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December 2011

HMS-120

NEOSAT

Spectra

9900

receiver and wiring MINI HD N1

satellite DVR

Pakistan UAE

90.00 10.00

Rs

KSA

Dh

Oman

10.00 01.00

R

Qatar

R

India

12.00 R 125.00 Rs

Bahrain Kuwait

01.00 01.00

D

Lebanon

D

Nigeria

5000 350

LL

S-Africa

N

Namibia

45.00 50.00

R

Singapore 09.50 SGD

R

Australia

11.00

$ incl GST

Indonesia Thailand

25.000,-Rp 200 Baht

Bangladesh 95.00 Taka Egypt

10.00

EP


Full HD 1080p VFD front display 2 Smart card reader Twin protocol Time shifting, Recording and Playback with USB Playback (File list) include recorded files, Mp3 file, Image file and video files.


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227 LEGEND I S S U E OF PUBLICATIONS

International Monthly Magazine

VOLUME: 18 - No: 12

DECEMBER – 2011 TEST REPORTS

XCRUISER XDSR 400 HD PLUS

NEOSAT 9900 HD SPECTRA

NANO MINI HD N1

CONTENTS Letter from Editor

9

A Better world through...

48

Global Flash News

10

How Satellite TV Works

49

How Satellite are used...

16

Pakistani Channels

50

Satellite DVR

18

Pakistani Channels

51

Sat Mart

20

It is Time to use the...

53

Test Report

24

Braving the Challenges...

56

Discussion of the LNB

26

China First Satellite

57

Test Report

28

Japan Telecommunication

59

Asia-Pacific Pay-TV...

30

Around the Satellite World

60

Test Report

32

Trouble Shooter

64

Electronic Programme...

34

Search Satellite

67

Loss of Signal in Light...

36

Reason for Choosing...

75

Master Codes

38

Receiver and Wiring

76

Master Codes

39

The Recent Advance of...

77

The Increasing Threat...

40

Directional Chart

78

Global Satellite Commu...

42

Directional Chart

79

Why go out when you...

44

Vietnam First Remote...

81

Triax

46

Digital Chart

83


Editor-in-Chief HABIB HADI hadi@tracksat.com Managing Editors SUROOSH IZNA Editor SUMERA HADI Associate Editor SHOUKAT IQBAL KHATTAK shoukat@tracksat.com Technical Editor HAIDER ALI dishtech@tracksat.com Advertising Manager NAVEED JAMEEL uzair_nomi80@hotmail.com Layout Designer NAVEED AHMED KHAN IRFAN SIDDIQUI Accounts Manager S.ASHRAF-UL-HAQ Legal Advisor QAZI MUNAWAR ALAM Editorial Address: Dawood Centre, 101-1st Floor, 124,R, Block-2, Main Tariq Road, P.E.C.H.S., Karachi-Pakistan. Tel. : + 92-21- 4531122, 4531133 : + 92-21- 4316529, 4316530 Fax: : + 92-21- 4528822 E-mail: channels@cyber.net.pk hadi@tracksat.com Distributors UAE Emirates Printing Publishing & Distribution Co. Tel.: (04) 2660337 Ext. 204 SAUDI ARABIA Al-Adabiya Pub & Distributors Tel.: 671 5788 KUWAIT United Company for Distribution of Newspapers & Publications Tel.: (965) 245 6198-(965) 241 2820 BAHRAIN Al Ayam Publishing Est. B.S.C. (C) Tel. : 725111 PAKISTAN Paradise Books & Distributors Tel: + 92-21-4314981-83 Fax: + 92-21-4385075 EGYPT Al-Ahram Tel.: 5796997 QATAR Naz Book Distribution Tel.: +974 4324235, +974 5562809 TURKEY Ukrainian Distribution Tel.: +38 044 261 5876 JORDAN Jordan Distribution Agency Tel.: 962 6 533 7733 IRAQ Al-Khalil Distribution NETHERLANDS Van Gelderen UNITED KINGDOM Golden Publication Ltd. KENYA National Group Ltd. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Future Empire Network Corp. Publisher HABIB HADI Dish Channels is printed on the 1st of every month by Dish Channels Karachi. Dish Channels is Non-Political & NonPatrisian Publication. While every effort is made to ensure accuracy, we cannot bear responsibility for losses resulting from errors. Printed By: PRINTING IMPRESSION, KARACHI

LETTER FROM EDITOR Dear Readers, As more and more information is being handled in digital format, the future for satellite is also digital. In the near future, transmissions will take place in digital format and this offers some advantages. The prime reason for digital broadcasting is that with analog broadcasting only one channel per transponder can be transmitted, whereas with digital broadcasting this can be 10 channels per transponder. This means a substantial cost reduction per channel. Due to compression techniques, more information can be put on the same channel bandwidth currently being used, which allows more flexibility. For instance, the sender can opt for higher resolution, or for a lower resolution but more channels. In general, digital broadcasting will bring an increase of choices to consumers. Besides a likely increase of the number of programs, the same programs will also be broadcast several times per hour or day, to give the consumer more flexibility in when to watch a program. Also, channels will become increasingly focused on specific subjects, such as documentaries, movies, sports, and perhaps even more specific than that (for example only football or nature documentaries).

e

By

S AT MART


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

GLOBAL FLASH NEWS

CHINA LAUNCHES THIRD FENGYUN-2 SERIES WEATHER SATELLITE China has successfully orbited its third meteorological satellite, the Fengyun-2-06, the country's central television CCTV reported. The satellite was launched from the XiChang Satellite Launch Center, in southwest China at 08:54 a.m. local time (00:54 a.m. GMT) on board a Chang Zheng3A carrier rocket. The Fengyun-2-06 weather satellite will collect meteorological

ARIANESPACE TO LAUNCH HISPASAT 1E

Spanish operator Hispasat has chosen Arianespace to launch its new communications satellite, Hispasat 1E. Petra Mateos-Aparicio, Chairman of Hispasat, and Jean-Yves Le Gall, Chairman and CEO of Arianespace has announced the signature of the launch service and solutions contract for the Hispasat 1E satellite. It is the first contract of 2010 signed by Arianespace. Hispasat 1E will be launched by an Ariane 5 at the end of 2011 from the Guiana Space Center, Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The satellite will be built by Space Systems/Loral using an LS 1300 platform. Weighing about 5,270 kg at launch, it will be fitted with 53 active Kuband transponders. This powerful satellite will give Hispasat additional capacity, enabling it to offer a broader range of video and data transmission services with a European and pan-American coverage. Positioned in geostationary orbit at 30 degrees West, Hispasat 1E has a design life of 15 years. Hispasat 1E will be the sixth Spanish satellite launched by Arianespace. The European launcher had already orbited Hispasat 1A and 1B In 1992 and 1993.

data from the previously orbited satellites and replace its outdated predecessor, the Fengyun-2-C, orbited in 2004. China launched its second weather satellite, the Fengyun 2-D, in 2006. China uses the data from its meteorological satellites to compile weather forecasts and for emergency monitoring. DECEMBER

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2011


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

ARIANESPACE TO LAUNCH EGYPTIAN SATELLITE NILESAT 201 Nilesat 201 will be placed into geostationary transfer orbit by an Ariane 5 or Soyuz rocket launched from the Guiana Space Center, Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana, during the first quarter of 2011. Nilesat 201 is the third satellite launched by Arianespace for the Egyptian operator, following Nilesat 101 and 102, launched successfully in 1998 and 2000, respectively. Built by Thales Alenia Space, Nilesat 201 will weigh nearly 3,000 kg at launch. It will be fitted with 24 Ku-band transponders and 3 Ka-band transponders to provide direct TV broadcast services throughout the Middle East. It will

be positioned at 7 degrees West, and offer a design life exceeding 15 years. "We are very honored and very proud to work with the major Egyptian operator Nilesat for the third time and to participate in the development of direct TV broadcasting in the Middle East," said Arianespace Chairman and CEO Jean-Yves Le Gall.

INTELSAT VENTURE FOR SATELLITE BIZ

Intelsat, which provides fixed satellite services, has announced a joint venture with a South African investor group led by Convergence Partners. The venture will utilise project financing to build and launch a new satellite - Intelsat New Dawn - to serve the African continent. The satellite will feature a payload optimised to deliver DECEMBER

GLOBAL FLASH NEWS wireless backhaul, broadband and television programming to the continent and is expected to enter service in early 2011. The New Dawn joint venture was established to provide solutions for African communication needs, and is expected to deliver new capacity for voice, wireless backhaul, Internet and media applications. 50% of the satellite's 28 C-Band & 24 Kuband 36 MHz transponders are already committed, pre-launch and total more than $350 million, with some contracts for up to 15 years of service on the satellite.

SOUTH AFRICA SECOND SATELLITE LAUNCH IN MARCH South Africa will launch its second satellite from Kazakhstan's Baikonur space station to monitor disasters like floods, oil spills and wild fires in the country. The SumbandilaSat, an 80 kg low-orbit satellite, would rotate the earth at a distance of 500 km, the country's science and technology department has said. The satellite will collect data on land and sea temperatures, clouds, rainfall, winds, sea level, ice cover and vegetation cover, among others, BuaNews reported. The project is part of a three-year initiative of the government's integrated capacity building and satellite development programme announced in October 2005, the report said. About 26 million South African rands (about $2.4 million) have been spent on the programme. Science and Technology Minister Mosibudi Mangena said the satellite will help to understand the earth system to improve human health, protect environment and tackle disasters, among others. He added that the space technology was an indispensable tool for development of South Africa and the continent. The project was carried out in partnership with SunSpace and Information Systems, the Stellenbosch University and Satellite Application Centre (SAC). SunSpace was tasked with building the satellite, while SAC would control the operations involving telemetry, tracking, control and data capturing. The SumbandilaSat is the second satellite to be launched by South Africa. The first satellite SUNSAT 1 was launched about two years ago.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2011


SRT 2010 HD

SRT 2014 HD

SRT 2015 HD

SRT 3000 HD

SR 55X

SR 140 SR 150

ST 570 ST 560

www.startrackworld.com


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view

HOW

SATELLITES ARE USED TODAY Today Satellites are used for direct broadcast television, wireless cable, cellular telephone, photography, and video teleconferencing. The special sports programs, movies, and news broadcasts are all televised because of satellites. Artificial satellites have been launched to photograph the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn, and Jupiter. Other satellites send information, back to the Earth about the weather of the Earth. A new satellite system is known as Planet 1. It integrates cellular and satellite technology to provide mobile voice, data, and facsimile communications. "The package weighs less than six pounds and the price is $2,995, plus a $3 a minute in use charges." (Miller, 134) By the end of the year, it is expected that Planet 1 service will be offered to countries all around the world. Direct Broadcast Satellite television is a very costly business. Wireless cable technology brings pay TV to rural areas. This technology works by beaming signals from a central tower to dishes on the roofs of houses or buildings. The new technology is cheaper than laying wires under the ground. Special satellites send pictures and messages from one continent to another . Dish antennas are used to send and receive information. A television show that is

DECEMBER

broadcasted live from one country can also be seen in another country which is half way around the world. Communication services are now using small antennas to send and receive the information. Additional satellites are scheduled for launch that will enable new communication systems to be used around the world. Advances in the new Satellite Technology have made people no more than a phone call away. Satellites can send messages from one continent to another and also from one planet to another. Satellite technology brings us the weather, cellular phones, wireless cable, and direct broadcast television. Satellite communication companies are expecting these services to be offered all over the world in the very near future. Satellites are an up and coming force in the consumer market with many future plans ahead. New corporations such as Teledesic are revolutionizing the way satellites are manufactured and used. In addition, corporations like Motorola and Orbcomm are using satellites to provide global communication services. Finally, the scientific community is also taking advantage of the great possibilities that satellites represent in the field of research.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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ubscribers in the US are increasingly switching over to digital video recorders (DVRs) for advantages that prove irresistible for many

customers. Considering the growing demand, it seems like this technology has finally arrived. What makes DVRs special is that it records directly to a hard drive. There is no tape involved as there is with VCRs. Features that seem to have caught the eye of the TV viewers include instant replay, DECEMBER

pause option, digital quality, dual viewing, or recording one program while viewing another. Even cable companies are providing devices that come with inbuilt DVRs that provide all of these functions for cable viewers. Some DVRs also provide programming information, alerts on the timing of favorite programs and zoom in capabilities. If you don't like commercials, you can even skip through them. These features are definitely unmatched by any contemporary technology. The future may see a host of other services like local weather, interactive gaming, etc. added to the number of services. This good news is not just for the viewer but also the broadcasting companies who can now be assured of a significant increase in viewers. Some of the more popular models are TiVo because of its extra features. DirecTV HD DVR and the Dish Player-DVR 942 are new to the market and said to be superior to TiVo.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

SAT MART

DISH NETWORK VIP622 HDTV RECEIVER The Dish Networks Dish Vip622 satellite receiver contains 2 individual HDTV tuners in one box. These Tuners are designated TV1 and TV2. TV1 is intended for use at a HD TV or Standard TV in the same room as the Vip622. The ViP622 has modulated outputs for both the TV1 and TV2 tuners. The allows for the easy distribution of TV1 and TV2 pictures throughout a house. The modulators operate on either UHF or CATV channels and are not HD TV signals. All of the ViP receivers from Dish Network are MPEG4 and Mpeg 2 compatible. MPEG4 allows for more channels in the same bandwidth. Read more about Satellite TV using MPEG4. The Vip622 DVR has two operating modes, Single and Dual Mode. In Single Mode the Vip622 can be used as a dual tuner DVR with full control of both tuners from one remote. In Single Mode, you can switch between the tuners, or press "PIP" on the remote use the built in "Picture in Picture" feature. Press Swap and the two images will swap places. Of Course you also have Full DVR control over both tuners. The Extra Bonus of the Vip622 is you can also use the receiver in Single Mode from the TV2 location. When operated in Single Mode, (change modes by pushing a button on the front panel) the Dish ViP622 provides TIVO like capabilities and should be considered a strong replacement option for DirecTV's TIVO community. DECEMBER

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Inside view

Discussion of the

LNB The LNB is the part that attaches to the end of the arm in front of the dish. The dish reflects the satellite signal into the LNB where it is captured, processed, amplified, and sent down the coaxial cable to the satellite receiver. The term LNB comes down from the "C" band (large dish) days and stands for Low Noise Blockdown converter. The LNB is powered by a DC voltage from the receiver which also controls polarity switching in the LNB. There are several styles of LNB's used in the DBS (small dish) industry. The most popular are probably the RCA (rectangular mounting tube) and the Dish Network ("D" tube). Hughes uses a "flat pack" style, but also sometimes ships its systems with an RCA or a Dish Network style LNB. Sony has its own style which is not interchangeable with any other. Other less popular systems such as Hitachi and Uniden generally use one of the styles already mentioned, but occasionally an odd different style will show up. Although each LNB style must be used with a compatible dish style so it will attach properly to the DECEMBER

dish arm, all DBS (Primestar not included) receivers will work with any of the DBS Dish/LNB combinations. In other words, an RCA receiver can be attached to a Sony dish or even a Dish Network dish. Each LNB style is made in two versions single and dual. A single LNB has only one output and can be connected to only one receiver. This signal cannot be split to two receivers because this would interfere with the polarity control and cause loss of channels. A dual LNB has two independent outputs which can be connected to two receivers each with full control of all channels. More than two receivers requires the use of a multiswitch. If your system brings in only some of the channels you are subscribing to, you may have a polarity switching problem. The satellite receiver sends out a DC voltage over the coaxial cable to the LNB at the dish to power the LNB circuitry and to switch between left and right hand circular transponder polarization. The polarity switching is accomplished by changing the DC voltage between 13 and 18 volts.

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and even an access point to the Internet. And that makes a good EPG more and more of a necessity for a broadcaster's success in today's highly competitive broadcasting market. The importance of the EPG resides in the ineffectiveness of conventional services in presenting what could be 500 channels worth of program information. It is almost impossible with teletext or newspapers to scan through that number of channels to see if there is anything good on, or if a particular program will be on today, or what's on right now. But EPG makes it possible to provide the viewer with a fully detailed description of the program: title, synopsis, casting, director, production year, etc.--and presented in multiple languages. This information is constantly updated since it is present on air with the video and audio streams. It can be accessed and downloaded any time the viewer requests it, and presented in an attractive way through colorful screens, with high resolution to show pictures of good quality, and an enhanced user experience thanks to flexible navigation. All these features make the EPG an appealing place for advertisers to put their ads, just in the same way they do on Internet pages, which means improved profits for broadcasters.

DECEMBER

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ith the enormous and everincreasing number of TV programs being offered nowadays—it could soon reach 500 digital channels worldwide—viewers are in need of help in navigating this myriad of options, a solution that will provide them with more information on the programs and give them a simple, easy-to-follow guide. Perhaps nowhere is this need greater, given the high density of satellite channels in general and highly competitive pay-TV platforms in particular, than in the Arab world. The high volume of offerings means that consulting the newspapers or a printed TV guide, or just waiting for that pretty presenter to introduce us to a used-to-be blockbuster movie, no longer works. The digital revolution in the broadcasting arena is the alternative, and the tool is the electronic program guide (EPG). EPGs are broadly known as being any program guide on a digital TV set, set-top box, or satellite receiver. They are a service provided by the broadcaster to the viewer at home, giving details about TV programs that are on air at that time or that will be broadcast in the near future. But in today's digital revolution, EPGs are becoming more of a portal to broadcaster services, a gateway to a set of interactive applications,

The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2011


Nano Classic N3

New Nano Mini HD N3

First Product Alichipset 3606

New Menu Receiver Function

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18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view

THE INCREASING THREAT TO

SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Communication security has been a priority since the beginning of recorded history. The survival of human cultures has always relied on the use of accurate information transported over distances. The interception of this information, preventing its reception or its misuse, can alter the course of nations. As technology advances, so too does the threat to modern satellite communication. The methods of interfering with or intercepting satellite signals are numerous and need to be better understood. As has been demonstrated by a small team of undergraduate students, the capability to intercept the nation's communication satellite signals is no longer limited to national powers but can be mastered by individuals using off-the-shelf technologies. Defense against signal interception requires reconsideration of spacecraft design in terms of transmission, propulsion, and encoding technologies. It is imperative that efforts be taken to minimize vulnerability and prevent those with hostile intentions from compromising security. DECEMBER

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view The issue of communications security is a universal concept stemming throughout recorded history. In ancient kingdoms and nation-states, scribes were specifically appointed by the ruling power. As compensation, they would typically enjoy a life of comfort and safety, relatively rare commodities in for the era in which they lived. The ruling powers would ensure these attributes for a single reason: scribes were the only members of ancient society with the capability to not only produce, but interpret and relay the only means of true long-range communication – writing. The basis of concern in the interception and misuse of satellite ground link systems lies in the mechanics of its operation. In conventional satellite communication upand downlinks, the satellite utilizes an antenna that is connected to a receiver unit and a transmitter unit, which typically are separate devices. These devices are in turn connected to the satellites' internal Command and Data Handling system or onboard computer that operates all the other spacecraft mechanisms including the thrusters, attitude orientation detection and control, and any other onboard payloads. In typical orbital operation, a signal is generated onboard the satellite while in orbit. This signal is a function of its mission and intent; an example would be in a typical communications satellite where a signal is received by the receiver from a transmitting ground-station, fed into the onboard computer, and relayed to the transmitter unit. The transmitter applies the signal to the antenna, which projects the signal towards another receiving groundstation. The concern involved in this process lies in the potential prevention or misuse of the communication. As was true in the medieval era, these messages are often crucial and urgent, especially communications sent over a dedicated link as may corporations and governments employ worldwide. Forces opposing these users have and will continue to use methods of disruption of the communication to gain an advantage in competition with those whom the message is actually intended to DECEMBER

serve. The two primary means of this disruption in commerce and policy lies in two primary methodologies: preventative action and misuse. In general, satellites orbit in a predictable pattern as defined by the mission. It is this predictability that causes the greatest degree of vulnerability to both preventative and misuse attacks. The ability of a spacecraft to alter its course away from a hostile situation would often deter most security breaches. This concept has two major drawbacks, however. Most missions rely on a regular, predictable orbit for timing the communications transmissions and satellite system updates from its' ground-control station. Although this may be overcome by using more advanced onboard computer systems, this would typically increase the mass of the spacecraft and would limit its payload capability. Additionally, almost all practical computing systems employ digital technology which is very susceptible to space-based interference, any ionic disturbances, radiation, gamma-rays, etc., in which exposure would typically result in a momentary systems malfunction or even destruction. As a result, this solution would require either additional shielding or a computing technology capable of operating in a space environment independent of gravity and a constant link. The second major problem with the evasion capability lies in the method in which it would change direction. The onboard propulsion system necessary to provide the necessary change in velocity at unforeseen occasions would require an unprecedented amount of propellant relative to conventional Earth-orbiting satellites. Using conventional propulsion systems such as cold-gas, mono- and bi-propellant systems used for attitude adjustment and trajectory changes would require additional room and mass for fuel and exclude the capabilities of any onboard payload. One possible solution to this is the ion-thrusters. Ion-thrusters are regenerative and utilize electricity as a propellant, allowing for a virtually unlimited fuel source when applied to a solar array.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Inside view

GLOBAL

SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS The evolution of global communications and its rapid development has given rise to a strong interest in the television as medium. This has been clearly evidenced by the proliferation of antennas for the reception of satellite services throughout the Middle East. The content of much satellite programming is inconsistent with the culture and religion of the region, as it depicts excessive violence and highly unacceptable sexual behavior according to the mores of Middle Eastern culture. Yet, properly executed, satellite TV is also an excellent family device for entertainment, learning, and communication. Viewers are demanding more information, more entertainment and more news programs. Today television programming must meet viewer's expectations (and advertiser's desires as well) in order to attract viewers to a particular channel. In an atmosphere of heavy competition among stations, this cannot be achieved unless more creative programs and graphics are produced. In fact, one of the most noticeable differences between Eastern channels and Western ones is that the Western channels have a higher level of sophistication in their use of graphics and advanced technology. The present investigation was an DECEMBER

exploratory examination of the satellite TV viewing motives of Egyptian adults. The researcher suggests future investigations on the impact of satellite TV on various ages in society, the sociological impact of satellite TV on Egyptian family social activities, and the possible impact of satellite TV on youth concerning their social, educational and economic behavior. Since news proved to be the most important program type watched by adult Egyptian satellite TV viewers, a special content analysis and comparison may be applied to come up with the format most favored by Egyptian audiences, especially with the recent launch of the Nile Specialized News Channel; the same applies to sports, drama, and children's channels. A content analysis of satellite TV channels most watched by Egyptian audiences could be conducted to investigate their favorite issues and formats. The number of hours spent daily with satellite TV did indeed prove to be longer than the number of hours spent with national TV among this sample. 86 percent of viewers in the satellite TV households reported that they watch satellite TV every day, whereas only 49.7 percent of the sample watch national TV every day. Much controversy is raised over satellite TV programming and content.

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Triax digital

headend-TDH 700 TDH 700 is a modern digital compact headend. Each basic unit holds up to six modules each carrying a satellite, cable, or terrestrial channel. A complete system is simply build with the Main/Sub unit system where 1 basic unit and 4 sub units can be coupled in cascade and operates as on integrated headend with 30 channel. All communication between modules and the basic units is done via a high speed data-bus, and by means of this modern communication structure, important features as operating the system, software updates, and remote access has become unique simple. For maximum flexibility a one module

DECEMBER

basi c TDH SA unit is also available. People living in apartment blocks no longer have to put up with the usual either/or decisions when they choose their shared satellite channels. Now the local dealer or installer can help them expand their present system, module by module. Even buildings with a large number of apartments and floors have this option. By combining modules of the new Triax multiswitches, TMM-4 and TMM-5, viewers sharing a system may want to try out the basic or light version first – and receive channels from just one satellite position. Later, at any given time, they can easily expand the system to include two, three or even four satellite positions. "Apartment block owners achieve supreme flexibility and freedom by investing in a basic TMM-module system. If at some point they want more channels, they just ask their local installer to add new modules and cables to the existing system. This way, the first investment won't be money out the window as it is still an integrated part of the new expanded system," says the marked manager from Triax. "What's more, the cascadable TMM-modules virtually eliminate the well-known problems caused by varying distances from the multiswitch to the individual set-top boxes. To make everybody happy, simply mount a TMM-

46

mul tiswitch on each (or every other) floor." Every TMM-module serves as a multiswitch for one satellite position and four polarities. To ensure reception from four satellite positions and 16 polarities, just arrange four modules in parallel. TMM-5 also distributes the terrestrial signal, which means that a fully expanded system with 17 outputs only needs three TMM-4 modules and one TMM-5 module to be up and running.

The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2011


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view Since its inception there has always been talk of the peaceful uses of space technology. There are many satellites in orbit and far too many of them are for military purposes but where are the satellites that promote peace and world unity? DirecTV has twelve of them in orbit right now and has plans to launch even more in the future. No other businesses have done more to bring understanding among all the cultures on this planet more than satellite TV programming service

broader understanding of the world around us. DirecTV's Total Choice programming packages are touted in the industry as some of the most well balanced and intelligently compiled programming packages that can be procured from any TV programming service provider and while everyone knows that DirecTV is the all time leader in premium sports programming, many people are unaware of the leading role DirecTV has assumed in multicultural programming. The Discovery Channel, National

providers such as DirecTV. Satellite TV service providers like DirecTV provide far more multicultural programming than cable or standard TV programming service providers ever did and they are going to continue to do so on into the future. DirecTV even has programming packages that are entirely in Spanish language and they have a package devoted entirely to international cultures. It is important to remember that we all live on this planet together and that as time progresses the planet is going to get a lot smaller and borders are going to be less and less important. DirecTV satellite TV programming is a great way to learn about all the other people and cultures that share the planet with us and there by gain a

Geographic Channel and even The Outdoor channel all regularly feature programming that is gathered from all parts of the globe and help to bring a broader understanding of all peoples and cultures of the world. DirecTV's Family Choice programming package is a great way for a family that is on a budget to start receiving the more enlightened and educational programming that DirecTV has, along with their more whimsical and entertaining programming. This package has forty fantastic channels that also include all of your local standard TV channels in digitized format. Their Total Choice programming package has a full one-hundred and fifty-five great channels for you to select from every time you sit back to watch TV.

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Inside view

How Satellite TV Works Receivers have a number of other features as well. They pick up a programming schedule signal from the provider and present this information in an onscreen programming guide. Many receivers have parental lock-out options, and some have built-in digital video recorders (DVRs), which let you pause live television or record it on a hard drive. These receiver features are just added bonuses to the technology of satellite TV. With its movie-quality picture and sound, satellite TV is becoming a popular investment for consumers. Digital cable, which also has improved picture quality and extended channel selection, has proven to be the fiercest competitor to satellite providers. The TV war is raging strong between satellite and digital cable technologies as well as between the providers who offer these services. Once considered luxuries in most households, satellite and digital cable are becoming quite common as providers bundle TV with Internet and phone services to offer competitive deals and win over customers. It de-scrambles the encrypted signal. In order to unlock the signal, the receiver needs the proper decoder chip for that programming package. The provider can DECEMBER

communicate with the chip, via the satellite signal, to make necessary adjustments to its decoding programs. The provider may occasionally send signals that disrupt illegal de-scramblers as an electronic counter measure (ECM) against illegal users. It takes the digital MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 signal and converts it into an analog format that a standard television can recognize. In the United States, receivers convert the digital signal to the analog National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) format. Some dish and receiver setups can also output an HDTV signal. It extracts the individual channels from the larger satellite signal. When you change the channel on the receiver, it sends just the signal for that channel to your TV. Since the receiver spits out only one channel at a time, you can't tape one program and watch another. You also can't watch two different programs on two TVs hooked up to the same receiver. In order to do these things, which are standard on conventional cable, you need to buy an additional receiver. It keeps track of pay-per-view programs and periodically phones a computer at the provider's headquarters to communicate billing information.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2011


SHAHID PARACHA SATELLITE 8000 HD CA+USB 2.0 HDTV Receiver

1100 SUPER

4000 TV & Radio channels programmable User friendly installation with Assistant Detailed EPG for up to 14 days (depending on TV operator support) Super Fast OSD Teletext / VBI Teletext / Subtitles Fast programming Convenient channel sorting functions 8 Favorite channel groups 256 color OSD with picture in graphics Programmable sleep timer Fully DVB compliant Selectable display format Timer programming for automated channel and operation control Info banner with information about the actual event, time and available services

4020 SUPER

4000 TV & Radio channels programmable User friendly installation with Assistant Detailed EPG for up to 14 days (depending on TV operator support) Super Fast OSD Teletext / VBI Teletext / Subtitles Fast programming Convenient channel sorting functions 8 Favorite channel groups 256 color OSD with picture in graphics Programmable sleep timer Selectable display format Timer programming for automated channel and operation control PVR functionality through USB (front panel or rear panel) Info banner with information about the actual event, time and available services

LAHORE BRANCH Shop No. 10 & 11, Ijaz Centre, Hall Road, Lahore, Pakistan. Ph: 0092-42-37215434, 37214753

2200 SUPER

4000 TV & Radio channels programmable User friendly installation with Assistant Detailed EPG for up to 14 days (depending on TV operator support) Super Fast OSD Teletext / VBI Teletext / Subtitles Fast programming Convenient channel sorting functions 8 Favorite channel groups 256 color OSD with picture in graphics Programmable sleep timer Fully DVB compliant Selectable display format Timer programming for automated channel and operation control Info banner with information about the actual event, time and available services

5000 SUPER

4000 TV & Radio channels programmable User friendly installation with Assistant Detailed EPG for up to 14 days (depending on TV operator support) Super Fast OSD Teletext / VBI Teletext / Subtitles Fast programming Convenient channel sorting functions 8 Favorite channel groups 256 color OSD with picture in graphics Programmable sleep timer Selectable display format Timer programming for automated channel and operation control PVR functionality through USB (front panel or rear panel) Info banner with information about the actual event, time and available services

PESHAWAR BRANCH Shop No. 53 & 54, Amin Shopping Plaza, Block ‘A’ Heyatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan. Ph: 0092-91-5818759, 5272419


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view In 1976 President Soeharto of the Republic of Indonesia, gave the name PALAPA to the first Indonesian satellite. At that time Indonesia was the 3rd nation in the world to use satellites as its telecommunications infrastructure. Indonesia can be proud of this fact, because Indonesia's neighbors Singapore, Malaysia,

IT IS TIME TO USE THE

KU-BAND

Satellite Communications Systems are infrastructures that can be used for broadband multimedia applications. In the communication satellite field, the C-band (4-6 GHz) frequencies have been used since the beginning and are now saturated. The Ku-band (11-18 GHz) has been used also for communication satellite systems, because with this frequency a bigger bandwidth can be applied. The Ku-band has other advantages, such as avoidance of interference with terrestrial microwave systems that often use the C-band frequency. However, for Indonesia, the use of the Ku-band needs a thorough examination because frequencies above 10 GHz are vulnerable to rain, especially heavy rain that often occurs in Indonesia. This article examines the possibility of using the Ku-band for satellite communication systems in Indonesia. DECEMBER

the Philippines and Thailand had not yet shown any interest in having their own satellites. Indeed, considering Indonesia's geographical features: consisting of islands stretching from West to East and from South to North, it is reasonable for Indonesia to adopt a satellite platform for its communications system. By using satellites one can obtain wide coverage, quick rollout of facilities (compared to buried optic fiber cables) unconstrained by natural conditions and distance. Indonesia is now not alone in Southeast Asia/East Asia in utilizing satellite services for voice, video and data. Twenty years after the historic launch of its first satellite in 1976, Malaysia and Thailand have launched their own satellites, followed by Singapore and Taiwan constructing their satellite cooperatively. In addition are Hongkong, Korea (Koreasat) and Japan (JCSAT). The frequency bands used for satellite communications have also developed. Besides using the C-band, the use of the Ku-band has become more and more popular, even though Indonesian satellite operators are still unsure about the technical feasibility of using the Ku-band in Indonesia. The use of the Ku-band for satellite communications in tropical regions like Indonesia seems to become more frequent. We observe that several satellites “parked� above Indonesia have Ku-band transponders, and even Ka-band transponders. Just look at the satellite owned by NewSkies (NSS 6), launched in December 2002 and positioned at 95° East.

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Inside view

At the time INTELSAT made available for the first time reliable international satellite communication in the 1960's, Indonesia made a wise decision to join the Consortium of Satellite-Using Nations, notwithstanding the economic hardships it posed to participate. Later in the 1970's, the launch of Indonesia's Palapa domestic satellite was a breakthrough technology for addressing isolated areas, and triggering business activities. Indonesia had crucial decisions to make during ITU's WARCORB 1985 and 1987 regulatory deliberations in the interest of the global community and its own national interest. In cooperation with other Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) operators, Indonesia obtained an endorsement at WRC-95 for improving the fragmented MSS bands, and helped achieve an additional allocation at WRC-2003. Indonesia took part in the ITU sponsored deliberations on GMPCS (Satellite Mobile Communication), and assisted emerging non-geostationary satellite systems, such LEOs and MEOs, at WRC forums in getting their spectrum allocation. In 2004, Indonesia is experiencing its initial stage of DTH (Direct-to-home) satellite broadcasts using Broadcast Satellite Services (BSS). More widespread use of terresterial means in Indonesia's telecommunications scene will cause a shift in the application of satellite technologies. Triggered by its early success in operating its Palapa system, Indonesia DECEMBER

became active in such international forums as INTELSAT and ITU. Its vocal participation in these forums contributed to better cooperation with other countries, particularly developing countries. These new links of cooperation among developing countries provided Indonesia with the leverage needed to help solve crucial issues regarding planned bands at ITU Radio communication Conferences for the benefit of all Members. Since the launch of its first Domestic Satellite System PALAPA, several reports regarding its project management, technical characteristics and national economic benefits have been presented. This paper reveals untold events closely related to those developments. Indonesia entered the global space communication era by the inauguration of her international INTELSAT station at Jatiluhur, 60 km south of Jakarta, in 1969. Indonesia's membership at INTELSAT brought new experiences and opportunities for reliable international communication for the first time in the Indonesian international communication history. Practically all international communications in the past were by unreliable HF means. Indonesia has been involved in numerous INTELSAT Conferences and meetings. It is worthwhile to note that the Vice Chairmanship and Chairmanship of the INTELSAT Board during the period 1998 – 1990 were entrusted to Mr. J.L Parapak, who was PT. Indosat's CEO at that time.

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Inside view

CHINA FIRST SATELLITE

D

The East is Red on the satellite. While Dong Fang Hong I was transported to the launch site by train, armed guards were placed between every two electricity poles. On April 24, 1970 at 9:35 pm a Long March I rocket (CZ-1) lifted off from the China's Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center placing the Dong Fang Hong I satellite in orbit at 9:48 pm. The primary purpose of the Dong Fang I satellite was to perform tests of satellite technology and take readings of the ionosphere and atmosphere. The satellite was similar in shape to a 72 faced tetrahedron, had a mass of 173 kg (381 lb), and had a diameter of approximately one meter (39 in). It spun 120 times per minute for stabilization. The outer surface was coated with a processed aluminum alloy for temperature control. The main body of the sphere had four ultra shortwave whip antennas of at least two meters (6½ ft) in length. The lower section was connected to a stage containing a rocket motor. The perigee of its orbit was 441 kilometers and apogee was 2,386 kilometers (274 by 1,483 mi) and had an inclination of 68.55 degrees. This near-earth elliptical orbit was 114.09 minutes per orbit.

DECEMBER

57

ông Fâng Hóng I, also known as China 1, was the People's Republic of China's first successful space satellite, launched on April 24, 1970 as part of the PRC's Dong Fang Hong space satellite program. At 173 kg (381 lb), it was heavier than the first satellites of other countries. The satellite carried a radio transmitter. It broadcast the song of the same name, The East Is Red, which lasted for 26 days while in orbit. The song was played in honor of the emporer of the PRC at the time. Dong Fang Hong I (Red East 1) is China's first man-made satellite. It was developed under the direction of Qian Xuesen (Tsien Hsue-shen), dean at the Chinese Academy of Space Technology. At the time, a total of five identical satellites were created. The first satellite launched successfully. The academy formulated a "Three Satellite Plan" consisting of Dong Fang Hong I, reentry satellites, and geosynchronous orbit communications satellites. Sun Jia-Dong was responsible for the Dong Fang Hong I technology. In 1967 Dang Hongxin chose a copper antenna membrane that resolved the difficulties of broadcasting on an ultra-short wave antenna between 100 ºC and - 100 ºC. Engineers installed a music player playing

The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2011


we provide digital headends complete solution from Grundig Scupus Motorola Tandberg Scientific Atlanta Arris Harmonics Blankom Drake


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view

JAPANESE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY Nearly 100 satellites have been launched by and for Japan since the island country became the fourth nation ever to launch its own satellite to Earth orbit back in 1970. Japan does not launch all of its own satellites. On the other hand, Japan sometimes launches satellites for others. The nation launches space flights from Tanegashima Island spaceport 700 miles southwest of Tokyo. JSAT is providing satellite communications systems and services in Japan and the Asia-Pacific area. With four operational satellites and a fifth satellite that was due for launch in November 1997, JSAT provides wide area services to companies for video teleconferencing, data, fax and telephone audio, but does not supply multiplexed telephony. In addition, it supplies high quality television for broadcast and cable TV stations. JCSAT-1 and 2 provide services to Japan, but also have beam coverage over much of China, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and even as far east as the state of Hawaii. JCSAT-3 covers the countries mentioned above and also covers much of Russia and India, and goes south as far

DECEMBER

as Australia and New Zealand. JSAT joined with four additional corporate investors (Sony, Toyota, NEC and NTT) to form PerfecTV. PerfecTV provides digital multichannel TV via JCSAT-3 to small dishes in homes and businesses. In addition to subscriber TV channels, services include "pay per view," "video on demand," and high quality music channels. A future PerfecTV service is the broadcasting of data to personal computers and interactive bidirectional dialogues using telephone landlines from individual PC operators. JSAT currently maintains, manages and operates two Hughes (HS 393) satellites, JCSAT-1, launched in 1989, and JCSAT-2, launched in 1990, located at 150 and 154 degrees east, respectively. These satellites have 32 Ku-band transponders for nominal NTSC television. In addition, JSAT has two Hughes (HS-601) satellites, JCSAT-3 and 4, that provide Ku and C-band services. JCSAT-3 began service in November 1995 and JCSAT-4 began service in April 1997. JCSAT-5 and 6 were under construction at the time of this visit and were scheduled for launch in late November 1997 and June 1998, respectively. Command, control and operations are maintained through its Yokohama Satellite Control Center and Gunma backup station. JSAT is a successful satellite communications company providing largely video services to businesses and the broadcast industry. It has developed a good set of business and broadcast applications, such as equipment to provide satellite news gathering services.

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AROUND THE SATELLITE WORLD

IRAN SENDS FIRST HOME BUILT SATELLITE INTO ORBIT

JAPAN LAUNCHES ENGLISH NHK WORLD TV

Iran has launched its first home-built satellite into orbit, in a move likely to further alarm an international community already at odds with Tehran over its nuclear drive. Dear Iranians, your children have put the first indigenous satellite into orbit, a jubilant President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said on state television after a launch coinciding with the 30th anniversary of the Islamic revolution. With this launch the Islamic Republic of Iran has officially achieved a presence in space, he said. Iran's Omid (Hope) satellite was sent into space carried by the home-built Safir-2 space rocket, local news agencies reported. In the first international reaction to the launch, France expressed concern because, it said, the technology used was very similar to that employed in ballistic missiles. We can't but link this to the very serious concerns about the development of military nuclear capacity, French foreign ministry spokesman Eric Chevallier said in Paris. Ahmadinejad said the satellite carried a message of peace and brotherhood to the world and dismissed suggestions that Iran's space programme had military goals.

NHK World TV went on air as the latest Englishlanguage international news network as Japan joined the race to boost clout overseas by reaching out to viewers. Broadcast 24 hours a day, NHK World TV is accessible on five continents via satellite, cable operators or on highspeed Internet connections. Japan becomes the latest nation to launch an international network. France 24 and Al-Jazeera have both launched English-language channels to challenge the supremacy of CNN and the BBC. NHK World TV, which is revamped from an earlier more modest NHK English service, carries half an hour of news every hour on weekdays -- 10 minutes at weekends -- with the rest devoted to features on culture, science and economics. Much of the coverage will focus on Japan but there will also be material on other parts of Asia. By showing various aspects of Japanese public opinion and trends, we can promote a better understanding of Japan around the world," said Hatsuhisa Takashima, head of Japan International Broadcasting, which runs the network. Takashima, a former NHK journalist who later served as a foreign ministry spokesman, said Japan did not enjoy the level of media coverage befitting the world's second largest economy -- a void the channel hopes to fill.

DECEMBER

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SATELLITE TROUBLE SHOOTER

SATELLITE

TROUBLE SHOOTER

SATELLITETVANDADISHNETWORK DIGITAL VIDEO RECORDER What is the difference between satellite TV and a dish network or DirecTV? (Mohammad Zubair, Saudi Arabia) A: Satellite TV is a huge style dish made in the 90's usually but is the same as Dish Network and DirecTV. Also Satellite TV is another way of bringing you your network and local and favorite channels without having to pay a corporate company such as Cable one or Classic or COX or Cambridge. Dish Network and DirecTV or DTV.. the differences in these two are simple... Basically here's the deal Dish Network runs of 6 Great Huge Satellites but only uses 2 to 3 depending on your local stations. DirecTV uses 4 satellites but they are overloaded with 20 million customers and cause DirecTV to pixel ate or lose signal while Dish Network can hold 20 million and not pixel ate or lose signal. Another huge deal between them are the dishes and storms. DECEMBER

does a digital video recorder Q:2How work with cable or satellite TV?

(Anwar Khan, Lebanon) A: DVRs are compatible with most any cable, satellite or antenna setup. Your exact setup instructions will vary according to the type of DVR you purchase. You'll need to review your owner's manual for more information, but here are some tips: Depending on your current home entertainment arrangement, you'll basically hook up your cable line to your DVR, plug your DVR into an electrical outlet, and leave your cable box as is. If you have services like TiVo or RePlay, you'll follow on-screen instructions for setting up your program guide and recording your cable channels.

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SATELLITE TROUBLE SHOOTER

SAVING TV CHANNELS do you program and Q:3How permanently save TV channels without losing them when the receiver is restarted? (M Aurangzeb, via e-mail) A: I do not understand the question. are you talking the stereo receiver or TV receiver? if it is the TV, then you would have to do a "scan channels" as some TV call it. other TV's say "add channels" either or. and some will say something along those lines. but if you have a black out it most likely will lose the channels on some TV's. I have 5 TV's and 2 have to be "reprogrammed" after a power out. Another bit on info. The TV will scan and save to memory what it sees. If the TV is turned off by way of a cable box which might actually be causing the power to be cut off, rather than shut off properly, a part called an EPROM that stores data can become corrupted.

HD READY Q:5 What does it mean when a TV is "HD Ready"? Do I need a converter box? (Jamal Yousuf, via e-mail) A: An "HD Ready" television does not have a built-in HD-capable or digital tuner. The term "HD Ready" when referenced to a television set, means that the TV in question is capable of displaying a high-definition signal at 720p, or 1080i or 1080p (or all three formats) when using a device to receive the signals like a converter box or set-top digital cable box.

DTV ANTENNA I need a special "DTV Antenna" Q:6 Do for digital television or can I use my

POOR RECEPTION do I do if my reception is still Q:4 What poor? (Pervez Akmal, Islamabad) A: It shouldn't be so please check that you've got your digital receiver connected properly. Sometimes all it takes is a 'factory reset' or 're-installation' - press the 'menu' button on the digital receiver remote and follow the menu options. If you are still having a problem we suggest first call the manufacturer for assistance. If this does not solve the problem then call an installer.

old antenna? (Ubaid Iqbal, Dubai) A: You can use your old antenna to receive digital TV signals by plugging it into your digital-to-analog converter box or television equipped with a digital tuner. This includes tee old fashioned type rabbit ears antenna,

roof top antenna, and yagi antennas. The truth is, antennas that are marketed as a "DTV antenna" are no different than any other type of antenna. It's just a marketing gimmick. One item to consider is that most broadcast stations will be transmitting signals on the VHF spectrum for digital broadcasts. DECEMBER

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SATELLITE TROUBLE SHOOTER

DIGITAL TV

PIRATED SYSTEM

I receive more channels with a are the differences between Q:10What Q:7 Will converter box or digital TV? (Ali pirated and legal systems? Khan, Swat) A: Probably. If you have optimal reception of dtv signals, you should receive a number of local stations that multicast sub channels (also known as multicasting or multiplexing). This allows a broadcaster to transmit multiple feeds of different programming on one channel (i.e.: channel 12.1, channel 12.2, channel 12.3). In my hometown of Arizona, one of the broadcasters has a full time weather update feed on their multicast sub channel.

(Salman, Peshawar) A: Pirated systems are cheaper, but very instable. With legal systems you pay more but you have the warranty of continuous access during the period of your subscription (six months or one year depending of your plan). But if you are here for a short period the pirated system should be OK, and for the dream satellite we offer a warranty period of six months for new installation and three months for new cards during which we can replace non-working cards free of charge within 24~48h.

DISH ANTENNA have a dish and a receiver Q:8 Iinalready my house but they don't seem to be working. (Aftab Younus, via e-mail) A: Your system must be expired. You can ask for a free check-up to determine if it is an equipment or cable failure or if you just need to purchase a new card.

CABLE TV I get those foreign channels Q:11 Can through cable TV? (Mehtab Haider, China) A: No. Currently because on restrictions on foreign programs in China the local cable networks do not offer foreign channels, other than a very limited number of them (such as HBO or Cinemax in Chinese etc.)

DECEMBER

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SEARCH SATELLITE

SEARCH SATELLITE

Channel Name

Freq.

Polarity

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Remarks

2011


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

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www.tracksat.com

DECEMBER

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Inside view

Since the beginning of the DIRECTV satellite system in 1994, sales of these small dish systems has exploded, making this the most successful introduction of new technology ever. With the launch of a Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) system from EchoStar, and the continuing success of the DIRECTV system, as well as the cable-owned Primestar system (now bought out by DIRECTV), the choices can look bewildering. You need to look at the different programming available on the various systems, the size of the dish (the Primestar dish is larger), the direction to the satellites from your area (for clear aiming purposes), the cost of equipment and programming, program obligations, rebates and incentives, and perhaps some other factors. These pages attempt to define and compare all the new small dish systems and provide enough information to make an intelligent choice as to which of these DBS systems is for you. We list available equipment and accessories and make them available at low mail order prices. DBS technology is advancing rapidly, and you should see regular changes and additions to this web site as they become available. Satellites are used for voice, data, and TV communications world-wide.

DECEMBER

REASONS FOR

CHOOSING DBS Signals are beamed from the "uplink" sites to the satellites which then beam the signal back down over a target area or "footprint" such as the US, Canada, or other parts of the world. Programming can be received only within the footprint, or a little outside the footprint sometimes with a larger dish. Most network and cable programs are transmitted on a series of C-band satellites and some Ku-band satellites. These two types of satellites use different frequencies much like VHF and UHF broadcast TV use different frequencies. Communications satellites were originally designed for commercial purposes for sending telephone, radio, TV, and other signals across the country and around the world for retransmission to businesses and homes by local telephone companies, TV stations, or cable companies. Enterprising individuals soon learned to build satellite dish receivers to pick up these signals at their own home, and begin making and selling these systems to homeowners around the country, thus beginning the era of home satellite TV. During the 1980's and early 1990's, several million of these C-band systems were sold with dishes generally around the 10' diameter size. One of the early pioneers in the C-band business was Charlie Ergan who founded Echosphere Corporation.

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RECEIVER

Inside view

AND WIRING

A

DBS receiver is usually installed at the main household TV set. The satellite receiver is where satellite channels are selected for TV viewing. In addition to the normal coaxial output, the receiver usually has audio-video and S-video outputs that can be connected directly to the TV, a VCR, and a stereo or surround sound system if you have one. A new dedicated RG6 coaxial line must be run from the dish to the receiver. This line carries power (13-18 vdc) to the amplifier at the dish, and carries the high frequency transmission signal down to the receiver for processing into the audio and video signals. If a second receiver is installed in the house, a separate line must be run from the dish to that receiver also. Ideally, you would like to be able to watch the satellite channel on all TV sets in the house. The coaxial output (ch. 3/4) from your receiver may be sent around the house distribution system, but most homes also have either a cable or a regular TV antenna for local channels that also has a signal on at least one of those channels. The solution is to convert the satellite channel to an unused

DECEMBER

UHF or cable channel and then combine signals so that all TV sets can tune to regular or cable channels, or to the satellite signal (on ch. 20 or ch. 60, for example). Good quality UHF converters are expensive, in the $150-$200 price range. Your TV set needs to have a working UHF tuner, and if there are separate UHF and VHF inputs, you will need a UHF/VHF splitter at the TV set. Satellite channels can be recorded on a VCR. Run the signal from the receiver to the recorder either as channel 3/4 on a coaxial cable or an audio/video signal with RCA type cables. You will need a compass and an angle finder. If you cannot find these among your tools or camping equipment, they should be available at local hardware, home improvement, or camping stores. You will need to be exactly where the dish is to be located when you do the survey. You may need to sit on the ground, climb a ladder, get on the roof, or do all of these before you find a suitable place for the dish.

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Inside view

THE RECENT ADVANCES OF Scientists use satellites to observe different features of the earth including different kinds of radiation. "Satellites provide colonized images of the outgoing-longwave radiation, a quantity that can aid in detection of long-term warming or cooling" (McGinley 10). Satellites are also used to monitor the atmospheric ozone, which is a gas that protects the earth from harmful solar radiation. Modern satellites are sent up with multi-channel high-resolution radiometers that cover a wide range of infrared and microwave wavelengths. Radiometers sense cloudy and clear air, atmospheric temperatures, and ocean winds and provide visual imagery as well. Sensors that measure radiation are used to get a more complete picture of the atmosphere by measuring in an area beyond visual red, where ground surface or cloud top temperature can be determined. Today earth-orbiting satellite observatories can observe celestial objects without the interference caused by the earth's atmosphere. "The orbiting astronomical observatories, and the International Ultraviolet Explorer, for example studied faint astronomical objects in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum" (15). Satellites are used by scientists to determine many different weather conditions and the various locations of weather. The meteorologist, by noting past locations, apparent qualitative strength, jet streams and storms, and by using the

DECEMBER

SATELLITES

satellite-improved model generated forecast, is able to make more accurate weather predictions for a particular location. Through the use of sensors, the satellites data provides details of individual thunderstorms and maintains coverage over a specific location on earth at time intervals from 5 minutes to 12 hours. "Heavy snows or rains associated with large cyclones are often produced by mesoscale, sized thunderstorm systems that can be easily seen and traced by visual and infrared satellite imagery" Polar orbiting satellites globally monitor temperature, moisture and cloud patterns associated with these systems. The satellite measurements are combined with other weather data to initialize computer-run mathematical models which routinely provide forecasts for these major cyclones. Satellite monitoring of polar ice caps helps identify important seasonal variations. Ice caps in areas where vegetation is decreasing because of drought or human exploitation, modify fractions of incident radiation reflected and influence the effective solar radiation reaching the earth. Meteorological satellites can measure radiation in a wide spectrum of electromagnetic wavelengths. This provides the meteorologist with a supplemental source of data including cloud imagery from visual sensors, ground surface, cloud, and atmospheric layer temperatures, and water vapor concentration from infrared sensors.

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PARAS HD ELECTRONICS

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MUHAMMAD IMTIAZ


18 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view Vietnam plans to launch its first remote sensing satellite by 2012, the local newspaper Vietnam News Agency reported. The country is now carrying out its satellite-launching project, worth about 100 million US dollars. The announcement was made by chairman of the national Research Program on Space Science and Technology NguyenKhoa Son at the 2008 Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF-

telecommunication satellite VINASAT-1 in April, 2008. Vietnam will also design and manufacture small-sized satellites by itself by 2020. Under a national strategy on research and application of space technology until 2020 recently approved by the government, Vietnam will master technologies and techniques regarding production of small satellites, launching equipment, and earth stations in the 2011-

VIETNAM FIRST REMOTE SENSING

SATELLITE 15). Currently, Vietnam still has to buy images taken by satellites of foreign countries for the purpose of forecasting weather, protecting the environment and studying natural resources. "When the VNREDSAT-1 is operational by 2012, Vietnam will be able to take photographs of the Earth from outer space, which will help Vietnam improve the efficiency of natural resources management, environmental protection and disaster prevention," said Son. Capital investment for the project would mostly come from Official Development Assistance (ODA), and will be used to manufacture, launch, and control the satellite, build a control station for the satellite, transfer technology and train experts, said Son. Vietnam is seeking more foreign partners who can provide both capital and technical assistance so that the pre-feasibility research can be conducted in the near future, according to Son. Vietnam successfully launched its first DECEMBER

2020 period. Between 2006 and 2010, Vietnam will intensify application of space technology in four main spheres, namely communications, hydrometeorology, natural resource and environment, and satellite- based positioning. Under the strategy, by 2010 space technology should be widely applied in the fields like posts and telecommunications, radio and television, meteorology, agriculture and transport. In May, US firm Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems won a bid to build and launch Vietnam's first communication satellite. The Vietnamese government launched the satellite in May 2008, which span its coverage over Vietnam, other Southeast Asian countries, Japan, the Korean peninsula, eastern Oceania and South China Sea. Total investment for the Vinasat project is 2,885 billion Vietnamese dong (nearly 182.6 million US dollars).

81

The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2011


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