Page 1

Gro Lokøy • Sissel Hellesøy • Janniche Langseth • Hege Lundgren • Barbara Zielonka • Ian Underwood • Jason Bockman

RESTAURANT- OG MATFAG Engelsk for yrkesfag Vg1/Vg2


© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2014 1. utgave, 1. opplag Læreboka er skrevet etter gjeldende læreplan i engelsk Vg2, yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogram. Printed in Norway by: 07 Media – 07.no, 2014 ISBN 978-82-05-46303-5 Redaktør: Kari Anne G. Arnkværn og Kaja O. Bottolfsletten Bilderedaktør: Sissel Falck Design: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Design Sats og layout: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Design Omslagsdesign: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Design Omslagsfoto: Ippei Naoi / Moment / Getty Images Kart på omslagets innside : Kart&grafikk, Gerd Eng Kielland Forfatterne har mottatt stipend fra Det faglitterære forfatterfond, se www.nffo.no

Gyldendal Norsk Forlag ASA is grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given their permission for the use of copyright material. As it has proved impossible to identify all the material used, the publishers would welcome information from the copyright owners. Det må ikke kopieres fra denne boka i strid med åndsverkloven eller avtaler om kopiering inngått med KOPINOR, interesseorgan for rettighetshavere til åndsverk. Kopiering i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Alle henvendelser om forlagets utgivelser kan rettes til: Gyldendal Undervisning Redaksjonen for videregående skole Postboks 6860 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo E-post: undervisning@gyldendal.no www.gyldendal.no/undervisning Alle Gyldendals bøker er produsert i miljøsertifiserte trykkerier. Se www.gyldendal.no/miljo


Dear student, Welcome to SKILLS, written specifically for your vocational programme. SKILLS covers the full 5-hour course in English at the Vg1 and Vg2 levels of upper secondary school. In this textbook you will find many different types of tasks. The wide range of exercises and activities will help you improve your English. Many of these tasks are differentiated. This means you can choose activities that you will master, but also that there are some that will challenge you. In every chapter you will be asked to work systematically with your speaking and writing skills – step by step – from short oral presentations to structuring a text. You will learn to use different reading and listening strategies, and to use your digital competence when searching for and presenting information. There is also a wide variety of texts in SKILLS. You will be asked to read or listen to short stories, excerpts from novels and films, a play, poems, news articles, fact files and factual texts. We have chosen texts that we hope will entertain, inspire and interest you. At the end of Vg2 there may be an exam waiting for you. By working systematically with the texts and tasks, SKILLS will prepare you for that. At the end of this textbook, we have included suggestions of how to prepare for both a written exam and an oral exam. We trust that working with SKILLS will give you new experiences and help you develop your language skills - which in turn will help you in your chosen career and in everyday life. More than one billion people around the world communicate in English. You are one of them, and we hope you will do it well. Best wishes, the authors SKILLS: English for vocational studies consists of the following components: • SKILLS textbook • Smartbok, including Basic SKILLS • website for students, including Basic SKILLS • website for teachers www.gyldendal.no/skills


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 EXPECTATIONS 10 2 LOOKING BACK 44 3 THAT’S LIFE 78 4 SAFE AND SOUND 122 5 CULTURAL AFFAIRS 160 6 TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS 214 7 GLOBAL CHALLENGES 254 8 GOING PRO 294 9 OTHER VOICES 334 10 TOMORROW AND BEYOND 396


TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

1|

EXPECTATIONS PAGE 10 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL •

This Is Me

12

English? Why English?

14

Learning New Words in English

18

Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies

Maybe You Should Know Something About Me by Nick Hornby

21

Novel excerpt

••

Problem Page by Sophie Kinsella

26

Short story

••

Read and Remember

32

Improve your SKILLS: Reading strategies

Across Borders

34

Factual text

•••

Dreams by Langston Hughes

40

Poem

••

Nouns and Articles

42

Language Lab

2|

Interview

IN SHORT

Listening exercise

4  

LOOKING BACK PAGE 44

Preserving Food

46

Factual text

••

Using a Dictionary

52

Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies

Food as a Bearer of Tradition

56

Factual text

••

Sharing Information: “Show and Tell”

60

Improve your SKILLS: Speaking

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle

62

Short story excerpt

The Blue Carbuncle, continued

68

Chocolate by Roald Dahl

70

Memoir excerpt

••

Verbs: Tenses and Concord

76

Language Lab

Listening exercise

L istening exercise: Sound files, manuscripts, worksheets and keys can be found on “Ressursbank Lærer” at www.gyldendal.no/skills

   4

••• •••


TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

3|

THAT’S LIFE PAGE 78 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE Poem

LEVEL

IN SHORT

Nice Ass by Jesse Cameron Alick

80

What Makes Me Happy

83

Does My Head Look Big In This? by Randa Abdel-Fatteh

84

Novel excerpt

••

Structuring Paragraphs

92

Improve your SKILLS: Writing

Paranoia by Nikki Sixx

94

Autobiography excerpt

••

Addiction

98

Fact file

••

Online Bullying

100

News article

•••

Teacher’s Online Horror

104

Using Formal and Informal Language

106

Fucking Perfect by Pink

Listening exercise

4

4

••

Improve your SKILLS: Speaking, writing

108

Song lyrics

••

Socks are Not Enough by Mark Lowery

112

Novel excerpt

••

Sticks and Stones by Ruby Redfort

118

Poem

••

More Verbs

120

Language Lab

4|

Listening exercise

4

SAFE AND SOUND PAGE 122 Factual text

••

4

Safety First

124

Safety Equipment at Work

129

Writing a Report

130

Improve your SKILLS: Writing

Signs

134

Fact file

First Day at Work by Craig Taylor

136

Short story excerpt

••

Giving Instructions

142

Improve your SKILLS: Speaking, writing

Typhoid Mary

146

Factual text

••

61 Hours by Lee Child

152

Novel excerpt

••

How to Treat an Unconscious Person

156

Adjectives and Adverbs

158

Listening exercise

••

4  

Listening exercise Language Lab

4


TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

5|

CULTURAL AFFAIRS PAGE 160 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

English – A World Language

162

Factual text

Varieties of English

166

Unrelated Incidents by Tom Leonard

168

Poem

Using the Internet as a Source of Information

172

Slumdog Millionaire by Vikas Swarup

Listening exercise

LEVEL

IN SHORT

•••

4

•• •••

Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies, digital competence

174

Novel excerpt

••

India

178

Fact file

Writing a Film Review

182

Improve your SKILLS: Writing

Remember the Titans

184

Film

••

The USA

188

Fact file

Aspects of Culture and Values

192

Factual text

••

Boy A by Jonathan Trigell

198

Novel excerpts

•••

The UK

204

Fact file

The British by Benjamin Zéphaniah

208

Poem

Spelling

212

Language Lab

4

•••

6|

What I Do at Work

216

Factual text

••

Machines for Food Processing

222

Fact file

Listening Strategies

224

Improve your SKILLS: Listening

The Lot of a Food Critic by Ruth Reichl

226

Autobiography excerpt

Dinner as a Most Favored Patron

233

Tasty Tomatoes by Andreas Viestad

234

Life in South Africa

238

Writing a Five-Paragraph Text

240

Choosing Ingredients by Nigel Slater

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS PAGE 214

Listening exercise Blog article

 4

••• ••• •• ••

Improve your SKILLS: Writing

242

Factual text

••

The Perfect Hamburger

248

Fact File

Pronouns + It / There

250

Language Lab

Listening exercise

4


TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

7|

GLOBAL CHALLENGES PAGE 254 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT

Young Voices

256

Interview

Making a Difference

258

Factual text

••

Writing a Formal Letter

260

Improve your SKILLS: Writing

Trainers – A True Story

262

Play

••

Green Restaurants

270

News article

•••

Norwegian Salmon

275

Giving an Oral Presentation

276

Improve your SKILLS: Speaking

English-Speaking Africa

278

Fact file

••

Desert Dawn by Waris Dirie

282

Autobiography excerpt

••

Walking with Lions?

286

Look at Africa by Alexander McCall Smith

288

Apostrophe + Direct / Indirect Speech

Listening exercise

4

••

4

••

Novel excerpt

••

292

Language Lab

8|

Professional Communication

296

Factual text

Understanding and Using Statistics

300

Improve your SKILLS: Numeric competence

Waiter Rant by Steve Dublanica

302

Blog/autobiography

Speaking to Convince

308

Improve your SKILLS: Speaking

Yes, Chef by Marcus Samuelsson

310

Memoir excerpt

•••

Jamie Oliver’s Food Revolution

316

Factual text

••

Life Café, Rare Chef

322

Poem

Artisan Breads by Jo Von Sotak

324

Article

•••

Making Sausages

330

••

Prepositions

332

Listening exercise Language Lab

Listening exercise

GOING PRO PAGE 294

•••

4


TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

9|

OTHER VOICES PAGE 334 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT

We Are More by Shane Koyczan

336

Poem

••

Canada

340

Fact file

Nunavut – Inuit Territory

345

••

The Hockey Sweater by Roch Carrier

346

Short story

•••

Indigenous Peoples

352

Factual text

••

Working with Short Stories and Novels

360

Improve your SKILLS: Reading, writing

The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie

362

Novel excerpt

••

Powhiri by Jacq Carter

372

Poem

••

New Zealand

374

Fact file

New Zealand’s Maori culture

377

••

Using and Referring to Sources

378

Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies

The Stolen Generation

380

Factual text

••

Australia

384

Fact file

The Muster by Ali Lewis

388

Novel excerpt

••

Word Order

10|

394

Language Lab

Molecular Gastronomy

398

Succesful Start

402

The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins

404

Freeganism – A Fad or a Fab?

Listening exercise

Listening exercise

4

4

4

TOMORROW AND BEYOND PAGE 396 Factual text

•••

4

••

Novel excerpt

••

408

Factual text

•••

Good Eats

412

TV series

••

Easily Confused Words

418

Language Lab

In-Depth Studies

420

Cross-curricular project work

Preparing for a Written Exam

424

Improve your SKILLS

Preparing for an Oral Exam

426

Improve your SKILLS

Listening exercise

4


CHAPTER 1

Expectations


In this chapter, you will focus on

• communication in different situations and cultures • why English is useful • learning new words • how to read and remember • nouns and articles Useful words and phrases introduction dictionary upper secondary school communication culture social skills body language behaviour society globalisation

Are you up for a new start?

11


After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ speak

about Sophie and Robert and their plans for the future ▶▶ use some words related to professions within restaurant and food processing ▶▶ present yourself in a short written text

This Is Me Hi – I’m Sophie! This year I’ll start upper secondary school in Liverpool in the northwest of England. I have to leave my family and live at school, because in the village where I come from there are no schools covering my interests. I have decided to become a chef. This is something that interests me, and I hope to get a job in a nice restaurant once I’ve finished my education. I’m really looking forward to this year – to meeting new friends and learning a trade through practical work, and not just books.

upper secondary school videregående skole (UK)/ vidaregåande skule (UK) chef kokk trade yrke waiter servitør delicious deilig/lekker meal måltid

12 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills

My name is Robert. I’m from Scotland and this year I’ll start upper secondary school in Glasgow. I’m not very keen on school work, but I like to be with people, and I like to make myself useful. That’s why I have decided to become a waiter. In the future I want to serve delicious meals or mix fancy drinks in a bar or a restaurant, and maybe one day I’ll have my own place. If my plans don’t work out, I may try for a career as a hip hop dancer, because that’s my big passion in life.


Read and understand

1.1 Put these words in the right order. a in school start Sophie Liverpool will. b a wants to Robert become waiter. c this year Sophie forward is really looking to. d secondary Robert will start school in Glasgow upper. e new forward to is meeting Sophie looking friends. f is very Robert not work keen school on.

Speak

1.2 Answer these questions. Work in pairs. a What are Sophie’s plans for the future? b What does Robert want to do? c What do the two have in common? d What is it like to start at a new school? To answer this question, you may want to use some of these adjectives: nice, cool, interesting, terrifying, scary, challenging, exciting.

Practise

1.3 Match the words from the text with the right Norwegian translation. a chef 1 praktisk arbeid b look forward to 2 videregående skole c waiter 3 deilig d trade 4 måltid e practical work 5 lidenskap f upper secondary school 6 gjøre nytte for seg g make oneself useful 7 mitt eget sted h meal 8 se frem til i delicious 9 karriere j drinks 10 servitør k my own place 11 kokk l career 12 yrke m passion 13 drinker

Write

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can speak about Sophie and Robert and their plans for the future. YES

NO

I can use some words related to professions within restaurant and food processing. YES

1.4 Who are you? Write a short text by completing these sentences. Hi, my name is … I live in … I like to … In the future, I would like to …

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

I can present myself in a short written text. YES

ALMOST

NO

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 13


14 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


After working with the listening text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ give

at least two good reasons for learning English ▶▶ talk about your own motivation for learning English ▶▶ give your teacher information about your English skills

!

Before you start You are used to learning English. Do you sometimes wonder what all the work is good for?

English? Why English? Listen and understand

1.5 Listen carefully to Edvin, Martha, Henrik and Lisa and answer the questions. Edvin

Martha

Henrik

Lisa

Who likes to play online games? Who wants to become a baker? Who talks about travelling abroad? Who will work as a waiter? Who talks about interesting magazines? Who thinks lyrics are important in songs? Who wants to be able to talk about wine with foreign customers?

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 15


Speak

1.6 Answer these questions. Work in pairs. a What motivation do you have for learning English? b Do you agree with any of the speakers? c Why is it useful for you to learn English? 1.7 Interview a classmate. Use the questions below. Present your results in class. a How do you feel about learning English this year? b What do you expect to read about? c Do you know any good ways to learn new words? d What do you think is easiest? Is it speaking, reading, writing or just understanding? e In what situations do you learn English? f How much time are you prepared to spend on learning English every week?

Practise

1.8 Fill in the missing words. customers – profession – have to – important – polite – language a Knowing English is due to several reasons. b In your future , you will have to deal with English speaking clients, and even colleagues. c You will need to know how to be , not just being understood. d And you will be able to speak and write, not only understand the . 1.9 Pretend that you are at a party where you know very few people. Introduce yourselves to each other, small talk for a little while, and then walk on to other guests. Introduce the people you have just met to other people at the party as well. Act out the situation. Here are some useful expressions to help you get started: – Hi, how are you? How do you do? Hello, I'm ... Pleased to meet you! – May I introduce my friend ...? Have you met ...? – Nice talking to you! I've really enjoyed meeting you! Do excuse me, I must say hello to ... – Hope to see you again! Good bye! Thank you so much!

16 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


Write

1.10 Write a few sentences about what you are good at and what you find challenging when learning English.

Explore

1.11 Use the Internet to find information. a How many people in the world speak English as their first language? b Name at least five countries where English is an official language.

Did you know

People speak English in countries all over the world. This is because Britain had many colonies in the past. English became the international language for business and government in the British Empire. Since the 20th century, American culture has become more dominant. Today American films, music and TV-programs are popular almost everywhere.

How did you do? After working with the listening text and exercises, I can give at least two good reasons for learning English. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can talk about my own motivation for learning English. YES

Sometimes you may have to modify your language to be understood.

ALMOST

NO

I can give my teacher information about my English skills. YES

ALMOST

NO

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 17


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LEARNING NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH Learning a language means learning new words, all the time. How can we do this? Most importantly, get into the habit of looking up words you don’t know. If you are using an online dictionary or have downloaded a dictionary program on your computer, keep it open and at hand. Here are some suggestions on how you can learn new words systematically. 1 Make your own English word bank Write down words and phrases in a separate book. From each lesson, choose the words you think will be most useful for you. Write them down in two columns, the English word in the first and the Norwegian translation in the second. Practise writing them and saying them out loud. Hide one column and check whether you remember what is hidden. 2 Use memory cards Write down three to five new words on one side of a card. Write the Norwegian translations on the other side. Test yourself without flipping the card over, or ask someone else to test your memory by holding up one side of the card. Play the memory game! 3 Use illustrations Many students remember new words more easily if they are illustrated. In your word bank or on your memory cards, you can make drawings or copy pictures. Cover the new word with your hand, and try to remember by looking at the picture. 4 Use post-it notes In the workshop, the kitchen, the clinic, the laboratory, the classroom etc., you are surrounded by things, tools and equipment. Write down their names on post-it notes and place them on some of the things. Every time you look at them, you are reminded of what they are called in English. 5 Make word groups If you group words together in topics, you may find that they are easier to remember. Start with one word or expression, and make a word map.

18 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS bandage

bacteria

first aid

band-aid

hygiene

Safety accidents

signs

6 Use and practise Write a list of words that you want to learn. Practise by writing sentences where you use the new words as many times as possible. 7 Use the new words when you speak and write For your next oral presentation or written assignment, make sure you use some of the new words. Once you start using the new words actively, it will be much easier to remember them later.

Practise 1.12 Now try at least two of the suggestions above on the text you are going to read on page 21, “Maybe You Should Know Something About Me.� Make a note of which method works best for you.

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 19


After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

Maybe You Should Know Some­thing About Me

what the story is about ▶▶ introduce yourself ▶▶ talk and write about social skills in general ▶▶ find your way in this book

!

Before you start If you were going to introduce yourself to people you have never met before, which three or four facts would you mention? Write down some keywords.

In Slam (2007), we meet 15-year-old Sam who must deal with adult challenges. He discovers how small actions may change one’s life dramatically. Here is the beginning of the novel. So things were ticking along quite nicely. In fact, I’d say that good stuff had been happening pretty solidly for about six months. – For example: Mum got rid of Steve, her rubbish boyfriend. – For example: Mrs Gillett, my art and design teacher took me to one side after a lesson and asked whether I’d thought of doing art at college. – For example: I’d learned two new skating tricks, suddenly, after weeks of making an idiot of myself in public. (I’m guessing that not all of you are skaters, so I should say something straight away, just so there are no terrible misunderstandings. Skating = skateboarding. We never say skateboarding, usually, so if you keep thinking of me messing around on ice, then it’s your own stupid fault.) All that, and I’d met Alicia too. I was going to say that maybe you should know something about me before I go off about my mum and Alicia and all that. If you knew something about me, you might actually care about some of those things. But then, looking at what I just wrote, you know quite a lot already, or at least you

ticking along rusler og går/ ruslar og går pretty solidly jevnt og trutt/ jamt og trutt get rid of bli kvitt rubbish søppel in public offentlig/offentleg actually faktisk

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 21


unless hvis ikke, bortsett fra/ dersom ikkje, bortsett frå apply for søke på/søkje på subject fag punch slå til weird merkelig/merkeleg paragraph avsnitt incredibly utrolig/utruleg pathetic patetisk, latterlig/ patetisk, latterleg carry on fortsette/halde fram, gå vidare get divorced bli skilt/bli skild clear up klarne opp, ordne seg

could have guessed a lot of it. You could have guessed that my mum and dad don’t live together, for a start, unless you thought that my dad was the sort of person who wouldn’t mind his wife having boyfriends. Well, he’s not. You could have guessed that I skate, and you could have guessed that my best subject at school was art and design, unless you thought I might be the sort of person who’s always being taken to one side and told to apply for college by all the teachers in every subject. You know, and the teachers actually fight over me. “No, Sam! Forget art! Do physics!” “Forget physics! It would be a tragedy for the human race if you gave up French!” And then they all start punching each other. Yeah, well. That sort of thing really, really doesn’t happen to me. I can promise you, I have never ever caused a fight between teachers. And you don’t need to be Sherlock Holmes or whatever to work out that Alicia was a girl who meant something to me. I’m glad there are things you don’t know and can’t guess, weird things, things that have only ever happened to me in the whole history of the world, as far as I know. If you were able to guess it all from that first little paragraph, I’d start to worry that I wasn’t an incredibly complicated and interesting person, ha ha. This was a couple of years ago – this time when things were ticking along OK – so I was fifteen, nearly sixteen. And I don’t want to sound pathetic, and I really don’t want you to feel sorry for me, but this feeling that my life was OK was new to me. I’d never had the feeling before, and I haven’t really had it since. I don’t mean to say that I’d been unhappy. It was more that there had always been something wrong before, somewhere – something to worry about. For instance, my parents were getting divorced, and they were fighting. Or they’d finished getting divorced, but they were still fighting anyway, because they carried on fighting long after they got divorced. Or maths wasn’t going very well – I hate maths – or I wanted to go out with someone who didn’t want to go out with me ... All of this had just sort of cleared up, suddenly, without me noticing, really, the way the weather does sometimes. And that summer there seemed to be more money around. My mum was working, and my dad wasn’t as angry with her, which meant he was giving us what he ought to have been giving us all the time. So, you know. That helped. nick hornby Nick Hornby (1957–) is a British writer. He is famous for his many novels about people in different situations who try to cope with their everyday life. Many of his novels have been made into successful films.

M

22 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


Read and understand

1.13 • Choose the right alternative in each sentence. a Sam has a talent for French / art and design / physics. b Sam likes ice skating / his mother’s boyfriend / skateboarding. c Sam lives with his parents / mother / father. d Sam was unused / used / not used to feeling his life was OK. e Sam’s parents have quarreled a lot / usually had a good relationship / no contact. 1.14 •• Write one sentence about each of the characters in the text. a Sam b Alicia c mum d dad e Mrs Gillett f Steve 1.15 Sherlock Holmes is referred to in the text. Who is he?

Speak

1.16 Discuss the following questions. a Which four facts about Sam do we learn in the beginning? b Which four facts did you and your partner mention about yourselves in the prereading activity? c Based on the information you have shared, introduce your partner to the rest of your class. Start with: I would like to introduce …

Write

1.17 How would you start the story of your life, your autobiography? Write the first paragraph.

Explore

1.18 Get to know your English book. Leaf through this book and answer the following questions. a What kind of information do you find in the table of contents (page 5–9)? b What different kinds of texts can you find in chapter 3? c What seem to be the main topics in chapter 5? d Give examples of texts or tasks linked to your specific field of study. e Where do you find the plan showing your curriculum? f Do you find activities linked to films? g Do you find any activities where you practise listening? h Are there any grammar tasks in this book? i Are all the tasks on the same level of difficulty? j Do you find any song lyrics in this book? k Based on what you have seen so far, what do you expect to learn about this year? Make a list.

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 23


Key: 1a = 2 points, 1b = 1 point, 1c = 3 points.

Test Your Social Skills 1

You are invited to a party; what do you bring to the host or hostess? a A CD with your favorite music. b Some old clothes that you had planned to get rid of. c A box of chocolate or flowers.

2

You meet a new person but he or she tells you to bugger off. What do you do? a Leave immediately. b Punch him or her in the face. c Sit down and try to pick up a conversation with him or her.

3

You work with a person who smells bad because he or she rarely changes clothes. a You say he or she stinks and tell him or her to stay away from you. b You carefully suggest he or she should shower and change more often. c You don’t say anything but avoid him or her all the time.

4

You meet a person that you actually don’t like but he or she seems to like you. a You pretend to be interested in keeping up a conversation. b You make an excuse to escape from the room. c You tell the person that you are not interested and to get lost.

5

At work, a bothersome customer shows up in your office to complain about your work. a You assume he or she is right and promise that you will look into the problem and call back. b You assure the customer that you always do your best and that you find it unlikely that you have made a mistake. c You make it clear that you don’t believe him or her and tell him or her to leave.

6

You see a person who is blind, but he or she doesn’t know that you are there. a You introduce yourself and take the person’s hand to greet him or her. b You avoid the person and sneak out quietly. c You talk to the other people in the room and leave the blind person alone.

2a = 2 points, 2b = 1 point, 2c = 3 points. 3a = 1 point, 3b = 3 points, 3c = 2 points. 4a = 3 points, 4b = 2 points, 4c = 1 point. 5a = 3 points, 5b = 2 points, 5c = 1 point. 6a = 3 points, 6b = 1 point, 6c = 2 points. Points: 15–18 You have an open mind and seem to be a sociable and friendly person. You act according to the rules of good behavior and are probably a popular person. Points: 10–14 You have fairly well developed social skills and will probably get along with most people, even though you may risk to offend some of the people that cross your path. Points: 6–9 Your social skills do not seem to be too great, maybe you should work on your behavior to avoid annoying people you meet?

24 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


Speak

1.19 In pairs, discuss the results. Do you agree with the conclusion? Is this you? 1.20 Do you behave any differently when you are among friends your own age than at a dinner party with elderly relatives present? 1.21 Do you treat people differently online than in real life?

Write

1.22 • Write a list of social skills that are important to you. 1.23 •• What social skills are important to young people today? Write a short text.

Explore

1.24 Use the Internet or other sources. Find information about how people introduce themselves to others in different cultures around the world. Use different sources. Write down your findings and use illustrations.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the excerpt from Slam is about. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can introduce myself to a stranger. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can talk and write about social skills in general. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can find my way in this book. YES

ALMOST

NO

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 25


Problem Page "Problem Page" is a fictitious column in a newspaper where people write in to get advice. The “agony aunt” calls herself Abby. Wendy and Steve are two young people who share one problem – they cannot find the courage to talk to the person they like. They are both too shy …

26 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills

Dear Abby I really fancy this boy. He works in the bakery shop near where I live in Skegness, and I keep going in to buy things like doughnuts, just so I can look at him. He is soooo gorgeous, and has a beautiful smile. I can’t


pluck up courage to speak to him, though. I’m really self-conscious about my figure and always wear baggy T shirts that my Mum says look like dirty dishcloths. What should I do? Desperate Wendy

things seem awkward at first, why not crack a joke to break the ice? Good luck! Abby

Dear Wendy Be brave! The only way to see if you and this boy will hit it off is to talk to him! Remember, he may be ignoring you because he’s shy too. Next time you’re in the shop, try to strike up a casual conversation. I’m sure your clothes don’t look like dirty dishcloths! Having said that, bright colours can lift your mood and give you confidence. Why not start off with a few bright accessories that make you feel good? Good luck! Abby

Dear Abby He spoke to me! But it was really awful. I went into the shop yesterday and did exactly what you said. I put on this bright pink scarf, and big, lime-green sparkly earrings. But he didn’t even notice them. He was just cracking all these awful, tasteless jokes about dead cats in blenders, and looking at me like he expected me to laugh. I think I’ve gone right off him. Disappointed Wendy

Dear Abby There’s this girl I like. She comes into the shop where I work and hangs around and I see her looking at me. She’s quiet and shy – and her clothes look like dirty dishcloths – but I still fancy her. I don’t know what she thinks of me though. Should I make a move? And what do I say? Steve Dear Steve Absolutely! Do it! I feel certain that this girl is coming into your shop because she’s attracted to you. She is secretly longing for you to talk to her. Next time you see her, just strike up a casual conversation. If

After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the story is about ▶▶ understand and use words related to communication

Dear Abby Bloody disaster. She came into the shop yesterday – and I tried to talk to her. All light and jokey, like you said. But she didn’t seem to hear a word. She was wearing some stupid psychedelic scarf around her neck that she kept flicking everywhere, and jangling her earrings like a nutter. I’m giving up on her. Steve Dear Wendy Don’t give up! Maybe this boy was trying to impress you with his humour. Perhaps someone even advised him to tell jokes! Possibly. Anyway, I think he deserves another chance. I would forget about the brightly-coloured accessories for

fictitious oppdiktet/oppdikta column spalte courage mot dishcloth oppvaskhåndkle/ oppvaskhandklede strike up starte casual hverdagslig/kvardagsleg awkward pinlig, klossete/ pinleg, klossete crack a joke fortelle en vits/ fortelje ein vits sparkly glitrende/glitrande jangle dingle psychedelic her: glorete, fargerikt nutter tulling accessories tilbehør/utstyr, tillegg

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 27


the moment. Instead, try to get a proper conversation with him. Really show your personality. You could even disagree with him over something – a friendly argument can often spark things off romantically! Good luck! Abby Dear Steve Please don’t give up! Maybe this girl was wearing bright colours in order to attract you! I’m having a strong vibe – call it women’s intuition! – that she was dressing to impress. I’m sure you can still get things going. But I would forget about the jokes for the moment. Instead, why not try to show her that you have a caring side – a love of nature, or animals perhaps. Girls find these qualities very attractive! Good luck! Abby Dear Abby Complete disaster!! I saw him yesterday and did just what you said – but it was terrible! I tried to get the banter going, and start a friendly argument, but it didn’t work at all. Plus he had this stupid dog there that kept slobbering over all the Danish pastries. It made me feel sick. I’m wondering if I even fancy him any more. And I KNOW he doesn’t like me. He probably never did. Desperate Wendy

Dear Abby I took your advice. Total nightmare. I took my uncle’s puppy in to show how caring I am but she didn’t even smile. In fact, she was a total stroppy cow – disagreed with everything I said. When I said, ‘The dog’s a dachshund,’ she said, ‘No he’s not, he’s a poodle.’ She’s a psycho. And obviously not interested. I give up. Steve

Dear Abby Well it worked. I’m seeing her at the weekend. Cheers for all the advice. Steve

Dear Wendy He likes you!! I know he does!! OK. Listen. Please, just go in there – no bright accessories, no arguments – and ask if he’d like a coffee sometime. Do this for me, will you? Abby

Dear Abby I know. Isn’t it lovely? Blissful Wendy

Dear Steve She IS interested!! I know she is!! OK. Listen. Please, just smile at her next time you see her and say ‘How are you?’ No jokes. No dogs. Do this for me. Just once. And see what happens. Abby Dear Abby Oh my God! Oh my Goooood! It worked!! We had a coffee together … and he asked me on a date!! I’m so happy! Thanx for all your brilliant advice! It really worked!! You’re the best agony aunt ever. Happy Wendy

28 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills

Dear Wendy What great news!! I’m so pleased for you. Who would have thought love would blossom over the doughnuts in a bakery shop??! Abby

Dear Steve What great news!! I’m so pleased for you. Who would have thought love would blossom over the doughnuts in a bakery shop??! Abby Dear Abby Some mistake. I don’t work at a bakery shop. I work at a hardware shop, down in Poole. Cheers for the help, though. Steve sophie kinsella Sophie Kinsella was born in London. She worked as a financial journalist when she wrote her first novel, which became a huge success. When she sits down to write, she disconnects all the phones and turns on loud music. Sophie Kinsella is a pseudonym.

w


Read and understand

1.25 • Fill in the missing words, and write down the complete sentences. young – shy – agony aunt – courage – problem – people – column a “Problem page” is a in a newspaper where write to get advice. b The calls herself Abby. c Wendy and Steve are two people who share the same . d They cannot find the to talk to the person they like. e They are both . 1.26 •• Translate into Norwegian the sentences you completed in task 1.25. 1.27 ••• Answer the following questions. a Who is Abby? b What do we find out about Wendy through her letters to Abby? c What do we find out about Steve through his letters to Abby? d How does Wendy try to impress the boy she fancies? e What does Steve do to impress the girl he fancies? f What effect does Abby’s advice have? g In her attempts to match Steve and Wendy, Abby gets a bit of a surprise. What is this? h Where or when does Abby get it wrong? Find out why she makes the wrong assumptions.

Practise

1.28 Match the English words with the Norwegian translations. Use a dictionary to look up words you don’t know. a interact 1 misforståelse b social 2 mottaker c transmit 3 kroppsspråk d behave 4 samhandle e recipient 5 sosial f explicit 6 oppføre seg g ambiguous 7 overføre h misunderstanding 8 tvetydig i meaning 9 betydning j body language 10 bestemt, utvetydig

slobber sikle banter småerting Danish pastry wienerbrød stroppy cow teit ku obviously åpenbart/opplagt, tydelegvis agony aunt ‘Klara Klok’ blossom blomstre hardware shop jernvarehandel

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 29


1.29 Write right for the correct use and wrong for the incorrect use of the words from the list above. Right

Wrong

a If a message is ambiguous it means that you know exactly what is meant. b A recipient is someone who sends a message to someone. c Body language is all the verbs in what you say. d How you behave has to do with what you do in relation to others. e When people interact they communicate with each other. f A misunderstanding is when someone does not understand something the way it was meant. g To transmit a message to someone is to communicate with them. h When people meet and form a relationship they are being social. i Meaning is expressed by words and signs. j An explicit message is easy to understand incorrectly.

1.30 Choose the words that fit best in the sentences below. a Peter is very unsociable, and with him it is really hard to . explicit – interact – misunderstanding – meaning b People and animals have instincts that make us . explicit – meaning – social – ambiguous c A clear message can be quite difficult to . behave – interact – transmit – meaning d My boyfriend and I nearly split up because of a small . meaning – body language – behave – misunderstanding e My younger brother is difficult to be around, he has no idea of how to . ambiguous – transmit – explicit – behave f My sister is very lively and has really expressive . meaning – body language – misunderstanding – transmit g We could have saved ourselves a long argument if you had been more . ambiguous – meaning – explicit – social h He quite misunderstood my . recipient – meaning – misunderstanding – transmit i What you just said there was perhaps a little . body language – meaning – interact – ambiguous

30 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


Speak

1.31 Practise reading the text out loud. Work in groups of three. Choose one character each. 1.32 Choose one piece of advice Abby gives to Wendy or Steve. Comment on the advice. Would you give the same? 1.33 What do you think of columns like the one in this story? Do you read them? Do you find them entertaining? Who do you turn to when you want advice, and why? Discuss.

Write

1.34 Write a short anonymous letter to Abby, the agony aunt, about a problem. Use your imagination. You don’t have to be personal! Collect all the letters in a box. Each student draws a letter out of the box and writes an answer to the problem where you suggest what can be done. Read out the letters and answers in class. Meeting the right one ... A friend asked a gentleman why he had never married. The gentleman replied, “Well, I suppose I just never met the right woman... I expect I’ve been looking for the perfect girl.” “Oh, come on now,” said the friend, ‘surely you have met at least one girl that you wanted to marry?” “Yes, there was one girl … once. I think she was the one perfect girl I really ever met. She was just the right everything … I really think that she was the perfect girl for me.” “Well, why didn’t you marry her?” asked the friend. “She was looking for the perfect man,” he said.

How did you do? After working with the text “Problem Page”, I can explain what the story is about. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can understand and use words related to communication. YES

ALMOST

NO

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 31


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS READ AND REMEMBER Have you ever spent hours reading about something, and still, when you need to remember what you read, it is all gone? Wouldn’t it be nice if we could study texts and remember them well?

The Helpful Hand Follow these five good steps. 1 Prepare yourself Prepare yourself for reading. Protect yourself against disturbances. What do you already know about this topic? Study the pictures, and read what is written in connection with photos. What are the headlines here? What do they tell you about the topic?

repeat repetere vital viktig advice råd trade yrke vocabulary ordforråd opportunities muligheter/ sjansar, tilbod, moglegheiter commit forplikte progress framgang a wide range et stort utvalg/eit stort utval topic emne skim skumlese thoroughly grundig prefer foretrekke/favorisere, velje, setje høgare look up slå opp memorize lære utenat/lære utanåt summary summere opp structure oppbygging paragraph avsnitt content innhold/innhald contest konkurranse

2 Read There are three different reading strategies to choose from. Skim through the text. When you have got an overview, ask yourself: What is this text about? Your answer should be just one or two words at this point. Scan. Sometimes you need to scan a text for specific information. Practice will make you good at this. Close read. Study the text thoroughly. Write down words you need to start using when writing and talking about this topic. Use a dictionary when necessary. 3 Tasks Now that you have read the text and understood the content, work on the tasks and activities. Write a short summary of the text, for example by writing one sentence for each paragraph of the text. 4 Learn new words Why not work with a friend? Use memo notes. Use your mobile phone. Make a contest. If you learn five new words every week, how much is that during a school year? You find good advice in the text on page 18. 5 Revise When you have studied the text, learned the words and worked on the tasks, you still need to read the text again. Listening to the sound file is also a good way to revise. You could also make your own recording.

32 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 1.35 Put the words in the correct order. a smart There to ways study are. b remember what you want have Repeat read if you to it. c the before Get it overview of text you an study. d about is words English learning Learning. e you friend Work a when revise with. 1.36 What are the steps in order to read and remember? Put the sentences below in the correct order. a Do the tasks and activities made for you in connection with the text. b Write down words you need to start using. c Work with a friend when you learn the words. d Skim through the text. e Get ready to study by turning off sources that might distract you. f Read the headlines. g Read thoroughly and slowly. h Repeat words and content. 1.37 Complete the following sentences. a Skimming means to … b Scanning means to … c Close reading means to … 1.38 Look at the illustration again, and learn the principles of reading and remembering by heart. 1.39 What is your main challenge when it comes to homework? Turning off the phone? Learning the words? Identify your main challenge, and plan how you want to work on this. 1.40 Use the advice from this text when you go on to study the text “Across Borders”, on page 34.

Did you know

Learning styles. Some of us remember better what we see than what we hear. Others remember better what they can work on with their hands, and experience physically. If you know what your preferred learning style is, you will be able to plan your studies accordingly, and hopefully this will help you learn and remember.

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 33


Across Borders The world seems to become smaller. We travel more than only a few decades ago and are also more likely to have neighbours or friends from a foreign culture. Humans have migrated or explored new areas since they first appeared in Africa about 2 million years ago. However, it is only in the last centuries that we have travelled across the world, thanks to the great explorers of the 1600s and 1700s. The mass tourism and migration we see today has only lasted for around fifty years. 34 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills

!

Before you start Today, people travel a lot. We meet new cultures and people who live and behave differently from how we do. What are the advantages of meeting people from other places? What are the challenges? Discuss in class.


New skills The movement of people across borders and continents has led to globalisation and cultural diversity. We see an increase in international trade, business, education and communication, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This diversity has a lot of positive aspects. However, it may also cause misunderstandings, culture clash and even conflicts. Therefore we need new skills and a cultural awareness that can help us interpret and understand what we hear and see when we meet new people.

After working with this text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ speak

and write about the meaning of globalisation ▶▶ give some examples of cultural differences ▶▶explain what culture is

Defining culture What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as individuals and as part of a family and a society. Cultural differences are traditions and behaviour, like the food we eat, the clothes we wear, our political, social and religious values and maybe most important, our language. Each culture will have linguistic features which may not be obvious to foreigners. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as so important that they will say “yes” in the sense “Yes, I hear you” while other cultures will interpret it as a “Yes, I agree.” They will say “this may be difficult” when they mean to say “this is impossible”. Asian pupils consider it rude to tell their teacher that they don’t understand his or her instructions. Imagine the consequences if this person was teaching the pupils how to swim!

Non-verbal communication Body language is another issue. Actually, facial expressions for happiness and sadness seem to be quite universal, but there are other features one should be more aware of. For example, to what extent do we touch or look at people we meet? How do we use our voice and gestures? When we meet a friend, we may use a hand shake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek, a bow or press noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. This shows that body language can cause misunderstandings. Also, which finger do you use for pointing? In the western world we use the index finger but in other cultures they use the middle finger or the thumb. All this shows us that communication across borders can be a challenging experience. However, it is also important to remember that, although we are part of a set of traditions and customs, we are also individuals with our own personal features and behaviour. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? Is there such a creature at all? Although it is important to be aware of cultural differences, it is equally important to avoid having a stereotypical view of people.

decade tiår likely sannsynlig/sannsynleg appear dukke opp migrate vandre, forflytte seg/ vandre, flytte seg explorers oppdagere/ utforskarar, oppdagarar diversity mangfold/mangfald increase øke/auke ethnic etnisk aspect side av en sak, synsvinkel/side av ei sak, synsvinkel skills ferdigheter/ferdigheiter awareness bevissthet/medvit interpret tolke society samfunn behaviour oppførsel/åtferd values verdier/verdiar linguistic features språktrekk obvious åpenbar/opplagd interpret tolke intercultural flerkulturell, mellom kulturer/ fleirkulturell, mellom kulturar non-verbal ikkje-språklig/ikkjespråkleg features trekk gestures håndbevegelser/ handrørsler Maoris folkegruppe på New Zealand index finger pekefinger/ peikefinger features trekk equally important like viktig stereotypical view fastlåst bilde av/fastlåst bilete av

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 35


IN SHORT

People travel a lot these days. It has become quite common to have friends or neighbours from a foreign culture. Humans have always been on the move. However, the mass tourism and migration we see today has only lasted for around fifty years. New skills Globalisation means that there is contact between people around the world, in many ways. Business and education are reasons to travel, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This is both positive and challenging. We need new skills so that we understand what we hear and see when we meet new people. Defining culture What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as individuals and as part of a family and a society. Even if we think we understand each other, there may be problems. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as extremely important and will often say “yes” in the sense “Yes, I hear you”. People from other cultures will hear “Yes, I agree.” Moreover, some will say “this may be difficult” when meaning “this is impossible”!

foreign utenlandsk/ utanlandsk migration forflytning/flytting globalization globalisering ethnic etnisk challenging utfordrende/ utfordrande culture kultur society samfunn certain sikker regard se på, betrakte/sjå på, vurdere, studere non-verbal ikke-verbal/ikkjeverbal greet hilse/helse complicate komplisere individuals enkeltmennesker/ enkeltmenneske habit vane creature skapning avoid unngå equally important like viktig stereotypical view fastlåst bilde/fastlåst bilete

Non-verbal communication Our body language is a part of our communication. We may greet a friend with a handshake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek, a bow or by pressing noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. Meeting a person with a different body language may complicate our communication. In spite of cultural differences, we are also individuals with our own personal habits. What is, in your opinion a typical Norwegian? Is there such a creature at all? Although it is important to be aware of cultural differences, it is equally important to avoid having a stereotypical view of people.

36 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


Read and understand

1.41 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. True

False

a People travelling to foreign countries has only taken place for around 50 years. b Economy and education are important reasons why we meet new cultures today. c The word “culture” refers mostly to art and music. d The way we dress and our cooking traditions are also part of our culture. e The word “Yes” will always be a sign of full agreement. f Non-verbal communication means to speak a foreign language. g Facial expressions are very different from culture to culture. h Hand gestures may also have a different meaning in different cultures. i Having a stereotypical view of people will help you communicate well.

1.42 •• Answer these questions by scanning the text. a What is globalisation? b What is meant by the expression “culture”? c How can the word “yes” mean different things? d Based on information from the text, give examples of body language that varies in different cultures. e What is the meaning of the word “stereotype”? Look it up in a dictionary.

Speak

1.43 Study the following signs. Explain what makes these signs funny or wrong.

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 37


1.44 All cultures have expressions and sayings linked to their languages or geographical areas. Study the cartoon below. a Which are the two sayings the Norwegian uses? How does the other character respond to them? b Add a fourth frame to the cartoon strip where you show what you think will happen next. c Do you know any sayings in English? Make a list and share in class.

Write

1.45 • What do you think is most important to remember when communicating with someone from another culture? Write at least three sentences. 1.46 •• Read the following quotes on communication. Choose two, and write down your answers to the following questions. a What is their message? b Which of the quotes do you agree with? Explain why.

“We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.”

“Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless.” Mother Teresa of Calcutta, (1910–1997)

Epictetus (Greek philosopher, AD 55-c.135)

“Communication – the human connection – is the key to personal and career success.” 38 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills

Paul J. Meyer (Successful businessman, 1928–2009)


1.47 ••• A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication. Study the illustrations below. Write a short text for a tourist magazine where you explain in full sentences how different gestures may be interpreted in different ways according to the culture and the country you visit.

Good

OK

Two

(Western Europe and

(UK and USA)

(USA)

North America)

Money (Japan)

Up yours (Britain –

Up yours (Latin America

Zero (Russia)

palm inwards)

and West Africa)

Insult (Brazil)

Victory (USA and Britain –

One

with palm outwards)

Did you know

According to research, there is a distinct difference between men and women when it comes to speech patterns. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words a day, whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. Girls learn to speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, they have a vocabulary twice that of boys. The reason lies in the wiring of our brains. For men, speech is located in the left side of the brain, but for women, speech is located in both halves. Therefore men will communicate in a logical way, while female speech will be a mixture of logic and emotion. This is also why women talk more than men. – Is this true for your class? How about your family?

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can speak and write about the meaning of globalisation. YES

NO

I can give some examples of cultural differences. YES

There is all the difference in the world between having something to say and having to say something.

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

I can explain what culture is. YES

ALMOST

NO

John Dewey (American professor, 1859–1952)

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 39


Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. broken-winged med brukket/ brekt vinge barren gold, øde/aud

langston hughes

40 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills


Read and understand

1.48 In this poem, the writer expresses how important dreams are to human beings. In pairs, discuss, and write down your answers to the questions below. a Who do you think the poet speaks to, in this poem? b What does he compare life to, when dreams die or go?

DID YOU DO 1|HOW IN THIS CHAPTER? Yes

Almost

No

1 I can speak about Sophie and Robert and their future plans. 2 I can use words related to my educational program. 3 I can introduce myself in a short text. 4 I can listen to a text and understand what it is about. 5 I can name at least two good reasons for learning English. 6 I can talk about my own motivation for learning English. 7 I can speak and write about Sam from the novel Slam. 8 I can introduce myself or a friend to a stranger. 9 I can find my way in the English book. 10 I can speak and write about social skills in general. 11 I can explain what the story “Problem Page” is about. 12 I can extract content from a text and talk about it. 13 I can use new words related to communication. 14 I can explain the meaning of globalisation. 15 I can mention examples of cultural differences. 16 I can explain what culture is. 17 I can describe what the poem “Dreams” is about.

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 41


LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS NOUNS AND ARTICLES Nouns Most nouns are either in the singular or in the plural.

One hospital – two hospitals

If you add an –s to nouns that end in x, sh, ch, s and z you add an extra e so the word becomes easier to say.

One church – two churches One bus – two buses

When a noun ends in a –y and the letter before the – y is a vowel, you add s to form the plural.

One key – two keys

When a noun ends in a –y and the letter before –y is a consonant, the –y is changed to an –i and is followed by –es.

One lady – two ladies

Some nouns are irregular in the plural. It is best to look these up in a dictionary.

One woman – two women One child – two children

Some nouns are used only in the singular.

The furniture is old.

Some nouns are used only in the plural.

The police are on their way.

Proper nouns and nationalities are spelled with a capital letter.

Sam, Australia, Australian

Practise 1.49 Make these nouns plural. a One story two b One brush two c One lady two d One family two e One way two f One key two g One country two h One day two i One box two j One valley two 42 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills

1.50 Choose the right word. a It is important to look after your foot / feet. b Also, you should brush your tooth / teeth twice a day. c A man / men speaks between 7,000 and 10,000 words per day. d A woman / women on the other hand, speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words per day.


AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS e f g h i j

This is because a woman uses both half / halves of the brain to produce speech. For men, speech is located in the left half / halves of the brain. As regards child / children, girls usually learn to speak before boys do. Dreams are important in people’s life / lives. My book of Langston Hughes’ poetry is on the middle shelf / shelves. If you can’t sleep, you might try counting sheep / sheeps.

1.51 Write capital letters where you think they should be. a sam’s mother had a boyfriend called steve. b sam never liked steve, and nobody else did, either. c mrs gillett suggested that sam should study art when he went to college. d sam dreams of going to the university of the arts in london. e this is europe’s largest art university and is divided into six colleges. f nick hornby is a british writer. g have you seen the new film about sherlock holmes? h do you think doctor watson is actually quite smart? i alicia is very important in sam’s life. j alicia is good at both maths and french.

Articles You use a before words that start with a consonant sound. You use an before words that start with a vowel sound. You use the if you are talking about a particular place, thing or person.

a disease an interesting case She missed the bus.

1.52 Fill in a, an or the. a Alicia is interesting girl. b Sherlock Holmes was famous detective. c Mum got rid of Steve, boyfriend nobody liked. d Mrs Gillett is art teacher at my school. e After few weeks of practice Sam learnt two new skating tricks. f subject Sam likes the most is Arts and Design. g Sam and his mum have moved to new place. h feeling that things are OK is new to Sam. i Actually, Sam has had pretty complicated life. j most difficult time for Sam was when his parents were getting a divorce.

Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 43


CHAPTER 2

Looking


In this chapter you will focus on

Back

• methods for preserving food • traditional food • expressing taste, feelings and opinion • using a dictionary • sharing information • verbs

Useful words and phrases traditional bacteria drying palate celebration consume industrial processes methods pasteurization

What do you know about food in the past?

45


traditional tradisjonell the Earth verdenen / verda methods metoder preserving food konservering av mat major activity vesentlig arbeidsoppgave / vesentleg arbeidsoppg책ve

Preserving Food As long as people have lived on the Earth, preserving food has been a major activity of every society. The main aim of traditional and modern methods is to make it difficult for bacteria to grow in food. Traditional methods include drying or smoking meats, salting fish, or covering the food. Modern methods like canning and pasteurization have the same goals but these more recent techniques have greater reliability.

46 | Chapter 2: Looking Back | Skills


Drying, smoking and salting One way to make it difficult for bacteria to grow in food is to take the water out of it. Fruits, vegetables and meat can be dried in the air. Salting fish (or meat) draws the water out of it. Smoking meat is another common method for drying it. Smoking has the extra benefit of making the meat tastier while driving the water out of it. Covering the food with a brine prevents the bacteria from getting the oxygen they need to grow.

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ discuss

traditional food preservation methods and how modern methods have developed ▶▶ use words related to the preservation of food

Modern methods The 1800s were an exciting time because it was a period of scientific discovery. New methods for preserving food were invented. Canning was started by Frenchman Nicolas Francois Appert who discovered the process of heating up sealed glass jars to keep food fresh and keep it from spoiling. Tin cans were used in England because they were cheaper to make than glass jars. The tin cans were first sold to the Royal Army and Navy, which needed the canned food to supply their troops when at war. The early cans were large and heavy and very difficult to open. Before 1855 – when the first can opener was produced – soldiers and sailors had to cut the cans open with a knife or smash them open with a rock. Tin cans could be sent anywhere around the world and food in them stayed preserved for many years.

Pasteurization Pasteurization is the method which makes it possible for many people to drink milk safely today. It is named after Louis Pasteur, a French scientist who, in 1864, invented the process in order to prevent beer and wine from turning bad. The raw milk is heated up for a brief period and then cooled and sealed from the air. This process kills the bacteria while still preserving the nutritional value of the milk. The milk has a shelf life of three weeks, providing plenty of time to deliver the refrigerated milk to the consumer at the grocery store. Today’s food production industry uses updated versions of the traditional methods (drying, smoking and salting) and the modern methods of the 1800s. This is why people in Europe and North America have a large supply of many kinds of foods that last for a very long time. The use of preservation ensures that there is always plenty of food and that everyone can eat a nutritious meal.

bacteria bakterie canning hermetisering techniques teknikk benefit her: fordel oxygen oksygen, surstoff brine lake fresh frisk, fersk scientific discoveries vitenskapelige oppdagelser / vitskaplege oppdagingar process prosess sealed jar forseglet krukke / forsegla krukke spoiling of food at mat blir bedervet / at mat blir bederva troops tropper, soldater / troppar, soldatar preserved konservert a brief period en kort tid / ei kort tid nutritional value ernæringsmessig verdi shelf life holdbarhet (på salg i en butikk) / haldbarheit (på sal i ein butikk) consumer forbruker / forbukar updated oppdaterte, forbedrede / oppdaterte, forbetra

Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 47


IN SHORT

People in every society have always needed to preserve food. The most important goal has been to make it hard for bacteria to grow in the food. People have dried food in the air, by smoking or by salting. Drying, smoking and salting Fruit, vegetables and meat can be dried in the air. Smoking makes the meat dry and adds more taste. Salting makes fish dry. Modern methods The 1800s were a time of invention. A Frenchman found he could keep food for a long time in sealed glass jars by heating up the food. Tin cans were used in England because they were cheaper. The tin cans were difficult to open but they kept food fresh for many years. Pasteurization People can drink fresh milk because of pasteurization. A French scientist named Louis Pasteur invented the process to protect beer and wine from turning bad. The milk is heated up and then cooled and bottled. A customer at the store can buy the milk up to three weeks later. The modern food industry uses the newest versions of traditional methods and methods invented in the 1800s. This is why we have so much good and nutritious food to eat.

Read and understand

2.1 • Decide whether these sentences are true or false. Rewrite the false sentences so that they become true. a Most societies have not needed to preserve food. b The main goal is to make bacteria grow. c Smoking meat is a method of drying food. d Smoking does not add flavor to the meat. e Salt does not help to dry fish. f The 1800s were a time of scientific discovery. g Cans were used in England because they were prettier. h Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization. i Pasteurization makes milk stay fresh longer. j The modern food production industry is one reason why we have lots of good food to eat.

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2.2 •• Join the two halves of the sentences together. a b c

Food in heated glass jars One typical traditional method is Every society has to

d

Pasteur wanted

e

Smoking meat has two purposes: Keeping food in tin cans is an example of Every method of preservation has The reason for the large amount of good food is

f g h

1 preserve food. 2 flavor is added and the water is driven out. 3 the modern food production industry. 4 a modern method for preserving food. 5 to prevent bacteria from growing in food. 6 was the first modern method of food preservation. 7 to add salt to fish. 8 to keep beer and wine from turning bad.

2.3 ••• Write one sentence for each of the phrases to retell the content of the text. major activity drawing the water out of food heating up sealed glass jars raw milk updated versions

Practise

2.4 Unscramble the letters to find words linked to traditional and modern methods of preserving food. a komniSg b yirDgn c nnnCgai

d veedrrsPe e iontruNti f snouCemr

Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 49


2.5 Below are traditional and modern methods for preserving food. For each method name a well-known food. If you know only the Norwegian name of the food, use a bilingual dictionary to find out what it is called in English. drying in the air using smoke salting

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heating food in a jar canning pasteurization


Speak

2.6 Agree or disagree with the statements below and explain why. a Since traditional methods have been used for a very long time, they are better than modern methods. b Traditional methods do not make food taste better since they are meant to keep food fresh only.

Write

2.7 • Write about three traditional Norwegian dishes. What traditional method was used in the preparation? 2.8 ••• Do you know what your parents and grandparents used to eat when they were young? What do you eat? Write a text where you describe how eating habits have developed over three generations.

Explore

2.9 Find out what role oxygen absorbers play in food preservation?

Did you know?

The Incas of the Andes mountains had learned how to freeze dry their potatoes long before the idea was developed in Europe. They squashed the potatoes with their feet first and let them dry. Then they carried the potato mush higher up where it froze at night. The frozen mashed potato lasted for years and did not weigh very much, either. They just had to add water and they had potatoes ready to eat!

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can discuss traditional food preservation methods and how modern methods have developed. YES ALMOST NO

I can use words related to the preservation of food. YES ALMOST NO

Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 51


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS USING A DICTIONARY There are two main types of dictionaries. The first type translates a word into another language. The second type explains what a word means in the same language. Some dictionaries do both. Most dictionaries also give examples of how words are used. In online dictionaries you will often find sound files that tell you how a word should be pronounced. • Words are arranged alphabetically. A dictionary can help you spell a word correctly. • Look for the translation or explanation of the word. Choose a word from page 52. What does the word mean? • Look at the examples. How is the word used? • In a dictionary you find information about word classes. (e.g. n = noun, v = verb etc.) What word class does the word you have chosen belong to? • Most dictionaries show how words are pronounced. A special alphabet is used for this, called the phonetic alphabet. You can also see which syllable in a word should be stressed. This is marked by a vertical line (') before the stressed syllable. How is your chosen word pronounced? What syllable is stressed? • Most dictionaries use symbols and short forms for extra information. Study the user key in your dictionary to be sure you find what you are looking for. • Many dictionaries also have grammar sections, maps and other useful information. What kind of information does your dictionary have?

Practise 2.10 Put these words in alphabetical order. a dinner e supper b morning f lunch c breakfast g evening d day h afternoon 2.11 Put these words in alphabetical order. a embarrassed e escape b energetic f explain c example g explode d effect h eat

dictionary ordbok pronounce uttale spell stave noun substantiv phonetic fonetisk syllable stavelse/staving stress ha trykk på, utheve vertical vertikal, loddrett user key brukerveiledning/ brukarrettleiing

Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 53


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 2.12 The words below are spelled wrong. Use the dictionary page on page 52 to find the correct words and do the following tasks. a Write the correct form of the word. b What does the word mean? c What word class does it belong to? d How is the word pronounced? e Are there examples of how the word is used? f Is there information about American forms or the origin of any of the words? 1 ethnick 2 evacjuate

3 eternall 5 ett cettera 4 euforia 6 evcalyptus

2.13 Study the words below, written in the phonetic alphabet. Try to pronounce the words. Write the words with ordinary letters. Check the spelling on page 52. a [etʃ] c [ˈeθɪks] e [ˌjʊərəˈpɪən] b [ɪˈtɜːnl] d [ˈetiket] f [ˌjuːθəˈneɪzɪə]

I

υ

I

U

READ

SIT

BOOK

TOO

MEN

AMERICA

WORD

SORT

CAT

BUT

PART

NOT

e ə З æ Λ α ρ b t d f v Ө ð m n Ŋ h

eI DAY

John & Sarah Free Materials 1996

TOUR

BOY

GO

WEAR

MY

HOW

HERE

υə ɔI əυ eə αI αυ

Ŋ

k

PIG

BED

TIME

DO

CHURCH

JUDGE

KILO

FIVE

VERY

THINK

THE

SIX

ZOO

SHORT

CASUAL

MILK

NO

SING

HELLO

s l

LIVE

READ

WINDOW

YES

z ʃ r w

GO

j

2.14 “Intonation” Intonation refers to the sound pattern of sentences. Our intonation is different in statements and in questions, because the pitch of our voice is different. a In statements we use a falling intonation. I am hungry. b In yes/no questions we use a rising intonation. Are you hungry? c In wh-questions we use a falling intonation. What would you like? d In lists we use a rising and falling intonation. I would like ham, egg and toast. Now listen to the dialogue. What kind of intonation do you hear in each sentence and what types of sentences are they?

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 2.15 Use a digital dictionary and answer the following questions in full sentences.full a What are the available languages in your digital or online dictionary? b How do you choose languages? c What information is given for each word? d Does this dictionary do other things than translating words? e In what situations would this dictionary be useful? 2.16 Use the Internet to find the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Look up the following words. Listen to the sound files. What is the translation? e seasoning a nutrition f nourished b oenology g tenderizer c recipes h moulder d pasteurization 2.17 Use an online translation program, for example Google Translate. Translate these sentences from English to Norwegian. Do you agree with the translation? a I have a dentist appointment today. b I like my egg fried on both sides. c What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger. Now try some sentences that are a little more complicated. What is wrong with some of the Norwegian sentences? Why does this happen, do you think? d I am feeling down and blue. e Let’s call it a day and hit the hay. f Money’s pretty tight for the moment. 2.18 Discuss in groups. Share your thoughts in class. a When and how do you use Google Translate or similar programs? b In what situations is Google Translate a useful tool? c When should you avoid using it? Explain. d How can programs like Google Translate help you improve your English? e Can such programs also slow down your progress in English? Explain.

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Food as a Bearer of Tradition Traditions take many forms, including rituals, costumes, dancing, singing and reciting stories and poems. Some of the most prevalent traditions consist in the preparation and eating of special foods. Food is therefore a particularly important way in which customs and traditions are passed from one generation to the next. Most of the foods still enjoyed today on Christmas and Thanksgiving can be traced back to the origins of these celebrations.

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Roast turkey with stuffing is the main component of a traditional British Christmas dinner. The stuffing, which may be cooked inside the turkey or separately, is a mixture of breadcrumbs, onion, herbs and spices. The turkey is often served with the accompaniments shown below, in addition to carrots, Brussels sprouts and cranberry sauce.

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ describe

the dishes that are part of the traditional Christmas and Thanksgiving celebrations ▶▶ discuss similarities and differences between food traditions in the UK, the USA and Norway

Pigs in blankets are small sausages wrapped in a rasher of bacon and roasted in the oven. Roast potatoes are potatoes that have been parboiled and then roasted in oil at a high temperature. Roast parsnips are prepared similarly to roast potatoes. Gravy is a thick brown sauce made by adding the fat and juices of a roasted joint of meat to stock, along with a little flour for thickening.

Christmas pudding and other traditional Christmas sweets and desserts, such as those described below, are made with ingredients that were very expensive and exclusive when the traditions started. The pudding is a very heavy dessert made with lots of dried fruit, bound together with egg and suet. Before serving, the lights are dimmed and brandy or whisky is poured over the pudding and set alight (flambéed). A past tradition was to add a silver sixpence (a coin worth 6 pence) to the mixture, for somebody to find in his or her serving. Christmas cake is a rich fruit cake covered with a layer of marzipan and one of icing on top of that. Often the icing is a hard, brittle type called “royal icing”, which is made with icing sugar and lightly beaten egg whites. Mince pies are small pies containing mincemeat (not to be confused with minced meat). Mincemeat is a mixture of currants, raisins, sugar, apples, candied peel, spices, and suet. Thanksgiving is the main holiday celebration in the USA. A traditional Thanksgiving meal is a feast of foods that are native to America. As shown in the painting Freedom from Want,by Norman Rockwell, turkey is the main course. Stuffing, mashed potatoes with gravy and sweet potatoes are common accompaniments. Other side dishes include cranberry sauce, corn, squash and pumpkins. Thanksgiving takes place on the fourth Thursday of November. The name for this holiday comes from the old custom of holding a celebration “to give thanks to God” for his acts of kindness.

reciting lese opp prevalent utbredt / utbreidd preparation forberedelse / førebuing component del accompaniment her: siderett parsnips pastinakk brussels sprouts rosenkål cranberry tranebær rasher (of bacon) baconskive parboiled forkokt joint (of meat) kjøttstykke stock buljong suet talg brittle sprø icing sugar melis beaten pisket / piska

Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 57


Read and understand

2.19 • Complete the following sentences. a The traditional meat served for Christmas dinner in the UK is . b Pigs in blankets are bacon-wrapped . c Food is an important way in which traditions are passed on to future . d In the past, you might have discovered a silver sixpence in your . e By mixing icing sugar and lightly beaten egg whites you can make . f As part of their Thanksgiving dinner, Americans eat both mashed potatoes and . g Thanksgiving takes place on the fourth Thursday of . 2.20 •• Identify each of the following as a purely Thanksgiving food or a food that is often served for both Thanksgiving and Christmas. a Squash b Corn c Turkey with stuffing d Gravy

Practise

2.21 Fill in the words in the right spaces in the paragraph below. cranberry – sweet potatoes – turkey – maize – pumpkin – potatoes Thanksgiving is an American feast. The main course, , is a bird native to America. The dessert is a pie made of , a large, orange vegetable that grows on the ground. The other popular pie has an apple filling. Americans quite often eat sauce with their turkey. , in one form or another, are an essential part of the meal. In the American South, it is common to eat instead. These vegetables are found naturally in the warmer parts of the USA. Some Americans have the tradition of eating corn bread, which is a sweet bread made from corn, also known as .

Speak

2.22 Work with another pupil to look up at least two different recipes for each of the following dishes. Tell your partner which of the recipes you think sounds better for each dish and why. Pupil a: roast turkey – mince pies – Christmas cake (British) Pupil b: turkey gravy – stuffing – pigs in blankets

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2.23 Discuss the following questions with a partner. a How are British Christmas food traditions different from Norwegian ones? b Which, if any, of the British dishes are appealing to you and why? c How could you adapt the traditional British Christmas dinner to better suit your tastes?

Write

2.24 • Write a Christmas card greeting to a friend or family member. 2.25 •• Write a menu in English for a Norwegian Christmas dinner. Include a detailed description of each course. 2.26 ••• Imagine you have been invited to spend Christmas in Britain for the first time with friends or family. Write a personal letter to your hosts in which you thank them for the invitation and say what you are most looking forward to during your visit.

Explore

2.27 Find out about the story called The First Thanksgiving. a Squanto: How did he learn to speak English? Why did he want to help the Pilgrims? b The Mayflower: Find out more about this ship. What kind of trip would the Pilgrims have had in a ship like that? c Maize: How do Americans eat it? How is it used in industrial production? d Pumpkin: How does it grow? What is its growing season? What kinds of shapes and colors do different pumpkins have? e Turkey: What are wild turkeys like? What do they eat and in which part of North America do they live?

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can describe the dishes that are part of the traditional Christmas and Thanksgiving celebrations. YES ALMOST NO

I can discuss similarities and differences between food traditions in the UK, the USA and Norway. YES ALMOST NO

Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 59


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SHARING INFORMATION: “SHOW AND TELL” Become a better speaker by practising the following steps. Not so good

Much better

1 Introduce your topic in a way that catches the attention of the audience. Create an atmosphere. What do you want to make your audience feel (scared, curious, amused …)? Try to create a picture in their head.

I’m gonna talk about my favourite gadget, my cell phone, ‘cause I didn’t have time to prepare anything else.

Have you ever wanted to listen to a special song, but couldn’t because the CD was in your mother’s car? Or have you seen the most wonderful sunset, but been unable to take a picture, because your camera was at home? Well, the answer to such needs is this tiny gadget, my cell phone.

2 Convince your audience that you are interested in the topic, maybe even passionate about it. Show that you know your topic well. Don’t show any signs of uncertainty.

This is maybe not very exciting, and I’m not sure if I or know how it works, but I’ll do my best.

This is a fascinating object and I carry it in my pocket all the time. There is so much fun you can do with it and I want to share some of it with you.

3 Decide what your message is. Repeat words or phrases that underline your point. Maybe you will have to explain some difficult words. Take short pauses to make sure people follow you.

I am not sure what the most interesting part is, really, so I’ll just sum up everything you can do with it.

First, it is very important that you have network access if you want to use the Internet. Second, always be sure that you have sufficient power on the battery …

4 Use pictures or bring objects to illustrate your point. Show and demonstrate how your object works.

It is hard to explain when you can’t see it, but there is a button somewhere …

or

or

or

5 It is important to make a good That’s more or less conclusion because that is what it. Any questions? your audience will remember afterwards. Sum up your main points and, if possible, return to your introduction. Always learn your introduction and or conclusion by heart to sound convincing. The best is to know your topic well enough to be able to speak without a manuscript. For your audience it is far more interesting to listen to you speaking than reading from a piece of paper.

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When you push this button, you turn on the cell phone. To dial the access code, you must touch the screen here…

So when you know how to handle this little object you have music, a camera and much more in one single gadget. And best of all, you can even use it to call your friends! Thank you for your attention and please don’t hesitate to ask if you have any questions.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 2.28 Change the following introductions into something more catchy. a I’m going to talk about an interesting object that I found in our basement. b I have been asked to talk about a famous invention in the history of food preservation. 2.29 Change the following conclusions into something more catchy. a I guess this object wasn’t too interesting after all, but do you have any questions? b That’s all I know about this invention, sort of. 2.30 Now it is time to show and tell. Choose an object at home, a personal belonging, a useful item, something old or something you find fun or interesting. Prepare a short presentation of the object, using the steps from the previous page. Give your “show and tell” in groups or in class. Finally, give each other feedback. What was good? What can be improved?

“This is my great grandpa. He lives in a wooden box under the ground. He doesn’t talk much and smells pretty bad too – but he’s really fun to play with in the sand box.” Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 61


The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Here is an extract from “The Blue Carbuncle”, one of Sherlock Holmes’s famous adventures. It is set on the day after Boxing Day in Victorian London. At this time, most people had a goose for Christmas dinner rather than a turkey. In this story, a certain Mr Henry Baker has lost both his goose and his hat on his way home and, without realizing it, put the solution to a major crime in the hands of the master detective, Sherlock Holmes!

carbuncle her: diamant Boxing Day 2. juledag i Storbritannia og Canada solution løsning / løysing dressing-gown morgenkåpe / morgonkåpe

I went to visit my friend Sherlock Holmes two days after Christmas and found him sitting on the sofa wearing a purple dressing-gown. His pipe was on the coffee table and a pile of newspapers was next to him. Beside the sofa was a wooden chair with a very dirty old hat hanging on the back. His magnifying glass was lying nearby and I guessed he’d been studying the hat. ‘You’re busy,’ I said; ‘perhaps I’m disturbing you.’ ‘Not at all. I’m glad to have a friend to discuss this with,’ he said, looking at the hat. ‘It’s not a very important case, but there are some interesting points and we might learn something from it.’

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I sat down in his chair and warmed my hands in After working with the text and front of the fire. The weather was very cold and the ­exercises, you should be able to windows were covered with ice. ‘I suppose that hat is a clue in some deadly crime that you’re trying to solve.’ ▶▶ retell the main parts of the story ‘No crime,’ said Sherlock Holmes, laughing. ‘Just ▶▶ describe Sherlock Holmes’s one of those funny little incidents that happen in large methods of observation and cities, where so many people live together in a small deduction place. Many problems are just strange without being ▶▶ use your listening skills to explain criminal.’ how the story continues ‘That’s true,’ I agreed. ‘Our last case didn’t involve anyone breaking the law.’ ‘Exactly. You’re talking about the Irene Adler case. Well, I’m sure this one will be the same. Do you know Peterson, the security guard?’ ‘Yes.’ ‘Well, this prize belongs to him.’ ‘You mean it’s his hat.’ ‘Not exactly. He found it. We don’t know who it belongs to. But please, don’t look at it as a dirty old hat. It’s an intellectual problem. First, let me tell you how it got here. It arrived on Christmas morning, with a good fat goose, which is probably roasting in Peterson’s oven right now. The facts are these: about four o’clock on Christmas morning, Peterson, who is a very honest man, was walking home from a small party. In front of him, in the street light, he saw a tallish man carrying a white goose over his shoulder. When they reached the end of the street, an argument started between this tall stranger and a group of yobs. One of these yobs knocked the man’s hat off. He raised his stick to defend himself and accidentally smashed the shop window behind him. Peterson came forward to protect the stranger from his attackers. However, the man was obviously worried about breaking the window. He must have thought Peterson was a policeman as he was wearing his uniform, so he dropped the goose and ran off down a side street. The yobs also ran away and Peterson was left with this old hat and a delicious-looking Christmas goose.’ ‘Didn’t he give it back to its owner?’ ‘My dear Watson, that’s the problem. It’s true that there was a small card tied to the bird’s left leg with, “For Mrs Henry Baker,” written on it; and it’s also true that the initials “H. B.” can be seen inside this hat. But as there are thousands of Bakers, and hundreds of Henry Bakers in this city, it’s clue spor incidents hendelser / impossible to know which one.’ hendingar ‘What did Peterson do?’ security guard vakt ‘He brought both the hat and the goose round to me on Christmas tallish ganske høy / nokså høg morning, as he knows I find even the smallest problems interesting. We yobs slyngler, pøbler / slynglar, kept the goose until this morning, when there were signs that it should be pøblar Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 63


deduce dedusere, utlede / dedusere, utleie lined fôret / fôra discoloured misfarget / misfarga loop løkke, sløyfe / lykkje, sløyfe deductions utledninger / utleiingar self-esteem selvrespekt / sjølvrespekt curly krøllete gas lighting gasslamper

eaten immediately. Peterson has taken it home while I still have the hat of the unknown gentleman who lost his Christmas dinner.’ ‘And what are you going to do with it?’ ‘I’m going to find the owner.’ ‘How on earth are you going to do that?’ ‘By seeing what I can deduce.’ ‘From his hat?’ ‘Exactly.’ ‘You’re joking. What can you learn from a dirty old hat?’ ‘Here’s my magnifying glass. You know my methods. But how about you, Watson? What can you tell about the owner from this hat?’ I picked it up and turned it over. It was an ordinary black hat but in very bad condition. It was cracked and covered in dust, and there were dirty marks in several places. Someone had tried to hide these by painting them with ink. The inside was lined with red silk but it was very discoloured. There was no maker’s name but, as Holmes had said, on one side there were the initials “H. B.”. I could also see that there had once been a loop to fix the hat to the head, but the elastic was missing. ‘I can see nothing,’ I said, handing it back to my friend. ‘I disagree, Watson. You can see everything. But you’re not thinking about what you see. You’re not making any deductions.’ ‘Then please tell me what you can deduce from this hat.’ He picked it up and looked at it very carefully as he always did. ‘Some facts are fairly clear,’ he said, ‘and a few others are very likely if not certain. For example, anyone can see that the owner is intelligent and also that he’s been fairly rich within the last three years, but he’s lost a lot of money recently. He’s careful and likes to plan things, but less now than in the past. Perhaps he’s drinking heavily. If you consider that he’s lost money, then that’s quite likely. It may also be the reason why his wife doesn’t love him any more.’ ‘My dear Holmes!’ ‘However, he still has some self-esteem,’ he continued. ‘He’s a man who doesn’t take exercise, isn’t very fit and goes out rarely. He’s middle-aged, has curly hair and uses hair cream. And he’s had his hair cut within the last few days. These are the more obvious facts which we can tell from his hat. Oh yes – one other thing, he probably doesn’t have gas lighting in his house.’ ‘You must be joking, Holmes!’ ‘Certainly not. Is it really possible that you can’t see how I know, even though I’ve told you all this?’ ‘I’m sure I’m very stupid, but I’m afraid I don’t follow. For example, how did you deduce that this man was intelligent?’ Holmes put the hat on his head. It was too big and covered his eyes. ‘It’s

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simply a matter of size,’ he said. ‘A man with such a large head must surely have something inside it.’ ‘How about losing money?’ ‘This hat is three years old. I can tell that by the style. It’s a very good quality hat. Look at the silk lining. The man could afford to buy an expensive hat three years ago, but he hasn’t bought a new one since then. Therefore, we can guess he has less money now than when he bought the hat.’ ‘Well, that’s clear enough. But how about being careful and losing his self-esteem?’ Sherlock Holmes laughed. ‘This is why he is careful,’ he said pointing to the loop used to fix the hat to the head. ‘They never sell hats with loops. You have to order the loop specially. If this man ordered one, it shows he had thought about the danger of losing his hat in the wind. But since it’s now broken and he hasn’t bothered to replace it, we can guess he isn’t as careful now as he was before. On the other hand, he’s tried to hide some of these stains with ink, so he hasn’t completely lost his self-esteem.’ ‘That is believable.’ ‘As for the other points – that he’s middle-aged, that his hair is curly, that it’s recently been cut, and that he uses hair cream – we can see all these by looking closely at the lining. If you look through the magnifying glass, you will see a lot of small hairs cut by the hairdresser’s scissors. The hairs are grey, they are sticking to the hat and there’s a smell of hair cream. You should also look carefully at the dust. This is not the thick dust you find in the street, it’s the fine dust you find in the house, so clearly, the hat has been indoors most of the time. And finally, these marks on the inside show that the owner sweats a lot, so he can’t be very fit. ‘But his wife – you said she didn’t love him any more.’ ‘This hat hasn’t been brushed for weeks. If your hat was all dusty like this one, and if your wife allowed you to go out in such a state, I would fear that your wife didn’t love you either, Watson.’ ‘But he might be a bachelor.’ ‘No. He was bringing the goose home as a present for his wife. Remember the card on the bird’s leg.’ ‘You have an answer to everything. But how on earth can you tell that he doesn’t have gas in his house?’ ‘There are five candle stains on the hat. Who would use a candle when they have gas?’ ‘Well, it’s very clever,’ I said, laughing; ‘but as you said there hasn’t been a crime, it all seems rather a waste of energy, doesn’t it?’ Sherlock Holmes had opened his mouth to reply, when the door suddenly opened and Peterson, the security guard, rushed in with a look of amazement on his face. ‘The goose, Mr Holmes! The goose, sir!’ he said in excitement.

lining fôr stains flekker dust støv sweats svetter / sveittar brushed børstet / børsta bachelor ungkar candle stearinlys amazement forundring

Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 65


shone skinte / skein twinkled funklet / funkla reward belønning /lønn, påskjøning

‘What about it? Has it returned to life and flown away through the kitchen window?’ ‘Look here, sir! Look what my wife found in its stomach!’ In his hand there was a brilliant blue stone about the size of a bean, but so pure that it shone and twinkled like an electric spark. Sherlock Holmes sat up straight. ‘My god, Peterson!’ he said, ‘Do you know what it is?’ ‘A diamond, sir? It cuts glass very easily.’ ‘It’s more than a diamond. It is the diamond!’ ‘Not Lady Morcar’s blue carbuncle!’ I said. ‘Exactly. The diamond that everyone is talking about. I’ve read about it in the newspapers every day this week. There’s no other stone like it in the world. She’s offering a reward of a thousand pounds but it’s probably worth twenty times that.’ ‘A thousand pounds! My God!’ Peterson sat down heavily in a chair and looked from one of us to the other. ‘It was lost at the Hotel Cosmopolitan, wasn’t it?’ I said. ‘Exactly, on December 22nd, just five days ago.’ arthur conan doyle Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) was a Scottish medical doctor and writer, born in Edinburgh, to parents who were both of Irish descent. He is best known for his four novels and 56 short stories that feature the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes. In 1902, he was knighted (made Sir Arthur Conan Doyle) by King Edward VII. He was married twice and fathered five children.

m IN SHORT pay a visit besøke goose gås security guard vakt self-esteem selvrespekt / sjølvrespekt gas lighting gasslamper amazed forundret deductions utledninger / utleiingar rush skynte seg previous tidligere valuable verdifull / verdfull immediately umiddelbart / med ein gong recognize kjenne igjen / kjenne att

Sherlock Holmes is a private detective. His friend, Dr Watson, who sometimes assists with his cases, pays a visit to Holmes two days after Christmas. When Watson enters the room, Holmes is studying a hat that belongs to somebody called Henry Baker. The hat was found, together with a goose, by a security guard called Peterson. Holmes asks Watson what he can tell about the hat’s owner just by looking at it. Watson cannot reach any conclusions, so Holmes explains that Henry Baker is intelligent. He has become poor after once being rich, is careful, drinks a lot of alcohol, and has a wife that does not love him any more. In addition, Holmes says that the man has some self-esteem, does not exercise enough, is middle-aged, has curly hair and does not have gas lighting in his home. Watson is amazed that Holmes can tell so much just from examining the hat, so Holmes explains how he made his simple deductions. As Holmes finishes explaining, Peterson rushes into the room. Inside the goose that he took home the previous day, he has found a very valuable jewel. Holmes immediately recognizes it as a missing diamond belonging to a certain Lady Morcar!

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Read and understand

2.31 • Answer the questions a What is the name of Sherlock Holmes’s friend and assistant? b What item of clothing does Sherlock Holmes examine? c What else was found with the lost item of clothing? d What one thing does Holmes deduce about Henry Baker’s appearance? e Who found the diamond? 2.32 •• Match each sentence with the right character from the story. Holmes

a

Watson

Peterson

Baker

Has been studying the hat with a magnifying glass.

b Has lost his hat and his goose. c

Found the hat and goose and took them to Holmes.

d Ate the goose. e

Got into an argument with a group of yobs.

f

Finds even the smallest problems interesting.

g Sweats a lot. h

Cannot deduce anything from looking at the hat.

i

Is a very honest man.

j

Has read about the diamond in the paper.

k

Warmed his hands in front of the fire.

l

Rushes in with a look of amazement on his face.

2.33 ••• Answer the following questions. a How was Sherlock Holmes dressed when Watson arrived? b What sign was there that it was very cold outside? c What item did Holmes receive together with the hat? d Why did Mr Baker run away when Peterson came to his defence? e Of what material was the hat’s lining made? f For whom was the goose intended as a present? g What is compared with an electric spark? h What reward is Lady Morcar offering for the return of her diamond? Skills | Chapter 2: Looking Back | 67


Practise

2.34 Fill in the following words to complete the text about Arthur Conan Doyle. character – practice – story – tuberculosis – following – published – medicine – Irish – observation – qualified – Edinburgh – alcoholic – University – married Arthur Conan Doyle was born in in 1859. His mother was and his father, who was an , was born in England to two Irish parents. Between 1876 and 1881 he studied at the of Edinburgh. He began writing at the same time, and his first was published before he as a doctor. Doyle started a small medical in 1882 and continued writing. His first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, was four years later. He based the of Holmes on his teacher at university, Joseph Bell, who had always stressed the importance of careful and deduction. Doyle’s many Sherlock Holmes short stories were published in the Strand Magazine. Doyle his first wife Louisa Hawkins in 1885. Sadly, Louisa died of in 1906, and he married Jean Leckie the year. Doyle died from a heart attack at the age of 71. 2.35 Find alternative terms in English for each of the following words. You may use a dictionary or a thesaurus. a sofa b dressing-gown c pile d disturb e glad f suppose

Listen

g yob h defend i smash j loop k rarely l stain

2.36 “The Blue Carbuncle Continued” Listen to the extract from The Blue Carbuncle, and answer the questions. This is a continuation of the Sherlock Holmes story you read above. Mr Henry Baker is due to arrive at 221B Baker Street to collect his hat, and Holmes has invited Dr Watson to be present. a What did Mr Henry Baker look like? b Why was it necessary to eat Mr Baker’s goose? c What was the “goose club” that Mr Baker belonged to?

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Speak

2.37 Discuss the following questions with a partner. a What details can you remember from the text that tell you that the story is set in Victorian times and not in the present? b Why do you think Sherlock Holmes finds Dr Watson to be such a good and useful companion? c How much information about a man could a real-life detective work out, just by looking at an item of his clothing? 2.38 Study the illustration at the beginning of this text. Describe what you see in as much detail as you can. Try to include descriptions of the men (Holmes and Dr Watson), their clothing, their postures, and the furniture.

Explore

2.39 The novel Arthur and George by Julian Barnes is a partly fictionalized account of the true story of how Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was given the task of helping to solve the crimes known as the Great Wyrley Outrages. Use the Internet to find out the nature of these crimes and exactly what Doyle’s contribution was. Present your findings in class. You may want to use the advice on sharing information on page 60.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can retell the main parts of the story. YES ALMOST NO

2.40 Find information about food in the Victorian era in Britain. Share your information in class. You may want to use the advice on sharing information on page 60. a What raw materials did they have? b How and with what kind of equipment did they prepare their food? c Were there any restaurants in Victorian London? Where and when did the first restaurants appear? d What were popular dishes, snacks, drinks and sweets at the time?

I can describe Sherlock Holmes’s methods of observation and deduction. YES ALMOST NO

I can use my listening skills to explain how the story continues. YES ALMOST NO

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!

Before you start In this excerpt from his autobiography Boy, Roald Dahl describes life in boarding school in the 1930s. What do you think it was like to be a teenager in such a school? Do you think they got a lot of sweets? What kind of sweets do you think they had back then? Discuss.

Chocolate Every now and then, a plain grey cardboard box was dished out to each boy in our House, and this, believe it or not, was a present from the great chocolate manufacturers, Cadbury. Inside the box there were twelve bars of chocolate, all of different shapes, all with different fillings and all with numbers from one to twelve stamped on the chocolate underneath. Eleven of these bars were new inventions from the factory. The twelfth was the “control” bar, one that we all knew well, usually a Cadbury’s Coffee Cream

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bar. Also in the box was a sheet of paper with the After working with the text and numbers one to twelve on it as well as two blank ­exercises, you should be able to columns, one for giving marks to each chocolate from nought to ten, and the other for comments. ▶▶ retell the story from Roald Dahl’s All we were required to do in return for this splendid youth gift was to taste very carefully each bar of chocolate, ▶▶ talk about the use of sweets and give it marks and make an intelligent comment on why snacks in the past we liked it or disliked it. ▶▶ express taste, feelings and opinions It was a clever stunt. Cadbury’s were using some of the greatest chocolate-bar experts in the world to test out their new inventions. We were of a sensible age, between thirteen and eighteen, and we knew intimately every chocolate bar in existence, from the Milk Flake to the Lemon Marshmallow. Quite obviously our opinion on anything new would be valuable. All of us entered into this dish out dele ut i øst og vest / game with great gusto, sitting in our studies and nibbling each bar with the dele ut i aust og vest air of connoisseurs, giving our marks and making our comments. “Too subtle manufacturer produsent bar of chocolate sjokoladeplate for the common palate,” was one note that I remember writing down. filling fyll For me, the importance of all this was that I began to realize that the large sheet ark chocolate companies actually did possess inventing rooms and that they nought null, ingenting took their inventing very seriously. I used to picture a long white room like a required nødvendig, forventet laboratory with pots of chocolate and fudge and all sorts of other delicious / nødvendig, forventa fillings bubbling away on the stoves, while men and women in white coats invention oppfinnelse / moved between the bubbling pots, tasting and mixing and concocting their oppfinning obvious åpenbar / openberr wonderful new inventions. I used to imagine myself working in one of these valuable verdifull labs and suddenly I would come up with something so absolutely unbearably gusto nytelse / nyting delicious that I would grab it in my hand and go rushing out of the lab and nibble småspise / småete along the corridor and right into the office of the great Mr. Cadbury himself. connoisseur kjenner / kjennar “I’ve got it, sir!” I would shout, putting the chocolate in front of him. “It’s subtle subtil fantastic! It’s fabulous! It’s marvellous! It’s irresistible!” palate gane, smak Slowly, the great man would pick up my newly invented chocolate and possess eie / eige pot gryte he would take a small bite. He would roll it round his mouth. Then all at fudge myk karamell / mjuk once, he would leap from his chair, crying, “You’ve got it! You’ve done it! It’s karamell a miracle!” He would slap me on the back and shout, “We’ll sell it by the concoct sette sammen, lage million! We’ll sweep the world with this one! How on earth did you do it? en rett / setje saman, lage Your salary is doubled!” ein rett roald dahl Roald Dahl (1916–1990) was born in Wales of Norwegian parents. His father died when he was three so his mother raised the six children on her own. As a child, Dahl loved stories and books. Later he joined the armed forces but also started writing, and his first text was published in 1942. He is famous for his short stories for adults and his books and poems for children.

m

unbearable uutholdelig / uuthaldeleg rush styrte irresistible uimotståelig / uimotståeleg slap klapp sweep feie inn salary lønn armed forces militæret

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Read and Understand

2.41 • Choose the right words. Write the correct sentences. a The schoolboys received cardboard boxes filled with fudge / chocolate / sheets. b The boys were required to taste / make / invent chocolate. c The boys knew nothing / very little / a lot about chocolate bars. d They were serious about / indifferent to / bored with the task. e Roald dreamt about becoming a company owner / connoisseur / successful inventor. f He thought that inventing a fabulous chocolate would improve his reputation / laboratory / economy. 2.42 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a Why did the schoolboys receive boxes of chocolate? b What did Cadbury’s want in return? c How did the boys respond to the task? d How did this inspire Roald Dahl? e What is your opinion of this way of testing out new products? Explain your views based on information in the text.

Practise

2.43 Fill in words from the text in the crossword. Down 2 sjokolade 3 styrte 6 gane 7 ark 8 my karamell 9 smak Across 1 kjenner 4 ingenting 5 gryte 10 produsent

1 2

3

4

5 6

7 8 10

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9


2.44 Combine the tastes with the right translation. Use the words to write sentences. a sweet 1 surt b salty 2 umami c sour 3 søtt d bitter 4 skarpt e umami 5 salt f pungent 6 krydret g astringent 7 beskt h spicy 8 bittert

Speak

2.45 Organize your own blind taste test. Make sure all the five basic tastes from the illustration below are presented. a Taste, classify and discuss to what extent you can identify the taste on the different sections of your tongue. b Then express your opinion of the samples you have tasted. Use expressions like:

I think that… In my opinion… My impression is that… I feel that…

I dislike that… I was surprised that… I love this taste because… I doubt that…

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2.46 Organize a blind taste chocolate test, based on a selection of twelve different brands. Which chocolate is the most popular in your class? Discuss the tastes and share your opinion.

Explore

2.47 Cadbury products are sold in many English-speaking countries. Go online to find out what their newest product is, and what products they offer for holiday seasons, like Christmas and Easter. 2.48 Choose one of the following snacks or sweets. Work with a partner. a Use different sources to find information about the origin and history of your particular sweet or snack. b Give a short presentation of your findings in class. Use pictures to help you “show and tell”. For advice on how to share information, look at page 60.

The invention of sweets and snacks marzipan chewing gum fudge lollipop wine gum candy potato chips or crisps chocolate pretzels liquorice carbonated soft drinks, soda pops marshmallows

2.49 Ganache is a glaze, icing, sauce, or filling for pastries made from chocolate and cream. Search the Internet for recipes using ganache. Choose one you think sounds delicious. Make a presentation where you describe the product, and why you think you will like it. 2.50 Everyone loves chocolate cake and you should know how to make it. Go online and find a recipe for a chocolate cake. Make the cake at home or at school. Use your phone or camera to take pictures of yourself baking the cake. Include pictures of the ingredients and the kitchen tools you use. Present the pictures at school. Read pages 60 – 61 for ideas on how to share information or “show and tell”.

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DID YOU DO 2|HOW IN THIS CHAPTER? Leaf through the pages and write down ‌ 3 things you know or can do well. 2 things you would like to know or do better. 1 thing you will want to learn before you go on.

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS VERBS: TENSES AND CONCORD Verbs are used in different tenses. The tenses tell you when in time something happened. I often watch films. I am watching a film right now. I watched a film yesterday. I was watching a film when Peter called. Note that verbs in the simple past tense usually end in –ed but there are some irregular forms too. Check a dictionary for a complete list. A verb must agree with its subject. This is called subject-verb agreement. A verb ends in –s or –es when the subject is in the 3rd person singular form. He / she / it : Tom talks to Mary. Other forms : My parents talk to Mary. Some words are special and affect how we conjugate the verb in the present tense. 1 Indefinite pronouns ending in -body/-one/-thing must have a verb with -s Example: Everybody here knows me, but no one has met my brother. 2 Uncountable nouns like furniture, money, news must have a verb with -s Example: Money is pretty tight, but this furniture is just perfect for my living room. 3 Some words are singular in English but plural in Norwegian, or the other way round. Example: The police are doing a great job but their wages are too low. 4 Some words that are singular in form (for example family, team, class) can be used to refer to several people individually. In this case, the verb agreement is 3rd person plural. Examples: M  y family is / are spending Christmas in New York. My family is a large one. Are cannot be used here, because the family is referred to as a whole.

Practise

2.51 Choose the right form of the verb in the sentences. a Cherries taste / tastes good with chocolate. b One often see / sees tourists in the summer. c Champagne need / needs to be served at 7 – 9°C. d Not everyone like / likes hot weather. e Britain’s national dish is / are fish and chips. f Many people spend / spends two or more weeks abroad each year. g It is / are important to spell correctly. h The family has / have six members. 76 | Chapter 2: Looking Back | Skills


AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 2.52 Fill in the right present simple form of the verbs. a I learning English. (love) b My friends a lot of books in English. (read) c My uncle safety important. (think, be) d The furniture in these offices old and ugly. (be) e Many pupils their homework too late in the evening. (do) f One of my friends the instruction manual at home. (have) g Anne usually the reports in our team. (write) h The wages of an ambulance driver pretty good. (be) 2.53 Present simple or present continuous. Choose the right verb form. a John often talks / is talking to his mother. b Sorry, but I talk / am talking to my mother now. c An ambulance driver has / is having a challenging job. d Most evenings, my friend and I watch / are watching the sunset. e This spring, some birds build / are building a nest in my garden. f It is well known that oil floats / is floating on water. g I can see that you expect / are expecting a baby. h Can you help me? I look / am looking for my dentist’s office.

The verb to be is special.

sg

pl

Present tense I am you are he/she/ it is we are you are they are

Past tense I was you were he/she/ it was we were you were they were

Note: There are two forms of the present tense in English. Present simple is used to express a habit, a fact or to express feelings. It can also be used for future actions. Present continuous is used when something is going on right now or planned to happen.

2.54 Simple past. Choose the verb which is formed and spelled correctly. a James lay / lied on the sofa. b Peter teached / taught Amy French. c He keeped / kept reminding her to practice speaking. d Paul thought / thinked Richard was out of his depth. e He made / maked him feel stupid. f John lay / laid his newspaper on the table. g Jenny caught / catched the chicken with difficulty. h She killt / killed it by breaking its neck. 2.55 Simple past or past continuous. Fill in the right past tense of the verb. Note: The past continuous form of a verb is used when a longer action in the past is interrupted by a shorter action in the past. Example:  I was doing my homework when Peter knocked on my door. a I my hands when Tom in.   (wash – come) b Anne reading when we her.  (be – call) c When I the class room, my teacher on the black board. (enter – write) d Mary her car but then she . (drive – faint)

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CHAPTER 3

That’s Life


In this chapter you will focus on

• different types of challenges • using formal and informal language • structuring paragraphs • irregular verbs

Useful words and phrases first impression personality gender emotion self-esteem challenge ability disability bullying addiction

What makes you happy?

79


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Nice Ass I have a nice ass For reals. I shit you not. When I walk down the street, I cause car accidents. My buttocks are round and firm as mangos and twice as sweet. I could sell jeans with my ass I could have it plastered on billboards all over the country. People in every corner of the United States would be saying “Now that’s a very nice ass.” Whoa, isn’t that a weird concept? I could make a living off my ass. God Bless America.

After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the poem is about ▶▶ use words related to the body ▶▶ discuss the importance of first impressions

jesse cameron alick Jesse Cameron Alick is a young American poet, playwright and actor. He began writing poetry at the early age of six. He wrote plays for theatre companies while attending acting school in New York. His works have been published in several anthologies.

m

Read and understand

3.1 • Answer the following questions. a In your mind, what does the speaker look like? b What is his/her personality like? c What happens when the speaker walks down the street? d How could the speaker make a living off his/her ass? e Why do you think the speaker says “God Bless America”? 3.2 •• Find examples of slang in the poem. Make a list. 3.3 ••• Replace the slang words with more formal English. How does this change the poem?

for reals (sl.) virkelig, seriøst/ verkeleg, seriøst cause forårsake, få til å hende/ vere årsak til, få til å hende buttocks rumpe, bak firm fast plaster klistre opp billboard reklameskilt weird merkelig/merkeleg concept idé

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Practise

3.4 Match these Norwegian and English body words. a brystkasse 1 hip b skulder 2 forehead c håndflate 3 neck d pekefinger 4 shoulder e håndledd 5 index finger f hake 6 chest g kinn 7 wrist h kjeve 8 calf i legg (baksiden) 9 thigh j nakke 10 cheek k hofte 11 chin l lår 12 palm m panne 13 jaw

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3.5 Many expressions in English include parts of the body. Can you fill in the open spaces below? lip – eye – heels – hair – chest a He fell head over in love with his best friend. b Julie is the apple of my . c I’m going to tell you a secret, there’s something I need to get off my . d The British often keep a stiff upper , even if they are insulted. e At the party, Susan really let her down.

Speak

3.6 Discuss in groups. a Find something you think is nice about the other members of the group, or something you think they do well. Tell them! b Think about how you respond to positive feedback. What do you say? c When someone gives you positive feedback, how does this make you feel? d How important are first impressions to you? What kind of first impression do you think you make on others? e Can you think of a case when your first impression of somebody turned out to be wrong? What made you change your opinion?

Write

3.7 • Rewrite the poem. What would make people turn their heads where you live? Replace the word “ass” with something else, and feel free to change as much of the poem as you like. 3.8 •• Interview one of your classmates, and write a personal portrait of him/her for your school’s yearbook.

Listen

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the poem is about. YES

“What Makes Me Happy” 3.9 Listen to these three short interviews to find out what makes Ross, Jill and Thomas happy. Who talks about … a being part of a team? b finding happiness on the waves? c struggling hard to learn new things?

ALMOST

NO

I can use words related to the body. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can discuss the importance of first impressions. YES

ALMOST

NO

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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the story is about ▶▶ express your opinion and give advice ▶▶ give examples of personal and cultural challenges

Does My Head Look Big in This?

!

Before you start a Describe what the people in the pictures are wearing. b Can you link the different outfits to religious beliefs? c Who or what decides your own clothing style?

High school can be tough enough without throwing a hijab into the mix. Amal is Australian-Muslim-Palestinian and a Year Eleven student. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. In this novel excerpt, she wonders what her class is going to say when she walks in wearing the hijab. Will they freak out? And what about Adam, who she really likes? What will they all say? Monday morning. And my class has finally decided to confront me about my hijab. I almost want to jump up and down with relief. I can handle an insult or an interrogation. I can’t handle going from getting along with everybody (with the obvious exception of Tia and her Mini-Mes) to being a social outcast. Somehow, in between classes after lunch on Monday everybody suddenly finds the guts to approach me, wanting to know what’s going on with my new look. “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks, all wide-eyed and appalled. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a sixty-five-yearold camel owner in Egypt.” “No!” She’s actually horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Really!” This is definitely a case of dropped from the cradle.

confront konfrontere relief lettelse/lindring, trøyst insult fornærmelse/ fornærming interrogation utspørring/ utspørjing exception unntak outcast utstøtt/utstøytt approach nærme seg appalled forferdet/redd, forferda dropped from the cradle falt fra vuggen (uttrykk: dum)/fall frå vogga (uttrykk: dum)

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“Hey! Amal!” Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?” “I’ve gone bald.” “Get out!” “I’m on the Advanced Hair Programme.” For a second his eyes flicker with shock. Then Josh punches him on the shoulder. “Rocked!” “Like I believed her,” Tim says, looking sheepish. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” “So is it like nuns? Are you married to Jesus now?”

bald skallet/skalla flicker flakke punch slå, dulte rocked her: lurt genuinely oppriktig, ekte/ ærleg, ekte huddle stimle sammen/stimle saman defeat her: ødelegge/ øydeleggje purpose hensikt/formål, meining spiritual roadtrip åndelig reise/åndeleg reise Judaism jødedom Catholicism katolisisme interpret tolke veil slør extent utstrekning, grad

It’s unreal. Everybody’s asking me about my decision and seems genuinely interested in hearing what I have to say. They’re all huddled around me and I’m having the best time explaining to them how I put it on and when I have to wear it. Then Adam plants himself in front of me and starts joining in with the rest of them and I want to plant a massive kiss on his face except that really would be defeating the entire purpose of my entire spiritual roadtrip now, wouldn’t it? “So it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” “Like you see some women covering their faces and other women wearing really bright material with that red paint on their hand. Are they all Islamic too?” “You mean Muslim.” “Huh?” “What she means,” Josh says, “is that the religion is Islam and the followers are Muslim. Like you can’t say to somebody you’re a Judaism or a Catholicism. Get it?” “Right.” Adam nods his head. “So are they Muslim, like you?” “Yeah they are. But, every girl is going to interpret the hijab differently. It depends on their culture or their fashion sense, you know? There’s no uniform for it.” “I get you,” Adam says. “A lot of Africans wear those really colourful wrap-around dresses and veils,” I continue. “Um, stricter women cover their face, but it’s not required in Islam. It’s their choice to go to that extent.” “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks.

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“Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.” […] “Coffee at the Lounge Room, tonight?” Simone whispers to Eileen and me during History on Friday. Eileen’s on. I don’t know whether to go. The Lounge Room is a trendy café on Burke Road: long coffee tables centered between big suede lounge chairs and sofas, dim lamps and television screens with MTV and Friends reruns. It was our hang-out joint in the midyear break. Where we’d go to goss and eat strawberry tart and talk school and parents and top five chick flicks and the rest. Because I’d rather eat decomposed meat than be thought of as a chicken, I fake a big smile and tell them I’m all for it. I chicken out. I’m ashamed to admit it but after dinner I ring Simone and Eileen and tell them I can’t make it because we have visitors. They believe me. And why wouldn’t they? I’m supposed to be pious and God-fearing. Not a lying, hypocritical, pathetic coward. I’m lying on my bed listening to Craig David’s “I’m walking away.” On repeat. What’s happened to me? Haven’t I decided to wear the hijab because I feel proud of who I am? Suddenly I’m too chicken to go to a café? I don’t recognize myself. I’m the one who put her head out the school bus last year and yelled at a group of boys who threw a can of Coke at our “wog” school bus. It was me who stood up during a Year Nine interschool debate and told the audience that my team didn’t appreciate the other team’s whispers about competing against “terrorists”. When we were at the medical clinic and the secretary asked Leila if she could cope with filling out a form in English, it was me who pointed out that Leila’s never set foot out of Australia and can manage an A+ average in Eng Lit, and then some. So if that’s all me, then who’s this girl who’s making up excuses to avoid going out to a café? randa abdel-fattah Randa Abdel-Fattah (1979–) grew up in Melbourne, Australia. She is a young lawyer, writer and human rights activist with a Palestinian and Egyptian background. Her novels are written for young adults, and in 2011 she was given the Role Model of the Year Award in Australia.

w

suede semsket/semska goss (gossip) sladre tart terte chick flick jentefilm decomposed råtten/ròten admit innrømme/vedgå pious gudfryktig hypocritical hyklersk coward feiging “wog” person fra Midtøsten (nedlatende, rasistisk)/ person frå Midtausten (nedlatande, rasistisk) audience publikum appreciate sette pris på/setje pris på cope klare/greie, klare, makte average gjennomsnitt

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IN SHORT

force tvinge bald skallet/skalla horrified skrekkslagen/skremd shower dusj per cent prosent gossip sladre tart terte chicken out være for feig/vere for feig excuse unnskyldning/orsaking recognize gjenkjenne/kjenne att

Amal is a high school student living in Australia. She has a MuslimPalestinian background. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. What will her class say? “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt,” Amal answers. “No!” Kristy is horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Hey! Amal!! Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?” “I’ve gone bald,” Amal answers. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” Everybody is asking Amal about her decision. They all seem interested to hear what she has to say. Then Adam, a boy she really likes, joins the rest of them. “So, it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” Adam has seen women who cover their faces, and wants to know if they are Muslim too. Amal says that they are, but that girls will wear the hijab differently. It depends on their culture. “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks. “Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.” Simone and Eileen want Amal to go to the Lounge Room, a trendy café where they often hang out. They usually gossip, eat strawberry tart and talk about school and parents. Amal says she will go with them, but she chickens out. She phones her friends and makes up an excuse. She lies. Amal has decided to wear the hijab because she is proud of who she is, but now she doesn’t recognize herself.

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Read and understand 3.10 • Who says what in the story?

Amal

Adam

Kristy

Tim

Eileen

Did your parents force you? My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt. I was invited to the wedding. What’s the deal with that thing on your head? I’ve gone bald. So, it’s your choice then? One hundred per cent. Wow … so how come it looks different on you? Will you ever cover yours? Nah! No way.

3.11 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a What is Amal’s cultural background? b Amal is a high school student. What year is she in? c What has she decided to wear to school? d How does Amal feel when her class start asking questions? e What reason does Amal give when Kristy asks? f What reason does she give when Tim Manne asks? g Why does Adam think it looks different on her? h What does Amal say about being a Muslim and covering her face? i Where do Simone and Eileen want to go later that night? j Why doesn’t Amal go with them?

Speak

3.12 Discuss in pairs or small groups. a Read the classmates’ reactions and questions again. Do you think Amal handles the situation well? Explain. b Put yourself in Amal’s situation. Would you have gone to the café? Explain why or why not. c How do you think Amal’s friends will react when she doesn’t show up at the café? d Amal feels bad about lying to her friends. What kind of advice would you give her, so that she doesn’t have to come up with more lies?

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Practise

3.13 Match the verbs from the text with the correct Norwegian translations. 1 å fornærme a to wear 2 å tvinge b to cover 3 å ha på seg c to insult 4 å takle, klare d to confront 5 å kjenne igjen e to interpret 6 å nærme seg f to recognize 7 å dekke til g to approach 8 å konfrontere h to cope 9 å innrømme i to force 10 å tolke j to admit 3.14 Use the verbs in exercise 3.13 to complete the sentences. Each verb should be used only once. a When you put on a hijab, you your hair. b Amal decided to a hijab to school. c Her classmates soon came up to her to her about her choice. d Amal was pleased that they had the guts to her to find out what was going on. e Most of her classmates did not mean to her. f Muslim girls are going to the hijab rules differently. g Amal’s friend can with filling out a form in English. h When Amal decides not to go to the café, she doesn’t quite herself. i Amal did not want to to herself that she was worried. j In Amal's case, no one had tried to her to wear the hijab. 3.15 Change the verbs into the simple past. a Amal a hijab to school. (to wear) b Her classmates her to see what was going on. (to approach) c Nobody her. (to insult) d Amal said that Muslims the hijab rules differently. (to interpret) e Not everyone Amal with her hijab on. (to recognize) f She well with all the staring and weird questions. (to cope) g Nobody her to wear the hijab. (to force) h Amal that she was a bit nervous. (to admit) i The classmates her about her choice. (to confront) j The hijab Amal's head. (to cover)

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Write

3.16 • Imagine that you are Amal’s best friend, and you know she is insecure about wearing the hijab to school. Write a text message to Amal to support and encourage her. 3.17 •• Would you say there is peer pressure at your school when it comes to clothing styles? Write a short text in which you express your opinion. 3.18 ••• Your school has decided to make rules for what students can and cannot wear. All forms of religious clothing and symbols will be forbidden. Write a text in which you argue for or against the new rules.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the story is about. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can express my opinion. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can give advice.

Explore

3.19 In many films, the main characters deal with personal challenges because of cultural conditions or differences. Have a brainstorming session in class to find examples of such films. In small groups, search for more information about one of the films. Prepare a two-minute talk where you explain what kind of personal challenges and cultural differences this film is about.

YES

ALMOST

NO

I can give examples of personal and cultural challenges. YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS When you build a paragraph, follow these four steps: 1 Write a topic sentence. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph, and lets the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence can be a statement or a question. 2 Write at least one supporting sentence. A supporting sentence comes after the topic sentence. Supporting sentences give facts, details, and examples to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. There is usually more than one supporting sentence in a paragraph. 3 Write a closing sentence. The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It repeats the main idea of your paragraph, but using different words. It can also answer a question asked in the topic sentence. Study this model paragraph: Topic sentence Supporting sentences Closing sentence

There are at least three reasons why Norway is said to be one of the best countries in the world. First, Norway has a very good health care system. Second, Norway has a high standard of education. Finally, Norwegian towns have many green parks and lots of space. As a result, many people think Norway is a great place to live.

4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together When you write a paragraph, try to use sentence connectors. They are the glue that holds your sentences and paragraphs together. They help the reader follow your arguments. They also show contrast, or how ideas are related to each other. Here are a few examples of sentence connectors.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Listing ideas

Giving more examples

Showing contrast

Showing result

first of all

in addition

on the other hand

therefore

second

moreover

however

consequently

next

furthermore

nevertheless

as a result

finally

similarly

in spite of

in conclusion

Practise 3.20 Which sentence connectors were used in the model paragraph on the previous page? 3.21 Fill in suitable sentence connectors in the open spaces. a Kirsty seems to be quite clever. , she often gets low marks. b The service at this restaurant is excellent. , the food is delicious. c I’ve never been to Egypt, having relatives there. d Adam is a careful driver. , he’s had several accidents. e Eileen scored a lot of goals for her team last season. , she was voted “Most Valuable Player”. f Amal is a talented painter. her favourite subject at school is Art. g There is no more food left. there are plenty of drinks. h They had worked on the problem for hours. , they found the solution. 3.22 Place these sentences in the right order to make a paragraph. a It is used by most international companies, in tourism and business. b One reason is that English has become an international language. c Consequently, I am very excited about learning to speak and write English better. d Another reason why I want to learn English, is for travel. e Finally, I want to learn English because I plan to study in Australia in the future. f There are three reasons why I want to learn English. g I would like to visit English-speaking countries such as the US, Canada and New Zealand. h For example, I know there are some very good universities in Sydney.

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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ speak

and write about drug abuse and addiction ▶▶ understand and use words related to addiction ▶▶ make a survey

Paranoia December 28, After I binged last night – or was it tonight – I was convinced yet again that there were people coming to get me. It was more than just shadows and voices, more than just fantasies – it was real, and I was scared to my core. My bones were shaking – my heart was pounding – I thought I was going to explode. I’m glad I have you to talk to, to write this down. I tried to keep it all together, but then I gave in to the madness and became one with my insanity. I always end up in the closet in my bedroom. Let me tell you about that place, my closet. It’s more than a closet – it’s a haven for me. It’s where I keep my dope and where I keep my gun. I know when I’m in there I’m safe, at least until I get too high. I can’t be out in the house – there are too many windows and I know I’m being watched. Right now it seems impossible that cops are peering in from the trees outside or people are looking at me thru the peephole at the front door. But when the drugs kick in I can’t control my mind … Today, last night feels like a lifetime ago. But the sick thing is I could do it again tonight. nikki sixx Nikki Sixx is an American heavy metal musician who has had great success. For years, he played the bass guitar in the band Mötley Crüe, but he is also a designer and photographer. In the 1980s, Nikki had a period of extreme alcohol and drug abuse. His diary entries from 1987, when he was hooked on cocaine and heroin, were published in 2008. In the book he writes honestly about how his success as a rock star could not fulfill his emotional needs, and about the effects of his drug abuse. What you just read was an excerpt from his diary.

m

!

Before you start What does it mean to be addicted to something? Can you think of celebrities who suffer from addictions?

abuse misbruk binge drikke for mye/drikke for mykje convince overbevise/overtyde core kjerne pound dunke insanity galskap closet skap haven (trygg) havn/(trygg) hamn peer in kikke inn/kike inn peephole kikkehull/kikhol diary entries dagboknotater/ dagboknotat honestly ærlig/ærleg fulfill oppfylle emotional følelsesmessig/ emosjonell excerpt utdrag

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Read and understand

3.23 • Answer the following questions. a Who is Nikki Sixx? b What kind of problem did he have in the 1980s? c Why was he so scared? d How does he feel about writing a diary? e Where does he go to feel safe? f Why does he feel the need to hide? g What does he say happens when the drugs kick in? 3.24 •• In your own words, explain how Nikki Sixx’s drug abuse affected his behaviour.

Speak

3.25 What is your impression of Nikki Sixx after reading this diary entry? Discuss in pairs.

Practise

3.26 Translate the following words into English. Practise spelling the words correctly. a alkoholmisbruk e suksess b galskap f avhengighet c overbevise g behandling d rehabilitering h stoff

Write

3.27 • Write a short text about why people should stay away from drugs. 3.28 •• Make a poster for a campaign to fight drug abuse. Think of a catchy slogan, select important information to be presented on the poster, and find a suitable illustration. 3.29 ••• A number of celebrities are known for their addiction to alcohol or drugs. Write a text in which you discuss celebrities’ lifestyle and to what extent they are role models for young people. Look at pages 240 – 241 for advice on how to structure a text. You may want to include the following points: • examples of celebrities who you think are positive or negative role models • how they may influence young people • the media focus on celebrities • the celebrities’ need for and right to privacy

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Explore

3.30 What is Nikki Sixx’s life like today? Use different sources to find reliable information. 3.31 In a recent survey, American teenagers were asked to list their top five reasons for stress. Make a similar survey for your class. Ask everyone to write down five reasons why they get stressed. Present the results in a pie chart, graph or table.

Reasons for stress • school work (68%) • parents (56%)

3.32 Study the infographics on drug abuse among young Americans. a What is the most commonly abused illicit drug? b What are prescription drugs? Explain in other words. c What are over-the-counter drugs? Explain in other words. d The abuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs has increased among high school seniors in the past few years. Can you think of reasons why? e What is said to be the risk of abusing such drugs?

• friend’s problems (54%) • romantic relation­ships (48%) • drugs in the neigh­borhood (48%)

Prescrip(on Drug  Abuse:  Young  People  at  Risk   Young  people  are  abusing  prescrip(on  drugs  at  alarming  rates.  These  drugs   act  on  the  same  brain  systems  as  illegal  drugs  and  pose  similar  risks  for   dangerous  health  consequences,  including  later  addic(on.   Marijuana/Hashish Synthetic Marijuana Vicodin Adderall Salvia Tranquilizers Cough Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy) Hallucinogens OxyContin Sedatives Inhalants Cocaine (any form) Ritalin

36.4% 11.4% 8.0% 6.5% After Marijuana, Prescription 5.9% and Over-the-Counter 5.6% Medications1 Account for 5.3% Most of the Commonly 5.3% 5.2% Abused Drugs Among High 4.9% School Seniors2 4.3% 3.2% 2.9% Illicit Drugs Prescription or OTC Medications 2.6%

About 1 in 9 youth

25%

or 11.4 percent of young people aged 12 to 25 used prescription drugs nonmedically within the past year.3

of those who began abusing prescription drugs at age 13 or younger met clinical criteria for addiction sometime in their life.3

1 Past  Year  Use    

2 Monitoring  the  Future  Survey,  2011  

3 Na;onal  Survey  on  Drug  Use  and  Health,  2010  

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FACT FILE FACT FILE FACT ADDICTION What is addiction? Addiction is an illness. It is typical for addicts to lose control, for example over a substance or activity. They cannot stop their problem behaviour, even though they may ruin their health, destroy their relationships with family and friends, lose their jobs or all their savings.

What are common addictions? There are many different kinds of addiction. Some people are addicted to substances, for example nicotine, alcohol, illegal drugs, or prescription drugs such as strong pain killers or sleeping pills. It is also possible to become addicted to caffeine, which is found in coffee, tea or colas. People may even become addicted to certain activities. Some examples are eating (or not eating) certain types of food, gambling, sex, work, exercise, shopping, etc.

Who can develop addictions?

addiction avhengighet/ ufridom, det å vere avhengig av substance stoff behavior oppførsel, atferd/ framferd, åtferd savings sparepenger/ sparepengar cause forårsake/føre til, vere årsak til illegal ulovlig/ulovleg genetics genetikk (arv) pattern mønster deny fornekte/nekte (for) admit innrømme/vedgå treatment behandling require kreve/krevje detoxification avrusing counselling veiledning, terapi/ rettleiing, terapi

Anyone can develop addictions – young or old, male or female. No one knows for certain why some people become addicted and others don’t. Genetics, family history, living situation, as well as friends and other social factors, all seem to play a role. Addictions can develop very fast or slowly over many years.

How can you tell that someone has an addiction? Addictions usually follow a pattern. First, you typically try a substance or activity just to find out what it is like. Then you keep using the substance or doing the activity to get a “rush” or “high”, or to avoid dealing with a problem you may have. Finally, you lose control completely, even after realizing the bad effects, and it becomes impossible or very hard to cut down or stop. It is common for an addict to deny any bad effects it may have on health, work or relationships.

What can be done about an addiction? The first step is to admit there is a problem. The next step is to get expert help. There are a variety of treatments for different types of addiction. Some addictions require medical help such as detoxification and rehabilitation, while others require professional counselling or therapy, for example from psychologists. Most treatments, however, focus on getting addicted people to change their lifestyle, so that the problem behaviour does not return.

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T FILE FACT FILE FACT FILE

Speak

3.33 Answer the following questions in your own words. a Name some common addictions. b Which factors can determine whether someone develops an addiction? c What are some of the signs that someone has developed an addiction? d Can addictions be treated? Explain. 3.34 Why do you think some people start doing drugs even if they know about the effects on body and mind? Discuss. 3.35 It is also possible to become addicted to games and gambling. How is this similar or different from a drug addiction, for example? Discuss.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can speak and write about drug abuse and addiction. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can understand and use words related to addiction. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can make a survey.

YES

ALMOST

NO

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Online Bullying

“Littlegossip” website reopens after bullying complaints

By Stephen Chittenden, BBC A website for young people to share gossip has been shut down and then reopened for over-18s after protests about cyber-bullying. Some teachers and parents had said Littlegossip.com was being used by children to post personal and sexual gossip about other pupils and students.

!

Before you start How active are you when it comes to different social networking sites? a How much time do you spend chatting with friends online each day? b Do you follow anybody’s blogs or tweets? What is it about them that interest you? c What are the biggest advantages of the social networking sites you know? d What are the disadvantages?

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The site now says it is for adults only but BBC News has found many pupils are still using it. Users can post gossip anonymously about people at their college or university. Other users can then vote on whether the posts are true or false.


After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

‘Racist abuse’ One post about a named boy at a well-known boarding school says: “Please stop taking drugs the whole time, it’s not cool.” At the same school one user has written about a girl: “Those thunder thighs chug round school. Stop cheating on your boyfriend and sort out the acne. Not attractive.” Many posts also contain sexual or racist abuse. One concerned father, named only as Dave, contacted the BBC to warn other parents about the site. “It’s cyberbullying at its worst,” he said. “Seriously, kids are going to take their lives because of this site.” The school involved has blocked the site. They said they were “extremely concerned about this website”. Many other schools and organisations have condemned Littlegossip. The National Association of Head Teachers said it harmed the lives of both teachers and pupils, and has asked for it to be closed down. Emma-Jane Cross from the charity Beatbullying said: “Social networking sites are not necessarily bad, but it is important that when bullying takes place online, action is taken to protect our children and young people.”

Tackle bullying

how you and your classmates use social networking sites ▶▶ discuss advantages and disadvantages of social networking sites ▶▶ give some examples of cyber language ▶▶ listen for specific information

But Littlegossip said it had introduced ways to fight cyberbullying. In an e-mail to BBC News, it said: “Users need to confirm their gossip is about an adult, doesn’t give personal information such as phone number and is not racist, and more. In addition to that we decided to remove all the schools from the site, even if 18-year-olds study in those schools.” The website was shut down for a 24-hour period until Thursday, and posted a Facebook message that school groups would be removed. But when it came back online, it still contained sexual and racist abuse, as well as telephone numbers. Several school groups also continued to show up on its pages. Chief executive of the Independent Schools’ Council, David Lyscom, confirmed that children could still use the site. “Although it says it is for 18-year-old users only, you just click a box and you can get through to the site,” he said. “Some of our schools are still on there.” The site has been investigated, and children are advised not to visit the site as they are likely to see harmful content or experience cyber-bullying.

gossip sladder cyber-bullying nettmobbing complaint klage abuse overgrep, misbruk boarding school internatskole/ internatskule thunder thighs tykke lår/tjukke lår chug her: loffe acne kvise contain inneholde/innehalde condemn fordømme/(for) dømme harm skade charity veldedig organisasjon/ humanitær organisasjon confirm bekrefte/stadfeste remove fjerne chief executive direktør, sjef independent school privatskole/privatskule council råd investigate etterforske advise råde harmful skadelig/skadeleg content innhold/innhald

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IN SHORT

gossip sladder pupil elev post legge ut/leggje ut anonymously anonymt vote stemme/røyste cheat bedra, være utro/bedra, vere utro zit kvise abuse overgrep/misbruk cyber-bullying nettmobbing condemn fordømme remove fjerne

Littlegossip.com, a website for young people, has just been shut down. It was used to share personal and sexual gossip. It has been opened again for students over 18, but BBC News has found many young pupils are still using it. Users can post gossip anonymously. Other users can then vote if they think the gossip is true or false. One post named a boy who was taking drugs. Another post said a girl was cheating on her boyfriend and that her zits made her unattractive. Many posts contain sexual or racist abuse. One father has contacted the BBC to warn other parents about the site. “It’s cyber-bullying at its worst,” he said. “Seriously, kids are going to take their lives because of this site.” The school has blocked the site. Many other schools and organizations have condemned Littlegossip. They want the site closed down because of the bullying. Some say that social networking sites are not always bad, but it’s important to act when bullying takes place online. The Littlegossip website said in an e-mail to BBC News that it has tried to fight cyber-bullying. Users have to say they only gossip about adults, and that they don’t give personal information. All the schools are removed from the site even if the students are over 18. The website was shut down for 24 hours. However, when the website opened again, it still had sexual and racist abuse, as well as personal information. School groups were also still on the site.

Read and understand

3.36 • Complete the sentences. a The web site Littlegossip.com was shut down because … b Gossip is posted by anonymous users, and other users then … c Many posts contain … d One father says he thinks kids are going to … e The website was closed down for … f When the site came back online, … 3.37 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a Why was the website Littlegossip.com closed down? b What kind of gossip can be found on the website? c How has the school involved reacted to the website? d What does Emma-Jane Cross think about social networking sites? e What has Littlegossip.com done to stop the cyber-bullying? f Has it made a difference? 3.38 ••• Write down ten keywords from the article about online bullying. Use the words to write a summary or a short informative text.

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Speak

3.39 Have you experienced cyber-bullying yourself, or know someone who has? Tell a partner. 3.40 What would you do if you discovered cyber-bullying? Do you have a responsibility? Tell a partner. Then share your thoughts in class.

Practise

3.41 Words and expressions are often shortened when chatting or text messaging. Do you know these English short forms? Match them with the right explanation. a AFC b AFAIC c AKA d BB4N e BFF f BRB g EZ h FAQ i FYI j IDK k J/K l L8R m PRW n ROFL o RUNTS p w’s^

1 bye bye for now 2 frequently asked questions 3 later 4 what’s up? 5 away from computer 6 rolling on floor laughing 7 just kidding 8 parents are watching 9 easy 10 also known as 11 best friends forever 12 are you nuts? 13 for your information 14 as far as I can see 15 be right back 16 I don’t know

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Listen

3.42 “Teacher’s Online Horror”. Listen to the text once and fill in the missing words. a A teacher discovered that she was by her students on a web . b She first noticed that the students started to and look at each other. c It took almost a before she. what was going on. d Sarah accidentally found her own and comments about her style. e The students had posted photographs and them with nasty . f She decided to her students, but they didn’t . g Sarah has now reported the incidents to the . h She thinks this kind of is more common than we are aware of. i Sarah asked the school for help, but there was little they could do. j The students were for a few days, and their were called in for a meeting. 3.43 Listen to the text again and answer the following questions. a How do you think the teacher should handle this type of situation? b What kind of reaction or punishment do you think the students should get?

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Write

3.44 • What is your opinion on websites such as Littlegossip.com? Should they be shut down? Write one paragraph. You may want to check pages 92 – 93 for advice on how to structure a paragraph. 3.45 •• Write a short text in which you describe your own use of online social networking sites. Also say what you think you will use the Internet for ten years from now. Study pages 92 – 93 for advice on how to structure paragraphs. 3.46 ••• Write a text in which you discuss the advantages and challenges of social networking sites. Your text should have: • a short introduction • one paragraph on the advantages of social networking sites • one paragraph on the challenges of social networking sites • one paragraph where you state your opinion • a conclusion You may also want to check pages 240 – 241 for advice on how to structure a five-paragraph text.

Explore

3.47 Make your own survey. Perhaps you want to find out if there are differences between boys and girls, or between students in different classes. Some questions you might want to explore: a Which social networking sites (or other social media) are the most popular? b How many hours are spent online per week? c What forms of cyber-bullying have been experienced or witnessed?

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain how my classmates and I use social networking sites. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can discuss advantages and disadvantages of social networking sites. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can give some examples of cyber language. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can listen for specific information. YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS USING FORMAL AND INFORMAL LANGUAGE Choosing the right style of language when you speak or write is important. Sometimes you need to change the way you speak or write in different situations or to different people. For example, you expect a certain style when reading a serious news article. You probably don’t have the same expectations when reading a text message from a friend. 1 Decide whether it is a formal or informal situation. 2 Decide what genre your text is going to be. If we know what genre a text belongs to, it is easier to decide what style of language to use, formal or informal. Here are some examples of genres: • letters • advertisements • reports • blogs • instruction manuals • text messages • novels • articles • poems • discussion (written or oral) • song lyrics • short stories • plays 3 Decide who your audience is. If you are speaking to a group of teenagers, you may use a less formal style of language than if you are writing a job application.

formal formell informal uformell genre sjanger audience publikum contract trekke sammen/ trekke saman abbreviation forkortelse/ forkorting avoid unngå swearing banning

4 Choose a style of language that suits the situation, genre and audience. If it is a formal situation: • Avoid contracted words. Write words out in full, for example “there is” and “will not”. There are few or no abbreviations of words. • Avoid slang words, strong expressions and swearing. Some things are OK to say, but not write. If it is an informal situation: • You may use contractions and abbreviations of words. Some examples of contractions are “there’s” and “won’t.” Abbreviations like “phone” instead of “telephone” are accepted. • There may be slang, but always avoid swearing. • Sentences can be simpler and shorter.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 3.48 Look at this dialogue. Is this style of language right for a job interview, for example? Why or why not? “How do you do, Mr Moore?” “Not bad. You OK, dude?” “Thank you, I am quite well. Please, have a seat.” “Aw, thanks, man.” “So, why have you applied for the job?” “Well, it looks like a really cool company, kinda.” 3.49 Explain the difference between these two short texts. Example 1 You know that test I had last week? Guess what, my teacher failed me! Yikes! Now he tells me to get extra help if I wanna pass this subject. Example 2 This is to inform you that your test results are not up to the required standard, and you will therefore not receive a passing grade. If you wish to pursue a passing grade in this subject, I would suggest that you consider doing extra work.

3.50 What style of language do you expect to find in the following types of text? • an instruction manual • a letter of complaint • a blog • a party invitation to a friend’s birthday • a job advertisement • an accident report 3.51 The passive voice is often used in science, politics or other formal settings to create a sense of objectivity. It is used when the focus is on the action and not who or what is behind it. Mistakes were made. as opposed to Phil and Trevor made several mistakes. Rewrite these sentences using the passive voice. a The police told the students to leave the station area. b Mr Jones accused one of the students of plagiarism. c The assistant reported one of the children missing. d Someone had handed in a written complaint about the hygiene in the restaurant.

fail stryke passing grade ståkarakter pursue forsøke å få advertisement annonse complaint klage

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Fucking Perfect Made a wrong turn Once or twice Dug my way out Blood and fire Bad decisions That’s alright Welcome to my silly life Mistreated, misplaced, misunderstood Miss knowing it’s all good It didn’t slow me down Mistaken, always second guessing, underestimated Look, I’m still around Chorus: Pretty, pretty please Don’t you ever, ever feel Like you’re less than fuckin’ perfect Pretty, pretty please If you ever, ever feel like you’re nothing, You’re fuckin’ perfect to me You’re so mean When you talk About yourself you were wrong Change the voices in your head Make them like you instead

After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ understand

the song lyrics ▶▶ speak and write about the importance of self-esteem ▶▶ understand some proverbs ▶▶ use some prefixes

So complicated Look how we all make it Filled with so much hatred Such a tired game It’s enough I’ve done all I can think of Chased down all my demons I’ve seen you do the same Chorus (The whole world’s scared So I swallow the fear The only thing I should be drinking Is an ice cold beer So cool in line And we try, try, try But we try too hard And it’s a waste of my time Done looking for the critics ‘Cause they’re everywhere They don’t like my jeans They don’t get my hair Estrange ourselves And we do it all the time Why do we do that? Why do I do that?) lyrics: pink (alecia beth moore)

!

Before you start a Look at the title of the song. What does this tell you about the style of language in this song? b Can you think of other songs that have a very informal style of language? Give examples.

mistreated dårlig behandlet/ dårleg behandla misplaced feilplassert second guessing her: tvilende/ tvilande underestimated undervurdert pretty please vær så snill/ver så snill mean slem complicated komplisert hatred hat chase jage estrange fremmedgjøre/ framandgjere

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Read and understand

3.52 • Read one stanza and explain in your own words what it says. Take turns. 3.53 •• Answer the following questions in your own words. a “Made the wrong turn, once or twice” is the opening sentence of this song. What do you think the writer means? b Why does the writer tell the reader or listener to “change the voices in your head”? c What do you think “chased down all my demons” means? d “You’re fucking perfect to me” is the main message in the song. Why do you think the writer needs to say this? Who do you think this song was meant for? 3.54 ••• Write down the answers to the questions below. a In your own words, sum up and rewrite the song’s main message in one paragraph. b Find examples in the song lyrics of how the writer deals with selfimage and criticism. c Song lyrics do not always translate well into other languages. Choose one or two lines that would not make sense if translated into Norwegian.

Speak

3.55 Which of the following proverbs about friendship do you think matches the song “Fucking Perfect” the best? Explain!

“Friends show their love in times of trouble.”

“The only way to have a friend is to be one.”

Euripides (408 B.C.)

Ralph Waldo Emerson

“One who looks for a friend without faults will have none.” Jewish saying

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“A friend is a person who believes in you even when you don’t believe in yourself.” Anonymous


Practise

3.56 Choose the right prefix. Look up words you don’t know. What happens to the meaning of the word when the prefix is added? un-   mis-   il-   im-   dis-   nona ... understood b ... real c ... smoker d ... possible e ... legal f ... appear g ... legitimate h ... satisfied i ... courage j ... treated k ... mature l ... stop

Write

3.57 • Imagine you have a friend who is feeling down. He failed a test, his parents yell at him for different reasons, and his girlfriend just broke up with him. Write a short text to explain what you would do to cheer him up. 3.58 •• What gives young people self-esteem? Write a short text in which you express your opinion.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can understand the song lyrics.

YES

Explore

ALMOST

NO

I can write about the importance of selfesteem. YES

3.60 Work in groups. Can you think of other artists who have made songs that cheer you up or motivate you? Find a good example. Present the lyrics and play the song in class.

NO

I can speak about the importance of selfesteem.

YES

3.59 ••• “Done looking for the critics, cause they’re everywhere” is one of the lines from Pink’s song. How do other people’s opinions affect your self-esteem? What is the best way to deal with negative feedback? Write a short text.

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

I can understand some proverbs.

YES

ALMOST

NO

I can use some prefixes.

YES

ALMOST

NO

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extend utdype / utdjupe whatsoever overhode / overhovud pigeon due pot belly kulemage waggle vrikke string puppet marionett, nikkedukke / marionett, nikkedokke trunks badebukse dressing gown badekåpe nipple brystvorte self-conscious sjenert, usikker PE (Physical Education) kroppsøving pulsate pulsere bean bønne superglue superlim

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ talk

about self-consciousness ▶▶ discuss family relations ▶▶ search for and present information

Socks Are Not Enough

The novel Socks Are Not Enough, If That’s All Your Parents Are Wearing, is the funny story of fourteen-year-old Michael Swarbrick. He is an uptight, nervous boy who worries about a lot of things and who constantly feels embarrassed by 03_19 his parents’ and friend’s behaviour. He has an especially complicated relationship with his brother Steve, who is not the kindest of brothers. To sort out his feelings he has been advised to write a diary and, to organise his life, he likes to write lists. In this excerpt he has just been swimming at the leisure centre with his only friend, Paul.

!

Before you start Study the pie chart. a What do the majority of the people asked think about themselves ? b To what extent does this pie chart correspond to your impression of young people?

How happy are you with the way you look?

Getting Changed I have already mentioned that I don’t like to be watched. However, this should be extended. I DO NOT LIKE TO BE LOOKED AT WHATSOEVER. I have what you might call an unusual body. This is composed of: big feet, skinny arms, a pigeon chest, a pot belly and Don't know 3% a massive head that waggles when I walk. My brother Not at all happy 3% Not very happy 7% says I look like a string puppet. He is an idiot. As long as I can remember I have hated to be Source: girlsattitudes.girlguiding.org.uk looked at. Still, my mum has forced me to do a sport like swimming, for which I have to wear only a pair of trunks. Usually I wrap myself in a towel or a dressing gown until I am just about to dive in. One of the worst times was in Year 7. I woke up one day and found to my horror that I had grown an extra, well, nipple, on my chest. Yes, an extra nipple. This made me very self-conscious. I pretended to be ill so that I could avoid swimming and refused to get changed for PE at school. I could not tell anyone and definitely could not go to the school nurse. I did not even dare to touch it in case it pulsated or something. Then, after four days of fear and terror, it fell off in the bath. It turned out that it was just a baked bean that my idiot brother had superglued to my skin whilst I was asleep.

Very happy 51%

Quite happy 35%

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crumbs smuler / smular jet wash høytrykksspyle / høgtrykksspyle shrink wrap vakumpakke tin blikkboks / blekkboks gush sprute stain grise til / grise til groan stønne

Anyway, as a result, I do not like getting changed near other people. Just being at the swimming pool is bad enough. So, despite Paul Beary laughing at me and saying I looked like an old woman, I wrapped my towel around my chest like a dress and got out of my trunks and into my clothes as quickly as possible.

Outside the leisure centre I spent at least 25 minutes by the vending machines with Paul. I always buy the same thing after training. A straightforward milk chocolate bar. There is no messing around with stuff you do not need inside it – just chocolate and nothing else. Money in. Press D3. Reach down. Eat. Same every week. Paul, however, does not go to the vending machines with a plan. He puts his money in, then starts to think about what he might buy. The whole time, he commentated on the choices on offer. This is stupid as it wastes time and is seriously annoying for the people behind him. Soon a queue developed. A few of them were checking their watches and muttering to themselves as he started saying things like, “No, no wine gums, I’ve had them three times this week, never liked Murray Mints, not a big fan of nuts. Water is just out of the question …” When I told him about the people behind, he started getting red-faced, punching buttons angrily at random. Outside, he was moaning, as usual. “Why did you start rushing me? I didn’t want bacon flavoured crisps and fruit gums.” “That’s as closed to a balanced breakfast as you get,” I said sarcastically. Paul sniffed. “Yeah, I suppose it is. Meat and fruit. Hey. Isn’t that your brother?” My heart sank. Paul was right. Leaning against the side of his car (which was parked in the disabled space even though he is not disabled) was my brother Ste. “D’you reckon he’ll give us a lift?” Paul said, spraying me with baconcrisp crumbs. I snorted. “Paul, even if you had the crisp crumbs jet washed off you and you were shrink wrapped inside a giant plastic bag, he would not let you inside that car. It means more to him than life itself.” This is absolutely true. One time Ste was at our house with one of his many girlfriends. She cut her finger on a tin of beans and was bleeding really badly and I mean gushing all over the place. She started freaking out and told him to get her to the hospital straight away. So do you know what he did? He drove her to the hospital, but made her hold her hand out of the window the whole way there so no blood got on to the seats. Then he dumped her for “almost staining his car”. “Hey hey hey, losers!” called my brother, removing his sunglasses. “Oh brilliant. He has seen us,” I groaned. Reasons why I hate my brother:

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1 He has a goatee beard. I hate beards, especially ones that look like slugs clinging to people’s lips. This has nothing to do with the fact that he can grow a beard and I cannot. 2 Whenever he gets a spot, he uses ladies’ make-up to cover it. He thinks no one can notice it but sometimes, when you get up close, you can see all these orangey-pink crusty bits on his face. 3 Four years ago, he and his friends blew cigar smoke into my hamster’s cage when my parents were out. This was “hilarious”. However, I am certain that this caused Humphrey to develop breathing problems. After that fateful day, the poor little thing would wheeze like an old man after just a few minutes in his spinning wheel. 4 He owns a car. Not just any car. A VW Golf GTi with 1.6 litre engine, alloy wheels, leather interior, personalized plates (COOL S13 – with illegal screws on either sides of the 1 to make it look like a T), a five hundred pound stereo system with bass bins that could burst your eardrums, a sticker in the back which reads “the passion wagon” and a fluffy Eeyore toy hanging from the rear-view mirror “for the ladies”. I would estimate that ninety percent of his time is spent cruising around in his car, honking his horn at girls. The car was payed for after Ste broke his leg playing football a few years ago, then claimed that he had tripped on a dodgy paving slab. He sued the council for over six thousand pounds. The rest he paid for through the protection fee he charged me throughout Years 7 and 8, and money he wangled out of Mum and Dad. 5 Girls in our school seem to find him good-looking. I have lost track of all the times I have been stopped in the corridors by giggling girls and asked stupid things like, “Are you Sexy Ste in the sixth form’s brother?” One girl asked me if I had any holiday snaps of him in his swimming shorts and offered me ten quid for one. When I asked her why she thought that I would carry one round with me, she stamped on my foot and called me “an ugly, little hobbit”. 6 When I was five, I was on a donkey ride at the beach. Ste ran up behind the donkey and whacked it on the bum. The donkey went crazy, sprinting off across the sand before skidding to a hault and hurling me over a fence. I still have a scar under my chin and a mortal fear of donkeys. “Nice wheels, Ste,” said Paul, stroking the front of the car. Ste slapped his hands off. “Hey hey hey, half ton man. Don’t touch what you can’t afford. Keep your sticky fingers off the passion wagon.” Ste is always saying things like “hey hey hey,” and “don’t touch what you can’t afford”. Sometimes he even calls himself “the Stevenator”. As I think I have mentioned before, he is an idiot. mark lowery

goatee fippskjegg slug nakensnegl / nakensnigel spot kvise crusty skorpeaktig wheeze pipe alloy legering plate skilt illegal ulovlig / ulovleg eardrum trommehinne Eeyore Tussi rear-view mirror speil / spegel estimate anta, beregne / gå ut frå, berekne honk tute på claim påstå, hevde dodgy usikker, uberegnelig / usikker, uberekneleg paving slab støpte fortaussteiner / støypte fortaussteinar sue anmelde / melde council kommune wangle fikse lose track miste oversikten / oversikta giggle fnise sixth form siste året på videregående / vidaregåande snap bilde / bilete quid pund whack slå til skid skli hault stoppe hurl kaste mortal dødelig / dødeleg vending machine salgsautomat / salsautomat commentate kommentere punch slå, taste inn random tilfeldig moan stønne disabled funksjonshemmet / funksjonshemma

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m IN SHORT

Mark Lowery is a primary schoolteacher. He has always wanted to be a writer and Socks Are Not Enough (2011) is his first novel. He lives in Cambridge with his family.

Getting changed Michael doesn’t like to be looked at. He thinks he has big feet, skinny arms, a pigeon chest, a pot belly and a massive head. His brother Ste says he looks like a string puppet. Michael thinks Ste is an idiot. One day, in Year 7, Michael woke up and saw an extra nipple on his chest. He got scared and didn’t want anyone to see it. After some days it fell off. It was only a baked bean that his brother had superglued to his skin while he was asleep. As a result, he does not like getting changed near other people. When he is at the swimming pool he hides under a towel as long as he can. Outside the leisure centre After training, Michael and his friend Paul want to buy sweets from the vending machines. Michael always buys the same thing. A milk chocolate bar. Paul always spends a lot of time deciding what to choose. When they finally get out, they meet Ste. He is leaning against the side of his car. Paul wants to ask for a lift, but Michael knows that Ste would never let them inside that car. He says: “It means more to him than life itself.”

pigeon chest duebryst pot belly kulemage string puppet marionettedukke nipple brystvorte bean bønne superglue superlim vending machine salgsautomat / salsautomat staining grise til goatee fippskjegg spot kvise alloy legering sticker klistremerke donkey esel

Michael lists why he hates his brother: 1 He has a goatee beard. I hate beards. This has nothing to do with the fact that he can grow a beard and I cannot. 2 Whenever he gets a spot, he uses ladies’ make-up to cover it. 3 Four years ago, he blew cigar smoke into my hamster’s cage. I am certain that this caused Humphrey to develop breathing problems. 4 He owns a car. Not just any car. A VW Golf GTi with 1.6 litre engine, alloy wheels, leather interior, a five hundred pound stereo and a sticker in the back which reads “the passion wagon”. 5 Girls in our school seem to find him good-looking. They ask me “Are you Sexy Ste in the sixth form’s brother?” 6 When I was five, I was on a donkey ride at the beach. Ste hit the donkey, it went crazy and I fell off. I still have a scar under my chin and a fear of donkeys. Michael says Ste calls himself “the Stevenator”. He thinks Ste is an idiot.

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Read and understand

3.64 • Choose the right alternative. a The main character in this text is called Paul / Ste / Michael. b Michael doesn’t like to eat chocolate / be looked at / ride in Ste’s car. c One day Michael thought he had grown a new nipple / goatee / ear. d It turned out to be a chocolate bar / a baked bean / an extra nipple. e Because of his body, Michael is self-centered /self-conscious / selfish. f When he gets changed, he hides under the bed / a towel / a car. g Ste has an ugly / a big / a cool car. h Ste seems to be very generous / self-confident / shy. i Michael thinks Ste is an idiot / sexy / funny. 3.65 •• Answer the following questions. a How does the narrator deal with his feelings? b What does he feel about his own body? c How is his relationship to his brother? Give examples. d How would you characterise Ste? Explain. e Why doesn’t Michael like Ste’s goatee? f What stops Michael from talking about the extra nipple?

Speak

3.66 Work in pairs, and then share your views in class. a Is it typical for teenagers to be embarrassed of showing their body? b Is it normal for big brothers and sisters to tease little brothers and sisters? What is it like in your family? c Michael goes swimming because his mother forces him to do so. Who or what influences your choice of spare time activities? Give examples. d It seems to be important for Michael to plan and organise all his activities. Is this important for you too, or do you prefer to be more impulsive? e Ste is afraid to get his car stained. Can you understand this?

Practise

3.67 First, translate the following words into English. Then, use the words to write eight sentences. brystvorte fippskjegg trommehinne kvise skjegg mage føtter bryst

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can talk about selfconsciousness. YES ALMOST NO

I can discuss family relations. YES ALMOST NO

I can search for and present information.

3.68 In the text Michael and his friend buy sweets from a vending machine. Look for information on different types of vending machines. What kind of foods can you buy from such machines? Can you buy healthy food too? Present in class.

YES ALMOST NO

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Sticks and Stones

haunt hjemsøke, forfølge/råke, plage, forfølgje slant skrå curved buet/bøygd sword sverd pierce gjennombore bat balltre brick murstein mortify krenke, såre/krenkje, såre scar arr tender øm bruise blåmerke heal helbrede/lækje

Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words can also hurt me. Stones and sticks break only skin, while words are ghosts that haunt me. Slant and curved the word-swords fall, it pierces and sticks inside me. Bats and bricks may ache through bones, but words can mortify me. Pain from words has left its scar, on mind and heart that’s tender. Cuts and bruises have not healed, it’s words that I remember. ruby redford (pseudonym for lauren child)

Read and understand

3.68 Sum up the poem’s message in one sentence. 3.69 What do you think hurts the most, physical or verbal abuse? Explain.

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DID YOU DO 3|HOW IN THIS CHAPTER? Study the word cloud. a Choose at least 10 words that you think are relevant for what you have studied in this chapter. b Explain why you think the words are relevant. c Write 5 sentences to sum up what you have studied in this chapter, using as many of the words as possible.

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS MORE VERBS 1 Some verbs are irregular. They are listed in a dictionary. I thought about my best friend. 2 To be, to do and to have do not follow the same rules as other verbs. I don’t like fish. 3 Verbs like can, may, must, shall and will are helping verbs. I will work in the health sector.

3.70 Use your dictionary and fill in the missing forms. a b c d e f g h

Infinitive

Past

Past participle

make give think tell eat … do put

… gave … told … saw did …

made … thought … eaten seen … put

3.71 Study the calendar showing what Amal did last week. For each day, write one sentence to explain what she did. Example: On Monday, Amal bought a CD for her Dad. Monday

Buy CD for Dad. Begin essay.

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Meet Go shopping Simone and with Eileen. Yasmeen. Write second draft essay.

See Adam. Wear hijab first time.

Speak to Tia.

Sleep late.

Do home­work.

3.72 Fill in the right form of the verb in the past tense. a Randa Abdel-Fattah the novel Does My Head Look Big in This? (to write) b This novel an Australian award in 2005. (to win) c Things difficult for Amal when she decided to wear a hijab. (to become) d She many different reactions from her family and friends. (to get)

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS e f g h

from Japan. (to come) Eileen’s family originally Amal out that Adam really liked her. (to find) Leila frustrated about her mother. (to feel) Amal’s mother Jamila a great sense of humour. (to have)

3.73 Answer the questions and use do – does – don’t – doesn’t. a Do you know Nikki Sixx? No, I . b Do you like heavy rock music? Yes, I . c Does Nikki Sixx remember his days as a drug addict? Yes, he d Does he remember how he became addicted to heroin? No, he e Do you know that he overdosed in 1987? Yes, I . f Do the other band members abuse drugs? No, they .

. .

3.74 Fill in the right form of the helping verb to be or to have in the past tense. a Nikki Sixx born in 1958 in California. b When he was 17 he already been in trouble several times. c He able to play the guitar very well. d He bought his first guitar with the money he got by selling a guitar he stolen. e Many of his friends struggling with the same problems. f In 1987 Nikki Sixx declared dead for two minutes. g Paramedics able to revive him with two adrenaline shots. h Nikki Sixx realized he to go into rehab. 3.75 Choose the helping verbs that fit best in the sentences below. should – would – will – must – could – can – might a Nikki Sixx decided to change his name because he thought that could / shall mean a new start. b The paramedics who saved his life were afraid they can / would be too late. c What should / will they have done differently? d After some time Nikki Sixx realized he can / must quit heroin or die. e Nikki Sixx decided that he must / would work with the charity called “Covenant House”. f He thought he might / can help young people find a better solution than drugs to their problems. g Nikki Sixx would / will continue to support this charity. h You should / would listen to some of his music.

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CHAPTER 4

Safe and Sound


In this chapter you will focus on

• safety instructions and

equipment • accidents and how to avoid them • hygiene and ergonomics • safety signs • writing accident reports • giving instructions • adjectives and adverbs Useful words and phrases accident injury hazard first aid protective clothing apron bacteria hygiene work environment ergonomics

Why is it important to learn about safety and first aid?

123


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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

Safety First!

the importance of safety at

work ▶▶ understand and use words connected with safety ▶▶ write short phrases about safety equipment and accident prevention

What do you think kills most people in the world? Is it war, crime or drugs? No, it is work! Around two million people worldwide die every year from accidents or diseases related to their work. The most dangerous jobs in the world are in agriculture, mining and construction. Even though the most common cause of death is work-related car accidents (23%), it is no surprise that falls in construction work is number two. Lumberjacks have a very high number of deaths at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employees. In the USA alone, around 6,000 people die at work each year, but this also includes those who have a heart attack while sitting at their desks. A lot has been done to reduce accidents at work. First, strict rules and safety instructions have improved working conditions. Second, protective clothing, like safety boots, hardhats and goggles help prevent injuries. Third, better health care saves more people after accidents and helps victims back to work after recovery. It is, however, obvious that things can get even better. Not all workers take necessary precautions. In some cases, the equipment or the instructions may not be good enough. In restaurant and food processing professions, the focus on safety and ergonomics helps workers avoid problems like cuts, burns and back injuries. For example, lifting properly is important when working with heavy objects. Likewise, working with sharp and dangerous knives is safer with gloves. To avoid the spread of bacteria and diseases you should wear rubber gloves or use disinfectants. Finally, when handling hot objects in the kitchen or at the bakery, always be careful and focused on the task. Different jobs have different hazards, and workers should know which risks they face. In conclusion, to prevent accidents, employees should always follow instructions, but the employer should also make sure that the working conditions are good enough. Consequently, safety is something that concerns everybody.

accident ulykke disease sykdom/sjukdom related to knyttet til / knytt til agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen lumberjacks tømmerhoggere/ tømmerhoggarar employees ansatte/tilsette include inkludere, også gjelde protective beskyttende / vernande, beskyttande hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller prevent forebygge/førebyggje recovery rekonvalesens obvious åpenbart, klart / opplagt, innlysande, klart precaution forhåndsregel/ førehandsregel ergonomics ergonomi avoid unngå burns brannsår likewise på samme måte properly skikkelig/skikkeleg rubber gummi disinfectant desinfiserende middel/desinfiserande middel hazard fare employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgivar conditions forhold concern angå, gjelde/ha med å gjere, gjelde

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IN SHORT

accident ulykke/ulukke disease sykdom/sjukdom related to knyttet til / knytt til agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen common vanlig/vanleg lumberjacks tømmerhoggere/ tømmerhoggarar employee ansatt/tilsett safety rules sikkerhetsregler/ tryggingsreglar protective beskyttende/ vernande, beskyttande hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller recovery rekonvalesens careless uforsiktig gloves hansker/hanskar avoid unngå injury skade burns brannsår prevent forebygge/førebyggje employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgivar

What kills most people is work. Around two million people in the world die every year because of accidents or diseases related to their work. The most dangerous jobs are in agriculture, mining and construction. The most common causes of death are car accidents and falls in construction. Still lumberjacks have the largest number of deaths at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employees. In the US, 6,000 people die at work every year. Strict safety rules have reduced the number of accidents. When workers wear protective clothing, like safety boots, hardhats and goggles, more lives are saved. They can often go back to work after recovery. However, workers are often careless and instructions are not good enough. For workers in restaurant and food processing professions, it is important to lift properly and wear gloves. This is to avoid back injuries, cuts and burns. Also, in the kitchen you must be careful and focused. To prevent accidents, employees and employers should work together.

Read and understand

4.1 • Decide if these sentences are true or false. True

False

a b c d e f

What kills most people is drugs. Lumberjacks have a very dangerous job. 6,000 people in the US die of heart attack each year. Wearing special clothes does not prevent accidents. There are rules on how to behave at work. Lifting correctly is important for food processing ­workers. g Disinfectants do not kill bacteria. h Employers do not have any responsibility regarding workplace safety.

4.2 •• Rewrite the false sentences in 4.1 so that they become true. 4.3 ••• Complete the following tasks. a Explain what surprises you in the text. b What does not surprise you? c Retell the contents of the text in ten sentences. Use your own words.

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Practise

4.4 Unscramble the letters and find words related to safety. Combine with the right Norwegian translation. Write the correct words. a s M k a 1 vernebriller b d o A i v 2 hansker c j y I n r u 3 bakterier d o s v e G l 4 unngå e t n e P e r v 5 skade f g s e o g l G 6 forebygge g n e A c t i d c 7 maske h e t i c r B a a 8 ulykke 4.5 Use words from page 125 to make your own list of words with scrambled letters. Exchange lists with a partner and solve each other’s lists. 4.6 First, translate the Norwegian words into English. Then, find the English words in the grid below. vernebriller hjelm støvler fallulykker ulykke streng unngå gruvearbeid dødsfall risiko G

O

G

G

L

E

S

H

F

A

L

L

S

S

T

A

A

V

R

I

S

K

R

R

B

O

O

T

S

F

I

D

M

I

N

I

N

G

C

H

E

D

E

A

T

H

T

A

A

C

C

I

D

E

N

T

There are four letters left when you have found all the words in the grid. Together they form one word. Can you find it? It’s ........................ Skills | Chapter 4: Safe and Sound | 127


4.7 When do we need safety clothing? Combine the equipment below with the right picture and the right situation. Write one sentence about each item. gloves hair nets or caps hardhats goggles safety boots mask apron

1

a to protect your feet from sharp objects on the floor b to protect your eyes from smoke or dangerous liquids c to protect your clothes from blood and frying oil stains d to avoid head injury from falling objects e to avoid breathing in dangerous chemicals f to avoid getting hair in the food g to avoid burning or cutting your fingers

2

3

4

5

6

7

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Speak

4.8 Describe the photos. a What kind of safety equipment are they wearing? b What kind of job do you think they have? Discuss and explain your point of view. A

B

C

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises,

D

I can explain the importance of safety at work.

E

YES

ALMOST

NO

I can understand and use words related to safety.

YES

Listen

4.9 “Safety Equipment at Work”. Listen to Betty and Joel, who talk about their jobs and the equipment they need to perform their jobs safely. Take notes and share in class.

ALMOST

NO

I can write short phrases about safety equipment and accident prevention.

YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A REPORT Writing reports is a daily activity, both at school and at work. If you have done a job or been involved in an accident, you will be expected to write a report. In a report your language should be formal and correct and the content should be to the point and accurate. A report should contain the following steps.

1 Write a heading. • Who is it for? • Who is it from? • Date • Subject

2 Write an introduction. • Explain why you write the report. Give relevant background information who – when – where – why … 3 Retell what happened. • Write down the activities or events that took place, in chronological order.

4 Add relevant information. • Add factual information like statistics, photos etc. if relevant. • Evaluate the process and comment on reasons for what happened.

5 Write a conclusion. • Suggest improvements or changes in routines, regulation etc. • Sign your report.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS To: Mrs. Julia Heath, Safety Coordinator at Hall’s Meat and Sausages From: Dean Darwin, Senior Meat Cutter Hall’s Meat and Sausages, December 11, 2014 Subject: Apprentice injured on meat cutting machine This report is from an accident that took place on December 10, while our new meat cutter apprentice Eva Pearce and I were working in workroom 1. I had just instructed Ms. Pearce on how to use the meat saw and she was working on her own on a newly arrived piece of beef. She was about to finish cutting the sirloins, when the final slice slipped out of her hand, and her fingers touched the moving blade. Fortunately, she wore gloves, reacted quickly and removed her hands. Still, she got a deep cut in her right index finger. She was immediately driven to the doctor and the finger was saved. This is the second accident in three months connected to this kind of machinery. Reasons for this happening may be that we have inexperienced staff or insufficient safety precautions and equipment. As a conclusion I suggest that we train our apprentices for a longer period before we let them perform challenging tasks like this on their own. We must also make sure that the workers use high-quality protective gloves. Yours sincerely,

Dean Darwin

meat cutter  kjøttskjærer / kjøttskjerar apprentice lærling beef oksekjøtt sirloins mørbrad index finger  pekefinger / peikefinger inexperienced uerfaren insufficient utilstrekkelig / utilstrekkeleg challenging krevende / krevjande

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 4.10 Place the sentence connectors in the open spaces below. Then write the whole paragraph. therefore – suddenly – to sum it up – second – however – first – luckily I was working in the bakery when the accident occurred. , I put on my oven gloves. , I opened the door of the large bakery oven and then I pulled out the rack of bread. , one of the wheels of the rack loosened and fell off, and the rack fell over me. , I had my gloves on, but I got some burns on my left arm. , I had to call for my colleague to help me get up and to put on some bandages. , no serious damage was done. , I recommend better maintenance of our equipment in the future. 4.11 Read the following report. Does it contain the details from the outline on page xxx? Rewrite the report, with the paragraphs and the information in a more logical order.

Subject: Accident report Date: The Queen hotel and restaurant, January 16, 20… To: Sous chef Martin Sanders From: Sauté cook Sophie Mall Consequently I think that such incidents can be avoided in the future if the work station is made larger or my assistant gets her own work table. I think the reason why this happened is that the sauté station is too small for the designated tasks. Luckily, she had good shoes so her foot was not hurt, but I got some burns on my hand when I tried to catch the falling pan. I was working with Sue on my station. As I was shaking the sauté pan, the right cuff of my shirt was caught in her knife and I lost the pan. I was frying fish fillets while she was preparing the garnishes. It fell to the floor and landed on Sue’s left foot. I was with our new apprentice, Sue Chin. The incident occurred at 8 p.m. on January 15. I was involved in an accident while working on my sauté station. Yours sincerely

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 4.12 Study the illustrations and write a report. Use your imagination to fill in details. 4.13 Write a report about a project you have worked with in one of your other subjects at school. Include information on the preparation, the process and materials used. What was the purpose of the work and what was the result? 4.14 Work with a partner. Read the following quotes from real accident reports sent to insurance companies in the USA. Some of the explanations are rather curious. a In each situation, what do you think actually happened? b How would you retell the different incidents if it were for a report?

Accident Reports A pedestrian hit me and went under my car. Coming home, I drove into the wrong house and collided with a tree I don’t have. I thought my window was down; but found it was up when I put my hand through it. I had been driving for 40 years when I fell asleep at the wheel and had an accident. I was thrown from my car as it left the road. I was later found in a ditch by some stray cows.

4.15 Study the illustration. Discuss what kind of accidents are about to happen and how they can be avoided. Should there be any warning signs? Discuss.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE FACT THERE ARE FOUR MAIN GROUPS OF SIGNS: Danger warning signs – two varieties • Europe: a triangle with white or yellow background, a red border, a black picture • USA: yellow danger warning signs, black borders and a black picture • warns you of danger Mandatory signs • round, bright blue, white picture • things that you must do Prohibition signs • round, white background, black picture, red border, often red slash across • things that are not allowed Information signs • many different types of information signs • no international standard, different from country to country

Sayings What is their message? • Safety never takes a holiday. • Better safe than sorry. • Safety doesn’t happen by accident.

Accidents Happen Kids messing about in the backs of cars Can sometimes cause accidents to happen While accidents in the backs of cars Almost always cause kids to happen paul curtis 134 | Chapter 4: Safe and Sound | Skills


T FILE FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise 4.16 Study the signs (a–n). Group them according to what type of signs they are. • danger warning signs • prohibition signs • mandatory signs • information signs

A

B

C

D

H

I

J

K

E

L

F

G

M

N

4.17 Combine the signs in task 4.16 with the right text from the list below. 8 Toxic risk 1 Do not drink the water 9 Accessible for wheel chairs 2 Wear hardhats 10 High visibility clothing must be worn in this area 3 Flammable gas 11 Toilet 4 Wash hands 12 Caution guard dog 5 Apron must be worn 13 Slippery roads 6 Boots must be worn 14 Danger, falling rocks 7 No smoking 4.18 Study the drawing below. Can you see any dangerous situations? Write one paragraph where you describe what might happen. Suggest improvements.

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!

Before you start Discuss these questions: a What do you think can be challenging when working as a cook in a restaurant? b What kind of clothing and equipment are required for working in a large restaurant kitchen?

First Day at Work

Adam Byatt runs a restaurant in London. In this excerpt he explains how it all began. In the nineties, apprenticeships were a big thing and I went to a jobs open day with my mum. They were all in this hall, the Ford Motor Company and Barclays Bank and queues of these students lining up, and there was the Savoy Education Trust in the corner with no one. So I dragged my mum there and I said, I want to be a cook. They said, okay, we’ve got an apprenticeship at Claridge’s or at the Savoy. And my mum said to me, the Queen eats at Claridge’s, Adam. So I said, okay, I want to work at Claridge’s. 136 | Chapter 4: Safe and Sound | Skills


That was it. On Monday, I turned up at Claridge’s and I After working with the text and had the very worst day of my whole life. ­exercises, you should be able to I was streetwise, cocky, not off the rails but close to it. So I walked into the chef’s office and he said to ▶▶ explain what the excerpt “First Day at me, okay, you need to go and get changed. Go into the Work” is about changing room at the end there, ask for a guy called ▶▶ talk about the hazards of a stressful John – he will give you a jacket. Unbeknownst to me work environment there were eighty-seven cooks at Claridge’s on that day, ▶▶ use vocabulary related to basic in that brigade, I was number eighty-eight, yeah, and I mathematics walked into the changing room and said, hello, mate, you’ve got a jacket for me. And he said, okay, number one, I’m not your fucking mate and number two, if I don’t get that jacket back tomorrow morning pressed and ironed, I’ll kill you. And my day just deteriorated from thereon in. I was taken into the back room, given six boxes of spinach, told to pick the stems off of it, then shown how to blanch it in boiling water, refresh it in ice, and then blend it in a machine to make a creamed spinach dish for a banquet. By the time I’d blended it and passed all the fibres out through a fine sieve, I was absolutely covered in green spinach on this guy’s jacket which said his name and Senior Sous Chef, Claridge’s. So everybody, a day long, had this five foot two, cocky little Essex boy and they were just ripping into him about being the senior sous chef at Claridge’s. Ripping me to pieces. I finished that job at 5.30 and they told me to clean up, which took me another hour and a half. apprenticeship lærlingstilling jobs open day yrkesmesse I started at 9.30, and by then I was like a wreck. I’d never stood on my streetwise vant til å klare seg, feet that long in my life. They let me go eventually at eight o’clock and I litt “tøff” got home at nine o’clock and just burst into tears. I laid on the sofa and I cocky kjepphøy, selvtilfreds / said to my dad, I can’t do that. It’s horrible. I hate it. I didn’t like the Tube kjepphøg, sjølvtilfreds journey. I travelled in from Essex, I was living with my parents. And my dad off the rails ute på skråplanet said, well, you must do what makes you happy, but this is an opportunity unbeknownst ukjent / ukjend and if you don’t go back tomorrow you will never go back and that’s brigade tropp ironed strøken / stroken something you need to make a thought of. I didn’t know what to do. I set deteriorate bli verre my alarm for the next day and woke up and I thought, I’m going back. There spinach spinat are junctions in your life and that was one of those junctions for me. I went stems stilker / stilkar back and I stayed at Claridge’s for the next four and a half years. blanch forvelle That was twenty years ago, and I’ve cooked ever since. blend mikse, blande, mose craig taylor Craig Taylor (1976–) was born in Canada but now works as a journalist and playwright in London. He spent five years working on his book, Londoners, where he lets people who live in the city, or work there, tell about their relationship to it.

m

banquet bankett, festmiddag sieve sil, dørslag rip into rive i eventually omsider, til slutt opportunity anledning / høve alarm vekkerklokke / vekkjarklokke junction veikryss / vegkryss

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IN SHORT

apprenticeship lærlingstilling mate kompis pressed presset / pressa ironed strøken / stroken spinach spinat boil koke blend mikse, blande, mose creamed kremete banquet bankett, festmiddag wreck vrak opportunity anledning / høve decision beslutning / avgjerd

In the nineties, I got an apprenticeship at Claridge’s. My first day there was the worst day of my life. I walked into the chef’s office and he said, “Go into the changing room and ask John to give you a jacket.” There were eighty-seven cooks at Claridge’s on that day. I walked into the changing room and said, “Hello, mate, you’ve got a jacket for me.” He said, “I’m not your mate and I want that jacket back tomorrow morning pressed and ironed, or I’ll kill you.” My day just got worse. I was given six boxes of spinach. They told me to rinse and boil it, then refresh it in ice and then blend it to make creamed spinach for a banquet. Afterwards, the jacket was covered in green spinach. Then they told me to clean up. This took me an hour and a half. I started at 9.30 and by then I was like a wreck. I’d never stood on my feet that long in my life. They let me go at eight o’clock and I got home at nine. I burst into tears and said to my dad, I can’t do that. I hate it. My dad said, do what makes you happy but this is an opportunity. The next day I went back. Sometimes we must make important decisions in life. I stayed at Claridge’s for the next four and a half years. That was twenty years ago, and I’ve cooked ever since.

Read and understand

4.19 • Choose the right alternative a Adam got a changing room / an apprenticeship / a box of spinach at Claridge’s. b Adam went to the changing room to get a mate / some ice / a jacket. c There were eighty-seven / eighteen / seventy-eight cooks at Claridge’s that day. d Adam got six leaves / boxes / kilos of spinach. e He had to rinse and boil / fry and freeze / chop the spinach. f Afterwards, the jacket was clean / covered in green spinach / ironed. g When Adam came home he felt happy / like going back / like a wreck. h The next day he went back / stayed home / went to school. 4.20 •• Write at least eight questions about the text. Ask and answer each other’s questions in small groups.

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4.21 ••• Read the text closely and answer the questions. a How does Adam describe himself as a teenager? Do you think his work has changed him in any way? Explain. b What does Adam’s first meeting with his colleagues tell us about the hierarchy in a restaurant? c What were the different reasons why Adam hated his first day at work? d What do you think made Adam go back the following day?

Practise

4.22 Combine the two halves to complete the words. Use the words to make sentences about Adam’s first day at work. a street 1 ship b spi 2 tion c apprentice 3 quet d oppor 4 wise e ban 5 nach f junc 6 tunity 4.23 Combine the words with the right antonyms (words with an opposite meaning). Learn them by heart and use them to write sentences. a cocky 1 crumpled b deteriorate 2 in the beginning c ironed 3 improve d eventually 4 modest

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4.24 Basic mathematics a Read the following calculations out loud. 2 + 2 = 4 4 – 2 = 2 2 x 2 = 4 4 : 2 = 2

Two plus two equals four. Four minus two equals two. Two times two equals four. Four divided by two equals two.

b Solve the tasks and then read them out loud. 22 x 5 = 3+8= 75 : 15 = 4x6= 102 – 79 = 9–3= 687 + 431 = 20 : 4 = 4.25 Find the answers to the tasks below. Write down your calculations and read them out loud. Use the following key. inch foot pound stone

2.5 centimetres 0.3 metre 0.45 kilo 6.3 kilos

a Adam is five foot and two inches – how much is that in metres and centimetres? b A box of spinach weighs six pounds. How many kilos is that? c Adam’s restaurant bought 7 stone of beef in one week. How many kilos is that? d Adam used a knife which was five inches long. How many centimetres is that? e In order to make creamed spinach out of the six boxes of spinach, Adam should add three pounds of flour. How many kilos is that? f Adam weighs 12 stones. How many kilos does he weigh? g The hamburgers weigh half a pound. How many grams do they weigh? h The chef is 195 centimetres tall. How tall is he in feet and inches?

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Speak

4.26 Discuss the questions. a Adam is exhausted after his first day at work. What kind of activities in a kitchen can make you tired or wear you out physically? b Many cooks describe their workplace as hot, busy and stressful. What might the reasons be? Look at the list for ideas. How can you learn to deal with this kind of stress and pressure? Make a new list. • • • •

multiple tasks many items crowded working area schedule to follow

• • • •

long hours late shifts high temperature mostly on your feet

4.27 What do you think is most important when choosing a job? Discuss the list below with a fellow student and add to it if you find it incomplete. • • • •

to be happy to make a lot of money to meet nice people to be creative

Explore

4.28 Use the Internet to find information about the two hotels mentioned in the text, Claridge’s and the Savoy. • Where are they? What do they look like? • What kinds of dishes do they serve? • What kind of restaurant do they have? • Who is the current head chef?

• • • •

to be part of a team to be able to work independently to help others to please your parents

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the excerpt “First Day at Work” is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can talk about the hazards of a stressful work environment. YES ALMOST NO

I can use vocabulary related to basic mathematics. YES ALMOST NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING INSTRUCTIONS To be able to give instructions is an important skill. Here are some steps to follow to become an inspired speaker and to help your audience understand your instructions. 1 First, present the purpose of your presentation. Then, introduce the topic. Try to make your audience interested, for example by explaining the importance of your instructions.

2 Start by explaining important and difficult words.

3 Then, explain the procedure step by step. Use words like: first of all, second, third, then, after that, meanwhile, finally.

4 Demonstrate the different steps of the procedure. Use your hands, illustrations or real objects to make your instructions clearer.

5 Make sure your audience understands all the steps. Repeat your points if necessary, take pauses and ask your audience if they have any questions.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

Hello and welcome to this presentation for future waiters. Waiters risk strain on their backs, shoulders and arms. Very often this is because we do things in the wrong way, for example when carrying and lifting heavy trays or piles of plates. Therefore, I will show you how to lift heavy objects correctly. Before we start I will explain some difficult words you might need to learn how to lift correctly: resilient means elastic, assistance means help and firm means good and strong. First, it is important to have the right shoes, with soft and resilient soles. Second, if possible, you should always ask for assistance from a colleague if you must carry heavy objects like boxes of bottles or furniture. When you lift, you should have a straight back, like this (show). Then, bend your knees, like this (show). This is because you risk hurting your back if you use it to lift. Then, before you lift, make sure you have a firm grip on the object. Finally, when you lift, straighten your knees. Then, of course, you repeat the procedure when putting the object back down. Do you remember the different steps?

Do you have any questions?

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 4.29 Here are some easy exercises to stay fit. Combine the instructions with the right illustration. Then practise by giving instructions to a partner. To get a strong body which can endure hard physical work – here are some exercises to do once a day ‌ 1

a To strengthen your tummy, lie on your back, on the floor. Bend your knees and keep the soles of your feet down. Do 30 sit-ups in a row. Then repeat the activity after a short break. b Warm up your muscles with ten minutes of jogging, fast walking, cycling or dancing.

2

3

4

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c To strengthen your arms, do pushups. First, stand on your hands and knees or toes. Keep your back straight. Then, bend your arms until your nose is 5 cm above the floor. Repeat as many times as you can. d To strengthen your back, place yourself on knees and hands. First, lift your left leg backwards and your right hand forwards. Second, hold and count slowly to ten. Then, switch to the opposite arm and leg. Repeat ten times.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 4.30 Work with a partner. Study the illustration below. Then, give instructions on how you should sit while working at a computer. Follow the guidelines on page 142.

viewing distance seat back angle

monitor height arm & wrist angle mouse keyboard height

seat height

4.31 In groups of three, act out the scenes. a A young apprentice in a restaurant is instructed by the sous chef on how to lift and carry heavy boxes of vegetables and meat. An older colleague disagrees. b During their lunch break, three colleagues at a work place of your choice discuss what they do to stay fit and how to avoid strain. They all have different suggestions and instruct each other. 4.32 Choose a tool you use in your spare time or in your work. Give a short presentation with instructions on how to use it. If possible, bring the tool to class, and find pictures to help you explain.

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ share

facts about hygiene and the spread of germs and bacteria ▶▶ use vocabulary related to food and bacteria ▶▶ use different reading strategies

Typhoid Mary When a health inspector knocked on Mary Mallon’s door, she didn’t know she was the cause of many typhoid outbreaks. She wasn’t sick herself, but carried typhoid fever and spread the disease because of bad hygiene. Mary Mallon was born in 1869 in Ireland. Like many other immigrants, she came to the USA searching for a better life. She was only 15 when she arrived in New York where she started working as a cook for rich families. It is said that she was a large woman with quite a temper. In 1906, Mary worked for a banker and his family. Soon one of the daughters, the wife and two maids became ill with typhoid fever. Then followed the gardener and yet another daughter. At the time, it was known that typhoid fever spread through water or food. Investigators tried to find the source of the disease, but didn’t have any success until one of them thought of the family’s cook. The investigators discovered that outbreaks of typhoid fever had followed Mary from job to job. Over a period of seven years, Mary had worked at many different houses. In all of them, people had become ill shortly after Mary came to work for the families. The investigators understood that this was more than just a coincidence. But they needed proof. Health officials came to get samples of blood, urine and excrement from Mary, but she refused. In fact, she came after them with a carving fork! They had to chase her around the house, and spent hours searching for her, until they saw a piece of her dress sticking out from a closet. It took five policemen to bring her into hospital. One health official describes how they captured Mary: “She came out fighting and sweating. I made another effort to talk to her and asked her again to let me have the specimens, but it was of no use. The policemen lifted her into the ambulance and sat on her all the way to the

!

Before you start a Why is good hygiene important, and especially when working with food? Discuss in pairs. b Read tasks 4.33 and 4.34 before working with the text.

typhoid tyfus cause årsak outbreak utbrudd/utbrot disease sykdom/sjukdom temper temperament maid hushjelp investigator etterforsker/ etterforskar source kilde/kjelde coincidence tilfeldighet/slump, tilfelle excrement avføring refuse nekte proof bevis/bevis, prov carving fork stekegaffel/ steikjegaffel closet skap capture fange specimen prøve, eksempel/ prøve, døme cage bur trial rettssak

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hospital; it was like being in a cage with an angry lion.” Sure enough, they found typhoid bacteria in Mary’s excrements. Mary became front page news, and her crime was made to look more serious than it really was. After all, she didn’t know she was spreading the disease. Mary was put on trial, found guilty and sent to an isolated cottage on an island. A few years later, she was set free as long as she promised never to work as a cook again. Unfortunately, Mary didn’t keep her promise. Mary started working at a hospital using a different name. Soon, there was a new outbreak of typhoid fever. Twenty-five people became ill, and two of them died. Mary was sent back to the isolated island where she had to spend the last years of her life. At the time, she was named the most dangerous woman in America.

IN SHORT

typhoid tyfus source kilde/kjelde disease sykdom/sjukdom investigator etterforsker/ etterforskar excrement avføring proof bevis/bevis, prov refuse nekte trial rettssak outbreak utbrudd/utbrot named kalt/kalla

Mary Mallon was born in 1869 in Ireland. She came to the USA as an immigrant when she was 15. She started working as a cook for rich families. In 1906, Mary worked for a banker and his family. Four members of the house became ill with typhoid fever. Nobody could find the source of the disease. Then the investigators thought of the family’s cook. They discovered that for seven years Mary had worked at many different houses. In all of them, people had become ill. But they needed proof. Health officials came to get samples of blood, urine and excrement from Mary. She refused. It took five policemen to bring her into hospital. They found typhoid bacteria in Mary’s excrements. She wasn’t sick herself, but carried the disease. It was spread because of bad hygiene. Mary was put on trial, found guilty and sent to an isolated cottage on an island. A few years later, she was set free as she promised never to work as a cook again. She didn’t keep her promise. Mary started working at a hospital using a different name. Soon, there was a new outbreak of typhoid fever. Twenty-five people became ill, and two of them died. Mary was sent back to the island. She spent the last years of her life there. At the time, she was named the most dangerous woman in America.

Did you know

On each square centimeter of your skin, there are about 1,500 bacteria.

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Read and understand

4.33 Skim the text and answer the questions in full sentences. a What kind of work did Mary Mallon do? b What happened to the people she worked for? c What happened to Mary in the end? 4.34 Scan the text to find answers to the following questions. a How old was Mary when she came to the USA? b Which country did Mary come from? c How many people became ill when Mary worked for the banker? d What kind of samples did the investigators want from Mary? e How many policemen did it take to get Mary to hospital? f Where was Mary working when there was a new outbreak of typhoid fever? 4.35 Read the text closely to find answers to the following questions. a Why did Mary come to the USA? b How did people describe her personality? c Why was Mary surprised when she was accused of spreading typhoid fever? d How did Mary behave when they tried to get samples from her? e What kind of punishment did she get? f What did Mary promise when she was released from her cottage on the island? g Did she keep her promise? h Why was she called the most dangerous woman in America?

Practise

4.36 Put the words in the right place to complete the text. antibiotics – fever – hands – excrements – cause – disease – diarrhea – temperatures . It is spread when come Typhoid fever is a very infectious in contact with food or water, for example if you don’t wash your properly after a visit to the toilet. Patients get high , headaches, nausea, as well as or constipation. Although there is effective treatment with , typhoid is still an important of death in many developing countries.

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Explore

4.37 Use different sources to find other examples of people dying from food products. a In the different cases, what happened, and how was the source detected? b What could have been done to prevent these incidents? c Can you find any types of food where healthy bacteria are part of the ingredients? 4.38 Go online to find out what the abbreviation OSHA stands for. What role does the OSHA play in the workplace? 4.39 The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) runs a monitoring program of algae toxins in mussels and dietetic advice to the public. The aim of the program is on a weekly basis to advice the public on the risks associated with consumption of wild mussels. Use the Internet to answer the following questions. a What risks do you run when eating mussels? b Which monitoring station is closest to your school? c Are mussels from these waters edible today?

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can share facts about hygiene and the spread of germs and bacteria. YES ALMOST NO

I can use vocabulary related to diseases and pronounce them correctly. YES ALMOST NO

I can use different reading strategies. YES ALMOST NO

Speak

4.40 Work in pairs. Study the recipe and instruct each other on how to make "Mussels in White Wine, Garlic and Herbs". Use the advice on giving instructions on page xxx. First, one student is the chef and the other the apprentice. Then, switch roles.

Write

4.41 Choose one of the following exercises. a • Write an instruction on how to wash your hands before preparing food. Use words like first, second, third, then and finally. b •• Write a paragraph about how you can prevent spreading bacteria when working in the food industry or in the restaurant business. Give examples. For information on how to structure a paragraph, see pages 92 – 93. c ••• Should people who spread diseases, whether they know it or not, be punished? Write a text in which you discuss this. Your text should include: • an introduction • reasons why they should be punished • reasons why they should not be punished • your own opinion • a conclusion You find information on how to structure a text on pages 240 – 241.

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MUSSELS IN WHITE WINE, GARLIC AND HERBS

Mussels are cheap, sustainable and surprisingly simple to cook. Here is a step-by-step guide to preparing mussels. Preparation time: 10 mins Cooking time: 15 mins Serves 4 Ingredients 2 kg live mussels 5 dl dry white wine 4 large shallots, finely chopped 4 garlic cloves, finely chopped 1 dl mixed fresh herbs (such as flat-leaf parsley, chervil, or basil, chopped) 6 tablespoons butter, cut into pieces

Directions 1 Rinse and scrub mussels under cold water 2 Use your fingers or a paring knife to remove beard strings from the mussel shells 3 If any mussels are open, tap them against the sink, or with a knife. If they don’t close, discard them – they are dead and not edible 4 In a large pot, over medium heat; combine wine, shallots, garlic, and salt 5 Simmer for 5 minutes 6 Add mussels, cover, and increase the heat to high 7 Cook until all mussels are open, about 5 minutes 8 Stir in herbs and butter 9 Remove from heat 10 Divide mussels and broth into four bowls 11 Serve immediately

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ communicate about injuries and first aid ▶▶ understand

and use words related to

first aid ▶▶ give instructions

!

61 Hours In the thriller 61 Hours (2010), we meet Jack Reacher, a former Military Police and Captain, who faces many challenges as he fights bad guys in the icy winter of South Dakota. At the beginning of the book he helps a group of elderly people after their bus has skidded on the icy road and into a ditch. Reacher ducked back and started checking the old folks. The driver had gotten through the first two rows. All four of the window seat passengers were sporting band-aids over cuts from the metal edges around the glass. One woman had a second band-aid on the aisle side of her face, presumably from where her husband’s head had hit her after bouncing around like a rag doll. The first broken bone was in row three. A delicate old lady, built like a bird. She had been swinging right when the bus changed direction and swung left. The window had tapped her hard on the shoulder. The blow had busted her collar bone. Reacher could see that in the way she was cradling her arm. He said, “Ma’am, may I take a look at that?” She said, “You’re not a doctor.” “I had some training in the army.” “Were you a medic?” “I was a military cop. We got some medical training.” “I’m cold.” “Shock,” Reacher said. “And it’s snowing.” She turned her upper body towards him. Implied consent. He put his fingertips on her collar bone, through her blouse. The bone was as delicate as a pencil. It was snapped halfway along its length. A clean break. Not compound. She asked, “Is it bad?”

Before you start Do you know how to treat a person who has fainted? Discuss in pairs.

sport bære, ha på seg/bere, ha på seg Band-Aid plaster, bandasje aisle midtgang presumably trolig/truleg bounce sprette, bykse ragdoll filledokke blow slag bust brekke/bryte collar bone kragebein cradle vugge, holde rundt/ vogge, halde rundt medic person som er opplært i førstehjelp imply innebære, bety/ha å seie, føre til consent samtykke snapped brukket/broten clean break rent brudd/reint brot compound komplikasjoner/ komplikasjonar

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circuit breaker strømbryter/ straumbrytar heal gro, heles/gro, lækje nod nikke sprained forstue wrist håndledd/handledd minor mindre contusion kvestelse/skade, sår cell phone mobiltelefon windshield frontrute wheel ratt miles 1,61 kilometer the Lakes The Great Lakes på grensen mellom USA og Canada/The Great Lakes på grensa mellom USA og Canada mayhem trøbbel, bråk tow truck slepebil pile-up kjedekollisjon

“It’s good,” Reacher said. “It did its job. A collar bone is like a circuit breaker. It breaks so that your shoulder and your neck stay OK. It heals fast and easy.” “I need to go to the hospital.” Reacher nodded. “We’ll get you there.” He moved on. There was a sprained wrist in row four, and a broken wrist in row five. Plus a total of thirteen cuts, many minor contusions, and a lot of shock reactions. The temperature was dropping like a stone. Reacher walked up the aisle, head bent, and found the driver. The guy was in his seat, holding an open cell phone in his right hand, staring through the windshield, drumming his left-hand finger tips on the wheel. He said, “We’ve got a problem.” “What kind of problem?” “I called 911. The Highway Patrol is all either sixty miles north of here or sixty miles east. There are two big storms coming in. One from Canada, one off the Lakes. There’s all kinds of mayhem. All the tow trucks went with them. They’ve got hundred-cars pile-ups. This highway is closed behind us. And up ahead.” lee child

M

British writer Lee Child (1954–) worked for many years in the television industry until he started writing in 1994. He is famous for his thriller novels about Jack Reacher. He now lives in the USA with his American wife.

Read and understand

4.42 • Combine the first and second halves of the following sentences. Write the correct sentences. a b c d e f

Some passengers have cuts from One woman has a busted Reacher promises to get her One passenger has a sprained Several passengers suffer from Reacher asks the driver if help

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1 to the hospital. 2 shock reactions. 3 wrist. 4 is on its way. 5 collar bone. 6 the metal edges.


4.43 •• Do the following tasks. a Make a list of the different injuries on the bus. b What other problems do the people on the bus face?

Write

4.44 Reacher writes an accident report after the incident on the bus where he explains what happened and what kind of injuries the passengers were suffering from. Write his report. For how to write a report, see page 130. 4.45 Combine the body parts below with the matching injury. There may be more than one solution. Then choose one of the activities below. a • Write sentences, using your choice of word pairs, where you describe the people in the drawing. b •• One of the people in the drawing tells the story of what kind of injuries they have and how they got injured. concussion ears bleeding head sore / blind nose aching knee fractured eyes bruised arteries cut bone deaf finger blocked wrist sprained teeth

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Listen

“How to Treat an Unconscious Person� 4.46 a The passengers on the bus are all saved. Later in the story, however, Reacher has to inform a young wife about the death of her police husband. Once she sees him on the door steps, she faints. Listen to the text and sum up what happens. b Make a list of the different steps to follow if a person faints due to shock. Learn these steps by heart.

Speak

4.47 Practise giving instructions on how to treat a person who has fainted due to shock. Work with a partner.

Practise

4.48 Combine the injuries with the right treatment. a Cuts and bleeding

b Scrapes and grazes

c Burns d Nose bleeds 4.49 Combine the following words with the right illustration. a band-aid b pad c bandage d paramedics e plaster f graze

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1 Cool the area with cold running water, cover with a sterile non-stick band-aid. 2 Apply direct pressure with a sterile pad, fix the pad with a firm sterile bandage, hold wounded area above the heart. 3 Sit the person forward, pinch the soft part of area for ten minutes. 4 Wash with running water, remove dirt, cover with a non-stick sterile band-aid. 1

2

3

4

5

6


Explore

4.50 In the movie Jack Reacher (2012) Tom Cruise plays the main character. Do you think he fits your impression of the character from the text? Watch the film trailer on the Internet. Is this a film you would like to watch? Discuss in groups.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can communicate about injuries and first aid.

4.51 Discuss thrillers and crime stories in groups. a What characterises a true hero? Find at least three criteria. b Would you say that Jack Reacher is a hero? Explain. c From the world of film and literature, who is your favorite hero? Give reasons for your views. d Find information about some fictional heroes. Are they all good role models?

YES

ALMOST

NO

I can understand and use words related to first aid.

YES

ALMOST

NO

I can give instructions. YES

ALMOST

NO

4|

HOW DID YOU DO IN THIS CHAPTER? Yes

Almost

No

1 I can discuss hazards at work. 2 I can explain how accidents can be prevented. 3 I can recognize important signs. 4 I can explain the importance of hygiene. 5 I can talk about accidents and first aid. 6 I can explain basic mathematics in English. 7 I can write a report. 8 I can give instructions.

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS 1 An adjective tells you about people, things and places. I had a great day. 2 An adverb tells you where, how and when. The day passed quickly. 3 When you compare shorter adjectives and adverbs you use the endings -er and -est. My sister is younger than me. When you compare long adjectives and adverbs, you use more and most. English is the most interesting subject.

Practise 4.52 Fill in the correct word. a Emma is small, but Jane is . b Will is tall, but Tom is . c Ms Green is old, but Ms Jones is . d Mr Pierce’s fence is high, but Mr Davies’ fence is . e Ms Brown’s manner is serious, but Mr Taylor’s manner is . f The River Cam is swollen, but the River Thames is . g The whisky in the big bottle is strong, but the whisky in the small bottle is h The break-up with Mary was painful, but this break-up with Jenny is .

.

4.53 Choose the correct form of the adjective or adverb. a Some people have a higher / highest pain threshold than others. b Each year more few / fewer people shop at specialist shops than at supermarkets. c Fortunately, crime rates are lower / more low than before. d Still, people should be much more / most careful when walking alone at night. e A broken leg will recover more fast / faster if it is kept still. f Hopefully, people are getting better / more good at recycling. g The most clear / clearest sign of shock is pale, cold and sweaty skin. h If a person is tired, it is more difficult / difficulter for him or her to concentrate.

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 4.54 Find the mistakes and correct the sentences. a There are a largely number of Indian restaurants in Britain. b A possibly cause of anxiety is repressed feelings. c The incidence of crime in the city has been significant reduced. d The journalist sustained seriously injuries. e Read the instructions good before proceeding. f Differently jobs require different qualifications. g It is easier to write efficient if you have a plan. h An employer is responsible for well working conditions. i An ambulance driver must drive careful. j He walked real slow. 4.55 Fill in the missing forms. a small – – the smallest f – longer – the longest b – taller – the tallest g fast – – the fastest c old – older – h safe – safer – d high – – the highest i – sooner – the soonest e clear – – the clearest j hard – harder – 4.56 Fill in good or well in the sentences below. a Today we are aware of the need to eat well and to exercise. b Attention to hygiene is a idea. c procedures are very important. d It took a long time for my neighbour to get again. e In the past, the way economies work was not understood. f Churchill was a prime minister. 4.57 Use an adverb instead of an adjective and rewrite the sentences below. Example: John was a fierce fighter --> John fought fiercely. a b c d

Mary was an energetic worker. Mary was a good cook. The police constable had a bad shock. He gave a deep sigh.

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CHAPTER 5

Cultural Affairs


In this chapter you will focus on

• English as a world language • news and media • using the Internet as a source of information • writing a review • spelling

Useful words and phrases population multicultural mother tongue accent broadcast celebrity civil rights government welfare review

How many English speaking countries can you name?

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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

why English has become an international language ▶▶ recognize important regional varieties of English ▶▶ give reasons why it is important for you to learn English

English – A World ­Language !

Before you start Match these words with the correct Norwegian translation. English 1 mother tongue 2 second language 3 foreign language 4 official language 5 Lingua Franca

Norwegian a fremmedspråk b morsmål c offisielt språk d fellesspråk e andrespråk

Have you ever visited a place where nobody could communicate in English? Probably not! Maybe the people you met did not speak English very well, but most likely they could give you some information about where you could find the nearest bus stop, for example. In most places today, at least young people know a little bit of English. In fact, you will manage by using your hands and some English no matter where you are in the world. This, however, has not always been the case.

likely sannsynlig/sannsynleg, truleg lingua franca fellesspråk

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The origin of English It is only quite recently that English has become the world language it is today. 1500 years ago, the language did not even exist. When the AngloSaxons invaded and settled in the British Isles around 500 AD, their Germanic mother tongue became the foundation for Old English. Around 800 AD, the Vikings started raiding England, and in 1066 the Normans invaded the country. This changed the language. Almost 10% of English words come from Old Norse and 30% from French. Consequently, English is the result of people meeting and interacting, though not always in peaceful ways.

The spread of English In the late 1500s, when Shakespeare wrote his famous plays, there were only 6 million people speaking English. However, in the 17 century, the British started exploring the world and went on to establish colonies in for example North America, Australia, India and parts of Africa. They introduced English as the language of communication. Gradually it became a lingua franca which could be used to communicate across language barriers. In most of the former colonies English is still an official language, often alongside other, native languages.

recently nylig/nyleg settle in slå seg ned Germanic germansk mother tongue morsmål raid plyndre modify endre Norse norrønt interact samhandle explore utforske establish etablere barrier hinder native innfødt/innfødd more or less mer eller mindre/ meir eller mindre influence påvirkning, påvirke/ påverknad, påverke estimated antatt, beregnet/ tenkt, kalkulert likely sannsynlig/sannsynleg, truleg expect forvente/vente predict forutsi/spå, vente seg

American influence In 1783 the British colonies in North America formed a union and became the USA. From the 1900s onwards, American political and cultural influence grew steadily. This process also played a very important role in spreading the English language. Today, Hollywood films, television and the Internet are examples of how American culture and language reach people all over the world. Actually, it is estimated that 5 billion people use some English every day through for example music, films or online news.

Language of business and technology Today English is the mother tongue of about 400 million people and the second language of at least 1.4 billion. It is a lingua franca in many fields, such as business, technology, international politics and even many military operations. If you work for an international organization or company, it is likely that you will be expected to communicate in English, even if this is not an official language in the country where you work. The future of this important world language is hard to predict, but as of now, it definitely seems a good idea to work on your English language skills.

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In most places today, at least young people know a little bit of English. In fact, you will manage by using your hands and some English no matter where you are. But this has not always been so.

IN SHORT

The origin of English The Anglo-Saxons invaded and settled in the British Isles around 500 AD. Their Germanic mother tongue was the beginning of Old English. Around 800 AD, the Vikings started raiding England. In 1066 the Norman French invaded the country. This changed the language. Almost 10% of English words come from Old Norse and 30% from French. The spread of English In the 17 century, the British were exploring the world. They started colonies in North America, Australia, India and parts of Africa. They introduced English as the language of communication. In most of the former colonies English is still an official language, often together with other, native languages. American influence From the early 1900s onwards, American political and cultural influence grew steadily. This spread the English language. Hollywood films, television and the Internet are examples of American culture and language. Every day, about 5 billion people use some English, through for example music, films or online news. Language of business and technology Today English is the mother tongue of about 400 million people and the second language of at least 1.4 billion. It is used in many fields, such as business, technology and politics. It is difficult to say what the future will be like, but right now, it is a good idea to work on your English language skills.

manage greie seg no matter uansett/i alle tilfelle, likevel always alltid origin opprinnelse/opphav settle slå seg ned AD etter Kristus mother tongue morsmål raid plyndre Old Norse norrønt century århundre/hundreår explore utforske former tidligere/tidlegare still fremdeles/framleis native innfødt/innfødd onwards fremover/framover steadily jevnt/jamt billion milliard future fremtid/framtid

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Read and understand

5.1 • Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a The Anglo-Saxons invaded … b Around 800 AD, the Vikings … c Almost 10% of English words … d In the 17th century … e In most of the former colonies … f From the early 1900s onwards … g Every day, about 5 billion people … h Today English is the mother tongue … 5.2 •• Make questions to the following answers. a They settled in the British Isles in around 500 AD. b They contributed almost 30% of the vocabulary. c There were only 6 million people. d It started in the 17th century. e It was in 1783. f About 5 billion people. g It is the language of technology and business. h At least 1.4 billion.

Listen

5.3 “Varieties of English” As English is so widely spoken, it is natural that there are different varieties of the language. The pronunciation differs quite a lot from country to country. Listen to the people in the text. Where do they come from? Who: a John b Kaitlyn c Pete d Ana e Udo f Akin g Janice h Elizabeth

Where: 1 South Africa 2 The USA 3 Jamaica 4 India 5 Australia 6 England 7 Irland 8 Nigeria

5.4 Listen one more time. What do they say about their countries? Share the information in class.

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Practise

5.5 In American English some words are spelled differently or slightly simplified. Study the list of words. Which list do you think is spelled according to the British standard, and which is American? Which standard do you prefer when you write English? 1 colour defence favourite plough theatre criticise

2 color defense favorite plow theater criticize

5.6 Combine the American words with the correct British synonyms. American English British English a movie 1 lift b movie theater 2 autumn c motorcycle 3 crisps d elevator 4 film e fall 5 chips f cookies 6 motorbike g (French) fries 7 biscuits h potato chips 8 cinema 5.7 The American variety of English is not very different from the British, but some words are pronounced differently. Read the words. Do you use a British or an American pronunciation? can’t – aunt – ant – bear – car – better – iron – daughter – care – bottle

Write

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain why ­English has become an international language. YES

5.8 • Based on the text “English – A World Language”, make a timeline to show the history of the English language. 5.9 •• What is the role of English in your life? Write one paragraph where you start with a statement, then give examples and end with a conclusion. 5.10 ••• Write a text where you discuss the importance of learning English for young workers today. Also explain what kind of English you will need to know in your future career.

ALMOST

NO

I can recognize some important regional varieties of English. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can give reasons why it is important for me to learn English.

YES

ALMOST

NO

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Unrelated ­Incidents this is thi six a clock news thi man said n thi reason a talk wia BBC accent iz coz yi widny wahnt mi ti talk aboot thi trooth wia vioce lik wanna yoo scruff. if a toktaboot thi trooth lik wanna yoo scruff yi

After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ understand

what the poem “Unrelated Incidents” is about ▶▶ give examples of how English pronunciation is different from the spelling ▶▶ present a news item

widna thingk it wuz troo. jist wonna yoo scruff tokn. thirza right way ti spell ana right way ti tok it. this is me tokn yir right way a spellin. this is ma trooth yooz doant no thi trooth yirsellz caws yi canny talk right. this is the six a clock nyooz. belt up.

tom leonard Tom Leonard (1944–) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. His poetry is both popular and controversial, and often experimental in form and language. “Unrelated Incidents” was published in a collection of poetry which was banned from public libraries because it contained “unsuitable” words. Leonard is Professor of Creative Writing at the University of Glasgow.

M

accent uttale truth sannhet/sanning voice stemme scruff pakk spelling staving, rettskrivning/ staving, rettskriving belt up hold kjeft/hald kjeft

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Read and understand

5.11 • Match the lines from the poem with the correct spelling. 1 wouldn’t want a thi man said 2 like one of you b iz coz yi 3 it was true c widny wahnt 4 the man said d a toktaboot 5 you can’t talk e lik wanna yoo 6 is my truth f it wuz troo 7 is because you g is ma trooth 8 I talked about h yi canny talk 5.12 •• Write out the words in standard English. a thi b wia c iz d coz e wuz f troo g tokn h nyooz 5.13 ••• Write out the poem in standard English.

Write

5.14 Work in pairs. Choose a paragraph from any text in this chapter. Write it out the way you would pronounce it. Check the pronunciation of words you are not sure of.

Speak

5.15 Work in pairs. Change your rewritten text with that of another pair. Read the text aloud and find out which text in this chapter it is. 5.16 Discuss these questions. a Do you think that English spelling should be changed so that it is closer to the way the words are pronounced? b Do you think that news presenters should speak in their own regional accents, or should they speak standard English? c “If I talked about the truth like one of you scruff you wouldn’t think it was true.” What do you think the poet means? Do you agree?

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Explore

5.17 In pairs or groups, make your own newspaper front page. a Make up the name of the newspaper. b What is your main story? Find a spectacular photo and add a short and catchy headline. c Write a lead, a short text that introduces the readers to the story and makes them want to read the rest of it. d Make up three less important news stories and place them on the front page, too. Refer to pages inside the paper. e Print out your front page and make an exhibition in your classroom. f Present your front page to the class. 5.18 Choose a recent news story that you find interesting. Use different sources to find background information. Present your news story in class.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I understand what the poem “Unrelated Incidents� is about. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can give examples of how English pronunciation is different from the spelling. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can present a news item. YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS USING THE INTERNET AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION The Internet can be a very useful tool when you are looking for background information for your projects, papers and presentations. But unlike most traditional sources of information, such as books and magazines, no one has to approve the content before it is published. So how do you know that the information is reliable or correct? Here is a guideline. 1 Narrow your search by using selected key words. Using the very first web page you find is not a good idea. 2 Be focused. Don’t let yourself be tempted to jump from topic to topic. 3 Be critical and check. Who has published the website? If you cannot find this on the site itself, it may not be very serious. The URL may give you some idea of who is behind a site. .com is a commercial server .gov is a governmental or public server .edu is usually an educational institution .org is an organization .no is a Norwegian site. When was the information published? Many sites are not updated and the information you find may not be relevant anymore. Why was this information published? Who is the information intended for? What is the purpose of the website? 4 Cross check with other sources. Is the information you found on the Internet very different from what you have found in other sources? 5 Always list your sources. Remember that someone else has the copyright to material you have found on the Internet. This includes pictures and illustrations. Use the Internet as a source of information, but do not simply copy and paste it into your own work.

Practise 5.19 Answer these questions and give reasons why. a Would you use a blog to find facts for a project on stem cell research? b Would you use any Wiki site to find information about birth control? c Would you use a website with the URL .edu to help you find facts about water pollution? d Would you use a website with the URL .org to help you find facts about population statistics? e Would you trust a web site with a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes? f If you were researching health problems related to smoking, would you trust information from the official website of British American Tobacco? 172 | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | Skills


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS How do children use the Internet? Of the 84% of young people that access the Internet on a weekly or more frequent basis, most used it for searching for information or helping with homework. Below is a list of activities performed by children on the Internet ordered by popularity. Obtain information on things other than school work (94%) Help with school work (90%) Send and receive emails (72%) Play games online (70%) Send and receive instant messages (55%) Download music (45%) Look for information on careers and further education (44%) Look for information and shop online (40%) Read the news (26%) Chat rooms (21%) Among the 12–19 year olds who go online on a daily basis, 21% admitted to having copied work from the Internet and handing it in as their own. Source http://www.safekids.co.uk/childreninternetaccessusage.html

5.20 Study the statistics above and answer the following questions. a What activity accounts for 94% of all Internet use? b How many per cent used the Internet for help with school work? c What was the least popular web-based activity? d How many per cent of the 12–19 year olds surveyed admitted that they had copied work from the Internet and handed it in as their own? 5.21 Make a survey for your class. Make questions based on the statistics above and answer them anonymously. Work out the percentages for each question. 5.22 Discuss the information you found in your class. How do your statistics compare with the ones from the UK? Were there any surprises?

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Slumdog ­Millionaire

Jamal Malik is an eighteen-year-old Indian boy. He has answered twelve questions correctly on a TV quiz show. The producers are convinced that he has cheated, have him arrested, and Jamal finds himself in prison. As the story unfolds, we learn that the boy knows the answers to the quiz show questions because of everything that has happened to him in the past. Jamal Malik Works as an assistant in a call centre in Mumbai. When he goes on the TV programme Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?, nobody expects him to win much money. But Jamal has a special reason for wanting to go on the programme …

!

Before you start Do you know the names of any TV quiz shows? Do you like watching shows like these? Why / why not?

Latika First meets Jamal when they are both children with no parents and no home. They become close friends. Later Jamal loses Latika, but his love for her never dies. Salim Malik Is Jamal’s older brother. After the boys’ mother dies, Salim looks after Jamal. But as they grow older, things change and Salim moves towards a life of crime.

Prem Kumar Is the television presenter who asks the questions on Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? He sees himself as the star of the programme. The following is an extract from the adapted version of the novel Slumdog Millionaire. 174 | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | Skills


Jamal had never been in a television studio before, or After working with the text and in front of so many people. He felt nervous in his best exercises, you should be able to white shirt, as Prem Kumar led him to his seat and silenced the audience with one hand. ▶▶ understand what the novel Slumdog ‘So Jamal, tell me about yourself.’ Millionaire is about ‘I work in a call centre.’ ▶▶ use words and phrases related to A thin smile appeared on Prem’s face. ‘So you’re the media one who calls me every day with special offers?’ ▶▶ write about a literary text As the audience began to laugh, Jamal replied, ‘Actually, I’m an assistant.’ ‘An assistant?’ Prem’s smile grew wider. ‘So what does an assistant in a call centre do exactly?’ ‘I … make tea for people and …’ ‘You’re a chai-wallah?’ interrupted Prem, sounding surprised. He looked round at the audience, laughing, and repeated,’A chai-wallah!’ The laughter in the studio grew louder. Still smiling, Prem turned his attention to the contestant opposite him. ‘Well, Jamal Malik, chai-wallah from Mumbai … let’s play Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?! The music started again and the audience cheered. ‘So Jamal, are you ready to answer the first question, for one thousand rupees?’ asked Prem. ‘Yes.’ Jamal knew that each question was worth more money than the last. But if he gave just one incorrect answer, that would be the end of the game for him. Under the rules of the quiz, he had just three ‘lifelines’ to help him: he could ‘Ask The Audience’; he could use ‘50:50’ to take away two of the possible answers; and he could ‘Phone A Friend’. Prem was still smiling. ‘Not bad money to sit on a chair and answer a question, huh? Better than making tea. No?’ ‘No …,’ said Jamal, unsure of how to answer. ‘Yes. No!’ ‘Is that your final answer?’ Prem said with a smile, turning to the audience, who began to laugh again. When silence returned to the studio, Prem’s voice became more serious. It was time for the first question. As Prem read it out, the question appeared on the computer screen in front of Jamal. Who was the star of the 1973 film Zanjeer. ‘Was it A, Amitabh Bachchan? Was it B …’ Pram read out the rest of the answers, but Jamal was hardly listening. A name was calling to him from the past. It had been years since he had last thought about the film star, Amitabh Bachchan. Jamal had been just a boy …

silence få til å være stille/få til å vere stille call centre senter for telefonsalg/senter for telefonsal contenstant her: deltager/ deltakar offer tilbud/tilbod cheer gi applaus audience publikum

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Read and understand

5.23 • Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the text. a Prem Kumar asks Jamal if he is ready to play Who Wants To Be A Millionaire. b Jamal tells Prem Kumar that he works as an assistant in a call centre. c The audience laughs when Jamal is described as a chai-wallah. d The first question appears on the screen in front of Jamal. e Prem Kumar leads Jamal to his seat in the TV studio. f Jamal thinks back to his childhood. g Jamal thinks about the ‘three lifelines’ he can use for help. h Prem Kumar asks Jamal what an assistant in a call centre actually does. 5.24 •• In a few short sentences say why Jamal Malik knew the answers to the questions. 5.25 ••• Read the adapted version of the novel Slumdog Millionaire. Then answer the questions from the quiz show. a Who was the star of the 1973 film Zanjeer? b The national emblem of India has got a picture of three lions. What is written under this picture? c In pictures of Rama, what is the god usually holding in his right hand? d Which famous Indian poet wrote the song “Chalo Ri Murali”? e On an American one hundred-dollar bill, there is a picture of which American politician? f Who invented the revolver? g Cambridge Circus is in which British city? h Which cricketer has had the most centuries in international cricket? i In Alexander Dumas’ book The Three Musketeers, two of the musketeers are called Athos and Porthos. What was the name of the third musketeer?

Did you know

The film Slumdog Millionaire has won 8 Oscars. It is based on the novel Q & A, the name of the TV quiz show, written by the Indian author and diplomat Vikas Swarup. The novel was first published in 2005. It has been translated into more than forty languages.

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Explore

5.26 Watch the film Slumdog Millionaire. Search the Internet for reviews of this film and find one each. Sum them up in class. Did your class find most positive or most negative reviews?

Write

5.27 • Fill in the missing words. slums – rupees – Mumbai – chapter – quiz show novel – arrested – innocent – cheating – problems The Slumdog Millionaire tells the story of Jamal Malik. He grew up on the streets of with his older brother Salim and a girl, Latika. Jamal is one question away from winning the Who Wants To be A Millionaire. Then he is by the police. He is accused of No one believes that a boy from the could know so much. Jamal is desperate and needs to prove that he is . He goes on to tell the story of his life in the slums. He tells about the adventures with Salim and of the they faced together. He tells about Latika, the girl that he loves but cannot find. Every in the novel shows the reader how Jamal knows the answer to each of the game show’s questions. Jamal turns up in the studio to answer the final question which is worth 20 million . The whole country is watching the show. 5.28 •• Write a short text about a celebrity that you admire. Include information about what this celebrity has achieved and say why you chose him or her. 5.29 ••• Write a short text about the novel Slumdog Millionaire. • Explain where and when the story takes place. • Describe who the main characters are and what happens to them in the story. • End your text with a paragraph where you say what you think about the story. Try to write 5 paragraphs. You will find advice on structuring a paragraph on page 92 and structuring a text on page 240.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can understand what the novel Slumdog ­Millionaire is about.

YES

ALMOST

NO

I can use words and phrases related to media. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can write about ­a ­literary text. YES

ALMOST

NO

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FACT FILE INDIA History at a Glance

India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, and has been influential in areas such as language, art, mathematics, astronomy and religion. In the past, India consisted of many different kingdoms and states. In the 1800s, the British colonized most of the country. After almost 100 years of British rule, India finally declared its independence in 1947. Despite political unrest and social problems, India now has a fast growing economy and is expected to become one of the superpowers of the 21st century.

Tradition and Modernity

In the second most populous country in the world, the traditional and the modern live side by side. Flashy cars, rickshaws and cows compete for space on the busy streets. Indians may go to work in suits and smart dresses, but will often wear traditional Indian clothes for weddings, religious festivals and important events. Modern technology is available everywhere. However, there are still enormous contrasts between rich and poor, and life in the big cities and the countryside.


05_05_9

CHINA Kashmir BHUTAN

PAKISTAN

Dehli

NEPAL

Agra

Jaipur

Lucknow Bhopàl

Kolkata

I N D I A Mumbay Arabian Sea

Hyderàbàd Bangalore

Bollywood

BANGLADESH Bay of Bengal

MYANMAR (BURMA)

Chennai INDIAN OCEAN

KERALA

Maldives

Darjeeling

SRI LANKA

Mumbai, known as Bombay in the past, is India’s largest city. It is also where you find one of the largest film production centres in the world. Bollywood films typically include music and dance, drama and romance, fantasy and realism. Most films are produced in Hindi, but English language films are also made. The most successful Bollywood stars have become national icons and household names, not only in India, but in Indian communities all over the world.

INDIA FACTS

Official name: The Republic of India (Bharat) Capital: New Delhi Population: 1.2 billion Official languages: Hindi, English (and 19 more) Geography: 28 states and 7 union territories Landscape: Urban areas, mountains, northern plains, coastal plains and desert Head of state: President Government: Parliamentary democracy National day: August 15 (Independence Day) Currency: Indian rupee Agriculture: Wheat, rice, fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, cotton, spices Industry: Information technology, film industry, automobiles, electronics, chemicals, textiles Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism Popular sports: Cricket and field hockey


FACT FILE INDIA After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ give

some examples of Indian culture ▶▶ recognize some Hindi and Urdu words in modern English ▶▶ explain what some Indian symbols mean

Read and understand

5.30 • Complete the sentences with information from the fact file on India. a The population of India is … b The capital of India is called … c Important religions in India are … d The currency in India is called … e The national day in India is … f Popular sports in India are … g Important crops that are grown in India are … h The head of state in India is … 5.31 •• Study the fact file on India. Decide if the following statements are true or false. a Kolkata is the capital of India. b India has been a unified country for more than 2000 years. c India declared its independence in 1947. d India is the most populous country in the world. e Taj Mahal is a famous Indian monument. f The city of Mumbai has a large film industry. g Typical Bollywood films include documentaries and scientific programs. h Important sports in India are table tennis and swimming. 5.32 ••• Correct the false statements in 5.31 so that they become true.

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Practise

5.33 Here are some English words which come from Hindi or Urdu. Match them with the correct explanation. a bandanna 1 b bungalow 2 c pyjamas 3 d guru 4 e verandah 5 f chit 6 g typhoon 7 h jungle 8 i jodhpurs 9 j dinghy 10

a short letter or note a wilderness or forest a house in the Bengal style a cyclic storm trousers worn for horseback riding a small boat a porch or balcony a scarf tied around the head clothing worn in bed a teacher or priest

How did you do?

Speak

5.34 Choose one of the five small pictures above. Which place would you like to visit? Give at least three reasons for your choice and tell the rest of the class.

Explore

5.35 In the fact file on pages xxx, there are some small pictures. Find out what the Indian flag symbolizes, who is on the 100 rupee bill, what the three lions mean, and what the lotus flower is a symbol of. 5.36 India is expected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country. Find out more about the population of India.

After working with the text and exercises, I can give some ­examples of Indian culture. YES

ALMOST

No

I can recognize some Hindi and Urdu words in modern English. YES

ALMOST

No

I can explain what some Indian symbols mean. YES

ALMOST

No

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 181


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A FILM REVIEW 1 Find basic facts about the film. You can do this either before or after you have seen it. 2 Take notes as you watch the film. Write down keywords, but don’t try to write long sentences, especially if it is dark. Concentrate on the screen. Write a summary of the film – the plot – while you still remember it. 3 Write the introduction to your review. In your introduction you should give the film title and the year it was released. Also, say what the genre is. Include the names of the director, screen writer and the lead actors. Think of a title for your review. The title can give the reader an idea of the type of film or a hint about the theme. It can also indicate whether this review will be positive or negative. 4 Give a short summary of the film. One or two paragraphs will usually be enough. Make sure the summary makes sense to someone who has not seen the film. In most cases you don’t want to give the ending away. If you found it hard to follow the plot when you watched the film, you may search online for facts and comments about the film. Remember to use sources responsibly.

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5 Explain why you liked or disliked the film. Here, you can go into detail about your own thoughts and feelings. How was the setting and atmosphere? Did any of the actors stand out or impress you? What did you think of the music? Does the film have a lasting effect on you? Never simply say that you loved or hated the film without giving reasons. Always back up your statements with examples. 6 Give a general opinion. End your review with some general comments about the film and sum up your own views. Remember that what you say here could be what makes the readers decide to see or not see the film themselves. After the final paragraph, feel free to give the film a star rating! 7 Double check your text. If you can, leave your text for a little and return to it later. Read through it critically. Is your text logically structured? Is your language varied? Are there spelling or grammar mistakes that must be corrected? Did you remember to give your review a title?


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Bond – Better Than Ever James Bond films are always eagerly anticipated. The 2012 edition, Skyfall, was no exception. To me, all skepticism was washed away when Daniel Craig appeared on the screen and the plot unfolded. Craig plays the main character for the third time, this time under the direction of Sam Mendes. The film kickstarts with an action-packed scene in Istanbul. James Bond and his glamorous assistant Eve Moneypenny are chasing a mercenary named Patrice while Adele's theme song is playing in the background. The scene ends with a spectacular fight between Bond and Patrice on top of a running train. The ruthless M orders Eve to shoot, even though Eve does not have a clean view. She then reports to London, in a dismal voice, “Officer down”. M, played for the seventh time by the fabulous grand dame Judi Dench, has her computer hacked. The MI6 headquarter is blown to pieces in what can be seen as a personal attack on her. James Bond then reappears in London. Physically and mentally damaged, he is still assigned to find the guilty person. This leads him to an abandoned island where Bond for the first time meets his antagonist, Raol Silva, played by Javier Bardem. Silva is very skillful at computer hacking and almost outruns MI6’s Q, played by Benjamin John Whishaw. Silva is caught and taken into custody, but the story does not end there … Without giving the ending away, I can guarantee curious readers that there will be cars, helicopters, explosions, heroes and villains involved in the spectacular climax that takes place in Bond's childhood home in the Scottish Highlands. Eventually, good conquers evil, as we all expect. Skyfall reveals a human, vulnerable and loyal side to both Bond and M. This combination of realism and extravagance makes the film all the more attractive. On the negative side, the film is pretty long, lasting 143 minutes. Personally, I was never bored, though. Skyfall is great entertainment. It is, simply put, an enjoyable and highly recommendable action film. Rating: HHHHHH

eagerly ivrig anticipated forventet / forventa, sett fram mot exception unntak / unnatak skepticism skepsis appeared viste seg unfolded foldet seg ut / falda seg ut main character hovedperson direction regi mercenary leiesoldat / leigesoldat ruthless hensynsløs / omsynslaus dismal dyster fabulous fabelaktig hacked brøt seg inn (på PC) / braut seg inn blown to pieces sprengt i filler personal attack personangrep / personåtak reappears viser seg igjen / viser seg att physically fysisk mentally mentalt assigned tildelt, pålagt abandoned forlatt / forlaten antagonist motstander / motstandar outruns overgår custody varetekt curious nysgjerrige villains skurker / skurkar conquers overvinner / overvinn vulnerable sårbar extravagance ekstravaganse entertainment underholdning / underhaldning recommendable anbefalelsesverdig / som kan anbefalast

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 183


Remember the Titans

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the film Remember the Titans is about ▶▶ explain what segregation is ▶▶ give your opinion about a film

“Whenever we reach for hate, we remember the Titans.” In the film Remember the Titans we find ourselves in Alexandria, Virginia in 1971. Here, as in so many other towns in America, high school football is the most popular sport. The local school board now faces a court order to integrate the public schools. This means to accept black students and hire black staff for the first time. The purpose is to give the students, black and white, equal opportunities. A white man, Coach Bill Yoast, must give up his position to a black coach, Herman Boone. The white players, as well as their parents, are furious. Many black and white students who played for their schools the year before will not make it onto the team this year. It is a very tense and difficult time for everybody. Coach Boone takes the players out for a run, and whilst they try to get their breath back, he turns and speaks to them. “Anybody know what this place is? This is Gettysburg. This is where they fought the Battle of Gettysburg. 50,000 men died right here on this field, fightin’ the same fight that we’re still fightin’ amongst ourselves … today. This green field right here was painted red. Bubbling with the blood of young boys. Smoke … and hot lead pouring right through their bodies. Listen to their souls, men. “I killed my brother with malice in my heart”. “Hatred destroyed my family.” You listen … and you take a lesson from the dead. If we don’t come together … right now, on this hallowed ground … then we, too, will be destroyed. Just like they were. I don’t care if you like each other or not, but you will respect each other, and maybe … I don’t know, maybe we’ll … I don’t know, maybe we’ll … learn to play this game like men.” After this really tough training camp the black and white players realize that they have a common goal: success on the football field! Remember the Titans is based on the true story of the 1971 Virginia state football champions from T.C. Williams High School.

Supreme Court Høyesterett/ Høgsterett landmark her: prinsipielt viktig Board of Education skolestyre/ skulestyre unconstitutional grunnlovsstridig opportunities muligheter/ sjansar, løysingar, moglegheiter desegregate desegregere court order dom lead bly soul sjel malice ondskap/vondskap hatred hat take a lesson lære fra/lære frå hallowed hellig/heilag

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 185


Did you know

The music from Remember the Titans has been used for many sports occasions. It was played at the 2008 Democratic National Convention where Barack Obama gave his nomination acceptance speech. It was played again just after Obama’s victory speech when he won the Presidential Election the same year.

Read and understand FILM FACTS Directed by Boaz Yakin Produced by Jerry Bruckheimer & Chad Oman Screenplay by Gregory Allen Howard Starring Denzel Washington: Herman Boone Will Patton: Bill Yoast Wood Harris:  Julius Campbell Ryan Hurst:  Gerry Bertier Donald Faison: Petey Jones Ethan Suplee: Louie Lastik Kip Pardue:  Ronnie “Sunshine” Bass Craig Kirkwood: Jerry “Rev” Harris Hayden Panettiere: Sheryl Yoast Music by Trevor Rabin. Release date September 29, 2000 Running time: 113 minutes Budget: 30 million Age: 11+

5.37 • Translate these sentences into Norwegian. a In the film Remember the Titans we find ourselves in Alexandria, Virginia in 1971. b This means to accept black students and hire black staff for the first time. c The white players, as well as their parents, are furious. d It is a very tense and difficult time for everybody. e Anybody know what this place is? f This green field right here was painted red. g Listen to their souls, men. h Hatred destroyed my family. 5.38 •• Answer these questions. a When was the film Remember the Titans made? b When is the film Remember the Titans supposed to take place? c In which part of the US does this film take place? d Why does the local school board integrate black and white students in the same public schools? e How do the white players and their families react to integration? f What is the purpose of this integration? g What is the place coach Boone takes his team running? h How many people died on this battlefield?

Practise

5.39 Watch the film and answer these questions. a In the first scene, the director uses voiceover to provide us with information. Who gives us this information? b Coach Herman Boone is not very well received when he comes to ­T C Williams High School. How does he handle it? c What does Coach Boone say the boys should do with their anger and aggression? d At camp the boys are asked to spend time each day with one of their teammates. Why?

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e Before their first game, Coach Boone talks to the team about the original titans. Who were they? f Gerry and Julius become friends. How do other people react to their friendship? g In the regional championship, Coach Yoast finds out the game is rigged. What does he do? h At the very end of the film, we hear the voiceover again. Where are we at this point and what has happened? 5.40 Who says what? Below you will find quotes from the film. Match each quote with the correct picture.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

a “You can’t just walk in here and take my daddy’s job away.” b “You call this game fair, or I’ll go to the papers. I don’t care if I go down with you.” c “Alice, are you blind! Don’t you see the family resemblance?” d “Who’s your daddy?” e “Man, I don’t have any people. I’m with everybody, Julius.” f “Come on now. Don’t leave me hangin’, bro. Come on.”

How did you do?

g “Back to the real world now, Bertier. This is what they’re integrating us for?”

After working with the text and exercises,

h “I’m not runnin’ in the same direction as you are, Gerry.”

I can explain what the film Remember the Titans is about.

Speak

5.41 This film is based on a true story. What does it tell you about race relations in the southern USA? 5.42 Remember the Titans is not only about integration and race relations in the USA. It is also about relationships – between the two coaches, between Gerry and Julius, and between the team members. Which relationship do you feel is most important for the story and why?

Write

5.43 Write a review of the film Remember the Titans. Study page 182 for advice on writing a film review.

YES

ALMOST

NO

I can explain what segregation is. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can give my opinion about a film. YES

ALMOST

NO

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 187


FACT FILE USA Government

The American government has three branches. The Executive Branch is headed by the President. Before a bill can become a law, it must be signed by the President. The President of the United States serves for four years and may be elected for a second term. The Legislative Branch is headed by Congress. It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress’ main job is to debate and pass laws. There are 435 Representatives who serve for two years. The Senate has 100 Senators, two from each state, who serve terms of six years. The Judicial Branch is headed by Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is made up of nine Justices who are appointed for life. The main task of the Supreme Court is to decide if a law agrees with the Constitution or not.

Patriotism

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.


05_18

CANADA

IFO

RN

IA Los Angeles San Diego

ARIZONA Phoenix

NEW MEXICO

MEXICO

ALASKA CANADA

HAWAII 1000 km

0

Chicago

INDIANA

COLORADO

IOWA

HIRE NEW YORK

400 km

The Fight for Civil Rights

MASS.

PENNSYLVANIA

ALABAMA

U

UTAH

CA L

A N O C E

NEVADA

Detroit

MAINE

RHODE ISLAND CONNECTICUT New York OHIO ILLINOIS S A NEW JERSEY Philadelphia WEST KANSAS DELAWARE VIRGINIA Washington MISSOURI KENTUCKY VIRGINIA MARYLAND OKLAHOMA TENNESSEE NORTH CAROLINA ARKANSAS SOUTH CAROLINA Dallas TEXAS GEORGIA N O R T H Houston A T L A N T I C FLORIDA San Antonio O C E A N G u l f o f M e x i c o NEBRASKA

MISSISSIPPI

WYOMING

LOUISIANA

IDAHO

MI C GAN

OREGON

WISCONSIN

HI

P A C I F I C

SOUTH DAKOTA

MINNESOTA

VERM ONT NEW HAMPS

NORTH DAKOTA

MONTANA

WASHINGTON

0

400 km

Even though slavery was officially ended after the Civil War, black people in the US did not have the same rights as whites. Especially in the South, there was widespread segregation. From the 1950s the Civil Rights Movement became more and more active in working to secure black people their constitutional rights. In 1963 the March on Washington took place and Dr Martin Luther King gave his famous speech “I have a Dream” to an audience of more than 250 000. Martin Luther King was shot and killed in 1968.

USA FACTS

Official name: The United States of America Size: 9,826,675 square kilometers Population: 312,780,968 (2012) Whites: 75.1% Hispanics: 12.5% African Americans: 12.3% Asians and Pacific Islanders: 3.7% Native Americans: 0.9%. * Capital: Washington DC Largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia Geography: 50 States Government: Federal Republic Head of state: President National day: July 4 Currency: US Dollar Agriculture: wheat, corn, cotton, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products Important industries: petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing Popular sports: American football, basketball, track and field

* Individuals may report more than one race.


FACT FILE USA After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ name

some ethnic groups in the USA ▶▶ explain how the US government works

Read and understand

5.44 • Study the fact file on pages 188 – 189. Fill in the missing information. a In 2012 … people lived in the US. b Of the US population …% were white. c Of the US population …% were African American. d The US is a … republic. e There are … states in the US. f The … in the US is the dollar. g On July 4 Americans celebrate their … day. h The President is the … of state. 5.45 •• Answer these questions. a What is the total size of the USA? b What are some popular sports in the US? c How many terms can the US President serve in total? d What does Congress consist of? e How many Representatives are there, and how long do they serve for? f How many Senators does each state have in Congress and how long does a Senator serve for? g How many Justices are there in the Supreme Court? h What is the main task of the Supreme Court? 5.46 ••• Use the information on pages 188 – 189 to explain these words and expressions. a agriculture e bill b civil rights f executive branch c segregation g legislative branch d constitutional rights h judicial branch

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Speak

5.47 Every American school day starts with the students’ recital of the Pledge of Allegiance which you find on the fact file on page xxx. Which values do you think are reflected here? Should Norwegian students pledge allegiance to the Norwegian flag? Explain why or why not. 5.48 At the top of this page there are five small pictures. What do they tell you about the US? 5.49 The American President has a lot of power. What are the international issues you think the President should focus on right now? 5.50 Dr King’s speech “I have a Dream” is available online, both as text and sound files. a Read or listen to the speech. What was Dr King’s dream? b What are the values Dr King wished to present, do you think? c This speech is described as masterpiece of rhetoric. Do you agree?

Explore

5.51 Inside the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty there is a famous poem. Find out which poem this is and who wrote it. Which values do you think this poem represents? 5.52 Dr Martin Luther King was not the only important member of the Civil Rights Movement. Find out more about one of the others. Here are some names to help you get started: Rosa Parks, Malcolm X, Thurgood Marshall.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can name some ethnic groups in the USA. YES ALMOST NO

I can explain how the US government works. YES ALMOST NO

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Aspects of Culture and Values The US – a multicultural society Did you know that about 99% of all American citizens have their roots in other countries? The forefathers of many African-Americans were brought over as slaves. In the 1800s immigrants from Europe left their home countries to start a new life as Americans. In more recent years, people from other continents, such as Asia and Latin America, have come to settle in the US. They have brought their traditions, festivals, languages, religions, music and food. This great variety of cultures is most evident in the big cities, but can also be found in small town America. Although the US is a nation of immigrants, prejudice and cultural conflicts between the many ethnic groups are not uncommon.

Family life in the US Family values are still important in American society. Every time there is an election, showing off a successful and stable family life seems to be almost as important for the candidates as their political message. Traditionally, the ideal American family consists of two adults and two or three children, living in a house in the suburbs. Today, the family structure is changing. For example, 27% of all families consist of a single parent with children, but there are differences between ethnic groups. In general, Americans wait longer before they marry, and families have fewer children than before. Children also stay at home longer before they move out, and often move back in because of high living costs. Nearly half of all marriages end in divorce.

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ give

examples of American and British culture and values ▶▶ describe how we are influenced by American and British culture ▶▶ share information about famous American or British brands and products

The UK – a multicultural society Modern Britain is made up of many different ethnic groups, but the majority of the population is still English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish. In the large cities, you will see a variety of nationalities. Many of them come from former British colonies. In London, for example, at least 250 languages are spoken every day, and you can find restaurants from nearly every corner of the world. However, there are also conflicts between cultures and generations. Young people, whose parents or grandparents come from other countries, may have a very different experience of growing up than their parents. Differences between ethnic groups have sometimes led to violence. Today, there are programmes helping immigrants settle and become part of the local community.

Family life in the UK The typical British family is changing. For example, people’s views on marriage are different today than fifty years ago. More couples live together without getting married. Also, more children are born to unmarried couples. Around 25% of the households are single parents with children. The number of singleparent families is increasing, partly because more marriages end in divorce, but also because more women choose to raise children without a partner. Nevertheless, when asked in a recent poll, three quarters of all Britons said they were optimistic about their family’s future. More than 90% described their family life as happy.

citizen statsborger/statsborgar recent years senere år/seinare år evident synlig, tydelig/synleg, tydeleg prejudice fordom(mer)/ fordom(mar) uncommon uvanlig/uvanleg election valg/val suburb forstad divorce skilsmisse achieve oppnå/oppnå, få til scholarship stipend subject fag welfare velferd insure forsikre afford ha råd til senior citizen pensjonist fund finansiere, støtte økonomisk volunteerism frivillighet/ frivillig (ordning, løysing), frivillegheit engage engasjere seg shelter husly

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Education in the US “If I can make it there, I’ll make it anywhere” is a line from an old, but well-known song about New York City. Americans like to think that anyone can become successful with hard work. This is also known as “the American Dream”. It does not matter who your parents are, or what your background is, if you are willing to work hard to achieve your dreams. There are many scholarships for students who are good at something, for example sports, music or a specific subject. Education in public schools is free, and in many colleges as well. Still, many parents start saving for college as soon as a child is born because the best schools are often private and very expensive. Some of the world’s best colleges and universities can be found in the US, such as MIT, Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities. All of these attract students from around the world.

Health and welfare in the US Personal freedom is an important value in American culture. Not only do Americans believe in freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and even the right to carry weapons – they also believe everyone is responsible for his or her own life, health and welfare. As a result, most Americans pay for their own health services. Some are insured through their workplace, but there are millions of people who cannot afford medical help when they need it. Going to hospital, for example, is very expensive. However, senior citizens and the very poor can get some medical help through programmes funded by the government. Still, it is because of another American value – volunteerism – that the many poor and needy find help. A large number of Americans engage in some form of voluntary work, for example running food stations, homeless shelters, after school programmes, etc.

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Education in the UK Although most British children go to ordinary state schools and live at home, for some middle class and upper class families it is a tradition to send their children away to boarding schools at an early age. These schools are often independent and very expensive, and there are waiting lists to get in. Members of the royal family, the very rich and famous, as well as top politicians from around the world send their sons and daughters to these schools. Most schools offer scholarships to good students who cannot afford the school fees themselves. An education from one of these famous schools, or prestigious universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, will open many doors. However, many state schools and universities have improved the quality of education, and now rank very high on the lists of good schools.

Health and welfare in the UK “Keep calm and carry on” was the slogan on a poster made during World War II. This is in many ways typical of the British people. Even when the going gets tough, the British are usually seen as calm and collected, and often joking about their own situation. There is, however, a feeling of collective responsibility. Healthcare, including dentistry, is free to all permanent residents and paid for by taxes. A recent survey showed that most Britons are satisfied with the medical help they get from the National Health Service. There are also housing projects funded by the government. Although Britain is not a large country, there are great differences in the standard of living, income levels and number of unemployed workers, for example between the North and South of England.

majority majoritet, flertall/ majoritet, fleirtal former tidligere/tidlegare increase øke/auke raise oppdra/oppsede poll undersøkelse/ undersøking, gransking boarding school internatskole/ internatskule independent her: privat school fee skolepenger/ skulepengar prestigious prestisjefylt improve forbedre/(gjere) betre rank rangere slogan slagord collected samlet/samla collective felles, kollektivt dentistry tannlegebehandling tax skatt standard of living levestandard income inntekt unemployed arbeidsledig

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Read and understand

5.53 • Scan the text for information to complete the sentences. a About of all Americans have their roots in other . b The majority of the population is still English, , Scottish and . c The traditional American family consists of adults and or children. d In the UK, around of the households are parents with children. e Americans like to think that can become with hard work. f There are many for students who are at something. g Most British children go to ordinary schools and live at h It is a tradition for and upper class families to send their away to schools. i Personal is an important value in American . j In the UK, is free to all permanent and paid for by . 5.54 •• Based on information in the text, write down keywords for each category. The US

The UK

Multicultural society Family life Education Health and welfare 5.55 ••• Answer the following questions. a How has the US been influenced by its many immigrants? b Where do many of the immigrants in Britain come from? c How are family structures changing in the US and the UK? d Mention some famous and prestigious educational institutions in the US and the UK. e Point out the main difference between the American and British health and welfare system.

Speak

5.56 Based on information in the text, find at least one value that is said to be typically American and one which is typically British. In your own words, describe these values. 5.57 How are we influenced by American and British culture in our daily lives? Below are some keywords to get you started. media – food – entertainment – fashion – transport – literature – traditions 196 | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | Skills


Write

5.58 • Choose one of the ways we are influenced by American and British culture in our daily lives. Find arguments to show how this can be positive and/or negative. Write two paragraphs. Study page 92 for advice on how to structure a paragraph. 5.59 •• Many American high school students are required to take part in community service projects as part of their education. Some examples are helping out at a nursing home or in after school programmes for younger children. Do you think this is a good way for high school students to spend their spare time? Write a short text in which you express your opinion. 5.60 ••• Cultural competence is important in many professions today. Write a text in which you discuss how knowledge of other cultures will be important to you. Your text should include: • a short introduction about your future profession, or an occupation of your choice • examples of situations where knowledge of other cultures will be important • a discussion of how such cultural competence can best be learned • a conclusion Give your text a suitable title. Study page 240 for advice on how to structure a text.

Explore

5.61 What are the most important industries in the US and the UK? Use reliable sources to find information.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can give examples of American and British culture and values. YES

ALMOST

NO

5.62 Some of the world’s most famous brands come from the US and the UK. Choose three brands you think are representative of either the US or the UK. Find information, pictures and ads, and present these brands in a collage. Also explain why you think they have become household names.

I can describe how we are influenced by American and British culture.

5.63 Choose one American or British product which is relevant for the skincare, childcare or healthcare sector. Find information about the product and its producers. Where and how is it made? What is it used for? How is it marketed? Present your findings in class. Study page 60 for advice on how to share information.

I can ­share i­ nformation about famous A ­ merican or British brands and products.

YES

YES

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

NO

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 197


198 | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | Skills


Boy A

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the novel Boy A is about ▶▶ use words related to crime ▶▶ give examples of how crime is treated in the media

As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. This crime created massive media interest and public outrage. Jack has spent most of his life in different institutions. Now, at the age of 24 he has just been released with a new identity, new surroundings and a new job with the firm DV transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Jack has moved in with landlady Kelly, made friends with co-worker Chris, who picks him up for work in the mornings, and fallen in love with the office-girl Michelle. At the point where we enter the story, Kelly is working the night shift, Michelle has disappeared and Jack’s boss Dave calls him to say that he needn’t come to work. Jack doesn’t understand at first and thinks it is because of some stock that has been stolen …

‘Jack?’ ‘Yes!’ ‘We’re not going to need you at work for the moment. Well …’ he tails off. ‘What do you mean?’ ‘Don’t come in today.’ ‘Don’t come in until … unless … if, I ask you to. It’s not good for the business.’ ‘What’s this about, Dave?’ Jack is aware of the desperation in his voice. ‘Is it the stock? It’s not me, I haven’t taken a thing.’ ‘You know what it’s about. I’m sorry but that’s the end of it. I don’t wish to continue this discussion.’ ‘Dave,’ Jack says, ‘Dave?’ But the line is dead. He puts his work clothes on anyway, not sure why, perhaps because they are lying ready for him over the chair. He can’t understand what just happened. He doesn’t want to believe the most obvious explanation for Dave’s behaviour: that he knows; somehow he knows. Jack clips the panic button / pager to his belt, and slides it round his hip, to beneath his right hand. Swallowing saliva as he realizes what he is admitting to himself. That he believes today he might need this machine. He is tempted to press it straightaway. He actually flips up the screen cap, and his finger hovers over the button. But that would be crazy. As freaked out as he is, he has to stay rational. How would Dave know? He’d be the last one to know. He’s got his head up his own arse most of the time. It’s much more likely that it’s to do with the stolen stock. He’s bound to be the first suspect; Dave knows he’s done time. He’ll wait until half seven or eight, and then phone Terry. He sits down on the sprawl of his unmade bed.

!

Before you start a In English, explain what the term “age of criminal responsibility” means. b Do you know what the age of criminal responsibility is in Norway? Do you know what it is in England? If not, find out.

guilty skyldig/skuldig horrible fryktelig/fæl, grufull release bli løslatt/bli sleppt fri case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past fortid office kontor disappear forsvinne understand forstå coworker kollega blinded blendet/blenda hide gjemme seg/gøyme seg panic button trygghetsalarm/ sikringsalarm

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 199


unlock låse opp hallway gang, entré force tvinge public outrage offentlig forargelse/offentleg mishag surroundings omgivelser/ omgivnader case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar landlady utleier, vertinne/ utleigar, vertinne co-worker kollega stock her: varer tail off her: bli stille panic button trygghetsalarm/ sikringsalarm pager personsøker/ personsøkjar saliva spytt hover bevege seg over/sveve, halde seg over do time sitte i fengsel/sitje i fengsel pickup her: hente engaged opptatt/oppteken tremulous skjelvende/ skjelvande quiver bevre/skjelve (svakt), dirre spew out bryte ut notch hakk squirm her: lure seg deserted forlatt/aude, avsides pre-dawn før soloppgang squalid ussel ominous illevarslende/ illevarslande devoid of helt uten/heilt utan determined bestemt cautiously forsiktig/forsiktig, varsam momentum fart blurr gjøre utydelig/gjere utydeleg vision syn wheely-bin søppelkasse concealment skjulested/ gøymestad succession rekkefølge/ rekkjefølgje

Maybe he’d better call Chris now, though, tell him not to bother with the pick-up, in case he doesn’t know. Find out what Dave’s told him, if he does. Chris is engaged constantly. It’s 6:57 when Jack finally makes the connection. He pours out about being told not to come in, before Chris has a chance to open his mouth. ‘I know,’ Chris says coldly. ‘Dave’s given me the day off.’ ‘Is it the stock?’ Jack asks. ‘It’s you Jack, or whoever you are. It’s about you. How could you? I mean why? I mean what the fuck?’ Chris’ voice is tremulous now, you can almost hear his lip quivering. But then he spews out in total rage: ‘Have you hurt her? Just tell me that, have you hurt Michelle?’ ‘No, never, I couldn’t. What’s happened, have they found her?’ ‘Read the fucking paper. Read the Sun. I’ve already had them phone me this morning. ‘His anger drops a notch, or at least his voice does. ‘All the lies. How could you? How could you keep that up? How could you just squirm your way into our world? I’d tell you I’m done with you. But then, I don’t know who the fuck you are anyway.’ He puts the phone down. Jack is left standing in the hallway, with the buzz of his handset in his ear. Hearing this from Chris is like being beaten with his birthday present. But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. He needs to know what they’ve written. Peering through the window of Kelly’s room, he sees that the streets are still deserted. Grey with grimy pre-dawn light, looking squalid, ominous, but at least devoid of life. He can run down to the paper shop in less than a minute. Jack gets his DV cap from the drawer, a hat that has helped him escape detection before, and pulls it down hard with determined hands. He scans the street once more from Kelly’s window, and then again from the front room, before he walks stiff-legged to the door. Every muscle is tense as he twists the Yale lock. He realizes he has no money, and lets it click back into the clasp of the frame, while he dashes upstairs to get his wallet. He has to do this while he still has the nerve. He checks the panic button is still to hand and that he has his keys, before he opens the door again. Cautiously, studying the road, he lets it close behind him. He has just raised his right leg to provide the starting momentum for his run when the first flash catches him. It blinds him, blurring his vision, leaving an imprint on his eyes. He raises his hand to block out the light, as another flash comes from the same spot behind a wheelybin in the neighbour’s dark alley. It’s joined by a second bulb from a similar concealment across the street, then a third. All now firing in rapid succession. He turns and tries to force his key back into the lock. It won’t fit. They must have stuffed something in the hole to keep him out here. ‘Have you got anything you want to say?’ a man shouts. ‘Put your side before they all get here.’

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Jack crouches down with his face to the door, and presses the panic button on the pager. Three or four times he pushes it, sinking it as hard as he can. Until the end of his finger bends back and the pain shoots him off it. He starts to topple in towards the door, losing his balance. His left hand goes out automatically to hold him off it. Clutched in his white fingers is the wrong key he’s been trying. With both palms he slides himself up the towering pus-green wood. The flashes, which are close around him now, parade how much his hand is shaking. It appears at different points around the lock, illuminated by this hateful personal strobe show. The key bounces off the lock’s metal surround, but this one fits. The door opens to let Jack fall into the hallway. One final explosion from a long-barreled Canon hits his face, before he pushes the lens away and forces the threshold shut. They try and lift the letterbox. But he slams his elbow against it to keep it closed. His head collapses into the crook of the same arm. Only his will is holding them back … As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. Jack has spent most of his life in prison. Now he is 24. He has just been released. He has a new identity and a new job with the firm DV transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Things are going well for Jack. He has made friends at work. He is in love with office-girl Michelle. But Michelle has disappeared and no one knows where she is. One morning his boss Dave calls him. He tells Jack that he doesn’t need to come to work anymore. Jack cannot understand how Dave has found out about him. Jack tries to call his coworker Chris. Chris usually picks Jack up in the mornings, but today it isn’t necessary. Chris’s phone is busy. At last, Chris answers the phone. Chris has been given the day off, too. It is because the media has found out about Jack. Chris is very angry. He wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. Jack says he hasn’t. Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. He looks out of a window, but the streets are dark. He starts to leave the house, but he is blinded by the flash of a camera. Jack tries to get back into the house, but the key doesn’t fit. Lots of photographers are hiding in the street. They take pictures of Jack. He has a panic button, but Terry doesn’t answer it. Jack finds the right key and manages to unlock the door. He gets into the hallway. He forces the door shut behind him, but the photographers are still outside … jonathan trigell

M

Jonathan Trigell (1974–) is a British writer. His first novel Boy A received much praise from critics and has won several awards. A film based on Boy A was released in 2007.

crouch down bøye seg ned topple vakle pus-green gulgrønn/gulgrøn illuminate opplyse letterbox brevsprekk

IN SHORT

guilty skyldig /skuldig horrible fryktelig/frykteleg release bli løslatt/verte lauslaten case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past fortid office kontor disappear forsvinne understand forstå coworker kollega blinded blendet/blenda hide gjemme seg/gøyme seg panic button trygghetsalarm/ tryggleiksalarm unlock låse opp hallway gang, entrè/gang force tvinge

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 201


Read and understand

5.64 • Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the in-short version of the text. a Chris wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. b Jack tries to call Chris, but his phone is busy. c Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. d Jack is blinded by the flash of a camera. e Jack’s boss calls him to say he doesn’t need to come to work. f Jack manages to get back into the house and forces the door shut. g Jack says he hasn’t hurt Michelle. h Finally, Chris answers the phone. 5.65 •• Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the original version of the text. a Jack decides to call Chris to tell him that he doesn’t need to pick Jack up for work. b Jack suspects that Dave knows about his past, but cannot understand how that has happened. c Jack leaves the house, only to find that the street is full of press photographers. d Jack decides to go out and buy a newspaper to see what they have written about him. e Dave says that Jack doesn’t need to come to work because it is bad for the business. f Jack clips his panic button onto his belt and realizes that today he might need it. g Chris tells Jack that his phone has been busy because he has been talking to the press. h Jack puts on his work clothes. 5.66 ••• Explain these words and expressions from the text in your own words. a The line is dead. b As freaked out as he is … c He’s got his head up his own arse … d Dave knows he’s done time … e He pours out about being told not to come in … f But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. g He has to do this while he still has the nerve. h Put your side before they all get here.

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Practise

5.67 Write down the word that fits each definition. Look up words you don’t know. theft – robbery – kidnapping – homicide – assault – arson – blackmail – fraud – hijacking – hooliganism a Stealing something from someone. b The use of threats or violence to take control of a plane. c Killing someone. d Stealing money, usually from a bank or shop by using violence. e Destroying somebody’s property on purpose. f Taking somebody away by force to get money for returning them. g Illegally getting money from someone by tricking them. h Getting money by threatening to tell secrets about someone. i Deliberately setting fire to something, usually a building. j The crime of attacking someone.

Speak

5.68 Should people who have been convicted of crimes when they were children be allowed to start a new life with a new identity when they are grown up? 5.69 Do you think that the purpose of a prison is to punish, or should it be a place where people who have made bad choices can be rehabilitated?

Write

5.70 • What is the last crime you can remember reading or hearing about in the news? What happened and who were involved? Write one paragraph. 5.71 •• What do you think the age of legal responsibility should be? Write one paragraph and give reasons why. 5.72 ••• It may be difficult to return prisoners who have served long sentences to a local community. Write a short text where you describe some of the problems that may occur.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the novel Boy A is about.

YES

5.74 Boy A has been made into a film. Watch the film and write a short review.

NO

I can use words related to crime.

YES

5.73 Boy A is loosely based on the James Bulger case. Find out what happened to him in 1993. How were the two young criminals treated? What kind of debate did this terrible crime cause?

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

I can give examples of how crime is treated in the media. YES

ALMOST

NO

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 203


FACT FILE UK 06_36

Canada

United Kingdom Newfoundland Palestine Iraq Malta Kuwait Trans Jordan Bahamas Indian Empire Trucial Oman Hong Kong Gold Nigeria Sudan Coast Jamaica The Gambia Br. Somaliland Ceylon Sierra Uganda Malaysia Bruneii N. Borneo New Gilbert & Leone Maldives Rwanda Ellice Is. Kenya Singapore Sarawak Liberia Guinea Br. Guiana Cameroon Seychelles Tanganyika Zanzibar Papua Solomon Ascension Chagos Is. Cocos Is. Nyasaland Rhodesia Archipelago St. Helena New Southwest Bechuanaland Hebrides Mauritius Australia Africa Fiji Is. Tristan da Swaziland Cunha Basutoland Gough Is. South Africa Falkland Is. New Zealand Bermuda

Belize

Cook Isl. Tonga Pitcairn

Football

Gibraltar

Football is the most popular team sport in the world. The London Football Association created the first rules in 1863 and football became an Olympic event in 1908. But actually, football was invented by the Chinese more than 2000 years ago.

The British Empire

By 1921, the British Empire covered more than 37 million square kilometers. It had a population of between 470 and 570 million people, which was about onequarter of the world’s population at the time. After World War II the British Empire gradually fell apart, but many of the former colonies still choose to remain part of the Commonwealth of Nations.


A Nice Cup of Tea

The British are a nation of tea drinkers. They consume 130,000 tons per year, or on average 165 million cups every day. 95% of it comes in tea bags and 98% is served with milk. There are about 1,500 varieties of the tea plant. China and India are the two most important producers of tea.

Shetland Islands Orkney Islands Hebrides SCOTLAND

The North Sea

NORTHERN Edinburgh IRELAND Glasgow Belfast THE Dublin IRISH REPUBLIC

The ENGLAND Irish Leeds Sea Manchester Liverpool WALES Birmingham London Cardiff Bristol Brighton hannel C h lis The Eng

The Workshop of the World

In the 1800s many important inventions were made in Britain. It also had some of the world’s largest reserves of coal to drive the new machines. Many factories were built to produce cotton, iron and steel which could be exported to other countries.

UK FACTS

Official name: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Size: 242,910 square kilometers Population: 60,068,000 Geography: 4 regions, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland Capital: London. Scotland: Edinburgh Wales: Cardiff Northern Ireland: Belfast Government: Constitutional monarchy. Parliament Head of state: Queen / King National day: Wales: March 1 St. David’s Day Northern Ireland: March 17 St. Patrick’s Day England: April 23 St George’s Day Scotland: November 30 St. Andrew’s Day Currency: Pound sterling Agriculture: Cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, fish Important industries: Machine tools, electric power equipment, shipbuilding Popular sports: football, golf, rugby, cricket


FACT FILE UK After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ give

some examples of British culture

▶▶ explain

what the British Empire was and how it is relevant today

Read and understand

England

Northern Ireland

Scotland

5.75 • Find the wrong word in each of the sentences below and change it for the right one. a The capital of Scotland is Glasgow. b The head of state in the UK is the President. c The currency in the UK is the Euro. d The official name of the UK is The United Kingdom of Little Britain and Northern Ireland. e Popular sports in the UK are football, golf, rugby, ski jumping. f The national day in Scotland is St. Andrew’s Day on September 30. g The capital of Northern Ireland is Dublin. h The population of Wales is 60,068,000. 5.76 •• Answer these questions. a What is the official name of the UK? b What is the capital of Wales? c What does the Welsh flag look like? d When were the first rules for football created? e When did football become an Olympic event? f How many cups of tea do the British drink every day? g How many people belonged to the British Empire in 1921? h Whose picture do you find on British money? 5.77 ••• Sum up what the UK fact file tells you about. d sports a the population e history b the geography f tea drinking c industry

Wales

206 | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | Skills


Practise

5.78 Polite phrases Please – thank you – sorry – and excuse me are phrases that the British use more than we tend to do in Norway. Use the phrases to make these sentences more polite. a b c d e f g h

Come in. Can you give me that book? I can’t hear you. Can you show me how to log on to the Internet? I’m late. What’s the time? Can you close the door. It was an accident.

5.79 Make polite phrases to fit these sentences. a Ask someone to move her backpack. b Ask someone to tell you where the nearest bus stop is. c Ask someone to move so you can get past him. d Ask someone to turn the radio down. e Ask someone to pass you the milk. f Ask someone what date it is today. g Refuse a cup of tea. h Ask someone to repeat something.

Explore

5.80 Find out how many people live in each of the four countries of the UK?

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can give some examples of British culture YES ALMOST NO

I can explain what the British Empire was and how it is relevant today. YES ALMOST NO

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The British Take some Picts, Celts and Silures And let them settle, Then overrun them with Roman conquerors. Remove the Romans after approximately 400 years Add lots of Norman French to some Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Vikings, then stir vigorously. 208 | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | Skills


Mix some hot Chileans, cool Jamaicans, Dominicans, Trinidadians and Bajans with some Ethiopians, Chinese, Vietnamese and Sudanese. Then take a blend of Somalians, Sri Lankans, Nigerians And Pakistanis, Combine with some Guyanese And turn up the heat.

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the poem “The British” is about ▶▶ give examples of how the UK is a multicultural society

Sprinkle some fresh Indians, Malaysians, Bosnians, Iraqis and Bangladeshis together with some Afghans, Spanish, Turkish, Kurdish, Japanese And Palestinians Then add to the melting pot. Leave the ingredients to simmer. As they mix and blend allow their languages to flourish Binding them together with English. Allow time to be cool. Add some unity, understanding, and respect for the future, Serve with justice And enjoy. Note: All the ingredients are equally important. Treating one ingredient better than another will leave a bitter unpleasant taste. Warning: An unequal spread of justice will damage the people and cause pain. Give justice and equality to all.

benjamin zéphaniah Benjamin Zéphaniah (1958–) was born in Britain to Jamaican parents. He is a poet and Rastafarian. One of Britain’s great contemporary writers, he speaks openly about society and cultural diversity. In 2003 he turned down the Queen’s Order of the British Empire, saying that it reminded him of how his ancestors had been brutalized.

M

conqueror erobrer/erobrar stir røre vigorously her: grundig Bajans = Barbadians blend blanding sprinkle drysse/drysje melting pot smeltedigel, kjele simmer småkoke flourish blomstre bind binde sammen/binde saman equally likt unpleasant ubehagelig/ ubehageleg

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 209


Read and understand

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the poem “The British” is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can give examples of how the UK is a multicultural society. YES ALMOST NO

5.81 • Choose the right alternative in the sentences. a Amongst the first people to settle on the British Isles were the Vikings / Celts / Chinese. b The Normans / Vikings / Romans left Britain after four hundred years of occupation. c In the UK there are immigrants from only Asian countries / all over the world / only African countries. d The English language should remove the Romans / bind everybody together / be spoken only by the English. e All the people should be treated as unequals / equals / immigrants. f This poem is about how to make food / how to avoid injustice / immigration. g The message of the text is that everybody should be treated as equals / the Picts are the first inhabitants in Britain / the English are friendly people. 5.82 •• Answer the questions. a Which different ethnic groups and nationalities are mentioned in the poem? b What does the poem tell us about the history of Britain? c What is his warning concerning the people of Britain? d What is the tone of the poem? Is it sad, angry, ironic or …?

Did you know

Immigration and the British Isles. 1066 The Norman French invaded Britain and became the ruling class. 1685 More than 100,000 French Protestants left their home country and settled in England because of religious persecution. 1840s When the potato crops failed in Ireland about 1 million Irish citizens left Ireland. Many of them came to England. 1940s Hundreds of thousands left Eastern Europe and the new communist regimes. They sought refuge in the UK. Many people from the West Indies moved to Britain where workers were needed to rebuild the country after World War 2. 1970s Political unrest and war in South-East Asia cause people to seek a new life in the UK. 28,000 Ugandan Asians were expelled from Uganda and settled in Britain. 2004 The European Union admitted 10 new member countries. Their citizens have the right to live and work in Britain. From 2010 onwards about 250,000 people have migrated to Britain each year. Most of them are students. 210 | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | Skills


DID YOU DO 5|HOW IN THIS CHAPTER?

06_36

Choose three of the pictures below. How are they relevant to what you have learnt in this chapter? Write at least six sentences.

Canada

United Kingdom Newfoundland Palestine Iraq Kuwait Trans Jordan Bahamas Indian Empire Trucial Oman Hong Kong Gold Nigeria Sudan Coast Jamaica The Gambia Br. Somaliland Ceylon Sierra Uganda Malaysia Bruneii N. Borneo New Gilbert & Leone Maldives Rwanda Ellice Is. Kenya Singapore Sarawak Liberia Guinea Br. Guiana Cameroon Seychelles Tanganyika Zanzibar Papua Solomon Ascension Chagos Is. Cocos Is. Nyasaland Rhodesia Archipelago St. Helena New Southwest Bechuanaland Hebrides Mauritius Australia Africa Fiji Is. Tristan da Swaziland Cunha Basutoland Gough Is. South Africa Falkland Is. New Zealand Bermuda

Belize

Cook Isl. Tonga Pitcairn

Gibraltar

Malta

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 211


LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SPELLING English spelling is regular in many ways, but about 3% of English words have spellings that are so irregular they have to be learned by heart. Another 15% are difficult to spell because they follow patterns that do not apply to many other words. Some of most commonly used words in English are among the most difficult to spell. Often it is important to memorize how many of each consonant they contain. Here are some examples: across one c bizarre one z, double r Caribbean one r, double b committee double m, double t, double e disappear one s, double p embarrass double r, double s necessary one c, double s occasion double c, one s preferred double r successful double c, double s tomorrow one m, double r

Breaking a word into its component parts can sometimes help you to spell it correctly. “Misspell� is made up of a prefix mis-, meaning wrongly, and the word spell, so it contains a double s and a double l. Lots of useful spelling tips, as well as a list of commonly misspelled words, are available at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/words/spelling.

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 5.83 Fill in either ie or ei in the empty spaces below. Use a dictionary to help you. a fr _ _ nd e for _ _ gn b f _ _ ld f ach _ _ ve c rec _ _ ve g c _ _ ling d h _ _ ght h exper _ _ nce 5.84 Use the information on page 42, Nouns and Articles, to add either -s or -es to make the following plural. a one girl – two d one box – two b one stone – two e one monkey – two c one church – two f one wish – several

5.85 Fill in the correct singular form. Use a dictionary if you are not sure of the spelling. a Two heroes – one e Two tomatoes – one b Two wives – one f Two photos – one c Two shelves – one g Two wolves – one d Two roofs – one h Two potatoes – one In words of a single syllable and in words with the stress on the last syllable, a single consonant becomes a double consonant before endings like -ing, -ed, -er and -est. Examples: hot – hotter, pop – popping, stop – stopped

5.86 Add the ending and double the consonant where that is necessary. a run + ing  =   f thin + er  =   b big + er  =   g admit + ed  =   c inherit + ed  =   h wet + est  =   d control + ed  =   i visit + ing  =   e begin + ing  =   j dig + ing  =  

Skills | Chapter 5: Cultural Affairs | 213


CHAPTER 6

Tools and Ingredients


In this chapter you will focus on

• kitchen tools • ingredients • using different listening

strategies • writing a five-paragraph text • pronouns and it/there Useful words and phrases profession apprentice tool utensil flavour texture cultivate ingredients produce seasonal

How many kitchen tools can you name in English?

215


What I Do at Work William, Confectioner I have just finished a two-year training program and started working in a bakery specializing in pastries and cakes. We follow recipes to make cakes and pastries for sale at the bakery and in grocery stores. Later, as part of my training, I will learn how to make custom-ordered cakes and other large orders. Right now my job is to focus on using the correct methods for largescale production. Keeping everything clean and orderly is a very important part of my job. I hope one day to make custom-ordered cakes myself, but right now I am busy learning as much as I can.

Emil, Butcher Since I qualified as a butcher a few years ago, I have practiced my trade in a slaughterhouse helping to prepare animals to become the meat we buy from the store. I have done everything from selecting the animals to slaughtering them the right way, and making the meat ready for the stores. In a place like that, everything has to be done exactly right and cleanly. It is a physically demanding job that requires real strength.

Laura, Seafood Processor I work in a canning factory. The most important thing we do is make sure that the fish is kept cold while being packed in cans. Otherwise, people can get sick. You might not think so, but much of the job is running and maintaining heavy machinery. Still, having a good feel for a knife remains an essential part of doing a good job here. Many visitors from foreign countries come to see our factory. We keep the factory and its equipment squeaky clean: clean food comes from a clean factory!

Andre, Cook It is easy to think of a restaurant when you hear the word “cook�. But there are so many places to work: a cruise ship, a hotel, a merchant ship and even the fresh foods department in a grocery store. I am an apprentice at a cafeteria located in a large office complex. Since I started working here a few months ago, I have been doing the basics. The head chef is constantly working on new recipes and dishes to win a larger share of the workers in the building. We just started making our own desserts, something I helped make happen!

216 | Chapter 6: Tools and Ingredients | Skills


After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to

Madeleine, Institutional Cook

▶▶ identify

the tools and working methods of six professions ▶▶ understand and use words that are relevant in these professions ▶▶ write a text about one profession

I have just done my apprentice training and am now a full-fledged institutional cook. I took a job at our local hospital where I manage a fully-staffed kitchen that produces hundreds of meals for our patients. We also provide dishes for our cafeteria. I knew this job would be a challenge: to arrange for the purchase of many kinds of healthy foods that are not too expensive and to make meals that everyone will like. It is not enough to make meals – they have to be part of the effort to make our patients well so that they can go home again. Every evening ends the same way: planning everything we will make the next day, double checking our stocks and making the kitchen and all of its equipment spotlessly clean.

Nicholas, Waiter I am currently an apprentice in my second year at the hotel in my community. The hotel has a restaurant, and breakfast is served to hotel guests too. The hotel is also a place for parties like wedding receptions, Christmas banquets and other special family arrangements. That means I will typically work many hours during the weekend or on a Friday night, but then have a few days off followed by a couple of breakfasts and then maybe a birthday dinner. A waiter is the face of the hotel and I have to make the hotel guests feel comfortable. I am a problem solver too. Hotel and restaurant guests may have special needs, due to religion or a special diet. It is my job to make sure the guests are happy with what they get. I help restaurant guests make a good selection from the menu and make their meal even better by helping to choose the right drink with it. My job requires that I am on my feet a lot and that I work closely with the cooks in the kitchen.

confectioner konditor grocery stores dagligvare, kolonial / daglegvare, kolonial custom-order spesialbestilling large scale i stor skala, målestokk orderly ordentlig / ordentleg merchant ship handelsskip apprentice lærling constantly stadig seafood processor sjømatprosessor canning factory hermetikkfabrikk equipment utstyr squeaky clean skinnende ren / skinande rein butcher slakter / slaktar slaughter slakte prepare forberede / førebu demanding krevende / krevjande require kreve / krevje institutional cook institusjonskokk full-fledged kvalifisert fully-staffed fullt bemannet / fullt bemanna purchase kjøp stock varebeholdning / varelager spotlessly plettfri reception her: mottakelse / mottaking problem solver problemløser / problemløysar

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Read and understand

6.1 • Who talks about what? Write the name and profession for each statement. a I work in a factory and operate heavy machinery. b I prepare hot and cold meals for office workers. c In my job I have to be able to follow a recipe carefully and accurately. The food I prepare is mostly very sweet. d I cook cheap but healthy meals for a large number of people at a time. e I serve meals to guests and ensure that they have what they require. f My job is strenuous and puts me in close contact with live animals. 6.2 •• Based on the information in the text, write down at least three keywords to describe each of the professions presented.

Speak

6.3 Work in pairs. Study the illustration. Take turns explaining to each other how to correctly set a dining table.

Stemware (glasses): Glassware is limited to four. Wine is poured from the right. Don't overfill glasses. Water glass Salt and pepper: Should be passed together. Don't season before tasting.

Bread dish and butter knife

Cutlery: The rule is to use it from the outside in.

Red wine glass

Dessert spoon and fork: When dessert is served with both fork and spoon, the fork is the pusher and the spoon is used for eating.

White wine glass

Champagne flute

Napkin placement: Once seated the host takes his napkin, then the guests follow. Place it on your lap.

Salad Fish Meat fork fork fork Flatware: The number of silverware pieces indicates the number of courses to be served.

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Soup Meat Fish Salad spoon knife knife knife


Practise

1

6.4 Match the description of the kitchen tool with its correct name in English. Description

Name

a It looks like a deep bowl with many holes in it.

knife

b Usually made out of metal or plastic, it has a long handle and its end is a deep cup.

spatula

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c Put on the bottom of a pot with boiling water, this cutting board thing spreads out, holding vegetables out of the water. d This is a common tool, having one side very sharp and thin.

ladle

e There are two pieces: one is a bowl made out of very hard material and the other part is good for crushing herbs.

draining spoon/ skimmer

f Every cook uses this when chopping large vegetables into smaller pieces.

potato masher

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g This is especially good when making a sauce to whisk make sure it does not burn on the bottom of a pan.

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h This is used to turn boiled potatoes into a dish that steam basket children love to eat. i It looks like a very large spoon except that it has long holes in it.

colander

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j This is especially good for turning hamburgers over pestle and mortar in a frying pan.

6.5 Match the name of these kitchen tools with the correct photo. a grater b rubber spatula c pepper mill d meat thermometer e can opener f peeler g scale 10 h measuring spoon i knife j measuring cup k rolling pin l timer 12 m sieve n apron 11

7 8 9

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6.6 Take turns pointing at the different utensils and other items and telling each other what they are called and what they are used for. 6.7 Solve the word search puzzle by finding the following places of work. Words may be made horizontally, vertically and diagonally and in any direction. bakery grocery store

hotel cruise ship

cafeteria factory

hospital kitchen

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Did you know?

Proper espresso machines are commonly found in bars and restaurants, and occasionally in people’s homes, and they are the only way of making “a true espresso.” For a cup of coffee to count as “espresso,” there are several criteria to be fulfilled. It must be made from 7 grams of coffee, finely ground, so that it produces 25 ml of liquid at 9 bar of pressure, at a temperature of 88°C. Source: Italian Espresso National Institute

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Explore

6.8 Which jobs within restaurant and food processing can be found in the following companies and locations? Use various Internet sources to find information. f IKEA a Pascal g The Fat Duck restaurant (UK) b Statoil main office building h Color Line ferry to Denmark c Ullevål Hospital d Heathrow Airport i Kristiansand Zoo and Amusement Park e Meny supermarket j Hammerfest Fish Factory

Write

6.9 • Imagine that you are interviewing one of the six professionals presented in the text. Write down five questions you would like to ask him or her. 6.10 •• Choose one of the professions presented in the text. Pick a typical task done by someone in this profession, and describe how you think it should be carried out. Write one paragraph. 6.11 ••• Find another job within the field of restaurant and food processing. Write a five-paragraph text where you present the job. You may want to include the following: • possible work places • main tasks, tools and materials • personal characteristics that may be useful See page 240 for advice on how to write a five-paragraph text. Skills | Chapter 6: Tools and Ingredients | 221


FACT FILE FACT FILE FACT MACHINES FOR FOODÂ PROCESSING A wide range of electric machines are used in restaurant and food processing. These not only alleviate the physical effort that would be required to achieve the same result by hand; they also do so more quickly, precisely and hygienically.

A food processor is used in professional as well as domestic kitchens for chopping, mixing and purĂŠeing ingredients.

A meat slicer is used in restaurants, supermarkets and delicatessens to cut even slices of cooked or cured meat to whatever thickness is required.

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A meat grinder is used in restaurants, supermarkets and delicatessens to make ground meat (or mince), which may then be made into burgers, sausages and any number of other meat products.

A sausage stuffer is a dedicated machine for stuffing sausage meat into its casing. This is a more advanced alternative to a simple attachment to a meat grinder.


T FILE FACT FILE FACT FILE

A food smoking machine is a sealed cabinet in which chips of wood are burned while food is hung above them to absorb the flavor of the smoke.

A fish cleaning machine quickly removes the scales from fish and guts them so that they may be further processed or sold on the fish counter in as fresh a condition as possible.

Explore

6.12 Select a specific trade. Using the Internet, find out what kinds of machines are used frequently in this job.

Write

6.13 Can you think of some machines for food processing that are not described in the fact file? Write a short description of them and their uses. 6.14 Imagine that you work in a kitchen where you grind meat by hand. The machine you have is old and has not been well maintained. Write a letter to your boss at the company’s head office in which you try to convince her that a new electric meat grinder would be a good investment for the kitchen.

alleviate lindre domestic kitchens kjøkken i hjemmet / kjøkken i heimen chopping hakking mixing blande grind kverne mince kjøttdeig i UK even jevne / jamne cured speket / spekt stuffing stappe casing pølseskinn attachment tilbehør / tilbehøyr sealed forseglet / forsegla guts sløye condition tilstand

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can identify the tools and working methods of six professions. YES ALMOST NO

I can understand and use words that are relevant in these professions. YES ALMOST NO

I can write a text about one profession. YES ALMOST NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LISTENING STRATEGIES You probably spend more time using your listening skills than any other kind of skill. Every now and then, we may not even realize that we are actually listening until something suddenly catches our attention. Yet, like other skills, listening takes practice. During a typical day at school or work, there are many different situations where you need good listening skills. Sometimes you listen to get a general idea of what is said, and sometimes you listen for specific information. It is important to choose the right listening strategy to get the information you need. 1 Listening for overview When someone tells a story, we usually listen to understand the main idea or content of what is said. It is not necessary to understand every word. After listening, you should be able to retell the main content of the story, sum up what is most important, or perhaps explain its message. 2 Listening for specific information In some situations, you listen for details. This can be names, telephone numbers, dates, or answers to specific questions. This is an essential listening skill in many work and social situations, for example when taking a phone message or an order, or when listening for instructions or important safety warnings. 3 Listening for pleasure In some situations, we listen just for entertainment. A typical example is when you listen to your favourite music, or when you keep the radio on while doing something else. You don’t necessarily have to pay much attention to details, but can still enjoy yourself.

You may find it helpful to take notes while listening, especially if you are listening for specific information. Sometimes it may be necessary to listen more than once, depending on the situation. Active listening will make you a better communicator. In face-to-face communication, the speaker’s body language, facial expressions and tone of voice will help you understand the message. When you cannot see the speaker, it becomes even more important to think about what you are listening to and why you are listening. With good listening skills, you may be able to hear more than the words spoken. 224 | Chapter 6: Tools and Ingredients | Skills


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

6.15 How do you listen in the following situations? a A news report about an accident on the radio. b A dialogue between two characters in a film. c Flight information on the loudspeaker system at the airport. d The weather forecast on the radio. e Someone calls to leave a message for your boss. f An elderly person talks to you about the old days. g Your best friend tells you a secret. h Your teacher introduces a new topic in class. 6.16 Listen to this short text and fill in the missing information. a Of the 7.1 people in the world, 870 million were suffering from chronic in the period from 2010–2012. Of these million live in countries. million deaths of children per year, which is almost of all children’s deaths across the globe, are the result of undernutrition, which the effects of diseases such as measles and . b Which listening strategy did you use to find the missing information? 6.17 Listen to this short text and answer the questions. a What is the conversation about? b What is important to remember after listening to the conversation? c Which listening strategy did you use to answer the questions? 6.18 Listen to what Peter says about his job and answer the following questions. a How long has Peter been working on the seafood counter? b Why did it take time for Peter to get used to the job? c What does Peter do besides preparing seafood and serving customers? d What is Peter’s favourite part of the job? e Why cannot Peter always talk to his colleagues at work? f What time does Peter start work in the morning?

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The Lot of a Food Critic

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ discuss

what the biographical excerpt is about ▶▶ listen for specific information ▶▶ describe flavors and textures more expressively and precisely

Communicating the quality, flavor and texture of food is not easy. For food critics – that is, people who write food and restaurant columns in newspapers, magazines and on the Internet – it is both an art form and the way that they earn their livings. In Garlic and Sapphires, top American food critic Ruth Reichl describes her experience of reviewing restaurants for the New York Times immediately after she moved to the city. To make it hard for staff at the restaurants to recognize her, she had to invent new identities for herself, dress up in elaborate costumes and even order credit cards in a false name! Being a new restaurant critic in town has its drawbacks: there are a lot of restaurants I haven’t eaten in. But it also has its advantages: there are a lot of restaurants where I am still not recognized. In most places I am just another person who has reserved weeks in advance, and I still have to wait as more important people are waltzed into the dining room. I watch longingly as they are presented with the chef’s special dishes, and then I turn and order from the menu just like everybody else. One of my first interests was to review the cooking of Sylvain Portay, who became chef at Le Cirque late last year. Over the course of five months I ate five meals at the restaurant; it was not until the fourth that the owner, Sirio Maccioni, figured out who I was. When I was discovered, the change was startling. Everything improved: the seating, the service, the size of the portions. We had already reached dessert, but our little plate of petit fours was whisked away to be replaced by a larger one. An avalanche of sweets descended upon the table, and I was fascinated to note that the raspberries on the new desserts were three times the size of those on the old ones. Food is important, and Mr. Portay is exceptionally talented. But nobody goes to Le Cirque just to eat. People go for the experience of being in a great restaurant. Sometimes they get it; sometimes they don’t. It all depends on who they are.

livings levebrød elaborate omhyggelig utarbeidet / omhyggeleg utarbeidd drawbacks ulemper waltzed into ledet inn / leidd inn startling sjokkerende / sjokkerande whisked away tatt bort raskt / teke bort raskt avalanche snøskred captain (bare i USA) hovmester / (berre i USA) hovmeister

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DINNER AS THE UNKNOWN DINER

intruder inntrenger meekly underdanig perched plassert banquette stoppede benk / stoppa benk shove sette uforsiktig / setje uforsiktig surrender overgi persistence utholdenhet / uthaldsevne unearth grave opp (finne på vinkartet) dégustation menu smaksmeny eagerly ivrig pairing sammenkobling / samankopling encircling omkringssittende / omkringsitjande radish reddik flabby myk og blek / mjuk og bleik busboy ryddegutt / ryddegut trail følge etter crumpled krøllete disgruntled misfornøyd / misnøgd halibut kveite atop på toppen av sprig of chervil kjørvelkvist baffled forvirret / forvirra

“Do you have a reservation?” This is said so challengingly I instantly feel as if I am an intruder who has wandered into the wrong restaurant. But I nod meekly and give my guest’s name. And I am sent to wait in the bar. And there we sit for half an hour, two women drinking glasses of expensive water. Finally we are led to a table in the smoking section, where we had specifically requested not to be seated. Asked if there is, perhaps, another table, the captain merely gestures at the occupied tables and produces a little shrug. There is no need to ask for the wine list; there it is, perched right next to me on the banquette where the waiters shove the menus. Every few minutes another waiter comes to fling his used menus in my direction. I don’t mind, because I am busy with the wine list, but I have only got to page 3 before the captain reappears. “I need that wine list,” he says, holding out his hand. I surrender, and it is 20 minutes before it returns. Still, persistence is rewarded. The list is large and good, and has many rewards for the patient reader. Given a little time, I unearth a delicious 1985 Chambolle-Musigny for $46. We sip wine and listen to what is going on at the tables around us. This is easy; those of us seated around the edges of the room have absolutely no privacy. While the captain tells our neighbors about Mr. Portay’s $90 dégustation menu we listen eagerly. But ordering it, we are to discover, is not smart. It is the middle of June, and our “seasonal menu” turns out to be a lot of brown food. The vegetables are mainly carrots, turnips and radishes, and we have potatoes in three out of five courses. Still, the first course, sautéed foie gras with white peaches, is so good that the memory of it carries us through the meal. The sweet, soft fruit is a brilliant pairing with the rich meat. I like the next course, too, curried tuna tartare. Encircling the silky chopped fish, which has just the perfect touch of spice, is a lovely mosaic of radish slices. But would a really great restaurant send out these pale and flabby pieces of “toast”? We are considering this when the captain appears and informs us that a table has opened up and we will be permitted to leave the smoky zone. The move should make me happy, but when the busboy trails us to our new table, shoves our crumpled old napkins into our hands and dumps our used glasses onto the table, I can’t help feeling disgruntled. Then the parade of brown food begins. First halibut with mushrooms on soggy rounds of potatoes. Atop the fish, a single sprig of chervil waves, the lone spot of green. I am unimpressed with the dish, but I am baffled when

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the chef follows it with more fish and potatoes. Potato-wrapped black bass in Barolo sauce has been a standard at Le Cirque since Daniel Boulud’s days; in Mr. Portay’s hands it is as good as ever, the fish soft and tender inside its crisp coat, the sauce a rounded complement. Unfortunately, this wonderful dish only emphasizes how dull the previous one was. Next there is tenderloin of lamb on a bed of pureed potatoes. It is a fine dish, if not particularly exciting, but it is certainly not the thing you’re dying to eat in the first hot weather. Desserts don’t make concessions to summer either. The chocolate soufflé cake with whipped cream is excellent, and I like the latte cotto, a sort of light lemon custard served with marinated berries. But watching the people at the next table tucking into tarts filled with summer fruits, and gorgeous sorbets and crème brûlée sheltered beneath an enormous dome of spun sugar, I feel cheated. The food hasn’t been bad, and there was certainly a lot of it. Still, as I pay the bill I find myself wishing that when the maître d’ asked if I had a reservation, I had just said no and left.

bass abbor dull kjedelig / kjedeleg tenderloin indrefilet make concessions her: ta hensyn til / ta omsyn til custard vaniljesaus tucking into spise med velbehag / ete med stor glede sheltered skjermet / skjerma spun sugar spunnet sukker / spunne sukker cheated lurt

ruth reichl

Reichl explains that a big advantage to her moving to a new town as a food critic was that, to begin with, none of the restaurant owners recognized her. This made it possible for her to see what it was like to eat in the restaurants as an ordinary customer. One restaurant that she got to see from this point of view was Le Cirque. She discovered that most people’s experience of eating there was not as great as its reputation would suggest. To begin with, the head waiter was rude to Reichl and her friend, made them wait for half an hour and then placed them in the wrong section of the restaurant. Before she had finished reading the wine list, the waiter took it away from her. When they finally got to choose their wine and taste it, however, it was delicious. They decided to order from the tasting menu, but this turned out to be a mistake, because there were not enough green vegetables and the same vegetables were used in almost every dish. The foie gras with white peaches was a brilliant combination, though. This was followed by three brownlooking dishes, accompanied by flabby toast and soggy potatoes. Finally, they were served a restaurant specialty that was as good as ever: potato-wrapped black bass in Barolo sauce, described as soft and tender inside its crisp coat. The desserts they received were light and enjoyable but not as interesting as those they saw other customers eating, which were ordered from the regular menu. Reichl left the restaurant wishing that she had not bothered to come.

IN SHORT

advantage fordel recognized kjente igjen / kjende att ordinary vanlig / vanleg discovered oppdaget / oppdaga experience erfaring reputation omdømme tasting menu smaksmeny accompanied by i selskap med

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Read and understand

6.19 • Translate the sentences into Norwegian. a None of the restaurant owners recognized her. b The head waiter was rude to Reichl and her friend. c They decided to order the tasting menu. d The same vegetables were used in almost every dish. e The desserts they received were light and enjoyable. f Reichl left the restaurant wishing that she had not bothered to come. 6.20 •• Answer the following questions. a Why was it an advantage for Reichl to be working in a new town? b What was the name of the restaurant that Reichl reviewed? c What was wrong with the service Reichl received? d What was Reichl’s opinion of the wine she ordered? e Which menu did Reichl order? f Which two ingredients made a brilliant combination? g Which dish was a specialty of the restaurant? h How satisfied did Reichl feel at the end of the meal?

Practise

6.21 Match the adjectives from the text (a–j) to their opposites (1–10). Make use of a dictionary if necessary. 1 limp a hot 2 hard b sweet 3 savory c soft 4 cold d perfect 5 imperfect e pale 6 terrible f large 7 vibrant g tender 8 exciting h crisp 9 small i dull 10 tough j brilliant

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6.22 Complete the crossword puzzle using nouns and adjectives from the text. 1 2

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Across 2 having a balanced flavor (adj.) 7 a kind of red wine from Italy (n.) 8 extremely good (adj.) 10 orange root vegetables (n.) 12 cooked in Indian spices (adj.) 14 an herb (n.) 15 a kind of fish (n.)

Down 1 soaked in a liquid to add flavor (adj.) 2 small red and round vegetables served raw in salads (n.) 3 covered in a layer of potatoes (adj.) 4 the color of earth (adj.) 5 a frozen dessert (n.) 6 belonging to the current time of year (adj.) 7 small round fruits without stones (n.) 9 white root vegetables (n.) 11 fried quickly (adj.) 13 soft and loose (adj.)

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Did you know

The following are important adjectives for talking about flavor and texture, in addition to those found in the text. • Types of flavors: savory, sour, bitter, salty, spicy, sweet • Strength: Approving: strong, robust, piquant, mild, mellow, delicate Disapproving: bland, insipid • Overall evaluation: Approving: flavorsome, appetizing, tasty, delightful, divine, exquisite Disapproving: flavorless, unappetizing, disgusting, awful, revolting • Water or fat content: Approving: juicy, moist, succulent, buttery Disapproving: greasy, oily, fatty, watery, mushy, sloppy • Liquids: Approving: thick, smooth, creamy, luxurious Disapproving: thin, viscous, gelatinous, congealed • Solids: Approving: crispy, crunchy, brittle, firm, al dente, light, airy, fluffy, tender Disapproving: tough, chewy, stringy, hard, dense

Speak

6.23 Describe a favorite dish to your partner, using adjectives to describe how both the flavor and texture should be, and also how they should not be. You may want to check the lists of adjectives provided in Did you know? 6.24 Tell a partner about an experience you have had at a restaurant on a particular occasion, whether good or bad. Include comments on the décor and the service as well as on the food.

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Write

6.25 • Write the method of a simple recipe that you know from memory. It must include descriptions of taste and texture to help the reader understand whether he or she has followed the method correctly at different stages. 6.26 •• Write a short restaurant review that could appear in a newspaper, magazine or blog. You may choose whether to base the review on a real restaurant experience or one that you have invented.

Listen

6.27 “Dinner as a Most Favored Patron” Listen to this continuation of Garlic and Sapphires, where Ruth Reichl describes how radically different her experience of the restaurant Le Cirque was after they realized that she was a food critic for The New York Times. a Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1 Reichl is treated even better than royalty. 2 Reichl and her companion do not have a reservation. 3 The first course is a new dish of scallops and truffles. 4 The lobster is served with mushrooms. 5 This is the first time she has tasted lobster. 6 The foie gras is good. 7 Reichl recalls eating veal with rosemary on a previous occasion. 8 She even eats the garnish on the venison. b Listen to the extract again and find the correct alternative to complete each statement. 1 Reichl is 10 / 20 / 30 minutes early. 2 They are given a table for two / four / six. 3 Mr. Maccioni wants to introduce them to some of his favorite wines / waiters / customers. 4 The truffles on the risotto are black / burgundy / white. 5 Mr. Portay is French / Italian / Spanish. 6 The turbot is accompanied by red / green / yellow peppers. 7 Nobody makes a prettier green / chicken / Greek salad than Mr. Portay. 8 Not counting the pastries, they bring you four / five / six desserts. 9 The espresso is the perfect ending to the perfect autumnal / hibernal / vernal meal.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can discuss what the biographical excerpt is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can listen for specific information. YES ALMOST NO

I can describe flavors and textures more expressively and precisely. YES ALMOST NO

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Tasty Tomatoes In this extract from his blog, Norwegian TV chef and food columnist Andreas Viestad describes his project as a part-time farmer in South Africa.

food columnist matspaltist nomadic nomadisk swallow svale peach fersken fig fiken

I sometimes introduce myself as a “nomadic farmer”. It is not quite correct, but as in all exaggerations there is an element of truth in the statement. Every summer, or rather … every winter … in November or December, I do like the swallow: I head south. To be more precise to a little farm and wine farm in Elgin just outside of Cape Town (South Africa). I grow tomatoes. And peaches, and figs, and citruses, and … The farm is owned by the farmer

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to (and brain surgeon) Paul Cluver, and together we ▶▶ explain what diversity means have established a small agricultural project where ▶▶ name different types of tomatoes we do everything that normal industrial agricultural and fruits wisdom tells us we shouldn’t. The only way to make ▶▶ share information about the agriculture profitable is to find out what you grow best cultivation of tomatoes and fruits and to specialize on that commodity. We do exactly the opposite – we cultivate diversity. We have called our project Garden of Elgin, because it is a garden, in Elgin, but also because it reminds us a little of the Garden of Eden. One part of the garden is our orchard where we have tried to find as many different trees as possible, in order to have as many flavours as possible. The trees are still in their infancy (or early adolescence) but when they grow up we will have about 30 different types of oranges, more than agricultural jordbruksprofitable lønnsom / lønnsam 40 different types of peaches and other stone fruit, and a dozen different commodity vare lemons. We have quinces, custard apples, various varieties of figs and cultivate dyrke pomegranates. diversity mangfold / mangfald Another important part of our garden is the vegetables. Last year we had orchard frukthage more than a hundred different types of tomatoes. We had yellow tomatoes, flavour smak red tomatoes, brown tomatoes, striped tomatoes. They were sweet and tart, infancy barndom intense and watery, firm and mealy. adolescence ungdom, tenårene / ungdom, tenåra At the offset we had a very clear idea of what we were doing. “What we stone fruit steinfrukt need to find out is how to do it” we told each other. We wanted to grow quince kvede the best peach, the best lemon, the best tomato. To find that out we had to custard apple art i grow them all. As we have progressed I have come to realize that this is not planteslekten annona / art i the true aim of our endeavour. The measure of our success is not whether planteslekta annona we find something that is better but the fact that it is different. If you have pomegranate granateple more than ten types of lemons and they all taste a little different – one is tart bitter / sur firm fast more acidic, one more fruity, one more aromatic – then you come to realize mealy mjølen that a lemon is not just a lemon. A lemon can be many different things, and at the offset i starten its qualities – like a good wine – transcend what can easily be described as progress gå fram acidic, fruity or aromatic. endeavour bestrebelse / strev, This last tomato season we had tomato salad every day. Each day I would umak prepare it more or less the same way: I would slice tomatoes, sprinkle them measure mål with some salt, add some olive oil (from a farm nearby), maybe some herbs acidic sur transcend overgå from the “herb circle” of the garden. And every day the tomato salad would slice skjære i skiver / skjere i taste different. The seasons changes and with that the flavour of tomatoes skiver from the same plant. Add to that more than a hundred different types of sprinkle drysse over tomatoes, and you have an infinite number of different-tasting tomato herb urter salads. infinite uendelig / uendeleg Skills | Chapter 6: Tools and Ingredients | 235


Read and understand

6.28 • Choose the right alternative in each sentence. a Andreas Viestad is a Swedish / Norwegian / South African food columnist and chef. b Every spring / autumn / winter he moves to South Africa. c Andreas grows many different / only one / just a few varieties of the same fruit and vegetable. d He discovered that different types of lemon taste the same / different / like acid. e Last season, Andreas ate tomato salad very seldom / once a week / every day. f As the season changes the taste of tomatoes is the same / changes a little / changes a lot. 6.29 •• Make six questions to the text. Ask and answer each other’s questions in small groups. 6.30 Combine the words with the right illustration. Use the words to write sentences about how these foods taste and whether you like them or not. a lemon e pomegranate c peach b orange f grape d fig 1

2

3

4

5

6

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Practise

6.31 Combine the words with the right definition or explanation. a a person who writes about food in a newspaper

1 slice

b with a very sour taste

2 food columnist

c a piece of land where you grow fruit trees

3 herbs

d to cut a vegetable or fruit into thin, flat pieces

4 acidic

e leaves of plants used as spices or for tea

5 orchard

f a person who owns or runs a farm

6 variety

g having to do with farming

7 profitable

h whatever makes money

8 farmer

i type of fruit or vegetable

9 aromatic

j having a pleasant smell

10 agricultural

Speak

6.32 Read the description of the following tomatoes aloud and discuss which picture matches each text. What type of tomato is your favourite? 1

a b c d

e

2

3

4

5

Globe Tomatoes are the standard variant of tomatoes, often referred to as Beefsteak tomatoes. They are easily identified because they are large, round and red. Cherry Tomatoes belong to the Cluster variant and are the same size as a cherry. They are much sweeter and juicier than the larger varieties. Heirloom Tomatoes are popular with gourmet chefs because they come in a large variety of shapes and colours. They remain ripe for a short period of time. Roma Tomatoes are also known as plum tomatoes and are the least juicy of all tomatoes. They are thick and contain fewer seeds than other tomato variants, which makes them a favourite for pasta sauces. Pear Tomatoes are another Cluster tomato variant, and get their name from their shape. They are the size of a Cherry tomato, but without the high juice levels.

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6.33 Discuss the following questions. Work in groups. a What does it mean that Viestad and Cluver cultivate diversity? What is your opinion of their project? b What are the advantages of being a chef and a farmer at the same time? c How can famous chefs influence people’s eating habits? d To what extent are efficiency and profit compatible with producing good and tasty products? e Today you can buy fresh strawberries all year round. How does the taste change throughout the year?

Listen

“Life in South Africa” Listen to the rest of the blog article where Andreas Viestad talks about life in South Africa. 6.34 First, listen once to get an overview. In a few sentences, sum up what Viestad has to say about life in South Africa.

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6.35 Listen once more. This time listen for information to answer the following questions. a What makes it easy to lose hope? b What does the Xhosa word Thandi mean? c What does BEP stand for? d What was Paul Cluver’s contribution? e What kind of certification have the wines from Thandi received?

Explore

6.36 Choose either task a, b or c. Use different sources to make a short presentation. For advice on how to give an oral presentation, look at pages 276 – 277. a The Cultivation of Tomatoes You may want to include facts about the following: • the history of tomatoes • which countries are the most important producers of tomatoes • what varieties of tomatoes are the most common in, for example, Norway, Britain or the USA • what farming methods and pesticides are used for growing tomatoes • how the cultivation of tomatoes varies in different types of climates • how quickly the different varieties of tomatoes grow and ripen b The Cultivation of Fruits You may want to include facts about the following: • what types of fruits are the most commonly cultivated • which countries are the most important producers of different types of fruits • what kinds of fruits are the most commonly grown in Norway, Britain and the USA c The Cultivation of Grapevines You may want to include facts about the following: • which countries produce the most wine • what kind of soil and geographical areas are best suited for different types of wine grapes • what types of grapes are used to produce white, red and rosé wines

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what diversity means. YES ALMOST NO

I can name different types of tomatoes and fruits. YES ALMOST NO

I can share information about the cultivation of tomatoes and fruits. YES ALMOST NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A FIVE-PARAGRAPH TEXT In your English course, and in exams, you will be asked to write longer texts on different topics. This step-by-step guide may help you in the process. 1 Before you start Read the instructions well. What is your topic? Does it say what type of text you are going to write, and who your reader is? Text type and target group will help you decide what style of language to use when you write. Check page 106 for information on formal and informal language. 2 Find information What do you already know about the topic? Have a brainstorming session, for example with other classmates. At this point, all ideas are good for the process. Group your ideas together. Then research the topic. Use different sources. Make sure you write down where you found the information. 3 Organize your text in paragraphs For written assignments, organization is very important. An outline will help you plan and structure your text. For most writing tasks where you are asked to discuss a topic, your text can be structured into five paragraphs, as shown in the example on the right. 4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together Use sentence connectors to help the reader follow your arguments. Check page 93 for examples of sentence connectors. 5 Before you hand in your text • Check the instructions for the assignment one last time. Have you done what you were asked to do? • Run a spelling check and a grammar check. They won’t catch every mistake, but they may spot some that you have missed yourself. • Check that you have listed all the sources you have used to find information about your topic. Check page 379 for more advice on how to list sources.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Is it fair to expect everyone to cook from fresh, raw ingredients? 1

2

3

4

5

It is common knowledge that cooking meals from scratch is good for us. Nevertheless, many of us still do not cook often enough and instead rely heavily on pre-packaged, processed foods. Are we then guilty of laziness or a lack of concern for our own well-being? Is it fair to expect everyone to cook properly for themselves and for their families? Firstly, it is clear that a balanced diet leads to a longer and healthier life. Fresh ingredients, particularly fruit and vegetables, contain vital nutrients that keep us energetic and healthy. Furthermore, a diet that is too high in saturated fat and sugar leads to obesity and a range of related health problems. Secondly, the very act of cooking with someone, and then eating the food you have cooked together, is a fun and educational activity. This ought to be something that we want to prioritize for our families and ourselves. On the other hand, processed foods are generally cheaper. This is more of a problem outside of Scandinavia, where a “fat and sugar tax” has been introduced, yet it remains an issue, even here. In addition, processed foods take much less time to prepare, a fact that affects families with two working parents more than those with one stay-at-home mother or father. Ultimately, this is a matter of culture and responsibility. Before today’s children become parents, we must hope, as a society, that they have been given the right knowledge and attitude to make good and healthy choices about food.

Paragraph 1 The introduction should start with a general statement to let the reader know what the text will focus on. Sometimes a text can begin with some facts, or a surprising story to catch the reader’s attention. Paragraphs 2 3 4 These paragraphs make up the body of your text. This is where you explain, describe, and argue for or against your topic. If relevant, you may also state your own opinion in a paragraph. Paragraph 5 In the conclusion you should give a final perspective on your topic, but don’t repeat the same sentences as in the previous paragraphs. Make sure you don’t introduce new ideas in the conclusion.

Practise

6.36 Make an outline for a text called “Why choose an education in restaurant and food processing?” Swap outlines with a partner. Have a brainstorming session to gather more ideas and good arguments. 6.37 Write an introduction to the text. What would be a good way to get the reader’s attention and make him/her want to read on? Work in pairs. 6.38 Use the following keywords to write a conclusion to the text. Swap texts with a partner. Compare and give each other constructive feedback. all in all – many reasons – future job market – qualifications – in conclusion – rewarding Skills | Chapter 6: Tools and Ingredients | 241


Choosing Ingredients Valuable advice from Nigel Slater Nigel Slater is an English cook, food writer, journalist and broadcaster. The following is an extract from his book Appetite, in which he gives his opinion on how to choose the best ingredients available and make the most of them in your cooking. broadcaster programleder / programleiar provenance opprinnelse / opphav crux kjerne produce her: råvarer supper kveldsmat tempting fristende / freistande second grade mindreverdig tart up forbedre utseendet på / betre utsjånaden på

A cook’s guide to shopping It is the integrity of the ingredient – its freshness, its quality and its provenance – that is the crux of good eating. More so than any recipe. No matter what magic you work on an ingredient once you get it home, it is the produce itself that holds the key to a good supper. Buy the best quality ingredients you can find, by which I mean the freshest, purest, most tempting, then do as little to them as possible. Far better than buying something second grade and trying to tart it up. I don’t think this can be emphasised enough.

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I don’t buy that a good cook should be able to make something delicious from any old ingredients. I don’t even see the point. What is the reason for making a classic coq au vin out of a sad, intensively reared bird? The cook may feel that they have won some minor victory at being about to make supper from a load of old rubbish but it is a hollow victory. Their supper would be much more enjoyable if they had bought a really good chicken in the first place and forgotten about the fancy recipe.

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ understand

how important it is to select fresh, good quality ingredients ▶▶ understand how to use different sorts of ingredients effectively ▶▶ explain why it is best to use ingredients while they are locally in season

Some useful spices You don’t need a cupboard full of spices, a little glass army of ground dust losing its magic and passing its sell-by date. Why not just keep a small amount of each of your favourites, bought whole so that they keep their precious fragrance till you need them? Most of us will get more joy from a few common spices in good condition.

Fresh herbs Herbs can form the backbone of a recipe – for example, when thyme and bay are cooked slowly with onions, garlic and celery to create an aromatic base for a soup, stew or braise. Or they can be the point of a recipe, such as when basil is pounded with garlic, Parmesan and olive oil to make a pesto sauce for pasta. Either way, herbs will add fragrance and flavour to your cooking. The herbs to add at the start of cooking are usually those with woody stems and tough leaves, which tend to give up their flavour gradually. I am thinking here of robust herbs such as thyme, rosemary, bay and sage. They work best in the cooking juices of meat and vegetables, and will even stand up to the heat of the barbeque (try scattering rosemary needles on lamb chops).

Growing your own I have not (yet) been bitten by the grow-your-own-food bug – that ideal where you have tended every carrot in your stew and every apple in your pie. Yet I do grow a few vegetables and herbs. I must admit that the tomatoes that I pick from my own plants and even the basil from my own bush seem to have a more intense flavour than those from the shops. I am certainly more careful with my own produce than with things I buy in the shops. There is a certain ceremony attached to eating them. Which, in its own way, adds to the pleasure. I think I have more respect for them. Freshness – the speed with which food ends up in the market (and therefore in your kitchen) – is probably the most important factor in

buy her: tro på / tru på intensively reared intensivt oppdrettet / intensivt oppdretta hollow victory hul seier / hol siger sell-by date best før dato whole hel / heil condition tilstand braise gryte med kjøtt som først er stekt / gryte med kjøtt som først er steikt robust sterk scattering strø tended passet på / passa på

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determining food quality, so the whole grow-your-own thing starts to make sense. Something picked or dug from the garden moments before you cook and eat it is a thing of almost immeasurable pleasure.

Fish and other pleasures There are few things I would rather cook than a fish. Take a fresh plaice or lemon sole, for instance: I love gently flicking sizzling butter over it in the pan as it makes its short journey from raw to cooked. I have been cooking fish since I was a kid and yet still marvel at the way the flesh so quickly loses its transparency and sets to a clean pearly white. On the plate, it is the lightness that appeals – fish is always a gentle meal.

Choosing your chicken I know everyone tells you to look for a plump bird but there is more to it than that. Some of the tastiest chicken I have ever eaten has come from birds that were scrawny. The point is not simply how big a breast your chicken has but what breed it is, what sort of food it has been eating and how much exercise it got. Even the way it was slaughtered will affect the taste and tenderness. So you can cheerfully ignore all that stuff about plump breasts.

Eating for the season

determining bestemme immeasurable ikke målbart / ikkje målbart marvel bli imponert av transparency gjennomsiktighet / gjennomsiktigheit plump lubben scrawny skranglete breed rase slaughtered slaktet / slakta cheerfully muntert luscious rik fragrant duftende / duftande ripeness modenhet / mognad edible spiselig / etande hedgerow hekk runner bean snittebønne take advantage of utnytte knock kritisere silly dumt

There is a point in the year at which fruit and vegetables are at their very best. By which I mean their most luscious, fragrant and flavoursome. Ideally that is when we want to eat them, to catch them at that moment of full, bursting ripeness. There are few edible pleasures more satisfying than a perfect piece of fruit. Think of that blackberry oozing with purple juice picked from the hedgerow in September or the smell of a freshly picked runner bean in July, snapped in half, its little beans tucked inside. Anyone who fails to take advantage of such things is missing out on something very special. But the seasons are short. The English asparagus season, for instance, is a matter of only six weeks during May and June, so supermarkets extend the seasons by importing produce from other countries. We should probably be grateful for this. But there is also now a system where we can buy almost anything at any time of year. I will not knock this. Sometimes it makes a pleasant change to eat green beans in winter, but eating locally grown produce in its natural season is something we should make the most of. The argument that English tomatoes or strawberries picked at the height of summer always taste better than those from elsewhere is a myth. The truth of the matter is that they very often do taste better, and it would be silly not to take advantage of that.

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According to Nigel Slater, the most important element of any meal is the quality of the ingredients used to make it. It is far better to cook a simple recipe with fine ingredients than a complex and fancy one with poor ingredients. When it comes to spices, it is a mistake to have a large collection of ground ones in the cupboard, because they lose their freshness so quickly. A better idea is to keep just a few of your favourite spices in whole form and grind them when you need them. Fresh herbs can make a dish, as does the basil that is essential to pasta with pesto. Tough herbs, such as thyme, rosemary, bay and sage, are best added to a dish at the start of cooking. Rosemary is tough enough to be sprinkled on lamb chops and barbequed. Herbs and vegetables that you grow yourself seem to have a more intense flavour than shop-bought ones, and they will always be fresher. There is an extra pleasure to eating home-grown food. The usual advice for choosing a chicken is to find one that is nice and plump. Much more important than this, however, is the breed of the bird, what it was fed on and how much exercise it got. Every fruit and vegetable has its season when it is ready to be picked and eaten. Unfortunately, the seasons for each kind of produce are short, so now we extend them by importing from other countries. This is a great advantage, but locally grown fruit and vegetables often taste better, and we should take advantage of that.

Read and understand

6.43 • Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the text. a The ingredients used to make a meal should be of high . b Spices should be kept and ground when needed. c Tough herbs should be added at the of cooking. d The flavour of home-grown herbs and vegetables is more . e It is no guarantee of quality that a chicken is . f Fruit and vegetables are made available year round by them. 6.44 •• Answer the questions. a What is more important than following a fancy recipe? b Which herb is tough enough to be put directly on the grill? c What is the advantage of growing your own herbs and vegetables? d Which three properties of a chicken determine its quality? e What advantage is there to importing fruit and vegetables? f Why should we eat more local produce?

IN SHORT

element del fancy sofistikert collection samling cupboard skap grind kverne sprinkled drysset / dryssa plump lubben breed rase produce her: råvare extend forlenge convenience bekvemmelighet / komfort take advantage of dra nytte av

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Practice

6.45 Translate the following ingredient names mentioned in the text into Norwegian. a thyme c chicory e lemon sole g scallop i pumpkin b bay d plaice f blackberry h broad beans j scallop 6.46 Fill in the missing words. lean – savoury – wobbly – crackling – grilled – tantalising – spitting – flavour Pork The glory of pork is its juicy, sweet meat, lashings of fat and crisp skin that puffs up into . Anyone who suggests that pork should be is missing the whole point. The fat bastes the meat as it cooks, adding and succulence. In fact, if you choose the right cut and cook it on the bone you won’t come across a juicier meat. Pork makes a gorgeous, roast. The smell of a joint of pork crackling and in the oven is one of the great pleasures of cooking. But it can also be or braised slowly. A pork braise is a joyous supper with thick, juices. Cold-weather cooking at its best.

Nigel Slater’s month-by-month recommendations for seasonal ingredients January February March April May June July August September October November December

root vegetables – in shepherd’s pie, Irish stew and braised oxtail Jerusalem artichoke – in soup with cream, bacon and onions mussels – grilled with garlic butter and breadcrumbs spinach – in a salad with bacon, cooked almost to a crisp, and mustard dressing asparagus – with a puddle of melted butter broad beans – with pancetta and parsley, as an accompaniment to salmon lettuces, cucumbers, beetroot, radishes and spring onions – in a classic English salad sardines – grilled with hunks of bread and halves of lemon apples – pressed into single-variety apple juice pumpkins – roasted with butter and a little chopped chilli scallops – flashed briefly in a pan of frothing butter and garlic chicory – in a winter salad with crumblings of Roquefort and a mustardy dressing

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Speak

6.47 Based on your existing knowledge, take turns explaining to your partner how to select good quality examples of a few different ingredients such as onions, avocados, mushrooms, fillet steak, whole trout when buying them from the market or supermarket. 6.48 You and a partner each select a different month of the year. You must think of an ingredient that is in season during that month and describe to your partner three different dishes in which it could be used.

Explore

6.49 The formative events of Nigel Slater’s life are wonderfully, and sometimes painfully, captured in the 2010 film Toast, which is based on his autobiography of the same title. If you can, watch the film in class. What was it about food and cooking that captured Nigel’s interest and imagination? Discuss this in small groups. Share your own early experiences with food and the events that led to your choice to study restaurant and food processing in school.

Write

6.50 Write a five-paragraph essay about the importance of cooking with fresh ingredients. You will find advice on how to structure your text on page 240. Your text should include: • an introduction • examples of how produce varies in its freshness, depending on its source • reflections on the importance of using fresh ingredients • the challenges of finding, purchasing and cooking with fresh ingredients • a conclusion

After working with the text and exercises, I can understand how important it is to select fresh, good quality ingredients. YES ALMOST NO

I can understand how to use different sorts of ingredients effectively.

Give your essay a suitable title.

Did you know?

How did you do?

Importing vegetables is not the only way to ensure that they remain available after the harvest. Carrots are regularly stored in the ground between autumn and winter, covered by a plastic sheet to keep out the light and a layer of straw to keep the warmth in. Because the soil carrots are grown in is sandy, it breaks apart easily, which makes it possible to harvest them during the cold winter weather. Roughly one third of all carrots grown in the UK are preserved in the ground in this way.

YES ALMOST NO

I can explain why it is best to use ingredients while they are locally in season. YES ALMOST NO

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FACT FILE FACT FILE FACT sesame seeds

bun

thousand-island dressing ketchup

mustard

sprouts

onions

THE PERFECT BURGER Try this recipe to make your own all-American hamburger buns to top off the perfect burger! All-American Hamburger Buns Ingredients 340g plain flour 15g fresh yeast 1 tsp sugar 285ml warm water 1 tsp salt 30g butter or margarine 1 egg beaten to glaze sesame seeds to decorate

tomato

pickles

bacon

fried egg

avocado

lettuce

cheese

beef

mushroom

bun

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Directions 1. Sieve one third of the flour into a mixing bowl, rub in the fresh yeast. Add the sugar and water and mix to a smooth batter. 2. Cover with a damp cloth and leave to ferment for 15 minutes. 3. In a separate bowl mix the remaining flour and salt and rub in the butter till you have fine breadcrumbs. 4. Add the batter mixture and combine to form a soft dough and knead well for 10 minutes. Cover with a damp cloth and leave to prove for an hour. 5. Knead again for a minute before sectioning the dough into eight equal portions. Roll each piece into a flat, round shape. 6. Place on a greased baking tray, cover with a dry cloth and prove until doubled, about 40–50 minutes. 7. Brush gently with beaten egg and sprinkle with sesame seeds. Bake in a hot oven. 220C/gas mark 7 for 10 minutes.


T FILE FACT FILE FACT FILE

DID YOU DO 6|HOW IN THIS CHAPTER? After working with the topics in this chapter, write a few sentences about what you have learned. Using different tools in different professions I know … I can … Communicating flavor and texture I know … I can … Selecting and making good use of ingredients I know … I can … Structuring a text I know … I can … Listening strategies I know … I can …

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS PRONOUNS + IT / THERE Pronouns Pronouns are used instead of a noun or a noun phrase. There are many types of pronouns. Here are some examples. Personal (subject and object): I – you – he – she – it – we – they – me – him – her – us – them Possessive: my – mine – your – yours – his – hers – ours – theirs Reflexive: myself – yourself – himself – herself – itself – ourselves – yourselves – themselves – oneself Indefinite: any – anyone – anybody – anything – some – someone – somebody – something – every – each – either Relative: who – which – whose – whom – that Demonstrative: this – that – these – those

Practise 6.51 Personal pronouns A personal pronoun is used instead of a noun for a person or a thing. Underline the personal pronouns in the following text. On the day of the oral exam, Peter was a little nervous. It was his first external exam at upper secondary school, so he didn’t know what to expect. He and five other pupils from his class had been selected. On the previous morning, they were each given a topic to prepare for. This had surprised them, because they thought it was possible to choose a topic freely from the syllabus. Their English teacher, Bente, gave them guidance. She couldn’t tell Peter whether he had chosen the right problem to investigate, but he got plenty of helpful general advice from her.

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 6.52 Possessive pronouns Possessive pronouns show that something belongs to someone. Choose the correct possessive pronoun in the open spaces. a I own that toy. That toy is ! b Michael has a skipping rope. It is . c This football belongs to Susan. The football is . d They have lots of books. The books are . e We have many students here. The students are . f I think you left a book here. Is this book ? g Can I see your tickets? Alright, these seats are . h The missing dog found way home. 6.53 Reflexive pronouns Pay attention to the difference between the singular and the plural forms. Singular: myself – yourself – himself – herself – itself – oneself Plural: ourselves – yourselves – themselves Choose the right form in the open spaces. a I enjoyed last night. b We enjoyed last night. c He sent her a picture of . d They bought a new car for . e Remember this, children, it’s important to believe in f She made a sandwich. g Did you hurt , John? h The dog taught how to open doors.

!

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 6.54 Indefinite pronouns Some is used in positive sentences and in questions when offering or asking for something that is there. Any is used in negative sentences or questions. Choose some or any in the open spaces. a Can you buy new light bulbs on the way home? b We don’t have money left. c teachers don’t understand that they are role models. d Is there news about Rachel? e David won’t give information to the police. f I have heard rumours about what happened. g Would the boys like orange juice? Punctuation rule: Never place a comma after a relative clause unless there is also a comma before it.

6.55 Relative pronouns In relative clauses, we use who about people and which about everything else. In relative clauses where there is no comma, that can be used instead of who or which. Commas before and after a relative clause mean that it just gives extra information. When there are no commas, the relative clause helps define who or what is described. Examples: The pupils in this class, who work hard, will get good grades. (= All the pupils in the class) The pupils in this class who work hard will get good grades. (= Only the hard-working ones) The people who / that live there have high-paying jobs. This novel, which has received a lot of praise, was only published last month. Choose whether who, which or that should go in the open spaces. a The secondary school, opened last year, is for 16-18 year old pupils. b Mrs Dearing, is the Principal, is very experienced. c The pupils go there seem to like it. d The receptionist I talked to was quite helpful. e Mr and Mrs Richards, have children there, speak highly of the place.

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 6.56 Demonstrative pronouns This and these refer to something that is near. That and those refer to things that are farther away. This and that refer to the singular, while these and those are plural. Choose the correct demonstrative pronoun in the open spaces. a is my house, please come in! b is our car over there in the parking lot. c are Naima’s dolls up there on the shelf. d All toys need to be cleared away immediately! e Do you see books over there? Please bring them to me. f Let me show you the toys. is the new train set.

It / There Norwegian det can be translated into it or there in English. We use there when we can say that something exists. We use it – about time, temperature, the weather and distance. – when pointing back to something already mentioned. – when it is used because the real subject of the sentence is long. Examples:  It is cold outside today. There are four nurses on the ward.

Practise 6.57 It – there Choose it or there in the open spaces. a Once upon a time, was a woman who had eleven sons and one daughter. b The boys think is something strange about our new neighbor. c is a mystery why the boss wants to see me today. d He knows is nothing they can do about it. e Is anything you would like to tell me? f What time is ? g Oh dear, is already past midnight. h is good to see you again. i was an accident at the end of the road yesterday. j How far is to the cinema?

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CHAPTER 7

Global Challenges


In this chapter you will focus on

• challenges in certain

areas of the world • writing an application • giving oral presentations • the use of apostrophes • direct and indirect speech

Useful words and phrases conflict refugees war climate change environment pollution human rights exploitation fair-trade consumption

Don’t blow it – good planets are hard to find.

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Young Voices “You know what I think about a lot? How much we consume in the western world. It’s bad. Consumption is what we live for in the so-called civilized world, and what we get from that is a pile of waste, reaching to the moon soon.” Benjamin (18), from Brighton, England

“What really scares me, is the climate change. Icebergs in polar areas melt because of global warming. Experts say that the melting water will make the ocean level rise, and that will affect my country badly. We would have to move. I love my country. I would hate to see this happen.” Jelle (16), from Amsterdam, The Netherlands

“In my home town, in Afghanistan, people fear for their lives every day. My parents spent all their money so that I could escape. I miss them a lot, and worry about them. I work hard, to make them proud of me.” Enayat (19), from Balkh, Afghanistan

consume forbruke consumption forbruk pile of en haug med/ein haug med waste søppel climate change klimaendringer/ klimaendringar level nivå ice bergs isfjell polar area polområde experts eksperter/ekspertar affect påvirke/påverke flooded oversvømt/overfløymd fear frykter/er redd for, ottast escape unnslippe/sleppe unna proud stolt guilty skyldig/skuldig suffer lide starvation sult/svolt newsflash nyhetsoppslag/ nyhende(oppslag) war-zones krigsområder/ krigsområde teenager tenåring

“I feel guilty when I see poor people onTV. So many children suffer from starvation in poor parts of the world. Also, when I see news stories from warzones, it makes me want to cry. But what can I do? I am just a teenager …” Denise Harris (18), from New York, US

Read and understand

7.1 Who says what in this text? Write down the correct names along with the quotes listed below. a … it will affect my country badly. b I feel guilty. c Consumption is what we live for. d But what can I do? e My parents spent all their money … f It makes me want to cry. g People fear for their lives every day. h I would hate to see this happen.

Speak

7.2 Which of the young speakers do you mostly agree with? Share your statements in class. Start with: Personally, I agree with … 7.3 What do you think of when you hear the following words? a refugees b environment c conflicts

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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to

Practise

7.4 Find the English words in the text that correspond with the Norwegian words below. a påvirke b isbre c forbruke d unnslippe e tenåring f klimaendring

▶▶ mention

some global challenges ▶▶ explain the words conflict, waste, refugees, starvation and climate change ▶▶ express your own thoughts on one global challenge

Write

7.5 Write the text below and fill in the missing words. starvation – conflict – waste – refugees – climate change a When I hear the word I think of people who argue about things and seem unable to solve their problem. b means that people do not have enough food. c are people who have fled their home country because it is no longer safe to live there. d Because we can afford to buy new things, we tend to consume a lot of goods and throw them away, making a huge pile of . e The atmosphere surrounding our planet is becoming warmer, and that is what we call . 7.6 Study the cartoon below. Write 6–7 sentences about what is going on.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can mention some global challenges YES ALMOST NO

I can explain the words conflict, waste, refugees, starvation and climate change. YES ALMOST NO

I can express my own thoughts on one global challenge. YES ALMOST NO

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!

Before you start On the previous pages you read about young people who reflected upon global problems. In this text you meet people who have joined humanitarian organizations to help and make a difference in the world.

mission oppdrag abroad utenlands/utanlands humanitarian menneskelige/ menneskelege occur dukker opp, skjer/ dukkar opp, skjer, hender wounds sår, skader/sår, skadar injuries skader/skadar related to i forbindelse med/ i samband med adjust tilpasse seg fiercely intenst, innbitt/ intenst, sterkt, kraftig direct lede/leie, føre nutrition ernæring climate disaster naturkatastrofe consequence konsekvens cyclone syklon provided sørget for/sørgde for temporary midlertidig/ mellombels shelter husly preschool barnehage attend gå i, gå på label merkelapp legal documents rettslige dokumenter/rettslege dokument poverty fattigdom oppression undertrykkelse/ undertrykking employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgivar

Making a Difference

My name is Isac. I work as a surgeon for Doctors without Borders. I am employed by a state-owned hospital in Sweden and go on missions abroad where humanitarian crisis occur. Last fall I was in Nigeria. Mostly we treated war-related wounds, but also some injuries related to traffic accidents. Working conditions are different from home, and the pressure is high. I need some time to adjust when I come home. I am Aron. I work for the Red Cross as an ambulance driver in my home country, the Congo. It is dangerous work because of the civil war that’s going on. The parties take control over areas, and guard their territories fiercely. Mostly the soldiers let Red Cross-staff pass, so that we can help people who need to get to hospital for treatment. I am a trained nurse, and also a mechanic, which is a great combination. Hello, I am John, and I am English. I direct a project for nutrition, health and education in Bangladesh. I work for an independent humanitarian organization called Save the Children. Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. When a climate disaster hits a country like this, the consequences are enormous. Last year, a cyclone made 200,000 families homeless. Save the Children quickly set up 40 places where children could learn and play and provided 13,000 children with a nutritious meal every day and clean drinking water. We also built temporary shelter for 3,000 children and their families, and supplied teaching materials and toys to 500 preschools attended by nearly 53,000 children. Hi, I am Cecilia. I am Danish, and my employer is the UNESCO. I work to give everybody the opportunity to learn how to read and write. Babies die because their mothers are unable to read the label on the medicine bottle. Likewise, farmers lose their land because they cannot read legal documents. There are far too many children around the world who do not go to school. Instead, they have to work because their families are poor. I strongly believe that education is the way out of poverty and oppression, and I am proud to work in a program for educating women in Kenya.

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Read and understand

7.7 The sentences below are quotes from the text. Scan the text again and fill in the missing words. a It is work. b We also built shelter. c They have to work because . d Working are different from home. e I am proud to work in a program for women in Kenya. f I am a trained . g the are enormous. h Mostly we war-related wounds.

After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ mention

some humanitarian organizations and what they do ▶▶ present one humanitarian organization

Speak

7.8 Work in pairs. One is a journalist, the other is one of the persons on the previous page. This person has just returned home from a mission. The journalist has come for an interview. Act out the interview. Feel free to use the following questions or make your own. a How does it feel to be back home? b What motivates you for the job you do when you are in … c Were you ever in danger during your time in … d Would you recommend others to work for your organization?

Practise

7.9 Find the words in the text that match the Norwegian words below. a ernæring f sørge for/sørgje for b gå i, gå på g midlertidig/mellombels c sår, skader / sår, skadar h kirurg d bruksanvisning/bruksrettleiing i organisasjon e tilpasse seg j fattig

Write

7.10 Make a leaflet with the title “Get Involved!”. Find the logo of one of the organizations mentioned the text “Making a Difference”. Use the logo and present the organization to people your own age.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can mention some humanitarian organizations and what they do.

YES

Explore

7.11 What are the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals? Find out. 7.12 Many organizations have a fascinating history. Present one organization. How did it all start? Who were its pioneers? Use different sources to find information.

ALMOST

NO

I can present one humanitarian organization. YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 1

Melkeveien 1 2315 Hamar†Norway

2

10 January 2015

Global Volunteers 77 Cable Street London E1 8HS England 3

Dear Sir/Madam.

4

I would like to apply for a place in your disaster relief programme in Bangladesh. I recently read about the programme on your organization’s web site.

5

I am an eighteen-year-old Norwegian woman, who will complete my education in June. As you will see from my CV and diplomas, I have been actively involved in a student-run enterprise at school. Additionally, I have gained valuable experience through summer jobs in the local municipality.

6

People who know me characterise me as reliable and flexible. I adjust well to new situations and challenges. Furthermore, volunteer work has been an important part of my spare time. In my role as a member of the student council at school, I have learnt to cooperate well with other people, and I think I would be a good team player. My health is good and I am physically strong and fit.

7

Hopefully, my background and qualifications are of interest to you. I would be happy to come for an interview. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours faithfully,

8

Hanna Bakke 9

Enclosures: CV, diplomas, reference from the school council, reference from employer

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A FORMAL LETTER There are many types of formal letters, for example job applications, enquiries, complaints and formal invitations. Most formal letters have the same layout. The example on the left page is an application. Remember the following points when you are writing a formal letter. 1 2 3 4 5 6

7

8 9

Put your own address at the top of the page. Place the date on the last line of your address. Write the address of the person/ company to whom you are writing. Include a salutation or greeting. Use Dear Sir/Madam when writing to a company. State why you are writing in the first paragraph. Write the main information in the paragraph in the middle of the letter. In applications: First, say something about your education and work experience. Then, say something about your skills and personal qualifications. In the last paragraph, state what action you expect the recipient to take. End your letter with a polite standard phrase. Sign the letter with an appropriate salutation. Leave space for a signature. Say whether you have enclosed any documents.

Here are some points to remember: • The language and tone should be polite. • Do not use contractions (I’m, she’s, we’ve). • Use standard phrases to open and close a formal letter. • When starting with Dear Sir/Madam, close with Yours faithfully. • When starting with Dear Mr … or Dear Ms …, close with Yours sincerely. • Structure the paragraphs so that the page looks neat.

Practise 7.13 Write an application for the job advertised below.

Volunteers needed as kitchen staff for our summer camps in Italy, in July. If you are a healthy, strong and friendly person, with an interest for adventure, join our dedicated staff as a volunteer this summer. We arrange 18 summer camps in Italy for children who live at orphanages. You may be the right person if you • are 18 years old or more. • speak English fluently, preferably also Spanish or Italian. • are educated within restaurant and food processing. For more information, see our website www.SAFE-CHILDREN.org. Please send us your application as soon as possible. Safe Children, now! Humanitarian organization 88 Johnson Road Birchester, NN16 2AE England

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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ act

out a play ▶▶ explain why children in some parts of the world have to work instead of going to school ▶▶ discuss what part commercials and role models play in trade

Trainers – A True Story Roles:  Laura (12), Laura’s mother, Lee, Cornpone, Famous Footballer, Teenager, Con Sports, Actor 1–4. Actor 1:  Ladies and gentlemen! Actor 2:  Mesdames et messieurs! Actor 3:  We present … Actor 4:  For your delight … Actor 1:  Entertainment … Actor 2:  And education! Actor 3:  The story of … All:  Trainers! Actor 4:  A true story! All:  (The lines are shared between the actors.) Are your feet old-fashioned? Are your toes uncool? Are your ankles definitely sad? Then you need Flash trainers! The trainers with the mega stripes and the ‘super sponge sole’. Be the envy of your friends! Be one of the gang! Get Flash trainers! They’re the latest, they’re the greatest! Flash! They’re the best! Trainers from Flash – the company that cares. Actor 2:  Meanwhile, in a far-off country far, far away, somewhere in the Far East. Laura:   My name is Laura. I am twelve years old. Mother:  I am Laura’s mother. There’s no food in the house, we have no money and we’re starving. You’ll have to get a job; the money you earn will help us all. Laura:  That’s not fair! That means I’ll have to leave school.

!

Before you start The following play is about trainers. Most people have at least one pair of trainers. What is there to write about, concerning trainers? Read the play, act it out, and you will see that a pair of trainers play very different roles to different people.

old-fashioned gammeldags/ gamaldags ankles ankler/okler/anklar sponge sole såle av skumplast

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Mother:  We can’t afford to send you to school anymore. Laura:  Without an education I’ll never get a good job when I’m older. Mother:  You think I like this? We don’t have any choice. Laura:  And what if I say no? Mother:  Then we starve. I’ve got you a job at the Oriental Footwear Company; you start tomorrow. All:  (The lines are shared between the actors.) Join the Oriental Footwear Company. We promise you: low wages, long hours, no sick pay and no holidays. You won’t need any days off; you’d be too tired to enjoy them. Join the Oriental Footwear Company, the company that cares … about making a profit.

afford ha råd til profit fortjeneste/forteneste ungreateful utakknemlig/ utakknemleg brat uskikkelig unge/ uskikkeleg unge production line produksjonslinje/ produksjonsline stuff it putte det choke kvele/kvele fulfill the quota fylle kvoten

Lee:  My name is Mr Lee; I am the boss of the Oriental Footwear Company. We only make trainers for the best international companies. Laura:  Please Mr Lee, I’ve come for a job. Lee:  Shut up! Laura:  Please don’t hit me. Lee:  I’ll do what I want, you work for me now. Why aren’t you hard at work, you ungrateful little brat? Laura:  I’m new, I don’t know what to do. Lee:  Get on the production line. Stick one of these to one of those and stuff it in there. Laura:  What do I do then? Lee:  You do it again and again for the next ten hours, for the next week, for the next month and the next year. You do it for as long as you’ve got any fingers left. Just like the rest of them. Laura:  Please Mr Lee, the smell from the glue chokes us – there is no proper ventilation. Lee:  No problem – stop breathing. Laura: Can I go home now? I’ve been working for ten hours without a break. Lee:  No, you haven’t fulfilled your quota for the day. You’ve got to meet the quota before you can go home; that’s the rule. Laura:  Please Mr Lee, I’ve been here a day now; I’ve come to collect my pay. How much have I earned? Lee:  You’ve earned lots – I pay you 38 pence per hour. Laura:  38 pence an hour, that’s not fair. Lee:  Your choice, take it or starve. Laura:  All right I’ll take it, what choice do I have? Lee:  None. That’s ten hours at 38 pence an hour, that’s £3.80. Laura:  But I’ve worked for 12 hours today. Lee:  That’s because you didn’t work fast enough and you didn’t fulfill your quota. So …

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Laura:  I know, take it or starve. I’ll take it. Lee:  I knew you would, now get lost before I change my mind and sack you! I can get plenty more like you. Laura:   It’s not fair! Lee:  It’s business. A pair of trainers costs me £5.25 for materials, 90 pence for labour, £1.25 in overheads and 22 pence wastage which is a total cost price £7.62. I sell trainers for £10 per pair. Which means I make a profit of £2.38 on each and every pair I make and my factory makes 1000 pairs a day. Which means I take home £2380 profit each day. Laura:  And I take home £3.80. Lee:  What a shame, now shove off! All: Are you suffering from: Headaches? Dizzy spells? Backache? Tiredness? Lack of sleep? Then you need … to stop working for the Oriental Footwear Company. That’s right folks. The Oriental Footwear Company, the company that promises you pain, punishment and poverty. Forget your human rights, come work for the Oriental Footwear Company – the company that cares … about making a profit. Cornpone:  Royston T Cornpone at your service. I represent Flash Trainers – ‘They’re the best’, know what I mean? And I’m doing rather well. I gotta big house, big cars, big boat and the biggest little ol’ country cottage you’ve ever seen. Yesseree, selling sports goods has made me pretty rich. Flash is a company from the good old US of A. We sell trainers and sportswear but we don’t actually make anything – we just buy trainers as cheap as we can, put the Flash brand name on them and sell them expensive. And we only buy where trainers are very cheap – like at the Oriental Footwear Company. Lee:  Good morning Mr Cornpone. Cornpone:  Howdy Mr Lee. Lee:  What can I do for you Mr Cornpone? Cornpone:  Why Mr Lee, I want to buy a hundred thousand pairs of trainers at a fair price of £10 a pair. Lee:  A fair price indeed. Fair for me. Cornpone:  And fair for me. Lee:  Fair for everyone and I get to make £238 000 profit. Cornpon:  Shake on it Mr Lee. Lee:  It’s a deal Mr Cornpone. Cornpone:  Tell me Mr Lee, how do you manage to make trainers so cheaply? Lee:  You don’t want to know. Cornpone:  You’re right, I don’t. Truth is I don’t care as long as I can make a profit. All:  Buy Flash sportswear, wear it and you’ll look a million dollars. Flash – the company that cares … about making a profit. They’re the best!

overheads driftsutgifter/ driftskostnader wastage svinn Shove off! Forsvinn! dizzy spell anfall av svimmelhet/å kjenne seg svimmel backache vondt i ryggen punishment straff yesseree slang for Yes, Sir Howdy! Hallo!

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advertising reklame suckers fjols persuade overtale endorsement støtte nutmegs sparke ballen mellom motstanders ben/ sparke ballen mellom motstandaren sine bein swerve svinge unna Gotta dash… Må stikke… department store kjøpesenter unbranded uoriginale geeky teit

Cornpone:  So now I’ve bought these trainers for £10 a pair. Add on advertising costs, overheads, development, packaging, which works out at about £2 a pair. It’s company policy to sell them for twice what we paid for them: we buy for £10 and sell for £20. Last year our income was £4 billion. We spend millions each year on advertising to the suckers, sorry, customers that buy our products. All we’ve gotta do is persuade millions of dumb teenagers to buy our trainers. And how do we do that? Easy, we spend £300 million each year on sports endorsements. Footballer:  He runs down the wing, slides past one defender, nutmegs another, a quick swerve and it’s a goal! I’m a famous Premier Division footballer. Gotta big house; gotta Jag or two, gotta Porsche or two, gotta Ferrari or two, or is it three; anyway gotta big garage. I’m a sporting superstar. All the kids look up to me. They all cut their hair like me. They all wanna buy the same shirt that I wear and they all wanna wear the same trainers that I wear. In fact, they’d like to be me but they haven’t got the talent. Cornpone:  Excuse me Mr Famous Footballer. Footballer:  What d’you want? Have you got permission from my manager to talk to me? Cornpone:  How would you like to be very rich? Footballer:  What’s the matter with you? You thick or something? I am very rich. Don’t you read the papers? Cornpone:  How would you like even more money? Footballer:  I’m listening – you can’t have too much of a good thing. Cornpone:  How about I pay you to wear Flash trainers. Footballer:  Why would you do that? Cornpone:  Then all the kids will buy Flash trainers. Footballer:  How much? Cornpone:  £4 million a year. Footballer:  How about £8 million? Cornpone:  How about we split the difference and call it £6 million? Footballer:  It’s a deal – sort out the contract with my agent. Gotta dash. Cornpone:  £6 million but worth every penny; selling trainers is big business worldwide. All:  Where do you buy your trainers? Do you buy cheap sad trainers from department stores? Do you buy unbranded geeky trainers from no-hope shops? If you do, all your friends will laugh at you! You won’t be able to show your feet in the high street. Buy only from the best. Buy your trainers from Con Sports – the best sports shop in town. We sell only the best famous name brands. Con Sports:  Con Sports is the name and I have a shop in every high street and shopping centre in the UK. I sell all kinds of sports goods, especially

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trainers. And I am very rich. Now I’m in the market for half a million pairs of trainers. Cornpone:  No problem, well sell you Flash trainers at £20 per pair. Con Sports:  It’s a deal; I’ll have half a million. Cornpone:  Great doing business with you. Teenager:  Cool! Yeah. Innit. Yeah. Whozzup! Cool! Yeah. Innit. Whozzup! Con Sports:  Hello, here comes another idiot, sorry, did I say idiot, I really meant customer. A fool and his money are soon parted. Teenager:  Cool! Yeah. Innit. Yeah. Whozzup! Cool! Yeah. Innit. Yeah. Whozzup! Con Sports:  Yes sir, what can I do for you? Teenager:  Listen, mush, I wanna pair of trainers. Con Sports:  Play sport, do you? Teenager:  You havin’ a laugh? Don’t do sport, just watch it – on the telly! I support Grotchester. Watch every time they’re on the telly. I play games – computer games! Con Sports:  So what sort of trainers do you want? Teenager:  I’m dead choosy, me, about what I put on my feet. They gotta have that little stripe thingy down the sides, and the squiggly thingy on the sole. And one sole’s gotta be red and the other green so that I can remember which foot to put them on. Con Sports:  You want the latest, don’t you? Teenager:  Yeah! Con Sports:  The best? Teenager:  Only the top of the range will do for me, ‘cause I’m cool. Con Sports:  You want a pair just like Famous Footballer wears, don’t you? Teenager:  How did you know that? Con Sports:  Just guessing. Well, it just so happens we’ve got some in stock, the very best, the top of the range. As worn by Famous Footballer. Got a pair here, cost £80, but they’re on special offer. Teenager:  How much? Con Sports:  Not £70, not £60, not £50 but only £40. But you’ll have to buy now because I’ve only got a few pairs left. Only another half a million pairs. Teenager:  Great, I’ll take ‘em. Wait ‘til I tell all my mates how I got a pair of top of the range trainers for only £40. Con Sports:  Little does he know that I only paid £20 for them. Teenager:  I’ll be the envy of all my mates; they’ll all want a pair. Con Sports:  You’d better tell them quick, the special offer won’t last forever. Teenager:  Oh I will. Cool! Yeah. Innit. Whozzup! Cool! Yeah. Innit. Whozzup! Con Sports:  Another satisfied dimwit.

be parted bli skilt fra/bli skild frå mush grøt/graut squiggly krøllete strek thingy «greie» in stock på lager top of the range toppen av lista dimwit dum person

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All:  Con Sports, the company with a shop in every high street. Con Sports, the company that cares about … making a profit. (To the nursery rhyme tune.) This is the way we make our money, Make our money, make our money. This is the way we make our money, Every, every day. Con Sports:  I’m very rich. I buy trainers for £20 a pair from him. Cornpone:  I’m very rich. I buy them for £10 a pair from him. Lee:  I’m very rich. I pay her 38 pence an hour to make them. Laura:  I’m very poor. I can’t even afford to buy the trainers I make; I have to wear cheap plastic sandals. All:  Are your feet old-fashioned? Are your toes uncool? Are your ankles definitely sad? Then you need Flash trainers! The trainers with the mega stripes and the ‘super sponge sole’. Be the envy of your friends! Be one of the gang! Get Flash trainers! They’re the latest, they’re the greatest! Flash! They’re the best! Trainers from Flash – the company that cares.

Read and understand

7.14 Who says what? Combine the statements below with the right character in the play. 1 You’ve earned lots – I pay you 38 pence per hour. a Laura 2 I’ll be the envy of all my mates; they’ll all want a pair. b Laura’s Mother 3 We can’t afford to send you to school anymore. c Lee 4 I’m listening – you can’t have too much of a good thing. d Cornpone 5 So what sort of trainers do you want? e Footballer 6 That means I’ll have to leave school. f Con Sports 7 How would you like to be very rich? g Teenager

Practise

7.15 Translate into Norwegian. “Where do you buy your trainers? Do you buy cheap sad trainers from department stores? Do you buy unbranded geeky trainers from nohope shops? If you do, all your friends will laugh at you! You won’t be able to show your feet in the high street. Buy only from the best. Buy your trainers from Con Sports – the best sports shop in town. We sell only the best famous name brands.”

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7.16 Use the following words to fill in the empty spaces. sorry – hopeless – system – school – enormous – read – support – poor – unfair – wages – factory this play. I feel for Laura. She is a victim to a I feel sad when I of trade that is . No child should have to leave because the family is . Laura’s mother is under pressure. With her low , she cannot fully her family, and forces Laura to work in the shoe The family is in a situation.

Speak

7.17 Act out the play. Make it an exercise of pronunciation. 7.18 Discuss in pairs and share in class. a What are the themes in the play? Choose from the following words and expressions. pollution – health – training – music – materialism – trade and economy – poverty – shoe design – arts and crafts – education – death – greed – alcohol and drugs – keeping fit – food – child labour – injustice – machines How did you do?

b c d e f g h i j

What lines from the play sound like commercials? What is the purpose of commercials? Why is “Famous Footballer” engaged in promoting the trainers? Laura has little hope of getting an education. How will this affect her future life? Whose money plays the most important part in the play? Who do you mostly identify with in this play? How do you spend your money, and how do you feel about it? If you could change anything in this play, what would it be? What do you think about the play Trainers?

Write

7.19 Choose one of the following tasks. a • Describe the characters in the play, in your own words. b •• Write a short text called “How I spend my money, and how I feel about it.” c ••• Write a summary of the play. Include descriptions of the characters, and a suggestion of how each of the characters might act more ethically.

After working with the text and exercises, I can act out a play. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can explain why children in some parts of the world have to work instead of going to school. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can discuss what part commercials and role models play in trade. YES

ALMOST

NO

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environmentally friendly miljøvennlig / miljøvennleg pile haug authorities myndigheter / styresmakter non-governmental ikke-statlig / ikkje-statleg sustainable bærekraftig / berekraftig certify sertifisere, godkjenne eco-lighthouse miljøfyrtårn achieve oppnå certificate sertifikat efficiency effektivitet low flush (toalett med) lav spyling / (toalett med) låg spyling faucets vannkraner / vasskraner flow rate gjennomstrømning / gjennomstrøyming average gjennomsnitt composting kompostering leftovers matrester / matrestar tins bokser / boksar receipts kvitteringer / kvitteringar Styrofoam isopor reusable gjenbrukbare / som kan gjenbrukast

Green Restaurants It is no secret that most restaurants are not exactly environmentally friendly. They use a lot of energy and water and produce piles of garbage. Today, however, more and more people in the restaurant industry are thinking about the environment. National authorities and non-governmental organizations help restaurants and hotels become more environmentally sustainable by certifying them according to certain standards and thereby making them into “Green Restaurants” or Eco-Lighthouses.

Changing habits In order to achieve a Green Restaurant certificate, the owners must make changes in many areas. First, water efficiency is important. By installing low flush toilets, dishwashers that use less water, and faucets with a low flow rate, restaurants can save thousands of litres of water. Second, waste reduction is also of great importance. In the USA, for example, an average restaurant can produce 150,000 pounds (70,000 kg) of garbage each year. By recycling, reusing or composting garbage and leftovers, however, restaurants will be able to reduce their waste considerably. Examples of recyclable items in a restaurant are bottles, tins, juice boxes and paper. Moreover, using recycled paper for menus, receipts and take away boxes and using bio bags for organic waste are other possible steps. The same goes for replacing Styrofoam coffee cups with reusable ones, and paper towels with high-speed, electric hand driers. Needless to say, not

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making too much food in the first place will also help restaurants reduce the amount of leftovers. Finally, a third focus area for green restaurants is reducing water pollution. For example, chemical waste can be avoided if soap and cleaning products are replaced with eco-friendly alternatives. Build-up of fat in the sewage system can be prevented if butter and oil are wiped off pans instead of rinsed down the drain or if grease separators are installed. All this, however, demands establishing new habits through training of staff.

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

why restaurants can be a threat to the environment ▶▶ mention some steps a restaurant can take in order to “go green”

Raw materials Naturally, going green is also about what is on the menu, and eco-friendly restaurants serve organic and sustainable food. By making the right choices, a restaurant can influence the food supply chain in a positive way. Focus areas here are meat production, fishery depletion, use of pesticides in agriculture and transport of food. For example, meat should be animal welfare approved. This means that no hormones or antibiotics have been used on the animals, and that chicken and eggs are cage free. Cows and pigs should also be free-range and be fed on grass and vegetables only. Furthermore, fish must be harvested sustainably and be free of harmful pollutants. Finally, it is estimated that the average food product travels 1500 miles to get from farm to plate. Choosing locally-grown food means less pollution and less energy used for transportation and refrigeration during transportation.

Energy Another important criterion for certification of green restaurants is to reduce the use of energy. Most hotels and restaurants use a lot of electricity for heating, cooling, ventilation, water heating and lighting. Choosing clean sources of energy where possible and installing more energy-efficient equipment are both important steps towards a green restaurant. Occupancy sensors in toilets and offices, daylight sensors in dining rooms, LED lamps, convection ovens and other more energy efficient kitchen equipment are examples of smart investments. The basic rules are quite simply “shut it off, turn it down and keep it clean”. A Green certification, however, does not come with a guarantee that the food is tasty and the service is good. Still, if a sustainable restaurant industry is important to customers, they should choose to dine in a green restaurant. Knowing that a meal is healthy and does not harm the environment might even boost the appetite.

pollution kjemisk forurensing / kjemisk forureining food supply chain forsyningskjede for matvarer depletion uttømming pesticides insektmidler / insektmiddel animal welfare dyrevern approved godkjent cage-free ikke i bur / ikkje i bur free-range frittgående / frittgåande harvest høste / hauste pollutants forurensningstoffer / forureiningsstoff refrigeration kjøling equipment utstyr occupancy sensor brukssensor convection oven konveksjonsovn / konveksjonsomn

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IN SHORT

garbage søppel authorities myndigheter / styresmakter environmentally friendly miljøvennlig / miljøvennleg reduce redusere recycling resirkulere reusing bruke om igjen composting kompostering leftovers matrester / matrestar chemicals kjemikalier / kjemikal staff bemanning, ansatte / bemanning, tilsette free-range frittgående / frittgåande harvest høste / hauste sustainable bærekraftig, holdbar / berekrafig, haldbar pollutants forurensningstoffer / forureiningsstoff efficient effektivt equipment utstyr occupancy sensor brukssensor

Restaurants use a lot of energy and water and produce a lot of garbage. Today, national authorities and organizations help restaurants become more environmentally friendly and to become “Green Restaurants”. Changing habits To get a Green Restaurant certificate, the owners must make many changes. They must install toilets and dishwashers that use less water. Also, they must reduce waste by recycling, reusing or composting garbage and leftovers. Finally, they must avoid polluting water, replace chemical cleaning products with eco-friendly alternatives and stop throwing fat into the sink. To make this possible, staff must be trained. Raw materials “Going green” is also about serving the right food. For example, meat should be from free-range animals, fed on grass and vegetables only. Fish must be harvested sustainably and be free of harmful pollutants. Finally, choosing locally grown food means using less energy for transportation. Energy It is also important to reduce the use of energy. To save electricity, restaurants install more energy-efficient equipment. One example is occupancy sensors in toilets. The basic rules to save energy in the kitchen are “shut it off, turn it down and keep it clean.” A Green Restaurant, however, does not necessarily serve tasty food. Still, if the environment is important to the customers, this will make them choose “green”.

Read and understand

7.20 Join the two halves of the sentences together. Write the complete sentences. a Restaurants use a lot of energy and produce 1 a restaurant will use less water. b National authorities help restaurants become 2 a lot of garbage. c To get a Green certificate the owners 3 replaced with eco-friendly alternatives. d By installing low flush toilets 4 install occupancy sensors in the toilets. e Chemical cleaning products should be 5 must make many changes. f Meat should be from 6 more environmentally friendly. g Locally-grown food means 7 they will choose “green restaurants”. h To save electricity, restaurants can 8 free-range animals. i If the environment is important to the customers, 9 less energy used for transport.

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7.21 Answer the questions. Write key words. a How can restaurants become more environmentally friendly when it comes to • water efficiency? • waste reduction? • water pollution? b What should be considered when choosing raw materials for the food? c How can a restaurant reduce its energy consumption?

Speak

7.22 Here are some criteria from the American Green Restaurant Association certification list. Discuss why these criteria are environmentally friendly and how you could meet the challenges. a bicycle storage facilities b recycle bin for wine bottles c reusable water bottles d recycled building materials e recycling stations in all areas of the restaurant e reusable hand towels f locally grown vegetables 7.23 Here are 7 suggestions on how to become a Green restaurant customer. Read the list and discuss to what extent you would follow the advice when eating out. Give reasons for your views. Seven Ways to Green Your Dining Experience 1 Choose to dine green by consulting a Green Restaurant guide. 2 Walk, take public transport, dine at a restaurant close to your home or office, or carpool when dining out. 3 Carry pocket-size guides to sustainable seafood to help you make smart seafood choices at the fish counter or your local sushi bar. 4 Bring your own mug for coffee. Be sure to remind staff to make your drink in the cup you bring, not to waste a cup by making it in a to-go cup, then pouring it into your travel mug. 5 Consider menu items lower on the food chain. For example, chicken has a lower environmental impact than beef, while sustainable seafood has a lower impact than chicken, and vegetarian and vegan items have the lowest of them all. 6 Bring your own reusable container and offer it to your server when you ask to take your leftovers home. 7 Our research has found that several restaurants claim that 25 % of food ordered by customers is wasted and thrown out. Be conscious about what you order and really think about how hungry you are. Source: http://dinegreen.com/customers/green-dining.asp Accessed 13 Jan. 2014.

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Practise

7.24 Find words from the vocabulary list in the word grid below. Write them down. Who can find the most?

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7.25 Fill in the missing words. Write the complete paragraph. quotas – reduce – depleted – halibut – overfishing – fish In order to prevent , the US government has introduced individual fishing (IFQs). This is a federal permit to harvest a certain quantity of and it has been adopted in four US fisheries: Alaskan and sablefish, wreckfish, and surf clams. IFQs help to overfishing and rebuild stocks. 7.26 Combine the pictures with the right species. a surf clams b wreckfish c sablefish d halibut 1

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Listen

7.27 “Norwegian salmon”. Per works in a fish farm off the coast of Norway. Mary is a journalist from Aberdeen who wants to write an article about Norwegian salmon and the aquaculture industry. Listen to their conversation and take notes.

Write

7.28 • Use your key words from the listening task to write a paragraph about challenges linked to marine aquaculture. 7.29 •• Study the steps on how to become an Eco-Lighthouse. Use the information to write a five-paragraph text about first: the process towards certification, second: the challenges and benefits of becoming an Eco-Lighthouse, and third: your own opinion on the importance of this kind of certification.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises,

Explore

7.30 Use different sources to find information about a national criteria for becoming an Eco-Lighthouse in Norway. b businesses in your region that produce food organically. c an Eco-Lighthouse or a Green hotel, restaurant or food processing enterprise in Norway.

Did you know?

In August 2013, Thames Water had to remove the biggest lump of lard ever found in the London sewers. Its system was almost completely clogged by over 15 tonnes of fat. If it hadn’t been removed in time, raw sewage would have started spurting out of manholes and flooding homes and streets across the whole area of Kingston.

I can explain why restaurants can be a threat to the environment. YES ALMOST NO

I can mention some steps a restaurant can take in order to “go green”. YES ALMOST NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATION Many people would rather not speak in front of an audience. Still, most of us will have to do it, either at school or at work. With preparation and practice, you will find that you become more confident.

1 Structure a The introduction First, to catch the attention, you can start by asking a question, making a statement or telling a story that introduces your topic. • Have you ever been inside an ambulance? • When I was a child, I often went to … Then tell your audience who you are and what your presentation is about. • My name is …, and I am going to give a presentation on … Tell your audience how your presentation is structured. • First, I will say a few words about … • Next, there will be information about … • Finally, I will give my own opinion on … b The main part This should be divided into sections so that it is easy to follow. Use relevant videos, pictures, tables and charts to illustrate your points. If you use digital tools, write keywords, not whole sentences. c The conclusion Sum up in a few short sentences what you have talked about. • To sum up this presentation I will say that … • In conclusion I would like to say that … d Thank your audience for listening. • Thank you for your attention. • Thanks for listening. Are there any questions?

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 2 Practise The more you practise, the more confident you feel. Just reading through your presentation is not enough. Learn as much as possible by heart. Get feedback from a friend if possible. Write down keywords and main points on index cards so you remember what to say. Speaking instead of reading from a manuscript will make your presentation more interesting. Time your presentation. If your assignment is to give a three-minute talk, make sure you finish on time. 3 Presentation Enthusiasm is catching, but make sure you speak slowly, loudly and clearly. Keeping eye contact with your listeners is also a good idea. Do not be afraid to take short breaks. Your audience needs them too. Also, be a good listener. Look at the person who is speaking, and make sure your body language is positive. Try to come up with a question or a relevant response afterwards.

Practise 7.31 In pairs, make introductions to a presentation about the following topics. Practise in front of each other, try not to use a manuscript and give each other feedback. a Refugees – an international challenge. b Children and war. c Health care in developing countries. What to look for: • Does the introduction make you want to hear more? • Does the speaker have eye contact with you? • Does he / she speak without a manuscript? 7.32 Choose an environmental issue that you find important and make a short presentation using digital tools. Include: • background information about the problem • the effects it has on the environment and people • possible solutions to the problem Suggested topics: deforestation energy consumption industrial waste epidemics oil spills

radioactive waste garbage overpopulation agriculture and pollution nuclear waste

global warming pollution refugees animal life acid rain

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FACT FILE FACT FILE FACT

English – Speaking Africa Pre-colonial Africa

• Many different kingdoms and empires • Trade amongst themselves and with Arab countries • Also warfare and tribal conflicts

So far the evidence that we have in the world points to Africa as the Cradle of Humankind. George Abungu, Director-General of the National Museums of Kenya

1700

1750

1800

European arrival

Slave trade

Colonisation

• Driven by scientific and economic interests • Explored the continent, its people, wildlife and natural resources • Established trading posts for gold, diamonds, slaves

• An estimated total of 15 million people taken as slaves • The majority transported to the Americas • The slave trade ended in the 19th century

• Rivalry among European countries, the scramble for Africa • Africa divided into colonies by the Europeans in the 1880s • Borders made with no regards to ethnic groups and languages • Main purpose to gain natural resources and power

Culture and Wildlife in Africa Today, Africa is famous for so much more than her troubled past. An increasing number of African musicians, writers, athletes and football players have reached international fame and glory. Also living conditions have improved together with economic growth and profit from natural resources. In many African countries tourists may enjoy adventurous safari trips, excellent food, wine, and beautiful beaches.

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T FILE FACT FILE FACT FILE 07_14

Mn

Cu

Cu Mn

Mn

Oil Gas

Cu

Cu Mn

Diamonds Uranium Cu

Copper

Mn

Manganese

Cu Cu Mn

Iron

Mn

Gold

In most African countries there are several ethnic groups, and most of them have their own mother tongue. Although English is the official language in many of these countries, and therefore the language of politics, the media, education, trade etc, it is not the mother tongue of most people. For example, in South Africa there are eleven official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. Very often children learn English when they start school.

1950

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Period of adjustment

Present-day challenges

• After WWII most Africans wanted freedom • Some countries: negotiations through political parties and trade unions • Other countries: uprising or armed conflicts • Most of Africa independent by the early 07_13 1960s • Southern African colonies not independent until the 1970s or later

• Hard to gain economic independence • Civil wars, religious and ethnic conflicts, corruption, drought and hunger

• Diseases: Aids and HIV (25 million people), Malaria, insufficient health care • Climate: drought resulting in hunger and poverty in some areas • The literacy rate: 65%, 200 million people who cannot read or write

Improvements

English French Portuguese Spanish Swahili Arabic African languages

• Better conditions for women and children • Information about diseases, birth control campaigns • Vaccination programs, cheaper medicine. • Fund raising and international aid • Focus on fair trade and better use of resources

independent uavhengig civil war borgerkrig/borgarkrig famine sultkatastrofe/ svoltkatastrofe violation of brudd på/brot på human rights menneskerettigheter/ menneskerettar tribal stamme abolish oppheve apartheid atskillelse (raseskille)/deling, skilje (raseskilje) release her: slippe ut/sleppe ut pandemic pandemi trade handel significant betydelig/stor, omfattande, viktig mainland fastland destination mål infant mortality spedbarns­ dødelighet/spedbarnsdød poverty fattigdom

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FACT FILE ENGLISH SPE After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to

If we can get cold Coca-Cola and beer to every remote corner of ­Africa, it should not be impossible to do the same with medicine.

▶▶ explain

why European countries wanted colonies in Africa ▶▶ describe some present day challenges in Africa ▶▶ mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries

Joep Lange,President of the International AIDS society

Read and understand

7.33 Answer the questions. a What was Africa like before the Europeans arrived? b What was “the scramble for Africa”? c Where were most slaves sent? d How did colonies gain independence? e What can you enjoy as a tourist in many African countries? f Roughly, how many people cannot read or write on the African continent? g What are the challenges in many African countries today?

Speak

7.34 Discuss the following questions. a After reading the fact file about Africa, what would you like to see or experience on this continent? b Did anything seem scary to you?

Practise

7.35 Find things in the fact file that you can enjoy or experience when visiting Africa. Write the words in the grid so that they match the letters written in red. A F R I C A

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EAKING AFRICA 7.36 Fill in the missing words in the text. discovered – systems – disease – organisations – sample – spreading – country – prevent – condoms – treatment HIV and AIDS The first documented occurrence of HIV is from a blood taken in the Congo in 1959. At that time, however, nobody knew that this was a new . In spite of several cases in the 1970s it wasn’t until the 80s that the epidemic was taken seriously. This was when it started to other continents. Gradually, scientists the source of the illness and found out how it spread. They also made a cure to HIV from turning into AIDS, and medicine to improve the condition for AIDS patients. Sadly, the drugs were expensive and at first only people in the western world had access to them. In 2001 there were 20 million people living with AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, and only 8000 received drug . Many governments and international started different projects to improve the situation. In 2002 Botswana was the first to launch a national antiretroviral treatment project. By 2007, 95% of HIV positive people in the country were being treated. Far less successful are the Sudan, Somalia and Nigeria, mostly due to civil unrest or weak health . Today we see behavioural changes in most parts of Africa. Increased use of and fewer casual sex partners are the most important measures to avoid further spread.

Explore

7.37 What was the Atlantic triangular slave trade? Write one paragraph. 7.38 Use different sources to find statistics on life expectancy in African countries. Are there differences? Which country has the highest life expectancy, and which has the lowest? Make a survey. 7.39 Search the Internet to find facts about the illegal ivory trade. Write a text, or make an oral presentation using digital tools.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain why European countries wanted colonies in Africa. YES ALMOST NO

I can describe some present-day challenges in Africa. YES ALMOST NO

I can mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries. YES ALMOST NO

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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ talk

about Waris Dirie and her life ▶▶ discuss the difference in living conditions between certain African countries and your own

!

Desert Dawn On those endless flights my heart was filled with doubts. Who would I see? Who would be healthy? Who would still be alive in that home to battles, starvation, jagged rocks and whirlwinds? How would my mother accept that I never married the father of my son? A single mother with a child in Somalia is only one thing – a prostitute. I wanted my father to see me, to look his daughter right in the face. People all over the world have looked at pictures of my face. Photographers and magazines have paid a lot of money to take photographs of me – to capture my face on film. I wondered if my father even knew what I looked like. When I was a girl, all of his attention was for the boys. Girls were supposed to bring the tea and go away. I was never to speak to a man unless I was spoken to; I was barely allowed to stay nearby when the adults were talking. Now I had lived in a place where men and women talked directly to each other. I didn’t believe that it was wrong or that something bad would happen to you or a djinn would be attracted to the trouble. “Waris, look down when you are talking to your father,” my mother taught me as soon as I could carry a milking bowl. “Why?” I asked, looking into her eyes. “Ebwaye, ebwaye!” she repeated – shame, for shame. She said the same thing if I sat with my legs open or my skirt was up. She would never answer my questions, or give me any reasons. Why is it shameful? What does that prove or mean? That is the way things are in Somalia. When I was a girl I didn’t like it, and now that I had lived in the West, I hated it. I respected my culture, but I wanted to look my father in the eyes. I knew that he would never look away from me – he would expect me to look down, to demonstrate my respect for him. I was not going to do that! I was going to

Before you start What do you think are the most striking differences between living in a rich western country and in a poor African country? Work with a partner and write some key words to share in class.

flight flytur doubts tvil starvation sult/svolt jagged taggete whirlwinds virvelvind/ kvervelvind capture fange attention oppmerksomhet/ merksemd, interesse unless bortsett fra/så nær som, når vi ser bort frå barely knapt djinn evil spirit, ond ånd/vond ånd shameful skammelig/ skammeleg demonstrate vise

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gaze blikk ambassador ambassadør, talsperson

look right at him, stare at him, and hold his gaze with my eyes. He would see me, Waris, the daughter he sold to an old man for a few camels who now earned her own money. He would have to look at the girl he never sent to school who became a writer. The girl who was now a United Nations’ special ambassador for women’s rights. waris dirie Waris Dirie (1965–) fled from her nomad parents in Somalia at the age of 13 to escape from an arranged marriage to a much older man. While working as a cleaner in London, she was discovered and became a top fashion model. In 1997 she was appointed a UN ambassador for women’s rights in Africa. She has written several books and has received many prizes and awards for her humanitarian work. In her third book Desert Dawn (2002) she tells about her trip back to Somalia to visit her parents.

w IN SHORT

flight flytur be welcomed bli tatt imot/bli teken imot attention oppmerksomhet/ merksemd, interesse famous berømt/kjend, vitgjeten magazines ukeblader/vekeblad taught lært, fortalt (past tense of teach) shameful skammelig/ skammeleg dislike mislike respect respektere expect forvente/vente camel kamel ambassador ambassadør, talsperson women’s rights kvinners rettigheter/kvinnerettar

Waris Dirie is on a flight back to Somalia to meet her family that she left as a young girl. She is thinking about who is still alive and how she will be welcomed in her home country. Waris wants her father to see her and she wants to look him in the eyes. As a girl she was told never to look a man in the eyes, and never talk to men. Her father never looked at her. His attention was for the boys. Now she is a world famous model. She has been in many magazines. And she has lived in a place where men and women talk directly to each other. As a little girl she was taught to look down, bring tea and sit with her legs together. Her mother said anything else was shameful. Waris dislikes this. She respects her culture but she wants to see her father in the eyes. He will expect her to look down but she won’t do that. She wants him to see Waris, the girl he sold to an old man for a few camels, the girl who is now a United Nations’ special ambassador for women’s rights.

Read and understand

7.40 • Answer the questions. a What is Waris Dirie thinking about on the flight to Somalia? b What does she want to do when she meets her father? c How did her father treat her when she was a little girl? d What did her mother teach her to do when she was a girl? e What does Waris dislike? f What different jobs has Waris had since she left Somalia?

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7.41 •• Answer the questions. a How does Waris Dirie describe her home country? b What are her main concerns on her flight back to Somalia? c How are girls raised in Somalia, according to the text? d How would you describe Waris Dirie?

Speak

7.42 What do you think happens when Waris meets her father? Discuss or act out the scene. 7.43 Discuss the following questions. a What is the most striking difference between a childhood in Somalia and in a typical Norwegian family? b What activities or topics are regarded as shameful in your culture? c Is there something in your culture that you dislike and would like to change?

Write

7.44 • What do you think it feels like to come back to your home country after many years of absence? Write one paragraph. 7.45 •• Waris fled her home country because she didn’t want to marry the man her father had picked for her. What is your opinion on arranged marriages? Write a short text.

Explore

7.46 Use the Internet to find information about the following questions. Share in class. a Are there any countries in the world where women still don’t have the right to vote? b When did women get the right to vote in the United Kingdom, the USA and Norway? 7.47 Waris Dirie’s life story is presented in the film Desert Flower. Watch the film. Write a film review. Study page 182 for advice on writing a film review.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can talk about Waris Dirie and her life. YES ALMOST NO

I can discuss the difference in living conditions between certain African countries and my own. YES ALMOST NO

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Walking with Lions On a cold winter day in Norway, Gina (21) packed her bags and headed for Africa to work as a volunteer. It turned out to be the experience of a lifetime. Listen to find out what she did and why she chose to do this. Before you listen, study the advice on listening strategies on page 224.

volunteer frivillig apprenticeship læretid community samfunn preschool førskole/førskule orphanage barnehjem/ barneheim maintain holde ved like/halde ved like population bestand (dyr), befolkning (mennesker)/ bestand, stamme (dyr), folkesetnad (menneske) cuddle kose guts mot pat klappe sweet godteri reward belønning/løn, påskjøning recommend anbefale/rå til

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After working with the text and exercises you should be able to ▶▶ sum

up the contents of the listening

text ▶▶ compare attitudes to learning English ▶▶ express your opinion on volunteer work

Listen and understand

7.48 Complete the sentences. a Gina found information about volunteer organizations on … b She has completed an apprenticeship in … c To be able to go to Africa, Gina … d In Mozambique, she worked in … e Two days a week, she also … f On her days off, she could … g In Zimbabwe, Gina worked with … h She also worked with other animals, such as … i Gina ended up staying … j To work as a volunteer, she says it’s important to … 7.49 Sum up what Gina says about … a who influenced her decision to work as a volunteer. b costs. c her job in Mozambique. d the lion project in Zimbabwe. e what was difficult. f some of the highlights. g how she got on with the other volunteers. h leaving Africa.

Speak

7.50 Gina talks about how young people in the community felt about learning English. Why was this so important for them? Compare their attitude to learning English with your own.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can sum up the contents of the listening text. YES ALMOST NO

I can compare attitudes to learning English. YES ALMOST NO

I can express my opinion on volunteer work. YES ALMOST NO

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!

Before you start Study the following words. What do they mean? change prosperity graduate equal rights progress

Look at Africa progress fremgang/framgang witness se, være vitne til/sjå, vere vitne til neighbouring ved siden av/ ved sida av inspect undersøke/ undersøkje, granske incredulously utrolig/utruleg

From her table at a local café, Mma Ramotswe, founder of the No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, observes people and thinks about how her country, Botswana, and its people has changed. That morning she had witnessed a woman scrape the side of a neighbouring car while she tried to park. The woman had stopped, quickly inspected the damage, and had then driven off. Mma Ramotswe had watched this incredulously, and half-risen to her feet to protest, but was too

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late: the woman’s car had by then turned the corner After working with the text and and disappeared and she did not even have time to exercises, you should be able to see its number-plate. She had sat down again and poured herself another ▶▶ explain how certain African countries cup of tea. It was not true that such a thing could have changed during the last decades not have happened in the old Botswana – it could ▶▶ reflect on what it means to people’s – but it was undoubtedly true that this was much lives that they are able to read and more likely to happen today. There were many selfish write people around these days, people who seemed not to care if they scraped the cars of others or bumped into people while walking on the street. Mma Ramotswe knew that this is what happened when towns became bigger and people became strangers to one another; she knew, too, that this was a consequence of increasing prosperity, which, curiously enough, just seemed to bring out greed and selfishness. But even if she knew why all this happened, it did not make it any easier to bear. The rest of the world might become as rude as it wished, but this was not the way of things in Botswana and she would always defend the old Botswana way of doing things. But there was no point in throwing up one’s hands in despair. People number-plate nummerskilt had always done that – the throwing up of hands, the shrug – but one got pour helle/slå, tømme nowhere in doing so. The world might have changed for the worse in some undoubtedly utvilsomt/utan respects, but in others it was a much better place, and it was important to tvil, tvillaust remember this. Lights went off in some places, but went on in others. Look increasing økende/aukande at Africa – there had been so much to shake one’s head over – corruption, prosperity velstand selfishness egoisme civil wars, and the rest – but there was also so much which was now much despair fortvilelse, oppgitthet/ better. There had been slavery in the past, and all the suffering which that mismot, sorg, tungsinn had brought, and there had been all the cruelties of apartheid just those shrug trekke på skuldrene/ few miles away over the border, but all that was now over. There had been trekkje på skuldrene ignorance, but now more and more people were learning to write, and were in some respects på noen graduating from universities. Women had been held in such servitude, and måter/på nokre måtar now they could vote and express themselves and claim lives for themselves, civil war borgerkrig/borgarkrig cruelty grusomhet/ even if there were still many men who did not want such things to be. There omsynsløyse, hjarteløyse, were good things that happened and one had to remember them. alexander mccall smith Alexander McCall Smith (1948–) was born in former Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, where he lived until he left to study law in Scotland. Later he taught in Belfast, then at the University of Botswana before returning to Edinburgh to specialize in medical law. He is famous for his numerous novels, for example the series about The No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency which is set in Botswana.

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barbari apartheid raseskillepolitikk/ raseskiljepolitikk ignorant uvitende/uvitande graduate ta avsluttende eksamen/ta avsluttande eksamen servitude trelldom, underkastelse/trældom, underkasting claim kreve, hevde/krevje, hevde

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Read and understand

7.52 • Make a list of the things that Mma Ramotswe does not like about present day Botswana. Make a second list of things that she thinks have improved in Africa. 7.53 •• Answer the questions. a Why is Mma Ramotswe shocked by the woman in the car? b What does she say happens to people when towns become bigger? c How does prosperity change people, according to Mma Ramotswe? 7.54 ••• Mma Ramotswe obviously thinks it is good that people learn to read and write. Why is that important? What might happen to people who are illiterate, according to Mma Ramotswe?

Practise

7.55 Combine the words with their antonyms (words with an opposite meaning). a despair 1 far away b undoubtedly 2 poverty c increase 3 generosity d servitude 4 kindness e neighbouring 5 superiority f prosperity 6 reduce g selfishness 7 doubtfully h cruelty 8 hope How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain how certain African countries have changed during the last decades. YES ALMOST NO

I can reflect on what it means to people’s lives that they are able to read and write. YES ALMOST NO

Write

7.56 • Suppose Mma Ramotswe wanted to let the owner of the car know what she had witnessed. Write a note to attach to the car’s front window, with the words you think Mme Ramotswe would use. 7.57 •• Search the Internet and find things that tourists would want to see and do in Botswana. Write two paragraphs and recommend a visit. 7.58 ••• Write a five paragraph text where you mention three of the things that have changed for the better in Africa. Study the advice on structuring a five-paragraph text on page 240 if necessary.

Explore

7.59 Mma Ramotswe thinks about “the cruelties of apartheid just those few miles away over the border”. Search for a map of Africa and find out which neighbouring country to Botswana she is thinking of. Explain what you know about the past and present political situation in this country.

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7|

HOW DID YOU DO IN THIS CHAPTER? Yes

Almost

No

1 I can mention some important challenges in the world today. 2 I can present one organization that works to make the world a better place. 3 I can explain why some children have to work instead of going to school. 4 I can explain what role models and commercials mean to business. 5 I can explain why restaurants can be a threat to the environment. 6 I can talk about how restaurants can “go green”. 7 I can explain why European countries wanted colonies in Africa. 8 I can describe some present day challenges in Africa. 9 I can mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries. 10 I can compare growing up in an African country with growing up in Norway. 11 I can speak about how certain African countries have changed during the last decades. 12 I can reflect on what it means to people’s lives that they are able to read and write.

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS APOSTROPHE + DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH Apostrophe Ownership, singular and plural Apostrophe + s shows ownership to a noun in the singular. Janet’s dog – the car’s engine – Eric’s children Apostrophe after the s shows ownership to a noun in the plural. the girls’ team – the boys’ room

7.60 Complete these sentence pairs: Janet has a dog.  It is Janet’s dog. d Denise has worries. It is … a Alan has a farm. It is … e Mma Ramotswe has an office. It is … b The hospital has a staff. It is … f The lady has a problem. It is … c Amir has a father. It is … 7.61 Complete these sentence pairs: The girls have a team. It is the girls’ team. a The countries have a border. It is … b The politicians have a challenge. It is … c the companies have large benefit. It is … d Refugees own passports. They are … e The countries have large debts. They are … f The workers have jobs. It is … 7.62 Rewrite the sentences using contracted forms. The car is blue. It’s blue. a Sheila Johnson is the boss. … b The hospital is far from here. … c The virus is contagious. … d The institutions will not stay the same … e The politicians do not listen. … f The countries cannot solve the issue … NOTE: Do not use contracted forms in formal writing.

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Apostrophe is used in contracted forms where there are letters missing. This usually shows an informal style. It’s = It is The man’s smiling = The man is smiling He’s got = He has got She cannot = She can’t He’s = He is The car’s blue = The car is blue. They do not = They don’t He will not = He won’t


AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS NOTE: Many students use the apostrophe too often. The plural of nouns does not require an apostrophe. Examples: cars – tools – machines. Also, the s used in the present tense of verbs, third person singular, is written only with an s, and no apostrophe. Examples: he works – he reads – he sleeps.

Direct Speech In direct speech we reproduce the actual words of the speaker. The words of the speaker are put in inverted commas. Examples: Jack said to his father, “Would you pick me up after school?” “My father is going to Mumbai tomorrow,” she said.

7.63 Change these sentences into direct speech. a She said that health care institutions are made to cure diseases. b They said that Aron is an excellent ambulance driver. c She said that she loved her work. d He said he works as a surgeon. e She said that the consequences of earthquakes are enormous. f The man said that rubber floors reduce noise and the risk of slips and falls.

Indirect Speech In indirect speech, we do not reproduce the actual words of the speaker. We report the speech and refer to the speaker. Examples: Jack asked his father if he would pick him up after school. She said that her father is going to Mumbai tomorrow.

7.64 Change these sentences into indirect speech. a Denise said, “So many children suffer.” b Benjamin said, “Consumption is what we live for.” c Jelle said, “The climate change scares me.” d Enayat said, “People fear for their lives.” e Aron said, “I work for the Red Cross.” f Cecilia said, “My employer is the UNESCO.”

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CHAPTER 8

Going Pro


In this chapter you will focus on

• how to communicate with customers and colleagues • being a professional • some characteristics of successful people • understanding and using statistics • speaking to convince

Useful words and phrases communication body language achievement determination highly-rated understaffed nutritious produce seasonal artisan

What does it mean to be professional?

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!

Before you start Which of these personal qualities do you think are most important when working in the service sector? Grade them from 1 (most important) to 10 (least important). Compare your list with your partner’s list.

Professional Communication

a outspoken b knowledgeable c service-minded d tactful e understanding f punctual g flexible h cooperative i creative j attentive

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

differences between verbal and non-verbal communication ▶▶ talk about the importance of communication in the service sector ▶▶ use vocabulary related to communication Communication is the lubricant that enables people to work together in a team. This is particularly true in a tightly-run ship like a restaurant. The smooth running of the restaurant depends on good communication between chefs, waiters and diners. Communication can be either verbal or non-verbal.

Verbal communication Words and sounds are the significant components of verbal communication. Through the use of them we are able to convey messages, feelings and ideas. By planning how to communicate, we can ensure effective and professional communication at our workplace.

Non-verbal communication Non-verbal communication includes hand gestures, the tone and pitch of your voice, facial expressions, postures and the general signals we send out to people we are talking to. These subtle messages reinforce what is said in words, provide feedback to others and regulate the flow of communication. For example, if we want to show our discontent, we can cross our arms or frown. There are, of course, times when we send mixed messages. We say one thing but our body language may communicate something else. A simple smile, a nod or a wink of the eye can speak volumes!

Teamwork In a football team, every player has a role on the field. Yet the results of the team are greater than the sum of the efforts of each player. That is the benefit of teamwork. In the case of a restaurant the cooperation between the kitchen staff and the front staff determines the dining experience, and ultimately the success of the restaurant. Consequently, establishing good ways of communicating is essential in order to achieve your objectives. Learning to communicate well in a team takes time. However, it will be well worth the effort.

a tightly run ship en godt organisert bedrift depend on avhenge av / vere avhengig av waiter servitør diner middagsgjest significant viktig component element convey formidle ensure sikre workplace arbeidsplass hand gesture håndbevegelse / handrørsle tone tonefall pitch tonehøyde / tonehøgd posture positur reinforce forsterke provide levere feedback tilbakemelding flow flyt discontent misnøye body language kroppsspråk nod nikk wink blunke frown rynkete panne achieve oppnå essential vesentlig effort innsats objective mål

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Read and understand

8.1 • Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Communication is the lubricant … b The smooth running of the restaurant depends on … c Words and sounds are the … d Non-verbal communication includes … e If we want to show our discontent, we can … f We say one thing but … g In a football team, every player … h Learning to communicate … 8.2 •• Translate into Norwegian the sentences you completed in task 8.1. 8.3 ••• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What are the two major types of communication? b What is body language? Give examples. c Why is teamwork important in the restaurant?

Practise

8.4 • Fill in the English translation of the following words from the text in the crossword. Across 3 positur 5 formidle 6 flyt 7 tilbakemelding 8 middagsgjest Down 1 arbeidsplass 2 oppnå 4 viktig

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8.5 •• Explain the following words in your own words. Use your dictionary to look up words you do not know. waiter component objective posture discontent cooperation 8.6 Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space. There is an example at the beginning. Example: For further information on the course, write to us at this address. (inform) a The between performers and the audience was good. (interact) b I had mixed about this job. (feel) c expressions may say more than you think. (face) d She made preparing the dinner for 30 people look . (effort) e This was an impressive culinary . (achieve)

Write 8.7 • Give reasons for your choice of the most important personal quality in the “Before you start” task on page 296. Write one paragraph. 8.8 •• You have probably noticed that you communicate differently at your workplace than you do in private. Write two paragraphs comparing the two different ways of communicating. 8.9 ••• Choose five words from the word cloud below. Use them to write a five-paragraph text where you discuss why good communication may sometimes be difficult.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain differences between verbal and non-verbal communication. YES ALMOST NO

I can talk about the importance of communication in the service sector. YES ALMOST NO

I can use vocabulary related to communication. YES ALMOST NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS UNDERSTANDING AND USING STATISTICS Sometimes you will need to use information which contains numbers and statistics to strengthen your arguments. This is especially important when you write a text or give an oral presentation. Here are some important points to keep in mind.

Average

08_02

The average of a list of numbers is also called the mean. You find it when you add all the numbers in a list and divide it by as many numbers as you have in the list. • Find the mean of 5, 8, 13, and 6. • You add all the numbers. 5 + 8 + 13 + 6 = 32 • Then you divide by the number of numbers in the list, which is 4. 32 ÷ 4 = 8 • The average or mean of these four numbers is 8.

Charts and Graphs There are many kinds of graphs and charts. They are used to present information visually. A Pie charts Pie charts can be used to show percentages of a whole. They will not show changes that take place over time. The pie chart to the left shows the use of languages on the Internet.

Languages used on the Internet Portuguese 2% Italian 4% French 4% Chinese 5%

Others 10%

Spanish 5% Japanese 5% Russian 5% German 7%

English 57% 08_04

Source: http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all

B Line graphs A line graph can be used to show how two pieces of information are related. It will also show how they may vary depending on one another. The scale is the numbers along a side of the line graph. The line graph to the right shows how the use of Internet has developed in three different categories of countries.

Internet users per 100 inhabitants 80

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1996 –98 2000 –02 –04 –06 Developed world World globally Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

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–08

–10 –12 –14* Developing world *Estimate


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

08_03

Individuals using the Internet per 100 inhabitants, 2011 80

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Europe

The Americas

CIS*

World

Arab. States

Asia & Pacific

C Bar graphs A bar graph has an axis and bars that show different values for each bar. The numbers along a side of the bar graph are called the scale. The bar graph to the left shows how the number of Internet users varied between countries in 2011.

Africa

*Commonwealth of Independent States Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database

Practise

8.10 Use your calculator to answer these questions. a What is the average of 1, 3, 5, 7? b What is the average of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10? c What is the average of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8? d What is the average of 0.5, 0.75, 0.25, 1.25? e Sally works after school. On Monday she earned £15, on Tuesday she earned £15, on Wednesday she earned £18 and on Saturday she earned £30. What was the average sum of money Sally earned for the days she worked? f Aisha plays football. So far this season she has played five games. In the first match she didn’t score. In the second match she scored two goals. In the third match she scored one goal. In the fourth match she didn’t score. In the fifth match she scored two goals. What is Aisha’s average score per match? 8.11 Study the graphs and charts and answer these questions. a English is the dominant language on the Internet. Write, in succession, what languages follow next, according to figure A. b Find the percentage of each column in chart C, showing individuals using the Internet per 100 inhabitants in 2011. Write full sentences, like: “In Africa, … percent of the population used the Internet in 2011.” c Find the average percentage of the countries mentioned in the bar graph (C). d Look at chart B. What percentage of Internet users did developed countries and developing countries reach in 2012? e What were the figures in 2002, according to chart B? f Which category of countries had the largest growth between 2002 and 2012?

average  gjennomsnitt visually  visuelt pie chart  kakediagram purchasing power parity kjøpekrafts-paritet bar graph  søylediagram

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!

Before you start Using Metaphors A metaphor is a word or phrase for one thing that is used to refer to another thing in order to suggest that they are similar. In “Waiter Rant” we find metaphors from the famous “Star Wars” films. Do you know any of these characters?

Waiter Rant rant lang monolog, tirade conduct oppføre seg failure skuffelse / vonbrot discretion diskresjon withdraw trekke seg tilbake / trekkje seg attende

A waiter plays a very important role in the dining experience. He is the link between the chef in the kitchen and the diner at the table. The way a waiter conducts himself can be the key to whether the dining experience is a total pleasure or a complete failure. A waiter must have the qualities of a superhero, a psychologist, a mother, and a teacher all moulded into one. Discretion is another necessary quality as a good waiter knows when to withdraw and when to attend. In the book Waiter Rant, written by Steve Dublanica, we meet a waiter who has to manage all these tasks at his workplace.

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Waiter Jedi

After working with the text and “Waiter!” my customer, an expensively dressed Wall ­exercises, you should be able to Street type, whines. “Why can’t I have the Pollo Cardinale tonight? I have it here all the time.” ▶▶ use words related to being a waiter “Because it’s New Year’s Eve, sir,” I reply patiently. ▶▶ explain what the waiter’s etiquette “We have a special menu tonight.” means in practice “So I can’t have anything off the regular menu?” ▶▶ give instructions on how to open a In a few hours it will be 2006. I’ve been working at bottle of wine Fluvio’s restaurant, The Bistro, for six years. No longer that Padawan waiter from Amici’s, I’ve developed into a full-fledged Waiter Jedi. Along the way I even started a popular Web site, called Waiter Rant, to share my restaurant war stories. To millions of people I’m the anonymous Internet writer known only as “The Waiter”. The experience I’ve gleaned over the years tells me to answer this customer carefully. When people go out to eat, they don’t want to hear the word no. “Pollo Cardinale’s usually served in autumn, sir,” I explain. “To celebrate New Year’s, the chef’s offering the traditional winter foods he grew up with as a child in Tuscany.” “Oh,” the man says, his face brightening, “that sounds wonderful.” My explanation is complete and utter bullshit. Pollo Cardinale, a chicken dish made with roasted peppers, mozzarella cheese, and mushrooms, doesn’t have a seasonal niche. I lied. I lied because if I had to explain to every customer that the owner limited whine sutre his holiday offerings to a small selection of items guaranteed to deliver a full-fledged kvalifisert high profit, the unpleasant smack of cold, hard reality would start exerting glean samle a downward pressure on my tips. Since I couched my reply in foodiespeak, utter absolutt however, the gastronomically seductive language of Big Food Media, the roast stekt / steikt guy bought my line of bullshit hook, line, and sinker. My tip is secure. offering tilbud / tilbod “The wild boar is very good tonight, sir,” I continue. “This evening we’re smack få et slag i ansiktet / få offering it in either a porcini mushroom truffle sauce or a preparation of eit slag i andletet exert utøve white beans, goose confit, and rabbit sausage.” downward fallende / fallande The man stares at me, his mouth slackening with desire. A good server couch formulere can make a customer order anything he or she feels like selling. It’s an old seductive forførende / Jedi – I mean, waiter – mind trick. forførande “Oh my God,” the man breathes. “I think I’ll have that.” hook, line and sinker totalt “I recommend you have it medium rare, sir.” wild boar villsvin “I’ll take your advice, waiter. You seem to know your stuff.” bean bønne confit and eller annet kjøtt som “Yes, sir. Thank you, sir. Will that be with the mushroom sauce or the er kokt i lang tid i sitt eget goose confit and sausage?” fett / and eller anna kjøtt “With the goose stuff.” som er kokt i lang tid i sitt “Very good, sir.” eige feitt slacken slakke av

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order bestille fetch bringe wine cellar vinkjeller / vinkjellar label etikett wine opener vinåpner / vinopnar blade (bryter)kniv / (brytar) kniv incision innsnitt score treffe cap kapsel corkscrew korketrekker / korketrekkjar cork flaskekork brace spenne trekkeren / spenne trekkjaren pour helle ounce unse spill renne over wipe tørke bort tumble ramle ut feigned tilsynelatende / tilsynelatande rivet feste abandon forlate witty morsom / morosam marvel forundre seg reveal avsløre primal viktig trigger utløse / utløyse array rekke / rekkje inextricably håpløst / håplaust petulance surhet / surheit entitlement her: følelse av å være berettiget / kjensle av å vere rettkommen crumb smule

My next table orders a $300 bottle of Brunello. I fetch it from the wine cellar and present it to the host. After he examines the label I take out my expensive black horn Laguiole wine opener, flick open the blade, make a quick vertical incision in the foil, score it below the bottle’s neck, and remove the cap in one fluid motion. Folding the blade, I open the corkscrew one-handed, place the stainless steel spiral into the center of the cork, and screw it in, careful not to go in too far and push bits of cork into the wine. I brace the lever on the lip of the bottle’s mouth, pull the handle upward, and slide the cork out without a pop. As I’m executing this maneuver I’m not paying attention to what I’m doing. I don’t have to. I’ve done it twenty thousand times. It’s all muscle memory by now. Instead, I’m listening to the young couple at the table behind me. They’re talking about having a baby. I pour out an ounce of the wine, gently twisting the bottle so I don’t spill a drop. The host samples it. He likes it, so I pour out some more. I wipe the lip of the bottle with a napkin and start answering questions about the holiday menu. The rehearsed adjectives tumble out of my mouth with practiced ease. Fooled by my mask of feigned interest, the customers think my attention is riveted on them. It isn’t. I’m still listening to the couple behind me. The girl’s afraid to have children. She’s afraid she’ll abandon them like her mother abandoned her. Her husband tells her not to worry: She’s not her mother. She’s a different person. She’ll be a wonderful mother. They’ll be happy. My four top’s host thanks me. His wife compliments my memory. How can you remember so much stuff? I respond with a witty stock answer. They all laugh. I tell them I’ll give them time to consider their choices. I turn and look at the table behind me. The girl has tears in her eyes. The boy’s holding her hand. For the thousandth time I marvel how much people reveal about themselves inside a restaurant. I shouldn’t be surprised. When people are stuffing their faces, they often let their guard down. Eating is a primal activity that triggers an array of emotional responses. Think of all the arguments that erupt around family dinner tables. Food and the human condition are inextricably linked. Because of this, waiters often get to see the unpleasant sides of people. Yet, amid all the petulance, anger, and entitlement, the occasional crumb of human grace falls from the table. I look at the boy and girl. They need their privacy. This is an important moment. Do not disturb. I walk away. Steve Dublanica Steve Dublanica (1973- ) waited his first table at the age of thirtyone. In 2004 he started his blog, WaiterRant.net, which soon became very popular and received the Bloggie Award in 2006. Dublanica, also known as The Waiter, now lives in New York and has recently published his second book.

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The waiter is the link between the chef in the kitchen and the diner in the restaurant. Therefore he or she plays an important part in giving the diner a pleasant experience. A waiter must play many roles, both as a psychologist, a mother, and a teacher. In the book Waiter Rant by Steve Dublanica we meet a waiter who has to play all these parts. “Waiter!” my customer shouts. “Why can’t I have the Pollo Cardinale tonight?” “Because it’s New Year’s Eve, sir, and we have a special menu tonight.” When people go out to eat, they don’t want to hear the word no, so I tell a lie: “To celebrate the New Year, the chef offers foods he grew up with in Italy. The wild boar is very good tonight, sir,” I continue. “I recommend you have it medium rare, sir.” The truth is that we limited our offerings to save money. The customer, though, is happy, and I will get a good tip. “Oh,” the man says, “that sounds wonderful. I’ll take your advice, waiter. You seem to know your stuff.” “Yes, sir. Thank you, sir.” I recommend an expensive red wine to go with the wild boar, and while opening it, I listen to the young couple at the table behind me. They’re talking about having a baby. I turn and look at them. The girl has tears in her eyes. The boy is holding her hand. This is an important moment for them. Do not disturb. I walk away.

Read and understand

8.12 • Answer the following questions. a Why is a waiter such an important person in the restaurant? b What other professions can we compare waiters/waitresses to? c What is the title of the book written by Steve Dublanica? d The customer’s favorite dish is unavailable. What does the waiter do? 8.13 •• The sentences below are quotes from the text. Scan the text again and fill in the missing words. a When people go out to , they don’t want to hear the word . b A good can make a customer order anything he or she feels like selling. c I pour out an of the wine, gently twisting the bottle so I don’t spill a . d The rehearsed adjectives out of my mouth with practiced ease. e Think of all the arguments that around family dinner tables.

IN SHORT

diner middagsgjest pleasant hyggelig / hyggeleg experience opplevelse / oppleving psychologist psykolog customer kunde lie løgn celebrate feire wild boar villsvin offerings tilud / tilbod couple par consider vurdere

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Practise

8.15 Match the restaurant-related objects with the correct picture. Look up words you don’t know. i tablecloth e menu a wooden high chair j apron f glass b silverware k waiter book g pepper pot c napkin l bread basket h salt shaker d tableware (porcelaine)

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8.16 Metaphors are used in this excerpt from Waiter Rant. The waiter lies about why the customer cannot have his favorite dish. He says: “The guy bought my line of bullshit hook, line and sinker.” What do you think he means?

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Speak

8.17 In this excerpt from Waiter Rant there is a short description of the waiter opening a bottle of wine. Look at the pictures. Work with a partner and take turns giving each other instructions on how to open a bottle of wine. Look at pages 142 – 143 for advice. 1

2

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8.18 Act it out with a partner. a Your friend has just started working as a waiter. Explain to her what behaviour is expected from her. b Imagine that you work as a waiter. The restaurant you are working in organizes a big banquet for foreign guests. After ordering their main course, one of the guests notices a loose hair on his plate.

Write

8.19 • Describe a typical day in the life of a waiter in one paragraph. 8.20 •• Write a five-paragraph text where you present what you consider to be the three main challenges in the work of a waiter.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises,

8.21 Search the Internet for information about the Waiters’ Race. Present your findings in class. Use reliable sources. You may want to look at pages 300 – 301 for advice on how to use and refer to sources.

I can use words related to being a waiter. YES ALMOST NO

I can explain what the waiter’s etiquette means in practice. YES ALMOST NO

I can give instructions on how to open a bottle of wine. YES ALMOST NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SPEAKING TO CONVINCE

1

Whether you prepare for an oral presentation, a debate or write a text to convince someone, here is a list of good ways to argue. 1 Claim Present your opinion. Make people interested in listening by telling a joke or referring to actual news. 2 Facts Facts, numbers and information can be very convincing. 3 Research Using reliable research can help your argument seem convincing.

2

3

4 Emotions Making people feel happy, sad or angry can help your argument. 5 Trust Try to make people believe in and trust you. When they trust you, you are more likely to convince them that your argument is correct. 6 Sum up Sum up your arguments in one or two sentences that appeal to the audience.

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Keep fit and keep the job! Today I am here to talk about keeping fit. Keeping physically fit is extremely important if you want a long-lasting career in any craft. Getting the habit of working out regularly not only saves your company trouble, but you will be able to avoid painful wear and tear. Lots of young people leave a trade they like before they reach the age of 30. It is a sad situation for a young person to feel pain, maybe being unable to take care of his little ones and enjoy family life and activities with friends because his back hurts, or his shoulders or knees ‌ This is a problem for society. Society needs healthy workers to pay for welfare. Also, stability in the workforce is a great advantage for companies. Training and educating new employees takes a lot of time. A recent survey shows that every fifth person between 16 and 66 reports pain in his or her back, elbows and knees that is related to work. That means 20 % of the workforce! Thousands of people! Young people who felt these pains while they were still in school had three times the risk of suffering more from these problems when entering working life. Think about this for a moment: what is a good life? If we were to answer that question, most of us would include good health in the answer. Good health is priceless. Good health means possibilities, choices; it means you can plan your life; it means you can achieve success. With good health you have the energy to meet friends, have fun and maybe find love. I am a lucky person, because I was able to turn my life around at one point. When I got my first job as a mechanic, my knees and back hurt every evening. I was exhausted after working physically for most of the day. But then I started working out at a gym regularly. I got a programme designed for me by one of the personal trainers there, and things improved immensely. Not only did the pain disappear, but I felt more awake and motivated. My girlfriend at the time, who is now my wife, also noticed the difference. Keep fit and keep the job. I cannot overemphasize how strongly I recommend that you follow this advice. It is worth every minute you invest in keeping fit. It is worth every pound it costs. If it is a challenge financially to enroll at a gym, find ways to exercise that are free. Walking regularly is a great way to stay healthy, especially if you walk in the woods. You get the fresh air as a great bonus. Good luck to you all, and thank you for listening!


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

8.22 Which heading belongs to each statement? Fill in the column to the right. claims – facts – research – emotions – trust – sum up If people believe and trust in you, you’re more likely to convince them that your argument is correct. Using reliable research can help your argument seem convincing. Sum up your arguments in one or two sentences that appeal to the audience. Making people feel happy, sad or angry can help your argument. State your argument. Facts, numbers and information can be very convincing.

8.23 Study the argumentative text above and work on the tasks below: a Imagine you are about to act out the argumentative text above as a speech. Search the Internet and find illustrations that fit the text. b Point out words and expressions in the example that you think are chosen consciously to influence the listeners emotionally. c Make an argumentative speech on one of the topics below. • Drink water – it is good for you. • Stop smoking. • Exercise your brain – read good books. • Save money regularly. • Stop bullying. Remember: You do not need to argue in every possible way every single time, but you should always Claim and Sum up.

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Yes, Chef In the book Yes, Chef – A Memoir we get to know Marcus Samuelsson – a young Ethiopian boy, adopted by Swedish parents, who dreams of becoming a chef. The book explores the cultural differences between Ethiopia, Sweden and America. This excerpt from the book describes the burdens one has to overcome in order to become one of the greatest celebrity chefs. 310 | Chapter 8: Going Pro | Skills


Throughout the summer, we kept banging and After working with the text and pushing. I had so much food in me that I launched ­exercises, you should be able to six-seven course tasting menus, changing them almost every day. It was an ambitious if not slightly ▶▶ explain what the text is about crazy idea for an understaffed restaurant, and we kept ▶▶ share facts about the life of Marcus it for the better part of a year, until we started to settle Samuelsson into a rotation of dishes we worked, and also when I ▶▶ give examples of what it takes to could see that it was unfair to expect the waitstaff to become a successful chef fully understand and represent the food when dishes flew in and out the door so fast. Håkan knew that we couldn’t and shouldn’t sustain so many changes, but he also knew the restaurant needed positive energy. I don’t regret pushing so hard because in the back of my mind, I knew this was my moment. Out of the tragedy of Jan’s death had come an amazing opportunity to communicate the diverse flavors I was so passionate about. If Nils and I went too far, it was because we were there to kick ass, and anybody who didn’t fall in line either left of his own accord or got pushed out. Håkan put everything he had into supporting our efforts to turn things around, too – he renovated the restaurant’s interior, brought in a restaurant consultant, and hired the leading food PR company in the city, the same people who were representing established chefs like Alfred Portal and Bobby Flay. Between the consultants and the flacks and the press, I felt like I was undergoing interrogation: What’s your philosophy? What’s your food mantra? What’s your vision? Where do you get your inspiration? “I’m just working,” I wanted to say, but of course that wasn’t enough. I had achieved my dream of becoming the köksmastare, the head of the kitchen, and I had to accept the corporate stuff that came with it. Through miserably ulykkelig / ulykkeleg their efforts, I started to develop ways of talking about my food – that I liked understaffed underbemannet / it highly seasoned, that my anchors were Sweden, France, and the world, underbemanna and that I wanted to create something different. sustain forsørge / forsørgje Word started to get out. Editors from Food & Wine came in to eat, and so accord enighet / semje renovate modernisere did the great Chicago-based chef Charlie Trotter, who instantly took a liking PR Public Relations, to our new direction and became an ally and a friend. Our consultants drew publikumskontakt on their deep connections to the American dining scene: They arranged for flack a publicity agent us to host the meetings of the city’s most prominent wine society, to partner press her: aviser in a charity event for the James Beard House, to participate in a wonderful interrogation forhør/forhøyr antihunger project called Taste of the Nation. Håkan dealt with most of the anchor anker schmoozing, but he’d bring me out to this person or that group to shake prominent fremtredende / framståande hands and say a few words. Gradually, a buzz was building. schmooze skravle No restaurant ever succeeds solely on the talents of its chief. There has to buzz summing be a good business model, someone keeping careful track of food costs and excel overgå management. This was where Håkan excelled. Håkan and the consultant, accountable ansvarlig / Richard Lavin, who was serving as the restaurant’s general manager, taught ansvarleg Skills | Chapter 8: Going Pro | 311


me how to be accountable to those points. At our Thursday morning meeting, the three of us would sit in Håkan’s elegantly appointed office and talk about long-and short-term goals. I walked in to the first meeting without a pen and paper, but never made that mistake again. If linen costs were up, we discussed why. If I wanted new plates in the dining room, where was I going to cut back in order to free up that money? If we talked about a challenge we faced, it wasn’t enough for me to say I’d take care of it. How was I going to take care of it? We all pressed on and then, boom, one day in late September we found out we were going to be reviewed by Ruth Reichl, the top critic for the New York Times. The night before, a few of us gathered in Håkan’s apartment to watch a local news channel that gave a preview of the review. The minute they announced that Reichl was giving us three stars, Håkan and the rest of coworkers jumped out of their chairs and shouted. I would have been thrilled with two stars: This was beyond anyone’s expectations. There were toasts, there was backslapping, there was some fist pumping. I was happy because they were happy, but the import of the review didn’t sink in.

critic kritiker / kritikar gather samle backslapping klappe noen på ryggen for å gratulere eller oppmuntre / klappe nokon på ryggen for å gratulere eller oppmuntre announcement her: informasjon review anmeldelse, kritikk / melding, kritikk low-profile lav profil / låg profil indie et lite, uavhengig filmselskap / eit lite, uavhengig filmselskap axis akse vendor selger / seljar

The day the review came out happened to be one of our wine society dinners. The head of the society stood up to make his opening remarks, and after attending to the society’s announcements, he brought up the review. “When I met Marcus,” he said, “I knew he would be the one. I knew when I picked this place for our dinners there was magic in the air.” I thought, this is great; let’s all just get back to work. But the truth was that as soon as the review came out, it was magic. I had dreamed of success for so long. I’d left restaurant after restaurant, from Belle Avenue to Victoria to Georges, because I knew I could do better. But the truth is that I had no idea what success would look like, feel like, taste like. When you’re the new twenty-four-year-old chef at a relatively low-profile Swedish restaurant and you get a three-star review from The New York Times, it’s like taking a small indie movie to Sundance and walking away with all the awards and a major distribution deal to boot. The whole world shifted on its axis. In two days, our reservations doubled. The congratulations cards and calls and flowers were endless. Everything opened up in ways big and small. I used to have to argue with my fish guy over our order, which always came last on his list of deliveries; now we got our fish at 9:00 sharp and it was always the best. I didn’t have to argue with any of my vendors anymore; in fact, they began to send new products for me to try, gratis. I was flooded with invitations to all sorts of cooking events and for the best tables at restaurants. We started to get calls from Sweden, from cooks who wanted to come over to work. Wow, I thought. This is the way it is supposed to be. Marcus Samuelsson

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Marcus Samuelsson (1971-) was born in Ethiopia, but when his mother passed away he was adopted by a Swedish couple in 1973. His grandmother inspired him to start cooking. He studied at the Culinary Institute in Gothenburg and later worked as an apprentice in Switzerland, France and the USA. In 1995 he was the youngest chef ever to receive a 3-star rating, aged 23, and after many successful years in New York restaurants, he cooked the first State Dinner for President Obama in 2009. His restaurant Red Rooster Harlem opened in 2010 and his memoirs, Yes Chef, were published in 2012.

M

Read and understand

8.24 • Join the two halves of the sentences together. a The book explores 1 building. b Throughout the summer, 2 get your inspiration? c He renovated 3 get calls from Sweden. d Where do you 4 were endless. e I started to develop ways of 5 the cultural differences between f A buzz was Ethiopia, Sweden and America. g The congratulations cards 6 talking about my food. and calls and flowers 7 we kept banging and pushing. h We started to 8 the restaurant’s interior.

8.25 •• Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the text. a Marcus, at the age of 24, gets a three-star review from The New York Times. b Marcus receives invitations to all sorts of cooking events. c Håkan decides to renovate the restaurant’s interior. d The restaurant is going to be reviewed by Ruth Reichl. e Editors from Food & Wine visit the restaurant. f The restaurant participates in a project called Taste of the Nation. 8.26 ••• Answer the following questions. a Who is Marcus Samuelsson? b What is the title of the book Samuelsson wrote? c How many dishes did Marcus’s menu consist of? d Which tasks was Håkan in charge of? e What makes a successful restaurant, according to Marcus? f How old was Marcus when he received a three-star review from The New York Times? g Why did cooks from Sweden call Marcus?

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Practise

8.27 Use the following words to fill in the empty spaces in this text about the Michelin Stars. anonymous – reviewers – worthy – award – influence – received – dining – technique given to the best restaurants for their A Michelin star is a special culinary excellence. The acquisition or loss of a star will definitely the success of the establishment. Every year hundreds of restaurants will be visited by throughout the year who will then decide if the restaurant is of one, two or three stars, or none at all. The award is given for excellence in food including taste, , presentation, personality of the cuisine, value for money and the overall experience. Do you know if there are any restaurants in Norway that can boast of having this highly-recognized award? 8.28 Translate into Norwegian. “What’s your philosophy? What’s your food mantra? What’s your vision? Where do you get your inspiration?” “I’m just working,” I wanted to say, but of course that wasn’t enough. I had achieved my dream of becoming the koksmastare, the head of the kitchen, and I had to accept the corporate stuff that came with it. Through their efforts, I started to develop ways of talking about my food – that I liked it highly seasoned, that my anchors were Sweden, France, and the world, and that I wanted to create something different.” 8.29 Odd one out. Which word does not belong in every line? a owner / proprietor / holder / seller b pepper / parsley / basil / dill c lamb / beef / salmon / duck d simmering / baking / boiling / steaming e marzipan / honey / sugar / milk

Speak

8.30 Imagine that you are a well-known food blogger and you get a chance to interview Marcus Samuelsson. Prepare some questions and act out the interview with a partner.

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Did you know?

Late in the 19th century a French culinary writer, chef and restaurateur, Georges Auguste Escoffier, developed a concept called kitchen brigade (brigade de cuisine). Its main purpose was to show different types of positions a person working in the restaurant could have. Among the most important ones are executive chef, head of the kitchen (chef de cuisine), deputy chef of the kitchen (sous chef) and a chief of party (chef de partie). This concept is still used in many restaurants around the world.

Write

8.31 • Go online and choose one of the European restaurants that has received Michelin stars and write two paragraphs about it. 8.32 •• Write a blog entry about a visit to your favourite restaurant. Describe the place, the food you ate, the service and the ambience or even the creativity of the chef and how it affected you. Use vivid images and adjectives. 8.33 ••• “No restaurant ever succeeds solely on the talents of its chef.” Write a manuscript for a speech where you agree or disagree with Marcus Samuelsson’s statement. For advice on how to speak to convince see pages 308 – 309.

Explore

8.34 Go online to find information about the life of Marcus Samuelsson. Share your findings in class. 8.35 Choose one of the most successful Norwegian chefs and prepare a fact file on him or her. For example: Lise Finckenhagen, Sonja Lee, Bent Stiansen, Heidi Bjerkan, Karla Siverts, Tom-Victor Gausdal. 8.36 Go online to find information on the prestigious culinary competition Bocuse d’Or.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the text is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can share facts about the life of Marcus Samuelsson. YES ALMOST NO

I can give examples of what it takes to become a successful chef. YES ALMOST NO

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!

Before you start Do you think about how healthy your food is before you eat it? What about when you cook? How important is it for you to know that the food you make is as healthy as possible?

“My aim is to achieve sustainable change, not just make a cute little makeover.” Jamie Oliver

viewer (on TV) seer (på TV) / sjåar (på TV) served servert shipped to levert til junk food mat som mangler næring og ofte er av lav kvalitet / mat som manglar næring og ofte er av låg kvalitet

Jamie Oliver’s Food Revolution Jamie Oliver is a British chef famous for his TV programmes on cooking. He does not simply show viewers how to make a good meal. He shows how cooking should be part of our busy modern lives. He wants viewers to recognize the importance of good food in a good life. In 2004, Jamie filmed the series “Jamie’s School Dinners” where he focused on school lunches, or “dinners” as they’re called in English schools. Jamie showed that the food served in schools did not have a high nutritional value and made the children fat. He wanted to change the way schools prepared food for their children. He wanted to stop using processed or prepared foods that were shipped to the school and then warmed up and served. Moreover, the schools were to serve more than the usual junk food like pizza, hamburgers and chicken nuggets. He suggested that each school should have its own large kitchen and the staff there should make food from scratch using fresh produce. This way the food would taste much better and would be more nutritious. Consequently, the children in school would eat a wider variety of dishes than they were eating now.

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Opposition to changes

After working with the text and There was a lot of opposition to his suggestions. An ­exercises, you should be able to important reason was cost. One meal for one child was to cost no more than 37 pence. Everyone thought ▶▶ sum up what Jamie Oliver’s school that processed food bought in bulk would cost less project is about than fresh food made from scratch. Owning and ▶▶ explain how our diet influences our operating a kitchen in the school was another extra health and well-being cost. Many important and responsible leaders of ▶▶ understand and use statistics in schools in England opposed Jamie’s ideas because relation to food they were sure that the total price for supplying school lunches would go up. A different problem was the work load. Jamie wanted the cooking staff at the school to make food from scratch. The staff did not want to. Collecting the fresh produce and cutting the vegetables and preparing the meals required a lot more time. Moreover, they had to work fast and without breaks because they had to finish the meals by a certain time. Many of the staff complained that they did not know how to prepare the food and that their kitchen was incomplete. More or better equipment was needed in the kitchen in order to make so many meals in such a short time.

Moving to America In 2010, Jamie’s project became a full-blown revolution when he took the lessons he learned from English schools to the USA. In his show “Jamie Oliver’s Food Revolution” a group of first graders were asked to name the vegetables and fruits among several food items. None of the children could. Many American children ate only processed and junk food. This is because many people in America have practically stopped making dinner at home and have effectively forgotten the skills needed to make dinners. Moreover, everywhere in America junk and processed food can be bought at a low price. This generation of Americans is expected to live shorter lives than their parents. Thirty-two per cent of all Americans aged 2–19 are either overweight or obese. Being overweight or obese means a person is likely to develop pre-diabetic problems and type 2 diabetes. It is expected that 1 in 3 Americans born since the year 2000 will develop type 2 diabetes. People who eat a lot of sugar and greasy foods become fat, and American children are getting fat earlier than ever.

Making changes Jamie Oliver pointed out things that were easy to do and made school lunches healthier. A good example was a salad bar. A salad bar with a wide selection of vegetables can make any school lunch much healthier. Furthermore, because the children used the salad bar regularly, they became aware of the choices they could make in their diets. Another action was to

make food from scratch lage mat fra bunnen av / lage mat frå botnen av nutritious ernæringsrik a wider variety of et større omfang av / eit større omfang av dish her: matrett opposition her: motstand in bulk i større mengde work load arbeidsmengde, arbeidsbyrde fresh produce frisk frukt og grønnsaker / frisk frukt og grønsaker required hadde behov for without breaks uten arbeidspauser / utan arbeidspausar incomplete her: ikke tilstrekkelig utstyr / ikkje god nok utstyr overweight overvektig obese fet / feit

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stop giving flavored milk. Flavored milk – chocolate and strawberry milk – has a lot of sugar in it and is less nutritious than plain milk. Giving the children plain milk meant that the children consumed less sugar than they did before. Some school districts found it very difficult to go as far as Jamie Oliver wanted them to go, as many children refused to eat food they were not familiar with. They wanted their hamburgers and pizzas! Many school districts continued to serve burgers, fries and pizza but the preparation and ingredients were better. For example, the kitchen would add squash to the pizza sauce. The pizza sauce would then taste better and would be more nutritious. They continued to serve hamburgers but now the hamburger meat was of higher quality, the burger had real tomatoes, onions and cucumbers and the meal included fresh fruit. This way the nutritional value of the school lunches was improved and the children actually enjoyed eating the lunches.

The real problem

pre-diabetic en fase der et menneske er i ferd å utvikle diabetes, men det går an å snu trenden med vekttap og fysisk aktivitet / ein fase der eit menneske held på å utvikle diabetes, men det går an å snu trenden med vekttap og fysisk aktivitet type-2 diabetes vanligste form for diabetes, forbundet med (stor) overvekt – sukkersyke / vanlegaste form for diabetes, knytt til (stor) overvekt – sukkersjuke ingredients råvarer well-fed her: elever som spiser sunn mat / elevar som et sunn mat poorly fed her: elever som ikke spiser sunn mat / elevar som ikkje et sunn mat introduce her: begynne med

However, the concern for good eating is not just about making kids stay thin. There is reason to believe that well-fed students learn better than poorly fed students. In Britain, as part of Jamie Oliver’s show there, a study was done showing that students who ate good school lunches did much better than students who did not. Many schools also report that students are better behaved, and that there are fewer acts of violence or better attendance, when the school introduces a better school lunch programme. Preparing good food at school costs a little more but the results are worth it. The real challenge is to change the attitude of the children and their parents to food and nutrition. Although a healthy school lunch is good for the students and their health, children still want to eat food they are used to and like. Even if a school wants to make school lunches with healthy food, it still has to make sure that the children eat the food. Here is the real challenge: the attitude of the children towards eating foods they are not used to.

Read and understand

8.37 • Decide if these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements. a This is the first time Jamie Oliver has done a TV show. b Jamie Oliver had a show on British TV about school dinners in England. c Jamie Oliver had a second show where he tried to make school lunches better in America. d It was easy to change school lunches and everyone thought it was a good idea. e The lunches they had in school before Jamie came were tasty and nutritious. f It was discovered that getting rid of flavored milk made the school lunches healthier.

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8.38 •• Sum up the main contents of the text about Jamie Oliver’s school project.

Speak

8.39 Use the graph to complete the tables. BMI = mass (kg)/height (m) x height (m) a Complete the table Height 160 cm 170 cm 180 cm 190 cm 200 cm

Normal

Overweight 70 kg

Obese 90 kg

50 kg

b The average Norwegian woman is 168 cm and the average Norwegian man is 179 cm. How much does an average man or woman weigh when? Underweight Normal

Overweight

Obese

168 cm 179 cm

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grams lb/oz 25 g 1 oz 50 g 1,75 oz 100 g 3,5 oz 150 g 5,5 oz 200 g 7 oz 250 g 9 oz 500 g 1 lb 10 oz 1 kg 2,25 lb 2 kg 4,5 lb

Practise

8.40 Here is a recipe for leek and spinach omelette with hot-smoked salmon. a This recipe is for 4 servings. But you are working at a cafeteria and you expect to serve 60. Recalculate the total amount of each ingredient you will need for 60 servings. b An American friend visiting you at work one day wants a copy of the recipe. He has to convert the recipe from metric units (grams) to American customary units, ounces. Rewrite the recipe using American units. Round your answer to the full ounce. Use the conversion rules to help you rewrite the recipe.

Write

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what Jamie Oliver tried to do with his school lunch project. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can use different measurements when cooking. YES

ALMOST

NO

I can talk about different kinds of diets. YES

ALMOST

8.41 Jamie Oliver says he wants to make sustainable change. That is, change that lasts a long time and has a big impact on many people for the better. Write a short text on why changing school lunches is so important. End the text by writing about whether cooks in institutions in Norway should try to make healthier foods, like Jamie was trying to do with school lunches.

Explore

8.42 Special dietary requirements. Veganism and vegetarianism are two special diets that have their own requirements. Search online and learn about these two diets. a What is the difference between a vegan diet and a vegetarian diet? Who can eat what? b What are the reasons for someone to be a vegan? c Suppose you are an institutional cook and you know you will have guests who are vegan. What kind of recipe would you use? Try using jamieoliver.com for vegan recipes. d Suppose you are an institutional cook. You learn that from now on there will be 10 people eating lunch every day who are allergic to milk. How would you change the way you cook meals? Present your answers, using both pictures and text, to the class.

NO

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LEEK AND SPINACH OMELETTE WITH HOT-SMOKED SALMON

An omelette can be filled with all your favourite ingredients or with leftovers from the day before. The only limit is your imagination. Here is one simple and healthy suggestion. Preparation time: 15 minutes Serves 4 Ingredients • 1 leek • 300 g spinach • 6 eggs • 200 g cottage cheese • 300 g hot-smoked salmon • salt and pepper • butter or oil for frying

Directions First, thinly slice the leek and fry it in butter or oil for 2 minutes. Second, add the spinach and season with salt and pepper. Then, whisk the egg and cottage cheese together in a bowl. Mix the liquid with the leek and spinach in the pan, and stir gently until it starts to set. Continue to fry at low temperature, with the lid on, for approximately 5 minutes. Divide the fish into rough pieces and distribute them evenly over the omelette. Finally, fold the omelette in half, cut it into portions and serve with a mixed salad and good bread.

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!

Before you start a Name the most popular TV programmes or films depicting famous chefs. b Can you name five qualities of a top chef?

Life Cafe, Rare Chef (Recent History) The Chef is a genius the Chef is brilliant the Chef is an artist the Chef has an ego the Chef is an arrogant PIG! the Chef is a diva the Chef is too slow the Chef costs us plenty The Chef had to go

(Yesterday) The new Chef is a genius he is just SO brilliant his steaks are so succulent his sous liquid gold But oh he has a temper he has a complex it’s his way or no he shouts at the waiters he screams at the manager he lambasts our dear customers he can’t work with anyone The Chef had to go!

john sunderland

m

John Sunderland (1945–) is an English writer and the co-owner of two cafe restaurants named Life Cafe in New York City. He is also a trained graphic designer.

Read and understand

genius geni brilliant glitrende / glitrande arrogant overlegen diva berømt og fetert kvinnelig sanger / berømt og feira kvinneleg songar temper temperament shout rope scream skrike lambast skjelle ut customer kunde

8.43 Answer the following questions. a In your mind, what does the chef look like? b What is his personality like? c Why did he get fired? d Why is the chef called an artist?

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Practise

8.44 Insert these 4 words into the correct sentence. temper – lambasted – diva – arrogant a Cathy lost her with a customer and shouted at him. b Damn! Julia is really behaving like a . c Her restaurant was by food critics. d It is very to think that everyone can afford champagne.

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the poem is about ▶▶ name different types of chefs ▶▶ give examples of slang used in restaurants

8.45 Chefs use specific kitchen slang at the workplace. Match the slang word with its correct definition. a b c d e f g h i j k

1 to burn something or overcook it 2 customers that hang out at a table all night long GBD 3 the kitchen and storage areas, where the chefs, prep people and dishwashers work low-boy 4 to start cooking a certain dish whiz 5 meat, fish, poultry, or even “meat substitute” no show 6 make it fast protein 7 someone who doesn’t show up to work or a reservation the back of the house 8 to work two shifts in a row campers 9 an under-the-counter refrigerator cremate it / kill it 10 to blend something in a food processor double 11 golden, brown, and delicious on the fly fire

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the poem is about.

Write

8.46 • Rewrite the poem. Replace the word “chef” with another title, and feel free to change as much of the poem as you like. 8.47 •• Would you say that the chef is the most important element in the restaurant? Write a paragraph. Start by writing a topic sentence that presents your opinion. Continue by explaining and exemplifying what you mean. End with a concluding sentence. For advice see page 92. 8.48 ••• Write a five-paragraph text where you discuss to what extent becoming a chef is a good career choice. You may want to include • advantages • challenges • your personal opinion Study page 240 for advice on how to write a five-paragraph text.

YES ALMOST NO

I can name different types of chefs. YES ALMOST NO

I can give examples of slang used in restaurants. YES ALMOST NO

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!

Before you start a How important is bread in your life? b Have you ever tried any other types of bread when you have been abroad?

dietary staple basisvare affordable overkommelig / overkommeleg punishment straff faulty mangelfull forfeit gå glipp av pillory gapestokk artisan laget på en tradisjonell måte / laga på ein tradisjonell måte crafted håndverket / handverket sour sur dough deig pretzel (salt)kringle innovative nyskapende / nyskapande shape forme stencil sjablong loaf brød

Artisan Breads Bread has been a dietary staple for many cultures over the years, and the importance of affordable, well-made bread is reflected in a number of laws passed throughout history, according to History Magazine. For example, in England in 1266, a law was passed that fixed the price a baker could charge for bread. The law remained in place for over 600 years and wasn’t the only law of its kind. Bakers were hanged in Turkey for too-high bread prices, and England and Egypt passed laws in the Middle Ages with severe punishments for bakers selling faulty bread. Today’s bakers may forfeit repeat customers instead of facing the pillory, but bread is no less important today. Artisan breads are breads that are crafted instead of commercially produced. Making these breads is both a science and an art, and today there are many courses that teach these skills.

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What to Expect in an Artisan Breads Class In your speciality breads course, you’ll learn to prepare: • Lean, rich and sour dough breads • Bagels, pretzels, regional and ethnic breads • Holiday and seasonal breads

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what artisan breads are ▶▶ use vocabulary related to baking ▶▶ discuss the importance of staying up to date in your field

You’ll also get instruction on innovative baking methods and learn how to mix, shape, and finish specialty breads. You may have noticed that some types of breads always look the same. This is because there are a number of classic artisan bread shapes that bakers must master. You’ll also learn how to stencil dough and to use it decoratively.

The Science of Artisan Bread Making one loaf may seem manageable, but how can you make sure you get great results every time, no matter how many loaves you’re baking or no matter which flour you choose? That’s exactly why you’ll learn both math and science in culinary school. You’ll learn how to properly measure ingredients, how to scale them, and how to properly convert a recipe. For breads, this can be tricky when you start to substitute flours with different properties. For example, wheat flours must be substituted based on weight rather than volume, but even then a baker must know the properties of the specific wheat in order to properly adjust a recipe. Hard and soft wheat have different levels of protein content, which can affect the weight of the flour and the density of the dough and resulting product. Chemistry is also an integral part of baking bread. If you’ve never paused to consider the difference between single-acting and double-acting baking powder, you haven’t even scratched the surface of baking and chemistry. What do you do if the batter is thick? How does altitude affect the amount of CO2 required for baking? A variety of factors affect how you use a single ingredient such as baking powder, even before you introduce all the other ingredients and factors of bread making. Intensive culinary courses in baking are designed to teach you all the factors affecting dough so that you can recognize faults and correct them quickly. Even if bakers aren’t facing the pillory, expert bakers are tasked with producing an excellent product with consistent results. Jo Von Sotak

manageable håndterlig / handterleg culinary kulinarisk scale (vekt)skål convert her: omgjøre / gjere om recipe oppskrift substitute erstatte flour mel / mjøl adjust justere wheat hvete / kveite content innhold / innhald affect virke på / verke på weight vekt density tetthet / tettleik scratch her: skrape batter røre baking powder bakepulver fault feil consistent her: stabil

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Read and understand

8.49 • Combine the first and second halves of the following sentences. Write the correct sentences. a Bread is no b You’ll also get instruction on innovative c Making one loaf d Wheat flours must be substituted based on e Hard and soft wheat have f What do you do

1 may seem manageable. 2 weight rather than volume. 3 less important today. 4 different levels of protein content. 5 if the batter is thick? 6 baking methods and learn how to mix.

8.50 •• Choose the right alternative. 1 What happened in 1266 in England? a a law was passed that fixed the price a baker could charge for bread b the first bread was produced c bakers were punished for too high bread prices 2 Where were bakers hung for too high bread prices? a in England b in Turkey c in Scotland 3 What will you learn to prepare in speciality bread courses? a bagels, ethnic and regional breads b dough breads, seasonal and holiday breads, bagels, pretzels, regional and ethnic reads c dough breads 4 What are artisan breads? a breads that are commercially produced b breads that always come in the same shape c breads that are crafted instead of commercially produced

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Practise

8.51 Match the pictures of essential tools for bread baking with the proper words. a b c d g e f

loaf pan zester mixing bowl set wooden cutting board pastry brush wooden spoon wooden rolling pin

1

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4

5

6

7

Did you know?

In 1928 the first bread slicing machine was invented by Otto Rohwedder. The bakery in Chillicothe, Ohio which he owned at the time of his invention was at the verge of going bankrupt, but was saved by this invention, which contributed to a rise in sales and saved his business. Even though it was a well-known fact that bread would go stale faster when it was sliced, people would not mind and they preferred sliced bread.

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8.52 Match the objects in exercise 8.51 with the correct sentences. a I use this to roll pastry flat. b I use this to remove the zest of oranges and lemons. c I use this to shape bread while it is being baked. d I use this to spread oil or butter on bread. e I use this to mix the dry baking ingredients in the bowl. f I use this to knead dough. g I use this to contain the dry baking ingredients while mixing them together. 8.53 First translate the Norwegian words into English. Then find the English words in the grid below. gjær rug jern til å raspe sitrusskall skorpete hvete få til å gjære kna deig G

K

N

E

A

D

T

X

F

R

C

R

U

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T

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K

E

E

D

P

B

I

T

J

H

R

T

J

U

W

S

Q

G

J

M

S

H

O

A

U

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E

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A

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I

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8.54 Combine the types of grain with the right pictures. a oats b wheat c barley d rye

1

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2

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Speak

8.55 Staying updated is an important aspect of being a professional. What can you do to be informed about new trends in your profession? 8.56 Why do you think more and more people are attracted to bread-making courses nowadays? Can you think of any reasons why? 8.57 Work with a partner and study the illustrations. Take turns and give each other instructions on how to produce bread. You may want to look at pages 142 – 143 for advice on how to give instructions. delivery and storage mixing, dividing and first proving kneading and preparation second proving baking depanning and cooling

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what artisan breads are. YES ALMOST NO

I can use vocabulary related to baking. YES ALMOST NO

Explore

8.58 There are many types of bread on the market, and almost every country has its own traditional bread. Find a recipe you like and prepare a list of necessary ingredients. If possible, go to the kitchen and bake your chosen type of bread.

I can discuss the importance of staying up to date in my field. YES ALMOST NO

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

how to make sausages ▶▶ name the different parts of the beef in English

Making Sausages

Sausages are one of the most popular foods in Britain, with over 266,500 tonnes being consumed every year. However, there is always the worry about what goes into the sausage. If you make your own sausages, you can control what you eat. Perhaps you want a gluten free, low fat sausage, with no artificial colourings or flavourings? Let’s ask an expert how to do it!

Listen and understand

8.59 Listen to the text and write down keywords about the process of making sausages. Find information about a machines used for sausage making b types of ingredients needed to make a sausage c the preservation of home-made sausages

stabiliser stabilisator casings hylse, pølseskinn coarse grov hide skinn bovine kveg hog svin chipolata tynn, krydret pølse intestine tarm rusk kavring

8.60 Study the drawing of the cut of beef and discuss the questions with a partner. Use a dictionary to look up words you don’t know. a What do we call the different parts of the animal in Norwegian? b Which part is best suited for different types of dishes or food products? Make a list.

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Speak

8.61 Every year there are competitions in sausage making. Here is a list of the categories and criteria used to evaluate the sausage entries. Discuss the list. What kind of methods, tools and ingredients would you use in order to get top score in each category? Raw materials and The sausage should have well balanced, healthy ingredients. The amount of fat and ingredients bone content should be low. Visual appearance and finish

The sausage should have an appealing, even colour, a smooth surface and show no sign of soot, mould, salt or burns.

Visual appearance, The sausage should be evenly coarse and easy to slice, the cut edges clean, the sliced colour evenly distributed and there should be no holes or lumps of fat. Aroma and flavour The sausage should have a good, distinctive smell, taste and aftertaste. It should be possible to detect each of the elements of taste, the type of meat, seasoning and smoke. There should be no signs of rancidity, mould or burn. Texture

The sausage meat should be tender. The sausage should hold together while being tasted, not crumble into bits, nor should it not be rubbery and hard to chew. The casing should not be impenetrable nor cracked. The texture should not be too dry, nor too fatty.

Write

How did you do?

8.62 Use the following words to write a text for an instruction manual on how to make sausages. intestine sausage filler rusk meat cook casings mincer stabiliser smoke hide coarse spices

Explore

After working with the text and exercises, I can explain how to make sausages. YES ALMOST NO

8.63 Use different sources and find information about a Norwegian or foreign sausage competition. Also find recipes for the sausages that won. Give a short oral presentation of the competition and the winners in class. For advice on how to give an oral presentation, see page 276.

I can name the different parts of the beef in English. YES ALMOST NO

DID YOU DO 8|HOW IN THIS CHAPTER? Three things you know or can do well: 1 2 3 Two things you would like to know or do better: 1 2 One thing you will learn for next time: 1

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS PREPOSITIONS Prepositions expressing time: at – on – in at 5 o’clock at night at Easter

on Friday on March 19th on Wednesday morning

in January in the spring in the morning

Prepositions expressing place: at – on – in at home at school at the door

on the desk on the bus on the street

in a hospital in a car in an office

Practise 8.64 Fill in the missing prepositions. a I have a dentist appointment Tuesday. b To be there on time, I have to get up 7 a.m. c 7 a.m. is quite early the morning. d 2009 there were 41,592 poisoning deaths in the United States. e My boss has a coffee break about 11 o’clock. f One morning the winter, the temperature was below – 25°C. g The pharmacy closes at 6 the evening. h Mr Sangstrom leaves the pharmacy about 7 p.m. 8.65 Answer the questions in full sentences. a When is your birthday? b In what year were you born? c When do you have to get up in the morning? d When do you have to leave home to be at school on time? e When does your first lesson start? f When does your lunch break finish? g When did you last see a dentist? h At what time of the day do you feel your best?

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 8.66 Fill in the missing prepositions. a Sabrina knows that she communicates differently work and in private. b a working situation you use a different style of language than with your friends. c Working the health care system means you are part of a complex system. d a clinic clients come and go all day long. e Snow White had been working late Disney Land. f Top Gear was shown BBC. g Cinderella put the slipper. h Parents tell children not to stare disabled people. 8.67 Write at least eight sentences about what you see in the picture below and use the prepositions in, at or on.

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CHAPTER 9

Other Voices


In this chapter you will focus on

• texts by and about indigenous peoples • culture and values in Canada, New Zealand and Australia • working with literature • using sources • word order

Useful words and phrases indigenous peoples heritage ancestor inhabitant reservation setting character plot quote paraphrase

If you woke up in a different place, at a different time, would you wake up as a different person?

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!

Before you start What do you know about Canada? Can you think of any famous Canadians? Write down some keywords and share in class.

define definere rattle off lire av seg, ramse opp zipper glidelås set sparks tenne gnister/tenne gneistar maple syrup lønnesirup wheat hvete/kveite brew brygge/bryggje vineyard vingård/vingard

We Are More When defining Canada you might list some statistics you might mention our tallest building or biggest lake you might shake a tree in the fall and call a red leaf Canada you might rattle off some celebrities or that we made these crazy things like zippers electric cars and washing machines

but when defining Canada don’t forget to mention that we have set sparks we are not just fishing stories about the one that got away we do more than sit around and say “eh?” but we’re more than just hockey and fishing lines some say what defines us is something as simple as “please” and “thank you” and as for “you’re welcome” well, we say that too we are young we are cultures strung together we are an experiment going right for a change we are the colours of Chinatown and the coffee of Little Italy we dream so big that there are those who would call our ambition an industry because we are more than sticky maple syrup and clean snow we do more than grow wheat and brew beer we are vineyards of good year after good year

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

how the poet defines Canada and Canadians ▶▶ mention some typical Canadian values ▶▶ write and give feedback on a text

we reforest what we clear because we believe in generations beyond our own we will reach the goals we set and we will get interest on our inspiration because we are more than a nation of whale watchers and lumberjacks more than backpacks and hiking trails we are hammers and nails building bridges towards those who are willing to walk across we are families with room at the table for newcomers we are the reasons people have for wanting to stay we are students we don’t have all the answers but we try and the effort is what makes us more we don’t all know what it is in life we’re looking for so keep exploring go far and wide we are more than hills to ski or countryside ponds to skate a country that is all the ways you choose to live a land that can give you variety because we are choices we are the True North strong and free and what’s more is that we didn’t just say it we made it be. (excerpt) shane koyczan

Shane Koyczan (1976–) is a Canadian poet, novelist and performer. He was born in Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories. He read his poem “We Are More” at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada.

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reforest planter skog/plantar skog clear felle, hogge goal mål interest rente lumberjack tømmerhogger/ tømmerhoggar backpack ryggsekk hiking trail sti/stig effort anstrengelse/påkjenning, strev pond dam

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Read and understand

9.1 • Translate the following lines from the poem into Norwegian. a When defining Canada you might list some statistics b don’t forget to mention that we have set sparks c we are an experiment going right for a change d we reforest what we clear / because we believe in generations beyond our own e we dream so big that there are those / who would call our ambition an industry f we will reach the goals we set g we are the reasons people have for wanting to stay h and what’s more / is that we didn’t just say it / we made it be 9.2 •• Answer the following questions. a “We are more than …” the poet says. Find five things he says Canada is more than. b Name three things that were invented by Canadians. c Find the lines in the poem where it is said that Canadians are polite. d What does the poet mean when he says “we are the colours of Chinatown and the coffee of Little Italy”? e The poet claims that Canadians take care of the environment for future generations. Find the lines that support this statement. f Find the lines where the poet says Canadians welcome immigrants. g In the poem, Canadians are said to like outdoor activities. Find at least three such activities. h Canada is a country of great diversity and variation. Point out at least two lines that support this statement.

Speak

9.3 This poem was read at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada. Imagine that Norway is going to host the Winter Olympics again. a What do you think is typical of Norway and Norwegians? b How would you want Norway to be presented at an opening ceremony?

Write

9.4 • Of all the values said to identify Canadians mentioned in the poem, which one do you think is most important? Explain why. Write one paragraph. Swap your text with a partner, and give each other constructive feedback.

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9.5 •• Based on what you learned from reading the poem, write a short text where you describe the cultural identity of Canadians. Start like this: “In general, Canadians are …” Swap your text with a partner, and give each other constructive feedback. 9.6 ••• How are Canadians and Norwegians similar and/or different? Use some of the statements from the poem as a starting point. Write at least three paragraphs. Swap your text with a partner, and give each other constructive feedback.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain how the poet defines Canada and Canadians. YES ALMOST NO

I can mention some typical Canadian values. YES ALMOST NO

I can write and give feedback on a text. YES ALMOST NO

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FACT FILE CANADA

National Anthem

O Canada! O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

Where Hockey is a Way of Life Did you know that Canada’s national summer sport is lacrosse? Curling and soccer are also very popular sports, but nothing means as much to Canadians as their national winter sport – ice hockey. When both the men’s and women’s teams won the 2010 Olympics on home ground most Canadians went crazy with national pride.


NORTHWEST YUKON TERRITORIES TERRITORY Whitehorse

NUNAVUT TERRITORY C A N A D A

Yellowknife

BRITISH ALBERTA COLUMBIA Edmonton

PACI F I C O C EA N

Vancouver Victoria

SASKATCHEWAN

ALASKA (US)

Baff in Bay

H uds on B ay

GREENLAND

B ea u f or t S ea

Iqaluit

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

QUÉBEC PRINCE ATLA NTI C EDWARD ONTARIO OC E A N Winnipeg ISLAND Regina Québec St. John's Montréal Charlottetown Ottawa UNITED STATES Toronto Fredericton Halifax NOVA SCOTIA NEW BRUNSWICK MANITOBA

The Good Life Canada, the 2nd largest country in the world, is often ranked very high when measuring quality of life. It is known to be politically stable and for its high personal safety. Canadians, often called Canucks, appreciate good education systems and long life expectancy.

CANADA FACTS

Official name: Canada (The Dominion of Canada) Capital: Ottawa Population: 34 million (most live along the US border) Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, Asian, African and Arab 6%, mixed background 26% Geography: 10 provinces and 3 territories Landscape: Mountain ranges in the west, permanently frozen areas in the north, plains and farmland in the south Head of State: The British King or Queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: July 1 (Canada Day) Currency: Canadian Dollar Agriculture: wheat, barley, oilseed, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish Industry: chemicals, minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas.


FACT FILE CANADA After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ describe

the landscapes of Canada ▶▶ give some facts about Canada ▶▶ explain the meaning of selected quotes

Read and understand

9.7 • Study the pictures on pages 340 – 341. a Describe the Canadian flag. b Which two sports do you see in the pictures? c Based on the pictures, describe the Canadian landscapes. d What is the last line of Canada’s national anthem? What does it mean? 9.8 •• Study the map shown in the Canada fact file. a How many provinces and territories are there? b Where is the capital located? c In which province do you find Montréal? d What is the easternmost province called? e What is the province capital of British Columbia? f Which territory is the largest? 9.9 ••• Answer the following questions. a Why is Canada often ranked high when measuring quality of life? b How many people live in Canada and where do most of them live? c Which is the biggest ethnic group in Canada? d How many say they have a mixed background? e When is Canada’s national day? f Who is Canada’s head of state? g What is Canada’s national summer sport? h What is the most popular winter sport?

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Practise

9.10 The following words and phrases can all be found in the fact file. Look up their meaning in a dictionary, and match the English word with the Norwegian translation. a b c d e f g h i j

measure appreciate life expectancy border plains dairy products pride population barley chemicals

1 forventet levealder/venta levealder 2 stolthet, stoltheit 3 sette pris på/setje pris på 4 befolkning/folkesetnad 5 bygg 6 grense 7 sletter 8 meieriprodukter/meieriprodukt 9 måle 10 kjemikalier/kjemikal

9.11 Based on the figures in the fact file, make a pie chart showing different ethnic groups in Canada.

Did you know

French is the mother tongue for about 23% of the Canadian population. French has been spoken in Canada since the colonists arrived in the early 1600s. Today, most native French speakers live in the province of Québec. Both English and French are official languages in Canada. The Québecois have wanted to make Québec a separate state, independent from the rest of Canada, but there was not enough support in the population when they voted on the issue in a referendum. Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 343


FACT FILE CANADA Speak

9.12 Here are some words and expressions associated with Canada and Canadiens. Use online dictionaries or encyclopedias to find definitions, and explain what they mean. mounted police – maple syrup – lumberjacks – poutine – loonies and toonies 9.13 Study the quotes below. In your own words, explain what is said in the quotes.

“This is a country where a man can die simply from being caught outside.”

“A Canadian is someone who knows how to make love in a canoe.” Pierre Berton

Alden Nowlan

“Canada has never been a melting-pot; more like a tossed salad.”

“It’s going to be a great country when they finish unpacking it.” Andrew H. Malcolm

Arnold Edinborough

“Canadians have been so busy explaining to the Americans that we aren’t British, and to the British that we aren’t Americans that we haven’t had time to become Canadians.” Helen Gordon McPherson

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Explore

9.14 Find information about a famous Canadian, for example in music, sports or the arts. Use reliable sources. Make a short multimodal presentation or write a short text.

Listen

9.15 “Nunavut – Inuit Territory” Listen to the text twice. Make notes as you listen, and then answer the following questions in full sentences. a Where is Nunavut? b When was Nunavut established? c Who and how many live in Nunavut? d Why don’t they want to be called Eskimos anymore? e Describe the traditional lifestyle of the population of Nunavut. f How has the culture and lifestyle changed? g What effect does new technology have? h What social problems are mentioned in the text? How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can describe the landscapes of Canada. YES ALMOST NO

I can give some facts about Canada. YES ALMOST NO

I can explain the meaning of selected quotes. YES ALMOST NO

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the short story is about ▶▶ use different reading strategies to find information ▶▶ use vocabulary related to sports ▶▶ make a formal inquiry and/or complaint

The Hockey Sweater The winters of my childhood were long, long seasons. We lived in three places – the school, the church and the skating rink – but our real life was on the skating rink. Real battles were won on the skating rink. The real leaders showed themselves on the skating rink. School was a sort of punishment. Parents always want to punish children and school is their most natural way of punishing us. However, school was also a quiet place where we could prepare for the next hockey game, lay out our next strategies. As for church, we found there the tranquility of God: there we forgot school and dreamed about the next hockey game. Through our daydreams it might happen that we would recite a prayer: We would ask God to help us play as well as Maurice Richard. We all wore the same uniform as he, the red, white and blue uniform of the Montreal Canadiens, the best hockey team in the world; we all combed our hair in the same style as Maurice Richard, and to keep it in place we used a sort of glue – a great deal of glue. We laced our skates like Maurice Richard, we taped our sticks like Maurice Richard. We cut all his pictures out of the papers. Truly, we knew everything about him. On the ice, when the referee blew his whistle the two teams would rush at the puck; we were five Maurice Richards taking it away from five other Maurice Richards; we were ten players, all of us wearing with the same blazing enthusiasm the uniform of the Montreal Canadians. On our backs, we all wore the famous number 9. One day my Montreal Canadiens sweater had become too small; then it got torn and had holes in it. My mother said: “If you wear that old sweater

skating rink skøytebane battle slag tranquility ro recite framsi/seie fram prayer bønn/bøn Maurice Richard ishockeylegende comb kjemme, gre/kjemme, greie glue lim lace skolisse stick hockeykølle referee dommer/dommar blazing glødende/glødande

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leaf through bla gjennom order form bestillingsskjema gentle hand forsiktig håndskrift/forsiktig handskrift wrapping innpakning disappointment skuffelse/ motgang, vonbrot sorrow sorg maple lønn/løn trounce her: slå, banke smooth glatte ut sleeve erme crease krøll abominable avskyelig/ avskyeleg, avstyggeleg chest bryst glove hanske despair fortvilelse/fortviling

people are going to think we’re poor!” Then she did what she did whenever we needed new clothes. She started to leaf through the catalogue the Eaton company sent us in the mail every year. My mother was proud. She didn’t want to buy our clothes at the general store; the only things that were good enough for us were the latest styles from Eaton’s catalogue. My mother didn’t like the order forms included with the catalogue; they were written in English and she didn’t understand a word of it. To order my hockey sweater, she did what she usually did; she took out her writing paper and wrote in her gentle schoolteacher’s hand: “Cher Monsieur Eaton, Would you be kind enough to send me a Canadiens sweater for my son who is ten years old and a little too tall for his age and Docteur Robitaille thinks he’s a little too thin? I’m sending you three dollars and please send me what’s left if there’s anything left. I hope your wrapping will be better than last time.” Monsieur Eaton was quick to answer my mother’s letter. Two weeks later we received the sweater. That day I had one of the greatest disappointments of my life! I would even say that on that day I experienced a very great sorrow. Instead of the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater, Monsieur Eaton had sent us a blue and white sweater with a maple leaf on the front – the sweater of the Toronto Maple Leafs. I’d always worn the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater; all my friends wore the red, white and blue sweater; never had anyone in my village ever worn the Toronto sweater, never had we even seen a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater. Besides, the Toronto team was regularly trounced by the triumphant Canadiens. With tears in my eyes, I found the strength to say: “I’ll never wear that uniform.” “My boy, first you’re going to try it on! If you make up your mind about things before you try, my boy, you won’t go very far in this life.” My mother had pulled the blue and white Toronto Maple Leafs sweater over my shoulders and already my arms were inside the sleeves. She pulled the sweater down and carefully smoothed all the creases in the abominable maple leaf on which, right in the middle of my chest, were written the words “Toronto Maple Leafs”. I wept. “I’ll never wear it.” “Why not? This sweater fits you … like a glove.” “Maurice Richard would never put it on his back.” “You aren’t Maurice Richard. Anyway, it isn’t what’s on your back that counts, it’s what you’ve got inside your head. “You’ll never put it into my head to wear a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater.” My mother sighed in despair and

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explained to me: “If you don’t keep this sweater which fits you perfectly I’ll have to write to Monsieur Eaton and explain that you don’t want to wear the Toronto Maple Leafs. And if he’s insulted do you think he’ll be in a hurry to answer us? Spring will be here and you won’t have played a single game, just because you didn’t want to wear that perfectly nice blue sweater.” So I was obliged to wear the Maple Leafs sweater. When I arrived on the rink, all the Maurice Richards in red, white and blue came up, one by one, to take a look. When the referee blew his whistle I went to take my usual position. The captain came and warned me I’d be better to stay on the forward line. A few minutes later the second line was called; I jumped onto the ice. The Maple Leafs sweater weighed on my shoulders like a mountain. The captain came and told me to wait; he’d need me later, on defense. By the third period I still hadn’t played; one of the defensemen was hit in the nose with a stick and it was bleeding. I jumped on the ice: my moment had come! The referee blew his whistle; he gave me a penalty. He claimed I’d jumped on the ice when there were already five players. That was too much! It was unfair! It was persecution! It was because of my blue sweater! I struck my stick against the ice so hard it broke. Relieved, I bent down to pick up the debris. As I straightened up I saw the young vicar, on skates, before me. “My child; he said, just because you’re wearing a new Toronto Maple Leafs sweater unlike the others, it doesn’t mean you’re going to make the laws around here. A proper young man doesn’t lose his temper. Now take off your skates and go to the church and ask God to forgive you.” Wearing my Maple Leafs sweater I went to the church, where I prayed to God; I asked him to send, so quickly as possible, moths that would eat up my Toronto Maple Leafs sweater. roch carrier Roch Carrier (1937–) is a novelist and short story writer from French-speaking Québec, Canada. He has also written film scripts, plays and poems. Several of his works have become classics and are used in schools around the world, in both French and English. A scene from his most famous short story “The Hockey Sweater” is even reprinted on the back of the Canadian five-dollar bill.

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insult fornærme be obliged to være nødt til/vere nøydd til forward løper, angrep/løpar, angrep penalty straffe rink bane persecution forfølgelse/ forfølging relieved lettet/letta debris avfall vicar prest moth møll

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Read and understand

9.16 • Skim the text. Decide if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. True

False

a The story is about a boy who likes to play hockey. b He thought the best hockey team in the world was the Toronto Maple Leafs. c Their idol, Maurice Richard had the number 99 on his back. d The mother bought a new hockey sweater from the local store. e The boy was very disappointed when he got the new sweater. f His mother took the sweater back to change it for the right one. g The captain of the team would not let the boy play. h The referee gave him a penalty for playing rough. i When the boy broke his stick, the vicar sent him to school. j He prayed for moths to come and eat up his sweater.

9.17 •• Scan the text. Look for information to complete the sentences. a For the boy in the text, real life was … b In church, he would ask God to … c All the children wore … d When the boy needed a new hockey sweater, the mother … e When the new sweater arrived, it was … f The boy said he would never … g When the boy wanted to play, … h He jumped on the ice when … i The referee blew his whistle because … j Instead of asking God for forgiveness, the boy … 9.18 ••• Read the text closely. Answer the following questions. Check “Working with short stories and novels” on pages 360 – 361. a Describe the setting of the story. Where does the story take place? What time of year is it? b Describe the boy. What is most important to him? c Describe the mother. How does she deal with the problem? d How do the other players and the coach react, and why? e How does the story end? Is there a turning point? f What do you think is the theme of this short story?

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Speak

9.19 Do you have a favourite team, or a favourite sport? Tell a partner. 9.20 Who do you sympathize with in this short story, the boy or the mother? Discuss in class. Give reasons for your views. 9.21 Think back to your own childhood. Did you have to wear something you didn’t like? Were you not allowed to do a certain thing because an adult said so? How did you react? Discuss.

Practise

9.22 Fill in the missing letters to complete these sports words. a so_ _er e c_noe_ng b ma_at_ on f wi_d_ur_ing c _no_boa_di_g g _ol_e_ba_l d ba_k_tb_ll h ro_i_g 9.23 Match the English names of sports with the Norwegian ones. 1 fekting a floor ball 2 aking b pole vault 3 langrenn c gymnastics 4 innebandy d biathlon 5 bueskyting e hurdles 6 stavsprang f fencing 7 skiskyting g figure skating 8 kunstløp h archery 9 turn i luge 10 hekkeløp j cross country

Write

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the story is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can use different reading strategies to find information. YES ALMOST NO

9.24 If the story took place today, the mother would probably have ordered the hockey sweater from a website. Imagine that you are the boy’s mother. Write an email to the Eaton Company. Explain what you want to buy, and ask about the price and how it will be shipped. Use formal language. Look at pages 106 – 107 for advice on formal and informal language. 9.25 Imagine that you have ordered something online, but when you open the package, you find something entirely different. Write a formal letter to the Eaton company where you complain that you have not received what you ordered. Use formal language. You will find advice on how to set up a formal letter on pages 260 – 261.

I can use vocabulary related to sports. YES ALMOST NO

I can make a formal inquiry and/or ­complaint. YES ALMOST NO

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!

Before you start Can you identify which countries these indigenous peoples come from?

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ name

the indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and North America ▶▶ mention some similarities and differences in their origin, lifestyle and culture ▶▶ describe past and present challenges of indigenous peoples

Indigenous Peoples Origins

Who were the first inhabitants? The Australian Aborigines had already lived on the continent for more than 40,000 years when the Europeans “discovered” Australia. In North America, scientists and archaeologists have found evidence of people living there more than 10,000 years ago. One theory is that the first people in North America wandered across the continent from Asia. In comparison, the Maoris arrived quite late. According to legend, a large group of people from islands in the Pacific Ocean reached New Zealand in long canoes around 1350 AD.

Lifestyle The Australian Aborigines used to be nomads. They would wander across the country, searching for food and water. The Maoris of New Zealand on the other hand, would settle down in one place, and establish close-knit communities. Among the North American Indians, you find both nomadic tribes and permanent settlements. Today, the majority of indigenous peoples live in cities and urban areas. In Canada and the USA, some live on reservations, which is land set aside for them by the government. Many Canadian Inuits still live in the far north, in the territory of Nunavut.

indigenous opprinnelig, ur-/ opphavleg, urpeople folkeslag inhabitant innbygger/ innbyggjar scientist forsker/forskar archaeologist arkeolog evidence bevis/prov, bevis Pacific Ocean Stillehavet nomad nomade, vandrer/ nomade, vandrar close-knit tett, sammensveiset/tett, samansveisa tribe stamme

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Culture Indigenous peoples have expressed their culture through art since the beginning of time. Ancient rock carvings are listed as World Heritage Sites today. Traditionally, the art of indigenous peoples would show animals, hunters, mythical creatures, or ceremonies. Music and singing have also been an important expression of culture, such as the Inuits’ unique throat singing. The history of the tribe, especially among Native Americans and Australian Aborigines, was often performed in music and song. The Maoris are particularly known for their ceremonial dances. Today, there is a growing interest in indigenous art and music. Music festivals bring indigenous peoples together from all over the world. Many tourists to Australia, for example, bring back a souvenir didgeridoo, a traditional instrument played by the Aborigines.

Language All the indigenous peoples have their own languages. In North America, there are hundreds of different tribal languages. Some are about to die out with the older generations. When the Europeans came to Australia, there were more than 300 language varieties spoken by the Aborigines. Today, only 20 of these language varieties are not endangered. In New Zealand, most people know a few Maori words, even if they don’t speak the language fluently themselves. It has become part of everyday speech, and Maori is now an official language in New Zealand.

ancient svært gammel/svært gammal rock carving helleristning heritage site kulturminne throat singing strupesang/ strupesong tribe stamme endangered utrydningstruet/ utryddingstrua fluently flytende/flytande everyday speech dagligtale/ daglegtale disease sykdom/ sjukdomsmallpox kopper/ kopar armed væpnet/væpna spiritual åndelig/andeleg intruder inntrenger/inntrengjar warfare technology krigføringsteknologi

The problems of the past When the Europeans settled in the new colonies, they brought diseases that were very dangerous for the indigenous peoples. They did not have any immunity against diseases such as influenza, smallpox or tuberculosis. Furthermore, the right to the land quickly became a problem and led to armed conflicts between the indigenous peoples and the European settlers. Most tribes were not familiar with the idea of owning land. The land also had spiritual importance, something the European settlers didn’t understand. North American Indians and New Zealand Maoris were warrior cultures, and fought back against the intruders. Australian Aborigines, on the other hand, did not have the warfare technology to fight back.

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Challenges today The indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and North America have become ethnic minorities in their own countries. Unfortunately, there are social problems in many indigenous communities. Unemployment, school dropouts, poor health care, crime, alcohol and drug problems are more common among indigenous peoples than in the rest of the population. According to a United Nations report, life expectancy for indigenous peoples is up to 20 years lower than for the rest of the population. After years of conflict and discrimination, indigenous peoples had lost much of their language and identity. Today, however, there is a renewed interest and pride in the values and cultures of indigenous peoples around the world. More people claim to have Australian Aboriginal, Maori or Native American roots than before, and indigenous peoples are becoming more aware of their rights.

community samfunn unemployment arbeidsledighet/arbeidsløyse life expectancy forventet levealder/forventa levealder pride stolthet/stoltheit claim hevde

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IN SHORT

Origins When the Europeans came to Australia, the Aborigines had already lived there for 40,000 years. In North America, there have been people for more than 10,000 years. One theory is that the first people in North America walked across the continent from Asia. A legend says that the Maoris came to New Zealand in long canoes around 1350 AD. Lifestyle The Australian Aborigines were nomads who wandered across the country, searching for food and water. The Maoris of New Zealand on the other hand, would live in one place. Indian tribes in North America did both. Today, most indigenous peoples live in cities. In Canada and the USA, some live on reservations, which is land they get from the government. Many Canadian Inuits still live in the far north. Culture Indigenous peoples have always used art to express themselves. Traditional art show animals, hunters, mythical creatures, or ceremonies. Music and singing is also important in their culture. The history of the tribe was told through music and song. The Maoris are well known for their ceremonial dances. Language All the indigenous peoples have their own languages. In North America, there are hundreds of different tribal languages. Some are about to die out. In the past, there were more than 300 tribal languages in Australia. Today, only 20 of them are not endangered. In New Zealand, most people know a few Maori words. Maori is now an official language in New Zealand.

canoe kano nomad nomade tribe stamme reservation reservat art kunst hunter jeger creature skapning tribal stammeendangered utrydningstruet/ utrydningstrua disease sykdom/sjukdom warrior kriger/krigar communities samfunn unemployment arbeidsledighet/ arbeidsløyse value verdi proud stolt

The problems of the past When the Europeans came to the new colonies, they brought diseases that were very dangerous for the indigenous peoples. There were also conflicts between the indigenous peoples and the Europeans. Most tribes didn’t understand the idea of owning land. North American Indians and New Zealand Maoris were warrior cultures. Australian Aborigines did not have the technology to fight back. Challenges today Indigenous peoples have become ethnic minorities in their own countries. There are social problems in many communities, for example unemployment, school dropouts, poor health care, crime, alcohol and drug problems. Indigenous peoples can expect to have a shorter life than the rest of the population. After years of conflict and discrimination, indigenous peoples had lost much of their language and identity. Today, there is a new interest in the values and cultures of indigenous peoples. More people are proud to have Australian Aboriginal, Maori or Native American roots than before.

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Did you know

Traditionally, indigenous peoples use different types of medicine based on herbs, animal parts and minerals. Some cures may also involve fire, water, steam or smoke. In many indigenous cultures there are Shamans – medicine men and women – who serve as a connection to the spiritual world. They can cure diseases and assist in difficult situations, often helped by herbs or ceremonies, chants and holy objects like amulets. Unfortunately, much of the knowledge about traditional healing is now lost. As modern society spreads and changes nature, by burning forests or flooding fields, valuable plants also disappear.

Read and understand

9.26 • Match the statements with the correct indigenous group. There may be more than one correct answer. 1 Maori a May have wandered across from Asia. b Arrived in canoes. 2 Native American c Used to be nomads. d Live on reserves. 3 Aborigine e Live in the far north. f The stories of the tribe were told through music and song. 4 Inuit g Are known for ceremonial dances. h Did not have warfare technology.

9.27 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a When did the first inhabitants come to Australia? b How did the Maoris reach New Zealand? c Which indigenous groups were nomads and which were not? d What is the situation for Aboriginal languages in Australia? e Traditionally, what is typical of indigenous peoples’ art? f Why were the diseases brought by the Europeans so dangerous for the indigenous peoples? g Name two things the European settlers didn’t understand when they tried to take the land. h What kind of social problems are found in indigenous communities today?

herb urt cure kur steam damp spiritual åndelig/åndeleg chant sang/song object gjenstand flood oversvømme/oversymje field åker valuable verdifull/verdfull

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9.28 ••• Sort the information given in the text in categories for each group. Write keywords. Australian A­boriginal

New Zealand Maori

Native ­American

Inuit

Origin Lifestyle Language Culture History Challenges

Practise

9.29 First, use a dictionary to find the meaning of the words below. Then use each of the words in a sentence. a inhabitant b discover c evidence d settle e urban f endangered g wander h tribal i establish j discrimination

Speak

9.30 Read the statements below. a Are you surprised by any of these facts? Explain why/why not. b Which of these challenges do you think is most important? Explain. There are more than 5,000 different groups of indigenous peoples living in more than 70 countries. Before the day is over, an indigenous person will be killed or displaced, simply because he or she has a different culture. Before the month is over, an indigenous homeland will be clear-cut, strip-mined or flooded by a dam. Before the year is over, dozens of languages will have disappeared forever.

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9.31 What do you think was said when the first European settler met the Native Americans, the Maoris in New Zealand, or the Aborigines in Australia? How did they act? What did they say? Did they try to understand each other? Choose one of the tasks. a Use your imagination and body language to act out the scene. b Make a photo story or documentary. c Use digital tools to make an animation or cartoon.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can name the i足ndigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and North America. YES ALMOST NO

I can mention some similarities and differences in their origin, lifestyle and culture. YES ALMOST NO

I can describe past and present challenges of indigenous peoples. YES ALMOST NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WORKING WITH SHORT STORIES AND NOVELS When working with short stories and novels, there are some terms you should know and use.

Setting

Point of view

Where and when does the story take place? The general setting of a story may be for example a large city in the 1950s, or a high school classroom today. Some settings help the reader “see” the story and create a certain atmosphere or mood. The setting of a story can help us understand the characters or the action. For example, a stormy night can be the background for a scary incident.

In fiction, the writer usually creates a narrator. First-person narrators refer to themselves as “I”, and they are directly involved in the story. What the reader knows is limited to what the narrator knows. When an outside observer tells a story, it has a third-person narrator. The characters in the story are all referred to as “he”, “she”, or “they”. A writer can also use a mixture of techniques.

Character

Theme

Who are the main characters in the story? What we learn about a character’s looks, thoughts, feelings, and even name, gives us information about his or her personality. The main character of a story is usually referred to as the protagonist. In many stories there is also an antagonist, someone or something the protagonist struggles against. Other characters may be more or less important, depending on their roles in the story.

What is the central idea behind a story? Sometimes the theme may be a moral lesson that the writer wants to teach us and is clearly stated in the text. This is often the case in legends, fables and fairy tales. In many stories, however, the theme is hidden in the plot, setting or actions of the characters. The title of a text may give clues about the theme. Note that there can be more than one theme.

Plot What happens in the story? Plot refers to the events that make up the story. Often a writer starts at the beginning and continues to tell the events in chronological order until we come to the end. Other times plots do not follow this pattern. There may be flashbacks, or the writer may jump several years to continue the story. Some important elements of plots are conflicts and suspense. The writer may hold back information to make it more interesting for the reader.

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There are many ways to write about short stories and novels. Here are some suggestions for both the reading and the writing process.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Tips for reading

about them? When you describe characters, remember to give examples from the text. In some tasks, you are asked to write a short plot summary. Include only the most important events. How does the story develop? Is there a turning point or a climax? Are the characters involved in a conflict, and if so, how is it solved? Then, explain if the story is told through a first-person or a third-person narrator. Find examples to show how the story is narrated. Is this important for our understanding of the characters and plot? Sum up by explaining if you think there are one or more themes in the story. Does the author try to tell us something? Is there a message? If you are asked to do so, give your own opinion of the story. Would you recommend it to others? Explain why or why not.

1 Read the story in sections. You may want to stop after a while to sum up to yourself what you have just read. Try to get an overall view of the story. 2 Write down the names of important characters and what you think of them as you go along. Make a list of any minor characters as they appear in the story. 3 Write down important incidents and events in the story and who are involved in them. Is there a climax or a turning point? Also make a note of lines or page numbers where you find important information. This will help you when you start writing. 4 Make a few notes of what you think of the story. Did you like it? Did it make you want to read on? Was the language difficult? What was the ending like?

4

Tips for writing

Practise

1 First of all, it may be interesting to know something about the author, and when he or she wrote the story. Look for information on the Internet, on the cover of the book, or ask a librarian. In some books, a short biography can be found at the beginning or end of the story. 2 Next, give a general introduction to the story. You can start by saying something about the setting, that is when and where the story takes place. 3 Go on to say something about the characters and the plot of the story. Who are the main characters? What do we learn

5

6

7

9.32 Study “The Hockey Sweater” on pages 346 – 349 or “Dance, Dance, Dance” on pages 363 – 369. a What is the setting? b Who are the characters? c Sum up the plot in a few sentences. d What is the point of view? e What do you think is the theme? 9.33 Use the same step-by-step method to write about a film you have seen recently. Instead of giving information about the author, find some facts about the film’s director and when the film was made.

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ describe

the setting, characters, plot and point of view ▶▶ discuss possible themes ▶▶ express opinions on celebrating graduation

The Absolutely True ­Diary of a Part-­Time Indian

In this heart-warming and funny novel, we meet Arnold. He lives with his parents (and sister before she ran away) on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Wellpinit, Washington. Arnold is frustrated at school and decides to leave his reservation and attend the all-white Reardan High School instead, where he knows he will receive a better education. However, coming from a reservation to a new school is not all easy. Especially not when he has managed to get a date with the girl of his dreams and is taking her to a high school dance …

Dance, Dance, Dance Traveling between Reardan and Wellpinit, between the little white town and the reservation, I always felt like a stranger. I was half Indian in one place and half white in the other. It was like being an Indian was my job, but it was only a part-time job. And it didn’t pay well at all. The only person who made me feel great all the time was Penelope. Well, I shouldn’t say that. I mean, my mother and father were working hard for me, too. They were constantly scraping together enough money to pay for gas, to get me lunch money, to buy me a new pair of jeans and a few new shirts. My parents gave me just enough money so that I could pretend to have more money than I did. I lied about how poor I was.

part-time deltid attend gå på manage her: klare constantly her: hele tiden/heile tida gas bensin pretend late som/te seg som

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Everybody in Reardan assumed we Spokanes made lots of money because we had a casino. But that casino, mismanaged and too far away from major highways, was a money-losing business. In order to make money from the casino, you had to work at the casino. And white people everywhere have always believed that the government just gives money to Indians. And since the kids and parents at Reardan thought I had a lot of money, I did nothing to change their minds. I figured it wouldn’t do me any good if they knew I was dirt poor. What would they think of me if they knew I sometimes had to hitchhike to school? Nobody knew the truth. Of course, you can’t lie forever. Lies have short shelf lives. Lies go bad. Lies rot and stink up the joint. In December, I took Penelope to the Winter Formal. The thing is, I only had five dollars, not nearly enough to pay for anything – not for photos, not for food, not for gas, not for a hot dog and soda pop. If it had been any other dance, a regular dance, I would have stayed home with an imaginary illness. But I couldn’t skip Winter Formal. And if I didn’t take Penelope then she would have certainly gone with someone else.

mismanage lede på en ­dårlig måte/styre på ein dårleg måte hitchhike haike shelf life levetid joint her: sted/stad soda pop brus imaginary innbilt suit dress squeal hvine/kvine delight fryd/frygd lame teit horny kåt bell-bottom slacks slengbukser relieved lettet/letta rehearse øve wallet lommebok reveal avsløre poverty fattigdom freshman førsteårselev diner veikro/vegkro Denny’s restaurantkjede execution henrettelse/ avretting retch brekke seg/kaste opp

Because I didn’t have money for gas, and because I couldn’t have driven the car if I wanted to, and because I didn’t want to double date, I told Penelope I’d meet her at the gym for the dance. She wasn’t too happy about that. But the worst thing is that I had to wear one of Dad’s old suits: I was worried that people would make fun of me, right? And they probably would have if Penelope hadn’t immediately squealed with delight when she first saw me walk into the gym. “Oh my, God!” she yelled for everybody to hear. “That suit is so beautiful. It’s so retroactive. It’s so retroactive that it’s radioactive!” And every dude in the

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joint immediately wished he’d worn his father’s lame polyester suit. And I imagined that every girl was immediately breathless and horny at the sight of my bell-bottom slacks. So, drunk with my sudden power, I pulled off some lame disco dance moves that sent the place into hysterics. […] Penelope and I were so happy to be alive, and so happy to be alive TOGETHER, even if we were only a semi-hot item, and we danced every single dance. Nineteen dances; nineteen songs. Twelve fast songs; seven slow ones. Eleven country hits; five rock songs, three hip-hop tunes. It was the best night of my life. Of course, I was a sweaty mess inside that hot polyester suit. But it didn’t matter. Penelope thought I was beautiful and so I felt beautiful. And then the dance was over. The lights flicked on. And Penelope suddenly realized we’d forgotten to get our photo taken by the professional dude. “Oh, my God!” she yelled. “We forgot to get our picture taken! That sucks!” She was sad for a moment, but then she realized that she’d had so much fun that a photograph of the evening was completely beside the point. A photograph would be just a lame souvenir. I was completely relieved that we’d forgotten. I wouldn’t have been able to pay for the photographs. I knew that. And I’d rehearsed a speech about losing my wallet. I’d made it through the evening without revealing my poverty. I figured I’d walk Penelope out to the parking lot, where her dad was waiting in his car. I’d give her a sweet little kiss on the cheek (because her dad would have shot me if I’d given her the tongue while he watched). And then I’d wave goodbye as they drove away. And then I’d wait in the parking lot until everybody was gone. And then I’d start the walk home in the dark. It was a Saturday, so I knew some reservation family would be returning home from Spokane. And I knew they’d see me

and pick me up. That was the plan. But things changed. As things always change. Roger and a few of the other dudes, the popular guys, decided they were going to drive into Spokane and have pancakes at some twentyfour-hour diner. It was suddenly the coolest idea in the world. It was all seniors and juniors, upperclassmen, who were going together. But Penelope was so popular, especially for a freshman, and I was popular by association, even as a freshman, too, that Roger invited us to come along. Penelope was ecstatic about the idea. I was sick to my stomach. I had five bucks in my pocket. What could I buy with that? Maybe one plate of pancakes. Maybe. I was doomed. […] An hour later, about twenty of us were sitting in a Denny’s in Spokane. Everybody ordered pancakes. I ordered pancakes for Penelope and me. I ordered orange juice and coffee and a side order of toast and hot chocolate and French fries, too, even though I knew I wouldn’t be able to pay for any of it. I figured it was my last meal before my execution, and I was going to have a feast. Halfway through our meal, I went to the bathroom. I thought maybe I was going to throw up, so I kneeled at the toilet. But I only retched a bit. Roger came into the bathroom and heard me. “Hey, Arnie,” he said. “Are you okay?” “Yeah,” I said. “I’m just tired.” “All right, man,” he said. “I’m happy you guys came tonight. You and Penelope are a great couple, man.” “You think so?” “Yeah, have you done her yet?” “I don’t really want to talk about that stuff.” “Yeah, you’re right, dude. It’s none of my business. […] “Hey, listen,” I said. “The reason I was getting sick in there is …” I thought about telling him the whole truth, Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 365


but I just couldn’t. “I bet you’re just sick with love,” Roger said. “No, well, yeah, maybe,” I said. “But the thing is, my stomach is all messed up because I, er, forgot my wallet. I left my wallet at home, man.” “Dude!” Roger said. “Man, don’t sweat it. You should have said something earlier. I got you covered.” He opened his wallet and handed me forty bucks. Holy, holy. What kind of kid can just hand over forty bucks like that? “I’ll pay you back, man,” I said. “Whenever, man, just have a good time, all right?” He slapped me on the back again. He was always slapping me on the back. We walked back to the table together, finished our food, and Roger drove me back to the school. I told them my dad was going to pick me up outside the gym. “Dude,” Roger said. “It’s three in the morning.” “It’s okay,” I said. “My dad works the swing shift. He’s coming here straight from work.” “Are you sure?” “Yeah, everything is cool. “I’ll bring Penelope home safely, man. “Cool.” So Penelope and I got out of the car so we could have a private good-bye. She had laser eyes. “Roger told me he lent you some money,” she said. “Yeah,” I said. “I forgot my wallet.” Her laser eyes grew hotter. “Arnold?” “Yeah?” “Can I ask you something big?” “Are you poor?” I couldn’t lie to her anymore. “Yes,” I said. “I’m poor.”

swing shift nattskift shallow grunn, overfladisk/ grunn, overflatisk cheek kinn generous gavmild/gjevmild

I figured she was going to march out of my life right then. But she didn’t. Instead she kissed me. On the cheek. I guess poor guys don’t get kissed on the lips. I was going to yell at her for being shallow. But then I realized that she was being my friend. Being a really good friend, in fact. She was concerned about me. I’d been thinking about her breasts and she’d been thinking about my whole life. I was the shallow one. “Roger was the one who guessed you were poor,” she said. “Oh, great, now he’s going to tell everybody.” “He’s not going to tell anybody. Roger likes you. He’s a great guy. He’s

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like my big brother. He can be your friend, too.” That sounded pretty good to me. I needed friends more than I needed my lust-filled dreams. “Is your Dad really coming to pick you up?” she asked. “Yes,” I said. “Are you telling the truth?” “No,” I said. “How will you get home?” she asked. “Most nights, I walk home. I hitchhike. Somebody usually picks me up. I’ve only had to walk the whole way a few times.” She started to cry. FOR ME! Who knew that tears of sympathy could be so sexy? “Oh, my God, Arnold, you can’t do that,” she said. “I won’t let you do that. You’ll freeze. Roger will drive you home. He’ll be happy to drive you home.” I tried to stop her, but Penelope ran over to Roger’s car and told him the truth. And Roger, being of kind heart and generous pocket, and a little bit racist, drove me home that night. And he drove me home plenty of other nights, too. If you let people into your life a little bit, they can be pretty damn amazing. sherman alexie Sherman Alexie (1966–) is a well-known Native American writer, poet and filmmaker who uses his own background and experiences in his work. He is also known for teaching media and filmmaking skills to young Native Americans, and for supporting programs helping at-risk youth. The novel excerpt printed here is semi-autobiographical and was first published in 2007.

M IN SHORT

reservation reservat stranger fremmed/framand hitchhike haike truth sannhet/sanning skip hoppe over, droppe suit dress

Arnold went to school in the little white town of Reardan and lived on the reservation Wellpinit. This made him feel like a stranger, half Indian in one place and half white in the other. But he felt great when he was with Penelope. People in Reardan thought the Indians on the reservation made lots of money because they had a casino. But this was not true. His parents worked hard to get him the money he needed. Arnold didn’t want the others to know that he was poor. What would they think if they knew he had to hitchhike to school? Nobody knew the truth. Of course, you can’t lie forever. In December, Arnold took Penelope to the Winter Formal. He only had five dollars, not nearly enough to pay for anything. But he couldn’t skip the dance. Then Penelope would have gone with someone else. He also had to wear one of Dad’s old suits. He was worried that people would

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make fun of him, but Penelope liked it and said: “Oh, my God! That suit is so beautiful. It’s so retroactive.” Arnold was happy and they went to the dance floor. They danced every single dance. Nineteen dances; twelve fast songs; seven slow ones. When the dance was over they were invited to join Roger and a few of the other popular guys, to drive into Spokane and have pancakes at a diner. Penelope was ecstatic about the idea. Arnold was feeling sick. He had five bucks in his pocket. He was doomed. Everybody ordered pancakes. Arnold too ordered pancakes for Penelope and himself, as well as juice and coffee and hot chocolate and French fries. He knew he couldn’t pay for any of it. This made him feel sick. He went to the bathroom. Roger came in. “Hey, Arnie,” he said. “Are you okay?” “Yeah, I’m just tired.” “All right, man,” he said. “I’m happy you guys came tonight. You and Penelope are a great couple.” Arnold said he had forgotten his wallet at home.” Roger lent him forty bucks. “I’ll pay you back, man,” Arnold said. “Whenever, man, just have a good time, all right?” Afterwards Roger drove them back to the school. Arnold said his father was going to pick him up. Roger and Penelope started to think he was hiding something. Penelope looked at him. “Arnold? Are you poor?” He couldn’t lie to her anymore. “Yes,” he said. “I’m poor.” She kissed him. On the cheek. He realized that she was a good friend. She said that Roger wouldn’t tell anybody and that he could be a friend too. Arnold was relieved and admitted that his Dad was not coming to pick him up. Roger drove him home and many more times later. Arnold realized that if you let people into your life a little bit, they can be pretty amazing.

retroactive retro, noe gammelt som er blitt moderne igjen/ retro, noko gammalt som har vorte moderne igjen diner spisested/utestad, kro, restaurant ecstatic begeistret, ekstatisk/ glad, eldfull, begeistra, ekstatisk sick kvalm, uvel buck dollar doomed fordømt/(for)dømd couple par wallet lommebok lend låne bort relieved lettet/letta admit innrømme, vedgå realize innse/innsjå amazing fantastisk

Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 369


Read and understand

9.34 • Match sentence halves and write the correct sentences. a b c d e f g h i j k l m

Arnold went to school in Reardan Arnold didn’t want his friends to know Arnold was in Sometimes he had to In December Arnold took Penelope He was wearing Penelope thought the suit They danced After the dance Roger invited them Arnold felt sick In the bathroom In the end Arnold has to admit It turns out that his friends

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

was beautiful. to have pancakes in a diner. are real friends that he can count on. because he didn’t have money. and lived on the reservation. Roger lends him some money. hitchhike to school. that he has lied about being poor. his Dad’s old suit. that he was poor. every single dance. love with Penelope. to the Winter Formal dance.

9.35 •• Skim the text and answer the questions. a Where does the story take place? b In which month of the year does it happen? c What are the names of the three characters we meet? d Which two places do they go to? e Who tells the story? 9.36 ••• Read the text closely, and answer the questions. a What information do we get about Arnold? What is his background? b What do we learn about Penelope? c What is said about Roger? Does he seem to be a nice guy? Explain. d What is the message in the last line of the text?

Speak

9.37 Which of the following themes do you think fit the story best? Explain. a friendship b poverty c love d life on the reservation e the relationship between Native Americans and white people 9.38 Work in groups of three. Choose roles: Arnold, Penelope and Roger. Act out the scenes in the parking lot and the diner. Feel free to add your own interpretation of the story!

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9.39 In North America, high school graduation parties, known as prom or grad, can be very expensive. Students spend a lot of money on fancy dresses and tuxedos, hair and make-up, flower corsages, and rented limousines with drivers. Discuss the following questions. a Do you think it is right to spend a lot of money to celebrate the end of high school? b How is graduation celebrated in Norway? How much money is involved? c Which form of celebration do you prefer, the Norwegian variety or the North American prom/grad?

Practise

9.40 The list below shows the names of the 20 largest American Indian tribes in the United States today. How many of the tribes can you find in the word search puzzle? Look horizontally, vertically and diagonally. apache – blackfoot – cherokee – cheyenne – chickasaw – chippewa – choctaw – comanche – creek – crow – iroquois – lumbee – navajo – osage – pima – pueblo – seminole – shoshone – sioux – tlingit A

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How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can describe the setting, characters, plot and point of view. YES ALMOST NO

I can discuss possible themes. YES ALMOST NO

I can express o ­ pinions on celebrating ­graduation. YES ALMOST NO

Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 371


Pōwhiri powhiri velkomstseremoni kuia gammel kvinne, bestemor/gammal kvinne, bestemor kaumatua eldste, den som vokter tradisjonen/eldste, den som vaktar tradisjonen reo språk tupuna forfedre/forfedrar karanga rop, kall

My sadness is I have never known a kuia fold me in her arms My sadness is that what I know was not told me by my kaumatua My sadness is that I don’t have the reo that what I feel can’t be fully told but I hear the call of my tupuna the strongest karanga I know

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I bow my head with respect for them and from them I draw strength they walk with me as I take my first steps towards all that is theirs

jacq carter (maori) Jacq Carter is a young poet living in New Zealand. She writes about her experiences growing up as Maori in a modern society. Her first work was published in 1998.

M


After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

Read and understand

what the poem is about ▶▶ identify and discuss themes ▶▶ use some words related to poetry

9.41 Study the poem “Powhiri”. a First, replace all the Maori words with their English translations. Then read the poem in pairs. b Why is the poet sad? c What does the poet mean when she says that she doesn’t have the language (reo)? d How does the poet feel about her ancestors? e How do the poet’s ancestors help her today?

Speak

9.42 Which of the following themes do you think fit the poem best? Explain. a past generations b responsibility c the difference between the past and the present d respect for ancestors e survival f drawing strength from the past

Words that are useful when working with poetry: stanza strofe imagery bildebruk/ bruk av bilete rhyme rim rhythm rytme mood stemning theme tema message budskap/ bodskap

How did you do?

Practise

9.43 Look at “Words that are useful when working with poetry”. a Does this poem rhyme? b Is the poem divided into stanzas? c Can you find imagery in the poem? d What would you say is the mood of “Powhiri”? e Do you think the poem has a message? Explain.

Write

9.44 • Write a letter to an ancestor who lived one hundred years ago. Describe what you think he/she would be surprised at if he/she came back in today’s world. 9.45 •• How important is cultural background and heritage to you? What or who has made you the person you are today? Write a text in which you discuss this. Study pages 240 – 241 for advice on structuring a text.

After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the poem is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can identify and discuss themes. YES ALMOST NO

I can use some words related to poetry. YES ALMOST NO

Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 373


FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND

Adventure Capital of the World

Queenstown on the South Island is famous for year-round sports and adventures. Skiing, paragliding, mountain biking, rafting, kayaking and hiking are just some of the outdoor activities offered in the area. It is said that bungy jumping was invented here. In general, New Zealanders love sports and outdoor life. Sailing is very popular, and the country is extremely proud of the national rugby team known as the All Blacks.

Kia Ora!

The expression means “welcome” in Maori, the language of the native population of New Zealand, but it is used by everyone. In the past, New Zealand was one of Britain’s many colonies. Today, it is an independent country with a strong national pride. Most visitors are impressed by the stunning natural beauty, from volcanoes, beautiful mountain ranges and fiords to rolling farmland and small seaside towns. It became the perfect location for the filmmakers of The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. Although parts of the South Island have been rocked by earthquakes in recent years, tourists still flock to the country to see the sights and meet the friendly Kiwis.


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Auckland Tasman Sea

Rotorua

NORTH ISLAND

NEW ZEALAND FACTS

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St ew a r t Is l a n d

National Anthem

God Defend New Zealand God of Nations at Thy feet, In the bonds of love we meet, Hear our voices we entreat, God defend our free land. Guard Pacific's triple star From the shafts of strife and war, Make her praises heard afar, God defend New Zealand.

Kiwis

New Zealanders are often nicknamed Kiwis. A Kiwi is in fact a bird that cannot fly, and which is native to New Zealand.

Official name: New Zealand, Aotearoa (Maori) Capital: Wellington Population: 4.3 million Ethnic groups: European 56.8%, Asian 8%, Maori 7.4%, Pacific islander 4.6%, mixed 9.7%, other 13.5% Geography: Islands in the South Pacific (the 3 main islands are North Island, South Island, and Stewart Island) Landscape: Mountains, coastal plains, urban areas Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: February 6 (Waitangi Day) Currency: New Zealand Dollar Agriculture: Dairy products, meat, fish; wheat, barley, fruits, vegetables; wool Industry: Tourism, food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, banking and insurance, mining


FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ describe

the landscapes of New Zealand ▶▶ give some facts about New Zealand ▶▶ extract information about Maori culture by listening

Read and understand

9.46 Scan the text boxes in the fact file for information to answer the following questions. a What is the nickname for a person from New Zealand? b What is the name of the capital? c How many people live in New Zealand? d Which is the largest ethnic group? e How many per cent of the population are Maori? f What is the Maori name for New Zealand? g What kind of natural disaster has rocked the South Island in recent years? h New Zealand has been the location for some very famous films. Which ones? i Name three agricultural products from New Zealand. j Who is the head of state, even though New Zealand is an independent country? k Which extreme sport was invented in the Queenstown area? l Who are the All Blacks? 9.47 Study the map and the pictures on the fact file. a Describe the landscapes you see in the pictures. b What do you see on New Zealand’s coat of arms? c Find out where the capital of New Zealand is located on the map. d Where on the map do you find Auckland, the biggest city? e On the five-dollar bill, there is a picture of Sir Edmund Hillary. Find out what he was famous for.

376 | Chapter 9: Other Voices | Skills


Speak

9.48 In addition to rugby, extreme sports are very popular in New Zealand. a Name as many extreme sports as you can. b Have you tried any extreme sports yourself? If so, which ones? c Are there some you would like to try? Why? d Are there some you would absolutely not want to try? Explain why.

Listen

How did you do?

9.49 “New Zealand’s Maori Culture” a Study the keywords below before listening. 1 greeting 6 language 2 ceremony 7 haka 3 Europeans 8 tattoos 4 rights 9 unemployment 5 traditions 10 pride

After working with the text and exercises, I can describe the landscapes of New Zealand. YES ALMOST NO

b After listening, use the keywords to sum up what you have learned about Maoris. Write one sentence for each keyword.

Explore

I can give some facts about New Zealand. YES ALMOST NO

9.50 Plan a visit to New Zealand for your next holiday. Use different sources to find out where you wish to go, what you want to see, and what you would like to do. Use digital tools to make a presentation of your travel plans.

I can extract information about Maori culture by listening. YES ALMOST NO

Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 377


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS USING AND REFERRING TO SOURCES When you write a text or prepare an oral presentation on a topic, you will most likely collect information from a number of sources. If you use other people’s thoughts and ideas, you should always be careful to give credit where it is due. The same applies to photos or illustrations you find online, or copy from other sources. Here are some guidelines on how to use and refer to sources.

Quoting from texts

Example:

Sometimes you may want to copy a few sentences, a paragraph or a short passage from someone else’s text. If your sentences are identical to those in the original text, you use quotations marks to show these are not your own words. Also remember that you must say where the quote is from, either in a footnote at the bottom of the page, or numbered at the end of your paper or presentation.

In a collection of articles on the changing language, it is said “of the thousands of new words that flood into English every year, some will cement themselves in our everyday vocabulary, while others will become specialist terms that experts in particular fields will continue to use.” 1 I am sure that there are also many words that will disappear.

Paraphrasing from texts

Example:

When you are using other people’s ideas, but rewrite them into your own words and sentences, you paraphrase. For this, you do not need quotations marks, but you should check that you have understood the information given in the original text, and that you have not used exactly the same words. You should still mention your source in a footnote.

In a collection of articles on the changing language, it is said that English gets a great number of new words every year.1 Some of them will become a part of our everyday speech, while others will only be used by experts in specific fields. I am sure that there are also many words that will disappear.

378 | Chapter 9: Other Voices | Skills

1 J Crozier et al, Can You Still Speak English? (Glasgow: Harper Collins, 2006), page 119.

1 J Crozier et al, Can You Still Speak English? (Glasgow: Harper Collins, 2006), page 119.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Listing different kinds of sources There are some minor differences in the way you list your sources when they are books, newspapers, magazines or the Internet. Have a look at these examples: Book Crozier, J. et al, Can You Still Speak English? Glasgow: Harper Collins, 2006 Newspapers/magazines Crozier, J., “Here for a day”, in The Sunday Times, 15 Feb. 2007, page 26 Internet “New words in English”, from the web site www.askoxford.com. Accessed 1 Feb. 2013. Illustrations found online

http://howtospeakenglishfluently.org/ Accessed 1 Feb. 2013. Illustrator unknown.

English comes to Australia: “Captain James Cook landing at Botany Bay, AD 1770”. Created 1872. National Library of Australia. Source: http:// museumvictoria.com.au/immigrationmuseum. Accessed 1 Feb. 2013.

Practise 9.51 Based on the texts in this chapter, write one paragraph about how the Australian aborigines were treated in the past. Search online to find a suitable quote to include in your paragraph. 9.52 Prepare a short digital presentation about one indigenous people. Use different sources. Include at least one quote and one paraphrase to show that you know how to refer to sources. List your sources, including illustrations, on the last slide of your presentation. Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 379


The Stolen Generation pursue forfølge/forfølgje tracker sporfinner/sporfinnar magnificent storslagen/ storslegen stallion hingst

“That night, Molly dreamed that she and her younger sisters were being pursued by a policeman and a black tracker on a horse. She could see them riding along the fence on magnificent grey stallions, coming towards them from the north. They were coming closer – and closer – at that critical moment she woke up shaking with fear and covered in sweat. Then she heard them. It wasn’t a dream after all. It was real. Clop, clop, clopping of the horses came.”

380 | Chapter 9: Other Voices | Skills

Excerpt from Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence by Doris Pilkington


After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what is meant by “the stolen generation” ▶▶ describe the situation for Aboriginal children in the past ▶▶ explain the meaning of selected proverbs

For more than a hundred years, Australian authorities removed black Aboriginal children and children of mixed marriages from their parents and placed them in settlements. The goal was to assimilate the children and make them learn the ways of the white European settlers. In the award-wining Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence, Doris Pilkington tells the true story of her mother, Molly. She was one of three young girls who were uprooted from her community in Southwestern Australia and taken to a so-called native settlement. At the settlement, Molly and the other children were forbidden to speak their own language. They were forced to forget about their cultural heritage, and taught to be “white”. If the children disobeyed their teachers and wardens, they would be put in solitary confinement for days. Life in the settlement was harsh. Scared and homesick, Molly and the two other girls planned an escape. After managing to run away from their wardens, they headed for the rabbit-proof fence. The fence had been put up to keep the rabbits away from the settlers’ crops and stretched over 1,000 miles through the Australian desert. The girls knew that if they followed the fence, they would eventually reach their home village. They survived on everything from emus to wild cats. All the time, they were hiding from the police, professional trackers and hostile white settlers. Their journey lasted more than two months. They did get back to their families, only to be removed by the authorities again. Unfortunately, Molly’s story is not unique. The European settlers saw the Aborigines as an inferior race. It is estimated that more than 100,000 children were taken away from their families. The practice stopped in the 1970s. The suffering of the Aboriginal population in Australia led to a public debate. People demanded an apology from the Australian Government. It took a long time, but in 2008 the Australian Prime Minister finally made an official apology. Although it is not an official holiday, a National Sorry Day is observed each year to express regret over the mistreatment of the Aboriginal population.

authorities myndigheter/ styresmakter remove fjerne assimilate assimilere, gjøre lik/ assimilere, gjere lik award pris disobey være ulydig/vere ulydig warden vokter/vaktar solitary confinement isolat harsh tøff eventually til slutt crop avling emu emu (strutsefugl) hostile fiendtlig/fiendtleg inferior mindreverdig suffering lidelse/liding, plage apology unnskyldning/orsaking Prime Minister statsminister regret anger

Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 381


Read and understand

9.53 • Finish the sentences using information found in the text. a When Molly woke up, she was … b Aboriginal children were taken away from … c The authorities wanted the children to … d Molly was taken to a … e The children were not allowed to … f When the girls ran away from the camp, they … g They had to hide … h In the 1970s, the practice … i By then, more than … j After a long time, the Aboriginal Australians finally …

“For the pain, suffering and hurt of these Stolen Generations, their descendants and for their families left behind, we say sorry. To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up of families and communities, we say sorry. And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud people and a proud culture, we say sorry.” Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, February 13, 2008

9.54 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a Who is the main character of the novel Follow the The Rabbit-Proof Fence? b Explain what a rabbit-proof fence is. c Why were Aboriginal children taken away from their parents? d What happened to children who didn’t obey the rules in the settlements? e What is National Sorry Day?

Speak

9.55 Do you know if there are other groups of people (ethnic or indigenous) who have been treated in a similar way as the Australian Aborigines? Who are they? What have they experienced?

Practise

9.56 A proverb is a saying, often expressing popular wisdom. Below you will find proverbs of different indigenous peoples. a Read the proverbs. b Translate them into Norwegian. c In your own words, explain what the proverbs mean.

The land is permanent, man disappears. (Maori) We will be known forever by the tracks we leave. (NA Dakota) It is better to have less thunder in the mouth and more lightning in the hand. (NA Apache) Don’t judge a man until you have walked two moons in his moccasins. (NA) May your charity increase as much as your wealth. (Inuit) Those who lose dreaming are lost. (Australian Aborigine) 382 | Chapter 9: Other Voices | Skills


Write

9.57 • Fill in missing words in the following text. talent – realized – headlines – athlete – honour – Aboriginal – track – dream – competing – represent . She came from a poor Cathy Freeman was an Australian family in Queensland. When she was five years old, she took part in her school’s Sports Day. That was the first time she how much she liked to run. It didn’t take long before she started and winning races. However, it took a lot of hard work, and determination to become really good. In 1992, Cathy Freeman became the first Aboriginal athlete to her country in the Olympics. When she won the Commonwealth Games, she ran around the with both the Australian and the Aboriginal flag, and this made the . At the Sydney Olympics in 2000, she was given the of lighting the Olympic flame. When she later won the 400 meters final, it was a childhood that became reality. 9.58 •• Write one paragraph on one of the following topics. Search online for reliable information. Remember to state where you found the information. a The Aboriginal flag c The Dreamtime b Aboriginal art (or an artist) d The Rabbit-Proof Fence 9.59 ••• Write a text in which you discuss how indigenous peoples have been treated in the past. Use examples from texts you have read in this chapter to support your statements. Look at “Writing a five-paragraph text” on pages 240 – 241 for advice.

Explore

9.60 Director Baz Luhrman’s film Australia (2008) deals with, among other topics, the relationship between European settlers running farms in Australia and their Aboriginal workers. It shows some aspects of Aboriginal culture and how they were looked upon and treated by the white settlers. Watch the opening scenes of the film, which are told by the Aboriginal boy Nullah. a Who is King George? b What is he and Nullah doing? c Why does King George tell Nullah to hide under water? d How does Nullah get back to the farm? e Back at the farm, why does Nullah have to hide in the water tower?

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what is meant by “the stolen generation”. YES ALMOST NO

I can describe the situation for Aboriginal children in the past. YES ALMOST NO

I can explain the ­meaning of selected proverbs. YES ALMOST NO

Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 383


FACT FILE AUSTRALIA Down Under

Australia is not only a country, it is a continent. Because of its varied landscape, good climate and relaxed lifestyle, Australia has become a very popular tourist destination. It is also an attractive place to study for young people from all over the world. In the past, however, Australia was used as a penal colony by the British. People who had committed crimes were sent there to work as punishment. Today, Australia is a unique and diverse country in every way with a cultural environment that is lively and outward looking.

Amazing Wildlife

Australia has animals you will not find in the wild anywhere else, for example kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, dingoes, wombats, and the platypus. There are also crocodiles and many venomous snakes and spiders. A number of these animals are endangered. In some areas, the kangaroos have become a big problem, attacking people, jumping into houses, ruining crops, and colliding with cars on the roads.


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Darwin INDIAN OCEAN

Cairns

N O RT H E R N T E R R I TO R Y W E ST E R N AU ST R A L I A

Alice Springs

QUEENSLAND Brisbane

SOUTH AU ST R A L I A

NEW SOUTH WA L E S

Perth

Canberra Adelaide

V I CTO R I A Melbourne

Ta s m a n i a

Sydney AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY Tasman Sea

Hobart

National Anthem

Advance Australia Fair Australians all let us rejoice, For we are young and free; We've golden soil and wealth for toil; Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in nature's gifts Of beauty rich and rare; In history's page, let every stage Advance Australia Fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair.

AUSSIE FACTS

Official name: The Commonwealth of Australia Capital: Canberra Population: 22 million Ethnic groups: European 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1% Geography: 6 states and 2 territories Landscape: Urban areas, farmland, rainforest, desert Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: January 26 (Australia Day) Currency: Australian Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry Industry: Mining, food processing, chemicals, steel, equipment for industry


FACT FILE AUSTRALIA After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ mention

some facts about Australia ▶▶ describe the landscapes and wildlife of Australia ▶▶ present information on Australis’s culture or history

Read and understand

9.61 Study the short text “Down Under”. Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Australia is different from other countries because … b Three reasons why Australia has become a popular tourist destination are … c Young people come to Australia to … d In the past, people who had committed … e Australia’s cultural environment today is … 9.62 Study the “Aussie facts” and the map of Australia. Answer in keywords. a How many people live in Australia? b Which is the largest ethnic group? c What is the name of the capital? d Where in the country do you find the capital? e Find the names of seven other Australian cities. f Australia is divided into states and territories. How many and what are they called? g Who is the Head of State? h Is the Australian currency dollars or pounds? i When is Australia Day? j Name the most important agricultural products and industries in Australia. 9.63 Study the short text “Amazing Wildlife”. Answer in full sentences. a Which animals are mentioned in the text? b Which ones can only be found in Australia? c What does it mean when an animal is endangered? d How can kangaroos be a problem? 386 | Chapter 9: Other Voices | Skills


Speak

9.64 Describe the Australian landscapes shown in the pictures on the fact file. 9.65 Describe the Australian flag. Compare it with New Zealand’s flag, which you can see on page 385. How are they similar or different?

Explore

9.66 Find out more about the culture or history of Australia. Choose one of the following topics. Make an oral presentation, or write a short text in which you present your findings. Remember to list your sources, including illustrations if any. Study “Using and referring to sources” on pages 378 – 379 for advice. a Australia as a tourist destination b Studying in Australia c Australian wildlife d Australia’s past as a penal colony e Famous Australians f Australian sports

Did you know

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can mention some facts about Australia. YES ALMOST NO

I can describe the ­landscapes and wild­life of Australia. YES ALMOST NO

The Australian “bush,” also known as the Outback, has a special status in Australian life. It is part of Australia’s national identity, and the setting of many myths and legends. Bushrangers, drovers and farmers struggling to survive in the harsh and wild landscape, were helped by the survival skills of the Aborigines. Many writers, painters, musicians and filmmakers focus on the Australian bush experience in their work. Today, the vast areas are used for cattle farming, but also hiking, horse riding, cycling and bird watching.

I can present information on Australia’s culture or history. YES ALMOST NO

Skills | Chapter 9: Other Voices | 387


muster innhenting av kveg cattle station kvegfarm outback stort, øde område i Australia/stort, aude område i Australia annual årlig/årleg give a dead arm bokse noen i overarmen/bokse nokon i overarmen fellas mennene, resten av gjengen dodge unnslippe, komme seg unna/sleppe unna, kome seg unna withcetty en busk hvor det lever store larver med samme navn/ein busk der det lever store larvar med same namn tuft tue spinifex en type grovt gress/ ein type grovt gras cockatoo kakadue gumtree eukalyptustre galah papegøyefugl big red en kengururase/ein kengururase mob flokk tail følge etter, spore opp/ følgje etter, spore opp reckon anta, regne med, si at/ gå ut frå, rekne med, seie at truck (frakte i) lastebil live off leve av Blackfellas (sl.) uformelt og nedsettende kallenavn på aboriginer/uformelt og nedsetjande kallenamn på aboriginar

The Muster Danny Dawson lives on a huge cattle station in the middle of the Australian outback. He struggles to deal with the loss of his brother and the expectations from a father who never talks about feelings. Now it is time for the annual muster and Danny wants to prove that he is just as tough as the other “fellas”. Dad tapped me on the shoulder and asked, “Ready to go?” I laughed and went to give him a dead arm, but he saw me coming and dodged it. I couldn’t wait to get out into the desert to find the cattle – I guess Dad felt the same because he turned the stereo up real loud and shouted, “Wooohooo! Here we go!” The music blasted out into the desert. As we crashed over witchetty bushes and big tufts of spinifex, we woke everything up – cockatoos flew out of the gumtrees and there were a couple of flocks of galahs, as well as the usual crows. Twice we were fooled by a bunch of big reds. We saw a cloud of dust and went after it – hoping it was a mob of cattle. Dad laughed when he realised we were tailing a couple of kangaroos – he reckoned that if it came to it, we might have to truck them. He said we could live off them, like the Blackfellas did.

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!

Before you start a Use the Internet to look for pictures of the following plants, animals and objects. witchetty bush spinifex cockatoo gumtree galah mob of cattle cattle yards Herefords ute car b Based on the pictures you have found, what do you think will be the setting and theme of the following text?

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ describe

the Australian Outback ▶▶ explain what a muster is and how it is done ▶▶ discuss the relationship between the characters of the story ▶▶ write an application and/or report

When we hadn’t seen a single cow, I felt a bit worried. I wondered where they were hiding. As soon as I’d thought that, we bounced down a small ravine and on the other side of some bushes at the bottom, found a cow and her calf. When it saw us the calf got up and followed its mum as she tried to get away. We got behind them and moved west in the directions of the yards. It wasn’t much of a mob, but Dad reckoned it was a start. As we went towards the yards, we found a couple more Herefords and Dad drove round to herd them together – that made four, including the calf. I said they didn’t look too bad. Dad agreed. He said he hoped the fellas were having more luck. Dad radioed Reg and said, “I dunno about you fellas, but we haven’t found much other than a few big reds. Over.” Lloyd replied to say he’d got a mob of about fifteen, which Elliot was helping him to bring in, and Reg reckoned he had around twenty. For a second I wished I’d gone with Reg, and then felt bad for even thinking it. When we got to the yards, our four cattle got lost in among the ones Reg was taking in at the same time. I didn’t mind – it was a bit embarrassing only having four. Dad picked up the radio and told the fellas we’d try going northeast of the yards next. I asked if he’d let me drive. I’d never driven during the muster before. Dad looked me in the eye, and I could tell he was thinking about it. He put the ute into neutral and said, “OK – we’ll see

bounce sprette, humpe ravine dal, kløft/dal, kluft yards innhegning, inngjerdet område/innhegning, inngjerda område Herefords kvegrase radio snakke over radio dunno don’t know ute pick-up-bil, tilpasset australsk villmark/pickup-bil, tilpassa australsk villmark neutral fri (gir)

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suspension spenning pretend late som spot få øye på/få auge på accelerate øke farten/auke farten path sti/stig ease plassere uten problem/ plassere utan problem flank plassere seg på siden av noe/plassere seg på sida av noko herd gjete bull okse clip kutte, komme borti/kutte, kome borti wing støtfanger/støytfangar jolt støte, bli slått tilbake/ støyte, bli slått tilbake write off her: ødelegge/ øydeleggje pace tempo

how you go.” I couldn’t believe he’d said yes. Dad walked around to the passenger side, while I quickly climbed across into the driver’s seat – just in case he changed his mind. As he got back in he said, “Now remember – it’s not about speed. We could outrun any cow. Just concentrate, keep an eye on the terrain ahead and try not to completely wreck the suspension.” He switched the stereo off, and when he saw the look on my face he said, “You need to concentrate.” I didn’t argue – I knew it was my chance to show him what I could do. Dad didn’t say anything as we followed the fellas into the desert. He held onto the handle above the door and looked out the window. I dunno if he was pretending not to be interested in my driving or if he really was thinking about the desert, but as soon as we were off-road, he didn’t shut up. Look out for that bush … This bit’s always full of holes … careful … What’s that over there? Left. Go left … Go round the trees over there … there’s usually a mob of them in this area … Slow down … it’s not a race … That’s it, now change down gear … I wished he’d be quiet and just let me do it. But then I spotted a cloud of dust and pointed to it, so he shouted, “Go on, Danny, get after them!” My first mob. My heart raced as I dropped down a gear, ready to accelerate to get ahead of them and make them turn round. I went wide and steered round a couple of bushes, before turning hard right and blocking their path. “Nice one”, Dad said, as I eased the ute into second and flanked the cattle, carefully herding them back in the direction of the yards. There were about eight of them. I was watching them and thinking that, apart from one oldlooking cow, they weren’t bad. A little thinner than we would have liked, but much better than the ones we’d seen at Cockatoo Creek and Gum Tree Dam. Dad shouted, “Don’t let that one get away,” pointing at a young bull which was starting to break away to the left. I accelerated forward and got round the side of him. That bull didn’t care that the ute was made of metal and weighed a couple of tons – I guess he must have had as much to prove as I did. He kept coming and as he clipped the front wing with his back leg, the ute jolted and the sound went right through me. “Watch it”, Dad said, “he’ll write the ute off.” I backed off a little but kept up with the bull’s pace so he knew I was still there. He couldn’t get away. After driving along like that for about half a mile, I guess that bull got the message because he went back into the mob. “Nice work”, Dad said. ali lewis Ali Lewis (1976–) was born in Yorkshire, England. In her early teens she had a short television career that ended after a car accident. She later became a journalist, then left to travel the world and ended up working on an outback cattle station in Australia. This is where she found the inspiration for her first novel, Everybody Jam (2011).

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Danny and his Dad were in the ute ready to go to find cattle. They turned the stereo up loud and drove through a bumpy landscape of bushes and spinifex. They woke up birds like cockatoos and galahs and some big red kangaroos. Danny started to worry about where the cattle were, but then they found a cow and her calf and started driving them towards the yards. They also found two Herefords and were happy to see that the animals looked fine. Dad contacted the other fellas on the radio. Lloyd had found a mob of fifteen cattle, and Reg around twenty. Danny was embarrassed that they hadn’t found more, but his Dad suggested that they should go northeast to look for more. Danny asked if he could drive and Dad said yes. Danny felt proud and knew that this was his chance to show what he could do. First Dad said nothing, but when they left the road he started. Look out for that bush … careful … Go left … Slow down … Danny wanted him to be quiet but then he spotted a cloud of dust. Dad shouted, “Go on, Danny, get after them!” His first mob. Danny was nervous but succeeded in herding the cattle towards the yards. There were eight of them and they were not bad. A bull tried to break out. Dad shouted, “Don’t let that one get away.” Danny drove along the side of the bull and in the end it went back to the mob. “Nice work”, Dad said.

Read and understand

9.67 • In the evening, Danny writes a Facebook update about his first muster. Write his update, based on the text above, and include the following information. a the landscape they drove through b the first cattle they mustered c what happened when he took over the driving d how he and Dad felt in the end 9.68 •• Answer the following questions. a Why is this such an important day for Danny? b How would you describe the relationship between Danny and Dad? Does it change towards the end of the text? c What information do we get of the state of the cattle? Why is this important for Danny and Dad? d Which method do the men use to muster the cattle? What challenges do you think are involved in this type of work? 9.69 ••• The novel Everybody Jam has been described as a coming-ofage novel, a story about growing up. Close-read the excerpt and find examples that may support this view.

IN SHORT

muster innhenting av kveg ute pick-up-bil, utviklet i Australia/pick-up-bil, utvikla i Australia cattle kveg spinifex en type grovt gress/ein type grovt gras cockatoo kakadue galah papegøyefugl big red en kengururase/ein kengururase yards innhegning, inngjerdet område/innhegning, inngjerda område Herefords kvegrase fellas mennene, resten av gjengen mob flokk embarrassed flau spot få øye på/få auge på dust støv herd gjete bull okse

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Speak

9.70 In the evening Danny tells his mother about the muster. She asks questions about what happened, who drove the ute, how much cattle they found and the state of the animals. Act out the dialogue. 9.71 Discuss the following questions. a Would you like to spend a year working at a cattle station in the Australian outback? Give reasons for your views. b Check your answers in the “Before you start” task on page 389. To what extent did your expectations of setting and themes correspond to the actual text?

Practise

9.72 Choose ten words from one of the vocabulary lists and use them to write sentences about Australia.

Write

9.73 • Write a formal letter to apply for a post as an assistant on a cattle station in Australia. Use your imagination or look for information on the Internet to fill in information. You find information on how to write an application on pages 260 – 261. 9.74 •• Danny’s father lost a lot of cattle this year due to drought and lack of water. The dead animals had to be burned. Therefore he made less money than expected and is now concerned about the future. He writes a report to the local council in Alice Springs to account for the situation. You find advice on how to write reports on pages 130 – 131.

Did you know

In Australia, many people live so far from towns and cities that doctors have to travel by airplanes to give medical help. People living in remote areas can contact the doctors by satellite telephone to get advice and help in an emergency. The small planes of the Royal Flying Doctor Service carry equipment for emergencies and general health care services.

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Explore

9.75 Look at these typical expressions from Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Do you know what they mean? Use online slang dictionaries for the ones you can’t figure out, and match them with the right explanation. a fair dinkum (Aus.) b choice (NZ) c ace (Aus.) d eh (Can.) e barbie (Aus.) f hootch (Can.) g throw a sickie (NZ) h arvo (Aus.) i toque (Can.) j beaut (NZ) k puck bunny (Can.) l long-drop (NZ) m drongo (Aus.)

1 a short form meaning barbeque 2 take time off from work without being ill 3 a somewhat stupid person 4 true, genuine 5 a woolly winter hat 6 excellent 7 a female ice hockey fan 8 home-made liquor 9 good fun 10 an outhouse, outside toilet 11 afternoon 12 very good 13 right, don’t you think? (word at the end of a sentence)

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can describe the Australian Outback. YES ALMOST NO

I can explain what a muster is and how it is done. YES ALMOST NO

I can discuss the relationship between the characters of the story. YES ALMOST NO

I can write an application and/or report.

9|

HOW DID YOU DO IN THIS CHAPTER?

YES ALMOST NO

Choose one of the countries you have studied in this chapter: Canada, New Zealand or Australia. a Write down as many keywords as possible about what you know and associate with the country, for example culture, values, geography, history, sights, or its indigenous peoples.

Country

b Based on your keywords, explain to a partner what you have learned. Give each other constructive feedback.

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WORD ORDER 1 In English, the usual word order is subject – verb. I drink milk. I have been to London. 2 In negative sentences, note that • “not” is placed after the verb if there is one verb: I am not in London. • “not” is placed between the verbs if the verbal consists of two words: I do not drink milk. I have not been to London. He said that he had not been to London. 3 If a sentence has an adverb of time (like often, sometimes, never) the adverb will be placed • in front of the verb, if it consist of one word, with the exception of the verb “to be”: I often drink milk. I am often in London. • or between the verbs if there are two words. I have never been to London. He will soon come to London. 4 English has inverted word order – verb – subject – when the sentence starts with a negative adverb. Not until yesterday did I buy my tickets for London. He doesn’t drink milk. Neither do I. 5 English has inverted word order verb – subject in questions. Are you in London? • If the verb consists of two words, the subject will be placed between the two verbs: Have you tasted the milk? Do you like milk? For how long are you staying in London? When did you come home?

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 9.76 Place the words in the right order. a to my love be I friends with. b work have lot We of a. c in parents live My Sydney. d rarely to I Canada go. e did Where go you? f We to often New have been Zealand. 9.77 Make these sentences negative. Where do you place the word “not”? a Danny was in the car with his Dad. b They have been out for many hours. c There were many cows in the desert. d The ute is old. e Greg had found many cows. f Danny is a little boy. 9.78 Put the adverbs in the right place in the sentences. a Arnie was out of cash. (often) b Penelope talked about money. (never) c Arnie took Penelope out to eat. (seldom) d He had the money to buy gas. (rarely) e He had eaten pancakes before. (never) f He will be able to count on his friends in the future. (always) 9.79 Make these sentences negative. You may need to add a form of “to do” and change verb forms. a The boy liked his new hockey sweater. b He was allowed to play during the hockey match. c The priest was angry with him because of the sweater. d His mother understood the importance of having the right sweater. e The boy felt humiliated. f His friends supported the Toronto Maple Leafs.

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CHAPTER 10

Tomorrow and beyond


In this chapter you will focus on

• innovation in the restaurant and food processing industry • ethical dilemmas • easily confused words • in-depth studies • how to do well on exams

Useful words and phrases molecular gastronomy scavenging freeganism lab-grown experiment innovation salmon farming deplete food chain sustainability

Which innovations within food do you think will be the most important in the future?

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Molecular Gastronomy !

Before you start Do you like experimenting in the kitchen?

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Put on your safety goggles and safety gloves. Go into the laboratory, oops, I mean the kitchen. Carefully pour liquid nitrogen into a previously prepared cream mixture. Stir, and hey presto! You have baconflavoured ice cream. Does this sound like sci-fi cooking? Well, it is molecular gastronomy.

What is molecular gastronomy?

After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what molecular gastronomy is ▶▶ use words related to molecular gastronomy ▶▶ listen for specific information

Molecular gastronomy is basically yet another attempt to enhance the pleasures of eating. This is achieved through scientific analysis of varied physical and chemical processes that occur while cooking. It is a new world of cooking where the scientist and the chef work together in order to change the way we experience food, in terms of taste, sight and smell. Molecular gastronomy, also known as experimental cuisine, has caused a lot of controversy and confusion. In the beginning people associated it with chemical and unhealthy ingredients. This view has changed, however, as more people indulge in faux caviar, crab ice cream, arugula spaghetti, transparent ravioli or vegan scallops with carrot ginger caviar. Today the potential of this modernist cuisine is seen as infinite and people realize it offers so much more than the traditional techniques of cooking, frying or baking. Not only does it take food preparation to a completely different level, but it also lets us expand our imagination and be creative with regard to how we prepare, cook and present our food.

Molecular cooking techniques With easy access to simple molecular cooking kits, you can experiment with food as art in the privacy of your own kitchen. The essential tools you need are syringes, pipettes, silicone tubing, slotted spoons, measuring spoons and various sets of food additives. There are four techniques that are commonly used in restaurants. The acronym GETS will help you remember them. G stands for “gelification”, which is simply a process of turning liquid into gel. E is “emulsification”, meaning turning liquid into light air foam. T is “thickening”, which means increasing the viscosity of a solution or liquid solid mixture. Finally, S represents “spherification”– shaping liquid into spheres that resemble caviar. Even though avant-garde cuisine is a time-consuming activity and one has to follow a very strict procedure, it has already revolutionized restaurants throughout the world. If you have ever dreamt of becoming a wizard, this might be your opportunity to do so.

pour helle liquid flytende / flytande nitrogen et fargeløst grunnstoff i gassform / eit fargelaust grunnstoff i gassform stir røre hey presto vips attempt forsøk enhance forbedre / betre sensory sensorisk pleasure glede physical fysisk chemical kjemisk controversy strid confusion forvirring unhealthy usunn indulge in unne seg infinite uendelig / uendeleg expand utvide cooking kit kjøkkenutstyr syringe sprøyte measuring spoon måleskje / måleskei food additives tilsetningsstoffer / tilsetjingsstoff acronym akronym, forkortelse solid i fast form foam skum viscosity viskositet (hvor tykk/ seig en væske er) revolutionize revolusjonere wizard trollmann

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Read and understand

10.1 • Choose the right alternative in each sentence. a Molecular gastronomy is basically yet another attempt / opportunity / way to enhance the pleasures of eating. b In the beginning people associated molecular gastronomy with healthy / unhealthy / exotic ingredients. c Molecular gastronomy has caused a lot of controversial / controversy / controversially. d With easy / limited / instant access to simple molecular cooking kits, you can experiment with food as art in the privacy of your own kitchen. e If you have ever dreamt of becoming a scientist / wizard / cook, this might be your opportunity to do so. 10.2 ••Make at least five questions about the text. Ask and answer each other’s questions in small groups.

Practise

10.3 Find the missing letters in these words from the text. Spell the words out in English. a M O _ _ C U _ _ R b F _ A V _ _ R _ D c _ O _ T R _ V E _ S _ d L A _ _ R A _ _ R _ e I N D _ _ G E f _ _ V I A _ g S _ _ I D h K _ T i F_ Y I N _ 10.4 Use the words from the previous task to fill in the open spaces. a She herself with a slice of chocolate cake. b His film causes a lot of . c What do you keep in your first aid ? d She does not like pancakes with herbs and spices. e We were drilling through rock. f Below you will find gastronomy recipes with key details and pictures. g Today, the best is produced from the sturgeon fish that swim in the Caspian Sea. h I have five different pans at home.

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Did you know?

In August, 2013, a group of journalists was presented with the first slab of meat grown in a laboratory. The burger was made of muscle stem cells which were taken from a cow’s shoulder in a gentle biopsy. Over a period of three months it was grown in calf serum. 20,000 such cells made up the burger, together with bread crumbs and saffron to give it colour. The man behind the innovation, the Dutch scientist Dr. Post, estimates that it will take 10 to 20 years before cultured meat can be mass-produced. It will then provide us with a more sustainable source of protein as the world’s population rises. If the amount of meat we produce doubles, livestock could be responsible for half as much climate impact as all the world’s cars, lorries and airplanes. The UN has therefore urged people to have one meat-free day a week to stop global climate change.

10.5 Match the words with the pictures. e measuring spoons a syringe f gas cartridge b pipettes g siphon c silicone tubing d slotted spoon

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10.6 Find the following words in the grid: goggles scientist unhealthy stir bowl ginger

liquid thickening

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caviar process

Speak

10.7 Discuss the following questions with your partner. a More and more restaurants are offering molecular gastronomy cuisine. Why do you think this trend is expanding? b The school’s canteen is considering introducing molecular gastronomy dishes on its menu. Imagine that you are talking to the head chef and want to encourage him to try it. Act out the dialogue. Study page 308 for advice on speaking to convince.

Listen

10.8 “Successful Start”. Listen to the dialogue while you fill in the missing words. a It has an aroma and flavour. b Mike asked me to become a kind of . c With time came and to do something extra at the school canteen. d One of our teachers us to participate in . e Maybe calling it a restaurant was somewhat because it looked like a at first. f I would definitely suggest going to a . g And as you have probably already heard it is 5% and 95% .

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10.9 Listen to the interview again and answer the following questions. a Where does Ken live? b What type of coffee did he recommend to Sara? c What does Ken say about the Youth Enterprise? d When did Ken open up his first restaurant? e How many restaurants does Ken own so far? f How did Ken’s adventure with molecular gastronomy start? g Which subject did Ken fail twice while in school? h What was Ken’s first molecular dish? What tools and ingredients did he use in order to prepare it? i What is Ken’s recipe for success?

Explore

10.10 If possible, go to the kitchen and prepare this simple molecular gastronomy recipe. Balsamic Vinegar Pearls – Recipe One of the easiest ways to try out molecular gastronomy is by creating “pearls”. Most pearls are solid jelly balls that can be used to garnish dishes or as an amuse-bouche. Here we create sweet-sour balsamic vinegar pearls that are a great way to add a hit of flavor to many different dishes. The process of making them is even pretty easy. We first combine the vinegar with agar agar (found in health food stores) and bring it to a boil. Then we drizzle it into very cold olive oil that chills the droplets into spheres before they reach the bottom of the glass. Once you rinse off the balsamic vinegar pearls they are ready to use. Alternatively, you can store them in the refrigerator for later use. Source: www.modernistcookingmadeeasy.com. Accessed 13 March, 2014.

10.11 Go online and find another molecular gastronomy recipe. Explain what ingredients you need and what kitchen utensils you have to use in order to prepare your chosen dish. 10.12 Homaro Cantu and Ben Roche are chefs who are in charge of a television cooking show, Future Food. Find out what molecular dishes they have already presented in their shows. Share your findings with a partner.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what molecular gastronomy is. YES ALMOST NO

I can use words related to molecular gastronomy. YES ALMOST NO

I can listen for specific information. YES ALMOST NO

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The Hunger Games

The novel The Hunger Games (2008) by Suzanne Collins is a science fiction story about Katniss Everdeen. Together with 23 other competitors, so-called tributes, she must participate in a terrible contest where only one will survive, as they will all have to struggle for food and kill each other to win. Coming from a poor district, Katniss is used to killing animals and finding her own food. When she arrives in the Capitol to prepare for the contest, however, she is shocked to see the abundance in which the people there live. In this excerpt she meets her stylist, Cinna.

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what the excerpt from The Hunger Games is about ▶▶ name methods of assembling food ▶▶ share ideas about parks in the future Cinna invites me to sit on one of the couches and takes his place across from me. He presses a button on the side of the table. The top splits and from below rises a second tabletop that holds our lunch. Chicken and chunks of oranges cooked in a creamy sauce laid on a bed of pearly white grain, tiny green peas and onions, rolls shaped like flowers, and for dessert, a pudding the colour of honey. I try to imagine assembling this meal myself back home. Chickens are too expensive, but I could make do with wild turkey. I’d need to shoot a second turkey to trade for an orange. Goat’s milk would have to substitute for cream. We can grow peas in the garden. I’d have to get wild onions from the woods. I don’t recognize the grain; our own tessera ration cooks down to an unattractive brown mush. Fancy rolls would mean another trade with the baker, perhaps for two or three squirrels. As for the pudding, I can’t even guess what’s in it. Days of hunting and gathering for this one meal and even then it would be a poor substitute for the Capitol version. What must it be like, I wonder, to live in a world where food appears at the press of a button? How would I spend the hours I now commit to combing the woods for sustenance if it were so easy to come by? What do they do all day, these people in the Capitol, besides decorating their bodies and waiting around for a new shipment of tributes to roll in and die for their entertainment? I look up and find Cinna’s eyes trained on mine. ”How despicable we must seem to you,” he says. Has he seen this in my face or somehow read my thoughts? He’s right, though. The whole rotten lot of them is despicable. suzanne collins Suzanne Collins (1962–) is an American writer of science fiction, fantasy, and literature for children and young adults. She started her career as a writer of television series for children. The trilogy about The Hunger Games was released between 2008 and 2010, and became a huge success. The novels have also been made into popular films.

w

couch sofa chunk stykke pearly perlelignende / perleliknande grain korn, gryn pea ert assemble samle trade bytte til seg, handle / byte til seg, handle substitute erstatte tessera her: ekstra porsjon ration rasjon mush grøtete masse / grautete masse squirrel ekorn gather samle comb kjemme sustenance næring, føde shipment forsendelse / sending tributes deltakere i the Hunger Games / deltakarar i the Hunger Games despicable foraktelig, ynkelig / forakteleg, ynkeleg lot alle sammen / alle saman

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Read and understand

10.13 Make lists of a what kind of foods Katniss and Cinna are served for lunch b what kind of foods Katniss could get hold of if she were to make a similar meal at home c what kind of methods Katniss would use to assemble enough food for a meal 10.14 Write a few sentences where you account for how Katniss reacts to the lunch in the excerpt, and explain why she reacts this way.

Practise

10.15 These are all methods used to assemble food. Translate them into Norwegian and use them to write sentences where you explain what kind of food you can get by using the various methods. shoot – trade – grow – gather – raise – catch – fish 10.16 Put the sentences in the right order and write the paragraph. How to Pluck a Wild Turkey a After 10 seconds, take it out of the water, so it won’t start cooking. b First, place a large pan of water on the stove and heat it to nearboiling. c Pull hard until the feathers are released from the skin, and repeat until there are no feathers left. d Finally, rince the turkey and get a sharp knife for the cutting job. e Third, use a stick to hold the turkey under water until all the feathers are thoroughly soaked. f The best way to serve a wild turkey is to cook it whole by roasting or deep-frying it, but before you can do that, you need to pluck it. g Second, pour the water in a large wash tub and put the turkey in the hot water. h Then, put it on a cutting board and grab three to five feathers at a time around the base of the feathers.

Speak

10.17 Discuss the questions. a If you were stranded on a desert island or got lost in the woods, what would you do to find food and water? b Do you think that food will be harder to assemble in the future? Give reasons for your views. c How will health problems and climate change influence our eating habits? d How does easy access to food influence people? e What kind of food do you think people will eat 100 years from now? f How would you prepare the meal from the text? Discuss various procedures. 406 | Chapter 10: Tomorrow and beyond | Skills


Did you know?

Traditionally, parks all over the world tend to look the same, even down to the same types of trees. This is because they are inspired by English landscape architects of the 19th century. In the 21st century, however, urban green space is changing to become designed for functionality and not only beauty. Parks of the future will be a source for urban food production and a shelter for both residents and wildlife. Hyperfunctionality is the new trend, and in the future cities will contain a higher proportion of green cover, with planting on roofs and walls. Fruit trees will be part of the vegetation, along with vegetable patches, fish ponds and rivers. Parks will also be adapted to the climate and to the natural flora and will therefore require less water and fertilizers.

Write

10.18 Choose a park in the area where you live or in a town that you have visited. Write a letter to the city council of the area where you describe the park and suggest types of food to grow there and how to make the park a natural environment for wildlife. For information on how to write a formal letter, see page 260.

Explore

10.19 Find information about and examples of urban agriculture. Share your information in groups. 10.20 Use the Internet to find information about what inspired Suzanne Collins to write The Hunger Games. 10.21 If possible, watch the first film from The Hunger Games trilogy. Take notes and write paragraphs where you state your opinion of • the methods Katniss uses to survive the Games • the plot of the film • the characters in the film • the themes of the film

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the excerpt from The Hunger Games is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can name methods of assembling food. YES ALMOST NO

I can share ideas about parks in the future. YES ALMOST NO

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Freeganism – A Fad, or Fab? !

Before you start Look at the five pictures. What do you think this text is about?

fad påfunn fab short for fabulous, fantastisk consumer-based forbrukerbasert / forbrukarbasert consumption forbruk resources ressurser / ressursar extend strekke seg / strekkje seg dumpster diver søppelcontainerdykker / søppelkonteinardykkar rummage ransake garbage søppel retailer forhandler / forhandlar perceive oppfatte oddball raring necessitate nødvendiggjøre / gjere nødvendig poverty fattigdom harvest høste / hauste surplus overskudd / overskot charity organization veldedig organisasjon / velgjerdsorganisasjon

Freeganism is an alternative way of living based on limited participation in the conventional consumer-based economy. The movement started in Seattle and Portland and is now growing in popularity across the globe. It values minimal consumption of resources and promotes a fair production and distribution of food. However, these are just a few aspects of freeganism. The whole philosophy extends to other aspects of society like housing, transport and health. Freegans, often referred to as “dumpster divers”, are people who rummage through the garbage of retailers, local shops and offices in search of food and other “waste” that can be reused. Even though they are often perceived by others as oddballs, they strongly believe that discards can be eaten or recycled. Their search for discarded items is their conscious ethical choice, and not necessitated by poverty or lack of food. Freegans are also into growing and harvesting their own food and donating the surplus to local food banks or charity organizations. Being a freegan is not only a recent social trend, but it is also a way of thinking about our environment. Freegans support sustainability. Sustainability refers to an awareness of all the resources Mother Earth gives us and the ability to maintain them for future generations. Another concept freegans try to promote is that of “food miles”. It refers to the distance, or miles, the food has to travel to get to the consumer. The longer the distance, the more fuel is consumed and therefore the greater the carbon footprint, which again leads to greater impact on climate change. Therefore, freegans make a point of only buying food that is grown locally.

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After working with the text and ­exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain

what freeganism is ▶▶ discuss advantages and challenges of freeganism

Can freegans help save our planet and its people? People argue that the simple philosophy used by freegans could also contribute to reducing the number of people suffering from obesity. North America already has a very high number of people suffering from obesity and diabetes, and this trend is spreading. We are also bombarded with advertisements in the media, and over the years we have come to consume more and more. Could the freegan philosophy help us be more careful in terms of our bodies and and our health, and thereby also with our planet?

Every year around 377,000 tonnes of edible food is wasted in Norway. Seventy per cent of this waste comes from private houses and the rest from food factories, restaurants and shops. Among the products that contribute most to this waste are fresh bakery products, fruits and vegetables. On average, every Norwegian citizen throws away 50 kg of food every year. It might be slightly blemished, or imperfect in terms of freshness or packaging, but it is perfectly fit for consumption. These figures speak for themselves and justify what freegans are trying to direct our attention to.

sustainability bærekraft / berekraft fuel drivstoff carbon footprint karbonavtrykk obesity fedme / sterk overvekt slightly litt blemished ikke feilfri, skjemt / ikkje feilfri, skjemt

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IN SHORT Freeganism is a modern lifestyle that focuses on food justice. For example, we must consume and throw away less and share the resources. The trend began in Seattle and Portland and is getting more and more popular. Freegans are often called ”dumpster divers” as they often go to rubbish bins in search of usable leftovers. Moreover, they also encourage growing and harvesting their own food or giving their food to others who may need it. Freegans try to think about the environment. For example, instead of buying food products produced in far-away places they buy locally grown food. By doing so, they reduce the number of food miles and thereby reduce the negative impact on the climate. If more people adopted the freegan philosophy, the problem of obesity and diabetes might be reduced. Advertisements beg us to buy and consume, but neither our health nor our planet can tolerate the increase in consumption.

lifestyle livsstil food justice lokalmiljøer som krever sin rett til å dyrke, selge og spise sunn mat / lokalmiljø som krev rett til å dyrke, selje og ete sunn mat rubbish bin søppelcontainer / soppelkonteinar leftovers rester / restar harvest høste inn / hauste inn reduce minske impact (inn)virkning / (inn) verknad obesity fedme / sterk overvekt diabetes diabetes, sukkersyke / diabetes, sukkersjuke advertisement annonse consumption forbruk throw away kaste bort blemished ikke feilfri, skjemt / ikkje feilfri, skjemt edible spiselig / etande

377,000 tonnes of food is thrown away in Norway every year. Restaurants, shops and individuals throw away bread, fruit and vegetables. On average every person throws away 50 kg of food every year. Even though the food is slightly blemished it is still edible.

Read and understand

10.22 • Complete the sentences. a Freeganism is a modern lifestyle … b Freegans are often called … c Instead of buying food products … d They reduce the number of food miles and … e We are bombarded with … f On average every person throws … 10.23 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What is freeganism? b Where was freeganism established? c What do other people call freegans? d What do freegans do with excess food? e What are food miles? f How many tonnes of edible food is wasted every year in Norway?

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Speak

10.24 Discuss the following questions. a Would you consider becoming a freegan? Give reasons for your answer. b What are the biggest advantages and disadvantages with freeganism? c What do you think the phrase ”One person’s dumpster is another’s diner” means? d How can we prevent food waste?

Practise

10.25 First, use a dictionary to find the meaning of the words below. Then use each word in a sentence. e carbon footprint a participation f diabetes b donate g obesity c discard h blemished d surplus 10.26 Odd one out. Which word does not belong in every line? a milk / juice / syrup / truffle b rectangle / oddball / freak / sissy c eliminate / leftovers / waste / dive d obesity / diabetes / high pressure / pills e fresh / crispy / baking / juicy f bakery / grocery / butcher / patisserie

Write

10.27 • Write down ten keywords from the text about freeganism. Use the words to write a summary. 10.28 •• Write a text in which you discuss the advantages and challenges of freeganism. Your text should include: • a short introduction • one paragraph on the advantages of freeganism • one paragraph on the challenges of freeganism • one paragraph where you state your own opinion • a conclusion You find advice on how to write a five-paragraph text on page 240.

How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what freeganism is. YES ALMOST NO

I can discuss advantages and challenges of freegansim. YES ALMOST NO

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!

Before you start Discuss in pairs or small groups: 1 Can you think of food we may run out of in the future? 2 Can genetically modified (GM) foods solve hunger problems around the world? 3 Do you think that one day all food will be lab-made?

Good Eats One of the must-see TV series on food which has been aired for almost 12 years is Good Eats. The series is created and hosted by Alton Brown, an American celebrity chef. In the series, we see him delving into various aspects of cooking such as the history of foods, cooking techniques and equipment. In season 13, episode 10, Brown was portrayed as a donnish-looking old man who is shopping together with his granddaughter in a futuristic supermarket, or one that may resemble what shops will look like in the future. Here is an extract from that programme. Characters AB: Alton Brown, portrayed as an old man GD: Alton’s granddaughter

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SCENE 1: A Supermarket of the Future After working with the text and GD: (puts a few items in her basket) ­exercises, you should be able to AB: What are you getting there? Soup capsules? GD: (runs down to the unattended fish counter) Come ▶▶ explain what the TV series Good Eats on, Grandpa. is about AB: Okay, I’m coming. I’m coming. I’m coming. Hold ▶▶ use information from a TV series to your horses here. What have we got? Oh, what have write a text we got? What have we got? ▶▶ talk about sustainability GD: Well, we have Loligo vulgaris and Pandalus borealis. AB: So, squid and shrimp? GD: Yep. AB: Fabulous. More like a bait shop in there. I remember a time when you came to a fish counter and you got real fish. They had bullet-shaped tunas and, and, and salmon that smelt like melon in the summertime. And we had these big black grouper with mouths as big as buckets. GD: What happened to them all? AB: What happened? Overfished. Depleted, they call it. We got so good at delve into forske getting them out of the water that after a while, well, there weren’t enough donnish akademisk of them to go back and fish for. Plenty of squid, though. That’s good. resemble ligne på / likne på GD: Buffalo? hold your horses vent AB: Hmm? What’s that? squid blekksprut GD: The Great Plains used to be covered up with furry cow things, shrimp reke buffaloes. There were so many that people shot them from trains just for fabulous fabelaktig bait agn fun. Then one day, they were gone. salmon laks AB: Hmm. Hairy cow things. You’re talking about buffalo. Buffalo. Yeah, grouper kjøtt av saltvannsfisk they’re gone too. som ligner på havabbor / GD: (sighs) kjøtt av saltvassfisk som AB: Humans have never been too good with the concept of sustainability. liknar på havåbor GD: What does sustainability mean? bucket bøtte AB: Well, it’s a way of managing your resources so that you can have your overfish/deplete overfiske, utarme (bruke opp) cake and eat it, too. But money, oil, rainforest, buffalo, tuna, you name it, furry hårete we’re pretty lousy at sustaining it. sustainability bærekraft / GD: Did you talk about sustainability on your show? berekraft AB: Did I? No. People don’t like it when entertainers get up on soap boxes. lousy elendig GD: But, Grandpa, people listen to you. Maybe you could have convinced convince overbevise / overtyde them that eating sustainably was … swordfish sverdfisk (Good Eats theme plays) shovel måke food chain næringskjede AB: Nah. Never would have worked. predator rovdyr GD: Well, just pretend. What if you could have made a difference? pollutant forurensningskilde / AB: Could have made a difference? Well, to do that, the first thing that I forureiningskjelde would have had to have done was to tell them the truth, even the really ugly mercury kvikksølv parts. breed avle Skills | Chapter 10: Tomorrow and beyond | 413


SCENE 2: The Kitchen

3.7 million metric tons caught 1 million wasted

AB: But wait! There’s more. Because they live so long, big, top-of-the-food-chain predators can store pollutants like mercury and other harmful chemicals in their bodies that are then passed on to the eaters, like us.

Aim forks lower down the food chain

AB: Americans have a big appetite for a short list of large fish like tuna, swordfish, and salmon. In fact, commercial fishing operations sweep them out of the water so quickly that the populations simply cannot sustain themselves. What’s more, for every 3.7 million metric tons of fish we do want to catch, we also pull in one million we don’t want. They simply die on the decks and are shovelled back into the sea.

Levels of toxins increase in large predator fish with age

AB: The answer? We need to aim our forks lower down the food chain and dine on smaller fish that grow quickly, breed quickly, and frankly, die quickly, all on their own.

100 years ago AB: If we don’t, well, here’s a graphic representation of our wild fisheries just 100 years ago. Here’s what today looks like. And if projections bear out, by 2048, here’s what we’ll be looking at. Get the picture?

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Today 2048


SCENE 3: A Supermarket of the Future GD: Wait a second. Why not just raise these big fish like cattle? Farm them. AB: Ah, we tried that, too. The problem is Americans like these big pelagic predators, and they’ve got a terrible conversion rate. GD: A conversion what? AB: It means you have to feed them a lot in order to gain even a little bit of weight. Take your average blue fin tuna. You got to feed it 12, 13 pounds of food just to gain a pound of weight. No, it’s like, it’s like farming lions. http://www.goodeatsfanpage.com/Season13/trout/trout_transcript.htm. Accessed 14 May, 2014.

Read and understand

10.29 • Join the two halves of the sentences together. a b c d e f

Good Eats has been Buying a real fish at the fish counter Buffaloes were shot from People have never Many types of fishes are Wild fisheries are

1 2 3 4 5 6

been keen on sustainability. shovelled back into the sea. trains for fun. dying off. was not a problem before. aired for almost 12 years.

10.30 •• Answer the questions. a What can documentary films teach us? b Who is Alton Brown? c What types of fish were Alton and his granddaughter talking about? d What happened to all the fish we could consume before? e Why did people shoot at buffaloes? f What does sustainability mean? g What can predators store in their bodies? h What will happen to fish by 2048?

Speak

10.31 In pairs, practise reading out the scenes from the TV series. Learn as much as possible by heart and act it out in class. 10.32 Discuss the questions. a This excerpt shows us that the depletion of fisheries is a real concern. What solutions can be taken to solve that problem? b What do you think will happen if overfishing continues? c Think of five environmental issues that may limit or reduce our access to food.

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Practise

10.33 Choose ten words that you did not already know from the vocabulary list. Practise spelling and pronouncing the words. Test yourself with a partner.

Write

10.34 • Write a paragraph where you describe the differences between the futuristic supermarket described in this text and one of today. 10.35 •• Write a letter to a friend explaining to him/her what living a sustainable lifestyle means to you. 10.36 ••• Write a review of a chosen episode of Good Eats, or another food programme. For information on how to write a review, see page 182.

Explore

10.37 Fish are commonly divided into three groups: shellfish, round fish and flat fish. Can you name the six examples below? Make a vocabulary list of all the fish you know.

10.38 In 2011 Prince Charles gave the keynote speech at the Future of Food conference at Georgetown University in Washington. It resulted in a speech-in-the-form-of-a-book entitled The Prince’s Speech: On the Future of Food. Find the speech online, listen to it, and explain his views about the future of our food system.

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How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the TV series Good Eats is about. YES ALMOST NO

I can use information from a TV series to write a text. YES ALMOST NO

I can talk about sustainability. YES ALMOST NO

DID YOU DO 10|HOW IN THIS CHAPTER? Choose five words from the word cloud below. Explain how they are relevant to what you have studied in chapter 10.

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS EASILY CONFUSED WORDS Many words are the same or nearly the same in English as they are in Norwegian. This is because the two languages are related. But beware. Some words don’t mean what you think they do, so it is a good idea to use a dictionary and look up words you don’t know.

The verbs lie (å ligge) and lay (å legge) are easily confused in English, partly because the past tense of lie, which is lay, looks just like the infinitive of lay.

Practise 10.39 Choose the right alternative. Infinitive: lie – lay | Past tense: lay – laid | Past participle: lain – laid a John was asked to lie / lay the table. b Mary needed to lie / lay down for a while. c Do you know how long Julie lay / laid there for? d Richard already lay / laid the table. e Philip has lain / laid in his bed all day. f Has Justine lain / laid out her clothes for tomorrow? The verbs lend and borrow distinguish between a loan to and a loan from someone. I lend what is mine and I borrow what belongs to someone else. A similar difference exists for teach and learn. I teach to others what I already know and I learn what I do not yet know.

10.40 Choose the right alternative. lend – borrow | teach – learn a Would Oliver be willing to lend / borrow Steven his lawnmower? b Trevor would like to lend / borrow this book from Sally. c Jessica needed to learn / teach from her mistakes. d John’s mother agreed to teach / learn him to drive.

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS The verb think can be used to express an opinion. Norwegian mene has this function, but the verb mean in English, which looks similar, does not. It is either used to clarify what someone tried to say; She means the new shopping centre, or to state an intention; He means to do the right thing.

10.41 Choose the right alternative. think – mean | thought – meant a Does Darcy think / mean the ones with blue laces? b David thinks / means that dogs are better than cats. c Ronnie thought / meant of his girlfriend in Paris. d Do you suppose Alex thought / meant to cause the explosion? Many other pairs or triplets of words are easily confused because they look similar to one another, even though they mean quite different things.

10.42 Choose the right alternative. where – we’re – were | two – too – to | there – they’re – their a Do you know where / we’re / were Tom lives? b They where / we’re / were very worried about their sick kitten. c On Sunday where / we’re / were invited to dinner. d Nine hours of sleep per night is two / too / to much. e We went on holiday with Susan, her husband and their two / too / to children. f Barry often sees Rachel on his way two / too / to work. g That car is there / they’re / their pride and joy. h There / they’re / their is no doubt that they will remain friends. i There / they’re / their planning a holiday to Jamaica. 10.43 Choose the right alternative. lose – loose | it’s – its | your – you’re | who’s – whose a Be polite, or you might lose / loose her custom. b You should not wear your hair lose / loose at work. c If it’s / its title is bad, no one will go to see the film. d If it’s / its good, I would like to see it. e Do you think your / you’re car is reliable enough? f I wonder if your / you’re going to make it to Aberdeen. g Janet told me who’s / whose coat this is, but I’ve forgotten. h Cheryl is wondering who’s / whose coming to the party. Skills | Chapter 10: Tomorrow and beyond | 419


IN-DEPTH STUDIES IN-DE IN-DEPTH STUDIES The curriculum gives you an opportunity to study a topic in depth. Working on a crosscurricular project, for example, also gives you a chance to improve your English skills within your education programme. However, for such an in-depth study to be successful there are some important steps that can help you in your work.

1 Getting started

For example: Topic: Disabilities in the restaurant industry Topic question: What is being done to adjust the working environments in restaurants for disabled people to better include them in this field of working life?

First, study the task and think about the topic. Then, decide what you want to learn more about and sum it up in a topic question.

2 Planning Make a plan for your work. • when to do what • what sources to use: Internet, library, newspapers or contact with people, organisations etc. • who will do what – if you work with a partner Consult your teacher when you have some general ideas to make sure you are on the right track. For example:

When

What

Day 1

Call the regional society for disabled people. Gather background information on the Internet. Search online newspapers.

Day 2

Interview with Mr. Tannum in Babette’s Restaurant. Visit the library. Share findings and further plans with my teacher.

Day 3

Organise information, structure content. Start working on manuscript.

Day 4

Finish texts, find illustrations and work on presentation / hand in project report. Practise oral part, check language.

Day 5

Present or hand in finished project.

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EPTH STUDIES IN-DEPTH 3 Sources Use different sources. If possible, you should choose sources in English as they will give you useful vocabulary. Remember to write down all your sources as you work. Use them to gather information and do not copy. For information on how to use and refer to sources, see pages 378 – 379.

4 Structure When you have found enough information, start organising your material. Focus on three or four main points. Make sure you have a good introduction where you present your topic questions and the contents of your work. Remember that your conclusion should always answer your topic question.

Introduction: A statement on the topic, introduce what I’ll talk about, how and why. Part one: What laws and regulations exist concerning integration of disabled people in working life. Part two: What some restaurants have done to integrate disabled people. Part three: The true story of one disabled person working in a restaurant. Conclusion: The situation today and what remains to be done.

5 Presentation There are different ways to present your work. Here are some examples. A report A project report should contain: • What your topic is and why you chose it. • What you have learned, summed up in 3–4 main points. • Interviews, surveys and sources. • Your self-assessment. Did your work go according to plan? A written text For information on writing texts, see pages 240 – 241. Make sure your text is well structured and always check your grammar and spelling before you hand in your text. An oral presentation For information on giving oral presentations, see pages 276 – 277. Learn the content of your presentation well enough to be able to talk freely about it. If you use digital tools, use them to underline and illustrate your points.

6 Assessment You will most likely get a grade on your work. Discuss with your teacher in advance what will be essential in the assessment of your in-depth study. Make sure your product corresponds to the criteria.

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IN-DEPTH STUDIES IN-DE What characterizes a good oral or written presentation of in-depth studies? Low competence

Average competence

High competence

Can share simple information from sources.

Can share information and discuss it.

Can share information, discuss and evaluate it.

Can use sources to copy information.

Can use sources as a foundation to create own texts.

Can use sources to find information to use freely in independent texts.

Can read from a manuscript.

Can speak mostly without a manuscript.

Can speak freely about the topic without a manuscript.

Can use simple phrases and language.

Can communicate with a certain fluency in spite of some linguistic errors.

Can communicate with fluency and accuracy, and with good sentence structure.

Can use elementary vocabulary.

Can use a simple but functional vocabulary.

Can use a varied and precise vocabulary.

Can speak with an understandable pronunciation.

Can speak with a fairly good pronunciation.

Can speak almost fluently and with a very good pronunciation.

Can use digital tools to create visual support for the presentation.

Can use digital tools to support the presentation and occasionally refer to it.

Can use digital tools actively to support the presentation and underline important elements.

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EPTH STUDIES IN-DEPTH Suggested cross-curricular topics

Different professions in restaurants and food processing • Waiter/Waitress • Chef • Bartender • Baker • Cook • Meat cutter • Butcher • Dining room manager • Restaurant manager/Kitchen manager/ Chef manager • Confectioner Work environment • Ergonomics • Hygiene • Quality management • Quality control Raw materials and production • Maintenance of hand tools, machines and equipment • Bakery goods and confectionery • Production of different doughs, cakes and other products • Diet and health • Nutrition and economy • Molecular gastronomy • Food habits and traditions

Trade and commerce • Company organization • Employment conditions • Economic results • Service and sales • Cooperation • Communication • Ethics • Business concepts

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PREPARING FOR A WRITTEN EXAM PREPARING FOR A WRITTEN EXAM A written exam normally consists of several tasks. Some may test language skills, and some comprehension. Other tasks will ask you to produce different types of short texts. Also, you will normally be asked to write a longer text, for example a five-paragraph text, about a topic. For this final task, you will often have several topics to choose from.

Before the exam 1 Check texts you have written earlier this year and last year. Are there problem areas where you usually make mistakes? Spelling, subject-verb concord, adjectives/adverbs etc? Make your own checklist to bring for the exam. This may help you write better texts. 2 Leaf through your notes and your textbook. What topics have you studied this year and last year? What do you remember? Check the English curriculum (on udir.no). Will you be able to write something about the different topics on the list? 3 Check the Improve Your Skills pages where you have worked with different types of written texts. (Reports page 130, formal letters page 260, reviews page 182, and fiveparagraph texts page 240). Read the instructions, study the examples and do some of the tasks to make sure you have the necessary skills for a written exam. 4 Study old exams. Most can be found on the Internet, and will give you an idea of what types of questions you may get. How would you answer the tasks? Make outlines and lists of keywords to practise organizing written tasks. 5 To the written exam you may bring with you any written material you think will be useful. 6 Make sure you get some sleep. On the exam day eat a healthy breakfast and bring fruit and water along with your lunch. Tell yourself that you are well prepared and will do your best!

During the exam 1 Always read the tasks thoroughly to get an overview. Make sure you do what you are asked to do in all the tasks. It may be useful to note down some keywords before you start. 2 It may be a good solution to start with the tasks that are easy or that don’t take too much time to finish.

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PREPARING FOR A WRITTEN EXAM 3 Use the Skills pages to help you as you work. On the Skills pages you find useful information and advice on how to structure your texts. 4 Take breaks from your writing to think about your topic, maybe get some fresh air and some new energy. Still, don’t waste too much time, and avoid having to hand in unfinished work. 5 Before you hand in your work, read your texts again. Check your language. Did you bring your list? Also make sure that you have answered all the questions or tasks. Finally, make sure you have included a list of your sources. See page 379 for how to make such a list.

Practise 10.44 Make an outline or plan for the following tasks. a You have been asked to make a list of instructions for a brochure about safety precautions and instructions linked to a profession of your choice. Write the list. b You want to spend a year working in a restaurant in Australia. Choose a relevant profession, use your knowledge and imagination and write a letter of application. You should include both formal qualifications and personal skills that make you suitable for the job. c During English class this year you have seen films and read fictional texts about professional life. Choose one such film or text and write a short review where you include information about the film or text, as well as your own personal opinion. 10.45 Here are some tasks that should be answered with a five-paragraph text. Write outlines for all the tasks. Then choose one of them and write a text. Follow the steps from page 240. a To what extent is it important to be able to communicate in English at a professional level? Write a text where you: • discuss the role of the English language in professional life today, • explain your views on the situation and • give examples from a profession of your choice. b What does being a professional mean to you? You have been asked to give a speech about this to a group of young apprentices in the restaurant and food processing sector. Write a manuscript for your speech where you: • explain what being professional means to you, • discuss why being professional is important in the restaurant and food processin­g sector and • give examples from a profession of your choice.

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PREPARING FOR AN ORAL EXAM PREPARING FOR AN ORAL EXAM The form of an oral exam in English may vary from one school to another. You will be informed about the procedure well ahead of the exam. It is quite common to ask students to prepare a topic for oral presentation or discussion. After a presentation, you may be asked to comment on or discuss the topic further. An oral exam may also start with a test of listening comprehension. You get to listen to a short text or dialogue before the examination itself starts. Afterwards, in the examination room, you will be asked to tell the examiner what you have just listened to. Often, the examiner will also want you to talk freely about the topic of the same text. Finally, there is usually an unprepared conversation based on a topic from the English curriculum.

Before the exam Many students feel very uncomfortable just getting selected for an oral exam. Remember that the examiners want to know your competence; they are not out to “get you”. Many students appreciate the experience, once it is over. Here is some advice to help you start preparing: 1 Talk to your teacher. He or she will tell you about the procedure. Knowing the facts will help you focus and calm down. 2 If you pick a certain topic to prepare, your teacher is allowed to counsel you. 3 Work with fellow students. 4 Your reading list will be useful while you prepare. In case of a presentation of a certain topic: • Check pages 276 – 277 in this book for advice on how to give oral presentations. Find out if the instructions specify a certain audience or target group for your presentation. Make sure you have a good introduction that will make your audience interested. Does the content have a logical structure? • Practise in front of a friend or someone else who might give you feedback on your presentation. Time it. If you have a digital presentation tool, also ask for feedback on whether it is relevant and to the point.

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PREPARING FOR AN ORAL EXAM In case of a listening comprehension test: • Check pages 224 – 225 in this book for advice on listening strategies. You are allowed to use a dictionary and may take notes during the listening task. You will get to hear the dialogue or text several times.

During the exam 1 First, introduce yourself and shake hands with the examiners. 2 If you have prepared a presentation, make sure you have eye contact with your listeners. If you have a digital presentation or a poster with photos or keywords, use it by pointing and referring to it. Avoid reading from a manuscript if you can. If you must read, read as little as possible. Before you end your presentation, comment briefly on your sources that should be listed on the last page of your digital presentation. Also ask if there are any questions before thanking the audience for listening. 3 Questions and answers are always part of an oral exam. The general advice here is to show your knowledge and not expose what you don’t know. If you are uncertain about the answer to a question, talk about other related topics that you know more about and try to link this to the question. The more you talk, the fewer questions will be asked, but don’t change the topic completely. Never say that you are not well prepared. 4 Before you leave, shake hands. A polite student always leaves a good impression.

Practise 10.46 An oral exam will be based on the topics in the English curriculum. a Go through your textbook, reading list and notes. Get an overview of what you have worked with. b Choose a topic from each chapter in your book. • Make a topic question and a short outline based on keywords for each chapter. • How would you start a presentation on your chosen topic? • What information would you include?

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Acknowledgement MAYBE YOU SHOULD KNOW SOMETHING ABOUT ME by Nick Hornby, from Slam, 2007. Copyright © Nick Hornby 2007. Reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd. PROBLEM PAGE by Sophie Kinsella, from Short Stories. © Sophie Kinsella, 2013. DREAMS by Langston Hughes, www.poets.org Extract from THE BLUE CARBUNCLE by Arthur Conan Doyle. CHOCOLATE from Boy by Roald Dahl, published by Jonathan Cape Ltd & Penguin Books Ltd. Reprinted with permission of David Higham Literary, Film and TV agents. NICE ASS by Jesse Cameron Alick, from The Full Spectrum: A New Generation Of Writing About Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, And Other Identities, edited by David Levithan and Billy Merrell, copyright ©2006 by Alfred A. Knopf. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of Random House Children's Books, a division of Random House, LLC. All rights reserved. Any third party use of this material, outside of this publication, is prohibited. Interested parties must apply directly to Random House, Inc. for permission. DOES MY HEAD LOOK BIG IN THIS? Copyright © Randa Abdel-Fattah, 2006. Reproduced with permission of Scholastic Ltd. All rights reserved. PARAONOIA. Reprinted with the permission of Gallery Books, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. from Heroin Diaries by Nikki Six. Copyright © 2007 Nikki Sixx. ONLINE BULLYING by Stephen Chittenden. Reprinted with permission from BBC and Stephen Chittenden. F**KIN PERFECT/FUCKING PERFECT. Text & musik: Max Martin/Shellback/ Alecia Moore. © EMI Blackwood Music Inc/Pink Inside Publishing. Tryckt med tillstånd av EMI Music Publishing Scandinavia AB/Notfabriken Music Publishing AB (33,33 % av rettighetene). Written by Max Martin and Johan Schuster © Published by MCM AB. Administered by Kobalt Music Publishing Limitied (66,67 % av rettighetene). SOCKS ARE NOT ENOUGH by Mark Lowery. Text copyright © Footnote Books Ltd, 2011. Reproduced by permission of Scholastic Ltd. All rights reserved. STICKS AND STONES by Ruby Redfort. FIRST DAY AT WORK from Londoners by Craig Taylor. Reprinted with permission of Granta Books, London. 61 HOURS by Lee Child. UNRELATED INCIDENTS by Tom Leonard, from AQA Anthology. Reprinted with permission from the author.

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SLUMDOG MILLIONAIRE, by Vikas Swarup, adpated by Paul Shipton. Mary Glasgow Publications. BOY A by Jonathan Trigell. Published by Serpent's Tail. Reprinted with persmission. THE BRITISH by Benjamin Zephaniah, from Propa Propaganda (Bloodaxe Books, 1996). THE LOT OF A FOOD CRITIC from Garlic and Sapphires by Ruth Reichl. TASTY TOMATES blog article by Andreas Viestad. Reprinted with permission from the author. CHOOSING INGREDIENST by Nigel Slater. THE PERFECT HAMBURGER from Use Your Loafs, 1976 by Ursel Norman. TRAINERS taken from Ten GCSE by Paul King, © Pearson Publishing 2001. DESERT DAWN from Desert Dawn by Waris Dirie. Published by Little, Brown Book Group as, reprinted with permission. LOOK AT AFRICA taken from In the Company of Cheerful Ladies by Alexander McCall Smith. Publisher: Polygon. Reprinted with permission from David Higham Associates Limited. WAITER RANT by Steve Dublanica. YES, CHEF by Marcus Samuelsson. LEEK AND SPINACH OMELETTE WITH HOT-SMOKED SALMON: Nadin Martinutzzi og Hanne Stensvold. Oppskriften er utviklet i samarbeid med Teft og Ica. LIFE CAFÉ, RARE CHEF by John Sunderland. Reprinted with permission from the author. ARTISAN BREADS by Jo Von Sotak. WE ARE MORE by Shane Koyczan. © Shane Koyczan www.shanekoyczan.com THE HOCKEY SWEATER copyright 1979 by Roch Carrier. English translation by Sheila Fischman. Reprinted with permission from House of Anansi Press, Toronto. From THE ABSOLUTELY TRUE DIARY OF A PART-TIME INDIAN by Sherman Alexie. Copyright © 2007 by Sherman Alexie. All rights reserved. Published in agreement with Leonhardt & Høier Literary Agency A/S in conjunction with Nancy Stauffer Associates, USA. POWHIRI by Jacq Carter, from Growing Up Maori, 1998 Tandem Press. THE MUSTER by Ali Lewis, from Everybody Jam, Andersen Press. Reprinted with permission from Random House UK. From THE HUNGER GAMES by Suzanne Collins. Scholastic Inc./Scholastic Press. Copyright © 2008 by Suzanne Collins. Used by permission. GOOD EATS by Alton Brown.

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Bildekreditering Illustrasjoner: Ingrid Rognstad: side 32, 39, 61, 133, 145, 155. Irene Marienborg: s.73, 135 n, 218, 248, 329, 330. Kart og grafer: Kart&grafikk, Gerd Eng Kielland : side 113, 179, 189, 204, 205, 279, 300, 301, 319, 341, 375, 385, Bilder: Side 10–11: Ascent Xmedia / Getty Images, s. 12: ø. Igor Balasanov/ Getty Images, n. Francesca Yorke / Getty Images, s. 14: mediaphotos / Getty Images, s. 17: www.lgpcards.com, s. 20: Jason Todd / Getty Images, s. 25: Stuart McClymont / Getty Images, s. 26: © Bubbles Photolibrary / Alamy/ All Over Press, s. 31: Pondus©Øverli, distri: www.strandcomics.no, s. 34: Wilfried Krecichwost /Getty Images, s. 37: t.v. Getty Images, m. Ed Darack / Getty Images, ø.t.h. © Paul Gapper / Alamy / All Over Press, n.t.h. REUTERS / NTB scanpix, s. 38: LUNCH© Børge Lund, distr: www.strandcomics. no, s. 40: Cultura/ Luc Beziat / Getty Images, s.44–45 Leon Reding / The Bridgeman Art Library, s. 46: Kentaroo Tryman / Imageselect, s. 50: StockFood /Drool Ltd, William Lingwood / Getty Images, s.51: Peter Menzel/Ina Agency, s. 52: ø. ordnett.no, n. Aschehoug / Kunnskapsforlaget, s.56: Whitney & Irma Sevin / Photolibrary / Gettyt Images, s.57: Microstock / NTBscanpix, Martin Turzak / Alamy / Imageselect, Nicki Dowey / StockFood Creative / Getty Images, Imageselect, iStock, s. 59: SuperStock / Imageselect, s.62: Baker Street Scans / Alamy / Imageselect, iStock, s.68: Jacques Loic/Photononstop / Imageselect, s. 70: t.v. ©RDNL Courtesy of The Roald Dahl Museum and Story Centre, t.h. Mary Evans Picture / NTB scanpix, s. 75: BRETT STEVENS / Imageselec, s.78–79: Maurizio Borsari / Getty Images, s. 80: CHROMORANGE / F. Röder /Ina Agency, s. 82: Altrendo images / Getty Images, s. 84: ø.t.v. Jupiterimages /Getty Images, ø.t.v. © PeoplePix / Alamy / All Over Press, n.t.v. Klaus-Werner Friedrich / Ina Agency, n.t.h. arabianEye /Getty Images, s. 91: STAHLER ©1998 Jeff Stahler. Reprinted by permission of Universal Uclick for UFS.  All rights reserved., s. 94: All Over Press, s. 96: Broadimage / Rex Features / All Over Press, s. 97: Nils Jorgensen / Rex Features / All Over Press, s. 99: Copyright (c) 2009 by Debbie Ridpath Ohi. Reprinted by permission of Curtis Brown Ltd., s. 100: © aberCPC / Alamy / All Over Press, s. 103: www.CartoonStock.com, s. 104: Hearst Newspapers LLC/Seattlepi/ David Horsey, s. 108: Pa Photos / NTB scanpix, s. 112: Tony Gale / Getty Images, s. 119: ©20th Century Fox Film Corp. 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Thinkstock / Getty Images, n.t.h. © Yadid Levy / Alamy / All Over Press, s. 168: © RTimages / Alamy / All Over Press, s.171: © PhotoEdit / Alamy / All Over Press, s. 174: All Over Press, s.177: Danny Boyle Movie poster (UK) / All Over Press, s. 178: Bakgrunnsbilde: Janniche Langseth, © brianindia / Alamy / All Over Press, s.179: All Over Press, s. 180: t. v. AFP / NTB scanpix, t.h.Picturepoint, s. 181: t.v. Janniche Langseth, m. © Jim Zuckerman / Alamy / All Over Press, t.h. Picturepoint, s. 182: Photodisc / Gyldendal, s. 184: REMEMBER THE TITANS, Denzel Washington, 2000 / All Over Press, s. 186: ©Walt Disney Co./Courtesy Everett Collection / All Over Press, s. 187: 1 TelePress / Abaca / Ina Agency 2, 3 og 4 FilmMagic / Getty Images, 5 og 6 WireImage / Getty Images, 7 © Gregory Pace/Sygma/Corbis / NTB scanpix, 8 (c)Buena Vista Pictures/courtesy Everett Collection / All Over Press, s. 188: Bakgrunnsbilde: New Photo Service / Ina Agency, m. Demotix / NTB scanpix, n. 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Richard Greenhill / Alamy / All Over Press, n. © Heritage Images/Corbis /NTB scanpix, s. 198: © Weinstein Company/courtesy Everett Collection / All Over Press, s. 204: Bakgrunnsbilde: DEA / PUBBLI AER FOTO / Getty Images, Afp / NTB scanpix, s. 205: ø. Lucia Coppola / Getty Images, n. Heritage / NTB scanpix, s. 206: t.v. Allan Baxter / Getty Images, t.h. Andy Williams / Getty Images, s. 207 t.v. Afp / NTB scanpix, m. 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Skills RM blaiboka  

Skills RM blaiboka

Skills RM blaiboka  

Skills RM blaiboka