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A Meal for Life Meal for One?

A Meal for Life Meal for One?


Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area

Translating and Analysing the Data

32 Persona 34 Image Board 36 Insights into Opportunities 38 User Requirement Specification

40 References

6 Introduction 8 16 Factors that Affect Nutrition 10 Narrowing Research: 3 Types of User 12 Literature Review 14 Market Assessment 16 Issues: Cost 17 Issues: Convenience 18 Issues: Nutritional Knowledge 19 Issues: Food Preparation

Investigating and Exploring the Problem

20 22 26 30

Primary Research: Methodology Primary Research: Questionnaire Primary Research: Cultural Probe Primary Research: Evaluation

Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area |


| Introduction

Introduction |

| Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area

A meal for life The UK is increasingly becoming a nation of overweight and obese people. In order to reduce the number of people in the UK who are overweight or obese a number of government initiatives have been introduced.Whilst these schemes have had some effect there is still a large proportion of the population that are overweight or obese. However this is not the only issue caused by the food we eat. An increase in the fat, sugar and salt in our food over the last 50 years has generated a new category of health problems such as high cholesterol and blood pressure. These diseases of affluence mainly effect developed countries where there is easy access to food and reduced levels of exercise.

In order to counteract these trends positive nutritional choices must be encouraged by changing the behaviours of the people most at risk. This research project will look at the nutrition on the general population to find common and recurring themes. From the initial research i will look to group the observable trends in order to establish a specific age group to investigate further. This will enable the creation of a product to promote positive behavioural change. This product will enable and encourage users to make positive nutritional choices in order to establish a healthier way of life.


Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area |

| 16 Factors

16 Factors that Affect Nutrition Socioeconomic status

Religious or cultural practices

A function of income, education and occupation. Low income and education have been shown to be strong predictors of physical and mental wellbeing.

Different religions have different views on what foods are permissible. Cultural norms often vary from country to country and so too does the quality of nutrition.



Taste changes with age, influencing what food users will eat. Users of different ages will also have different nutrient and energy requirements.

Eating habits form over time but become very hard to break out of. The most common bad habits include overeating and regular consumption of foods high in fat and sugar.

Level of Education Higher education correlates with the intake of more types of healthy food and also with higher levels of full service restaurant use and lower levels of fast food use.

Parental Influence Parental influence is one of the key determinants of adult diet. Higher level of parental influence is significantly related with greater levels of fruit and vegetable consumption in adulthood.




Cost has varying impacts at different points in a consumer’s lifestyle. In the 18-24 year old age group it is one of the biggest barriers to healthy eating.

Individual energy and nutrient needs The energy and nutrients any particular user needs depends on a number of factors including BMI, appetite and frequency of exercise.

16 Factors |

Health concerns A user’s health can massively affect how they are should eat, for example those who have high blood pressure should reduce their intake of salty foods.

Meal times/types/skipping meals Skipping regular meals and eating on the run are significantly associated with higher intakes of fat, saturated fat and lower intakes of several types of healthy foods.

Environmental conditions e.g. cooking facilities Not all users are created equal. Some will have better access to cooking facilities whilst others may lack even the simplest of equipment.

Advertising and other point of sale information Food labelling has been targeted by government policy and with new initiatives like the food traffic lights system it is hoped more users will be motivated to eat more healthily.

| Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area

Food availability Seasons and severe weather conditions such as drought or flooding dramatically alter which foods are available, although this effect is mitigated to some degree by globalisation.

Food preferences Individual food preferences dictate what we eat. Our level of control over what we eat changes with age as too does food taste and preferences.

Mood Mood can affect the choices we make in our diet. When we are bored, tired or depressed food consumption increases, the opposite is true when we are scared, tense or in pain.

Marital status Marital status can affect nutrition, usually as a result of loss of appetite due to stressful events in the marriage or due to the loss of a husband or wife.


Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area |

| Narrowing Research: 3 Types of User

Young Persons 0-16 Childhood is the most influential time in developing a lifelong understanding of nutrition as their parents have a lot of time to teach their children about how to cook and be healthy. Whilst the children themselves have practically no income, their parents will have disposable income and a product marketed towards making their child healthier could potentially be lucrative. Nonetheless it could be hard to create a positive outcome in this age bracket as parents may not wish to be told what is best for their child and the product would require an extended period of use in order to create a lifelong change.


Narrowing Research: 3 Types of User |

| Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area

Young Adults18-26

Middle aged Adults 40-59

The age when young adults are leaving or have just left home is important as it is when their cooking knowledge is put to the test in real life.

Middle aged adults are the at most risk from diseases of affluence due to a gradual build-up of potentially detrimental nutrients such as cholesterol and salt.

This age bracket is health and image conscious which makes them a key target for any kind of nutrition related product. With food being increasingly talked about in the mainstream and social media, this age bracket is more aware than ever about the foods they eat.

This group of users has a lot of expendable income and are medically incentivised to eat healthier. Cooking as a hobby is also more prevalent in this age group.

However this group often do not have the cooking knowledge in order to produce the foods that they see around them. They also have difficulties with perceived lack of time and money in order to eat healthily.

It is harder to affect change in adults in this category due to their well-established habits which they will have developed throughout their life. They may also be resistant to new technologies, types of food and methods of preparation as they are already confident in their abilities and are not as eager to experiment as younger people are.

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Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area |

| Literature Review

Literature Review In order to explore the issues surrounding inadequate nutrition in the United Kingdom a subset of literature has been chosen due to its relevance to the following questions: i) How do young people view food? ii) How nutritious are young adults? iii) What are current trends in student eating? iv) What information can affect change in young people? There has been a range of literature published in the British Journal of Nutrition; the journal of Public Health Nutrition and the journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics examining these issues and it is literature from these sources that will be the focus of this review.

quantities, such as margarine (7 g), cheese (29 g) and sugar (17 g), led to errors in the magnitude of overestimations of 124%, 123% and 50%, respectively.” It is therefore possible that in the general public food items eaten in smaller quantities are being catastrophically overestimated. ii) How nutritious are young adults? In 1991 Williams conducted a study examining actual consumption awareness of health benefits and factors influencing fruit and vegetable consumption in 1st year undergraduate students. The results of this study indicated that less than 20% of students achieved the WHO 1990 recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption. One unanticipated finding was that 54% of participants underestimated how much fruit and vegetable were recommended to produce health benefits. Williams also has shown the significant relationship between consumption and the country of origin of the participant, showing that perception of food may be in part down to cultural reasons.

i) How do young people view food?

iii) What are current trends in student eating?

One of the issues concerning how food is perceived is the lack of awareness of how much food makes up one portion. Nutrition and dietetics students make up only a fraction of the 18-24 year old population, however due to their choice of education should have higher standards of knowledge of what constitutes a healthy portion size. Japur 2010’s portion size estimation study took 1169 observations of food portion size, 47% consisted in underestimation, whereas 34.5% were overestimations. This result cannot be generalised to a larger population due to the specificity of the participants, however given the nutrition students’ knowledge and understanding of their subject the fact that over a third of estimations were overestimated gives an insight into how prevalent this may be within the general population were nutrition knowledge is less developed. Japur also reported “Food items displayed in smaller

Pelletier’s (2012) time constraints survey supports the ideas of Larson “Between 37% and 46% of participants reported experiencing time constraints affecting diet behaviours.” However “Despite reported time scarcity most participants reported they were confident they could find time to prepare healthy meals.” Therefore time constraints may not be the only factor which influences meal preparation as shown by Greaney et al (2009). “Given the sizeable number of young adults who perceive having limited time to engage in healthy dietary behaviours, this age group may benefit from nutrition-related messaging that emphasizes how to maintain healthy dietary practices while limiting the time spent purchasing and preparing food.” This sentiment has been echoed by Larson (2009) in the “making time for meals: meal structure and associations with dietary intake in young adults” study.


Literature Review | Nielsen (2002) suggests that “Both adolescents and young adults are obtaining less of their energy intake at home and more at restaurants and fast food places.” However this chance can be counteracted by making “healthy food choices outside the home as readily available as the foods which have increased in popularity over the past 20 years.”Spanos & Hankey’s (2010) snacking pattern study demonstrates that culture can also have an impact on intake of food. Of 160 participants “58% of Greek students reported never consuming fizzy drinks in contrast to 39% of Scottish students.” And “36% of Greeks and 26% of Scots reported having fruit juice ones a day.” Skipping meals has been shown to be positively correlated with unhealthy eating and poorer nutrition, in Spanos & Hankey’s study “26% reported never consuming breakfast,” and “33% had breakfast only 1-3 times a week”. This reduction in the consumption of breakfast and the increase in sweet food with added sugar supports the findings of Nielsen (2002) that young people eat less meals at home and are making unhealthy meal choices on the go. iv) What information can affect change in young people? Kolodinsky’s (2007) cross-sectional study on how knowledge of current dietary guidelines affects food choice in college students found; “For the five major food categories, about one third of students reported eating the recommended amounts.” However “Significant differences were seen between knowledge and intake levels of fruits, dairy, and protein. Those who consumed greater than the recommended amount of fruit had greater food knowledge” Kolodinsky has also shown that participants who consume higher amounts of protein and dairy as “having by far the least knowledge” compared to those eating the recommended amount. She also states that “In our study, significant differences in nutrition knowledge scores were seen for the consumption of fruit, dairy, protein, and whole grains.” The findings of this study corroborate the research done by Williams (1991), Greaney (2009) and Larson (2009) which should be accounted for when designing for this specific user group.

| Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area

v) Conclusions There are several limitations to this research that make it hard to generalise to the wider population. Firstly many of the studies focus on students rather than all of 18-24 year olds, this creates issues as students are more likely to be from families with higher socioeconomic status which is a predictor of healthy eating. Therefore I have included studies conducted on young people in employment as well as students to try and understand how nutrition affects a range of users in the target age group. The second limitation with this review is the nationality of some of the participants in the studies. I will be targeting my product at 18-24 year olds in the UK who exhibit some of the behaviours seen internationality. However as has been shown by Spanos & Hankey’s (2010) cultural differences can play a role in nutrition therefore some of the findings may have been the influence of culture rather than the age group and employment status of the participants. In my review I have used studies from other countries as a way to evaluate the British population as although there may be some cultural differences many western individualist societies have similar cultural values so factors that affect nutritional eating may be common between these similar countries. The final limitation relating to these studies is the validity of the results gained. Participants may feel the need to falsify some of the information on their dietary intake in order to appear healthier to the researchers in an effort to be more socially acceptable. I feel that the research included in this report has tried to limit this effect as far as possible and I must take care when conducting my primary research to ensure that all of my participants feel confident enough to report their true daily food intake.

Project Brief: “A means of improving healthy eating habits of young adults” 13

Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area |

| Market Assessment

87% of the UK population

Population of the UK (millions)


have brought kitchen gadgets in the past

Spent on kitchen gadgets every year


Market Assessment: Future Forecasts

There has been an increase in the number of people living in smaller households since 1971. The percentage of 1 and 2 person houses has increased from 18% and 32% to 29% and 35% respectively Keynote (2012). Single and double person households eat less so are much less likely to cook from scratch and instead are buying more ready meals and supermarket meal deals. However this increase in the number of smaller households also creates an increase in demand for 1 and 2 person cookware

• •




Market Assessment: The User

• • • •


The Uk population will increase by 4.1% by 2017. Mealtimes will become more fragmented with less family members eating at the same time. The snack food market will increase by 7.2% between 2012 and 2016. Healthy eating ranges released by supermarkets will expand. Ethnic cuisine will become more common amongst the general population. Green/Eco/Fairtrade/Responsibly sourced food will become more popular.

Market Assessment |

The UK Kitchenware Market by value at current prices (2008-2012) 2008





Value (ÂŁm)






% change year on year






Market Assessment: The User The kitchen is increasingly becoming the central hub of the home where people go to spend time. This has increased the demand for desirable kitchenware that is left out on display rather then shut away into cupboards. The UK’s GDP decreased by 5.2% between 2008 and 2009 due to the recession Keynote (2013). This has prompted consumers to save money and therefore entertain themselves at home more. With the increase in cooking TV shows and the rise of celebrity chefs the number of people cooking and baking as hobbies has also increased, creating a favourable market in which to launch a product.

| Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area

Percentage increase in UK kitchenware market by sector value (2008-2012) Ovenware Cookware Utensils Cleaning/storage

20.4 % 18.4 % 16.3 % 15.4 %

Market Assessment: Future Forecasts Opportunities Demand for products for show kitchens. Increased demand for home cooking/baking due to TV and other media. Demand for portion-able cookware due to worries about health. Product endorsed by designers and celebrities increasing in popularity. Threats Increase in fast food and ready meal use. More retailers could saturate market, especially with own brand cookware from big supermarket chains. Established names in the industry could cause issues, i.e Tefal in cooking utensils.


Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area |

| Issues: Cost

Low income users

Low income users

Young Adults




Worried food would run out before they could get more.

Could not afford to eat a balanced meal.

Reported inadequate funds as a barrier to healthy eating.

Issues: Cost Cost or the perceived cost of eating healthily is one of the greatest obstacles for young adults wishing to make positive nutritional choices. It affects everything from purchasing decisions to the amount of cooking equipment a user has available.


‘Differences in food choice between socio-economic groups contribute to their nutrient intake differences.’ Smith & Baghurst 1992

Male Young Adults



Had breakfast between 1-3 times per week.

Reported weekly fast food restaurant use.

Issues: Convenience Convenience is a major factor influencing the nutrition of young adults. It influences almost every decision we make about our food, from purchasing and cooking to time, location and types of meal eaten.

For Students



| Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area


Issues: Convenience |

‘The majority of young adults report they enjoy and value eating with others but lack the time to sit down and eat a meal.’ Larson N, et al 2009


Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area |

| Issues: Nutritional Knowledge

In The obese population


Male Young Adults




Think their eating habits are fine for their health.

Unaware how much fruit and vegetable is required for health benefits.

Brought vegetables once a week.

Issues: Nutritional Knowledge Without knowing how to prepare food or what foods are nutritious it can be almost impossible to eat healthily. Current most common sources of nutritional knowledge are parents, the internet and doctors.


‘Young adults show interest in learning how to produce attractive flavourful foods that are health promoting and suitable for social settings.’

Betts N M, et al 1997

Issues: Food Preparation |

| Planning, Scoping and Defining the Area

Young Adults

Young Adults

Young Adults




Who reported high levels of food preparation ate 5 fruit and veg a day.

Who reported low levels of food preparation ate 5 fruit and veg a day.

Reported lack of time as most common barrier to food preparation.

Issues: Food Preparation The more a person prepares their own food the more they will start to think about what they are eating and how it affects them. Young adults who frequently prepare food more likely to meet dietary requirements for; Fat, Calcium, Fruit, Vegetables and whole grains.

‘Attitude towards preparing healthy meals was a statistically significant predictor of healthy eating composite score.’ Graham & Laska 2012 19

Investigating and Exploring the Problem |

| Methodology

Methodology: Questionnaire Intention: To gain a basic understanding of nutrition and types of behaviour prevalent in my target age group. Develop questions for use in cultural probe and create a rapport with participents for use in later studies. Method: Ask users a range of questions about; themselves, their nutrition and their perception of healthy behaviours. Concerns: Questionnaires have a few innate flaws; firstly as they are filled in by the user they questions can be miss-understood or misinterpreted. They can also be influenced by reporting bias where the participant will make changes to their answers in order to appear more socially acceptable. Finally they can have flaws in their design which leads to the wrong information being gathered. Justification: Questionnaires have been used in order to quickly gather information from a verity of users from different social and geographical backgrounds. Prior to handing out the questionnaire to the participants a brief trial run was conducted in order to make sure my questions were comprehensible. Prompted by: Conflicting data in secondary research prompted further investigation into what factors affect the target age group the product will be aimed at.


Methodology |

| Investigating and Exploring the Problem

Methodology: Cultural Probe Intention: To find out the true behaviours of the target users, and the barriers that they face in order to generate product opportunities. Method: Provide a13 Users with a cultural probe pack, containing instructions, two short questionnaires and a 3 day meal report diary. Concerns: Cultural probes suffer from similar problems as questionnaires because they are affected by, misinterpretation, reporting bias or human error in creation. However they also have their own risks associated for example in this study the period of data collection had to be limited in order to maximize the chances of getting back completed probe packs. Justification: Cultural probes generate a huge amount of both qualitative and quantitative data. They also provide insight into the lives of a member of the target user group. In order to maximize the amount of cultural probe packs successfully returned participants were selected via convenience sampling using geographical location as one of the key factors. Prompted by: Information gained through anomalous feedback from questionnaires. After analysis of the data, participants who showed clear divergence from normal trends were invited to take part in the cultural probes in order to better understand why these variations occurred.


Investigating and Exploring the Problem |

13 7

| Primary Research: Questionnaire

Half regularly skip breakfast

They cook


5-6 Participants


times a week

Primary Research: Questionnaire |

And eat 3 pieces

| Investigating and Exploring the Problem

These are the most and least healthy foods Spinach 3

Banana 3

Carrots 4

7 Take-Out

of fruit and veg per day

5 Chocolate

3 Pizza

consumed in the last week


Investigating and Exploring the Problem |

They choose food based on Concenrs alth He

tritional Inf Nu o

ience nven Co st Co

| Primary Research: Questionnaire

An average shop will contain



Ad v





ing tis er

and will cost


These make it hard to eat healthily

£ cost, preparation time, food waste

Primary Research: Questionnaire |

How often do they snack?

| Investigating and Exploring the Problem

Most common snacks

1 Snack a day




2 Snacks a day




3 Snacks a day





Investigating and Exploring the Problem |

Thought these foods were the healthiest and unhealthiest

8 5




| Primary Research: Cultural Probe

Vegetables Fruit Fish Fresh meat Whole foods

Fast food Chocolate Fried food Pre-cooked foods High in fat/sugar

Primary Research: Cultural Probe |

| Investigating and Exploring the Problem

Ate fast food 4-5 times Average evening meal time

October M



1 8 15 22 29

2 9 16 23 30




3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 17 18 19 20 24 25 26 27 31

S 7 14 21 28


per month


| Primary Research: Cultural Probe

ent meal is d u t s Cost Effect iv e He a

The av

e Efficient Tim



Tas ty

cooking ability, cost and lack of time

y lth

Fillin g



sting ere Int

er a


These make it hard to eat healthily

le to mp Si

Investigating and Exploring the Problem |

Primary Research: Cultural Probe |

| Investigating and Exploring the Problem

Most common reasons for choice of evening meal Not at home


I had ingredients

Quick to make

To try new things



Investigating and Exploring the Problem |

| Primary Research: Evaluation

Sampling When conducting research it is vital to ensure that the participants used are representative of the wider population, this allows the results to be generalised and applied to the user group as a whole. The main way to ensure that participants are representative is through the sampling of individuals from a larger population. For the primary research in this project, participants were selected using convenience sampling as this makes it easy to assemble a group to conduct research on but has some limitations: The users in these samples all come from similar families in terms of SES (socioeconomic status) as they all attend university. This means that the parents will most likely hold some form of higher education which is a predictor of more nutritious behaviours.


The majority of the participants from the UK come from geographically similar locations, predominantly in the south of the country. There is also a number of foreign students used in this study which may influence results due to different cultural norms.

Over half of the participants in these studies are product designers, this may affect results as they tend to be more creative and have stronger opinions about their own personal appearance which may influence their nutrition. Men and women have different individual nutrient and energy requirements; this could damage the validity of the results if the experimental group was just from one of the sexes.

Primary Research: Evaluation |

North vs South

| Investigating and Exploring the Problem



UK vs EU

Geographical Location



The questionnaire served its purpose and enabled the recruitment of participants for the cultural probe. It also gave an opportunity to trail some of the questions to be used in the cultural probe.

Sampling Concerns

Cultural Probe Vocation

Gender Appetite




The cultural probe followed on from the questionnaire but due to the increased complexity of this type of study, a number of issues arose. The main problem with this method of research was the lack of structure for the participants many took two or three weeks longer than the study should’ve taken and two participants failed to return any form of results. When designing the study the main focus was to collect the data whilst having minimal impact on the user taking part. In order to achieve this the report cards use a Likert scale and the time the study conducted for was reduced from a week to 3 meals.


Translating and Analysing the Data |

| Persona

James Thompson James is a 19 year old chemistry student at York University. He has just finished school and is now experiencing living life for the first time without his parents to help with day to day tasks. He has cooked some basic meals whilst at home but most of his food has been prepared by Sarah, his mother. James shares his house at university with his 3 male housemates and the kitchen is often unkempt and dirty. A typical meal for James is an oven pizza and chips as it is relatively cheap; quick to cook, easy to portion and there is very little waste to deal with. James enjoys eating out both at full service restaurants and fast food establishments however he prefers restaurant food and would like be able to replicate this at home but he is still learning how to cook and isn’t fully confident in his abilities. James is a busy person and will cook at different times each day in order to fit around his lifestyle.


Persona |

| Translating and Analysing the Data

Emma Hayes Emma is a 21 year old sports coaching student at Plymouth University, she is in her second year at university and knows a variety of different meals that she regularly cooks. Emma shares a house with 6 other girls and the kitchen is kept in a relatively clean condition as she and some of her housemates enjoy cooking and baking as hobbies. A typical meal for Emma would consist of a portion of lean meat or fish with some pasta and vegetables as it is reasonably healthy; filling, tasty and is a good way to use up left over vegetables from other housemates. Emma prefers to eat at full service restaurants and will go with her friends 3-4 times per month. She usually opts for the healthier options and uses nutritional information on labels of food products when shopping in order to regulate what she eats. Emma has an active lifestyle and takes part in football training once a week as well as regularly going out clubbing with her friends so she has to cook meals to certain time constraints.




Translating and Analysing the Data |

| Insights into Opportunities

Insight: Young adults who reported more frequent food-preparation skills used fast food less often and were more likely to meet the dietary objectives for fat, calcium, fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Larson N et al (2007) Opportunity Opportunity how might we (hmw) hmw make cooking persuade people to easier. cook more. Opportunity Opportunity hmw make it more fun hmw make cooking less messy. to cook. Opportunity hmw make preparing food into a game.


Insight: Young adults report they enjoy eating with others but lack the time to sit down and eat a meal. Larson N et al (2009)

Insight: Rising demand for healthier products in the snack foods market. Keynote (2013)

Opportunity Opportunity hmw create more hmw turn cooking time for young adults into an experience/ to eat together. event.

Insight: To improve the diets of young adults, healthy food choices outside the home need to be as readily available as foods that have increased in popularity in the past 20 years. Nielsen, S.J et al (2002)

Opportunity hmw get more young adults to cook and eat together.

Opportunity hmw promote a wider range of healthy snacking options.

Opportunity hmw reduce the cost of healthy snacks.

Opportunity Opportunity hmw increase the hmw healthy choices availability of healthier more exciting. snacks. Opportunity hmw make RDA’s more accessible.

Insights into Opportunities |

Insight: Young adults and adolescents are obtaining less of their energy intake at home.

Insight: Consumers want hastle free mealtime solutions.

Insight: Eating on the run is significantly correlated with higher intake of soft drinks, fast food, total fat and lower intake of several healthy foods. Larson N et al (2009)

Insight: Young adults may benefit form nutrition related messages on how to maintain healthy dietary practices with limited time. Pelletier, J.E & Laska, M. N (2012)

Opportunity hmw encourage eating home cooked meals outside of the home.

Opportunity hmw promote fruit and vegetables as snack options.

Opportunity hmw make food storage more efficiant.

Opportunity hmw reduce food waste.

Opportunity hmw make meals quicker so you can cook and eat before you go out.

Opportunity hmw make cooking fit into our lives.

Opportunity hmw make healthy food faster than unhealthy options.

Opportunity hmw reduce the time consuming parts of cooking.

| Translating and Analysing the Data

Insight: Appearance and taste of food is significantly correlated with food consumption and frequency of more variety in food groups than any other factor. Insight: Dieticians working with young adults should address taste and appearance of food rather than just health, calories and price. Stewart, B & Tinsley, A (1995) Opportunity hdw change the appearance of food to make it more appealing.

Opportunity hdw make taste better.


Opportunity hdw display home cooked food in a more aesthetic way.


Translating and Analysing the Data |

| User Requirements Specification

Primary Requirements A1. Product must display food in an aesthetic manner. A2. Product must promote the taste of food. A3. Product must aid the user accomplish the goal of eating 5 fruit and veg a day. A4. Product must reduce the quantity of processed foods consumed in a week. A5. Product must increase the efficiency of the weekly shopping budget. A6. Product aesthetics must fit with current market trends in kitchen and homeware.

Secondary Requirements B1. Product should cost no more than ÂŁ30. B2. Product should aid eating fruit, vegetables and whole foods, lean meat and fresh fish. B3. Product should enable the complete preparation of a meal in 20 minutes. B4. Product should encourage eating fruit and vegetables as snacks. B5. Product should enable preparation of food at home for consumption on the go. B6. Product should reduce fast food consumption.

Optional Requirements C1. Product could encourage healthy social eating. C2. Product could incentivize users to cook meals at home from scratch. C3. Product could be flexible to allow for creation of a 10, 15 and 45 minute meal. C4. Product could aid storage of food. C5. Product could reduce food waste. C6. Product could help users correctly portion food for a specific number of people.


User Requirements Specification |

| Translating and Analysing the Data

Primary Requirements Justification A1. “Appearance of food is significantly correlated with food consumption and variety in food groups” (p.37). Stewart, B & Tinsley, A (1995) A2. “Dieticians working with young adults should address taste and appearance of food” (p37). Stewart, B & Tinsley, A (1995) A3. An average user consumes 3 portions of fruit and veg each day. (p23) If my product can encourage the eating of 2 more than the 5 portions per day goal will be met. A4. “75% of our high salt intake comes from processed food” Daniels L (2013) A5. Cost has been identified as one of the key factors in promoting healthy eating in the target user group. (p 18, 24, 28). A6. The kitchen is increasingly becoming the central hub of the home where people go to spend time relaxing and entertaining guests (p15). Keynote (2013)

Secondary Requirements Justification B1. Product will be aimed at users in the 18-24 age bracket, whilst these consumers have some disposable income, an expensive product would be far less appealing to users (p18, 24, 28). B2. These are foods that the users already associate with health, therefore would be more likely to see the benefits in consuming these types of food (p26). B3. One of the common meals eaten by users in this group is an oven pizza; this is because it is quick to cook. (p17, 23, 29) In order for my product to be effective it should enable preparation of food in no longer then what is already considered as a quick meal. B4. “Less than 20% of students achieved the WHO 1990 recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption” this is true for the wider population too so the

product could encourage eating fruit and vegetables as a method of improving nutrition (p12, p23). Williams, J 2000 B5. “Eating on the run is significantly correlated with higher intake of soft drinks, fast food, total fat and lower intake of several healthy foods.” (p37) “Rising demand for healthier products in the snack foods market” (p36). Larson N et al (2009)B6. “To improve the diets of young adults, healthy food choices outside the home need to be as readily available as foods that have increased in popularity in the past 20 years” (p36). Nielsen, S.J et al (2002)

Optional Requirements Justification C1. “Young adults report they enjoy eating with others but lack the time to sit down and eat a meal” (p36). Larson N et al (2009) C2. “People who cook more meals tend to eat more nutritious meals” (p36). Larson N et al (2007) C3. “Young adults may benefit from nutrition related messages on how to maintain healthy dietary practices with limited time.” (p37) creating a product to encourage cooking meals with different time restrictions could encourage healthier eating. Pelletier, J.E & Laska, M. N (2012) C4. Storing food for longer periods of time would reduce food waste, which in turn would save money for the weekly grocery shop as fresh products would last longer and be less likely to go off before being eaten (p24, 28, 29). C5. Participants in questionnaire identified wasting food as a barrier to healthy eating (p24). C6. “The percentage of 1 and 2 person houses has increased from 18% and 32% to 29% and 35%.” (p14) Therefore products aimed at portioning specifically for reduced numbers of people may be successful. Keynote (2012)


References Literature Review Greaney, M. L., Less, F. D., White, A. A., Dayton, S. F., Riebe, D., Blissmer, B., Shoff, S., Walsh, J. R. and Greene, G. W. 2009. College students’ barriers and enablers for healthful weight management: a qualitative study. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 41 (4), pp. 281--286. Japur, C. and Diez-Garcia, R. 2010. Food energy content influences food portion size estimation by nutrition students. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 23 (3), pp. 272--276 Kolodinsky, J., Harvey-Berino, J. R., Berlin, L., Johnson, R. K. and Reynolds, T. W. 2007. Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance. Journal of the american Dietetic Association, 107 (8), pp. 1409-1413. Larson, N. I., Nelson, M. C., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M. and Hannan, P. J. 2009. Making time for meals: meal structure and associations with dietary intake in young adults. Journal of the American dietetic association, 109 (1), pp. 72--79. Larson, N. I., Perry, C. L., Story, M. and Neumark-Sztainer, D. 2006. Food preparation by young adults is associated with better diet quality. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106 (12), pp. 2001--2007. Nielsen, S. J., Siega-Riz, A. M. and Popkin, B. M. 2002. Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults. Preventive medicine, 35 (2), pp. 107--113.


Pelletier, J. E. and Laska, M. N. 2012. Balancing Healthy Meals and Busy Lives: Associations between Work, School, and Family Responsibilities and Perceived Time Constraints among Young Adults. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. Spanos, D. and Hankey, C. 2010. The habitual meal and snacking patterns of university students in two countries and their use of vending machines. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics, 23 (1), pp. 102--107. Williams, J. 2000. A19. A study to determine actual consumption, awareness of health benefits and factors influencing fruit and vegetable consumption in first-year undergraduate students. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 13 (5), pp. 363--371.

Market Analysis 2014. Kitchenware Market Update 2013. [online] Available at: henware+2013& [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014]. 2014. Cooking & Eating Habits Market Report 2012. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014]. 2014. Snack Foods Market Report 2013. [online] Available at:

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Plan, Scope, Define: Issues

User Requirement Specification Daniels, L. 2014. Salt, Food Fact Sheet. [online] Available at: http://www. [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014].

Betts, N. M., Amos, R. J., Keim, K., Peters, P. and Stewart, B. 1997. Ways young adults view foods. Journal of Nutrition Education, 29 (2), pp. 73--79. Graham, D. J. and Laska, M. N. 2012. Nutrition label use partially mediates the relationship between attitude toward healthy eating and overall dietary quality among college students. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112 (3), pp. 414--418. Smith, A. M. and Baghurst, K. I. 1992. Public health implications of dietary differences between social status and occupational category groups. Journal of epidemiology and Community Health, 46 (4), pp. 409--416.

Image Board

Insights into Opportunities Stewart, B. and Tinsley, A. 1995. Importance of Food Choice Influences for Working Young Adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 95 (2), pp. 227-230. Available from: doi:


Meal for One Research Project  

Final year research project UoB

Meal for One Research Project  

Final year research project UoB