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Strategic Reserve Abu Dhabi’s plan to create an emergency water reserve has entered its final implementation phase ON THE RECORD

Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, Vice-Chair, International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)


Promising future


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Membrane leachate plant handover LG to enter water treatment business PUBLICATION LICENSED BY IMPZ

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applying thought to water in the middle east OCTOBER 2010 06 EDITORIAL


Strategic Reserve

An Abu Dhabi milestone


• Round Up • The region • At large


Abu Dhabi’s plan to create an emergency water reserve has entered its final implementation phase


A fundamental review Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, Vice-Chair, International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)


Promising future Demand surge in water and wastewater infrastructure creates growth opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa



The performance carrier Biological wastewater treatment plants using conventional carriers or activated sludge systems can significantly increase their efficiency and performance by tweaking their carrier retention system




38 Staying cool in the Middle East




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OCTOBER 2010 |

A new model Veolia Water’s new Water Impact Index attempts to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the impact of human activity on water resources A new generation of real-time business software applications for managing customers, infrastructure and the workforce is helping the region’s utilities to maximise efficiency

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editor’s note An Abu Dhabi milestone


first came to know about the project on aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in Liwa, Abu Dhabi through a flyer picked up from an exhibition last year. References to the project were few and far between at the various water fora, till the Gulf Water Week in May this year, when the eminent Dr Mohamed Dawoud of Environment Agency–Abu Dhabi (EAD), presented a technical briefing on the Liwa project. Subsequently, at the Water Days 2010 event in Abu Dhabi in late June, the project’s German consultants provided an update on the project’s progress. Late last month, Abu Dhabi announced that it had awarded the Engineering Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract for the construction of a strategic water storage and recovery system at Liwa. This issue’s cover story provides a backgrounder of the project, which was first mooted in 1998 to the higher authorities by the German consortium of GTZ, a German-government backed technical co-operation organisation and Dornier Consulting, a private engineering consultancy. A feasibility study and pilot project implemented by the GTZ-Dornier combine proved the technical feasibility and suitability of a large-scale artificial recharge scheme using desalinated seawater. With the awarding of the EPC contract, the project will, as envisaged, create facilities for the transportation, underground storage and recovery of surplus desalinated water in Abu Dhabi, and more important, it will enhance Abu Dhabi’s emergency water reserves from the existing three days to 90 days. Surface water storage, including freshwater lakes, constitute a major part of the global storage capacity to the tune of 120,000 km3. The world’s aquifers, on the other hand, hold three to four million km3 of groundwater. A 2002 conference on ‘Recharge Enhancement and Subsurface Water Storage’ in The Netherlands had concluded that the management of aquifer recharge and optimisation of the storage capacity of the aquifers could help create 1000 km3 of additional subsurface storage. It noted that availability of storage capacity is increasingly becoming a crucial element of the water chain to provide water during dry periods, especially in semi-arid and arid regions where changes in climate variability could lead to longer dry periods. The Liwa project, once up and running, is expected to become a benchmark for water management in desert regions and could re-define international standards. On a less esoteric note, I hope you have been accessing our new website (, which is being updated more frequently. The news section is updated on a daily basis, with a mix of regional and international news, while other sections see updates on a weekly basis. We intend to move a lot of our activities online, including reader research, editorial feedback and market surveys and seek your support in making the transition a success. The print edition, too, is set to undergo a re-design of sorts. It will sport a brand new look by the end of this calendar year. The maiden H20 Water Awards, organised by CPI Industry, has attracted widespread interest from all over the MENA region, reflected in the nominations received so far. Do submit your nominations by October 30, the last date for submissions. Complete details about the awards are available on our website, and if you need any clarification, please do not hesitate to e-mail me at anoop (at) I look forward to hearing from you.

Publisher Dominic De Sousa Managing Director & Associate Publisher Frédéric Paillé • Editorial Director & Associate Publisher B Surendar • Editor Anoop K Menon • Sales Director Vedran Dedic • Events & Marketing Manager Deep Karani • Design Rey Delante • Ulysses Galgo • Webmaster Troy Maagma • Database/Subscriptions Manager Purwanti Srirejeki | ADVERTISING ENQUIRIES Frédéric Paillé: +971 50 7147204 Vedran Dedic: +971 50 3756834 Euro Zone and UK Joseph Quinn, HORSESHOE MEDIA Tel: +44 (0)20 8687 4139 Fax: +44 (0)20 8687 4130 Marshall House, 124 Middleton Road Morden, Surrey, SM4 6RW, UK North America Rakesh Saxena, CPI INDUSTRY North America Branch Tel: +1 905 890 5031 Fax: +1 905 890 5031 GSM: +1 416 841 5050 Published by

Anoop K Menon OCTOBER 2010


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Strategic Reserve

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Abu Dhabi’s plan to create an emergency water reserve has entered its implementation phase final ON THE RECORD

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Happenings > ROUND up Al Ansab MBR plant undergoes testing The Al Ansab submerged Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) sewage treatment plant (STP), in Muscat, Oman, has been successfully tested, reports The Oman Daily Observer. Billed as one of the world’s largest submerged MBR facility, the Al Ansab STP will treat an ultimate equivalent population of 900,000 people or 220,000m3/day. The initial contract is to treat a flow of 76,000m3/ day. The plant utilises 304 Kubota

AWARD Public health champion receives 2010 Stockholm Water Prize Dr Rita Colwell, distinguished Professor from the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health, in the United States, has been awarded the 2010 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate. Dr Colwell’s pioneering research on the prevention of waterborne infectious diseases has helped protect the health and lives of millions. Dr Colwell, 76, made exceptional contributions to control the spread of cholera, a waterborne pathogen that infects three to five million people and leads to an estimated 120,000 deaths each

EK400 double-deck modules or a total of 121,600 panels. Haya Water’s decision to use MBR technology was dictated by the need for high-quality effluent, mainly for irrigation reuse and the limited availability of land at the existing site. ACWA UK was awarded the technology contract to supply the membrane units, carry out process design and assist with detailed design, engineering, installation and commissioning of the plant.

year. Her work has established the basis for environmental and infectious disease risk assessment used around the world. In the 1960s, Dr Colwell observed that the causative agent for cholera, Vibrio cholera, could survive by attaching to zooplankton. This led to her groundbreaking discovery that certain bacteria, including the Vibrio species, can enter a dormant stage that could revert to an infectious state under the proper conditions. This means that even when there are no disease outbreaks, rivers, lakes and oceans can serve as reservoirs for these bacteria. These findings counteracted the conventional wisdom held that cholera was only spread from person to person, food or drinking water and that its presence in the environment could only be due to the release of sewage. As a result of her work, scientists are now able to link changes in the natural environment to the spread of disease. In the 1990s, Dr Colwell was the first scientist to research the impacts of climate change on the spread of infectious diseases.

Dr Lukas Loeffler

the company at his own request. “Lukas Loeffler has extensive technical experience and great integrative capability,” said Jens Wegmann, CEO of Siemens IS. “His expertise will help him to continue strengthening our position in the international water business.” Loeffler has been a member of Siemens management since 2005, and was the head of the Business Unit Infrastructure Logistics, based in Arlington, Texas, and part of the Mobility Division.

Jochen Kallenberg joins inge watertechnologies Jochen Kallenberg has taken over as Vice President of Sales at inge watertechnologies AG. His was previously Sales Manager at Toray Membrane Europe. At inge, Kallenberg will be drawing on

APPOINTMENTS New head for Siemens Water Technologies

Dr Rita Colwell


OCTOBER 2010 |

Dr Lukas Loeffler will head Siemens Water Technologies, part of Siemens Industry Solutions (IS) Business Unit headquartered in Warrendale, Pennsylvania. He is taking over from Chuck Gordon, who is leaving

Jochen Kallenberg

his experience in strategic customer acquisition and the development of existing customer relationships in the membrane-based water treatment market. Kallenberg started his career at Sandoz in 1987 in chemical production and pharmaceutical chemical development. He spent 11 years at the Swiss water treatment specialists Ropur, subsequently renamed Toray Membrane Europe, where he headed up a number of areas including the management of key accounts and distributors.

just launched FO membranes launched Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI), the world’s only commercial manufacturer of Forward Osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems has launched the OsMem family of FO membrane products for municipal and industrial customers. The OsMem family of products includes all of HTI’s proprietary FO membranes configured for various uses from Membrane Bioreactors (MBR) to oil and gas wastewater filtration. OsMem spiral wound membrane modules are available in standard module sizes ranging from 2.5’ X 21’ to 8.0’ X 40’. The membrane is also available in flat sheet cartridge plate modules for very difficult waste streams.

funding Desal start-up raises €3.6 million

Voltea has completed a €3.6 million financing round to support the commercial roll-out of its breakthrough Capacitive Deionisation (CapDI) technology. The funding was led by Rabo Ventures and included existing investor Pentair. During desalination and softening of water, the existing technologies employed to remove salts, minerals and toxic metals from the water typically consume large amounts of energy, chemicals and produce large volumes of wastewater. Voltea claims that its CapDI technology will offer clean desalination systems that are capable of high water recovery and chemical-free operation, while consuming substantially less energy than alternatives. Voltea is backed by Unilever

Ventures, the venture capital arm of Unilever, and is headquartered in London. The operational side of the business is based in Leiden, the Netherlands.

projects Saudi ruler inaugurates Makkah water project The Custodian of the two Holy Mosques, King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz, opened a state-of-the-art purification station to maintain the quality of Zamzam water in Makkah, Arab News reports. The SR700-million station will purify five million litres of Zamzam water, every day, through two main purification lines, each using a number of filters and a sterilisation unit. Minister of Water & Electricity Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman Al-Hussayen said 10 million litres would be stored in a tank, from which water will be pumped to the Grand Mosque through four, 200-millimetre-diameter stainless steel pipes. He said another two million litres would be pumped every day to a nearby factory, which will package the water. Once the Zamzam water is treated and stored, it is automatically pumped to 42 distribution stations. Pilgrims and visitors would be able to obtain 10-litre containers of the water at these points by inserting coins in special machines. According to the Al Hayat daily, SR1-billion or $266.7 million worth of water and sewage projects are currently being implemented in Makkah by the Ministry of Water & Electricity.

system made up of 240 modules installed on the building roof. The PV system will be equipped with a total of five threephase PV inverters: two 50kW, one 40kW and two 30kW inverters that will convert the generated electricity into AC current.

RESEARCH REPORT Water leaks cost Saudi Arabia millions Water leakage in pipeline networks across Saudi Arabia results in losses amounting to SR3,075 million annually, reports The Saudi Gazette, citing a study conducted by the Centre for Clean Water and Clean Energy, a joint research group comprising personnel from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The current capacity of desalination plants within the Kingdom is estimated at six million cubic meters per day, which expected to increase to over 10 million m3/day over the next five years. The centre estimated that 30% of the water transported daily across the country via pipelines, mainly to Riyadh, Jeddah and Madina, is lost due to leakage. Based on a rate of SR2.8 per cubic metre, the cost of water wastage has been estimated at SR3,075 million. According to the study, the problem of water leakage not only causes clean water and energy losses, but also increases

PV system to reduce CO2 emissions Mitsubishi Electric Corporation has completed the installation of a 191-kilowatt (kW) photovoltaic (PV) system at Nabeya-ueno Waterworks in Nagoya, Japan’s fourth largest city. Electricity generated by a total of 1,008 PV modules, installed over a surface area of 1,430 square metres, will partially cover the air conditioning and lighting requirements at Nabeya-ueno Waterworks. The system is expected to generate approximately 192 megawatthours (MWh) of electricity annually and reduce 91 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions. The 191kW system will contain a 146kW sub-system composed of 768 PV modules installed on the lid of the filtration system, as well as a 45kW

The Kingdom loses 30% of the water transported daily through pipelines | OCTOBER 2010


Happenings > ROUND up water contamination from hazardous chemicals and metals. Medical doctors from the Department of Oncology at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh have reported that water contamination is causing esophageal cancer in Qassim region, and is now considered a major health problem. To address the problem of leaking pipelines, the centre has proposed the development of conceptual designs of water leak and water contamination detection systems, including the building of working prototypes for both leak and contamination sensing, testing in a laboratory pipe network, and exploring new methods of monitoring the water distribution system.

EVENTS AFED’s annual conference to be held in Beirut For the 3rd consecutive year, the Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) will hold its annual conference and present its annual report on water, highlighting the need for more sustainable management of a scarce resource. The conference, scheduled for November 4-5, 2010 at Habtoor Grand Hotel and Convention Centre in Beirut, will discuss the report, prepared by AFED and edited by former head of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Dr. Mohamed El-Ashry. The report is designed to contribute to the discourse on sustainable management of water resources in the Arab world, stressing the urgent need for policy reforms. Due to increase in population growth and bad management, the average annual per capita share in the Arab world is declining from below 1,000 cubic metres now, already below the level of water scarcity, to below 500 cubic meters as early as 2015, defined as severe water stress. The world average is 6,500 cubic meters. Major water sources are from outside Arab borders or shared, and most available water resources are already developed. As needs exceed availability, it is urgent to apply rational use of available water resources, and develop new sources, such as innovative desalination technologies. More than 30 ministers and heads of international and regional organisations as well as top researchers and scientists have confirmed their participation in this year’s conference. 10

OCTOBER 2010 |

Jordan to host Efficient 2011 Jordan will host the sixth IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water (Efficient 2011). The conference will be held under the patronage of His Majesty King Abdullah II Bin Al Hussein under the theme, ‘Water Demand Management: Challenges and Opportunities’, from March 29 to April 2, 2011 at the Movenpick Hotel in the Dead Sea. The IWA Efficient 2011 Conference targets experts and professionals involved in all aspects of water demand management and water conservation programmes. Participants will include utility managers, water resource planners and engineers, conservation professionals, academics, private consultants, research institutions, NGOs, contractors, environmentalists, and water sector regulators and policy makers.

FUTURE TRENDS Panel discussion outlines global trends As part of World Water Week in Stockholm, six water/wastewater industry experts presented a seminar on ‘The Future of Global Water Technologies,’ on September 7, 2010. The seminar explored future sustainable solutions while anticipating the most efficient and effective ways to overcome social, financial or environmental hurdles.

In his presentation, panellist Dr Giulio Boccaletti, Expert Associate Principal, McKinsey & Company pointed out the challenge facing the world in meeting its need for water: if nothing is done, demand for water in 2030 will outstrip current supply by 40%. He felt that the old approach, focused on supply-side interventions, is not enough to solve the problem. However, closing the gap will be possible, and at reasonable cost, provided all sectors of the economy contribute. Dr Ruediger Knauf, Vice President of Research & Development for Siemens Water Technologies addressed the role of technology and service providers in leading the effort to achieve total water management with highest resource efficiency and lowest environmental impact. Knauf discussed integrated solutions for water treatment, reclamation and re-use, based on six innovation platforms, in order to achieve this holistic approach. Paul Street, Director of Sustainable Solutions for Black & Veatch’s global water business emphasised how the water/ wastewater industry is unique in having the potential to produce much of its own energy. However, there is currently a wide variation in energy-efficiency and natural resource use by the industry. He recommended that industry leaders work together to maximise the opportunities for holistic and integrated solutions that exist at the nexus of water and energy. John Williamson, President of ITT Water & Wastewater discussed key trends that will help propel the water and wastewater industry forward. Integration, he explained, is leading to a consolidation of different technologies into single, value-added solutions. This, in turn, is helping lead to a convergence of industry focus. Williamson also discussed the potential to accelerate innovation and access to advanced technology through the decentralisation of decision-making, in regards to water quality and delivery. The seminar was moderated by James Clark, Vice President for Black & Veatch’s global water business. It was sponsored by Black & Veatch’s global water business, ITT Corporation, Siemens Water Technologies and the Water Environment Federation (WEF).



Cost Recovery at water and wastewater utilities Achievements, Challenges and Solutions December 5-9, 2010 Amman Jordan

Under the umbrella of the League of Arab States (LAS) and in partnership with the Arab Ministerial Water Council (AMWC) and the Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI), the Arab Countries Water Utilities Association (ACWUA) is organizing the first Arab Water Week. The Arab Water Week (AWW) is the first regional meeting in the Arab region which will tackle water management issues through establishing innovative partnerships and platforms of collaborative work on water issue in the region. The importance of this meeting lies in providing a platform for greater coordination among the existing network of key partners active in the water sector in the region.

The first Arab Water Week will include the main following activities: • ACWUA’s First International Conference Theme: Cost Recovery at water and wastewater utilities: Achievements, Challenges and Solutions • The First Arab Water Trade Fair • Arab Water Utilities Matchmaking workshop • 2 days training course on Benchmarking for Top Management at water and wastewater utilities • ACWUA’s Second Board of Directors meeting during year 2010 • ACWUA’s Second General Assembly Meeting Media Partner



Supported by

Tel: +962-6- 461 7934 or 461 9712, Fax: +962-6-464 2506,

Happenings > the region


km3 (approximately) of water is present in the Earth’s atmosphere.

Abu Dhabi awards ASR project

Source: World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP)

ACC-POSCO joint venture awarded strategic water storage and recovery contract in Abu Dhabi


A joint venture (JV) between Arabian Construction Co (ACC) and POSCO Engineering & Construction Co (POSCO E&C) has been awarded a Dh1.6 billion contract for the engineering, procurement and construction of the Strategic Water Storage and Recovery System to be built in Liwa, Abu Dhabi. The project, awarded to the JV by Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) in conjunction with the Environmental Agency of Abu Dhabi (EAD), is the first of its kind in the region. It will consist of an underground aquifer storage facility with a capacity of 27 million tonnes of water, which will be built 85 metres below ground in the Liwa desert for use “in the event of a water emergency.” ACC’s Director Wassim Merhebi said: “ACC is honoured to have been awarded this highly innovative new project, a first of its kind in the region. Due to its complexity and size, this project will certainly be a great addition to ACC’s growing portfolio of mega projects across the region.” POSCO E&C’s UAE General Manager, 12

OCTOBER 2010 |

S K Park, said: “This is our first project in Abu Dhabi and we are proud to be taking part in such an innovative and strategic initiative.” The Strategic Water Storage and Recovery Project, which is set to be constructed about 250 kilometres south west of Abu Dhabi City, is based on aquifer storage and recovery system. It features water pipe lines, HV transmission lines, pump stations and a SCADA system. In the event of a water emergency, all the water stored at the facility can be made available for pumping to Abu Dhabi City through a system of pumping stations and a 161kilometres pipeline that will connect to an existing pipeline system situated along the E11 highway. Merhebi continued: “The government’s goal is to be able to supply the city with 40 MIGD for up to 90 days in the unfortunate event of a water emergency. The facility will ensure that a complex regime of testing and analysis of the infiltrated water is undergone before the water is made available for recovery.” The project will take approximately 30 months to complete.

Per cent. Groundwater wasted in KSA due to outdated extraction methods Source: Saudi Gazette


Per cent. Of the process water at PepsiCo’s FritoLay facility in Casa Grande, Arizona is recycled and re-used Source: Pepsico


m3/day. The combined capacity of two floating desalination barges in KSA, the largest of their kind in the world Source: ACWA


Maximum number of days of water supply in Kuwait in an emergency scenario Source: GTZ

Saudi Aramco develops innovative MBR technology

Saudi Aramco’s environmental experts have developed a new wastewater treatment technology to treat oily or industrial wastewater. The innovation, which uses Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) in a modified Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), is called EcoRight MBR. Saudi Aramco developed the base idea and teamed up with Siemens Water Technologies to develop it into a commercial product. Five patents have been submitted on the idea and associated technologies. In areas where water is scarce, the system allows for the inexpensive reuse of wastewater, thus conserving groundwater. In areas where discharges must meet strict environmental requirements, the system can provide the treatment necessary for compliance. Saudi Aramco has claimed that EcoRight achieves a high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency with near zero additional operating or capital costs. Since

it provides the same removal capacity as much more energy-intensive technologies, it qualifies as a green technology and can earn CO2 reduction credits. The license, which was granted to Siemens through Aramco Overseas, provides for royalty payments and supports the Saudi domestic economy by committing Siemens to develop Saudi manufacturing capabilities. EcoRight is being pilot-tested at Ras Tanura Refinery as a potential replacement for its waste injection well. It is part of a proposed build, own and operate proposal for the Jeddah Refinery Phase II Wastewater Treatment Upgrade Project. Siemens has identified a number of potential uses and expects a five-year

market for sales, in terms of millions of dollars, globally. The team members represent diverse organisations within Saudi Aramco and Siemens. The licensing team was composed of William G Conner and Mohammed Al Hajri from Environmental Protection, Saif Al Saif and Carlos Quezada from New Business Evaluation, William T Sheppard from Intellectual Assets Management, Jonathan T Dahl from Finance, David R Cherrington from Law and Thomas E Schultz from Siemens Water Technologies. The Water Management Committee will prioritise the needs of Saudi Aramco facilities that can benefit from EcoRight and schedule the projects into the Business Plan as appropriate.

Membrane leachate plant handover Norit X-Flow technology underpins advanced membrane leachate plant in Turkey Two years ago, ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection and Waste Materials Valuation Industry) and Norit X-Flow embarked on a one-of-its-kind wastewater treatment project - the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda. Jürgen von Hollen, Managing Director of Norit X-Flow pointed out that the ISTAÇ Leachate Treatment project represented one of the most challenging filtration projects globally based on its size, environmental conditions and continuous growth rates. After nearly two years of operation and treating up to 3,500 m3/day of landfill water percolate, the conclusion is that the plant meets its specifications and contractual requirements for

discharge of the treated effluent. The installation is being touted by Norit X-Flow as the largest membrane leachate plant in the world, involving the most advanced water treatment technology available. ISTAÇ and Norit X-Flow celebrated the official handover on 17th August 2010. Water percolating through landfills for solid waste results in leachate, which may contain undesirable or toxic chemicals. The ISTAÇ landfill is constructed to prevent leachate contamination of groundwater or surface waters. The landfill percolate containing high amounts of COD, BOD, TSS and Nitrogen is collected and treated by Norit’s Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology, which makes it possible to discharge this

water directly into the Black Sea, in line with both current and future drainage standards. Apart from the MBR technology, the wastewater treatment plant uses a combination of two advanced Norit X-Flow technologies: a biological process, applied in conjunction with ultrafiltration followed by nanofiltration. The collected leachate is first subjected to primary clarification and thereafter, transferred to a bioreactor unit for biological treatment. In the bioreactor, COD, BOD and Nitrogen compounds are eliminated. Subsequently, the Norit X-Flow Crossflow membrane system, placed outside of the bioreactor, separates sludge and solid waste on suspension and some amount of COD. Lastly, the | OCTOBER 2010


Happenings > the region Norit NF installation eliminates the remaining COD, organic micro polluters, heavy metals and other compounds (humic acids, colour), resulting in the effluent water quality conforming to current and future discharge standards. Akguel, Managing Director of ISTAÇ added that the success of the project beyond the technological solution can be attributed to the project partnership approach adopted by ISTAÇ and Norit X-Flow at both the operational and the management levels, in order to ensure full commitment and prioritisation for the project.

Leachate treatment project ISTAÇ stores daily 14,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste around Istanbul at the municipal solid waste landfill area. The amount of leachate discharged from these wastes is 3,600 m3/day. At Kemerburgaz/Odayeri Landfill Area, infiltration water amount is 2,400 m3/day and at Şile/Kömürcüoda Landfill Area it is 1,200 m3/day. Treatment plants are composed of preclarifier, MBR (nitrification de-nitrification UF membranes), nanofiltration units and sludge dewatering units. Plants are designed to be compatible with discharge to channel at Odayeri Sanitary Landfill Area and with stream discharge standards at Kömürcüoda Sanitary Landfill Area. Leachate from landfill area is subjected to clarification process and some amount of TSS, COD, and hardness is eliminated.

Discharge Standards Parameter












Total Nitrogen


















Total- Chromium










6 - 10










Total P





The amount of leachate discharged from the two landill areas is 3,600 m3/ day.









5.5 – 8,5

5.5 – 8,5



4000 - 20000

4000 - 20000



3000 – 13000

3000 – 13000





Total Phosphor




Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)


2000 – 5000

2000 – 5000



300 – 1500

300 – 1500





Total Hardness

mg CaCO3/lt

1400 – 2500

1400 – 2500



30000 - 40000

30000 - 40000


mg CaCO3/lt

8000 – 13000

8000 – 13000

OCTOBER 2010 |


Kömürcüoda 50



Raw Infiltration Water Specifications



After clarification, the leachate is first transferred to a bioreactor Unit. In the aerobic side, the COD is converted into CO2, while sludge with oxygen and organic nitrogen is converted into NH3 with the help of oxygen. When there is sufficient oxygen, ammonium is converted into NO2 and NO3. In anaerobic unit, NO2 and NO3 is converted into NO2, CO2 and sludge via BOI.

Physical treatment After biological treatment, the leachate is transferred to the membrane system. The membrane system is composed of two phases. The first phase is the ultrafiltration (UF) that enables sludge separation at the output water. During this phase, the suspended solid material is eliminated. The concentrated part, obtained with UF, is returned to bioreactor. The output water is sent to nanofiltration unit. The UF system is composed of tube membranes located outside the bioreactor with crossflow system, which prevents blocking and allows high flow passage. The second phase is the nanofiltration unit, which eliminates a major part of the remaining COD, organic micro polluters, heavy metals and other compounds (humic acid, colour). The nanofiltration system is composed of capillary membranes that leave only low concentrate (less than 10%). The output water is discharged after nanofiltration.

Happenings > at large

‘Water scarcity impacts power generation’ The UNEP Finance Initiative launches Issue 2 of the Chief Liquidity Series at World Water Week in Stockholm

The report emphasises the role of financial institutions in identifying and minimising risk exposure due to water availability

The United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) launched Issue 2 of The Chief Liquidity Series focused on the Power Sector at an event titled ‘Seeking Liquidity: Integrating Corporate Water Performance into the Core of Financial Services and Capital Markets’, during the World Water Week in Stockholm. UNEP FI led the discussion on how water stresses impacted business performance in water-intensive sectors. The discussion was chaired by Sasja Beslik, Head of Responsible Investments and Governance at Nordea, Sweden and Co-Chair of UNEP FI Water and Finance Working Group who invited Ivo Mulder, programme manager of UNEP FI’s Water and Finance Working Group to present a briefing of the report. The speakers’ panel also included UNEP FI Member representatives, such as Dean 16

OCTOBER 2010 |

Draye from CitiGroup Investment Research. The Chief Liquidity Series inform risk analysts, portfolio managers and sustainability experts about financial risks and emerging opportunities associated with water challenges across a range of particularly exposed sectors and hydrologically diverse geographies. Following the first issue on agribusiness, UNEP FI has released the second issue on the power generation sector, which focuses specifically on thermal and hydropower and, to a lesser extent, solar energy. The report finds that increasing water scarcity due to climate change and higher demand, are posing material challenges for financial institutions in exposed sectors, such as power generation in water-scarce areas. By asking the right questions, financial institutions can play a role in carefully identifying and therefore minimising risk exposure due to water availability. UNEP FI has developed a number of performance indicators for thermal power, and a number of key issues to consider for hydropower projects. Performance indicators can be used as part of an engagement process with clients in the power sector, or as part of due diligence. The report underlines the need for the finance sector to understand where water-related problems are clashing most significantly with economic growth and financial performance. Sasja Beslik said: “The report is one of the steps needed to be taken by financial community in order to value water as one of the most important resources for our existence, as well as for our investments. The report provides many useful answers and angles crucial for any investor.” Vicky Beukes, Social and Environmental

Risk Manager at Nedbank Group and Co-Chair of UNEP FI Water and Finance Working Group elaborated, “Power generation not only poses challenges and opportunities in the reduction of all producers and corporate users’ carbon footprint, it also poses a direct risk associated water availability and water quality. Most power generating technologies require a consistent flow of non-polluted water to provide a steady supply of electricity. The threat of degradation of water quality, changing rainfall patterns, growing population and climate change will require financial institutions to consider the water and electricity requirements of all the projects they finance and associated physical and regulatory risks.” On top of highlighting the potential risks to financial institutions relating to debt-servicing abilities, creditworthiness of clients and reputational risks, the report also highlights the opportunities available to financial institutions in encouraging the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as closed-cycle, re-circulating cooling water systems or membrane technology to recycle waste water. In particular, the report emphasised the role that financial institutions can play in carefully identifying and minimising risk exposure due to water availability. This may include asking clients to ensure that they are using climate and hydrological information to assess not only present-day risk, but also take into account future risk from climate change on sensitive water resources.

Increasing water scarcity due to climate change and higher demand poses posing material challenges for financial institutions.

LG to enter water treatment business The Korean major will invest more than $400 million over the next decade in the new business

a small but significant contribution to LG Electronics (LG) announced that alleviating this global problem with its it will enter the water treatment market to commitment to finding solutions through help combat global water supply issues and innovation and technology.” to move further towards becoming a more LG will concentrate its R&D on environmentally sustainable business. LG will developing an advanced membrane invest more than $400 million over the next filtration system, its core technology decade with the goal of generating $7 billion and key component of water treatment in revenue by 2020 and becoming a top 10 solutions. LG will also expand its internal global water treatment company. capabilities with the additional hiring of Much of the investment will go toward membrane filtration experts and process acquiring the right technology and building engineers. The company will also be up research and development in this field. pursuing various types of partnerships, “Water affects every aspect of our lives, mergers and acquisitions as part of its yet almost one billion people around the strategy to expand quickly. world don`t have clean drinking water and LG will begin with industrial water more than 2.5 billion still lack the most basic treatment and expand its coverage into sanitation,” said Young-ha Lee, President and sewage and drinking water treatment. The CEO of the LG Electronics Home Appliance 2010 SWS“LG H2O ad.qxp 4/22/2010 PM Page 1 eventually plans to enter the Company. hopes to be able to make 4:10company

Young-ha Lee

business of water treatment engineering and procurement as well as operation and maintenance across the municipal sector. “The global water crisis isn’t going to go away by itself – governments, citizens and corporations will all have to work closely together,” said Lee. “The water business has been growing by an annual rate of 15% so there’s an incentive for companies to invest in finding solutions, but beyond the business, I think this is one problem where LG’s experience and commitment to finding sustainable solutions will be a huge advantage.”

Full-Spectrum Water Solutions

• Groundwater exploration and development • Water use and supply auditing (balancing and conservation) • Water quality evaluation and management • Local, basin, and regional flow investigation and modeling • Aquifer recharge, storage, and recovery modeling and design • Advanced geophysical logging and interpretation ©Schlumberger

Happenings > AT LARGE

Rapid urbanisation hits water access The urban half’s access to drinking water deteriorates when rapid urbanisation outpaces public services, finds Aquafed While huge efforts are being made by governments all around the world to develop access to drinking water, to toilets, to wastewater management and storm-water protection, such public policies are being outpaced by the rapid urbanisation. Between 2000 and 2008, the world population increased by 635 million people. Of these, 511 million (80%) live in urban areas and 124 million (20%) in rural areas. All the UN statistics show that there is a great disparity in the results of the current water and sanitation policies between rural and urban areas. In the rural half of the world - where the needs are currently numerically the highest - it has been possible to improve access to water and sanitation in the past decade.

Globally, 134 million people in urban areas don’t have access to basic sanitation or private sanitary toilets.

From 2000 to 2008, there has been an increase of 114 million more people without access to tap water at home or in the immediate vicinity


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There, practical improvements exceed the demographic growth for all the indicators available. On the contrary, in the urban half of the world, despite having provided access to water or sanitation services to hundreds of millions of additional people, the current policies have been unable to prevent the situation worsening. Comparing the latest figures (2008) with 2000, the initial year of the Millennium Development Goals programme, a clear deterioration is observed. The proportion of the urban population that benefits from satisfactory access to drinking water or sanitation is decreasing. Over these eight years, in cities and towns of all sizes, there has been an increase of: n 114 million more people without access to tap water at home or in the immediate vicinity n 134 million more people without access to private sanitary toilets (basic sanitation). In both cases, this means an increase of 20% in the number of individuals living in cities who lack these accesses. In the meantime, in urban areas, the number of people without access to ‘improved water sources,’ that is, more or less the sources that are protected from direct contaminations and the number of people without any other option than open defecation has not decreased. So, in cities, despite all the efforts, on average the world is not making progress in these domains that are essential to life and to social and economic development. The world is in regression. Gerard Payen, President of Aquafed, said: “In cities, there are today more people suffering from a poor and unsatisfactory access to safe water and sanitation than at the end of the 20th century. A surge in the efforts is urgent to reverse this trend. This requires new determination in public policies and practical approaches from operators and system installers of all kinds.” Aquafed is an international federation of private water operators. Delays in action will make progress more and more costly. Obviously, current efforts in rural areas should continue while efforts in urban and peri-urban areas should be stepped up to prevent worsening the situation further. Water operators, public and private are willing to contribute to the more ambitious urban policies that are necessary.


Tel: +971 4 3756830 • Fax: +971 4 4341906

Happenings > AT LARGE

Water Footprint Report launched The Coca-Cola Company and The Nature Conservancy partner to advance water footprint methodology The Coca-Cola Company and The Nature Conservancy released a water footprint report in conjunction with World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden. The report, entitled ‘Product Water Footprint Assessments: Practical Application in Corporate Water Stewardship,’ examines three pilot studies that were conducted on Coca-Cola products and ingredients. A product water footprint is the total volume of freshwater consumed, directly and indirectly, to produce a product. A full water footprint assessment considers the impacts of this water consumption on local watersheds, as well as appropriate response strategies to minimise those impacts. Water footprint assessments can be helpful in supporting corporate water stewardship efforts by providing a tool to measure and understand water use throughout the supply chain. They provide valuable insight into the largest components and locations of water consumption, the potential effects on local watersheds, and future water availability to serve the collective needs of communities, nature, producers, suppliers and companies. Through their research and analysis, the Company and the Conservancy have gained important knowledge about the water footprint process and how the findings can inform and improve the Company’s water stewardship strategies.

Field versus factory Research found that the value of a product water footprint is its ability to disaggregate water use by component, allowing both direct and indirect water use to be examined, as well as the different types of water that are used. The types of water are green water, which is rainwater stored in the soil as moisture; blue water, which is surface and ground water; and grey water, which is the volume of freshwater required to assimilate pollutants based on existing 20

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Water footprinting is helping The CocaCola Company refine its approach to global water stewardship

ambient water quality standards. Keeping the components of a water footprint separate allows impacts to be assessed in the context of local watersheds where the water is being sourced. The Company and the Conservancy found that the largest portion of the product water footprints assessed in the pilot studies comes from the field, not the factory. “We see significant opportunity to engage more directly with our agricultural suppliers to advance sustainable water use for the cultivation of ingredients in our supply chain,” said Denise Knight, Water and Sustainable Agriculture Director, The Coca-Cola Company. “Our initial efforts will focus on the sustainable sourcing of sugarcane, oranges and corn.” Although the operational water footprint was found to be a very small percentage of the total water footprint, both organisations say it remains important for businesses to manage their direct impacts on local water resources, particularly with regard to wastewater treatment. To analyse the impacts of water use, the report indicates the volume of water consumption must be placed in the context of a local watershed, where the cumulative effect of all uses of the shared water resource can be considered. To this end, the report

stresses the importance of conducting an impacts assessment that examines the Company’s water use and its relationship to the communities where it operates.

Calculations In partnership with third-party researchers, the Company and the Conservancy calculated the water footprints of Coca-Cola in a 0.5 litre PET bottle produced by Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) in the Netherlands; beet sugar supplied to Coca-Cola bottling plants in Europe; and Minute Maid orange juice and Simply Orange produced for the North American market. Estimates are that the green water footprint of the 0.5 litre Coca-Cola beverage is 15 litres; the blue water footprint is one litre; and the grey water footprint is 12 litres. The average green water footprint for sugar from sugar beets across all regions of Europe is estimated to be 375 litres/kg sugar; the average blue water footprint is 54 litres/kg sugar; and the average grey water footprint is 128 litres/ kg sugar. The size and colour composition of the water footprint varies depending on the region from which the beets are sourced. For Simply Orange sourced from Florida, the green water footprint is 386 litres per litre of product; the blue water footprint is 154 litres per litre of product; and the grey water footprint is 100 litres per litre of product. For Simply Orange sourced from both Florida and Brazil, the green water footprint is 407 litres per litre of product; the blue water footprint is 127 litres per litre of product; and the grey water footprint is 117 litres per litre of product. For Minute Maid sourced in Florida and Costa Rica, the green water footprint is 319 litres per litre of product; the blue water footprint is 115 litres per litre of product; and the grey water footprint is 84 litres per litre of product. “More important than the numbers associated with a water footprint are the impacts of water use,” said Brian Richter, Freshwater Program Co-Director, The Nature Conservancy. “When properly managed, even large volumes of water use can be sustainable in locations where the resource is sufficient to support the use and sustain ecological health. The number associated with a water footprint is not the end game, but rather a starting point to addressing the sustainability of the water source.” To download the report, WaterFootprintAssessments.pdf.

market marketplace ITT/Goulds Pumps

New line of vertical multi-stage pumps ITT has expanded its Goulds Pumps line of stainless steel, vertical multistage pumps, with the introduction of new e-SV models. According to the company, the models feature a new hydraulic design and an efficient motor that lowers lifecycle costs and increases energy savings. ITT also claimed that the e-SV models have superior NPSHR levels due the new hydraulic design, reduced maintenance time due to elimination of the need to remove the motor, facilitates mechanical seal replacement sans pump disassembly, while the ‘O’ ring seat allows easy disassembly of the outer sleeve. Further, the all-stainless steel construction and NSF certification provide corrosion resistance. “Environmental and economic conditions are driving the need and demand for more energy-saving, high-performance pumps,” said Chris Jamieson, VP, Global Marketing, ITT Residential & Commercial Water. “We designed the new e-SV line to be the most energy-efficient pump in its class, as well as easy to install and economical to maintain, enabling lower operational and lifecycle costs.”


OCTOBER 2010 |

ITT has attributed the following key features to its new e-SV pump: n High pump efficiency enables energy savings with lower horsepower motors, claims the company. And when combined with ITT’s HydroVar controller, the e-SV pump offers an additional 10% savings potential from the previous generation pump n Lower NPSHR reduces piping and elevation expenses by over 20% n MTBF of 20,000 hours n Expanded pump portfolio allows pump selection aligned with optimum duty point for greater cost-efficiency n Impeller axial thrust is minimised, resulting in longer bearing life

"We designed the new e-SV line to be the most energy efficient pump in its class, as well as easy to install and economical to maintain, enabling lower operational and lifecycle costs." and use of standard motor configurations n Patented i-ALERT monitor (Available on pumps 10HP and above) continually measures vibration to support optimum performance “The introduction of the e-SV line reinforces ITT’s commitment to developing green, sustainable products,” said Ken Napolitano, President, ITT Residential & Commercial Water. “We take our global water leadership position very seriously and are focused on helping our customers deliver the energyefficient, eco-friendly products and systems that people want and need.” The e-SV pump can be used for the following applications: n Water supply and pressure boosting n Water treatment n Light industry n Irrigation and farming n Heating, ventilation and airconditioning


Groundwater monitoring system upgrade


LBF Series Lined Butterfly Valves Sure Seal, a division of OPW Fluid Transfer Group, recently announced that the tapered-seat design of its LBF Series Lined Butterfly Valves has been granted US Patent No. 7,758,017. The company claimed that the tapered-seat design enables lower torque, improved seat integrity and better service life. The LBF Series Lined Butterfly Valves are available in 12 different sizes, from two inches to 24 inches. They have been designed and engineered for applications in corrosive, sanitary and ultra-pure processes, especially the handling of products native to the chlorine gas, chlor alkali, petrochemical, textile, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, mining, pulp and paper, wastewater, and agriculture industries. The design of the LBF valves features spherically moulded and machined, wide-liner sealing surfaces anchored within the faces of the valve body by a series of concentric serrations, which Sure Seal claimed, results in the reduction of radial cold flow. According to the company,

the body construction of the valve conforms to ANSI 125/150 or PN10/16 counter flanges, eliminating deflection problems and resulting in improved flangesealing properties. Additionally, a 360-degree, non-wetted radially loaded elastometric energiser is used to provide uniform pressure to the outer circumference of the liner and disc, which ensures bubble-tight shutoff. The disc swing is compatible with PTFE and other fluoropolymer-lined piping systems, as well as other metallic, lined and non-metallic piping systems. Sure Seal offers Dupont NXT molecularly enhanced Teflon as a standard liner, with options for PFA, UHMWPE, ETFE (Tefzel) and PVDF liners. Disc materials are offered in PFA, UHMWPE, PVDF, 316 stainless steel, Hastelloy C, and Titanium. In addition, FDA-grade materials are available with the LBF (flanged) product line. Valves are offered in both ANSI and DIN configurations.

Schlumberger Water Services (SWS) has announced the release of Diver-DCX (Direct Communication eXchanger), a new component in the Diver-Suite of groundwater monitoring systems, which according to the company announcement, expands the communication format of Diver dataloggers to SDI-12 compatible telemetry systems. SWS further claimed that Diver-DCX provides users with the ability to integrate Diver dataloggers into telemetry systems for effective, real-time monitoring of municipal water supplies, industrial and contaminated sites and water levels and quality at mine sites. “Historically our customers have been limited to retrieving datalogger data at the well site using cables or within close vicinity, using shortrange wireless systems,” said Martin Draeger, marketing manager, SWS. “With the release of DiverDCX, groundwater data can now be transmitted globally through our SDI12 compatible telemetry system, giving groundwater suppliers instant access to detailed groundwater data with the click of a button. The result is significant cost and time savings over manual data collection.” Diver-DCX features a built-in pressure sensor for automatically compensating water levels to the effects of atmospheric pressure, reducing the need for manual post-processing. The robust compact housing is water-resistant and is powered by an external source (no internal battery is required). This allows for flexible installation inside the well casing, translating to longterm, reliable operations. Diver-DCX is CE Certified and is compliant with the SDI-12 standard for environmental data acquisition.


A fundamental review There are only two months to go before the UN Climate Change Conference in Cancún, Mexico, where the world will try, once again, to negotiate a new global deal on carbon emission reduction to replace the Kyoto Protocol set to expire in 2012. In this interview, first published in research eu, the European Union’s research magazine, Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, Vice-Chair of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) shares his thoughts on the current status of scientific knowledge on global warming. Ypersele is a physicist, climatologist and professor at the Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics at the Catholic University of Louvain (BE). There now seems to be a consensus that the world is warming, but is it certain that human activities are responsible? The level of confidence in attributing this phenomenon to human activity is very high and increasing by the year. In 1995, the IPCC wrote that “a range of elements suggests that there is a perceptible influence of human activities on climate.” In 2007, the conclusion was that the greater part of the global warming of the past 50 years is “very probably due” to greenhouse gases of human origin, which translates to a probability of above 90%. This assurance is based on many arguments. There are certainly the climate models, which have improved greatly, but also the particular form this global warming is taking: a cooling of the upper atmosphere, as greenhouse gases trap part of the heat of the lower atmosphere that is heating up quickly. If the warming were due to increased solar activity, it would be uniform or even more pronounced in the upper atmosphere. Similarly, we are seeing that the poles are heating up more quickly than the tropics and that is, again, in line with greenhouse gases being the cause. What are the principal effects to be feared? The latest IPCC report devotes hundreds of pages to synthesising impacts that range from falling agricultural yields to various health problems. I should like to stress the importance of hydrological changes: the models predict a significant drought problem in a number of densely populated 24

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regions, including the Mediterranean Basin where we are already seeing significant water access problems. Another aspect is the melting of the glaciers in the Andes and the Himalayas that act as a reservoir for hundreds of millions of people for whom, there is only rain during a few weeks or months of the year. The rest of the year it is the glaciers that feed the rivers and their programmed disappearance is, therefore, very worrying. Then, there are the rising sea levels. All the European coastlines could be affected by this, especially low-lying coasts as in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. We will see an increased rate of erosion, saltwater invading the groundwater and increased storm damage. In the Nile Delta, there are 10 million people living less than a metre above sea level. The sea level will almost certainly rise by at least 50 centimetres, and perhaps a metre. Where will they go? What about a 2°C temperature rise as the ‘danger threshold’? The IPCC has never said that the temperature rise should not exceed 2°C or that atmospheric CO2 concentrations should be kept at under 450 parts per million (PPM). Our job, and the nuance is important, is to say that, for a given emission scenario, we expect a certain level of global warming and a given impact as a result. It is for the public authorities to define what impacts are acceptable as that supposes value judgments; it is the not the job of scientists. Historically, the figure of 2°C emerged in 1996 at a meeting

of the EU Council of Ministers. It was then, in a sense, validated by the IPCC’s 2001 report which published the famous ‘burning embers’ diagram that synthesised the gravity of impacts for different temperatures. Its colour code ranged from white to red at around 2°C for the majority of the impacts. This too helped fix this figure in the minds of the people, though it was based on data more than a decade old. Are you saying that the latest scientific data calls into question this threshold? We looked again, in detail, at these impacts, at the request of politicians. The authors of the 2007 report, practically the same individuals as in 2001, concluded that the impact thresholds needed to be revised downward by around 0.5°C. Their new graph was not published in the report but subsequently, in 2009, in the US scientific journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). I have explained how it is not for me, as IPCC Vice-Chair, to define this danger threshold. On the other hand, what I can say is that if the ministers, who met 13 years ago to set the threshold of 2°C and 450 PPM, were to meet again today to consider the same criteria as before, they would very probably set the danger threshold at 1.5°C and 350 PPM. What would be the consequences of such a change in the ‘danger threshold’? For the moment, the IPCC is not answering this question as the most ‘virtuous’ scenario it has evaluated, in terms of emissions, generates a

translated this as “a 50 % reduction in global emissions” but without giving a reference year, which suggests that we are referring to present emissions. However, in its report, the IPCC said that global emissions should be cut by 50% to 85% compared with the 1990 levels. Since then emissions have increased by around 40%! To sum up, independently of any consideration of our ability to achieve these targets, the targets currently envisaged at international level fall short of what would be needed to protect populations and ecosystems.

temperature rise of between 2°C and 2.4°C. So we are forced to extrapolate to have an idea of the emissions that would enable us to remain below 1.5°C! I believe this shortcoming will be corrected in the next report – but clearly it will mean rendering all the reduction targets even more constraining. Have politicians listened more attentively to the IPCC since its last report? There has been a major positive change – and this does not contradict what I have just said – as the 2°C target was adopted at the G8 and then at the G20. This is very important, despite the reservations I have expressed regarding this value. Until then, there hadn’t been any figure adopted internationally, and that is the worst possible situation! The United Nations Framework Agreement on Climate Change (UNFCC), adopted in 1992 just before the Rio summit, simply stated that greenhouse gas concentrations must be stabilised “at a level that prevents any dangerous anthropic disturbance in the climate system.” So, for 17 years, we were without any internationally recognised quantified objective. The adoption of a figure constitutes enormous progress as a whole series of figures stem from that one, principally the emission reduction targets. So the IPCC’s work is slowly being translated into political decisions Except for the fact that the readings of our estimations are often… selective.

Jean-Pascal van Yperselem

We said that for a temperature rise of between 2°C and 4°C, and not, please note, below 2°C! and given the scientific uncertainties, global emissions should reach their peak “between 2000 and 2015”. For some, this has already been reduced to “in 2015” and I condemn the fact that for the European Council, this had been transformed inexplicably into “before 2020”. This is perhaps because the European ‘climate package’ was drawn up with 2020 as the horizon, but the physics of climate change has nothing to do with a political agenda. Let me give you another example. The G8, when it adopted the 2°C target,

What remains to be done in reducing emissions? We have done a lot but it remains terribly little compared with the immensity of the problem. Take the Kyoto Protocol: the aim was to reduce emissions by five per cent in 22 years for the developed countries (between 1990 and 2012) and this target will probably only just be met at best. But what we now need to do, in these same countries, is to reduce emissions by between 80% and 95% in 40 years, which would permit a reduction of between 50% and 85% for the planet as a whole. And by the end of the century emissions, should be zero. This supposes a fundamental review of the way we consume, of the way we produce – not just energy but all goods, of the way we travel, and of the way we live and work. A genuine revolution!

In 1995, the IPCC wrote that "A range of elements suggests that there is a perceptible influence of human activities on climate." In 2007, the conclusion was that the greater part of the global warming of the past 50 years is "very probably due" to greenhouse gases of human origin, which translates to a probability of above 90%. | OCTOBER 2010




Promising future Demand surge in water and wastewater infrastructure creates growth opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa. By Nideshna Naidu Globally, fresh water is fast becoming a scarce natural resource. Efficient water management, investment in technology to produce cost-efficient water, agricultural crops that use less water, are all discussed by governments, NGOs, and social and environmental groups across the globe to surmount the water crisis. The Middle East and North African (MENA) countries are no different from their global counterparts. MENA is the most water scarce region in the world. The average amount of renewable water resources in MENA is 1,383 cubic metres per person per year in 2006, whereas the global average is 8,462 cubic metres per person per year. Water crisis is not only because of water scarcity, but also due to the change in rainfall patterns because of climate change, no replenishment of underground water due to poor rainfall, industrial and urban pollution and changing demand patterns. Growth in water consumption due to economic diversification, increase in population, and urbanisation have added to the water crisis. MENA is home to 6.3% of the world’s population, but has only 1.4% of the world’s renewable fresh water. This explains the highest withdrawal rate of water resources. In order to cope with the water demand, wastewater reclamation and desalination have been adopted since 1960s in MENA. Sophisticated irrigation and drainage systems and cutting-edge desalination technologies have helped MENA to manage the water demand. But, ongoing economic activities and increasing population would continue to create stress on water supply throughout the region. This opens up massive opportunities in water and wastewater infrastructure segments such as the water and wastewater treatment, recycle and reuse, water distribution networks, and wastewater collection and disposal networks. 26

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Middle East and North Africa South Asia Western Europe East Asia and Pacific (Including Japan and Korea)

North America Europe and Central Asia Australia and New Zealand Sub-Saharan Africa Latin America and the Caribbean 0




40 50 Percent




Source: World Bank Data Published in 2007

Figure 1: Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn by Region

Government initiatives Fresh water supply to MENA accords top priority today and every government in the region is working on strategies to deal with the crisis. Two factors are important to deal with water problems – first, there should be government policies to establish water infrastructure; and second, government agencies should implement projects and efficiently run and maintain the plants. Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA), Dubai Water & Electricity Authority (DWEA), Sharjah Electricity & Water Authority (SEWA), Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Water & Electricity, Egypt’s Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, and Egyptian Water Regulatory Agency (EWRA) are few of the authorities in MENA developing water and wastewater infrastructure in the region. ADWEA has initiated privatisation programmes to develop Integrated Water & Power Programmes (IWPP). Around five IWPP projects have been introduced with partnership between ADWEA and international companies. The Egyptian government is also entertaining private participation in

executing water and wastewater projects. The 1.2 million m3/day Abu Rawash plant and the New Cairo wastewater treatment plants are to be executed on BuildOperate-Transfer (BOT) model. Egypt has recently approved a law related to the procurement of projects under Public Private Partnerships (PPP) models.

Speed breakers for growth Economic diversification, population explosion, and urbanisation have put

Electro Mechanical Equipment Suppliers

Design and Planning Services EPC Contracting

Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Advisory Services

Financial Services Water and Wasterwater Technology Providers Source: Frost and Sullivan

Figure 2: Beneficiaries of the Unprecedented Growth

Government initiatives create opportunities A massive growth opportunity exists in MENA region for water and wastewater infrastructure developers. Wastewater treatment and desalination plants are seeing a big boom in MENA because of a six per cent average annual increase in the demand for water. All the governments are planning to invest heavily in the water sector to overcome present and future water shortages. As fresh water availability is predicted to decline in the coming years, more and more emphasis is on wastewater treatment, its recycle, and reuse. The region has lot of potential, as recycled water is widely used in landscaping and district cooling.

Countries with highest total potential

Level of Private Participation

pressure on the governments to set up water infrastructure to sustain growth. Developing the necessary infrastructure in a water scarce region means that there are many obstacles to be cleared. The World Bank has predicted that there would be a dramatic decline in water availability in MENA region. These issues call for very efficient water management policies and practices. Unfortunately, MENA is inefficient in water management and this costs each economy approximately 1–3% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Associated environmental problems cost between 0.5-2.5% of GDP every year. The major challenges in developing water infrastructure in the region include funding of projects, high costs of providing infrastructure services, lack of skilled labour, and inflationary pressures. MENA governments have opened up to private participation in projects to inject the much-needed funds for implementing projects. Water management can be made efficient by improving wastewater network and its efficiency, increasing wastewater recycle and reuse, improving service quality, and reducing water network losses. For example, in Saudi Arabia, water leakage in pipeline networks costs SR3,075 million annually according to a study by Centre for Clean Water and Clean Energy. To overcome pipeline leakage issues, the study has proposed various recommendations such as the conceptual designs for water leakage and water contamination detection systems, and methods of monitoring water distribution systems.

1 Saudi Arabia

1 2 5


2 UAE 3 Qatar

3 6






4 Oman 5 Egypt



6 Kuwait 7 Bahrain 8 Yemen


9 Syria Low



10 Jordan 11 Lebanon

Demand for New Water/Wastewater Facilities Figure 3: Country Attractiveness

Saudi Arabia has announced a massive figure of $53 billion to be invested in variety of water projects over the next 15 years. Around 70% of this investment is on sewage and wastewater treatment plants, as the region itself depends a lot on desalinated water, which is very expensive. Though expensive, desalination projects continue to be the major water source in the region. United Arab Emirates (UAE) is anticipated to increase its desalination capacity by around 76% to 14.1 million m3/day by 2016. UAE is expected to invest $15 billion in building water infrastructure between 2009 and 2013, whereas Oman is expected to spend $8.5 billion during the same period on desalination projects. A number of foreign governments are anticipated to invest in improving and developing North Africa’s wastewater infrastructure. The funds are to be utilised in creating new wastewater plants and upgrading existing plants and distribution networks. Funding has become a major hurdle in the growth of infrastructure projects. Governments are encouraging private sector participation to overcome the funding issues. PPP through Build-OwnOperate (BOO), Build-Own-OperateTransfer (BOOT), and BOT models are also gaining prominence. Another notable trend in the region is water and wastewater infrastructure

Source: Frost and Sullivan

service providers partnering with domestic investment companies to execute projects. For instance, Veolia partnered with Mubadala in Abu Dhabi and Suez tied up with Al Qudra Group in Abu Dhabi. Foreign companies are also approached to fund various projects in MENA and one such project is IBM and Saudi Arabia’s King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology’s (KACST) attempt to use solar energy to power a desalination plant in Al Khafji.

Road ahead Moving forward, the MENA region would witness tremendous development in wastewater collection and disposal networks and in enhancing wastewater treatment capacities as desalinated water would be very expensive. MENA is expected to see a rise in projects based on BOO, BOOT, and BOT models to overcome financial constraints. Promising years are ahead for the domestic and international water and wastewater infrastructure developers in MENA and particularly in Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Egypt.

The author is Senior Research Analyst, Environment & Building Technologies Practice, South Asia, Middle East & North Africa, Frost & Sullivan | OCTOBER 2010



Strategic reserve Abu Dhabi’s plan to create an emergency water reserve has entered its final implementation phase By Anoop K Menon Three — that’s the number of days that Abu Dhabi’s water reserves will last, if the emirate’s desalination plants, its primary source of potable water, ceased producing water due to some emergency. If we were to consider just the population, which, at present, is a little over one million, but projected to increase three times by 2030, three days of reserves would seem to be way too little. And an emergency could be anything, from a war or a major oil spill in the Arabian Gulf to natural disasters like cyclones. Abu Dhabi’s existing water storage capacity (comprising mainly of surface tanks, reservoirs attached to existing desalination plants and water distribution networks) can hold only two million cubic metres of water, which as Peter Menche, Director of Projects of GTZ-IS, a German government-owned technical co-operation organisation, noted, can barely last three days at current consumption rates. The near-total reliance on desalination for drinking water (Abu Dhabi’s total desalination capacity is 630 MIGD, while water production stands at 0.8 million m³/day) raises questions over water security, the vulnerability of desalination plants to pollution, environmental and natural disasters, disruption caused by maintenance works or even war, and therefore, guaranteed availability of drinking water to tide over such emergencies. Among the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) countries, if we measured emergency water reserves in terms of days, Kuwait’s is the highest, at five days, while for Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and UAE, it is, more or less, two to three days. In such a context, a strategic water reserve can play a critical role in protecting a country from threats to its water supply. It can also, 28

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among other things, be useful in managing ‘peak water’ demand and replenish overexploited ground water resources. The population of Greater Abu Dhabi City is expected to touch 3.1 million by 2030, three times the existing number, which will increase the pressure on the emirate’s potable water resources. As per official estimates, per capita water use in the emirate stands at 650 litres/day, not taking into account network losses, estimated to be in the range of 25-30%. The fact that Abu Dhabi’s emergency water reserve of a mere three days would be totally inadequate in a worst-case scenario served as a major impetus to the strategic water reserve project.

The proposal GTZ, in partnership with Dornier Consulting, a private-sector consulting, engineering and project management services company from Germany, proposed a strategic water-storage project based on Artificial Storage and Recovery (ASR) to the higher authorities of Abu Dhabi for the first time in 1998. Menche pointed out that the proposal owed its origins to a Groundwater Assessment Project (GWAP), covering the entire Abu Dhabi emirate, contracted to the GTZ-Dornier consortium by ADNOC and the Abu Dhabi government in 1995. “After its completion in 2006, we had fullfledged knowledge of everything related to groundwater resources in Abu Dhabi,” explained Menche. “This project, thus, formed the basis for the ASR proposal, submitted to the higher authorities.” The biggest advantage of ASR is minimal land requirements, as existing ground water layers are recharged with desalinated seawater. This reduces storage costs and minimises environmental

impact compared to alternatives, like building massive surface-storage facilities, based on massive concrete or metal storage tanks. “In case of an emergency,” Menche said, “the stored water in the aquifer can be pumped out, with a basic sub-surface storage facility to enable the process. However, if only surface-storage infrastructure was relied on to build the water reserve, the investment cost would be huge, in the region of $4 billion if not more.” He cited the example of six massive water storage tanks in the Mussaffah area of Abu Dhabi, with a capacity of 45,000 m3 each. To store the quantity of recharged water that the ASR project envisaged, at least 600 such tanks of similar capacity would be required. The construction costs apart, one has to consider O&M costs and manpower costs, all of which would take up the total cost by several notches. According to an Environment Agency Abu Dhabi (EAD) communiqué, issued in 2009, by choosing the ASR route, the cost of storage was reduced significantly. The use of land for surface-storage facilities was reduced from 250 hectares to 15 hectares, the cost of infrastructure needed to store one gallon of water was reduced from Dh 3.5 to Dh0.8, and the cost of operation and maintenance of storage per gallon decreased from Dh1.5 to Dh0.25. Moreover, storing water in storage tanks or ground reservoirs for long periods is also fraught with risks from the water becoming stagnant. The water would need to be recycled within the network, or disinfected and refreshed. On the other hand, ASR systems enable multi-year storage and recovery of water in good quality and quantity. Another alternative considered was the GCC Water Grid, which relies on a network of three large desalination plants,

In case of emergency, the stored water in the aquifer can be pumped out, with a basic sub-surface storage facility to enable the process. However, if only surface-storage infrastructure was relied on to build the water reserve, the investment cost would in the region of $4 billion. | OCTOBER 2010



but would cost a whopping $5.3 billion, if not more. Also, the desalination plant network that underpins this grid would be exposed to the same environmental and operational risks, the kind of risks that a strategic water reserve would need to be avoid or insulated against; and one cannot dismiss the huge amounts of energy expended to desalinate the seawater.

Successful pilot The proposal submitted by the GTZDornier consortium recommended a feasibility study, followed by a pilot. After getting the go-ahead, the consortium carried out the feasibility study during 2001-02, in terms of hydro-geological assessment, water demand analysis, selection of the project site and the planning of the pilot. Following a successful feasibility study, a pilot project was implemented in the western region of Abu Dhabi from 2002 to 2004. In his paper, Strategic Water Reserve: New Approach for Old Concept in GCC Countries, Dr Mohamed Dawoud of EAD writes that a shallow-to-medium-deep aquifer, north of the Liwa Crescent, was selected for the pilot on the basis of the following attributes: (1) Existence of a large natural fresh groundwater lens (salinity less than 1,500 ppm, partly meeting the TDS-limit of the World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water standard (1,000 ppm) (2) Sufficient lateral extension and aquifer thickness (3) Sufficient depth of groundwater table (4) Relatively homogenous lithology (5) Far from already existing well fields (6) Favourable hydro-chemical conditions. “The pilot project lasted two years; the first year for planning and constructing the facilities and the second year for testing,” Menche said. Among other things, the consortium successfully tested storage and recovery techniques and evaluated recovery efficiency and reservoir response. Two basic recharge/recovery schemes were tested — the Well Gallery Scheme (dual purpose wells where water is injected through wells into the sub-surface and, later on, pumped out from the same wells) and the Infiltration Basin Scheme (comprising infiltration basin constructed in the sand and recovery wells. The desalinated water was percolated through 30

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infiltration basins into the sub-surface and, finally, into the ground water layer, relying on gravity instead of pumps). In the case of an emergency, extraction is done through normal water wells. “The pilot project lasted two years; the first year for planning and constructing the facilities and the second year for testing,” Menche said. Among other things, the consortium successfully tested storage and recovery techniques and evaluated recovery efficiency and reservoir response. Two basic recharge/recovery schemes were tested - the Well Gallery Scheme (dual purpose wells where water is injected through wells into the sub-surface and, later on, pumped out from the same wells) and the Infiltration Basin Scheme (comprising infiltration basin constructed in the sand and recovery wells. The desalinated water was percolated through infiltration basins into the sub-surface and, finally, into the ground water layer, relying on gravity instead of pumps). In the case of an emergency, extraction is done through normal water wells. The pilot demonstrated that recharging an existing freshwater aquifer with desalinated water and efficient recovery of the same was feasible on a large scale. Based on the results of the pilot project, it was decided that the Infiltration Basin scheme best served Abu Dhabi’s requirements. “We found the Well Gallery Scheme to be very complicated, needing tremendous amount of maintenance, spare parts and repair, as well as a highly educated and trained staff, which is a tough proposition even worldwide,” Menche explained. With Infiltration Basins, the energy and maintenance requirements were less, as gravity does the bulk of the work; pumps are needed only for taking out the water during an emergency. Because the extraction is done through normal wells, there is no need to invest in dual-purpose wells. “We found Infiltration Basins to be more reliable as a long-term proposition and therefore, sustainable,” Menche said.

In the implementation phase After extensive discussions, a tender for large-scale artificial recharge was put into the market during 2007-2008. Last month, a joint venture (JV) between Arabian Construction Company (ACC) and POSCO Engineering & Construction

Company (POSCO E&C) was awarded the Dh1.6 billion contract for the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) of a Strategic Water Storage and Recovery System in Liwa. Under the system, designed by the GTZDornier partnership, an existing ground water layer will be recharged with seven MIGD (over 31,000m³/day) of desalinated seawater through three infiltration basins, over a period of 27 months, resulting in surplus water of 5,753 MIG (26.15 million m3). The recovery rate, in an emergency scenario, would be 40 MIGD or 181,000 m³/ day for a period of 90 days, with the total volume recovered being 3,600 MIG or 16.4 million m3, translating into an availability of 182 litres per capita per day. The desalinated water will be transferred from the Al Mirfa desalination plant situated on the Abu Dhabi coast, transported through a 1,200-diameter pipeline to an existing pumping station in Madinat Zayed, and further pumped down to a location south of Madinat Zayed, from where it will be pumped into the infiltration basin. The total length of all the pipelines constructed for the project will be 161 kilometres. Apart from the pipelines, other key components of the project include: n Three recharge/recovery schemes, consisting of: n Three recharge basins n 326 recovery wells n 117 groundwater monitoring wells for tracking ground water levels, temperature, quality. n Pumping stations and treatment facilities n Independent process control and instrumentation system Menche elaborated: “To monitor the hydro-chemistry, all three schemes are surrounded by a ground water monitoring system. We have proposed that the area be demarcated as ground water protection zone. This aspect forms an important part of the initial evaluation process. Are there any industrial or oil & gas activities near the site? Is there scope for agricultural or human interference? This location is pure desert and, hence, very ideal.” The system will also enable close monitoring of the incoming water and the mixing process, so that operators have a complete picture of what is happening with regard to water quality in the sub-soil.

Menche noted that a certain amount of mixing between native water and injected water is expected. He explained: “Water lens or water barrier is not static; it is moving. The water in the aquifer is very salty at the bottom, getting sweeter as you move up. And on the top lies a small lens of drinking water quality. We are essentially topping up the lens.” Following the award of the contract, the construction and implementation phase is expected to last 30 months, which will be followed by a two-year, operation-and-maintenance phase. “We did the entire planning and design for the project and will supervise all the work till the project is handed over to the client,” Menche said. “It is important to ensure high-quality performance from the contractor, as the three re-charge/ recovery schemes constitute the heart of the project.”

Project moments The feasibility and pilot project stages had their moments. For example, in

the course of carrying out GWAP and the ASR pilot, the consortium drilled nearly 10,000 shallow-to-very-deep ground water exploration wells all over the emirate. “The shallowest well was 20 metres deep while the deepest one measured 1000 metres,” Menche said. Extensive ground water modelling was another highlight. “We also developed, in what may be a first for this region, a suitability- evaluation catalogue for selecting an area for ASR projects, factoring in natural resources as well as human, agricultural industrial aspects,” Menche added. Answering a question of whether the project will go into hibernation once the 27-month re-charge phase is completed, Menche said: “We have proposed to the client that parts of the water could be used for meeting the water needs of the Liwa Crescent area. In such a scenario, the recharging process can be extended beyond 27 months. Internally, we regard this project only as Stage 1 because there is tremendous scope for increasing

the aquifer storage capacity through additions.” Menche pointed out that similar ASR projects have been implemented in other parts of the world on a smaller scale, most notably in Amsterdam, where a coastal aquifer is being recharged, in this case with recycled wastewater. He continued, “We studied experiences from all over the world and tried to optimise them for Abu Dhabi’s environment. The ASR project in Liwa can be replicated in the eastern region, where a pilot had already been implemented. Also, the Liwa project is being closely observed by neighbouring countries, especially Saudi Arabia and Qatar.” Menche also sees tremendous scope for recharge projects using recycled wastewater in the region. “You can use the ASR method to create sub-surface storage facilities for supply of recycled wastewater to agriculture,” he said. “There is tremendous scope for smaller, isolated recharge projects using recycled wastewater in the MENA region.” | OCTOBER 2010




The performance carrier Biological wastewater treatment plants using conventional carriers or activated sludge systems can significantly increase their efficiency and performance by tweaking their carrier retention system. By Stefan Christof Bidinger, Bernd Dzedzig, Dr-Ing Markus Geiger & Bernd Rauch Multi Umwelttechnologie has over 15 years experience with culture media for immobilising micro-organisms during the treatment of sewage water. During this time, we have used almost every known carrier in many different large plants, types of sewage water and areas of application. The knowledge gained, along with the comprehensive data material, enables us to make a well-founded assessment of specific performance data of different carriers. We were never linked to a particular supplier. Therefore, on the basis of the operational experience gained, we were able to undertake targeted optimisation, either of the carrier itself or the process conditions. The emphasis was on minimising operational problems arising from the weaknesses of ‘conventional’ culture media. The thorough implementation of our requirements for an optimum carrier led to the Mutag BioChip, which we feel is the best available carrier available today for purifying types of sewage water, especially those that are difficult to treat. The working of the Mutag BioChip and its efficiency is explained in relation to the characteristic fluid bed process conditions. A prerequisite, for the biological transformation of sewage water contents in the fluid bed, is the immobilisation of the micro-organisms on the surface of the carrier. The effectiveness of the biological transformation is determined by the carrier’s ‘active’ surface. This requires the following demands to be placed on the carrier: First, there must be sufficient protected surface to enable the microorganisms to survive and multiply in these areas, and second, it is necessary to realise maximum mass transfer (substrate, oxygen, metabolic products) between the micro-organisms and the sewage water. At first glance, it would appear that fulfilling both requirements simultaneously is 32

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contradictory in process terms, but this need not be the case. First, the error of maximising the volumetric surface (in m²/m³ carriers): It is possible to produce extremely porous carriers; but it’s also a fact that these pores must be accessible to the micro-organisms as a potential colonisation surface. It is easy to see that this is scarcely possible for cavities inside a carrier. If, as is commonly the case, the transformation efficiency is correlated against the porosity, it represents a fatal distortion of the actual conditions. In the case of the Mutag Biochip, a relatively thin and largely open carrier provides an extremely large surface in which the micro-organisms can form colonies in protected pores, but at the same time still remain in intensive contact with the surrounding fluid (sewage water). Consequently, the micro-organisms can be optimally supplied with nutrients and the metabolic products efficiently transported away, which partially explains

the effectiveness and high degradation efficiency of the Mutag BioChip. In figures, the active surface of the Mutag BioChip is more than 3,000 m²/m³. (See Figures 1 & 2) Second, the issue of imitation of the biological transformation by ‘thick’ biofilms due to siltation and non-biological impurities. Even if a high microbial population density can become established on a carrier, if the structure and/or geometry of the carrier are unsuitable, the mass transfer into the ‘deeper’ layers of the biofilm is reduced. Consequently, the degradation efficiency of the immobilised biological system is continually reduced over the operating time. Figures 3 and 5 illustrate how this could appear for various carriers and carrier geometries. The consequences of a carrier blockage are not hard to imagine. However, the countermeasure is very simple. The special geometry of the Mutag BioChip enables the hydraulic shear forces acting on the surface to be intensified and a self-cleaning process

Figure 1: Colonised Mutag BioChips

Figure 5: Mutag BioChips and conventional carriers in parallel operation (result)

Figure 2: Pore system of the Mutag BioChip (cross section)

Figure 3: Blocked carrier (paper sewage water)

Figure 4: Mutag BioChips in parallel operation

to be initiated, which constantly renews the carrier’s active surface. This effectively prevents limitation of the biological efficiency due to mass transfer resistances. Third, problems with the distribution and mixing-in of the carrier are prevented by the parabolic shape. In order to optimise the mass transfer (as already addressed a number of times), the Mutag BioChip was shaped like a parabolic disc. The uncontrollable motion profile from a flow mechanics point of view, in this case, has proven to be extremely positive. In addition to the increased level of turbulence, which has the direct effect of increasing the mass transfer, the mobility of the individual carrier in the cluster is effectively increased. This results in a homogeneous distribution of the carrier within the entire reaction space, effectively reducing the formation of ‘dead zones.’

Operational results Of course, theoretical observations require verification of the forecasted advantages within a confidence-building time frame. We had three years of operational experience with the Mutag BioChip; during this period, in certain cases, we managed to operate systems in parallel to enable us to compare Mutag BioChips with conventional carriers. Listing all the operational results would exceed the scope of this article. However, on the basis of the selected case examples, it is possible to meaningfully document the efficiency of the Mutag BioChip. We consider it important to point out that the results listed here are of a fundamental nature, which enables them to be applied to different types of sewage water and applications. In relation to the direct performance | OCTOBER 2010


comparison, the extension of a highload stage provided valuable results for treating the sewage water of a paper mill. In this case, the central task was to increase the system capacity from 25,000 kg COD/ day to 50,000 kg COD/day and at the same time, maintain paper production throughout the construction work. For this reason, the following procedure was chosen: Initially, the existing high-load reactor filled with conventional carrier continued in operation, with a second similar tank being set up in parallel. Following the completion of the mechanical equipment (Figures 6 and 7), around seven per cent of the old reactor’s carrier volume was put into the new high-load reactor, in the form of Mutag BioChips, for the purpose of initial orientation after which the same volume of sewage water was fed to both high-load stages. On the basis of the positive findings, the BioChip volume was increased in the second step to 11 vol. % of the carrier that is otherwise required. Figure 8 shows the results that were obtained. The Mutag BioChip reactor attained the same degradation efficiency as the old reactor, which meant that it was not necessary to increase the BioChip volume further. The almost 10 fold increase in the degradation efficiency of the Mutag-BioChip in direct comparison with the conventional carrier was clearly proven. Based on these findings and the stable operating results of the new Mutag BioChip high-load stage, the old reactor was put out of operation and converted. Both stages are now equipped with the Mutag BioChip technology, and reliably deliver the required effluent values. With regard to the scale of the entire procedure, it is worth mentioning

Figure 6: Mutag BioChip high-load aeration system


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Figure 7: Mutag BioChip high-load reactor in operation

Figure 8: COD degradation reactor (old) and Mutag BioChip reactor

that in the future, at least 1,000m³/hour of sewage water will be treated, and a performance increase of the low-rate activated sludge biology is also planned. The second example looks at the efficiency of the Mutag BioChip in nitrogen elimination through its use in the nitrification stage for treating coking plant sewage water. These are regarded as difficult to treat, and in our experience they can be cleaned only with multiple biological stages. Particular demands are placed on the transformation rates and this applies specifically with regard to the reactor sizes that can be installed and controlled. Such plants, with Mutag BioChips, have been in continuous operation for over two years. The largest has a nitrification capacity of around 100,000 population equivalent (PE) and 55,000 PE. The chip’s superiority is apparent here also. Degradation rates of 4-5 kg NH4-N per m³ of carrier volume were constantly attained, despite the fact that the Mutag reactors are smaller by a factor of five than the activated sludge tanks otherwise required.

(measured as CSB) and nitrogen compounds (example, ammonium). The properties addressed here and the established operational results of the Mutag BioChip illustrate the advantages of this carrier over conventional competitors. This applies equally to the associated system components (aeration, retention device), which optimally support the special advantages of the BioChip. In the case of the projects presented in this article, the future-oriented provision of capacity reserves had already been decided, often at the planning stage itself. The key challenge was achieved this without structural modifications and by replenishing the carrier as necessary. In terms of the process, there are limits that, in the first approximation, can be reduced to the maximum possible carrier filling ratio. With the Mutag BioChip system, it is possible to achieve an almost tenfold increase in the extension reserve compared with conventional systems. This is sure to be particularly good news for owners of existing plants: They are often faced with the problem that operational extensions are approved only if the pollutant load remains unchanged. By using the Mutag BioChip system, these plants can be upgraded relatively easily, quickly and economically. This is true even if they are a long way away, because the transport costs for the carrier are lower than usual by a factor of 10.

Summary and outlook

The authors head the respective departments as follows: Stefan Christof Bidinger (Process Engineering), Bernd Dzedzig (Constructional Engineering), Dr-Ing. Markus Geiger (R&D) and Bernd Rauch (Project Management)

The Mutag BioChip has proved to be adaptable with regard to its use in a variety of media. This applies equally to the elimination of organic compounds

For more information, email René Trübenbach - r.truebenbach (at) mutag. de or visit

APPLYING THOUGHT TO WATER IN THE MIDDLE EAST Water evokes a deep sense of responsibility among the governments, people and businesses in the Middle East & North Africa (MENA) region, which is the most water scarce region of the world. Since 2006, H20 has been catering to this growing sensibility with insightful content that promotes the stewardship of this scarce resource.

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A new model Veolia Water’s new Water Impact Index attempts to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the impact of human activity on water resources

Panorama of Milwaukee with Lake Michigan in the foreground. Milwaukee, in the US state of Minnesota, participated in what is being claimed to be the first simultaneous water-carbon analysis of a major metropolitan water cycle.

During the International Water Association’s (IWA) World Water Congress and Exhibition in Montreal last month, Veolia Water North America announced the publication of a white paper, titled ‘The Water Impact Index and the First Carbon-Water Analysis of a Major Metropolitan Water Cycle.’ The paper details a new methodology for measuring the impact of human activity on water resources and establishing the positive and negative implications of how water resources are managed. The Water Impact Index expands on existing volume-based water measurement tools by incorporating multiple factors including consumption, resource stress and water quality, in addition to volume. The paper quotes a study on water stressweighted footprinting by B G Ridoutt and S Pfister (A revised approach to water footprinting to make transparent the impacts of consumption and production on global freshwater scarcity; Global Environ, 20 (1), 113-120) to drive home the distinction between the ‘traditional’ volumetric approach and a more expanded approach Veolia advocates. Comparing two 36

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products – tomato sauce and peanut candies – strictly by the volume of water needed, the latter would appear to have a much higher water-use impact than tomato sauce. However, the study notes that the opposite is true. Tomato sauce has a tenfold greater impact on water resources than peanuts The Water Impact Index expands on existing volumebecause tomatoes require more fertiliser and based water measurement tools by incorporating multiple are factors produced involume, water-stressed areas withquality. a such as resource stress and water It examines the impact human activity on water significant reliance onofirrigation. resources and provides a methodology for establishing This new index includes indirect elements positive and negative implications of how water from the production as energy, resources are managed. chain The newsuch tool provides additional needed to make informed choices about rawparameters materials, chemicals, and waste effective water management. generated. In the above example, in terms of Through the Water Impact Index, decision makers can sheer water usage, the production of peanut factor in three essential elements – quantity of water candies requires six times water used, level of stress upon watermore resources, and than overall quality – and a much more detailed, holistic the water production of develop tomato sauce. However, and inter-related understanding. tomato sauce impact is 10 times higher

when factoring in water stress. The Water Impact Index considers both direct and indirect influences of an activity from ‘cradle to grave’ – whether managing a textile production facility or a wastewater treatment facility. It incorporates the volume and quality of the water extracted and The Water Impact Index considers both direct and indirect released back into the environment and adds influences of an activity from “cradle to grave”– whether the Water Index (which accounts for managing a Stress textile production facility or a wastewater treatment facility. It incorporates the volume and quality the level of stress on the resource). of the water extracted and released back into the Through the Water Impact Index, environment and adds the Water Stress Index (which decision makers factor three This new accounts for the level can of stress on thein resource). index giveselements us the water–impact – and itof includes essential quantity waterindirect elements from the production chain such as energy, used, level of stress upon water resources, raw materials, chemicals, and waste generated. (See methodology the next page.) – and develop and overall on water quality aThrough much the more detailed, holistic Water Impact Index, one canand betterinterevaluate how water users (humans and ecosystems) could be related understanding. deprived of water resources through mismanagement of Theorwhite paper also highlighted a water wastewater systems.

A new metric for assessing water impacts.

VOLUME • Water Quantity • Volume of water used - extracted and released



• The Water Stress Index • Local hydrological context, freshwater scarcity



• Water quality extracted and released


The Water Impact Index accounts for the impact of water resources generated by a human activity. It enables evaluation of how other water uses (both humans and ecosystems) could potentially be deprived of this resource - expressed in Gallon-WII-equivalent.


Water Impact Index of Milwaukee-area’s drinking water and sewage system 1800 1606 MG WII eq/yr

-87 MG WII eq/yr

1518 MG WII eq/yr

Drinking water production

MMSD sewage system


Drinking water production contributes to the Water Impact Index. Water of very good quality is extracted from its natural environment

MG WII eq/yr




MMSD sewage system reduces the Water Impact Index. Water quality is improved and brought back closer to environmental requirements



The Water Impact Index should be as low as possible to protect our resource.


To reduce phosphorous levels in the wastewater Water extracted from Lake Michigan is of a very Indexan equivalent, bringing wastewater water-carbon analysis carried out by system provides Index equivalent. Over 19 years, this effluent from approximately 0.66 mg/l to 0.3 mg/l good quality – and the MMSD quality closer to the environment’s Veoliaimprovement of the greater of Milwaukee area’s would result in a savings (under consideration by MMSD), would reduce theof one million -87 million gallons Water Impact Index requirements. water equivalent, and wastewater systems, which the tonnes annual carbon Water Impact Index by more thanCO 100% while slightly bringing wastewater quality closer to the 2eq (the n Public water conservation has a positive company claims is the first-ever combined footprint output of 50,000 increasing the carbon footprint by 9% (for this part ofpeople) and environment’s requirements. impact on water resources and carbon analysis of the water-energy nexus in a 51 million gallons of Water Impact Index the treatment). Public water conservation has a positive impact on emissions, even in a water-rich urban majorwater community. Water-Energy nexus Chloramination (replacingequivalent. the sodium hypochlorite resources and carbon emissions, even in a waterenvironment like Milwaukee is essentially the interdependence between disinfection by chloramination) would reduce related rich urban environment like Milwaukee. n A reduction water The and Water energy,Impact explained in terms thein Milwaukee, According to the white paper, the study operating costs by 60%, the carbon footprint by 61% Index showsofthat theof phosphorous concentration in MMSD’s treated energypositive required to make use of water, and establishes a tool for determining the and the Water Impact Index by 65%. impact of one gallon of treated wastewater wastewater discharged into Lake the water needed to make use of energy. most sustainable course of action based The carbon footprint from the drinking water returned to the environment is more than 400 percent Michigan to a 0.3mg/l level Milwaukee is the only United Nations on available resources. For example, the distribution network of the main water utility lower than the Water Impact Index from one gallon of a (concentration averages for 2006-2007 Global Compact City focused on study showed that air and water impact (Milwaukee Water Works) is more than 20% higher combined sewer overflow (CSO). were 0.66 mg/l) can reduce the Water freshwater management, which requires assessments do not replace thorough than the one from its drinking water production side. The Water Impact of proposed green solutions such as Impact Index by more than 100% while it to conduct a variety of water-quality economic evaluation of a project or Two-thirds of the carbon footprint from the works on wetlands development, where stormwater would be slightly increasing the carbon footprint projects that other cities can emulate. activity. Rather, they complement it by distribution network of Milwaukee Water from wastewater and asent to a (around wetland,400 is tonnes the CO2water Theseparated methodology of the study assigned providing a multi-criteria analysis to equivalent per Works embedded in the metal pipes. 170% lower treatedquantity wastewater. value to water basedthan on quality, and achieve a “best-in-class” decision-making year) due to increased use ofis chemicals Since theVeolia development of the MMSD’s deep tunnels, resource stress. Water North America’s process. The unique circumstances and energy. This is under consideration annual overflows reduced by almost 8 billion Technical Direction Grouphave and been the company’s of particular locations, ecosystems, by MMSD. based onstudy 2009inlevels, reducing very significantly (replacing the globalgallons, R&D team led the conjunction economies, community needs and goals n Chloramination theMilwaukee impact onMetropolitan local waterSewerage resources. with the could lead to varied conclusions. sodium hypochlorite disinfection by

District (MMSD), the City of Milwaukee, the chloramination) would reduce related Milwaukee Water Council, and other local operating costs by 60%, the carbon Improving phosphorous removal - a substantial gain at a slight cost partners and utilities. footprint by 61% and the Water Impact The water-carbon analysis yielded a Index by 65%. 20% -136% +7% number of findings on +7% the local urban n The carbon footprint from the drinking 0% water cycle. The carbon footprint of the water distribution network of the main Impact on CFP Impact on costs area’s water services is more than 310,000 water utility (Milwaukee Water Works) -20% tonnes-40% CO2 equivalent. Interestingly, the is more than 20% higher than the one from its drinking water production side. carbon footprint for wastewater services -60%than double the size of activities n Two-thirds of the carbon footprint from was more the works on the water distribution related-80% to providing drinking water services. network of Milwaukee Water Works is -100% embedded in the metal pipes. Other important findings were: n A new project to replace natural gas n Water extracted from Lake Michigan is -120% and electricity demand via the use of of a very good quality and the MMSD -140% Impactlandfill on WII gas will significantly reduce the system provides an improvement -160% city’s carbon footprint and Water Impact of -87 million gallons Water Impact

In conclusion, the paper noted that the A reduction phosphorous future challengeoffor cities, governments andconcentration companies is in toMMSD’s find solutions thattreated make awastewater minimum impact on the dischargednot intoonly Lakein terms of environment water resources but also when Michigan to a 0.3mg/l level it comes to energy use while maintaining (concentration averages for and promoting economic growth. 2006-2007 were 0.66 mg/l)As the need forreduces environmental efficiency the Water Impact and resource management intensifies, organisations Index by more than 100% andwhile communities will be able slightly increasing theto use tools like the Water Impact carbon footprint (aroundIndex 400 and water-carbon analysis to determine tonnes CO2eq per year) due business practices operations, to increased use(locations, of chemicals technologies) that create the minimum and energy. environmental impact and pose reduced risks to water and air. A WHITE PAPER BY VEOLIA WATER | OCTOBER 2010





Staying cool in the Middle East A new generation of real-time business software applications for managing customers, infrastructure and the workforce is helping the region’s utilities to maximise efficiency

Utilities in the Middle East have long been focused on the requirement to “keep cool”. Without water and the means to cool it so as to provide the air conditioning that keeps both people and equipment functioning at their peak, the region’s businesses will not be able to continue to build on the rising status and positioning they are enjoying in the global business community today. Accomplishing this in a region known worldwide for high temperatures and water shortage has challenged Middle 38

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Eastern utilities to maximise the efficiency with which they address the task. Since the wise use of electricity and water underpin the entire region’s economic potential, it stands to reason that the most forwardlooking utilities go to great lengths, to examine both local and global sources, in order to ensure that the technology and software applications they put in place to run their utility businesses maximise efficiency. They have learned to put a high premium on software applications that:

n Maximise the delivery of electricity, water, and cooled water between the source and the point of use. That means not just minimising obvious waste like leakage and theft but also means minimising waste in the delivery or distribution system— ensuring that the pipes, wires, valves, transformers, and everything that goes into the utility infrastructure is sized correctly and geared for expansion when demand rises.

n Minimise the need for human resources in running routine operations. This permits a utility’s personnel to focus on dealing with exceptions to the routine, thus giving them opportunities to innovate in support of both the utility and its customers. A new generation of real-time business software applications for managing customers, infrastructure and the workforce is helping utilities and their customers achieve these principles. The best of these applications are architected for flexibility, so that they will remain capable of meeting not just today’s challenges but also those that only the future will define. And the most forward-looking utilities in the region are implementing them today. Here are some of the most important applications: Distribution Management Systems detect problems on the electrical grid before those problems cause an outage. By analysing demand at various points in the grid and by reading equipment signals, Distribution Management can detect potential problems, diagnose their cause and generate the work orders that dispatch work crews with the right skills and equipment to the scene. Distribution Management technologies also significantly shorten any outages that occur as a result, for instance, of accidents or windstorms. Fault location, Isolation, and Restoration applications are just one example. They detect an outage, assess which customers are affected, and switch them, within minutes, to alternative sources of power. These technologies then work with real-time Mobile Workforce solutions to route repair crews via the fastest and most fuel efficient roads. Outage Management Systems, then, take over, directing the work of the crew to ensure both safety and speed of repair. The result: A power outage that previously might have shut down a high-rise office building for hours is reduced to a minor inconvenience lasting a minute or two. Network Management Systems, a cornerstone of the movement known globally as the Intelligent Grid, permit utilities to integrate solar and wind

Bastian Fischer

Utilities in the region are developing partnerships with global software vendors that provide a suite of utility applications, and their local consulting companies skilled in tailoring such software for their specific local needs. This helps minimise IT costs while ensuring the long-term viability of their software strategies resources into the electrical grid. Utilities here are using these technologies to help their economies maximise revenue from petroleum exports, thus helping satisfy the world’s need for energy, while at the same time building local economies on abundant and sustainable resources. Smart Metering technologies build on the Smart Grid. They enable demand response programmes that permit

customers to reduce consumption when demand is high and shift use to off-peak hours; this helps maximise the use of base electricity generation and reduce the need to increase grid capacity. Smart Metering rewards building owners for investing in efficient on-site equipment and for keeping that equipment in good repair. It creates a “wise use” partnership between utilities and customers. Customer Care and Billing applications help utilities establish relationships with customers based on confidence and trust. They have dozens of built-in functions that ensure accurate billing, accommodate varying needs for detail among business and residential customers, track and resolve customer questions, advice customers on ways to reduce utility costs, and offer customers any level of selfservice they desire. Process Organisation, Training, and On-Line Help Tools help maximise worker productivity. With them, utility workers address tasks more quickly, with fewer errors, and with increased safety. Checklists and easy access to on-line manuals—in the office, in the plant, and in the field—help ensure that knowledge passes quickly and accurately from those who design business processes to those who implement them and then on to new generations of workers. Technology, of course, is constantly evolving. To ensure that they are constantly aware of new developments, many Middle Eastern utilities have chosen to ally with similar companies elsewhere. Many are also developing partnerships with global software vendors that provide a suite of utility applications, and their local consulting companies skilled in tailoring such software for their specific local needs. This approach is helping utilities minimise IT costs while also ensuring the long-term viability of their software strategies. Today and tomorrow, the expanding partnerships between Middle Eastern utilities and global utilities software companies help ensure that, as the region’s economies “heat up” through increasing size, complexity and economic diversity, they will be able to count on their utilities’ continuing ability to “keep cool”.

The author is Vice President and General Manager, EMEA, Oracle Utilities | OCTOBER 2010



Clear water Swimming pool health hazards are more than just skin, eye, throat or nose irritation Water, so crystal clear, that you can see through it; no risk of red eyes, so no protective goggles either, and odour-free, too. The simple attributes of a great, well-managed swimming pool, but easier said than experienced, the cynic would remark. The norm, as our embedded experiences attest, is the exact opposite. You don’t enter a pool without donning goggles; red eyes are part of the deal, and ‘cloudy pool water’ is an occasional occurrence you can live with, while the reassuring odour of ‘chlorine’ is a robust testament to the water being free of bacteria and disease. You would be hard-pressed to remember the number of times you became sick after cooling 40

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off or swimming a few energetic laps in a public pool. However, inside those inviting waters and also above it, problems are aplenty. More worrying is that these problems are of the ‘long-term’ kind, popping up when you least expect them. To set the record straight, the chemical that gives your swimming pool its characteristic smell is not chlorine but a volatile gas called trichloramine, which is acidic, corrosive and a major health hazard. Exposure to Trihalomethanes (THM) that lurk just above the water can cause long-term neurological problems. Both trichloramine and THMs are byproducts of chlorine, the most widely

used disinfectant in water, whether drinking water or swimming pool water.

Chemicals in the equation

Pool water is constantly undergoing treatment, which generally includes filtration (often in conjunction with coagulation), pH correction and disinfection. In order to achieve the required water quality, a number of chemicals are added to the pool water. Thus, disinfectants like chlorine are added to inactivate pathogens and other nuisance microorganisms. Sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate are common chemicals used to raise pH; muriatic acid or sodium bisulphate lowers pool water pH to make it more acidic. However, chemical treatment, especially for disinfection, also creates potentially harmful by-products. (See Table 1) These may enter the body through the mouth (from swallowing pool water), by absorption through the skin or by inhalation. When chlorine is added to water, it

turns into chloric acid and hydrochloric acid. Chloric acid is the compound that sanitises and oxidises. When people swim in a pool, they introduce contaminants, usually in the form of ammonia and creatine from urine and sweat. These combine with chloric acid to form chloramines or combined chlorine. The chloric acid that does not initially combine is free residual chlorine. If the free chlorine level is high enough to both burn up the chloramines and combine with body fluids, the pool will remain clean and clear of odour. However, when combined chlorine levels get too high, the pool will begin to smell of chlorine. In recent times, chloramines like trichloramine have come under the radar of public health authorities as key water quality parameter. Trichloramines have been blamed for stress corrosion cracking of the pool buildings and corrosion of the ventilation systems. They are also primarily responsible for the odour and skin, eye, throat or nose irritation reported by swimmers, lifeguards and non-swimmer companions in pool environments,

Table 1 Disinfectant

Disinfection by-products


trihalomethanes haloacetic acids haloacetonitriles haloketones chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde) chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) cyanogen chloride chlorate chloramines


bromate aldehydes ketones ketoacids carboxylic acids bromoform brominated acetic acids

Chlorine dioxide

chlorite chlorate

Bromine/hypochlorite BCDMH

trihalomethanes, mainly bromoform bromal hydrate bromate bromamines

COURTESY: Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments by WHO

Optimise filter performance


FM filtration will reduce the bacterial growth within the filter bed; however, bacteria can also develop on the solids removed by the filter. It is important to backwash the filters, even although the pressure differential across the filters does not warrant a backwash. The growth of bacteria on the collected solids is so rapid that it will start to impact water quality after just one week. Ideally, the filters should be back-washed once each week, with two week cycles as the absolute limit. The per formance of any media bed filter works inversely propor tionally to the flow of water through the filter. In essence, the slower you run the filters the better the per formance. Ideally the flow rates for swimming pools should be limited to a rate less than 15 m3/hr per square metre of filter bed sur face area. It is just as impor tant to ensure that all of the collected solids are removed during the backwash. If solids remain in the filter, they simply act as a food source for bacteria, and trichloramine levels will star t to increase. In order to ensure thorough cleaning, the filters should be air-scoured at a rate between 70 and 90 m3/hr per square metre for a period of five minutes before a backwash. The backwash rate should also be at a flow that expands the bed by at least 15%. In order to achieve this expansion using AFM or sand, a water flow of between 40 and 45 m3/hr per square metre is required. If this strategy is followed with AFM, the chemical demand will be reduced by at least 80%, THM levels will be reduced by 80% and trichloramine production will be eliminated.

UV is a physical system and is generally not considered to produce by-products | OCTOBER 2010


advertorial Pool Performance Factor


ublic pools must comply with water quality and air quality requirements, but it is often difficult to know how well a pool is actually performing or to compare one pool against another. The Pool Performance Factor can be used to quantify the performance of any pool water treatment system on a scale from 1 to +10. The Pool Factor can be used as a tool to mitigate the risk to the public, pool staff and avoid structural damage to the building, as well as a tool to help reduce running costs and save money. The Pool Factor is based on a simple approach; the less chlorine used per bather, the better the system performance. The Pool Factor is, thus, a unifying measurement which encompasses all chlorinated public and private swimming pools, irrespective of the size or design of the facility, because it is calculated from two simple measurements; 1 Average daily bather load 2 Average daily consumption of chlorine A zero chlorine demand would be impossible, but a Pool Factor under one can be achieved, and is considered to be the best possible water quality that cannot be surpassed. A Pool Factor under one also means you have eliminated most of the chlorine by-products and have near perfect air conditions above the water and in the pool building, so there is no stress corrosion cracking of the building structure or ventilation systems. How to calculate the Pool Factor? The Dryden Aqua Pool Factor relates the chlorine oxidation demand for 1,000 bathers per day expressed as Kg of chlorine used. 1. Calcium hypochlorite, chlorine is approximately equal to 0.68 x the Kg of calcium hypochlorite used per day 2. Sodium hypochlorite solution, chlorine is approximately equal to 0.12 x the litres of sodium hypochlorite used per day


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and on a more serious note, lung damage. A few years ago, Research carried out in the Catholic University of Louvain in Brussels showed that exposure to chloramines greatly increases permeability of the lung epithelium, a condition associated with smoking cigarettes, especially among children. Another study at the Birmingham Heartlands Hospital showed chloramines as the cause of occupational asthma in indoor swimming pool workers like lifeguards and swim instructors. Of no less concern are volatile lipid soluble chemical by-products including THMs such as chloroform or chemicals like cyanogen chloride that are nerve toxins. When chlorinated water is exposed to short wavelength UV light, or even to strong sunlight in an outdoor pool, volatile lipid soluble chlorinated by-products are formed. Due to the lipid soluble nature of the gas, they diffuse through the water surface into the air, pass through lung tissue and enter the blood stream. As a result, blood chloroform levels can increase 50-fold in as short a time-span as 10 minutes. Exposure to high levels of nerve toxins can result in long-term neurological problems and health-related issues. Children under two years of age are most at risk because they do not have a fully developed blood brain barrier. In fact, exposure to chemicals such as cyanogen chloride can lead to nerve damage and possible spinal deformities such as scoliosis 10 years after exposure.

Dispensing with chlorine?

If chlorine is the main villain, how easy or difficult is it to phase out chlorine and use alternatives? The fact of the matter is that chlorineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cost-effectiveness and its residual effect gives it tremendous advantage over alternatives. Apart from sweat, urine and faecal matter (especially in childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wading pools), swimmers continually introduce new contaminants to pool water including synthetic contaminants from sunscreen and lotions. To deal with on-going contamination, a level of residual chlorine is maintained at three- to 10-times the level of normal drinking water. As per the German DIN standard, globally regarded as highest standard for pool water quality,

pseudomonas spp bacteria should be killed within 30 seconds in the pool. At present, only chlorine can achieve this task. The risk of disease transmission is a greater hazard than chlorine reaction products in most cases, so there is no option but to use chlorine in public pools. In addition to killing microorganisms, chlorine-based chemicals oxidise many contaminants to harmless substances like nitrogen or carbon-dioxide gas. While chlorine-based pool water treatment is both highly effective and inexpensive, concern over health due to exposure to by-products and threats from chlorine-resistant microorganisms have led to the introduction of nonchlorine technologies like ozone and ultraviolet light (UV) treatment. However, neither of these methods provides any residual disinfection capability in the treated water. So, even with these systems, a small amount of chlorine is added.

Eliminating the source

The health hazards of chlorine byproducts like trichloramines can be countered by attacking the source. One of the first companies to establish the mechanism of trichloramine production in chlorinated systems was a Scottish Marine Biological company specialising in water quality and water treatment, Dryden Aqua, which identified the thin bio-film on the surface of sand filters and on components in contact with water, such as tiles and pipes, as the main culprit. Chlorine will oxidise most bacteria in the water in less than 30 seconds, but bacteria can grow and thrive, unaffected by chlorine, on any surface in contact with the water. It could be argued that swimming pool water will normally have a pH between 6.8 and 7.6, so how can trichloramines be produced? Equations show that trichloramine production occurs predominantly below a pH of 4. Every surface in contact with pool water will have a thin bio-film. Within the bio-film, the pH of the water will be acidic. Trichloramine production, therefore, takes place on every surface that has a bio-film, and thicker the bio-

film, greater the production. According to Dryden Aqua, the largest surface area in contact with the water (up to 95%) is the sand in the sand filters. Sand is an excellent substrate for the growth of bacteria. Every cubic metre of sand will have a surface area in the order of 3,000 square metres. When a sand bed is continually fluidised at 50% expansion, the sand will become a very effective bio-filter, so no amount of air scouring or backwashing can remove the bio-film. Of course, the bacteria growing on the sand will remove the dissolved organics from the water. But, as stated earlier, the bacterial bio-film also has a low pH zone, where trichloramines are formed. The bacteria also contribute to water channelling in the sand filter, which ultimately leads to the contamination of the pool water. This begins with alginates excreted by bacteria, which glue the bacteria on to the sand. Eventually, the alginates start to glue the sand grains together, which leads to channelling of water through the filter bed. Over a period of a few months to several years (depending on water quality and temperature), the alginates will become harder and more stable. The exponential growth and production of alginate will either form stable channels through the sand, or there will be a rapid increase in pressure differential across the filter. The consequences are either deterioration in water quality, or an increase in back-wash frequency, or more likely a combination of both problems. If the sand grains are coagulated by alginates, there will be channelling of water straight through the filter bed along with the cryptosporidium oocysts, as the only mechanism limiting the latter is the sand filter. In fact, in rapid gravity and pressure sand filters, bacteria are the main reason for filter failure.

The scourge of surfactants

The performance of sand filters are also impacted by surfactant chemicals found in swimming pool products and pool cleaners. For the filters to remove to remove cryptosporidium and dissolved organics, coagulation and flocculation are required. A high percentage of the loading on the filters and oxidation demand on

disinfectants (such as chlorine) are from dissolved organics. Coagulation drags these out of the solution. It is, therefore, critical to the performance of the water treatment system, and reduction of oxidation demand. However, surfactants prevent coagulation and flocculation reaction from working properly prior to filtration. This means that the public could be put at risk from a plug of bacteria or cryptosporidium oocysts being dumped into the product water after the filters. The chemicals can also break up the solids on top of the filter and allow the solids to pass through the filter. The suspended solids, oocycts, flocculants, coagulants lipopolysaccharides, dead bacteria and bits of bacteria, discharged into the pool by unstable filters, cause the water to go turbid or cloudy. The lipopolysaccharide alginate coat, excreted by bacteria, provides them with protection against oxidation by chlorine. This behaviour allows the bacteria to continue to grow and develop irrespective of the concentration of chlorine. Further, the chemicals excreted by bacteria or the remains of bacteria are exotoxic and endotoxic. Though non-pathogenic, they can still cause an allergic response or a fever, and are almost as dangerous as living bacteria.

Replacing the sand

The levels of chlorine used in most swimming pools will not affect the growth of bacteria on the sand or bacteria growing on any surface in contact with the water. Since the principal surface is the sand in the filters, by eliminating the sand, one can eliminate the biggest source of bio-films and thereby, reduce if not eliminate the formation of chloramines. Sand filters are also the primary source of bacteria such as Legionella. Dryden Aqua has developed a unique filtration media called Active Filter Media (AFM) as a replacement for sand in all types of sand filters. AFM was developed out of a Euro 1.2 million research project with the European Commission to solve the

problem of chlorine disinfection byproducts. AFM is manufactured from amorphous aluminosilicate, processed glass and manufactured glass. Since it is a direct replacement for sand in the sand filters, there is no change to existing infrastructure of the water treatment process, or the way in which the facility operates. AFM has been engineered to have a high negative charge, which enables coagulation and flocculation processes to work better. Coagulants and flocculants have a positive charge. When added to water they reduce the zeta potential and impart a positive charge to the suspended solids. The high negative zeta potential on AFM attracts the particles and holds them within the filter bed. Further, catalytic oxidation on the surface of AFM prevents the bacteria from growing. In sand filtration systems, bacteria in the sand filter will digest organic matter but they also create ammonium and a low pH environment in the biofilm which generate dichloramine and trichloramine. The reactions are not reversible, so the combined chloramine levels tend to increase with time. With AFM, there will be a much lower concentration of bacteria in the filter, so you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have the low pH biofilm zone. This means that there will be virtually no production of trichloramine. The particle size distribution and shape of AFM ensure there are no differential pressure gradients across the filter bed, which would prevent flocculation reactions from working due to the high velocity shear forces. In sand filters, as described earlier, a proportion of the solids will be glued to the sand by alginates. Aggressive air scouring and extended backwash times are required to try and keep the media clean. With AFM, the solids are only held by a weak electrical charge that is broken during backwash to release all of the solids. A great deal less water is, therefore, required to backwash AFM. Also, AFM reduces the Legionella and MRSA bacteria risk and provide much better protection from the oocysts of Cryptosporidia and Giardia. | OCTOBER 2010


advertorial Conclusion

The mechanical filtration performance of rapid gravity and pressure sand filters are inherently unstable because the bacteria cell biomass is in a state of flux. The bio-film is resistant to chlorine; indeed, if chlorine were used before a filter, the levels of THMs and trichloramine would be substantially increased. The bacteria

Q&A with John Gavigan, Sales Director of Arpal Gulf, which represents Dryden Aqua in the Middle East. What is your opinion of the swimming pool standards in the region today? I must emphasise at the outset that Arpal Gulf is not a swimming pool company. Rather, we are a company, which recognises that swimming pools standards are generally not very good, and it is not just the Middle East. If I were to construct a pyramid of water-use priorities, the swimming pool industry would be at the lower end. At the very top, you have industries like District Cooling where it is critical to ensure that the water is treated correctly so that it doesn’t corrode or damage the system. But I feel that the swimming pool industry isn’t any different because you have got treatment works, piping, chemicals, chillers, paintwork. Yet, you have gardeners looking after the pool. Would entrust the gardener with your boiler or cooling tower? Where do you think the solution lies? We need product certification and regulations aligned to high standards to protect the pool staff and users. For example, people tasked with looking after swimming pools should have some sort of formal qualification or accreditation. You cannot get a visa to do electro-mechanical work in this country unless you possess documentation, which is attested to confirm your qualification. But we have got pool operators here staffed with uncertified personnel. For example, let’s say you need to get the pH in the water up. How do you do that?


OCTOBER 2010 |

also coagulate the sand grains, which increases the backwash frequency and volume of water required to keep the sand clean. Eventually, the bacteria will cause channelling of water through the filer bed providing a conduit for the passage of oocysts, and at the same time, the filter will discharge bacteria and organics back into the product water, which increases

the THM level. In the UK, for instance, ammonium is added to around 25% of the water supplies after the sand filters to form mono-chloramine so as to prevent formation of THMs. All of the inherent problems of sand filters could be eliminated by preventing the bio-fouling of the sand. AFM has proved to be a simple solution to the problem.

How does that affect alkalinity in the balance of the water? I am not sure whether uncertified personnel can tackle that. I think it would help a lot if we have standards or a accredited body which certified the people working in the swimming pool industry. The authorities can facilitate this by creating a register of companies that operate swimming pools. To qualify, you have to get the right accreditation. We can replicate what has been done in food hygiene, where you have basic, intermediate and advance certifications. Standards governing food hygiene and safety are very high due to the fatalities traced to food poisoning. There is no need to wait till the problems manifest.

Also, most of the research is devoted to identification of the problems and quantification about how serious the problems are with regards to public health. For example, the developed world knew about the dangers of smoking and asbestos for many decades, but it has only been over the last 10 years that concerted corrective action were taken. If we are aware of a problem and it is possible to eliminate it, there is no need to wait 40 years to fully quantify its impact on public health. It is better to fix the problem now, and thereafter, quantify how bad the problem would have been rather than counting the damage caused to public health otherwise.

What is the status of research regarding the health hazards in swimming pools? Dryden Aqua’s marine biology background (with specialisation in water treatment systems for aquatic animals) has placed them in a unique position. For example, dolphins in chlorinated systems suffer problems arising from chlorine disinfection by-products, manifesting in damage to their skin, eyes, lung tissue and nervous system. We also know that exposure to some chemicals at a very early age result in problems much later in life. For example, exposure to lipid-soluble-chlorinated-organics may cause scoliosis, degenerative neural disorders and cancer, 10, 20 or even 60 years after the initial exposure. The long lag between cause and effect makes quantifying of data extremely difficult, if not impossible. We just don’t know how serious the long-term implications will become.

How do you think we can raise the level of awareness about the health hazards associated with swimming pool water treatment in the region, given that the developed countries too lag behind in this regard? We, at Arpal Gulf, want to raise the standard and educate the market that swimming pool water is critical to health. We are representing a product which raises the standard of swimming pool water. Our message is that countries in this region and other parts of the world should move towards the German DIN standard for swimming pool, which is as highest standard for pool water quality. We want to focus attention on the health risks associated with swimming pool water and how these risks can be overcome, while saving water, chemicals and making the pool a healthier place to swim. To my knowledge, the regulations and standards for swimming pool maintenance and operations here have remained unchanged for the past 20 years.

TENDERS Project Number Project Name Territory Client


Status Remarks

Financial Consultant Legal Consultant Technical Consultant Tender Categories


MPP2403-K Al-Zour North IWPP Kuwait Name: Partnerships Technical Bureau (Kuwait) Address: Touristic Enterprises Co. Bldg., 2nd Floor, Al-Jahra Street City: Shuwaikh Country: Kuwait Tel: (+965) 2496 5972 Fax: (+965) 249 5522 E-mail: Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract to build a gas-fired independent water and power project (IWPP) with capacity of 1,500 MW of power and 100 MIGD of desalinated water at Al-Zour North. New Tender This project is in Kuwait. Client is preparing to issue a request for qualification (RFQ) to developers for building the plant. Interested parties have until November 16, 2010 to respond. The request for proposals (RFP) for the EPC contract issued on September 28, 2010. BNP Paribas (France) Chadbourne & Parke LLP (USA) Lahmeyer International GmbH (Germany) Potable Water Works Power Generation & Distribution

Project Number 210-SA Project Name Ground Water Drainage Networks O&M Project Territory Saudi Arabia Client Name: Riyadh Municipality (Saudi Arabia) Address: Al-Wazeer Street City: Riyadh 11146 Postal/Zip Code: 953 Country: Saudi Arabia Tel: (+966-1) 411 2222/ 402 6400/ 412 1865 Fax: (+966-1) 1413 1020 E-mail: Website: Description Carrying out operation and maintenance of ground water drainage networks for a municipality. Tender Cost $ 535 Closing Date November 27, 2010 Status New Tender Remarks Tender No. 210 This project is in Saudi Arabia. Tender documents can be obtained from: Operation & Maintenance Department, Riyadh Municipality Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Tender Categories Sewerage & Drainage Project Number TPR10302-SA Project Name Sub-Wastewater Networks Implementation Project Territory Saudi Arabia Client Name: Water Directorate (Saudi Arabia) City: Riyadh 11195 Country: Saudi Arabia Tel: (+966-1) 476 1377 Fax: (+966-1) 401 2365 Description Implementation of sub-wastewater networks for a water directorate. Tender Cost $ 800 Closing Date December 6, 2010 Status New Tender Remarks This project is at Hafr Albatin in Saudi Arabia. Tender documents can be obtained from: Eastern Province Directorate Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Tender Categories Sewerage & Drainage Project Number 1266-SA Project Name Wastewater Treatment Station Expansion and Development Project Territory Saudi Arabia Client Name: Ministry of Finance (Saudi Arabia) Address: Airport Road City: Riyadh 11177 Postal/Zip Code: 6902 46

OCTOBER 2010 |

Description Tender Cost $ Closing Date Status Remarks

Tender Categories Project Number Project Name Territory Client

Description Closing Date Status Remarks

Tender Categories Project Number Project Name Territory Client

Description Tender Cost $ Closing Date Status Remarks / +971 2 634 8495

Country: Saudi Arabia Tel: (+966-1) 405 0000/ 405 0080/ 405 5000 Fax: (+966-1) 405 9202/ 403 5422 E-mail: Website: Development and expansion of wastewater treatment station and construction of irrigation network for a ministry. 400 October 30, 2010 New Tender Tender No. 1266 This project is at Al-Raqee Border Port in Saudi Arabia. Tender documents can be obtained from: Head Office, Ministry of Finance Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Agriculture & Irrigation Sewerage & Drainage 48/1431/1432-SA/2 Water Network Monitoring System Saudi Arabia Name: Water Directorate (Saudi Arabia) City: Riyadh 11195 Country: Saudi Arabia Tel: (+966-1) 476 1377 Fax: (+966-1) 401 2365 Supply of water network monitoring system for a water directorate. November 29, 2010 New Tender Tender No. 48/1431/1432 This tender supply is in Saudi Arabia. Tender documents can be obtained from: Tenders Department, Madina Water Directorate Madina, Saudi Arabia. Potable Water Works ST10105400-Q Water Dump Lines Replacement Qatar Name: Qatar Petroleum (QP) City: Doha Postal/Zip Code: 3212 Country: Qatar Tel: (+974) 440 2000 Fax: (+974) 483 1125/ 449 1400/ 483 1995 E-mail: Website: Replacement of carbon steel water dump lines for a petroleum company. 55 November 8, 2010 New Tender Tender No. ST10105400 This tender supply is for Qatar. The scope of works includes removal of the corroded water dump lines and relevant redundant pipes supports from eight PWI wellheads (DKs, 92, 119, 192, 220, 318, 319, 422 and 447) within the Dukhan fields, provision and installation of RTP flexible pipeline for the replacement of the carbon steel water dump lines, engineering, supply and installation of anchor supports for the new RTP piping and necessary excavation and backfilling works. Tender documents can be obtained from: Contracts Department, Operations Division, Royal Plaza, G-Wing, 4th Floor, Room G13, Qatar Petroleum Doha, Qatar. Tender documents will be released only to authorised company representatives with following documentations: (i) Letter of authorisation on company letterhead (ii) Valid Qatar ID (iii) Valid copy of Commercial Registration. The non-refundable tender fee is payable to: Doha Bank Ltd. QP branch, Ras Abu Aboud, Doha, Qatar / +971 2 634 8495

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OR Qatar National Bank QP branch, 2nd floor, Al Sadd Plaza, Doha, Qatar. Bid bond is QR 50,000. Tender Categories Potable Water Works Project Number Project Name Territory Client

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DWD32/2010-O Chlorine Injection Systems Oman Name: Public Authority for Electricity & Water (Oman) Address: Ministries Road, Al Khoweir Area City: Muscat Postal/Zip Code: 106 Country: Oman Tel: (+968) 2460 3906 / 2460 3800 Fax: (+968) 2460 7076 Supply and installation of two chlorine injection systems for an electricity & water authority. 65 October 25, 2010 New Tender Tender No. DWD32/2010 This tender supply is in Oman. Tender documents can be obtained from: Public Authority for Electricity & Water Muscat, Oman. Bid bond is one per cent of the tender value. The last date to purchase tender documents is on October 18, 2010. Potable Water Works 17/2010-O/2 HDPE Pipeline Oman Name: Public Authority for Electricity & Water (Oman) Address: Ministries Road, Al Khoweir Area City: Muscat Postal/Zip Code: 106 Country: Oman Tel: (+968) 2460 3906 / 2460 3800 Fax: (+968) 2460 7076 Supply and diversion of 110-millimetre HDPE pipeline for an electricity & water authority. 65 October 26, 2010 New Tender Tender No. 17/2010 This tender supply is at Al Sulayf in Wilayat Ibri of Oman. The tender is open to contractors classified in Grade â&#x20AC;&#x153;Bâ&#x20AC;?. Tender documents can be obtained from: Public Authority for Electricity & Water Muscat, Oman. The last date to purchase tender documents is on October 20, 2010. Bid bond is one per cent of the tender value. Potable Water Works

Project Number ZPR147-U Project Name Mirfa Power & Desalination Plant Retrofitting Works Project Territory Abu Dhabi Client Name: Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) Address: ADWEA Building, Al-Falah Street City: Abu Dhabi Postal/Zip Code: 6120 Country: United Arab Emirates Tel: (+971-2) 627 1300 / 694 3333 Fax: (+971-2) 626 7725 / 626 6089 Website: Description Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for carrying out retrofitting of a power and desalination plant at Mirfa with capacity of 192 MW and 37MIGD. Budget $ 350,000,000 Period 25/12/2014 Status New Tender Remarks This project is in Abu Dhabi. The RFP for the EPC

H2O is available on subscription basis. To qualify for FREE annual subscription, please fill the form, below, and fax to +971 4 4341906 or e-mail to Should you have any colleagues who would want to receive the magazine, please copy and pass on this form. You can also subscribe online. Log on to, click on SUBSCRIPTIONS If you do not qualify for a free annual subscription, the following rates will apply: UAE: $100 GCC: $120 Middle East (non GCC): $135 Outside Middle East: $145

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Tender Categories Project Number Project Name Territory Client


Closing Date Period Status Remarks

Tender Categories 48


contract is expected to be issued in November 2010. An award is expected in the first quarter of 2011. Potable Water Works Power Generation & Distribution OPR430-IQ Oil Gathering System, Central Process Facilities & Water Supply System Project - West Qurna Field Iraq Name: Lukoil (Russia) Address: 11, Sretensky Boulevard City: Moscow 101000 Country: Russia Tel: (+7-495) 627 4444 Fax: (+7-495) 625 7016 E-mail: Website: Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract to build an Oil Gathering System, Central Process Facilities (CPF) and Water Supply System at West Qurna field - Phase 2. December 4, 2010 25/12/2012 New Tender This project is in Iraq. The tender is open to legal entities, domestic Iraqi and foreign companies having experience of implementation of similar projects and which are allowed, by the legislation of the Republic of Iraq and/ or by their country of registration, to perform works in the Republic of Iraq. Companies acting as applicants shall meet the following minimum requirements specified in the Tender documentation, including: - To have an average annual turnover as a result of performed work similar by nature to the subject of Tender (EPC of oil & gas production facilities) for the last three years in the amount of not less than $1,000,000,000. - To have in the last five years, the experience of performing Oil & Gas EPC projects as a general contractor under one or more completed projects with a value for one project of not less than $300,000,000. - To have certified equipment, software for design and qualified personnel to carry out the works set out in tender documentation. - If work related to contract performance relate to licensed activities in Iraq, to have appropriate licenses, or to have a preliminary agreement with sub-contractor companies that have such required licenses. - To have the ability to obtain required Bank Guarantee to secure the bid, Contract performance and repayment of any advance payment under the contract. - To be in a position to appoint as Project Manager an experienced specialist whose duration of ser vice in similar work is not less than five years. A full set of tender documents may be obtained after submission of a written application together with sufficient information confirming that the company meets the minimum criteria set out above (submitted on the letterhead, signed by an authorised person, shall be received before October 07, 2010) to Pavel.Kovalchuk@lukoil-overseas. com; copy to The written request of the applicant shall contain the following information: Full name of company, mail address, phone, fax, e-mail address, full name of contact person and his e-mail address. The Tender Documentation shall be sent by e-mail without any responsibility for loss or late arrival after submission of a written application as noted above. Hydrocarbon Processing, Storage & Distribution Oilfield Development Potable Water Works

OCTOBER 2010 |

Project Number Project Name Territory Client

Description Tender Cost $ Closing Date Status Remarks

Tender Categories Project Number Project Name Territory Client

Description Tender Cost $ Closing Date Status Remarks

Tender Categories

41/2010-J/1 Kufranja Dam Construction Project Jordan Name: Jordan Valley Authority Address: King Abdullah II St, Jabal Amman 8th Circle City: Amman 11118 Postal/Zip Code: 1220 Country: Jordan Tel: (+962-6) 585 8311-14 Fax: (+962-6) 585 7583 / 585 7639 E-mail: Website: Construction, completion and maintenance of Kufranja dam for a valley authority. 1,410 November 17, 2010 New Tender Tender No. 41/2010 This project is in Jordan. The major components of the project are a 80.5-metre-high concretefaced rock fill dam, a 64-metre-wide un-grated side channel spillway, a diversion tunnel, a bottom outlet, a grouting curtain, a multi-level intake structure, access roads, cofferdams and offices. The six- million-m3 damâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s catchments area is 99 square kilometres and it will have an average annual flow of 6.33 million m3/ year and a maximum probable flood of 846 cubic metres. Tender documents can be obtained from: Jordan Valley Authority Amman 11118, Iraq. Tel: (+962-6) 585 8311-14 Fax: (+962-6) 585 7583/7639. E-mail: The details are available until October 7, 2010. A pre-bid meeting will be held on October 17, 2010 followed by a site visit. The last date for inquiries is October 31, 2010. Potable Water Works GTC/343/2010-Q Water Distribution Mains & Service Connections Extension Project Qatar Name: Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation (Kahramaa) Address: NBK Building City: Doha Postal/Zip Code: 41 Country: Qatar Tel: (+974) 484 5111/ 555 5901/ 484 5555 Fax: (+974) 484 5191/ 466 2046 E-mail: Website: Carrying out extension of water distribution mains and service connections for an electricity & water corporation. 1,100 November 18, 2010 New Tender Tender No. GTC/343/2010 This project is in Qatar. Tender documents can be obtained from: Legal Department, 5th Floor, Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation (Kahramaa) Dafna, Qatar. Bid bond is QR 600,000. Offers should be submitted with a bank guarantee issued by a Qatari Bank or by a bank operating in Qatar. Companies, which wish to participate in this tender, should submit the following documents: 1) Copy of Commercial License 2) Mandate copy from the Company 3) Valid ID card 4) Company Stamp. Quotations should be submitted in sealed envelopes addressed to Secretary, General Tenders Committee. Potable Water Works / +971 2 634 8495

Project Number Project Name Territory Client

Description Tender Cost $ Closing Date Status Remarks

Tender Categories Project Number Project Name Territory Client

Description Tender Cost $ Closing Date Status Remarks

Tender Categories Project Number Project Name Territory Client

Description Tender Cost $ Closing Date Status Remarks

Tender Categories

512/1431/1432-SA Treated Water Carriage Line O&M Project Saudi Arabia Name: Ministry of Water & Electricity (Saudi Arabia) Address: King Fahd Road, Saudi Mall Centre City: Riyadh 11233 Postal/Zip Code: 5729 Country: Saudi Arabia Tel: (+966-1) 205 6666/ 205 2981 Fax: (+966-1) 205 2749 E-mail: Website: Carrying out operation and maintenance of treated carriage line for a water & electricity authority. 270 November 7, 2010 New Tender Tender No. 512/1431/1432 This project is in Saudi Arabia. Tender documents can be obtained from: Jizan Municipality Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Potable Water Works 60/431/432-SA Pumps & Motors-5 Saudi Arabia Name: Water Directorate (Saudi Arabia) City: Riyadh 11195 Country: Saudi Arabia Tel: (+966-1) 476 1377 Fax: (+966-1) 401 2365 Supply and installation of pumps and motors for water wells. 1,335 November 6, 2010 New Tender Tender No. 60/431/432 This tender supply is in Saudi Arabia. Tender documents can be obtained from: Tenders & Procurement Department, Madina Water Directorate Madina, Saudi Arabia. Potable Water Works 70/2010 (AUH) Irrigation Networks-2 Abu Dhabi Name: Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority ADFCA (Abu Dhabi) Address: Dalma Street, Public Works Bldg. City: Abu Dhabi Postal/Zip Code: 52150 Country: United Arab Emirates Tel: (+971-2) 495 4000 / 495 4440 Fax: (+971-2) 443 6190 E-mail: Website: Supply of irrigation networks for the farmers to a food control authority. 140 October 31, 2010 New Tender Tender No. 70/2010 This tender supply is in Abu Dhabi. Tender documents can be obtained from: Contracts & Purchasing Administration, 1st Floor, Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) Tel: (+971-2) 4954308 Fax: (+971-2) 4465826. The last date to purchase tender documents is October 07, 2010. Bank Guarantee is five per cent. All contractors participating in this tender must be registered or should have completed the documentation for registration with ADFCA before submitting the tender documents. Agriculture & Irrigation





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eventsCALENDAR OCTOBER October 9-13, 2010, Abu Dhabi

7th International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge Located in an area with pressing water needs, scarce surface water and a diversity of landscapes, lithologies, technologies, and cultures, ISMAR7 will provide attendees with new perspectives, insights and concentrated learning opportunities. This interactive conference is devoted entirely to the art of managing aquifer recharge and will include workshops, technical sessions, poster presentations, and a field trip to an active aquifer storage and recovery site. Attendees will receive the opportunity to access latest scientific advances, project case histories, cuttingedge innovations, expanded debate and discussion sessions, increased visibility of climate change and depleting water supplies, industry-leading knowledge and expertise and Insight into the latest developments in aquifer storage and recovery. Contact: Shabeena Cassiere Tel: +971 – 4 - 3034763 Fax: +971 - 4 - 3432251 E-mail: URL: October 17-19, 2010, Abu Dhabi

Water Middle East Power Generation & Water Middle East, held in partnership with Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA), showcases power and waterrelated products and services. ADWEA will hold a ‘Registration & Pre-Qualification’ workshop for new as well as existing companies targeting the Abu Dhabi market. Industry seminars will be held by leading companies in the power and water sectors on a variety of topics including reduction in water system energy use, prevention of transformer explosion and fire, secure and reliable communications for power networks, water projects


and water reuse systems and technologies. Presented in partnership with ADWEA, the Power and Water Leaders’ Forum on October 17th will host dignitaries from around the world who will share their expertise and experiences to help define the power and water sectors of the future. Contact: IIR Middle East Tel: +971-4- 336 5161 E-mail: URL: October 17-20, 2010, Istanbul

IWA regional conference on Membrane Technology and Water Reuse This conference is jointly organized by IWA, Istanbul Technical University and ISTAC (Special Company of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality). This regional conference organized in Istanbul is the first conference organized jointly by Membrane Technology and Water Reuse groups of IWA. It presents the advances in membrane technology and water reuse and provides a perfect atmosphere to make contacts between researchers, professionals and engineers working on membrane technology and water reuse. The topics of the conference will cover almost all the areas of membrane technology and water reuse. Contact: Ismail Koyuncu, Istanbul Technical University Tel: +90 212 285 3789 Fax: +90 212 285 6545 E-mail: URL:

NOVEMBER November 4-5, 2010, Beirut

AFED Annual Conference

For the 3rd consecutive year, the Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) will hold its annual conference and present its annual report on water, highlighting the need for more sustainable management of a scarce resource. The conference, scheduled for November 4-5, 2010 at Habtoor

OCTOBER 2010 |

Grand Hotel and Convention Centre in Beirut, will discuss the report, prepared by AFED and edited by former head of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Dr. Mohamed El-Ashry. The report is designed to contribute to the discourse on sustainable management of water resources in the Arab world, stressing the urgent need for policy reforms. More than 30 ministers and heads of international and regional organisations as well as top researchers and scientists have confirmed their participation in this year’s conference. Contact: AFED Tel: +961 - 1 - 321800 Fax: +961 - 1 - 321900 Email: URL: November 8-10, 2010, Algiers

6th Algeria Electricity and Water Expo

John Hopkins University predicts that Algeria will have a ratio of water annually of less than 1000 m3 available water per person in 2025 which makes water one of the main concerns for Algeria’s future. The sixth Algeria Electricity & Water Expo 2010 will provide a complete range of procurement solutions for power and water producers operating in Algeria and other African countries. Apart from the main exhibition, there will be breakout sessions next to the exhibit floor to give attendees a chance to explore topics of interest in depth and question experts in a more intimate setting. Contact: Exhibition Secretariat Tel: +213 - 21824692 Fax: +213 - 21824695 E-mail: aew6/whatae.php November 9-11, 2010, Portland

Membranes Now and for the Future This American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) Technology Transfer Workshop will focus on Membranes Now and for the Future Attendees will learn about basic overview of various membrane technologies

2010 including MF, UF, NF, RO and MBR, an overview of theTri-City WPCF, including a facility tour of this WTP. The workshop will also highlight several Membrane Case Studies, information regarding Membrane Applications and Regulatory Issues. In addition, there will be a panel discussion regarding MF/UF Innovations. Contact: AMTA Tel: +1 - 772-463-0820 Fax: +1 - 772-463-0860 Email: URL:

DECEMBER December 5-9, 2010, Amman

Arab Water Week

Under the umbrella of the League of Arab States (LAS) and in partnership with the Arab Ministerial Water Council (AMWC) and the Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI), the Arab Countries Water Utilities Association (ACWUA) is organising the first Arab Water Week at Le Meridien Hotel, Amman. The Arab Water Week (AWW) is the first regional meeting in the Arab region, which will tackle water management issues through establishing innovative partnerships and platforms of collaborative work on water issue in the region. The importance of this meeting lies in providing a platform for greater coordination among the existing network of key partners active in the water sector in the region. The focus area for the conference will be Cost Recovery at Water and Wastewater Utilities: Achievements, Challenges and Solutions. During the event, the Arab Countries Water Utilities Association (ACWUA) in cooperation with InWent –Capacity Building International, Germany will deliver a twoday training program for top management of the region’s water and wastewater utilities on Performance Indicators and Benchmarking for Water Utilities. Contact: The organisers Tel: + 9626 4642501/2/3 Fax: + 9626 4642506 URL:

H2O - October 2010  
H2O - October 2010  

Water evokes a deep sense of responsibility among the governments, people and businesses in the Middle East & North Africa (MENA) region, wh...