI Claudia, (X Gemina, There have also been several new studies and surveys of the Roman developed. glazed wares produced in Pannonia, in the pre-Trajanic and recently identified in large quantities same area in and the levels of the fort at Diana also Trajanic (Ms.45) inMoesia Superior, at Novae (Ms.23), Ravna (Ms.34), and Transdierna (Ms.42), and in the fourth century at areas has resulted in the to the production Tokod (Ps.38).122 The increased attention of the sources for locally produced wares in a number of centres, including identification (Ps.2), Carnuntum (N.17), Ovilava (RII.32), Mautern (N.39), Vindobona Magdalensberg (Ps.22), Brigetio (RIII.87), near Arrabona (Ps.12-13), Menf?csanak (Ps.30), Singidunum in the (Ms.4), Praetorium (D.15). The continuity of local traditions (D.13), and Tibiscum at Roman forts in Dacia points to an indigenous in the civil settlements pottery produced 120 D. Gabler (op. cit.

and A. H. V?day, ActArchHung Limes 44 (1992), 83-160 (imports to Sarmatian plain); K. Kuzmov?, K. Elschak, Limes XVII 49 (imports among Suebic Germans); (n. 17)), 237-9 a?d XIX, Abstracts (op. cit. (n. 17)), 859-65 Limes XVI (March/Morava basin); E. Krekovic, (Slovakia); A. Stuppner (op. cit. (n. 17)), 233-6 in Tejral-Piet?-Rajt?r, E. Droberjar, op. cit. (n. 7), 199-215 (Austria north of the Danube); ibid., 21-37 (M?hren),

XVI

K. God?owski, 121 A. Opait,

ibid., 83-90 (Krakow region). in the Roman Province Local and Imported Ceramics of Scythia (4th to 6th centuries AD): Aspects of Economic Life in the Province of Scythia, BAR int. ser. 1274 (2004). 122 see the contributions to the exhibition For finds of the ware in Pannonia Keramik catalogue Glazierte {199z); Rei Cret. Acta 35 (1997), 17-25 on the ware as a late Roman military T. Cvjeticanin, commodity.

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J.

I72

element

J. WILKES

in the populations, for example to be produced continued

(D.92) pottery settlement.

Recent

studies

have

revealed

at Gherla (D.95), while in the La T?ne tradition the

penetration

of

in the town of Napoca of the preceding Dacian

Roman

provincial

pottery

coins or prestige goods, suggesting among the communities bordering Dacia, but without a of rather than any (salt?) politically inspired acculturation commodity exchange perhaps to the west.123 the local ?lite such as is known to have been the case with the Germans bulk traffic barrels iswell attested, it seems the long-distance the use of wooden Though in wine and oil used amphorae, many of which bear not only the impressed stamp of their of their contents. The lower Danube but also incised or painted descriptions manufacturer and Dacia depended on supplies from the Aegean via the Black Sea, indicated by a deposit in the legionary of at least a hundred vessels from Cos, along with a few from Rhodes, at in the province, elsewhere fortress at Potaissa (D.102). Similar imports are known lists large Drobeta (RVII.18) a recent catalogue (D.67). At Histria (Ms.50) and Romula from Novae and Sinope. Five late Roman numbers from Thasos (Mi.18) in amphorae volume their of the Moesia Inferior bear Greek numerals, presumably contents, denoting from forts in the Iron Gate area of Moesia Superior ranging from 43 to 56. Amphorae in the early period soon gave from a long distance illustrate how the supplies conveyed in the forms of in changes to local products, in military diet reflected way resulting domestic pottery. In Pannonia the surveys compiled by M. Kelemen have been followed up of the early finds from several studies by T. Beszeczky, with including a comparison as a The same scholar has Pannonia whole.124 with from those (RII.17) Magdalensberg on a the role of of and also demonstrated, garum amphorae, dipinti graffiti through study of inventories New commands. in procuring centurions supplies for their immediate amphorae have also been compiled for Iuvavum (RII.13) and Solva (RIII.57). The remark continues to grow. Among recent finds is a record able range of imports atMagdalensberg that wine of the a.d. 34 vintage arrived there in a.d. 38. The import of wine from different in recently regions of Italy and of oil from the large estates of Istria is also well documented and beyond have identified dipinti. The earliest stages of this traffic into southern Noricum and associated now been documented for Slovenian territory by a study of amphorae like the oil of ceramic lamps were, It seems that the majority tablewares.125 black-glaze at Magdalensberg as indicated by large deposits (RII.17), they consumed, imported, and Poetovio Carnuntum (RIII.18). Surprisingly lamps reached imported (Ps. 12-13), in large consignments Dacia, where the use of other lighting materials might be expected, of Ulpia Traiana and there was some local production occupation early in the Roman at also have been some Mehadia found of the may many (D.13) recently lamps (D.17); local products of a later period.126 in the region and there is evidence for local and bottle glass is fairly widespread Window vessels Most of the recorded tend to be prize items of at Carnuntum (Ps.12). production the late Roman period found in graves; these were certainly imports, such as the gold in a Christian encrusted vessel from Lugio message ('semper gaudeatis (Pi.39) bearing at on Lentia containers nomine dei'). The moulded (N.15) recording glass inscriptions manufacture

at

Aquileia

may

refer

to

their

content

rather

than

to

the

vessels.

either of the bricks and tiles with stamps indicating their origin were produced little There is the fleets. Roman or on the of units of behalf army, including directly by the to identify large-scale private or even municipal evidence during period production Most

123 M.

Limes XVI BAR int. ser. 1097 (2?03); C.Opreanu, The Native (op. cit. Pottery of Roman Dacia, Negru, outside Dacia). (n. 17)), 2.47-52. (imports 124 2.2. (amphorae and food supply in the Iron Gates area); Limes XIX T. Cvjeticanin, (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts M. H. Kelemen, ActArchHung 39 (1987), 3-45; 40 (1988), 111-50; 42 (1990), 147-93; 45 (I993)? 45~73 (on amphorae as food containers). 125 G. Ulbert (1995), 25-40. Festschrift J. Horvat, 126 of lamps in C. L. B?lut?, Act. Mus. Nap. 33 (1996), 89-113; AE (1996), 1273 (imports and local manufacture Dacia).

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AN

DANUBE:

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THE

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

173

bricks were being produced and stamped, that is from around the middle of the first factories century until the late fourth century A.D. Except for a small number of military the legionary have been excavated. Among of the later period, few centres of production inMoesia Inferior, fourteen types have been identified for I It?lica, ten for XI products V Maced?nica for and Claudia, (moved away in A.D. 167). Some of these can be eight and Hadrian-Pius dated closely to the Flavian, Trajanic, periods but the later production

when

to

only

the

from

century

Marcus

It seems

to Aurelian.

Aurelius

clear

some

that

factories

fleet. may have produced bricks to be stamped by different units, including the Moesian no in have been the kilns the of yet region, stamped products Despite large quantities located, although the place name Tegulicium (Mi.47) on the Danube west of Durostorum There continue to be many studies seeking to might be related to brick manufacture.127 zones the patterns individual for legions or auxiliary units but generally identify supply that

are

emerge

too

as

haphazard,

is the

case

in Pannonia

where

to define

attempts

military

of stamps have now been discarded.128 There are cases territory from the distribution and where of stamped bricks can furnish primary evidence for military the appearance as at fort of de Sus and others such those found the Drajna (D.45) provincial organization, in the area indicating that the Wallachian by the army of Moesia plain was occupied In Dacia the products under Hadrian. Inferior from the Dacian wars until evacuation early so in known of those of XIII Gemina bear the names far) (35 charge of the figlinae to bricks and roof-tiles, pipes and near Apulum in addition somewhere (D.101), where, were

box-flues

made.

also

Generally

movements

military

cannot

be

on

established

the

evidence of stamps alone, and an attempt to revive the old suggestion that all or a part of IAdiutrix was stationed at Apulum from the evidence of a stamped brick should be treated with caution. The same arguments apply to bricks stamped by auxiliary units, often dis in several

persed

times

including

the

can

There

locations.

M(aurorum) O(ptatianiensium)' (D.94) with Optatiana. Stamps names

be

as

exceptions,

of military

in the

case

of

the

'n(umerus)

stamp

the identification of the fort at Sutor are generally more informative, some

which confirms of the later period

command

commanders,

and

areas,

fort

names.

That

is the case with many bricks in the province of Dacia Ripensis and for the forts at Diana stamp appears to identify the fort on the right bank (Ms.45) and Drobeta (Ms.50). Another In Pannonia, where the late stamps that at Kostol (Ms.49) as 'Tra(n)sdrub(eta)\ opposite for Inferior have recently been catalogued,129 an important find has been the discovery of a stamp of 'figulinas I(u)vensianas in a circular kiln at leg(ionis) primae Nor(icorum)' the forts of Gerulata for the Rajka between (Ps.15) and Ad Flexum (Ps.17). A database at Vindobona stamp dies and fabric analysis of bricks produced (Ps.2) and Carnuntum nas

(Ps.12-13)

recently

been

made

available

on

the

as

internet

a

of

point

reference

for

non-local the many found beyond the Danube. finds, including identifying examples at the kilns seem to be indicated the unpleasant in an conditions Finally working inscription on a brick from Ulcisia Castra (Pi.i) near the Danube bend referring to the long life that can be expected by one (overseer?) who enjoys a 'special position' (officium dedicatum). Most

of

the marble

used

in sculpture

and

in architecture,

and

externally

internally,

in

in large quantities from region was imported, in the case of the lower Danube to a conference on A recent contribution the island in the Sea of Marmara. Proconnesos, to the use of local marbles, notably that from the the creation of art has drawn attention eastern Alps in Carinthia.130 Quarries for local stone in Dacia and the evidence for the extraction of salt have also been the subjects of recent studies. The role of mining and as major elements in the Danube provinces, had proved metalworking, long acknowledged the Danube

127 T. 128 B. 129 B. 130 B.

Limes XVI Sarnowski, (op. cit. (n. 17)), 497-501. L?rincz, Limes XV (op. cit. (n. 17)), 244-7. L?rincz, noted in AE (1999), 1255. 'Eastern alpine marble and Pannonian Djuric,

Kolloquiums

?ber Probleme

des provinzialr?misehe

trade',

in B. Djuric Situla

Kunstschaffens,

and

I. Lazar

(eds), Akten

36 (1997).

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des

IV. Int.


174

J.

J. WILKES

on account of the meagre remains which were often difficult to difficult to characterize, of identifying origins.131 At date, until the spread of metal analysis opened the possibility the same time there has been more archaeological fieldwork on the remains of workings ? iron in the eastern Alps, gold in Dacia, and their associated settlements silver and lead at in Dalmatia, Moesia In and Thracia. the settlement Carinthia Feldkirchen Superior, centre of ironworking in Noricum, with finds including a set of (RII.6) was a major in Rome. The of Castor ranging from i oz to 20 lbs, certified at the Temple weights, in the remote mining southern Serbia fortress at Ras (RV.6) was a settlement of region era and the statio of a beneficiarius the Roman consularis. Recent develop throughout area of Rosia Montana ments in the Apuseni mountains of the gold-mining involving western Dacia have attracted international it much of the but archaeo attention, hostile, on Alburnus in a recent monograph of 2000 and 2001 are described logical campaigns Maior (D.19). The identifiable products of local mines include numerous ingots, some with such as the silver bowl found stamps indicating their origins, as well as finished products near at Wieselberg in Austria. the Danube The (N.30) unusually large number of lead coffins in the central Balkans can be explained by the availablity of the metal from local sources.132

centre at it is now suggested that the well-known of metalworking was so a not much wholesale market for from traders (RII.17) coming Magdalensberg and supply of equipment different parts of the Roman world as a depot for the collection to the Roman army. At the same place gold from the Tauern Alps was processed into gold are some to recent A of the moulds dated of for which inventory reign Caligula. ingots, excavation of 1948-1977 includes almost every bronze objects from the Magdalensberg them, including strigils, variety of object, many bearing the names of those who made tweezers, and a double inkwell for red and black ink, most dated to the late first century B.c. and the early decades of the first century A.D. Evidence for bronze-working has come to light in several places, including Carnuntum (RII.16) (Ps.13), Solva (RIII.57), Virunum fort in Pannonia and also several smaller centres.133 At Intercisa (Pi.24), a Danube Inferior, local the importing of bronze vessels from Italy and Gaul was replaced by large-scale At Vindobona (Ps.2) evidence has recently come to light for the manufacture production. of iron swords in the canabae during the middle and later Empire and there is evidence for of a similar character at Brigetio (Ps.30). In Dacia a large hoard of scrap metal production at the fort of Jidava (D.60) assembled around the middle of the third century A.D. reflects area. Inventories of finished bronze products, the high rate of recycling even in a mining In the matter

including

statuettes,

brooches

and

other

dress

attachments,

and

weapons

have

recently

for several places, (RII.16), Solva (Mi.18), Virunum including Novae published (Ms.4). Some of the items from the last place appear to indicate (RIII.57), and Singidunum into Moesia of groups from Dacia the transplantation Superior during the second and are in metalworking identities of few individuals third centuries a.d.134 The engaged known but a recent addition to the list is a Cretan fabricalis at Callatis (RVII.9), perhaps an armourer based there in the third century. did not introduce the use of coinage to most areas of the Danube but Roman occupation a monetarized feature of however economy, unevenly spread, became a distinguishing case in main the Roman provincial this society, input being the pay and other rewards of a received by the soldiers. A graffito from Boiodurum (N.4) records the purchase mortarium for half a denarius, while from the fort settlement at Teregova (D.14) in Dacia been

131V. in AE (1996), 1272. noticed Wollmann, 132 S. Golubovic, Limes XVIII (lead coffins). (op. cit. (n. 17)), 629-40 133 in der Austria Romana', 'Bronzewerkst?tten K. Gschwantler and H. Winter, R? 107-42. 17/18 (1989-1990), 134 in the Carpathian brooches A. Vaday, ActArchHung basin); V. Soupault, 54 (2003), 315-421 (Roman cloisonne s. ap. J.-C, Ule-Ve romaines de laMer Noire, dans les provinces du costume masculine Les elements m?talliques Acta Mus. Nap. and Limes XIX BAR int. ser. 1167 (2003); S. Cocis and C. Opreanu, 35 (1998), 195-228, (op. cit. 20. (n. 17)), Abstracts

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THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

the record of a contract of sale. A money-changer Sarmizegetusa (D.17) in the same area may be an official

comes than

a private

throughout

trader. the

Sums

of area

Danube

sestertii and

and

have

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

at Ulpia Traiana (nummularius) of the state treasury (fiscus) rather

are

denarii

regularly

been

recently

175

recorded

on

In

recent

catalogued.

inscriptions years

less

attention has been given to coin hoards, once thought to be primary evidence for historical events, and more to the evidence of coins lost in normal daily life. This has resulted in a not only within the Empire but also in areas beyond the clear picture of coin circulation, Danube.135

In Dacia

coins

in circulation,

lower

denominations.

a

study

on both

of

coin-loss

a

reveals

steady

sides of the frontier with on whether

Conclusions

or not

and

increase,

an increasingly the

by

larger proportion

as a whole

province

implication was

of

of

a source

of profit for the rest of the Empire are surely as suspect as the question itself. More as is the increasing evidence for the use of 'replica' coins, not to be dismissed significant 'counterfeit' but rather an officially countenanced the for of remedy prevailing shortage coin from the official mints.136

VII

SOCIETY

AND

RELIGION

the past century many personal names recorded on inscriptions in the Danube During provinces have been associated with the principal ethnic groups known to have dwelt in ? the region and Thracians. The distribution of these names has Celts, Illyrians, Dacians, been

to

employed

associate

material

remains

with

these

same

ethnic

groups,

a

practice

some specialists suggest has exceeded reasonable limits. There are also doubts, though less over the reliability of assuming the origin of an individual to be the strongly expressed, same as that of the name that he or she bears. Nevertheless the persistence of local names is a striking feature of family history in Celtic Noricum, through several generations Thracian Moesia, and Dalmatia, Dacia. The four and Geto-Dacian Illyrian Pannonia volume dictionary in the European of names attested provinces, planned by the late is now complete.137 Several catalogues A. M?csy, of names recorded in individual pro vinces and cities, including those on the Black Sea coast, have been compiled. There are also

registers

of

names

of

Greek

origin,

of

pre-Roman

and

Celtic

names

in Noricum,

Roman imperial family names (gentilicia), and names formed from those of deities. Other lists have been compiled of names of different ethnic groups in Dacia and for the same in the fort garrisons and associated role of Palmyrenes settlements province the prominent and of the small number of Jews recorded in Dacia and Pannonia.138

135 P. Kos, The Monetary in the Southeast Alpine Region ca. 300 BC-AD Circulation 1000, Situla 24 (1986); J. Fitz, Der Geldumlauf der r?mischen im Donaugebiete des 3. Jahrhunderts Provinzen (1978), vols I?II; E. Kolnikova, 'M?nzfunde und die historischen um der Zeitwende', im nordlichen Mitteldonauraum in Tejral-Piet? Ereignisse for the later period: G. L. Duncan, Coin Circulation in the Danubian and Balkan Rajt?r, op. cit. (n. 7), 103-19; Provinces of the Roman Empire (1993). 136 V. Mihailescu-B?rliba, Limes XVI of Dacia); (coins and the wealth (op. cit. (n. 17)), 241-5; XVII, 807-12 C. Gazdac and A. Alf?ldy-Gazdac, Limes XIX 30 (plated coins). (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts 137 B. L?rincz and F. Redo, Onomasticon Provinciarum (OPEL), vol. 1 (1994), 2 (1999), 3-4 Europae Latinarum (2000?2002). 138 A. Paki, AE (1998), 1069 (Palmyrenes; also D. Benea, AE (1996), 1270), (2001), 1700 (population of Dacia I. Piso, AE (1993), 1321 (population of Sarmizegetusa L. Ruscu, AE (1998), 1070 (Greek and Apulum); Porolissensis); names in Dacia); H. Musielak, AE (1993), 1359; (1999), 132.4 (Black Sea cities); P. Anreiter, Die vorr?mische Namen Pannoniens AE (2001), 1573 (local names in western Pannonia and (2001) (pre-Celtic place names); M. Hainzmann, eastern Noricum); Z. Mrdita, names in Dardania); 30-31 (1997-1998), Vjesnik Arh. Muz. Zagreb 37-45 (theophoric E. Gyorgy, Acta Mus. Nap. in Dacia); C. C. Petolescu, AE {1993), 1323 (slaves and freedmen 36 (1999), 111-28 romana in Dacia A. Husar, Celti si Germani AE (1999), 1273, and (Dacians at Napoca); {1999); R. Ciobanu, AE (1995), 1224 (both on Illyrians in Dacia); N. Gudea, AE (2001), 1701 (Jews in Dacia); H. Solin, M. Zaninovic, 41 (1989), 233?6 (Jews in Pannonia). ActArchHung

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i76

].

It is now accepted overall,

ages on epitaphs do not furnish valid statistics for life at useful for Noricum, for legionaries they appear

that recorded

expectancy

although in Pannonia,

centurions

Carnuntum,

}. WILKES

and

slaves

and

in the

freedmen

Illyrian

provinces.139

higher classes of Roman imperial society are not a visible group in many places, are on to the meagre where recorded official duty. There are few additions except they totals of senators and equestrians known to have been linked with the area in the period in the second half of the third before the emergence of the Illyrian soldier-emperors officer-holders with equestrian rank are confined century A.D.140New records of municipal to the early municipia and veteran Claudian Celeia colonies, (RIII.14) and Savaria Poetovio (RIII.18). At a lower social level there are studies of (RIII.24) and Trajanic Roman citizens in the Greek cities on the Black Sea, on the status of women in Pannonia, and on the slaves and freedmen in Dacia. Individual records can often be more instructive, as in the case of the imperial slave and vilicus Achilleus with his impressive family in the The

third

early

A.D.141

century

In the early period the epitaphs of legionaries record their often distant origins; several new members at Tilurium of Legion VII, stationed (RIV. 11) in (RIV.29) near Salona have come to light from Macedonia Dalmatia, (Heraclea and Edessa) and Asia Minor at and Ancyra). On the lower Danube (Pessinus, Laranda, early records of legionaries in Novae recruits Ariminum from in include Colonia (Mi.18) Italy, Agrippinensium and Clunia in Spain. An early epitaph at Ratiaria Germany, (Ms.73) of an individual from in Pisidia specifies no military service but the deceased was probably a serving Sagalassus or a veteran in settled the Trajanic legionary colony. By the middle of the second possibly century

A.D.

local

recruitment

appears

to

have

become

the

rule,

though

a

veteran

of

I It?lica at Novae in the early third century came from Colonia (Mi.18) Septimia in the interior of Dalmatia Carnuntum. Several soldiers are named on family epitaphs in the area of Lake Balaton (RIII.80); a veteran of the Aquincum (RIV.23) and in Pannonia from Sirmium. In the Salona area of Dalmatia there are also Legion IIAdiutrix originated new

records

of

the

Syrian

archers

stationed

there

early

in

the

first

century

A.D.142

In

the

is a votive

set up by the legion's Greek doctor in altar to Asclepius military sphere in the canabae of the the hospital at Aquincum (Pi.5). From the courtyard of the synagogue same fortress comes the epitaph of a legionary tribune originating from Urbs Pala(e)stina that records his two sons who were both equestrians, and from the same period there is a votive erected by a senatorial tribune originating from Utica in Africa. Among auxiliaries at Capidava the epitaph of the garrison commander (Mi.63) reveals his origin as Aquae in northern Italy. In the fourth century a.d. the epitaph at Viminacium Statiellae (Ms.14) there

of

a

twenty-two-year-old

'civis

?

Germaniceu(s)'

probably

a soldier

serving

in the

area

?

records his origin in the village (unidentified) Abdarmisus. in Noricum and the like from Italy is well attested The presence of merchants and recent Savaria A Celeia examination and of the Pannonia, (RIII.14) (RIII.24). including bronze statue from Magdalensberg (RIII.17) has identified inscriptions on the Helenenberg to Aquileia families. Later at Augusta three freedmen, one citizen, and a slave belonging

139 W. Scheidel, R? and Carnuntum 143-59 (Noricum J. Fitz, AE (1998), 1097 19/20 (1991-1992), legionaries); in Pannonia); L. Mihailescu-B?rliba, Act. Mus. Nap. etc.). (centurions (slaves, freedmen, 38 (2001), 87-102 140 in Pannonia); AE (1995), 1325 (equestrians inMoesia Inferior); J. Hatlas, J. Fitz, AE (2000), 1184 (equestrians A. Diaconescu, Acta Mus. Nap. T. Nagy, Festschrift 36 (1999), 203-43 (symbols of status in Dacia after evacuation); as iudices); H. Devijver, Betz (1985), 417-24 (Pannonians J. Fitz, op. cit. (n. 6), 61-5 (equestrian Festschrift symbols on monument at Poetovio). 141 in the Black Sea cities); O. Harl, AE {1993), 1282 (status of AE (1994), 1530 (Roman citizens M. Musielak, women in Dacia); L. Mihailescu-B?rliba, in Pannonia); E. Gyorgy, AE (1999), 1274 (slaves and freedmen Acta Mus. Nap. 36 (1999), 12.9-33 (imperial slave and household). 142 On the social background of soldiers see M. Mirkovic {AE (2001), 1261) and J. J. Wilkes {AE (2000), 1171); also in A. Goldsworthy and I.Haynes (eds), The Roman Army as a Community, JRA suppl. ser. 34 (1999), J. J. Wilkes 95-104

(VII Claudia).

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ROMAN

DANUBE:

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

177

for Dacia, Traiana (RVI.38) a priest of Syrian origin records his business as wine merchant Other attested include and another is recorded at Histria (RVII.18). occupations recently at Klosterneuburg the Greek masseur of the garrison commander (Ps.i) and a freedman valet (lixa) in the legion at Oescus (Mi. 12) who may be of local origin. in the Danube provinces Overall, population changed little over four centuries, except for

settlements

the main

along

roads,

the Danube,

along

in some

and

of

areas

the mining

seems to have been higher than the proportion of immigrants including Dacia, where cemeteries elsewhere. A recent study of the Carnuntum identifies several distinct (Ps.12) natives of the and from the surrounding canabae, groups, soldiers, including peoples are clearest in the first and early second centuries A.D., gradually country. The distinctions into the homogeneity of the third and fourth centuries. disappearing In many Danube communities Roman cults were dominant, generally with little or no to local pre-Roman assimilation deities. An exception were the eastern alpine regions of Noricum and Pannonia where, as in other parts of the Celtic-speaking local deities world, survived in equation with Roman gods. In Austria a past emphasis on the continuity of era and beyond has been challenged. belief through the Roman period into the Christian The

range

cosmopolitan

of

?

in Pannonia

cults

Roman,

local,

and

eastern

?

has

been

at Sz?kesfeh?rv?r in the catalogue in 1998. There for an exhibition is a displayed a at contrast in in the Viminacium Moesia cults with (Ms.14) Superior, comparable variety areas where deities of nature and the underground the adjacent mining and protective in the context of of votives were apparently made spirits dominate. A high proportion to traditional Roman or to imported eastern deities. Similarly the official duty, whether ? are entirely decorative traditional Mars, Minerva, figures on military equipment ? etc. of Victoria, Dioscuri, Tritons, eagles, Ganymede, dolphins, despite the worship newer

eastern

in the

deities

same

communities.143

recent discoveries Some of the most significant illustrate the political associations of at B?lcske major cults. The altars recovered from the bed of the Danube (Pi.29) were set of the civitas up to I.O.M. Teutanus, deity of the Pannonian Eravisci, for the well-being on the 11 June of each year by magistrates Eraviscorum of the colonia at Aquincum. They in the area of Aquincum derive from the major provincial shrine somewhere and can be matched with votives at Carnuntum also erected on (Ps.13) to I.O.M. C(arnuntinus) 11 June in the precinct on the Pfaffenberg state deity Iuppiter Optimus hill. The Roman Maximus and often in official contexts but there are a few instances appears everywhere of association with local gods. There is a rare example of the Capitoline Triad on an altar at erected late in the third century A.D. by a prefect of Legion II Adiutrix stationed (Pi.26) and another at Novae (Mi.18) erected in A.D. 227 in the principia of the Aquincum fortress.

The

state

cult

in association

with

the

reigning

emperor

was

a focus

of

corporate

(D.18) in western Dacia. At loyalty for each unit in the army, as recently revealed atMicia tne is the of with the Singidunum (Ms.4) deity camp' (Genius Castrorum) coupled 'spirit delta by the 'vicus by its prefect and at the fleet base Halmyris (Mi.85) on the Danube at Apulum to Jupiter classicorum'. several dedications (D.101), one addressed Among a site of marked the strike At Cibalae ('hic fulg(ur) cond(itum est)'). Fulgurator lightning (RIII.37) a votive of the late third or early fourth century A.D. was addressed to Minerva of brick erected in a storehouse Perpetua on an altar constructed (horreum), and another

143 P. Scherrer, Grabbau-Wohnbau-Turmburg-Praetorium. Sakralbauten und behauptete r?merzeitliche Angeblich in Noricum, Heidnisch-Christliche Ost. Arch. Inst. Berichte Kultkontinuitaten und Materialien 4 (1992); J. Fitz and Cults in Pannonia Pannonia (ed.), Religions (1998), with chapters on Croatian (Segvic), native deities at Emona and Poetovio Carnuntum (Sasel-Kos), (Fitz), I.O.M. Teutanus (Jobst et al.), Gorsium (P?czy), eastern cults at Carnuntum Starinar 47 (1996), 127-37 (Jobst), and Christianity (Gaspar); L. Zotovic, (cults at Viminacium); S. Dusanic, AE (1999), 1176 (cults in mining 11-12 Limes XIX regions); L. Petulescu, (op. cit. (n.17)), Abstracts Other inMoesia surveys: AE (1994), 1516 (votives by veterans (religious figures on military equipment). Inferior); (1996), 1354 (cults in Odessus); (2000), 1239 at Apulum), in Dacia). 90 (cults of auxiliaries

(temples

in Dacia),

Limes XIX

(op. cit.

(n. 17)), Abstracts

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74-5

(cults


i78

J. WILKES

J.

was dedicated toMinerva Augusta in the time of Caracalla by a clerk (actarius) of the local to Venus are rare, with recent finds limited (D.15) in Dacia. Votives garrison at Tibiscum at Narona to the shrine of the Julio-Claudians (RIV.37), but Diana was widely worshipped and recent finds include a shrine at among the hills and forests of the central Balkans, and in the guise of Diana Augusta Montana (Mi.4), in association with her twin Apollo, at Timacum Minus (RII.6) in appears with a single altar at Teurnia (RV.45). Mercurius a at celebration of the Chersonesus and Vulcan Carinthia appears (Mi.96), including at doctor Greek the votive by.the festival. For Asclepius Volcanalia Aquincum legion's (Mi.18), along (Pi.5) has already been noted and there is another in the hospital at Novae and Hygiaea with votives to Asclepius by senior officers thankful for restored health. No new evidence has been forthcoming to support the notion that the popularity of the Italic deity Silvanus was to any degree based on his identification with local cults, at Carnuntum (D.102), (RVII.29). A votive to African Saturnus at Potaissa (Ps.12) and around Ulmetum a links the god not with one of the traditional associates native of Numidia, probably by in accordance with local religious but with Leto, mother of Diana and Apollo, perhaps to the and fertility Liber and Libera appealed Italic deities of wine sentiment. The are more than the traditional Dionysus often with whom communities Danubian they to Liber Pater and Libera Augusta were erected by imperial slave Votives associated. officials at Solva (Ps.40) in Pannonia Superior and in the sanctuary east of the Carnuntum in the second century A.D. (Ps.13) canabae. In Dacia shrines to the pair were established with votives from troops and higher officials at Tibiscum (D.101). A (D.15) and Apulum recent list of collective feminine deities in Dacia includes Nymphae (38 votives), Parcae (8), Silvanae (1); those of Celtic or (3), and Gratiae (3), Horae (15), Musae (9), Maenades Matronae German include (1), Suleviae (2), and (2), Quadriviae (5), Campestres origin in that Urbs with of linked of The cult Badones Reginae Roma, Aeternus, (i).144 popular Inferior. Isolated votives also appears, with a statue at Novae (Mi.18) inMoesia Dacia, include

an

altar

to

Terra

Mater,

usually

with

associated

miners,

by

a

magistrate

of

(Ms.73). More personal (Mi.18), and Somnus at Ratiaria (Pi.5), Luna at Novae Aquincum is perhaps the graffito on a vessel from a woman's grave at Kalsdorf near Graz (RIII.57) protective deities of childbirth. Several altars are devoted to spirits of invoking the Nixae, at Carnuntum or and Bona Valetudo (Ps.12), and including Aequitas aspiration, hope are the 'Dii unattested Tempus Bonum in the Severan period at Tyras (Mi.91). Otherwise was an at to Savaria erected whom altar (RIII.24) on the [viae]' Itine[rarii] utriusque to route by an individual and his family with no official or other association Amber explain

the motive.

in the eastern Alps and the northern Adriatic divinities A recent survey of pre-Roman at Celeia and I.O.M. Depulsor versions of local cults, notably includes Romanized Aecorna

at

Emona,

possibly

of

Latin

origin.145

In Noricum

there

are

the

well-known

at Teurnia (RII.6). In equations of Mars Latobius at Iuenna (RII.36) and Apollo Grannus recent include finds addition to the shrine of the equine deity Epona at Carnuntum (Ps.13), the base of a bronze statuette of Aesus in Gailtal (?) from (RII.4) and an altar to Eboner[i] Kalsdorf near Solva (RIII.57). In Dacia there is a recent study of the Epona cult, and of the to Nantosuelta.146 There are a few equations of Deus Sucellus to Dis Pater and Proserpina to the known plaques of the Danube Rider god and a larger number for the additions in the cult. The latter's shrine at Glava Panega horseman Thracian (RVI.11) flourished and Hygiaea.147 Roman era, and was later linked with the healing deities Asclepius

144

I. Nemeti,

Act. Mus.

Nap.

36

(1999),

135-53

{AE {1999),

12.75);

I. Glodariu,

AE

(1998),

1073

(Nymphae

in

Dacia). 145 Situla 38 (1999). Deities Pre-Roman M. Sasel-Kos, of the Eastern Alps and Adriatic, 146 AE (1998), 107z (Sucellus, etc.). AE (2001), 1703 (Epona); S. Nemeti, T. Lobuscher, 147 in Austria); M. Mackintosh, 11/12 (1983-1984), K. Gschwantler, R? Oxf. Arch. 107-43 (Danube rider-cult Limes XV AE (1995), 1327 (Glava Panega); V. Najdenova, (Rider cult); Z. Goceva, Journ. 16 (13) (1997), 363-74 AE (2000), 1238 (Thracian horseman with S. Nemeti, lyre in Dacia). (lower Danube); (op. cit. (n. 17)), 291-4

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THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

179

the known sympathies of the Severi, the Egyptian deities Isis and Serapis appear Despite to have had relatively Some votives along the little appeal in the Danube provinces. Statuas Ad in Pannonia Superior, at Carnuntum and Solva (Ps.40), Danube (Ps.26), (Ps.13), have been linked with the passage of Caracalla through the area on his journey to the East in a.d. with

same

The

213.

a few

only

items

lack noted

interest

of

appears

in recent

surveys.

to prevail Particular

settlement grants, including Zeus Syenos in the mining a native of Synnada in Phrygia, and Dea Syria at Tomis can be advanced for the altar to Apollo Gangrensis

towards deities

Magna Mater-Cybele, were immi honoured by

at Guberevac (Ms.i), probably by (RVII.12), but no such explanation near Valjevo in western Serbia

(RIV.52).148 to Jupiter The remains of the shrine at Balaklava near Chersonesus (Mi.96) dedicated are now published, of Syrian Doliche (I.O.M. Dolichenus) along with several votive altars set up by officers of the garrison drawn from the army of Moesia in Inferior. Established in use until its destruction in the middle of the second century A.D., the shrine continued at Cabyle in Thracia of a Dolichenum is also attested the third century. Construction a in Severi. From Novae is time cult bull the of the there of the (Mi.18) (RVI.42) fragment in marble relief dedicated by a detachment of Legion XI Claudia, based further down the recent river at Durostorum. For Mithras, the Persian god of light, the most spectacular in at has of been the shrine the house the senatorial tribune discovery painted Aquincum (Pi.5) but for the practice and beliefs of the cult the plaque recording members of the cult at Virunum near (RII.16) has attracted more interest. In addition to a small Mithraeum near the river Inn, which continued in Prutting (RII.13) on the western border of Noricum use until the end of the fourth century A.D., the existence at of another Mithraeum Carnuntum the serpent motif. The (Ps.13) nas been identified by cult vessels with at Novae Mithraeum (Mi.18), destroyed around the middle of the third century, contained several votives, there is a including one from the camp prefect. Away from the Danube Greek votive from Nicopolis ad Istrum (RVI.41), probably of the early third century A.D. At Apulum (D.101) in Dacia an altar to Invictus Deus was set up by the slave agent (actor) in the Empire as Danube of a local official.149 The influx of mobile units from elsewhere wars a Marcomannic is in the reflected garrisons variety of ways, following including evidence for the practice of camel sacrifice at Intercisa (Pi.24) that can be linked to the unit of mounted archers from Emesa in northern Syria stationed there from the late second century

A.D.

Evidence extent

for Christian

Noricum,

including

of Christian

evidence

from

outside

belief

is now

belief and

Hungarian

in Danube

the major

available

Croatian

cities

society and

in surveys and

Pannonia,

remains a number

a matter of

areas

the

covering central

of debate. along

the

several

areas,

Balkans.150

The

There

is little

river

remain

a

at Hemmaberg a number of blank. The hill settlement (RII.36) in Noricum containing in the eastern Alps and another has been identified at churches can be matched elsewhere Kucar recent (RIV.3) on the river Kupa on the border of Slovenia and Croatia. Among isolated finds there is the epitaph of an exorcista in a Sirmium (RIII.42) cemetery dated to the fourth or fifth century A.D. On the borders of Dalmatia and Moesia Superior around fifteen fragments of early Christian epitaphs have been recovered from the excavation of a

148 AE (1994), 1339 (Cybele in Liburnia); M. AE (1994), 1348 (Cybele in Salona area); J. Medini, Sasel-Kos, Z. Mrdita, AE (2001), 1724 (eastern cults in Dardania). 149 Z. Mrdita, AE (1999), 1310 (Mithras in Dardania); V. Najdenova, AE (1999), 1329 (Mithras on the lower Danube); M. Pintilie, AE (2001), 1702 (Mithras in Dacia). 150 F. Glaser, Fr?hchristliche in Karnten Denkm?ler in Alpenraum. Eine arch?ologische (1996); Fr?hes Christentum an Evaluation in Roman Pannonia: Finds and (1997); D. Gaspar, Christianity Entdeckungsreise of Early Christian Sites from Hungary, BAR int. ser. 1010 (2002); B. Migotti, in Roman Evidence Southern Pannonia for Christianity sur le sol de Le Christianisme Catalogue of Sites and Finds, BAR int. ser. 684 (1997); R. Popovic, oriental l'arriv?e des Slaves 'Wie weit war die Christianisierung der (1996); R. Sorries, jusqu'? in der Sp?tantike wirklich RO 19-20 (1991-1992), Donauprovinzen fortgeschritten?', 161-75. (N. Croatia):

Vlllyricum

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i8o

J.

}. WILKES

near Cacak fortification (RV.28) Byzantine (RIV.50). At Pautalia name Bitus. The basilica bears the Thracian donor of a Christian structure recently excavated on the lower Danube Christian is the over the remains of the legionary baths in the fortress constructed fully published. In a region where are

abundant

on stone and brick and on all manner

inscriptions,

in many

areas,

in western Thracia the most substantial early large episcopal basilica at Novae (Mi.18), now

there

remain

notable

gaps

in the plains

of

of portable Pannonia

objects, and

some

of the valleys and forests of the southern Balkans. Recent estimates of the level of literacy have tended to be lower than in the past, in part because the impressive quantities of casual rather than being graffiti now appear to be confined to narrower groups and occupations a reflection of a general familiarity with reading and writing. An inscription in Celtic on a vessel of the second to third century A.D. from Poetovio (RIII.18) is a rarity. Some social texts in epitaphs, though often the result contains mistakes. groups had a taste for metrical a literary source can be identified, the popular choices are Virgil and Ovid but the Where in imitation are judged to be more the result of poor education mistakes than any striving texts are not usually found outside the zone of the Greek-Latin for originality. Bilingual (RVI.41). The appearance of Greek forms of individual letters linguistic frontier in Thrace areas is generally attributed to the technical background in Latin-speaking of craftsmen who

migrated

to

the Danube

APPENDIX

from

areas.151

Greek-speaking

A: ROADS

AND

STATIONS

TO THE

RI. North-East Italy to the Upper Danube by Alpine Fasses Verona to Augusta Vindelicum by Reschen and Fern Passes On

this

Verona

see Gassner road, to Tridentum

et al.,

op.

cit.

(n. 4),

DANUBE

(Via Claudia Augusta)

94.

i. Verona (Verona ITL) [B19C4] 2. Vennum (Volvargne? ITL) [B19C4] 3. Ad Falatium (Ala ITL) [B19D4] 4. Sarnis (Serravalle d'Adige ITL) [B19D4] 5. Trident(i)um (Trento ITL) [B19D3] Altinum to Tridentum 6. Altinum (Quarto di Altino ITL) [B19E4] 7. Ad Cerasias (Valdobbiadene ITL) [B19E4] 8. Feltria (Feltre ITL) [B19D3] 9. Ausucum ITL) [B19D3] (Borgo di Valsugana 10. Tenna ITL [B19D3] to Augusta Vindelicum Tridentum 11. Salurnis (Salomo ITL) [B19D3] R. Noll, Das r?merzeitliche Gr?berfeld von Salurn 12. Endidae (Egna? ITL) [B19D3] 13. Pons Drusi (Bolzano? ITL) [B1D3] Statio (Merano? ITL) [B19D3] 14. Maiensis 15. Reschen Pass AUS [B19C3] 16. Pillerh?he AUS [B19C2]

(1963)

151 B. Feh?r, AE (1997), 1233 (Latin in Pannonian (1998), 1036 (verse inscriptions); from the N. Sharantov, Limes XIX 87-8 (verse inscriptions (op. cit. (n. 17)), Abstracts A tile from Budapest with two word AE (1999), 1242 (Greek letter forms in Pannonia). and J. Veloza, AE (2000), 1221: 'Roma tibi subi[to has recently been re-read by M. Mayer 'Rotas opera tenet arepo sator'.

in Pannonia); inscriptions P. Kov?cs, lower Danube); hands squares in different motibus ib]it a[mor]' and

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THE

ROMAN

AN

DANUBE:

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

l8l

17. Fern Pass AUS [B19C2] 18. Foetes (F?ssen GER) [B19C2] et al.,

Gassner

Dietringen:

cit.

op.

209.

(n. 4),

E. R?mer-Martijnse,

Cemetery:

]ahrbuch

des historischen Vereins Alt F?ssen (1997), 5-48. 19. Altenstadt GER [B19C2] 20. Abodiacum (Epfach GER) [B19C2] 21. Ad Novas (unlocated) [B19C1] 22. Augusta Vindelicum (Augsburg GER) [B12D4] Bolzano to Augusta Vindelicum by Brenner Pass 23. Sublavione (Ponte Gardena or Chiusa ITL) [B19D3] Sabiona 24. (Tre Chiese ITL) [B19D3] 25. Bressanone ITL [B19D3] 26. Vipitenum (Sterzing? ITL) [B19D3] 27. Brenner Pass AUS [B19D2] 28. Matreium (Matrei? AUS) [B19D2] 29. Veldidena (Wilten/Innsbruck AUS) [B19D2] Road

tower

and

late

et al.,

Gassner

fort:

cit.

op.

(n.4),

307.

30. Teriolis (Zirl AUS) [B19D2] 31. Scarbia (Scharnitz? GER) [B19D2] 32. Parthanum/Tartenum (Partenkirchen? GER) [B19D2] 33. Urusaf (Raisting GER) [B19D2] Veldidena down Aenus (Inn) valley to Pons Aeni 34. Mastiacum (Brixlegg? AUS) [B19D2] 35. Albianum (Ebbs? AUS) [B19E2] 36. Pons Aeni (Pfaffenhofen am Inn GER) [B19E2] Aquileia by Pl?cken Pass and Pustertal to Brenner Pass 37. Aquileia (Aquileia ITL) [B19F4] (Tric?simo? ITL) [B19F3] 38. Ad Tricce(n)simum 39. AdSilanos (Artegna? ITL) [B19F3] 40. Glemona (Gemona? ITL) [B19F3] 41. lulium Camicum (Zuglio ITL) [B19F3] 42. Sutrio ITL [B19F3] 43. Statio Timaviensis (Timau? ITL) [B19E3] 44. Pl?cken Pass AUS [B19E3] 45. Loncium (Mauthen or Maria Schnee AUS) [B19E3] 46. Oberdrauburg AUS [B19E3] Road

settlement:

47. Aguntum

et al.,

Gassner

op.

cit.

(D?lsach/Nussdorf-Debant

E. Walde

in Sasel-Kos

and

Scherrer,

op.

321.

(n. 4),

AUS) cit.

[B19E3] (n. 9),

149-63.

(S. Candido ITL) [B19E3] 48. Littamum 49. Sebatum (S. Lorenzo di Pusteria ITL) [B19D3] RII. North-East

Italy to the Upper Danube by Carnic and Tauern Alps (RI.37) to Iuvavum by Saifnitz, Katschberg, and Radstadt Passes Aquileia Roads and milestones in Austria: G. Winkler, Die r?mischen Strassen und Meilensteine Noricum-Osterreich (n. 4),

95-8.

Pre-Roman

(1985); and

Pro

Austria use

Roman

Romana of

high

50 passes:

11-12; (2000), R. Breitweiser

Gassner and

Anthropolog. Gesellschaft Wien 129 (1999), 125-31. i. Statio Plorucensis (Resiutta ITL) [B19F3] 2. L?rice (Campolavo? ITL) [B19F3] 3. Statio Bilchiniensis (Camporosso? ITL) [B19F3] Customs

station:

4. Meclaria Votive

C.

Zaccaria,

(Maglern AUS) bronze

5. Santicum

to Aesus:

(Villach AUS)

Festschrift

Pittioni,

op.

cit.

(n. 4),

207-17.

[B19F3] C.

Piccottini,

Carinthia

I 186

(1996),

97-103.

[B19F3]

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et A.

al.,

Lippert,

in

cit. op. Mitt.


l82

(St Peter inHolz AUS)

6. Teurnia

in Sasel-Kos

F. Glaser H.

J. WILKES

J.

Birkham

Vestnik

and

and

F. Glaser,

52

JOAI

certified 314 (2003); Mediterraneum:

Noricum

I. Piso,

R.

Fleischer

of Apollo in territory: C.

at Feldkirchen:

A. Galik

Grannus: Arh.

Cugl,

et al., Denkschrift

Ost.

Governor

of

Mercurius:

1578.

Pottery

analysis:

A.

Gastgeb,

[B19F2]

V. Moucka-Weitzel,

and

Shrine

(n. 9), 135-47. Settlements

121-7.

(1978/1980),

AE (2001), 1582; weights: ZPE 107 299-304. (1995),

bronze

Carinthia I 185 (1995), 205-49. 7. Katschberg Pass AUS 8. In Murio (Moosham AUS)

cit.

op.

settlement

52 (2001), 303-49. Mining

Akad.

[B19F3]

Scherrer,

Die

Strassenstation

r?mische

Immurium-Moosham

(1998). 9. In Alpe (Radstadt Tauern Pass AUS) [B19F2] 10. Anisus (Anif nr. Altenmarkt? AUS) [B19F2] 11. Vocarium (Pfarrwerfen? AUS) [B19F2] 12. Cucullae (Kuchl AUS) [B19F2] 13. luvavum (Salzburg AUS) [B10F2] W.

in Sasel-Kos

F. Kovacsovics to

road

Passau:

V.

et

Gassner

and

al.,

Scherrer, cit. (n.

op.

cit.

op. 4),

201-4.

(n. 9), 165-201. Mithraeum

Wealthy at Prutting

villas

on

in

Inn:

J. Garbsch, Limes XII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 621-6. Hill settlement near Bischofshofen, occupied in (1992). Amphorae early and late Roman periods: A. Lippert, Mitt. Pr?h. Komm. Akad. Wiss. graffiti and dipinti: AE (1999), 1207-11. and Pyrhn Pass Santicum to Ovilava by Hohentauern 14. Tasinemeti (StGeorg am Sternberg AUS) [B19G3] 15. Saloca (Krumpendorf AUS) [B20B3] 16. Virunum (Zollfeld AUS) [B20B3] G.

et al.

Piccottini

in Sasel-Kos

and

Scherrer,

op.

cit.

Mithras:

103-34.

(n. 9),

G.

Piccottini,

in Virunum (1994); on marble plaques listing congregation: R. Gordon, Mithrastempel (1996), 424-6; R. Beck, The Phoenix 52 (1998), 335-44. Votive altar by guild of building men

H.

(subaediani): Carinthia

haruspex:

1587 ((1999), 1216-18;

Dolenz, Festschrift I 189 123-7. (1999),

1197). Inscriptions:

(2001),

AE

Brooches

1584-6.

military excavated

use:

H.

Dolenz

op.

C.

inW.

Czysz

cit.

(n.

inscription

(1995), 1193-5; catalogue:

(i995) AUS [B20B3] 17. Magdalensberg Moulds for gold ingots: Germania Roman

Piccottini, Amphitheatre

Cugl,

4), A.D.

Die

198-209: Fibeln

r?mischen

Festschrift

G.

Ulbert

1215

(Kading),

aus

Virunum

of iron goods

72 (1994), 467-77. Manufacture et al.,

of Epitaph AE (2001),

399-410.

(1994), 1214 (Lendorf),

JRA 9 crafts

(1995),

von M. Die Deimel, Magdalensberg 1948-1977: Bronze-Kleinfunde objects von Local Die r?mischen Chr. Farka, (1977). Lampen Magdalensberg Lamps: et al. in Tejral-Piet?-Rajt?r, E. Schindler (n. 7, 1995), op. cit. 177-98. AE and Youth: (2000), stamps, Helenenberg Inscriptions, dipinti graffiti.

for

Bronze

51-80.

(1987). pottery: 1152

a-b.

inkwell for red and black ink: AE (1998), 1013. Tokens (tesserae): AE (1997), 1220 a-b. (2) dated a.d. 30-45: AE (1997), 1222 and (1998), 1017 a-b. Strigil: AE (1999), 1199. Tweezers

Double

Amphora

recording 1154-68,

stamps:

AE

(2001),

1590

a-d.

vintage of A.D. 34 shipped and

graffito:

AE

(2001),

Graffiti:

in 38: AE

AE

(2000),

1153

a-f.

(1997), 1221. Other wine

1586.

18. Matucaium (Stammersdorf AUS) [B20B3] 19. Candalicae (St Stefan bei D?rnstein AUS) [B20B3] 20. Ad Pontem (Lind AUS) [B20B2] Votive plaque from Mariahof: AE (1999), 1200. 21. Monate (Nussdorf AUS) [B20B2] 22. Viscellis (M?derbrugg AUS) [B20B2] 23. Sabatinca (St Johann am Tauern AUS) [B20B2] 24. Tartursanis (Hohentauern AUS) [B20B2] 25. Surontio (Trieben AUS) [B20B2] 26. Stiriate (Liezen AUS) [B20B2] 27. Pyhrn Pass AUS

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Stamp

and

imports: AE

dipinto

(2000),


THE

28. Gabromago Chr.

und

(ed.),

Funde

AN

DANUBE:

(Windischgarsten

Schwanzer

grabungen

29. 30. 31. 32.

ROMAN

Die

AUS)

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

183

[B20B2] Strassenstation

r?mische

SURVEY

Gabromagus

Aus

(Windischgarsten),

(2000).

Ernolatia (Sankt Pankraz AUS) [B20B2] Tutatio AUS) [B20B2] (Kremsdorf/Georgenberg Vetonianis (Voitsdorf AUS) [B20B1] Ovilava (Wels AUS) [B12H4] R.

in Sasel-Kos

Miglbauer

and

Scherrer,

cit.

op.

(n. 9),

243-56.

Local

of

production

stamped fine ware: AE (1998), 1012 a-b. Brick and tile stamps: AE (1996), 1194. Virunum (16) to InMurio (8) 33. Beliandrum (Altenmarkt AUS) [B20B3] 34. Tarnasici (Flattnitz AUS) [B20B3] 35. Graviacis (Kirchbichl AUS) [B20A2] Virunum (16) to Poetovio (RIII.18) luenna (Globasnitz AUS) [B20B3] 36. F. Glaser, Die r?mische Siedlung luenna und die fr?hchristlichen Kirche am Hemmaberg I 182 (1992), 19-45; I^3 (1993)? 165-86; and Arh. Vestnik 45 (1994), (1982), also Carinthia 165-73. Votive toMars Latobius: E. Weber, Festschrift A. Betz (1985), 649-58. 37. Colatio (Stari Trg pri Slovenj Gradcu SVN) [B20C3] from

Inscriptions

the

area: M.

Sasel-Kos,

Piccottini,

Festschrift

op.

cit.

(n. 4),

193-205.

38. Upellis (Stara Vas pri Velenju SVN) [B20C3] Iuvavum (13) to Augusta Vindelicum (RI.22) Marble

of a.d.

milestones

200-201

from

near

quarry

Untersberg

Probable

station

road

Moesendorf,

of R?

V?lkabruck',

(Schwanenstadt

46. Tergolape

first-fourth 3 (1975),

AUS)

65-71,

century with

A.D.:

L.

Eckhardt,

milestone

m.p.

AE

Salzburg:

39. Artobriga (Traunstein? GER) [B19E2] 40. Bedaium (Seebruck GER) [B19E2] P. Fasold, Das r?misch-nor isch Gr?berfeld von Seebruck-Bedaium Pons Aeni (RI.36) 41. Isinisca (unlocated) [B19D2] 42. Bratananium (Brauting GER) [B19D1] 43. Ambrae (Sch?ngeising GER) [B12E4] Iuvavum (13) to Ovilava (32) and Lentia (N.15) 44. Laciacis (Frankenmarkt AUS) [B19F2] 45. Tarnantone (Neufahm AUS) [B19F2]

1212.

(1999),

(1993)

'Die

31 from

von

"mutatio" Iuvavum.

[B19F1]

RIII. North-East Italy by Julian Alps toMiddle to Carnuntum ('Amber Road')

Danube

Aquileia Roman this

in Slovenia:

roads route

from

prehistoric

J. Sasel, times:

ANSI, op. I. Mikl-Curk,

cit.

(n. 9),

74-99.

Materijali

Continuity 17

(1980),

sites: J. G?m?ri (ed.), Symposium Sopron-Eisenstadt (1995). 1. Ad Undecimum (Gradisca ITL) [B19F4] 2. Pons Sonti (Mainizza ITL) [B19F4] 3. Ad Fornulos (Prvacina? SVN) [B19F4] 4. Eluvio Erigido/Castra (Adjovscina SVN) [B20A4] 5. In Alpe Iulia/Ad Pirum (Hrusica SVN) [B19G4] T. Ulbert, Ad Pirum (Hrusica): sp?tromischen Passbefestigung (1981). 6. Longaticum (Logatec SVN) [B20B4] 7. Nauportus (Vrhnika SVN) [B20B4] J. Horvat, Nauportus (Vrhnika) (1990). 8. Ad Nonum (Log pri Brezovici SVN) [B20B3] 9. Emona (Ljubljana SVN) [B20B3] Italian Materijali

and 20

Western

(1985),

cultural

influences

in

the

Emona

in settlements 35-7.

Landscapes

along and

in den julischen Alpen

cemeteries:

151-68.

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Lj.

Plesnicar-Gec,


i84

J. WILKES

J.

io. Ad Quartodecimum SVN) (Groblje pri Mengsu 11. Ad Publ?canos} (Lukovica SVN) [B20B3] Frontier

P. 0rsted,

posts:

I. Lazar

in Sasel-Kos

41

ActArchHung

12. Atrans (Trojane SVN) [B20B3] 13. Ad Medias (Locica pri Sempetru 14. Celeia (Celje SVN) [B20C3] and

SVN)

Scherrer,

175-88.

(1989),

[B20C3] cit.

op.

[B20B3]

Statio

71-101.

(n. 9),

cos.:

of bf.

L. Dise,

R.

ZPE

113 (1996), 286-92. Inscriptions: AE (1995), 1190-1212; (1997), 1224-6; (2001), 1592 (analysis Italian merchants: ActArchHung of imperial votives). North 41 (1989), 227-32. Sempeter Bonn.

P. Kranz,

cemetery:

186

Jahrb.

193-239.

(1986),

15. Ad Lotodos (Stranice SVN) [B20C3] 16. Ragando (Spodnje Grusovje SVN) [B20C3] 17. Pultovia (Strazgojnca SVN) [B20C3] 18. Poetovio (Ptuj SVN) [B20C3] the Western Cemetery Vols J. Istenic, Poetovio: cit.

AE

Inscriptions:

Arh. Vestnik

(2000),

1189

45 (1994), 131-42 altars),

(votive

1283

1284

shield

forum

H.

equestris),

B. Kerman,

Halicanum

A.D.

inscription, (marble

1285

Devijver,

J. Fitz,

Festschrift

Urban

utriusque

local

of

(1993), eques

cit.

op.

(n. 6),

61-5.

[B20D3]

et al.,

F. Red?

Excavations:

Sosztarits

O.

topography:

41

ActArchHung

cit.

op.

405-33,

111-45

(local glazed wares),

in Hajn?csi,

(n.

435?75

16

(Terra

(lamps). South

233-41.

5),

Savaria

and E. T?th,

(1989),

gate

inscrip

1191 (votive to Dii Itine[rarii] (2000), 1195 (A Rom(a) S(avariam) m.p. DCLXXV); [viae]). Inscriptions: AE (1995), 1240-55 (revision of RIU, op. cit. (n. 30) entries);

1190, 1259; (2000), (1997), zur antiken Handelsgeschichte

25. Scarbantia Late

et al.,

Erchner

vessel); AE

(1994).

Sigillata); 42 (1990), 77-96 (brooches), 97-110 [B20D2] 24. Savaria (Szombathely HUN) tion: AE

(op.

reliefs of sella curulis and

22. Ad Vicesimum (Verzej SVN) [B20D3] 23. Sala (Zalal?vo HUN) [B20D3] section of the Amber Road: V. Cserm?nyi On the Hungarian 283-90.

H.

103-6);

sarcophagus

(votives); blocks with

1286-8

19. Ramista (Formin SVN) [B20C3] 20. Curta (Ormoz SVN) [B20C3] 21. Halicanum (Sv.Martin na Muri SVN)

(1982),

Curk, Limes XIV

on second-third-century

benefactions),

(municipal

(parma

of

(dating

(Celtic inscription

trians; cf. ZPE 95 (1993), 236-40), equestrian

(1999); I.M.

l?Il

133-41.

(n. 17),

17

(Sopron HUN)

Urban

topography:

Roman

cemetery:

Emona

1193-4.

Braun,

in Hajn?csi, RO

cit.

op.

of

cos.

bf.

Beitr?ge

(n.

altars

a.d.

AE

158-257:

5),

AUS.

Deutschkreutz

251-61.

29-76.

(1991/1992),

19/20

Emona (9) to Sirmium and the Danube by the Sava valley 26. Acervo (Stari trg pri Visnji gori SVN) [B20B4] (Pristava pri Trebnjem SVN) 27. Praetorium Latobicorum Chronology

Munster

P. Kov?cs,

[B20D2]

J.G?m?ri T.

at Savaria:

merchants 100-20.

(1998),

[B20B4]

(1995),

M.

238.

Roman

The

Slabe,

Cemetery at Pristava near Trebnje (1993). 28. Crucium (Groblje pri Sentjerneju SVN) [B20C4] (Drnovo pri Krskem SVN) [B20C4] 29. Neviodunum Inscription

Sloveniae.

Latinae

Inscriptiones

catalogue:

(ed. M.

Neviodunum

Lovenjak)

(1998) (200 entries). (Ribnica SVN) [B20C4] 30. Romula 31. Siscia (Sisak CRO) [B20D4] Archaeology

and R. Makjanic, Lead

curse

tablet

of

Siscia

and

region:

Croat.

Arch.

Soc,

Finds of Terra Sigillata and Metal-working (third

century

A.D.,

Greek)

with

29 names:

op.

cit.

(n.

10)

(1986).

R.

Koscevic

in Siscia, BAR int. ser. 621 (1995). J. Curbera

and

D.

Jordan,

Tyche

11 (1996), 45-50. Inscriptions: AE (1997), 1257-8 (early Christian); (1999), 1245 (sarcophagus); (2000), 1188 (lead tags from river); (2001), 1631 (clarissima femina). 32. Varianis (Kutina CRO) [B20D4]

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THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

185

lasorum (Daruvar CRO) [B20E4] 33. Aquae Balissae / Municipium Christian plaque: AE (1996), 1222. Epitaph of soldier stationed in Pannonia: AE (near

1659

Incero (Trestanovacka gradina near Tekic CRO) Stravianis (Gradac near Nasice CRO) [B20F4] Picentino (Ruzevo) [B20F4] Leucono} (Donji Andrijevci CRO) [B20F4] (= Pi.44). Cibalae (Vinkovci CRO) [B20F4] Causilena (Orolik CRO) [B20F4] Ulmo (Tovarnik CRO) [B21B4] Spaneta (Bacinci YUG) [B21B4] Budalia (Martinci YUG) [B21B5] Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica YUG) [B21B5]

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Late

mosaics:

O.

Brukner,

Jupiter names,

shrine O.

Salomies,

and

settlements:

M.

17

Chiron

Mirkovic, Late

Roman

Sarajevo

24

145-265;

(1984),

Croat.

Croat.

Bulat,

Soc.

Arch.

op.

Arch.

cit.

(n. 10)

RO

169-85.

17/18 (1989/1990), on 345-403; AE (1998),

24 (1994), administration:

from NE cemetery).

101-7.

(1980),

Soc,

49. AdPraetorium (Suvaja near Bosanska Dubica 50. Servitium (Bosanska Gradiska BOS) [B20E4] M.

Parovic-Pesikan,

(199?-> 12.56 (exorcista

45. Bassiana (Donji Petrovci YUG) [B21B5] 46. Idiminum (Vojka? YUG) [B21C5] 47. Noviciani (Simanovci YUG) [B21C5] (Surcin YUG) [B21C5] 48. Altina Siscia (31) to Sirmium (43) via Servitium On this road and location of settlements: I. Bojanovski, Studies,

M.

161-8;

(1978),

278-82.

I052-4;

Materijali

[B20E4]

(early burial rites). Aqueduct:

altars: 79 bf. cos. ZPE no (1996),

with

1051 (revised ZPE 134 (2001), 287-95), 44. Fossae (Sasinci? YUG) [B21B5] Roads

18

Materijali

20 (1985), 177-85

Cemeteries: Materijali 189-94. consular

(2001),

Pakarac).

Annual

op.

BOS)

(1993),

cit.

of the Centre

(n. 10)

(1993),

for Balkan

59-70.

[B20E4] 173-80

51. Urbate (Srpac BOS) [B20E4] 52. Marsonia (Slavonski Brod CRO) [B20E4] 53. Cirtisa (Strbinci near Djakovo CRO) [B20F4] 54. Ad Basante (Bosut, near Zupanja? CRO) [B20F4] 55. Saldis (Posavski Podgajci? CRO) [B20F5] 56. Drinum fl(umen) (Brodac BOS) [B21B5] Poetovio (18) to Poedicum 57. Solva (Leibnitz AUS) [B20C3] Inscriptions:

Reliefs

M.

Hainzmann

E.

and

von Schloss Seggau bei Leibnitz

167. Amphorae Lead tags Bleiticketten

aus

from

?nsula

from

Kalsdorf,

Kalsdorf,

XLI:

RO cloth

Steiermark,

Die

Pochmarski,

r?merzeitlichen

19-20

(1991-1992), centre:

production Denkschr.

205,

127-41. E. R?mer-Martijnse, Wiss. Akad. Ost.

und

Inschriften

(1994) (433 entries). Brooches: RO 21-22

(1990),

(1998-1999),

R?mer

zeitliche

with

revisions

by G. Alf?ldy, Festschrift J. Untermann (1993), 1-32. Graffito on pot from grave of votive to Nixae, protective deity of childbirth: AE (1999), 1203. Votive to Eboner[i]: AE (2001), 1595. Gleisdorf

rural

settlement

at

road

junction:

T.

Lorenz

et

al.,

Der

r?mische

Vicus

von

Gleisdorf: Berich ?ber die Ausgrabungen 1988-1990 (1999) (inscriptions: AE (1995), 1213-14; (1999), 1204-5). Katsch cemetery: S. Ehrenreich, RO 32 (1993), 9-40. Inscriptions from territory: AE (1994), 1337, cf. (1997), 1223 (Zeil near Stubenberg, (1995), 1215 (Grafenberg near Hartberg); Hartberg); (1998), 1019 (St Ulrich am Ulrichsberg); (1999)5 12-06 (Victoria Augusta relief from Peggau, north of Graz); (2001), 1596 (M?hldorf, Eppenstein, Judenberg). 58. Poedicum (Br?ck an der Mur AUS) [B20C2] Kugelstein settlement: RO 37 (1998), 101-36. Poetovio (18) to Siscia (31) 59. Andautonia (Scitarjevo CRO) [B20D4]

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i86

J. WILKES

J.

Croat.

B. Vikic-Belancic,

60. Aqua Viva I. Saric,

Arch.

(Petrijanee CRO) Arch.

Croat.

Soc,

Soc,

cit.

op.

(n. 10)

159-76;

(1978),

129-54.

(1979),

[B20D3]

op.

cit.

(n.

10)

177-95.

(1978),

61. Pyrri (Komin CRO) [B20D3] Poetovio (18) toMursa (Pi.43) by Drava valley Aqua Viva (60) 62. Populi (East of Varazdin CRO) [B20D3] 63. Aquae lasae (Varazdinske Toplice CRO) [B20D3] B. Vikic-Belancic (No. 59 above). Votives: AE (1993), 1289; (1998), 1044 (plaque to Sol). lovia [B20F3] 64. (Ludbreg HUN) 65. Sonista (Kunovec Breg CRO) [B20D3] 66. Piretis (Draganovec CRO) [B20D3] 67. Lentulis (near Gradac CRO) [B20E3] 68. Cardono/lovia (Gradina CRO) [B20E4] 69. Cocconis (Sopje CRO) [B20E4] 70. Serota (Ver?ce HUN) [B20E4) 71. Serena (Viljevo near Nasice CRO) [B20F4] 72. Marinianis/Magniana (Donji Miholjac CRO) [B20F4] 73. Vereis (Podravski Podgajci CRO) [B20F4] 74. lovalia (Valpovo CRO) [B20F4] 75. Mursella (Petrijevci CRO) [B20F4] Savaria (24) toMursa (Pi.43) [B20E3] 76. Mestrianis (Zalaszentgr?t HUN) 77. Volgum [B20E3] (Fen?kpuszta HUN) I. T?th, Folia Archaeologica (Budapest) 37 (1986), 163-81. Silicenis [B20E3] 78. (Beleg HUN) 79. Limusa (Szigetv?r HUN) [B20E3] 80. Sopianae (Pecs HUN) [B20F3] F. F?lep, History of Pecs in the Roman Era (1984). Inscriptions: AE (1996), 1258 (bf. cos.); (2000), 1218 (epitaph of soldier in Legion III It?lica). 81. Antiana (Popovac CRO) [B20F4] Savaria (24) to Aquincum (Pi.4) 82. Moge(n)tiana [B20E2] (T?skev?r HUN) AE

Inscriptions:

(1994),

(since

1388-91

R1U,

cit.

op.

(n.

vol.

30)

2);

(2001),

1632-8.

taphs of Ti. Claudii from tumulus linked with villa at Balaca: AE (1996), 1223-32; New wall paintings from Balaca: S. Pal?gyi, K?lner Jahrbuch 24 (1991), 199-202. [B20E2] (Szentkir?lyszabadja HUN) 83. Caesariana [B20F2] 84. Floriana (Csakvar, Bicske area HUN) Roman (n. 6),

finds

in Eraviscan

burial

wagon

at Zsambek,

E. Bonis,

J. Fitz,

Festschrift

Epi

(1998), 1049.

op.

cit.

53-9.

[B20F2] (Bicske HUN) 85. Lussomana Savaria (24) to Arrabona (Ps.21) 86. Bassiana (S?rv?r HUN) [B20D2] [B20E2] 87. Mursella (Kis?rp?s HUN) Milestones (a.d. 218 (2) and 244/247) indicating provincial bound (3) from Menf?csanak Alba AE Fitz, (2000), 1183 (J. ary: Regia 29 (2000), 160-1). Local pottery in early Roman settlement:

E.

Sz?nyi

in Tejral-Piet?-Rajt?r,

op.

Scarbantia (25) to Vindobona (Ps.2) 88. Muteno (Leithaprodersdorf AUS) I.O.M.

votive

by

speculator

of

cit.

(n. 7,

1995),

217.

[B20D2] X

Gemina,

early

third

century

A.D.:

(Mullendorf near Eisenstadt). Sopianae (80) to Gorsium and the Danube [B20F3] 89. lovia (Het?nypuszta HUN) 90. Tricciana [B20F3] (S?gv?r HUN) [B20F2] 91. Gorsium (Tac HUN)

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AE

(2001),

1645


THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

187

Auxiliary camp: Limes XIII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 316-21. Problem of imperial cult: AE (1993) (E.T?th and J. Fitz). Revised reading of votives: G. Alf?ldy, ZPE 115 (1997), 225-41. Votive to Deus Teutanus deity in Festschrift op. J. Fitz,

Eraviscan topics

1

dated cit.

A.D.

May

(n. 6),

211:

15-21

AE

(early

I. Bojanovski, of

date

to Sava Valley

Coast

Dolabellas

through Dinaric

ZPE

P. Kov?cs,

military

Gorsium

71-80

(imports

121 (1998), 287-90

Range

M.

road:

on

Papers

in der r?mischen Provinz Dalmatien

Strassensystem

Burnum-Tilurium-Narona

1692. tombstones);

auxiliary

of Italian sigillata); 29-45 (wall-paintings). Epitaph from villa at Cs?kber?ny north of Gorsium: (third-century eques n(umeri) III T(h)rac(um)). 92. lasulones [B20F2] (Baracska HUN) RIV. Adriatic

(2001),

Limes

Sanader,

XVIII

(1974). On early cit.

(op.

(n.

17)),

713-18.

Senia to Siscia (RIII.31) 1. Senia (Senj CRO) [B20B5] Epitaphs and votives: AE (1994), 1369; (1998), 1032-4. 2. Terponus (Gornje Modrus CRO) [B20C4] 3. Metulum (Vinicica near Ogulin CRO) [B20C4] Late epitaph on local type of cremation chest: AE (1993), 1275 hill

Christian Karlovac). Early cit. (n. 101), 96-8.

on

at Kucar

settlement

river

Kupa

4. Ad Fines (Busevac near Velika Gorica CRO) [B20D4] Iader to Burnum and Siscia (RIII.31) 5. Iader (Zadar CRO) [B20C5] Urban population: AE (1993), 1272; 1273 (epitaph). Proconsul Vala

c. 27-25

Numonianus,

B.c.:

AE

Liburnian

conical

AE

Inscriptions: Aqueduct:

9. Ninia On

area

10. Splonum From

17

Materijali

(Knin CRO) the

1233-9

(1999),

1257-69.

of

(authentication

Arch.

(Gornje Vrtace

Soc,

op.

cit.

near Drvar BOS)

Marasovica

(n. 10),

(1992).

[B20D5]

boundary

Christiana

(1994); I Babic

(ed.),

(2002). of

inscriptions

P. Cornelius

Dolabella

(a.d.

14-20)

area:

in Trogir

1229-30.

(1995),

and

auxiliary

epitaphs

(Japirko SW cemetery); (2001),

monuments),

Oneum visit

MS

eighteenth-nineteenth-century

109-22.

(1980),

studies: Inscriptions and epigraphic epitaphs of Legion VII); Cautes relief: M. table: AE (1993), fragments of martyrium Cybele: AE (1994), 1348. New inscriptions:

AE

1624.

[B20D5]

see Croat.

Tomislava

legionary

(2001),

to Servitium

Salona

Rock-cut AE

AE

Magistrate:

[B20C5]

11. Salona (Solin near Split CRO) [B20D6] E. Marin (ed.), Longae Salonae 1-2 (2002); Salona Zbornik

Cn. Baebius Tamphilus

[B20C5] (1993),

(Ivosevci near Kistanje CRO)

8. Burnum record).

AE

tombstones:

op.

Ciglenecki,

1181.

(2000),

6. Nedinum (Nadin CRO) [B20C5] 7. Asseria (Podgradje, Benkovac CRO)

south of

(Vujaskovic

near Metlika:

of Drusus

1606-21,

cf.

1623

(Grudine).

(Omis): AE in A.D.

re-used

(1997),

1230-2

(1996),

1209-15

N. Cambi, RO 17/18 (1989-1990), Sasel-Kos, Tyche 8 (1993), 145-7 (AE 1253; private benefactions: AE (1994), AE (1994), 1345-53 (Kastei Sucurac); in chamber

(Silvanus (catalogue

tomb),

altars); of

(1996), 1206 (votives to Augustus

(Lecevica);

1360

(1999),

private

1227-8

collection),

(1996),

12. Setovia (Susanj near Sinj CRO) [B20D6] 13. Osinium (Sinj CRO) [B20D6] 14. Aequum (Citluk near Sinj CRO) [B20D6]

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1207-15

(Grudina), 1622

and head of Tiberius

17-20).

61-72 (early (1993), 1252); 1346; cult of 1355-9 (early 1229;

(gladiator

linked with


i88

J.

J. WILKES

15. In Alperio (Prolog BOS) [B20D6] 16. Pelva (Listani BOS) [B20B6] Cremation

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

urn

of

veteran

of

I Adiutrix:

AE

1028.

(1998),

near Glamoc Salvium/Salvia (Vrba, Glamockopolje/Halapic Sarnade (Pecka near Mrkonjic Grad BOS) [B20E5] Aemate (Dobrnja on Vrbas BOS) [B20E5] Castra (Banja Luka BOS) [B20E5] Ad Ladios (Trn near Banja Luka BOS) [B20E5] Ad Fines (Laktasi BOS) [B20E5] variant

Longer

route

In Alperio

between

and

BOS)

[B20D5]

Aemate

Bariduum (Livno BOS) [B20E6] lonnaria (Stubo-vrelo BOS) [B20E5] Sarute (Strojice BOS) [B20E5] Indenea (Mujdzici BOS) [B20E5] 27. Baloie (Sipovo on Pliva BOS) [B20E5] 28. Leusaba (Mrkonjic Grad BOS) [B20E5] Salona (11) to Bathinus (Bosna) valley 29. Pons Tiluri/Tilurium (Trilj/Gardun CRO) 23. 24. 25. 26.

Excavations:

military

M.

tombstones:

Sanader,

AE

Opuscula

(1995), 1231-2;

[B20D6] 25

(Zagreb)

Archaeologica

(2001),

183-94.

(1999), 1230-2. On soldiers of Legion VII: AE

Early

(1996),

1216.

Epitaphs from Prolosac, Imotski: AE (1998), 1029-31. 30. Delminium (Lib, Borcani BOS) [B20E6] and scriba: A. Skegro, ZPE 101 (1994), 287-98 (AE (1994), 1361-4). Magistrate 31. InMonte Bulsinio (Privala BOS) [B20E6] 32. Bistue Vetus (Duvno BOS) [B20E6] 33. Ad Matricem (Otinovci, Kupres BOS) [B20E5] 34. Bistue Nova (Bugojno BOS) [B20E5] 35. Stanecli (Mali Mosunj BOS) [B20E5] Epitaph of child from near Kiseljak: AE (1997), 1229. 36. Aquae S. (Ilidza near Sarajevo BOS) [B20F6] to upper Narenta Narona (Neretva) and Bathinus (Bosna) valleys 37. Narona (Vid CRO) [B20E6] et al., The Rise and Fall of an Imperial Shrine: Roman Sculpture from the E. Marin at Narona (1994). E. Marin et al., Vid (Narona) (1999) (reprinting of articles from Augusteum 1902-1998). Inscriptions:

4, Naron AE

(1999)1

E. Marin

et al.,

Corpus

I: Eresova

Naronitarum

Inscriptionum

2 (1999) (AE (1999), 1221). Five new votives: AE

Kula,

(1998), 1021-5. Dolabella

Ichnia

votive:

I2-2-3

Unpublished

texts

and

stamps

from

at Bigeste:

base

military

AE

(2000),

1174-80.

38. Ad Turres (Tasovcici near Caplinja BOS) [B20E6] 39. Nevesinje BOS 40. Gacko BOS Stele: AE (1994), 1342 (Temus B(a)tonis f. Narensai). 41. Konjic BOS Aquae S. (No. 36) Epidaurum to Drinus (Drina) valley and Sirmium 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

(Cavtat CRO) [B20F7] Epidaurum Asamum (Trebinje BOS) [B20F7] Ad Zizio (Mosko north of Trebinje BOS) Plana (Plana near Bileca BOS) [B20F7] Ustikolina BOS [B20F6] S. (Komino YUG) [B21B6] Municipium Settlements

and

cemeteries:

of city: AE (1998), 1026. Votive 48. Gorazde BOS [B21A6]

Zotovic,

op.

[B20F7]

cit.

(n.

by imperial procurator

13,

2002).

Cults:

A.D. 27o(?): AE

AE

(2001),

1604.

(1998), 1027.

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Name


THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

189

49. Ris.(f) (Rogatica BOS) [B20G6] 50. Malves(i)a (Skelani on Drina) [B21B6] Ulice

near

fort

Karan

from

Inscriptions

Titovo

AE

Cacak:

area:

and

P.

Rimski

Petrovic,

kameni

(2001),

cf.

1605,

iz Karana,

spomenici

from excavation

(1994), 1340 (Claudii from Pannonia);

(1986); AE

of Byzantine

199-1204.

(1996),

51. Domavium (Gradina) [B21B5] 52. Ad Drinum (Zvornik?) [B21B5] Votive (third-century) to Apollo Gangarensis

from Sitarice

south of Valjevo:

AE

(1994),

1341.

53. Gensis

(Lesnica on ladra) [B21B5]

RV. South Adriatic =

B-L

Biernacka-Lubanska,

to Naissus

Lissus On

the

17

and Aegean

location

(1980),

(n. 38),

by Morava

cit.

1990)

(n. 23,

by Drin valley, Kosovo of

53-68 130 and

op.

to Danube

stations and

Nos

163-7.

and Timok Valleys

and Toplica

in Kosovo 4-6 The Augustan

valley

see E. Dobruna-Salihu of

origin

this

and Z. Mrdita,

route

is argued

by

Materijali Syme,

op.

cit.

206.

1. Lissus (Lezha ALB) [B49B2] 2. AdPicaria(s) (Puka? ALB) [B49B1] 3. Creveni (Vau iDejes? ALB) [B49C1] 4. Gabuleum (Prizren? YUG) [B49C1] 5. Theranda (Suva Reka? YUG) [B49C1] 6. Ulpianum (Gracanica YUG) [B49D1] On

the Raska

mining

see M.

region

Vasic

(ed.),

The

Fortress

34 (1999)' 7. Vindenis (Glavnik YUG) [B21D7] 8. Ad Fines (Kursumlja? YUG) [B21D6] On lead ingot: AE (1994), 1512 (Q. Gn(orii?)). Milestone

of Ras,

of Gordian

Arch.

Inst. Monogr.

a.d. 242: AE

(1998),

1117.

9. Hammeum (Prokuplje YUG) [B21D6] 10. Ad Herculem (Zitoradja YUG) [B21D6] 11. Naissus (Nis YUG) [B21D6] to Naissus and Morava valleys Thessalonica (11) by Axios/Vardar On the centrally organized military control of roads inMacedonia A.

Dunn,

Limes

XVIII

(op.

cit.

(n. 17)),

in the late Roman

12. Thessalonica (Saloniki GRE) [B49E3] 13. Ad Decimum (Nea Anchialos GRE) [B49E3] 14. (E)ldomene (IsarMarvinci MAC) [B49E2] V. Sokolovska, Isar-Marvinci and the Vardar Valley in Ancient Times and 19 (Knezje NE of Velez). different locations for Nos 16 (Gradista, Negotino) 15. Stenas (Gradee MAC) [B49E2] 16. Antigoneia (Tremnik? MAC) [B49E2] 17. Stobi (Gradsko MAC) [B49D2] Late

mosaics:

18

Materijali

(1978),

19-34

ana* 219-30.

18. Gurbita

(unlocated) [B49D2] 19. Bylazora (Titov Velez? MAC) [B49D2] 20. Adcephalon (near Basino Selo MAC) [B49D2] 21. Scupi (Skopje MAC) [B49D1] 22. Aquae (Vranjska Banja YUG) [B49E1] 23. Anausaro (Vladicin Han YUG) [B49E1] 24. Ad Fines (near Dzep YUG) [B21E7] Stobi (17) to Serdica For

settlements

25. Astibos

along

this

(StipMAC)

route:

period:

705-12.

Beldedovski,

op.

cit.

(n. 13).

[B49E2]

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(1986), with


190

J.

}. WILKES

26. Bargala (Goren Kozjak MAC) [B49E2] Late mosaics: Materijali 18 (1978), 35-46. 27. Tranupara (Kratovo? MAC) [B49E1] 28. Pautalia (Kjustendil BUL) [B49E1] (B-L, 250) L.

I: Topographie,

Pautalia

Rusena-Slokoska,

et

urbanisme

de

syst?me

fortifications

(1989). (2000), 1292; (2001), 1753 (early fifth century). Inscriptions: AE (1999), 1398-1401; 29. Spinopara (Konjavo BUL) [B49E1] 30. Serdica (Sofia BUL) [B21E7] (B-L, 256) of a.d.

Inscription tutelam

provinc(iae)

n(umero)

praesidia

Izvor near 152 from Balgarski ... Thraciae fines civitatis per

Teteven

(Sofia):

Serd(ic)snesium

regione

IIII, burgi n(umero) XII, phruri n(umero) CIX', AE

(n.

745-55,

17)),

IMS

discussing

(op.

cit.

(n.

II no.

35))

50;

construction by M. P. Speidel, Arh. Vestnik 34 (1984), 339-41. 32. Gramrianae (near Drazevac YUG) [B21D6] 33. Praesidium Pompeii (Nerica Han, Rutovac? YUG) [B21D6] 34. Gametas (Razanj YUG) [B21D6] 35. Dasmin(i)um (Bracin? YUG) [B21D6] 36. Sarmates (Gornje Vidovo? YUG) [B21D6] 37. Horreum Margi (Cuprija YUG) [B21D6] Possible early legionary base, from time of Dacian wars, with Gudea,

cit.

op.

(n. 22,

2001),

19 with

n.

J.

J.

Prehistoric

Wilkes,

not

Limes XII as

accepted

a

(op. new

stamps of VII Claudia:

102.

38. Ad Octavum (Glogovac YUG) [B21D5] 39. Idimum (Medvedja YUG) [B21D5] M. Vasic and G. Milosevic, Mansio Idimum: Roman (review

ob

burgos

Dyptens(ium)

(2000), 1291 (cf. (1957),

(6) by Lepenac and Stinica valleys Scupi (21) to Ulpianum 31. Kacanik (YUG) Naissus (11) to Viminacium (Ms. 14) by Morava valley On the Hadrianic Via Nova from Viminacium south to Dardania: M. Mirkovic, cit.

et

'praesidia

site

web

Society

Post Station near Medvedja

(2000)

www.ucl.ac.uk/prehistoric/reviews/

04_02_vasic.htm).

40. Bao (Velika Laole? YUG) [B212D5] 41. lovis Pagus (Veliki Popovac YUG) [B21D5] 42. Municipium (Kaliste YUG) [B21D5] 43. AdNonum (Nabrdje YUG) [B21D5] Naissus (11) to Bononia (Ms.70) by Timacus (Timok) valley 44. Timacum Maius (Knjazevac YUG) [B21E6] 45. Timacum Minus (Ravna YUG) [B21E6] on

Fort I Thracum coh.

Aurelia

activities op.

cit.

left bank

of

river

Syriaca Vespasian-Trajan; Dardananorum late

of robbers (n. 35),

HI/2,

earth

Timok;

(stationarii)

stone second

and

coh. timber, 112-114; by a.d.

century

in the area: AE

(Gudea,

c. A.D.

IMontanorum coh.

7 Thracum cit.

op.

(2001), 1728. Votive

(n.

68-80;

Syriaca 22,

2001)).

coh.

Trajan; On the

to Diana Augusta:

IMS,

n. 4.

(Kula BUL) [B21E6] 46. Castra Martis at Romuliana (ed.), Roman Imperial villa and mausolea (Gamzigrad): D. Srejovic in Towns and Serbia C. Palaces with and Mausolea Vasic, Imperial (1993); Imperial at Gamzigrad, East Serbia (1994). A similar complex, linked with Commemoration Memorials has

Maximinus, (1996),

been

identified

in the

same

area

Timacum Maius (44) to Ratiaria (Ms.73) Combustica 47. (Kladorup BUL) [B21E6] Naissus (11) to Serdica by Dragoman pass (Brzi Brod YUG) [B21E6] 48. Mediana P. Petrovic, Mediana: Residence of Roman (i997)i

at

Sarkamen,

D.

Srejovic

et al.,

Starinar

47

to Asclepius:

AE

232-43.

Emperors

(1994). Votives

1305-7

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THE

ROMAN

AN

DANUBE:

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SURVEY

191

49. Radices (Jelasnica? YUG) [B21E6] 50. Ulmo (Ostrovica YUG) [B21E6] 51. Remesiana (Bela Palanka YUG) [B21E6] 52. Latina (near Crnokliste YUG) [B21E6] 53. Turres (Pirot YUG) [B21E6] 54. Translitis (Dimitrovgrad? BUL) [B21E6] 55. Ballanstra (Kalotina BUL) [B21E6] 56. Meldia (Dragoman BUL) [B21E7] 57. Scretisca (Kostinbrod BUL) [B21F7] RVL Strymon

(Struma) and Hebrus

(Maritsa) Valleys

across Haemus

to Lower

(Stara Planina)

Danube B-L

=

op.

Biernacka-Lubanska,

cit.

(n. 23,

1990);

ZG

=

and Gudea,

Zahariade

cit.

op.

(n. 23)

An instructive comparison with travel in this region in the Roman period is provided by K. Belke, 'Roads and travel inMacedonia and Thrace during the middle and late Byzantine (ed.), Travel in the Byzantine World period', in R. Macrides (2002). to Oescus (Mi. 12) by Strymon and Oescus Amphipolis (Iskar) valleys 1. Amphipolis (Amphipolis GRE) [B49F3] 2. Drabeskos (Draveskos? GRE) [B49F3] 3. Sirra (Serres GRE) [B49F2] 4. Skotoussa (Siderokastro GRE) [B49 F2] 5. Paroikopolis/Parthikopolis (Sandanski? BUL) [B49F2] 6. Neine (Ilindenci BUL) [B49F2] (B-L, 248). 7. Scaptopara (Blagoevgrad BUL) [B49F1] 8. Germania (Sapareva Banja BUL) [B49F1] (B-L, 255) Serdica (RV.30) 9. Opletnja BUL [B21F6] 10. Mezdra BUL [B21F6] (B-L, 236). 11. Vicus Trullensium (Kounino? BUL) [B22B5] Shrine

of

the Thracian

horseman

at Glava

Panega,

later

associated

with

Construction

of

tabernae

et

per

praetoria

vias

[militares]

in A.D.

61,

and

Asclepius

Hygiaea: AE (1995), 1327. Serdica to Hadrianopolis by Maritsa valley 12. Extuomne (Kazicane BUL) [B21F7] (B-L, 263). 13. Burgaraca (Lesnovo BUL) [B21F7] 14. Sparata (Vakarel BUL) [B2.1F7] 15. H?lice (Ihtiman BUL) [B22A6] (B-L, 248).

already

recorded

elsewhere, IGBulg, op. cit. (n. 36), V 5691 (AE (1999), 1397). 16. Soneio/Succorum Claustra (Trajanovi vrata BUL) [B22A6] (B-L, 245 and 256). 17. Egerica (Mirovo BUL) [B22A6] 18. Bessapara (Pazardjik BUL) [B22B6] 19. Philippopolis/Trimontium (Plovdiv BUL) [B22B6] (B-L, 253) 20. Sernota (Man?le) [B22B6] (B-L, 251). 21. Par embole/ Castra (Belozem? BUL) [B22C6] (B-L, 243). 22. Culis (Chema Gora BUL) [B22C6] 23. Carassura (Rupkite BUL) [B22C6] (B-L, 254) M. Wendel (ed.), Thracian Settlement Kar asura II (2002) (prehistoric burials and coins of fourth-seventh

century

from

excavations

of

1981-1997).

Inscriptions

found

(1991), 468-73, 481-8; 74 (1992), 401-5. 24. Pizus (Dimitrievo BUL) [B22C6] (B-L, 245) 25. Arzus (Kalugerovo BUL) [B22C6] 26. Burdepa (Svilengrad BUL) [B51G1] (B-L, 258) 27. Hadrianopolis (Edirne TKY) [B51H1] (19) to Oescus (Mi. 12) by Troian Philippopolis

Pass

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since

1981:

Klio

73


J. WILKES

J.

192

M. Madjarov, Arheologiya (Sofia) 32 (1990), 18-29; I. Christo et al., Roman Roadside on the Oescus?Philippopolis Road (Ad Radices-Montemno-Sub Radices) (2004). 28. Viamata (Mihitsi BUL) [B22B6] 29. Sub Radices (Hristovo Danovo BUL) [B22B6] (B-L, 248) 30. Diocletianopolis 31. Monte Haemo

(Hisariya BUL) [B22B6] (B-L, 247-8) (Kartsovija Bouk BUL) [B22B6]

settlement

Major a.d.

and

fort

Troian

controlling a.d. after

II Mattiacorum

coh.

234,

Stations

Pass, second-third-century a.d. I Cisipadensium

coh.

145,

inscriptions, 236/238-240/241

(ZG114). 32. Ad Radices (Popina Leka, Kamene Most BUL) [B22B6] (ZG113) 33. Sostra (Lomets BUL) [B22B6] (B-L, 236; ZG112) Excavations

of

to Pius

votives

with

fort,

auxiliary

Severus

and

(a.d.

AE

198-202):

(2001),

1747-8.

34. Melta (Lovech BUL) [B22B5] (B-L, 236; ZG111) 35. Doriones (Slatina/Pleven BUL) [B22B5] (B-L, 237; ZG110) 36. Storgosia (Kalik BUL) [B22B5] (ZG109) 37. Ad Putea (Riben BUL) [B22B5] (ZG108) Augusta Traiana to Novae by Shipka Pass Traiana (Stara Zagora BUL) [B22C6] (B-L, 257) 38. Beroe/Augusta Aurelius Sabinus from Syria, priest and wine merchant for Dacia: AJE (1991), 1401. Greek votive

from

for G.

K?rten,

Iulius

and

consular

Teres,

of

priest

Sabazios

L. Sempronius Tertullus: H. M?ller, Chiron 31 (2001), 450-9 39. Seuthopolis (near Dunovo BUL) [B22C6] 40. Emporium Discoduraterae (Gostilitsa BUL) [B22C5] to

votives

Severan

with

Settlement Greek

defences (B-L, fourth-century of Augusta and people Traiana,

and senate

by

Philip

erected

by

equestrian

(AE (1991), 1390).

234; as

ZG117). founder

of

the

emporium,

IGBulg, op. cit. (n. 36), V 5257 (AE (1999), 1389). ad Istrum (Nikiup BUL) [B22C5] 41. Nicopolis Planned

fifth-sixth

Trajanic

century

and Early Byzantine et al.,

Slokoska Dichin

op.

Inscriptions:

bilingual

A.

Poulter

(ed.),

City

on

the

relate

field

survey earlier

to the

(n. 36), V

cit.

op.

from Gorna

5216,

AE

Oryahovitsa:

J. Blazquez

B-L

Coastal

construction

Severan

Biernacka-Lubanska,

1. Odessus

cit.

op.

in Dobrudja:

defences

Late

Roman,

and

excavation

of

in

city,

on which

there

at

the

burgus is R. and

T.

statue

for

(1999),

in a.d.

governor

1385-6.

(Varna BUL)

A.

or

270

271;

also

to Mithras:

votive

Greek

(1996).

of Dolichenus

to Lower Danube:

RVIL Black Sea Coast =

(1) A

ad Istrum I (1994).

Hommages

1370-83):

east,

(1999); also A. Poulter

and Glass

ad Istrum (41) by Vratnik Pass (1070 m) Cabyle to Nicopolis 42. Cabyle (Yambol BUL) [B22D6] Inscriptions since IGBulg, op. cit. (n. 36), in 1972: V. Velkov (1999),

on

attached

Istrum.

ad

Nicopolis

(1995); (2) The Pottery

14-29 (n. 14, 2002), in the same volume

IGBulg,

epitaphs

V. Naydenova,

cit.

Papers

(Mi.25).

Ivanov, Nicopolis

castrum

late

defences,

second-century

excavations:

Anglo-Bulgarian

Roman

with

city

(ZG124).

Odessus

(n. 23,

Suceveanu,

[B22E5]: Greek

shrine,

to Delta

with

2 (1991)

(AE

to Severi.

by Coast

= Zahariade

1990); ZG Bonn. Jahrb?cher

city, major

in Cabyle

votives

and 192

Gudea,

(1992),

port and military

op.

cit.

(n. 23)

192-223.

station

ZG76). 2. Gerania

(B-L, 240;

(Kranevo BUL) [B22F5] Inferior; 3. Dionysopolis (Balchik BUL) [B22F5]: Greek city, from a.d. 198 in Moesia defences restored in late fourth century (B-L, 241; ZG79). (Plin., HN 4.44), possibly 4. Aphrodision (Top?la? BUL): fortified coastal settlement identified with settlement in territory of Dionysopolis (IGBulg, op. cit. (n. 36), V 5011, lines 29-30;

AE

(1.999),

I347)?

S. Torbatov

in Slokoska

et al.,

op.

cit.

(n. 14,

2002),

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260?4.


THE

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

193

(Kavarna BUL) [B22F5]: settlement and probable fort (B-L, 241; ZG74). on headland, defences and Roman (Kaliakra BUL) [B22F5]: Hellenistic

5. Bizone 6. Tirizis

II (B-L,

Constantius

under

reconstructed

241;

ZG73).

7. Karon Limen} (Shabla BUL) [B22F6]: possible fleet harbour (ZG72). 8. Timum (unlocated): fort? on Dura shield (ZG71). 9. Callatis [B22F5]: Greek city and port, military (Mangalia ROM) V Maced?nica,

cos.

bf.

base

base,

of

stamps

(ZG70).

(1999). Territory of the city: Inscriptions: IscM, op. cit. (n. 37), III (ed. A. Avram) A. Avram, Dacia 35 (1991), 103-37 (AE (1993), 1372). New reading and dating of treaty with Rome

(IscM,

10. 11. 12. fleet

now

42)

cit.

op.

(n. 37),

III,

1) to

106-101

REG

united,

104

(1991),

Four

574-83.

Claudius 200, Gordian, Valerian-Gallienus, with name erased and replaced by Aurelian: votive a.d.

AE

b.c.,

1319.

(1997),

Stratonis Turris (Cape Tuzla ROM): burgus} (ZG69k). Telpis ROM: burgus} (ZG69J). Tomis (Constanta ROM) [B22F4]: Greek city and port, Roman metropolis, military and base; coh. VII Gallorum (Trajan), coh. I Cilicum, bf. cos. station (ZG69). votive of Fragments by imperial freedman under Trajan (IscM, op. cit. (n. 37), II 38 and

under 293-305:

in Greek

votive

Pius, AE

(1997),

Latin

and

votive

1326-28;

milestones

in late

re-used

tomb

chamber

(a.d.

of Elagabalus II): AE (1993), 1374-7; milestone AE (1994), 1532; epitaphs: AE (1995), 1339-44; in a.d.

AE 198-209: Tomitana by metropolis

milestones

1324?5; (1.997), to Etruscilla

and

of

Younger

Decius: AE (1998), 1150; votive to Dea Syria: AE (1994), 1343. 13. Palazu Mare ROM: early burgus, 3 km south-east of Ovidiu (ZG68i). recorded on inscrip 14. Vicus Turris Mucaporis (Anadolchioi ROM) [B22F4]: watchtower tion,

IscM,

cit.

op.

2 no.

(n. 37),

141

(ZG68h).

15. Vicus Scaptia (Palazul Mare ROM) [B22F4] 16. Vicus C?leris (Vadul? ROM) [B22F4] 17. Lacus Pyrgus (unlocated): burgus} (ZG68g). 18. Histria (Istria ROM) [B22F4]: Greek city and port, military II Hispanorum

coh.

Claudia,

Moesian

Aravacorum,

fleet

stamps of I It?lica, XI

station,

base,

bf.

cos.

der

rum?nischen

station

manned

by

I It?lica (ZG68). et

P. Alexandrescu Xenia

meerkuste,

25

al.,

eine

Histria:

an

Stadt

griechischen

Schwarze

(1990).

Histria VIII Amphora Stamps: 1 Thasos (ed. A. Avram) (1996); 2 Sinope (ed.N. Conovici) (1998). IX Les statues et les reliefs en pierre (ed.M. A. Vianu) (2001). list of city's benefactors by K. Nawotka, AE (1997), 1315. New fragment Chronological of

of

record

(1997),

fourth-century 1344.

now of Mithridates, dated to Pius by ex-soldier magistri

strategos Votive

1316.

Cemetery:

decuri?n V.

of Histria:

AE

V.

Zirra,

Teleaga

and

c. 90-89 of vici:

b.c.

rather

AE

(1998),

(1998), 1149. Merchant Die

des

Nekropole

to 72-71 b.c.: Latin epitaph

than 1148.

AE

from Nicomedia:

6-1

v. Chr.

Jahrs

Von

bei Histria, Int. Arch. 83 (2003). 19. Vicus Quintionis (near Istria ROM) [B22F4] 20. Vicus Buteridavensis (Sariurt? ROM) [B22F4] 21. Argamum ROM) [B22F4]: Hellenistic (Sarichioi?/Cape Doloman-Jurilovca? re-used in Roman period, partly eroded by Razelm Lake (ZG67). Excavations

(1979-1983)

of

burgus

at

Limes

Toprachioi,

XIII

cit.

(op.

22. Ad Salices (6Martie/Caramanchioi? ROM), fort? (ZG66). 23. Vallis Domitiana (Agighiol/Sarichioi? ROM): possible fort near Tulcea Odessus (1) to Sexaginta Prista (Mi.30) 24. Marcianopolis (Reka Devnija third century (B-L, 233; ZG137). Construction

Greek 25.

Shoumen

of

[B22D5]:

[B22E5]: Trajanic

in territory

fortifications

epitaph of gladiator, BUL

BUL)

of

late second-early

second-third-century

the

city

planned

in a.d.

fort?,

on

site

239: ZG133). 26. Abritus (Razgrad BUL) [B22D5]: walled settlement, military (B-L, 238: ZG132). legio XI Claudia, coh. II Lucensium

of

(1999),

Istria

Bent

fortifications

(n. 17)),

562-72.

(ZG65).

city, military

152: AE

third century: AE

AE

(2000),

station

in

1268.

(1996), 1337.

of Thracian

settlement

station second-third

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(B-L,

century,


194

J. WILKES

J. New

statio

cos.

of bf.

attested

one

by votives,

to Epona,

ioo (1994), 484-6 (AE (i993)> 1369-70). (24) to Durostorum Marcianopolis (Mi.48) 27. Palmatis (Kochular? BUL) [B22E5]: fortified One (2001),

two

of

of

milestones

a.d.

settlement

records

237-238

into

incorporated

ZPE

later walls,

(ZG152). 'a Palmatis

distance

m.p.

AE

II[...]',

1736-7

Tomis (12) to Altinum (Mi.55) 28. Tropaeum Traiani (Adamclisi ROM) reconstructed

fourth

early

of I It?lica Moesica century

[B22E4]: Trajanic

A.D.

before

in late second

Dacica

defences,

city, early third-century

V Maced?nica

station,

military

and V Maced?nica

vexillation

170,

century, XI Claudia

in third

(ZG153).

M.

restoration

of

the

original

(12) to Carsium

Tomis

and

the

of

inscription text of A.D.

duplicate

romane

11: monumentele

Traiani

Tropaeum

S?mpetru, Problem of

Roads

century,

109, AE

(1996),

(1984). arise

may

Tropaeum

a Constantinian

from

i335a-b.

(Mi.65) in the Dobrudja

milestones

M.

region:

et al.,

Barbulescu

Pontica

31

120-9.

(1998),

29. Ulmetum (Pantelimon de Sus ROM) [B22F4] to member of imperial guard who died in battle at Chrysopolis Monument (Chalcedon) on 8 September A.D. 324, perhaps fighting on the side of Licinius: M. P. Speidel, Chiron 25 = Chiron 27 (1997), (1995), 83-7 (AE (1995), 1338 (1976), 631), or perhaps not: D. Woods, On Romanization and the cult of Silvanus in this region, with 85-93 (AE (1997), 1317). reference to IscM, op. cit. (n. 37), V 66 and 67: AE (1999), 1342 (Z. Goceva). Tomis (12) to Novidunum (Mi.77) 30. Vicus Hi(... .) (Dorobantul ROM) [B22F4] 31. Vicus Urb(.. .) (R?mnicul de Jos ROM) [B22F4] 32. (L)lbida (Slava Rus? ROM) [B22F4] in area

Settlement

in der Sp?tantike

in second-seventh

APPENDIX

Noricum The

abbreviations

Kandier-Vetters,

cit.

op.

1. Passau Altstadt

2.

GER

AUS

Passau-Innstadt

50 by

B: THE DANUBE

20 m;

50 by

are employed: = Genser, 18); G

(n.

(Batavis) late

timber,

confluence;

and H. Bender, Geschichte c.

A.

et al., Die

Opait.

Schwarzmeerk?ste

(1992), 103-12.

CORDON

(N)

following

Danube

A.D.:

century

und der fr?hen Mittelalter

late

first

=

FK op.

[B12G4]: century

der Stadt Passau

last fort in Raetia,

A.D.;

(n.

18); KV

=

on tongue of land at Inn

IX Batavorum

coh.

cit.

H.

(J. Niemeier,

Wolff

(1999)).

late [B12G4]: fourth century

(Boiotro) third-early

op.

Friesinger-Krinzinger, cit. (n. 18).

fort

Inn

above

(see No.

confluence,

trapezium

plan

1).

from vicus recording purchase of mortarium for half a denarius: AE (1999), 1215. AUS (Abaoco}): late brick and tile works (KV, 69-71). StMarienkirchen

Graffito

3. Sch?rding, 4.

Passau-Innstadt stone

quingenaria;

tower?,

burgus; (FK,

c. 1.3 ha, Domitianic, coh. AUS timber fort, (Boiodurum) [B12G4]: Passau after Marcus Haibach, (FK, 150-4). fort, c. 1.3 ha, coh. V Breucorum 12 12 m with stone fourth second-third tower, ditch, century century; by

154-6).

5. Kempelstein (Esternberg AUS), burgus} (G, 747). 6. Roning (Engelhartzell AUS), burgus} (G, 747). AUS fortlet, 7. Oberanna (Stanacum?) [B12G4]: towers external round late fortlet, 12.5 by 17 m, with

8. Schl?gen Breucorum

AUS (stamps),

(loviacum}) destroyed

[B12G4]: c.

A.D.

300;

late

second

(FK,

century,

fort, Hadrianic-Marcomannic fourth

century,

coh.

V

Breucorum?.-,

160).

quadrangular

period, fort

with

coh.

V

round

towers, 0.65 ha, Legion II It?lica (stamps), fleet base with milites liburnarii (KV, 160-4). Passauer Das H. Bender r?mische Donaukastell and G. Moosbauer, Schl?gen, Univschrift. Zur Arch. 8 (2003) (finds from excavations of 1957-1959 and 1984).

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THE

ROMAN

DANUBE:

AUS:

9. Rossgraben/Kobling

AN

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

stone

burgus;

tower

SURVEY

8 by

8 m,

195 Muhl

opposite

valley

(G, 77-80).

10. Hilkering, Hartkirchen AUS: burgus(}) (G, 747). 11. Asbach AUS: probable fort or burgus indicated by finds (KV, 80-1). 12. Eferding AUS (AdMauros) [B12H4]: late first-century fort?, coh. Maurorum}; promoti

(KV,

13. Wilhering

AUS:

?quit?s

late brick works,

stamps of Legion

stone AUS: 14. Hirschleitengraben burgus; stone late fourth-century tower, 9.55 by 9.75 m,

15. Linz AUS stone

fort, second-third

tower

II It?lica (FK, 173).

6 by

stamps

6 m,

late

(KV,

84-6).

century;

ala

1 Pannoniorum

late

third-fourth

fort,

(FK, 180-7). sagittarii E. M. Ruprechtsberger,

Limes

with Terra

second-third

on

century,

cit.

(op. road:

legio

(n.

Abstracts

19)),

J.

ala

200), pars

Thracum}

inferior,

Sentia

AE

Secunda,

16. Lorch/Enns contra);

AUS

(Lauriacum)

fortress,

legionary

539

Die

Steinberger,

r?mische

21 ha,

late

second

late third and early fourth century; fleet base, unlocated town:

Civil area

of

the

from

von

in Aquileia

and

Scherrer,

locally-produced

II It?lica;

century,

(KV, 26 in

reconstructed

(FK, 187-97). cit.

op.

On the (n. 9), 257-6. L. Eckhardt, reliefs:

fourth-century

command RO

11/12

17-40.

(1983/1984),

17. Albing

AUS

[B12 H4]:

in favour

vacated

in Sasel-Kos

Ubl H.-J. inferred

legion

1989

Grabfunde

fort, 120 by 80 m

Claudian

[B12H4]: possible

398 m,

by

of

cemetery,

a-b.

1214

(1999),

?quit?s

(excavations

82-3

Leonding, Linzer Arch. Forsch. Sonderheft 24 (2000). Inscriptions: AE (1998), 1013 a-c (tile stamps); on bases of glass vessels made by

century;

(also two inhumations)

cremation

Leonding

Linz-Wels

(c. a.d. 11 Italicae

Tampiana century,

XIX

Sigillata).

third

second-early

or late first century a.D., cavalry unit;

(Lenti?) [B12H4]: fort, possibly Claudian

Hadrian-Pius,

and 1997-1998

late fort?,

81-2).

Valentinian?

(KV,

18. St Pantaleon

568 by 412 m,

fortress,

legionary

of Lauriacum

of flooding,

because

II It?lica

late second

23.3 ha,

ala Antoniana;

p.f.,

century,

military

base,

105-9).

AUS: fourth-century

brickworks

on bank of Ertl east of Enns, II It?lica (FK,

195-6).

19. Au Rotte Hof (Engelbachm?hle AUS): burgus; stone tower, 9 by 9 m, II It?lica stamps (FK, 195-6). 20. Wallsee AUS (Ad luvense or Lolacus Felix) [B12H4]: earth-and-timber fort, 3.2 ha; stone late fort, Legion I Noricorum at Ad luvense (KV, 113-17; FK, fort, coh. I Aelia Brittonum; 196-201; against 21. Aschbach no.

identification (Amstetten

with AUS):

Ad luvense). on Danube settlement

road?

(TIR,

cit.

op.

(n. 2), M}^,

p.

22

254).

22.

south

Abetzburg

23.

an der Url AUS

24. Mauer late

timber, (KV,

of Wallsee

south-west

Schweinburg, first

stone

century;

AUS: of Wallsee

(Lolacus Felix) fort,

(TIR,

burgus} AUS:

200

by

op.

cit. late

burgus,

(n. 2), M33, fourth century

p.

19 no. (FK,

[B12H4]: fort on right bank of Url,

160 m,

second

century?;

late

fort,

253).

201-2).

?quit?s

earth and sagittarii}

117-21).

25. Ardagger Markt AUS: fort or burgus (?) at entrance to Strudengau (G, 747). 26. Ybbs AUS (Ad luvense}): burgus at exit of Strudengau constructed in a.d. 370 by milites auxiliares

Lauriacenses,

27. Neumarkt

legio

I Noricorum

(KV,

stamps

an der Ybbs AUS (Ad Ponte(m)

I(ve)ses)

122-3).

[B12I4]: burgus at river crossing

(KV,

123-4).

28. Sarling AUS: burgus near mouth of the Ybbs, 2.60 m internal (KV, 124). 29. P?chlarn AUS (Ar(e)lape) [B12I4]: fort and fleet base near mouth of Erlauf on east bank, perhaps

an

island

in Roman

times;

timber

and

earth,

late

first

century

A.D.?,

coh.

quingenaria;

stone fort, coh. I Flavia Brittonum milliaria; late brick works, of(ficina) Ar(lapensis) n(ova); fleet base on south side of 'island' (KV, 124-8). 30. Wieselberg AUS: burgus upstream of Erlauf (G, 747). Silver bowl (614 gr) inscribed I.O.M., probably from Balkan AE (2001), workshop: i6ooa-b.

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196

J. WILKES

J.

AUS

31. Melk-Spielburg

15 by 15 m

and burgus,

[B12I4]: road settlement

(?amare)

(KV,

128-30).

32. Loosdorf AUS: burgus} (G, 747). AUS: burgus} (G, 747). 33. Aggsbachdorf AUS:

Bacharnsdorf

34. (KV,

at mouth

burgus

of Kupfer

12.2

valley,

12.2 m,

by

late

fourth

century

130-2).

35. St Lorenz AUS: burgus 36.

(FK, 206-7). AUS:

Rossatzbach-Windstallgraben

12.4

burgus,

12.4 m

by

(FK,

207-8).

37. Oberbergen AUS: burgus (G, 747). AUS: burgus on Danube left bank inWachau (G, 747). 38. Weissenkirchen Mautern AUS 39. (Favianis) [B12I4]: fort on major Danube crossing at exit from Wachau; and

timber

first

earth,

V.

et al.,

Gassner

Das

II Batavorum

coh.

century,

Kastell

Rom.

Mautern-Favianis,

sud von Mautern Die Grabung 1998 im Kastellvicus (n. 17)), 375-7 (revised phasing). Cemeteries: M. Pollak, Sp?tantike Grabfunde Brick

AE

stamps:

1227;

(1997),

(op. cit.

Limes XVIII

stone

milliaria;

(2000),

(n. 17)), 567-72.

240 m,

ha,

4.86

39

of

S. Groh,

(2000).

(op. cit.

(2001). Limes XVII

aus FlavianislMautern

(1993). second

early

on Terra

and graffiti

Stamps

in Ost.

Limes

kilns

by

(FK, 208-15).

an der Donau

Pottery

1148.

180

fort,

late fort in south half; INoricorum

early second century; reduced

in vicus:

century

Sigillata: AE

(2001),

1598-99.

40. St Polten AUS Wachau

313 41. 42. 43. 44.

from

XVI')

m.p.

Scherrer,

road

A.D.

of

Milestones (n. 9), 213-44. to Tulln: AE 1014-15. (1998),

cit.

op. on

Gemeinlebern

on frontier road

under Hadrian,

[B12I4]: settlement, municipium

(FK, 215-20). in Sasel-Kos and

by-passing P. Scherrer ('a. Cetio

(Cetium)

am Traisen: AE (2001), 1597. from Nussdorf AUS: burgus} (G, 747). Mauternbach Gottweig AUS: burgus} (G, 748). Krems AUS: burgus} on Danube left bank (G, 748). Gobelsberg AUS: burgus(}) on Danube left bank (G, 748). AUS

Traismauer

45. earth

fort,

ala};

late

late

ha,

4.06 fort,

AUS:

A.D.,

(FK,

AUS: burgus(})

Ponsee

47. Maria

timber-and of Traisen; fort on east side of mouth [B12I4]: stone second ala I Augusta fort, Thracum; century?,

(Augustiana) first century

Dalmatae

?quit?s

46. Hollenburg

221-5).

on promontory tower

burgus,

(KV, 140?1). circular

with

second

ditch,

Valentinian? Fels

49.

(KV, 231-2). am Wagram AUS:

Valentinian?

(KV,

50. Zwentendorf century

a.D.;

left

Danube

160

fortlet,

bank;

120

by

m?,

of Krems;

Ursicinus

stamps,

231-2).

(Asturis?) [B12I4]: fort, earth and timber, 154 by 100 m, c. 1.5 ha, late

AUS stone

fort,

100

by

174 m,

coh.

Trajanic,

V Breucorum

equitata,

first-third

stone

century;

fort,

Trajanic;

late

fort,

?quit?s

Asturum

coh.

(KV, 148-53). (stamps); late fort, INoricorum 51. Murstetten (Weissenkirchen AUS): burgus on river Perschling (G, 748). timber and earth fort, 4.2-4.5 52. Tulln AUS [B12I4/B13B4]: (Comagena) Commagenorum,

50 m

tower

century?;

distant, 6 by 6 m, with circular ditch and palisade, third century? (KV, 146-7). left bank 12 km north-east 48. Etsdorf am Kamp AUS: burgus(}) on Danube

first

217/218 of a.d.

Epitaph

ha,

promoti,

(FK, 226-30). (Co)maginensis 53. Tr?bensee AUS: burgus on Danube left bank at crossing opposite Tulln (G, 748). AUS (Cannabiaca?) [B13B4]: timber and earth fort? Flavian?; stone 54. Zeiselmauer c.

2.1

ha,

north-east

second-third corner,

55. St Andr? 56.

Plank

century, late

fifth

fourth-early

an der Hagenthaie

am Kamp

coh.

AUS:

11 Thracum century

equitata; (FK,

AUS: burgus west

temporary

camp,

130

by

late

fort;

burgus,

231-6).

of Zeiselmauer 120 m

(KV,

(G, 748). 236-7).

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20

by

I

ala classis

fort,

20 m

in


THE

Pannonia

see under FK, G, and KV Solva (41) to Dunabogd?ny

from

burgi

refers to Roman

M

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

197

(Ps)

Superior

References:

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

V = Visy, op. to number

Noricum; (53),

gens Marcomannorum promoti, Late Roman and German

(n. 20, in Soproni,

as numbered

campaign bases north of the Danube

(n. 7), 870-94. op. cit. J. Tejral, 1. AUS (Arrianis?) Klosterneuburg orum stone fort, Trajanic, prima; I Aelia Hadrian-third coh. century,

cit.

refers

2003); op.

nos

S, before cit. (n. 20,

of

1978);

in Festschrift

by J.Musil

coh. Montan timber and earth, fort, Flavian, [B13B4]: 2.2 stone 11 Batavorum coh. milliaria fort, ha, p.fi; 2.2. late milliaria fort, ha?, ?quit?s sagittariorum equitata;

(FK,

236-40).

cemetery:

et al.,

J. Neugebauer

XIV

Limes

cit.

(op.

(n.

17)),

in Asia from Miletopolis 585-95. Greek record of masseur (aleiptes) of unit commander, Minor: ZPE 99 (1993), 203-6 (AE (1992), 1446). 2. Wien AUS (Vindobona) [B13B4]: timber and earth fort, Domitian, ala I Flavia Britannica milliaria; Gemina

18.5 by 500 m, Limes research:

fortress, 455 Recent town, 24

on (I.Mader); the manufacture

585-9

(including Abstract

iron

of

swords).

of brick stamps and fabrics produced here and at Carnuntum

Comparison XIX,

XIII third 455 by 500 m, century, 18.5 ha, a.d. 97-early A.D. a.d. X Gemina 101-118/119, 118/119-?; legionary X Gemina third-fifth (FK, 241-52). ha, early century, on civil et al.); XVIII (n. 17)), (M. Kronberger 573-84 (op. cit. et Sakl-Oberthaler Limes Abstract XIX, canabae, (S. al.); 591-604 stone, Gemina

fortress, XIIII

legionary a.d. 97-101,

AUS:

3. Wien-Leopoldau second

century (KV, 4. Wien-Landstrasse cohort (KV, 184-7).

232). AUS:

timber

and

earth

5. Wien-D?bling

AUS: burgus, Valentinian AUS:

7. Schwechat AUS stone 170

fort,

200 m,

by

8. Fischamend late

a.D.?;

11. H?flein

12. Petronell AUS a.d.

ala

60s,

Dalmatae or more

fortlet,

cohors 80-89/90, stone fort, 178

(Carnuntum)

by

I Alpinorum 207 m,

by

(KV,

(KV,

176-7).

century,

ala 1Thracum

118/119-?,

late

detachment;

^/legionary

187-92).

(KV, 192-5). stone 4 by burgi, 11 m,

tower

4.80

A.D.

dated

300

walled

(KV,

in same

watchtowers

area

ala

Vespasian,

a.d. ala 89/90-, peditata I Thracum ala ha, 3.66 A.D. I Thracum victrix} ala ditches

military-type

by

197-9). (FK,

by 52.5/54.75

253-8).

[B13B4]: fort, timber and earth, 178 by 195 m under

12

enclosures,

stone fortlet, 61.85/64.50

5 km from Danube; three

within

m,

1 Tungrorum

from

(ditch),

Frontoniana

c. A.D.

c. A.D. 106-; sagittaria of Trajan, end sagittaria to late fourth (KV, century 118/119 town indicate fort on east of civil early III Thracum

veterana

212-13).

H. Stiglitz (ed.), Das Auxiliarkastell Carnuntum 1 (1997); M. Kandier On the civil town (municipium later colonia): FK, 263-8. The

a.d.

of

late Roman

prominent

Constantius date

or

ala

A.D.,

century

[B13B4]: fort, timber and earth?, ala}, late first century

Aravacorum

equiteslpedites singulares, Petronell 208-12); (Carnuntum): (KV,

10

century;

IHispanorum

first

(ditch),

fortress,

(KV, 175-6).

century

mid-second

3.4 ha, Dalmatae

AUS: Am Kirchberg, second-fourth

occupied

m,

(Aequinoctium)

I95-7) AUS:

stamps

left bank opposite

[B13B4]: fort, earth and timber, a.d.

?quit?s

stone, fort, ?quit?s two AUS: Eilend

9. Maria 12.75 m (KV> 10. Regelsbrunn m,

3.4 ha,

AUS

200

by

350 m

? by

fort,

first-fourth

brickworks,

(AlaNova) 170

fort,

on Danube

remains of bridgehead

6. Wien-Hernals

victrix};

(No. 13), Limes

33.

II:W.

four-way

Jobst, Das Heidentor Corinthian

351-361.

capitals,

monument

etc.:

Limes

now

(Heidentor),

von Carnuntum XIV

(2001), with (op.

cit.

(ed.), Il (1997). dated

from

inscriptions (n.

17)),

561-73,

spolia

to

indicating 639-50.

shrine: W.

41 (1989), 349-58. Jobst, ActArchHung in a.d. 218; also AE (2001), Inscriptions: AE (1998), 1042 (votive to Silvanus Domesticus (immunis tubularius)); 1651); 1043 (votive by pipe-inspector (1999), 1248 (votive to Bona 1249 (votive to Aequitas); Valetudo); (2001), 1650 (centurion of XV Apollinaris). Mixed indicated by burials and monuments in the territory of the community Epona

municipium, (n. 17)),

with Abstract

divisions

more

marked

in early

period:

J. Beszedes,

Limes

14.

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XIX

(op.

cit.


198

J. WILKES

J.

13. Deutsch

AUS

Altenburg

Apollinaris; Gemina

a.d.

335-400

by

fortress,

stone,

6S-69,

XXII

m,

17 ha,

480

335-400

south-west, On

the

of to

of

the Roman

(n.

17)),

The

(op. distinctive

introduced

by

cit. to

them

(KV, 221-2). construction

see M.

Limes

to south-east,

Gemina;

stone,

fortress,

with

originates Gassner

V.

to

or recovery On (n. 7), 43-52. R. Kastler, locations:

post-Marcomannic cit.

stationed legions XVI Limes (op.

et al.,

c. 600 m

5.50 m;

by

op. Tejral, other similar

Festschrift with compared

period,

5.50

? phase

Kandier,

605-24. ware'

'legionary the Danube,

400 m

6 m;

5 by

Severan ?

monumentalization planned at the end Carnuntum XVIII

X

end of third-fifth century (FK, 258-63); Deutsch Altenburg remains Deutsch (KV, 220-1); (Carnuntum): Altenburg

fortress, the south

much-debated

XV late Tiberius/Claudius, A.D. VII Gemina 62-68, a.d. stone, 71-; fortress, A.D. XIIII Gemina 118/119-;

17 ha,

timber,

ha,

Claudius/Nero, XV 69-71, Apollinaris XV century, Apollinaris, XIIII 17 ha, end of second century,

480 m,

17+ ha, possible

350 m east and a fourth

watchtowers,

17

a.d.

Primigenia second early

by

335-400 by 480 m, (Carnuntum): fort,

fortress,

(Carnuntum): and stone,

timber

fortress,

in Germany cit.

was

and 301-9.

(n. 17)),

A new reading of the Pfaffenberg texts (on which see Limes XII (op. cit. (n. 17)), 6^9-69) describes the inhabitants of the canabae as 'c(ives) R(omani) intra Carnunti cons(istentes) leugam pr(imam)', that is dwelling within an area of one league (2.2 km) of the fortress: I. Piso, Tyche 6 (1991), 131-69 (AE (1991), 1309-14, cf. (2000), 1186). votives:

Other

to have

known

on

Maximinus

architrave temple A.D. in Pannonia

been

11 June

a.d.

AE

286,

in the Jupiter AE 136-137,

1396;

(1994),

a figure a votive

of L. Aelius or

column

Caesar, statue for

1262.

(1995),

in a precinct of eastern deities was for from those of the official Pfaffenberg

shrine in the west (M?hl?ckern) with figured images distinct

Another Jupiter I.O.M. Heliopolitanus,

with

sanctuary

to Sarapis G. Kremer, XIX Limes and (n. 17)), Abstract 48. A shrine precinct: (op. cit. to Caracalla, to Liber AE is an altar with six faces there and Libera dated 1209; (2001), east of the canabae, AE the sanctuary (2001), 1646-7. on in procuring have revealed the role of centurions Dipinti supplies amphorae E. Alram-Stern, AE fortress, 1251-2 (cf. (1996), Lampen (1995), Lamps: 1264-5).

35 (1989). Glass production:

RL?

Carnuntum,

V.

Gassner

from

sites

Cemeteries:

et al.,

R?

19-20

is

from to

the aus

7-10.

(1991-1992),

zu den

Untersuchungen

Isis

in Carnuntum,

Gr?berfelden

RL?

40 (1999) New

finds

in the hinterland:

H.

Limes

Zabehlicky,

XVII

(op.

cit.

(n. 17)),

623-7.

At the Bruckneudorf/Parndorf villa these include a large threshing-floor, Limes XIX, Abstract a of the record 25; c(ivitatis) Boiorum, AE (1999), 1251; an altar to Silvanus pr(inceps) Domesticus

a servus

by

from

saltuarius,

Br?ck

an der

AE

Leitha,

a

1397;

(1994),

of

magistrate

Aelium the municipium [Carnuntum] from the same location, AE (1997), 1256; stamped military and civic bricks from the villa at H?flein, AE (1998), 1046 a-c; also epitaphs of veterans,

a primuspilus,

including

from

am

Mannersdorf

AE

Leithaberg,

(2001),

also

1652-5

1645 (speculator of leg. X). (KV, 234-6). 14. Stopfenreuth AUS: bridgehead fortification opposite Carnuntum ala I Cannanefatium SVK (Gerulat?) [B13C4]: fort, timber, Domitian, 15. Rusovce/Oroszv?r civium

Romanorum;

orum;

possible

stone

fort, fort,

temporary

post-Marcomannic late second century;

wars, late

ala

I Cannanefatium

fortlet

in corner

Roman

civium of

left praetentura.

BAR Suppl. L. Kraskovsk?, The Roman Cemetery at Gerulata/Rusovce, Czechoslovakia, 10 (1976); K. Kuzmov? and J. Rajt?r (eds), Gerulata 1 (1996) (on the auxiliary fort); VI. Varsik in Tejral-Piet?-Rajt?r, settlements (on native

16. Gerulata Pattersdorf

burgi south;

(n. 7), op. cit. in the area).

(V, 16-17):

Limes

267-80;

XVI

(1) Rajka/Ragendorf;

cit.

(n. 17)),

73-83;

XVII,

(2) Bezenye/Patterdorf; stone

south-west,

(4) Bezenye/Pattersdorf

(op.

tower,

6.95

by

629-42

(3) Bezenye/ 7.2

m,

second

century.

Tile (1991),

299-313,

R?

17. Mosonmagyar?v?r before

a.d. Epitaph

at (1) Rajka/Ragendorf:

I Noricorum

kiln of Legion 19/20

(1991-1992),

HUN

late fort, 133-170S; of ala, of veteran

(Ad Flexum) stone, late

L. Borhy, ActArchHung

43

21-7. cuneus second

[B20E2]: fort, timber, coh. II Alpinorum Dalmatarum?,

equitum century:

AE

(2001),

?quit?s 1644.

This content downloaded from 129.174.21.5 on Sun, 5 May 2013 21:44:08 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

promoti

equitata (V,

18).


THE

18. Ad Flexum mouth

river;

c. 130

bridgehead,

century; (1) Izabella-major, south-east puszta (3) near Horv?tkimle-Kisnyila HUN:

19. Mosonmagyar?v?r

HUN

II Alpinorum coh. late Trajanic, i 18/119; fort, stone, 113 by Romanorum; c. A.D. 220-

stone,

fort, ; fort,

stone,

113

by

60 by

timber,

Danube

opposite fourth

walls,

flanking

at Danube

(2)Horv?tkimle

1.3

115.5,

ha,

bend;

(V,

19-20). a.d.

Romanorum, 1111 Voluntariorum

coh.

Mauri

?quit?s

civium

Ill Alpinorum

coh.

ha,

Constantine,

m?, 1.15 ha,

civium

Commodus, c. Caracalla,

1.3

1.3 ha,

ha

0.5

1111 Voluntariorum

coh.

m,

80 m,

[B20E2]: fort, timber, c. 105 by no

(Quadrata)

115.5

by

with

3.5 m,

(Di?stelep).

equitata, 115.5 m,

113

6 by

of Mosonmagyar?v?r;

fortlet,

20. L?b?ny-Bar?tfoldpuszta

199

on left bank of Mosoni tower

140 m,

by

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

(4)M?riak?lnok

(V, 17-19):

burgi

of Lajta

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

equitata,

(V, 20).

on west of Kun 21. Quadrata (2) Toronyv?r-dul? burgi (V, 20-1): (1) S?ndorh?zapuszta; island (Kunsziget) near bank on bend of Mosoni Danube; (3) north-east of Abda; (4) Abda (Dobsa) on bank of Rabea river. c. 22. Gy?r HUN (Arrabona) [B20E2]: fort, earth and timber, Claudian, ala Pannoniorum I Augusta

ala

Claudius, orum a.d.

92/113Romanorum

civium

Ituraeorum ; fort, A.D.

c. Nero-A.D.

sagittariorum c.

stone,

3.45 by 230 m, c. 150 stone, by

150 ; fort,

113/114-

92, ala I Ulpia

ala

ha,

150 m,

2.25

I Hispanorum

Aravac

contariorum

milliaria

Constantinian,

ha,

?quit?s

(V, 21).

promoti

on

Inscriptions

val(etudinarii) eq. HUN:

('librfarius) 23.

Gy?r

24.

T?pszentmikl?s

staves

barrel

[I]I Ad.',

alae

cont(ariorum)

domo c.

in

'immune

area of

From

i259a-e.

(1995),

camp,

temporary HUN:

at Menf?csanak:

in well

used

AE

leg.

fort: AE

r(ationem)

(2001),

1641-3

Siscia').

100

130 m (V, 21). with early occupation

by

camp

temporary

(V, 21).

10 by 10m, second-third 25. Arrabona burgi (V, 22-5): (1)Gy?r-Lik?cs; (2)Gy?r-Eszterget?, road junction; (8) east of Gy?r, 1800 m west of century; (3) near Gy?rszentiv?n-Ujmajor road

Gy?rszentiv?n

east

(4) Inn of V?nek,

junction;

c. 25 m,

tower

of Gy?rszentiv?n,

rhomboid

ditch 74 by 74 m; (5) c. 2 km east of V?nek Inn; (6) G?ny?, double ditch, 43 by 43 m, c. 60 by 60 m, c. Valentinian; (Prolet?r field), single ditch c. 50 by 50 m; (7) east of (9) east of G?ny? tower circular ditch 23 by 27 m, second century; (10) west m, 15 by 15 (Prolet?r field), G?ny? of Acs-Vaspuszta,

HUN

civium

Romanorum; c. A.D. Romanorum c.

112 m,

1.19

Votive AE

fort,

c.

timber,

ha, Constantinian to Deus Invictus

by

no

m,

leg.

c.

by

112 m,

linked

with

II Adiut.,

AE

visit

civium

equitata

1.19

ha,

fort,

century;

118/119-third

Isis Regina

by praef.

I Thracum

coh.

Hadrianic, 106 stone,

fort, A.D.

century; Romanorum

Triad

coh. IIII Voluntariorum

[B20E2]: fort, timber, Trajanic,

105

(V, 25). and Sarapis

to Capitoline

1202;

(2000),

70 m.

by

(Ad Statuas)

118/119-third civium equitata

I Thracum

coh.

c. 70

ditch

single

26. Acs-Vaspuszta

Commodan, 106 stone, in a.d.

of Caracalla

by 213:

1212.

(2000),

fort, single ditch c. 46 by 27. Ad Statuas burgi (V, 27-8): (1) 2.8 km south of Acs-Vaspuszta of fort. south-east m; (2) Acs-Papista (Fels?sz?l?k), 46 Acs-Vaspszta 28. Acs-Bumbumkut HUN [B20E2]: fort, timber and earth?; fort, stone, c. 126 by (AdMures) 180 m,

c. 2.27

ha,

29. Ad Mures west

(V, 28-9).

burgi (V, 29-30): tower

of Kopp?nymonostor,

(6) on island north of Acs, opposite mouth 9.55

by 9.55

m,

circular

c. 60 m

ditch

of river Conc?;

diameter,

(1)

Valentinian;

farm; (4) (2) Szunyogv?r cottage, Kopp?nymonostor; (3) Kopp?nymonostor, Moln?r/Hars?nyi (5) Kopp?ny Gy?rky cottage, single ditch 45 by 45 m, Valentinian?; Kopp?nymonostor, villa.

K?v?ri

monostor,

30. Sz?ny HUN XI

A.D.,

fortress, m,

23.2

Adiutrix

stone, ha,

430

by

Tetrarchy,

106,

XXX

540 m, 23.2 I Adiutrix;

Ulpia

stone, 430 by 540 m, 23.2 ha, end of first century

Victrix

A.D.

ha, Marcus-Caracalla, stone,

fortress,

106-123/124, I Adiutrix; by

540 m,

ZPE

101

430

A.D.

I Adiutrix

123/124-;

fortress,

stone,

23.2

Constantinian,

ha,

430

by

540 I

(V, 30-4). town:

Civil Milestone conlapsas across

[B20F2]: fortress,

(Brigetio) to a.d.

Claudia

Pottery the

cum

V, 31-2. of a.d. 238, per

pontibus imports,

Danube,

G. K.

B. L?rincz, leg. Adi.

F?nyes, Kuzmov?,

and a

Limes

E.

Szamado,

Brig(etione) XIX (op.

Limes

XVII,

m.p. cit.

(1994),

205-7

fvias

vetustate

II'). (n.

699-704;

17)),

Abstracts

pottery

26-7; production:

This content downloaded from 129.174.21.5 on Sun, 5 May 2013 21:44:08 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

pottery G.

traffic F?nyes,


200

J. WILKES

J.

54 (2003), 101-63. Epitaph (new reading) of shipper of sigillata from Pons Aeni on river Inn (RI.36): AE (1999), 1246. Bone production: ActArchHung 39 (1987),

ActArchHung (Pfaffenhofen) 153-92. 31.

Limes

Metal-working: fort:

stone

Brigetio

ala};

Aravacorum, stone,

fort, Floral

170 m,

by

stone, ?; fort, 3.1 ha, Constantinian M. Hajnatova,

176 m, remains, in the

camps

Temporary

area:

Limes

J. Rajt?r,

camps

temporary

Brigetio,

cohort?

ha,

2.38

(V,

no.

37-8

XVII).

ala I

timber, Pius-Marcus,

176 m,

3.1 ha, Marcus-Commodus, op. cit. (n. 20, 1988), 57-8). (Visy, Limes XIX cit. (n. 17)), Abstract (op. 175

by

and armour, J. Rajt?r, Journal of Rom. Mil.

weapons 33.

140

[B20F2]: fort on left bank,

Trajan-

175 by faunal

and

301-7. Sz?ny,

SVK (Celamantia)

32. Iza/Le?nyv?r Hispanorum

XIII, east of

fort

XVI,

(numbers

(1994-1995),

Equipment

34;

83-95.

473-7. to

according

V,

cohort,

(1)

34-8):

= 1.1 = ha; (4) ala, 160 by 195 m 3.1 ha; (5) Claudius-Domitian; (2) cohort, 102 by no m = = m 1.2 ha; (7) ala milliaria}, 260 by 320 cohort, 120 by 155 1.9 ha; (6) cohort, 90 by 130 m =

m

m = c. 5.4 ha; c. 135 m = c. 1.8 ha; c. 200 (10) (8) ala}, (9) cohort, by 140 by 275 = = m = 0.8 ha; m 100 80 numerus, ala, 2.5 ha; (12) (11) 165 by 260 m by 185 by = 1.6 ha. = c. c. c. no m c. 290 190 by 5.75 ha; milliaria, (15) cohort, (13) ala/ala by 145

c. 8.32

cohort, 4.3

ha:

135

ha;

34. Brigetio burgi (V, 33-8): (5) west of porta decumana of fortress, single ditch 46 by 23 m; (6)west of fortress in canabae, single ditch 32 by 32 m; (7) west of fortress in canabae, single ditch 32 by 32 m; (8) east of Sz?ny, beneath railway; (1) Sz?ny-Kuruc hill, tower 10 m square, (2) Alm?sf?zit?-Perj?spuszta, factory buildings; (3) west single ditch 80 by 80 m, Valentinian; of oil refinery; (4) on Danube left bank, 2 km from Iza fort. 35. Alm?sf?zit? HUN (Odiavum [Azaum]) [B20F2]: fort, timber, Trajanic, ala 1 Britannica civium

; fort,

118/119Thracum

Constantinian,

ha,

ala

97-101,

a.d. sagittaria 111 Augusta ala

century, 3.36

a.d.

Romanorum

Thracum

by

a.d.

sagittariorum

Dalmatae;

?quit?s

a.d.

I Bosporanorum 166 stone,

ala

ha,

Pius-end

3.36

; fort,

118/119-

stone,

fortlet,

101-118/119, m,

203

31.8

by

32.5 m,

III Augusta of second

166 by 203 m, stone, 1 ha, early fifth century

(V, 38-9) camp cit. (n.

Temporary XVI (op.

Limes

near

at Radva?, 17)),

of

mouth

the

Zitava,

Odiavum:

opposite

J. Rajt?r,

473-7.

36. Odiavum burgi (V, 39-42): (1) c. 500 m east of fort, rhomboid tower 16 by 17 m, fourth Calvinist church; (3) west of century; (ia) Bolcsik bridge, 430 m from fort; (2) Duna-alm?s, tower 9.5 by 9.5 m, single ditch 38 by 38 m, palisade 34 by 34 m, Constantinian/ Neszm?ly, Kalin hill, oval ditches 27 by 40 m, 40 by 56 m, 51 by 98 m, Valentinian; (4) Alm?sneszm?ly, round ditches c. 17 by 23 m, 36 by 45 m; Constantius H/Valentinian; (5) east of Alm?sneszm?ly, near Danube L?batlan-Piszke bank, Valentinian; (7) S?nci Szolok, south of Nyergesujfalu (6) fourth

fort,

century.

HUN

37. Nyergesujfalu c.

stone,

fort,

100

fort,

Lucensium;

(Crumerum)

119 m, c. 100

by stone,

ha,

1.19 by

119 m,

[B20F2]: fort, timber, coh. V Callaecorum second 1.19

half

of

second

coh.

?quit?s

promoti

Constantinian,

ha,

V

century,

Lucensium; Callaecorum (V, 42-3).

Fibula with gladiators in combat: AE (2001), 1639. left bank: J. Rajt?r, Limes XVI camp at Muzla, 3 km from Danube Temporary 473-7.

(n. 17)),

late

Tokod;

38.

(op. cit.

stone,

fort,

118

by

142 m,

1.6 ha, Valentinian

the date and function

On glazed pottery,

(V, 45-6).

of the fort: E. Bonis, ActArchHung

43 (1991),

87-150.

coal depot, square tower 15 by 15 39. Crumerum burgi (V, 44-6): (1) east of Nyergesujfalu, c. 26 26 second-third ditches m, 45 by 45 m, m, (2) Esztergom-Zsid?d, century, Valentinian; by stone tower, 9.8 by 9.9 m, single ditch, palisade, Valentinian; (4) (3) Esztergom-Szentkir?ly; Danube

Esztergom,

40. Esztergom milliaria pia Pannoniorum

fidelis milliaria

Mauri,

?quit?s

island.

HUN

cuneus

head of Apis

Monumental No. 1392;

26

above); discussion

Flavian-A.D. fort, timber, [B20F2]: (Solva) 118/119, A.D. civium stone, Romanorum; fort, 118/119-Marcus, first half second-third stone, fort, century; equitata, scutariorum (V, 46-7). equitum

career of

of text

of

linked with

in Pannonia:

Caracalla

equestrian

officer

decorated

burgus

inscription

of

a.d.

in Domitian's 357:

AE

(1999),

AE Dacian 1264;

This content downloaded from 129.174.21.5 on Sun, 5 May 2013 21:44:08 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

I Batavorum

coh.

I Ulpia

coh. of

fourth

(2000), war: new

century,

1202 AE

(also (1994),

inscriptions,


THE

and M.

B. L?rincz also

votive),

AE

Solva

41.

H. Kelemen,

Klio

79

(AE (1997), 1260-6,

(1997)

20I

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

Liber Pater

including

1291.

(1993),

(V, 47-8):

burgi

AN

DANUBE:

ROMAN

stone

(Si),

(1) Esztergom-Szentgyorgymez?

tower,

9.6

m,

9.7

by

circular ditch 28 m, Valentinian; (S2), stone tower 9.3 by (2) Esztergom-Szentgyorgymez? 9.3 m, Valentinian; (3) Esztergom-Szentgyorgymez? (S3), stone tower 9 by 9 m, Valentinian; (4)

Valentinian;

10 m,

ditch

single

Valentinian;

(15a)

timber

Pilismar?t-Basarharc,

(14a)

102

(S14), stone timber

(16) Pilismar?t-Dunamell?ke-dul?,

Valentinian

Szob ferry (Si3), timber

stone

10

tower

(S13), stone

first-second

26 by

26 m,

single

century;

26 by 26 m,

single ditch

10.7 m,

ditch

10.6 m,

by

tower 9.8 by 9.8 m,

ditches,

multiple

second

fourth

m, 9.25 Valentinian; (11) by 26 by 26 m, Valentinian; ditch single first-second century; (11b) Pilismar?t 9.25

10 by

tower,

(8)

(V, 48).

10 by 10 m,

tower

(12) Pilismar?t,

tower,

tower,

by 9.5, Valentinian;

65 m,

by

(S12),

tower

timber

Pilismar?t-Basarharc,

9.5

(S9), stone

(14) Pilismar?t-Basarharc

(15) Pilismar?t-Dunamell?ke

(5) Esztergom-D?da 11 m, 11 tower by

stone

Valentinian.

stone,

stone tower (Sio), tower 9.48 by 9.48 m, circular tower, ditch,

26 by 26 m, Valentinian;

Valentinian;

tower

(13) Pilismar?t-Basarharc

52 m;

52 by

Valentinian; (S6),

m,

timber tower, c. first half of second century;

Basarharc, ditch

8.18

(9) Pilismar?t-Basarharc

(V, 48-50):

century; (10) Pilismar?t-Basarharc stone Pilismar?t-Basarharc (Su), timber Pilismar?t-Basarharc, (na) tower,

(S7) stone 8.15 by late fort,

HUN:

Esztergom-Hideglel?s-kereszt

43. Solva burgi

10 m,

(6) Esztergom-D?da

tower

stone

(S8),

10 by

tower

Valentinian;

(7) Esztergom-B?b?natvolgy

Esztergom-B?b?natvolgy 42.

stone

(S4),

Esztergom-Szentgyorgymez? 10 tower (S5), stone by

second-third

century;

(17) Pilismar?t-Dunamell?ke

century;

d??l? (S15), stone tower 9 by 9 m, Valentinian; (18) Pilismar?t landing jetty (S16), stone tower stream (S19), stone tower 8.6 by 8.6 m, ditch 28 by 28 m, Valentinian; (19) Pilismar?t-Malom 12.35 by I2-35 m> ditch 59 by ?m, palisade 28 by 16 m, Valentinian. HUN

Pilismar?t

44.

fort,

Diocletianic;

45. Solva

by

340 m,

4.52

stream

K?ves

(21) D?m?s,

century;

c.

stone, fort, ha, Constantius

Herculem):

(20) Domos-T?fen?k-d?l?

(V, 50-1):

burgi

second-third

Ad

(Castra c. 133

stone,

133 II?

(V,

11

tower

m,

340

4.25

ha,

50).

stone

(S18), stone

(S19),

c.

by

tower,

16 by

? m,

ditch

34 by

11 m,

by

?m, Valentinian; (22) D?m?s, landing jetty (S20), stone tower 10 by 10 m, Valentinian. HUN: late fortlet, stone, 36 by 36 m, 0.13 ha, first half of fourth 46. Visegr?d-Gizellatelep century

(V,

51).

Solva

47.

(V,

burgi

51):

stone

stream,

(23) Lepence

tower

5 by

c.

5 m,

second

century;

(23a

{-35}) near Lepence stream, stone tower 18 by 18 m, Valentinian; (24) Visegr?d-K?b?nya (S22), stone tower 10 by 10 m, ditch 26 by 26 m, internal pillar, Valentinian; (25) Visegr?d-ferry street

stone

(S23),

Burgus 48.

by

(AE Hill

108-9

(2000), HUN

Visegr?d-Sibrik auxilia Ursarensia;

13.9 m,

11 m,

by

of a.d.

inscription

(1998-1999), tinian,

11

tower

and D, Gr?h,

Folia Archaeologica

(Budapest)

47

1223). (Pon(t)e

stone

late

Navata?): 114

fort,

(V,

post-Valentinian

Valentinian.

371, P. Gr?f

130 m,

by

fort,

1.5 ha,

c. 1.5 ha, Constan 114 by 130 m, c. Constantius tower, II; stone 13.9

52).

Inscribed bronze handle in form of head: AE (1994), 1394. 49. Solva burgi (V, 52-3): (26) Visegr?d-V?rkert-d?l? century; (27) (S24), Commodus/third Visegr?d-Kisvall?m (S25), second century; (28) Visegrad-Szentgy?rgypuszta (S26), stone tower 10.4

10.2

by

m,

Valentinian;

(29) Visegrad-Szentgy?rgypuszta

stone

(S27),

tower

15 m,

15 by

on Danube left bank opposite B?b?natvolgy (30) near Helemba/Chl'aba palisade, Valentinian; 10 10 stone tower on bank of Cs?di m, Valentinian; (S40), by (31) Dunabogd?ny-Vad?sztanya, stream; (32) Dunabogd?ny-K?sgzegt?, opposite north-west end of Kecske island (S28), stone tower,

14.06

by

Dunabogd?ny [B20F2]. 50.

HUN: (V,

51. Solva burgi

5 by

5 m,

by

(37) of

36 m,

Valentinian;

fortlet,

stone,

c.

40

by

c.

(33)

600

m

north-east

of

of Ipoly river, Szob, bridgehead 50 m,

0.2

ha,

first

half

of

fourth

53-4). Kisoroszi,

(38) N?gr?dver?ce

at ends

36

left bank near mouth

(V, 54): (36) Pusztatemplom

Valentinian;

Valentinian;

c.

palisade

(34) on Danube

Kisoroszi-k?polna

century/Valentinian 10 m,

m,

13.06

fort;

14 m walls,

(Gazir?tek) near Kisoroszi,

Hossz?r?ti-d?l?

(P?sztorkert),

(Ver?ce), bridgehead Constantinian,

rebuilt

stone

stone tower, tower

12

by

tower, 18 by 23 m, two flanking under

Valentinian

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[B20G2].

10 by 12 m,

towers,


202

J. WILKES

J.

HUN

52. Dunabogd?ny civium

1.82 ha, a.d. 147 m, 124 by fort, c. 124 c. 147 m, 1.82 ha, first half stone, fort, by 20.2 II Adiutrix; of legio Fortensia, fortlet, part stone,

Romanorum; equitata; auxilia

Alpinorum Dalmatae,

Valentinian (V, 54). 53. Cirpi burgi (V, 55-6): stone

c. 10

tower

coh. XIIX Voluntariorum

(Cirpi) [B20G2]: fort, timber, Vespasian,

10 m,

by

c.

c.

at mouth

(1) Tahit?tfalu,

Valentinian;

stone

(S30),

coh. ?quit?s

m,

19.7

by

tower

17.71

II

century, century, ha,

0.04

stream on south bank

of Nyulasi

(2) Le?nyfalu

170-third of fourth

17.88

by

m,

post

(S29), ditch

(3) Szentendre, Hunka 32.5 by 32.5 m with palisade inside, four internal pillars, Valentinian; hill (S31), stone tower c. 30 by 40 m, third century/Valentinian; (4) Tahit?tfalu-Szentp?teri fort (S34), stone tower, Valentinian?; d?l?, Jisza hill, opposite Dunabogd?ny (5) Tahit?tfalu Balhav?r on east bank of Szentendre island, fortified bridgehead, 24.4 by ?m, Constantius (7) V?c-Csatad?l?, II/Valentinian; (6) Szigetmonostor-G?d ferry, stone tower, Valentinian?; Tahit?tfalu-Balhav?r.

opposite

Beyond the Danube: Thaya basin 54. Bernhardsthal AUS [B13B4]: marching (KV,

camp on right bank of Thaya,

late second century

M12).

244-7,

CZE

55. Musov-Burgstall

Roman

and

settlement

[B13B4]:

to

first

fort,

late

second

century.

B?lek and A. Sedo, Germania 74/2 (1996), 399-414; J. Tejral, BerRGK 73 (1992), 377-468; R. Hosek, Festschrift Tejral, op. cit. (n. 7), 77-8; J. Rajt?r, Limes XVI (op. cit. (n. M.

17))?

473-7

Roman camps in this area: Musov-Na p?sk?ch (M2), Iva? (M3), Pfibice (M4), n. Ves (M8), n. Nov? Sakvice (M6), (M7), Charv?tsk? (M5), Mlyny Hrusovany Jeviskou Postorn? I and II (M9-10), Valtice II (Mil). 56. Niederleis AUS [B13B4]: Roman fort, late second century (TIR (op. cit. (n. 2)) M33 64). 57. Oberleis AUS [B13B4]: Roman base late second century, with stamps of X Gemina; late Other

fourth gentis

Ursicinus century, Marcomannorum

stamps. (KV,

Stone

35

principia,

by

17 m,

residence

possible

of

tribunus

238-40).

58. Kollnbrunn AUS: marching camp, 590 by 390 m, late second century? (KV, 241 Mi3). 59. Stillfried AUS [B13B4]: Roman base on March c. 70 km north of Danube on line of Amber late

Route,

second

241-4, M14). 60.

century,

Engelhardstetten Bratislava-Devin

61.

cit.

op.

Piet?-Rajt?r,

stamps

of X

camps at Suchohrad

Also

AUS:

marching

camp,

SVK

[B13C4]:

possible

39-52

(n. 7),

fourth

late

Gemina;

c. 700 m Roman V.

(Dubravka),

by base

Placha

Ursicinus

century

Ves

(M15) and Z?horsk?

c. 700 m (KV, at oppidum: K.

and

stamps

(KV,

(M16). 234). K. Elschak Limes

Piet?,

XIV

in Tejral cit. (n.

(op.

763-9

17)).

62. Stupava SVK [B13C4]: Roman base, second century (TIR (op. cit. (n. 2)) M33, 80). (TIR (op. cit. 63. Uhersk? Hradiste CZE [B13C3]: Roman base, late stamps of XIV Gemina (n. 2)) M33, 84). (Duria) basin Beyond the Danube: V?h/Waag third-fourth century (TIR 64. Cifer-P?c SVK [B13C4]: Roman base, stamps of X Gemina, (op. cit. (n. 2)) M33, 35-35). 65. Trencin SVK (Laugaricio) [B13D4]: possible site of major military base in last years of Marcus

Aurelius

cf. Ceska-Hosek,

(C 13439

op.

cit.

(n. 30),

SVK [B13D4]: Roman base, T. Kolnik, 66. Milanovce at Zelenec camps (M17), Nitra (M18), and Virt (M21). Pannonia

V

=

Visy,

op.

1. Szentendre HUN 205 m,

2.75 a.d.

fidelis, A.D. 176-third

cit

(n. 20,

V1988

2003),

(Ulcisia Castra)

=

Visy,

c. Hadrian-Commodus/Caracalla, I milliaria coh. 118/119-140S,

coh.

ha,

fort,

century;

stone

cit.

op.

(n. 20,

Also

('Sums

qui

officium

dedicatum

1988).

fort, stone, 134

[B20G2]: fort, timber, Trajan/Hadrian;

(Castra

Aurelia

Constantia?),

I Thracum

civium

134

by

habet

vivat

per multa

saecula

Romanorum

Surorum

Antoniniana m,

205

Constantius (V, 56). II, ?quit?s Dalmatae Incised brick from Kaj?r describing the easy life of the workshop 1252.

2).

38 (1986), 411-34.

Inferior (Pi)

References

by

no.

16-17,

Arch. Roz.

2.75

ha,

proprietor:

semper').

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pia

sagittaria, Constantine/

AE

(1999),


THE

ROMAN

2. G?d-B?csa?jtelep

HUN

earth

fourth-century cit.

op.

(Soproni,

where walls

(n. 20,

4. Ulcisia Castra burgi Constantius

stone

fort near Danube

(Devil's

(V, 56). enclosure, linked with

late

plain;

II

of

stamps

of Budakal?sz,

20 by 20 m,

stream (S32), bridgehead,

(1) Szentendre, Dera

(2) north

Sarmatian

the

of

left bank

81-6).

1978),

(V, 57-9):

II/Valentinian;

crossed

Dyke)

203

10 by 10 m, within walled the river Zagyva, and was

c.

tower,

route

major

SURVEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

(Contra Constantiam); late Roman

HUN 3. Hatvan [B21B2]: c. 50 km beyond the Danube the early Adiutrix

AN

DANUBE:

stone

Inn,

Luppa

tower,

16.3

by

m,

14.8

(3) Budakal?sz, Bar?t stream, stone palisade 39 by 39 m, four internal pillars, Valentinian; tower, ditch c. 50 by 50 m; (4) Budapest, Csillagtelep, Bivalyos Inn, stone tower 8.1 by 8.1 m, Diocletian-Constantine/Valentinian;

Commodus;

(5)

stone

Homokos-d?l?,

tower

7 m,

7 by

stone

Csillagtelep,

Budapest,

tower

8

stone tower 8.1 by 8 m, Valentinian;

R?maif?rd?,

(6) Budapest,

14 m,

14 by

palisade

Valentinian;

8 m,

by

(7) Budapest

(8) Szigetmonostor

16 by 22 m, Constantius II; (9) Dunakeszi, bridgehead, Constantius, Hor?ny, bridgehead rebuilt under Valentinian; Inn, south of Szilas (10) Szentendre island, south end; (11)Megyeri stream opposite burgus 4; (12) Budapest-Ujpest, Sas Inn; (13) Budapest-Ujpest, N?p Island near mouth of Dera stream; (15) (N?psziget); (14) Szentendre island, Szigetmonostor-F?c?nos, north of Aquincum legionary fortress, at crossing to Obudai island, possibly bridgehead. HUN 5. Budapest-Obuda (Aquincum) A.D. 16.6 ha, a.d. 89, II Adiutrix 89-105, II Adiutrix; 23 ha, A.D. 520 m, 118/119, II Adiutrix; stone, Constantine, fortress, (V,

59-60). Fortress

excavations:

XIV

Limes

cit.

(op.

520 by ha, mid-fourth

(n.

m,

415

ha,

23

460 Diocletian/

by

II Adiutrix

century,

century

(second-third

689-702

17)),

m,

by

stone,

fortress,

460

21.6

720 m,

by

c. 415

rhomboid,

105-118/119;

stone,

fortress, 300

stone,

fortress, a.d.

[B20G2]: X Gemina

(street network); XIV, (excavations of 1973-1983); XIII, 426-8 chronology); XIII, 398-403 709-14 (tribunes' houses); XV, 232-6 (thermae maiores); XIV, 703-7 (north retentura); XV, (late Roman and early medieval (barracks); XIV, 715-21 259-62 periods); XVII, 397-403 of porta

(reconstruction

praetoria).

in house of tribunus laticlavius: L. Kocsis, ActArchHung 41 (1989), 81-92, K?lner Jahrb. 24 (1991), 207-11 J. Fitz, ibid., 93-8 (on individuals recorded), O. Madarassy, (wall paintings), also AE (1993), 1308-9. Mithraeum

areas:

Other

cit.

(op.

(n.

17)),

(north cemetery); XVU,

643

651-62

XIII,

residence);

(governor's

404-8

Abstracts

(general summary); XIX,

643

55-56

of

(excavations Civil

1997-2003). town: K. P?czy, neue

Budapest:

spater

(municipium

Funde

(1986);

statue E.

Fishwick,

has

been AE

Szab?,

ZPE

130

on

not

Teutanus

a

Jupiter to Aquincum:

D.

Zivilstadt

und

I.O.M.

of

Sanctuary where

canabae, attributed

'Die

Ausgrabungen

comparative

study

in Das colonia)', O. of macellum,

r?mische T.

Lang,

54 (2003), 165-204.

ActArchHung

Gorsium:

XVII

Limes

(canabae); XIV,

the

Hill

(1999),

1222.

(2000),

(2000),

Geliert AE

found:

rather

but iz6y,

Imperial

civitas

the cult

based

in

the

area

the

of

Eraviscorum

not

at Aquincum,

not

257-60.

Inscriptions: new reading of Greek votive to Asclepios by doctor in the legion's hospital: (2001), 1690; epitaph of tribune of Legion IIAdiutrix from Palaestina, with two equestrian

AE

in the

sons,

by magistrate 1273; votive Stamps

court of

of

the

the

by legate on wooden

to Terra votive (2001), 1690 a-b; in the mithraeum: AE up altars in A.D. 216-217: AE 1219. (2000), to those similar AE from Arrabona (Ps.22):

in the

synagogue

colony under

barrel-staves,

AE

canabae:

who

Aquincum, Caracalla

Mater

set

also

(1995),

(1996),

1260-1. of brick

Re-reading

motibus

with

Possible

incised

mint

temporary

'Rotas

word-squares,

opera,

etc.';

also

'Roma

tibi

subi[to

K.

P?czy,

(2000), 1221.

ib]it a[mor': AE

established

under

south-east

Severi,

of municipium,

41 (1989), 495-508. ActArchHung Burial rites and imported samian, P. Zsidi, Limes XVU (op. cit. (n. 17)), 867-78; of samian finds in Aquincum district 3, Limes XIX, Abstracts 57-58. 6. coh. stone,

Budapest-Obuda 1 Tungrorum mid-second

HUN: Frontoniana, century,

(i), late first A.D. 73-c. 80,

fort

?quit?s

singulares

century ?quit?s

A.D.,

alalcohors; c. A.D.

singulares,

fort

(2), 106-third

(V, 60).

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statistics

timber, century;

a.d.

73, fort,


J. WILKES

J.

204 levels

Early

and

in camp

area:

fortress

P. Zsidi,

Limes

XIX

cit.

(op.

(n.

Abstracts

17)),

102-103.

burgi (V, 60): (1) south of Aquincum

7. Aquincum 8 Arpad

fejedelem HUN:

Budapest, 8. Budapest-Viziv?ros A.D.

I Hispanorum

ala

69,

and

in Chapman (n.

a.d.

and

earth, of 80s

69-end cit.

Dolukhanov, op. Abstracts and XIX,

399-404,

17)),

timber

fort,

Auriana

legionary fortress

(29-31 Lajos Street);

(2)

c. Valentinian.

tower,

I Claudius

ala Hispanorum

Claudian, (V, 60).

to avoid flooding: G. F?leky and

channel created and site of the fort chosen

New Danube E. Marity (op. cit.

stone

st.,

Limes

excavations:

Recent

231-9.

(n. 2),

XVI

46.

st.; (4) Budapest, 15-17 L?nchid st., 9. Aquincum burgi (V, 61): (3) Budapest, 26 Csalog?ny stone towers, c. Valentinian; (5) Budapest, Attila st., near end of Devil's Dyke (?rd?garok), 1 Geliert Square, stone stone tower, Valentinian; (6) Budapest, Rudas Bath; (7) Budapest, tower, fourth century/Valentinian; (8) Budapest, N?dor Garden; (9) Budapest, 109 Budafoki island island (Sziget), round stone tower; (11) south end of Margit st.; (10) north end of Margit (Sziget), tower or bridgehead. 10.

HUN

Budapest-Pest on Danube crossing

at mouth

(Transaquincum):

left

fort,

bank,

76

76 m,

by

of

(V,6i). 11. Aquincum burgi (V, 62): (12) Pest, Parliament Roosevelt Square, Danube left bank. 12. Budapest-Pest HUN (Contra Aquincum): Danube 86 by

fort,

second

late

84 m,

13. Aquincum

HUN Budapest-Albertfalva stone and timber, fort, Vespasian; 210 m, 3.9 ha, Trajan/Hadrian, by c. in vicus, with Excavations K.

Szirmai, Abstracts

Limes

XVI

cit.

(op.

houses, (n. 17)),

(13) Pest,

left bank, north of Erz?bet bridge, stone (V, 62).

Tetrarchy/Constantine

Square.

timber,

by I9? m> 3-I6 ha, I Flavia Gaetulorum}

m->

I9? 166.5 by late Domitianic;

ha,

3-1^

c.

stone,

fort,

ala}, 186

(V, 62-3). Flavian

storage,

pottery ditches

workshops, Possible 527-9.

left bank;

of

occupation: Limes XIX,

camp,

temporary

a.d. sagittaria, veterana

or

tower

Dunaharaszti,

(1) Budapest,

63-4):

bridge

200 m.

HUN

16. Budapest-Nagyt?t?ny Frontoniana

(V,

burgus

Budapest-Albertfalva c. 100 by ditch head?,

veterana

166.5 ala

river

Valentinian

91-92.

15.

Thracum

fort,

[B20G2]:

14.

of

side

under

Square, Danube

Bor?ros

(V, 62): (14) Budapest,

burgus

Pest

stream,

reconstructed

under

reconstructed

century,

R?kos

Commodus,

89-105; Pius-

fort,

; fort,

sagittaria;

187