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Landscape Character Assessment

Otep채채, Estonia

Hannah Ruffell, Rania Tzalla & Julia Wesenlund


Landscape Character Assessment

Section & Author

Title

1

Introduction

Page

Section & Author

Title

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3.13 Undulating Woodland Patchwork

3.123 Vidrika Area 1

1.2 Methodology

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3.131 Arula/Mäha/Sihva/Pühajärve Area

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1.3 Introduction to Otepää

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3.132 Nüpli Area

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1.4 Fieldwork

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3.133 Nüpli/Pilkuse Area

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1.5 Fieldwork

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3.134 Pilkuse Area

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Analysis

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2.2 Topography Map

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2.3 Hydrology Map

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2.6 Settlement Map

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2.7 Overlay Landscape Elements

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2.8 Defining Landscape Types

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Landscape Character Assessment

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3.1 Rolling Patchwork of Arable Fields and Woodland

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3.11 Kolgü Area

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3.12 Nüpli/ Vidrike/ Pilkuse/ Truuta Area

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3.2 High Density Forest

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3.22 Nüpli Area

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3.23 Märdi/ Kassiratta/ Töutsi Area

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3.3 Undulating Agricultural Land 3.31 Kastolatsi/ Vana Otepää Area

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3.4 Wooded Mosaic with Arable Land and Open Field

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3.5 Arable Farmland with Larger Settlements

3.41 Vana Otepää Area

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3.6 Patchwork of Forest, Open Land and Fields

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3.61 Arula Area

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3.62 Märdi Area

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3.7 Primarily Forest with Few Farmsteads 3.8 Arable and Open Field Mosaic 3.9 Settlement Clusters and Water Feature in Open Fields 3.10 Urban Settlement with Recreation led Suburbs 3.101 Otepää Area

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3.52 Pedajamäe Area

3.91 Otepää/Pühajärve Area JW

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3.81 Pühajärve Area JW

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3.51 Märdi/ Sihva Area

3.71 Pilkuse Area JW

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3.21 Pedajamäe/ Kostalatsi/ Vana Otepää Area

3.11 Arable and Pastoral Mosaic with Kettle Lakes

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

3.111 Pilkuse Area

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3.112 Nüpli Area

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3.12 Wooded and Pastoral Mosaic with Kettle Lakes

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3.121 Mäha Area

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3.122 Kääriku/Sihva Area

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3.15 Lake Pühajärve and Lakeside 3.151 Sihva/ Puhajarve/ Nupli Area

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51 52 53 54

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3.16 Peat Mining Area 3.161 Raudsepa Area

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3.17 Ribbon Lakes and Banks

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3.171 Vidrike/Truuta/Kaurutoots/Kolgo HR

3.18 Flat Agricultural Plain 3.181 Ilmjarve/Toutsi Area

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n e

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2.5 Communications Map

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3.14 Developed Lakeside 3.141 Pühajärve/Nüpli Area

2.1 Soil Map

2.4 Landcover Map

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45

1.1 Objectives

HR 2

Page

4.1 Landscape Value Assessment

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58 59 60 61


Landscape Character Assessment

Our aim is to carry out a comprehensive Landscape Character Assessment of the Otepää Upland region from which we will then generate a Landscape Value Assessment. Using these findings, sensitivity, pressure and capacity will be calculated for each landscape area in order to determine a suitable location for a recreation design project. Why carry out a Landscape Character Assessment? • Identify what environmental and cultural features are present in a locality • monitor change in the environment • understand a location’s sensitivity to development and change • inform the conditions for any development and change (Source: Scottish Natural Heritage and The Countryside Agency) O b j e c t i v e s

“Rather it is an aid to decision-making - a tool to help understand what the landscape is like today, how it came to be like that, and how it may change in the future. Its role is to help ensure that change and development does not undermine whatever is characteristic or valued about any particular landscape, and that ways of improving the character of a place can be considered. It can be a powerful tool to aid the planning, design and management of landscapes.”

Landscape character is defined as a distinct and recognisable pattern of elements that occur consistently in a particular type of landscape. Particular combinations of geology, landform, soils, vegetation, land use, field patterns and human settlement create character. Character makes each part of the landscape distinct, and gives each its particular sense of place. Whether we value certain landscapes for their distinctiveness, or for other reasons, is a separate question.


Landscape Character Assessment

STEP 1 Defining the Scope

Introduction to the project and familiarisation visit to the site. Decisions made as to how the assessment would be carried out and at what scale.

Field data collected.

STEP 2 Field Survey

M e t h o d

STEP 3 Desk Study

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Photographs and sketches taken of areas visited. Aesthetic elements of the landscape are observed and recorded - colours, textures, experiences. A series of map overlays were developed to help in the identification of landscape characters. Background information on Otepaa was collected and used where relevant.

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STEP 4 Classification and Description

Refinement of the characterisation process by classifying the landscape into landscape character types and landscape character areas and mapping their extent. Clear descriptions of their character.

STEP 5 Landscape Value Assessment

Collating all the information gathered so far into a coherent ranking system of landscape value to be used for the next stage of creating sensitivity and capacity maps.


Introduction

About the Otepää Municipality

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of the ‘Tartu Maraton’ tracks starting here (skiing, cycling and

The Otepää upland is an area of 1,180 km2. The landscape consists of undulating glacial moraine forming hills, kettle lakes and wetlands. This mosaic landscape is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna including deer, beavers, woodpecker and lesser spotted eagle. The town of Otepää, to the north of Lake Pühajärv is a centre for winter and summer sports with all

Otepää

running). The rest of the area is sparsely populated with a few other recreational centres and a scattering of farmsteads, some of which date back to the collective farms of the Soviet era. Otepää Nature Park covers an area of 232 km2 in the central part of the Otepää Upland. The main function of the nature park is to protect local landscapes and to manage these areas to prevent harm to the landscape. For this purpose the reserve area has been zoned into areas of strict protection and areas of moderate economic activities.

Colours of Otepää


Landscape Character Assessment

The Site Visits & Related Photographs These photographs have been compiled from fieldwork studies and mapped according to their location in Otep채채. These were then used to determine characteristics in these areas and have been described in the Landscape Character Assessment in light of our findings. Our fieldwork was restricted due to the limited time spent in the region. We visited as many different sites as possible in the two days that we had. The sites were varied in their characteristics and a lot of them were visited on foot in order to get a greater feeling and understanding of the landscape. The sites mentioned in the re-

F i e l

port that were visited have been studied using a variety of methods. Google Earth was used for photographs, although the limits to this are that photographs are only taken from where there are main roads. For areas where there is tourism through either recreation or ecology a certain amount of information could be obtain from

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various websites. Limitations to this was the languge barrier although a lot of them

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had english translations.

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Colours of Otep채채


Landscape Character Assessment

Otepää’s Characteristic Woodland This was a landscape characteristic of Otepää that made a big impression on the site visits. The forest is mostly boreo-nemoral forest which grows on productive soils, which have been largely cultivated due to their high productivity. In addition to the Norway spruce, broad-leaved trees such as the English oak, the European ash, the mountain elm, the Norway maple and the small-leaved lime grow in boreo-nemoral forests. The forests are characterised by a lush and species-rich undergrowth formed by the hazelnut, the fly honeysuckle, the May rose and the mountain currant. The field layer is formed by the goutweed, the yellow archangel, the lungwort, the wood stitchwort, the hazelwort, the female fern, the hepatica and the wood anemone.

F i e l d w o r k

Colours of Otepää


Otepää Landscape Analysis

Soil

Otepaa Soil Map Source: Estonian University of Life Sciences 2012

The soil survey above shows the variety of different soil types that dictate the landcover in the Otepää municipality. These soil types include the following: •

Floodplain gley/Thin alluvial fen soil

Thin and thick alluvial fen soil

Gley Floodplain Soil

Dilluvial soil/Dilluvial-gley soil

Eroded scree soil

Leached Gley/Peaty soil

Scree soil/Leached soil

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Gley soil/Podzol shallow earth

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Fen soil

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Outcrop Ground

Transition Mire Soil

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M a

As an example, fen soil indicates wetter land, Sandy soils

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indicate pine and farmland is situated on a combination of gley and scree soils.

Floodplain Gley & Thin Alluvial Fen Soil (AG, AM77)

Eroded Scree Soil (E2k, E2o, E2-, E3k & E3o)

Fen Soil (M, M7, M77, M777, M777aI, M77aI, M77aI, M7aI)

Thin& Thick Alluvial Fen Soil (AM77, AM777)

Leached Gley, Peaty Soil (Go, Go(G-), Go(LPg), Go1, G-, G-(Go), G-1, G-:G0)

Outcrop Ground (Pp)

Gley Floodplain Soil (Ag)

Scree Soil, Leached Soil (K, Ke, Ko, Ko(2), Ko:Kr, Ko;LP, Koe, Kog, K-, K-e, K-g, K-g(LPg), K-g;Ko)

Transition Mire Soil (S7, S77, S777)

Diluvial Soil, Diluvial-Gley Soil (D, DG & Dg)

Gley Soil, Podzol Sallow Earth L(k)-, L(k)-(1), L(k)-g, LG, LG1, LP, LP(1), LP(3), LP(g), LP:Ko, LP;K-,

LP;LPG, LP;Lk, LPG, LPe, LPe:LP, LPg, LPg(Lk-g), LPg;L-g, LPg;Lk-g, LkG, Lk-, Lk-(1), Lk-(2), Lk-(3), Lk-e, Lk-g, Lk--, Lk--g, L-(1), L-g, L--, L--g)


Landscape Character Assessment

Topography The Otepää Upland rises more than 100 metres above the surrounding plains. This may not seem very high but Estonia’s relief is modest: on average only 50m above sea level. The upland is formed from sediments accumulated mostly during the Pleistocene Ice Age, and in some localities the thickness of the sediments reaches 200 metres. The Otepää Upland can generally be divided into two higher parts divided by a partly buried ancient valley, running from north-northeast to south-southwest, which rises only 120–130

T

meters above sea level. In the north this glacial valley joins the

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valley of the Elva River, and in the south it is continued by the

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valley of the Väike Emajõgi River. The valley is marked by three

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bigger lakes — Lake Pangodi, Lake Nõuni and Lake Pühajärv.

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The highest hills of the upland are west of the valley, among

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them Kuutsemägi (217 m). Located in the eastern larger but

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more shallow area is the dome-shaped Väike Munamägi (207.5 m).

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1m Contour Lines Municipality Boundary


Landscape Character Assessment

Hydrology Due to the topography of the area the Otepää Upland is made up a range of kettle lakes, meandering waterways and wetlands. The number of lakes in the Otepää Upland is 130, 65 of them are located in the nature park. The lakes are mostly small and low, the average depth being 5-6 m with Lake Peitlemäe the exception which is 22 m deep and has yellow-brown water. The largest lake in the municipality is Lake Pühajärv (286 ha)

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which has a sinuous shape, beach and five forested islands.

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The average depth of the lake is 4.3 m; the deepest part near

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Kloostrisaare Island and the Angunina Peninsula where it is 8.3

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m.

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M a p

Water Bodies

Wetlands

Waterways


Landscape Character Assessment

Landcover In modern history the landscape of Otepää has been largely affected by anthropogenic processes. At the same time the hilly relief has imposed its restrictions on management, which has left fragmented meadows and patches of arable land. Mixed forest covers the majority of the area. Forest covers approximately 48% of the area of the Nature Park and includes the following species: •

Grey Alder (Alnus incana),

Silver Birch (Betula Pendula),

English Oak (Quercus Robur),

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Hazel (Corylus)

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Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)

c

Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

L a

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Some areas are held under special management zones

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protecting the woodland environment while others are managed or neglected and left to spread into open unused land.

M a p

Arable Land Deciduous Woodland

Open Land Coniferous Woodland

Farmed Fields Mixed Woodland


Landscape Character Assessment

Communications The area is covered by a web-like network of roads. The main roads are tarmac and spread out from Otepää through the area. Smaller roads and tracks are a combination of tarmac, dirt and gravel roads which connect some of the scattered hamlets and farmsteads as well as the sub-centre recreation Areas. Near the Pursa/Kosti Special Management Zones there even runs a particularly old winding road who’s bends and shape are protected from alteration.

C o m m u n i c a t i o n s

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Main Roads

Tarmac Roads

Dirt Tracks


Landscape Character Assessment

Settlement The municipality of Otepää comprises of one town, Otepää and 21 villages. The total population is 4154 (01.01.10) of which 2192 live in the town and 1962 live in the coutryside. The town of Otepää is situated on to the north-east of Lake Pühajärv. It is a small town and it’s main income comes from recreation as it is a site for winter and summer sports and many large sports events throughout the year. The rest of the municipality is mostly sparsely populated with sub-

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centres for recreation and their accompanying accommodation

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and scattered farmstead of varying sizes and in varying states

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of care and use. A lot of these farmsteads are old collective

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farms from the Soviet era and have a distictive character about

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them.

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M a p

Settlement


Landscape Character Assessment

O v e

Communications

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Settlement

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L a n d

Landcover

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Hydrology

l e m e n t

Topography

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A key part of our analysis was overlaying the landscape layers seen to the left. The map above shows four of these layers. This process was used to identify similarities and differences Soil

in the landscape across the entire study area. Once these marked out we began the process of defining our Landscape


Landscape Character Assessment

Landscape Character Key Rolling Patchwork of Arable Field and Woodland High Density Forest

D e f i n i n

Undulating Agricultural Land Wooded Mosaic with Arable Land and Open Fields Arable Farmland with Larger Settlements Patchwork of Forest, Open Land and Fields

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Heavily Wooded with Few Farmsteads

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Undulating Farmland Mosaic

a n

Settlement Clusters and Water Features in Open Fields

d s c a p e

T y p e s

Urban Settlement with Recreation Led Suburbs Arable and Pastoral Mosaic with Kettle Lakes Wooded and Pastoral Mosaic with Kettle Lakes Undulating Woodland Patchwork Developed Lakeside Holy Lake and Lakeside Peat Mining Area Ribbon Lakes and Banks Flat Agricultural Plain


Landscape Character Type 1

M K N S K a

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Rolling Patchwork of Arable Fields and Woodland Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • •

Wetland streams Scattered Farmsteads Arable Fields Woodland

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Physical Description: The geology of the first zone is dominated by a combination of eroded scree/leached soil, fen soil, dilluvial soil and gley soil. Due to the withdrawal of an old glacier the topography is characterized by a steeply sloped terrain with a flat relief on top. These naturally formed hills allow the possibility of sports such as skiing. A patchwork of wetland streams, gentle undulating lowland of arable fields with a few scattered farmsteads are present in the area. Visual Description: The landscape is on a large scale. The terrain of the area creates a strong rolling pattern. Moreover, the vegetation creates a rough and colorful texture. There is a good balance between the woodland and the open areas. All the dominant landcover elements give a diverse and irregular structure to the area. The landscape spreads greating a sense of openess and offering panoramic vistas.

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Condition: Some of the areas that enhance the landscape with cultural character seem to be neglected and not well maintained. A proportion of this area is managed farmland. Forces for Change: This area has a great opportunity for forest recreation, sports facilities such as golf areas and ski slopes. More tourist attractions. Management Options: Woodland management, develop new sport facilities that would attract tourists. More viewpoints and footpaths.


Landscape Character Type 1 Kolgü Area Distinguishing Features: • Pokumaa Suur, Taimerada Pokumaa a favorite place for children where they can get a direct contact with nature, see the traditional way of life and make the acquaintance of art. Pokumaa are 3 different hiking trails Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Landscape Character Type 1 Nüpli/ Vidrike/ Pilkuse/ Truuta Area Distinguishing Features: • Hobusamägi Hill 172m over sea level Soil

Landcover

Topography

Communication

Hydrology

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 2

P P M N e

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k

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• • • •

Arable Farmland Scattered Farmsteads Patchwork of Wetland Areas Patches of Mixed Forest

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Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements:

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High Density Forest

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Physical Description: The north side of the zone is dominated by fen soil and as we move south more gley and eroded scree soil is present. Topography is an undulating rolling plateau. Landcover is characterised by scrubland, species-rich grassland and marsh which are interspersed by mixed woodlands of deciduous and coniferous trees. Some arable land is being neglected and woodland encroaches into these spaces. There is a network of lakes, stream and wetlands. Communication is represented by scattered gravel paths.

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Visual Description: This particular zone gives the impression of a vast scale landscape with open enclosures, rough and colorful texture formed by the diverse vegetation. The topography reveals a rolling form with curved lines and busy movements.

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Conditions: There are special management zones. Ruined and abandoned scattered farmsteads. Forces for Change: Woodlands encroaching on derelict farmland. Management Options: Increased woodland management and more cultural sights. Communication network should be enhanced with more track and paths for tourists.


Landscape Character Type 2

Pedajamäe/ Kostalatsi/ Vana Otepää Area Distinguishing Features: Habitat/Species Management Areas of Landscape Reserve: • Kiriku • Kölmajarve • Kortina Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Landscape Character Type 2 Nüpli Area

Distinguishing Features: • Apteekrimägi The first big ski jumping hill of Otepää was Apteekrimägi (“Pharmacist’s jump”) which was opened on 1963-10-20. Still today the four plastic covered ski jumps are used. Soil

Landcover

Topography

Communication

Hydrology

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 2

Märdi/ Kassiratta/ Töutsi Area Distinguishing Features: Habitat/Species Management Area of Landscape Reserve • Pülme Pülme lake is elongated northeast-southwest direction and 6.4 ha to 13.7 m deep, low-flow in a picturesque lake. Situated between the wooded hills, the lake is located near Brush Mountain (212 m), which rises 52 meters above the lake Soil

Topography

• Vaade Harimäest

Hydrology

Landcover

• Harimäe Draakon

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 3

K a s t o l a t s i

Undulating Agricultural Land Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • •

Open Fields Scattered settlements Patchwork of Wetlands

Physical Description: Gentle undulating lowland where arable farmland and open pasture are interspersed with patches of woodland. Hydrology consists of kettle lakes and wetlands in the south where the land is flatter and less populated. Settlement is a mix of Farm Buildings and smaller houses close to the main road arteries.

Visual Description: This whole area is surrounded by a high density forest, resulting in a small scale and enclosed landscape. The landscape is simple and Dominated by Farmlands. The rich species grassland creates a smooth texture. At the same time the straight lines create a horizontal form. The harmonious balance of the landscape combined with the topography, creates a calm feeling. Conditions: Forgotten Cultural sights such as the Orthodox Church. Destroyed Farmsteads. The local architectural vernacular is highly individual. Forces for Change: Expansion of agriculture may destroy the last remaining forested areas.

Management Options: Continued maintenance of farmland and farmstead reconstruction. Improvement of area around the ‘forgotten’ church.


Landscape Character Type 3

Kastolatsi/ Vana Otepää Area Distinguishing Features: • Uandimagi Hill This steep-sloped high hill is considered a site of a an ancient stronghold. A folk tale relates that there is a big treasure buried there.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

• Veske Mänd Veske Pine tree, according to literary scientist O. Kruus, there is a reason to believe that under this tree Mihkel Veske wrote his well-known song “Kas tunned maad..” • Kastolatsi Orthodox Church Kastolatsi is a village in Otepää Parish, Valga County in southeastern Estonia. The church in the West is on an elongate ridge, Vallimägi, Which is named after the Northern War.

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 4

Wooded Mosaic with Arable land and Open Fields

V a n a

Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements:

O t e

• • • •

p ä ä

Arable land Scattered Farmsteads Small kettle lakes Mixed forest

Physical Description: The geology of this area is base on eroded scree soil, fen soil and in smaller scale floodplain gley- thin alluvial fen soil and dilluvial soil. Smooth rolling topography is noticed. Concerning the landcover, it is mostly a mosaic of coniferous and deciduous woodland with more open land in the north-west and agricultural fields in the south-east. The road system crosses the area with accompanying smaller tracks. There are small kettle lakes, streams and wetlands. Low density of settlement. Visual Description: The mosaic of landcover gives the impression of an intimate scale and a enclosed view of the landscape. Because of the dominant elements of the area, a high diversity and rough texture is noticed. Due to the topography, the zone is characterised by angular lines and undulating land form. The changing vegetation reinforces the garish colour scheme and an organized pattern. There is an equal balance between woodland, open fields and arable land. Conditions: Good condition of network system. Areas of managed farmland. Forces for Change: Potential expansion of farmland into scenic areas. Management Options: Protection of the lake areas.


Landscape Character Type 4 Vana Otepää Area Distinguishing Features: • Vahe Järv

• Turu Järv

• Alapika Järv

• Tseema Järv

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 5

O V P P M

Arable farmland with larger settlements

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Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements:

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O t

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More Arable Farmland Scattered Farmsteads

Physical Description: The soils in this area are fen, dilluvial, leached gley and smaller areas of floodplain gley. Gentle undulating lowland where arable farmland and open pasture are interspersed with settlement of a mixed farm buildings and smaller houses close to the main road arteries. The land cover is dominated by grassland with marshes. Tarmac roads cross through these areas with smaller tracks branching from these. Visual Description: The aesthetic aspects of this landscape are medium scale and open. The farmland cover most of the area and contributes to its lack of diversity. The fields create strong lines. The rich grassland creates a muted colour effect which results in a harmonious balanced landscape. Conditions: Due to the wet weather conditions the roads that encompass the farmland areas are in disrepair.

Forces for Change: Arable land is engulfing remaining woodland.

Management Options: Improve communication network conditions.


Landscape Character Type 5 Märdi/ Sihva Area

Distinguishing Features: • Arable Farmland and large Farmsteads

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Soil

Topography

Landcover

Communication

Landscape Character Type 5 Pedajamäe Area

Distinguishing Features: • Arable Farmland and large Farmsteads

Hydrology

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 6

KN T M A V a ü ö ä

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s p u r

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t l t d l r o i l a t

s i i

/ P / i K

s l a i k u u r

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Patchwork of forest, open fields and arable land Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • •

More Arable Farmland Scattered Farmsteads Small Kettle Lakes Mixed Forest

s u e t o o t s

Physical Description: The geology of this zone is a mixture of eroded scree soil/ peaty soil, gley, dilluvial and fen soil. The topography consists of small sloping rounded hills and depressions. The land cover is dominated by open lands and agricultural fields. Through the years arable land has decreased becoming more forested, something which is noticed in the west Arula area. There are a few lakes in these areas which are often linked by streams. The settlements consist of collective and state farms. Visual Description: The patchwork of forest, open land and fields provide a medium scale. The farmland in the majority of areas creates an open environment, and with the combination of the forest areas this forms a diverse landscape. Curved lines and rolling form create a sense of calm. Considering the open areas and the fields, the colour in the area are muted. Conditions: Disused arable land gives the impression of abandonment. Forces for Change: Arable land is decreasing due to lack of management and spreading woodland. Management Options: Management of sport areas and tourist attractions. Unused fields and open land should be included in the Forest Recreation.


Landscape Character Type 6 Arula Area Distinguishing Features: • Emaläte (Mother Spring) On northern bank of the Perajärv there is a source called Emaläte. People of Arula Emajogi River begins from there. Motherspring is a small pound, 5x5m, the depth is about 10-47cm.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

• Kuutsemägi Hills The highest top of Otepää uplands (217m above sea level). The hill has an observation platform offering one of the most remarkable views on Southern Otepää.

• Ristimägi (HILL OF CROSSES) The Ristimägi is an area with sandy hillocks covered with crosses on both sides of the old main road, but especially on the left side. At first, the hill of crosses was a place where anyone leaving the island went to make and place their cross. Nowadays things have changed, it is new comers and first-time visitors to the island who make and leave crosses.


Landscape Character Type 6 Märdi Area Distinguishing Features: • Märdi Old mill place where there are many bird and animal species such as kingfisher, goldeneye, owl, water ouzel, elk, otter and badger. By the dam on the right bank of Emajogi there are Amur cork trees.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 7

Primarily Forest with Few Farmsteads

P i l k

Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements:

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• • • • •

Heavily Forested Undulating Hill Mostly Fen Soil Few Open Fields Dirt Tracks

Physical Description: Gently undulating topography with some steeper areas and other flatter land to the north-east where the soil type is mainly fen soil with some gley and podzol soils. Floodplain gley and thin alluvial fen soil surround the streams. Where the land is flatter there are wetland areas. Mixed woodland accounts for most of the landcover interspersed with open fields and pastoral land. There is very little arable land and extremely low settlement. Road networks are limited to a few dirt tracks. Visual Description: This landscape has large scale wooded areas with a few scattered patches of open land where there is a sense of enclosure from the surrounding woodland. There is diversity of landscape created by the patchwork of woodland, open and pastoral fields. The pattern created is random and the landscape undulates with sinuous lines of steeper topography. Colours are from a natural muted palette. The texture is rough with so much woodland but the perception is calm mostly due to its low settlement and road density. Condition: Good condition. Very small amount of managed farmland. Special Management Zone in the Trepimae Hills in the south. Forces for Change: Possible growth of farmed areas. Managment Options: Extend the Special Management Zones and protect native deciduous woodland.


Landscape Character Type 7 1 olgü A Area rea Kilkuse P Distinguishing Features: •

Murru Special Management Zone

• Trepimäe Hill Special Management Zone 200m above sea level, slopes on the south and southeastern side of the hill are extremely steep with several terraces. There are views of Pilkuse Lake and Tehvandi.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character

Arable & Open Field Mosaic

P ü h a

Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • Arable Farmland • Large and Small Farmsteads • Open Fields • Undulating Lowland • Small Kettle Lakes • Wetland Areas • Tarmac Roads • Dirt Tracks • Tarmac Cycle & Footpaths

j ä r v e

type

Physical Description:

8

Undulating lowland where arable farmland and open pasture are interspersed with patches of woodland from small deciduous clumps to larger areas of mixed woodland. Fen soils exists where the land is flatter. On higher land there is a mosaic of gley soil, eroded scree soil, scree soil and dilluvial soil. A kettle lake and wetlands are present on flat land where it is less populated and there is higher woodland density. Settlement is a mix of farm buildings and smaller houses close to the main road arteries. Most of the roads are tarmac and provide even access across the area.

Visual Description:

Large scale open landscape with few enclosed areas. More diverse in the east where there are two kettle lakes and the ladscape pattern becomes more patchy with less arable and more wooded areas. Overall rolling form with angular landcover pattern at odds with the curved line of the topography. Pattern is fairly regular before becoming less formal in the flatter, wetter areas.

Condition:

Mostly farmed land. Well maintained roads and paths.

Forces for Change:

Close to Otepää and Pühajärv so vulnerable to expansion of settlement though farming is limited to its current location due to soil type.

Managment Options:

Possible protection of the wetland areas. Monitor development in the south-east areas that are nearest to Pühajärv.


Landscape Character Type 8 1 olgü A rea K Pühajärve Area Distinguishing Features: •

Kukemäe Special Management Zone

Camping Site near Neitsijärv

• Lake Neitsijärv Used to be smaller and cleaner and was called ‘Small Lake’ where water lilies used to grow. Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 9

Settlement Clusters and Water Features in Open Fields

O t e p ä

Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements:

ä

/ P

• • • • • •

ü h a j a r

Settlement Clusters Open Fields Tarmac Roads Industry Low undulations Complex Hydrology

v e

Physical Description:

Mostly flat with a few hilly areas. The flatter land is home to clusters of settlements, tarmac roads including one of the main roads through the region. There are many different water features including kettle lakes, wetland, streams and managed water systems. Where there is less water the soil is scree soil and elsewhere it is predominantly fen and gley soils. Open fields dominate the landscape with arable land concentrated in more remote areas.

Visual Description:

The visual impression of this landscape is one of a large scale within open surroundings and gently sloping or flat terrain. More enclosed areas are felt near more populated places where roads are flanked by houses and their gardens. The area has diverse and irregular landcover which covers the land in a combination of angular and curved shapes, more angular in built up areas and curved nearer natural landscape features. The colours are muted away from settlement but become more colourful in populated parts, however, the colours of the buildings are not entirely discordant.

Condition:

Land is affected by human influence but generally well kept. Areas around industiral activity are unsightly.

Forces for Change:

Growth of tourism will affect this region as it has amenities nearby, it is well connected and land can be built on without difficulty.

Managment Options

Potential for expansion of cross country ski routes in this area and land is suitable for development of tourist amenities.


LLandscape andscape C Character haracter T Type ype 1 9 olgü A rea K Otepää/Pühajärve Area Distinguishing Features: •

Autohunt OU, Machinery Maintenance and Repairs

Large industrial area in the centre of the area

UPM Otepää Plywood Mill

Jaanuse Järv Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 10

O t e p ä

Urban Settlement with Recreation led Suburbs Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements:

ä

• • • • • • •

Buildings Recreation Amenities Tarmac ROads Steep Hills Patchy Woodland Open Fields Footpaths

Physical Description: Mosaic of soil types with undulating hilly topography. Steep hills to the south and a steep slope that weaves up from the south to the north-west and curves around to form higher land that the town of Otepää sits on in the west. Areas of streams and wetland feature at the bottom of this slope to the north-east amongst open fields and small patches of forest. High density tarmac road network and settlement to the west in Otepää which spreads in a fan shape to the east. A network of recreation trails, footpaths and buildings. Small wooden townhouses in Otepää. Visual Description: Scale varies from the smaller scale within the town of Otepää where the house create a sense of enclosure to a larger scale landscape where a sense of enclosure is still prevelant in the patchy woodlands that border the open fields. Regular grid like pattern in the town with angular horizontal and vertical lines that become more organic on reaching the outskirts of the town. Colours vary from the colourful town buildings to the muted landscape outside with the recreation areas somewhere between the two. This area has visual diversity and multiple textures ranging from smooth and rough town surfaces to the rough textures of the natural landscape. There is a lot of movement and activity in the area creating a busy atmosphere. Condition: Town and recreation areas are well maintained. Natural landscape has been disrupted by human activity. Forces for Change: The changing economy will affect the population and activities taking place in the town. There will be seasonal influxes of tourists using the area for different activities. Managment Options: Monitor and care for the town infrastructure and provide up to date amenities for local residents and tourists.


andscape C Character haracter T Type ype 10 1 LLandscape olgü A rea K Otepää

Distinguishing Features: •

Tehvandi Sports Centre with Ski Stadium

Kunimägi Hill

Otepää Ancient Stronghold Site

Otepää Church

Museum

Archeological Memorial

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 11

P N i

ü

l p k l u i s e

Arable and Pastoral Mosaic with Kettle Lakes Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • • •

Undulating Hills Arable Land Pastoral Land Open Fields Woodland

Physical Description: Undulating hills with mixed soil cover. A mosaic of arable and pastoral land with a few scattered open fields and woodland throughout. Prominant water features are in this landscape type with large kettle lakes, streams and wetland areas. There is a combination of tarmac roads and dirt tracks and the areas are moderately populated with farmsteads.

Visual Description: Large scale open landscape with intimate, more enclosed areas around lakesides and populated areas. High diversity, making this a pleasant area to spend time in. Rough and smooth textures of the hydrological features and the wooded landscape combine with rolling forms of the topography to create a harmonious balance. The landscape is calm and colour are muted, all from a natural palette. Condition: Areas of farmed land and evidence of recreational activity. Forces for Change: In winter the landscape would be affected by increased recreation in certain areas which might put pressure on infrastructure. Managment Options: Potential for tourism development as already affected by anthropogenic processes. Lakes are likely to be an attraction and should be managed accordingly.


Landscape Character Type 11 Pilkuse Area

Distinguishing Features: •

Lüüsjärve Special Management Zone

Kaarna Järve

Pilkuse Järv Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Landscape Character Type 11 Nüpli Area Distinguishing Features: •

Nüpli Järv

Väika Munamägi Hill with Observation Tower

Camping Site

Snowmobile Rental Centre

Slalom Ski Slope

Soil

Topography

Communication

Landcover

Hydrology

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 12

M K V ä

ä

i

h

ä

d

a

r

r

i

i

k

k

u

a

/ S i h v a

Wooded and Pastoral Mosaic with Kettle Lakes Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • • • • •

Undulating Hills Woodland Pastoral Land Open Fields Arable Land Kettle Lakes Dirt Tracks

Physical Description: Similar characteristic to landscape type 11 but with more woodland. Undulating hills with mixed soil cover. A mosaic of pastoral fields and woodland with a few scattered open fields and farmland throughout. There are prominant water features in this landscape type with large kettle lakes, streams and wetland areas. Roads are mostly dirt tracks with perhaps one tarmac road. Land is managed for recreation in several areas. Visual Description: Large scale open landscape with intimate, more enclosed areas around lakesides and populated places. High diversity, making this a pleasant area to spend time in. Rough textures of the woodland contrasts with the smooth water of the lakes. The wooded landscape and rolling forms of the topography create an impression of balance and harmony. The landscape is calm and colours are muted. Condition: Areas of heavily managed land e.g. Golf Course. Forces for Change: Expansion of recreation onto natural habitat. Managment Options: Manage the relationship between recreation and natural areas with care. Lakes are likely to be an attraction and should be managed accordingly.


Landscape Character Type 12 1 olgü A rea K Mäha Area Distinguishing Features: •

Golf Course

Mäha Järv

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Landscape Character Type 12 Kääriku/Sihva Area Distinguishing Features: •

Small section of the Kekkose Ski Trail

Juusa Järv

Kääriku Järv with Scenic view from nearby Seinamägi

Torni Järv

Voki Special Management Zone

Proximity to Pühajärv


Landscape Character Type 12 1 olgü A rea K Vidrika Area Distinguishing Features: •

Inni Järv

Camping Site

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 13

AN N P r ü

ü

i

u p

p

l

l l

l

k

a i

i

u

/ M

/ P

ä

i

h

l

a

k

/ S i h v

u s e

s e

Undulating Woodland Patchwork

Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • • • • • • •

Mixed Dense Woodland Undulating Hilly Topography Open Fields and Arable Areas Scattered Farmsteads Small Kettle Lakes Wetland Areas Tarmac Roads Dirt Tracks Tarmac Cycle & Footpaths

Physical Description: Rolling landscape with many low lying hills. Mainly fen soil and gley/podzol sallow earth with small isolated areas of scree soil and eroded scree. A patchwork of wetlands and streams with a few arable areas and scattered farmsteads but predominantly mixed woodland.

a

/ P ü

Visual Description: Broken landscape, medium scale with a fragmented rough texture due to mixed land use and high density trees. Mixed woodland creates interesting autumn colour and attractive diversity. Few scattered farmsteads create sense of remoteness.

h a j ä r v e

Condition: Mixed condition. Some farmsteads cared for and small areas farmed and cultivated but other buildings abandoned and derelict taken over by encroaching woodland. There are also a number of special management zones where woodland is more cared for. Forces for Change: Abandoned farmsteads and buildings will continue to decay and untended woodland threatens to cover more of the open land. Management Options: Forest management and reconstruction of derelict buildings would stabilise the forest and land use. Special management zones need to be maintained and possibly expanded.


Landscape Character Type 13 Arula/Mäha/Sihva/Pühajärve Area Distinguishing Features: •

Pursa and Kösti Special Managment Zones

Mörsjaristikivi (Bride’s Cross Stone) Stone marks the grave of woman who was ordered to be torn apart by oxen as she was unable to choose between two grooms.

Lake Peittlemäe Area 3.2ha, depth 22m. The deepest lake in the area.

Juusa Mägi Hill

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Landscape Character Type 13 Nüpli Area Distinguishing Features: •

Kolgamägi Hill

Küljemägi Hill

• Kiiigemägi Hill Original name Uue-Kolga after a farmstead on the hill it’s name now means Swing Hill after a swings build here for the filming of 1954 film ‘Kui saabub ohtu’ (When Evening Comes). Also the site of a number of paintings depecting views of Pühajärv. • Varikmägi and Armuallikas/Veriläte Veriläte is the source of the Pühajärv. Tradition to drink from the water on Midsummer Night to give you a strong longlasting love or cure or relive pain.


Landscape Character Type 13 Nüpli/Pilkuse Area Distinguishing Features: •

Pilkuse Special Managment Zone

Savimägi Hill

• Vaike Munamägi Hill 207meters above sealevel. Is one of the best known hills in the area, slopes used by mountain skiers. Topped by an observation tower and slopes features a spring, poetically known as the head of the Emajoe River and the Munamae stone, a large erratic bolder said to thrown there by Kalevipoeg, a character from Estonia folklaw.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement

Landscape Character Type 13 Pilküse Area Distinguishing Features: • •

Toikamägi Hill Koldamägi Hill


Landscape Character Type 14

P ü h a j ä r v e

/ N

Developed Lakeside Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • • • • • •

North Edge of Lake Pühajärv Medium sized Settlement Coarse Sand Beach Open Fields Arable Land Patches of Mixed Woodland Connected Wetlands Tarmac Roads

ü p l i

Physical Description: The soil is made up of a combination of types; the floodplain gley and thin alluvial soil, eroded scree, dilluvial soil and a little fen soil. The topography shows raised lakeside banks that form a coarse sand beach where there are small constructions and settlements in amongst mixed woodland and open fields. On the east bank there are a few farmed arable areas and on the west there are a few wetland areas connected to the main lake. Visual Description: The lake dominates the landscape. The lakeside structures are small scale in comparison to the expansive smooth lake. A colourful, bright blue and yellow beach building is set against woodland. There is an active sweeping beach site. The modern and maintained lawns of the large hotel spa are set in amongst more wild mixed woodland creating a variety of experiences. Condition: Condition good, particularly the hotel spa complex. The beach and associated buildings are used and maintained more in the summer. Agricultural farmland is cultivated. Forces for Change: Increase in recreational activities or the expansion of Otepää town could encroach on natural lakeside habitat. Management Options: Maintain up keep of beach and lakeside facilities year round and maintain trails and tracks.


Landscape Character Type 14 Pühajärve/ Nüpli Area Distinguishing Features: • The Pühajärve War Oak A large 20m oak thought to be approximately 400 years old. The name refers to a peasants uprising which met here in 1841. • Pühajärve Park 6 ha area. Thought to be the oldest gathering point on the banks of Pühajärv. Lake and grove considered to be sacred. Park includes choir stand, beach and boat landing and home to a wide variety of birds including a large rookery.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 15

S i h v a

/ P ü h a

Lake Pühajärv and Lakeside Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • • • • •

Large Lake Raised Lakeside Banks Lake Islands Mixed Woodland Open Fields Arable Fields Tarmac Roads

j ä r v e

/ N ü p l

Physical Description: The lakeside soil is a combination of types; floodplain gley and thin alluvial soil, eroded scree, dilluvial soil and fen soil. The flat lake waters make up the majority of the area and visible topography shows raised lakeside banks. The north and eastern banks are predominantly mixed woodland which brakes up into open areas with a few arable fields towards the south- west side of the lake. There is little lakeside settlement but a 13km hiking trail circles the water. Visual Description: Lake Pühajärv dominates the landscape. The smooth lake is in contrast to the textured woodland and long grasses on the banks. There is a lack of direct access onto the lake due to vegetation creating quite fragmented views. There sparse settlement and construction creating a sense of wilderness and forming a home to a diverse array of flora and fauna. This wildlife also adds to the attractive and peaceful atmosphere.

i

Condition: There is a range of conditions, some areas are left to nature but the area includes three marked special management zones. There are a number of open fields and a few cultivated, farmed irregular fields. Forces for Change: The lakeside habitat could be encroached upon if there was increased tourism and recreation in the area. Management Options: Continuation of special management zones. Maintenance of farmland and consideration of woodland and lakeside habitats.


Landscape Character Type 15 Sihva/ Pühajärve/ Nüpli Area Distinguishing Features: • Lake Pühajärv Area 291 ha and up to 8.5m. Pühajärv said to originate from the tears of a mothers mourning her son and a mothers tears of mourning are holy, creating a holy lake. Home to a variety of flora and fauna including bulrushes, reeds, water lilly and various species of fish and birds (great crested grebe, goldeneye, geese, common sandpiper, tufted duck, mallard and kingfisher.) • Lake Islands In the North the Sösarsaared Islands, in the middle Kloostrisaar in the South Suur-Lepasaar and Vaike-Lepasaar.

Soil

Landcover

Topography

Communication

Hydrology

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 16

R a u d s e p

Peat Mining Area Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • •

Large Flat Open Land Arable Farmland One Main Road Network of Water Channels

a

Physical Description: The whole area is made of fen soil and only the outer edges are a combinatio of other soil types. This area is virtually flat due to human influence of peat mining on the site. The area is open land surrounded by agriculture with no vegetation. Digging to remove peat from the site and the nature of the land has made it very water logged with regular man-made channels dissecting the plain.

Visual Description: The sudden change of landscape into an expansive flat, barren area can be slightly unsettling. Colours are very monochrome and there is no focal point of interest forming a large open bland spread.

Condition: No longer used as a peat mining area it is derelict and unused. Forces for Change: The natural forces of nature on an unused site. Management Options: Readdressing the use of the site and what would be best suited for the area.


Landscape Character Type 16 Raudsepa Area Distinguishing Features: Whole area is a peat mining site.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 17

V i d r i k e

/ T r u u t a

/ K a u

Ribbon Lakes and Banks Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • • • • • • • •

Arable Farmland Large and Small Farmsteads Open Fields Undulating Lowland Small Kettle Lakes Wetland Areas Tarmac Roads Dirt Tracks Tarmac Cycle & Footpaths Patches of Mixed Forest

Physical Description: The ground along the banks of this lake complex is made from a range of soils; mainly dulluvial gley and eroded scree soil with patches of fen soil and gley soil and a small patch of flood plain gley and thin alluvial soil. The banks of the lakes rise and form rolling uplands creating a valley connecting the lake chain. The some of the lakes are partially connected via water ways and wetlands. There are road networks connecting the settlements which are dotted along the uplands. There is some woodland riparian border but predominantly open land and agricultural fields.

r u t o

Visual Description: The channelled and rolling lake sides create picturesque views. An interesting, peaceful and pleasant landscape. The sinuous lakes are home to a variety of wildlife and the different forms of land use create sweeping, colourful and textured patches dotted with spread out picturesque wooden houses.

o t s

/ K o l g

Condition: The settlements and cultivated farmland is well cared for and maintained. Other areas along the lakes are very natural and nature is allowed free reign. The lake borders mark SPA sites. Forces for Change: Area might be subject to increased settlement which in turn may pollute the lakes and affect the natural beauty of the landscape.

u

Management Options: Continue farmland and settlement maintenance. Management of forestry and preservation of lake ecology.


Landscape Character Type 17 Vidrike/ Truuta/ Kaurutoots/ Kolgo Area Distinguishing Features: •

Vidrike Järv Lake.

• Kooraste Chain Lakes. String of lakes in a valley, whole complex consists of 10 waterways over 10 meters deep. Includes Vidrikejärv, Vodkijärv, Lambahannajärv. Home to a variety of wildlife, especially species of fish (perch, bream, pike, tench, ablet, roach, rudd etc.) Lake Vodki of particular ecological interest as it contains rare species of pondweed and water pepper.

Soil

Landcover

Topography

Hydrology

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Character Type 18

I l m j ä r v e

/ T

Flat Agricultural Plain Dominant Landcover and Landscape Elements: • • • • • • • •

Fields of Arable Farmland Large and Small Farmsteads Open Fields Undulating Lowland Tarmac Roads Dirt Tracks Small and Patches of Deciduous Forest

ö u t s i

Physical Description: The majority of the soil in this area is leached gley, peaty soil with large areas of dilluvial soil, thin and thick alluvial fen soil, gley soil, eroded scree and floodplain gley. The area is made up of a raised shelf dropping into a very flat agricultural land that continues across the Otepää boarder. There are patches of deciduous woodland but open land and agricultural fields over most of the land with a few scattered large and small farmsteads.

Visual Description: The horizon dominates this area with expanses of uninterrupted views and sweeping fields. At some points it appears uninteresting and large but small farmsteads and clumps of trees add some focus points and the rural nature is peaceful if remote.

Condition: The area is in good condition as most of the land is cultivated and maintained as farms. Forces for Change: Disruption to the argricultural economy will affect the land use in this area. Management Options: Continual maintenance of farmsteads and arable land.


Landscape Character Type 18 Ilmjärve/ Töutsi Area Distinguishing Features: • Ilmjärve orthodox church Built 1849.

Soil

Topography

Hydrology

Landcover

Communication

Settlement


Landscape Value Assessment

Very Low Area

1

Low Genius Loci

Medium

Picturesqueness 4

Unity

4

2

High

Diversity

Intrigue/ Mystery

3

3

Calmness

Very High

Colour

3

Score

4

4

2

5

5

4

5

4

5

5

5

3

1

2

2

3

1

2

2

2

4

3

4

4

4

3

4

4

4

5

2

1

4

2

1

1

2

2

6

3

3

3

4

4

3

4

3

7

3

4

4

2

2

3

2

3

8

2

3

1

2

1

2

2

2

9

1

2

1

3

1

1

2

2

10

3

3

1

5

2

1

5

3

11

4

4

3

5

3

3

5

4

12

4

4

5

3

4

5

3

5

13

5

4

4

3

4

4

4

5

14

4

5

3

4

2

4

5

4

15

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

16

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

17

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

18

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

‘Landscape value is concerned with the relative value that is attached to different landscapes. In a policy context the usual basis for recognising certain highly valued landscapes is through the application of a local or national landscape designation. Yet a landscape may be valued by different communities of interest for many different reasons without any formal designation, recognising, for example, perceptual aspects such as scenic beauty, tranquillity or wildness; special cultural associations; the influence and presence of other conservation interests; or the existence of a consensus about importance, either nationally or locally.’ (SNH) It is these aspects that we have used in this assessment of the value of Otepää’s landscape which we will go on to use for evaluating Landscape Capacity for recreation development. GENIUS LOCI

The spirit of the place.

INTRIGUE/MYSTERY

PICTURESQUENESS

The overall visual impact of the scenery.

CALMNESS

UNITY

Unity pertains to the overall picture of a landscape. Unity has been achieved when the viewer senses that all the individual elements of a landscape fit together to form a coherent theme.

COLOUR

Does the landscape have any unexpected elements that might make the area more exciting and interesting? Is there a sense of mystery to the place. A measure of how peaceful the landscape is. This refers to the dominant colours of fields,woodlands, the built environment and other landscape elements. It includes any notable seasonal effects due to farming activity and seasonal change.


Otepaa Landscape Character Assessment.