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International Monthly Magazine

VOLUME: 20 - No: 08 Editor-in-Chief HABIB HADI hadi@tracksat.com Managing Editors SUROOSH IZNA Editor SUMERA HADI Associate Editor SHOUKAT IQBAL KHATTAK Technical Director ABDUL HAI (NYVERMYND) dishtech@tracksat.com Computer Operator HAIDER ALI Advertising Manager Mohib Ahrar dishchannels@gmail.com Layout Designer SHAHID ADEEL Accounts Manager S. ASHRAF-UL-HAQ Legal Advisor QAZI MUNAWAR ALAM Editorial Address: Dawood Centre, 101-1st Floor, 124,R, Block-2, Main Tariq Road, P.E.C.H.S., Karachi-Pakistan. Tel. : + 92-21- 34531122, 34531133 : + 92-21- 34316529, 34316530 Fax: : + 92-21- 34528822 E-mail: dishchannels@gmail.com hadi@tracksat.com Distributors UAE Malik News Agency (L.L.C) P.O. Box: 5449 Dubai U.A.E. Tel: 2659165 (5 lines) SAUDI ARABIA Al-Adabiya Pub & Distributors Tel.: 671 5788 KUWAIT United Company for Distribution of Newspapers & Publications Tel.: (965) 245 6198-(965) 241 2820 BAHRAIN Al Ayam Publishing Est. B.S.C. (C) Tel. : 725111 PAKISTAN Paradise Books & Distributors Tel: + 92-21-34314981-83 Fax: + 92-21-34385075 EGYPT Al-Ahram Tel.: 5796997 QATAR Naz Book Distribution Tel.: +974 4324235, +974 5562809 TURKEY Ukrainian Distribution Tel.: +38 044 261 5876 JORDAN Jordan Distribution Agency Tel.: 962 6 533 7733 IRAQ Al-Khalil Distribution NETHERLANDS Van Gelderen UNITED KINGDOM Golden Publication Ltd. KENYA National Group Ltd. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Future Empire Network Corp. Publisher HABIB HADI Dish Channels is printed on the 1st of every month by Dish Channels Karachi. Dish Channels is Non-Political & NonPatrisian Publication. While every effort is made to ensure accuracy, we cannot bear responsibility for losses resulting from errors. Printed By: Aisha Printers (Aslam Zaki) Cell: +92-300-2230729

Dear Readers! DVB (the Digital Video Broadcasting Project) was formed in September 1993 and the first standard specification produced was DVB-S, the satellite delivery specification, now used by most satellite broadcasters around the world. Satellite Communications is focused on the new DVB-S2 Standard, the second generation system for broadband satellite TV broadcasting and interactive service transmission. DVB-S2, the second generation standard for satellite broadcasting and unicasting') is a system tutorial, highlighting the key functionalities and performance figures through a variety of application examples covering broadcasting, interactive services and professional applications. Until late 1990, digital television broadcasting to the home was thought to be impractical and costly to implement. During 1991, broadcasters and consumer equipment manufacturers discussed how to form a concerted pan-European platform to develop digital terrestrial TV. Towards the end of that year, broadcasters, consumer electronics manufacturers and regulatory bodies came together to discuss the formation of a group that would oversee the development of digital television in Europe. Bye

Habib Hadi Editor-in-Chief

dishchannels@gmail.com www.dishchannels.net www.tracksat.com

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C o n t e n t s

242nd LEGEND ISSUE OF PUBLICATIONS

TEST REPORTS

Echolink EL-7112 HD USB Classic

Xtorm XT3800 HD Plus

Skyworth HTA6 DVB-T2

ARTICLES VIEW What the future holds for the Satellite Industry

Installing your own KU-Band Dish System

Discovering Space & Satellite Tech..

Do you know how a 35

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A Better World Through Satellite TV

Most people don't give a whole lot of thought to what the TV programming service they use is doing for the world we all live in. This is because bettering the world, was not something that satellite TV service providers were intent on doing when they launched their first broadcast satellite into orbit to begin servicing their customers with a top quality standard of programming. Its not that they didn't care, its just that they couldn't have ever imagined how much of a positive impact that what they were doing, would have on all the different peoples and cultures that share this planet. Through satellite TV programming everyone who shares this planet have all gotten to know each other just a little bit better and the world in general has become a little bit smaller socially. The science and nature programming has allowed people to live on one side of the planet to see the ecosystems on the other side of the planet and has allowed people to have alot more say in what it is that makes the world a better place to live in. The people at Directv pride themselves in their

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science and nature programming and have worked to bring you the best that they can, so you can be just that much more aware of what is going on in the global environment that you live in now. You can get free Sirius satellite radio from Directv, that will let you listen to talk and entertainment radio that is free of the constraints that are put on conventional radio. This means that radio hosts can say what they really think, rather than what is politically correct at that period in time. You can also hear news broadcasts that standard radio stations are less inclined to broadcast, for one reason or another. Information is power in this day and age and the good people at Directv want to make sure that their family of viewers stay fully informed on whatever topic interests them. Directv programming packages reflect this commitment to their viewers and provide a broad spectrum of topics in each and every programming package, from their economically priced entry level packages, to the two-hundred and fifty channel package, that brings you everything that they have in programming.

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A typical satellite consists of a number of repeaters (transponders), each of which provides a large-capacity communication channel. Each transponder has a receiver tuned to a frequency range that has been allocated for uplink communication signals from Earth to the satellite. Following the receiver, each transponder consists of a frequency shifter to lower the received signals to a downlink frequency, a filter tuned to the frequency of the transponder and a power amplifier to transmit signals back to Earth. The communication capacity of a satellite is determined by the number of transponder channels and the volume of communication that can be transmitted on each channel. Although this varies from one type of satellite to another, the most commonly used satellite in 1995 had 24 transponders. Each can carry a colour TV signal (or 6 digitally compressed TV signals) or at least 1200 telephone voice signals in one direction. Each new generation of satellites tends to have increased communication capability. The transmitting and receiving stations on Earth (earth stations) range in size from sophisticated, expensive stations that send and receive all types of communication signals to relatively simple and less costly stations (dish-shaped TV antennas) used

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I Inside view

only to receive television signals. The size and cost of Earth stations depend upon the power built into the satellite, as well as the frequencies used. The stronger the signal from the satellite, the smaller and less costly the receiving station. Direct Broadcast Satellites are designed specifically to minimize size and cost. Satellites have significant advantages over other modes of transmission such as cable and land-line microwave for certain kinds of communication. The cost of transmission is independent of geographical terrain or distance, as long as both sender and receiver are within line of sight of the satellite (about one-third of the Earth's surface). Communication links can be extended to remote areas that could not otherwise be reached. Satellites are less costly for transmission over extremely long distances - especially for relatively small volumes of communication. A communication signal can be sent to any number of reception points simultaneously, making satellites ideal for television and other forms of point-to-multipoint communication. Satellites are also extremely flexible because the sending and receiving points can be changed on short notice to meet changes in demand. Satellites are used for voice communication.

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Television is the dominant communication medium on a national level in Pakistan, but according to survey findings within certain rural regions of the country, radio is almost as equally popular as television. What factors have prevented television's reach in some of these areas are continued high

Inside view

TV network in the country, with channels offering news, entertainment, regional language programming, programming for Pakistanis abroad and the AJK-TV channel that broadcasts in the Kashmiri language for the people of Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Although PTV dominates broadcast television in viewership, PEMRA has allowed the expansion of the satellite and cable TV markets. By the end of 2009, 77 national and regional satellite and cable television channels had been licensed. PEMRA cites two main factors for the increase in satellite channels; the relaxation of crossmedia ownership restrictions by the Pakistani Legislature and the recent boom in national advertising revenue, especially of fast moving consumer goods. This boost in new electronic media coincided with a large boost in the Pakistan's overall economy in the early 2000s. Gross domestic product growth was driven by gains in the industrial and service sectors, averaging between 6-8 percent from 2004 to 2006.

Television in Pakistan levels of poverty, an inconsistent broadcast signal, and a lack of a reliable electricity infrastructure. Beginning in 2002, the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) effectively bisected the television market between terrestrial TV broadcasting (dominated by the state-run Pakistan Television network, or PTV) and new privately-run satellite and cable channels. The PTV remains the only free terrestrial

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For years, many people have not considered satellite TV as direct competition for cable television because of the hassle and difficulty of installing a satellite dish. When satellite TV was first offered, it usually involved placing a large satellite dish in a prominent place, perhaps somewhere in the garden, and then using a trial-and-error method of lining it up to the appropriate satellite. During and after bad weather, this process had to be repeated. Today the story is different. Satellite TV uses a mini dish to receive the signal. This mini dish is far more sophisticated than the traditional satellite dish, with the ability to tune in to the signal, and in many cases send it as well as receive it. This makes satellite TV a two-way process and allows the satellite dish to be used for connection to the internet and email services. Many people prefer to have the flexibility of choosing from the wide range of channels that satellite TV gives, and using a mini dish allows them to have the option of receiving satellite TV in the city. No longer do people have to limit their viewing to the relatively small number of local and national channels that cable television companies have to offer. Satellite TV is coming of age, and it's opening up television choice to everyone. The new digital revolution hit the world of television in the 1990s, and today almost all new televisions are engineered to receive digital TV. This makes sense, as satellite TV and cable TV are delivered digitally, and it is likely that television will not be broadcast using analogue technology much after 2010. Digital TV offers many more options than analogue TV, with the ability to produce better quality pictures, especially with the use of HDTV (high definition television), and interactivity with the broadcast material using interactive DSS (digital satellite systems). It is also possible to carry other signals along side the digital signal that digital TV uses, and you may find that your DSS allows you access to email and the internet as well. HDTV gives high-quality pictures because it uses more pixels for the standard size television picture. This means that you can watch movies with picture quality near to cinema quality and excellent stereo sound. Your digital TV becomes more than just a receiver of broadcast TV, with its access to

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many channels, movies and the internet. What was once a mere television can become a true home entertainment system.

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DIGITAL TRANSITION

Digital Transition is the process of converting and replacing analog broadcasting to digital television. Digital broadcasting allows TV stations to offer better picture and sound quality over analog broadcasting. On June 12, 2009, analog TV broadcasts were replaced by digital broadcasts. Dish Network is the leader in Nation's transition to digital broadcasting. As it is digital already (including local channels), subscribers were not affected by the digital transition on. Dish Network, the satellite TV provider makes the digital transition so easy by offering distinguished satellite TV digital service to their subscribers at the lowest prices anywhere. It also provides DTVPal, the coupon eligible converter box with analog pass-through. ABC, PBS, NBC,

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FOX, ION, CW, TBN, UNIVISION, AMERICA ONE, Three Angels Broadcasting Network, Telemundo were the channels switched over to digital. Digital to Analog Converter Box is an electronic device that helps subscribers to convert digital signals to analog signals. It also enables analog TV to receive digital TV programming. To get more information about converter box, subscribers need to refer to www.dtv.gov or screen messages from their local TV stations. The prices of converter boxes range from $40 to $70 plus tax. The approved converter boxes are eligible for $40 off with the government coupon program. DTVPal is one such coupon eligible converter box provided by Dish Network. DTVPal allows subscribers to watch both analog and digital channels. Apart from that it has distinguished features like On-screen program guide, Parental control, closed captioning and much more. Subscribers are eligible to have up to two $40 coupons offered by the government with which they can pay for the digital to analog converter boxes. Coupons cannot be purchased at the same time and expire in 90 days from the date of issue. Subscribers need to apply for their $40 government coupon towards the purchase of approved converter boxes. Digital TVs are provided with built-in digital tuner that allows subscribers to receive digital broadcasts without the converter box. Whereas, Analog TV do not have digital tuner in it and needs the subscription of a satellite TV or Cable TV or digital to analog converter box to receive and display TV programming in digital. To check whether the TV set has a built-in digital tuner, subscribers need to look for the information on the manufacturer's website or at the back of the TV that has an input connection named “digital input” or “ATSC”.

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The most recent key trend in the satellite TV market has been the launch of a number of “low cost” platforms. In emerging digital TV markets, “low cost” platforms are primarily launched to stimulate market takeoff. The impact of “low cost” platforms may be most striking in Central Europe. While UPC Direct signed 420,000 subscribers in 10 years of operation, the launch of low cost offering DigiTV with a basic package at 3 euros resulting in 3.1 million subscriptions in the last two years. In India, satellite TV platforms have decided to align their prices with analog cable TV in order to stimulate subscriptions. In Poland, subscriptions have accelerated following the introduction of low fees by the new platform N and a sharp decrease of basic fees by Cyfrowy Polsat. In some of the most advanced digital TV markets, low cost initiatives are beginning to emerge. In France, the AB Group introduced a low cost satellite TV platform, “AB Bis”, at the end of 2007. While historical platforms progressively increased their basic fees and overall ARPU (Average Revenue Per User) in the last ten years, they may have left an opening for services offered at lower fees, especially as

I Inside view

penetration of digital TV remains far from maturity in many markets. This low cost approach may also be a response to the emergence of almost free digital services with, for example, the launch of digital terrestrial television (DTT) in an increasing number of markets and the availability of a number of free-to-air channels over IPTV platforms. While the sharp decrease in equipment costs and the availability of affordable content has allowed low cost platforms to emerge, the business model has its challenges. With revenues per subscriber that can be five to ten times lower than historical platforms, low cost platforms still need to sign a critical mass of subscribers rapidly to recoup equipment and programming costs. In markets where several platforms were launched, difficulty reaching breakeven will most likely encourage consolidation within the next three to five years. In the last ten years, diversity in content offering was key for growth in the satellite pay-TV sector. Overall, more than 1,000 channels had been added by satellite TV platforms worldwide between 2000 and 2007, with the number of channels reaching over 12,000.

Digital TV Markets

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Discovering Space and Satellite Technology

Satellite technology has become part of all our everyday lives. From telling us what the weather is going to be like, and how to get from one place to another, to offering us a far wider choice of programmes to watch on TV. Satellite is a word that simply refers to one body orbiting another. There are natural satellites that orbit planets, such as our Moon, and artificial, man-made satellites that serve a variety of different purposes. The first man-made satellite, Sputnik 1, was sent into space on 4 October 1957 by the former Soviet Union. Today there are over 3,000 satellites in orbit, owned by more

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2,000 km. A Most artificial Earth satellites are placed in LEO, where they travel at about 27,000 km/h (8 km/s), making one revolution in about 90 minutes. A different orbits are used for different applications, e.g. Earth observation satellites often use the Sun synchrous orbit, travelling over the Poles and thus seeing most of the Earth's surface over time, while LEO communications satellites travel in orbits centred on the equator. A some scientific missions such as Hubble look out into space from LEO. Every satellite launched into space will carry its own unique set of instruments or technology, relevant to the mission. So a satellite studying outer space will have a telescope that can see in different wavelengths of light, one monitoring the weather might have a camera to measure cloud movement, while one used for communications will carry a payload that allows it to redirect messages back to one part of the Earth that have been sent up from another part.

than 40 countries worldwide. There are many different orbits a satellite can be put into, depending on what it's being used for. But the majority use one of the following orbits. Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) is where the satellite sits directly over the equator, about 35,775 km above Earth. It will rotate in the same direction and at the same speed as our planet, so always appears to be in the same place in the sky. Communications and some weather satellites are placed in this type of orbit. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is commonly described as the region between 200 and

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Dish antenna, also known simply as a dish, is common in microwave systems. This type of antennacan be used for satellite communication and broadcast reception, space communications, radio astronomy, and radar. A dish antenna consists of an active, or driven, element and a passive parabolic or spherical reflector. The driven element can be a dipole antenna or a horn antenna. If a horn is used, it is aimed back at the center of the reflecting dish. The reflector has a diameter of at least several wavelengths. As the wavelength increases(and the frequency decreases), the minimum required dish diameter becomes larger. When the dipole or horn is properly positioned and aimed, incoming

coordinates will appear on screen. First you have to adjust the elevation angle. For this you have to take into consideration the hemisphere you are located in.

You have to install it firmly so that it won't tilt no matter the wind speed or how heavy the antenna is. Moreover, you will notice a bubble level on the mast that has to be kept in the middle. Do every adjustment you consider necessary to keep the bubble centered.

electromagnetic fields bounce off the reflector, and the energy converges on the driven element. If the horn or dipole is connected to a transmitter, the element emits electromagnetic waves that bounce off the reflector and propagate outward in a narrow beam. A dish antenna is usually operated with an unbalanced feed line. For satellite television reception, coaxial cable is used. In applications such as radar where a highpower signal is transmitted, a feed system is preferred. It is very important to align the dish antenna properly because else way you won't have a clear signal. Because the antenna is probably installed on a high place, like the roof, this represents a very dangerous job. So you have to be very careful while performing this task. The antenna is aligned based on the azimuth, elevation and tilt. You can find the coordinates for the correct alignment by checking the TV screen after you connect the receiver and the TV. You only have to introduce your ZIP code and the

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Hence for the northern hemisphere, the elevation angle is 30 degrees and for southern hemispheres, the elevation angle is 60 degrees. This means you have to choose the location for the antenna so that is fulfills these conditions. The next thing to do is to install the mast.

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Inside view

Piracy Issues in Satellite TV

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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w o n k u o y o D

how a communications satellite works?

A communications satellite works like a relay station: signals transmitted by the ground stations are picked up by the satellite's receiver antennas, the signals are filtered, their frequency changed and amplified, and then routed via the transmit antennas back down to Earth. In some cases the signal is first processed by digital computers on board the satellite, as for example for highly specific missions such as Inmarsat-4 or Skynet 5. Most satellites, however, are 'transparent', in that they retransmit the signal without modifying it – their role is simply to deliver the signal exactly to where it is required. The signals are delivered by carrier waves, modulated by frequency, amplitude, or other methods. Each signal has its own frequency and bandwidth. The larger the bandwidth, the more information the signal can carry. To transmit a signal with lots of information (voice + image + data) a wide band must be used. Modern telecommunications media primarily use six frequency bands, designated by letters. The data transmission rate depends directly on the bandwidth used to carry a signal, independently of the modulated carrier wave. Higher frequencies such as the Kaband, however, can more easily accommodate large bandwidths, and thus

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transmit more information than L-band, for instance, where less bandwidth is available and there is greater competition amongst users. The choice of frequency band depends on type of application and bandwidth requirements, propagation conditions, existing ground infrastructure and what ground equipment is necessary. The higher the frequency, the more the beams that are generated can be targeted for a given antenna size: the energy is better concentrated and the same spectral band can be reused for non-adjacent zones ('cells'). Most communications satellites are positioned in geostationary orbit. Geostationary orbit is a circular orbit, situated directly over the equator. A satellite positioned in geostationary orbit circles at the same speed and in the same direction as the Earth rotates, meaning that it stays 'fixed' in relation to a point on the ground. Geostationary orbit is at an altitude of about 36,000 km, or 22,380 miles (in fact, it is exactly 35,784 km) – a distance equal to six times the radius of the Earth – with an orbital period of 23 hours 56 minutes. Why not exactly 24 hours? This is due to the small difference between the time the Earth takes to rotate around its own axis and the length of one day.

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Technology has made improvements in all fields and eased human life to a great extent. DVR technology likewise has increased the TV viewing experience to a great extent by providing a number of sophisticated features. Using these features viewers can superbly control their day-today TV programming schedule. A Digital Video recorder enables to record video in digital format on its hard drive. With the help of a DVR, favorite TV shows can be easily recorded and can be viewed at anytime according to the viewers' convenience. Even recording of one TV show is possible, while watching another, on the same TV at the same time. The time limit for recording depends on the DVR player's hard drive size. Through some DVR, viewers can have an archive of TV programs and TV series. This feature works best when the DVR is hooked to home computer network. With the help of this feature viewers can pause and rewind the currently on air TV shows. The live broadcasting can be paused, adding a great comfort on the part of the viewers. This feature is mostly helpful when suddenly an urgent task like attending a phone call comes up while watching a favorite show or a live game. While watching a recorded program, DVR facilitates the viewers to

I Inside view

skip the commercial ads that come in midst of the TV programs. Also with a DVR subscribers can replay TV program scenes and can also freeze the TV screen. Some TV providers especially the Satellite TV providers give a dual tuner DVR wherein viewers are able to watch one channel while recording another or record two programs at same time or record two programs while watching one already recorded program. Apart from all the features, DVR is also easy to use. The DVR does the recording of the TV shows automatically after it has been set once. Repeated manual task is not needed. Also the DVR is easily placed anywhere due to its portable size. Inclusion of DVR with the TV service includes a small fee and spending such a small price for a DVR is worth it considering that with a DVR, one can record a number of movies, music, TV shows which would have cost even higher when taken or acquired through other means. The recording quality of a DVR is best when it is done in case of digital TV which is delivered basically by all the satellite TV providers.

D V R :

How it has revolutionized TV viewing experience

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H o w t o I n c r e a s e S a t e l l i t e T V S i g n a l S t r e n g t h There are two major causes of poor satellite reception. The first is view obstructions; your reception is going to be very poor if you don't have a clear view of the southern sky, if you can get a signal at all. The other is in the wiring between the dish and the receiver box inside your house. There are many environmental factors that can degrade the wiring run between your dish and your receiver. Depending on the Receiver in use: The signal strength is not really a satellite signal, it is a feedback signal measuring the current to the LNB, this signal does not go up and down when you point the dish at a satellite, any satellite, or if you point the dish at a tree, ground or building, the signal level is good only if the LNB and cabling has good continuity between the Receiver and the LNB. Quality is an actual digital satellite signal level, it comes from the one transponder you have selected in the menu, and again it does not mean you are on the correct satellite, just that the transponder frequency you have chosen has been found and it does have MPEG2 digital packets on it. Most FTAs now have a popup banner that will come up telling you what satellite you are on, this popup banner is from information contained in the digital packets, so no Quality, no banner will come up. Another possibility is a new location. Unfortunately, the technician that installed your dish should have placed it in a spot with the best visibility. It still may be worth a shot to get a technician out to let you know either way. Keep in mind, that your

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dish is possibly catching signal from several different satellites, depending on the bundle you've purchased. HD channels require that big dish, and that dish is getting signal from several different satellites. Also, the HD signal is a pinpointed signal, making it harder for the dish to 'grab'. I say that to say this. If your HD dish has moved in the slightest, your picture is probably distorting on HD channels. If this is happening, a technician will need to come out to adjust the dish because of its pinpoint accuracy needs. Never move or readjust the satellite thinking you can get a better signal! The satellite guys have professional equipment and have peaked your dish the best they could in its current location.

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Satellite TV is one of the popular media in the world. The TV Satellites provides signals for the Satellite TV are “placed” approximately 22,300 miles above the equator. These signals are received by the Satellite TV dish in our home. This article shows instructions and tips for pointing the Satellite TV dish. Satellite TV dish is used for receiving TV Satellite signals. To receive these signals, Satellite dish is placed towards the TV Satellite directly without obstructions by trees, buildings etc. The TV Satellite signals will not enter through leaves, branches or buildings. So place the Satellite dish in the rooftop of your home where the TV Satellite is clearly viewed without obstructions, using Satellite Look Angle Calculator. Satellite Look Angle Calculator sets the direction and elevation of Satellite TV dish towards the TV Satellite. After setting the direction and elevation, the following instructions to be made one by one. LNB is present in the dish. A label in LNB is marked with polarization tilt. The polarization tilt varies according to the location. For example, LNB polarization Tilt is to be set at 0 degrees in one region and minus 30 degree in other region in clockwise rotation. Signal quality is improved by adjusting the polarity of the LNB. Remember; don't turn the LNB too much because LNB Polarization is within plus or minus 30 degrees in US. The direction of 30 degree is equal to 5 minutes on the minute scale of a clock. For receiving the TV Satellite signal a receiver is needed for viewing the signal strength and the quality. Make sure your receiver get connected to the television, and both turned on, and Satellite dish LNB is in connection with receiver cables, and

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keep viewing the levels of signals strength and quality. This strength and quality in signal experienced by you is still off alignment .So check the initial installation such as direction, elevation and find the TV Satellite signal again. Main causes for this problem is a change in the alignment of satellite dish due to heavy winds, bolts not tightened properly, or Satellite dish strucked by the wind. This strength and quality in signal instructs you to make the Satellite dish to be finetuned to the Satellite. In this level you experience by getting “Bad or No Signal” message, non clarity picture and no audio output.

HOW HOWTOTO POINT YOUR POINTYOUR DISH ANTENNA DISHANTENNA

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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Installing your own Ku-band dish system The past year has seen a voluminous increase if the sales of hardware for the reception of Ku signals in India. Small dish antenna systems for reception of the DTH signals from the NSS 6 satellite have proven, for the past year, to be the driving force in the industry. With the start of the DD DIRECT DTH service, sales of dish receiving systems reminded one of the start of the cable industry in the mid-nineties, when the launch of every new satellite of channel in India, would send sales of dish antennae, LNBs and receivers soaring. Similar is the case of what is happening now with Ku-system sales. Lets look at the dish first. However, many questions arise. The use and installation of the Ku antenna is not the same as for a C-band antenna. In fact we receive numerous queries at our office, whether an existing C-band antenna can be used for reception of Ku signals. The answer is yes and no - depends on how good quality your existing antenna is. If it's a solid sheet or perforated antenna (with tiny holes) then yes, however you would have to change your LNB of course. If you

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are using the old chicken-mesh type of antenna, then no way are you going to be able to receive Ku signals with it. Offset dishes are commonly found in DTH systems. The surface of an offset fed dish is a section of a larger prime-focus parabola. The feed assembly, which is still located at the focus of the larger "parent" dish, appears to be offset from that portion of the reflective surface in use. Since the feed/LNB structure is offset, it does not block incoming signals. In practice, no dish is perfect for a number of reasons. The feed at the focal point is bigger than a "point" so it intercepts some signals arriving from directions slightly off the main axis. With the introduction of small-dish systems installation has evolved to the point where a technically oriented consumer should be able to manage the entire process. A simplified overview of the process is presented in this article. Checklist The first step in any installation is the site survey, a critical yet often occasionally neglected step.

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A multiswitch system provides the simplest way to connect ALL of your satellite TV receivers if you have more than four. Alternatively, it can simply provide lots of connection points to allow you to move the receivers around. In addition, you can connect radio and/or TV aerials to provide those signals at the same connection points as well as satellite signals. A multiswitch allows you to feed many wall plates in various rooms with satellite TV signals from a QUATTRO or Quad-output LNB on your dish.* In addition, if you wish, you can also feed aerial signals from a UHF TV aerial or, with the addition of a V24-310 aerial combiner (see below), any or all of UHF TV (analogue and/or digital), FM radio or DAB. SatCure supplies multiswitches with Quattro LNB inputs, aerial input and up to 48 outputs. You do not have to use the aerial input if you don't require Freeview. You don't have to use all the multiswitch outputs. Each output carries satellite plus any aerial signals that you feed into the multiswitch (from optional Freeview and/or radio aerials). If a multiswitch is feeding separate dwellings, which may be on different mains power supply phases, it is essential to get a

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I Inside view

Multiswitch Systems

qualified electrician to "earth-bond" the multiswitch. He will understand what this means and will know how to do it. Please consult him first, to ensure that the multiswitch is installed reasonably close to a suitable earthing point. A multiswitch allows you to feed many wall plates in various rooms with satellite TV signals. In addition, if you wish, you can also feed aerial signals from a UHF TV aerial or, with the addition of a V24-310 Radio input aerial combiner, FM radio and/or DAB. Multiswitch installations allow to distribute satellite and terrestrial programs to many users, being one of the forms of satellite master antenna TV systems (SMATV). Community systems are generally more reliable and ensure better quality, due to better, professional equipment. It starts from the satellite dish - at least 110cm, ensuring high gain and insensitivity to weather conditions. Community installation eliminates individual dishes and antennas on roof, facades and balconies, improving aesthetics of the building. Multiswitch systems are multi-cable installations, with different signals in each cable and sections up to tens of meters.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2013


I Inside view

20 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

abroad early Discovery was able to grab the best channel positions, says David Zaslav, the firm's boss. A network that is number 11 on a multichannel menu tends to get a lot more viewers than one that is number 211. Discovery is trying to seize a similar firstmover advantage in high-definition television. The path blazed by Discovery is now welltrodden. In the financial year 2008-09 Fox International Channels, part of News Corporation, had turnover of more than $1 billion—up from less than $200m seven years earlier. That does not include wholly owned enterprises like Star, an Asian network, or part-owned ones like Fox Sports Australia. Even public broadcasters are getting in on the act. BBC Worldwide, the public corporation's commercial arm, has launched 17 channels since March 2008 and now has 46 around the world. Media companies approach foreign markets in different ways. News Corporation looks to combine content and distribution by investing in satellite companies. That allows it to glean information about consumers' tastes and eventually to sell them higher-margin broadband and phone services—a model that has worked well in Britain. Sony nurtures brands like Animax, originally a Japanese animé channel, in Asia before exporting them to the rest of the world.

Pay TV Worldwide For a long time pay-television has essentially been an American business, much more popular (and lucrative) there than anywhere else in the world. But the balance is about to tip. In 2010 more was spent on subscriptions to multichannel television outside the United States—about $96 billion—than in it, according to SNL Kagan, a research outfit. The effect on big

American media firms is profound. The rest of the world has lagged America in pay-TV both because relatively few people subscribe to it and because, in some countries, it has been difficult to sell advertising. In Japan, for example, just 24% of television-owning households pay for more channels, and ad revenue is puny. Yet other countries are catching up, with poorer countries often speeding past richer ones (see chart). Brazil's Net Serviços grew from 1.8m subscribers in 2006 to 3.6m in 2009. American media companies hope that they will be lifted by a rising tide of pay-TV subscribers in emerging markets. It has worked for Discovery Communications, which puts out programmes about wild animals and grizzled men. The firm's channels (five of them, on average) are available in 174 countries. In the third quarter of 2009 34% of Discovery's revenues came from pay-TV outside America. Because it ventured

AUGUST

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2013


20 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

I Inside view

f o e l o R Satellite

Communications In the context of a worldwide military communications network, satellite communications systems are very important. Satellite communications links add capacity to existing communications capabilities and provide additional alternate routings for communications traffic. Satellite links, as one of several kinds of long-distance links, interconnect switching centers located strategically around the world. They are part of the defense communication systems (DCS) network. One important aspect of the satellite communications network is that it continues in operation under conditions that sometimes render other methods of communications inoperable. Because of this, satellites make a significant contribution to improved reliability of Navy communications. Satellite communications have unique advantages over conventional long distance transmissions. Satellite links are unaffected by the propagation variations that interfere with hf radio. They are also free from the high attenuation of wire or cable facilities and are capable of spanning long distances. The numerous repeater stations required for line-of-sight or troposcatter links are no longer needed. They furnish the reliability and flexibility of service that is needed to support a military operation. Capacity The present military

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communications satellite system is capable of communications between backpack, airborne, and shipboard terminals. The system is capable of handling thousands of communications channels. Reliability Communications satellite frequencies are not dependent upon reflection or refraction and are affected only slightly by atmospheric phenomena. The reliability of satellite communications systems is limited only by the equipment reliability and the skill of operating and maintenance personnel. Vulnerability Destruction of an orbiting vehicle by an enemy is possible. However, destruction of a single communications satellite would be quite difficult and expensive. The cost would be excessive compared to the tactical advantage gained. It would be particularly difficult to destroy an entire multiple-satellite system such as the twenty-six random-orbit satellite system currently in use. The earth terminals offer a more attractive target for physical destruction. These can be protected by the same measures that are taken to protect other vital installations. A high degree of freedom from jamming damage is provided by the highly directional antennas at the earth terminals. The wide bandwidth system that can accommodate sophisticated antijam modulation techniques also lessens vulnerability.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2013


20 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

I Inside view

The C, Ku and Ka-band satellite debate With the launch of Ka-band satellites the debate of C versus Ku-band versus Ka-band has come to the fore, with varying opinions of the advantages of each technology against that of another. These considerations are valid and, in terms of a pure technology debate, very critical to consider, says Dawie de Wet, PhD Electronic Engineering, CEO, Q-KON. However, more importantly, to some extent, is the relative business aspects of these technologies. Whereas the technology debate is focused more on the translation of satellite bandwidth measured in MHz to data throughput measured in Mbps, the business debate extends the domain from MHz all the way to profit and loss. In order to have a quantified discussion of the advantages of C versus Ku versus Kaband it is necessary to model and capture the specific relationship that translates MHz to profit and loss. Modelling this relationship requires that all business and technical parameters are included such as market demand predictions, price elasticity, satellite link budget engineering, operational cost models and equipment price influences. Such a business model that integrates the market, technology and business domain was developed by Q-KON and provides an effective quantified scenario to determine the optimum intersection point of these three domains. To Q-KON's knowledge this business model is the first of its kind available and offers service providers an unequalled opportunity to evaluate different technology and business scenarios. Using this business model and the integrated systems, various simulations can readily be evaluated by service providers. This will quantify the different advantages of C, Ku and Ka-band in relation to a specific market sector and market demand scenarios. Through calculation of such various analyses, it is possible to make

AUGUST

much more informed decisions regarding the relative strengths of the different technologies and the specific market suitability. Harris CapRock has recently completed research work that has resulted in the definition of a business model and business simulator that translates MHz to profit. In any evaluation of satellite infrastructure and performance of systems, the issue of spectrum warrants closer attention. According to the work done by Harris CapRock, one of the advantages of Kuband satellite services is that the spectrum is relatively unused – whereas lower frequency satellite bands are, as the paper states, “heavily subscribed�. The smaller wavelength and higher frequency of Ka-band make links more susceptible to weather and other external or atmospheric interference.

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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I Inside view

Using the DirecTV Multiswitch The following section explains you how you will connect a DSS antenna to various DSS receivers when using the Direct TV Multiswitch. In addition to the above description, it explains you how to play or run both cable signals and antenna and DSS signals down the single coax. If you want to search DSS signals, then you have to run it into terms as Dual LNB, Diplexer and Direct TV Multiswitch with the reference for connecting DSS antenna to various satellite receivers. There are several methods for watching or viewing your favorite DSS programs on multiple televisions or TVs. Generally people don't want complicated wiring in the walls of their home. They want minimum wiring so that the rooms of the home look nice. You'll be happy to know that we included a detailed description on how to install this Multiswitch with minimum wiring. The most important thing that has to taken care of lies in the receiver box. The receiver box has to properly tell the dish or antenna what channels it really wants. A satellite's active part is often called a LNB. In DBS systems

polarization and half channels on other. Barrier of two receivers can be broken by using Direct TV Multiswitch. For this the Direct TV Multiswitch uses both cables of the dish and these cables are shared with the multiple receivers. In addition to this it takes a dish or antenna or CATV signal and by using diplexers which are built in. Each of these outputs must run directly with only one of the satellite receivers. But this is not necessary where a separate receiver is installed for every cable. If you have a DSS receiver, you can split these DSS and UHF/VHF signals with the diplexer. When you are going to use the Direct TV Multiswitch, then you can count it on by VHF/UHF/CATV amplifier between the Direct TV Multiswitch and combiner. The Direct TV Multiswitch that we are carrying amplifies the satellite signal but it not amplifies VHF/UHF/CATV signals. If you want more DSS receivers then you can use more Multiswitches.

(Direct Broadcast Satellite) of high power such as Dish Network and Direct TV, each of the channels broadcast their programs from a satellite with either right hand or left hand circular polarization. Only one single type of polarization can be received by the LNB at any one time. Half channels are given one

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The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

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20 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

I Inside view

What the future holds for

the satellite industry The past few years have proved challenging for many companies across diverse industries and regions around the world. Despite tough economic times, the global satellite market continued growing. According to the Satellite Industry Association (SIA) data the satellite market has experienced an average annual growth of 11.2 percent from 2005-2010. The growing demand for satellite capacity is driven by many factors, some of which include the need for faster speeds and larger bandwidths, Internet across developing and geographically challenged countries, realtime communications anywhere-anytime and remote communications for military and government. Robert Bell has more than 20 years experience in the telecommunications industry and is currently Executive Director of the World Teleport Association (WTA). Robert spoke at NewSat's Satellite Seminar held at its South Australian Teleport in late 2011 and provided some in-depth insights into the

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global satellite industry, presenting four predictions for the future of satellite communications. Mr. Bell believes that satellite communications is a growing global market that offers many opportunities and niches. This is a result of an ever increasing demand for high-quality bandwidth communications via satellite across a wide range of industries. According to Mr. Bell, the unique value of satellite technology is evident: “It has the best economics of any possible form of communication in terms of one-to-many communications, and provides the best means of establishing connections with remote areas. The latter, is an important requirement of governments, military organisations and enterprises such as mining and resources.” The WTA has been dedicated to helping the operators of teleports maintain and expand their businesses for over 25 years and Mr. Bell has witnessed many satellite companies grow at an astounding pace. “The satellite

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industry is a very significant niche and definitely a growth business. It's a business that has been doing nicely through some pretty turbulent times. This is because satellites are becoming more and more vital to many different industries,” he said. Mr. Bell projected four distinct forecasts for the satellite industry: There will be a rising rate of commercial military integration in satellite services; There will be an increase in media and telecommunications, especially media on demand, something that is highly reliant on technology and high-speed Internet delivered via satellite; All of this will lead to a rise in demand for Ka-band, the latest satellite frequency which allows more information to be sent at any one given time; and the compression of information, which is all about getting more through the satellite circuit, will ultimately have no boundaries.

The Highly Circulated Satellite Magazine

2013


20 YEARS OF GENEROUS PUBLICATIONS

I Inside view

World-Wide Pay-TV Continues To Grow Following a year of solid 8% growth, the worldwide pay-TV subscriber market has reached 804 million worldwide pay-TV subscriber households. According to research by MRG, the global pay-TV subscriber base, which is made up of cable TV, satellite TV, and telco-based IPTV subscribers, is growing most rapidly in the AsiaPacific region. Last year, over 38 million new households in Asia signed up for pay-TV service. Overall, on a worldwide basis two out of every three new pay-TV households in 2012 were in the Asia-Pacific region. Meanwhile, the more mature pay-TV markets are hardly growing at all. In North America, pay-TV subscriber households stayed flat during 2012, ending the year pretty much where they began with 112 million subscriber households. There was a similar story in Western Europe, where total pay-TV subscriber households increased by just under 3% last year. The chart below further illustrates the growth of worldwide pay-TV subscriber households from 2010 – 2012. In the cable TV industry, the majority of global subscriber growth occurred in the Asia, led specifically by China, India and Vietnam. Other regions, especially North

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America and Western Europe, are experiencing little or no growth in cable TV households. Overall, global cable TV subscriber households grew modestly in 2012 to just over 520 million. Global satellite TV service subscribers grew solidly in 2012, as demand for payTV satellite TV services in countries like Russia and India spiked. Total pay-TV satellite households now exceed 202 million, an annual growth rate of 12%. Demand for IPTV services picked up significantly in 2012, as subscribers increased by a healthy 36%. Subscriber growth was strong in all geographic regions, and worldwide IPTV households now total more than 77 million. Some other highlights from MRG's report about the global pay-TV subscriber market include: 56% of the world's 1.43 billion TV households now subscribe to a pay-TV service. In terms of the specific pay-TV service platforms, IPTV subscriber households grew the most in 2012, rising by over 30%. Total satellite TV households grew by just over 10% last year. Cable TV subscribers still account for the largest segment of the pay-TV subscriber universe. At the end of 21012, 63% of all global pay-TV subscriber households were cable TV households. “Even with the ongoing debate about the value of pay-TV services versus the cost of pay-TV services, one thing remains clear: Consumers around the world love to watch TV, and they remain both ready and willing to pay for it,” according to MRG.

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