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International Monthly Magazine

VOLUME: 19 - No: 08 Editor-in-Chief HABIB HADI hadi@tracksat.com Managing Editors SUROOSH IZNA Editor SUMERA HADI Associate Editor SHOUKAT IQBAL KHATTAK Technical Editor HAIDER ALI dishtech@tracksat.com Advertising Manager Mohib Ahrar dishchannels@gmail.com Layout Designer SHAHID ADEEL Accounts Manager S.ASHRAF-UL-HAQ Legal Advisor QAZI MUNAWAR ALAM Editorial Address: Dawood Centre, 101-1st Floor, 124,R, Block-2, Main Tariq Road, P.E.C.H.S., Karachi-Pakistan. Tel. : + 92-21- 34531122, 34531133 : + 92-21- 34316529, 34316530 Fax: : + 92-21- 34528822 E-mail: dishchannels@gmail.com hadi@tracksat.com Distributors UAE Emirates Printing Publishing & Distribution Co. Tel.: (04) 2660337 Ext. 204 SAUDI ARABIA Al-Adabiya Pub & Distributors Tel.: 671 5788 KUWAIT United Company for Distribution of Newspapers & Publications Tel.: (965) 245 6198-(965) 241 2820 BAHRAIN Al Ayam Publishing Est. B.S.C. (C) Tel. : 725111 PAKISTAN Paradise Books & Distributors Tel: + 92-21-4314981-83 Fax: + 92-21-4385075 EGYPT Al-Ahram Tel.: 5796997 QATAR Naz Book Distribution Tel.: +974 4324235, +974 5562809 TURKEY Ukrainian Distribution Tel.: +38 044 261 5876 JORDAN Jordan Distribution Agency Tel.: 962 6 533 7733 IRAQ Al-Khalil Distribution NETHERLANDS Van Gelderen UNITED KINGDOM Golden Publication Ltd. KENYA National Group Ltd. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Future Empire Network Corp. Publisher HABIB HADI Dish Channels is printed on the 1st of every month by Dish Channels Karachi. Dish Channels is Non-Political & NonPatrisian Publication. While every effort is made to ensure accuracy, we cannot bear responsibility for losses resulting from errors. Printed By: PRINTING IMPRESSION, KARACHI

Dear Readers! While DTH pay-TV platforms represent a key market for satellite operators, a large part of demand for video distribution is also driven by other applications. Two particularly noteworthy applications are free-to-air satellite broadcasting and distribution of video services to terrestrial system head-ends (e.g. cable, towers, DSL and fiber). Together these related markets represented over 7,500 channels broadcast, approximately 41 percent of all channels broadcast by satellite. In the last five years, this number increased by an average of 15 percent per year. In addition, it has brought and continues to bring a number of innovations that will support growth in the coming years. Even before the emergence of satellite pay-TV, satellite broadcasting was used in a number of countries to provide leading terrestrial channels on a national scale. This was the case in France, Germany, and Japan, to name a few examples. While the satellite has maintained this role over time, it has also seen its position expand greatly. One example is the role of satellite as the primary growth driver for digital TV in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where roughly 900 channels were broadcast free-to-air in the region in early 2007 as compared to only 275 channels in 2003. Several important innovations underpin growth of free-to-air viewing. First, the decrease in the cost of digital set-top-boxes over the last few years is a key factor, as it has allowed the introduction of digital free-to-air services for a low initial cost for the viewer.

Habib Hadi Editor-in-Chief

dishchannels@gmail.com www.dishchannels.net www.tracksat.com

AUGUST – 2012


SG-7000 HD

HD DIGITALSATELLITE FINDER

SL-X4000 HD

NB-502 DISEQC SWITCH


Contents Letter from Editor

231st LEGEND ISSUE OF PUBLICATIONS Satellite TV services Television in Germany

Global Flash News

Satellite TV Software

Communication Satellite

Television Programs via

Sat Mart

TV market in Turkey

Fortec star (Test Report)

Understanding Satellite

The Real Truth about

What is MPEG 4

Echolink (Test Report)

The first 50 years of Satellite pay-TV yet to

Echolink (Test Report)

International satellite TV

Innovation with Satellite

Ikusi SZB single-channel

AZBox Me (Test Report)

Around the satellite world

AZBox Me (Test Report)

Trouble Shooter

Satellite TV Reciever

Search Satellite

Satellite Dish Antennas

Everyman's Non-Technical

Advantages Of Satellite

Low signal level

Satellite Frequency

Digital is better Fiber satellite

Satellite tops cable

C-Band Reception

TV Satellite Services

Digital Chart

TEST REPORTS

Echolink EL-3080 USB

Fortec Star FSHD-4700

AZBOX ME Digital HDTV

ARTICLES VIEW

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Communication Satellite

THE FIRST 50 YEARS OF SATELLITE TV

Satellite TV Receiver 34

53

Low Signal Level

75

Everyman's Non-Technical Guide to HDTV C

76


SRT 2010 HD

SRT 2014 HD

SRT 2015 HD

SRT 3000 HD

SR 55X

SR 140 SR 150

ST 570 ST 560

www.startrackworld.com


19 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view

Communications satellite Television satellite signals originate from a single 'uplink' facility and are transmitted to a communications satellite orbiting 22,300 miles above the earth's equator. These type orbiting communications satellites are considered to be 'parked' in orbit; though in reality they travel from west to east but appear stationary to an observer on Earth because their speed is the exact speed of the Earth's rotation thus they are termed geostationary satellites. The overwhelmingly common receive frequency of satellite transmissions, for video purposes, are either in the C-band (frequency range from 3.7 to 4.2 gigahertz) or in the Ku-band (10.7 to 11.7 Ghz and

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11.7 to 12.75 Ghz). New generation satellites are being built with Ka-band capability (22Ghz) and a very few, older specialty satellites are in the lower frequency S-band. After receiving the signals from earth, the satellite amplifies the signals then rebroadcasts them, or 'downlinks', back to earth in a predetermined beam pattern commonly called a 'footprint'. The calibration of the footprint is in EIRP (effective irradiated power) and its units are in dBw (decibel watts). The downlinked signal from the satellites, upon reaching the earth, is very weak not only because of the great distance the signal has traveled but also because of the 'spreading' effect of the signal from a point source at the satellite to a regional image at its footprint.

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THE REAL TRUTH ABOUT SATELLITE TV

DISH NETWORKS Before you read this ask yourself are you one of those adventurous souls who have the ability to discern between the truly trashy and the absolutely fabulous then read on, if no then please don't waste your time. We are going to talk about some truly cool alternative to the various Satellite TV dish networks and other TV channel systems that have you paying through your nose and yet make you feel that you are being shortchanged. Remember that you are not alone. There are millions of people out there who have been through the grind and come out stronger. There are hundreds of disgruntled customers whose lives are mired in millions of miles of cables and satellite dishes that consume more power than they can handle and this makes it difficult for them to discern between the various satellite TV dish networks. Today, there are two major satellite TV dish networks that are ruling the airwaves, Dish Network and DirecTV. Each of them offers a large number of channels and several so called low-cost options for service. In addition to that, they also promise to offer freedom from the binding stresses of your local cable company. The reality is much AUGUST

further from the truth. You find out the hard way that all that glitters is not gold and then you are stuck with the trash that you've got. This includes dozens of channels that you are never going to even flip through in this life time and a huge dish that consumes power faster than a teenager inhales cheeseburgers. So you need to ask your self is there an alternative to satellite TV dish networks and their enforced hegemony? Yes. There is. Free to air is here. Satellite TV dish networks are the future of cable TV networks that will enable you to receive all the good stuff on cable TV all the time irrespective of the network that you are using. In fact with the free to air satellites you won't need to have a network. Just free to air will suffice. Satellite TV dish network able to transmit satellite signals which a person can receive legally for free. This means that without having any subscription and without paying the exorbitant fees you get all the satellite channels that you want for free. Although the free to air satellite transmission is not encrypted, it is typically encoded for MPEG-2 video and may have geographical restrictions.

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19 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

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Innovation with Satellite TV

When you invest in a new product or service it is always a good idea to look into the latest technologies and services in the market before deciding on one. No matter the product, technology is what moves services and equipment forward, and you want to be aligned with a provider who also has that also has that ideal. Television is a product and service that has surged forward lately in terms of the technology offered. Big jumps have been made in terms of quality and additional equipment offered. Now with a satellite television provider you have access to all of these great technologies, as well as a product that has better quality than its competitors. Television technology has taken a little while to pick up. Although there have been major developments in the size as well as quality of a television stream, there have not been the accessories that make the experience truly different until now. A technology service is truly a service when it can be personalized to fit your specific needs. Every home is diverse, with different needs and interests. For that reason, when you sign up with any provider you want to make sure that you have a say in the different services that are offered. Getting a satellite or cable TV subscription AUGUST

these days may seem to be a hassle with all the terms and condition applied to the subscription. The technicalities related to the programs that you want or subscribed to. Trouble is when getting the programs; you might not understand the terms and conditions. Moving on to the trend of TV viewing, you can watch television on computer these days. Look Forward to Satellite TV Innovations Millions and millions of folks are football fans and they look forward to the opportunity to get action on their own TV sets. In the United States, football has easily overtaken baseball as the national past time over the past few decades. Now, it is as if Sunday has its own set of traditions as football fans from around the world gather in front of their television sets to watch the big game. The best providers are also obviously still concerned with the quality of viewing of their television packages. Although an older innovation, it is still important and affects the entire television watching experience.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Inside view

Satellite TV Receiver Today, digital television has become wellknown radio transmission; most of the city's friends have a "set-top box", using a TV to watch digital TV. A small box, the value of three five hundred, or even three thousand, weigh feel very alone in the hands of Pu, with the box will be able to watch digital TV? As everyone knows, this box really a lot of knowledge, it's a single type of strike, you coal Friends Ye Hao, first came to suddenly see the friends it has, it can be seen several of them. Satellite TV receivers, commonly known as set-top boxes, is head of the TV box. Now say "now" basic digital satellite TV receivers in general, and then the "past" what is it used, of course, the analog satellite TV receivers. Then ground, cable transmission signal is analog, the first satellite television transmission is an analog signal. Compared with digital signals, analog signals are susceptible to interference, so the image quality is not good, and the analog signal to the frequency band utilization is low, a satellite transmission of a small number of simulation programs; digital signal is more stable, high image quality , high bandwidth resource utilization, transfer programs more. Burning faithful know, and now we are all domestic digital satellite television transmission. Since the domestic set-top box business is thriving. SARFT end of last year's bid, it leads to the extraordinary forces of more than thirty companies, the companies have a lot of names, satellite TV receivers. Satellite TV receiver is a satellite AUGUST

LNB output signals are converted to audio video signal or RF signal electronic devices. Analogue satellite TV receiver receives an analog signal, because most of the current signal has been digitized are basically extinct. Digital satellite TV receiver - receives a digital signal, the receiver is commonly used, but also points card numbers machine, free, HD machines. A basic satellite TV receivers, should normally include the following components: electronic tuner tuner, IF amplifier and demodulator, Signal processor, audio signal. Satellite TV receiver circuit circuit. Demodulator, the front panel indicator, power supply circuit. Card machine also includes digital card interface circuit. 1, the electronic tuner tuner. Its main function is the input from 950-1450MHz to be selected to receive the signal of a television channel frequency, and it transforms into the second IF frequency is fixed (usually 479.5MHz), sent to the IF amplifier and demodulator.

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Inside view Single Cable Distribution is a satellite TV technology that enables the delivery of broadcast programming to multiple users over a single coaxial cable, and eliminates the numerous cables required to support consumer electronics devices such as twintuner Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) and high end receivers.Without single cable distribution, providing full spectrum access for multiple receivers, or receivers with multiple tuners, in a single family home has required a separate coaxial cable feed

solution that allows Unicable-certified Digital Video Recorders and receivers to multiplex selected programming when using Unicable LNB or multiswitching products.The Unicable Interoperability Platform is open to companies designing and/or marketing satellite and other broadcast-related products. The platform is designed to facilitate the acceptance of Unicable-certified solutions in the consumer TV broadcast market.Each satellite receiver in the installation has a dedica ted

ing each tuner from the antenna equipment (either multiple LNBs, a multioutput LNB or a multiswitch distribution system) because of the large bandwidth requirement of the signals. Single cable distribution technology enables one coaxial cable from the antenna equipment to multiple tuners, to provide independent tuning across the whole range of satellite reception for each tuner. A European industry standard for distributing satellite signals over a single coaxial cable has been defined in 2007 and developed by a consortium led by SES. Single cable distribution technology can be found in commercial equipment with the Unicable trademark from FTA Communications Technologies. Unicable uses an integrated software and hardware

use

a conventional front end, amplified and down converted to the L-band, to be fed to a number of Single Cable Router (SCR) chips – one for each user that can be connected - to further down convert the required section of the received spectrum to centre on the user band IF frequency.

S

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s

h s i Ante D e t i l nn l e a at

r band of a bandwidth approximately the same as a transponder. The receiver requests a particular transponder frequency via a DiSEqC-compliant command. A mixer in the dish-end equipment (an LNB or distribution unit) converts the received signal to the correct user band IF centre frequency for that receiver.The converted transponders of the various users are then combined, and sent via the single coaxial cable to the receivers. The combined signal is tapped or split to reach every user. Special LNBs have been developed for use in single cable distribution systems. All four sub-bands of the Ku band (low frequency/horizontal polarity, high frequency/horizontal polarity, low frequency/vertical polarity, high frequency/vertical polarity) are received by

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Inside view Satellite system is introduced, and people are always available for free on Dish Network. Other companies that either are on Direct TV. There are many rumors about the TV advertising on the Internet on Flash. But how can a system of satellite television? The answer is here. This system uses the power of communications satellites in the southern hemisphere, which is located a kilometer away from the surface. The company uses the satellite-TV services via satellite frequency throughout the world, place of residence or the household, with a clear view of the southern sky. They do this by using an antenna and receiver. Not so long ago, I remember the people still using that big satellite dish. These doses are very large and heavy. They are usually in the courtyard of the house. They are often based on the satellite C-band transmission. This is in contradiction with the Ku-band the frequency usually used in small plates, which are widely used Dish Network. High-frequency C-band flat faces many limitations, because they have less capacity Ku-band satellites. Therefore, if you want to get more channels of satellite C-band, more than a satellite dish and also have a

AUGUST

license fee for each host when it is installed. However, a small dish Ku-band channels and a number of programs to get in one small bowl. This is because low-cost satellite Dish Network. Valuable feature of the Ku-band satellites is their small size and compact design. You can do everything on the roof or the terrace. Therefore, there is no need to decorate your garden you a heavy bowl. Then you can use the extra space on the farm for other purposes. If you are registering on Dish TV satellite systems, you receive free professional installation service. This is another added feature to the frequency Ku-band satellites. If you want to install a satellite frequency band C, they must find a way to repair your own. If not, do it on technology for you. Therefore, the additional costs. It is clear that the jury in determining whether the Kuband satellite frequency because of their size, professional, price, features, and offers a variety of channels to choose from. So if you are interested in satellite TV, there is no better time than now to offer DISH Network offers you and goodbye cable television .

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Inside view

Satellite tops cable SES has revealed that satellite has become the leading TV infrastructure in Europe, ahead of terrestrial and cable reception. Approximately 84 million European households have satellite (DTH) as their primary TV reception mode, an increase of 22 per cent over the last four years. In the same period, terrestrial TV lost nearly 16 million homes, while cable TV lost over 2 million. IPTV has grown from a very low level to some 16 million households. These are the results of the year-end Satellite Monitor that SES presents annually and that is based on primary research in 35 European and North African countries. The study is based on more than 62,000 interviews, conducted by leading market research institutes under the lead of TNS Infratest, Germany. The main growth markets for satellite in 2011 were the UK, Germany, Ukraine, Poland and Italy. The main growth drivers are the development of digital reception and HD. Satellite today is the leading digital infrastructure, reaching nearly 44 per cent of all 186 million digital TV homes in Europe. The digitalisation rate of satellite is 97 per cent, compared to 70 per cent in terrestrial reception and 48 per cent in cable.The study also shows that Astra is extending its position in the European markets. Around 142 million TV households are served by Astra, 7 million more than the year before and 25 million more than four years ago. More than half of AUGUST

the European TV homes (57 per cent) receive their signals from Astra. 73 per cent of all European satellite homes are Astra households, a total of 62 million. As a leader of digitalisation and HD, Astra is also the leading HDTV platform in Europe. Over 23 million of the total 29 million satellite HD households in Europe are Astra households. The Astra Satellite System transmits 267 HD channels. Worldwide, SES broadcasts more than 1200 HD channels on its fleet of 50 satellites and reaches 258 million TV households. “This success confirms our view that satellite reception is the most attractive and future-proof mode for households to watch TV”, said Norbert Hölzle, Senior Vice President Commercial Europe, in London. “The trend in Germany, where satellite overtook cable for the fir st time in history, is confirmed in the UK as well as in Europe overall, where satellite outgrew the other reception modes.

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Inside view

S a t e l l i t e T V s e r v i c e s For years it has been debated whether cable or satellites are better sources for accessing the best television channels for quality and price. Both cable and satellite TV have their benefits and drawbacks. However, continue reading the following to learn more about satellite television specifically and its advantages are. Satellite TV comes in two different forms. One is a subscription through satellite companies such as Dish TV. Customers of these satellite TV services pay monthly package fees and are usually provided with free equipment and installation. The second form is usually more expensive, which is custom built satellite. Custom built satellites are usually better deals when it comes to free-air channels and international programming. Satellite television in general offers a wide range of channels and more channels than typically cable television. All channels are digital and offer quality picture and sound. Satellite television also gives its customers the ability to view more HDTV channels then cable TV. Other services offered through satellite TV are access to Sirius Radio, shopping channels, pay per view, online gaming, and DVR. Although some of these applications are also starting to show up through cable services as well, they are typically cheaper through satellite services. AUGUST

Most of the time satellite television always has a clear picture and sound quality however, if the satellite is positioned with obstructions such as large trees, or buildings it will affect its signal. All satellites must have a clear view of the sky to receive the best signal. A few drawbacks that may come with choosing to use a satellite as your TV provider are: If located in areas that experience high volume of rain or heavy snow, your satellite will most likely have a frequent signal interruption during storms. Satellites must be set up outside of the home, usually located in the back yard or roof of the house. This could be an eye sour appearance wise. In addition if you rent your apartment or house your landlord might not allow satellites for this reason, so always check before you decide to install. More options are available for choosing television services today than ever before. Not only can customers pick from a variety of hard-wired cable companies, they can also choose satellite television. Both satellite television and cable have advocates and critics. Deciding which one is right for you involve determining which features are most important to you then weighing your options.

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Inside view

TV Satellite

Software

Satellite TV service has undergone series of revolutions in the recent past. Among the new innovations is the use of software to watch satellite TV on the personal computers. To many folks this new means of watching satellite TV is strange while others will see it as a welcome development due to its uniqueness. The overview of this software will be x-rayed in this article in a bid to acquaint all and sundry about the software and how it works as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using it. The software like any other software is written in high level programming language for the computer hardware to decode and take necessary actions contained in the set of commands which characterizes the program. The software is digital and could be installed from digital storing devices or downloaded directly from a website in the internet on the personal computer. You must be connected to the internet in order to get your channels, but that is about the only inconvenience. However, for most people who purchase the software, it is no trouble because they have internet connection at all or most times. satellite TV review is important as watching satellite TV online is all popular these days

and if you are seriously looking for a sure way to watch satellite TV on PC, then you should consider downloading a software program which is fondly known as PC satellite TV software. It is prudent for you to learn more about these software programs since there are a few options available. These days technological advancements have made it very easy for us to watch television in a number of different ways. One of the most recent additions has been the ability to watch TV through our computers. Entertainment If you want to get pc satellite, I propose you take a look at the item and see for manually what you will have when you get the software. You can view more details here http://televisionthat.com. Satellite TV and cable TV demand monthly fees but pc satellite TV requires solely a once fee which can be salaried to access over 4000 TV channels. With the popularity of pc satellite, the charge of this software may spread at anytime. When using an internet facility that is not fast, the resolution of the pictures will be poor and sometimes they will be freezing when watching and the sound will be crackly.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Inside view Satellite receivers are used to decode the signals received through satellite. They are used to receive television signals and are the broadcasting systems. They receive unencrypted signals, which are decoded by the receiver.A satellite receiver is used for different purposes like receiving signals for

establishments manufacture the satellite receivers and it is an on-going business. The demand is always there for this product as every person has or will aim at having a television in his house, office etc. This creates an ever-growing demand for the satellite receivers. Many people have found a career in this field of manufact uring Satellite receivers. There are different types of satellite receivers. While the primitive ones required to be installed at the top of the building for receiving signals, the present ones have been modified tremendo usly.They can be kept inside the house and there is no need to put them outside the building.There are different price ranges from getting satellite television channels for domestic purposes. The price range varies from place to place. There are also some channels aired as free sky. Subscribers can choose what they need from the various options availableSatellite receivers are used to decode the signals received through satellite. They are used to receive television signals and are the broadcasting systems. They receive unencrypted signals, which are decoded by the receiver.A satellite receiver is used for different purposes like receiving signals for different usages and

Television Programs

Television signal is one of the functions mainly depending on the satellite receiver. The receiver is provided with a decoder chip to decode the specific codes received. The receivers also convert the digital signals into analog signals. The receivers also have the function of extracting individual channels from a larger satellite signal.

viaReceivers

different usages and Television signal is one of the functions mainly depending on the satellite receiver. The receiver is provided with a decoder chip to decode the specific codes received. The receivers also convert the digital signals into analog signals. The receivers also have the function of extracting individual channels from a larger satellite signal. This is used in some countries to broadcast religious programs and educational programs.Any satellite receiver does the work of receiving the signals, decoding them and sending them to give television programs or decoded version in any other form. Many AUGUST

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Inside view

Understanding

Satellite has forever changed the way in which television is watched. This technology offers a huge list of benefits, which is why so many people have signed up and left cable behind. For one thing, satellite television is available to everyone, even people living in extreme remote locations. Additionally, this service offers broadcasting from around the world with more than 3,000 stations, each with unique programming and language options. Then, satellite is affordable. Priced not much more than what someone would pay for cable, this service is worth every penny. For satellite television to work, a small dish is attached to the home or somewhere else on the property. Then, cabling is run to a modem, which then connects to the television. When a person subscribes to satellite television, standard installation is included by a highly trained. The individual who does the installation is certified, someone who takes his or her job seriously. A satellite dish must be installed, which could be a full-size dish or a minidish. AUGUST

It is important for people to understand that as a part of the installation process, a scheduled appointment is set and typically, the homeowner is provided with a four-hour window. Additionally, someone will need to be at home when the installer arrives and the person must be 18 years of age or more. The installer would need to work both inside and outside the home so the satellite television provider wants to ensure everyone feels comfortable and safe during the installation process. Although installers have a good idea of the time it will take for the completion of the job, special circumstances can arise. Therefore, homeowners should expect between two and five hours for their satellite television to be completely installed. During the installation time, the professional would need to have access to every television set in the home. The first step would be to analyze the inside and outside areas of the home to determine the best place for the dish and cables to go. For satellite television to work there has to be an open view to the southern sky so the installer will look at building peaks, hills, trees, and anything else that might create a problem.

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What is

MPEG 4

Technology?

Should everyone consider it as an important feature when choosing DTH service? It's the question on the minds of lot of people. Many of the people who choose to purchase DTH in India may think that MPEG 4 technology is better that MPEG 2, but the fact is that both have same picture quality. MPEG 4 is an unproved technology that was came into existence at the end of the year 1998 and it soon gained massive popularity. This format is used mainly to stream internet media and later on it was introduced for streaming television signals. In today's date the MPEG 4 is recognized as a standard video and audio coding format. MPEG 4 is somewhat similar to MPEG 1 and MPEG 2 since it shares quite a few features from these two formats. There are new features have been also added later on for make it capable for 3D rendering. The well known codec's such as DivX, Xvid and Nero Digital have now become a part of this incredible compression format. Before the audio video compression format was meant mainly at low bit-rate video communication. But soon the scope for this compression technology got extended and now it has become the most important tool for multimedia coding. MPEG4 format is extremely efficient across a wide spectrum AUGUST

of bit-rates, which is from few Kbps up to tens of megabytes per second (Mbps). It is known for enhancing the efficiency of coding and it is even capable of encoding mixed media data such as audio, video and speech. DTH Service Provider who provides MPEG 4 Technology. The amazing audio and video compression format is used for streaming television signals; therefore many DTH service providers have decided to adopt this technology to offer maximum TV viewing pleasure. For this purpose the DTH service providers of satellite television have introduced newer receiver models that are compatible with this format. The multimedia world of today did not happen the way it was thought it would happen. Instead of people receiving Gbit/s of multimedia data through optical fibres, today people receive digital television programs through satellite and cable, talk and exchange messages and files on mobile phones, watch movies from DVD, find all sorts of information and entertain all sorts of relationships on the web, listen to music compilations downloaded from the web, watch postage stamp size video from the web and play computer games on game consoles etc.

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Inside view

THE FIRST 50 YEARS OF SATELLITE TV

Satellite TV may seem quite new, but its history actually spans over a fifty year period. The original concept of satellite television is often attributed to writer Arthur C. Clarke, who was the first to suggest a worldwide satellite communications system. Funding for satellite technology in the U.S. began in the 1950s, amidst the space race, and the Russian launching of the satellite Sputnik in 1957. The first communication satellite was developed by a group of businesses and government entities in 1963. Syncom II orbited at 22,300 miles over the Atlantic; the first satellite communication was on July 26, 1963, between a U.S. Navy ship in Lagos, Nigeria and the U.S. Army naval station in Lakehurst, New Jersey. Overloaded land based distribution methods had the telephone companies utilizing satellite communication way before the television industry even came into the picture. In fact, it was not until 1978 that satellite communication was officially used by the television industry. In 1975, RWT's co-founder and BBC transmitter engineer Stephen Birkill built an experimental system for receiving Satellite Instructional Television Experiment TV (SITE) transmissions, beamed to Indian villages, from a NASA geostationary satellite. Birkill extended his system, receiving TV pictures from Intelsat, Raduga, Molniya and others. In 1978, Birkill met up with Bob Cooper, a cable TV technical journalist and amateur radio enthusiast in the U.S., who invited him to a cable TV operators' conference and trade show, the CCOS-78. It was there that Birkill met with other satellite TV enthusiasts, who were interested, and ready to help develop, Birkill’s experiments. Interest in Television Receive Only (TVRO) satellite technology burst forward. The American TVRO boom caught the attention of premium cable programmers, who began to realize the potential of satellite TV. Back in the mid1970s, TV reception was the under the control of international operators, Intelsat and Intersputnik. On March 1, 1978, the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) introduced Public Television Satellite Service. Satellite communication technology caught on, and was used as a distribution method with the broadcasters from 1978 through 1984, with early signals broadcast from HBO, TBS, and CBN (Christian Broadcasting Network, later The Family Channel). TVRO system prices dropped, and the trade organization, Society for Private Commercial Earth Stations (SPACE), and the first dealerships were established. Broadcasters realized that everyone had the potential to receive satellite signals for free, and they were not happy.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Inside view The tackle-up of satellite TV and cable is growing faster in the Middle East than anywhere else in the world. The region currently has about 25m satellite and cable households. However, satellite pay-TV is still a niche market, with no more than 1.5% of Arab households subscribing, according to the findings in a specialist report.Most of the Arab world remains tuned to free-to-air satellite TV channels which broadcast mainly from Egypt, the UAE and Lebanon, said the Arab Advisors

an estimated $160m in subscription revenues in 2003 and that the fierce rivalry between them means new customers can enjoy a growing range of incentives, including free installation charges and flee satellite receivers mid decoders, all of which are intended to stimulate further growth.In the free-to-air satellite TV sector, more than 90 channels are competing for over 71m viewers in the Arab world. The immense growth in satellite TV viewers and content has been driven mainly by factors related to technological advances. The decreasing cost of receivers and the spread of specialised channels have played an important role in expanding audience size. Another factor has been the poor performance of government-owned channels, which have seen viewers in

Group (AAG), a telecoms and media consultancy based in Jordan. In their report, Satellite TV in the Arab World, the AAG estimate the total size of pay-TV in the Arab world in late 2003 at around 625,000 households (less than 1.5% of total households).The major markets for pay-TV remain the richer Gulf countries, with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the UAE leading the field. The bulk of the marker is currently shared by Showtime and Orbit, with the remainder split bcrween Arab Radio and Television (ART) and Arab Digital Distribution (ADD), according to AAG president Jawad Abbassi. He confirmed that the four main pay-TV operators in the region were competing for

the Arab world drift away by failing to offer them sufficiently entertaining programming. The major satellite TV audience--more than 50%--comes from North Africa, with its large populations, followed by the Gulf and the Levant, with the majority of advertising focused on the Gulf market.The majority of Arab satellite channels broadcast from Egypt with some 34% of these located in Cairo's Media Production City. A further 19% are beamed out of Dubai Media City. Lebanon takes third place, after Egypt and the UAE with 12% of the total, Saudi Arabia accounts for 5%, followed by 3% each for both Qatar and the United Kingdom.

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Inside view

International

programming includes Spanish, Arabic, Brazilian, Caribbean, Chinese, Filipino, Italian, Korean, Russian, South Asian, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese. Examples of programming from these international broadcasting channels include: Over 260 channels in Spanish or with Spanish language audio or subtitles. One of satellite TV's major draws is its access to a variety of sporting events and sports-related programming. Many viewers however wish to have access to international sporting events taking place. DirecTV offers a subscription to two international sports channels: SETANTA Sports and CricketTicket. These channels offer access to international football (soccer), rugby, cricket, and other sporting events throughout the world. These channels are available as a subscription based package in addition to a basic satellite TV subscription from DirecTV. Freeview is the easiest way to enjoy digital TV for free. No subscription, no contract, no fuss.With over 50 digital TV channels in SD and HD quality to choose from on Freeview, there's something to keep everyone entertained. Not to mention 24 digital radio stations, better picture and sound quality and all those interactive features when you press the red button on your remote.

Satellite TV Satellite TV is regularly enjoyed in millions of English-speaking American households, but is also popular among foreign language speakers living in the United States. One of the many pluses of satellite TV is its ability to offer access to international channels and broadcasts in many ethnic languages. Major satellite TV providers, such as Dish Network and DirecTV, offer the ability to subscribe to international channels and broadcasts in addition to regular and premium English-language channels, and many are already included in subscription packages. International channels provide entertainment that can be enjoyed by English speakers and foreign language speakers alike, and the opportunity to enjoy international cultures.Dish Network offers subscribers over 125 international channels in over 25 different languages. These international channels can be part of a monthly subscription package or ordered a la carte. Dish Network's international programming includes African, Arabic, Armenian, French, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, German, Greek, Korean, South Asian, Italian, Polish, Urdu, Farsi, Israeli, Portuguese, Filipino, and Ukrainian. Examples of programming from these international broadcasting channels include: Abu Dhabi Abuda, Arabic. One of the most well respected general entertainment channels in the Middle East. DirecTV offers subscribers access to many international channels in over 11 different languages and also includes Caribbean programming and international sports programming. These international channels are purchased as a monthly subscription based package in addition to basic satellite TV service. DirecTV's international AUGUST

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Inside view

IKUSI SZB single-channel amplifier

The SZB single-channel amplifier is one of Ikusi's classicproducts, which has demonstrated its reliability on the market again and again. Whilst it has amply proven its worth, it now returns to the market,

prepared for the coming Digital Dividend and with a redesigned appearance. The SZB modular series covers all the processing functions of a high-quality SMATV headend and is extremely easy to install. All the modules, which are compact and user-friendly, can be assembled without using tools, on one or more wall-mounting base plates. No additional distributing or connecting parts are necessary, as it based on the “Z� input de-multiplexing and output multiplexing system. It is also free of awkward power cables, as it connects automatically through the base plate. Adjusting the RF output level, which is AUGUST

independent for each channel, is as easy as turning the variable fader on the front panel of each module. Plus, SZB headendsare highly flexible, providing optimum expandability options, total reliability and minimal servicing costs. The SZB single-channel amplifiers are one of the products that Ikusihas lined up for the market in preparation for the arrival of the Digital Dividend. Ikusihas approached the process from various angles, developing the equipment to guarantee the reception of a high-quality TV signal, once the transition in frequencies has taken place, whilst also redesigning its production processes to meet the demands of the market, as soon as the starting shot for the digital dividend has been fired. In respect of equipment development, it should be remembered that Ikusiwas the first company to launch a comprehensive range of broadband amplifiers prepared for the Digital Dividend and NBS,back in the first quarter of 2011. But this was just the first step in the process and it is now gradually adding more equipment, all set to reap the benefits of the Digital Dividend. In 2010, Ikusi had already identified the need to adapt its productive resources, in order to guarantee service capacity and the equipment's dependability, and thus began incorporating automated production processes, based on cutting-edge technology, well in advance. As a result, the company now has the flexibility to meet the market's demands and the automated processes have increased productivity and permitted the application of machine vision during final assembly and adjustment, thereby improving the product's quality. Having implemented the two strategies of designing equipment specifically for the Digital Dividend and modernising its production processes months ahead of the launch, Ikusi is now fully prepared to meet the requirements of all telecommunications installers, whilst guaranteeing the reliability and serviceability required by the coming of Digital Dividend.

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SATELLITE TROUBLE SHOOTER

SATELLITE

TROUBLE SHOOTER

TATA SKY I am currently in Sydney. Can I subscribe to DISH TV or Tata Sky in India and use it in Sydney? I have done a bit of research and found out Dish TV uses NSS 6 Satellite and that satellite has foot prints in Australia. Can you please point me in right direction. ( Junaid Iqbal, Sydney) A. You are right that NSS-6 satellite carrying Dish TV signals has its footprints in Australia but these are the footprints of their South East Asia beam where they carry mostly Thai channels. Dish TV signals are on India Beam which covers only the Indian subcontinent. Insat-4A carrying Tata SKY signals also does not have its footprints in Australia. Hence you can not subscribe to Tata SKY or Dish TV as their footprints are restricted only to India.

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C-BAND SATELLITE have recently become interested in Q:2IDTH, and came across your site and the satellite stuff, seems quite exciting. What I want to know is that I have bought a FTA DTH box. Can I get C-band satellite channels from it? Is the C-Band dish still available in the market since one shop that I went looked at me strangely when I enquired about a Cband dish? ( Basheer Jamal, via e-mail)

A. C-Band is very much in service even today. You must have gone to a DTH dealer who generally may be your neighbourhood grocery shop-owner or a television shop owner. They would not know the ABC of satellite television. To get the C-Band equipment, you should visit a cable TV hardware shop which is generally located in the electronic market.

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SATELLITE TROUBLE SHOOTER

SOLID DISH

CABLE TV

to know about your website am a new reader of your web-site Q:3.&I thankful Q:5Ioncame the net. I am glad that you for the guidance you provide to people who don't know about dish & other satellite channels. I am living in Peshawar. I receive Ku band channels on my 90cm solid Ku band dish from a satellite at 75 Degree East. I also have 4 feet solid dish. I am using this for 'C ' band. Can I use it for Ku band for more channels? I also want to know about Yamal on Ku band & how can I get more Ku band adult channels on my dish. (Anwar Jamal, Peshawar) A. You are receiving the Ku-Band signals from ABS satellite at 750 East. You can definitely receive the Ku-Band signals on your 4 ft C-Band solid dish provided you use the Ku-Band LNB with it. You can use the same receiver for receiving Ku-Band. The LNB frequency to be used is 9500 and 10600 MHz. You can see our website or the magazine for different FTA channels on all satellites. You must check if the foot print of the satellite cover your city or not. Yamal 201 satellite at 900 E and YAMAL 202 at 490 E do not have Ku-Band transmissions.

DISEQC SETTING is a DiSEqC setting, how it is Q:4What set in a receiver for different satellites? (Ali Imran, Karachi) A. The DiSEqC 1.2 system has been adopted as a standard by satellite receiver manufacturers. It needs several adjustments to achieve correct dish alignment including correct eastern/western alignment, manual setting of all the satellite positions, limit setting etc. Configuring an installation to receive signal from various satellites like you want to do, is possible with multiple dishes and a simple switch system as shown in the diagram. DiSEqC- enabled peripherals allow users to automatically select the desired dish and satellite.

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started such a wonderful service that not only solved other's problems but also cleared many basic doubts. I have no knowledge about satellite, dish, types of cables used in cable TV and Dish TV. (Farooq Azam, Hyderabad) A. A satellite system consists of a satellite receiver box that connects to your TV, an outdoor satellite dish, LNB and a remote control. You have to decide if you wish to receive C-band or Ku-band channels because for C-band you will require a large dish of 6 ft or more diameter and for Ku-band you will require a small 60-120 cm dish. Even there are different LNBs for these frequency bands. If you wish to receive both these frequency bands, you will have to go for a Cband dish with perforations smaller than Âź inch or a solid dish with a universal LNB.

KU BAND LNB want to buy a Ku Band LNB and Q:6 Idish for watching Free-to-Air channels, particularly any French TV? (Tahir Mehmood, Rawalpindi) A. There is only one French channel available on Ku-Band in India. It is TV 5 on NSS-6 at 95 Degree East, at 11.038 GHz frequency in vertical polarization. This is available on Dish TV DTH, so you will have to buy their DTH package to receive this channel. This channel is also available on Asiasat 3s at 105.5 Degree, as a free to air channel on C-Band. For this you require a large C-Band dish and LNB. A digital receiver can receive Ku as well C Band signals

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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SATELLITE TROUBLE SHOOTER

FTA CHANNELS

ALLIGN LNB

I am residing at Dubai. Previously Q:9 Q:7 .with a Dish I could view FTA channels viz sun TV, DD Podhighai etc but for the past one month I could not view the same. Please tell me how can I see these DD channels and other free to air Indian channels? (Aftab Alam, Dubai) A. You have not mentioned the satellite from which you were receiving the free-to-air channels including Sun TV, DD Podhighai etc. We presume that you were watching NSS-6 satellite and DD Direct FTA signals on a large Ku-Band dish. NSS-6 foot-prints touched Dubai so you could receive them. However, now DD Direct Channels have shifted to Insat-4B which does not have footprints over Dubai.

BBC CHANNELS in Cyprus and trying to receive Q:8 Itheamvery weak BBC channels from Astra 2 at 28.2. However, some of the channels on the same satellite are very strong. What LNB do I need? Sydney Peter, Cyprus) A: Everyone knows that noise figure is important for an LNB, but in your instance, the isolation of the LNB will be just as important. This is because the very strong signals on the satellite can interfere with the very weak signals that you want to see. The strong signals act as noise, so reducing the C/N. Most people are finding that the Invacom QDF-031, used with a good quality feed horn matched to the dish, is the best performing combination for these areas, and outperforms other people's LNBs with much larger dishes.

I am trying to use 2 LNBs on fixed 180c Dish to be able to receive from 2 Satellites (Arabsat 3A, Hotbird), I know these to Satellites are close together, I can receive from Arabsat a very strong signal, but I'm trying to allign the other LNB to Hotbird but unfortunately I can't find it, my question: - Do you have a diagram or any method to calculate the exact location of the Hotbird depending on the position of Arabsat? I'm using a digital Humax receiver. (Shafiq Ullah, Kuwait) Ans: This two satellites are not close enough (13 degr.), to receive both of them with one antenna. Even if you carefully place one LNB in the far offset, there will be not enough reflection-power from the dish to get a signal strong enough. Why not place a second smaller fixed-dish for HOTBIRD beside the large one? To calculate the azimuth and elevation, please use the DishTrak(tm)-feature

On every satellite all my higher numbered channels are out but the lower ones are perfect. I had the LNB tested and it is fine. Is it tuning? (Amjad Khan, Lahore) A: This is caused by the tuner inside the receiver malfunctioning.

TWO CAMS have a Supermax 6500 CI Q:10Ireceiver. It has two cams and cards. I have an Irdeto cam. I used to watch free to air channels mostly, but now I am eager to watch scrambled channels. Please let me know about the cards? (Mohammad Ghafran, Sindh) Ans: You will have to buy Skycom magic embedded receiver, which will able you to watch more scrambled channels. You will need to buy cards of different channels packages like Showtime, Pehla Package and Star Network etc.

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SEARCH SATELLITE

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www.tracksat.com

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Inside view

Everyman's Non-Technical Guide to

HDTV

With the recent rapid advances in the technology of home entertainment equipment, the introduction of High Definition TV (HDTV) has been at the forefront of these changes. Together with Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Plasma TVs, HDTV has been the most accepted and pioneering new aspect of television over the past few years. In 1996 the introduction of Digital TV transmission sounded the death knell of Analog television. Although it's taken many years for Analog to finally succumb to the improved technology that is Digital, the end will come in late 2012 when US broadcasters must by law cease to transmit Analog TV signals and transmit only in the Digital format. Digital TV (SDTV) gave a superior picture and clearer sound than the out-of-date Analog system. Viewers had a TV viewing experience far in excess of what Analog could ever provide. However in the years since the start of Digital transmission, television has improved even further and now one of the latest features is High Definition TV (HDTV). This again is a vast improvement on its predecessor the SDTV and provides a greatly improved television viewing experience. HDTV is AUGUST

becoming more and more popular with new television buyers particularly at times when an important sporting event such as the Olympic Games is due to start. HDTV is particularly suited to sporting events - the movement of an athlete or a ball is crisp and precise. There is no 'shadow' behind the athlete during fast movement. For those people who still have an Analog TV then now may be the right time to move to a better TV system. They can either change to a SD television, or else the improved HDTV system. HDTV is the latest and best in modern TV technology High definition TV was released in the late 90s to much acclaim from the TV experts because of the crisp, crystal-clear picture and the surround sound presentation. The quality of HDTV cannot be matched by standard definition TV, a point understood by someone seeing HDTV for the first time. Once the superiority of HDTV has been acknowledged, a viewer have difficulty in accepting the inferior SDTV format. The factor that determines the quality of a TV picture is the number of vertical lines on the screen. The SDTV system is based on 480 to 576 lines.

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Inside view

Low signal level

Before we start you need to know what low signal level is. Low signal level is having transponder signal levels around 30, 40, 50 and low 60's. If you have at least a 70 signal on the weakest transponder, you have enough signal to expect proper operation. The signal strength will vary from one transponder to the next. When determining your signal level you should always find the transponder with the lowest signal and use that as your benchmark. You will find as much as a 50 point swing on some systems between one transponder and another. If all your transponders show at least 70 you are OK. Even a couple in the mid 60's would not concern me. Low signal level can be contributed to a wide variety of things. Before you read this you should preview the section on Signal AUGUST

Loss. You may find the solution to your problem there. The remaining contributing factors to a low signal level are a weak satellite signal, misaligned dish antenna, poor cable connection, low quality cable, cable length, splitters or other components in the cable run. The only time a weak satellite signal would be an issue, is if some obstruction was blocking the signal or if you trying to receiving signal that was weak by it's own nature. A natural weak signal is a signal that will never give you a strong signal level reading on your satellite receiver. If you are the edge of the satellite footprint or on the edge of a spot beam footprint you may never get more then what you have. The best solution is to contact a local technician who is familiar with the signal levels in your geographical area. A mis-aligned satellite dish antenna is probably the most common reason for a weak signal. The trick here is every satellite service technician has performed a service call for someone who tried to adjust there dish, themselves. Now, I are not going to say you can't adjust your dish, but I will say don't be upset if you try to make it better and end up with a lower signal level or worse, No signal. It happens everyday to a lot of people. If you do attempt to adjust your dish, make sure you can do it safely.

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Inside view

Digital

is better! Digital is not always better than analog. It is cheaper, it allows more television channels to be broadcast with in a given bandwidth, and it is capable of transferring any media between two locations without loosing image quality. The problem is it also has some problems. With an analog signal, a weak signal produces perhaps a bad, but still watch able image. With digital, a signal level below a minimum threshold produces no image. Analog signals are uncompressed video. Digital signals can be uncompressed, but they are not. To increase channel capacity, both Cable TV and Satellite compress their digital channels. This compression is similar to when you save a digital picture on your computer or digital camera. If you save a

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picture in a Bitmap format. The file size is very large, but the image remains in its original, uncompressed format. However, if you save an image in a JPEG format, you loose image quality. The amount of image quality degradation when using JPEG is incredibly small. Some compression is just fine for everyday use. Too much compression to save disk space produces a lower image quality. Until a majority of the channels you watch are in HDTV format, you may have to live with some image quality issues. If you do not have access to HD digital cable, HD satellite TV, or can receive overthe-air HDTV broadcast (consult with a local television store), do not waste your money on a new High Definition Television unless you really need a new TV. If you do get a knew HDTV, you should also plan to upgrade your television signal to a service that provides HDTV, or use a roof top antenna for HD reception. Consult with a local HDTV technician to see if your area can receive over the air HDTV. The final example of why digital is not always better than analog can be explained this way. Given a telegraph reaching 10 miles across a town or a set of CB radios with a 20 mile range placed 10 miles apart, which option would you think provides the best method of communication? To increase channel capacity, both Cable TV and Satellite compress their digital channels. This compression is similar to when you save a digital picture on your computer or digital camera.

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Satellite Directional chart

0

60

5

Thor 3 (0.8°W) Thor 5 (0.8°W)00000 Thor 6 (0.8°W) Intelsat 10-02 (0.8°W) Amos 2 (4.0°W) Amos 3 (4.0°W) Atlantic Bird 3 (5.0°W) Nilesat 101 (7.0°W) Nilesat 102 (7.0°W) Atlantic Bird 4A (7.0°W) Telecom 2D (8.0°W) Atlantic Bird 2 (8.0°W) Express AM44 (11.0°W) Atlantic Bird 1 (12.5°W) Telstar 12 (15.0°W) Intelsat 901 (18.0°W) NSS 7 (22.0°W) Intelsat 905 (24.5°W) Intelsat 907 (27.5°W) Hispasat 1C (30.0°W) Hispasat 1D (30.0°W) Intelsat 801 (31.5°W) Intelsat 903 (34.5°W) NSS 10 (37.5°W) Telstar 11N (37.5°W) NSS 806 (40.5°W) Intelsat 3R (43.0°W) Intelsat 11 (43.0°W) Intelsat 14 (45.0°W) Intelsat 705 (50.0°W) Intelsat 1R (50.0°W) Intelsat 707 (53.0°W) Intelsat 805 (55.5°W) Intelsat 9 (58.0°W) Amazonas 1 (61.0°W) EchoStar 3 (61.5°W) EchoStar 12 (61.5°W) Telstar 14 (63.0°W) Star One C1 (65.0°W) Star One C2 (70.0°W) Nahuel 1 (72.0°W) AMC 6 (72.0°W) DirecTV 1R (72.5°W) Nimiq 5 (72.5°W) Horizons 2 (74.0°W) Brasilsat B3 (75.0°W) EchoStar 4 (77.0°W) EchoStar 8 (77.0°W) Simón Bolívar (78.0°W) AMC 5 (79.0°W) Nimiq 4 (82.0°W) AMC 9 (83.0°W) Brasilsat B4 (84.0°W) AMC 16 (85.0°W) AMC 3 (87.0°W) Galaxy 28 (89.0°W) Nimiq 1 (91.0°W) Galaxy 17 (91.0°W) Galaxy 25 (93.1°W) Galaxy 3C (95.0°W) Sirius FM 5 (96.0°W) Galaxy 19 (97.0°W) Galaxy 16 (99.0°W) DirecTV 11 (99.2°W) AMC 2 (101.0°W) AMC 4 (101.0°W) DirecTV 4S/8 (101.0°W) AMC 1 (103.0°W) AMC 15 (105.0°W) AMC 18 (105.0°W) Anik F1 (107.3°W) Anik F1R (107.3°W) DirecTV 5 (110.0°W) EchoStar 10 (110.0°W) EchoStar 11 (110.0°W) Anik F2 (111.1°W) SatMex 6 (113.0°W) XM 4 (115.0°W) SatMex 5 (116.8°W) SOUTH Anik F3 (119.0°W) 180 EchoStar 7 (119.0°W) DirecTV 7S (119.0°W) ELEVATION ANGLE EchoStar 9/Galaxy 23 (121.0°W) Galaxy 18 (123.0°W) Galaxy 14 (125.0°W) AMC 21 (125.0°W) Galaxy 13/Horizons 1 (127.0°W) Galaxy 27 (129.0°W) Ciel 2 (129.0°W) AMC 11 (131.0°W) WEST Galaxy 15 (133.0°W) 270 AMC 10 (135.0°W) NILESAT 7 WEST AMC 7 (137.0°W)0000 AMC 8 (139.0°W)

0

13

0

10 100 90 80 1 70 120 78

0 170 1 60

JULY

1 5 0

14

Orbital position of

NORTH 0

350 0 0 4 3

02 60 27 80 290 3 2 00 50 2 31 0 0 24

0 2 3

0 33

0

200 21 0

AZIMUTH ANGLE

40

2 2 02 3 0

EAST 90

30

10 0 2

The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2012


19 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Satellite Directional chart Astra 1C (2.0°E) 000000Rascom 1 (2.8°E) Eurobird 4A (4.0°E) Sirius 4 (4.8°E) Eutelsat W3A (7.0°E) Eurobird 9A (9.0°E) Eutelsat W2A (10.0°E) Hot Bird 9 (13.0°E) Hot Bird 8 (13.0°E) Hot Bird 6 (13.0°E) Eutelsat W2M (15.8°E) Eurobird 16 (15.8°E) Eutelsat Sesat 1 (16.0°E) Amos 5i (17.0°E) Astra 1M (19.2°E) Astra 1L (19.2°E) Astra 1KR (19.2°E) Astra 1H (19.2°E) AfriStar 1 (21.0°E) + Radio Eutelsat W6 (21.6°E) Astra 3A (23.5°E) Astra 1G (23.5°E) Astra 1E (23.5°E) Eurobird 2 (25.5°E) Badr 6 (26.0°E) Badr 4 (26.0°E) Astra 2D (28.2°E) Astra 2B (28.2°E) Astra 2A (28.2°E) Eurobird 1 (28.2°E) Arabsat 2B (30.5°E) Türksat 1C (31.0°E) Astra 2C (31.5°E) Intelsat 802 (33.0°E) Eurobird 3 (33.0°E) Eutelsat W7 (36.0°E) Eutelsat W4 (36.0°E) Paksat 1 (38.0°E) Hellas Sat 2 (39.0°E) Express AM1 (40.0°E) Türksat 3A (42.0°E) Türksat 2A (42.0°E) Intelsat 12 (45.0°E) Yamal 202 (49.0°E) Galaxy 26 (50.8°E) Astra 1F (51.0°E) Express AM22 (53.0°E) Insat 3E (55.0°E) Bonum 1 (56.0°E) NSS 12 (57.0°E) Intelsat 904 (60.0°E) Intelsat 902 (62.0°E) Intelsat 906 (64.2°E) Intelsat 702 (66.0°E) Intelsat 10 (68.5°E) Intelsat 7 (68.5°E) Eutelsat W5 (70.5°E) Insat 4CR (74.0°E) Edusat(74.0°E) Insat 3C (74.0°E) ABS 1 (75.0°E) Eutelsat W75 (75.0°E) Apstar 2R (76.5°E) Thaicom 5 (78.5°E) Thaicom 2 (78.5°E) Express MD1 (80.0°E) Express AM2 (80.0°E) Insat 4A (83.0°E) Insat 3B (83.0°E) Insat 2E (83.0°E) Intelsat 15 (85.2°E) ChinaStar 1 (87.5°E) ST 1 (88.0°E) Yamal 201 (90.0°E) Measat 3a (91.5°E) Measat 3 (91.5°E) Chinasat 9 (92.2°E) Insat 4B (93.5°E) Insat 3A (93.5°E) NSS 6 (95.0°E) Express AM33 (96.5°E) AsiaSat 5(100.5°E) Express A2 (103.0°E) AsiaStar (105.0°E) + Radio AsiaSat 3S (105.5°E) Indostar 2 (107.7°E) Telkom 1 (108.0°E) NSS 11 (108.0°E) N-Sat 110 (110.0°E) BSAT 2A (110.0°E) BSAT 1A (110.0°E) Sinosat 1 (110.5°E) Palapa D (113.0°E) Koreasat 5 (113.0°E) Chinasat 6B (115.5°E) Koreasat 3 (116.0°E) Telkom 2 (118.0°E) AsiaSat 4 (122.2°E) JCSAT 4A (124.0°E) Sinosat 3 (125.0°E) JCSAT 3A (128.0°E) JCSAT 5A (132.0°E) Vinasat 1 (132.0°E) Apstar 6 (134.0°E) Telstar 18 (138.0°E) Express AM3 (140.0°E) Superbird C2 (144.0°E) Agila 2 (146.0°E) JCSAT 1B (150.0°E) Optus D2 (152.0°E) JCSAT 2A (154.0°E) Optus D3 (156.0°E) Optus C1 (156.0°E) Optus D1 (160.0°E) Superbird B2 (162.0°E) Intelsat 8 (166.0°E) Intelsat 5 (169.0°E) Intelsat 2 (169.0°E) GE 23 (172.0°E) 000000Intelsat 70 (180.0°E) NSS 9 (177.0°W)

0 10 2 0 3 0

0 10 2 0

30

50

50

60

40

40

0

70

6

90 100 110 1 2 80 0 1 3

00 110 120 13 0 90 1 1 40 80 1 70 5

0

14

0

0 15

0

180 19 70 01 16

1 60

170 1 JULY

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2012


PARAS HD ELECTRONICS

Hakeem Arcade Hussain Agahi Road, Multan. Ph: 061-4577999 Mobile: 0345-7230430, 0300-9637231

Phone: 061-6772740 Mobile: 0300-9637414 PARAS DEALER:

MUHAMMAD IMTIAZ


19 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view

Fibre satellite

distribution Fibre satellite distribution is a technology that enables satellite TV signals from an antenna to be distributed using an optical fibre cable infrastructure and then converted to electrical signals for use with conventional set-top box receivers. Particularly applicable to satellite TV distribution systems in a multi-dwelling unit, such as a block of flats (but useful in smaller domestic distribution systems too), such a hybrid fibre/electrical system reduces the cabling required, reduces signal noise and interference, and provides for an easy upgrade to increase the number of tuners connected at each dwelling. Conventional systems that distribute the electrical satellite IF signal via a star network of coaxial cable require one relatively short cable run from the central distribution equipment to each tuner connected to the system, whereas in a fibre system, cables can be very long, and split at successive locations, in a tree structure without detriment to the reception. The primary benefit of using optical fibre

AUGUST

for a satellite TV IF distribution system is that the fibre can carry the entire received spectrum on one cable, which can then be split to provide for multiple tuners, without requiring a separate feed from the antenna to each tuner. Additional outlets can be added to increase the number of receivers within one home without accessing the central antenna or main infrastructure. Fibre cable is cheap in long runs, retailing at about twice the price of equivalent copper coaxial cable, but replacing four runs of coaxial cable with a single fibre cable. It is also much smaller than the coaxial signal cable used for electrical IF distribution, but robust and flexible. The losses in a fibre system are almost negligible so very long cable runs of hundreds of metres are possible without any signal reinforcement. Because the signal is carried as a beam of light, it is impervious to the electrical interference that even the best coaxial satellite cable may suffer, and cables can be safely and conveniently run alongside mains power cables. Power consumption is also lower than an equivalent electrical system While optical fibre has been used for telephone and Internet backbone data, and even for television and multimedia carriage for terrestrial cable, for many years, use for satellite IF distribution has been held back by considerations of cost and installation convenience.

81

The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2012


19 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

Inside view

C-Band Reception in Europe Thanks to modern Ku-band satellites with their high output power, a large dish is not really necessary since you should have no trouble getting several thousand channels from a variety of countries. Despite all the variety available on Ku-band, the more exotic programming (like North Korean State TV) or other foreign language programming is usually only available in Cband. So, the question then is, “what can we do in C-band with a 120cm dish?� Naturally the first step would be to put together the required antenna assembly. I ran into my first little setback here: I could not find any manufacturer or dealer that could scrape together a special feed for an offset antenna. Ebay wasn't able to help either; only a funnel-type feed was available which we later found out was totally incompatible.

This really left me with no choice but to use a feed meant for a parabolic dish and found the MTI AC21-C2B. It is a C-band LNB with standard grooved feed that switches between polarizations through 14/18V control signals. LNBs are rated in noise temperature - the lower the number the better. Noise temperature is a value that indicates the unavoidable, inherent level of background atomic (molecular) motion in an object and this inherent noise (called ambient noise) is in the microwave frequency range.

Tel: 9221-32724095, Fax: 9221-32724094, Mob: 92-3002193021, 92-3002445242, +971503477240

AUGUST

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2012


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