Powerlines A Hawaiian Electric Company Publication Copyright 2009, No. 4 Winter 2009
Hawaiian Electric Company,Inc.
Hawaiian Electric Company Takes the National EV Pledge Joining other utilities to promote Electric Vehicles
5 | Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Update 8 | PQ Tips: The Importance of Motor Protection 10 | Help Keep Your Business IN Business 11 | Hawaiian Cement’s Kalaeloa Facility Joins EnergyScout™ for Business
To Our Valued Commercial Customers ALOHA! Welcome to the Winter 2009 Powerlines, which Hawaiian Electric Company publishes quarterly for our valuable commercial customers. In each issue, we try to bring you useful articles on new technologies, energy efficiency measures, and interesting customer projects. The year 2010 promises to be another active year in our effort to achieve a clean energy economy. So in this issue, we bring you a recap of our Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative efforts so far. We have made much progress in the yearplus since we signed a landmark energy agreement with the Governor and Consumer Advocate. This issue also includes news on Hawaiian Electric Company’s pledge to promote electric vehicles. As we have often said, Hawaii can not make significant progress in reducing our oil dependence for electricity without also reducing our oil dependence for transportation.
In a continuing effort to “green” transportation in our state and the nation, Hawaiian Electric Company recently joined with many of America’s leading electric utilities in a nationwide campaign to support commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). The campaign was announced, appropriately, in Detroit, Michigan at the “Business of Plugging In” conference in October 2009. “Hawaii is a natural laboratory for developing and testing plug-in electric vehicles,” said Dick Rosenblum, Hawaiian Electric Company president and CEO. “With short driving distances and our goal to have abundant renewable energy sources to use for off-peak charging, we can be the place people come to see and experience EVs in action.” Hawaiian Electric Company, with 18 other utilities across the country, has been part of the Electric Transportation Task Force of Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the trade association of shareholder owned utilities. Other members include Arizona Public Service, Detroit Edison, Duke Energy, Florida Power & Light Company, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Portland General Electric, Southern California Edison, and Xcel Energy. Nationwide electric utilities collectively pledged to move aggressively to create the infrastructure to support the full-scale commercialization and deployment of electric vehicles as a crucial transportation solution in the future.
And, as we do every quarter, we offer tips on controlling your electric bill with both technical information and great examples in our business community. Our best wishes to you for a successful 2010. Mahalo, Robbie Alm Executive Vice President
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Electric Vehicles Continued
Tom Kuhn, EEI president, said, “At a time of mounting concern about climate change, U.S. energy security and unemployment, plug-in electric vehicles will help tame carbon emissions while reducing oil imports and creating jobs. We also are mindful of President Obama’s very ambitious challenge to put one million EVs on the road by 2015.” The utility industry’s EV pledge focuses on: • Infrastructure—Utilities will help ensure there are no adverse system impacts from fueling large numbers of plug-in vehicles from the power grid. They also will help develop comprehensive local charging infrastructure plans. • Customer Support—Utilities will ensure that EV customers receive excellent customer care on questions ranging from charging mechanics to rates. • Customer and Stakeholder Education—Utilities will collaborate with state and local officials, automakers, and other stakeholders to provide comprehensive education outreach to customers on all aspects of EVs. • Vehicle and Infrastructure Incentives—Utilities will work closely with federal, state, and local stakeholders to encourage EV penetration, including purchase incentives, tax rebates, off-peak charging rates, and subsidized parking. • Utility fleets—Utilities will take significant steps to accelerate the introduction of EVs into their utility fleet operations.
Many utilities have started installing advanced metering infrastructure that can support electric vehicles, focusing on charging technology, evolving rate design, and managing electricity demand. The smart grid will ultimately become an invaluable partner in bringing EV technology to the market. These “smart” charging systems will provide load management, encouraging and directing EV re-charging to off-peak times to make the best use of existing generation capacity and provide a use for renewable energy, like wind, that is often strongest over night when there is the least regular demand. Eventually, as the numbers of electric vehicles grow, the vehicles and their batteries may provide support to the electric grid, especially during times of energy emergencies. Continued
In October 2008, the Hawaiian Electric companies and the State of Hawaii signed an energy agreement as part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). As a roadmap for greater energy independence, the HCEI goal is to get 70 percent of Hawaii’s energy needs from clean sources (30 percent from energy efficiency and 40 percent from renewables) by 2030. With the support of Hawaiian Electric companies, these goals were codified in Act 155 by the 2009 State Legislature.
“Promoting the reliable and affordable electrification of transportation is part of our effort with the State of Hawaii and other stakeholders to reduce Hawaii’s near 90 percent dependence on imported oil for jet fuel, ground transportation, and electricity.” “Many of our clean energy goals, including increased use of renewable energy sources, the rollout of a smart grid and advanced electric meters, all align with the goal of converting a significant share of ground transportation to cleaner fuel sources.” — Dick Rosenblum
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Electric Vehicles Continued
Activities at the Hawaiian Electric companies to promote EVs include: • Hawaiian Electric Company is working with Better Place Hawaii, an international technology company, to bring electric vehicles and charging stations to pilot projects in Hawaii. • All new Hawaiian Electric Company sedan purchases are to be hybrid electric vehicles. Hawaiian Electric companies are testing electric vehicles in company fleets, including converted Toyota Prius hybrid plug-ins on Oahu and Maui, a Phoenix Motorcars EV on Maui, and hybrid bucket trucks at Hawaiian Electric Company and Hawaii Electric Light Company on Hawaii Island. Other EVs are scheduled to be added to all three fleets in coming months to give the utility hands-on experience with charging, operating and maintaining the vehicles.
• Maui Electric Company is working with a Maui architectural firm to install a wind turbine at its facility to charge EVs. The system, to be in operation by the end of 2009, will provide power to charging stations. • Hawaiian Electric Company is a key member of transportation working groups of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative and the Hawaii Energy Policy Forum. • Hawaiian Electric Company is developing customer outreach and education tools that highlight potential future benefits of EVs, including off-peak charging rates, potential energy storage benefits, and the positive impact on the environment. To learn more, visit www.heco.com and click on “Business Services,” then “Electric Vehicles.” Hawaiian Electric Company is building on a history of research and development work on the impact of electric vehicles in its company fleet and grid. From 1994 to 2004, Hawaiian Electric Company had a dozen plug-in EVs with charge stations at various company locations. These vehicles were in use to collect data on their performance until they could no longer be replaced or repaired. Hawaiian Electric Company remains committed to supporting the development of EVs as one of many steps towards a cleaner energy future.
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One-Year Progress Update
Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative
Hawaiian Electric Companies’ Energy Agreement In October 2008, the Hawaiian Electric Companies joined the Governor of Hawaii; the Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism; and the Office of Consumer Advocacy in an energy agreement as part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative. The agreement – the most aggressive such effort in the nation – aims to move Hawaii decisively away from imported oil for electricity and ground transportation and toward diverse, local sources of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Our goal is energy and economic security for Hawaii and reduced greenhouse gas emissions, which are responsible for the climate change to which our islands are especially vulnerable. Making the needed investments now can provide more stable energy costs in the long-run. It will require unprecedented cooperation and commitment among individuals, businesses, institutions, and government. This list summarizes some key actions by the Hawaiian Electric Companies in cooperation with others after only one year.
Increased Renewable Portfolio Standards (Act 155 - 2009) Hawaiian Electric Companies supported placing into law an increased renewable energy requirement of 40 percent of electric sales by 2030 and a new Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard. New HCEI proposals submitted to the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission (PUC) Feed-In Tariff (FIT): Creates standard rates to ease the process for private developers to add renewable energy to Hawaiian Electric Companies’ grids. After detailed hearings to obtain input from a broad range of stakeholders, the PUC issued basic principles for such tariffs. Parties to the docket are currently working on next steps to have FIT effective in 2010.
Clean Energy Scenario Planning: Replaces previous integrated resource planning with a broader, more dynamic process to meet future energy needs. Framework development with a broad group of stakeholders is underway. Decoupling: Changes the financial model for utilities to one that better supports energy conservation and integration of more clean energy rather than one based on electricity sales. Joint company/Consumer Advocate proposal was submitted to PUC. After detailed panel hearings for input from a broad group of stakeholders, the docket is pending PUC decision.
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Hawaii Clean Energy Initiave Continued Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI): Proposes project to install advanced meters for all customers and upgrade operations systems for smart grid allowing more customer options and improved reliability. PUC deliberations scheduled for 2010. Lifeline Rates: Proposes electric bill credits for low and fixed income customers. Clean Energy Infrastructure Surcharge: Proposes a surcharge to help pay for projects needed to support more renewable energy. Pay As You Save (PAYS): Proposal to expand and make permanent a pilot program to increase solar water heating penetration by financing installations on rented homes was deferred by the PUC for possible incorporation by public benefits fee administrator. PV Host program: Increases commercially-owned photovoltaic (PV) arrays by allowing utility to lease large roofs and other spaces from customers for siting PV. Biofuels progress • Campbell Industrial Park Generation Station biodiesel unit completed and available for service.
• Completed contracts for initial supply of biodiesel to conduct air emissions tests and for two-year biodiesel supply for new unit.
• Filed contracts with PUC for supplies of biofuel to conduct tests at Maui Electric Company and Hawaiian Electric Company’s Kahe Power Plant. • Natural Resources Defense Council policy on procuring sustainably produced biofuel still in place; preference for local biofuels included in contracts. • Participating in development of State Biofuels Master Plan. • Continuing to support research on Hawaii-grown biofuel feedstocks, including algae. Interisland Wind/Undersea Cable project (to import wind power to Oahu from Molokai/Lanai) • Working with State of Hawaii, First Wind Hawaii, and Castle & Cooke Hawaii on system integration studies, coordinating environmental impact studies, community outreach and public information.
• Created www.interislandwind.com to provide information and receive public input on all aspects of the interisland wind and undersea cable project. Critical integration work • Formed a Technical Review Committee, with national and international experts (including from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory), to support the Interisland Wind project.
• Studying what it will take – through modifications to generators, upgrades to the transmission grid and new technology – to reliably integrate ever increasing amounts of energy from variable renewable sources like sun and wind into our existing system. • Other parallel integration studies underway to determine technical upgrades needed for specific renewable projects proposed on Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii Island. Continued
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Hawaii Clean Energy Initiave Continued Complete and upcoming renewable energy projects • La Ola, 1.2-MW photovoltaic solar energy farm with a planned battery back-up system, built by Castle & Cooke Hawaii to supply electricity to Maui Electric Company on Lanai.
• Holaniku at Keahole Point at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority on Hawaii Island, planned by Sopogy, Inc. to be a 2 MW utility-scale concentrating solar power farm with thermal energy storage to buffer the variability. First increment in service December 2009. • Honolulu International Airport Emergency Facility, a partnership to serve both the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation and Hawaiian Electric Company customers, is to include four biodiesel-powered generators which can provide 8 MW of power to the grid. Planned for service in mid-2011. Support for other renewable energy projects • Continuing discussions with and supporting research for future renewable technologies including ocean thermal energy conversion; wave energy; concentrating solar power and others.
• Supporting Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning. • Continuing discussions on geothermal energy; expansion of garbage-to-energy projects on Oahu and Neighbor Islands.
Greening transportation • Made a national pledge with Edison Electric Institute and other utilities to commit to electrifying transportation.
• Agreement with Better Place to support a system of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations and battery swap stations throughout service territories. Coordination and implementation work proceeding. • Agreement with Phoenix Motorcars to supply EVs for testing as part of Maui Electric Company fleet. • Working with Idaho National Laboratory and others on EV testing projects. • Adding hybrid light vehicles and trucks to Hawaiian Electric Companies’ fleets. • Working with Hawaii Automobile Dealers and transportation working groups of Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative and Hawaii Energy Policy Forum. Other renewable energy projects in progress
Lanai/Molokai wind farms
Other Oahu projects
Hawaii Island projects
Represents more than 50% of the 1,100 MW of new renewable energy envisioned in the HCEI energy agreement.
In one short year, the Hawaiian Electric Companies have accomplished a tremendous amount. But, this is just the beginning. It will take the collective support of customers, government, and our regulators to reach our clean energy goals and to make Hawaii the nation leader in the area of wind, wave, and solar energy. It is an investment in a healthy future for our economy and for our environment. For more information on the agreement, go to www.heco.com. Powerlines magazine will continue to follow the developments of this comprehensive initiative.
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The Importance of
The electric motor is utilized in countless applications to power various mechanical loads, including fans, pumps, and compressors, just to name a few. Our dependency on the ubiquitous electric motor often remains unnoticed until one failsâ€Ś
Why Electric Motors Fail As described in Bussmannâ€™s Protection Handbook Bulletin (http://www.bussmann.com/library/docs/spd02/SPDSection11. pdf), the causes of electric motor failure are numerous: Overloads
Data shows that 44% of motor failure problems are related to HEAT [i.e., overloads and single-phasing].
Electric induction motors utilize thousands of stator windings to produce a Old age 10% rotating magnetic field which causes Rotor failure 5% the motor shaft to spin. These stator Miscellaneous 9% windings are constructed from copper 100% wire which is electrically insulated with an enamel coating. The insulation class of stator windings, which is often noted on the motor nameplate, is based on the maximum temperature at which the insulation can be operated to yield an average lifespan of 20,000 hours of operation. When a motor is subjected to overload, voltage unbalance, or single-phase events, degradation of the insulation is accelerated; thus, shortening the expected lifespan of the motor. Photos of damaged stator windings due to overload, single-phase, voltage unbalance, and various other failure modes can be viewed at http://www.easa.com/indus/stators.html.
Motor Circuit and Controller Disconnect Motor Branch Short Circuit and Ground Fault Protection
How Motors are Protected Article 430 of the National Electric Code (NEC) describes motors, motor circuits, and controllers. Protective elements of the motor branch-circuit include motor branch short-circuit and groundfault protection as well as motor overload protection. A typical motor branch-circuit is shown in the diagram to the left.
Motor Protection Devices Fuses are commonly used for motor branch short-circuit, groundfault, and sometimes overload M protection. Certain fuses are manufactured specifically for motor protection and have a dual element time delay to provide the required motor with branch short-circuit, ground-fault, and motor overload protection in a single package. Motor Disconnect
Continued WINTER 2009 | 8 | POWERLINES
PQ Tips Continued Circuit breakers are utilized for motor branch short-circuit, groundfault, and sometimes overload protection. Magnetic-only (instantaneous trip) circuit breakers are intended for motor branch short-circuit and ground-fault protection only. Thermal-magnetic type circuit breakers also include a thermal element (inverse time trip) for motor overload protection; in addition to the motor branch short-circuit and ground-fault protection provided by the magnetic trip element. Thermal overload relays are used for motor overload protection only. A fuse or circuit breaker is utilized for the motor branch shortcircuit and ground-fault protection. Utilizing a eutectic alloy or bimetallic heater element, the thermal overload relay essentially replicates the heating of the motor stator windings while it is running. When the current flowing to the motor exceeds the rating of the heater element, the thermal overload relay will trip and shut off the motor. When the heater element (and corresponding motor stator winding) cools, the thermal overload relay may be reset and the motor may be restarted. Care must be exercised when sizing to account for the motor nameplate full load amps (FLA), the service factor (SF), and the ambient temperature conditions. Solid-state (electronic) overload relays are devices used for three-phase motor overload protection. Sometimes simply referred to as a “motor protector,” the solid-state overload relay offers many advantages over the traditional thermal overload relay, including: • Voltage sensing – many solid-state overload relays offer voltage sensing in addition to (or in lieu of) current sensing. Voltage sensing offers increased motor protection against undervoltage, overvoltage, phase loss (“single phasing”), and phase reversal. • Increased accuracy – because the heater elements are mechanical in nature, the operation of the thermal overload relay may degrade with time. In addition, solid-state overload relays are not subject to ambient temperature conditions. For instance, if a motor is located outdoors (subjected to varying ambient temperatures) and the thermal overload relay is in an air conditioned space, the thermal overload relay may not trip as required. Accurate, dependable, and repeatable trip operation can often be achieved from solid-state overload relays. • Adjustability – another significant advantage of the solid-state overload relay is the ability to adjust the various trips and delay parameters on the relay. In addition to the overcurrent trip setpoint, solid-state overload relays will often permit user configuration of undercurrent and voltage low/high/unbalance setpoints as well as restart delays to prevent short cycling. Because the setpoint and the delay parameters are configurable in a wide range, a single solid-state overload relay part number can be utilized for a number of motor sizes; thus, reducing the required stock spares.
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Motor Protector Resources If you are considering installing or upgrading to motor protectors, here are a few points to examine: • Is a replacement motor readily available? • How long will it take to replace a failed motor? • How long can I afford to have a failed motor out-of-service? • How much will it cost to replace a failed motor? Parts? Shipping? Labor?
Looking for a place to start? Realizing that there are numerous manufacturers of motor protectors, we have provided below a brief list (randomly divided into commercial and industrial motor applications) of motor protector manufacturers. You should factor in the cost of the motor you are protecting, the cost of the motor protective device, and the cost of motor failure on your business, when selecting a specific product. Commercial Motor Applications ABB SSAC http://www.ssac.com/
ICM Controls http://www.icmcontrols.com/ SymCom http://www.symcominc.com/ Industrial Motor Applications Basler Electric http://www.basler.com/
General Electric – Multilin http://geindustrial.com/ Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. http://www.selinc.com/ Siemens http://www.siemens.com/
ER POW TO
AVAELL S for SM S ES BUSIN
SAVE AT WOR RK
Energy Con servation Tips for Offi ces and Commercia l Kitchens
Help Keep Your Business IN Business Anyone who owns or works in an independent business today knows times are tough. These days, staying in business, while we work towards better times, is a huge challenge. Lots of factors, in business today, are beyond the control of owners or employees. One area where everyone can make a difference is energy costs. And, Hawaiian Electric Company is eager to help. Hawaiian Electric Company is publishing two new guides: Ways to Save at Work which lists easy-tofollow tips for employees and Power to Save for Small Business, a guide for employers to launch an energy-conservation program. The Power to Save for Small Business guide includes a table showing estimated costs to operate common equipment and appliances. These new guides are companion pieces to similar guides for residential customers, but customized to small businesses and commercial kitchens. Why is helping small businesses so important? Nationally, they represent 99.7 percent of all employer firms. They employ half of all private sec-
RGY AN ENE VATION R CONSE GUIDE
tor employees. And, they have generated 60 to 80 percent of net new jobs annually over the last decade. The U.S. Small Business Administration defines a small business (for statistical purposes) as an independent business with fewer than 500 employees, which means even some mid-sized firms in Hawaii can qualify as a “small” business. According to DBEDT, 52 percent of Hawaii’s businesses have fewer than five employees and 94 percent have fewer than 50 employees. The new guides include a section on small commercial kitchens, because they may be able to see significant savings with a few changes. According to the National Restaurant Association, commercial restaurants often use more than five times the energy per square foot than other commercial buildings and five times more energy in the kitchen itself than the rest of the building. These guides offer simple, straightforward tips for those who are too busy to spend hours doing their own research and whose businesses are too small to find value in a major energy audit or energy consultation.
You can find Ways to Save at Work and Power to Save for Small Business on-line at heco.com, at Hawaiian Electric Company customer service desks at 900 Richards Street and 820 Ward Avenue, or by calling 543-7511. Residential guides are also available in the same way.
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Hawaiian Cement’s Kalaeloa Facility Joins EnergyScout™ for Business At the turn of the 21st century, Hawaiian Cement built a world class cement import facility, replacing one of the largest energy consuming factories in the state. The Hawaiian Cement import facility located at Barbers Point / Kalaeloa Harbor is a key player in Hawaii’s construction industry. Large ships holding up to 45,000 metric tons of cement are unloaded using a rail-mounted vacuum unloader. The cement is pneumatically pumped to two large storage domes at a rate of 600 tons per hour. The cement is then pumped from the domes to elevated loading bins for bulk truck transport on the island of Oahu and an interisland barge for distribution to the neighbor islands.
By agreeing to curtail approximately 763 kilowatts (kW) of load during an emergency, Hawaiian Cement will be able to earn over $90,000 annually in incentives from Hawaiian Electric Company! Continued
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Hawaiian Cement Continued
Hawaiian Cement utilizes state-of-theart control systems along with computer interface terminals to manage the load curtailment process for the EnergyScout™ for Business program. Large electrical equipment, up to 600 horsepower, is controlled with a click of the mouse. The automated systems require little human involvement in transporting the cement through the various phases. Two Load Control Relays (LCRs), supplied by Hawaiian Electric Company, were installed and activated -one on the ship unloader and the other at the dome storage terminal. In the case of the ship unloader, the LCR, in a load control event, will signal the Programmed Logic Controller (PLC) to sound an alarm and prompt an organized shutdown of the equipment which will reduce a load of up to 1600 kW to less than 30 kW in 90 seconds. At the dome storage terminal, a second LCR, in a load control event, will Continued
Left to right: Darlene Bajadali, Hawaiian Electric Company’s Account Manager and Dane Wurlitzer, Hawaiian Cement’s Engineering Manager
Hawaiian Electric Company’s EnergyScout™ for Business program was an excellent fit for this operation. Large electric demand loads can be managed to minimum levels required to maintain basic operations. With larger storage capacities, the ship unloading and barge loading operations can be curtailed for longer periods of time; thus, enabling staggered operations.
Hawaiian Cement Kalaeloa EnergyScout™ for Business program benefits: Over 700 kW of available curtailable loads Over $90,000/year in potential annual incentives Advanced notification of generation emergencies through program’s auto-notification system Automated proactive facility response to generation emergencies
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Hawaiian Cement Continued
also signal the PLC to suspend all transport operations until the load drops below the Firm Service Level (FSL). Once the power level is low enough, the computer interface will prompt the operator to gradually resume operations. Additionally, the PLC monitors the power draw and limits the cement transfer rate so the power stays below the FSL. Another benefit of the EnergyScout™ for Business program is the web-based power monitoring available from Hawaiian Electric Company. Dane Wurlitzer, Engineering Manager for Hawaiian Cement states, “Not only does this program tell you how you are using power, it also gives you an insight as to the productivity of your operations.” For Hawaiian Cement, high power consumption relates to efficient transfer of cement. Hawaiian Cement is very pleased with the benefits of EnergyScout™ for Business program for its Kalaeloa facility and is looking to enroll a few other locations in the near future. Hawaiian Cement is also providing a community service to help improve the reliability of the power grid. The EnergyScout™ for Business program is designed to help prevent outages by reducing the electri-
cal demand through reductions from participating customers during system-wide emergencies. Under the program, qualified customers with 50 kilowatts to 10 megawatts of interruptible electrical load are given financial incentives in return for allowing some of their electric load to be curtailed in emergencies. For more information on the EnergyScout™ for Business program, please call Program Manager, Melvin Oyadomari, at 543-4692. Mahalo!
Account Managers 543-4751
We always strive to make Powerlines a readable, valuable publication for our customers. Let us know if there are any specific subjects you would like to see addressed in our newsletter. Send or phone in your questions, ideas, and comments to the editor at the address below. We reserve the right to edit letters to the editor or other materials submitted. We can be reached at 543-4756. Hawaiian Electric Company does not endorse any equipment and or products contained in this publication. Furthermore, this publication and all information contained herein is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for particular purpose, or non-infringement. Hawaiian Electric Company assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions in this publication or other documents that are referenced by or linked to this publication.
EnergyScoutTM for Business Program Manager Melvin Oyadomari 543-4692
Published by: Hawaiian Electric Company, Customer Technology Applications Division P.O. Box 2750, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96840-0001 Editor: Carlos Perez. Phone: 543-4748 Fax: 543-4697
Need Help from Hawaiian Electric Company? Power Quality Engineers 543-4756 Randy China Tanay Panalal Mark Yamamoto
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