SKILLS, Salg, service og reiseliv

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Gro Lokøy • Janniche Langseth • Hege Lundgren • Sidsel Hellesøy

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SKILLS

SALG, SERVICE OG REISELIV

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Engelsk for yrkesfag vg1

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til

Bokmål og Nynorsk


Using SKILLS

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SKILLS is a series of textbooks and digital resources, specifically tailored for your education programme. Each book has 8 chapters. The texts and tasks will make sure you work with all the competence aims in the curriculum. Chapters 1, 2, 5 and 6 focus on topics that are relevant for your education programme and that will prepare you for an international workplace. Chapters 3, 4, 7 and 8 focus on general topics such as life skills and challenges, democracy and citizenship, cultural expressions and global perspectives.

CHAPTER 5

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Each chapter opens with useful information to help you prepare for the topics you will meet.

In this chapter you will focus on k tasks and equipment within sales, service and travel

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Trade and Travel

k marketing and advertising k using listening strategies k giving an oral presentation k pronouns and determiners

Useful words and phrases

Relevant words and phrases

convenience store bar code scanner marketing strategies promotion resort receptionist bellboy tourist destination security check billboard

What kind of equipment is important for service employees?

Questions for reflection and discussion

Why is marketing an important skill?

201

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Main focus: topics, skills and language


feature trekk telepresence tilstedeværelse via skjerm og lyd/det å vere til stades via skjerm og lyd savings innsparinger/ innsparingar sustainability bærekraft/ berekraft fluent in flink i promote fremme/fremje collaboration samarbeid transparency gjennomsiktighet/det å vere gjennomsiktig cubicle her: kontoravlukke multipurpose som kan brukes til flere ting/som kan brukast til fleire ting encrypting kryptering

Future Offices Office work

Important features of future offices will be openness and flexibility concerning workplace and hours. First, home offices will become more common and, thanks to webcams and computers, telepresence will reduce the number of travelling days. This means big savings for the company and sustainability in general. Furthermore, the younger generation of office workers, who are fluent in mobile technology, social media and networking, will expect more open work environments. Thus, future offices will have more glass and fewer walls, promoting collaboration and transparency. They will be more guest friendly and welcome clients into the heart of the company, not just to reception areas or conference rooms. Finally, technology will also change office equipment, replacing the cubicles with intelligent, multi-functional computer screen desks instead of work stations and multipurpose spaces to stimulate conversation and cooperation. In a digital future, with advanced networks and equipment, offices will become increasingly paperless, and the traditional desks will be replaced by office stations where employees can plug in and connect to the server. This gives flexibility, but also presents challenges linked to information flow and security. Therefore, securing networks and encrypting data to protect privacy will be important tasks in future offices.

IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

AIMS

Security

In addition to the obvious challenges linked to cybersecurity, digital innovations will also improve k talk about some office work and security in buildings. Surveillance cameras and X-ray security in the future scanners for bags and people are already in use in many k use words and phrases related to office buildings, and such equipment will probably technology in the future become more advanced. One likely development is k present information about a biometric surveillance, a technology that analyses company or a brand with good human characteristics, such as fingerprints, DNA potential and facial recognition, for identification. Next, a security guard must often monitor several surveillance screens at the same time. Modern technology can make this job much easier, as computers will know what you are looking for and will adjust the screen picture accordingly. Another future surveillance technique is flying surveillance overvåking/ surveillance cameras, equipped with infrared cameras, radar vision and overvaking parabolic microphones, that can identify people from a long distance and biometric basert på biologiske provide information to the security crew inside a building. Surveillance of trekk visitors and employees can also involve credit-card transactions as well as facial recognition ansiktsgjenkjenning/andletsattkjenning internet and telephone activity. This advanced cybersecurity, however, also monitor overvåke/overvake creates “cybervulnerability” because of the increasing amount of data that adjust tilpasse are stored about individuals. In the future, surveillance will have to find the accordingly i tråd med dette right balance between security and privacy.

parabolic microphone høysensitiv mikrofon/høgsensitiv mikrofon transaction overføring “cybervulnerability” “nettsårbarhet”/“nettsårbarheit” recognition gjenkjennelse/ attkjenning

STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS

Listing ideas

When you build a paragraph, follow these four steps:

Write a topic sentence. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph, and lets the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence can be a statement or a question.

A supporting sentence comes after the topic sentence. Supporting sentences give facts, details and examples to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. There is usually more than one supporting sentence in a paragraph.

Write a closing sentence. The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It repeats the main idea of your paragraph but using different words. It can also answer a question asked in the topic sentence. Study this model paragraph: Being active is important for your physical and mental health.

First of

all, physical activity will improve your heart and lung capacity and reduce the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes. Second, it is great for reducing stress and anxiety, and it makes you sleep better. Finally, research shows that an active lifestyle also helps improve concentration and memory.

Closing sentence

Therefore, it is recommended that you find time for at least one hour of activity every day.

Link your sentences and paragraphs together

When you write a paragraph, use sentence connectors. They are the glue that holds your sentences and paragraphs together, and help the reader follow your arguments. They also show contrast, or how ideas are related to each other. Here are a few examples of sentence connectors.

278 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 279

LANGUAGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB adjective

adverb

indefinite article

noun

The happy students pose patiently on a red bench. noun

Showing result

on the other hand therefore however

consequently

indeed

nevertheless

as a result

next

similarly

in other words

in spite of

in conclusion

finally

also

namely

on the contrary

thus

3.32 Which sentence connectors were used in the model paragraph on the previous page? 3.33 Fill in suitable sentence connectors in the open spaces. a Kirsty seems to be quite clever. , she often gets low marks. b The service at this restaurant is excellent. , the food is delicious. c I’ve never been to Egypt, having relatives there. d Adam is a careful driver. , he’s had several accidents. e Eileen scored a lot of goals for her team last season. , she was voted “Most Valuable Player”. f Amal is a talented painter. her favourite subject at school is Art. g There is no more food left. there are plenty of drinks. h They had worked on the problem for hours. , they found the solution. 3.34 Place these sentences in the right order to make a paragraph. a One reason for stress is that teenagers often have to make early decisions about school, careers and work. b For some teenagers, this change can be stressful, whereas others take it in their stride. c In fact, many teenagers feel that their school grades decide their whole future, and for some that can feel like a lot of pressure. d Another reason may be that they feel pressure or expectations from family, friends or media to fit in or take on a certain role. e Although stress is not necessarily a bad thing, it becomes a problem when there’s too much of it or it goes on for too long. f The teenage years are a time of growth and change, physically, mentally and socially. g Therefore, it is important to ask for help if it gets too much. h In addition, not all teenagers know how to cope with the stress and sometimes think nobody else has the same experience.

verb

preposition

adjective

An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or non-specific (indefinite).

Nouns:

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person. Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state. An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

Adverbs:

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens.

Pronouns:

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name.

Determiners: Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to.

An important part of grammar is syntax, the set of rules that decide word order and how to structure sentences. Such rules are quite similar in English and Norwegian, but there are important exceptions you should know about. Grammar also includes morphology, the knowledge of words and how they are formed. Often, we can add prefixes or suffixes to make new words with a different meaning and of another word class.

In oral communication pronunciation is central to understand other people. On the following pages you will learn the most important rules and how to avoid common errors.

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grammar grammatikk word class ordklasse noun substantiv pronoun pronomen determiner bestemmingsord indefinite ubestemt definite bestemt syntax syntaks, ordstilling prefix forstavelse/forstaving suffix endelse/ending

SKILLS | Language Lab | 399

In the Language Lab section there are explanations, examples and tasks for you to practise your language skills. There are also tasks in every chapter which will help you learn new words, practise spelling and pronunciation, and improve your grammar.

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e Explain how to create advertisements. f Which occupations are mentioned in this chapter? g Describe some of the challenges of security work. h What is branding? Explain and give examples.

Assess your progress

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Adjectives:

5.82 In this chapter you have worked with topics that require a specialized vocabulary. Use the categories below to make a list of words that are relevant to these topics. Then describe what strategies you used for learning these words. You may want to check “Learning strategies” and “Tools for language learning” in Chapter 1 to jog your memory. a Office equipment

CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills

a Leaf through the chapter. Which texts and tasks have you worked with? b Mention some pieces of office equipment in English. c Why is it useful to learn about marketing? d List three items found in a store.

Words belong to different word classes.

Verbs:

CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

5.81 After working with Chapter 5, it is time to revise what you have learnt.

Words are the building blocks of language learning. You need a certain knowledge of grammar to be able to use the words to communicate clearly.

Prepositions: Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else.

398 | Language Lab | SKILLS

In each chapter, there are courses to help you improve your skills systematically. These courses have step-by-step instructions and examples which show you how to become a better speaker and writer. You will learn such skills as selecting reliable and relevant sources, structuring texts, giving presentations, arguing a case, as well as using various learning strategies in the process.

Revise

Why Grammar?

Articles:

SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 109

108 | Chapter 3: That’s Life | SKILLS

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SKILLS contains a wide variety of texts we hope will interest and inform you, as well as inspire and entertain you. There are articles, fact files, films, short stories and novel excerpts from around the English-speaking world. Most importantly, you will read and listen to texts on vocational topics, such as safety in the workplace, processes, tools and materials. Some of the texts also have short versions.

definite article

Showing contrast

in fact actually

furthermore

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Supporting sentences

Emphasis

in addition moreover

then

Practise

Write at least one supporting sentence.

Topic sentence

Giving more examples

first of all second

b Working in a store

c Marketing

d Working in a hotel

5.83 One of the most important aspects of working in a service profession is being organized and creative. a Find examples of tasks and situations where these qualities are important. b Based on your experience, do you consider yourself to be accurate and creative? Explain why or why not.

5.87 Write 5.86 Speak a • Write a list of ten steps to consider a • Choose a text from this chapter. Prepare when creating an advertisement. a two-minute speech to a partner where you explain what the text is about and b •• Use facts from this chapter to why your partner should read it. write a brochure for young people about why to choose a job within b •• There are many films and television sales, service and tourism and how programmes about travelling. Prepare a to prepare for the job. presentation in which you give examples of popular shows, share your opinion on c ••• Why is it important that young why such shows have become popular, people choose a profession within and discuss whether such shows can be the field of sales and services? useful. Create a text where you reflect on and discuss the question above c ••• Marketing is about tempting people and explain your views by giving to pay for services or products. Can you examples from texts and topics think of any moral dilemmas related to you have worked with this year. For this activity? Make an oral presentation advice on structuring a text, see where you discuss this issue. Chapter 4.

5.84 Listening strategies a What do you do when you listen for overview? b In what situations do you need to listen for details? c What can you do before listening to a new text? d How is listening without face-to-face communication different from when you can see the speaker? 5.85 Giving an oral presentation a How should you start an oral presentation? b Why is structure important when giving a presentation? c How should you end your presentation? d Why is it necessary to practise what you are going to say?

242 | Chapter 5: Trade and Travel | SKILLS

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Trade and Travel | 243

In all chapters, you are invited to discuss, describe, explain, explore and share views with your fellow students. Both texts and tasks are differentiated, which means you will find some that you master well and some that will challenge you. At the end of each chapter, you are encouraged to revise what you have learnt, reflect on your own progress and apply your skills in a new context.

Additional resources can be found in Skolestudio.

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EXPECTATIONS Page 8 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

10

Factual text

Play the Game

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Game

Learning Strategies

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Improve your skills

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Factual text

26

Timeline

30

Autobiography



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Fact file



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Factual text



44

Improve your skills

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Song lyrics

Vocational English English at Work Chocolate by Roald Dahl Tools for Language Learning Important Events in Sales and Service Sharing Information: “Show and Tell” Hall of Fame by The Script

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LISTENING

“Why English?”

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

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“Which Invention?”

50

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Chapter Checkpoint

IN SHORT

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This Is Me

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ON THE SAFE SIDE Page 52 TITLE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT

LISTENING



ü

“Safety Equipment at Work”

ü

54

Factual text

Writing a Report

60

Improve your skills

Adiós Hydraulics by Elliot Hester

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Memoir



Signs

68

Fact file

Stress

70

Factual text

Giving Instructions

74

Improve your skills

Con Man

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Factual text



61 Hours by Lee Child

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Novel excerpt



Chapter Checkpoint

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Safety First!

PAGE

4

“Handling Stress”



ü “How to Treat an Unconscious Person”


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THAT’S LIFE Page 88 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT

LISTENING

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Novel excerpt

“What Makes Me Happy”

Look by Sharon G Flake

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Poem

“Art or Mutilation?”

Does My Head Look Big in This? by Randa Abdel-Fattah

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Novel excerpt

Structuring Paragraphs

108

Improve your skills

My Strange Addictions by Shane Dawson

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Essay

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Factual text

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Improve your skills

124

Novel excerpt

It’s a Wonderful, Digital World? Using Formal and Informal Language Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda by Becky Albertalli

ü

 

ü



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CITIZENS Page 132

PAGE

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TITLE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

134

Photos

Nothing on This Page is Real by Eli Saslow

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Feature article

Selecting Sources

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Improve your skills

Boy A by Jonathan Trigell

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Novel excerpt

The UK

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Fact file

Life in the UK

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Factual text



You, Work and the Law

164

Factual text



Black Hoodie by Roddy Doyle

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Short story



Structuring a Text

174

Improve your skills

The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas

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Novel excerpt

The USA

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Fact file

Life in the USA

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Factual text



Young Activists

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Factual text

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Chapter Checkpoint

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Iconic Images

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Chapter Checkpoint

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Something About Me by Nick Hornby

IN SHORT

LISTENING

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

ü

“At the Station”

 

5


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TRADE AND TRAVEL Page 200 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

Office Equipment

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Factual text

Listening Strategies

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Improve your skills

Convenience Store Woman by Sayaka Murata

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Novel excerpt

Marketing

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Fact file

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Factual text

Giving a Presentation

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Improve your skills

The Grand Budapest Hotel

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Film



Eavesdroppers by Virginia Woolf

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Novel excerpt



Introducing Norway

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Factual text



What I Do at Work

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Factual text



Chapter Checkpoint

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LISTENING

ü

“Born to Sell?”

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



“Customer Conversations”

ü

“Tourists”

“Surveillance”

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Advertising

IN SHORT

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GOING PRO Page 244

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT



ü

246

Factual text

Writing a Formal Text

252

Improve your skills

Eleanor Goes Shopping by Gail Honeyman

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Novel excerpt



Library by Holly Ringland

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Novel excerpt



ü

Discussing Vocational Topics

266

Improve your skills

The Meeting by Serena Mackesy

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Novel excerpt



ü

Entrepreneurship

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Fact file

Future Offices

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Factual text

Hotel Terra by Noah Griffith

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Short story



Chapter Checkpoint

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Customer Care

PAGE

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TITLE

6

LISTENING

“Eleanor Oliphant” “Service professionals”

“Future Jobs”


7|

ENCOUNTERS Page 288 TITLE

PAGE

IN SHORT

290

Factual text



ü

My Mother, the Crazy African by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

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Short story



Discussing Literature and Film

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Improve your skills

Hunt for the Wilderpeople

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Film

New Zealand

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Fact file

Street Art

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Factual text



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Short story



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Fact file

322

Short story

328

Fact file

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Improve your skills

336

Factual text

The Painting by Bruce Chatwin Australia The Hockey Sweater by Roch Carrier Canada Summarizing and Synthesizing Information Gaming Culture Chapter Checkpoint

TEXT TYPE



“New Zealand’s Maori Culture”

 



342

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TITLE

PAGE 346

TEXT TYPE

Factual text

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Sustainable Development

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PERSPECTIVES Page 344

Planet, or Plastic? by Laura Parker

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Feature article

Arguing a Case

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Improve your skills

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Fact file

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Opinion piece

Referring to Sources

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Improve your skills

Home by Warsan Shire

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English-Speaking Africa

India

LISTENING

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LEVEL

Across Borders

IN SHORT

“Making a Difference”

 

LISTENING

ü

 

“Sir”

Poem



“Child Soldier”

378

Fact file



Chameleon by Trevor Noah

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Autobiography



Look at Africa by Alexander McCall Smith

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Novel excerpt



Chapter Checkpoint

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Women in India by Deepa Narayan

LEVEL

9|

ü

“Mandela”

LANGUAGE LAB Page 398

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X CHAPTER 1

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Expectations


In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k vocational English k motivating yourself and others k events and inventions that changed sales and service

k learning strategies and language tools

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k sharing information

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Useful words and phrases

upper secondary school education programme vocational occupation vocabulary advertising invention development work placement apprentice

If If you you could could be be anything you anything you want, want, what would you what would that be? be? What are good ways to for you to learn English?

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This Is Me Miah, travel agent

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This year I’ll start upper secondary school and I’m very excited about starting vocational training. The course is called Sales, Service and Tourism. We will learn about marketing and sales, and that’s cool. I hope to become a travel agent, because working within tourism seems very exciting and fun!

Jake, security guard

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upper secondary school videregående skole/ vidaregåande skole excited begeistret/begeistra vocational yrkesrettet/yrkesretta marketing markedsføring/ marknadsføring sales salg/sal travel agent reiselivsmedarbeider/ reiselivsmedarbeidar security guard vekter/vektar responsibility ansvar independent selvstendig/ sjølvstendig service minded serviceinnstilt handle håndtere/handtere customer kunde attend delta, gå på intermediate course VG2 qualified kvalifisert, med fagbrev sales representative salgsmedarbeider/ salsmedarbeidar apprentice lærling

I am thinking of becoming a security guard, because it seems like an interesting job. I like to be given responsibility and work independently. This year I will learn how to be service minded and handle customers. I hope to make good friends in my class, and the teachers seem nice too.

10 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

Janice, sales representative Since I was a child, I have always wanted to work in a nice shop, and now I’m attending an intermediate course to become a qualified sales representative. Next year I will work as an apprentice in a big store where I already work on Saturdays. I like to be around people and help customers find, for example, the perfect gift.


AIMS k speak about professions in sales,

Thomas, administrative assistant

service and tourism k use words related to your education programme k introduce yourself

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Juliet, travel agent

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During my intermediate year I will specialize within service and learn to manage and distribute information, answer phones, send emails, organize meetings, all kinds of typical office work. I have not yet decided where I want to spend my apprenticeship years; maybe I’ll be in a library or in a smaller company where I will get to perform many different tasks.

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Being from a family that own hotels in several towns along the coast, I was lucky to be able to get an apprenticeship in the family business to obtain my craft certificate as a travel agent. I work mainly in the reception, answering phone calls and assisting our guests, but I also organize events and conferences in our hotels and various activities and excursions for other tourists to the region. It’s fun and inspiring work, and being located near several famous tourist attractions, I come across people from all over the world and get the opportunity to practise and improve my language skills.

manage her: håndtere/handtere distribute fordele, dele ut apprenticeship læretid library bibliotek company selskap, bedrift perform her: utføre craft certificate fagbrev reception resepsjon assist hjelpe event arrangement, hendelse/ arrangement, hending located plassert come across her: møte improve forbedre/forbetre skills ferdigheter/ferdigheiter

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 11


Read and understand

1.1 • Miah and Jake. Decide whether the sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones. True Miah is not looking forward to starting school.

b

Miah goes to upper secondary school.

c

Jake dislikes his teachers.

d

Miah will learn about marketing and sales.

e

Jake wants to become a security guard.

f

Jake does not like being independent and responsible.

g

Miah thinks tourism is boring.

rd er in g

a

False

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1.2 •• Janice and Thomas. Complete the sentences with information from the texts. a Since Janice was a child, she . b She attends an . c Next year Janice will . d Thomas will learn how to . e He has not yet decided . f In a smaller company, he will .

til

1.3 ••• Juliet. Answer the questions in full sentences. a Why does Juliet consider herself lucky? b What kind of work does she do? c What is the advantage in being located near famous tourist attractions?

Speak

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1.4 Take turns in asking and answering the questions. Work in pairs. a What are Miah’s plans for the future? Would do you consider this profession? b What does Jake like? Do you feel the same way? c Which professions are Janice and Thomas interested in and why? What is interesting in such jobs? d Do you think you have the necessary skills for the job Juliet is training for? Explain. e Do the people in the texts seem motivated for the education and professions they are preparing for? Give examples. f Are you motivated for this year? What are you particularly looking forward to? g How is it for you to start a new school? You may want to use some of the following adjectives: cool, interesting, terrifying, scary, challenging, exciting, stressful, enjoyable

12 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Practise

1.5 Match each word with the correct Norwegian translation. profession

1

videregående skole/vidaregåande skole

B

library

2

lærling

C

meetings

3

kontorarbeid

D

craft certificate

4

yrke

E

service minded

5

yrkesfaglig/yrkesfagleg

F

apprentice

6

bibliotek

G

vocational

7

kvalifisert

H

office work

8

fagbrev

I

upper secondary school

9

Vg2

J

customer

K

intermediate course

10 serviceinnstilt 11 møter/møte

L

qualified

12

kunde

rd er in g

A

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1.6 Choose the correct indefinite article. Check the Language Lab section for rules. a Miah wants to become a/an driver. b Jake thinks security is a/an interesting field. c Janice wants to work as a/an sales representative. d Thomas plans to become a/an administrative assistant. e Juliet is a/an apprentice in her family’s hotel.

Write

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1.7 Who are you? Write a short text by completing these sentences. Share in class. Hello, I am . I live in and I am years old. My family consists of . In my spare time I like to . In the future, I would like to become a because .

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Explore

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1.8 Which career in Sales, Service and Tourism would you like to pursue? What makes it interesting to you? What do you think will be your daily tasks? Search for information and share your findings in class. Useful expressions: interesting – useful – practical – marketing – interaction – creative – tools – skills – cooperate – communication – cheerful – polite – stress – conflicts – craft certificate

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can speak about professions in technical and industrial production YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to my education programme YES

ALMOST

NO

introduce myself YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 13


33

34

35

36

In 10 years, where will you be and what will you be doing?

31

30

If you could trade places with someone for a day, who would it be and why?

17

29

rd er in g

32

If you could travel in time, would you go backward or forward?

Describe the main character in a series you follow.

18

19

20

Describe the picture at the beginning of Chapter 7 in this book.

15

1

2

If you had to eat the same three things for the rest of your life, what would you put on the menu?

3

4 What is your favourite film, and why?

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START

13

On which page in this textbook do you learn how to structure a text?

til

What word describes you best?

14

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16

Name two listening strategies found in Chapter 5.

Encourage each other: Good effort! Don’t give up! Awww – what a shame! Good job! There you go! You’re almost there! That’s great! Oh, well – it’s only a game!

14 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


37

38

39

40

What kind of tasks are you asked to do after each chapter in this textbook?

27 Describe your dream job.

21

26

25

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28

FINISH

Do you like to work alone or in a group?

22

23

24

Are there any song lyrics in this textbook? If so, on what page?

11

5

9

Say the English name for a tool that you know of.

til

What are the focus areas in Chapter 8?

10

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12

How many chapters in this textbook focus on your vocational programme?

6

8 If you could invent a machine to do a boring job for you, what would it be?

Ku

n

If you had your own talk show, who would be your first guest?

7

Form groups of 2 to 4 players. You need a die or a downloaded dice-roller app, and something you can use as a counter. If your counter lands at the bottom of a ladder you can move up to the top when you have answered the question. If your counter lands on the top of an arrow, you must slide down to the bottom. You are allowed to ask each other for help on what words are called in English, but note that if you start speaking Norwegian you will have to go back to START.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 15


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LEARNING STRATEGIES The text below suggests five strategies that will help you learn efficiently.

Prepare your brain for learning. Leaf through the pages you are about to

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study. Read the headlines and notice what they are about. Also notice what the illustrations show. Are you getting the gist of it? Look at the questions you are supposed to be able to answer when you have read the text. Now your brain is getting the idea, and you are ready to start studying.

Use different reading strategies.

Skim: Read the text quickly to get an overview. Ask yourself what the text is about. Your answer should be just a few words at this point. Scan: Browse the text for specific information, such as names or numbers. Close read: Study the text thoroughly. Take breaks and ask yourself what you just read.

Use your senses. When working with a text, use other senses than just

vu

your eyesight. Take notes. Ask yourself how the different elements in the text are related. Make illustrations like charts, mind maps or a timeline. Read out loud to yourself or make your own recordings and play them to yourself. Many books, including this one, provide you with useful sound files.

til

Expand your vocabulary. Make your own English word bank. Make memory

n

cards with English words on one side and the translation on the other. Work with a friend and challenge each other to learn new words and phrases. When learning names of tools and objects, place sticky notes on the items. Read more about tools for language learning in this chapter.

Ku

Repeat. Repetition is important if you want to remember what you learn. In breaks or in between tasks, skim through texts that you studied earlier. Do the tasks again to make sure you remember both content and vocabulary. Reflect on your learning strategies and choose them according to the task at hand.

16 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

1.10 Explain the following terms. a Skimming means … b Scanning means … c Close reading means …

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1.9 Choose the right alternative. a Give your brain a balance/chance/glance to prepare for work. b Using several senses/fences/lenses when studying will help you learn. c Reading out loud may help you yearn/learn/turn. d Solving tasks/masks/brass will help you learn. e Protect yourself from connections/distractions/collections.

til

vu

1.11 Use different reading strategies. a Skim through the text on the following pages. Sum up in a few keywords what it is about. Share with a partner. b Scan the second paragraph of the text on the next page. Find and list the eight focus areas you will be studying and working on in your English classes this year. c Close read the fourth paragraph of the text on the next page. Explain how learning a specialized vocabulary is useful for you at school or work. d Reread the first text, “This is Me”, about Miah, Jake, Janice, Thomas and Juliet. Do the vocabulary task in 1.5 again. Based on the vocabulary, write a summary of the text. camping cabin

hostel

train

Ku

n

bus

plane

When learning new words, make word groups to show how they are related.

bed & breakfast

accomodation

hotel

transport

Tourism

visa passport

ship ticket

map

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 17


Vocational English

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Ku

n

til

vocational yrkesfaglig/ yrkesfagleg profession yrke topic emne, tema knowledge kunnskap current aktuell issue her: sak vocabulary ordforråd HSE HMS compare sammenligne/ samanlikne dictionary entry oppslagsord term her: begrep, uttrykk/ omgrep, uttrykk noun substantiv pronounce uttale infographics infografikk equipment utstyr source kilde/kjelde demanding krevende/krevjande further videre/vidare assess vurdere progress framskritt/framsteg

vu

!

Before you start If you met someone on holiday who asked you about your studies and future career plans, what would you say?

When you think back on all the years you have studied English in school, you probably remember reading many different texts and watching films about a variety of topics. You may also remember learning about spelling and grammar, as well as memorizing new words, practising how to structure a text or giving a presentation. This year, studying English will be a little different. You will still focus on learning the language, reading, listening, speaking and writing. Knowledge about the English-speaking world and current issues is still important, but in addition, you will spend time on topics that are relevant to your own programme area. This is often referred to as vocational English. Learning vocational English means using material, vocabulary, methods and strategies that will help you prepare for working life. This could be learning to communicate well with colleagues and clients, discussing Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) or understanding specialized vocabulary. In fact, there should be a connection between what you learn in your English class and in your programme area subjects. Language is a tool for communication. A specialized vocabulary will help you understand written texts, such as articles, manuals or product descriptions. It will also help you understand and give instructions and demonstrations. You may be asked to present a case or produce reports, discuss new developments or compare how things are done in different cultures. The dictionary entry below explains the marketing term “demographic”. It also shows what word class it is (noun) and how to pronounce it. Sometimes you will find that you need to look up more words to understand the definition itself. Did you know the words “income” and “segment”?

18 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Infographics and other forms of statistical information often have a mixture of general and specialized vocabulary. How much of the information in this illustration of "Business Model Innovation" do you understand without knowing all the words?

nc h

de

7

P ilo ti n

De

oty

g

3

pin g

2

6

ta il

5 D d e e ta il sig n

ig n

4

ing ent m i r e Exp

vu

d

es

different from general English k suggest and describe topics that are relevant to your education programme k talk about how vocational English is important in a chosen profession

Pr ot

Imp lem e Lau

1

on

ign es t t d Consceigpn

8

k explain how vocational English is

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Con ce Idea p ti

n tio a nt Reflection

AIMS

Kilde: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_model

til

The following text is an explanation of the sales-related expression “forecasting”. Most students will find this text quite difficult if they don’t already know a lot about the topic. Find and count the words you don’t understand. Are they mostly general words, or vocabulary related to machinery?

n

Forecasting: A technique that uses historical data as inputs to make informed estimates that are predictive in determining the direction of future trends. Businesses utilize forecasting to determine how to allocate their budgets or plan for anticipated expenses for an upcoming period of time. This is typically based on the projected demand for the goods and services offered.

Ku

source: https://blog.hubspot.com

Most of the texts you will study are not as difficult as the example shown above. However, if you come across more challenging texts or sources, use the strategies for learning new words. Focus on words that are relevant to the topic you are working on. Do you think this sounds demanding? Remember that you have already studied English for many years. This year, you will take your English one step further. You can actively work to develop the language skills you need in your future profession. The first step is to take part in planning activities, and to assess your own progress and how you learn best. SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 19


Read and understand

1.12 • First match the sentence halves, then translate the sentences into Norwegian. A You probably remember reading many B This year, studying English

3

relevant to your own education programme. strategies that will help you prepare for working life. will be a little different.

4

to the topic you are working on.

5

different texts and watching films about a variety of topics.

6

language skills you need in your future profession. speaking and writing.

2

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C You will still focus on learning the language, reading, listening, D In addition, you will study topics that are E Learning vocational English means using material, vocabulary, methods and F A specialized vocabulary will help you understand G Focus on words that are relevant H You can actively work to develop the

1

7

8

written texts, such as articles, manuals or product descriptions.

Ku

n

til

vu

1.13 •• Answer the following questions. a What is different about learning English this year? b What is similar? c Find the three examples of topics that may be relevant to your education programme mentioned in the text and list them. d Why is building a specialized vocabulary important? e Which of the three examples of specialized vocabulary is the most difficult to understand? Explain why. f Which example is the easiest to understand? g What should you do when coming across texts and other sources with more challenging vocabulary? h Why do you think it is important to take part in planning activities and to assess your own progress?

1.14 ••• Select the most important information to make a summary of the text. First choose ten words you think are relevant, then use the words to write your summary.

20 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Practise

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1.15 Fill in the missing words to complete the text. clients – professions – manuals – colleagues – vocational – specialized – communicate – relevant – vocabulary a A vocabulary will help you understand articles, or product descriptions. b In many , you will most likely work with who speak other languages. c Studying topics that are to your own education programme is often referred to as English. d You may read texts with a challengin . e You will learn to well with and colleagues. 1.16 Match the name of the profession in English with the Norwegian translation. sales representative

1

administrasjonsmedarbeider/administrasjonsmedarbeidar

B

travel agent

2

vekter/vektar

C

administrative assistant

3

reiselivsmedarbeider/reiselivsmedarbeidar

D

security guard

4

salgsmedarbeider/salsmedarbeidar

vu

A

Ku

n

til

1.17 There are many useful tools within office supplies and stationery. Can you name the following objects? Use an online dictionary to find words you don’t know.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 21


1.18 Office machines a Match the following office machines with the correct pictures. What are they called in Norwegian? D: notes and coin counter E: laminator F: paper shredder

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A: telephone B: multi-functional printer C: computer 1

3

5

6

vu

4

2

b Match the office machines with the correct explanations.

computer

1

B

telephone

2

C

laminator

3

D

paper shredder

4

n

til

A

Ku

E F

note and coin 5 counter multifunction printer 6

22 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

You use it to cover cards and prints with a film to protect them and make them more durable. You use it to sort money and to find out how much you have earned or saved. You use it to call and speak with people or leave messages. You use it to write and read texts, send emails, organize budgets, file documents and much more. You use it to copy documents or get printouts of texts and images. You use it to destroy printed documents that contain sensitive information.


1.19 Do you know the Norwegian translations for the equipment and services shown in these pictures? In which professions are they relevant? Work with a partner. Equipment and services PUSHPIN

BINDER CLIP

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PAPER CLIP

STICKY TAPE

TWO-WAY RADIO

SEALING TAPE

FLASHLIGHT/TORC

HIGH VISIBILITY VEST

LOBBY

BREAKFAST ROOM

vu

RECEPTION

MASKING TAPE

TWIN

DOUBLE

LAUNDRY SERVICE

ROOM SERVICE

METAL DETECTOR

TROLLEY

til

SINGLE

Ku

n

PORTER

CHECK-IN

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 23


Speak

1.20 Name at least three topics you think are relevant to your education programme. Make a list and share your lists in pairs.

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1.21 Choose one of the professions listed in task 1.16. Discuss in pairs or small groups how and why vocational English is important for this profession. 1.22 What will be important for your class to succeed when working with vocational English? Discuss in groups, and then share with the rest of the class.

Write

1.23 • Answer the following questions in full sentences. a In what situations do you learn English? b Why is it useful for you to learn English? c How do you feel about learning English this year?

vu

1.24 •• Make a list of topics that you would like to work on in English class this year. Expand your list with brief explanations of why you think these topics are relevant and interesting.

Ku

n

til

1.25 ••• What are the benefits of learning English for Sales, Service and Tourism? Write a short text.

24 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Listen

1.26 “Why English?” Most students see the value of being able to speak and write English well. Listen carefully to what Ali, Karoline, Henrik and Tom have to say, and answer the following questions.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Which speaker likes to play games online? Who talks about being professional? Which speaker says communicating in English is important for business? Who talks about working abroad? Who talks about interesting magazines in English? Who says Norway depends on international contact? Who thinks lyrics are important to songs? Who wants to be able to communicate well with foreign colleagues?

Explore

til

1.27 Choose one of the professions listed in 1.16 above. Find out which courses and subjects you study to become a skilled worker. How many years do you have to study? Do you have to train as an apprentice? Search the English pages of www.vilbli.no for information.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain how vocational English is different from general English

n

Did you know

Ku

Tom

vu

1

Karoline Henrik

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Ali

YES

About 4000 new words are added to the Oxford English Dictionary every year. This is partly because of developments in technology, which have led to a number of new words. Another reason is social media spreading new words quickly to the general public who start using them regularly, which again leads to the words being included in dictionaries. Still, it is estimated that 90% of all texts contain only 1000 different words.

ALMOST

NO

suggest and describe topics that are relevant to my education programme YES

ALMOST

NO

talk about how vocational English is important in a chosen profession YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 25


Timeline: English 500 AD

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English is today what we call a lingua franca, a language of communication across borders and cultures. It is the most widely spoken language in the world, has the largest vocabulary (500,000 words) and the largest number of speakers (400 million native speakers, and 1.5 billion second language speakers). Of the almost seven thousand languages in the world, how did English achieve this unique position as the dominant international language of work, science, culture and so much more? 800 AD

From around 793 to 1066 Vikings raided, traded and settled in the northern parts of the British Isles. The Scandinavians had great impact on culture and language, and hundreds of words come from Old Norse, e.g. bag, die, gang, sky, steak, take and window. In 1066 Normans from France conquered England. The French influence on the English language is considerable, especially in the fields of culture, politics and economy, e.g. beef, colour, crime, govern, marine and money.

til

In the 5th century, tribes from northern European continent invaded the British Isles. These tribes are referred to as AngloSaxons. Their Germanic languages form the origin of English, and around half of the commonly used words in English are of Anglo-Saxon origin, e.g. woman, man, child, house, chicken, sheep and year.

Invaders

NORWAY

Ku

n

CALEDONIA (SCOTLAND)

HIBERNIA (IRELAND) Irish sea BRITANNIA (ENGLAND)

Former Roman Empire

English Channel

Battle of Hastings

Colonization

At the time of Shakespeare, English was spoken by fewer than 6 million people, and only in The British Isles. This, however, changed when the British colonized countries around the world, in North America, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. They spread their language and culture, but also picked up new vocabulary from local languages, e.g. canoe, chocolate, pyjamas, kangaroo, banana, caravan and tomato.

vu

Early English

1500

North Sea

Vikings

Jutes Angles Saxons

Normans

26 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

1800

Industrialization

The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain and spread to the rest of the world, changed living conditions and working life. With all the inventions that needed names, a wide range of vocabulary was added to the English language, e.g. railroad, telephone, typewriter, horsepower, ambulance, camera, X-ray and revolver.


at Work

k describe how English became an

international language for work k use knowledge of other languages to improve your English skills

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1950s

AIMS

2000s

Modern Technology

Working life has become more globalized as companies have increased their international trade and production, and employees have moved to work in other countries. Consequently, more and more people have started using English at work daily. It has become common to use it in job interviews, instruction manuals, e-mails and online communication, but also with colleagues from other countries as a lingua franca. Therefore, learning English is more important than ever.

Ku

n

til

vu

Throughout the 1900s technological development continued at an increasing pace. After World War II the USA grew into a superpower. This made American English the dominant language of industry, science, economy, culture, media and computer technology. Furthermore, large international corporations established local production sites across the world, and the workforce needed a language to communicate across borders. Many specialised terms may have a foreign origin, but their English versions are now household words in most countries, e.g. reality show, rap, jeans, hypertext, web design, online, hedge funds, offshore and pacemaker.

Globalization

achieve oppnå unique enestående/eineståande tribe stamme invade invadere trade handle impact påvirkning/påverknad Old Norse norrønt conquer erobre considerable betydelig/ betydeleg establish opprette invention oppfinnelse/ oppfinning pace tempo corporation bedrift factory fabrikk employees ansatte/tilsette instruction manual bruksanvisning / bruksrettleiing

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 27


Read and understand

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1.28 Finish the sentences. Translate them into Norwegian. a Today, English is a lingua b The Anglo-Saxons came from c “Die” and “take” are words that come from d The Normans influenced English in the fields of e The British established colonies in f The Industrial Revolution started in g Throughout the 1900s English became the dominant language of h Companies across the world now establish English as the common

Practise

vu

1.29 Use your own words to explain what the following sentences from the timeline mean. a Their Germanic languages form the origin of English. b Scandinavians had a great impact on culture and language. c Their language was spoken by the ruling elite. d They spread their language and culture, but also picked up new vocabulary. e All the inventions needed names. f The USA grew into a superpower. g Their English versions are now household words in most countries. h Working life has become more globalised. i It is used with colleagues from other countries as a lingua franca.

til

1.30 Use online dictionaries to translate the following words into Norwegian, German and French. The languages that resemble the English words most will usually show their origin. Compare your lists. English

Norwegian

A sun

n

B mountain C window

Ku

D father E hour F

cow

G pork

H water I

art

J

constitution

28 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

German

French


1.31 As the vocabulary of English comes from many different sources, it may sometimes seem as if there are no rules for spelling and pronunciation. Study the word pairs and practise pronouncing them. For more information on pronunciation, see the Language Lab section. a gone/bone b break/weak

c sew/few d low/cow

e home/come f blood/good

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1.32 When learning English there are many words you know already from Norwegian. Loan words are words in one language borrowed from another. Transparent words are words that resemble words in another language. Which of the following words belong to which category? bag, book, burger, calendar, caps, date, drink, fish, gangster, grass, keeper, milk, sister, socks

Explore

Speak

til

vu

1.33 “Beowulf ” is a heroic poem and one of the most important texts written in Old English. It is the story of a brave man who saves people from the evil monster Grendel and its horrifying mother. The text has been turned into films and graphic novels. Use various sources to find at least two versions of the story and share in class. Is the story still interesting today?

How did you do?

Write

use knowledge of other languages to improve my English skills

Ku

n

1.34 Discuss the questions. a Today many people speak at least two languages. How is this an advantage when learning other languages? b How can your knowledge of Norwegian help you when learning English grammar, words and idioms? Give examples. c Can you think of any disadvantages in English being a dominant language in so many fields?

1.35 Create a family language tree to illustrate the languages or dialects that are or were spoken by the various members of your family.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how English became an international working language YES

YES

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 29


rd er in g

til

Before you start In this excerpt from his autobiography Boy, Roald Dahl tells about his life in boarding school in the 1930s. What do you think it was like to be a teenager in such a school?

vu

!

Ku

n

Chocolate Every now and then, a plain grey cardboard box was dished out to each boy in our House, and this, believe or not, was a present from the great chocolate manufacturers, Cadbury. Inside the box there were twelve bars of chocolate, all of different shapes, all with different fillings and all with numbers from one to twelve stamped on the chocolate underneath. Eleven of these bars were new inventions from the factory. The twelfth was the “control” bar, one that we all knew well, usually a Cadbury’s Coffee Cream bar. Also in the box was a sheet of paper with the numbers one to twelve on it as well as two blank columns, one

30 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Ku

n

til

vu

rd er in g

for giving marks to each chocolate from nought to ten, and the other for comments. AIMS All we were required to do in return for this splendid gift was to taste very carefully each bar of chocolate, give k retell the story from Roald Dahl’s youth it marks and make an intelligent comment on why we liked it or disliked it. k use some words related to marketing It was a clever stunt. Cadbury’s were using some of the greatest chocolate-bar experts in the world to test k discuss the use of advertising aimed at children out their new inventions. We were of a sensible age, between thirteen and eighteen, and we knew intimately k present techniques within advertising every chocolate bar in existence, from the Milk Flake to the Lemon Marshmallow. Quite obviously our opinion on anything new would be valuable. All of us entered into this game with great gusto, sitting in our studies and nibbling each bar with the air of connoisseurs, giving our marks and making our comments. “Too subtle for the common palate,” was one note that I remember writing down. dish out dele ut i øst og vest/ For me, the importance of all this was that I began to realize that the large dele ut i aust og vest chocolate companies actually did possess inventing rooms and that they manufacturer produsent bar of chocolate sjokoladeplate took their inventing very seriously. I used to picture a long white room like a filling fyll laboratory with pots of chocolate and fudge and all sorts of other delicious sheet her: ark fillings bubbling away on the stoves, while men and women in white coats nought null, ingenting moved between the bubbling pots, tasting and mixing and concocting their required nødvendig, forventet/ wonderful new inventions. I used to imagine myself working in one of these nødvendig, forventa labs and suddenly I would come up with something so absolutely unbearably invention oppfinnelse/ delicious that I would grab it in my hand and go rushing out of the lab and oppfinning obvious åpenbar/openberr along the corridor and right into the office of the great Mr Cadbury himself. valuable verdifull “I’ve got it, sir!” I would shout, putting the chocolate in front of him. “It’s gusto nytelse/nyting fantastic! It’s fabulous! It’s marvellous! It’s irresistible!” nibble småspise/småete Slowly, the great man would pick up my newly invented chocolate and he connoisseur kjenner/kjennar would take a small bite. He would roll it round his mouth. Then all at once, he subtle subtil would leap from his chair, crying, “You’ve got it! You’ve done it! It’s a miracle!” palate gane, smak He would slap me on the back and shout, “We’ll sell it by the million! We’ll possess eie/eige pot gryte sweep the world with this one! How on earth did you do it? Your salary is fudge myk karamell/mjuk doubled!” roald dahl

Roald Dahl (1916–1990) was born in Wales of Norwegian parents. His father died when he was three, so his mother raised the six children on her own. As a child, Dahl loved stories and books. Later he joined the military forces but also started writing, and his first text was published in 1942. He is famous for his short stories for adults and his novels and poems for children.

w

karamell concoct sette sammen, lage en rett/setje saman, lage ein rett unbearable uutholdelig/ uuthaldeleg rush styrte irresistible uimotståelig/ uimotståeleg slap klapp sweep feie inn salary lønn

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 31


IN SHORT

Read and understand

1.36 • Choose the right words. Write the correct sentences. a The schoolboys received cardboard boxes filled with fudge/ chocolate/sheets. b The boys were required to taste/make/invent chocolate. c The boys knew nothing/very little/a lot about chocolate bars. d They were serious about/indifferent to/bored with the task. e Roald dreamt about becoming a company owner/laboratory/ successful inventor of chocolate. f He thought that inventing a fabulous chocolate would improve his salary/filling/office.

Ku

n

til

manufacturer produsent bar of chocolate sjokoladeplate sheet her: ark marks karakterer/karakterar invention oppfinnelse/ oppfinning valuable verdifull picture se for seg/sjå for seg pot gryte fudge myk karamell/mjuk karamell rush styrte salary lønn

vu

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Roald Dahl tells a story from when he was young and staying in boarding school. Every now and then, we received a cardboard box from the chocolate manufacturers, Cadbury. Inside the box there were twelve different bars of chocolate, and a sheet of paper with numbers and blank columns for giving marks and write comments for each chocolate. All we were asked to do in return for this gift was to taste the chocolate bars and give it marks and comments. Cadbury’s were using us to test out their new inventions. We were between thirteen and eighteen, and we knew every chocolate bar there was. Of course, our opinion was valuable. We took the task seriously, tasted and commented. This made me realize that chocolate companies actually had inventing rooms and that they took their inventing seriously. I used to picture a long white laboratory with pots of chocolate and fudge and all sorts of fillings, and men and women tasting and mixing their new inventions. I imagined myself working in these labs and suddenly coming up with something delicious. I would rush into Mr Cadbury’s office. “I’ve got it, sir!” I would shout. “It’s fantastic!” And he would take a bite and then shout, “You’ve got it! Your salary is doubled!”

1.37 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a Why did the schoolboys receive boxes of chocolate? b What did Cadbury’s want in return? c How did the boys respond to the task? d How did this inspire Roald Dahl? e What is your opinion of this way of testing out new products? Explain your views based on information in the text.

32 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Practise

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1.38 Find the missing letters to find words from the text related to advertising. Spell the words out in English. e c m ent a m rks f op ni n b di li e g va u ble c f cto y h m nuf ctu er d in en ion 1.39 Learn the meaning of the words in task 1.38 and how to spell them. Work with a partner. Use techniques from “Learning strategies” to memorize the words.

SAMPLES N CONVICTIO

PUBLICITY ATION COMMUNIC EDUCATION TION MANIPULA

Ku

BILLBOARD

L COMMERCIA

RESEARCH

E

KNOWLEDG

TELEVISION INTERNET

til

MARKETING

SALES

ONLINE

vu

ION CONSUMPT PROMOTION

n

MEDIA

BRANDING

MANIPULAT

PRESS

CAMPAIGN N PERSUASIO

ION

1.40 Study the advertising word cloud below. Discuss the questions. a What do the words mean and when would you choose the various stategies or media? b Does any of the words cover the marketing strategy described in the text? Explain.

1.41 Fill in the plural form of the nouns. For information about nouns, see the Language Lab section. f One child, two a One family, two g One baby, two b One wife, two h One tooth, two c One husband, two i One foot, two d One woman, two j One class, two e One man, two

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 33


rd er in g

vu

Speak

Ku

n

til

1.42 Study the advertisements and discuss the questions in groups. a What products are these adverts selling? b Which of the adverts is the oldest and which is the newest? c Approximately when were they made, do you think? d How are they different concerning the balance of text and illustration? e What does the company appeal to in the different advertisements? f Which advert do you find most appealing? Explain. g If you were to make an advert for the same kind of product, what would it look like and what text would you put in? Make a sketch or a drawing as an example. h Choose an advertisement you like and make a short presentation where you analyse it. Use expressions like I think that … In my opinion … My impression is that … I prefer … When analysing advertisements, you should focus on: • effects used to catch the reader’s attention • words or images used to persuade the reader • who the target group is • combination of facts and emotions

34 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Write

1.43 • Use the Internet to find an advertisement you like. Write a paragraph where you describe the advert and explain why you like it.

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1.44 •• What do you think about advertisements aimed at children? Write a paragraph where you discuss how to approach marketing and advertising aimed at the young. 1.45 ••• How has the invention of advertising influenced our lives? Write one or two paragraphs where you give examples and present your thoughts on this development. Study the advice on structuring paragraphs in Chapter 3.

Explore

vu

1.46 Use different sources to find more information about and pictures of Roald Dahl, e.g. his life, education and work. On YouTube you will find videos of him and animations and trailers of his stories and films. Read, watch and share your information and thoughts with your classmates.

til

Did you know

After working with the text and tasks, I can

Content marketing is the creation and sharing of media and publishing content in order to acquire customers. It relies on providing quality content that solves people’s problems. In 1891 August Oetker sold small packages of his Backin Baking Powder with recipes printed on the back. In 1911 he started publishing his very successful cookbook. It became one of the most widely sold cookbooks globally, reaching 19 million printed copies. Oetker was very aware of the need for good marketing, practical communication and use of his doctor title to lend authority to his marketing.

n

Ku

How did you do?

retell the story from Roald Dahl’s youth YES

ALMOST

NO

use some words related to marketing YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss the use of advertising aimed at children YES

ALMOST

NO

present techniques within advertising YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 35


FACT FILE FACT FILE Tools for Language Learning

Ku

n

til

vu

A dictionary can help you understand and write texts. It can also be used to make lists of words to improve your vocabulary. In paper dictionaries the words are organized alphabetically. Some explain the words in the same language, others translate the words into another language, and some do both. Such dictionaries often have grammar sections, too. In online or digital dictionaries, you type the word you are looking for and then get a translation and/ or explanation. Such tools often have an audio function, where you can hear how to pronounce words. Most dictionaries also provide useful information about word classes (e.g. n = noun, v = verb), pronunciation (e.g. I = [aɪ], house = [haʊs]), and examples of how you use the words in phrases.

rd er in g

Dictionaries

36 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


FACT FILE FACT FILE Spell checkers

rd er in g

Translation tools

til

vu

Many digital resources, e.g. Word, provide programs that can help you avoid mistakes in a text. A word spelled incorrectly will be underlined, and when you click on it, the program suggests alternatives. Be aware that the right word is not necessarily the one that pops up first. Look at this illustration. Which word is the correct one?

Ku

n

The spell checker will not detect the wrong use of a word if it is spelled correctly. Here are some examples of commonly confused words. They may sound more or less the same but have different spellings. Do you know the difference? his/he’s be/bee your/you’re site/sight

then/than witch/which how/who lose/loose

to/too/two where/were/we’re its/it’s/eats there/their/they’re

Programs that translate whole texts into a different language can be useful if you are in a hurry and need to understand a text. However, they cannot always be trusted. If you use such tools, always double-check the text to make sure it is correct. Also, remember that you need to practise writing on your own to improve your English. No program can do that for you, and translation programs are not allowed on tests and exams.

Apps and other tools There is an endless list of digital learning devices, vocabulary and grammar drills, language courses and tutorials available online, such as Memrise, Quizlet, Babble and Duolingo. Search for different types of resources and try out one or two for a few weeks to see what effect they have on your English skills. Discuss the results in class and choose one that you will continue to use this year.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 37


FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

rd er in g

1.47 Place these words in alphabetical order. a dinner b supper c breakfast d lunch e day f afternoon g morning h sandwich i evening

vu

1.48 The words below are written in the phonetic alphabet. Try to pronounce them and write them in ordinary letters. Check your spelling with a dictionary. kɑː gɜːl ˈtiːʧə ˈlaʊzi ˌjʊərəˈpi(ː)ən ˈθʌrə

til

a b c d e f

Ku

n

I

υ

I

U

READ

SIT

BOOK

MEN

AMERICA

WORD

SORT

CAT

BUT

PART

NOT

e ə З æ Λ α ρ b t d f v Ө ð m n Ŋ h

TOO

eI DAY

John & Sarah Free Materials 1996

TOUR

BOY

GO

WEAR

MY

HOW

HERE

υə ɔI əυ eə αI αυ

k

PIG

BED

TIME

DO

CHURCH

JUDGE

KILO

GO

FIVE

VERY

THINK

THE

SIX

ZOO

SHORT

CASUAL

MILK

NO

SING

HELLO

LIVE

READ

WINDOW

YES

38 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

s l

z ʃ r w

j


FACT FILE FACT FILE

1.50 A dictionary can also help you with your grammar. Look up the following words to find their plural form. Translate the words into Norwegian. Singular a

Plural

goose

b louse knife

d elf e

ox

f

index

vu

c

tool verktøy improve forbedre/forbetre grammar grammatikk audio lyd pronounce uttale word class ordklasse noun substantiv provide skaffe spell checker stavekontroll suggest foreslå/føreslå pop up dukke opp detect oppdage improper uriktig common vanlig/vanleg spelling rettskriving device innretning tutorial instruksjonsvideo

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1.49 Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. Explain the meaning of the words. a John bought the car which/witch is parked outside. b Mary isn’t to/too happy about what you said to her. c It’s/Its nice to talk to my teacher. d The music is a bit load/loud, don’t you think?

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1.51 Use an online translation program, e.g. Google Translate. First translate a and b into Norwegian, then translate c and d into English. a “I like fried eggs.” Do you agree with the translation? b “Let’s call it a day and hit the hay.” Did it still work? Explain. c “Han var ikke høy i hatten.” Did it work the other way? What is the problem here? d “Reinsdyra spiser lav på vidda.” What went wrong here?

Did you know

It can be useful to know what your preferred learning style is. Some of us remember better what we see than what we hear. Others remember better what they can work on with their hands and experience physically. If you know what your preferred learning style is, you will be able to plan your studies accordingly, and learn more efficiently. SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 39


Important Events in Sales and Service The first cash register, the “Incorruptible Cashier”, was invented by saloon keeper James Ritty in 1879 to stop employees from stealing his profits. The idea was inspired by the propeller on a steamship, and Ritty’s brother John helped him design the machine. The early cash registers, or tills as they are called in the UK, were simple adding machines with a bell that sounded each time the cash drawer opened. This is assumed to be the origin of the odd pricing, like $1.99 instead of $2, since the cashier would have to open the till to return change, and the employer then would hear the bell. In 1884 John H Patterson bought Ritty’s National Cash Register Company and he soon added a new feature, the paper roll, to record sales transactions. This became a useful document for bookkeeping and a receipt for customers.

vu

A famous person: Henry Ford

Henry Ford (1863–1947) is famous for his cars and for revolutionizing working conditions. His success came in 1908 with the Model T, the first car that middle-class Americans could afford. This changed the concept of transport, but Ford also changed industry and working life. He invented mass production and the assembly line, which resulted in cheaper goods at a higher profit. He also introduced a minimum wage of $5 a day, reduced working hours from 9 to 8 hours a day and decreased the work week from 6 to 5 days both for his office staff and in his factories. Finally, he also provided housing, insurance and health care for his employees. The result was loyal and motivated workers, and Henry Ford became one of the richest people in the world.

Ku

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til

cash register/till kasseapparat employee ansatt/tilsett profit fortjeneste/forteneste steamship dampbåt adding addisjon cash drawer pengeskuff assume anta odd pricing oddetallprising/ oddetalprising till pengeskuff change her: vekslepenger/ vekslepengar feature trekk transactions transaksjoner, overføringer/transaksjonar, overføringar bookkeeping bokføring receipt kvittering working conditions arbeidsforhold concept begrep/omgrep assembly line samlebånd/ samleband decrease redusere provide sørge for insurance forsikring portable bærbar/berbar backpack ryggsekk

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A famous invention: Ritty’s cash register

A famous device: the walkie-talkie In 1937 the Canadian inventor Donald Hings created the first portable radio signalling system, a backpack set that soon became known as the “walkie-talkie”. It was valuable technology during WWII and many different models were developed, also by other engineers. Motorola’s handheld two-way radio, the Handie-Talkie, appeared in 1941. Today walkie-talkies are

40 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


AIMS k name inventions and people that

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changed healthcare k listen to gather information about inventions k use words related to healthcare

used for military, public safety, commercial, industrial and private purposes. Often travel guides and travellers use them in areas with poor cell phone signals or challenging conditions. Modern walkie-talkies are small, handy and fairly inexpensive. They often have a long range and may be equipped with advanced technology depending on their usage.

A famous organization: the World Bank

vu

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of developing countries in order to support development projects and help reduce poverty. Here are some facts about the World Bank – but what is the correct information? First try to guess the right answers, then check the key on the next page.

The World Bank 1

The headquarters of the World Bank is in

A

valuable verdifull handheld håndholdt/handhalde purpose hensikt inexpensive billig range her: rekkevidde grant stipend, tilskudd/stipend, tilskot poverty fattigdom headquarters hovedkvarter/ hovudkvarter laundering hvitvasking/ kvitvasking

B

C

Washington, DC

Brussels

2 The World Bank was established in

1866

1922

1944

3 Originally, the purpose of the World Bank was to

rebuild Europe after establish colonies in WWII Africa

stop the Great Depression in the USA

4 The first country to receive a World Bank loan was

India

Germany

France

5 The World Bank cooperates with

the Olympic Committee

the United Nations

Greenpeace

6 In the early 1980s the World Bank was criticized for

increasing thirdworld debt

selling dangerous chemicals

laundering money

7 Around 1990 the World Bank started giving loans to

teachers

environmental groups coal mines

8 In 2000 the bank announced a

war on AIDS

war on waste

war on racism

9 The president of the World Bank is traditionally

Norwegian

British

American

10 Today the number of member countries of the World Bank is

108

189

239

Ku

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til

London

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 41


Read and understand

1.52 • Decide whether the statements are true or false. True James Ritty thought his employees were taking money from him.

b

Odd amounts were invented to force the cashier to open the till and sound the bell.

c

The first cash registers/till had a system for receipts and bookkeeping.

d

Henry Ford did nothing to improve the lives of his employees.

e

Workers at Ford industries were the first to get two days off per week.

f

The assembly line made it possible to produce more at higher prices.

g

The first walkie-talkie was small and handy.

h

The walkie-talkie played an important role during the Second World War.

i

Walkie-talkies can be used where cell phone signals are poor.

j

The World Bank is owned by an American investor.

rd er in g

a

False

1.53 •• Sum up the main contents of the texts on the previous pages. Write one or two sentences for each paragraph.

Write

Listen

vu

1.54 The World Bank a Compare your answers in the World Bank Quiz to the key below. 1 b, 2 c, 3 a, 4 c, 5 b, 6 a, 7 b, 8 a, 9 c, 10 b b Based on the correct answers, write a short factual text about the World Bank, including illustrations. You may also use other sources to find more information.

til

1.55 “Which Invention?” Listen to the people talking about different inventions. Which are their favourite inventions? Take notes.

n

Practise

Ku

1.56 Match the following words with the right definitions or synonyms. Use techniques from “Tools for Language Learning” to memorize the words in the left column. 1 a piece of paper proving you paid a portable 2 recording of financial transactions b employee 3 money you earn from selling c change 4 worker d receipt 5 able to be carried e profit 6 money returned after paying f bookkeeping

42 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


1.57 Match the following tools and equipment with the correct illustration. Translate the words into Norwegian and write one sentence for each picture to explain what it is and what it is used for. Start your sentences with the indefinite article a/an. See the Language Lab for information about articles. c safe e racks a advertsiment d till f shopping trolley b open and closed sign 3

2

4

5

6

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1

1.58 Fill in the missing words in the text. increase, out, centuries, cameras, personal, income, agencies, families, surrounding, banks

How did you do?

After working with the text and tasks, I can

tell about inventions and people that changed sales, service and tourism YES

ALMOST

NO

use my listening skills to gather information about inventions YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to sales and service YES

ALMOST

NO

Ku

n

til

vu

The History of Security The concept of security personnel has existed for . In ancient Egypt, the pharaohs hired private guards for their protection. Also, Roman emperors had guards to protect their and properties. They also hired soldiers, the “Vigiles Urbani”, to protect the city and especially look for fire. During the Middle Ages there were “watchmen” who guarded the streets and kept watch from the walls the towns. As more and more people moved to cities, resulting in crowded streets, poverty and violence, tax was used to pay for guards to patrol the streets at night. The Industrial Revolution lead to an in crime, which resulted in the establishment of security guard , such as the Pinkerton Agency in the 1850s, that assisted railroad companies, and other potential victims of robbery. More and more industries started to hire private security to protect their factories, from theft, but also from espionage. Today the need for security measures and surveillance is still increasing. Advanced surveillance and sensors are monitoring activities in all kinds of places where there are people, like schools, concert venues, banks, streets and airports.

Did you know

Tourism as an industry started around 2000 years ago when the Romans sought relaxation in seaside resorts and spas. During the mediaeval era pilgrims and other travellers slept and ate in simple inns. It wasn’t until the 18th century, however, that tourism became a popular activity again, when rich Europeans started to travel to enjoy fresh air, warm weather or cultural attractions. Wealthy English people went to Italy and southern France. This created a whole new industry, and thereby a new word: “tourism”. SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 43


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SHARING INFORMATION: “SHOW AND TELL” Become a better speaker by practising the following steps.

Introduce your topic Start in a way that catches the attention of the audience. Create an atmosphere or describe a situation, and then say what you will talk about.

I’m gonna talk about my cell phone, because I didn’t have time to prepare or anything else.

When I woke up yesterday, I could not find my phone. While I was looking for it, I realized that without it, I could not get in touch with my friends, listen to my favourite music, or even take the bus to school! It has become such an important gadget in my life, so that’s why I want to talk about my cell phone.

This is maybe not very exciting, and I’m not sure if I know how it works, but I’ll or give it a try.

This is a fascinating object and I bring it with me all the time. There is so much fun you can have with it, and I want to share some of its features with you.

vu

Sound convincing Show that you are interested in the topic and that you are prepared. If possible, know your topic well enough to be able to speak without a manuscript. It is more interesting for your audience if you speak freely.

Much better

rd er in g

Not so good

I am not sure what the most interesting part is, really, so I’ll just sum up everything you can do with it.

Illustrate your point Use pictures or bring objects to show and demonstrate how your object works.

It is hard to explain when you can’t see it, but there is a button somewhere.

Make a good conclusion Sum up your main points and, if possible, return to your introduction. Finally, invite your audience to ask questions.

That’s more or less it. Any questions?

or

First, this phone takes amazing pictures, and has a large selection of filters. Second, it has a large storage capacity for films and music. Next, the processing power is great. This means that it is very fast when you go online, so you can download games and apps in no time. It also has a display which …

or

When you push this button, you turn on the cell phone. To unlock it, you can use touch id or face recognition. The camera is located here and …

Ku

n

til

Have a clear message Organize the order of your examples. Repeat words or phrases to emphasize your point. Explain difficult words. Take short pauses to make sure people follow you.

44 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

or

So, you can imagine my relief when I finally found my phone in my bag yesterday! When you know how to handle this little object you have music, a camera, all your apps and so much more in one single gadget. And best of all, you can even use it to call your friends! Thank you for your attention. Don’t hesitate to ask if you have any questions.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 1.59 Change the following introductions into something catchy. a I’m going to talk about an interesting object that I found in our basement. b I have been asked to talk about a famous invention in the history of health care.

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1.60 Improve the following conclusions. a I guess this object wasn’t too interesting after all, but do you have any questions? b That’s all I know about this invention, sort of.

1.61 Practise your “show and tell” skills. Choose an object from your school bag, a tool or a piece of equipment in the classroom and prepare a short presentation of the object. Use the steps from the instruction. Present your “show and tell” in groups or in class. Finally, give each other feedback. What was good? What can be improved?

vu

1.62 Choose one of the following inventions or discoveries. a Use at least two sources to find information about the invention or discovery. b Give a short presentation of your findings in class. Use pictures to help you show and tell. Who Richard Cox

1807

The steamboats Phoenix and Clermont

John Stevens and Robert Fulton

1850

The first private security agency

Allan Pinkerton

1876

The telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

1883

The vending machine

Percival Everitt

til

When What 1758 Cox and Kings, the first travel company

Thomas J Barratt

1930

King Kullen, America’s first supermarket

Michael J Cullen

1933

The world’s first surveillance camera

Mr Norbury

n

1890s Modern advertising Titanic 1912

Harland and Wolff

University of Pennsylvania

1973

The hand-held cell phone

John F Mitchell and Dr Martin Cooper

1976

Aérospatiale and BAC

1981

Concorde, the first supersonic passenger airliner The first laptop

2004

Facebook

Mark Zuckerberg

Ku

1940s Photocopying 1946 ENIAC – the first electronic computer

Chester Carlson, Battelle and Haloid

Adam Osborne

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 45


Ku

n

til

Before you start a Do you have a favourite song? Tell a partner about songs that have inspired you or meant something special to you. b Find The Script’s “Hall of Fame” online and listen to it.

Yeah, you can be the greatest You can be the best You can be the King Kong banging on your chest You can beat the world You can beat the war You can talk to God, go banging on his door You can throw your hands up You can beat the clock You can move a mountain You can break rocks You can be a master Don’t wait for luck Dedicate yourself and you gon’ find yourself

vu

!

rd er in g

Hall of Fame

hall of fame æresgalleri champion mester/ meister politician politiker/ politikar preacher pastor, prest truth seekers sannhetssøkere/ sanningssøkarar

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame You can go the distance You can run the mile You can walk straight through hell with a smile You can be the hero

46 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


You can get the gold Breaking all the records they thought never could be broke Do it for your people Do it for your pride How are you ever gonna know if you never even try? Do it for your country Do it for your name ‘Cause there’s gonna be a day When you’re

AIMS

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k understand what the song is about k explain what metaphors mean k discuss what inspires you

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame

Be a champion, be a champion, be a champion, be a champion On the walls of the hall of fame

til

vu

Be students, be teachers Be politicians, be preachers Be believers, be leaders Be astronauts, be champions Be truth seekers Be students, be teachers Be politicians, be preachers Be believers, be leaders Be astronauts, be champions

Ku

n

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame You can be the greatest, you can be the best

The Script ft. will.i.am Lyrics by Will Adams / Mark Sheehan / James Barry / Daniel O’Donoghue

“You can go the distance You can go the mile»

The Script, Hall of Fame

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 47


Read and understand

1.63 • Fill in the missing words to make a summary of the song. Read the complete summary out loud with a partner. rock – Fame – world – part – encourage – people’s – photos – Do – overcome

rd er in g

The song Hall of is an inspirational song. It was written by The Script, an Irish pop and alternative band. In the text the writers address the listeners and them to try and make a difference in the . They do not literally expect us all to have a place in some “Hall of Fame” with our on a physical wall. However, we all meet obstacles in our lives, but they can be . If we play our , no matter how small, we can be important in other lives. Play your part! “ it for your country, do it for your name,” the song says.

vu

1.64 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a What is a Hall of Fame? b What do you think the song writers mean by saying “don’t wait for luck”? c Find at least five examples of what the songwriters encourage us to be. d What does it mean to “go the distance”? e Sum up the message of the song in one sentence.

Practise

til

1.65 A contraction is a word or phrase that has been shortened by dropping one or more letters. An apostrophe indicates where letters are missing. Write the following words in contracted form.

Ku

n

a I am b do not

c we are d would not

e you will f we have

g she would h let us

1.66 The expressions below are informal. Write the sentences in formal language and without contractions. a And the world’s gonna know your name. b ‘cause there’s gonna be a day … c How are you ever gonna know if you never even try?

48 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


rd er in g

1.67 Metaphors are often used in song lyrics and poems, but also in everyday language. They are figures of speech used to describe something as if it were something else, for example “life is a rollercoaster”. Explain what the following metaphors mean. a You are my sunshine. b He has a heart of gold. c She is a walking encyclopaedia. d Love is a battlefield. 1.68 Combine the metaphors from the song with the most suitable interpretation. A You can beat the clock B You burn with the brightest flame C You can move mountains D You will be in the hall of fame

1

You can overcome obstacles

2 You can finish before the deadline 3 You will be honoured and respected

4 You are passionate about what you do

1.69 Choose six nouns from the text and write them in the singular and plural forms. You may find it helpful to study “Nouns” in the Language Lab section.

vu

Speak

Write

til

1.70 Discuss the following statements. Do you agree or disagree? a “We can’t all be champions. Average is fine.” b “I want success in life, and I don’t care how I get it.” c “Music inspires and motivates me.” d “I don’t envy famous people. Happiness lies in being an ordinary person.” How did you do?

n

1.71 • Choose one or two lines from the song “Hall of Fame” that inspire you. Find an illustration that fits well and make a motivational poster.

Ku

1.72 •• Write a paragraph about an ordinary person that you admire. Why should he or she be in the Hall of Fame? 1.73 ••• Write a text about the song “Hall of Fame”. How does it inspire you? Choose quotes that you like particularly well and explain.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe what the song is about YES

ALMOST

NO

explain what metaphors mean YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss what inspires me YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 49


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

Assess your progress

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1.75 What have you focused on in Chapter 1? Number the suggestions below from 1 to 7, where 1 has been most important for you. Speaking Understanding texts Learning new words Writing Getting to know each other Learning strategies (how to learn new things) Finding information

1.76 Which of the above do you find most difficult, and what do you think you master quite well?

1.77 Learning strategies a Which learning strategy do you most often use when you start working with a new text? b What can you do to remember new information? c Name at least four different ways of memorizing new words. Which one works best for you? d Look at the first text in Chapter 2. What do you think will be the best learning strategy for you when working with this text?

Ku

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vu

1.74 After working with Chapter 1, it is time to revise what you have learnt. Discuss with your teacher whether the tasks should be done individually or in groups, in writing or orally, at home or in class. a Find a picture in this chapter that you like and explain why. b Which professions or occupations are mentioned in the text “This Is Me”? Briefly explain what the different people do. c What is English for vocational purposes? Explain and give examples of situations where you would need to use vocational English. d List five new words you have learnt while working with this chapter. e Give a short summary of one of the texts you have read in this chapter. f What is the message in the song “Hall of Fame”?

1.78 Sharing information a How should you introduce your topic when presenting something to an audience? b Why should you try to speak without a manuscript, if possible? c How can you help your audience remember what you have told them? 1.79 Look at the focus areas listed on the first page of this chapter. Which ones do you think you master well or quite well? Which ones do you think you will need to work on?

50 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


vu

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Apply your skills

til

1.81 Write 1.80 Speak a • Translate your own timetable into a • Choose a text or a task in this English. You can use the word list on chapter that you like or find Utdanningsdirektoratet's web pages interesting. Describe what the text or to find what your subjects are called in task is about to a partner and explain English. what you find interesting about it. b •• How will English be useful in your life? Make a list of situations both at work and in life where you think it will be important to know English well.

c ••• What characterizes good working conditions? Which factors are important? First, make a list for yourself. Then, compare your lists in pairs. Finally, share in groups or with the rest of the class.

c ••• What do you expect to learn in English class this year? What would you like to learn? Write a short text to your teacher. To get you started, you may find it useful to look at the table of contents in this book, as well as the learning objectives in the English curriculum.

Ku

n

b •• Describe a good service worker. In your opinion, which personal qualities are important? Share your views in small groups.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 51


X CHAPTER 2

Ku

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til

vu

rd er in g

On the Safe Side


In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k safety k accidents and first aid k work-related stress k writing accident reports k giving instructions

rd er in g

k verbs and tenses

Ku

n

til

vu

Useful words and phrases hazard injury safety signs ergonomics workplace culture passengers surveillance fraud identity theft cyber security

If youiscould be Why it important anything you want, to learn about safety what would you be? at work? What do you know about first aid already?

53


rd er in g vu til n

Ku 54 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Safety First!

AIMS k discuss the importance of safety

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at work k talk about safety equipment and accident prevention k understand and use words related to safety

What do you think kills most people in the world? Is it war, crime or drugs? No, it is work! Around two million people worldwide die every year from accidents or diseases related to their work.

The most dangerous jobs in the world are in agriculture, mining and construction. Even though the most common cause of death is work-related car accidents (23 %), it is no surprise that falls in construction work are number two. Lumberjacks have a very high death rate at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employees. Fishing follows close behind. In the USA alone, around 6,000 people die at work each year, but this also includes those who have a heart attack while sitting at their desks.

til

vu

A lot has been done to reduce accidents at work. First, strict rules and safety instructions have improved working conditions. Second, protective clothing, like safety boots, hardhats and goggles, helps prevent injuries. Third, better health care saves more people after accidents and helps victims go back to work after recovery. It is, however, obvious that the situation could improve even more. Not all workers take precautions, and sometimes equipment and instructions are not good enough.

Ku

n

In professions within sales, service, travel and security, the focus on safety and ergonomics helps workers avoid accidents and strain. For example, lifting properly is important when working with heavy objects. Likewise, marking or avoiding wet floors, loose carpets or exposed electrical cords may prevent trips and falls. Furthermore, poor workstation ergonomics, indoor air-quality problems and insufficient or excessive lighting are examples of risks and working conditions that may cause health problems for office employees. Different jobs have different hazards, and workers should know which risks they face. In conclusion, to prevent accidents, employees should always follow instructions, but the employer should also make sure that the working conditions are good enough. Consequently, safety is something that concerns everybody.

accident ulykke disease sykdom/sjukdom agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen lumberjacks tømmerhoggere/ tømmerhoggarar include inkludere, også gjelde protective clothing verneklær/ verneklede hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller prevent forebygge/førebyggje injury skade recovery rekonvalesens obvious åpenbart, klart/ openbert, klart precaution forholdsregel ergonomics ergonomi avoid unngå strain belastning properly skikkelig/skikkeleg likewise på samme måte/på same måten carpet teppe exposed her: ubeskyttet/ ubeskytta cord ledning/leidning trip her: snubling workstation arbeidsstasjon excessive overdreven/ overdriven hazard fare employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgjevar concern angå, gjelde

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 55


IN SHORT

vu

Read and understand

2.1 • Decide if these sentences are true or false. a

What kills most people are drugs.

b

Lumberjacks have a very dangerous job.

c

6,000 people in the US die at work every day.

d

Wearing special clothes does not prevent accidents.

e

There are rules on how to behave at work.

f

Lifting correctly is important for service workers.

g

Air quality is not important in an office.

True

Ku

n

til

accident ulykke disease sykdom/sjukdom linked to knyttet til/knytt til agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen common vanlig/vanleg lumberjacks tømmerhoggere/ tømmerhoggarar employed ansatt/tilsett strict streng safety rules sikkerhetsregler/ tryggleiksreglar hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller recovery rekonvalesens careless uforsiktig lift løfte avoid unngå injury skade air quality luftkvalitet prevent forebygge/førebyggje employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgjevar

rd er in g

What kills most people is work. Around two million people in the world die every year because of accidents or diseases linked to their work. The most dangerous jobs are in agriculture, mining and construction. The most common causes of death are car accidents and falls in construction. Lumberjacks have a very high death rate at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employees. In the US, 6,000 people die at work every year. Strict safety rules have reduced the number of accidents. When workers wear protective clothing like safety boots, hardhats and goggles, more lives are saved. They can often go back to work after recovery. But workers are often careless and instructions are not good enough. For workers in sales, service, travel and transport, it is important to lift properly to avoid back injuries. Also, watch out for wet floors to prevent falls. Finally, good lighting and air quality are important in offices. To prevent accidents, employees and employers should work together for safety.

h

Employers do not have any responsibility regarding safety.

2.2 •• Rewrite the false sentences in 2.1 so they become true. 2.3 ••• Use your own words to complete the following tasks. a Explain what surprises you in the text. b Explain what does not surprise you. c Retell the text in ten sentences.

56 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

False


Practise

2.4 Unscramble the letters and find words related to safety. Match with the right Norwegian translation. Write the correct words. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

sMka doAiv jyInru osveGl tnePerv gseoglG neActidc atdarHh

vernebriller hansker/hanskar hjelm unngå skade forebygge/førebyggje maske ulykke

rd er in g

a b c d e f g h

2.5 Use words from the text to make your own list of words with scrambled letters. Exchange lists with a partner and solve each other’s lists. 2.6 Translate the Norwegian words into English. Find the words in the grid below.

F

O

G

G

L

E

S

H

til

G

vu

dødsfall risiko/risiko vernebriller hjelm støvler/støvlar

fallulykker ulykke streng unngå gruvearbeid

A

L

L

S

S

T

A

V

R

I

S

K

R

R

B

O

O

T

S

F

I

D

M

I

N

I

N

G

C

H

Ku

n

A

E

D

E

A

T

H

T

A

A

C

C

I

D

E

N

T

Four letters are not included in any word. Together they form a word. What is it? It’s SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 57


2.7 When do we need safety clothing? First, match the equipment below with the right situation. Then match them with the correct pictures.

1

to protect your feet from sharp objects on the floor to avoid spreading or breathing in bacteria to be seen when working, for example by a road and in the dark to avoid head injury from falling objects to avoid breathing in dangerous chemicals to be able to put out a fire in a vehicle or a room to avoid burning or cutting your fingers

vu

2

3

5

n

til

4

a b c d e f g

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gloves fire extinguisher hardhat goggles safety boots surgical mask reflective vest

Ku

6

58 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

7


Speak

2.8 Describe the photos. a What kind of safety equipment are the people wearing? b What kinds of jobs do you think they have? Discuss and explain. A

rd er in g

C

D

til

vu

B

E

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

Ku

n

discuss the importance of safety at work

Listen

YES

ALMOST

NO

understand and use words related to safety YES

2.9 “Safety Equipment at Work” Listen to Justine and Howard, who talk about their jobs and the equipment they need to perform their jobs safely. Take notes and share in class.

ALMOST

NO

talk about safety equipment and accident prevention YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 59


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A REPORT

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Writing a report is an important activity at work, both after finishing a job and after an accident. In a report your language should be formal and correct, and the content should be to the point. Example

To: Mrs. Joanna Harbour, Safety Coordinator at Happy Hotel From: Drew Drake, receptionist Date: October 11, 2020 Subject: Apprentice injured during fire

This report is from an accident that took place on October 10, when our apprentice, Sarah • Explain why you write the report. • Give relevant background information. Pringle, and I discovered a fire in one of our rooms. who – when – where – why …

Write an introduction

Sum up what happened • Write down the activities or events that took place, in chronological order.

We were going through the booking list when the fire alarm went off. Seeing that the fire was on the first floor, we grabbed a fire extinguisher and ran up the stairs. Smoke was coming out from under the door of room 102, and when we entered we saw that a fire in the dustbin was spreading to the curtains. We used the extinguisher to kill the flames, but Ms Pringle got some burns on her right hand and arm. She was driven to the doctor for treatment, and will stay home for five days.

til

vu

Write a heading • Who is it for? • Who is it from? • Place • Subject

Add relevant information • Relevant facts may be statistics or photos. • Evaluate and comment on reasons why the accident occurred.

The fire started because the guest who had checked out of the room had emptied the ashtray into the dustbin, and our housekeeping staff were delayed and had not yet cleaned the room.

Write a conclusion • Suggest improvements or changes in routines and regulation.

As a conclusion I suggest that we introduce a non-smoking policy in all our rooms, and that we focus more on safety instructions for our guests.

Sign your report

Yours sincerely,

n

Ku

60 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

Drew Drake


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

2.10 Place the sentence connectors in the open spaces below. Then write the paragraph. consequently – inevitably – first – luckily – second – suddenly – however

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I was on my way from my office to meeting room 4 when the accident occurred. , being late, I was walking fast, and ,I was carrying my laptop and several binders with documents, blocking my view. I slipped on a wet spot on the floor. I tripped and fell to the floor, and my laptop and binders landed on top of me. I did not break anything, but sprained my wrist as I landed. My laptop, was badly damaged. I will have to be more careful in future and watch my step.

vu

2.11 Study the illustrations and write a report. Use your imagination to fill in details.

til

2.12 Write a report about a project you have worked with at school. Include information on the preparation, the process, and the materials or equipment used. Explain the purpose of the work and evaluate the process and the result.

Ku

n

2.13 Read the following quotes from real accident reports sent to insurance companies in the USA. Some of the explanations are rather curious. Work with a partner and do the tasks. a Discuss and explain what you think actually happened in each situation. b If you were to write the reports, how would you describe the course of events?

Accident Reports • A pedestrian hit me and went under my car. • Coming home, I drove into the wrong house and collided with a tree I don’t have. • I thought my window was down, but found it was up when I put my hand through it. • I had been driving for 40 years when I fell asleep at the wheel and had an accident. • I was thrown from my car as it left the road. I was later found in a ditch by some stray cows.

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 61


!

vu Adiós Hydraulics

til

descent nedstigning/nedstiging rain-swept våt stow stue bort service cart servicevogn jump seat klappsete transform forvandle/omskape spiked with spritet opp med/ sprite opp med distressing bekymringsverdig/ urovekkjande hydraulic hydraulikk divert omdirigere manual reversion gå tilbake til manuell styring power steering servostyring sluggish treg, langsom/treig, sein yoke her: flystikke, ratt require kreve/krevje exertion anstrengelse/strev brow panne

rd er in g

Before you start When travelling with tourists, what is your responsibility during an emergency situation? In this excerpt from the book Air Confidential, Elliot Hester tells about one such experience.

Ku

n

Late one night, as our 727 began its descent toward rain-swept Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, as my three flight attendant colleagues and I stowed and locked the service carts, completed the passenger seat belt check and strapped into our jump seats, as our two-country, fourteen-hour work day was about to transform into a thirty-hour lay-over spiked with laughter and cold beer, the captain rang on the crew phone with distressing news. “We’ve lost both hydraulic systems,” he said. “We’re diverting to San Juan … ” Without hydraulics, our pilots flew the aircraft in a condition known as “manual reversion.” It’s like driving the world’s largest tour bus without power steering. The plane responds sluggishly. Manipulating the steering wheel, or in this case, the yoke, requires a level of physical exertion that can make sweat pour from a pilot’s wrinkled brow. But the scariest aspect of our

62 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Ku

n

til

vu

rd er in g

hydraulic-less 727 was that the landing gear refused to deploy automatically. Upon approach to the San Juan AIMS airport, where clear skies promised less hazardous landing conditions than in Aguadilla, the captain would k explain what the text “Adiós attempt to crank down the landing gear by hand. Hydraulics” is about As the captain announced our dilemma over the k describe how to handle passengers P.A. system, an eerie silence swept through the cabin. during emergency situations The sixty passengers stirred in their seats, exchanging k discuss some statistics about glances. Throughout the two-and-a-half-hour flight, accidents at work strangers were suddenly locked in tacit communion. They were drawn together by a sudden need to share previously unthinkable emotions. In a potential life or death situation, passengers no longer regard flight attendants as simple-minded peanut-pushers. Suddenly, we’re viewed as professionals who might help to save lives. As I walked towards the front of the aircraft for an emergency briefing with my crew, an elderly man smiled nervously while clutching a rosary. Another passenger – a gentleman who had refused to cooperate during the safety check – tightened his seat belt and stared at me intensely. We were at the mercy of a God who seemed to care little about aircraft landing gear landingsunderstell deploy utplassere, sette i hydraulics and even less about final destinations. This made me nervous. posisjon/utplassere, setje i More nervous than I’d ever been in all my years of flight service. But I tried to posisjon flash my game face to the crowd – hoping to instill the belief that our pilots crank sveive had the situation under control. eerie nifs, uhyggelig/nifs, A moment later, there were shouts from the main cabin. The man who uhyggeleg had been clutching the rosary was now trying to open the emergency stir her: bevege seg window exit. His fingers cupped the exit handholds; he started to pull. disconcerted forvirret/forvirra “What the hell are you doing?” I said, yanking the man away. Though cabin glance blikk tacit stilltiende/stillteiande pressure makes it impossible for anyone to open an emergency exit at previous tidligere/tidlegare high altitude, such an attempt is distressing for everyone on board. The potential potensial passenger babbled an excuse and began to whimper like a child. emergency nødsituasjon/ Next to react were two passengers who sneaked into an aft lavatory naudsituasjon together. Judging by the sniffing sounds from the lav (I had put my ear to the briefing orientering door when a passenger said something fishy was going on inside), and the rosary bønnekrans/bønekrans way both passengers’ eyes jittered once they finally emerged, and the fine game face pokerfjes dusting of white powder on the wash bin, it seemed obvious that their ininstill gi, innpode/gje, innprente flight angst had been numbed by a few snorts of cocaine. yank rykke altitude høyde/høgde Moments later, in the opposite lavatory, the smoke detector began to attempt forsøk chime. One of the flight attendants walked in and found an abandoned whimper klynke cigarette. Someone had left it burning on the wash bin, inches away from a aft lavatory bakre toalett roll of toilet paper. jitter skjelve Oblivious to our hydraulic crisis, an attractive, female passenger emerged dukket opp/dukka opp suggested that she and I get to know each other better. So much better, oblivious ikke klar over/ ikkje klar over

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 63


Ku

rd er in g

n

til

vu

apparently tilsynelatende/ tilsynelatande decline avvise velcro emplacements borrelåsfester/borrelåsfeste manhole kum peer kikke brace position nødlandingsposisjon/ naudlandingsposisjon compliance check sjekk av seter og belter/ sjekk av sete og belte apologetic smoker unnskyldende røyker/ unnskyldande røykar prattle prate, skravle, mase

she promised, that her attentions would prevent me from leaving my hotel room until it was time to fly back to Miami. Sitting alone in the last row of seats, she’d had one too many vodka tonics but apparently not enough companionship. I respectfully declined her invitation, though under less stressful circumstances I might not have been so noble. As the aircraft prepared for its final descent, our captain began cranking down the landing gear. To insure that it had been successfully deployed, the flight engineer and I went to the first-class aisle to rip the carpet from its Velcro emplacements. Beneath the carpet lay a small manhole cover. While worried passengers peered over our shoulders, we opened the cover with a flat-head screwdriver. The flight engineer shone a flashlight down into the darkness to check that the gear had been successfully deployed. He gave thumbs up, then told me to follow him to row 23, where we repeated the procedure. With both gears seemingly deployed, the plane was now ready for landing. But one unanswered question still haunted me. “The landing gear is down, but did it lock in place?” The purser made the routine “prepare for landing” announcement. But shouldn’t we have made an emergency “brace position” P.A.? Would the landing gear hold up? With no time to have my question answered, I made a final compliance check – as did my other two colleagues – ensuring that seat belts were fastened, tray tables were locked, and emergency exits were completely clear of carry-on bags. Along the way, I made direct, see-through-the-soul eye contact with seemingly every passenger on the airplane. Sixty upturned faces were suddenly framed against the black wall of my consciousness; the whimpering man with the rosary; the apologetic smoker; the cocaine couple; the lonely woman in the last row of seats. Some sat quietly, others prayed out loud. I squeezed hands, patted shoulders, gave verbal encouragement to those who seemed to need it most. After strapping into my jump seat, I exchanged a look with the female flight attendant seated beside me. What was her name again? How many children did she say she had? We had flown together for the last fourteen hours, yet most of her conversation had prattled into one ear and faded. I wanted to ask – no, I needed to ask a hundred questions about her life. But as her hand closed around mine, as we skimmed the tops of San Juan’s high-rise apartment buildings, as the airplane wheels kissed the runway and my heart tried to leap from my throat, I realized that by simply holding my hand, my colleague had answered the most important questions. Yes, I am as scared as you. Yes, we’re here for each other when it really counts. And hell yes … that was a close one.

Author: Elliot Hester

64 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


IN SHORT

vu

Read and understand

rd er in g

A flight attendant tells the story of what happened during a late flight. The 727 airplane prepared for landing in Puerto Rico, when the captain announced: "We've lost both hydraulic systems. We’re diverting to San Juan.” Without hydraulics, the plane was hard to steer, and the landing gear didn’t deploy automatically. The captain had to crank down the landing gear by hand. A silence swept through the cabin. The sixty passengers were scared. They started talking to each other for comfort. They also looked at the flight attendant for help. The flight attendant tried to pretend that everything was under control. The captain began cranking down the landing gear. The flight attendant was nervous: “The landing gear is down, but did it lock in place?” They prepared for landing. The crew checked on the passengers. Some sat quietly, while others prayed out loud. The airplane landed safely in San Juan. The flight attendant thought: That was a close one.”

n

til

2.14 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. Write the correct phrases. a They were preparing for landing/drinks/flying. b The airplane had lost both steering/hydraulic/air systems. c A noise/wailing/silence swept through the cabin. d The crew/passengers/captain started talking. e The crew checked on/out/in the passengers. f They checked if the landing gear /wear/rear had deployed. g The airplane crashed/landed safely/exploded.

Ku

2.15 •• Prepare at least eight questions about the text. Ask and answer each other’s questions in small groups. 2.16 ••• Read the text closely and answer the questions. a What kind of problem do they have on the 727 and what is the solution? b What is your reaction to the different passengers in the cabin? Can you understand their behaviour? c Do you think the flight attendant does a good job taking care of the passengers? Give examples. d What is your impression of the narrator? Give examples and explain. e Is there a message in this text? Give reasons for your views.

flight attendant kabinpersonale hydraulic hydraulikk divert omdirigere landing gear landingsunderstell deploy utplassere crank sveive silence stillhet/stille comfort trøst/trøyst lock låse seg

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 65


Practise

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2.17 Combine the words from the text with the correct synonyms. Then use the words to write sentences. A transform 1 former B altitude 2 move C whimper 3 scary D previous 4 cry E stir 5 change F eerie 6 look at G peer 7 height

vu

2.18 Fill in the correct present simple form of the verbs in the sentences. You can read about verbs in Language Lab. a Safety at work very important. (be) b Everybody proper training to avoid accidents. (need) c We to take precautions every day. (have) d One of my colleagues not know the safety rules. (do) e Being observant a useful quality at work. (be) f Most of my friends a good break after work (enjoy). g No one when I call this number. (answer) h Only one person in my class how to treat burns. (know)

Speak

til

2.19 Discuss the questions. a How would you handle passengers or clients who behaved like the ones in the text, e.g. the cocaine sniffing couple or the lonely, drunk lady? Do you think the flight attendant deals with them in a good way? b Have you ever experienced an accident or an emergency situation? Share your stories in groups.

Write

Ku

n

2.20 The flight attendant in the story writes a report about what happened on the 727. Write the text. See “Writing a report” in this chapter.

Did you know

Explore

2.21 In 2009 the US Airways flight 1549 made an emergency landing on the Hudson River. A film was made about the incident. Use the Internet to find information and share in class.

According to new research on work and safety in the UK, more than a quarter of young people fail to follow the health and safety procedures in their workplace. 27% of workers between 18 and 34 admit having put themselves at risk by not following their company’s safety procedures. Also, 33% of the young workers have no idea what to do if a hazardous situation occurs. For workers between 45 and 64, however, 92% follow safety procedures and 67% answered knew what to do in dangerous situations. 66 | Chapter 2: On the Safethat Sidethey | SKILLS


Global safety statistics

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2.22 Study the statistics and infographic below and answer the questions. a What information do you get from the infographic about workrelated accidents worldwide? (ILO stands for International Labour Organization.) b What information do we get from the two graphs about work and health in the UK? c Use the Internet to find statistics on work-related accidents in Norway. How do the numbers compare to the statistics on this page?

How did you do?

RIP

This equates to over 6000 deaths every single day.

Hazardous substances alone are estimated to cause 651,279 deaths a year.

vu

Work-related accidents and diseases result in 2.3 million fatalities around the world every year.

After working with the text and tasks, I can

Worldwide, there are 340 million occupational accidents and 160 million victims of work-related illnesses annually.

til

ILO updates indicate an increase of accidents and ill health.

explain what the text “Adiós Hydraulics” is about YES

Fatal injuries in the UK

YES

n

Ku

Rate of fatal injury (per 100,000 workers)

2,5

NO

discuss some statistics about accidents at work YES

ALMOST

NO

UK Statistics on Workplace Accidents a b c d e

2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5

f g

0,0

Source: www.hse.gov.uk/riddor

ALMOST

The pie chart below gives some indication on what the more common incidents are and how they compare to each other.

3,0

1981

NO

describe how to handle passengers during an emergency situation

Source: ILO/International Labour Organisation

100 people killed due to work-related activites in 2018/19

ALMOST

2020

h i

Hit by moving vehicle Handling (other) Hit something fixed or stationary Fall from height Slip or trip Hit by moving/falling object Contact with moving machinery Handling (manual handling) Other

5% 5% 14%

i

e

6%

d

5% 2%

c a

b

19%

g

f

17% h

27%

Source: www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/pdf/fatalinjuries.pdf

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 67


FACT FILE FACT FILE Signs

There are four main groups of signs.

Mandatory signs

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Danger warning signs

Things that you must do Round, bright blue, white picture

vu

Warns you of danger Europe: a triangle with white or yellow background, a red border, a black picture USA: yellow danger warning signs, black borders and a black picture

Prohibition signs

Ku

n

til

Things that are not allowed Round, white background, black picture, red border, often red slash across

Sayings

What is the message in these sayings? • Safety never takes a holiday. • Better safe than sorry. • Safety doesn’t happen by accident.

68 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

Information signs

Many different types of information signs No international standard, different from country to country


FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

2.23 Study the signs (a–n). Group them according to what type of signs they are. • danger warning signs • mandatory signs

A

B

C

H

I

J

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• prohibition signs • information signs

D

E

F

G

K

L

M

N

til

vu

2.24 Combine the signs in task 2.24 with the correct text from the list below. 1 Do not drink the water 8 Accessible for wheelchairs 2 Wear hardhats 9 Caution, guard dog 3 Safety boots must be worn 10 High visibility clothing must be worn in this area 4 Wash hands 11 Apron must be worn 5 Toxic hazard 12 Toilet 6 Warning, flammable material 13 Slippery roads 7 No smoking 14 Danger, falling rocks

Ku

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2.25 Make a tour of your school. What kinds of signs do you see? Are there signs missing? Write two lists and suggest improvements.

Accidents Happen Kids messing about in the backs of cars Can sometimes cause accidents to happen While accidents in the backs of cars Almost always cause kids to happen paul curtis SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 69


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Stress

vu

Work-related stress is a growing problem around the world. It affects both the health and the well-being of workers, and the productivity and safety of companies. It is therefore important to identify elements that cause stress and to learn how to handle stressful situations.

til

How can I know that I’m stressed?

Ku

n

There are many different symptoms of stress. First, physical symptoms may be headaches, sleeping problems and fatigue. Furthermore, the mental effects, for example irritability, anxiety and even depression, can make it hard to concentrate on tasks and participate in conversations. This in turn may lead to a change in behaviour, a drop in work performance and finally, an increase in sick days. If you experience such symptoms over a longer period, you should contact a supervisor or go see your doctor to sort out the situation.

Did you know

Almost 8 in 10 Americans are stressed at times and 44 % feel stressed frequently.

What causes stress at work? Stress is not an illness; it’s a state. Up to a certain point stress is something positive. It is our brain making us produce adrenaline to perform better. However, if this situation of being on constant alert lasts for a long period of time, our brain will become overstimulated and we may develop mental or physical illnesses.

70 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Reasons why people experience stress may be long work hours, tedious or hard work, tight deadlines, strict supervision, harassment or personal challenges. It is not necessarily the amount of work that creates stress, but rather the feeling of not being in control of the situation.

AIMS k describe important reasons and

remedies for work-related stress k reflect on how you can handle and prevent stress k discuss what makes a good workplace culture

How can I prevent work-related stress?

til Fatigue

Exhaustion

n

Performance

Stress curve

vu

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Preventing or treating stress is not always easy, but there are some effective methods to help you along. First, take breaks and learn deep breathing and other stress-relief techniques. Then, organize your days by making lists of “must dos” and “can waits”. Also, talk to colleagues or friends about your problem, and take time to sleep, exercise and do things you enjoy. If this doesn’t help, go see a doctor! Furthermore, remember that employers are responsible for ensuring a safe and positive work environment. They should encourage and support their employees, make sure they are sufficiently trained for their job, reorganise duties and employ extra staff if necessary. To sum up, some stress is good, and being too laid back at work is not good for business or for you. However, if the demand for performance stays too high, for too long, it is time to slow down. A breakdown or burn-out is the last thing a worker should have to experience.

Anxiety/panic/anger

Ku

Laid back

Inactive

Too little stress (underload)

Breakdown

Optimum stress

Too much stress (overload)

Burn-out

Source: https://www.thechelseapsychologyclinic.com/blog/see-stress-curve/

Stress level

affect påvirke/ påverke identify identifisere cause forårsake handle håndtere/handtere fatigue utmattethet/utmatting anxiety engstelse/uro participate delta behaviour oppførsel work performance arbeidsprestasjon increase øke/auke supervisor arbeidsleder7 arbeidsleiar sort out finne ut av state tilstand perform prestere alert beredskap tedious kjedelig/ kjedeleg supervision overoppsyn harassment sjikane amount mengde prevent forebygge/ førebygge relief lindring, lettelse/ lindring, lette encourage oppmuntre sufficient nok, tilstrekkelig/ nok, tilstrekkeleg duty plikt burn-out utbrenthet/ kjenne seg utbrent

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 71


“Stressed spelled backwards is desserts.” Loretta LaRoche, American stress expert and humour consultant

2.27 •• Answer the questions. a What are important symptoms of stress? b Why is stress also something positive? c What is the connection between stress and control? d What can employees do to reduce work-related stress? e What can employers do to reduce stress at a workplace?

Practise

2.28 Find words from the text that correspond to these definitions. Use the words to write sentences. a boring d deal with g give support to someone b enough e foreman h take part in c worker f exhaustion i have an effect on

Speak

2.29 Study the list below. Discuss which of these situations might increase or help reduce the stress level in a work environment. Some might do both.

til

“Ten years from now you’ll laugh at whatever’s stressing you out today. So why not laugh now?”

2.26 • Complete the statements. Use information from the text. a Physical symptoms of stress may be … b Stress is our brain making us … c To prevent stress, take breaks and learn … d Employers are responsible for ensuring … e One important thing I learned from this text is …

rd er in g

Paul Coelho, Brazilian author

Read and understand

vu

“Stress, anxiety and depression are caused when we are living to please others.”

Ku

n

Tony Robbins, American live performance coach

“Stress is caused by being ‘here’, but wanting to be ‘there’.”

1 2 3 4 5 6

Support from colleagues Varying tasks Promotion opportunities Risk of unemployment Working in teams Tight deadlines

7 Lack of personal space 8 Easy access to social media 9 Taking a yoga break 10 Listening to music 11 Drinking a lot of coffee 12 Being a perfectionist

2.30 Discuss the quotes in the margin. What do they mean? Which one do you think gives the best advice? Give reasons for your choice.

Eckhart Tolle, German author and spiritual teacher

72 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Write

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2.31 A good workplace culture is important for the wellbeing and efficiency of employees. Discuss the questions and give examples. a What kind of conditions and behaviour can create a good workplace culture? b What can cause a bad workplace culture? c What might be stress-related situations in your future job? d How can these hazards be avoided, or how can you prepare yourself for handling them?

2.32 • Study the stress curve illustration on the previous page. Write a paragraph where you explain the different levels of stress and their effect. 2.33 •• Study the infographic below about stress in the USA. Use the information to prepare a manuscript for a 2-minute speech about stress. Record your text afterwards.

Little known facts about stress Little Little known known facts facts about about stress stress 80% 80%80%

80% of workers 80% 80% of of workers workers feel feelfeel stress on the stress stress onon the the job. job.job. 42% say their 42% 42% say say their their co-workers need help. co-workers co-workers need need help. help.

HEALTHCARE HEALTHCARE HEALTHCARE

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ON THE JOB ON ONTHE THE JOB JOB

42% 42%42%

CAUSES OF STRESS CAUSES CAUSES OF OFSTRESS STRESS

til

IN SCHOOL ININSCHOOL SCHOOL

75% of healthcare costs 75% 75% of of healthcare healthcare costs costs are associated with are are associated associated with with chronic illness. chronic chronic illness. illness. Stress is#1 the #1 cause Stress Stress is is the the #1 cause cause of of of chronic illness. chronic chronic illness. illness.

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Stress ahealth top health concern Stress Stress is is a top aistop health concern concern forfor for US teens 9th–12th grade. USUS teens teens 9th–12th 9th–12th grade. grade.

Money Money Money Work Work Work

75% 75%75% 70% 70%70% 67% 67%67%

Economy Economy Economy Relationships Relationships Relationships Family responsibilities Family Family responsibilities responsibilities

57% 57%57%

Family health problems Family Family health health problems problems Personal health concerns Personal Personal health health concerns concerns

53% 53%53% 53% 53%53%

Job stability Job Job stability stability

58% 58%58%

49% 49%49%

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe important reasons and remedies for work-related stress YES

ALMOST

NO

Source: relaxlikeaboss.com Source: Source: relaxlikeaboss.com relaxlikeaboss.com

Listen

reflect on how I can handle and prevent stress YES

2.34 “Handling Stress” Listen to Ben and Pamela who talk about their jobs and how they handle stress. a How does each of them deal with work pressure and expectations? b Who seems to have the least stressful job? Explain.

ALMOST

NO

discuss what makes a good workplace culture YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 73


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING INSTRUCTIONS

Introduce the topic.

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Present the purpose of your instructions and explain their importance to get your audience interested.

Hello, and welcome to this instruction on lifting techniques. Many employees in stores and offices experience strain on their backs. This is often because we are careless when lifting, for example, boxes of goods or paper. Therefore, I will show you how to lift heavy objects correctly.

Explain important and

Before we start I will explain some difficult words. Resilient means elastic, assistance means help and firm means good and strong.

Explain the procedure

First, it is important to have the right shoes, with resilient soles. Second, if possible, ask for assistance when lifting particularly heavy objects.

difficult words. Show objects or pictures if necessary.

vu

step by step. Use words like: first of all, second, third, then, after that, meanwhile, finally.

Demonstrate the

til

different steps of the procedure. Use your hands, illustrations or real objects to make your instructions clearer.

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purpose hensikt, mål procedure fremgangsmåte/ framgangsmåte repeat gjenta lift løfte straight rett firm grip fast tak straighten rette opp

Make sure your

audience understands all the steps. Repeat your points if necessary, take pauses and ask your audience if they have any questions.

74 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

When you lift, you should have a straight back, like this (show). Then, bend your knees, like this (show). This is to avoid using your back to lift. Also, make sure you have a firm grip on the object. If you are going to lift a box, the best grip is in the corners, here and here (point). Finally, when you lift, straighten your knees. Then, of course, you repeat the procedure when putting the object back down. Do you remember the different steps? Do you have any questions?


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

1

2.35 Combine the instructions with the correct illustration. Then practise by giving instructions to a partner.

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To get a strong body that can endure hard physical work, here are some exercises to do once a day …

2

a To strengthen your tummy, lie on your back, on the floor. Bend your knees and do 30 sit-ups in a row. After a short break, repeat the activity.

3

b Warm up your muscles with ten minutes of jogging, fast walking, cycling or dancing.

vu

c To strengthen your arms, do push-ups. First, stand on your hands and knees or toes. Keep your back straight. Then, bend your arms until your nose is 5 cm above the floor. Repeat as many times as you can.

til

d To strengthen your back, place yourself on your hands and knees. First, lift your left leg backwards and your right hand forwards. Second, hold and count slowly to ten. Then, switch to the opposite arm and leg. Repeat ten times.

n

viewing distance monitor height

Ku

seat back angle

seat height

arm & wrist angle mouse keyboard height

4

2.36 Work with a partner. Study the illustration. Then give instructions on how you should sit while working at a computer. 2.37 Choose a tool or object you use in your spare time or in your work. Give a short presentation with instructions on how to use it. If possible, bring the tool or object to class, and find pictures to help you explain. SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 75


!

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Before you start a If you were to choose a fake identity, what would that be? b Read the instructions in tasks 2.39 and 2.40 before you start working on the text.

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Con Man

con man svindler/svindlar fraud her: bedrageri forgery forfalskning/forfalsking cyber security nettsikkerhet/ nettsikkerheit obtain oppnå, skaffe seg

American Frank William Abagnale Jr. (1948–) is today a respected expert on fraud, forgery and cyber security. His career, however, started at the opposite end, as one of the greatest con men of all time, wanted in all 50 states and in more than 20 countries.

Frank Abagnale Jr., who grew up in New Rochelle, New York, started his criminal career at an early age. His first victim was his father, who trusted his 15-year-old son with his gasoline card, which Frank Jr. used to obtain great amounts of cash. When he was 16, his parents divorced and he ran away

76 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


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from home, starting his five-year-long career of fraud, forgery and false identities. AIMS His first tricks were to write personal checks on his own overdrawn accounts, but realizing that he had to k share facts about the life and frauds of Frank W. Abagnale expand, he opened accounts in different banks using false names. He soon developed new strategies of k use vocabulary related to fraud and identity theft and pronounce the defrauding, like printing and cashing false paychecks. words correctly He also made blank deposit slips with his own account number on and put them in the stack in banks, so k practise different reading strategies inattentive customers using the fake slips would deposit their money into his account. Having discovered that airlines and car rental businesses deposited their daily income into a drop box at the airport, he dressed up in a security guard disguise, and put a sign over the box saying “Out of service. Place deposits with security guard on duty.” To look older and more trustworthy when cashing his false checks, he check her: sjekk decided to pose as an airline pilot. He conned his way to a uniform from Pan overdrawn overtrukket/overtrekt American Airways and forged an I.D. and a pilot’s license. Thus, while still account konto expand utvide in his teens, he took more than 250 free flights, to 26 countries, while meals defrauding bedra, snyte and hotel stays were billed to the airline company. This made it possible to paycheck lønningssjekk continue his check swindling abroad. deposit slip innbetalingsseddel/ The FBI was on Frank’s trail, but he was always a step ahead, with new innbetalingssetel names and professions. For almost a year, he pretended to be a doctor and inattentive uoppmerkom/ got a temporary job in a hospital in Georgia. Later, he forged a law transcript uoppmerksam from Harvard and got a job at the Louisiana State Attorney General’s office. A deposit sette inn/sette inn income inntekt colleague soon became suspicious, so Frank decided to leave the job to avoid drop box nattsafe exposure. disguise utkledning He started a new life in France but was recognized by a woman he had forge her: forfalske dated, and was arrested by the French police in 1969, only 21 years old. He bill fakturere was sentenced to prison for fraud, and after 6 months in a French prison temporary midlertidig/ he was brought to Sweden for another six months of prison there. At his mellombels release Swedish authorities deported him to the USA. As soon as he landed State Attorney General påtalemyndighet/påtalemakt at J.F.K. airport in New York, he escaped and caught a train to Montreal. He exposure avsløring was recognized by Canadian police and returned to the US. While in prison, sentenced dømt/dømd he escaped again, pretending to be an undercover prison inspector. His deport utvist freedom was short-lived, and he was finally sentenced to 12 years in federal undercover hemmelig/ prison. After only five years, he was paroled on the condition he’d help federal hemmeleg authorities uncover other check forgers. paroled prøveløslatt/ Abagnale decided to use his experience to become a security and fraud prøvelauslaten uncover avdekke consultant, helping banks and other businesses improve their security forger forfalsker/forfalskar systems. He has now specialized in identity theft and cybercrime prevention. prevention forebygging/ Over the years, he has also made restitution of the $2.5 million he scammed førebygging from various people and institutions. restitution tilbakebetaling scam svindle

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 77


IN SHORT

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run away stikke av fraud her: bedrageri identity identitet check sjekk account konto paycheck lønnssjekk drop box nattsafe forge her: forfalske fraud bedrageri license lisens, sertifikat flight flygning/flyging pretend late som lawyer advokat exposure avsløring deport utvise escape stikke av sentenced dømt/dømd paroled prøveløslatt/ prøvelauslaten uncover avdekke forger forfalsker/forfalskar scam svindle

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Frank Abagnale Jr. grew up in the state of New York. When he was 16, he ran away from home. For five years he followed a career of fraud, forgery and false identities. He wrote false checks and opened accounts in fake names. He also printed false paychecks and stole money from a drop box at the airport, dressed up as a security guard. He pretended to be a Pan Am airline pilot and forged an I.D. and a pilot’s license. Then he could take free flights around the world, stay for free in hotels and use his false checks abroad. The FBI was looking for Frank, but he changed names and professions. For example, he pretended to be a doctor in Georgia and a lawyer in Louisiana. Being afraid of exposure, he decided to move to France. In 1969 he was arrested and spent 6 months in a French prison and 6 months in a Swedish prison. Then he was deported to the USA. He escaped the police twice, but finally he was sentenced to 12 years in prison. After five years he was paroled as he promised to help uncover other forgers. Abagnale became a security and fraud consultant, helping banks with their security systems. He has specialized in identity theft and cybercrime. He has also paid back the $2.5 million he scammed from people.

Read and understand

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2.38 Skim the text and answer the questions in full sentences. a What kind of “work” did Frank Abagnale do? b What activities is he famous for? c What happened to Frank in the end? 2.39 Scan the text to find answers to the following questions. a When did Frank Abagnale start his criminal career? b Which airline company did he pretend to work for? c What did he do for a living in Georgia? d Where was he arrested? e How many years did he spend in federal prison? f How much did he scam from people and institutions?

78 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


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2.40 Read the text closely to find answers to the following questions. a What kind of forgery techniques did Frank Abagnale use? b What were the benefits of pretending to be a pilot? c Why did the FBI struggle to get hold of Abagnale? d Why was he arrested in France? e What happened when he came back to the USA? f Why was he paroled? g To what extent has he made up for his criminal past?

Practise

2.41 Put the words in the right place to complete the text. sensitive – take – up – collected – technology – against – almost – that

vu

Cyber security refers to the designed to protect online networks, programs and data from attack or damage. Such security technology is important because of the enormous amount of government, military, financial, medical and corporate information is stored online or on servers. To protect data unauthorized access or exposure, companies and organizations must precautions. They install software and hire experts that monitor how data is and stored, and who has access to information and transactions. As the amount and level of cyber-attacks and digital spying grow, the threat is in constant change. Today it seems impossible to keep with developments to stay protected.

til

2.42 Find all the verbs in the past tense in the In Short version of “Con Man”. Include their subjects and rewrite them in the present simple tense. Remember subject-verb agreement. See “Verbs” in the Language Lab section for advice.

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2.43 Which tense of the verb is right in each sentence, present simple or present continuous? Choose the correct form. See “Verbs” in the Language Lab section for information. a Sue washes/is washing her car every week. b Normally my father is cleaning/cleans the kitchen with disinfectants. c Right now I listen/am listening to music. d My teachers are talking/talk about safety very often. e Outside my window some children play/are playing. f Soap dissolves/is dissolving in warm water. g At the moment we study/are studying safety in school. h Once a week we are discussing/discuss safety precautions.

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 79


Speak

Write

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2.44 Take turns saying the following words out loud. Work in pairs. f temporary a account g defrauding b forgery h restitution c disguise i inattentive d exposure j cyber security e overdrawn

2.45 • Write a paragraph where you express your opinion of Frank Abagnale and his career. For advice see “Structuring paragraphs” in Chapter 3. Include expressions like “in my opinion”, “I think”, “on the other hand”, “therefore”. 2.46 •• Write 1–2 paragraphs where you comment on, describe and compare numbers and facts from the infographic on the next page about credit card fraud and identity theft. For advice see Chapter 3, “Structuring paragraphs”. Include sentence connectors like “first”, “second”, “in contrast”, “on the other hand”, “moreover”, “similarly”.

til

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2.47 ••• Write 2–3 paragraphs in which you describe and discuss how fraud and security measures have developed since the 1960s, and whether Frank Abagnale could have done the same things today. Feel free to use sources to search for information but remember to use your own words when you write your text. For advice see Chapter 3, “Structuring paragraphs”. Include relevant sentence connectors.

Explore

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2.48 Use different online sources to find information about one or two of the topics below. Share your information in class or make posters or infographics. a Frank Abagnale’s security company and other activities or programmes he has been involved in b Examples of other con men, identity thieves, frauds and cyber attacks c The film “Catch Me If You Can” (2002) by Steven Spielberg, where Leonardo DiCaprio plays Frank Abagnale. Watch the trailer or the film, and discuss whether it seems to be an exact rendering of Abagnale’s early life.

80 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


280,000 260,000 240,000 220,000 200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000

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Credit Card Fraud Reports in the United States

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Most prevalent forms of ID theft

45 % Credit card fraud — new accounts 32 % Miscellaneous identity theft

2019

7 % Auto loan or lease

8 % Mobile telephone — new accounts

8 % Business or personal loan

vu

2019 Identity Theft By Age in the United States 19 years 20s

40s 50s 60s 70s

How did you do?

til

30s

After working with the text and tasks, I can share facts about the life and frauds of Frank W. Abagnale

n

80+ 25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 125,000 150,000 175,000

YES

ALMOST

NO

Ku

Source: https://www.iii.org/fact-statistic/facts-statistics-identity-theft-and-cybercrime

Did you know

use vocabulary related to fraud and identity theft and pronounce the words correctly

People in their 20s are 25% more likely to lose money to fraud than people over 40. The most common frauds young adults are victims of are online shopping frauds, business imposters, fake check scams and romance scams. Shopping-related scams may be items that never arrive or that are not as advertised. Business frauds are often debt-related or investments.

YES

ALMOST

NO

practise different reading strategies YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 81


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61 Hours

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!

In the thriller 61 Hours (2010), we meet Jack Reacher, a former Military Police Officer and Captain, who faces many challenges as he fights bad guys in the icy winter of South Dakota. At the beginning of the book he helps a group of elderly people after their bus has skidded on the icy road and into a ditch.

Reacher ducked back and started checking the old folks. The driver had gotten through the first two rows. All four of the window seat passengers were sporting Band-Aids over cuts from the metal edges around the glass. One woman had a second Band-Aid on the aisle side of her face, presumably from where her husband’s head had hit her after bouncing around like a rag doll. The first broken bone was in row three. A delicate old lady, built like a bird. She had been swinging right when the bus changed direction and swung left. The window had tapped her hard on the shoulder. The blow had busted her collar bone. Reacher could see that in the way she was cradling her arm. He said, “Ma’am, may I take a look at that?” She said, “You’re not a doctor.”

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Before you start Do you know how to treat a person who has fainted? Discuss in pairs

82 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


“I had some training in the army.” “Were you a medic?” “I was a military cop. We got some medical training.” “I’m cold.” “Shock,” Reacher said. “And it’s snowing.”

AIMS k communicate about injuries and treatments k use words related to first aid k give instructions

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She turned her upper body towards him. Implied consent. He put his fingertips on her collar bone, through her blouse. The bone was as delicate as a pencil. It was snapped halfway along its length. A clean break. Not compound. She asked, “Is it bad?” “It’s good,” Reacher said. “It did its job. A collar bone is like a circuit breaker. It breaks so that your shoulder and your neck stay OK. It heals fast and easy.” “I need to go to the hospital.” Reacher nodded. “We’ll get you there.”

n

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He moved on. There was a sprained wrist in row four, and a broken wrist in row five. Plus a total of thirteen cuts, many minor contusions, and a lot of shock reactions. The temperature was dropping like a stone. Reacher walked up the aisle, head bent, and found the driver. The guy was in his seat, holding an open cell phone in his right hand, staring through the windshield, drumming his left-hand finger tips on the wheel. He said, “We’ve got a problem.” “What kind of problem?” “I called 911. The Highway Patrol is all either sixty miles north of here or sixty miles east. There are two big storms coming in. One from Canada, one off the Lakes. There’s all kinds of mayhem. All the tow trucks went with them. They’ve got hundred-cars pile-ups. This highway is closed behind us. And up ahead.”

Ku

lee child

British writer Lee Child (1954–) worked for many years in the television industry until he started writing in 1994. He is famous for his thriller novels about Jack Reacher, some of them also successful films. He now lives in the USA with his American wife.

M

sport ha på seg Band-Aid plaster aisle midtgang presumably trolig/truleg bounce sprette ragdoll filledokke blow slag bust brekke/brekkje collar bone kragebein cradle holde rundt/ halde rundt medic person som er opplært i førstehjelp/person som er lært opp i førstehjelp imply innebære/innebere consent samtykke snapped brukket/broten clean break rent brudd/reint brot compound komplikasjoner/ komplikasjonar circuit breaker strømbryter/ straumbrytar heal gro sprain forstue wrist håndledd/handled minor mindre contusion skade, sår cell phone mobiltelefon windshield frontrute wheel ratt miles 1,61 kilometer the Lakes the Great Lakes mellom USA og Canada mayhem trøbbel tow truck slepebil pile-up kjedekollisjon

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 83


Read and understand

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2.49 • Combine the first and second halves of the following sentences. Write the correct sentences. A Some passengers have cuts from 1 to the hospital. B One woman has a busted 2 shock reactions. C Reacher promises to get her 3 wrist. D One passenger has a sprained 4 is on its way. E Several passengers suffer from 5 collar bone. F Reacher asks the driver if help 6 the metal edges. 2.50 •• Do the following tasks. a Make a list of the different injuries on the bus. b What other problems do the people on the bus face?

Write

2.51 Reacher writes an accident report after the incident on the bus. He explains what happened and what kind of injuries the passengers were suffering from. Write his report. See “Writing a report” in this chapter for advice.

vu

2.52 Combine the injuries with the most relevant body parts. There may be more than one solution. concussion bleeding sore / blind aching fractured bruised cut deaf blocked sprained

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A B C D E F G H I J

Listen

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ears head nose knee eyes arteries bone finger wrist teeth

2.53 “How to Treat an Unconscious Person”. The passengers on the bus are all saved. Later in the story, however, Reacher has to inform a young wife about the death of her police husband. Once she sees him on the door steps, she faints. a Listen to the text and sum up what happens. b Make a list of the different steps to follow if a person faints due to shock. Learn these steps by heart.

84 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Speak

2.54 Practise giving instructions on how to treat a person who has fainted due to shock. See “Giving Instructions” in this chapter for advice. Work with a partner.

Practise

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2.55 Combine the injuries with the most suitable treatment. A Cuts and bleeding 1 Cool the area with cold running water, cover with a sterile non-stick bandage. B Scrapes and grazes 2 Apply direct pressure with a sterile pad, fix the pad with a firm sterile bandage, hold wounded area above the heart. C Burns 3 Sit the person forward, pinch the soft part of area for ten minutes. D Nose bleeds 4 Wash with running water, remove dirt, cover with an adhesive plaster.

vu

2.56 Combine the following words with the correct illustration. A adhesive plaster B closure strips C bandage D cast

4

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

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3

2

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1

Explore

communicate about injuries and treatments YES

2.57 Safety at work is not only about the health and wellbeing of employees, but also about keeping the environment clean from work-related trash and pollution. Find information about measures taken in different service-related workplaces to become more environmentally friendly. Share and discuss the effect of the measures in class.

ALMOST

NO

use words related to first aid YES

ALMOST

NO

give instructions YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 85


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your progress

2.58 After working with Chapter 2, it is time to revise what you have learnt. Discuss with your teacher how you will work with the tasks. a Find a picture or illustration from this chapter that you like and explain why. b Which safety equipment is mentioned in the text “Safety First”? How and why do you use it? c How can you handle and prevent work-related stress? Give at least four examples. d Describe some procedures for first aid. e Explain how you can prevent the spread of diseases. f List eight new words that you have learnt in this chapter.

2.59 Think about your progress. a How would you describe your progress in English so far this year? Give examples of things you can do now or have learnt that you didn’t know in August. b How would you describe your own efforts in English so far this year? Give examples of activities and tasks that you think have been useful and helped you improve your English skills.

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Revise

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2.60 Writing a report a How do you structure a report? b What should you write in the conclusion of a report? c Name some sentence connectors that are useful in a report.

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2.61 Giving instructions a What is most important to remember when giving instructions? b Why should you demonstrate or illustrate the different steps? c Which sentence connectors are useful when you give instructions?

86 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

2.62 Look at the focus areas for this chapter. a Which ones do you think you master well or quite well? b Which ones will you need to work on? How will you do that?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Apply your skills

2.64 Write a • You have a friend who suffers from stress symptoms. Write a friendly email where you give some advice on how to handle the problem.

vu

2.63 Speak a • Choose a text from this chapter that you find interesting. Explain to a partner what the text and tasks were about and what you learnt from them.

til

b •• Why is it important to learn about safety at work in English class? Discuss in pairs or groups and give examples.

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c ••• What characterises a good work environment and workplace culture? In your opinion, which kind of physical, mental and social factors are important? Discuss in groups.

b •• You have a colleague who fails to follow the regulations for safety at work. Worried about the consequences, you write a polite email to describe the risks of bad safety precautions at work and suggest improvements. c ••• You have been invited to give a speech about safety and a good work environment in a profession of your choice. Write your manuscript with the facts and instructions you would share.

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 87


X CHAPTER 3

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That’s Life


In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k life skills and challenges k structuring paragraphs k using formal and informal language

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k adjectives and adverbs

first impression personality friendship emotion self-esteem appearance challenge courage addiction cyberbullying

What makes you happy?

If you could What is abe anything you want, good life? what would you be?

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vu

Useful words and phrases

89


!

Before you start What do you think young people worry about most today?

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Something About Me

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Some suggestions: • school • career choices • friends/boyfriend/ girlfriend • family • physical appearance • global issues

90 | Chapter 3: That’s Life | SKILLS


In Slam (2007), we meet 15-year-old Sam, who must deal with adult challenges. He discovers how small actions can change one’s life dramatically. Here is the beginning of the novel.

AIMS k explain what the story is about k share thoughts on young people’s

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concerns today So things were ticking along quite nicely. In fact, I’d say that good stuff had been happening pretty solidly for k discuss the importance of first impressions about six months. – For example: Mum got rid of Steve, her rubbish boyfriend. – For example: Mrs Gillett, my art and design teacher took me to one side after a lesson and asked whether I’d thought of doing art at college. – For example: I’d learned two new skating tricks, suddenly, after weeks of making an idiot of myself in public. (I’m guessing that not all of you are skaters, so I should say something straight away, just so there are no terrible misunderstandings. Skating = skateboarding. We never say skateboarding, usually, so if you keep thinking of me messing around on ice, then it’s your own stupid fault.) All that, and I’d met Alicia too. I was going to say that maybe you should know something about me before I go off about my mum and Alicia and all that. If you knew something about me, you might actually care about some of those things. But then, looking at what I just wrote, you know quite a lot already, or at least you could have guessed a lot of it. You could have guessed that my mum and dad don’t live together, for a start, unless you thought that my dad was the sort of person who wouldn’t mind his wife having boyfriends. Well, he’s not. You could have guessed that I skate, and you could have guessed that my best subject at school was art and design, unless you thought I might be the sort of person who’s always being taken to one side and told to apply for college by all the teachers in every subject. You know, and the teachers actually fight over me. “No, Sam! Forget art! Do physics!” “Forget physics! It ticking along rusler og går/ ruslar og går would be a tragedy for the human race if you gave up French!” And then they pretty solidly jevnt og trutt/ all start punching each other. jamt og trutt Yeah, well. That sort of thing really, really doesn’t happen to me. I can get rid of bli kvitt promise you, I have never ever caused a fight between teachers. rubbish søppel And you don’t need to be Sherlock Holmes or whatever to work out that in public offentlig/offentleg Alicia was a girl who meant something to me. I’m glad there are things apply for søke på/søkje på you don’t know and can’t guess, weird things, things that have only ever subject fag punch slå til happened to me in the whole history of the world, as far as I know. If you weird merkelig/merkeleg were able to guess it all from that first little paragraph, I’d start to worry that paragraph avsnitt I wasn’t an incredibly complicated and interesting person, ha ha. incredibly utrolig/utruleg This was a couple of years ago – this time when things were ticking along pathetic patetisk, latterlig/ OK – so I was fifteen, nearly sixteen. And I don’t want to sound pathetic, and patetisk, latterleg SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 91


nick hornby

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carry on fortsette/halde fram, gå vidare clear up klarne opp, ordne seg

I really don’t want you to feel sorry for me, but this feeling that my life was OK was new to me. I’d never had the feeling before, and I haven’t really had it since. I don’t mean to say that I’d been unhappy. It was more that there had always been something wrong before, somewhere – something to worry about. For instance, my parents were getting divorced, and they were fighting. Or they’d finished getting divorced, but they were still fighting anyway, because they carried on fighting long after they got divorced. Or maths wasn’t going very well – I hate maths – or I wanted to go out with someone who didn’t want to go out with me … All of this had just sort of cleared up, suddenly, without me noticing, really, the way the weather does sometimes. And that summer there seemed to be more money around. My mum was working, and my dad wasn’t as angry with her, which meant he was giving us what he ought to have been giving us all the time. So, you know. That helped.

Nick Hornby (1957–) is a British novelist and screenwriter. He is famous for his novels about people in different situations who try to cope with their everyday lives. Many of his novels have been made into successful films. He also co-founded a charity to offer young people a chance to develop their writing skills.

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Read and understand

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3.1 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a Sam has a talent for French/art and design/physics. b Sam likes ice skating/his mother’s boyfriend/skateboarding. c Sam lives with his parents/mother/father. d Sam was unused/used/not used to feeling his life was ok. e Sam’s parents have quarrelled a lot/usually had a good relationship/ no contact. 3.2 •• Write one sentence about each of the characters in the text. a Sam b Alicia c mum d dad e Mrs Gillett f Steve

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Speak

Irony is the use of words that are the opposite of what you mean as a way of being funny. Repetition of words or phrases is used to emphasise their importance, make an idea clearer or more memorable.

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3.3 Discuss the following questions. a Which four facts about Sam do we learn at the beginning of this text? b How do your thoughts from the pre-reading activity match with Sam’s worries? c Based on the text, do you get a good first impression of Sam? Is he a person you would like to have as a friend? Explain. d How important are first impressions? What kind of first impression do you think you make on others? e Can you think of a case when your first impression of somebody turned out to be wrong? What made you change your opinion? 3.4 A writer can use different literary devices to get the attention of the reader. Study the text again to find examples of humour, irony, direct speech, repetition and informal language. What effects do these devices have? Discuss in pairs and share views in class.

Practise

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3.5 Do you have a “guilty pleasure”? a Search for definitions of what a guilty pleasure is. b Look for texts or videos where people talk about their own guilty pleasures. c Make a one-minute video where you talk about your own guilty pleasure.

Direct speech, e.g. a dialogue, is used to show how characters react, move the story forward and give balance to the narrative, and is usually placed inside quotations marks.

kind brave sociable chatty ambitious adventurous compassionate generous funny moody

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A B C D E F G H I J

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3.6 The following adjectives can be used to describe someone’s personality. Match them with the correct translation. 1 medfølende, omsorgsfull 2 eventyrlysten 3 snill 4 gavmild 5 morsom 6 modig 7 humørsyk 8 omgjengelig 9 snakkesalig, pratsom 10 ambisiøs

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3.7 Use the adjectives from task 3.6 to complete these sentences. Each adjective can only be used once, and you may have to use the comparative or superlative form. a My best friend is the best listener. He is always so . b Jenna loves to explore new places. She is very . c Hassan was enough to pay for our lunch yesterday. d My little brother is the person I know. He cracks jokes all the time. e Life has its ups and downs, and most teenagers can be from time to time. f The teacher told the class to quiet down. It was the class he had ever had. g Saima and Sarah both work hard to get good grades, but Saima is more . h George is friends with everyone and can talk about anything. He is unusually . i They were terribly nervous, but they were all enough to try. j Everyone you know is fighting a battle you know nothing about. Be always.

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3.8 Find at least five adjectives to describe your own personality. Use a dictionary if you need to look up words in English. Share your list with a partner.

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3.9 “What Makes Me Happy” Listen to three short interviews to find out what makes Ross, Jill and Thomas happy. Who talks about … a being part of a team? b finding happiness on the waves? c struggling hard to learn new things?

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Write

3.10 • How would you start the story of your life, your autobiography? Write the first paragraph.

A happy life Do young Norwegians think they will have a happy life?

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3.11 •• Study the graphs and answer the questions. Write your answers in full sentences. a What percentage of Norwegian teenagers think they will have a happy life? b Are there any differences between boys and girls? If so, at what age do we find the biggest difference? c Do the percentages change with age? If so, how and for whom? What could be the reason?

3%

73

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28%

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? I don‘t know

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Percentages of students in

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Source: Ungdata

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the story is about YES

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share thoughts on young people’s concerns today YES

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discuss the importance of first impressions YES

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Go ahead Look I would too If I saw what you see Me Sixteen Sexy as can be Me So fine I’m just about pretty Go ahead Look I work hard to get this way

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Before you start Many blogs, ads, magazines and television programmes focus on appearance. What impact do you think this has on followers, viewers and readers?

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Look

Running cross-country Playing baseball, football Lifting weights every day Go ahead Look If you lucky I’ll walk your way Maybe ask for your number Maybe kiss those lips today Go ahead Look It’s okay

sharon g flake Sharon G Flake (1955–) is the author of young adult fiction, including the award-winning novel The Skin I’m In. She has also written reviews and non-fiction for magazines. She was once a counsellor for youth placed in foster care, but now writes full time from her home in Pittsburgh, USA.

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Read and understand

AIMS k understand the poem and the speaker’s attitude k use words related to the body k discuss society’s focus on appearance k present findings on body modification

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3.12 • Answer the following questions. a In your mind, what does the speaker look like? b What do you think his/her personality is like? c How does the speaker feel about himself/ herself? d What activities does the speaker participate in? e Do you think the speaker actually cares what others think of him/her? 3.13 •• Study the line “So fine I’m just about pretty.” What do you think the speaker means?

3.14 ••• This poem can be read and interpreted in different ways. Describe how you understand the poem. Use examples from the text to support your arguments.

Practise

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3.15 Match the English words with the correct Norwegian translation. A eyebrow 1 kjeve B eyelid 2 pekefinger C earlobe 3 øyebryn D cheekbone 4 ankel E nostril 5 hårfeste F lip 6 tommel G jaw 7 øreflipp H hairline 8 øyelokk I index finger 9 håndledd J thumb 10 nesebor K wrist 11 leppe L ankle 12 kinnben

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3.16 Many expressions in English include parts of the body. Can you fill in the open spaces below? lip – eye – heels – hair – chest a He fell head over in love with his best friend. b Julie is the apple of my . c I’m going to tell you a secret; there’s something I need to get off my . d The British often keep a stiff upper , even if they are insulted. e At the party, Susan really let her down.

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Speak

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3.17 Discuss in small groups. a Find something you think is nice about the other members of the group, or something you think they do well. Tell them! b Think about how you respond to positive feedback. What do you say? c When someone gives you positive feedback, how does this make you feel? 3.18 Share information and state your opinion. a Choose an example that you think illustrates society’s focus on appearance. Look for examples in magazines, blogs, videos, television shows or other relevant sources. b Describe the example you have chosen. What is the message, if any? What is the target group? Do you think it has been filtered or manipulated? c Would you say this focus on appearance is positive or negative, healthy or unhealthy? Give reasons to support your views.

Listen

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3.19 “Art or Mutilation?” Listen to the text and fill in the missing words. Compare your answers with those of a partner. a The earliest known was found on a 5000-year-old Egyptian mummy. b have been a tradition in native cultures in Polynesia and America for a long time. c People have wanted their decorated for many different reasons. d Over the last couple of decades, some forms of body art have become , and are now socially acceptable. e It involves searing the with hot metal. f is another extreme way to alter the body’s appearance. g Burmese tribes believed the metal objects were magical and gave . h would ask their parents for tattoos for their sixteenth birthday.

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3.20 Listen to the text again and find words that mean more or less the same as these expressions. a making a hole through a part of your body b using ink and needles to make patterns on your skin c not safe to use because it may be contaminated d another word for “navel” e using hot metal to make a scar f placing a metal object underneath the skin

Explore

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3.21 The pictures below show a few practices that are or have been considered beautiful in different cultures. Choose one picture. Find out more about the practice, and also when and where this was considered beautiful. Make a digital poster to present your findings.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can understand the poem and the speaker’s attitude YES

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use words related to the body YES

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discuss society’s focus on appearance YES

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present findings on body modification YES

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AIMS k explain what the story is about k express your opinion and give advice k give examples of personal and cultural challenges

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Does My Head Look Big in This?

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High school can be tough enough without throwing a hijab into the mix. Amal is Australian-Muslim-Palestinian and a Year Eleven student. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. In this novel excerpt, she wonders what her class is going to say when she walks in wearing the hijab. Will they freak out? And what about Adam, who she really likes? What will they all say?

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Monday morning. And my class has finally decided to confront me about my hijab. I almost want to jump up and down with relief. I can handle an insult or an interrogation. I can’t handle going from getting along with everybody (with the obvious exception of Tia and her Mini-Mes) to being a social outcast.

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Somehow, in between classes after lunch on Monday everybody suddenly finds the guts to approach me, wanting to know what’s going on with my new look. “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks, all wide-eyed and appalled. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a sixty-five-year-old camel owner in Egypt.” “No!” She’s actually horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Really!” This is definitely a case of dropped from the cradle. “Hey! Amal!” Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?”

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Before you start a Describe what the people in the pictures are wearing. b Can you link the different outfits to religious beliefs? c Who or what decides your own clothing style?

confront konfrontere relief lettelse/lindring, trøyst insult fornærmelse/fornærming interrogation utspørring/ utspørjing exception unntak outcast utstøtt/utstøytt approach her: nærme seg appalled forferdet/redd, forferda dropped from the cradle falt fra vuggen (uttrykk: dum)/fall frå vogga

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“I’ve gone bald.” “Get out!” “I’m on the Advanced Hair Programme.” For a second his eyes flicker with shock. Then Josh punches him on the shoulder. “Rocked!” “Like I believed her,” Tim says, looking sheepish. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” “So is it like nuns? Are you married to Jesus now?”

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It’s unreal. Everybody’s asking me about my decision and seems genuinely interested in hearing what I have to say. They’re all huddled around me and I’m having the best time explaining to them how I put it on and when I have to wear it. Then Adam plants himself in front of me and starts joining in with the rest of them and I want to plant a massive kiss on his face except that really would be defeating the entire purpose of my entire spiritual roadtrip now, wouldn’t it? “So it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” “Like you see some women covering their faces and other women wearing really bright material with that red paint on their hand. Are they all Islamic too?” “You mean Muslim.” “Huh?” “What she means,” Josh says, “is that the religion is Islam and the followers are Muslim. Like you can’t say to somebody you’re a Judaism or a Catholicism. Get it?” “Right.” Adam nods his head. “So are they Muslim, like you?” “Yeah they are. But, every girl is going to interpret the hijab differently. It depends on their culture or their fashion sense, you know? There’s no uniform for it.” “I get you,” Adam says. “A lot of Africans wear those really colourful wrap-around dresses and veils,” I continue. “Um, stricter women cover their face, but it’s not required in Islam. It’s their choice to go to that extent.” “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks. “Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.”

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bald skallet/skalla flicker flakke punch slå, dulte rocked her: lurt genuinely oppriktig, ekte/ærleg, ekte huddle stimle sammen/stimle saman defeat her: ødelegge/øydeleggje purpose hensikt/formål, meining spiritual roadtrip åndelig reise/ åndeleg reise Judaism jødedom Catholicism katolisisme interpret tolke veil slør extent utstrekning, grad

[…]

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suede semsket/semska goss (gossip) sladre tart terte chick flick jentefilm decomposed råtten/ròten admit innrømme/vedgå pious gudfryktig hypocritical hyklersk coward feiging “wog” person fra Midtøsten (nedlatende, rasistisk)/person frå Midtausten (nedlatande, rasistisk) audience publikum appreciate sette pris på/setje pris på cope klare/greie, klare, makte average gjennomsnitt

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“Coffee at the Lounge Room, tonight?” Simone whispers to Eileen and me during History on Friday. Eileen’s on. I don’t know whether to go. The Lounge Room is a trendy café on Burke Road: long coffee tables centered between big suede lounge chairs and sofas, dim lamps and television screens with MTV and Friends reruns. It was our hang-out joint in the midyear break. Where we’d go to goss and eat strawberry tart and talk school and parents and top five chick flicks and the rest. Because I’d rather eat decomposed meat than be thought of as a chicken, I fake a big smile and tell them I’m all for it. I chicken out. I’m ashamed to admit it but after dinner I ring Simone and Eileen and tell them I can’t make it because we have visitors. They believe me. And why wouldn’t they? I’m supposed to be pious and God-fearing. Not a lying, hypocritical, pathetic coward. I’m lying on my bed listening to Craig David’s “I’m walking away.” On repeat. What’s happened to me? Haven’t I decided to wear the hijab because I feel proud of who I am? Suddenly I’m too chicken to go to a café? I don’t recognize myself. I’m the one who put her head out the school bus last year and yelled at a group of boys who threw a can of Coke at our “wog” school bus. It was me who stood up during a Year Nine interschool debate and told the audience that my team didn’t appreciate the other team’s whispers about competing against “terrorists”. When we were at the medical clinic and the secretary asked Leila if she could cope with filling out a form in English, it was me who pointed out that Leila’s never set foot out of Australia and can manage an A+ average in Eng Lit, and then some. So if that’s all me, then who’s this girl who’s making up excuses to avoid going out to a café? randa abdel-fattah

Randa Abdel-Fattah (1979–) grew up in Melbourne, Australia. She is a lawyer, writer and human rights activist with a Palestinian and Egyptian background. She regularly visits schools to talk about social issues and her novels. Her novels have been published in over 15 countries. In 2011 she was given the Role Model of the Year Award in Australia.

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IN SHORT

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force her: tvinge bald skallet/skalla horrified skrekkslagen/skremd shower dusje per cent prosent gossip sladre tart terte chicken out være for feig/vere for feig excuse unnskyldning/orsaking recognize gjenkjenne/kjenne att

Amal is a high school student living in Australia. She has a MuslimPalestinian background. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. What will her class say? “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt,” Amal answers. “No!” Kristy is horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Hey! Amal!! Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?” “I’ve gone bald,” Amal answers. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” Everybody is asking Amal about her decision. They all seem interested to hear what she has to say. Then Adam, a boy she really likes, joins the rest of them. “So, it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” Adam has seen women who cover their faces, and wants to know if they are Muslim too. Amal says that they are, but that girls will wear the hijab differently. It depends on their culture. “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks. “Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.” Simone and Eileen want Amal to go to the Lounge Room, a trendy café where they often hang out. They usually gossip, eat strawberry tart and talk about school and parents. Amal says she will go with them, but she chickens out. She phones her friends and makes up an excuse. She lies. Amal has decided to wear the hijab because she is proud of who she is, but now she doesn’t recognize herself.

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Read and understand 3.22 • Who says what in the story? Amal

Adam

Kristy

Tim

Eileen

a Did your parents force you?

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b My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt. c I was invited to the wedding. d What’s the deal with that thing on your head? e I’ve gone bald. So, it’s your choice then?

g One hundred per cent. h Wow … so how come it looks different on you? Will you ever cover yours?

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Nah! No way.

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3.23 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a What is Amal’s cultural background? b Amal is a high school student. What year is she in? c What has she decided to wear to school? d How does Amal feel when her class start asking questions? e What reason does Amal give when Kristy asks? f What reason does she give when Tim Manne asks? g Why does Adam think it looks different on her? h What does Amal say about being a Muslim and covering her face? i Where do Simone and Eileen want to go later that night? j Why doesn’t Amal go with them?

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Speak

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3.24 Discuss in pairs or small groups. a Read the classmates’ reactions and questions again. Do you think Amal handles the situation well? Explain. b Put yourself in Amal’s situation. Would you have gone to the café? Explain why or why not. c How do you think Amal’s friends will react when she doesn’t show up at the café? d Amal feels bad about lying to her friends. What kind of advice would you give her, so that she doesn’t have to come up with more lies?

Practise

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3.25 Match the verbs from the text with the correct Norwegian translations. 1 å fornærme A to wear 2 å tvinge B to cover 3 å ha på seg C to insult 4 å takle, klare D to confront 5 å kjenne igjen E to interpret 6 å nærme seg F to recognize 7 å dekke til G to approach 8 å konfrontere H to cope 9 å innrømme I to force 10 å tolke J to admit

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3.26 Use the verbs in exercise 3.25 to complete the sentences. Each verb should be used only once. a When you put on a hijab, you your hair. b Amal decided to a hijab to school. c Her classmates soon came up to her to her about her choice. d Amal was pleased that they had the guts to her to find out what was going on. e Most of her classmates did not mean to her. f Muslim girls are going to the hijab rules differently. g Amal’s friend can with filling out a form in English. h When Amal decides not to go to the café, she doesn’t quite herself. i Amal did not want to to herself that she was worried. j In Amal’s case, no one had tried to her to wear the hijab.

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3.27 Identify the adverbs in each sentence. What do the adverbs describe? a Amal proudly wears a hijab to school. b Immediately, her classmates approach her to see what is going on. c Fortunately, nobody insults her. d Amal said that Muslims interpret the hijab rules differently. e Not everyone thinks Amal is easily recognizable with her hijab on. f She copes well with all the staring and weird questions. g The hijab covers Amal’s hair completely. h Reluctantly, Amal admits that she was a bit nervous. i The classmates specifically ask about her choice. j Amal suddenly makes up excuses to tell her friends.

Write

3.28 • Imagine that you are Amal’s best friend, and you know she is insecure about wearing the hijab to school. Write a text message to Amal to support and encourage her.

3.29 •• Would you say there is peer pressure at your school when it comes to clothing styles? Write 2–3 paragraphs in which you express your opinion.

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3.30 ••• Your school has decided to make rules for what students can and cannot wear. All forms of religious clothing and symbols will be forbidden. Write a text in which you argue for or against the new rules.

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3.31 In many films or TV series, the main characters deal with personal challenges, often because of cultural conditions or differences. Have a brainstorming session in class to find examples of such films or series. In small groups, search for more information about one of them. Prepare a two-minute talk where you explain what kind of personal challenges and cultural conditions this film or series is about.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the story is about YES

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express my opinion and give advice YES

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give examples of personal and cultural challenges YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS When you build a paragraph, follow these four steps:

Write a topic sentence.

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The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph, and lets the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence can be a statement or a question.

Write at least one supporting sentence.

A supporting sentence comes after the topic sentence. Supporting sentences give facts, details and examples to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. There is usually more than one supporting sentence in a paragraph.

Write a closing sentence.

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The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It repeats the main idea of your paragraph but using different words. It can also answer a question asked in the topic sentence. Study this model paragraph:

Being active is important for your physical and mental health.

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Topic sentence

First of

all, physical activity will improve your heart and lung capacity and reduce the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes. Second, it is great for reducing

Supporting sentences

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stress and anxiety, and it makes you sleep better. Finally, research shows

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Closing sentence

that an active lifestyle also helps improve concentration and memory. Therefore, it is recommended that you find time for at least one hour of activity every day.

Link your sentences and paragraphs together When you write a paragraph, use sentence connectors. They are the glue that holds your sentences and paragraphs together, and help the reader follow your arguments. They also show contrast, or how ideas are related to each other. Here are a few examples of sentence connectors.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Giving more examples

Emphasis

Showing contrast

first of all

in addition

in fact

on the other hand therefore

second

moreover

actually

however

consequently

then

furthermore

indeed

nevertheless

as a result

next

similarly

in other words

in spite of

in conclusion

finally

also

namely

on the contrary

thus

Practise

Showing result

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Listing ideas

3.32 Which sentence connectors were used in the model paragraph on the previous page?

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3.33 Fill in suitable sentence connectors in the open spaces. a Kirsty seems to be quite clever. , she often gets low marks. b The service at this restaurant is excellent. , the food is delicious. c I’ve never been to Egypt, having relatives there. d Adam is a careful driver. , he’s had several accidents. e Eileen scored a lot of goals for her team last season. , she was voted “Most Valuable Player”. f Amal is a talented painter. her favourite subject at school is Art. g There is no more food left. there are plenty of drinks. h They had worked on the problem for hours. , they found the solution.

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3.34 Place these sentences in the right order to make a paragraph. a One reason for stress is that teenagers often have to make early decisions about school, careers and work. b For some teenagers, this change can be stressful, whereas others take it in their stride. c In fact, many teenagers feel that their school grades decide their whole future, and for some that can feel like a lot of pressure. d Another reason may be that they feel pressure or expectations from family, friends or media to fit in or take on a certain role. e Although stress is not necessarily a bad thing, it becomes a problem when there’s too much of it or it goes on for too long. f The teenage years are a time of growth and change, physically, mentally and socially. g Therefore, it is important to ask for help if it gets too much. h In addition, not all teenagers know how to cope with the stress and sometimes think nobody else has the same experience.

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Before you start What does it mean to be addicted to something? What types of addiction can you think of?

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My Strange Addictions

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The smell of death and bags of pee filled my nose as I laid in silence on a crunchy plastic sheet. I was nineteen and once again found myself in an emergency room hospital bed on a Sunday morning. I was used to this by now, considering I had been there at least six times already that year. Before I get into why I treated the ER like a rich person’s vacation home, I want to give you some backstory about an issue I’ve had my whole life. I’m addicted to everything. I know a lot of people say they have a “chocolate addiction” because they get an extra scoop of ice cream for dessert, or they have a “shoe addiction” because they have one too many pairs of Skechers Shape-ups. (Yes, I actually own those. Don’t judge me.) I am severely addicted to everything I see or touch that gives me some sense of joy. Luckily I’m not addicted to my Skechers Shape-ups. Those were murder on my calves and didn’t give me the ass they promised in the commercial. When I was a kid I became addicted to food, and not in the typical way kids do, but in a Hoover-vacuum-sucking-up-everything-in-its-path kind of way. I wouldn’t just eat an Oreo, I would eat the whole box and then move on to something else. I remember at one point running out of real food, so I started eating condiments and spices. You haven’t lived till you’ve had ketchup pepper soup. Every time I would go to a friend’s house I couldn’t even focus on the

pee urin sheet laken emergency room (ER) legevakt scoop her: kule severely alvorlig/alvorleg Hoover vacuum støvsuger/ støvsugar condiment tilbehør/tilbehøyr spice krydder

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games we were playing because I was thinking about what was in their kitchen. AIMS When my mom and I would take trips to the store she would have to drag me out of there because I would k explain what the essay is about just stand in the aisle and stare at every single product. k speak and write about forms of If I could have I would have eaten the entire store, clerks addiction and baggers included. I’m not above cannibalism. k share thoughts on how to convey When I was seventeen years old I had a pretty rough important messages experience that made me want to lose all my weight and lose it fast. I was with all my friends at an amusement park and we were going to ride the newest extreme roller coaster. I hadn’t ridden a roller coaster since I was a kid, so I was super pumped to get thrown around by a machine and then vomit into a trash can filled with cotton candy wrappers afterward. As I made my way onto the ride I realized that the seat belt wasn’t big enough to go around my waist. I had a full-on panic attack. How could this be? I was fat but I wasn’t “that fat.” Well, turns out I was. One of the workers walked over and escorted me off the ride. All my friends watched as I burst into tears and was taken to the exit. That was one of the worst days of my life, and even thinking about it now makes me feel like vomiting into an amusement park trash can. That experience sent me into overdrive. I lost 150 pounds in less than a year by eating nothing but chicken and doing nothing but running. I aisle midtgang stopped hanging out with friends, and I stopped being able to have a normal stare stirre, glo/stire, glo conversation with anyone because all I wanted to talk about was weight loss clerk butikkansatt/butikktilsett and health. bagger en som pakker varer i While I was losing the weight I became addicted to something that was poser/ein som pakkar varer i more harmful than any typical drug. I became addicted to the artificial sugar posar called Splenda. Now I know this is going to sound insane, and I’m sure you amusement park aren’t going to fully believe me, but at my peak I was eating over 250 packets fornøyelsespark/tivoli of Splenda a day. That’s enough to last a normal person over a year. That’s roller coaster berg- og dalbane vomit kaste opp, spy 250 times more than any human should consume, considering one of the trash can søppelkasse ingredients in Splenda is the same ingredient used in pool-cleaning products. cotton candy sukkerspinn I started using Splenda in everything. I put it in my cereal, on my waist midje vegetables, in my iced tea, and even directly into my mouth. After two years escort følge or so I got up to two full boxes a day, which added up to about 250 packets. pound 0,45 kg I started talking about it on my YouTube channel, and kids would send artificial kunstig packets to my PO box. Boxes and boxes were kept stored in my powderpeak topp covered garage. It looked like I was involved in some kind of drug-smuggling consume innta, konsumere/ operation. ete, konsumere The overdose of Splenda mixed with my unhealthy diet of chicken and cereal her: frokostblanding/ vegetables (and nothing else) brought me to the hospital six times in one frukostblanding year. My life was on a downward spiral, and I couldn’t get a grip on it. I was downward nedadgående/ constantly passing out from dehydration and having intense panic attacks nedovergåande that my doctor believed were side effects from too much artificial sugar and pass out besvime/svime av dehydration uttørring/uttørking too much caffeine. My family was always concerned but there was nothing poison gift they could say to me to change my mind. I loved that sweet poison, and I SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 111


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didn’t care about the side effects. At one point my skin even started to turn yellow, and not in a cute fake-tanner way, in a HOLY-SHIT-WHY-IS-THATGUY-YELLOW way. Which leads me to this specific trip to the ER, which changed everything. It was a hot summer day in Florida, and my family and I were hanging out at Disney World. I had never been there, so I was ready to see what all the hype was about. I had my huge iced tea with fifty Splendas mixed in and was ready to take on the day. The thing about Florida that I wasn’t aware of is that they have occasional summer rainstorms. The rain started sprinkling and my hair started frizzing. I started having a panic attack because I could feel the hot Florida air entering my lungs and sucking out all the moisture. My heart started racing because I knew that soon I was going to pass out. I ran to the bathroom because I figured it would be air-conditioned. My brother followed me inside. Brother: Dude, are you ok? Me: I just need air. I need cold air. The bathroom didn’t have airconditioning so he started splashing cold water from the sink on my face. This is when things began to get foggy, and I don’t remember much of what happened next. I got so dehydrated that I went a little crazy and started acting like a child star having a breakdown in front of TMZ cameras. My brother told me later what happened and it went something like this. Me: I think the devil is in me! Brother: What?? Me: He’s in me!! I want him out!!!! So I guess I took down my pants and hopped into the cold-water-filled sink and started screaming obscenities. Me: GET HIM OUT OF ME!!! I’M GONNA SHIT HIM OUT!!!! My mom rushed in and saw me having a total mental breakdown, so she called 911. The next thing I knew I was waking up in a hospital room with Disney characters all over the walls. I thought I was in hell. As I lay in the hospital bed I looked over and saw my mom asleep in the chair next to me. She looked so tired. The doctor walked in with a clipboard and a concerned look on his face. Doctor: Hello, Shane. Me: Hey. What’s going on? Doctor: So you had a little bit of an episode, didn’t you? Me: I don’t remember. Oh God, did I kill someone? My mom always said I reminded her of one of those kids who could snap one day. Doctor: No, you passed out. You were severely dehydrated, but don’t worry, we are giving you lots of fluids. Me: Oh. Ok, that’s fine. Doctor: Fine? Me: Ya, it happens all the time. I pass out like once a month pretty much. The ER by my house and I are friends on MySpace. Doctor: Why do you pass out? How is your diet? Me: Um … not great. Doctor: I’d like you to tell me. I want to understand what’s going on here. Me: Well … I eat ok. Chicken and veggies. It’s the fake sugar that’s kind of a situation.

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side effect bivirkning/biverknad occasional sporadisk, noen ganger/sporadisk, nokre gongar frizz kruse moisture fuktighet/fukt foggy tåkete TMZ amerikansk underholdningskanal/ amerikansk underhaldningskanal sink vask obscenity griseprat, slibrighet/ slibrige historier concerned bekymret/bekymra fluid væske

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gallon 3,78 liter (US), 4,55 liter (UK) inch 2,54 cm malfunction slutte å fungere, bryte sammen/ bryte saman recipe oppskrift starve sulte raging her: ukontrollert

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Doctor: How much fake sugar are you eating? Me: Two hundred fifty packets a day. Usually a couple gallons of iced tea. Sometimes a twelve-pack of diet soda. The expression on his face will forever be burned on my brain. Me: I know. It’s pretty bad. Doctor: You need to get off that ASAP. It’s extremely bad for you. How much water do you drink? Me: I swallow some by accident when I brush my teeth? Doctor: Shane, I’m going to share something with you that I haven’t even told your family. When you came in here today you were so dehydrated that you were inches away from slipping into a coma. If you had waited a few more hours to come in you would probably be in one right now. Me: Oh my God. Really? Doctor: Your entire insides were drier than a potato chip. Your brain was malfunctioning, which is why you were sitting in a public sink trying to shit out the devil. Me: WHAT? Doctor: It’s serious, Shane. Really, really serious. That hit me hard. It wasn’t just about me anymore, it was about everyone in my life. From that moment forward I decided to get off the packet once and for all. But I want to be clear: it wasn’t just the fake sugar that was causing me to go to the hospital. It was everything related to it. It was drinking gallons of iced tea every day because it tasted so good with Splenda in it. Iced tea is insanely dehydrating. Combine that with the fact that I hadn’t had actual water in a year, and you get a recipe for coma. I also wasn’t eating right and hadn’t been for a long time. I would starve myself and then go on binges and eat crazy amounts of frozen yoghurt and ranch dressing. Not together. I’m mentally sick but not that sick. So I started changing my diet and got on a normal routine, but the road hasn’t been easy. At twenty-six years old I still struggle every day with my addictions. All I want to do is get a big gallon of ice cream and lie in bed all day and watch Netflix, but I can’t. I don’t want my addictions to rule my life. This is a huge reason why I don’t drink or do any kind of drugs. I can’t imagine what my life would be like if I tried cocaine. I’m sure my house would be super clean and I’d be way funnier to hang out with, but the side effects wouldn’t be worth it. I think one day I might be able to have just one packet of Splenda and be ok, or have just one drink and not turn into a raging alcoholic. But. I’m not there yet. Right now I’m just living one daily vlog at a time. Did I mention I’m addicted to YouTube? shane dawson

Shane Dawson (1988–) is an American YouTuber, author, musician, comedian, actor and media personality. This essay is from his bestselling book, I Hate Myselfie, which was published in 2015. His YouTube channels have over 5 billion views, but he has also received criticism for the controversial contents of some of his videos and statements.

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Read and understand

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3.35 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a When Shane Dawson was a kid, he was addicted to … b When he was 17, he realized that … c To lose weight, he lived on a diet of … d Shane ate 250 packets of … e His body was dehydrated because … f In a bathroom at Disney World, Shane had a … g At the hospital, Shane was told he was inches away from … h At the age of twenty-six, Shane still struggles …

3.36 •• In your own words, explain what type of addiction Shane had and what happened to him.

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3.37 ••• Answer the following questions. a Name some things and activities Shane Dawson has been addicted to. b Describe what made him start his diet and the effect it had on him. c What happened at Disney World and what caused this reaction? d What did Shane realize about his life after the conversation with the doctor? e At the end of the essay, does it seem like Shane is in control of his addictions? Explain. f What kind of narrative techniques does the writer use in this text? Find examples and explain their effect on the reader.

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3.38 Discuss the following questions in pairs, then share your views in class. a How did Shane Dawson’s addiction affect his behaviour? b In the essay you have just read, Shane Dawson uses humour when he describes his addiction. Do you think this is a good way to reach an audience about a serious problem? c It is also possible to become addicted to gaming, gambling and social media. How is this similar to or different from a drug addiction, or an eating disorder, for example?

Practise

3.39 Translate the following words into English. Practise spelling and pronouncing the words correctly. a avhengighet e væske b spiseforstyrrelse f besvime c sammenbrudd g vekttap d bekymret h akuttmottak

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Write

3.40 • Write one paragraph where you share your opinion of the text “My Strange Addictions”. Is it an important text for young people to read? Explain.

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3.41 •• Choose one addiction and make a poster for an awareness campaign. Think of a catchy slogan, select relevant information to be presented on the poster, and find a suitable illustration.

Explore

3.42 Shane Dawson has been diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder. Use reliable sources to find information on this disorder and its symptoms.

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3.43 Search online for the video where Shane Dawson talks about his life with body dysmorphic disorder. After watching, discuss to what extent such videos can be relevant and maybe even helpful for young people.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

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speak and write about forms of addiction YES

3.44 Search online for the song “Unwell” by Matchbox Twenty. Listen to the song and sum up how the speaker describes himself/herself and what you think the message is.

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It’s a Wonderful, Digital World?

Teens say social media help build stronger friendships and that they become exposed to a more diverse world, but they also express concern that social media lead to conflicts, drama and social pressure.

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Before you start How active are you when it comes to social media? a How much time do you spend online per day? b Who do you follow? What is it about them that interests you?

Today, almost all teens around the world spend a considerable amount of time online, especially on social media platforms. Not surprisingly, many say they sometimes feel overwhelmed by all the drama on social media, and that they often experience pressure to show only positive images of themselves. At the same time, they credit social media with several positive outcomes, including creating new friendships, exposing them to different opinions

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about.

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In a recent survey among US teens, 81 % say they feel more connected to their friends when using online platforms to communicate and share content. As many as 68 % say using social media makes them feel as if they have emotional support when times are tough. In addition, 69 % of the teens in the survey say they interact with more diverse groups of people through their online activities than they would in real life. Gaming, for example, lets players interact and socialize while playing, thus creating large communities of people from many different backgrounds. As most teens know, however, social media can also become a social burden. Some feel pressure to post content that will get many likes and comments, or to be included in the most popular groups. Others may be concerned about presenting the “right” image of themselves online. In fact, recent research from Britain shows that many young people feel the need to have multiple social media profiles in order to show different images to different groups of people. Furthermore, they choose to show their “real self” only to a circle of close friends and in a carefully controlled manner. Surveys show that cyberbullying has increased significantly in recent years. According to a British report,

the number of teens who AIMS say they have been bullied on k describe positive and negative aspects of social media social media has doubled in k extract information from statistics just two years. k make a survey Not even the most popular celebrities have been spared. Selena Gomez is one of the most followed stars on Instagram. Although she receives hundreds of positive messages on each post, the negative comments have forced her not to use the app so much. “You can’t avoid it sometimes,” she said to a newspaper. “I delete the app from exposed to utsatt for/utsett for diverse mangfoldig/mangfaldig my phone at least once a week.” concerned bekymret/bekymra Singer Ed Sheeran has also revealed considerable betraktelig/ that he has been affected by online betrakteleg haters. “I’ve actually come off Twitter overwhelmed overveldet/ completely. I can’t read it. I go on overvelda it, and there’s nothing but people credit her: gi ære saying mean things,” he said in an outcome resultat cause her: sak interview. recent nylig/ nyleg Although research shows there survey undersøkelse/ are many benefits to being active on undersøking social media, most young people content her: innhold/innhald also acknowledge the challenges interact samhandle/snakke of growing up in the digital age. saman, samarbeide Bullying is certainly not new to teens. thus og dermed burden byrde Yet, with an increased number of research forskning/forsking apps, channels and networks for multiple flere/fleire communication, it has become more manner her: måte difficult to avoid or escape, even for cyberbullying nettmobbing the most popular. significantly betydelig/

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and expressing themselves. They also claim social media help people their age learn about topics they are interested in and causes they care

betydeleg reveal avsløre affected påvirket/påverka acknowledge erkjenne, anerkjenne

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IN SHORT

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overwhelmed overveldet/ overvelda image bilde opinion mening/meining topic emne, sak recent nylig/nyleg survey undersøkelse/ undersøking emotional følelsesmessig support støtte interact samhandle/snakke saman, samarbeide diversity mangfold/mangfald burden byrde research forskning forsking cyberbullying nettmobbing increase øke/auke celebrity kjendis spared spart, skjermet/skjerma force her: tvinge mean her: slem benefit fordel escape slippe unna/sleppe unna

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Today, almost all teens around the world spend a lot of time online, especially on social media platforms. Many say they feel overwhelmed by all the drama on social media and pressure to show only positive images of themselves. At the same time, they can make new friends on social media, and hear different opinions. They also say social media help people their age learn about topics they are interested in. In a recent survey among US teens, 81 % say they feel more connected to their friends on online platforms. As many as 68 % say using social media gives them emotional support when times are tough. In addition, 69 % of the teens in the survey say they interact with a greater diversity of people online than they would in real life, for example through gaming. As most teens know, social media can also become a social burden. Some feel pressure to get many likes and comments on their posts, or to be included in the most popular groups. Others worry about presenting the “right” image of themselves. In fact, research from Britain shows that many feel they need to have more than one social media profile, and only choose to show their “real self” to close friends. Surveys show that cyberbullying has increased a lot in recent years. Not even the most popular celebrities have been spared. Selena Gomez receives hundreds of positive messages on her posts, but the negative comments have forced her not to use the app so much. “You can’t avoid it sometimes,” she said to a newspaper. Singer Ed Sheeran has also talked about online haters. “I’ve actually come off Twitter completely. I can’t read it. I go on it, and there’s nothing but people saying mean things,” he said in an interview. Research shows there are many benefits to being active on social media, but there are also challenges. Bullying is not new to teens, but all the apps, channels and networks for communication make it more difficult to escape.

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Read and understand

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3.45 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a Many teens say they feel b They often feel pressure to c However, they also say social media can d As many as 68 % say e Social media can also become f Others are concerned about presenting g Surveys show that cyberbullying h Not even the most popular

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3.46 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What positive outcomes of social media are mentioned in the article? b What does the US survey say about how teens experience communicating online? c How can gaming benefit players’ social life, according to the article? d In what ways can social media become a social burden? e What did British researchers discover about cyberbullying? f What has been Selena Gomez’s and Ed Sheeran’s experience with social media? 3.47 ••• Chose ten keywords from the article. Use the words to write a summary or a short informative text.

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3.48 Discuss the following questions. a Have you experienced cyberbullying yourself, or do you know someone who has? b What would you do if you discovered cyberbullying? Do you have a responsibility? c What kind of sanctions do you think should be used to stop cyberbullying? d You have probably read comment sections to people’s posts or news items. Do you think everyone should be allowed to say what they want in a public forum?

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3.49 Study the graph “Online gaming builds stronger connections with friends”. a What percentage say they feel more connected to friends they already know? b Describe the difference between playing with friends you already know and people you aren’t friends with yet. c How many say they feel happy and relaxed? d Are there more teens who say they feel angry and frustrated than who say they don’t feel happy and relaxed? e Would you say that these statistics support the claim that online gaming builds stronger connections with friends?

Online gaming builds stronger connections between friends % of teens who play online with others and feel...

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More relaxed and happy

More angry and frustrated

Yes, a lot

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Practise

3.50 Compare the following adjectives. See the Language Lab section for information on adjectives. Example: happy – happier – happiest a responsible e many b positive f considerable c good g young d bad h difficult

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3.51 Change the following adjectives into adverbs. e careful a responsible f considerable b positive g fast c digital h significant d good

Write

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3.52 • How and why do you use social media? Write one paragraph. Study “Structuring Paragraphs” in this chapter for advice.

3.53 •• Ten years from now, what do you think we will use the Internet for? Write a short text. Study “Structuring Paragraphs” in this chapter for advice.

Explore

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3.54 Make your own survey. Perhaps you want to find out if there are differences between boys and girls, or between students in different classes. Here are some questions you might want to explore. a How many hours are spent online per week? b What types of online activities are most common? c How do students feel about using social media? d Which are the most popular online games? e What forms of cyberbullying have been experienced or witnessed?

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3.55 Watch and listen to the poem «To this day» performed by spoken-word artist Shane Koyczan on YouTube or TED.com. a What is the message of the poem? b How does the artist communicate his message to us, the audience? Comment on his choice of words, intensity and emotions, use of graphics and sound. c What is the effect of using the spoken-word format for this kind of message?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss positive and negative aspects of social media YES

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extract information from statistics YES

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make a survey YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS USING FORMAL AND INFORMAL LANGUAGE

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Choosing the right style of language when you speak or write is important. Sometimes you need to change the way you speak or write in various situations or to different people. For example, you expect a certain style when reading a serious news article. You probably don’t have the same expectations when reading a text message from a friend.

Decide whether it is a formal or informal situation. Decide what genre your text is going to be.

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If we know what genre a text belongs to, it is easier to decide what style of language to use, formal or informal. Here are some examples of genres: • letters • plays • reports • advertisements • instruction manuals • blogs • novels • text messages • song lyrics • articles • short stories • discussions (written or oral)

Decide who your audience is.

If you are speaking to a group of teenagers, you may use a less formal style of language than if you are writing a job application.

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Choose a style of language that suits the situation, genre and audience. If it is a formal situation:

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• Avoid contracted words. Write words out in full, for example “there is” and “will not”. • Use few or no abbreviations of words. • Avoid slang words, strong expressions and swearing. Some things are OK to say, but not to write. • Write complete sentences. Also try to vary sentence structure.

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If it is an informal situation: • You may use contractions and abbreviations of words. Some examples of contractions are “there’s” and “won’t”. • Abbreviations like “phone” instead of “telephone” are accepted. • There may be slang and colloquialisms, but always avoid swearing. • Sentences can be simpler and shorter.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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3.56 Look at this dialogue. Is this style of language right for a job interview, for example? Why or why not?

3.58 What style of language do you expect to find in the following types of text? • an instruction manual • a blog • a job advertisement • a letter of complaint • a party invitation to a friend’s birthday • an accident report • an entry in a comment section on social media

“How do you do, Mr Moore?” “Not bad. You OK, dude?” “Thank you, I am quite well. Please, have a seat.” “Aw, thanks, man.” “So, why have you applied for the job?” “Well, it looks like a really cool company, kinda.”

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3.57 Explain the difference between these two short texts. Comment on the choice of words, spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, contractions and abbreviations.

3.59 Match the formal and the informal expressions. Practise using the expressions with a partner. 1 to help A to request 2 to put off B to contact 3 to ask for C to assist 4 to get in touch with D to verify 5 to say E to postpone 6 to check F to express

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Example 1 You know that test we were cramming for last week? Guess what – I flunked! Now I’m gonna have to work my butt off if I wanna pass this subject.

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Example 2 This is to inform you that your test results are not up to the required standard, and you will therefore not receive a passing grade. If you wish to achieve a passing grade in this subject, I would suggest that you consider preparing more thoroughly for your next test.

3.60 The passive voice is used when the focus is on the action and not who or what is behind it. The passive voice is often used in academic writing, science, politics or other formal settings. Compare: Mistakes were made. Mike and Ella made several mistakes. Rewrite the sentences using the passive voice. a The doctor told Shane to stop eating artificial sugar. b The principal accused one of the students of cyberbullying. c Someone handed in a written complaint. d The new boss introduced a number of new regulations.

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Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda

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Simon Spier is a sixteen-year-old high school student who is not openly gay. He has found a friend online, who goes by the name “Blue” and who goes to the same school. They have confided in each other anonymously by email for months and have developed a crush on each other. However, their emails are accidently read by another student, Martin, who blackmails Simon and eventually decides to out him on the school’s gossip channel on Christmas Eve. In the excerpt you are about to read, Simon comes back to school with his sister Nora after the holidays.

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It’s the first day back at school, and I honestly consider spending the entire day in the parking lot. I can’t explain it. I thought I would be fine. But now that I’m here, I can’t seem to get out of the car. I feel a little sick thinking about it. Nora says, “I really don’t think anyone is going to remember.” I shrug. “It was on there for, what, three days? And that was over a week ago.” “Four days,” I say. “I don’t even think people really read the Tumblr.” We walk through the atrium together just as the first bell is ringing. People are stampeding and pushing down the main stairs. No one seems to pay any particular attention to me – and for all of Nora’s reassurances, I can see that she’s as relieved as I am. I move with the crowd, working my way towards my locker, and I think I’m finally starting to relax. A couple of people wave at me like normal. Garrett

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from my lunch table nods and says, “What’s up Spier?” I toss my backpack into my locker and pull out my AIMS books for English and French. No one has slid any homophobic notes into the slats of my locker, which is k explain who and what the story is about good. No one’s etched the word “fag” into my locker yet either, which is even better.” I’m almost ready to believe k identify and use informal language that things have gotten a little better at Creekwood. Or k discuss ethical dilemmas that no one saw Martin’s Tumblr post after all. k review a film Martin. God, I don’t even want to think about having to see his stupid evil face. And of course he’s in my first fucking period. I guess there’s still this quiet pulse of dread when I think about seeing Martin again. I’m just trying to breathe. As I’m walking into the language arts wing, this football guy I hardly recognize almost runs directly into me coming down the stairs. I step back to ready myself, but he puts his hand on my shoulder and looks me right in the eye. confide in betro seg til/ “Why, hello there,” he says. tru seg til blackmail utpressing “Hi … ” excerpt utdrag Then he grabs me by the cheeks and pulls my face in like he’s going to entire hele/heile kiss me. “Mwah!” He grins, and his face is so close I can feel the heat of his shrug trekke på skuldrene breath. And all around me, people laugh like fucking Elmo. atrium atrium, åpen plass i I yank my body away from him, cheeks burning. “Where are you going, bygning/atrium, open plass i Spier?” someone says. “McGregor wants a turn.” And everybody starts bygning laughing again. I mean, I don’t even know these people. I don’t know why in stampede her: strømme, skynde seg/strøyme, skynde seg God’s name this is funny to them. reassurance forsikring In English class, Martin won’t look at me. But all through the day, Leah relieved lettet/letta and Abby are like freaking pit bulls, throwing down the stink-eye in all locker bokskap directions whenever anyone even looks at me funny. I mean, it’s really pretty nod nikke sweet. And it isn’t a total disaster. Some people sort of whisper and laugh. toss kaste And a couple randomly give me these huge smiles in the hallway, whatever slat sprekk that means. These two lesbian girls I don’t even know come up to me at my etch risse inn evil ond/vond, slem locker and hug me and give me their phone numbers. And at least a dozen dread frykt straight kids make a point of telling me that they support me. One girl even cheek kinn confirms that Jesus still loves me. Elmo figur fra Sesame Street/ It’s a ton of attention. It kind of makes my head spin. Everything seems to go well until Simon goes to rehearsal for his play in the afternoon. He is harassed by a couple of students who show up to taunt him, but his teacher and two of his friends immediately take action. Then, after watching a bit of soccer practice, Simon is ready to head home. So, maybe it’s the winter air or maybe it’s soccer boy calves, but after everything that’s happened today, I’m actually in a pretty decent mood. Until I get to the parking lot. Because Martin Addison is leaning against my car.

figur frå Sesame Street yank her: rykke stink-eye ondt blikk/vondt, slemt blikk disaster katastrofe dozen dusin (12) rehearsal øving harass plage taunt spotte, være spydig/ vere spydig

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apology unnskyldning knuckle knoke progressive framskrittsvennlig/ framstegsvennleg rip me a new one her: kjefte på meg humiliate ydmyke/audmyke sob hulke sigh sukke

“Where have you been?” he says. I wait for him to move. I mean, I don’t even want to look at him. “Can we talk for a second?” he asks. “I don’t have anything to say to you,” I say. “Okay, well.” He sighs, and I can actually see his breath. “Simon, just – I seriously owe you an apology.” I just kind of stand there. He stretches his arms forward, cracking his knuckles under his gloves. “God, I’m just. I’m just so sorry. What happened in there. I didn’t know that would – I mean, I didn’t think people still did shit like that.” “Right, who’d have guessed? Because Shady Creek is just so progressive.” Martin shakes his head. “I just seriously didn’t think it would be such a big thing.” I don’t even know what to say to that. “Look, I’m sorry, all right? I was pissed off. The whole Abby thing. I wasn’t thinking. And then my brother basically ripped me a new one, and I was just … I just feel like shit, okay. And I deleted those screenshots ages ago. I swear to God. So can you please just say something?” I mean, I almost start laughing. “What the fuck do you want me to say?” “I don’t know,” he says. “I’m just trying –“ “Okay, how about this? I think you’re an asshole. I think you’re a huge fucking asshole. I mean, don’t even fucking pretend you didn’t know this would happen. You blackmailed me. This was – I mean, wasn’t that the whole goddamn point? Humiliating me?” He shakes his head and opens his mouth to reply, but I cut him off. “And you know what? You don’t get to say it’s not a big thing. This is a big fucking thing, okay? This was supposed to be – this is mine. I’m supposed to decide when and where and who knows and how I want to say it.” Suddenly, my throat gets thick. “So yeah, you took that from me. And then you brought Blue into it? Seriously? You fucking suck, Martin. I mean, I don’t even want to look at you.” He’s crying. He’s trying not to, but he’s seriously, full-on crying. And my heart sort of twists. “So can you just step away from my car,” I say, “and leave me the fuck alone?” He nods, puts his head down, and walks away quickly. I get in my car. And turn it on. And then I just start sobbing. becky albertalli Becky Albertalli (1982 – ) is an award-winning American writer who lives in Atlanta. She is also a psychologist who has worked with teenagers. Simon vs The Homo Sapiens Agenda is her first novel. It has been translated into many different languages, and a popular film adaptation called Love, Simon was released in 2018.

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Read and understand

3.61 • Choose the correct alternative. a The main character in this text is 1 Martin. 2 Abby. 3 Simon.

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b He is 1 openly gay. 2 not openly gay. 3 straight.

c He was outed to the whole school by 1 one of his fellow students. 2 his anonymous email crush. 3 his sister Nora.

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d On his first day back after the school holidays, he 1 was bullied by most of the other students. 2 realized that nobody had seen the Tumblr post. 3 received a lot of support from his friends.

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e After school, Martin was waiting in the parking lot because 1 he wanted to apologize to Simon. 2 he wanted to talk about Abby. 3 he thought Simon had overreacted about the whole thing.

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f Simon says that 1 he forgives him. 2 Martin is an asshole. 3 he is going to get revenge.

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3.62 •• Answer the following questions. a Who is “Blue” and how does Simon know him? b Why is Simon anxious about going back to school? c What was he expecting to see at his locker? d Explain what happened when Simon ran into the football guy. e How does Martin behave when Simon finds him waiting for him after school? f Why doesn’t Simon believe Martin when he says he didn’t understand the consequences?

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Speak

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3.63 ••• Find evidence in the text to support the following statements. Write down your answers in full sentences. a Simon was expecting comments and harassment when coming back to school. b His first day was both good and bad. c All the attention he is given makes Simon confused. d Simon feels betrayed by Martin’s actions. e Martin seems to be genuinely sorry for what he did. f Simon is more hurt by what happened than he admits.

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3.64 Discuss in pairs, and then share your views in class. a How do you think Simon felt when he discovered someone had read his private emails and spread the information? How would you feel if it happened to you? b How do you think Simon handled the situation when Martin wanted to apologize? c What do you think of the way Simon’s friends handled the situation? d What would you do if one of your friends were in the same situation as Simon?

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3.65 There are many examples of informal language in the text. Explain what the following expressions mean and rewrite them in more formal language. a “I was pissed off.” b “… my brother basically ripped me a new one.” c “I just feel like shit, okay.” d “You fucking suck, Martin.” e “Leah and Abby are like freaking pit bulls, throwing down the stinkeye in all directions whenever anyone even looks at me funny.” 3.66 Adjective or adverb? Find the mistakes and correct the sentences. a Simon is quite nervously about going back to school. b He had communicated anonymous by email with another boy from his school. c Nobody is paying any particularly attention to him. d Suddenly, a football guy is running direct into him in the hallway. e Martin starts crying in the parking lot and walks away quick.

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Write

3.67 • “I’m supposed to decide when and where and who knows and how I want to say it,” Simon says to Martin. Who has the right to spread private information about other people? Write one paragraph where you express your opinion.

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3.68 •• Friendship is an important theme in this novel. Based on the excerpt you have read, write a text where you explain how Simon’s friends supported him. Also describe what friendship means to you.

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3.69 Watch the film adaption of the novel Love, Simon. a At the beginning of the film, we hear Simon’s voiceover, saying he has “a huge-ass secret.” Why does he resent having to come out at all, and how does he imagine it should be for straight kids? b Choose one character you think is interesting. Describe this character’s personality, using statements and actions to support your description. c In one scene, Simon’s mother says to him “You can exhale now, Simon.” Describe Simon’s family and the relationship he has with his parents. Use scenes from the film as examples. d The identity of “Blue” is not revealed until the end. Did you guess who it was? Are we given any clues? Is Simon surprised? e “Love, Simon is filled with humor–in its characters, dialogue, and situations–but it doesn’t sacrifice emotional depth,” one critic wrote in his review of the film. Do you agree? Explain why or why not. f How would you review the film? Make a short video where you express your opinion.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain who and what the story is about YES

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identify and use informal language YES

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discuss ethical dilemmas YES

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review a film YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 129


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

Assess your progress

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3.71 Choose three of the texts you have studied in this chapter. a What were the aims of each of the texts? b Which aims do you think you master well? c What would you like to improve? Explain why and what you think you will have to do.

3.72 Pick one task you have worked on in this chapter. What did you learn? How can you use this when working on future tasks? 3.73 Structuring paragraphs a What is a topic sentence? b How many supporting sentences should there be in a paragraph, at the least? c What do supporting sentences do? d Give examples of at least five sentence connectors. e How does the use of sentence connectors improve your text?

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3.70 After working with Chapter 3, it is time to revise what you have learnt. a Give examples of challenges and ethical dilemmas you have read about in this chapter. b Mention some things young people worry about. c What would you say is the message of the poem “Look”? d Which novel extracts have students as the main characters? e Give examples of different types of addictions. Explain how Shane Dawson’s addiction affected him. f Describe some of the benefits and challenges of being active on social media.

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3.74 Using formal and informal language a What is the difference between formal and informal language? Give examples. b In what situations do you use formal language? c Give examples of when you can use informal language. d Mention three decisions you have to make before choosing the appropriate style of language. e For what types of text do we often use the passive voice?

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills b •• A number of celebrities are known for their addiction to alcohol or drugs. Write at least three paragraphs in which you discuss celebrities’ lifestyle and to what extent they are role models for young people. You may want to include the following points:

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3.75 Speak a • Choose one of the texts from this chapter. Explain to a partner what the text is about and what you liked or disliked about it.

b •• Which of the texts you have studied in this chapter has the most informal language, and which text has the most formal language? Use examples from the texts to support your arguments. How does the style of language affect you as a reader or listener?

• examples of celebrities who you think are positive or negative role models • how they might influence young people • the media focus on celebrities • the celebrities’ need for and right to privacy

c ••• Write a text in which you discuss the advantages and challenges of living in a digital age. Your text should have:

3.76 Write a • Write one paragraph for each of the following topic sentences. Make sure your paragraphs have supporting sentences and a closing sentence. Also try to use sentence connectors.

• a short introduction • one paragraph on the advantages • one paragraph on the challenges • one paragraph where you state your opinion • a conclusion

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c ••• Compare the challenges the characters are facing in at least two of the novel extracts from this chapter. How are they similar? What are the differences? Point to examples in the texts to support your arguments. Discuss in groups.

• Smartphones can be useful in the classroom. • There are many different kinds of addiction. • Gaming and social media can improve your English.

You may also want to check “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 for advice.

SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 131


CHAPTER 4

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Citizens


In this chapter you will focus on k social conditions k democracy k racism and other crimes k structuring texts k selecting sources

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k prepositions

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Useful words and phrases

echo chamber fake news manipulation activism election civil rights movement law enforcement protest ethnic minority empowerment

How can you influence society? How do you decide which sources you can trust? <<4 sider>>

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Iconic Images

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A good photograph can tell a whole story in a split second. Therefore, news articles almost always include pictures. Readers and viewers are bombarded with information every hour of the day, so most news stories are forgotten. Still, many photos make a lasting impression. Some of these are later found in history books because of the way they impacted people’s opinions and civic engagement, and even governments’ decisions. Here are some examples of photos that have become iconic. Study the pictures and the events they illustrate.

Ku impression inntrykk impact påvirke/påverke opinion mening/meining civil engagement samfunnsengasjement civil rights borgerrettigheter/ borgarrettar plesiosaurus svaneøgle supposedly angivelig/påstått hoax bløff

Photographer: Robert Wilson

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Photographer: Angelo Cozzi

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Photographer: Neil Armstrong

The whole world was watching as the first human beings set foot on the Moon in July 1969. The photo shows one of the American astronauts, Edwin (“Buzz”) Aldrin, walking on the Moon’s surface. Television was new at the time, but even so, the images were spread faster than ever before.

134 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS

The fight for civil rights in the US continued through the 1960s. Successful athletes took the opportunity to show their support internationally. This photo shows gold and bronze medal winners Tommie Smith and John Carlos raising their hands in a black power salute at the Olympics in Mexico City in 1968. It was an inspiration for many to keep up the fight. The belief that a plesiosaurus-like monster lives in Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands dates back at least 1500 years. Many people claim to have seen it. A British doctor, Robert Wilson, supposedly took this picture. It was published in the newspaper Daily Mail in 1934 and sparked huge international interest. The photograph was later proved to be a hoax, but the hunt for the Loch Ness Monster continues to this day and it has become an important tourist attraction.


AIMS k discuss photos and how they can

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influence opinion k suggest suitable captions k write about photographs

The Beatles released Abbey Road in 1969. It was the last album the band would record before it split up. The picture for the front cover shows the four band members on a zebra crossing near the studio. A policeman held up traffic while the photographer took the picture from the top of a stepladder. Abbey Road Studios is now a listed building, and there is an online webcam recording everything that goes on at the zebra crossing in Abbey Road.

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The war in Vietnam had been going on for many years. In June 1972, a load of napalm was dropped on the village of Trang Bang. The picture shows children running in terror and pain from the village. The photo became a symbol of how civilians suffer the consequences of war. It helped to change people’s opinion about the Vietnam War and led to the withdrawal of US troops. The Vietnam War finally ended in 1975.

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Photographer: Nick Ut

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Photographer: Unknown

On 11 September 2011, two passenger airplanes crashed into two skyscrapers in Manhattan, New York. This was part of a terror attack carried out by Islamic extremists. The towers were part of the World Trade Center complex. The images from the incident went viral and had a lasting impact on people around the world.

zebra crossing fotgjengerfelt/ fotgjengarfelt stepladder gardintrapp listed her: vernet/verna webcam webkamera incident hendelse/hending lasting varig civilians sivilbefolkning suffer lide consequences konsekvenser/ konsekvensar withdrawal tilbaketrekking

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Read and understand

4.1 • Combine the sentence halves. Write down the complete sentences. A Readers and viewers are bombarded B Therefore, news articles almost always C Most news stories are forgotten,

1

but some photos have a lasting impact. 2 a whole story in a split second.

D A good photo can tell

4 because of the way they influenced governments’ decisions. 5 with information every hour of the day. 6 become iconic.

include pictures.

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E Photos are sometimes later found in history books F Some photos even

4.2 •• Make headlines from the jumbled words and combine them with the correct pictures. Headline

a b

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Hit Twin Passenger Planes Towers Walk the Successful Moon on Bombs Civilians in Vietnam Hit Napalm with Is the Monster this Loch Ness? The Last on the Front of the Album they Cover Recorded Beatles by Political Afro-American Statements Shown Athletes

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4.3 ••• Write down five questions to what you read in the text about iconic images. Then work with a partner. Take turns asking the questions and suggesting answers.

Practise

4.4 Explain these expressions in English. Use a dictionary if necessary. a televised event g civic engagement d spark interest b impact h withdrawal e civilians c opinion i hoax f go viral

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Speak

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4.5 Study the photos on the previous pages again, in pairs. Focus on one picture at a time and ask each other the following questions: a What do you see in this picture? b How does the picture make you feel? c Why do you think this photograph made a lasting impression on the public? 4.6 Shocking pictures help newspapers sell well and generate more clicks. Which ethical problems arise when pictures of suffering people are published? Discuss in class.

Write

4.7 • Suggest captions for the three photos to the right. For each caption, explain why you think it is suitable. 4.8 •• Write the lead to match one of the photos to the right. Feel free to make up facts about the incident in the photo.

Explore

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4.9 ••• Write a short news article to accompany one of the photos to the right. Use your imagination to describe the situation and context in which the photo was taken. Choose a suitable headline for your article, and a caption for the photo.

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4.10 Visit newseum.org and study the front pages of today’s newspapers. Choose one picture that catches your attention. Prepare a short presentation of this picture. Share in class. See “Sharing information” in Chapter 1 for advice on how to show and tell.

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4.11 Choose a piece of music that you like. Find the album cover. Present your piece of music and show how the album cover, in your opinion, reflects the music on this album.

Did you know?

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suggest suitable captions

The naked girl in the photograph on the previous page is Phan Thi Kim Phuc. She suffered severe burns in this attack and almost died. In 1997 she set up the Kim Phuc Foundation, which aims to give psychological support and medical help to children who are victims of war. Phan Thi Kim Phuc lives in Canada and is a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador.

YES

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write about photographs YES

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!

Before you start Where do get your news? Do you always trust your news providers to tell you the truth? Discuss in pairs.

Nothing on This Page is Real

IRUS V R E T COMPU MANS U H O T S SPREAD

s World, Pope Francis Shock p for Trum Endorses Donald s Statement President, Release

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ATLANTIS FOUN

NYPD: Hillary Clinton “Pedofile Sex Tape” About To Be Release d

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D

138 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS


[…]

“We live in an Idiocracy,” read a small note on Blair’s desk, and he was taking full advantage. In a good month, the advertising revenue from his website earned him as much as $ 15,000, and it had also won him a loyal army of online fans. Hundreds of liberals now visited America’s Last Line of Defense to humiliate conservatives who shared Blair’s fake stories as fact. […] “How could any thinking person believe this nonsense?” he said. He hit the publish button and watched as his lie began to spread.

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Now he hunched over a desk, […] scanning through conservative forums on Facebook for something that might inspire his next post. […] He noticed a photo online of Trump standing at attention for the national anthem during a White House ceremony. Behind the president were several dozen dignitaries, including a white woman standing next to a black woman, and Blair copied the picture, circled the two women in red and wrote the first thing that came into his mind.

again at the picture. The AIMS white woman k explain what the article is about was not in k use words related to information fact Chelsea and fake news Clinton. […] k share information on fake news and The black fact-checking sites woman was not Michelle Obama. […] Neither Obama nor Clinton had been invited to the ceremony. Nobody had flipped off the president. The entire premise was utterly ridiculous, which was exactly Blair’s point.

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NORTH WATERBORO, Maine The only light in the house came from the glow of three computer monitors, and Christopher Blair, 46, sat down at a keyboard and started to type. […] Waiting online was his other community, an unreality where nothing was exactly as it seemed. […] “Nothing on this page is real,” read one of the 14 disclaimers on Blair’s site, and yet his stories had become real, reinforcing people’s biases, […] amassing an audience of as many 6 million visitors each month who thought his posts were factual. What Blair had first conceived of as an elaborate joke was beginning to reveal something darker.

“President Trump extended an olive branch and invited Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton,” Blair wrote. “They thanked him by giving him ‘the finger’ during the national anthem. Lock them up for treason!” Blair finished typing and looked

[…] It was barely dawn in Pahrump, Nevada when Shirley Chapian, 76, logged onto […] her Facebook news feed. […] She put her finger on the mouse and began scrolling down. “Click LIKE if you believe we must stop Sharia Law from coming to America before it’s too late,” read the first item, and she clicked “like.” “Share to help END the ongoing

monitor skjerm community fellesskap disclaimer ansvarsfraskrivelse/ ansvarsfråskriving reinforce forsterke bias forutinntatt holdning/ fordomsfull handling amass samle conceive of komme på elaborate her: utspekulert hunch sitte sammenbøyd/ sitte samanbøygd stand at attention stå i givakt dignitary viktig person extend an olive branch her: strekke ut en hånd/strekke ut ei hand treason landssvik premise premiss, forutsetning/ føresetnad ridiculous latterlig/latterleg revenue inntekter humiliate ydmyke/audmjuke dawn daggry

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migrant invasion!” read another, and she clicked “share.”

“Is Michelle Obama really dating Bruce Springsteen?”

[…]

Blair had invented thousands of stories in the past two years, always trafficking in the same stereotypes to fool the same people, but he never tired of watching a post take off: Eight shares in the first minute, 160 within 15 minutes, more than 1,000 by the end of the hour. […] “Aaaaand, we’re viral,” he wrote, in a message to his liberal supporters on his private Facebook page.

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“Iowa Farmer Claims Bill Clinton had Sex with Cow during ‘Cocaine Party.’ ” […]

Chapian looked at the photo and nothing about it surprised her. Of course Trump had invited Clinton and Obama to the White House in a generous act of patriotism. Of course the Democrats – or “Demonrats,” as Chapian sometimes called them – had acted badly and disrespected America. It was the exact same narrative she saw playing out on her screen hundreds of times each day, and this time she decided to click ‘like’ and leave a comment. “Well, they never did have any class,” she wrote.

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The house was empty and quiet except for the clicking of her computer mouse. She lived alone, and on many days her only personal interaction occurred here, on Facebook. Mixed into her morning news feed were photos and updates from some of her 300 friends, but most items came directly from political groups Chapian had chosen to follow. […] Each political page published several posts each day directly into Chapian’s feed, many of which claimed to be “BREAKING NEWS.” […] “BREAKING: Democrat mega-donor accused of sexual assault!!!”

in the background were two women, one black and one white. “President Trump extended an olive branch and invited Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton,” the post read. “They thanked him by giving him ‘the finger’ during the national anthem.”

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Chapian didn’t believe everything she read online, but she was also distrustful of mainstream factcheckers and reported news. It sometimes felt to her like real facts had become indiscernible – that the truth was often somewhere in between. What she trusted most was her own ability to think critically and discern the truth, and increasingly her instincts aligned with the online community where she spent most of her time. […] “I’m not a conspiracy-theory-type person, but. . .” she wrote, before sharing a link to an unsourced story suggesting that Democratic donor George Soros had been a committed Nazi, or that a Parkland shooting survivor was actually a paid actor. Now another post arrived in her news feed, from a page called America’s Last Line of Defense, which Chapian had been following for more than a year. It showed a picture of Trump standing at a White House ceremony. Circled

140 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS

By the standards of America’s Last Line of Defense, the item about Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton was only a moderate success. It included no advertisements, so it wouldn’t earn Blair any money. It wasn’t even the most popular of the 11 items he’d published that day. But, just an hour earlier, Blair had come up with an idea at his computer in Maine, and now hundreds or maybe thousands of people across the country believed Obama and Clinton had flipped off the president. “Gross. Those women have no respect for themselves,” wrote a woman in Fort Washakie, Wyo.


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assault overgrep distrustful mistroisk/mistruisk indiscernible umulig å skille fra hverandre/umogleg å skilje frå kvarandre align with være på linje med/ vere på linje med conspiracy konspirasjon, sammensvergelse/ samansverjing unsourced som mangler kilde/ som manglar kjelde narrative fortelling/forteljing shunned utstøtt/utstøytt prominently tydelig/tydeleg pseudo-patriotic liksompatriotisk demote degradere offensive støtende/ støytande rerun her: publisere på nytt intentionally med hensikt

[…] “Jail them now!!!”

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Blair had fooled them. Now came his favorite part, the gotcha, when he could let his victims in on the joke. “OK, […] here’s your reality check,” he wrote on America’s Last Line of Defense, placing his comment prominently alongside the original post. “That is Omarosa and Hope Hicks, not Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton. They wouldn’t be caught dead posing for this pseudo-patriotic nationalistic garbage … Congratulations, stupid.”

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“They deserve to be publicly shunned,” said a man in Gainesville, Fla.

Beyond the money he earned, this was what Blair had conceived of as the purpose for his website: to engage directly with people who spread false or extremist stories and prove those stories were wrong. Maybe, after people had been publicly embarrassed, they would think more critically about what they shared online. Maybe they would

Blair didn’t have time to personally confront each of the several hundred thousand conservatives who followed his Facebook page, so he’d built a community of more than 100 liberals to police the page with him. […] Blair said he and his followers had gotten hundreds of people banned from Facebook and several others fired or demoted in their jobs for offensive behavior online. He had also forced Facebook to shut down 22 fake news sites for plagiarizing his content, many of which were Macedonian sites that reran his stories without labeling them as satire. What Blair wasn’t sure he had ever done was change a single person’s mind. He had begun to include more obvious disclaimers at the top of every post and to intentionally misspell several words in order to highlight the idiocy of his work, but still traffic continued to climb. Sometimes he wondered: Rather than of awakening people to reality, was he pushing them further from it? SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 141


“Well, they never did have any class,” commented Shirley Chapian, from Pahrump, Nev., and Blair watched his liberal followers respond. […] “You’re a gullible moron who just fell for a fake story on a Liberal satire page.” […]

Chapian recoiled from the screen. “Please!” she said. “If I had a kid in a school system like that, I’d yank them out so fast.” She had seen hundreds of stories on Facebook about the threat of sharia, and this confirmed much of what she already believed. It was probably true, she thought. It was true enough. “Do people understand that things like this are happening in this country?” she said. She clicked the post and the traffic registered back to a computer in Maine, where Blair watched another story go viral and wondered when his audience would get his joke.

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“Welcome to the internet. Critical thinking required.”

classroom. “California School children forced to Sharia in Class,” it read. “All of them have stopped eating bacon. Two began speaking in Allah. Stop making children pray to imaginary Gods!!”

[…]

By Eli Saslow, Washington Post, November 17, 2018 (abridged version)

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Instead of responding directly to strangers on America’s Last Line of Defense, Chapian wrote on her own Facebook page. “Nasty liberals,” she said, and then she went back to her news feed, each day blending into the next. A Muslim woman with her burqa on fire: like. […] Hillary Clinton looking gaunt and pale: like. A military helicopter armed with machine guns and headed toward the caravan of immigrants: like. […] A picture of undocumented immigrants laughing inside a voting booth: like. “Deep State Alive and Well”: like.

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She scrolled upon another post from America’s Last Line of Defense, reading fast, oblivious to the satire labels and not noticing Blair’s trademark awkward phrasings and misspellings. It showed a group of children kneeling on prayer mats in a

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gullible godtroende/ godtruande gaunt mager caravan karavane, stort følge av reisende/stort reisefølgje voting booth stemmeavlukke oblivious uten å legge merke til/ utan å legge merke til trademark varemerke phrasing formulering awkward klønete recoil skvette yank trekke, røske confirm bekrefte

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eli saslow

Eli Saslow (1982–) is an American journalist. He writes for the Washington Post. In 2014 he won the Pulitzer Prize. He has also published books about American society and has won several other awards for his writing.

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Read and understand

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4.12 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a He noticed a picture/photo/text online of Trump standing at attention for the national anthem during a White House ceremony. b Lock them up for murder/disrespect/treason! c She lived alone, and on many days her only personal interaction/ intervention/interrogation occurred here, on Facebook. d It included no commercials/advertisements/advertising, so it wouldn’t earn Blair any money. e Maybe they would begin to question/doubt/examine the root of some of their ideas. f “You’re a stupid/gushing/gullible moron who just fell for a fake story on a Liberal satire page.” g It showed a group of children/kids/adolescents kneeling on prayer mats in a classroom. h It was probably untrue/true/correct, she thought.

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4.13 •• Complete these sentences with information from the text. a Christopher Blair scanned through conservative forums on Facebook to find . b Blair invented a fake story claiming that . c Shirley Chapian lived alone, and on many days . d Chapian didn’t believe everything she read online, but . e Apart from the money he earned, the purpose of Blair’s website was to engage directly with people who . f Blair had built a community of more than 100 liberals to . g Blair had forced Facebook to . h To make people aware of the fact that his stories were not true, Blair had begun to include .

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4.14 ••• Give at least one example from the text of the following. a How Christopher Blair communicates to his readers that the stories he posts are untrue. b How Christopher Blair has profited from his website America’s Last Line of Defense. c The kind of stories that Shirley Chapian reads and believes to be true. d How the story about Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton confirms what Shirley Chapian already believes. e The kind of response Christopher Blair gets from people who think what he writes is true. f How Blair and his followers have forced people to face the consequences of offensive behavior online. g The kind of language mistakes Christopher Blair deliberately makes so people will understand that his stories are fake. h How people such as Shirley Chapian read Christopher Blair’s posts and believe them anyway. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 143


Practise

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4.15 Choose five of the expressions below. Write a sentence for each of them to show that you understand what they mean. Look up words you are not sure of and make a note of your source. Do you trust this source? Why? a idiocracy b satire c breaking news d conspiracy theory e deep state f echo chamber g confirmation bias h mainstream fact-checkers

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4.16 Visit a fake news or satire website and study the stories you find there. Some examples are naturalenews.com and theonion.com. Work in pairs and discuss the following questions: a What does the website claim has happened? b What could make you believe that the stories might be true? c What makes you realize that these stories cannot be true? d If these stories had been posted on a news website, would you have thought they reported the truth? Why?/Why not?

Write

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4.17 • Fill in the missing words and write out the text. biz – URL – accurate – digital tools – faked – believe – disagree – context – fake news – check Fake news There are many kinds of (a) The first is stories that are lies. They have been made up to make people (b) something that is not true. The second kind are stories that are not (c) , but contain some truth. Some people use the term ‘fake news’ about news that they (d) with. If you wonder whether a news item is true or not, there are some things you should (e) . If it contains spelling mistakes or strange sentences, this might mean that you should double-check the story. You should also check the (f) . If it is something like infonet or (g) , you could be right in thinking that the story might not be true. Pictures can also easily be (h) and this can be difficult to see. If you are not sure, you can use various (i) to check if an image has been used in the wrong (j) or altered in some way.

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7 Types of Mis- and Disinformation Misleading Content

Imposter Content

Fabricated Content

No intention to cause harm but has potential to fool

Misleading use of information to frame an issue or individual

When genuine sources are impersonated

New content that is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm

J

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Satire or Parody

INCREASING INTENT TO DECEIVE

False Connection When headlines, visuals or captions dont’t support the content

Source: https://www.pnas.org/content/114/48/12631

False Context

When genuine content is shared with false contextual information

Manipulated content

When genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive

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4.18 •• What advice would you give to Shirley Chapian when she reads her news feed? Make a list of important things for her to remember so she will not be fooled again.

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4.19 ••• Use your imagination and write a short fake news story. Find a picture to illustrate your story or use digital tools to manipulate a photo.

Explore

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4.20 Study the infographic on this page. Choose at least two types of misor disinformation. Research and find one example of each. Present your examples in class.

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the article is about YES

4.21 Visit a fact-checker website, such as Full Fact, Snopes, PolitiFact or Fact Checker. Which news stories do you find here? Have you read or heard about any of them before? How can a fact checker be a useful tool for you?

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How did you do?

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use words related to information and fake news YES

ALMOST

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share information on fake news and fact-checking sites YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SELECTING SOURCES

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Most students look for information online for their projects, papers and presentations. But unlike some traditional sources of information, such as books and magazines, the content you find online is not necessarily checked or approved before it is published. So how do you know that the information is reliable and relevant? Here is a guideline for selecting sources.

Be focused. Think through what kind of information you need for your task. Don’t let yourself be tempted to jump from topic to topic.

Narrow your search. Use the search engine’s tabs for documents, images, news, maps or videos. If you use quotation marks, e.g. “American news media”, the search engine will search for the whole phrase and thus generate a more relevant result, instead of providing millions of hits for all three words in random order.

Is the information relevant? Be critical. Does your source add useful information

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to support an argument or illustrate a point? Also check when the information was published. Many websites are not updated and the information you find may not be relevant any more.

Is the information reliable? Who has published the information? If you cannot find this

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on the site itself, it may not be very serious. The URL may also give you some idea of who is behind a site. Also ask yourself why this information was published and who the target group is.

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.com is a commercial server .gov is a governmental or public server .edu is usually an educational institution .org is an organization .no is a Norwegian site

Cross-check your information with at least one other source. If the information differs considerably, cross-check with more sources or discard the source as unreliable.

Refer to your sources. Remember that someone else has the copyright to material you are using. This also includes illustrations, encyclopaedia entries, films and online videos, speeches, interviews, blogs, podcasts and broadcasts. Do not simply copy and paste into your own work. See “Referring to sources” in Chapter 8 for more information.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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4.22 Answer the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. a Would you use a blog to find facts for a project on birth control? b Would you use a Wiki site to find information about political parties? c Would you use a website with the url.edu to help you find facts about population statistics? d Would you use a website with the URL.org to find information on fake news? e Would you trust a website with a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes? f If you were researching gun violence in the USA, would you trust information from the official website of the National Rifle Association? 4.23 Look up the following news providers online and study the top headlines. Rank the websites from the one that has the most sensational clickbait news to the one you think seems the most trustworthy. Discuss your results in class. d Infowars e BBC f Reuters

g The Guardian h Al Jazeera i Addicting Info

j Fox News k PBS l The Huffington Post

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a The Economist b USA Today c CNN

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4.24 Suggest at least three reliable and relevant sources for each of the following topics. a studying in the UK b the history of Brexit c the presidency of Donald Trump d organised crime in the USA

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4.25 Does the domain, i.e. the last element of the Internet address, say anything about the reliability of the website? Discuss in class, then find out what these domains stand for. d .in e .za f .au

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a .mil b .net c .ru

Note! Wikipedia may be a good starting point when exploring a new topic, but you should remember that the information is provided by volunteers who are not necessarily experts on the subject. It is not considered a reliable source on its own.

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AIMS k explain the main content of this

Boy A

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novel excerpt k use words and expressions related to crime k discuss society’s reaction to perpetrators of crime

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As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. This crime created massive media interest and public outrage. Jack has spent most of his life in different institutions. Now, at the age of 24, he has just been released with a new identity, new surroundings and a new job with the firm DV transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Jack has moved in with landlady Kelly, made friends with coworker Chris, who picks him up for work in the mornings, and fallen in love with the office-girl Michelle. At the point where we enter the story, Kelly is working the night shift, Michelle has disappeared and Jack’s boss Dave calls him to say that he needn’t come to work. Jack doesn’t understand at first and thinks it is because of some stock that has been stolen …

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‘Jack?’ ‘Yes!’ ‘We’re not going to need you at work for the moment. Well …’ he tails off. ‘What do you mean?’ ‘Don’t come in today.’ ‘Don’t come in until … unless … if, I ask you to. It’s not good for the business.’ ‘What’s this about, Dave?’ Jack is aware of the desperation in his voice. ‘Is it the stock? It’s not me, I haven’t taken a thing.’ ‘You know what it’s about. I’m sorry but that’s the end of it. I don’t wish to continue this discussion.’ ‘Dave,’ Jack says, ‘Dave?’ But the line is dead.

!

Before you start a In English, explain what the term “age of criminal responsibility” means. b Do you know what the age of criminal responsibility is in Norway? Do you know what it is in England? If not, find out.

guilty skyldig horrible fryktelig/frykteleg released her: løslatt/lauslaten public outrage offentlig forargelse/offentleg forarging case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past fortid landlady utleier, vertinne/ utleigar, vertinne coworker kollega disappear forsvinne tail off her: bli stille stock her: varer

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panic button trygghetsalarm/ tryggingsalarm pager personsøker/ personsøkar saliva spytt hover bevege seg over do time sitte i fengsel pick-up her: henting engaged her: opptatt tremulous skjelvende/ skjelvande quiver bevre/bivre, skjelve spew out bryte ut notch hakk squirm her: lure seg hallway gang, entré deserted forlatt/forlaten, forlate pre-dawn før soloppgang squalid ussel ominous illevarslende/ illevarslande devoid of helt uten/heilt utan determined bestemt

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He puts his work clothes on anyway, not sure why, perhaps because they are lying ready for him over the chair. He can’t understand what just happened. He doesn’t want to believe the most obvious explanation for Dave’s behaviour: that he knows; somehow he knows. Jack clips the panic button/pager to his belt, and slides it round his hip, to beneath his right hand. Swallowing saliva as he realizes what he is admitting to himself. That he believes today he might need this machine. He is tempted to press it straightaway. He actually flips up the screen cap, and his finger hovers over the button. But that would be crazy. As freaked out as he is, he has to stay rational. How would Dave know? He’d be the last one to know. He’s got his head up his own arse most of the time. It’s much more likely that it’s to do with the stolen stock. He’s bound to be the first suspect; Dave knows he’s done time. He’ll wait until half seven or eight, and then phone Terry. He sits down on the sprawl of his unmade bed. Maybe he’d better call Chris now, though, tell him not to bother with the pick-up, in case he doesn’t know. Find out what Dave’s told him, if he does. Chris is engaged constantly. It’s 6:57 when Jack finally makes the connection. He pours out about being told not to come in, before Chris has a chance to open his mouth. ‘I know,’ Chris says coldly. ‘Dave’s given me the day off.’ ‘Is it the stock?’ Jack asks. ‘It’s you Jack, or whoever you are. It’s about you. How could you? I mean why? I mean what the fuck?’ Chris’ voice is tremulous now, you can almost hear his lip quivering. But then he spews out in total rage: ‘Have you hurt her? Just tell me that, have you hurt Michelle?’ ‘No, never, I couldn’t. What’s happened, have they found her?’ ‘Read the fucking paper. Read the Sun. I’ve already had them phone me this morning. ‘His anger drops a notch, or at least his voice does. ‘All the lies. How could you? How could you keep that up? How could you just squirm your way into our world? I’d tell you I’m done with you. But then, I don’t know who the fuck you are anyway.’ He puts the phone down. Jack is left standing in the hallway, with the buzz of his handset in his ear. Hearing this from Chris is like being beaten with his birthday present. But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. He needs to know what they’ve written. Peering through the window of Kelly’s room, he sees that the streets are still deserted. Grey with grimy pre-dawn light, looking squalid, ominous, but at least devoid of life. He can run down to the paper shop in less than a minute. Jack gets his dv cap from the drawer, a hat that has helped him escape detection before, and pulls it down hard with determined hands. He scans the street once more from Kelly’s window, and then again from the front room, before he walks stiff-legged to the door. Every muscle is tense as he twists the Yale lock. He realizes he has no money, and lets it click back into

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cautiously forsiktig momentum fart blur gjøre utydelig/gjere utydeleg vision syn wheely-bin søppelkasse concealment skjulested/ gøymestad succession rekkefølge/ rekkefølgje crouch down bøye seg ned topple vakle pus-green gulgrønn/gulgrøn illuminate opplyse letterbox brevsprekk

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the clasp of the frame, while he dashes upstairs to get his wallet. He has to do this while he still has the nerve. He checks the panic button is still to hand and that he has his keys, before he opens the door again. Cautiously, studying the road, he lets it close behind him. He has just raised his right leg to provide the starting momentum for his run when the first flash catches him. It blinds him, blurring his vision, leaving an imprint on his eyes. He raises his hand to block out the light, as another flash comes from the same spot behind a wheelybin in the neighbour’s dark alley. It’s joined by a second bulb from a similar concealment across the street, then a third. All now firing in rapid succession. He turns and tries to force his key back into the lock. It won’t fit. They must have stuffed something in the hole to keep him out here. ‘Have you got anything you want to say?’ a man shouts. ‘Put your side before they all get here.’ Jack crouches down with his face to the door, and presses the panic button on the pager. Three or four times he pushes it, sinking it as hard as he can. Until the end of his finger bends back and the pain shoots him off it. He starts to topple in towards the door, losing his balance. His left hand goes out automatically to hold him off it. Clutched in his white fingers is the wrong key he’s been trying. With both palms he slides himself up the towering pus-green wood. The flashes, which are close around him now, parade how much his hand is shaking. It appears at different points around the lock, illuminated by this hateful personal strobe show. The key bounces off the lock’s metal surround, but this one fits. The door opens to let Jack fall into the hallway. One final explosion from a long-barrelled Canon hits his face, before he pushes the lens away and forces the threshold shut. They try and lift the letterbox. But he slams his elbow against it to keep it closed. His head collapses into the crook of the same arm. Only his will is holding them back …

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IN SHORT

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As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. Jack has spent most of his life in prison. Now he is 24. He has just been released. He has a new identity and a new job with the firm dv transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Things are going well for Jack. He has made friends at work. He is in love with office-girl Michelle. But Michelle has disappeared and no one knows where she is. One morning his boss, Dave, calls him. He tells Jack that he doesn’t need to come to work any more. Jack cannot understand how Dave has found out about him. Jack tries to call his coworker Chris. Chris usually picks Jack up in the mornings, but today it isn’t necessary. Chris’s phone is busy. At last, Chris answers the phone. Chris has been given the day off, too. It is because the media has found out about Jack. Chris is very angry. He wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. Jack says he hasn’t.

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Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. He looks out of a window, but the streets are dark. He starts to leave the house, but he is blinded by the flash of a camera. Jack tries to get back into the house, but the key doesn’t fit. Lots of photographers are hiding in the street. They take pictures of Jack. He has a panic button, but Terry doesn’t answer it. Jack finds the right key and manages to unlock the door. He gets into the hallway. He forces the door shut behind him, but the photographers are still outside …

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guilty skyldig horrible fryktelig/frykteleg released her: løslatt/lauslaten case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past fortid office kontor disappear forsvinne understand forstå coworker kollega blinded blendet/blenda hide gjemme seg/gøyme seg panic button trygghetsalarm/ tryggingsalarm unlock låse opp hallway gang, entrè force tvinge

jonathan trigell

Jonathan Trigell (1974–) is a British writer. His first novel, Boy A, was highly praised by critics and has won several awards. A film adaptation of the novel was released in 2007.

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Read and understand

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4.26 • Place these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the “in short” version of the text. a Chris wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. b Jack tries to call Chris, but his phone is busy. c Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. d Jack is blinded by the flash of a camera. e Jack’s boss calls him to say he doesn’t need to come to work. f Jack manages to get back into the house and forces the door shut. g Jack says he hasn’t hurt Michelle. h Finally, Chris answers the phone.

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4.27 •• Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the original version of the text. a Jack decides to call Chris to tell him that he doesn’t need to pick Jack up for work. b Jack suspects that Dave knows about his past, but cannot understand how that has happened. c Jack leaves the house, only to find that the street is full of press photographers. d Jack decides to go out and buy a newspaper to see what they have written about him. e Dave says that Jack doesn’t need to come to work because it is bad for the business. f Jack clips his panic button onto his belt and realizes that today he might need it. g Chris tells Jack that his phone has been busy because he has been talking to the press. h Jack puts on his work clothes.

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4.28 ••• Explain these words and expressions from the text in your own words. a The line is dead. b As freaked out as he is. c He’s got his head up his own arse. d Dave knows he’s done time. e He pours out about being told not to come in. f But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. g He has to do this while he still has the nerve. h Put your side before they all get here.

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Practise

4.29 Write down the word that fits each definition. Look up words you don’t know. theft – robbery – kidnapping – homicide – assault – arson – blackmail – fraud – hijacking – hooliganism Stealing something from someone. The use of threats or violence to take control of a plane. Killing someone. Stealing money, usually from a bank or shop, by using violence. Destroying somebody’s property on purpose. Taking somebody away by force to get money for returning them. Illegally getting money from someone by tricking them. Getting money by threatening to tell secrets about someone. Deliberately setting fire to something, usually a building. The crime of attacking someone.

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a b c d e f g h i j

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4.30 The following expressions are known as phrasal verbs. They consist of verbs with prepositions. First, make sure you know what they mean, then use each of the phrasal verbs in sentences of your own. a be angry with b agree on c argue about d run into e turn down f break out g take off h fall apart i go after j hold onto

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Speak

4.31 Discuss these questions and sum up your opinions. a Do you think that the purpose of a prison is to punish, or should it be a place where people who have made bad choices can be rehabilitated? b It has been claimed that Norwegian prisons are more like hotel rooms and do not punish criminals at all. Do you agree? c When you hear or read about crimes in the news, how are they presented? How can media coverage influence our opinions on crime? If you can, give examples to support your views.

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Write

4.32 • What is the last crime you can remember reading or hearing about in the news? What happened and who was involved? Make a list of facts. 4.33 •• What do you think the age of legal responsibility should be? Write one paragraph and give reasons why.

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4.34 ••• Should people who were convicted of crimes when they were children be allowed to start a new life with a new identity when they are grown up? Or does the community have a right to know? Write a text in which you discuss this.

Explore

4.35 Boy A has been made into a film. Watch the film and write a short review.

4.36 The novel Boy A is loosely based on the James Bulger case. Find out what happened to him in 1993. How were the two young criminals treated? What kind of debate did this crime cause?

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4.37 Many people enjoy watching television series about true crimes. a Find examples of such television series. Choose one. b What types of crimes are featured in the series? c How are the crimes, the ones who committed them and their victims portrayed? d What is the purpose of such television series? e Why do you think they have become so popular with viewers?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the main content of this novel excerpt YES

ALMOST

NO

use words and expressions related to crime YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss society’s reaction to perpetrators of crime YES

ALMOST

NO

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FACT FILE THE UK FACT Football

The Workshop of the World

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In the 1800s many important inventions were made in Britain. It also had some of the world’s largest reserves of coal to drive the new machines. Many factories were built to produce textiles, iron and steel which could be exported to other countries.

Football is the most popular team sport in the world. The London Football Association created the first rules in 1863 and football became an Olympic event in 1908. But actually, football was invented by the Chinese more than 2000 years ago.

By 1921, the British Empire covered more than 37 million square kilometres. It had a population of between 470 and 570 million people, which was about one quarter of the world’s population at the time. After World War II the British Empire gradually fell apart, but many of the former colonies still choose to remain part of the Commonwealth of Nations.


FILE THE UK FACT FILE Brexit

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On June 23 2016 a referendum was held in the United Kingdom. The question was whether the UK should leave the European Union or remain a member state. More than 30 million people turned out to vote. 51.9 % of these wanted to leave. In Scotland 62 % of the voters wished to remain EU members. In Northern Ireland there was a majority of 55.8 % in favour of remaining. After much political debate and negotiations, the UK left the EU on 31 January 2020.

n

The British Empire United Kingdom Eire

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Canada

Newfoundland

Bermuda

Belize

Cook Isl. Tonga

Pitcairn

Bahamas

Gibraltar

Malta

Palestine Iraq Trans Jordan Kuwait Indian Empire Trucial Oman

Hong Kong Gold Nigeria Coast The Gambia Br. Somaliland Sudan Bruneii Ceylon Uganda Sierra N. Borneo Papua Gilbert & Malaysia Maldives Leone Liberia Rwanda New Ellice Is. Singapore Sarawak Kenya Br. Guiana Guinea Cameroon Tanganyika Seychelles Zanzibar Solomon Ascension Chagos Cocos Is. Rhodesia Nyasaland Is. Archipelago St. Helena New Southwest Bechuanaland Hebrides Mauritius Australia Africa Tristan da Swaziland Fiji Is. Cunha Basutoland Gough Is. South Africa Falkland Is. New Zealand

Jamaica

UK facts

Official name: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Size: 244,820 square kilometres Population: 66,959,016 Geography: 4 regions: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland Capital: London Scotland: Edinburgh Wales: Cardiff Northern Ireland: Belfast Government: Constitutional monarchy. Parliament Head of state: Queen/King National day Wales: March 1, St David’s Day Northern Ireland: March 17, St Patrick’s Day England: April 23, St George’s Day Scotland: November 30, St Andrew’s Day Currency: pound sterling Agriculture: Cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, fish Important industries: Machine tools, electric power equipment, shipbuilding, oil and gas production Popular sports: Football, golf, rugby, cricket, athletics, tennis and swimming


FACT FILE THE UK FACT AIMS

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k give some examples of British politics and culture k describe Britain’s influence in the past k sum up background information about the United Kingdom

Read and understand

Shetland Islands Orkney Islands Hebrides SCOTLAND

Belfast Dublin IRELAND

Edinburgh Glasgow The ENGLAND Irish Leeds Manchester Sea Liverpool WALES Birmingham London Cardiff Bristol Brighton Channel

4.39 •• Answer these questions. a What is the official name of the UK? b What is the capital of Wales? c What does the Welsh flag look like? d When were the first rules for football created? e When did football become an Olympic event? f What percentage of Scottish voters voted to leave the EU in June 2016? g How many people belonged to the British Empire in 1921? h Whose picture do you find on British money?

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The English

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NORTHERN IRELAND

The N o r t h S ea

4.38 • Find the wrong word in each of the sentences below and change it to the correct one. a The capital of Scotland is Glasgow. b The head of state in the UK is the President. c The currency in the uk is the Euro. d The official name of the UK is the United Kingdom of Little Britain and Northern Ireland. e Popular sports in the UK are football, golf, rugby, ski jumping, tennis and swimming. f The national day in Scotland is St Andrew’s Day on September 30. g The capital of Northern Ireland is Dublin.

4.40 ••• Sum up what the UK fact file tells you about c industry e history a the population d sports f the UK leaving the EU b the geography

Speak

4.41 What do you associate with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland? Do these countries have their own identities, cultures and languages? Discuss and share opinions in groups. 158 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS


Practise

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FILE THE UK FACT FILE

4.42 Match the English word with the correct Norwegian. cast a vote constituency majority polling day polling station ballot paper candidate general election

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

kandidat valgdag stemme flertall valg til nasjonalforsamlingen stemmeseddel valglokale valgkrets

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A B C D E F G H

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4.43 Fill in words from task 4.42. In the United Kingdom a (a) must take place at least every five years. Each (b) decides which politician it wants to represent the voters in Parliament. Usually many political parties field a candidate. On (c) , the voters go to the (d) to (e) . The voters do this by writing an X on the (f) in the box next to the name of the (g) or party they vote for. It is the candidate who gets the (h) of votes who wins the seat.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can give some examples of British politics and culture

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Explore

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4.44 Make a timeline starting on June 23rd 2016 and fill in the most important dates and events in the Brexit process. 4.45 Find out how old you have to be to vote in the UK. Is it the same in all the countries of the UK? 4.46 What are the most important industries in the UK? Use relevant and reliable sources to find more information. Choose how you want to present your findings.

YES

ALMOST

NO

describe Britains’s influence in the past YES

ALMOST

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sum up background information about the United Kingdom YES

ALMOST

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 159

NO


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Life in the UK

A multicultural society

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Modern Britain is home to many ethnic groups, but the majority of the population is still English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish. In the large cities, you will see a variety of nationalities. Many of them come from former British colonies. In London, for example, at least 250 languages are spoken every day, and you can find restaurants from nearly every corner of the world. However, there are also conflicts between cultures and generations. Young people whose parents or grandparents come from other countries may have a very different experience of growing up than their parents. Today, there are programmes helping immigrants settle and become part of the local community, but there are also those who are strongly opposed to immigration.

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Family life

population befolkning former tidligere/tidlegare opposed to imot increase økning/auke household husholdning/ hushald poll meningsmåling/ meiningsmåling three quarters tre fjerdedeler/ tre fjerdedelar

Over the past ten years there has been an increase in the number of families, but the typical British family is changing. More couples live together without getting married. Also, more children are born to unmarried couples. Around 15 % of households are single parents with children, and the number of singleparent families has in fact decreased. Furthermore, one in four young adults between 20 and 34 are living with their parents, according to the Office of National Statistics. It is more common for young men to live with their parents than for young women. When asked in a recent poll, three quarters of all Britons said they were optimistic about their family’s future. More than 90 % described their family life as happy.

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Education in the UK

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AIMS Although most British children go to ordinary state schools and live at home, for some middle-class and k give examples of British culture and upper-class families it is a tradition to send their values children away to boarding schools at an early age. These k compare aspects of life in the UK schools are often independent and very expensive, and and Norway there are waiting lists to get in. Members of the royal k use reading strategies family, the very rich and famous, and top politicians from around the world send their sons and daughters to these schools. Most schools offer scholarships to good students who cannot afford the school fees themselves. An education from one of these famous schools, or from prestigious universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, will open many doors. However, many state schools and universities have improved their quality of education, and now rank very high on the lists of good schools.

Health and welfare

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“Keep calm and carry on” was the slogan on a poster made during World War II. This is in many ways typical of the British people. Even when the going gets tough, the British are usually seen as calm and collected, and often joke about their own situation. There is, however, a feeling of collective responsibility. Healthcare, including dentistry, is free to all permanent residents and paid for by taxes. A recent survey showed that most Britons are satisfied with the medical help they get from the National Health Service despite many negative articles in the press. There are also housing projects funded by the government. Although Britain is not a large country, there are great differences in the standard of living, income levels and number of unemployed workers, for example between the north and south of England.

independent her: privat scholarship stipend fee skolepenger/skolepengar prestigious prestisjefylt rank rangere slogan slagord dentistry tannlegebehandling resident innbygger/innbyggjar survey undersøkelse/ undersøking fund finansiere income level inntektsnivå

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Read and understand

4.47 • Read the text once to get a general idea of what the text is about. Then write keywords for each of the following headings. Compare your keywords with those of a partner, then share in class. A multicultural society – Family life – Education in the UK – Health and welfare

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4.48 •• Scan the text for specific information to fill in the open spaces in the text below.

Although the majority of the in the UK is English, , Scottish and , there are many different groups in the UK. In London, at least languages are spoken every day. However, there are also between cultures and . Family in Britain is changing. In the UK, around of the households are parents with children. Still, more than % describe their family life as .

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Most British children go to ordinary schools and live at . For middle and upper families it is a tradition to send their away to schools. These schools are often very , and there are lists to get in. An education from prestigious such as and Cambridge will open many doors.

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The British are usually seen as and collected, and often joke about their own . There is, however, a feeling of collective . In the UK, is free to all permanent and paid for by . There are great differences in the of living and number of workers, for example between the and south of England. 4.49 ••• Close-read the texts «Education in the UK» and «Health and Welfare». Answer the following questions. a How are independent schools different from state schools? b How can students from families who cannot afford the tuition fees get into independent schools? c Why are universities like Oxford and Cambridge considered attractive? d Mention four characteristics used to describe the British in the text. e Do the British enjoy any health and welfare benefits? f How do the north and south of England differ?

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Speak

4.50 From any of the four texts, choose one piece of information that you find interesting or did not already know. Share this information with a partner.

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4.51 Choose one of the four topics from the text and compare it with Norway. Work in groups of four and divide the topics between you. 4.52 What do you associate with life in the UK? What or who has influenced your views? Discuss in groups.

Practise

4.53 Practise pronouncing the following words from the text with a partner. c prestigious e politician a survey d increase f scholarship b statistics

Explore

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4.54 The drama series Years and Years (2019), produced by the BBC and HBO, follows the Lyons family from Manchester as they deal with changes in a futuristic Britain, spanning from 2019 to 2034. Watch the series or a few episodes and comment on the following questions. a Who are the members of the Lyons family? Describe their family life, how they live and what they do. b Who is Vivian Rooke, and what is her message? How and why does she become so popular? c What are some of the technological innovations that affect the lives of the Lyons family? Are these innovations purely positive, or are there any ethical dilemmas involved? d Who are the refugees in this version of British society? What is their situation? e Does the series present a realistic picture of the near future? Explain.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can give examples of British culture and values YES

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compare aspects of life in the UK and Norway YES

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use reading strategies YES

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You, Work and the Law

Working Environment Act Arbeidsmiljøloven contribute bidra ensure sikre

Working is an important aspect of being a citizen and contributing to society. To ensure safe working conditions and to protect workers’ rights are the aims of the Working Environment Act. Young people getting a part-time job, a summer job, or perhaps an apprenticeship come across this law for the first time. It specifies vital facts you should be aware of as a young employee.

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AIMS k understand parts of the Working

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Environment Act relevant to young workers k discuss working conditions k reflect on attitudes to child labour

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The Working Environment Act states that you have the right to a written contract. This contract must say what kind of job you will do, what your working hours are and how much you will be paid. In many countries, including Norway, there is no official minimum wage. This means that it is up to you and the employer to agree on your salary. If you are a member of a trade union, you can demand tariff pay. Your employer must give you a written, itemized pay statement. This shows how many hours you have worked, how much you pay in taxes, if you do, and anything else that is deducted from your pay. You should keep these statements as they are important documentation. The Working Environment Act also says that your employer must give you appropriate training. This includes instructions for how the job should be done, as well as the safety rules and regulations that apply in the workplace. You must be paid for the time that this training takes. If you need special safety equipment, it is the employer’s responsibility to provide it – and that includes paying for it. There are age limits on how much you can work and what kind of job you can have. If you are under 18, you cannot be asked to work overtime or at night. If you work for more than 4 ½ hours you must have at least one 30-minute break. If you cannot leave your work to take that break, it must be counted as part of your working hours and you must be paid for it. According to the Working Environment Act your employer must have good and relevant reasons to terminate your employment and must give you written notice. If you give notice you must let your employer know at least one month in advance that you plan to leave. However, you can be dismissed immediately if you commit a serious offence. Stealing from the workplace or turning up for work in an intoxicated state could lead to immediate dismissal. When you quit your job you have the right to a written reference. This reference must say how long you were employed for and what kind of job you did. A reference is an important document since it is the written proof that you actually had a job. When you apply for further education or for other jobs later, a good reference could prove very valuable.

minimum wage minstelønn trade union fagforening/ fagforeining itemized spesifisert pay statement lønnslipp/ lønnsslipp deduct trekke fra/trekke frå terminate avslutte notice her: oppsigelse/ oppseiing give notice si opp/seie opp reference attest

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Read and understand

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4.55 • Answer these questions. a Does the Working Environment Act say anything about a written contract? b Do we have a minimum wage in Norway? c Must your employer give you appropriate training? d Must you pay for your own safety equipment? e Should you throw away your pay statement when you have looked it over? f Can you work overtime if you are under 18? g Can you lose your job at once if you steal from your workplace? h Can a good reference be valuable later in life?

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4.56 •• Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a The Working Environment Act contains important information you should be aware of as a young employer/young employee/young employed/young unemployed. b We don’t have a minimum wage in Norway, so young workers earn very little/young workers earn less than in the US/your employer and you must agree on your salary/you must be really greedy. c It is the employer’s responsibility to provide safety equipment and also to pay for it/but you must pay cash for it/but the cost will be deducted from your pay/but your parents must pay for it. d If you cannot leave the workplace to take a break, you must tell customers to come back in 30 minutes/go to the toilet for 30 minutes/ manage without a break/be paid for the time you should have had a break. e Stealing from the workplace or turning up for work in an intoxicated state could lead to immediate promotion/your losing your job at once/ your being told to come back tomorrow/a large sum being deducted from your pay.

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4.57 Fill in the correct preposition. a In the past, many British children worked factories. b Children would work many hours each day. c 1833, the British Parliament passed the Factory Act. d The Factory Act stated that no child the age of nine could work in a factory. e The Factory Act also stated that children of nine and thirteen could not work for more than nine hours a day. f According to the Factory Act children could not work night. g Children must also go school for at least two hours every day. h This act of Parliament slowly improved life child workers.

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Speak

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4.58 Look at the picture and discuss these questions. a How old do you think this child is? b What do you think is produced here? c What do you think the working conditions are like in this place?

Write

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4.59 Is child labour only a thing of the past? Find a picture which shows children at work in our own time. Discuss what you think the working conditions are like. How did you do?

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4.60 The text “You and the Working Environment Act” on the previous page is a five-paragraph text. Check the guidelines for how to write such a text in this chapter and compare the two. Is this text correctly structured? Would you add or change anything? If so, what? Make a short list.

Explore

4.61 What does the term “gig economy” mean? What are positive and negative aspects of this development? How did you do?

After working with the text and tasks, I can understand parts of the Working Environment Act relevant to young workers YES

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discuss working conditions YES

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reflect on attitudes to child labour YES

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Black Hoodie

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In this abridged short story you will meet three Irish teenagers who are in Transition Year at school. In Ireland this is an optional one-year programme. It aims to give students not only an academic education, but also to encourage creativity and independence, as well as life skills and work experience. To this end, the three of them form a mini-company. Their teacher, who the students refer to as Ms TheyDon’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night, doesn’t understand their idea at first …

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MY GIRLFRIEND IS Nigerian, kind of, and when we go through the shops, we’re followed all the way. We stop – the security guards stop. We go up the escalator – they’re three steps behind us, and there’s another one waiting at the top. We look at something, say, a shoe, and they all look at us looking at the shoe. And people – ordinary people, like – they see the security guards looking at us, and they stop and start looking at us, in case something good’s going to happen. You’re never lonely if you’re with a black girl, or even if your hoodie is black. I said she was Nigerian, kind of. I didn’t mean she was kind of Nigerian. I meant she’s kind of my girlfriend. She’s lovely and, I have to admit, I kind of like the attention. No one really noticed me until I started going with her, kind of. Now they all look, and you can see it in their faces; they’re thinking, There’s a white fella with a black girl, or something along those lines. I’m the white fella.

escalator rulletrapp hoodie hette(genser)

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I’m dead into her. I’d love it if she was my girlfriend – full time, like. My da says I should just go ahead and ask AIMS her. But I don’t know. What if she says No? I’m not telling you her name. And that means I can’t k extract information while reading and listening use my own name either. Because, how many Nigerian girls is the average Irish teenager going to be hanging k reflect on aspects of stereotyping around with? If I give my name, I might as well give k use prepositions correctly hers. So no. So, there we are, myself and my Nigerian friend, and we’re walking through the shop, being tailed by the Feds. And meanwhile, our friend, who’s in a – And now, there’s another problem. There’s a fella in a wheelchair in the story. How many male teenagers in the greater Dublin area share their leisure time with young men in wheelchairs and Nigerian women? Our friend is in a wheelchair, but he doesn’t need it. It’s his brother’s. His brother is in McDonald’s, waiting for us. And while the Feds follow me because (a) I’m with a black person, and (b) I’m wearing a hoodie, he’s robbing everything he can stretch to, because (a) he’s in the wheelchair, and (b) he’s wearing glasses. It’s an experiment. Market research. Let me explain. We aren’t robbing the stuff because we want it, or just for the buzz. No. We are a mini-company. Three of us are in Transition Year, in school. The brother who actually owns the wheelchair isn’t. He’s in Sixth Year. We used to call him Superman, but he asked us to stop. So, fair enough; we stopped. Anyway, as part of our Transition Year programme, me and Ms Nigeria and not-Superman’s brother had to form a mini-company, to help us learn about the real world and commerce and that. We’re the last. And Ms TheyDon’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night is staring at us, her pen, like, held right over her list, waiting for our brainwave. And it comes. – Stereotyping, says Ms Nigeria. – What? says Ms They-Don’t-Know etc. – I mean – what do you mean? – Well, says the young woman I secretly love, – we’re constantly being labelled. She always talks like she’s on the News or something. I like it – a lot. – Oh, excellent! says Ms etc. – You’re going to make labels. Accessorize. tail her: følge etter – Well, says the Nigerian newsreader. – No, actually. You misunderstood. leisure time fritid – We’re being clever, are we – Name Omitted? she says. buzz her: spenning – No, says Name Omitted. – I’m quite happy to explain. Transition Year overgangsår I’d be quite happy to lie down and lick her feet. But it probably isn’t the mellom ungdomsskolen time or the place. og videregående skole/ – We are all labelled and stereotyped, she says. Automatically: We don’t vidaregåande skole have to say or do anything. For example, I walk into a shop and the security mini-company elevbedrift staff immediately decide that I am there to shoplift. locked her: beruset/rusa – Because you’re black? omitted utelatt/utelaten, utelate – Because I’m young, says Ms Nigeria. – And, yes, because I’m black. shoplifting butikktyveri/ – What has this got to do with your mini-company? butikktjuveri SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 169


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wastage sløsing consultancy firm konsulentfirma retail outlet butikk practice praksis garda politi CCTV footage film fra overvåkingskamera/film frå overvakingskamera muppet idiot NME irsk musikkblad overheads utgifter premises lokale reconvene møtes igjen/møtast igjen wheelbarrow trillebår shin-guards leggskinn/ leggskinne trap her: kjeften wipe tørke av Fed politi plainclothes sivilkledd inflict påføre incarcerate sperre inne business venture forretningsforetak/ forretningsføretak

– Well, says Name Omitted. – Can you imagine the wastage of man-hours and goodwill – oh, all sorts of things – that results directly from this? She certainly knows her onions – whatever that means. – Go on, says Ms They-Don’t-Know. – Well, says Name Omitted, – myself and my colleagues here – and she points at me and the other fella – are going to establish a consultancy firm, to advise retail outlets on stereotyping of young people, and best practice towards its elimination. And that’s how we end up in Pearse Street Garda Station. It’s me who comes up with the name, Black Hoodie Solutions. I’m wearing a black hoodie and my Nigerian lover is black and she’s got a hoodie too – kind of a girl one – and the other fella’s got one too. So that’s Black Hoodie. And the Solutions bit – it just sounds cool. So, there you go – Black Hoodie Solutions. Ms They-Don’t-Know writes it down, and the bell goes. Next thing you know, we’re robbing shops. And it’s cool; business is brisk. The manager of the Spar near the school is a bit freaked when we bring back the stuff we’ve just stolen, but she’s quite impressed when she sees the CCTV footage of her security muppet walking after Ms Nigeria’s arse – true – while I’m right behind him, the hoodie off, taking four packs of microwave popcorn and an NME. She even pays us a tenner and a Cornetto, each – the Cornettos, not the tenner. But we’re happy; we’re ahead. A whole tenner, no overheads – the Irish economy doesn’t know what hit it. Anyway. Ms Nigeria hands our weekly report to Ms They-Don’t-Know-IWas-Locked-Yet-Again-Last-Night. Three pages, a black folder, logo and all. Anyway. Ms They-Don’t-Know is impressed, but a bit suspicious. She looks at me. – So, she said. – What’s next? – Well, says Ms Nigeria. – We’re taking it to a new level. – Yes, I agree. – Oh shite, says not-Supermans’s brother. And that’s where you meet us, back where I started, robbing the bigger places in town: him in his brother’s wheelchair, doing the larceny bit, while me and Ms Nigeria drag the muppets up and down the escalators, through all the bras and plasma screens. It’s a large department store, much loved by Dublin’s mammies; and, again, all goes to plan. We leave the premises, by different exits. We reconvene, give not-Superman back his wheelbarrow. And we re-enter, to hand back the goods and negotiate our consultancy fee. We ask Svetlana at the information desk for the manager. And, while we wait, we smile and – yeah – we giggle. And I’m really close to grabbing Ms Nigeria’s hand and asking her to go with me, when another hand grabs my shoulder and I nearly wet myself. I think I yelp or something – I’m not sure.

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roddy doyle Roddy Doyle (1958–) is an Irish writer of novels for both adults and children, as well as screenplays and short story collections. Some of his books have been made into films. Roddy Doyle has won the Man Booker Prize and several other awards for his work.

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4.62 • Who says what in this story, Ms They-Don’t-Know-I-Was-LockedLast-Night, or Ms Nigeria? a I mean – what do you mean? b You’re going to make labels. Accessorize. c No, actually. You misunderstood. d We are all labelled and stereotyped. e Because you’re black? f Can you imagine the wastage of man-hours and goodwill – oh, all sorts of things – that results directly from this? g Go on. h We’re taking it to a new level.

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4.63 •• Decide whether the sentences below are true, false, or that there is no information in the text. True

a

False

No info

This short story takes place in Dublin.

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b The characters in the short story are all from Nigeria. c The characters in the short story are all 15 years old. d Ms Nigeria has a good idea for a mini-company. e

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The students are robbing shops for fun and for pocket money. The narrator is in love with Ms Nigeria.

g Ms Nigeria claims that security staff in shops will automatically think that she is there to shoplift. h The mini-company Black Hoodie Solutions only lasted for about three weeks.

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 171


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4.64 ••• Exchange the underlined words or expressions with synonyms or near-synonyms which do not change the meaning of the sentence. a I’m dead into her. b So, there we are, myself and my Nigerian friend, and we’re walking through the shop, being tailed by the Feds. c Let me explain. We aren’t robbing the stuff because we want it, or just for the buzz. d And Ms They-Don’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night is staring at us, her pen, like, held right over her list, waiting for our brainwave. e She certainly knows her onions – whatever that means. f A whole tenner, no overheads – the Irish economy doesn’t know what hit it. g We reconvene, give not-Superman back his wheelbarrow. h And I’m really close to grabbing Ms Nigeria’s hand and asking her to go with me, when another hand grabs my shoulder and I nearly wet myself.

Listen

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4.65 “At the Station” • Listen to the rest of the short story. Match each sentence with the correct Norwegian translation.

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English A – We actually took nothing, she says. B He points at not-Superman’s little brother. C But she’s calm. D It’s my da. He smiles like it hurts. E – What’s your name, by the way? F And listen to this.

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G Is that too much to ask? H – Shoplifting, he says.

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1

Norwegian Men hun er rolig.

2 Og hør på dette her. 3

– Butikktyveri, sier han.

4 Han peker på ikke-Supermanns lillebror. 5 Er det for mye å be om? 6

– Hva heter du, forresten?

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– Vi tok faktisk ingenting, sier hun.

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Det er faren min. Han smiler som om det gjør vondt.


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4.66 •• After listening, note down keywords for information about the following. a How a police officer uses racist language to intimidate Ms Nigeria. b How Ms Nigeria is angry, but remains calm. c How the narrator is frightened by the police. d How the narrator defies the police and confronts an officer. e How both the narrator and Ms Nigeria have their parents’ support in the situation they are in. f How the short story ends.

Practise

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4.67 Fill in the missing prepositions. There may be more than one correct answer. a Before long, they had arrived the police station. b They did not actually steal department stores. c The main character asked the police officer’s name. d The wheelchair belonged not-Superman. e Black Hoodie Solutions had borrowed the wheelchair him. f Ms Nigeria explained her business idea the teacher. g Ms Nigeria waited her parents to arrive. h They are no longer worried their daughter.

Speak

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4.68 Discuss the questions below. Support your arguments by examples as far as possible. a Do you think Ms Nigeria is right when she says, “For example, I walk into a shop and the security staff immediately decide that I am there to shoplift”? b Do you think Black Hoodie Solutions sounds like a good business idea? Do you think such a mini-company could make a difference? Why?/Why not? c Do you think people from ethnic minorities might have the same experiences of stereotyping as the characters in “Black Hoodie”? d Do you think police officers could behave this way where you live?

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can extract information while reading and listening YES

4.69 If someone experiences intimidating behaviour from people in authority, where and how can he or she make a complaint? Find out.

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reflect on aspects of stereotyping YES

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use prepositions correctly YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING A TEXT In your English course and in exams, you will be asked to write longer texts on different topics. This step-by-step guide will help you in the process.

Before you start

Find information

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Read the instructions well and underline the verbs. What is your topic? Does it say what type of text you are going to write, and who your reader will be? Text type and target group decide what style of language to use when you write. Study “Using formal and informal language” in Chapter 3 for more information on what style of language is appropriate for different types of texts.

What do you already know about the topic? Have a brainstorming session, for example with other classmates. At this point, all ideas are good for the process. Group your ideas together. Then research the topic. Cross-check your sources. Make sure you write down where you found the information. For advice, see “Selecting sources” in this chapter.

Organize your text in paragraphs

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For written assignments, organization is very important. An outline will help you plan and structure your text. For most writing tasks where you are asked to discuss a topic, your text can be structured into five paragraphs as shown in the example on the right.

Link your sentences and paragraphs together

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Use sentence connectors to help the reader follow your arguments. Check “Structuring paragraphs” in Chapter 3 for examples of sentence connectors.

Revise your text

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• Check the instructions for the assignment one last time. Have you done what you were asked to do? • Is your text well structured in clear paragraphs? Do you need to expand on some points? • Have you used a varied vocabulary? For nuance, try to replace some of the words you use most frequently with synonyms. For example, some synonyms of new are current, up to date, fresh, modern or contemporary. • Run a spelling check and a grammar check. They won’t catch every mistake, but they may spot some that you have missed yourself.

Before you hand in your text Have you listed all the sources you have used to find information about your topic? Study “Referring to sources” in Chapter 8 for more advice.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Apprenticeships Abroad?

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“No one who has lived through the second half of the 20th century could possibly be blind to the enormous impact of exchange programs on the future of countries.” These are the words of former American president Bill Clinton. If you have considered going abroad as an apprentice, you have probably thought more about what it would mean on a personal level than how it would affect the world. The personal benefits may seem obvious, but there are also challenges. First of all, discovering a new place and making new friends are often the most exciting aspects of living and working abroad. Many young people look forward to experiencing a culture that is unlike their own, and to improving their language skills. Second, some develop interests and participate in activities they would never have tried at home. In addition, a year or even some months abroad may help you become more independent and tolerant, which can prove to be of real value when applying for jobs in the future. On the other hand, some find it difficult to adapt to a new cultural environment. It may take time to understand social codes and local customs, for example when to arrive if invited to a party or something as simple as how to greet someone. Living in shared accomodation with roomates you do not know also requires an open mind and a positive attitude from everyone. Furthermore, getting used to a new company culture can also be a challenge. Not only are all the work operations carried out in a foreign language, the work methods can be unfamiliar as well. It is not unusual to spend the first few months trying to understand how things are done and what is expected from you. All in all, working as an apprentice abroad may seem daunting, but the rewards are many once you overcome the initial challenges. Successfully completing an apprenticeship abroad may give you a sense of achievement and memories that last a lifetime. It will most likely change the way you view the world, and who knows, perhaps you will even change the future of your country.

Paragraph 1 Start the introduction with a general statement to let the reader know what the text will focus on, a surprising fact or a quote to catch the reader’s attention.

Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 These paragraphs make up the body of your text where you describe, explain and argue for or against your topic. If relevant, state your own opinion in a paragraph. Paragraph 5 In the conclusion, give a final perspective on your topic, but do not repeat the same sentences as in previous paragraphs. Do not introduce new ideas in the conclusion.

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4.70 Collaborate to write a well-structured text. a Make an outline for a text called “Why is fact-checking important?” b Swap outlines with a partner. Have a brainstorming session to get more ideas and good arguments. c Write an introduction to the text. What would be a good way to get the reader’s attention and make him/her want to read on? Work in pairs. d Use the following keywords to write a conclusion to the text. Swap texts with a partner. Compare and give each other constructive feedback. all in all – many reasons – source – reliable – relevant – fake – in conclusion

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The Hate U Give

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Before you start a What would you do if you were treated unfairly by the authorities? b What would you do if you saw someone being treated unfairly by the authorities?

Starr Carter is 16-year-old African American girl who lives with her family in a crime-ridden neighbourhood, but goes to a prestigious “white” school in another part of the city. She divides her life between these two worlds until one night when she witnesses a fatal shooting. In the excerpt you are about to read, Starr is on her way home from a party with her friend Khalil, who is driving.

prestigious prestisjefylt fatal dødelig/dødeleg registered nurse sykepleier med autorisasjon/sjukepleiar med autorisasjon sprout her: utvikle

When I was twelve, my parents had two talks with me. One was the usual birds and bees. Well, I didn’t really get the usual version. My mom, Lisa, is a registered nurse, and she told me what went where, and what didn’t need to go here, there, or any damn where till I’m grown. Back then I doubted anything was going anywhere anyway. While all the other girls sprouted breasts between sixth and seventh grade, my chest was as flat as my back. The other talk was about what to do if a cop stopped me. Momma fussed and told Daddy I was too young for that. He argued that I

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AIMS k explain what the text and film is

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wasn’t too young to get arrested or shot. about “Starr-Starr, you do whatever they tell you to do,” he k discuss aspects of discrimination said. “Keep your hands visible. Don’t make any sudden and citizenship moves. Only speak when they speak to you.” k create a news segment I knew it must’ve been serious. Daddy has the biggest mouth of anybody I know, and if he said to be quiet, I needed to be quiet. I hope somebody had the talk with Khalil. He cusses under his breath, turns Tupac down, and maneuvers the Impala to the side of the street. We’re on Carnation where most of the houses are abandoned and half the streetlights are busted. Nobody around but us and the cop. Khalil turns the ignition off. “Wonder what this fool wants.” The officer parks and puts his brights on. I blink to keep from being blinded. I remember something else Daddy said. If you’re with somebody, you better hope they don’t have nothing on them, or both of y’all going down. “K, you don’t have anything in the car, do you?” I ask. He watches the cop in his side mirror. “Nah.” The officer approaches the driver’s door and taps the window. Khalil cranks the handle to roll it down. As if we aren’t blinded enough, the officer beams his flashlight in our faces. “License, registration, and proof of insurance.” Khalil breaks a rule – he doesn’t do what the cop wants. “What you pull us over for?” “License, registration, and proof of insurance.” “I said what you pull us over for?” “Khalil,” I plead. “Do what he said.” visible synlig/synleg Khalil groans and takes his wallet out. The officer follows his movements cuss banne with his flashlight. maneuver manøvrere, styre abandoned forlatt/forlaten, My heart pounds loudly, but Daddy’s instructions echo in my head: Get a forlate good look at the cop’s face. If you can remember his badge number, that’s even ignition tenning better. brights fjernlys With the flashlight following Khalil’s hands, I make out the numbers on crank sveive the badge – one-fifteen. He’s white, mid-thirties to early forties, has a brown license førerkort/førarkort buzz cut and a thin scar over his top lip. registration vognkort Khalil hands the officer his papers and license. insurance forsikring One-Fifteen looks over them. “Where are you two coming from tonight?” pound her: banke badge skilt “Nunya,” Khalil says, meaning none of your business. “What you pull me buzz cut snauklipt hår over for?” SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 177


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“Your taillight’s broken.” “So are you gon’ give me a ticket or what?” Khalil asks. “You know what? Get out the car, smart guy.” “Man, just give me my ticket – “ “Get out the car! Hands up, where I can see them.” Khalil gets out with his hands up. One-Fifteen yanks him by his arm and pins him against the back door. I fight to find my voice. “He didn’t mean – “ “Hands on the dashboard!” the officer barks at me. “Don’t move!” I do what he tells me, but my hands are shaking too much to be still. He pats Khalil down. “Okay, smart mouth, let’s see what we find on you today.” “You ain’g gon’ find nothing,” Khalil says. One-Fifteen pats him down two more times. He turns up empty. “Stay here,” he tells Khalil. “And you.” He looks in the window at me. “Don’t move.” I can’t even nod. The officer walks back to his patrol car. My parents haven’t raised me to fear the police, just to be smart around them. They told me it’s not smart to move while a cop has his back to you. Khalil does. He comes to his door. It’s not smart to make a sudden move. Khalil does. He opens the driver’s door. “You okay, Starr – “ Pow! One. Khalil’s body jerks. Blood splatters from his back. He holds on to the door to keep himself upright. Pow! Two. Khalil gasps. Pow! Three. Khalil looks at me, stunned. He falls to the ground. An ear-splitting scream emerges from my gut, explodes in my throat, and uses every inch of me to be heard. Instinct says don’t move, but everything else says check on Khalil. I jump out the Impala and rush around to the other side. Khalil stares at the sky as if he hopes to see God. His mouth is open like he wants to scream. I scream loud enough for the both of us. “No, no, no,” is all I can say, like I’m a year old and it’s the only word I know. I’m not sure how I end up on the ground next to him. My mom once said that if someone gets shot, try to stop the bleeding, but there’s so much blood. Too much blood.

taillight baklys yank røske pat down kroppsvisitere jerk her: rykke emerge komme ut fra/komme ut frå inch tomme

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“No, no, no.” Khalil doesn’t move. He doesn’t utter a word. He doesn’t even look at me. His body stiffens, and he’s gone. I hope he sees God. Someone else screams. I blink through my tears. Officer One-Fifteen yells at me, pointing the same gun he killed my friend with. I put my hands up.

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After the shooting, Starr’s identity as a witness is kept secret from her friends as well as the media, but it soon becomes too much to bear. With the help of a civil rights lawyer, her family and boyfriend, Starr decides to take a stand. This puts Starr and her family in grave danger. angie thomas

Angie Thomas (1988–) is an American writer and former rapper. Her first novel, The Hate U Give, was published in 2017 and became an instant hit with teens and adults alike. It quickly reached number 1 on the New York Times bestseller list, where it remained for 50 weeks. The novel has won many prestigious awards and has been translated into a number of languages. The critically acclaimed film adaptation was released in the US in 2018.

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Read and understand

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4.71 • Complete the sentences based on information from the novel excerpt. a Starr is a . b When Starr was twelve, her parents . c She was told what to do if . d One night, she is leaving a party with . e They are stopped by . f Starr is scared but remembers . g When Khalil ask why they are stopped, the officer . h He pats Khalil down because . i When Khalil moves to open the car door . j Starr jumps out of the car to check on Khalil, but .

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4.72 •• Watch the film adaptation and answer the following questions. a Describe Starr’s home life. b How is her life at school different? c Why does Starr need to keep her identity as a witness secret? d How do Starr’s parents react when she brings her boyfriend home? e What or who makes Starr change her mind about being interviewed and testifying in the court hearing? f What happens to the police officer who shot Khalil, and how do people in the neighbourhood react when they find out? g Starr decides to become more active. What does she do, and who tries to stop her? h In the final scene, Starr makes a promise. What is it?

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4.73 ••• As you watch the film, take notes. Then share notes and work out full answers in pairs. a How does Starr cope with Khalil’s death? Give examples of what she does. b At the police station, Starr gives a detailed explanation of what happened before the shooting, but then the detective shifts her focus to Khalil’s past. Why do you think she does this, and how does Starr react? c Why does Starr become increasingly frustrated with her friends? d How does Starr’s little brother, Sekani, suddenly change the course of events when they are threatened by King, the gang leader? e Many of the characters in the film act bravely in difficult situations. Give examples of such acts. What do you think made them show courage in these situations?

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Speak

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4.74 After watching the film, discuss the following statements. a It takes a lot of courage to speak up against discrimination. b Police brutality in the USA is a central theme in The Hate U Give. c The film gives a convincing description of the situation for African Americans today. d Racism is a serious threat to democracy. 4.75 Media presentation Work in pairs or small groups. Choose a media format, e.g. filmed news segment, radio broadcast, podcast or photo journal. Based on the information given in the novel excerpt, produce a news segment in your chosen media format in which you report the story of Khalil’s death.

Practise

4.76 Use the words below to complete the text, and then translate the text into Norwegian.

passengers – skin – ethnic – accused – police – cases – guards – profiling – search – hijab

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Racial profiling is when certain people are targeted because of their background, race or national origin. Examples of racial profiling can be officers who stop and a person mainly because of his or her colour, or security who ask a passenger to leave an airplane because the she is wearing makes other nervous. In the US, there have been many in recent years where police officers and other law enforcement officials have been of racial .

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4.77 • Imagine that you are one of Starr’s friends and would like to show your support. Write a message to her where you explain what you think she should do after being threatened. 4.78 •• Phones play a significant role in the story, not only for communication, but also for recording important incidents. Answer the following questions. a How does using her phone give Starr power in a particular situation where she otherwise wouldn’t have any? b Many people are quick to get their phone cameras out when accidents happen. What are the ethical dilemmas involved in such behaviour? Discuss both positive and negative consequences. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 181


4.79 ••• Can stories such as The Hate U Give influence the way we view society? Write a text in which you express your opinion of the film and explain whether you think fictional stories like this one can have an impact, e.g. by shedding light on social issues, or by making people act, speak up or take a stand.

Explore

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4.80 This image by award-winning photojournalist Jonathan Bachmann was taken at a rally in Louisiana, in 2016. The rally was organized to protest the recent killings of black men by the police. The photo quickly hit social media and went viral. a Describe the situation you see in the photo. Be specific. b What makes this such a powerful photograph? c What do you think happened just seconds after this photo was taken?

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4.81 The novel’s author, Angie Thomas, has said that the rapper and poet Tupac Shakur (1971–1996) has been an important inspiration for her writing. One of his tattoos gave the novel its title, and his music is also used in the movie. a Tupac’s tattoo reads THUG LIFE. Find out what the letters stand for. b Search online for his poem “The Rose that Grew from Concrete.” Read or listen to it. c What do you think the poem is about, and how is it relevant to the message and characters in The Hate U Give? 4.82 The Black Panthers, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and Tupac Shakur are a few real-life activists who are mentioned or referred to in the novel/ film The Hate U Give. Choose one you would like to know more about, select and collate information from reliable sources, and create a short digital presentation. At the end of your presentation, list the sources you have used and explain why they are both relevant and reliable.

How did you do?

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After working with the text and tasks, I can

Did you know

Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a people’s movement that first started as a hashtag on social media in 2013, after a neighbourhood watchman was acquitted of fatally shooting a 17-year-old African American high school student. The boy was unarmed. The movement received international attention when protesters took to the streets and violent riots were sparked in Ferguson, Missouri, following the shooting of another African American boy in 2014. Since then, activists have organized thousands of demonstrations across the US to protest against cases of police violence and racial profiling, but some have also been criticized and accused of vandalism. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 183


FACT FILE USA FACT FI Immigration

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More than 44 million people who live in the US today were born in another country. These make up about 13.6 % of the total population. More than 11 million Mexicans have chosen to move to the US, and so have nearly 3 million Chinese and more than 2.5 million people from India. The US has also resettled about 3 million refugees since 1980, more than any other country. About 62 % of Americans agree that immigrants strengthen the country because of their talents and hard work.

Patriotism

Even though slavery was officially ended after the Civil War, black people in the US did not have the same rights as whites. Especially in the South, there was widespread segregation. From the 1950s the Civil Rights Movement became more and more active in working to secure black people their constitutional rights. In 1963 the March on Washington took place and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous speech “I Have a Dream” to an audience of more than 250 000. He was shot and killed in 1968.

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

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The Fight for Civil Rights

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ILE USA FACT FILE USA

RN

ARIZONA Phoenix

MEXICO

ALASKA CANADA

1000 km

NEW MEXICO

HAWAII 0

400 km

Government

RE

VERM ONT NEW HAMPS HI

Detroit

NEW YORK

INDIANA

MASS.

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The American government has three branches. The Executive Branch is headed by the President. Before a bill can become a law, it must be signed by the President. The President of the United States serves for four years and may be elected for a second term. The Legislative Branch is headed by Congress. It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress’ main job is to debate and pass laws. There are 435 Representatives who serve for two years. The Senate has 100 Senators, two from each state, who serve terms of six years. The Judicial Branch is headed by Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is made up of nine Justices who are appointed for life. The main task of the Supreme Court is to decide if a law agrees with the Constitution or not.

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MAINE

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IFO

IA Los Angeles San Diego

Chicago

ALABAMA

COLORADO

IOWA

LOUISIANA

U

UTAH

CA L

A N O C E

NEVADA

MI C

RHODE ISLAND PENNSYLVANIA New York CONNECTICUT OHIO ILLINOIS S A NEW JERSEY Philadelphia WEST KANSAS DELAWARE VIRGINIA Washington MISSOURI KENTUCKY VIRGINIA MARYLAND OKLAHOMA TENNESSEE NORTH CAROLINA ARKANSAS SOUTH CAROLINA Dallas TEXAS GEORGIA N O R T H Houston A T L A N T I C FLORIDA San Antonio O C E A N G u l f o f M e x i c o NEBRASKA

MISSISSIPPI

WYOMING

WISCONSIN

GAN

IDAHO

SOUTH DAKOTA

MINNESOTA

HI

P A C I F I C

OREGON

NORTH DAKOTA

MONTANA

WASHINGTON

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CANADA

400 km

Official name: The United States of America Size: 9,826,675 square kilometres Population: 329,256,192 (2019) Whites: 73.3 % Hispanics: 18 % African Americans: 12.6 % Asians and Pacific Islanders: 3.7 % Alaska Native and American Indian: 0.8 %. * Individuals may report more than one race. Capital: Washington, DC Largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia Geography: 50 States Government: Federal Republic Head of state: President National day: July 4 Currency: US Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, corn, cotton, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products Important industries: Petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing Popular sports: American football, basketball, track and field


FACT FILE USA FACT FI k name some ethnic groups in the US k discuss immigration to the US k explain how the American government works

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4.83 • Study the fact file on the previous pages. Fill in the missing information. a In 2019 people lived in the US. b Of the US population % were white. c Of the US population % were African American. d The US is a republic. e There are states in the US. f The in the US is the dollar. g On July 4 Americans celebrate their day. h The President is the of state.

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4.84 •• Answer these questions. a What is the total size of the USA? b What are some popular sports in the US? c How many terms can the us President serve in total? d What does Congress consist of? e How many Representatives are there, and how long do they serve for? f How many Senators does each state have in Congress and how long does a Senator serve for? g How many Justices are there in the Supreme Court? h What is the main task of the Supreme Court? 4.85 ••• Use the information on the previous pages to explain these words and expressions. a refugee e bill b civil rights f executive branch c segregation g legislative branch d constitutional rights h judicial branch

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ILE USA FACT FILE USA

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4.86 Every American school day starts with the students’ recital of the Pledge of Allegiance. Which values do you think are reflected here? Should Norwegian students pledge allegiance to the Norwegian flag? Explain why or why not. 4.87 At the top of this page there are five small pictures. What do they tell you about the US?

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4.88 The American president has a lot of power. What are the international issues you think the president should focus on right now?

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4.89 Dr. King’s speech “I Have a Dream” is available online, both as text and sound files. a Read or listen to the speech. What was Dr. King’s dream? b What are the values Dr. King wished to present, do you think? c This speech is described as a masterpiece of rhetoric. Do you agree?

Explore

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4.90 Inside the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty there is a famous poem. Find out which poem this is and who wrote it. Which values do you think this poem represents?

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4.91 Search online for timelines showing the history of immigration to the USA. Assess your sources for reliability and relevance. 4.92 How is the President of the USA elected? Study the information and watch the video on the official government website, https://www.usa.gov/ election. a What are the requirements for presidential candidates? b Which are the two main political parties? c What happens at the National Convention? d What is the electoral college?

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explain how the American government works YES

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Life in the USA

The US – a multicultural society

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Did you know that about 99 % of all American citizens have their roots in other countries? The forefathers of many African Americans were brought over as slaves to work on plantations. In the 1800s immigrants from Europe left their home countries to start a new life as Americans. In more recent years, people from other continents, such as Asia and Latin America, have come to settle in the US. They have brought their traditions, festivals, languages, religions, music and food. This great variety of cultures is most evident in the big cities but can also be found in small-town America. Although the US is a nation of immigrants, prejudice and cultural conflicts between the many ethnic groups are not uncommon. In fact, one of the most debated topics in American politics in recent years has been immigration from Latin America and the Middle East.

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Family values are still important in American society. Every time there is an election, showing off a successful family life seems to be almost as important for the candidates as their political message. Traditionally, the ideal American family consists of two adults and two or three children, living in a house in the suburbs. However, as in many other countries, the family structure is changing. Although the majority of children under 18 still live with two parents, the number has decreased significantly over the past few decades. Around 27 % of all families now consist of a single parent with children, according to the US Census Bureau. Furthermore, the number of people living alone has increased to 28 %. In general, Americans wait longer before they marry, and families have fewer children than before. Children also stay at home longer before they move out, and often move back in because of high living costs.

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citizen borger/borgar plantation plantasje prejudice fordom decrease her: avta/minke, bli mindre significantly betydelig/ betydeleg election valg/val suburb forstad decade tiår Census Bureau “Statistisk sentralbyrå” increase her: øke/auke

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Education in the US

Health and welfare

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AIMS “If I can make it there, I’ll make it anywhere” is a line from an old but well-known song about New York k compare aspects of culture and life City. Americans like to think that anyone can become in the USA and the UK successful with hard work. This is also known as the k describe and discuss how we are American Dream. The idea is that it does not matter influenced by American culture who your parents are, or what your background is, if today you are willing to work hard to achieve your dreams. k share information about American Although recent surveys from the US show that brands becoming successful takes more than just hard work, there are many scholarships for students who are good at something, for example sports, music or a specific subject. Education in public schools is free, and in many colleges as well. Still, many parents start saving for college as soon as a child is born because some the best schools are private and very expensive. Some of the world’s best colleges and universities can be found in the US, such as MIT, Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities. All of these attract students from around the world.

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Personal freedom is an important value in American culture. Not only do Americans believe in freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and even the right to carry guns – they also believe everyone is responsible for his or her own life, health and welfare. As a result, most Americans pay for their own health services. Some are insured through their workplace, but there are millions of people who cannot afford medical help when they need it. Going to hospital, for example, is very expensive. However, senior citizens and the very poor can get some medical help through programs funded by the government. Still, it is because of another American value – volunteerism – that the many poor and needy find help. A large number of Americans engage in some form of voluntary work, such as running food stations, homeless shelters or after school programs.

achieve oppnå scholarship stipend MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology insure forsikre senior citizen pensjonist volunteerism frivillig arbeid engage in delta i homeless shelter overnattingssted for hjemløse/overnattingsplass for heimlause

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 189


Read and understand

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4.93 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a About of all American have their roots in other . b Although the US is a nation of immigrants, prejudice and cultural are not uncommon. c Family are still important in American society. d The traditional American family consists of adults and or children. e Americans like to think that can become with hard work. f There are many for students who are at something, for example sports. g Personal is an important value in American , but they also believe you are for your own life. h A large number of Americans engage in some form of work, for example at for the homeless.

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4.94 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a Where do most immigrants to the US come from today? b How has immigration over time influenced American culture? c What has traditionally been the ideal for American families? d How is the family structure changing? e Explain what is meant by “the American Dream.” f Why do students from other countries want to go to American universities? g What freedoms are mentioned in the text? h Is healthcare free in the US? Explain.

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4.95 Based on information in the text, find at least one value that is said to be typically American. In your own words, describe these values to a partner, then share in class. 4.96 How are we influenced by American culture in our daily lives? Below are some keywords to get you started. Share your thoughts in class. media – food – entertainment – fashion – transport – literature – traditions

Write

4.97 • Choose one of the ways we are influenced by American culture. Find arguments to show how this can be positive and/or negative. Write at least three paragraphs. For advice, see “Structuring paragraphs” in Chapter 3.

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4.98 •• Compare the text with the information given in “Life in the UK” in this chapter. Point out differences and similarities between the two countries in the four categories multicultural society, family life, education, and health and welfare. The US

The UK

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Multicultural society Family life Education Health and welfare

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4.99 ••• Compare the text with the information given in “Life in the UK” in this chapter. First, take notes as you re-read the two texts. Use your notes to find differences and similarities between the two countries in the four categories below. Sum up your findings in four paragraphs. For advice, see «Structuring paragraphs» in chapter 3.

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4.100 In the film McFarland, USA we see how sports can be a path to success for young people from poor communities. Watch the film and comment on the following: – what ethnicity dominates McFarland, California. – how the White family experience the community in McFarland. – how the boys on the team reach their goals.

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4.101 Some of the world’s most famous brands come from the US. Choose three brands you think are representative of the US. Find information, pictures and ads, and present these brands in a collage. Also explain why you think they have become household names.

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share information about American brands YES

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Young Activists March for Our Lives, the fight for gun control in the US On March 24, 2018 more than 1.8 million young people marched throughout the US protesting against gun violence. They had seen enough shootings in schools and were pleading with the politicians to implement gun control measures. The world had just witnessed yet another school shooting, this time in Parkland, Florida on Feb. 14 2018. 17 students and staff were killed, and 17 others injured. In Washington, DC the streets were packed with young

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Before you start • Do you know what the word activist means? • Do you know the names of any activists? • What would it take for you become an activist, do you think?

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Activism is often called the “politics of direct action”. When important political issues are up for discussion, some people think that words are not enough. They feel the urge to act. Taking part in demonstrations and rallies is a common way of showing engagement, whether support or resistance. Young people are often particularly active in demonstrations and rallies. History has shown that activism has played an important role in decision making, both in the past and the present. Study the following examples of young people who aim to make the world a better place.

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people, carrying posters with slogans like “Am I next?” and “Enough is enough”. The movement insists on universal background checks before firearms can be sold, bans on high-capacity bullet magazines and raising the minimum age for owning guns. In some states, authorities have acted in accordance with the demands of the young activists.

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Greta Thunberg, the fight against climate change

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“I want you to act as if your house was on fire.” These are words delivered by another bold spokesperson for the environment, Greta Thunberg, from Sweden. She is famous for having started the movement Global Climate Strike for the Future. In August 2018 she went on a solitary school strike against climate change, protesting in front of the Swedish parliament building. Shortly after, more than 20,000 students had joined her in weekly protests and the movement is spreading worldwide. Thunberg is famous for her uncompromising style of speaking. In January 2019, she said to representatives of the wealthiest countries in the world: “Adults keep saying: ‘We owe it to the young people to give them hope.’ But I don’t want your hope. I don’t want you to be hopeful. I want you to panic.” Greta Thunberg is also famous for backing up her talk with action, like refusing to travel to the US by airplane because of the high level of emissions of greenhouse gases.

Autumn Peltier, water warrior, Canada

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Autumn Peltier was only 13 when she spoke to the United Nations General Assembly in New York about the importance of clean water. Coming from the Wikwemikong tribe in Northern Ontario, Canada, she had learnt that water was sacred, and that life depended on it. In front of the United Nations General Assembly, she expressed her deep concern about polluted water in indigenous communities. She was inspired by her aunt to join the “Water Warriors”, a group of activists who appeal to politicians and organize rallies to influence public opinion. “Our water is not for sale,” she said in her speech. “We all have a right to this water, as we need it, all people, not just rich people.”

activist aktivist cause sak, mål rally samling/samle resistance motstand prominent fremtredende/ framståande rural landlig/landleg solitary ensom/einsam emission utslipp/utslepp plead bønnfalle implement innføre universal for alle measure tiltak background check bakgrunnssjekk high-capacity bullet magazine kulemagasin til automatvåpen modified modifisert in accordance i samsvar

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Malala Yousafzai, the fight for Muslim girls’ right to education

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Malala Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Peace Prize laureate so far. “One child, one teacher, one book and one pen can change the world,” is one of her famous public statements. Malala, now in her twenties, lives in Birmingham, England, and is a Pakistani activist for girls’ right to education. In the Swat valley where she grew up, the Taliban had banned girls from attending school. Malala started writing blog posts about this topic on BBC Urdu, which gave this issue international attention. One day on her way back from school she was shot in the head by a Taliban soldier. She survived the attack and was brought to England for treatment. In fact, this act of violence only served to generate more attention and support for her cause.

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Nobel Prize Laureate nobelprisvinner/ nobelprisvinnar statement ytring quarterback spiller som tar strategiske valg på banen/ spelar som tek strategiske val på bana national anthem nasjonalsang/ nasjonalsong condemnation fordømmelse/ fordømming subsequently som en følge/ som ei følge

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Colin Kaepernick had seen enough. He was tired of witnessing the unfair treatment of minorities in his home country, the US. Being a successful quarterback on the San Francisco 49ers, he decided to make a silent statement before a football match. Instead of standing up during the national anthem he went down on one knee. “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of colour,” he said afterwards in an interview. Kaepernick drew attention worldwide, both support and condemnation. The US president stated publicly that kneeling NFL players should be fired. Subsequently, Kaepernick was without a team as the 2017 season began. However, his quiet form of protest had expanded into something much larger, with several players on NFL teams making a point of “taking a knee” during the anthem, and athletes from other sports demonstrating their support as well.

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4.102 • Combine each activist in Column A with the correct cause in Column B. Column A A Colin Kaepernick B Greta Thunberg

Column B female education

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2 clean water 3 stop global warming

C Malala Yousafzai D The March for Our Lives E Autumn Peltier

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4.103 •• What does the text say about how the activists work for their cause? Activist A Colin Kaepernick B Greta Thunberg

Method

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C Malala Yousafzai D The fight for our lives E Autumn Peltier

writing blog posts

2 appealing to politicians and organizing rallies 3 organizing marches across the US 4 kneeling during national anthem 5 school strike

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4.104 ••• Answer these questions. a What is an activist? b What are the “Water Warriors”? c How does Greta Thunberg back up her talk with action? d What are the demands of the March for Our Lives movement? e How did Malala Yousafzai gain public attention? f What was the price Colin Kaepernick had to pay for “taking a knee” during the national anthem?

Practise

4.105 Combine each word with the correct Norwegian translation. Norwegian

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sak/mål

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English A prominent B implement

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C rally D take a knee

E cause F quarterback

G measure H national anthem

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motstand

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4.106 Translate this paragraph into English. Aktivister har en sak de kjemper for. De må være villige til å ofre tid og privatliv for å lykkes i kampen for en bedre verden. De må være utholdende og målrettet. Mange aktivister har ofret sine liv for det de trodde på. De blir martyrer for saken. Deres død gir ofte saken de trodde på mer oppmerksomhet.

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4.107 Choose one of the activists mentioned in the text. Work in pairs. Ask each other these questions. a What cause does he/she promote? b What do you know about his/her background? c Would you join this campaign if you could? 4.108 Prepare a 2-minute speech about one cause mentioned in the text. Imagine that you are trying to get people to support this cause.

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4.109 • Write a short message to one of the activists mentioned in the text. Remember to be polite and supportive. Include the following: • Express your support to her/his particular cause. • Ask if there are rallies or demonstrations close to where you live in the near future. • Wish her/him good luck with upcoming projects.

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4.110 •• Choose one of the issues below. Make an outline for a speech or an email where you express your concern and suggest ways of taking action. • the right to free education • the employment rights of young workers • substance abuse • negative stereotyping • the death penalty • the use of religious symbols in public • protect the rights of ethnic minorities • affordable housing for young people 4.111 ••• Write a five-paragraph text about a social or environmental issue of your choice. See “Selecting sources” and “Structuring a text” for advice.

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Explore

4.112 Search online for a film from CBC News called “The teen fighting to protect Canada’s water – meet Autumn Peltier”. a Take notes as you watch the film. b Compare your notes. Work in pairs. c Write a summary based on the notes you both took.

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4.113 The Women’s Social and Political Union was established in 1903 in the United Kingdom. The photo shows Annie Kenny and Christabel Pankhurst, two of the front women in this organization, whose main cause was women’s right to vote. Find information about this organization. Make a timeline based on the information you find. Include major events from the organization’s foundation until the right to vote was granted to all women in the UK.

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4.114 In some cases people can disagree on what is the best approach when fighting for a cause. Search for information about how the organizations below experienced internal conflict over the use of violent methods. Write out a list of bullet points. a Civil rights movement, USA b Anti-apartheid organization ANC, South Africa c Irish Republican Army, Ireland

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss some activists and their causes YES

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reflect on methods used by activists YES

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

A echo chamber B fake news C stereotype D election E citizenship F crime G law H education

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4.115 Match these words with the correct definition. being a member of a state or society

2 an action that is illegal 3 learning, usually in a school

4 a situation when people only take into account information that agrees with what they already believe 5 an official rule you can be punished for breaking 6 choosing someone for political office 7 false stories that seem to be news 8

a set of ideas that people have about someone or something

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4.116 Complete these sentences. a In this chapter there are two texts where one of the main characters is a black girl. The texts’ titles are b In a text in this chapter a man deliberately published fake news. The title of this text is c A text in this chapter compares living conditions in the US and the UK. This text is found on page d The first text in this chapter is about e In several of the texts in this chapter crimes are committed. The crimes are f One of the texts in this chapter is about a law. This law is called g The last text in this chapter is about h Two films are based on the novels you can read an excerpt from in this chapter. They are

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your Progress 4.119 Structuring a text. a What are the six steps listed in “Structuring a text”? Which step do you think is most challenging for you? b How can a spidergram be a good tool when you structure your ideas? c Why is it useful to make an outline before writing your text? d How can you start an introduction? e What should you avoid doing in a conclusion? f Find the sentence connectors used in the sample text “Apprenticeships abroad?” How do they help the reader follow the writer’s arguments?

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4.117 Selecting sources. a How can you narrow an online search for information, and why should you do it? b What is important to check if you want to find out if a source is relevant? c In general, how do you know if a source is reliable? d Name some news organizations that provide unreliable stories. e Why should you not use Wikipedia as a source without cross-checking with other sources?

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4.118 Structuring ideas. Search for online tools that can help you structure your ideas. Select one. Choose a list of ideas you have already made. Use the tool to structure your ideas. Does this tool work for you?

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4.120 Speak a • What are important considerations in giving and receiving feedback? Work with a partner and agree on a list of important points to keep in mind.

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b •• How can you keep yourself informed about what goes on in the world? What should be your main sources for news? How can you know if they are reliable? Discuss in groups and share your views in class. c ••• Find the website of “America’s Last Line of Defense” (ALLOD). Choose one story. Study the guidelines in “Selecting sources” in this chapter, especially numbers 4 and 5, and examine the story critically. What do you find? Discuss in groups.

4.121 Write a • What is brainstorming? Make a list of ideas. Structure your ideas and write an outline for a text. b •• Use your outline to write one paragraph for when, one paragraph for how, and one paragraph for why you would brainstorm. Then write a short introduction and a conclusion. c ••• Find reliable sources that give information about brainstorming. Select information that is relevant to your text. Expand your text with examples to support your arguments and make the necessary changes.


CHAPTER 5

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Trade and Travel


In this chapter you will focus on k tasks and equipment within sales, service and travel

k marketing and advertising k using listening strategies k giving an oral presentation

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k pronouns and determiners

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Useful words and phrases convenience store bar code scanner marketing strategies promotion resort receptionist bellboy tourist destination security check billboard

What kind of equipment is important for service employees? Why is marketing an important skill?

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Office Equipment Stationery

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Before you start How many office items can you name? Work with a partner.

In an office there are many different tasks and an equally large number of items to help the employees do their job. Here are some examples.

For office work there are many handy items placed on desks and in drawers. Pens, pencils, markers, rubbers and correction fluid are used for writing and paperwork, while glue, sticky tape, scissors, staplers, pins and paper clips help organize desks and documents. Even though much office work is now done and stored on computers, printed documents and handwritten notes are still an important part of office life, often stored in files or ring binders or sent in envelopes with stamps to clients and business partners.

Office Machines

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In most offices there is a large selection of machines, and the most useful item today is undoubtedly the computer, which is used for all kinds of jobs, often combined with a multifunction printer. However, office staff also make phone calls, through business telephone systems, and communicate online through web cameras. Sensitive documents are shredded, cards and diplomas are laminated, and documents are attached into booklets with binding machines. Also, when product samples or catalogues are shipped out of the company, scales and postage software are useful. Finally, for offices that handle cash, currency counting machines are also part of the equipment.

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Filing systems Much information is today stored on computers or cloud servers. However, many offices keep backup documents in filing cabinets, often in special rooms or sections designated for storage. Whether it is as paper records or digital records, organizing a good system for storing files is crucial; otherwise contracts and other documents may be lost, or at the least cause a lot of extra work for the staff. Digitizing files may be faster, easier and safer but often original documents have a unique legal force and are therefore valid only on paper. Filing cabinets should be clearly labelled, in a logical way and with extra space for future additions.


AIMS k name and describe important office

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equipment k discuss what makes a good work environment

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Environment

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There are many advanced office software solutions and apps today that can help businesses with their various operations. Choosing the right tool for the task is the key to running an office efficiently. Various types of business software can help perform tasks like accounting, budgeting, payment transactions, project management, document management, website building, marketing, advertising, customer service and so on. Such programs are constantly updated and improved, so it can be challenging to keep track. Therefore, many companies hire their own ICT consultants to make sure they don’t fall behind.

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For the wellbeing of their employees, many employers spend a lot on work environment. First, a good workstation, with adjustable chairs and desks, prevents strain and ensures a healthy worker, as do good lighting and nice surroundings. In large enterprises there will also be a cafeteria, and maybe a fitness room or other benefits for the staff. In smaller offices, a nice lunchroom or some comfortable chairs next to the coffee machine may be where colleagues meet to chat and relax for a moment between meetings and other tasks. A happy and motivated staff is good for business, so investing in the workspace is always a smart move.

Security Most offices today take some kind of security measures. In big companies there will be a frontline office from which security guards observe what’s going on around and inside the building, whereas in smaller companies, a surveillance camera and an alarm system may be sufficient. Cyber security is another aspect that is becoming increasingly important in modern office life.

accounting regnskap/ rekneskap budget budsjett transaction overføring document management dokumentbehandling wellbeing velvære surroundings omgivelser/ omgivnadar enterprise firma measures tiltak front-line office resepsjon

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Read and understand

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5.1 Answer the questions. a What is stationery? Give examples. b Which machines are normally used in an office? c What is the difference between a shredder and a printer? d How can you file documents? e For which tasks are office software solutions useful? f What characterizes a good workstation? g Why is the coffee machine important in many offices? h Why is it smart for employers to create a good work environment for the staff? i What types of security measures are used in larger companies? j How can smaller companies stay safe with low costs?

Practise

5.2 Take turns pointing at the pictures in the text and tell each other what you see, what the equipment is called and what it is used for. 5.3 Look for words from the text in the word grid. Tick the Norwegian translation for each word you find. S

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5.4 Find the names of the following pieces of equipment. a This is a machine used to turn a selection of documents into a book. b This is something you install in a computer to perform an operation. c This is a device that produces a warm, brown liquid that people drink. d This is a device that makes it possible to observe a place without going there. e This is a collection of drawers where you can store important documents. f This is something you use to attach two sheets of paper together.

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5.5 The list below shows a variety of maintenance routines for photocopiers. Match the operations with the right number on the illustration. remove dust from inside clean the glass with a damp cloth check toner level check paper rollers for paper jam choose the right refill toner use high-quality paper

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5.6 If you were to work in an office, what kind of work environment and tasks would you prefer? In groups, use your knowledge of office work and your imagination to share your ideas and argue for your point of view.

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Explore

5.7 Choose a company you have heard about. Look for information about and pictures of the office and information about working conditions and facilities offered to the staff. Share in groups.

Write

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discuss what makes a good work environment

5.8 Write a text for a user manual where you describe a piece of office equipment. Explain what it looks like, how to use it and what tasks it performs. Include illustrations.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LISTENING STRATEGIES

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You probably spend more time using your listening skills than any other kind of skill. Most of us listen for entertainment on a daily basis – to music, podcasts, audiobooks, or when we keep the radio on while doing something else. Every now and then, we may not even realize that we are actually listening until something suddenly catches our attention. Yet, like other skills, listening takes practice. Choosing the right listening strategy will help you get the information you need. Listening for gist or overview • understand the main idea or content of what is said • not necessary to understand every word

After listening, you should be able to sum up what is most important or explain what the main message is.

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Listening for specific information • listen for details, such as names, numbers, dates, places, certain words • useful in many work situations, for example when taking a phone message or an order, understanding instructions or important safety warnings After listening, you should be able to provide specific information.

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Practical listening tips

Before listening to a text, decide what the purpose of listening is. What do you need to find out? What do you already know about the topic? What type of text is it? What words are useful to know?

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While listening, take notes. If you are listening for specific information, focus on key words and facts. If you are listening for overview, focus on understanding what the text is about.

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After listening, review your notes. Expand your notes and look up words you don’t understand. If necessary, listen to difficult passages again or ask the speaker to repeat what was said.

Be an active listener. In face-to-face communication, the speaker’s body language, facial expressions and tone of voice will help you understand the message. When you cannot see the speaker, it becomes even more important to think about what you are listening to and why you are listening.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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5.9 How do you listen in the following situations? a A news report about an accident on the radio. b A dialogue between two characters in a film. c Flight information on the public announcement system at the airport. d A podcast on current issues. e Someone calls to leave a message for your boss. f An elderly person talks to you about the old days. g Your best friend tells you a secret. h Your teacher introduces a new topic in class.

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5.10 Are you a good listener? a How can you show you are paying attention to what is being said in a conversation? b How can you show you are interested in what is being said? c “Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply.” Do you agree? d In small groups, tell each other about the latest film or series you watched. Practise being active listeners.

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5.11 Listen to this short text and fill in the missing information. The Empire State Building is located at 350 Avenue (between 33rd and 34th Streets) in New York City. The height of the building can be in different ways. The total height, including the lightning rod, is 1,454 The height of the building from the to its tip is usually given as feet. The measurement from the ground to the floor observatory is 1,224 feet and from the ground to the 86th floor observatory is feet. The building was completed ahead of schedule, taking only 1 year and days to build.

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5.12 Listen to this short text and answer the questions. a What is the conversation about? b What is important to remember after listening to the conversation? c Which listening strategy did you use to answer the questions? 5.13 Listen to what Sandra says about her job and answer the following questions. a Where does she work? b When does she start work in the morning? c What does she not like about her job? d How does she feel about her supervisor? e In general, would you say that Sandra likes her job? f Which listening strategy or strategies did you use to answer the questions? SKILLS | Chapter 5: Trade and Travel | 207


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Convenience Store Woman

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Before you start Are there any convenience stores where you live? What can you buy in such stores, and when?

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A convenience store is a world of sound. From the tinkle of the door chime to the voices of tv celebrities advertising new products over the in-store cable network, to the calls of the store workers, the beeps of the bar code scanner, the rustle of customers picking up items and placing them in baskets, and the clacking of heels walking around the store. It all blends into the convenience store sound that ceaselessly caresses my eardrums. I hear the faint rattle of a new plastic bottle rolling into place as a customer takes one out of the refrigerator, and look up instantly. A cold drink is often the last item customers take before coming to the checkout till, and my body responds automatically to the sound. I see a woman holding a bottle of mineral water while perusing the desserts and look back down. As I arrange the display of newly delivered rice balls, my body picks

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up information from the multitude of sounds around the store. At this time of day, rice balls, AIMS sandwiches, and salads are what sell best. Another part-timer, Sugawara, is over at the other side k sum up and discuss the main content of the text of the store checking off items with a handheld scanner. I continue laying out the pristine, k explain the tasks and activities that are part of working in a store machine-made food neatly on the shelves of the cold display: in the middle I place two rows of k use vocabulary related to working in stores the new flavor, spicy cod roe with cream cheese, alongside two rows of the store’s best-selling flavor, tuna mayonnaise, and then I line the less popular dry bonito shavings in soy sauce flavor next to those. Speed is of the essence, and I barely use my head as the rules ingrained in me issue instructions directly to my body. Alerted by a faint clink of coins I turn and look over at the cash register. It’s a sound I’m sensitive to, since customers who come just to buy cigarettes or a newspaper often jingle coins in their hand or pocket. And yes: as I’d thought, a man with a can of coffee in one hand, the other hand in his pocket, is approaching the till. I quickly move through the store, slide behind the counter, and stand at the ready so as not to keep him waiting. “Irasshaimasé! Good morning, sir.” convenience store I bow and take the can of coffee he holds out to me. nærbutikk, døgnkiosk “Oh, and a pack of Marlboro Menthol Lights.” tinkle plinging “Right away, sir.” I take out a pack of the cigarettes and scan the bar code. chime kiming bar code strekkode “Please confirm your age on the touch screen.” rustle rasling As he does so, I notice him glance at the hot-food cabinet. I could ask eardrum trommehinne him whether he’d like anything else, but when a customer appears to be checkout till kasse dithering over whether or not to buy something, I make a point of taking a peruse lese step back and waiting. display utstilling “And a corn dog.” multitude mengde “Right away, sir. Thank you.” pristine uberørt/urørt cod roe torskerogn I disinfect my hands with alcohol, open the hot cabinet, and take out a bonito shavings tørket og røykt corn dog. tunfisk i flak/tørka og røykt “Shall I put the hot food and cold drink in separate bags?” tunfisk i skiver “Oh no, don’t bother. Together’s fine.” ingrained inngrodd I put the can of coffee, cigarettes, and corn dog into a small-size bag. slide her: smyge Until then the man had been jingling the coins in his pocket, but now he counter disk suddenly moves his hand to his breast pocket as though something has just glance blikk dither nøle occurred to him. Instantly I deduce that he will use electronic money. corn dog maispølse “I’ll pay by Suica.” Suica kredittkort “Certainly, sir. Please touch your card here.” deduce trekke slutning/ I automatically read the customer’s minutest movements and gaze, and dra ei slutning minutest minste

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discomfort ubehag receipt kvittering custom her: handel queue kø cog brikke delivery levering sushi pockets innbakt sushi

my body acts reflexively in response. My ears and eyes are important sensors to catch their every move and desire. Taking the utmost care not to cause the customer any discomfort by observing him or her too closely, I swiftly move my hands according to whatever signals I pick up. “Your receipt, sir. Thank you for your custom!” “Thanks,” he says, taking his receipt and leaving. “I’m sorry to have kept you waiting,” I say with a bow to the woman next in the queue. “Irasshaimasé. Good morning!” The morning period is passing normally in the brightly lit box of the convenience store, I feel. Visible outside the windows, polished free of fingerprints, are the figures of people rushing by. It is the start of another day, the time when the world wakes up and the cogs of society begin to move. I am one of those cogs, going round and round. I have become a functioning part of the world, rotating in the time of day called morning. I am just running to put out more rice balls when our supervisor, Mrs. Izumi, calls out to me. “Miss Furukura, how many five-thousand-yen notes are there left in that till?” “Um, only two.” “Oh dear, there must have been a lot of customers paying with tenthousand-yen notes. There aren’t many left in the safe either. I’d better go to the bank this morning, once the rush and deliveries have calmed down.” “Yes, thank you!” Mrs. Izumi is a casual worker about the same age as me, but the night shift has been so short of staff lately that the store manager has been doing nights and putting her in charge during the day, as though she were a regular staff member sent from head office. “Okay then, I’ll go for change around ten o’clock. And while I’m thinking about it, there happens to be a special order for sushi pockets today, so please keep an eye out for the customer when he comes to collect it.” “I will!” I look at the clock: almost nine thirty. The morning rush is nearly over, and I have to finish dealing with the delivery and start preparing for the lunchtime rush. I stretch my back and go out into the store to finish putting out the rice balls. sayaka murata Sayaka Murata (1979–), is an up-and-coming, prize-winning Japanese writer. Of her many novels, “Convenience Store Woman” (2016) was the first to be translated into English. Murata has herself worked part time in a convenience store, which inspired her to write the story about Miss Furukura, where she explores social pressure and the monotony of life.

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IN SHORT

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A convenience store is a world of sound. The tinkle of the door chime, the beeps of the bar code scanner, the clacking of heels walking around the store. It all blends into the convenience store sound. As I arrange the display of rice balls, my body picks up information from the sounds around the store. At this time of day, rice balls, sandwiches, and salads are what sell best. I lay out food on the shelves. I hear a clink of coins and turn and look over at the cash register. A man with a can of coffee in one hand is approaching the till. I slide behind the counter. “Irasshaimasé! Good morning, sir.” I bow and take the can of coffee he holds out to me. “Oh, and a pack of Marlboro Menthol Lights.” “Right away, sir.” I take out a pack of the cigarettes and scan the bar code. I notice him glance at the hot-food cabinet. “And a corn dog.” “Right away, sir. Thank you.” I put the can of coffee, cigarettes, and corn dog into a small-size bag. “I’ll pay by Suica.” “Certainly, sir. Please touch your card here. Your receipt, sir. Thank you for your custom!” “Thanks,” he says, taking his receipt and leaving. “I’m sorry to have kept you waiting,” I say with a bow to the woman next in the queue. “Irasshaimasé. Good morning!” The morning rush is nearly over, and I have to start preparing for the lunchtime rush. I stretch my back and go out into the store to finish putting out the rice balls.

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5.14 • Fill in the missing information in the sentences. a The tinkle of the door and the beeps of the bar scanner are convenience sounds. b In the morning rush, rice balls, , and salads are what best. c The narrator hears a clink of when a man with a of coffee is the till. d She takes out a of the cigarettes and the bar code. e She puts the can of , cigarettes, and dog into a smallsize . f The morning is nearly over, and she starts for the rush.

convenience store storkiosk tinkle plinging bar code strekkode display utstilling shelf hylle cash register kassaapparat approach nærme seg slide smyge counter disk glance kikke corn dog maispølse Suica kredittkort receipt kvittering custom her: handel queue kø

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5.15 •• Answer the questions. a What are the different tasks the narrator, Miss Furukura, performs during her shift? b How does she handle the customers? Give examples. c How can we tell that she is an experienced employee? d Does she seem to enjoy her job? Give examples. e Who is Mrs. Izumi and what are her responsibilities? f What is your impression of the store described in the text? Would you enjoy working there? Give examples from the excerpt.

Practise

5.16 Make a list of all the convenience store items and tasks that are mentioned in the text. Write sentences to explain what they are or translate the words into Norwegian.

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5.17 Decide which sound best describes the various convenience store items and activities. 1 of the bar code scanner a tinkle 2 of heels walking around the store b calls 3 of a rolling plastic bottle c beeps 4 of coins d clink 5 of the door chime e rattle 6 of the store workers f clacking

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5.18 Replace the underlined names and nouns in the sentences with a personal pronoun. Check in the Language Lab section for more information. a The girl talks with the man. b The male customer is friendly towards the girl. c The display looks nice and the rice balls are popular. d My colleague and I do not work as hard as the narrator and her colleagues.

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5.19 Match the polite phrases with the correct answer to sort out the dialogue between a shop assistant and a customer. 1 Thank you, that’s kind. a Good morning. May I help you? 2 No thanks, I have one already. Goodbye! b I’ll check the storage room right away. 3 Well, I think I want this scarf, too. c I’m sorry to have kept you waiting, I found How much do I owe you? one in XS. 4 That’s great. I’ll have it then. d Would you like anything else? 5 Good morning, I’m looking for this shirt e That will be £12 in total. in size XS. Can you help me? f Of course, please touch your card here. 6 OK, can I use my Mastercard here? Would you like a bag for your items? g Thank you for your custom and have a nice day. 212 | Chapter 5: Trade and Travel | SKILLS


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5.20 Act out the dialogue from task 5.19. Feel free to add lines and requests. Afterwards, discuss who was the most convincing and polite shop assistant. Explain why.

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5.21 Discuss the following questions and tasks in pairs. After you have answered all the questions, move on to a new partner and go through them again. a Which of the tasks from the text would you enjoy doing? b Do you think some of the tasks would be tedious and boring? c Why is it important to be polite when talking with customers? d Have you ever paid attention to the convenience store sounds mentioned in the text? What are the sounds of other types of workplaces? What does your classroom sound like? e Have you experienced working in a shop or another place where you met customers? What was it like? How did you handle it? f How would you describe a good salesperson?

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5.22 Born to Sell? Listen to the text, take notes and then discuss in class how to become a good salesperson.

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5.23 • Place the sentences below in the correct order to get a step-by-step description of how to display goods in a store. Then write the paragraph. a Second, line the path to the back of the store with high-margin items, to remind customers of things they are about to run out of. b To sum it up, make sure your customers see as many of your products as possible, because a good visual display increases sales. c Before you start, it is important to spend time planning your product placement to get customers to pick up an extra thing or two. d Finally, never place expensive, high-theft items at the back of your store; keep them near the cash register. e Seasonal merchandise should be placed at the front of your store, since you do not want to be stuck with Christmas decorations in February. f First, put the most consumable products at the back of the store.

5.24 •• Use information from the text to write a short character description of the narrator, Miss Furukura.

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5.25 Find the differences between a convenience store, a grocery store and a supermarket. Compare your answers in class.

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FACT FILE MARKETING Marketing

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Marketing is the action of promoting and selling products or services, through market research and advertising. The term originates from the time when people brought their products to sell at the market – now it has grown into an advanced science that includes psychology, anthropology and even neuroscience.

Marketing research is an important first step when new products are developed, or existing ones improved. Identifying the consumers’ needs or anticipating what they want – or can’t live without – next season is challenging and demands creative thinking, testing and staying up to date. Marketing researchers use many different methods, and they often work towards a particular target market.

Branding, or creating a brand, is important. A good name, with a recognizable design or symbol, is easy to remember and will identify one seller’s goods from those of other sellers, both in stores and online. Therefore, designers make good money offering “brand identity packs” with logos and slogans.

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Marketers decide what methods to use to market a product by analysing various factors and planning the different stages. They start by anticipating what customers need or want, and then hopefully end up satisfying these requirements, with a profit. Marketing is a creative but also an academic industry. The key to success is knowledge, not only about products and markets, but also about the human mind and social relations.

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The 4Ps – product, price, promotion and place – is an important model within marketing. Product is about deciding on the actual goods or services and why consumers need them. Setting a price, depending on what consumers might be willing to pay for the product, is a difficult balance between avoiding overpricing, PRICE being able to compete with others, covering costs and making money. Promotion is about how to get the attention of and persuade PROMOTION PRODUCT the consumers, through e.g. advertising, sales promotion, product placement, events and exhibitions. Finally, place refers to the choices PLACE concerning how to get the product out to the consumers, for example which distribution channels to choose: retailers or online sales.

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FACT FILE MARKETING The 4Cs

Modern marketing Modern marketing adapts to changes in society. Today Influencer marketing is a hot trend, where famous people, for example bloggers, are paid to test and recommend products. Keyword marketing is the technique where a brand will pop up when people use certain words while searching online. Green marketing is also trendy, as most people want products that are environmentally safe. Viral marketing is a result of social media, where people like or share the ads. Finally, relationship marketing is based on customer loyalty; happy customers spread the word and sometimes get a treat in return.

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The 4Cs is an alternative marketing model, regarded as modern and client-focused: Consumer: the needs of the group that will buy the product Cost: the value of the product, and what consumers must sacrifice to get the product Convenience: where and when the product will be available, making it as easy as possible Communication: how consumers find out about the product, e.g. through social media

Promotion

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Promotion includes many different techniques, for example free samples, contests, coupons and games. In advertising there are TV and radio commercials, magazine ads, online ads, billboards and direct mail.

The marketing sales funnel shows the stages the potential customers go through before they buy the product. Is this an accurate description of your shopping habits?

Typical Purchase Funnel A Most critical stages

Ku

The marketing sales funnel Awareness

B Interest C

Consideration

D Intent E

Evaluation

F

Purchase

promote reklamere for originate komme fra/komme frå neuroscience nevrovitenskap/ nevrovitskap anticipate forutse/føresjå requirement krav profit fortjeneste/forteneste research undersøke target mål consumer forbruker/forbrukar brand varemerke recognizable gjenkjennelig/ attkjennande persuade overtale product placement produktplassering free sample vareprøve billboard reklameplakat treat belønning/påskjønning

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

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5.26 Decide which of the words in the pairs are nouns and which are verbs. Use them to write sentences. a sell – sales b consumer – consume c analyse – analysis d promote – promotion e advertisement – advertise f communication – communicate The next words are both verbs and nouns. Write sentences with examples of both. g brand, research, price 5.27 Fill in the words in the text. marketing – best – understand – symbol – loyalty – clear – services – succeed

til

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Branding A brand is a name, or design intended to identify the goods or of a company, to distinguish them from other sellers. Branding means to make your target market see you as the alternative. In order to in this, the message must be , you must show credibility, and you must signal to your company and to your client, by connecting emotionally and motivating the buyer. To succeed in branding you must the needs and wants of your customers. A strong brand is crucial in areas with strong competition. Spend time on researching, defining and building your brand, as it is the key to a successful communication.

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5.28 If you want to start your own business, an important marketing strategy is to come up with a good name. Study the pictures and answer the questions. a All these company names are puns. Can you find out what makes them funny or what they refer to? b What kind of work do the different companies do? c Can you think of other puns that would be funny names for a company? Make a list.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Speak

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5.29 An important feature of marketing is to adapt your message and techniques to the target group. Discuss what you would communicate in advertisements towards the following groups. d pregnant women their 30s a elderly men in their 70s e male teenager gamers b English teachers in their 40s f young office workers in their mid-20s c 5-years-olds (boys and girls)

5.30 A company or brand you like has asked you to organize the marketing of a new product. Use the 4Ps and your imagination. Write key words to show which target group you would address, how you would organize the marketing research and which promotion techniques you would use. Share your notes and discuss your choices in groups.

Explore

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5.31 Imagine that you have been asked to arrange a conference or an excursion linked to a topic of your choice. In groups, choose an activity and create a marketing plan, following the steps and strategies on the previous pages. Make a digital presentation with sound where you explain how you would solve the task.

Ku

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5.32 Product placement is a widespread marketing strategy used in the film and television industry. Do you recognize the films from the photos below? What product do you see? Search online for more examples and share and discuss this phenomenon in class.

Did you know

The products found by consumers at the retailers have most certainly had a long journey, from manufacturers, via packaging, transport, storage, wholesalers and finally to the shop. Marketing is also an important aspect of supply chain management. SKILLS | Chapter 5: Trade and Travel | 217


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Advertising

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Advertising is all around us – on roadside billboards, in magazines, on our phones – everywhere! It is the best way for a brand to reach its potential customers, but to win their attention both form and content must be right. The field of advertising is vast, but there are some elementary and easy tricks that can help you get started. First, good advertisements appeal to our minds. They do not necessarily show the actual product; often it is more effective to present an idea or an emotion. When we see images and symbols that we associate with luxury, happiness, pride, love and other positive things, we will more likely want to buy the brand that communicates such feelings. This is simple psychology: a message promising acceptance or sex appeal will result in a desire to buy. Also, making people think that “everybody” else is already using the product, so-called bandwagon advertising, creates a fear of missing out that is very

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Ku

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persuasive. Happy customer testimonials or statistics AIMS and facts create trust, while recommendations from celebrities create a wish to identify. Just think of all the sporting equipment brands that use successful athletes k explain some advertising techniques to sell their products. Patriotism, fame, family values, k discuss the effects of different advertisements friendship: choose images in your ads that suit your product but, more importantly, that appeal to the minds k analyse or create adverts or commercials of your target customers. Second, the technical part of advertising is a complex field, with many effects to choose from, often in combination. The choice of colours is important, since different nuances affect our minds in various ways. The composition of the image is another aspect. We can use the rule of thirds to position an object in the image where it gets the most attention. The focal point can be highlighted by contrasts like blurry and clear, dark and light. Furthermore, the place and length of text and the typography, which fonts to use, must be closely considered. If there are many details in the image, there should be little text. Use short, catchy slogans, such as simple claims like “Loved by kids everywhere” or compliments to the customers: “Because you’re worth it.” If there are people in the advert photo, body language, position and facial expression must be chosen carefully. To sell perfume, for example, a direct gaze into the camera is common. Making the right choices may be the difference between failure and success. Finally, when your advert is ready you must decide how and where to spread it. Always have the target market in mind and choose places and media where it will be seen by the “right” people. When introducing a new product, repetition is crucial. If it is a TV or radio commercial, make sure it is aired many times in the beginning. For ads, buy space in a number of magazines and on various billboards around the city. However, too much of the same can have a negative effect, since people get easily bored, so it is common to make several versions of an ad to create the effect of recognition billboard reklameskilt emotion følelse combined with the freshness of something new. It may also be smart persuasive overtalende/ to distribute large quantities of merchandise featuring your brand logo, overtalande hand out free samples or introduce your product with a 2-for-1 discount. testimonials vitnesbyrd Consumers love a bargain. Using social media and influencers is also an the rule of thirds det gyldne increasingly widespread strategy. The more attention your product gets, the snitt better, so be creative. focal point fokuspunkt To sum it up, advertising is about creating an emotion, choosing blurry uklart crucial viktig appropriate techniques and connecting with the potential customers. Some aired her: sendt ads make you laugh, while others attract your attention for other reasons, recognition gjenkjenning/ but if you have to look twice, the message is out and next time you go attkjenning shopping, you will remember.

sample prøve bargain røverkjøp/røvarkjøp

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Read and understand

5.33 • Decide if these sentences are true or false. Correct the false sentences. True The field of advertising is easy to learn.

b

A good advertisement must always show a photo of the product.

c

Creating a feeling is important to make customers want to buy a product.

d

Colours have little effect on people’s minds.

e

Always put a lot of text on top of pictures with many details.

f

To introduce a new product, repetition is an effective technique.

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a

False

5.34 •• Write questions about the text. Ask and answer each other’s questions in groups.

5.35 ••• What is your opinion of the advertising tricks mentioned in the text? Are they good techniques? Is something missing? Would you give other advice? Write key words with examples from the text and share your opinion in groups.

Practise

5.36 Match the advertising techniques with the correct image.

1

2

Jazz

Jazz

Paradise travel

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Jazz

c different versions d complimenting customers

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a the rule of thirds b bandwagon advertising

You deserve the best

3

We share with our friends

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5.37 Fill in the words in the correct spaces in the text. following – focus – platforms – building – costs – giveaways

Ku

Social media are an attractive marketing tool for new businesses, because such promoting has little or no . The catch is that you need to spend a lot of time a presence and making your content engaging enough to be worth . Frequent premiums for your followers, like discounts or for “likes and shares”, can help a lot. Use the most popular platforms and on the ones where you most likely will reach your target group.

5.38 Fill in the correct determiner – this, that, these, those – in the sentences. a advert here is better than advert on the billboard over there. b photos here are more interesting than photos over there. c products over there are much cheaper than products here.

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4


Speak

For everybody who loves to give a hug

Music -factory

5.40 Choose a television commercial and analyse it. Use the keywords below to help you organize your text. Include still photos of the commercial to illustrate your points.

J

Write

DESIGNED FOR THE MOVING MAN

You

O can

choose not to look

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target audience visual effects to attract attention sound effects, music or voice actors and their behaviour and looks mood and atmosphere overall message

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5.41 Your school wants more international attention and fame. a Use reliable sources and your knowledge to suggest a marketing strategy for how your school could sell its services and achievements to an international target group. Write your plan and give reasons for your choices. b Next, in groups, design an advertisement or create a promotion video to sell your school to a foreign market. Use techniques from the text.

Ku

Did you know

When photographing food for advertisements, designers use some surprising but quite common tricks. To get the best glow and flow of syrup on pancakes, they use motor oil instead. To show crunchy cereals on white milk, the fluid is replaced by white glue or shampoo. Hairspray is used to make fruit and vegetables look shiny and fresh, and brown shoe polish gives hamburgers the “right” colour. Still hungry?

C

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5.39 Study the adverts and discuss the following questions. a Who are the target groups for these ads? How can you tell? b What details do you see in the image and how are they positioned? What’s in the background, what is up front, what is highlighted? c How much text is there and what is the message? Should there be more text? Do you like the fonts? What language style is used? d What kinds of feelings and atmosphere do the adverts create? e Which advert do you prefer? Discuss and give reasons for your views.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain some advertising techniques YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss the effects of different advertisements YES

ALMOST

NO

analyse or create adverts or commercials YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING A PRESENTATION

What, why, who and how • • • •

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Learning to give presentations is useful for both school and work. Oral presentations typically involve three stages; planning, practising and presenting. As the following guidelines show, most of your time and effort should be spent on the first two. With good planning and enough practice, you will become a more confident speaker.

Study the task carefully. What are you asked to do? Underline instruction verbs. Does the task have certain requirements? What sources will be relevant? Identify your purpose. Why are you making this presentation? What do you want to achieve? Inform/describe/persuade/entertain/instruct/discuss … Identify the audience. Who will you be talking to, and what is the context? Classmates/coworkers/customers/examiners … Adjust your language to the task at hand. Consider the situation, your audience and your topic. For advice on using formal and informal language, see Chapter 3.

Structure your presentation

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The introduction Catch the audience’s attention. You can start by asking a question, making a statement or telling a story to introduce your topic. “Have you ever been inside an ambulance?” “When I was a child, I often went to ... ” Give your audience an idea of what to expect. For example, tell them how your presentation is structured. “First, I am going to say a few words about ... Next, there will be information about ... and finally, I will give my own opinion on ... ”

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The main part Organise your points into sections. One point per section makes it easy to follow. Give evidence or examples to support your points, and then explain in your own words. Make your transitions clear to the audience. Let your listeners know when you are moving on to the next point, example or section by using sentence connectors or briefly recapping what you have just said. “In contrast, these charts show that ... ” “Another example I would like to ... ” “Now that we have looked at ..., we can go on to ... ”

Ku

The conclusion Sum up in a few short sentences what you have talked about. “In conclusion I would like to say that ... ” “To sum up this presentation, ... ” Thank your audience for listening. “Thank you for your attention.” “Thanks for listening. Are there any questions?”

Use visuals

Short videos, photos, charts or animations can be used to support your presentation. If you use digital presentation tools, do not overload each slide. Select the most important facts and make sure the audience can read the text and see the images clearly.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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The more you practise, the more comfortable you will become with the material. • Write down keywords and main points on index cards so you remember what to say. • Practise how to pronounce difficult words. • Get feedback from a friend if possible. • Time your presentation. If your assignment is to give a three-minute talk, make sure you finish on time.

Present

Use the following tips to keep your audience engaged during your presentation. • Speak slowly and clearly. Try to avoid fillers such as “uh, like, I mean, you know, okay”. • Keep eye contact with your listeners. • Include short pauses to allow yourself to think ahead and your listeners to keep up. • Remember to breathe. It is ok to be a bit nervous. • Speak with confidence. You are the authority on your topic, but do not pretend to know everything.

Practise

vu

5.42 Make introductions to presentations on the following topics. Practise in pairs and give each other feedback. Try not to use a manuscript. a The most important life skills for young people today. b What it means to be a role model. When someone is giving a presentation, be a c The importance of practical training. good listener. Look at the person who is speaking and make sure your body language is positive. Try to come up with a question or a relevant response afterwards.

til

What to look for: • Does the introduction make you want to hear more? • Does the speaker make eye contact with you? • Does he/she speak without a manuscript?

n

5.43 Choose one of the topics that you have studied earlier in the course. First decide on a purpose and an audience, then prepare a presentation. Use digital presentation tools. Purpose

Audience

Safety in the workplace My favourite holiday destination An artist with a message A book or film I would like to recommend A cause I support An interesting fact about the USA/UK What inspires me the most What to do (and not to do) on social media

Entertain Describe Inform Argue a point or case Persuade Instruct

Children An elderly person Classmates Your teacher Co-workers Local politicians Examiners in the oral exam

Ku

• • • • • • • •

Suggested topics

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Trade and Travel | 223


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AIMS k discuss the content of the film k use words related to various jobs in

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a hotel k create an advertisement for a hotel

The Grand Budapest Hotel

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The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014) is a story about Zero, a young immigrant who becomes a lobby boy in a legendary hotel in the Alps in the 1930s. He gradually develops a friendship with Monsieur Gustave, the famous and highly devoted concierge. M. Gustave runs the hotel efficiently and seems to be very popular, especially among the wealthy, elderly, female guests. When one of those women dies, M. Gustave inherits a valuable painting. Soon, however, he discovers that the mysterious circumstances around her death are leading the police to his hotel. When M. Gustave is arrested and imprisoned, it is up to Zero to clear M. Gustave’s name, a task that turns out to be rather challenging.

Watch and understand

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5.44 • Answer the questions about the plot and characters in the film. a How does the film start? b Who is the narrator of the story? c How would you describe M. Gustave? d What do we learn about Zero? e Who is Madame D and what happens to her? f Who is Agatha and what are Zero’s feelings for her? g What happens when M. Gustave inherits the painting? h What happens while M. Gustave is in prison and who help him escape to safety? i How does the story end for M. Gustave, Agatha and Zero?

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5.45 •• Answer the questions about narrative techniques, setting and themes in the film. a The film is divided into 5 parts. What are they called, and what is the effect of this feature? b What other effects and devices are used in the film, e.g. colour, sound, cuts etc.? c What is the historic backdrop for the story? d Which genre does this film belong to? Give reasons for your views. e Name at least two themes in the film. f To what extent did you enjoy the film? How do you feel about the characters?

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Speak

5.46 Read aloud the following excerpts from dialogues in the film. Then, discuss what they tell us about the personal qualities and tasks of a good lobby boy.

vu

M. Gustave: Experience? Zero: Hotel Kinsky, Kitchen Boy, 6 months. Hotel Berlitz, Mop and Broom Boy, 3 months. Before that I was a Skillet Scrubber. M. Gustave: Experience, zero. [to other workers] Pleasure’s all mine. These are not acceptable. [back to Zero] Education? Zero: I studied reading and spelling. I started my primary school. I almost finished... M. Gustave: Education, zero. [to others] Good morning Cicero. Call the plumber. [back to Zero] Family? Zero: [hestitates] Zero.

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M. Gustave: Why do you want to be a lobby boy? Zero: Well, who wouldn’t – at the Grand Budapest, sir? It’s an institution. [...] M. Gustave: What is a lobby boy? A lobby boy is completely invisible, yet always in sight. A lobby boy remembers what people hate. A lobby boy anticipates the client’s needs before the needs are needed. A lobby boy is, above all, discreet to a fault. Our guests know that their deepest secrets, some of which are frankly rather unseemly, will go with us to our graves. So keep your mouth shut, Zero.

5.47 Read the quotes. What do they mean, and do you agree? Do you think M. Gustave would agree? “The great advantage of a hotel is that it is a refuge from home life.” George Bernard Shaw “A hotel isn’t like a home, but it is better than being a house guest.” William Feather “Treat hotel guests like family.” Rupesh Patel

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Practise

5.48 Match the titles with the correct tasks to find out who is who in a hotel. receptionist

1

a problem solver who provides services for guests

B

hotel manager

2

the cleaning staff at a hotel

C

housekeeping

3

person in charge of conferences, weddings, etc.

D

bellhop / porter

4

person who serves drinks and meals to guests

E

concierge

5

person who helps the guests with their luggage

F

event planner

6

person in charge of restaurant, food orders and meals

G

executive chef

7

person in charge of the running of a hotel

H

waiter

8

front desk clerk, checking guests in and out of rooms

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A

Listen

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5.49 Fill in the possessive pronouns. For information, see the Language Lab section. a Zero lost his hat. The hat is ... b Agatha bought a cake. The cake was ... c Staying in this hotel was my idea. The idea was ... d We cleaned our room. The room is ... e This is your painting. The painting is ... f They like their room. The room is ...

til

“Customer Conversations” 5.50 Listen to the conversation between a receptionist and a guest. Then decide whether the statements are true or false. a The guest wants to stay for one week. b The client seems to be very flexible concerning choice of room. c The receptionist understands right away what the client wants. d There are many vacant rooms in the hotel right now.

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5.51 Imagine that you were asked to restore the Grand Budapest Hotel to its former glory and advertise for it to attract new guests. What would you do? Create a plan and make an advertisement for your “New Grand Budapest”.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss the content of the film YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to various jobs in a hotel YES

ALMOST

NO

create an advertisement for a hotel YES

ALMOST

NO

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Rachel and Helen are out strolling through the town of Santa Marina after dark. On an impulse the two women decide to sneak up to the only hotel in town and spy on the people who have just arrived from their home country, England. It was a beautiful evening, the stars were coming out. They had walked some way and it was now night, but they could see a large iron gate a little way farther down the road on their left. "Do you mean to go right up to the hotel?" Helen asked. Rachel gave the gate a push; it swung open, and, seeing no one about and judging that nothing was private in this country, they walked straight on. An avenue of trees ran along the road, which was completely straight. The trees suddenly came to an end; the road turned a corner, and they found themselves confronted by a large square building. They had come out upon the broad terrace which ran round the hotel and were only a few feet distant from the windows. A row of long windows opened almost to the ground. They were all of them uncurtained, and all brilliantly lighted, so that they could see everything inside. Each window revealed a different section of the life of the hotel. They drew into one of the broad columns of shadow which separated the windows and gazed in. They found themselves just outside the diningroom. It was being swept; a waiter was eating a bunch of grapes with his leg across the corner of a table. Next door was the kitchen, where they were washing up; white cooks were dipping their arms into cauldrons, while the waiters made their meal voraciously off broken meats, sopping up the gravy with bits of crumb. Moving on, they became lost in a plantation of bushes, and then suddenly found themselves outside the drawingroom, where the ladies and gentlemen, having dined well, lay back in deep arm-chairs, occasionally speaking or turning over the pages of magazines. A thin woman was flourishing up and down the piano. "What is a dahabeeyah, Charles?" the distinct voice of a widow, seated in an arm-chair by the window, asked her son. "They're all old in this room," Rachel whispered. Creeping on, they found that the next window revealed two men in shirt-sleeves playing billiards with two young ladies. "He pinched my arm!" the plump young woman cried, as she missed her stroke. "Now you two—no ragging," the young man with the red face reproved them.

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iron gate jernport confronted møtt av uncurtained uten gardiner/ utan gardiner reveal åpenbare/openberre gaze stirre/stire cauldrons kjeler/kjelar voracious grådig gravy saus crumb smule flourishing her: viftende/ viftande Dahabeya Egyptian river boat rag her: erte reprove irettesette

Eavesdroppers

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Before you start What kind of facilities and activities are normally offered in a hotel?

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"Take care or we shall be seen," whispered Helen, plucking Rachel by the arm. Incautiously her head had AIMS risen to the middle of the window. Turning the corner, they came to the largest room k explain details from the text in the hotel, which was supplied with four windows, k describe and discuss facilities and activities in hotels and was called the Lounge, although it was really a hall. Hung with armour and native embroideries, furnished k present your own ideal hotel with divans and screens, which shut off convenient corners, the room was less formal than the others, and was evidently the haunt of youth. Signor Rodriguez, whom they knew to be the manager of the hotel, stood quite near them in the doorway surveying the scene—the gentlemen lounging in chairs, the couples leaning over coffee-cups, the game of cards in the centre under profuse clusters of electric light. He was congratulating himself upon the enterprise which had turned the refectory, a cold stone room with pots on trestles, into the most comfortable room in the house. The hotel was very full, and proved his wisdom in decreeing that no hotel can flourish without a lounge. The people were scattered about in couples or parties of four, and either they were actually better acquainted, or the informal room made their manners easier. Through the open window came an uneven humming sound like that which rises from a flock of sheep pent within hurdles at dusk. The card-party occupied the centre of the foreground. Helen and Rachel watched them play for some minutes without being able to distinguish a word. Helen was observing one of the men intently. Suddenly, he looked up and turned his full face towards the window. They could see that he had large eyes obscured by glasses; his complexion was rosy, his lips clean-shaven; it appeared to be an interesting face. He came straight towards them, but his eyes were fixed not upon the eavesdroppers but upon a spot where the curtain hung in folds. A scuffling was heard on the gravel. The women fled. They did not stop running until they felt certain that no eye could penetrate the darkness and armour rustning the hotel was only a square shadow in the distance, with red holes regularly convenient passende/passande cut in it. Excerpts from The Voyage Out, Virginia Woolf

virginia woolf

Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) was an English writer and feminist from a well-to-do family in London. In her writing she explored women’s rights, freedom and sexuality. Throughout her life Wolf suffered from depression, and she ended her life at the age of 59. The Voyage Out (1915) is Virginia Woolf’s first novel, a story about self-discovery, as young Rachel embarks on a journey to South America.

w

haunt her: tilholdssted/ tilhaldsstad profuse verstrømmende/ overstrøymande enterprise foretak/føretak refectory spisesal trestles bukker/bukkar decree påbud/påbod hurdle hekk eavesdropper tyvlytter/tjuvlyttar gravel grus

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Read and understand

5.52 • Make a sketch or drawing of the hotel in the text. 5.53 •• Which rooms do the two young women observe through the various windows, and what activities are going on in the rooms? Which room would you be in?

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5.54 ••• Answer the questions. a How is the staff described in the text? What does this tell us about their working conditions? b How is the atmosphere different in the dining-room and in the lounge? Why? c What seems to be the relationship between the young girls and the men in the billiard room? d Why does Signor Rodriguez congratulate himself? e What do Helen and Rachel do when the man with the glasses approaches the window? Why? f What is the atmosphere in this text? Which details create this feeling?

Practise

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5.55 Match the words with the correct illustration. a lounge b dining-room c drawing-room 2

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1

d terrace

4

Ku

3

5.56 Make a list of furniture, equipment and other facilities you normally find in a hotel. Compare your lists in groups. Then use your words to write sentences that describe the photos above.

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Speak

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5.57 Discuss the questions and share your opinion. a Can you find any hints in the text that explain why the two young women are so curious about the guests at the hotel? b Would you like to stay in the hotel described in the text? What seems to be nice about the place? c Have you ever been eavesdropping or peeping through windows unseen? What happened? d Have your ever stayed in a nice hotel? What was it like, and which facilities and activities did it offer?

5.58 Work with a partner and act out the scenes. a A receptionist is checking in a guest in a wheelchair. The guest lists some wishes and asks about the facilities. The receptionist finds ways to meet the customer’s needs. b A guest asks the receptionist in a city hotel to suggest some activities for the day. The receptionist needs to know what the guest is interested in, and finally they find a solution.

vu

5.59 If you were to start your own hotel, what kind of establishment would that be? Make an oral presentation where you explain what style, facilities and activities you would offer in your dream hotel. You may want to include name, location, capacity and other details. See this chapter for advice on giving oral presentations.

Write

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5.60 Use the drawing to write a text about a day at a hotel, as experienced by at least two of the people you see. Use vocabulary from the text and tasks to help you get started. How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain details from the text YES

ALMOST

NO

describe and discuss facilities and activities in hotels YES

ALMOST

NO

present my own ideal hotel YES

ALMOST

NO

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Introducing Norway

Ku

!

Before you start Lonely Planet is the world’s largest travel book publisher. Before you read one of their texts about Norway, which attractions do you think are the most important in Norway?

Norway is a once-in-a-lifetime destination, and the essence of its appeal is remarkably simple: this is one of the most beautiful countries on earth.

Stirring landscapes The drama of Norway’s natural world is difficult to overstate. Impossibly steep-sided fjords of extraordinary beauty cut gashes from a jagged coastline deep into the interior. The fjords’ fame is wholly merited, but this is also a land of glaciers, grand and glorious, snaking down from icefields that rank

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The call of the wild

AIMS k discuss how Norway is presented as

a tourist attraction k understand and use words related to tourism k introduce some important tourist attractions

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among Europe’s largest. Elsewhere, the mountainous terrain of Norway’s interior resembles the ramparts of so many natural fortresses, and yields to rocky coastal islands that rise improbably from the waters like apparitions of childhood imaginings. And then, of course, there’s the primeval appeal of the Arctic. Such landforms provide a backdrop for some of Europe’s most charismatic wildlife – polar bears (in Svalbard), reindeer and musk oxen to name just three – and the setting for many a picturesque wooden village. Together they lend much personality, if any were needed, to what is an astonishing topographical story.

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In Norway experiencing nature is very much an active pursuit, and Norwegians’ passion for exploring their natural world has created one of Europe’s most exciting and varied adventure tourism destinations. Some activities may only be for the young, energetic and fearless, but most – such as world-class hiking, cycling and white-water rafting in summer; dog-sledding, skiing and snowmobiling in winter – can be enjoyed by anyone of reasonable fitness. On our travels we’ve encountered 93-year-old snowmobilers and whole families with young children racing down rapids. Whether you’re here in summer when the options are more varied, or in winter for the soul-stirring spectacle of the northern lights, these activities are both reason alone to visit and an exhilarating means of getting away from the crowds and close to nature.

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Scandinavian sophistication

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The counterpoint to so much natural beauty is found in the country’s vibrant cultural life, which celebrates local traditions and draws in the best from around the world. Norwegian cities are cosmopolitan and brimful of architecture that showcases the famous Scandinavian flair for design through the ages. At the same time, a busy calendar of festivals, many of international renown, are worth planning your trip around.

Worth the expense And yet if one topic above all others dominates conversations among travellers to Norway, it’s the formidable cost of travel here. Make no mistake: Norway is one of the most expensive countries on earth, which is yet another reason why saving up to come here is akin to planning the trip of a lifetime. But is it worth it? Absolutely: Norway will pay you back with never-to-beforgotten experiences many times over.

overstate overdrive steep bratt cut gashes skjære dypt/ skjere djupt jagged taggete merited velfortjent/velfortent glacier isbre rampart (festnings)voll apparition fenomen, plutselig tilsynekomst/fenomen, noko som brått kjem fram primeval urtids-, opphavelig/ urtids-, opphavleg backdrop bakgrunn polar bear isbjørn musk oxen moskusokse picturesque malerisk/målande adventure tourism opplevelsesturisme/ opplevingsturisme white-water rafting elverafting snowmobiling snøscooterkjøring/snøskuterkøyring rapids (fosse)stryk renown berømmelse/ry akin to beslektet med/ i slekt med

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IN SHORT

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5.61 • Which attractions make Norway worth visiting? Make a list. 5.62 •• Decide if these statements are true or false by explaining what the text says about them. Example: The writer seems to like Norwegian nature. True, because the text says: “This is one of the most beautiful countries on earth.” a The drama of Norway’s natural world is highly overstated. b The fjords are one good reason to go to Norway. c Norwegian glaciers are small compared to those in other European countries. d In the mountains of Norway there are many man-made fortresses from the war. e Coastal islands are mostly interesting to children. f The landscape of the Arctic looks like it is very old and unchanged. g The wooden villages make the scenery even more beautiful. h You need to be young and fearless to go to adventure tourism destinations. i In the winter there is a larger choice of activities than in the summer. j Norwegian cities are as interesting as other big cities in the world. k Norway is far too expensive to be worth visiting.

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once-in-a-lifetime en gang i livet/ein gong i livet destination reisemål steep bratt glacier isbre wildlife dyreliv polar bears isbjørn reindeer reinsdyr wooden av tre experience oppleve, erfare adventure tourism opplevelsesturisme/opplevingsturisme destination reisemål hiking fjellvandring dog-sledding hundesledekjøring/hundesledekøyring cosmopolitan kosmopolitt cost kostnad expensive dyr saving up spare opp

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Norway is a once-in-a-lifetime destination and one of the most beautiful countries on earth. Norway has steep-sided fjords and fantastic glaciers. The mountains of Norway’s interior and the Arctic are fantastic landscapes with impressive wildlife, such as polar bears (in Svalbard) and reindeer. There are also very charming wooden villages. In Norway experiencing nature is a popular activity. This has created some of Europe’s most exciting adventure tourism destinations. Some activities are for the young and fearless, but most people can enjoy hiking, cycling and rafting. In winter dog-sledding, skiing and the northern lights can be enjoyed by people of all ages. Combined with natural beauty are Norway’s local traditions, cultural life and cosmopolitan cities. The many festivals are also worth a visit. Yet, many travellers to Norway also comment on the cost of travel here. Norway is one of the most expensive countries on earth, so saving up is good advice in order to make it the trip of a lifetime.

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Practise

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5.63 Choose the correct form of the reflexive pronouns to fill in the open spaces. Pay attention to the singular and plural forms. myself – yourself – himself – herself – itself – ourselves – yourselves – themselves a My uncle Pete wanted to see for the magnificent fjords. b The lady was singing to while skiing down the slopes. c Did you hurt ? the guide asked his assistant. d They usually enjoyed when they went on holiday together. e We had to let out of the hotel this morning. f I don’t take very seriously. g The snow won’t disappear by , will it? h I can’t do the homework for all of you; you have to do it !

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Photo; Terje Rakke/Nordic Life

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5.64 Discuss in groups. a Do you think that the text gives a realistic description of Norway? Do you think a person who went to Norway after reading only this text would be disappointed? If so, what information should be included in the text? b Study the advertisements below. What is used to attract attention? Who are they for and what are the messages? Do you think they will make tourists want to come to Norway? Explain. c Do you read travel guides and tourist brochures when planning a holiday? Are there other ways to find information about destinations? d What is important for you when planning a holiday? Is it natural beauty, adventure, architecture, festivals, or something else?

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5.65 A recent trend is for people to make a “bucket list” of must-see destinations before they die. Study the list of what Britons have on their bucket lists and discuss the questions in groups. a Are there any of these destinations that you would have on your bucket list? Why? b Are there any of them that you would absolutely NOT visit? Explain. c Which destinations would you put on your top ten bucket list? Give reasons for your choices.

5.66 Study this advertisement and answer the questions. a What do you see and how did you first react to the picture? Explain. b The picture is from Amnesty International Norway’s Stop Violence Against Women campaign. How does this information change your reading and interpretation of the image? c The designers have combined a traditional background with shocking details. What is the effect? d Do you think this is a good way to get a message out?

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Britons’ top ten must-see destinations: 1 Seeing the aurora borealis in Norway (37 %) 2 Visiting the Egyptian pyramids (35 %) 3 Road trip along Route 66 in the US (33 %) 4 Walking the Great Wall of China (32 %) 5 Experiencing an African safari (31 %) 6 Taking a helicopter ride over Grand Canyon (30 %) 7 Going on a cruise in the Caribbean (29 %) 8 Seeing the Taj Mahal, India (28 %) 9 Riding a gondola in Venice (27 %) 10 Diving in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (24 %)

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“Tourists” 5.67 Listen to the three texts and answer the questions. a What are the names of the three people talking, and where do they come from? b Match each picture with the right person. c What do the three people say about Norway?

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Explore

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5.68 “Spin the globe” is a travel concept where you actually spin a globe, eyes closed, and let your finger land on a random destination. Use a world map, choose a random destination and make a fourday programme for a visit. Include transport, accommodation, restaurants, attractions and activities. Present your programme, with pictures and a map.

Write

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5.69 • Use the facts from task 5.62 and your imagination to write a travelogue for a magazine.

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How to write travelogues • Do research on the place. • Give photographic descriptions. • Highlight important attractions. • Explain how to get there. • Name a few good hotels. • Mention some out-of-the-way attractions. • Give some cultural background. • Mention some “dos” and “don’ts” in the area.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

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5.70 •• Choose a region in Norway and make a marketing strategy plan for how you would sell the region to tourists. Include information about • attractions and activities you would focus on • the type of marketing you would use • pictures that will make the area attractive to tourists Use the information to create a travel brochure or a web page to introduce the region.

discuss how Norway is presented as a tourist attraction YES

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understand and use words related to tourism YES

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introduce some important tourist attractions YES

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What I Do at Work

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When you apply for a job, employers always check that you have the formal qualifications, but are you really prepared for the different tasks you will be expected to perform? Meet some people who enjoy their work within sales, service and tourism.

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I am Simon and I work as a travel agent for a large tour operator that organizes group trips in different countries in Europe. We cooperate with booking agencies, railway companies, event organizers, tourist information offices and ferry companies, and speaking two foreign languages has been of great use to me. I love the part where we choose destinations, plan activities and find the best hotels. Another enjoyable part of the job is marketing, trying to find the best ways to reach out to the customers, giving the best service and valuable advice. I do most of my work on computers, searching for information and emailing clients and agencies, but I also spend a lot of time on the phone. We have computer programs to help us organize and perform our tasks, but I also print out important documents and keep them in files. I do a lot of different things during the day, and it’s fun to discover destinations and activities that our clients will enjoy.

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My name is Wendy, and I am a trained office and administration worker. I have been working at the public library in our town for some years, but now I have been offered a job as a secretary in a law office, starting next week. It sounds interesting and fun, too. I am used to handling customers, giving advice, managing budgets and using various types of office support systems. The best part of my job is talking with people, and my best quality is that I can work independently and systematically. I do not know yet what my tasks will be, but I guess I will have to stay informed about the activities and customers of my employers and keep track of important documents. I’m really excited about trying something new, but I’ll miss the nice customers at the library, too.

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AIMS k discuss tasks and professions within

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sales, service and tourism k understand and use words related to security and office work

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Hi! I am Cornelia and I work as a security guard at an airport. My first years in security I worked in a museum, but the night shifts were challenging, so I am happy now to work only day and evening shifts. I am mostly working in the security check section, as part of a team, and my duties are screening and examining luggage and passengers. We look for weapons, such as knives and guns, and liquids that can contain explosives. This is to prevent hijacking or other violent actions. We also examine the behaviour of passengers, to make sure they aren’t intoxicated. Sometimes we detect drugs and other illegal substances that passengers try to smuggle along, often in very creative ways. Other tasks are to patrol the airport facilities and observe activity through security cameras. Misbehaving travellers are escorted away from the airport. Suspicious behaviour may lead to arrest, but in that case, we cooperate with the customs officers and the airport police. It is varied work, and keeping people safe is an important job. I enjoy the busy and multicultural atmosphere here and have many nice colleagues.

tour operator turoperatør booking agencies bookingfirmaer/bookingfirma destinations reisemål public library offentlig bibliotek/ offentleg bibliotek office support systems kontorteknologiske hjelpemidler/ kontorteknologiske hjelpemiddel screen her: gjennomlyse hijacking kapring intoxicated beruset/rusa substance stoff patrol patruljere customs her: toll

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Read and understand

5.71 • Who does what? Match these tasks with the correct profession. Then use the words to write one sentence about each of the three people in the text. a give advice, manage budgets, and use various types of office support systems b examine travellers and screen luggage to detect weapons and drugs. c choose destinations, plan activities, find the best hotels and book the transport

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5.72 •• Answer the questions. a What kind of companies does Simon cooperate with? b Which tasks is he particularly fond of? c What will Wendy miss when she starts her new job? d Which tasks does she expect to be given in her new job? e Why does Cornelia think she has an important job? f How is this job better than her last job? g Which of these jobs would you prefer? Give reasons for you views by referring to the text.

Practise

5.73 Fill in the following words to complete the text about John, a security guard. crowd – respect – measures – conflicts – guard – facing

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John works as a security for a security services company in Liverpool. His main job is to plan and organize security on customers’ premises, and very often he works at Anfield Stadium, during the home games of Liverpool F.C. He says: “The good thing is that I can go to all the football matches; the bad thing is that most of the time I keep my back towards the game, the audience.” John has specialized in control, and being able to interact with others, resolve , show empathy and gain are important qualities to succeed in this job. 5.74 Study the list of typical security guard equipment and match each item with the correct photo. torch – boots – belt – walkie-talkie – identity badge – metal detector 2

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5.75 Fill in the correct form of the relative pronouns, who, which, that, whom or whose, in the open spaces. For information, see the Language Lab section. a There are strict rules on security, must be followed. b The computers we use are quite expensive. c I know someone works as a travel guide in China. d The security guard, with I discussed my luggage, was polite and nice. e Wendy got the position she applied for, made her very happy. f Cornelia, dream was to work in a museum, is now happy to work at the airport. g The students, were out on work placement, all had to write logs. h The travel agent made a list of the destinations were scheduled next summer.

Explore

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5.76 Richard Jewell was working as a security guard when he discovered a bomb in a stadium during a concert. He alerted the police and saved many lives, but then something happened. Watch the film about him (2020) or search the internet for information. Discuss how he could end up in this situation and share your opinion of how he was treated.

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5.77 There are many films where security guards end up in dramatic situations or experience exciting or scary events during their watch, often at night. Search online for examples of such films, watch some trailers and share in class.

5.78 Simon receives a customer in his office who wants to go on an exotic holiday trip to an exciting destination. Simon suggests many alternatives but at first the customer is hard to please. Act out the conversation.

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5.79 “Surveillance” Listen to the text about the use of private surveillance cameras and privacy rules. Take notes and discuss the issue in groups.

Write

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss tasks and professions within sales, service and tourism YES

5.80 When creating advertisements, you need to consider the profile of the brand and the preferences of the target group. What kind of effects and language style would you choose for a toy store, a law firm and a travel agency? Write a short outline for at least two such adverts and then create one of them. Use your knowledge and advice from this chapter.

ALMOST

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understand and use words related to security and office work YES

ALMOST

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise 5.81 After working with Chapter 5, it is time to revise what you have learnt.

Assess your progress

e Explain how to create advertisements. f Which occupations are mentioned in this chapter? g Describe some of the challenges of security work. h What is branding? Explain and give examples.

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a Leaf through the chapter. Which texts and tasks have you worked with? b Mention some pieces of office equipment in English. c Why is it useful to learn about marketing? d List three items found in a store.

a Office equipment

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5.82 In this chapter you have worked with topics that require a specialized vocabulary. Use the categories below to make a list of words that are relevant to these topics. Then describe what strategies you used for learning these words. You may want to check “Learning strategies” and “Tools for language learning” in Chapter 1 to jog your memory. b Working in a store

c Marketing

d Working in a hotel

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5.83 One of the most important aspects of working in a service profession is being organized and creative. a Find examples of tasks and situations where these qualities are important. b Based on your experience, do you consider yourself to be accurate and creative? Explain why or why not.

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5.84 Listening strategies a What do you do when you listen for overview? b In what situations do you need to listen for details? c What can you do before listening to a new text? d How is listening without face-to-face communication different from when you can see the speaker? 5.85 Giving an oral presentation a How should you start an oral presentation? b Why is structure important when giving a presentation? c How should you end your presentation? d Why is it necessary to practise what you are going to say?

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills

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5.87 Write 5.86 Speak a • Write a list of ten steps to consider a • Choose a text from this chapter. Prepare when creating an advertisement. a two-minute speech to a partner where you explain what the text is about and b •• Use facts from this chapter to why your partner should read it. write a brochure for young people about why to choose a job within b •• There are many films and television sales, service and tourism and how programmes about travelling. Prepare a to prepare for the job. presentation in which you give examples of popular shows, share your opinion on c ••• Why is it important that young why such shows have become popular, people choose a profession within and discuss whether such shows can be the field of sales and services? useful. Create a text where you reflect on and discuss the question above c ••• Marketing is about tempting people and explain your views by giving to pay for services or products. Can you examples from texts and topics think of any moral dilemmas related to you have worked with this year. For this activity? Make an oral presentation advice on structuring a text, see where you discuss this issue. Chapter 4.

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Trade and Travel | 243


CHAPTER 6

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Going Pro


In this chapter you will focus on k communication with

customers or clients in different situations

k office life and entrepreneurship k service professions in the future

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k writing a formal text

k discussing vocational topics k spelling and commonly confused words

customer teamwork reliability management confidentiality entrepreneurship neglected teamwork advertising space travel

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Useful words and phrases

What does it mean to be professional? What will trade and travel be like in the future?

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Customer Care

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Customers don’t like being taken for granted and will leave if not satisfied. Even though most clients are friendly and pleasant, not all of them are easy to handle. Still, without them you would be out of work. Therefore, it is important to know how to handle customers in a good way, to make them happy and to make sure they come back.

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Before you start Which personal qualities are most important when dealing with customers or clients?

Listen First, it is important to work on your communication skills. Whether it is on the phone or across the counter, be an active listener, take notes and do not interrupt. To avoid misunderstandings, summarize what the client said and ask for details to clarify. Also, remember that there are all kinds of clients, including shy, nervous and angry ones. Do not lose your temper; try instead to show empathy and that you are interested and want to help. To calm down the situation, you can try: “I understand your frustration and will do my best to help.” Active listening is the first step to successful communication.

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Respond

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AIMS Good communication skills also involve how you respond and which words you use. When talking with k explain the importance of good customers, simplify your language when describing customer care your products and giving recommendations. To build k reflect on and discuss confidence, use words like definitely, absolutely and communication strategies certainly. This removes uncertainty from a conversation k use polite phrases in conversations and can calm down a customer complaining about a and texts job. Also, thank your customers for using your company. Do not, however, say “Thank you for your time” to customers who have been waiting for 20 minutes. In that case, thank them for their patience and understanding. Finally, saying “Sorry” or “Thanks” is not always enough. To make sure your customer will want to come back, offer a small special treat, or at least free coffee. Stay Calm

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At most workplaces there are days that are busier and more stressful than others, and clients that are more demanding than the average person. Handling stress is an important skill, and good customer care includes being able to communicate with all kinds of people. Keep your own emotional stress under control by taking a deep breath and relaxing your muscles, then focus on solving the task. Remember, do not take it personally if a customer is complaining about a job. Also, the customer is not “always right”, but the customer is always the customer, so keep calm, count to ten and smile.

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Build Trust

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Customers who return usually do so because they get what they pay for and have experienced that the company can be trusted. Be professional and show that you know what you’re talking about. If you are in doubt, ask a colleague instead of giving bad advice or selling the wrong product. In case of complaint, do not blame it on your co-workers, just promise that you will look into the matter. You must also be careful with the kind of information you share with customers. Some details are classified, like product information or photos, and should be kept a business secret. The way you represent your company and handle customers and colleagues may help you get more responsibility or a leading position later. Poor customer service can do a lot of harm to a company. A happy client, however, will want to come back and may also recommend you to others. A friendly and service minded staff, taking their time to listen and help, is the key to success for any kind of business. Are you up to the challenge?

for granted or gitt/for gjeve counter disk clarify oppklare empathy medfølelse/ medkjensle simplify forenkle recommendation anbefaling confidence tillit demanding krevende/krevjande average middels solve løse/løyse complaint klage classified hemmelig/hemmeleg blueprints arbeidstegninger/ arbeidsteikningar

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IN SHORT Customers like to be seen; if not, they may leave. It is important to know how to handle clients in a good way, to make sure they want to come back.

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Listen First, it is important to be an active listener. Take notes and ask for details to clarify. Also, show that you are interested and want to help. Respond When talking with customers, simplify your language when you explain your work. To build confidence, use words like absolutely and certainly. Also, thank your customers for using your company. To make sure your customer will want to come back, offer a treat, like free coffee.

Stay Calm Some days at work can be stressful and clients can be demanding. To handle stress take a deep breath, relax your muscles and focus on the task. Do not take it personally if a customer complains about a job.

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Build Trust Customers return if they get what they pay for. Be professional and show that you know what you are talking about. If you are in doubt, ask a colleague for advice. In case of complaint, do not blame your co-workers. Also do not share business secrets. Poor customer service can do a lot of harm to a company. Happy clients often come back and may recommend you to others. A friendly staff is the key to success. Are you up to the challenge?

Read and understand

6.1 • Choose the word that is correct according to the text. a It is important to know how to handle/like/sell customers in a good way. b To be an active listener, take photos/a break/notes. c You may need to simplify your language when you recommend/ complain/explain your work. d To make sure your customer wants to come back, offer a key/treat/ complaint. e To handle stress, take a deep breath/task/doubt. f Do not take it stressful/demanding/personally if a customer complains. g Colleagues/Customers/Businesses return if they get what they pay for. h Poor customer service can do a lot of harm/complaint/challenge to a company.

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handle håndtere/handtere clarify forklare simplify forenkle confidence tillit treat godsak demanding krevende/krevjande complain klage doubt tvil complaint klage blame klandre co-worker kollega customer service kundeservice recommend anbefale staff ansatte/tilsette challenge utfordring

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6.2 •• Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Customers don’t like to be taken …. b To avoid misunderstandings, summarize …. c Do not lose you temper; try instead to show …. d To build confidence, use words like …. e To make sure your customer will want to come back, …. f In case of complaint, do not blame …. g A happy client will want to …. 6.3 ••• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What characterizes good communication with customers? b How do you handle complaints and angry customers? c What is important if you want to build trust? d What should you not say to or share with a customer?

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6.4 Explain the following words in English. Use a dictionary to look up words you don’t know. Which words describe good qualities when handling customers? e confidentiality a open posture f extrovert behaviour b eloquence g patronizing comments c adaptability h approachable attitude d firm handshake

A C

Good morning, Jane. Nice to see you. 1 How are you? 2

Of course I can. I’ll get right to it. I did. It went really well.

3

Thank you, sir. I did my best.

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6.5 The phrases below are from conversations at work between Jane and her boss Barry at Brown’s Marketing. Combine the polite phrases with the best answer.

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Good morning, sir.

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Thanks, I’m starving.

F

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I’m fine, thanks. And you, sir?

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Hopefully, I’ll be done before lunchtime. Yes, till lunch, then.

D

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Could you start working on the T-shirt ads this morning? How much time do you need, do you think? Good, don’t let me keep you. See you at lunch then. Did you manage to finish the work on the t-shirt ads? Well done, Jane! Now have your lunch, and I will look at the files. You did a good job on those ads, Jane.

G

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6.7 Discuss the questions below. a Have you ever been treated badly as a customer? Tell your fellow students about it. b In which ways do you, or people you know, communicate differently at work and in private life? Give examples of how you modify your language and behaviour in various situations. c Which of the following aspects to work do you think will be the greatest challenge for you in dealing with customers? Explain. • stress • confidentiality • active listening • demanding customers

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“If you do build a great experience, customers tell each other about that. Word of mouth is very powerful.”

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Damon Richards

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“Your customers don't care how much you know until they know how much you care.”

6.6 Here are some useful phrases when talking on the telephone. Match each word with the correct sentence. line – please – day – message – call – speaking – put – repeat – spell – number a Barry: Thank you for calling Brown’s Marketing, Barry Brown . b Client: Hello, Mr Brown. Could you me through to Jane Jenkins, please? c Barry: Could you hold the , please? d Barry: I am afraid she is in a meeting right now. Would you like to leave a ? e Client: Could you tell her that Ms Krüger called? f Barry: Would you that for me, please? g Client: K R Ü G E R. And my is 356–22 567. h Barry: Could you the number, please? I Barry: Thanks, I will ask her to you back when she gets in. j Client: Thank you sir, and have a nice .

6.8 Use the scenes below and act out conversations, either as phone calls or dialogues across the counter. Work with a partner and take turns being the customer and the employee. a An angry customer demands to talk to the manager after buying a product that doesn’t work. b A friendly customer asks for prices of various promotional merchandise for her/his new firm. c A young, inexperienced and nervous person asks about a vacant position in the firm. d A very talkative customer explains about strange sounds coming from a laptop before handing it in for repair.

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Jeff Bezos, CEO, Amazon.com

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6.9 English phonetic spelling is sometimes used to avoid misunderstanding when you spell names and addresses on the telephone. When you spell you say, for example, “A for Alpha”, “B for Bravo” and “C for Charlie”. a Study this alphabet. Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike

N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whisky X-ray Yankee Zulu

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M

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b Work in pairs. Practise spelling your own names, addresses or other words.

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6.10 Write a short text where you give advice about good customer care. Use the photo below for inspiration. How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the importance of good customer care YES

ALMOST

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reflect on and discuss communication strategies YES

ALMOST

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use polite phrases in conversation and texts YES

ALMOST

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A FORMAL TEXT In formal emails, you should be polite, keep your text short and use correct grammar, spelling and punctuation to avoid misunderstandings. Fill in the subject line

This will be shown in the list of messages in your recipient’s inbox and should say what your email is about.

Start your email with a greeting

“Dear Ms Nguyen”. If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, you write “Dear Sir/Madam”. If this is the first time you email someone, you would normally not write “Dear Louie” or “Hi Ricky”.

Say what your reference is

“Regarding the advertisement for … ”, “With reference to your ad … ”

Say what your purpose is

“I request information about … ”, “I am writing to enquire about … ”

Ask for more information

“I would also like information about … ” “I would also like to know if … ”

Request action

“Please get back to me with … ”, “Could you please call me … ”, “I look forward to hearing from you.”

“Best wishes”, “Best regards”, “Many thanks”, “Yours sincerely”, “Yours End with an appropriate closing faithfully” are all phrases that can be used here.

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Your name

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Dear Mr Cairns,

I am writing with regard to the advertisement for Rick’s Driving School on Facebook. I will be 16 this year, have passed my learner’s test and would like to start driving lessons within the next few weeks. I would like information about availability, costs and any additional courses I should take. Driving lessons will need to take place before or after school and I would also like to know if that will be a problem.

Thank you for your help. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Best regards, Charlotte Harper

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Inbox

Subject: Driving lessons, request for information


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 6.11 Decide whether the phrases below belong in a formal or an informal text. Dear Mummy! We would like to place an immediate order. Yours faithfully, Kindly adhere to the terms of the agreement.

e f g h

To whom it may concern, Hugs, Sort it out! Now! You won’t get away with this, you know.

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a b c d

6.12 Place the sentences below in the correct order so that they become a text.

To: buybest.com

a I would therefore like to request a replacement, or a full refund. b Sincerely, Neil Gallagher c I finally received the cell phone on November 10th. The packaging appeared to be undamaged, so I opened the parcel, but soon noticed that the screen was broken. d Dear Sirs, e I have spoken to representatives of the shipping company in question. They assured me that if the box is undamaged, it must be an issue with the manufacturer. f Thank you for your kind cooperation. Please contact me at your earliest convenience. g Your terms clearly stated that it would be delivered to my home address within 10 business days. After three weeks I had still not received it. Further to my enquiry, an associate claimed that delivery would only be a matter of days. h I bought a cell phone from your online retailers, buybest.com on October 12th. My confirmation number is SF2341PC.

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Outbox

6.13 Answer these questions. a Who wrote the text in the task above? b What has this person bought? c What is the problem? d What would the writer of this email like to happen now? 6.14 Give at least three examples of phrases which show that this is a formal text. SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 253


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Eleanor Goes Shopping

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Before you start When you are shopping for clothes, do you normally ask for help or do you prefer to look for yourself?

Five o’clock took for ever to arrive. I travelled on the underground into town for speed, and went into the closest department store to the station, the same one where I’d purchased my laptop. It was 5.20 p.m., and the store would close in less than an hour. Womenswear was on the first floor (when did Ladieswear become Womenswear, I wondered) and I took the escalator, being unable to find the stairs. The shop floor was vast, and I

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decided to request assistance. The first woman I saw AIMS was matronly, and did not seem well placed to dispense fashion advice. The second was in her late teens or early twenties, and therefore too callow to advise me. The k explain what happens in the text third, in the manner of Goldilocks, was just right around k practise good customer communication my age, well-groomed, sensible-looking. I approached with caution. k set up a personal budget ‘Excuse me, I wonder if I could possibly ask for your assistance?’ I said. She stopped folding sweaters and turned to me, smiling insincerely. ‘I’m attending a concert at a fashionable venue, and I wondered if you might assist me with the selection of an appropriate ensemble?’ Her smile broadened and looked more genuine. ‘Well, we do offer a personal shopper service,’ she said. ‘I could make you an appointment, if you like?’ ‘Oh no,’ I said, ‘it’s for this evening. I really do need something right now, I’m afraid.’ She looked me up and down. ‘Where is it that you’re going?’ ‘The Cuttings,’ I said proudly. She stuck out her bottom lip, nodded once, slowly. ‘What are you, a twelve?’ I nodded, impressed that she had been able to size me up so accurately by sight alone. She checked her watch. ‘Follow me,’ she said. It seemed that there were a variety of stores within the store, and she took me to the least prepossessing outlet. ‘OK, off the top of my head,’ she said, ‘these …’ a pair of ridiculously slender black denim department store varemagasin trousers ‘… with this …’ a black top, similar to a T-shirt but in faux silk, with a purchase kjøpe keyhole of fabric missing from the back. escalator rulletrapp ‘Really?’ I said. ‘I was thinking more along the lines of a nice dress, or a request be om skirt and blouse.’ She looked me up and down again. assistance hjelp ‘Trust me,’ she said. matronly moderlig/moderleg The changing room was small and smelled of unwashed feet and air dispense dele ut callow uerfaren freshener. The jeans looked too small but, miraculously, they stretched Goldilocks Gullhår around me and I was able to fasten them. The top was loose, with a high well-groomed velstelt neck. I felt appropriately covered up, if nothing else, although I couldn’t insincerely uoppriktig see the cut-out section at the back. I looked exactly like everyone else. I venue konsertlokale supposed that was the point. I kept the outfit on, pulled off the tags and genuine ekte placed them on the floor, then folded up my work clothes and put them size up måle into my shopper. I picked up the tags for the woman to process on her cash accurately nøyaktig prepossessing tiltalende/ register. tiltalande She was hovering outside when I emerged. ‘What do you think?’ she said. slender slank ‘Looks good, doesn’t it?’ faux fransk: falsk ‘I’ll take them,’ I said, handing her the bar codes. fabric stoff tag merkelapp

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I had forgotten about the security devices clipped onto the clothes, however, and we had quite a struggle to remove them. I had to come behind the desk, in the end, and kneel backwards beside her so she could detach them using the magnetic machine fixed to the counter. We ended up laughing about it, actually. I don’t think I’ve ever laughed in a shop before. After I’d paid, trying not to think about how much money I’d spent, she came out from behind the desk again. ‘D’you mind if I say something? It’s just … shoes.’ I looked down. I was wearing my work shoes, the flat black comfortable pair with the Velcro fastenings. ‘What’s your name?’ she said. I was bemused. Why was my name relevant to a footwear purchase? She was waiting, expecting an answer. ‘It’s Eleanor,’ I admitted with great reluctance, having considered giving a false name or nom de plume. I certainly wasn’t going to tell her my surname. ‘The thing is, Eleanor, you need an ankle boot with skinny jeans, really,’ she said, as seriously as though she were a hospital consultant giving medical advice. ‘D’you want to come over to Footwear and take a look?’ I hesitated. ‘I’m not on commission or anything,’ she said quietly, ‘I just … I just think it’ll really finish off the outfit if you’ve got the right shoes.’ ‘Accessories maketh the woman, eh?’ I said. She didn’t smile. She showed me boots that made me laugh out loud, so ridiculous were they in both heel height and narrowness of fit. Finally, we agreed on a pair that were sufficiently stylish but in which I could also walk without risk of spinal injury, thereby meeting both of our requirements. Sixty-five pounds! Good grief, I though, as I handed over my card again. Some people have to live on that for a week. I shoved my black shoes into my shopper. I saw her eyeing that too, then looking over at the handbag section. ‘Oh, I’m afraid not,’ I said, ‘I’ve exhausted my funds for the time being.’ ‘Ah well,’ she said, ‘just stash it in the cloakroom and you’ll be fine.’ I had no idea what she meant, but time’s winged chariot was hurrying near. ‘Thank you very much indeed for your assistance, Claire,’ I said, leaning forward to read her name badge. ‘It’s been invaluable.’

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detach ta av Velcro borrelås bemused forvirret/forvirra reluctance motvilje nom de plume fransk: pseudonym narrowness tranghet/trongleik spinal injury ryggskade exhausted her: tømt/tømd funds midler/middel cloakroom garderobe chariot vogn invaluable uvurderlig/ uvurderleg

From Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine by Gail Honeyman

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Gail Honeyman (1972–) is a Scottish writer. Her prize-winning debut novel about Eleanor Oliphant came out in 2017.

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Read and understand

6.15 • Use information from the text and make a drawing of Eleanor in her new outfit. 6.16 •• Decide if the sentences are true or false. Correct the false sentences. True Eleanor goes shopping in a fancy boutique.

b

e

Eleanor chooses a shop assistant who is older than her. The shop assistant suggests that she try a pair of skinny jeans. The shop assistant suggests that Eleanor use her flat Velcro shoes. Eleanor decides to buy boots with very high heels.

f

Eleanor cannot afford to buy a new handbag.

g

Before she leaves Eleanor thanks Claire for her help. Eleanor is not very happy with her new outfit.

c d

h

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False

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6.17 ••• Close read the text and look for details. a Find information in the text that shows that Eleanor is not used to shopping for clothes. b Find details in the text that show that the shop assistant is experienced and professional. c Write a short character description of Eleanor.

Practise

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6.18 Choose the correct word in each sentence. See the Language Lab section for information about commonly confused words. a Eleanor like her/here new shoes. b The shop assistant asked were/where the venue was. c She likes the top because of its/it’s colour. d The customers liked they’re/their new clothes. e There/Their are many nice shoes in the store. f Eleanor didn’t we’re/wear expensive clothes. g Eleanor’s male colleague lost he’s/his patience. h We enjoy helping our/hour customers.

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6.19 The following words are about things we find in a boutique. Use them to write sentences about your ideal shop. You may also want to make an illustration.

Write

furniture shelves

mannequin curtains

changing room display window

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clothes rack counter

6.20 • Make a poster containing 5 good rules for a shop assistant.

6.21 •• These expressions are related to working in a store. Claire from the text writes a message to a friend, where she tells about her day at work. Use the phrases and write the text. detach anti-theft device operate a till suggest an outfit

folding sweaters size up remove price tag

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6.22 ••• Write a text where you explain the information in the illustration below, comment on the details and reflect on what we pay for when we buy clothes.

til

The price of a t-shirt

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$

$

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The price of a t-shirt

1 Shop 59,0% 2 Brand profit 12,0% 3 Materials 12,0% 4 Transport 8,0% 1 Shop 59,0% Intermediaries 4,0% 25 Brand profit 12,0% Factory profit 4,0% 36 Materials 12,0% Factory cost 47 Transport 8,0%0,9% Salary to factory workers4,0%0,6% 58 Intermediaries 6 Factory profit 4,0% 7 Factory cost 0,9% 8 Salary to factory workers 0,6%


Speak

I've been shopping all my life, and I still have nothing to wear.

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6.23 Discuss the questions in groups. a Eleanor does not seem to be too concerned with appearance. How can you tell? How does the shop assistant handle this? Do you think she behaves professionally? b Eleanor uses very formal language. How does the shop assistant respond to this? c Which words and expressions does the shop assistant use to communicate with the customer?

6.24 Pretend to be salespeople and customers. You have something to sell, but first you try to create a friendly atmosphere to get to know your potential customer. a Walk around in the classroom and practise picking up a conversation and making small talk with your classmates. b Observe the body language, facial expression and degree of eye contact. Does the other person seem to enjoy your conversation? Is she or he persuaded by or sceptical of what you are saying? c Afterwards, discuss your thoughts and experiences in class. Who was the most persuasive salesperson? Why?

til

Listen

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6.25 In pairs, write keywords and expressions for a scene where a shop assistant in a store of your choice helps a customer choose, try and buy a product. Act out the conversations in class or make films and show them.

6.26 “Eleanor Oliphant” Listen to the beginning of the novel about Eleanor and note down keywords about her job and workplace. Share in class.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

n

Explore

explain what happens in the text

6.28 Use online sources to find more information about the novel Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine. What are important themes in the novel? Has it been filmed? Share

set up a personal budget

Ku

6.27 The main character in the text, Eleanor, works as a finance clerk in a graphic design office in Glasgow. She rents a small flat and covers all her expenses with her limited monthly wage. Use your knowledge about budgets and find information online to set up a personal budget for how Eleanor can pay for what she needs and still have a little extra for shopping or entertainment.

YES

ALMOST

NO

practise good customer communication YES

YES

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

NO

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Library

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Before you start What makes a library a good place to be?”? Discuss in groups.

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The sun beat down on Alice. Her eyes hurt in the glare. Just as she was about to give up and spin around to run all the way home, Alice noticed a word on a building across the road. LIBRARY. She gasped and ran for the traffic lights. Jabbed the button until the light turned green and the intersection was clear. She sprinted across the road and through the heavy doors of the library. In the foyer, she doubled over, panting. The cool air settled her hot, sweaty skin. Her pulse slowed in her ears. She pushed the hair away from her sunburnt forehead. As she went to straighten her dress, Alice realised she wasn’t wearing one; she was still in her nightie. She hadn’t remembered to change before she left home. Unsure of what to do next or where to go, Alice stayed where she was, pinching her wrists until the skin turned raw; pain on the outside softened the sharp feeling inside she couldn’t reach. It wasn’t until moving beams of coloured light fell in her eyes that she stopped. Alice tiptoed through the foyer and entered the main library room, which opened around and above her. Her eyes were drawn upwards by sunlight streaming through stained-glass windows; a girl in a red hood walked through a forest of trees; a girl in a carriage sped away from a lone glass slipper; a little mermaid stared longingly from the sea at a man on shore. Excitement shot through Alice. “Can I help you?” Alice looked down from the window, in the direction of the question. A young woman with big hair and a wide smile sat at an octagonal desk. Alice tiptoed towards her. “Oh you don’t have to tiptoe,” the woman said, chuckling. “I wouldn’t last a day here if I had to be that quiet. My name’s Sally. I don’t think I’ve seen you before.” Sally’s eyes reminded Alice of the sea on a sunny day. “Have I?” she asked. Alice shook her head. “Oh, well now, how wonderful. A new friend!” Sally clasped her hands together. Her fingernails were painted seashell pink. There was a pause. “And you are?” Sally asked. Alice peeked at her from under her eyelashes. “Oh, don’t be shy. Libraries are friendly places. Everyone’s welcome here.” “I’m Alice,” she mumbled. “Alice?”

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glare her: skarpt lys jab støt/støyt intersection veikryss/vegkryss foyer foajé, entré nightie nattkjole pinch klype tiptoe gå på tå, liste seg stained-glass glassmaleri/ glasmåleri glass slipper glassko/glassko octagonal åttekantet/åttekanta chuckle klukkle

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“Alice Hart.” AIMS Something strange flickered over Sally’s face. She cleared her throat. “Well, Alice Hart,” she exclaimed. “What a magical k sum up the main events in the text name! Welcome. It’ll be my pleasure to show you k reflect on how people in service jobs deal with challenged customers around. Her eyes darted to Alice’s nightie then back to her face. “Are you here with Mum or Dad today?” k write a letter to report abuse Alice shook her head. “I see. Tell me, how old are you, Alice?” Alice’s cheeks were hot. Eventually, she held up five splayed fingers, on one hand and her thumb and index finger on the other. “Fancy that, Alice. Seven just happens to be the right age for you to have your own library card.” Alice snapped her head up. “Ah, look at that. Sunbeams are coming out of your face.” Sally winked. Alice touched her fingertips to her hot cheeks. Sunbeams. splayed skrånende utover/ “Let me get you a form and we’ll fill it out together.” Sally reached over and skrånande utover form her: skjema squeezed Alice’s arm. “Do you have any questions first?” seedpod frøhus, her: klump i Alice thought about it and then nodded. halsen “Yes. Can you please show me the garden where the books grow?” Alice cushiony myk, med mange smiled with relief; her voice had found its way around the seedpod. puter/mjuk, med mange puter Sally studied Alice’s face for a moment before erupting in hushed giggles. grimy skitten “Alice! You crack me up. We’re going to get along like a house on fire, you and hem kant me.” buggery her: forferdelig/ forferdeleg In her confusion, Alice just smiled. sniffle snufse For the next half-hour Sally took Alice on a tour of the library, explaining hanky lommetørkle that books lived on shelves, not in a garden. Row upon row of stories called phone receiver telefonrør/ to Alice. So many books. After a while Sally left Alice to herself to sit in a big, telefonrøyr cushiony chair by one of the shelves. deconstruct plukke fra “Browse about and pick out some books you like. I’m just over there if you hverandre/ need anything.” Sally pointed in the direction of her desk. Alice, already with a plukke frå kvarandre dumbfounded målløs/mållaus book in her lap, nodded.

Sally’s hand trembled as she picked up the phone. While she dialed the station, she leant forward to make sure Alice hadn’t followed her, but she was still sitting on the chair, the worn soles of her sandals poking out from under the grimy hem of her nightie. Alice was Clem Hart’s daughter. She pressed the phone hard against her ear. Pick up. Pick up. Pick up. Finally, her husband answered. “John? It’s me. No, I’m not, not really. No, listen, Clem Hart’s girl is here. Something’s wrong. She’s in her nightie, John.” Sally struggled to keep her

crouch sette seg på huk/ lettering bokstaver/bokstavar spine rygg(rad) selkies fantasidyr basert på seler/fantasidyr basert på selar skip hoppe peek kikke cutlery bestikk china porselen scurry skynde seg/skunde seg cane field sukkermark jostle dytte

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composure. “It’s filthy.” She gulped. “And John, her little arms are bruised to buggery.” Sally nodded along with her husband’s steady voice and wiped tears from her eyes. “Yes, I think she’s walked on her own all the way from their property so, what’s that, about four kilometres?” She sniffled as she tugged her hanky from her sleeve. “Okay. Yes. Yes, I’ll keep her here.” The phone receiver slipped in Sally’s sweaty palm as she hung up.

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Alice added another book to the semi-circular tower she had built around her. “Alice?” “I’d like to take all these home, please, Sally,” Alice said earnestly with a sweep of her arm. Sally helped her to deconstruct her tower of books, return the dozens to their shelves, and explain twice how borrowing library books worked. Alice was dumbfounded by her limited choice. Sally checked her watch. The bright light falling through the story window had softened to pastel shadows. “Shall I help you pick?” Alice nodded gratefully. Sally crouched to Alice’s level and asked her some questions – name one of her favourite places to go – the sea – and choose a favourite story window at the library – the mermaid – then with a knowing nod, she touched her index finger to a slim book with a hard cover and bronze lettering on the spine, and slid it off the shelf. “I think you’ll love this one. It’s about selkies.” “Selkies,” Alice repeated. “You’ll see,” Sally said. “Women from the sea who can shed their skin to become someone or something else entirely.” Goosebumps covered Alice’s body. She clutched the book to her chest. “Reading makes me hungry,” Sally said abruptly. “Are you hungry, Alice? I’ve got some scones with jam, and how about a cup of tea?” At the mention of scones, Alice thought of her mother. She was consumed by an immediate desire to be home, but it seemed that Sally expected her to stay. “Can I go to the toilet?” “Of course,” Sally said. “The ladies’ is just down the hall there, on the right. Shall I come with you?” “No, thank you,” Alice smiled sweetly. “I’ll be right here when you get back. We’ll have scones, okay?” Alice skipped down the hallway. She pushed open the door to the bathroom. Waited a moment, then stuck her head back out to peek at Sally’s desk. It was empty. The clink of cutlery and china came from further down the hall. Alice scurried for the exit. As she ran home through the cane field, she felt the shape of her library card in her nightie pocket, like one of her mother’s flowers. The selkie book jostled up and down in her backpack; sunbeams bounced around inside her belly. Alice was so busy imagining how much her mother would love her library book, she didn’t realise that by the time she got home her father would be back from work.

Excerpt from The Lost Flowers of Alice Hart (2018)

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holly ringland Holly Ringland grew up on the east coast of Australia. As a young woman, she worked in an Indigenous community in central Australia, but to escape a violent relationship, she moved to England in 2009. There she got her master’s degree in Creative Writing and spent years writing short fiction and essays. The critically acclaimed The Lost Flowers of Alice Hart is her first novel.

m

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IN SHORT

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Across the street, Alice saw the sign LIBRARY. She ran towards the building and entered. Inside there were stained-glass windows showing images from fairy tales. “Can I help you?” A young woman behind a desk smiled at Alice. “I don’t think I’ve seen you before.” Alice shook her head. The woman looked at the little girl, in a dirty nightie and worn sandals and with bruises on her arms. “A new friend! My name’s Sally. And you are?” “I’m Alice Hart,” she mumbled. Something changed in Sally’s face. “Well, Alice Hart,” she said. “Welcome. I’d love to show you around. How old are you, Alice?” Alice held up seven fingers. “Then you can have your own library card.” Alice smiled. Sally took her on a tour of the library. Then she said: “Now pick out some books you like. I’ll be at my desk.”

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Sally called her husband, a local police officer: “It’s me. Clem Hart’s girl is here. Something’s wrong. She’s in her nightie, her little arms are bruised.” Sally wiped tears from her eyes. “Yes, I think she’s walked all the way from their house. Okay. Yes, I’ll keep her here.” Sally hung up.

Ku

Alice had built a tower of books around her. Sally helped her return them to their shelves and explained how borrowing library books worked. Then, to help Alice pick one, she asked her to name her favourite place – the sea – and choose a favourite fairy tale – the mermaid. Sally gave her a book about selkies. Alice clutched the book to her chest. “Now, would you like some scones and a cup of tea?” Sally asked. Alice thought of her mother: “Can I go to the toilet?” “Of course,” Sally said. She went to make the tea. Alice skipped down the hallway and left. While running home she thought about how much her mother would love her library book. She forgot that by now her father would be back from work.

enter gå inn stained-glass glassmaleri nightie nattkjole worn slitt bruise blåmerke mumble mumle tower tårn shelf hylle borrow låne mermaid havfrue skip hoppe

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Read and understand

6.29 • Write at least five sentences to sum up the main content of the text.

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6.30 •• Answer the questions. a How does Alice react when she sees the Library sign? b What does she see in the stained-glass window in the library? c How does Sally greet the little girl? d How can we tell that Alice doesn’t know a lot about libraries? e Sally’s husband is a policeman. Why does she call him? f What has Alice done while Sally was on the phone? g How does Sally help Alice choose a book? h What does Alice want to do next and what happens?

vu

6.31 ••• Answer the questions. a What seems to be Alice’s relationship to the sea and what is she reminded of when she sees Sally’s eyes and fingernails? What does this suggest about her first impression of the young woman? b Sally seems to know Alice’s father. What phrases in the text suggest that he is not a nice man? c What seems to be the relationship between Alice and her mother? d Do you think Sally does the right thing when she calls her husband? Explain. e The last sentence in the text does not contain any negative information, but still it evokes an atmosphere. Explain how it makes you feel and what you fear may happen next.

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6.32 In the service sector, you will meet all kinds of people. Discuss the questions. a What is Alice’s relationship to books, do you think? b What does Sally do to establish a good relationship to Alice when she arrives? c How can we tell that Alice is a neglected child? d What is the right thing to do if you suspect that a child is neglected or abused? e How would you handle a customer who appears to be intoxicated or mentally challenged or unbalanced? Where does the limit go between personal freedom and our duty to protect ourselves and others? f Do you think Sally acts professionally in the way she handles the situation? g What do you think would have happened if the police had arrived before Alice left?

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Practise

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6.33 Do you know the fairy tales described in the stained-glass window in the library? Work in pairs and tell each other what these stories are about. If you don’t know them, Google them first. What are the lessons we learn from these fairy tales?

til

6.34 Correct the three spelling mistakes in each sentence. a In establishing a god customer relationship, it is important too build confidance. b Learning aboat conflict prevention mey help heandle agressive customers. c Crouching next to childs makes them feel moor comfortable and confidant. d You’re choice off body language may provoce or calm down a client.

Explore

How did you do?

6.35 Use online sources to find out more about Holly Ringland and her novel about Alice Hart.

After working with the text and tasks, I can sum up the main events in the text

n

Listen

6.36 “Service professionals” Listen to the text, take notes and discuss in class.

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YES

Write

6.37 To Alice, books seem to be an escape from reality. Write a paragraph where you reflect on how literature can make a difference in our lives. 6.38 Sally writes a letter to the welfare authorities to report what she observed and what happened during Alice’s visit to the library. Write the letter. For advice see “Writing formal texts” in this chapter.

ALMOST

NO

reflect on how people in service jobs deal with challenged customers YES

ALMOST

NO

write a letter to report abuse YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS DISCUSSING VOCATIONAL TOPICS

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Discussing vocational topics means practising skills that are useful both for language learning now and in your professional life later. To discuss meaningfully it is necessary to use relevant and valid arguments. You will easily find a lot of information, but you must often turn this into arguments and claims yourself. The ability to listen to others and understand their viewpoints is also important in a discussion. Find arguments Information can often be found as statistics and contain numbers. Using these in a discussion shows that what you say can be trusted.

Source Vocational education and training is designed to produce skilled tradespeople. In coming years there will be a great need for workers with this kind of training in both the private and the public sectors.

Referring to experts, institutions or people of authority is likely to give added weight to your arguments.

By 2030, there will be a need for more than 300,000 employees with a vocational background from upper secondary school, and 300,000 with a shorter higher education. This is evidenced by a comprehensive study from Statistics Norway (ssb).

Claim

“More workers with vocational training will be needed in the future, says the government’s webpage.”

Source: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/

“According to Statistics Norway, this country will soon need more than 300,000 employees with a vocational background.”

“I didn’t quite catch what you said. Could you please repeat … ” “Could you please explain what … ”

Respond to the arguments of others

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Listen carefully Phrases you can use when you want a speaker To respond to what to clarify what he or she means. other people say in a discussion, you need to remember what is said. Write down key words to help you concentrate while listening.

til

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Source: https://karrierestart.no/karrierevalg/607-de-sikreste-yrkenefor-fremtiden

Put forward your own views

You can agree absolutely and offer further support or evidence.

“In addition to what Sarah said about people choosing traditionally, statistics show that …”

You can disagree respectfully and explain why.

“I see what you mean, but I still think …”

You can point out something that you think the speaker has overlooked.

“What about …?”, “Have you thought about …?”

When a discussion is more about exploring a topic than reaching a conclusion, you may want to use phrases to express the fact that your mind is not already made up.

“I wonder if …” “It seems to me that …” “Maybe it is the case that …” “I think it might be that …” “I think that …” “I don’t think that …” “In my opinion …”

When you want to forcefully state your opinion, you can be more direct.

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“People should …”


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

TAFE (technical and further education) vs University

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6.39 Use the information from Australia on the right and develop five arguments for why young people should choose vocational education and training (VET) instead of university. 6.40 Find arguments in favour of vocational qualifications in this paragraph.

106%

increase in the highest average salary for VET graduates compared to university graduates

54%

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Education academics Thjis Bol and Herman van de Werfhorst used the data from 29 countries, including the UK, to study the impact of vocational qualifications on employment. They found that countries that enabled young people to study for highly specific vocational qualifications while still at school typically had much lower rates of youth unemployment than countries whose students did solely academic subjects. Young people in these countries also spent less time looking for work when between jobs.

10%

higher employment rate for VET students than university graduates

of university students take 4+ years to complete their degrees compared to VET students

22%

of HECS Debts will never be repaid every year due to poor university completion

90%

of the highest growth jobs in the next five years only need a VET qualification

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/ jan/21/snobbery-vocational-academic-educationopportunities-children

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6.41 Use the arguments from the tasks above. Work in small groups. Take turns reading your arguments aloud and referring to them. Use phrases such as: “As Thea just said …”, “According to Anders …”, “Ariba claims that …”

Source: https://www.tafecourses.com.au/ resources/tafe-is-better-than-universityand-heres-why/

6.42 Make a list of arguments for and against the claim “A vocational education is a good idea”. Then discuss the topic in groups. Remember to refer to each other’s arguments.

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The Meeting

The differences between topside and bottom side are a distant memory as of today. For today the two sides meet to put their blueprints together and slap backs. This is the moment they’ve all been waiting for, the moment when, after three long years of planning, in-fighting, receipt checking, copying, printing and drawing, everyone can sit back and say, “Gentlemen, we have an oilrig.”

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So momentous is this occasion that Adrian has actually authorized sandwiches for everyone, even AIMS though half of them are only at executive level. I’ve called the sandwich shop and ordered cheese and k reflect on and discuss good and bad teamwork pickle, beef and horseradish, and roasted vegetable with sun-dried tomato, which have turned up covered k use vocabulary related to working in an office in cling film on stainless steel platters. I have arranged bottles of mineral water down the middle of the k create vocational texts with structure and context boardroom table, surrounded by glasses. Now all that remains is for the engineers of Prissyco to face the engineers of Michaelson, Bowles and Willis, shake hands and parlay. And for me to scribble furiously in the background as the minute-taker. Of course, Adrian has invited the TV crew into witness his day of triumph. He’s been working on his closing speech for a week now, and a very fine speech it is too, now that I’ve tacitly tidied up the grammar and he’s not noticed the changes. The truth is that it’s just as boring as every other meeting I’ve ever blueprints arbeidstegninger/ been to. Two solid hours of injection pumps, drilling cables and selfarbeidsteikningar congratulation. I crouch at a corner of the board table, scribbling frantically slap backs klappe på ryggen until my wrist hurts, hoping to hell that I’ve been taking the figures down in-fighting intern maktkamp, correctly, as I only understand about a third of what’s being said. Including innbyrdes strid/intern me, there are four women in the room among the twenty present. maktkamp, innbyrdesstrid Blueprints slide round the table. They start with Adrian, on my left, momentous betydningsfull/ and pass round the table until the whole pile ends up in front of me. I betydingsfull executive level ledernivå/ suppose that this means that I’ll have to clear them up later. As new gas leiarnivå valves are unveiled, gasps of admiration rise. And I scribble and scribble. parlay (av fransk parler) snakke, After two hours Adrian gets to his feet and everyone falls quiet to hear his forhandle words. tacit stilltiende/stillteiande “Gentlemen,” he says, and adds as an afterthought “and ladies. I just injection pump want to thank everyone for their sterling work on this project. As we know, injeksjonspumpe things have occasionally got a bit tense between us all, but now that the day crouch krøke seg sammen/ krøke seg saman has finally come, I think we can all accept that we have ultimately shown scribble skrible, kladde what great teamwork can produce.” pile haug From the pile in front of me he pulls out the two primary blueprints: the gas valve gassventil pictures, one made by Prissyco and one made by Michaelson, Bowles and sterling god, helstøpt/god, Willis, of what the fabled topside and the fabled bottom side will look like heilstøypt when they are finally joined and bobbing about in the great North Sea. fabled sagnomsust/ Ceremoniously he lays them out so that the two parts link together and segnomspunnen bob duppe opp og ned the whole is there for all of us – and the camera – to digest. digest fordøye “Teamwork,” says Adrian. “Teamwork, communication and scrupulous scrupulous samvittighetsfull/ attention to detail. Here, at last, is the Raptor platform. Phase one of the samvitsfull Raptor Project is finally at an end. I think we all deserve to give each other a reliability pålitelighet/ pålitelegheit

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round of applause.” There is a moment of quiet, then clapping breaks out. This is, truly, a heroic occasion. When it’s all over, Adrian, who is still on his feet and rubbing his hands together, says, “Well. I hope you will all have time to stay for a spot of lunch and some champagne to toast our achievement. Congratulations.” Adrian pats me on the shoulder. “I hope you’ll stay for a glass,” he says. He’s still not mastered my name, but I don’t mind so much anymore. I accept gratefully although I’m not really part of the team. To pass the time I start to read the blueprints that Adrian has laid out so stylishly on the table. It looks magnificent, this metal giant. I put my glass down, and try to imagine what it will look like when it’s twice the size of this building, when it’s working. I look at the figures, trying to imagine what l 000 tonnes actually looks like. It’s amazing. I only wish I understood more of what I’m looking at. The numbers look really odd to me: really odd; I only wish I understood how they worked. Adrian breaks into my reverie. “What do you think, then?” he asks. “It’s mazing,” I reply, quite genuinely. “Breath taking.” “Good,” he says complacently. “Understand it, roughly, do you?” “Well, I suppose so. There’s just one thing, though. I don’t know. I’m probably being stupid … ” “Oh, I’m sure you aren’t,” he says in a voice that assures me that he knows that I am. “Ask anyway. You’ll never learn if you don’t ask.” “OK.” I point at the figures in the top right-hand corner of the Prissyco diagram, and the figures in the top right-hand corner of the MBW one. “Look, I know I’m being dumb, but I don’t understand how come, if the top half’s half as heavy again as the bottom half, and it’s going to be floating, it won’t just turn upside down when you get it in the water.” “Oh, no, no, no,” says Adrian, laughing heartily. ‘You’re reading it all wrong. It’s -” He stops mid-flow, bends closer. “What the -” he says. Looks at me, looks back at them, looks up to call his alter ego from the MBW side over and finds himself staring directly into a hovering TV camera lens.

Ku

Excerpt from The Temp

achievement prestasjon reverie dagdrømmeri/ dagdraum, dagdrøyme complacent selvtilfreds/ sjølvtilfreds half as heavy again 50% tyngre alter ego andre jeg, person i samme funksjon/anna eg, person i same funksjon hover sveve

serena mackesy Serena Mackesy (1962–) is a British journalist and writer. Her acclaimed debut novel The Temp came out in 1999, and since then she has published many novels, most recently thriller stories under the pseudonym Alex Marwood.

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270 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS


IN SHORT After three years of planning, drawing and arguing, the engineers of Prissyco will finally meet the engineers of Michaelson, Bowles and Willis, to celebrate. The topside and bottom side are ready and soon they will become an oilrig. I have ordered sandwiches. Adrian has invited the TV crew and prepared a speech. To me, his secretary, it’s just a boring meeting. Two hours where they talk about injection pumps and drilling cables. I scribble down what they say, understanding little of it. Blueprints are passed round the table. Everybody admires the details. After two hours Adrian gets to his feet. “Gentlemen,” he says, “and ladies. I want to thank everyone. We have not always agreed, but thanks to our efforts, and great teamwork, the Raptor platform is now ready.” He places the two blueprints of the platform together: Prissyco’s picture of the topside and MBW’s picture of the bottom. It looks like they are finally joined into one structure. “Teamwork, communication and attention to detail. Here, at last, is phase one of the Raptor Project. Congratulations.” Clapping breaks out. Then Adrian invites everyone to stay for lunch. To pass the time I study the blueprints. It is impressive. I try to imagine what it will look like. I look at the figures and the numbers look odd to me. Adrian comes over. “Do you understand it?” “Well,” I say. “There’s one thing, I’m probably being stupid … ” “Ask anyway.” he says. “You’ll never learn if you don’t ask.” “OK.” I point at the figures on the two drawings. “If the top half is half as heavy again as the bottom half, and it’s going to be floating, won’t it turn upside down when you get it in the water?” “Oh, no, no, no,” says Adrian, laughing. “You’re reading it wrong. It’s -” He stops. “What the -” he says. Looks at me, looks back at the prints, looks his colleague and finds himself staring into a TV camera lens.

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draw tegne/teikne engineer ingeniør celebrate feire topside dekk med utstyr bottom side understell speech her: tale injection pump injeksjonspumpe drilling cable heisewire scribble skrible, kladde blueprints blåkopi, arbeidstegning/blåkopi, arbeidsteikning gas valve gassventil agree være enig/vere einig effort anstrengelse/ anstrenging, påkjenning teamwork lagarbeid joined satt sammen/sett saman attention oppmerksomhet/ oppmerksemd congratulations gratulerer heroic heroisk, heltelignende/ helteliknande giant kjempe figures her: tall/tal odd merkelig/merkeleg half as heavy again 50% tyngre lens linse

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Read and Understand

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6.43 • Decide whether the sentences are true or false. Correct the false sentences. True

a

The topside and the bottom side of the oilrig are already joined.

b

Adrian seems to be very happy with the result.

c

The secretary understands everything she scribbles down.

d

In his speech Adrian speaks about teamwork.

e

The secretary is impressed by the blueprints.

f

The secretary discovers a detail that the engineers have failed to notice.

g

The teamwork between the two companies has been very good.

False

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6.44 •• Answer the questions, by referring to information in the text. a Why is this an important day for the engineers of Prissyco and MBW? b How can we tell that Adrian is looking forward to this meeting? c What does the narrator think about the meeting? d What tasks does she perform throughout the text? e What does the text say about the working process and cooperation between the two companies? f What does Adrian say about the process and teamwork in his speech? g What does the narrator do after the meeting? h What crucial detail does she discover when studying the blueprints? i What is Adrian’s reaction? 6.45 ••• Reflect on the content and message in this story. What does the text tell us about a work processes, b cooperation, c teamwork and d the relationship between employer and employees? Use examples from the text to support your views.

Practise

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6.46 Study the drawing and match the words with the correct item. router – headset – keys – mouse – cable – flash drive – loudspeaker – screen – computer case – printer

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6.47 Find the “odd one out” in the lists below. a branch manager – teacher – secretary – administrative assistant b printer – paper shredder – photocopier – pencil c blueprints – laptop – stapler – ink cartridge d employer – employee – customer – reverie

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6.48 Discuss the questions in pairs. When you are done, switch partners and go through the questions again. a Why do you think the project in the text failed? b How would you describe good teamwork? c In your opinion, what is a good colleague? d If your colleague or schoolmate fails to do his or her part of the job, what should you do? e If your colleague or schoolmate claims that what you are doing is wrong, while you think you are doing it right, what should you do?

6.49 After the meeting in the text, Adrian and his alter ego from MBW are summoned to a meeting with their respective Managing Directors. They will have to explain their failure regarding the Raptor platform. Take some time to prepare yourselves, then act out the conversation in groups of four.

Write

6.50 • What is good teamwork? Write a paragraph where you give at least three examples. For advice on structuring paragraphs, see Chapter 3.

Useful words: short deadlines tight budget inexperienced staff poor work facilities stubborn employees lost emails strict regulations in-fighting

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6.51 •• After the meeting in the text, Adrian, or rather his secretary, must write a letter to the contractors to inform them that the Raptor project will be delayed. The letter should include reasons for the delay and excuses for the inconvenience. For advice, see “Writing formal texts” in this chapter.

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6.52 ••• Create a text where you describe a project or a work process you have taken part in. Then explain how skills, knowledge and good teamwork were crucial to get a good result. For advice on structuring texts, see Chapter 4.

Explore

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6.53 There are many films and television series that are set in an office environment. Find some examples, watch trailers or parts of episodes and share your impressions and opinions in groups.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can reflect on and discuss good and bad teamwork YES

ALMOST

NO

use vocabulary related to working in an office YES

ALMOST

NO

create vocational texts with structure and context YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 273


FACT FILE FACT FILE Entrepreneurship Are you dreaming of starting a business?

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Here are the 10 steps to follow to become an entrepreneur. Step 1: You need a vision! Make sure you have a good business idea for a product or a service that the market wants.

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potential potensial business model forretningsmodell expenses utgifter funding finansiering fees avgifter grants stipender/stipend storage lagring solo proprietorship enkeltpersonsforetak/enkeltpersonsføretak, einskildverksemd proximity nærhet/nærleik trademark varemerke slogan slagord licence lisens permit tillatelse/tillating, løyve insurance forsikring domain name domenenavn/ domenenamn

Step 5: Choose your type of business. Find the best model for the kind of product or services you will offer, and decide if you will need an office, a shop, storage facilities, staff rooms, advanced technology, furniture, etc.

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Step 3: Create a business plan. It will be your guideline from startup through establishment to a wellfunctioning business, and should include details on the product, marketing plan, business model and budget.

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Step 2: Do your research. Check the market, ask for advice and read up. Does your idea have potential? Will customers buy it? What is the competition like?

274 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS

4 Step 4: Sort out your finances. Get an overview of your expenses and funding. Write lists of – estimated start-up costs (equipment, fees, insurance, branding, etc.) – running costs for the first 12 months (rent, advertising, staff, etc.) – financing (savings, loans, small business grants, investors, etc.)


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Step 9: Hire your staff. To get the right employees, make sure you know what qualifications you need and hire highly motivated people with a positive attitude.

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Step 7: Create a brand name. Pick and register your business name, and make sure it is not already trademarked or in use. Create a logo and a slogan, and choose marketing strategies to advertise your business.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE

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Step 6: Choose your location. Unless you are a solo proprietorship working from home you must consider what is the most important factor: rent, size, neighbourhood, safety or proximity to target group?

9

10 Step 10: Promotion time – let’s go! When your business is up and running, you need to attract customers. Use various advertising strategies to reach out to as many as possible.

Good Luck!!

8 Step 8: Get the paperwork done. You need licences, permits, an insurance agreement and a domain name, and you may have make deals and orders with manufacturers of your goods.

Entrepreneurship: The process of designing, starting up and running a new business, at a financial risk, to make a profit.

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 275


FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

6.54 In the management of a company there are various titles and responsibilities. Study the chart and then answer the questions.

Marketing Manager

Production Manager

Chief Accountant

Personnel Manager

Who is concerned with the people working for a company? Who is responsible for the economy and other money matters? Who is responsible for the overall running of the company? Who is responsible for the production of the goods the company sells? Who takes care of advertising and analyses the market and demands?

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Managing Director

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6.55 Do the following tasks in groups. a If you were to start your own business, what kind of business, product and location would you choose? b Have you already practised entrepreneurship in class? Do you know people who own their own business? Share your experiences. c Decide on a business idea. Then make an oral presentation of your business by following the steps from the fact file. Present your ideas in class.

276 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS


FACT FILE FACT FILE Listen

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6.56 “Molly's shop” A young girl has scraped together her pennies and, with a little help from her parents, has bought the business she used to work in as a Saturday girl. Molly Clegg, who is just 18, from Lincolnshire, has used her university fund to buy the jewellery store where she has been working at weekends for the past year. She had just completed her A-levels and was considering going to university when the opportunity arose to take over Murano Silver in Market Deeping. Listen to the rest of the text about Molly and then do the tasks.

Read and understand

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6.57 • Choose the right words and expressions. a Molly Clegg owns her own university / store / market. b She sells jewellery / silver / spreadsheets. c To get money, she sold the house / used her savings / left university. d She worked as a Saturday girl when she was 10 / at university / for a year. e As a little girl, Molly made grips / bracelets / metal. f Her friends and parents dislike her job / don’t believe in her / support her.

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6.58 •• Based on the text, what is your impression of a Molly? b Molly’s parents? c Molly’s friends? d Molly’s job and choice of career?

Write

6.59 Study the list of words related to sales and management. Use the words to write a short text about the work of a shop owner. Use a dictionary to translate the words you do not know. order supplier

stock delivery

invoice pricing

label budget

expenses surplus SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 277


Future Offices Office work

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Important features of future offices will be openness and flexibility concerning workplace and hours. First, home offices will become more common and, thanks to webcams and computers, telepresence will reduce the number of travelling days. This means big savings for the company and sustainability in general. Furthermore, the younger generation of office workers, who are fluent in mobile technology, social media and networking, will expect more open work environments. Thus, future offices will have more glass and fewer walls, promoting collaboration and transparency. They will be more guest friendly and welcome clients into the heart of the company, not just to reception areas or conference rooms. Finally, technology will also change office equipment, replacing the cubicles with intelligent, multi-functional computer screen desks instead of work stations and multipurpose spaces to stimulate conversation and cooperation. In a digital future, with advanced networks and equipment, offices will become increasingly paperless, and the traditional desks will be replaced by office stations where employees can plug in and connect to the server. This gives flexibility, but also presents challenges linked to information flow and security. Therefore, securing networks and encrypting data to protect privacy will be important tasks in future offices.

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feature trekk telepresence tilstedeværelse via skjerm og lyd/det å vere til stades via skjerm og lyd savings innsparinger/ innsparingar sustainability bærekraft/ berekraft fluent in flink i promote fremme/fremje collaboration samarbeid transparency gjennomsiktighet/det å vere gjennomsiktig cubicle her: kontoravlukke multipurpose som kan brukes til flere ting/som kan brukast til fleire ting encrypting kryptering

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AIMS

Security

parabolic microphone høysensitiv mikrofon/høgsensitiv mikrofon transaction overføring “cybervulnerability” “nettsårbarhet”/“nettsårbarheit” recognition gjenkjennelse/ attkjenning

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In addition to the obvious challenges linked to cybersecurity, digital innovations will also improve k talk about some office work and security in buildings. Surveillance cameras and X-ray security in the future scanners for bags and people are already in use in many k use words and phrases related to office buildings, and such equipment will probably technology in the future become more advanced. One likely development is k present information about a biometric surveillance, a technology that analyses company or a brand with good human characteristics, such as fingerprints, DNA potential and facial recognition, for identification. Next, a security guard must often monitor several surveillance screens at the same time. Modern technology can make this job much easier, as computers will know what you are looking for and will adjust the screen picture accordingly. Another future surveillance technique is flying surveillance overvåking/ surveillance cameras, equipped with infrared cameras, radar vision and overvaking parabolic microphones, that can identify people from a long distance and biometric basert på biologiske provide information to the security crew inside a building. Surveillance of trekk visitors and employees can also involve credit-card transactions as well as facial recognition ansiktsgjenkjenning/andletsattkjenning internet and telephone activity. This advanced cybersecurity, however, also monitor overvåke/overvake creates “cybervulnerability” because of the increasing amount of data that adjust tilpasse are stored about individuals. In the future, surveillance will have to find the accordingly i tråd med dette right balance between security and privacy.

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Read and understand

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6.60 • Find the wrong word or expression in each sentence and replace it with the right one. a Telepresence will increase the number of travelling days. b The younger generation of office workers are not interested in social media. c Future offices will have more glass and thicker walls. d Offices will become increasingly paper-based. e Securing networks and encrypting data to prevent privacy will be important tasks. f X-ray scanners for bags and people are not in use in office buildings. g Cybersecurity creates “cybervulnerability” because of reduced amount of data.

6.61 •• What do you find interesting and what seems to be challenging in tomorrow’s offices and security sections?

Practise

6.62 Choose ten words that you did not know already from the vocabulary list. Practise spelling and pronouncing the words. Test yourself with a partner.

6.63 Fill in the words in the correct space in the text. opponents – controlled – domestic – nervous – industry – tasks – artificial

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Today robots are used in and manufacturing, but there are also robots that can perform simple tasks like cutting your lawn or hoovering your house. Robots also come as small pets, violin players, chess – you name it. So far robots are programmed to perform certain , but scientists are working on new models that can be by brain signals, or that “think” for themselves with intelligence. A famous robot is the Star Wars character C-3PO, capable of performing many tasks, but with a rather personality.

Listen

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6.64 “Future Jobs” Listen to the text, take notes and share in class.

Ku

Most of the jobs we will have in the future have not yet been invented. New inventions will create new needs and new tools. Technology is developing very quickly, so even though the profession may be the same, the tasks of the future may be quite different from today …

Did you know

In the early 1900s around half the population of the United States worked within farming. Today this percentage has been reduced to 3%. Likewise, in the 1970s 25% of the workforce in the country worked in manufacturing. Today the number has been reduced to 10%. So where do people work now? In different service trades, and – in offices. 280 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS


Speak

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6.65 Discuss the following questions. a What kinds of new jobs do you think will appear in the future? b Why is the information-technology sector the fastest growing industry today? c For which tasks do you think that computers or robots will replace human beings? d If you were to have a domestic robot, which tasks would you want it to perform for you? e What kinds of sustainable energy sources do you know of? Which of these can be used in an office? f What do you think the job that you are training for will be like in the future?

Explore

6.66 Many science fiction movies describe future civilizations with advanced robots and exciting space travel. Uses online sources to find examples of and information about such films. Do you think these films are realistic? Share your findings in class.

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6.67 Choose a brand or a company that you think will still be successful in the future. Use different sources and find information about its products, its marketing strategies and why it has succeeded. Use the information to give an oral presentation. For advice on oral presentations, see Chapter 5.

Write

6.68 • Create an advert for a job in the future.

til

6.69 •• Fifteen years from now, you want to apply for a job within sales, service and travel. Use your imagination and write your application. The letter should include details about the job and the experience you have gained in your career. See this chapter for information on writing formal texts.

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6.70 ••• What are the advantages and possible disadvantages of the technological development we see today? Write a five-paragraph text where you • discuss positive effects of technology in the future • give examples of challenges and threats these developments might bring • state your own opinion on the use of high-tech equipment like computers and robots In your conclusion explain to what extent you think the future is something to look forward to. For advice on writing five-paragraph texts, see Chapter 4.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can talk about some office work and security in the future YES

ALMOST

NO

use words and phrases related to technology in the future YES

ALMOST

NO

present information about a company or a brand with good potential YES

ALMOST

NO

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Hotel Terra

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Before you start Do you think tourism will change dramatically in the next 50 years? Discuss.

I’ll keep it short: If you wanna go to Earth, don’t. Only reason I went was a deal I found where you could see the whole planet for under a thousand credits. I could’ve spent it tearing up the dunes on Mars getting trashed on Luna brew, but no, I fell for the whole “Gotta see Earth” BS, and blew half my savings waiting to feel that precious connection with the “Homeworld”. Homeworld, my ass. Whole planet’s a big, fat, money making scam. I’ll start with the weather – it sucks. One minute you’re freezing your ass off on some mountain ‘vista’, the next minute you’re getting a heat stroke in some ‘scenic’ desert. It’s like a little planetary theme park: One part Mars,

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one part Neptune, one part Europa, all balled up into one miserable rock of an existence. Even if you like AIMS these little Environments, they’re so jam packed with tourists from every armpit of the galaxy, you end up k explain what the text is about sharing the Amazon and the Pyramids and the Great k discuss tourism in the future Wall (not so great, by the way) with a bunch of hicks k share facts about popular destinations in the world today from Epsilon who were born without volume control. I spent more time trying to get out of these places than I did getting in them. Don’t even get me started on the transportation. There’s no Aero-rail – just cabs. Worse, they’re not even automated! Soon as you leave port, drivers swarm you like a pack of zombies who won’t leave you alone till you get in one of their speeders. “Where you headed, boss?” they say. “Hop in, chief!” Hop in. You believe that? Felt like I was stuck in the 20th century. Asked one of them if I could take a Travelbot instead. “Sorry, pal, no bots on Earth – all part of the experience.” Part of the experience? I guess getting charged 500 credits to have your driver get lost in the Dubai sprawl is part of the experience, too. Oh yeah. They don’t shut up, either. “Where you from?” they say. “How do you like the Homeworld?” they ask. Just drive, pal, a robot could do your job. “Come on, relax, pal,” they cry. “People lived like this for thousands of years.” Yeah – they also lived till they were 70 and died from every form of cancer deal her: tilbud/tilbod in the medical lexicon (and with the crap they ate, no wonder). Hamburgers? dunes sanddyner Kung Pao Chicken? Were these people asking to die? Give me some Tritan brew brygg Rice and a bottle of Neutrinine and you got yourself a happy man. Of course, BS bullshit tull they don’t have any on Earth – they gotta keep everything “authentic”. savings sparepenger/ And nothing’s as authentic as the all you can drink “fresh water” springs. sparepengar Springs? SPRINGS!?! You can’t drink any of it without hacking up your scam svindel vista utsiktspunkt intestines!!! Locals don’t even drink the stuff. Only thing I could drink was scenic naturskjønn/naturfager, a bottle of Terraquor that barely got me tipsy enough to forget I was on the naturskjønn sorry rock in the first place. balled up her: samlet/samla You want my advice, save your money and go to Saturn. jam packed stappfull Earth’s a tourist trap. hicks bondeknøler/bondeknølar noah griffith

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Noah Griffith When not surfing the net for a living, Noah Griffith enjoys reading, writing, more reading, and enjoying Asian food in his Koreatown neighborhood. He lives in Los Angeles.

swarm myldre speeder fartøy som kjører fort/ fartøy som køyrer fort travelbot fiktiv farkost sprawl byspredning/byspreiing springs kilder/kjelder intestines innvoller/innvolar tourist trap turistfelle

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Read and understand

6.71 • Decide whether the sentences are true or false, and correct the false ones. True The narrator spent all his money to travel to Earth.

b

He loves the weather on planet Earth.

c

He is really impressed by the tourist attractions.

d

He thinks people on Earth are stupid.

e

He says that hamburgers are a healthy food.

f

He thinks it is better to go to Saturn than to Earth.

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a

False

6.72 •• Sum up what the narrator in the text says about a the currency he used to pay for the trip b the destinations he visits and places that he could have chosen instead c improvements and inventions within transport d the behaviour of people on Earth during his visit e improvements in life expectancy and lifestyle since the 20th century

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6.73 ••• Answer the questions. a What language style and vocabulary dominate this text? What kind of atmosphere does it create? b What is the message of the text? Give reasons for your point of view.

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6.74 These are words from the text that you often find in tourist brochures. Fill in the missing letters, translate them into Norwegian and learn them by heart. a vi ta c sp ings e ex erie ce b s e ic d du es f aut ent c

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6.75 Study the list of hotel vocabulary and match the words or phrases with the right explanation. Use the words to write phrases about the work of a receptionist. a check-out b adjoining rooms d check-in e fully booked f attractions g book h vacancies j late charge

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

two hotel rooms with a door in the centre amount paid ahead of time to secure a reservation return the keys and pay the bill things for tourists to see and do available rooms go to the front desk to receive keys arrange to stay in a hotel full, no vacancies


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6.76 Include words from task 6.74 and act out a dialogue between a receptionist on Earth and the inter-galactic tourist from the text. The tourist just arrived and wants to know how things work in hotels on Earth and to plan his stay. The receptionist answers politely and patiently. Act out the scene.

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6.77 When the narrator from the story returns home after his visit to planet Earth, he meets a friend who wants to know what it was like, as she is planning to go too. Work with a partner and act out the dialogue. 6.78 Discuss the questions. a If you were offered a trip to space, would you go? Why or why not? b What kind of space travel already exists? c Do you think space travel will ever be a major tourist attraction? Explain. d If you were asked to organize a tourist trip to another planet, where would you go and what would you do?

Explore

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6.79 Find information about one of the attractions mentioned in the text, or another “tourist trap” that you find interesting. Write down keywords about your destination.

Write

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6.80 Use information from task 6.78 to make a tourist brochure about your selected destination. Include pictures and facts. Remember to use positive words in order to “sell” your product.

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6.81 Use different sources to find information about training and tasks in your chosen future trade. Present your findings in a short text with photos for a poster to hang in the classroom.

Did you know

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the text “Hotel Terra” is about YES

ALMOST

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discuss tourism in the future

Viral marketing is the act of promoting information that other people feel compelled to pass on. In the old days, this was called “word of mouth” marketing. Today, the Internet provides a number of ways to engage in such marketing at a potentially very low cost. A famous example of viral marketing is Blendtec’s campaign “Will it blend?”

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share facts about popular destinations in the world today YES

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

6.85 Explain the meaning of the following word pairs. a which – witch b now – know c teach – learn d think – mean e can – may

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6.83 Choose 4 pictures that you think are relevant to what you have learnt in this chapter. Explain your choice to a partner.

6.84 Choose the correct spelling and show where the spelling mistakes are. a believe/beleive b receive/recieve c secretery/secretary d librarian/librerain e budget/bugdet

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6.82 Unscramble these words. They are all about topics you have worked with in this chapter. a nrMtoio b leiFlxiybit c antDioestin d eMiagrknt e kmwTeoar f pEomelye

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Assess your progress

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

6.87 Discussing a vocational topic a Why is referring to statistics or to experts a good idea in a discussion? b What can you do to remember what is said in a discussion? c What phrases can you use to ask speakers to clarify what they mean? d Give examples of how you can respond to what someone says in a discussion.

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6.86 Writing a formal text a Give some examples of formal text types. b Why are correct grammar, spelling and punctuation important in a formal text? c What greeting would you use when you do not know the name of the person you are writing to? d What is an appropriate closing of an email?

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Apply your Skills

6.88 Speak a • Give a short talk about why customer care is important in sales and service trades.

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b •• Give a short talk about why it is important to observe and take care of customers who seem to suffer from neglect or illnesses. c ••• Give a short talk about why it is important to remember confidentiality when talking with customers.

6.89 Write a • Write a formal letter to complain about poor customer service. Use your imagination and advice from this chapter. b •• Write a formal letter where you apply for a job in a newly established company and try to show that you are highly motivated for the job. Use your imagination and advice from this chapter. c ••• Write a formal letter where you try to convince a board of your choice to give you a grant to help you set up your own business. Use your imagination and advice from this chapter.

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CHAPTER 7

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Encounters

Street art by artist Pony Wave depicting two people kissing while wearing face masks on Venice Beach, California.


In this chapter you will focus on k cultural expressions k ways of life in Canada, New Zealand and Australia

k discussing literature and film k summarizing and synthesizing information

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k word formation and morphology

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Useful words and phrases cultural identity stereotypes diversity multiculturalism setting character protagonist plot point of view theme

What is culture? How do you express your cultural identity? <<6 sider>>

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! Across Borders From the very beginning of human existence, about 2 million years ago in Africa, people have migrated and gradually spread to all corners of the planet. It is, however, only in the last few centuries that we have been travelling the world on a larger scale. With the development of modern transport and mass tourism, the world has become smaller and its population more multicultural.

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Before you start What are the advantages of meeting people from other places? What might be the challenges?

migrate vandre, forflytte seg/ vandre, flytte på seg multi-cultural flerkulturell/ fleirkulturell border grense diversity mangfold/mangfald increase økning/auke

New skills The movement of people across borders and continents has led to globalization and cultural diversity. We see an increase in international trade, business, education and communication, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This diversity has a lot of positive aspects, but can also be a source for misunderstandings, culture clashes and even

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conflicts. Therefore, we need new skills and a cultural awareness that can help us interpret and understand what we hear and see when we meet new people.

AIMS k define what culture is k give examples of cultural differences k discuss communication and

Defining culture

Non-verbal communication

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What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as stereotypes individuals and as part of a family, community and k explain the meaning of selected larger society. Cultural differences are traditions and sayings behaviour, like the food we eat, the clothes we wear, our political and social values, religious beliefs and, maybe most importantly, our language. Each culture will have linguistic features which may not be obvious to foreigners. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as so important that they will say “yes” in the sense of “yes, I hear you”, while other cultures will interpret it as “yes, I agree”. They will say “this may be difficult” when they mean “this trade her: handel aspect side av en sak, is impossible”. In some parts of Asia, for example, it is considered rude for synsvinkel/side av ei sak pupils to tell their teacher that they don’t understand his or her instructions. awareness bevissthet /medvit Imagine the possible consequences when teaching the pupils how to swim!

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Body language is another issue. Actually, facial expressions for happiness and sadness seem to be quite universal, but there are other features one should be more aware of. For example, to what extent do we touch or look at people we meet? How do we use our voice and gestures? When we meet a friend, we may use a hand shake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek or a bow, or press noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. This shows that body language can cause misunderstandings. Also, which finger do you use for pointing? In the western world we use the index finger but in other cultures they use the middle finger or the thumb.

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All this shows us that communication across borders can be a challenging experience. However, it is also important to remember that although we are identified by a set of traditions and customs, we are also individuals with our own personal features and behaviour. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? It is easy to make assumptions and even be prejudiced about lifestyles and customs, based on the limited knowledge of a culture and its people we get from the media or short holiday trips. Still, we should avoid seeing humans as stereotypes. Not all Americans love hamburgers, nor are most British males football hooligans. Meeting people with an open mind is the most important key to successful cross-cultural encounters.

interpret tolke individual individ values verdier/verdiar obvious åpenbar/opplagd foreigner utlending sense her: betydning consider anse non-verbal ikke-språklig/ikkjespråkleg issue sak facial expression ansiktsuttrykk/ andletsuttrykk feature trekk gesture håndbevegelse/ handrørsle index finger pekefinger/ peikefinger custom her: vane assumption antagelse/aning, gjetting prejudiced fordomsfull stereotype forenklet, generalisert oppfatning av personer/forenkla, generalisert oppfatning av personar cross-cultural tverrkulturell encounter møte

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IN SHORT

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New skills Globalization means that there is contact between people around the world, in different ways. Business and education are reasons to travel, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This is both positive and challenging. We need new skills so that we understand what we hear and see when we meet new people. Defining culture What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as individuals and as part of a family and society. Even if we think we understand each other, there may be problems. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as extremely important and will often say “yes” in the sense of “yes, I hear you”. People from other cultures will hear “yes, I agree”. Moreover, “this may be difficult” could also mean “this is impossible”!

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In spite of cultural differences, we are also individuals with our own personal habits. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? We must not use impressions from the media or a short holiday trip to judge people and their culture. Avoid seeing others as stereotypes, because not “all Americans love hamburgers”. We should always meet new people with an open mind.

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globalization globalisering ethnic etnisk challenging utfordrende/ utfordrande define definere individual individ society samfunn certain sikker regard betrakte, se på/ betrakte, sjå på sense betydning non-verbal ikke-språklig/ ikkjespråkleg greet hilse på/helse på handshake håndtrykk/ handtrykk complicate gjøre komplisert/ gjere komplisert habit vane impression inntrykk judge dømme avoid unngå stereotype forenklet, generalisert oppfatning av personer/forenkla, generalisert oppfatning av personar

Non-verbal communication Our body language is a part of our communication. We may greet a friend with a handshake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek or a bow, or by pressing noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. Meeting a person with different body language may complicate our communication.

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Read and understand 7.1 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. Correct the false ones. True

False

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a Globalization means that there are many people on the planet. b Economy and education are important reasons why we meet new cultures today. c The word “culture” refers mostly to art and music. d The word “yes” is always a sign of full agreement. e Non-verbal communication means to speak a foreign language. f Body language is not the same all over the world. g A short holiday trip gives you good knowledge of a country’s culture. h Having a stereotypical view of people will help you communicate well.

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7.2 •• Answer the following questions. a What has contributed to the diversity and globalization we see today? b What does the expression “culture” refer to? c How can the word “yes” mean different things? d Which varieties of non-verbal communication are mentioned in the text? e Why should we be aware of our own assumptions and avoid stereotypes when we want to communicate with new people?

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7.3 Study the signs. Explain what makes them funny or wrong.

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7.4 All cultures have expressions and sayings related to their languages or geographical areas. a Study the cartoon below. Which are the two sayings used by the Norwegian? How does the other person respond to the first saying? What do you think will be his response to the second?

b How would you explain the following sayings to an Englishspeaking person? Do you know the corresponding English sayings? tråkke i salaten ha is i magen

ugler i mosen stå med skjegget i postkassa

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c What do you think these English sayings mean? Do we have sayings in Norwegian that mean more or less the same? don’t judge a book by its cover curiosity killed the cat

always put your best foot forward you can’t have your cake and eat it too

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Practise

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7.5 Because of migration and the position of English as a world language, English has many loan words from other languages. Study the list of words below and combine them with their language of origin. Do the words say anything about the culture of the country they come from? a b c d e f g h i j

moped karaoke siesta café kindergarten fjord wok paparazzi sheikh avatar

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1 French 2 Norwegian 3 Arabic 4 Swedish 5 Chinese 6 Japanese 7 Sanskrit 8 German 9 Spanish 10 Italian


Write

7.6 • What do you think is most important to remember when communicating with someone from another culture? Write a paragraph to share your opinion.

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7.7 •• Study the quote below. Use it as source of inspiration to write a short text about communication.

We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak. Epictetus, Greek philosopher, (AD 55-c.135)

7.8 ••• Write a text where you present and discuss at least three stereotypes from English-speaking countries. Give your text a suitable title and find photos to illustrate your text.

How did you do?

After working with the text and tasks, I can

How did you do?

YES

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give examples of cultural differences YES

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discuss communication and stereotypes YES

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explain the meaning of selected sayings YES

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NO

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define what culture is

Did you know?

Hand gestures do not always mean the same thing around the world. “Thumbs up”, for example, means “good” in Western Europe and North America, but will be taken as an insult, meaning “up yours” in some Latin American and West African countries. Body language and how we relate to strangers will also vary in different cultures, such as the need for personal space, where to sit on the bus or starting a conversation with someone you don’t know. This is not only a cultural feature, but also highly personal. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 295


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My Mother, the Crazy African !

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Before you start Look at the title of this short story. What and who do you think the story is about, and where does it take place?

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In this abridged short story, we meet Ralindu, or Lin as she likes to call herself. Lin’s parents are from Nigeria, but the family has moved to the USA where Lin goes to school. It is not always easy for her mother to understand or accept American culture, and she speaks their native language, Igbo, to Lin. When Lin gets a boyfriend, it does not make things easier.

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I HATE HAVING AN accent. I hate it when people ask me to repeat things sometimes and I can hear them laughing inside because I am not American. Now I reply to Father’s Igbo with English. I would do it with Mother too, but I don’t think she would go for that just yet. When people ask where I am from, Mother wants me to say Nigeria. The first time I said Philadelphia, she said, “say Nigeria.” The second time she slapped the back of my head and asked, in Igbo, “is something wrong with your head?” By then I had started school and I told her, Americans don’t do it that way. You are from where you are born, or where you live, or where you intend to live for a long time. Take Cathy for example. She is from Chicago because she was born there. Her brother is from here, Philadelphia, because he was

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born in Jefferson Hospital. But their Father, who was AIMS born in Atlanta, is now from Philadelphia because he lives here. Americans don’t care about that nonsense of being k explain what the short story is about from your ancestral village, where your forefathers k describe the setting and theme owned land, where you can trace your lineage back k discuss advantages and challenges of a cross-cultural upbringing hundreds of years. So you trace your lineage back, so what? k use derivations and conversions Just like I call myself Lin when Mother isn’t here. She likes to go on and on, how Ralindu is a beautiful Igbo name, how it means so much to her too, that name, Choose Life, because of what she went through, because of my brothers who died as babies. And I am sorry, don’t get me wrong, but a name like Ralindu and an accent are too much for me right now, especially now that Matt and I are together. When my friends call, Mother goes, “Lin?” for a second, as though she doesn’t know who that is. You would think she hasn’t been here three whole years (sometimes I tell people six years) the way she acts. It’s a lot better now though. She no longer crosses herself, shivering whenever a murder is reported on the news. She no longer peers at Father’s written directions as she drives to the grocery store or mall. She still has the directions in Father’s precise hand in the glove compartment though. She still clutches the wheels tight, and glances often at the rear-view mirror for police cars. And I have taken to saying, Mother, the American police do not just stop you. You have to do something wrong first, like speed.

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***

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Matt is coming over today, we are writing a paper together. Mother has been walking up and down the house. In Nigeria, girls make friends with girls and boys make friends with boys. With a girl and a boy, it is not just friends, it is something more. I tell Mother it’s different in America and she says she knows. She places a plate of fresh-dried chin-chin on the dining table, where Matt and I will work. When she goes back upstairs, I take the chin-chin into the kitchen. I can imagine Matt’s face as he says, what the hell is that? Mother comes out and puts the chin-chin back. “It’s for your guest,” she says. The phone rings and I pray that it will keep her long. The doorbell rings, and there is Matt, earring glittering, holding a folder. Matt and I study for a while. Mother comes in and when he says hi, she stares at him, pauses then says, “How are you?” She asks if we are almost done, in Igbo, and before I say yes, I pause for a long moment so Matt won’t think I understand Igbo so easily. Mother goes upstairs and shuts her door. “Let’s go to your room, and listen to a CD,” Matt says, after a while. “My

ancestral forfedre-, slektstrace spore lineage avstamning/ avstamming peer her: kikke precise hand tydelig håndskrift/ tydeleg handskrift glove compartment hanskerom clutch her: gripe rear-view mirror bakspeil/ bakspegel paper oppgave, skolestil/ oppgåve, skolestil plate tallerken chin-chin frityrstekt snack/ frityrsteikt snack folder mappe

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couch sofa urgent rask, hurtig enclose her: holde om/halde om sheathe dekke, omslutte/dekke, omgje bra bh unhook løsne/løyse moan stønne rapt henført/begeistra, gripen frenetic frenetisk, opphisset bunch her: folde seg exposed utsatt/utsett moistness fuktighet/fukt startling oppsiktsvekkende/ oppsiktsvekkande shove dytte motionless urørlig/urørleg nod nikke burst utbrudd/utbrot shuffle subbe lace her: lisse clench knipe sammen/knipe saman thyme timian promiscuous promiskuøs, “lett på tråden”

room’s a mess,” I say, instead of “My mom would never let a boy in my room.” “Let’s go to the couch then. I’m tired.” We sit on the couch and he puts a hand under my T-shirt. I hold his hand. “Just through my shirt.” “Come on,” he says. His breathing is as urgent as his voice. I let go and his hand snakes under my shirt, encloses a breast sheathed in a nylon bra. Then quickly, it weaves its way to my back and unhooks my bra. Matt is good, even I cannot unhook my bra that quickly with one hand. His hand snakes back and encloses the bare breast. I moan, because it feels good and I know that is what I am supposed to do. In the movies, the women’s faces always turn rapt right about this point. He’s frenetic now, like he has malaria fever. He pushes me back, pulls my shirt up so it bunches around my neck, takes my bra off. I feel a sudden coolness on my exposed upper body. Sticky warm moistness on my breast. I once read a book where a man sucked his wife’s breast so hard he left nothing for the baby. Matt is sucking like that man. Then I hear a door open. I grab Matt’s head up and pull my shirt on in the space of a second. My bra, startling white against the tan leather furniture, is blinking at me. I shove it behind the sofa just as Mother walks in. “Isn’t it time for your guest to leave?” she asks in Igbo. I am afraid to look at Matt, I am afraid he will have milk on his lips. “He was just leaving,” I say in English. Mother continues to stand there. I say to Matt, “I guess you better get going.” He is standing, picking up papers from the table. “Yeah. Good night.” Mother stands motionless, looking at us both. “He was talking to you, Mother. He said good night.” She nods, arms folded, staring. Suddenly a burst of Igbo words. Was I crazy to have a boy stay that long? She thought I had good sense! When did we leave the dining table and come to the couch? Why were we sitting so close? Matt shuffles to the door as she talks. His sneaker laces have come undone and flap as he walks. “See you later,” he says at the door. Mother finds the bra behind the couch almost immediately. She stares at it for a long time before she asks me to go to my room. She comes up a moment later. Her lips are clenched tight. “Yipu efe gi,” she says. Take your clothes off. I watch her, surprised, but I slowly undress. “Everything,” she says when she sees that I still have my panties on. “Sit on the bed, spread your legs.” My heart beats wildly in my ears. I settle on the bed, spread-eagled. She comes closer, kneels before me, and I see what she is holding. Ose Nsukka, the hot twisted peppers that Mama Nnukwu sends dried from Nigeria, in little bottles that originally held curry or thyme. “Mother! No!” “Do you see this pepper?” she asks. “Do you see it? This is what they do to girls who are promiscuous, this is what they do to girls who do not

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chimamanda ngozi adichie

charcoal kullfarget/kolfarga gleam glitre ground her: gi husarrest

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use the brain in their head, but the one between their legs.” She brings the pepper so close that I pee right there, and feel the warm wetness on the mattress. But she doesn’t put it in. She is shouting in Igbo. I watch her, the way her charcoal eyes gleam with tears, and I wish I was Cathy. Cathy’s mom apologizes after she punishes Cathy. She asks Cathy to go to her room, she grounds Cathy for a few hours or at most, a day. The next day, Matt says, laughing, “Your mom weirded me out last night. She’s a crazy-ass African!” My lips feel too stiff to laugh. He is looking at some other girl as we talk.

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (1977–) was born in Nigeria. She studied medicine and pharmacy before moving to the USA where she got university degrees in creative writing and African studies. She has written short stories, poetry and essays, but is best known for her novels. Her work has been translated into over 30 languages and won many awards.

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Read and understand

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7.9 • Use information from the text to finish the following sentences. a Lin says she is from Philadelphia, but her mother wants... b Lin’s mother has lived in America for, but she still... c Matt is coming to Lin’s house because they are... d Lin doesn’t take Matt to her room because... e When they are alone, Matt quickly... f When Lin’s mother comes back... g Lin’s mother makes her take off... h The pepper she holds up makes Lin... i When Lin’s friend Cathy does something wrong... j The next day, Matt tells Lin that...

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7.10 •• Make a short summary of the short story. Use the following keywords to get started. accent – Nigeria – Ralindu – mother – boyfriend – upstairs – couch – bra – leave – angry – undress – peppers – African

7.11 ••• Describe the characters in the short story. Use information from the text to support your description. a Lin b Lin’s mother c Matt

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Speak

7.12 Why do you think Lin’s mother behaves the way she does? Is she right to do so? Discuss in pairs and then share your views in class.

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7.13 Describe the setting of the short story. Where and when does it take place? What is the mood? Point to information in the text to support your arguments. 7.14 Which of the following suggestions do you think best describes the themes of the short story? Choose one or two and explain why. Can you suggest other suitable themes? culture clash – relationships – strict parenting – immigration – feeling ashamed – fitting in

Practise

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7.15 Which of the following verbs can also be nouns or adjectives? Make sentences for each of the forms to show their use. a shuffle b slap f bunch h trace d open c laugh g wet e glitter

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7.16 Make new words by adding prefixes and suffixes to the following words. What word class are your new words? d agree a cool e punish b happy f moral c kind

Write

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7.17 What is it like to grow up with parents from a different culture than the country where you live? Write a text in which you express your opinion and discuss possible advantages and challenges. a First, have a brainstorming session with a partner. Take notes and list ideas. b Use your notes to make an outline for your text. Check “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 for advice. c Write your first draft. Swap drafts with a partner and give each other feedback on contents and structure. d Use the feedback to improve your text. Pay extra attention to paragraph structure, the introduction and the conclusion. e Check your text for spelling and grammar mistakes. Remember to list your sources if you have used any.

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Explore

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7.18 Watch the first six minutes of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s TED talk “The danger of a single story” online. You may also find it helpful to read the transcript of her talk. a What does she say about the stories she read as a child? b What was Adichie’s impression of Fide, their house boy, and his family? What did she learn when she visited their village? c Describe the experience Adichie had with her American roommate at university. d Why do you think Adichie’s talk is called “The danger of a single story”? What is her message?

“The problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.”

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Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the short story is about YES

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describe the setting and theme YES

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discuss advantages and challenges of a crosscultural upbringing YES

ALMOST

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use derivations and conversions YES

ALMOST

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS DISCUSSING LITERATURE AND FILM When working with short stories, novels and films, there are some terms you should know and use.

Point of view

In fiction, the writer usually creates a narrator. First-person narrators refer to themselves as “I”, and they are directly involved in the story. What the reader knows is limited to what the narrator knows. When an outside observer tells a story, it has a third-person narrator. The characters in the story are all referred to as “he”, “she” or “they”. A writer can also use a mixture of techniques. In film, the point of view usually changes with each shot. Voiceover is a technique where someone speaks off camera to explain or move the story along.

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Where and when does the story take place? Are we given specific information (e.g. London in the 1800s), or a general description (e.g. a remote cabin in the mountains)? Is it set in the past, the present or the future, or a certain time of day? The setting can help us understand the characters or the action, and often creates a certain atmosphere or mood. For example, a stormy night can be the background for a scary incident.

Character

of plots are conflicts and suspense. The writer may hold back information to make it more interesting for the reader.

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Setting

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Who are the main characters in the story? What we learn about a character’s looks, thoughts, feelings, and even name gives us information about his or her personality. The main character of a story is usually referred to as the protagonist. In many stories there is also an antagonist, someone or something the protagonist struggles against. Other characters may be more or less important, depending on their roles in the story.

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Plot

What happens in the story? Plot refers to the events that make up the story. Often a writer starts at the beginning and continues to tell the events in chronological order until we come to the end. Other times plots do not follow this pattern. There may be flashbacks, or the writer may jump several years to continue the story. Some important elements

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Theme What is the central idea behind a story? Sometimes the theme may be a moral lesson that the writer or director wants to teach us, and it is clearly stated in the text. This is often the case with legends, fables and fairy tales. In many stories, however, the theme is hidden in the plot, setting or actions of the characters. The title of a text or film may give clues about the theme. Note that there can be more than one theme.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Tips for writing

Practise

Introduction and background: It is

7.19 Read the sentences below and identify which of the following terms they correspond to. setting – characters – plot – point of view – theme

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interesting to know something about the author or director, when the story was published, or the film’s release date. Also say something about the genre.

Setting: Describe where and when the

story takes place. What do we learn from the first paragraphs or the opening scene? What is the atmosphere or mood?

Characters: Go on to say something

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about the characters. Who are the main characters? What do we learn about them? When you describe characters, remember to give examples.

a Annie is a young, ambitious girl who enjoys school. She always has time for her friends and is very supportive, but her behaviour changes when she experiences … b This is a story about love and friendship, but it also shows how people find ways to deal with loss. c The story takes place in Australia in the late 1990s. d She lives a happy and carefree life until one day her brother dies in an accident. At first, she refuses to talk about it, but then she meets … e The story is told through a first-person narrator. We have access to Annie’s thoughts and feelings, but this also means we see other characters and events through Annie’s eyes.

Plot: How does the story develop? Are

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the characters involved in a conflict, and if so, how is it resolved? In a summary of the plot, include only the most important events.

Point of view: Is the story told through a

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first-person or a third-person narrator? Does the point of view change? Is how the story is narrated important for our understanding of the characters and plot?

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Theme: Sum up by explaining what you think is the theme. Is there a message?

Opinion: If you are asked to do so, give your own opinion of the story or film. Would you recommend it to others? Explain why or why not.

7.20 Choose one of the short stories or films you studied earlier this year. a What is the setting? b Who are the main characters? c Sum up the plot in a few sentences. d What is the point of view? Is there more than one? e What do you think is the theme?

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Hunt for the Wilderpeople

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bush – villmark foster care – fosterhjem/ fosterheim Child Welfare Services – Barnevernet skux – kul, rå (slang) chur – ja, takk, kult (slang) wildebeest – gnu ranger – skogvokter/skogvaktar juvie (juvenile prison) – ungdomsfengsel

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Before you start a Watch the film’s trailer online. What genre of film do you think this is? b Some of the following expressions used by the characters in the film may be unfamiliar to you:

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Ricky Baker is a city kid and troublemaker who gets a fresh start in the New Zealand countryside with his new foster parents and a dog named Tupac. When tragedy strikes, Ricky and his grumpy foster dad embark on an adventure as they are running away from the Child Welfare Services. Hunt for the Wilderpeople tells a story that is both hilarious and heart-warming. Shot entirely in locations across New Zealand, the film quickly became the country’s biggest box-office hit after its release in 2016.

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The screenplay for Hunt for the Wilderpeople is based on the book Wild Pork and Watercress by one of New Zealand’s best-loved writers, Barry Crump (1935–1996).

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AIMS Watch and understand

7.21 • Use the keywords below to take notes as you watch the film. Your notes

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Setting • where the story takes place Main characters • Ricky • Aunt Bella • Uncle Hector • Child Welfare Services • police officers • Psycho Sam Plot • how it starts • what happens in the story • how it ends Theme • what the film is about • message or moral

a film k describe and discuss characters k listen for and summarize information

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Keywords

k use notes to speak and write about

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7.22 •• Use your notes to answer the following questions. a What are we told about Ricky’s background in the first scenes? How are we told? b Describe Ricky’s first days with Bella and Hector. c When Bella suddenly dies, they receive a letter from the Child Welfare Services. What does it say, and how does Ricky react? d Give a short summary of what happens next. Use the following words in your summary: runaway – survive – leg – food – cabin – poster – company – manhunt e What do we learn about Hector while he and Ricky are on the run? f After they find the critically ill ranger, Ricky goes for help and meets a Maori girl. Describe Ricky’s meeting with the girl’s father and his stay with them. g Who is Psycho Sam? h What happens to Hector and Ricky after they are caught? i In the final scenes, Ricky and Hector embark on a new adventure. What is their mission? j What do you think is the film’s theme?

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Speak

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7.23 Discuss the following questions. Remember to give examples to support your arguments. a What is your impression of the woman from Child Welfare Services? b How are the police officers portrayed in the film? c Whose side are you on when watching this film? How are we persuaded to take sides? d The film has both Maori and Pakeha (non-Maori) characters. Do you think ethnic origin has anything to do with whether the characters are portrayed as protagonists or antagonists? 7.24 What makes a good comedy? Share opinions in class. a Give examples of comedies and try to explain what makes them funny. b Humour is sometimes used as a tool when dealing with difficult subjects. Is this the case in Hunt for the Wilderpeople?

Write

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7.25 • Give a detailed description of the main character Ricky. The following questions may help you get started. • How old is he? • What does he look like? • What is his background? • What is he interested in? • What is he worried about? • How does he relate to the other main characters? • Does he change as the story develops?

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7.26 •• In this film, the characters are clearly portrayed as either protagonists or antagonists. a Place the characters in the two categories. b Can any of the protagonists be described as round characters? Explain why/why not. 7.27 ••• Write a review of the film. Your review should include the following: • a few facts on the release date, main actors and director • where the story takes place • who the main characters are and how they are portrayed • what the main conflict is without revealing how it is resolved • your opinion of the film and who you think it is suitable for

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Listen

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7.28 “New Zealand’s Maori Culture” a Study the keywords below before listening. 1 greeting 6 language 2 ceremony 7 haka 3 Europeans 8 tattoos 4 rights 9 unemployment 5 traditions 10 pride

b After listening, use the keywords to sum up what you have learned about Maoris. Write one sentence for each keyword.

Explore

7.29 In the past few decades, New Zealand has established a successful screen industry for film and television. Choose one of the productions listed below. Search for information about your chosen film or television series and share your findings in class.

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The Dark Horse Top of the Lake Boy Matariki Daffodils The Shannara Chronicles The Whale Rider Once Were Warriors

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a b c d e f g h

Did you know?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can use notes to speak and write about a film

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The New Zealand accent is easily recognizable. The first thing people notice is that words are often shortened. Breakfast becomes brekkie, and relatives are rellies. Second, some vowels are pronounced differently, such as the long ‘e’ in ten (‘teen’) and the ‘i’ in fish (‘fush’). Furthermore, with rising intonation at the end of sentences, it often sounds like New Zealanders are asking questions when they are simply making statements. Another typical trait is saying ‘yeah-nah’ when they want to say no without giving offence. Finally, most people use a number of Maori words in their everyday speech. In fact, as many as 1000 Maori words are integrated into New Zealand English.

YES

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describe and discuss characters YES

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listen for and summarize information YES

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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND Kia Ora!

Tasman Sea

Lake Taupo

Co

Rotorua

Mt Tongariro Wellington

St r

SOUTH ISLAND Mt Cook/ Aoraki Invercargill

St ew ar t Isl an d

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NORTH ISLAND

Auckland

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The expression means “welcome” in Maori, the language of the native population of New Zealand, but it is used by everyone. In the past, New Zealand was one of Britain’s many colonies. Today, it is an independent country with a strong national pride. Most visitors are impressed by the stunning natural beauty, from volcanoes, beautiful mountain ranges and deep fiords to rolling farmland and small seaside towns. It became the perfect location for the filmmakers of The Lord of the Rings, The Chronicles of Narnia and many other films. Although parts of the South Island have been rocked by earthquakes and suffered a terrorist attack, tourists still flock to the country to see the sights.

Dunedin

ai

t

Christchurch

PACIFIC OCEAN


FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND Kiwis and other animals

New Zealand Facts

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New Zealanders are often nicknamed Kiwis. A Kiwi is in fact a bird that cannot fly, and that is endemic to New Zealand. Another unique bird is the Kea, a very friendly parrot known to steal things and wreck cars. You might also encounter penguins, whales and dolphins, the largest insect in the world, and 30 million sheep.

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Play as you go!

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New Zealand is a dream for adrenaline junkies, and Queenstown is the capital of innovative and extreme sports. Skiing, paragliding, mountain biking, rafting, jet boating, kayaking and hiking are just some of the outdoor activities offered in the area. It is said that bungy jumping was invented here. In general, New Zealanders love sports and outdoor life. Sailing is very popular, and the country is extremely proud of the national rugby team known as the All Blacks.

Official name: New Zealand, Aotearoa (Maori) Capital: Wellington Population: 4.8 million Main ethnic groups: European 71%, Maori 14%, Asian 11%, Pacific Islander and other Geography: Islands in the South Pacific (the 3 main islands are North Island, South Island and Stewart Island) Landscape: Mountains, coastal plains, urban areas Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: February 6 (Waitangi Day) Currency: New Zealand Dollar Agriculture: Dairy products, meat, fish; wheat, barley, fruits, vegetables; wool Industry: Agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, mining, construction, tourism


FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND AIMS Zealand k describe New Zealand’s landscape k present travel plans

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k share some facts about New

Read and understand

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7.30 Scan the text boxes in the fact file for information to answer the following questions. a What is the nickname for a person from New Zealand? b Name two birds that are endemic to New Zealand. c How many people live in New Zealand? d Which is the largest ethnic group? e What percentage of the population are Maori? f What is the Maori name for New Zealand? g What kinds of disasters have rocked the South Island? h New Zealand has been the location for some very famous films. Which ones? i Name three agricultural products from New Zealand. j How many sheep are there per person? k Who is the head of state, even though New Zealand is an independent country? l Which extreme sport was invented in the Queenstown area?

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7.31 Study the map and the pictures in the fact file. a Describe the landscapes you see in the pictures. b What do you see on New Zealand’s coat of arms? c What is the capital and where is it located on the map? d Where on the map do you find Auckland, the biggest city? e Name two mountains and one lake.


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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND

Speak

7.32 In addition to rugby, extreme sports are very popular in New Zealand. a Name as many extreme sports as you can. b Have you tried any extreme sports yourself? If so, which ones? c Are there some you would like to try, or absolutely not like to try? Explain.

Explore

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7.33 Plan a visit to New Zealand for your next holiday. Find out how to get there, what you want to see and what you would like to do. Use reliable sources and digital tools to make a presentation of your travel plans.

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7.34 Search for online newspapers from New Zealand. What are the most current issues? Choose one news story you think is interesting. Read the article, make a short summary and present it in class.

After working with the text and tasks, I can share some facts about New Zealand YES

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describe New Zealand’s landscape YES

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present travel plans YES

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7.35 New Zealand has quite a few «firsts». Find and share information on the following «firsts». a The first country to give women the right to vote. b The first person to climb Mt Everest and reach both poles. c The first person to split the atom.

How did you do?

Did you know?

In New Zealand, you find one of the longest place names in the world. Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu is the Maori name for a hill on the North Island. In English it means “the summit where Tamatea, the man with the big knees, the climber of mountains, the land-swallower who travelled about, played his nose flute to his loved one”. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 311


Street Art

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Street art is not a new concept, yet it is one of the most striking forms of modern cultural expression. Artists see street art as a way to raise awareness of social or political issues, a humorous comment on society, or just a way to bring colour and beauty to a neighbourhood. From simple stencil graffiti to elaborate murals, street artists use walls, trains, bridges and other constructions as their canvases. Today, street art has become an acknowledged urban art form and can be found in countries around the world.

Political commentary

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In Northern Ireland, politics and art have long gone hand in hand. Historically, the country has been divided along political and religious lines, and communities on both sides have used art to express their views. Murals and slogans have been painted onto the gables of houses in villages, towns and cities across the country, often to mark territorial boundaries. Lately, however, images of the old paramilitary “heroes” and political leaders are starting to be replaced by more positive street art promoting diversity and peace.

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Social commentary Many of today’s graffiti artists blend creativity with social commentary. Their artworks often carry important messages about the world around us, our values and our choices. Some see themselves as activists supporting causes, or combating a variety of issues, such as racial injustice, climate change or economic inequality. Many of the most famous artists use pseudonyms and wish to remain anonymous, sometimes because they risk getting arrested in countries where freedom of expression is not protected sufficiently.


AIMS k explain what street art is k present an example of street art

Making history

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and/or artist

When their main industry failed in the 1980s, the small seaside community of Chemainus in western Canada was about to become a ghost town. Hoping to attract new tourists, the locals decided to revitalize the whole town. Detailed scenes from history, portraits of townspeople and explanatory texts were painted on almost every blank wall. Their strategy worked as the town now receives a great number of tourists who come to see the murals. It has also been an inspiration for other communities to explore their roots.

Read and understand

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7.36 Answer the following questions. a What is the purpose of street art? b What do street artists use as their canvas? c How has street art been used as political commentary in Northern Ireland? d Explain how some street artists see themselves as activists. e Why did the people of Chemainus paint murals all over town? f Are there examples of street art where you live?

Explore

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7.37 Find information about a form of street art or artist you think is interesting. Choose one work of art to represent the art form or artist and prepare a two-minute presentation. Include information on location, style and message if there is one. 7.38 The artists Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat are often credited as the first to turn graffiti into high art. Find out more about one or both artists. Make a visual presentation of your findings. 7.39 Petroglyphs, some more than 15,000 years old, may be the original form of street art. Find examples of petroglyphs in Norway and compare them with those found in other countries, such as the rock art of South Africa, Australia and North America.

concept konsept, idé striking slående/slåande awareness bevissthet, oppmerksomhet/bevisstheit, oppmerksemd canvas lerret stencil sjablong elaborate innfløkt mural veggmaleri acknowledge anerkjenne commentary kommentar gable gavl territorial territoriell boundary grense promote fremme diversity mangfold/mangfald paramilitary paramilitær, sivil våpenstyrke blend blande cause sak combat kjempe mot injustice urettferdighet/urettferd inequality ulikhet/ulikskap revitalize revitalisere, gjenopplive explanatory forklarende/ forklarande

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what street art is YES

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present an example of street art and/or artist YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 313


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The Painting In this short story, set in the Australian Outback, we meet two people with different cultural backgrounds. One is an Aboriginal artist, the other is an arts buyer from the big city.

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Winston Japurula, the most “important” artist working at Cullen, had, only the week before, completed a major canvas and was waiting for Mrs Houston, of the Aboriginal Arts Bureau in Sydney, to come and buy it from him. Like many artists, he was generous with hand-outs and had run up big debts at the store.

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Before you start How would you feel if you discovered someone had cheated you out of a great deal of money? What would you do?

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This is how the story begins.

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Mrs Houston had the habit of driving round the settlements to check up on her artists. She brought them paint and brushes and canvas and would pay for finished work by cheque. She was a very determined woman. She always camped in the bush, alone – and was never not in a hurry. Next morning, Winston was waiting for her, cross-legged, naked to the waist, on a patch of level ground beside the petrol drums … bruce chatwin Bruce Chatwin (1940–1989) was an English travel writer and novelist. Before he became a writer, he worked at Sotheby’s auctions in London where he learned a lot about art and its commercial value. Chatwin was also fascinated by the history and culture of Australian Aboriginals.

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314 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


AIMS Listen and understand

characters and plot k use prefixes and suffixes

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7.40 • After listening to the short story once, fill in the missing words to complete the text.

k extract information while listening k describe and discuss the story’s

fair – because – Aboriginal – pleased – enough – painting – profit – charged – Therefore – gallery

In the short story, Mrs Houston, an art buyer, comes to an community to collect a new piece of art. Winston Japurula, who has just finished a beautiful , is waiting for her. When she sees the painting, Mrs Houston hides how she is. This is she wants to buy the painting cheaply and sell it with a big . Winston Japurula has had of this. , he makes it clear that he knows what is for his paintings at the in Adelaide, and that he wants to be paid a price for his art.

Speak

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7.41 •• Listen to the short story again and answer the questions in full sentences. a When Mrs Houston sees Winston’s new painting, what does she say about the use of colour? b What is her reaction when she sees the tear in the canvas? c How does Winston react to Mrs Houston’s outbursts? d What does Mrs Houston really think of the new painting? e Why is she not being honest with Winston? f How does the writer reveal Mrs Houston’s real opinion?

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7.42 Discuss the following questions in pairs, and then share your answers in class. a What is the setting of “The Painting”? b Briefly describe the two main characters. How are they different? c Read the second paragraph again. What do we learn about Mrs Houston’s personality? What is explicit, and what is implied? d Listen once more to the dialogue where Mrs Houston asks Winston about the story of the painting. Do you think he is being difficult on purpose? What evidence can you find in the text to support this? e Where in the text is the turning point? f How does the story end? Can you think of an alternative ending?

canvas lerret generous gavmild/gåvmild hand-out gave til trengende/ gåve til trengande debt gjeld habit vane settlement bosetning/busetting determined bestemt cross-legged med beina i kryss petrol drums bensintønner doodle skrible scrap of card pappbit air strip flystripe haunches bakenden gingerly forsiktig squiggle snirkel tear her: rift restorer reparatør chink åpning/opning drawl dra på ordene/dra på orda syllable stavelse/staving bellow brøle aggrieved krenket/krenkt, krenkte exhibition utstilling

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7.43 The following text describes some of the core values as stated by the Australian Government on their official web pages.

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“Australian society values equality of opportunity for individuals, regardless of their race, religion or ethnic background. Australian citizenship is a shared identity, a common bond which unites all Australians while respecting their diversity.” a How do these values compare with how Winston Japarula is treated in the short story you have just listened to? b Do you think Mrs Houston would have tried to con other artists in the same way she treated Winston, regardless of their ethnic background? Explain why/why not.

Practise

7.44 Choose the correct prefix to make new words. Explain how the meaning changes. dis- im- un- bi- repossible move racial imaginable

e f g h

agree paint real like

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a b c d

Write

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7.45 • Write a summary of the short story by placing the sentences in the right order. a Mrs Houston is shocked and almost falls off her stool when she hears Winston’s demand. b Winston Japarula is a respected Aboriginal artist. c Her name is Mrs Houston. d At the beginning of the story, he is waiting for his regular art buyer to visit. e She buys paintings cheaply and sells them at a great profit. f This time, however, Winston Japarula demands more money for his art. g He has found out that Mrs Houston sells his art for a lot of money in the city. h She is a determined, impatient woman. 7.46 •• Write one paragraph to describe what happened and what was said after Winston had named the price for his painting.

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7.47 ••• Write a news article based on the incident in the short story. Feel free to add details.

Explore

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7.48 Search for video clips to learn more about Bruce Chatwin. What information can you find about the following? a travels b books c biographical facts

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can extract information while listening YES

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describe and discuss the story’s characters and plot YES

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use prefixes and suffixes YES

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Did you know?

Aborigines do not have their own written language. Instead they use symbols or iconography in their artwork. These artworks tell stories. They can vary from one Aboriginal group to another, but their meaning may also differ depending on whether the stories are told to children, adults or elders. The stories expressed through Aboriginal art are central to their identity and cultural heritage. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 317


FACT FILE AUSTRALIA Down Under Darwin

INDIAN OCEAN

Cairns

NORTHERN TERRITORY

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Australia is not only a country, but also a continent. Because of its varied landscape, good climate and relaxed lifestyle, Australia is a very popular tourist destination and attracts a high number of immigrants. It is also an attractive place to study for young people from all over the world. In the past, however, Australia was used as a penal colony by the British. People who had committed crimes were sent there to work as punishment. Today, Australia is a unique and diverse country with a lively cultural environment, although it has been affected by severe droughts and devastating bushfires in recent years.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Perth

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Ku

Amazing Wildlife Australia has animals you will not find in the wild anywhere else, for example kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, dingoes, wombats and the platypus. There are also crocodiles and many venomous snakes and spiders. A number of these animals are endangered. In some areas the kangaroos have become a big problem, attacking people, jumping into houses, ruining crops and colliding with cars on the roads. 318 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS

Alice Springs

Adelaide

QUEENSLAND

Brisbane

NEW SOUTH WALES

Sydney AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL Melbourne TERRITORY Canberra

VICTORIA

Tasmania

Tasman Sea

Hobart


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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA

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Aussie facts

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The Outback

Official name: The Commonwealth of Australia Capital: Canberra Population: 22 million Ethnic groups: European 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1% Geography: 6 states and 2 territories Landscape: Urban areas, farmland, rainforest, desert Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a GovernorGeneral Government: Parliamentary system National day: January 26 (Australia Day) Currency: Australian Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry Industry: Mining, food processing, chemicals, steel, equipment for industry

The Australian “bush,” also known as the Outback, has a special status in Australian life. It is part of Australia’s national identity, and the setting of many myths and legends. Bushrangers, drovers and farmers struggling to survive in the harsh and wild landscape were helped by the survival skills of the Aborigines. Many writers, painters, musicians and filmmakers focus on the Australian bush experience in their work. The vast areas are used for cattle farming, and also for hiking, horse riding, cycling and bird watching.

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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA AIMS

of Australia k present information on Australia’s culture or history

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k mention some facts about Australia k describe the landscapes and wildlife

Read and understand

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7.49 Study the short text “Down Under”. Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Australia is different from other countries because … b Three reasons why Australia has become a popular tourist destination are … c Young people come to Australia to … d In the past, people who had committed … e Australia’s cultural environment today is …

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7.50 Study the “Aussie facts” and the map of Australia. Answer in keywords. a How many people live in Australia? b Which is the largest ethnic group? c What is the name of the capital? d Where in the country do you find the capital? e Find the names of seven other Australian cities. f Australia is divided into states and territories. What are they called? g Who is the head of state? h Is the Australian currency dollars or pounds? i When is Australia Day? j Name the most important agricultural products and industries in Australia. 7.51 Study the short text “Amazing Wildlife”. Answer in full sentences. a What animals are mentioned in the text? b Which ones can only be found in Australia? c What does it mean when an animal is endangered? d How can kangaroos be a problem?

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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA

Practise

How did you do?

Speak

After working with the text and tasks, I can

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7.52 Match these typical Australian expressions with the correct explanation. Search online for definitions and try pronouncing them with an Australian accent! a barbie 1 campfire b ace 2 mosquito c tucker 3 barbeque d arvo 4 food e mozzie 5 excellent f bush telly 6 afternoon

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7.53 Study the short text “The Outback”. First, choose three keywords from the text. Then, exchange keywords with a partner and give a summary of the text based on your partner’s chosen keywords.

Explore

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7.54 Find out more about the culture or history of Australia. Choose one of the following topics, and select information from reliable and relevant sources. Choose how you want to present your findings. Remember to list your sources, including illustrations. a Studying in Australia b Current news from Australia c Australian wildlife d Australia’s past as a penal colony e Popular sports in Australia f Australian films and/or television series

Did you know

mention some facts about Australia YES

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describe the landscapes and wildlife of Australia YES

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present information on Australia’s culture or history YES

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Around 90 % of Australia’s population live along the coast in cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth, Darwin and Brisbane. Still, some Australians live so far from towns and cities that doctors have to travel by airplanes to give medical help. The small planes of the Royal Flying Doctor Service carry equipment for emergencies and general health care services. Children in remote areas are taught by School of the Air, using the Internet and high frequency radio. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 321


The Hockey Sweater Before you start a Do you play sports? Do you have a favourite team? b “Sport is a universal language that can connect cultures.” Do you agree?

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Canada is a multicultural society. Not only has Canada been colonized by both the English and the French in the past, but the country also welcomes immigrants from all faiths and corners of the world. For example, the greater Toronto area is now the most diverse city on the planet, with half its residents born outside the country. For many newly arrived Canadians, the first point of contact with their new communities is often on the soccer pitch, on the basketball court, in the ice rink, or in other fields of play. Sport becomes a universal language that can connect cultures.

Most Canadians are also very passionate about their sports. Communities take great pride in supporting their local teams, and there are often rivalries with neighbouring towns. In “The Hockey Sweater”, one of Canada’s most loved short stories, the author shares an episode from his own childhood where he illustrates the importance of showing support for the right team.

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The winters of my childhood were long, long seasons. We lived in three places – the school, the church and the skating rink – but our real life was on the skating rink. Real battles were won on the skating rink. The real leaders showed themselves on the skating rink. School was a sort of punishment.

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AIMS k k k k

explain what the short story is about describe the point of view use vocabulary related to sports discuss sports culture and national identity

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Parents always want to punish children and school is their most natural way of punishing us. However, school was also a quiet place where we could prepare for the next hockey game, lay out our next strategies. As for church, we found there the tranquility of God: there we forgot school and dreamed about the next hockey game. Through our daydreams it might happen that we would recite a prayer: We would ask God to help us play as well as Maurice Richard.

We all wore the same uniform as he, the red, white and blue uniform of the Montreal Canadiens, the best hockey team in the world; we all combed our hair in the same style as Maurice Richard, and to keep it in place we used a sort of glue – a great deal of glue. We laced our skates like Maurice Richard, we taped our sticks like Maurice Richard. We cut all his pictures out of the papers. Truly, we knew everything about him.

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On the ice, when the referee blew his whistle the two teams would rush at the puck; we were five Maurice Richards taking it away from five other Maurice Richards; we were ten players, all of us wearing with the same blazing enthusiasm the uniform of the Montreal Canadians. On our backs, we all wore the famous number 9.

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One day my Montreal Canadiens sweater had become too small; then it got torn and had holes in it. My mother said: “If you wear that old sweater people are going to think we’re poor!” Then she did what she did whenever we needed new clothes. She started to leaf through the catalogue the Eaton company sent us in the mail every year. My mother was proud. She didn’t want to buy our clothes at the general store; the only things that were good enough for us were the latest styles from Eaton’s catalogue. My mother didn’t like the order forms included with the catalogue; they were written in English and she didn’t understand a word of it. To order my hockey sweater, she did what she usually did; she took out her writing paper and wrote in her gentle schoolteacher’s hand: “Cher Monsieur Eaton, Would you be kind enough to send me a Canadiens sweater for my son who is ten years old and a little too tall for his age and Docteur Robitaille thinks he’s a little too thin? I’m sending you three dollars and please send me what’s left if there’s anything left. I hope your wrapping will be better than last time.” Monsieur Eaton was quick to answer my mother’s letter. Two weeks later we received the sweater. That day I had one of the greatest disappointments of my life! I would even say that on that day I experienced a very great sorrow. Instead of the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater, Monsieur

skating rink skøytebane battle slag tranquility ro recite framsi/seie fram prayer bønn Maurice Richard ishockeylegende comb kjemme, gre/kjemme, greie glue lim lace her: skolisse stick hockeykølle referee dommer/dommar blazing glødende/glødande leaf through bla gjennom order form bestillingsskjema gentle hand her: forsiktig håndskrift/forsiktig handskrift wrapping innpakning disappointment skuffelse/ motgang, vonbrot sorrow sorg

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Eaton had sent us a blue and white sweater with a maple leaf on the front – the sweater of the Toronto Maple Leafs. I’d always worn the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater; all my friends wore the red, white and blue sweater; never had anyone in my village ever worn the Toronto sweater, never had we even seen a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater. Besides, the Toronto team was regularly trounced by the triumphant Canadiens. With tears in my eyes, I found the strength to say:

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“I’ll never wear that uniform.” “My boy, first you’re going to try it on! If you make up your mind about things before you try, my boy, you won’t go very far in this life.” My mother had pulled the blue and white Toronto Maple Leafs sweater over my shoulders and already my arms were inside the sleeves. She pulled the sweater down and carefully smoothed all the creases in the abominable maple leaf on which, right in the middle of my chest, were written the words “Toronto Maple Leafs”. I wept.

My mother sighed in despair and explained to me: “If you don’t keep this sweater which fits you perfectly I’ll have to write to Monsieur Eaton and explain that you don’t want to wear the Toronto Maple Leafs. And if he’s insulted do you think he’ll be in a hurry to answer us? Spring will be here and you won’t have played a single game, just because you didn’t want to wear that perfectly nice blue sweater.”

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maple lønn/løn trounce her: slå, banke smooth glatte ut sleeve erme crease krøll abominable avskyelig/avskyeleg chest bryst glove hanske despair fortvilelse/fortviling insult fornærme be obliged to være nødt til/vere nøydd til forward løper, angrep/løpar, angrep penalty straffe rink bane persecution forfølgelse/ forfølging relieved lettet/letta debris avfall vicar prest moth møll

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“I’ll never wear it.” “Why not? This sweater fits you … like a glove.” “Maurice Richard would never put it on his back.” “You aren’t Maurice Richard. Anyway, it isn’t what’s on your back that counts, it’s what you’ve got inside your head. “You’ll never put it into my head to wear a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater.”

So I was obliged to wear the Maple Leafs sweater. When I arrived on the rink, all the Maurice Richards in red, white and blue came up, one by one, to take a look. When the referee blew his whistle I went to take my usual position. The captain came and warned me I’d be better to stay on the forward line. A few minutes later the second line was called; I jumped onto the ice. The Maple Leafs sweater weighed on my shoulders like a mountain. The captain came and told me to wait; he’d need me later, on defense. By the third period I still hadn’t played; one of the defensemen was hit in the nose with a stick and it was bleeding. I jumped on the ice: my moment had come! The referee blew his whistle; he gave me a penalty. He claimed I’d jumped on the ice when there were already five players. That was too much! It was unfair!

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It was persecution! It was because of my blue sweater! I struck my stick against the ice so hard it broke. Relieved, I bent down to pick up the debris. As I straightened up I saw the young vicar, on skates, before me.

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“My child; he said, just because you’re wearing a new Toronto Maple Leafs sweater unlike the others, it doesn’t mean you’re going to make the laws around here. A proper young man doesn’t lose his temper. Now take off your skates and go to the church and ask God to forgive you.” Wearing my Maple Leafs sweater I went to the church, where I prayed to God; I asked him to send, so quickly as possible, moths that would eat up my Toronto Maple Leafs sweater. roch carrier

Roch Carrier (1937–) is a novelist and short story writer from Québec, Canada. He has written film scripts, plays and poems. Several of his works have become classics and are used in schools around the world, in both French and English.

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Read and understand

7.55 • Decide if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. True

False

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a The story is about a boy who likes to play hockey. b He thought the best hockey team in the world was the Toronto Maple Leafs. c Their idol, Maurice Richard, had the number 99 on his back.

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d The mother bought a new hockey sweater from the local store. e The boy was very disappointed when he got the new sweater.

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f His mother took the sweater back to change it for the right one.

g The captain of the team would not let the boy play.

h The referee gave him a penalty for playing rough. i When the boy broke his stick, the vicar sent him to school. j He prayed for moths to come and eat up his sweater.

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7.56 •• Complete the following sentences. a For the boy in the text, real life was … b In church, he would ask God to … c All the children wore … d When the boy needed a new hockey sweater, the mother … e When the new sweater arrived, it was … f The boy said he would never … g When the boy wanted to play, … h He jumped on the ice when … i The referee blew his whistle because … j Instead of asking God for forgiveness, the boy …

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7.57 ••• Close-read the text to answer the following questions. Study “Discussing literature and film” in this chapter for advice. a Describe the setting of the story. Where does the story take place? What time of year is it? b Describe the boy. What is most important to him? c Describe the mother. How does she deal with the problem? d How do the other players and the coach react, and why? e How does the story end? Is there a turning point? f What do you think is the theme of this short story?

Speak

7.58 Who do you sympathize with in this short story, the boy or the mother? Discuss in class. Give reasons for your views.

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7.59 Describe the point of view the author uses in this short story. a Who is the narrator of the story? b How does this point of view affect our understanding of what happens in the story? c If the story were told from another point of view, e.g. the mother or a third-person narrator, how would that change the story? 7.60 How important do you think sports are for a nation’s identity, for example in Norway? Discuss the role of sports and share views in class.

Did you know?

French is the mother tongue of almost a quarter of the Canadian population. French has been spoken in Canada since the colonists arrived in the early 1600s. Today, most native French speakers live in the province of Québec. The Québecois have wanted to become independent from the rest of Canada, but there has not been enough support among the population. Both English and French are official languages in Canada. In two of the northern territories indigenous languages also 7: have official status. 326 | Chapter Encounters | SKILLS


Practise

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7.61 Fill in the missing letters to complete these sports words. a so er b ma at on c no boa di g d ba k tb ll e k y c ing f w e tl ng g ol e ba l h ro i g

7.62 Match the English names of sports with the Norwegian ones. floor ball pole vault gymnastics biathlon hurdles fencing figure skating archery luge cross country

Write

1 fekting 2 aking 3 langrenn 4 innebandy 5 bueskyting 6 stavsprang 7 skiskyting 8 kunstløp 9 turn 10 hekkeløp

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a b c d e f g h i j

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7.63 • Think back to your own childhood. Did you have to wear something you didn’t like? Were you not allowed to do a certain thing because an adult said so? How did you react? Write a short text.

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7.64 •• If the short story took place today, the mother would probably have ordered the hockey sweater from a website. Imagine that you are going to order new sports gear for yourself online. Check “Writing a formal text” in Chapter 6 for advice and complete the following tasks. a Write an email to the store to enquire about sizes, delivery and payment options. b When you finally receive your package, you find something entirely different from what you ordered. Write a formal complaint to the store.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the short story is about YES

ALMOST

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describe the point of view YES

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use vocabulary related to sports YES

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discuss sports culture and national identity YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 327


FACT FILE CANADA NORTHWEST NUNAVUT TERRITORY YUKON TERRITORIES TERRITORY C A N A D A Whitehorse Yellowknife Hud son BRITISH ALBERTA Bay COLUMBIA MANITOBA Edmonton

PAC I FI C OC EAN

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Iqaluit

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR QUÉBEC PRINCE ATLA N TIC EDWARD OCE A N ISLAND Winnipeg Regina ONTARIO Québec St. John's Montréal Charlottetown Ottawa UNITED STATES Toronto Fredericton Halifax NOVA SCOTIA NEW BRUNSWICK SASKATCHEWAN

Vancouver Victoria

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Canada is the second largest country in the world, with vast areas north of the Arctic Circle where winters are harsh and distances are measured in days rather than kilometres. Churchill, Manitoba, is known as the polar bear capital of the world. If you visit the Newfoundland coast you are likely to see icebergs floating by. Many First Nations communities are found in the Nunavut and Northwest Territories. Most Canadians, however, live along the US border in the south where the climate is milder. Still, Canadians often joke about the weather, claiming their seasons are “almost winter, winter, still winter, and roadworks”.

Baffin Bay

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ALASKA (US)

Beauf ort Sea

GREENLAND

True North


FACT FILE CANADA The Good Life Canada Facts

Eh?

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Canada is often ranked very high in surveys measuring quality of life. The country is known for its political stability and its high personal safety. Canadians, often called Canucks, appreciate good education systems, free health care and long life expectancy.

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Canadians are known to be very polite. They will say “sorry” even if you’re the one who should apologize. You may also hear Canadians say “eh”, usually meaning “isn’t it”, at the end of sentences to soften direct questions or criticism. In fact, Canadians have fairly strong ideas of what is socially acceptable despite their generally laidback attitude and informal lifestyle.

Official name: Canada (the Dominion of Canada) Capital: Ottawa Population: 36 million Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, First Nations 4.4%. (Mixed origin 41%.) Geography: 10 provinces and 3 territories Landscape: Mountain ranges in the west, permanently frozen areas in the north, plains and farmland in the south Head of State: The British King or Queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: July 1 (Canada Day) Currency: Canadian Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, barley, oilseed, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish Industry: Chemicals, minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas.


FACT FILE CANADA AIMS k explore and describe Canadian

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culture and ways of life k explain the meaning of selected quotes

Read and understand

7.65 • Study the pictures on the previous pages. a Describe the Canadian flag. b Which sports do you see in the pictures? c What types of landscapes can you find in Canada? d What cultural heritage can you see in the coat of arms?

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7.66 •• Study the map on the previous page. a How many provinces and territories are there? b Where is the capital located? c In which province do you find Montréal? d What is the easternmost province called? e What is the province capital of British Columbia? f Which territory is the largest?

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7.67 ••• Answer the following questions. a Why is Canada often ranked high when measuring quality of life? b How many people live in Canada and where do most of them live? c Which is the biggest ethnic group in Canada? d How many say they have a mixed background? e When is Canada’s national day? f Who is Canada’s head of state? g Why do Canadians say “sorry” so often? h What is the meaning of “eh” at the end of sentences?

Practise

7.68 Below are some words and expressions associated with Canada and Canadians. Use online dictionaries or encyclopedias to find definitions and explanations. mounted police – maple syrup – lumberjacks – poutine – loonies and toonies – tuque – inukshuk – toboggan

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Speak

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FACT FILE CANADA

7.69 Study the quotes below. In your own words, explain what is said in the quotes. “I’m not a hockey fan, which is probably why I had to leave Canada in the first place.” Ryan Reynolds

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“This is a country where a man can die simply from being caught outside.” Alden Nowlan

Write

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7.70 • How many Canadian icons can you see in the illustration? Write down as many as possible. Choose five from your list and explain why they are typical of Canada.

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How did you do?

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After working with the text and tasks, I can

7.71 •• Based on what you learned from studying the fact file and reading “The Hockey Sweater”, write a short text where you describe Canadian culture. Start like this: “In general, Canadians are … ” Swap your text with a partner’s and give each other constructive feedback.

Explore

7.72 Find information about a Canadian invention or a famous Canadian, for example in music, film or sports. Use reliable and relevant sources, and make a short multimodal presentation.

explore and describe Canadian culture and ways of life YES

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explain the meaning of selected quotes YES

ALMOST

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SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 331


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SUMMARIZING AND SYNTHESIZING INFORMATION

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Being able to summarize and synthesize information is an essential skill. It shows that you have understood the material you have studied, and that you can select what is most relevant and use it. A summary is a shortened version of a text where you highlight the main points. A synthesis is when you combine information from several sources, comparing and contrasting important points. The following strategies are relevant for working with a variety of sources such as statistics, documentaries, feature films and audio files, as well as written texts.

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How to summarize 1 Study the text carefully. 2 Select the most relevant information. What are the main ideas or the most interesting facts? 3 Highlight or write down keywords. Think through why these keywords are relevant. 4 Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences, using your own words. 5 Use linking words to show how the ideas and facts are connected. 6 Check your summary. Would it make sense to someone who hasn’t seen the original material?

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How to synthesize 1 Study the information from your sources carefully. 2 Find the relevant ideas and main points. 3 Organise the information, for example in a Venn diagram. List similar information together. 4 Comment on each point. Use the PEED method: state your point, support it with examples from the text followed by an explanation, and then develop your point if relevant. 5 Compare the ideas and main points. Use sentence connectors to show similarities and contrasts. 6 Sum up and conclude.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

Australia can be described as a vibrant, multicultural nation. One in every four Australians was born overseas, and 46% have at least one parent who has immigrated to the country. Furthermore, almost 20% of Australians speak a language that is not English.

multicultural

heterogeneous immigration languages

multilingual diversity policy

strength

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Overall, more than 200 languages are spoken, and the most common are Italian, Arabic, Chinese and Greek. The country considers the rich cultural diversity its main strength and what embodies its national identity.

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The following is an example of how to extract information from two short texts on multiculturalism in Australia and Canada, then synthesizing the main points in a paragraph.

Canada is ethnically heterogeneous, with citizens coming from a number of cultural backgrounds and countries of origin. In fact, the government encourages immigration and multiculturalism is an official policy. Today, around 20% of the population are foreign born. In the wake of immigration, Canada has become a truly multilingual country with more than 200 mother tongues. Among those whose first language is not one of Canada's official languages, Chinese is most common, followed by Tagalog, Spanish and Punjabi.

national identity

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Summarized and synthesized text: Canada and Australia are both multicultural nations. There are several similarities between the two countries; for example, the percentage of foreign-born citizens, which is 20% and 25% respectively. Another example is the linguistic diversity they share as a result of immigration, with more than 200 spoken languages in each country. Although their immigrants’ mother tongues may not be the same, Chinese is common in both countries. Moreover, it seems both countries consider cultural diversity an important aspect of their national identity. In fact, multiculturalism is an official policy in Canada, whereas in Australia it is considered the country’s main strength. Tip: If you are asked to compare the contents or language of two texts, don’t write about one first and then the other. Discuss similarities and differences of both texts as you go.

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 333


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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7.73 Read the text below and complete the tasks. a Follow the six steps on the previous pages to summarize the information. b The writers clearly found the episode in the elevator both surprising and funny. Find evidence or examples in the text to support this statement. c Compare the episode described in this text with information from the short text “Eh?” in the fact file on Canada. Follow the steps on the previous pages to synthesize the information.

To blend in amongst Canadians, you first must A. locate them, B. dress like them, and C. learn to insult them in a casual, carefree manner. Fortunately, all three objectives are fairly easy. Especially the last one.

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Canadians are very easy to insult. Ian was once on an elevator in downtown Toronto, and the only other occupant was a dear old lady who kept asking him if he knew her grandson. The elevator doors were about to close when a smartly dressed young woman came running up. The elderly lady immediately stopped the doors with her cane and called out, “Come on in, sweetie.” The younger woman got on and glared at the older woman. “I think that was very rude,” she said. True story. Ian was agog. He waited until the grandma, obviously flustered, got off on her floor, and then asked the wounded party what had set her off. Well, it turns out that her last name was Svenson or something. She was of Swedish extraction, you see, and she thought the old woman was making a racial slur. “Sweetie/Swedie.” Get it? And no, we aren’t kidding.

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blend in passe inn insult fornærme' casual uformell objective mål cane stokk agog her: spent, forventningsfull flustered forvirret, oppskjørtet/ forvirra, oppskjørta wounded såret/såra extraction her: avstamming slur fornærmelse/fornærming herring sild Mississauga storby sør for Toronto

So, hell, Ian did the only thing he could do. Which was to tell this woman to take her Ikea-buying, herring-eating, Abba-playing, saunasweating, meatball-making ass back to wherever it was she came from. Which as it turned out, was Mississauga. Those damn Swedes. We let them in, give them jobs, and the next thing you know they’re taking over. This used to be a great country until those damned “Swedies” moved in. Excerpt from How to be a Canadian by Will & Ian Ferguson

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS PEED = POINT, EXAMPLE, EXPLAIN, DEVELOP Make a point to answer the question you have been given. Give an example from the text. Explain how your example supports your point.

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Develop your point, e.g. comment on the writer’s intention or what the effect on the reader is, or give your own opinion.

7.74 Study the following paragraph from a student’s answer. Find and underline the four steps of the PEED method.

The old lady in the elevator did not mean to insult the young woman. She called the young woman “sweetie” and even stopped the doors from closing so that she could get on. This shows that the old lady was not rude at all. The young woman thought she said something else and clearly misunderstood the situation. In addition to sharing a funny episode, I think the writer’s intention is to show how easily some people can be offended.

Languages Most Used On the Web vs. IRL

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7.76 Study the statistics. a Summarize the information in the bar chart on the left. b Summarize the information in the pie chart on the right. c Synthesize the information by comparing and contrasting the two charts.

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7.75 Find an article about an issue you think is interesting and read it. a Explain what the main idea or message of the article is, using the PEED method. Work in pairs and discuss possible answers. b Summarize the article in one paragraph.

Number of first-language speakers (estimates in billions)

Chinese Spanish English Hindi Arabic Portuguese Bengali Russian Japanese Lahnda German Korean French Marathi Italian Polish

Percentage of websites using various content languages* 1.20

a

0.40 0.36

b c •

5.0%

0.26 0.24 0.20 0.19

d e

h b i

f

2.6%

g

2.2%

e a d j

0.17 0.13 • 0.09 h 0.08 • 0.08 i

2.1% 1.9%

c •

54.4%

11.4%

0.08

• 0.07 • 0.06 j 0.04

f

g

4.7% 4.1%

5.9%

5.7%

Other

• 2.66

* top 10 million websites

Source: Mashable statista and w3techs.com/Entologue

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Gaming Culture

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Before you start Which games are popular in your class? What consoles are most common?

appealing tiltalende/tiltalande evolve utvikle seg decade tiår

Computer games – a part of our culture Even in the earliest days of computers, there were games. Scoring points and advancing in a digital hierarchy soon turned out to be both appealing and at times addictive. In just a few decades, creating games has grown into a billion-dollar industry. Players who excel at popular games can now make a living from it. In fact, playing computer or video games is now considered a sport, and just like other forms of sports, gaming has become a cultural expression.

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The evolution of computer games

Contact through games

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AIMS All of this would have been unthinkable just a few decades ago when gamers would gather at local arcades. k describe how computer games have That was before the Internet. During the late 1980s evolved and 1990s, gaming moved out of the arcades and into k discuss gaming as a cultural homes, where players could enjoy longer and more expression complex games. As gaming attracted more and more k create an outline for a game attention in the 1990s, so did the content of games that k collect data for a survey included increasingly realistic graphics. A number of studies have followed in the years since, attempting to find out whether there is a link between violent games and aggressive behaviour. So far, no conclusive connection has been found.

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As the range of games evolved, players have also specialized in their favourite types of game. There are massive multiplayer online games (MMO), simulations, adventure games, real time strategy games (RTS), first-person shooter games (FPS), sports games and many more. Subsequently, online forums were established where gamers could discuss challenges, exchange tips and tricks, and provide walkthroughs for tough sections of their favourite games. Online, gamers can communicate with each other across borders, without regard to age, gender, appearance or race. There are also a number of subcultures related to gaming, such as cosplayers dressing up as their favourite games’ heroes or villains. Some have even become well-paid models who attend conventions. Undoubtedly, belonging to a group with shared interests also has benefits on a psychological level. Players support each other and become friends, and some have even married after having met each other through a game.

Language and norms

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Over time, these digital communities have developed cultural features that connect the participants in various ways. Language is one, for example by using abbreviations, also known as leetspeak. GG, meaning “good game”, may be used to show good sportsmanship at the end of a game. BM, short for “bad manners”, is used to show an opponent that he or she is breaking commonly accepted rules of behaviour. Quite a few abbreviations that originated from online gaming have been adopted in everyday speech, such as noob and FTW. Gaming forums also have traditions, like LANs, where gamers come together in real life and play. At LANs, as well as in forums and games, players usually cooperate and communicate in English, as they join forces on their quests to solve riddles, unlock levels or combat enemies.

rapid rask in the making under utvikling excel utmerke seg arcade spillehall/spelehall graphics grafikk attempt forsøke connection sammenheng/ samanheng distinguish skille exposure eksponering range utvalg/utval subsequently følgelig, som følge av/følgeleg, som følge av establish etablere exchange utveksle provide gi, sørge for appearance utseende/utsjånad cosplayer (costume player) cosplay-utøver/cosplay-utøvar villain kjeltring convention her: spillkonferanse/ spelekonferanse community samfunn feature trekk, kjennetegn/ trekk, kjenneteikn abbreviation forkortelse opponent motspiller/motspelar originate stamme fra/stamme frå quest oppdrag, søken solve løse/løyse riddle gåte combat bekjempe/kjempe mot

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 337


What’s next? With change, people often disagree on whether it is for the better or the worse. Researchers study the effect of such changes and try to predict what will happen next. What we do know is that gamification has made its way into education. Gaming can support learning in various ways, from teaching content to learning coding and programming skills, as well as critical thinking and collaboration. Being able to analyse, plan ahead, try new ideas and solve problems is an important skill in the 21st century. Transferring these gaming skills to other areas of our lives can open up a lot of opportunities.

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gamification spillifisering, anvendelse av spillprinsipper i andre sammenhenger/ speleifisering, bruk av speleprinsipp i andre samanhengar foresee forutse/føresjå collaboration samarbeid transfer overføre

Read and understand

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7.77 • Choose the correct alternative in the sentences. a Scoring points in a game can be strongly appearance/appealing/ accepted. b Creating games has shown/grown/blown into a billion-dollar industry. c Playing computer games has become a cultural expression/ abbreviation/collaboration. d Players meet online in forums to share riddles/quests/tips. e Belonging to a group with shared conventions/interests/features has benefits on a psychological level. f Gamers can communicate/originate/transfer across borders. g They join forces to collaborate/combat/exchange villains. h Gaming can support/attempt/evolve learning.

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7.78 •• Write questions to fit these statements. a People would play computer games in local arcades. b It is considered a sport. c Gamers communicate mostly in English. d The players discuss challenges and exchange tips and tricks. e It is a form of communication which consists of abbreviations. f It means “good game”. g They dress up as fictional characters from their favourite game. h No conclusive connection has been found. 7.79 ••• Answer the following questions. a What does the text say about the evolution of computer games? b What does the text say about different kinds of games? c What does the text say about communication? d Give examples of 21st-century skills that can be acquired through gaming.

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Practise

7.80 Combine the words with the correct translation. A evolve

1

B quest

2 nivå

C convention

3 utvikle seg

D collaboration

4 motspiller

E abbreviation

5 samarbeid

f

6 spillehall

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level

forkortelse

G arcade

7 spillkonferanse

H opponent

8 oppdrag, søken

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7.81 Explain the following expressions in other English words. a professional gamer b online forum c cosplay d leetspeak e LAN f quest g gamification

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7.82 Discuss the following questions and share your views in class. a What do you think makes a good computer game? b What skills are required to become a good gamer? c Do you think being a professional gamer is an attractive profession? d Is gaming a sport? e Is gaming an example of cultural expression?

Ku

7.83 Make a presentation based on one of the following topics. a A highly rated game. Use expressions like characters, setting, plot, quest, theme. b A famous gamer. Use expressions like skills, features, attitude, language, levels, merits. c A gaming forum. Use expressions like language, values, norms, behaviour, traditions.

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7.84 Many games are easily recognized because of their elaborate graphics. Discuss the following questions in groups. a Study the examples below. Describe what you see. What types of games do you think they are? Do you recognize any of them? b How do graphics contribute to the mood and atmosphere of the game? c How important is the quality of a game’s graphics to you?

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Write

7.85 • Write a short text where you argue for or against using games in education. Start your text with a statement, then support your statement with examples and explanations. End your text with a concluding sentence to sum up your argument.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how computer games have evolved YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss gaming as a cultural expression

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7.86 •• Compare two different games of your choice. For advice, study “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter.

How did you do?

7.87 ••• Make an outline for a game you would like to create. Include information on genre and type of game, setting, characters, story line, plot, theme and reward. Present your ideas in class.

Explore

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7.88 Interview fellow students about their gaming habits. Work in groups. Agree on at least three questions, collect data and make a survey. Present your findings in class.

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7.89 Norway has a number of renowned game developers, some of whom have won international prizes. Find information about these developers and their games. Who are they and what have they created? Which prizes have they won? Have you played any of their games?

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7.90 In March 2020, an «Uncensored Library» was built using Minecraft, the iconic gaming platform that welcomes more than 145 million players each month. Find out who built the virtual library, how long it took, what it contains, and what its purpose is.

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How did you do

Did you know?

Super Mario is a hugely popular game figure, known by children all over the world. His name came from the landlord of Nintendo’s first warehouse, Mr Mario Segale. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 341


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Assess your progress

7.92 Go back to the focus areas listed at the beginning of this chapter. a For each of the focus areas listed, find examples of what you have learnt from working with the texts and tasks. b What do you think you master well? c What would you like to improve? Explain why and what you think you will have to do.

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7.91 After working with chapter 7, it is time to recap and revise what you have learnt. a What is culture? b What is a stereotype? c Give examples of cultural expressions you have studied in this chapter. d What have you learnt about culture and ways of life in the countries you have studied in this chapter? e Which texts have you read or listened to? Give brief summaries. f Choose one text or film and one illustration from this chapter and explain why you think they are relevant.

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Revise

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7.93 Discussing literature and film a Explain what setting is. b What is the difference between plot and theme? c Name two different points of view. d Give examples of protagonists and antagonists in stories you have read or watched. e Explain the difference between explicit and implicit information.

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7.94 Summarizing and synthesizing information a What should you remember when you write a summary? b What do you do when you synthesize information? c How is summarizing different from synthesizing? d What is the PEED method?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Apply your skills

7.96 Write a • Choose a story you have read, a film or an episode from a TV series you have watched recently. Describe what the main conflict is, how the plot develops, if there is one or more turning points, and how the conflict is resolved.

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b •• When you look back on all the stories you have studied this year, which character do you think is the most interesting? What makes the character interesting, and how does the writer achieve this? Explain to each other in groups.

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c ••• Choose two computer games you have played or know well. Compare the genre, setting and theme in these two games. How are they similar? How are they different? Discuss in small groups.

b •• Describe the challenges experienced by the main character in the short story “My Mother, the Crazy African”. Compare them with challenges experienced by one or more characters in other English-language literary texts or films you have studied this year. Study “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter for advice. c ••• Compare the points of view in two of the texts from this chapter and a film you have studied this year. How do the perspectives contribute to how we relate to the characters and understand the plot? Study “Discussing literature and film” and “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter for advice. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 343


CHAPTER 8

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Perspectives


In this chapter you will focus on k social issues in historical contexts

k global challenges k culture and society in India and Africa

k arguing a case

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k referring to sources

k word order and punctuation

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Useful words and phrases

sustainable development microplastics civil war refugees segregation decolonization literacy perception prosperity progress

How do you feel about the future of our planet? Who can solve the challenges we are facing today?

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Before you start “Sustainable development” means that one generation is able to meet its needs without ruining the possibility for the next generations to meet their needs. In which fields do you think sustainability is important?

Sustainable Development

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The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945, after World War II, to work for international peace, social progress and human rights. In 2015 all the 193 UN member states agreed on a plan for sustainable development to face the challenges in the world today. The 17 goals are set for 2030.

No Poverty

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While global poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 2000, one in ten people in developing regions are still living with their families on less than the international poverty line of US $ 1.90 a day, and there are millions more who make little more than this daily amount. Significant progress has been made in Asia, but up to 42 % of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to live below the poverty line. Poverty is more than shortage of money. It is also visible in poor health, hunger, discrimination and lack education.

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Zero Hunger

It is time to rethink how we grow, share and consume our food. If done right, agriculture, forestry and fisheries can provide nutritious food for all. Right now, our soils, fresh water, oceans, forests and biodiversity are being rapidly degraded. Many people in rural areas can no longer make ends meet on their land, forcing them to migrate to cities in search of opportunities. Poor food security is also causing severe malnutrition. A profound change in the global food and agriculture system is needed if we are to nourish the 815 million people who are hungry today.

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developing region utviklingsregion poverty line fattigdomsgrensen/ fattigdomsgrensa progress framskritt/framsteg access tilgang consume forbruke forestry skogsdrift biodiversity biologisk mangfold/ biologisk mangfald degrade nedbryte/bryte ned rural landlig/landleg migrate flytte, migrere malnutrition underernæring nourish ernære

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AIMS k explain the concept of sustainable

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development k discuss ways to achieve sustainability k share information about a sustainable development goal

Quality Education

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Education is the foundation to creating sustainable development. Over 265 million children are currently out of school and 22 % of them are of primary school age. Additionally, even children who are attending schools are lacking basic skills in reading and maths. Basic literacy skills have improved but investment is needed in educational scholarship, teacher training, school building and improvement of water and electricity access for schools.

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Gender Equality

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While the world has achieved progress towards gender equality, women and girls continue to suffer discrimination and violence in every part of the world. Gender equality is not only a fundamental right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. Unfortunately, 1 in 5 women and girls between the ages of 15–49 have reported experiencing physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner within a 12-month period, and 49 countries currently have no laws protecting women from domestic violence. There is progress regarding harmful practices such as child marriage and FGM (female genital mutilation), which has declined by 30 % in the past decade, but there is still much work to be done. Equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes are crucial to ending gender-based discrimination.

foundation grunnlag gender equality likestilling mellom kjønnene/likestilling mellom kjønna fundamental right grunnleggende rettighet/grunnleggande rett prosperous velstående, rik/ velståande, rik domestic violence vold i hjemmet/vald i heimen genital mutilation kjønnslemlestelse/ kjønnslemlesting decline avta/minke, stilne crucial vesentlig/ vesentleg

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Read and understand

8.1 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. Correct the sentences that are wrong.

True Sustainable means to use as many resources as possible.

b

The United Nations is a large and important organization with a long history.

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There are more poor people today than in 2000.

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Africa is the continent with the largest percentage of poor people.

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Production and consumption of food is already sustainable.

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If they can’t make a living from farming, people often move to the cities.

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22 % of the children on earth do not go to school.

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Discrimination of women and girls is still a big problem in many countries.

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Domestic violence is one of the biggest problems facing women and girls today.

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8.2 •• Answer these questions. a How many sustainable development goals are there and when is their deadline? b What is the international poverty line? c How does poverty affect the lives of those who struggle with it? d Why is it necessary to change global food production? e How many children do not go to school? f What is said about genital mutilation and child marriage? g In which fields do women need equal access before there will be gender equality? 8.3 ••• Use information from the text on the previous pages to explain what the situation is today for each of the four goals. What kind of positive changes have already taken place and which challenges must be addressed in the future?

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Practise

8.4 Match the development goals in the left column with the corresponding activities in the right column. 1 Raise your voice against discrimination against people of minorities.

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2 Recycle paper, plastic, glass and metals.

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3 Cycle, walk or use public transportation to keep our cities’ air clean.

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5 Use only energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs, and turn off lights when not in use.

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4 Buy from green companies that are equal opportunity employers.

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6 Use your democratic right to elect the leaders in your country and local community.

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7 Plant trees and flowers and be kind to animals and insects.

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8 Avoid throwing away food and do not buy more than you plan to eat.

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8.5 Word grid a Find words from the text in the word grid below. b Use the words from the grid to write full sentences.

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by fattigdom forbruke fremskritt kjønn kvinner landlig mangfold mat migrere nedbryte rettighet rik skole tilgang utvikling

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8.6 Choose one of the sustainability goals. Use the United Nations website and other sources to find facts and numbers about the topic. Then use the information to give a short presentation. For advice, see “Sharing Information” in Chapter 1. 8.7 Who can contribute to reaching the goals? What can we do as individuals, what should politicians do, and what can organizations or others do? Discuss and make a list.

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8.8 The deadline for the UN Sustainable development goals is 2030. How many years are left? Look for recent information on the progress towards the various goals. Does it seem realistic to reach them by 2030? 8.9 Use digital resources to find facts about global wealth inequality or how wealth is distributed across the world. Does anything surprise you about the numbers you find? Can you think of solutions to this problem?

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8.10 Find statistics on population growth. How does an increasing population on the planet affect food production, energy consumption and waste? Share and discuss in class.

Listen

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the concept of sustainable development YES

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discuss ways to achieve sustainability

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8.11 “Making a Difference” There are many organizations and individuals who work to help people and the environment in various ways. In this text Emma and Sam discuss volunteerism and the importance of humanitarian and environmental organizations.

How did you do?

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share information about a sustainable development goal YES

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Take notes while you listen, then compare and discuss with a partner, and finally share your information in class. For advice, see “Listening strategies” in Chapter 5.

YES

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Planet, or Plastic?

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Plastic is fantastic. It is cheap, versatile and easy to shape. However, its durability has become a problem. It will not dissolve, either on land, or in the ocean. This has become a source of concern in most parts of our planet. BY LAURA PARKER, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. ABRIDGED VERSION

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f plastic had been invented when the Pilgrims sailed from Plymouth, England, to North America, and the Mayflower had been stocked with bottled water and plastic-wrapped snacks, their plastic trash would likely still be around, four centuries later.

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Before you start How many items made from plastic can you spot from where you are? What do you know about plastic pollution in the world today?

We should give thanks that the Pilgrims didn’t have plastic, I thought recently as I rode a train to

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Plymouth along England’s south coast. I was on my way to see a man who would help me make sense of the whole mess we’ve made with plastic, especially in the ocean. Because plastic wasn’t invented until the late 19th century, and production really only took off around 1950, we have a mere 9.2 billion tons of the stuff to deal with. Of that more than 6.9 billion tons have become waste.


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Meanwhile, AIMS ocean plastic is estimated to kill millions k discuss problems related to plastic of marine k present some environmental challenges and solutions animals every year. Nearly 700 species, including endangered ones, are known to have been affected by it. Some are harmed visibly, strangled by abandoned fishing nets or discarded six-pack rings. Many more are probably harmed invisibly. Marine species of all sizes, from zooplankton to whales, now eat microplastics, the bits smaller than one-fifth of an inch across. On versatile allsidig Hawaii’s Big Island, on a beach that durability varighet/varigheit seemingly should have been pristine, dissolve løse seg opp/løyse seg as no paved road leads to it, I walked opp ankle-deep through microplastics. stocked fylt After that, I could understand why plastic-wrapped innpakket i some people see ocean plastic plast/pakka inn i plast century århundre/hundreår as a looming catastrophe, worth mere bare/berre mentioning in the same breath as waste søppel climate change.

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And of that waste, a staggering 6.3 billion tons never made it to a recycling bin, a figure that stunned the scientists who crunched the numbers in 2017.

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No one knows how much unrecycled plastic waste ends up in the ocean, Earth’s last sink. In 2015, Jenna Jambeck, a University of Georgia engineering professor, caught everyone’s attention with a rough estimate of between 5.3 million and 14 million tons each year just from coastal regions. It’s unclear how long it will take for that plastic to completely biodegrade into its constituent molecules. Estimates range from 450 years to never.

And yet there’s a key difference: Ocean plastic is not as complicated as climate change. There are no ocean trash deniers, at least so far. To do something about it, we don’t have to remake our planet’s entire energy system. “This isn’t a problem where we don’t know what the solution is,” says Ted Siegler, a Vermont resource economist who has spent more than 25 years working with developing nations on garbage. “We know how

staggering forbløffende/ forbløffande stun lamslå crunch numbers knuse tall, regne ut sink utslagsvask estimate beregning/ berekning coastal region kystområder/ kystområde biodegrade bryte ned constituent her: iboende, bestanddel/ibuande, delemne species art abandon forlate discard kaste microplastics mikroplast pristine ren, ubrukt/rein, ubrukt looming truende/truande denier fornekter/fornektar

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Gradually, Thompson and his scientist colleagues found the answer: plastic is getting broken into pieces so small they’re hard to see. In a 2004 paper, Thompson coined the term “microplastics” for these small bits.

“We do know the concentrations of chemicals at the time of manufacture in some cases are very high,” Thompson said. “We don’t know how much additive is left in the plastic by the time it becomes bitesize to a fish.

As Thompson and I talked about all this, a boat called the Dolphin was carrying us through a light chop in the Sound, off Plymouth. Thompson reeled out a fine-mesh net called a manta trawl, usually used for studying plankton. We were close to the spot where, a few years earlier, other researchers had collected 504 fish of 10 species and given them to

Thompson is careful not to get ahead of the science on his subject. He’s far from an alarmist, but he’s also convinced that plastic trash in the ocean is far more than an aesthetic problem. “I don’t think we should be waiting for a key finding of whether or not fish are hazardous to eat,” he said. “We have enough evidence to act.”

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In Plymouth, Richard Thompson, marine ecologist, waited in a Marine Station, at the edge of the harbor. In 1993 he was working on a Ph.D. on limpets and microalgae that grow on coastal rocks when he participated in his first beach clean-up, on the Isle of Man. While other volunteers zoomed in on the plastic bottles and bags and nets, Thompson focused on the small stuff, the tiny particles that lay underfoot, ignored, at the high tide line. At first, he was not even sure they were plastic. He had to consult forensic chemists to confirm it.

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Thompson. Dissecting the fish, he was surprised to find microplastics in the guts of more than one-third of them. The finding made international headlines. After we’d steamed along for a while, Thompson reeled the manta trawl back in. There was a smattering of coloured plastic confetti at the bottom. Thompson himself doesn’t worry much about microplastics in his fish and chips. There’s little evidence yet that they pass from the gut of a fish into the flesh we actually eat. He worries more about the things that none of us can see, the chemicals added to plastics to give them desirable properties, such as malleability, and the even tinier nanoplastics that microplastics presumably degrade into. Those might pass into the tissues of fish and humans.

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dispose of kvitte seg med irretrievable uopprettelig/ uoppretteleg Ph.D. doktorgrad limpet albueskjell/albueskjel high tide line høyvannslinje/ høgvasslinje forensic chemist rettskjemiker/ rettskjemikar coin a term finne på et nytt ord/ finne på eit nytt ord chop urolig sjø/uroleg sjø reel spole, vinde fine-mesh finmasket/finmaska gut innvoller/ innvolar smattering lag confetti småbiter/småbitar desirable ønskelig/ønskeleg property her: egenskap/ eigenskap malleability formbarhet/ formbarheit additive tilsettingsstoff alarmist panikkspreder/ panikkspreiar aesthetic estetisk

to pick up garbage. Anyone can do it. We know how to dispose of it. We know how to recycle. It’s a matter of building the necessary institutions and systems,” he says, “ideally before the ocean turns, irretrievably and for centuries to come, into a thin soup of plastic.”

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IN SHORT

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Because plastic wasn’t invented until the late 19th century, we only have 9.2 billion tons of the stuff to deal with. At least 6 billion tons of plastic has become waste. Every year, millions of tons of plastic waste end up in the ocean. It takes at least 450 years – maybe forever – for plastic to completely biodegrade. Ocean plastic kills millions of marine animals every year. Some are strangled by abandoned fishing nets. Some eat plastic items, often degraded into microplastics. But plastic waste is a problem where we know the solution. We all know how to pick up trash and we know how to recycle. Richard Thompson, a marine ecologist, discovered microplastics while cleaning up beaches on the Isle of Man. Later he also found tiny pieces of plastics in the guts of fish.

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He worries about the chemicals in plastics that might pass into the tissues of fish and humans.

Read and understand

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8.12 • Choose the correct alternatives in the sentences below and write the sentences. a Every year millions of tons of plastic end up on beaches/in fish guts/ in the ocean. b It takes at least 45 years/450 years/45 months for plastic waste to biodegrade. c Hundreds/ thousands/millions of animals die every year from contact with plastic waste. d In the ocean plastic is recycled/degraded/increased into little bits, called microplastics. e Microplastics are found in the guts/flesh/blood of living fish. f Plastic contains tissues/chemicals/fishing nets that may be dangerous for fish and humans.

century århundre/hundreår waste avfall biodegrade bryte ned strangle kvele abandon forlate fishing net fiskegarn microplastics mikroplast solution løsning/løysing trash søppel recycle resirkulere gut innvoller/innvolar chemicals kjemikalier/ kjemikaliar tissue vev

8.13 •• Write five questions to the text. The answers should be found in the article. Work in pairs and ask each other the questions. SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 355


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8.14 ••• Use your own words to explain and comment on the quotes from the text. a We should give thanks that the Pilgrims didn’t have plastic. b A staggering 6.3 billion tons never made it to a recycling bin. c Estimates range from 450 years to never. d There are no ocean trash deniers, at least so far. e Thompson coined the term “microplastics” for these small bits. f He worries more about the things that none of us can see. g He’s far from an alarmist, but he’s also convinced that plastic trash in the ocean is far more than an aesthetic problem.

Practise

8.15 Insert the words where they belong.

microplastics – deny – looming – aesthetic – recycled – biodegrade – trash

Plastic pollution is not just an problem. It is a major challenge in the oceans, which no one can . It takes a long time for plastic to completely. Marine animals and birds fill their stomachs with plastic bags and smaller bits, called . Instead of polluting the oceans, plastics should be . Anyone can pick up their own .

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8.16 Discuss the questions. a What is the problem with plastic pollution and what can be done? b Which other environmental challenges do we face today? c What can you as individuals and as a class do to help meet environmental challenges? d What can be done by politicians, industries, scientists and the media to solve these problems?

Did you know?

Explore

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When it comes to recycling plastic bottles, Norway is the leading country in the world. We recover 97 per cent of our plastic bottles. They are reused, some as many as 50 times! These results are so impressive that many other nations are now following suit.

8.17 On National Geographic’s website there are many short films about different environmental challenges. Choose two films that you find interesting. Compare the content and the way the information is communicated. 8.18 In the documentary “Before the Flood” Leonardo Di Caprio explores climate change. Watch the trailer or the film. As you watch, write keywords about places and people you see and facts that are presented. Why do you think this film became so popular? Is it a film you would recommend? Discuss.

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8.19 Choose one of the environmental challenges below. Search for reliable and relevant sources and make a presentation. Include • reasons for the problem • consequences of the situation • possible solutions deforestation air pollution transport consumption global warming

• • • •

overpopulation industrial waste garbage handling energy production and consumption

• endangered animal species • fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture • mineral shortage in manufacturing

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• • • • •

Write

8.20 • Find a picture that illustrates the plastic problem or another environmental issue you are interested in. Make a poster for a campaign with a catchy slogan and a short text to inspire people to act.

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8.21 •• Use information from the illustration below to create a text where you reflect on the amount of waste we generate in our modern world. Also discuss how our society should change to meet the challenge.

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How long until it’s decomposed?

Fish hooks 600 years

Plastic bags 10 - 20 years

Cigarettes 10 years

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Drinking cans 200 years

Cardboard 2 months

Glass 4000 years

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss problems related to plastic

Plastic cutlery 100 - 1000 years

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present some environmental challenges and solutions Diapers 450 years

Some plastics Never

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Source: NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US)

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS ARGUING A CASE

Make a claim

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Whether you are preparing for an oral presentation, planning a debate or writing a text, the steps below will be useful if you want to argue a case, discuss a topic and convince your audience.

Start with a statement that can be argued and proven by evidence. Make sure your opinion is valid.

Be logical, clear and simple

Present evidence, facts and logic to support your arguments. This is called logos.

Be trustworthy

It is estimated that 8 million tons of plastic are washed into the ocean every year, worldwide. Furthermore, according to recent research, one hundred thousand marine animals are killed by this yearly. I have read several reports thoroughly and discovered that most of this waste is singleuse plastic. This means that we recycle next to nothing, even though I know from experience that recycling is really easy.

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Show that you can be trusted by sharing knowledge and personal experience and by referring to credible sources. This is called ethos.

One of the biggest environmental challenges today is ocean pollution.

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Respect alternative views

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Listen to other opinions and respond to your opponent’s point of view in a polite way, but also point out their weaknesses or illogical reasoning.

Sum up

Repeat your main points.

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It is horrible to see the beautiful creatures in our oceans suffer and die because of the harmful waste we force upon these defenceless animals. We must join forces to solve this terrible situation. Some claim that removing plastic from the ocean is pointless if we do not stop the constant flow of new waste. I respect this point of view, but I am convinced that we need to do both to solve this problem. Therefore, I am certain that we need to collect waste in the ocean and recycle it, and we can all contribute!


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 8.22 Which statement belongs to the various steps of arguing a case? 1. claim 2. logos 3. ethos 4. pathos 5. alternative views 6. sum up

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a My message to you is therefore to take this issue seriously and contribute to stopping the development. b I am here today to tell you about the challenges caused by global warming.

c Some people claim that global warming is a natural process, not caused by humans, but I think there is enough evidence to disagree.

d According to data from NASA, carbon dioxide levels in the air are now at their highest in 650,000 years and the temperatures are rising. e It makes me sad to see defenceless animals suffer when their habitat is ruined by drought, flooding or melting ice.

I have visited glaciers in both Norway and France and seen how the ice has melted over the past few decades.

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8.23 When arguing with an opponent, it is easy to get carried away. Which of these sentences would you use, and which ones should you avoid? Discuss and explain. a Can you explain to me why you think this is so wrong? b You have no idea what you are talking about. c I respect your point of view, but in my opinion this is not a good solution. d Let’s discuss a couple of options and then see if we can agree. e I know I am right, and you are wrong! f I don’t see any sense in what you are saying.

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8.24 Practise using the six steps as you act out conversations and argue your case with a partner. Start with the following questions. a What is the best form of sport? b Who is the best artist or actor in the world? c What is the best pizza topping?

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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8.25 In a discussion it is important to listen carefully to your opponents and give a relevant response to their arguments. Study the sentences below and place them in a logical order to find out what Dean and Sue are discussing. a Sue: I’m afraid I disagree; transport is not the only problem here. It is more important that we stop eating meat, since food production demands lots of energy. b Dean: Exactly, so you do agree that we should reduce the use of airplanes, do you? c Dean: That may be true if you only think about saving time when travelling, but it is too short-sighted since you ruin the planet at the same time. Still, to conclude, I can see that at least we both want to save the planet, and that is good! d Sue: To some extent I do, when there are other, energy saving alternatives for transportation of goods. For people who travel far, however, airplanes are the best solution. e Dean: Let me first say that I am convinced that the best way to save the climate is to stop flying and to limit the use of cars. f Sue: I agree that the widespread and constant use of digital tools demands energy, but it is more efficient than printing paper and sending it by planes across nations. g Dean: But a growing population needs food! We will need even more food in the future, so instead we will have to cut other activities that demand energy. One example is to reduce the use of computers.

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8.26 Read out the corrected version of the discussion above and answer the questions. Work in pairs. a How do Sue and Dean respond to each other’s point of view in the discussion? b Which words and expressions do they use to follow up each other’s arguments? c Explain the views and arguments used by Sue and Dean. Do you agree with any of them? Explain why.

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Guidelines for debates 1 Speak only when it is your turn; do not interrupt. 2 Act dignified and avoid personal attacks. 3 Focus on the topic. 4 Present facts truthfully. 5 Do not become overly emotional in your appeals.

8.27 Organize a debate in the classroom. Follow the guidelines for debates. In advance, make sure that there are different opinions on the issues. a Should we reduce the use of fossil-run vehicles in the cities? b Wind turbines – are they good or bad for the environment? c Should young people today be more aware of a healthy lifestyle? d A good education is the solution to most problems in the world.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 8.28 Study the following quotes by famous leaders. Find examples of how they use pathos and other language features or rhetorical devices to get their message out to the audience. Compare your answers with those of a partner, then share in class. “We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”

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“In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence.”

Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, June 1940.

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Mahatma Ghandi, Indian liberator and statesman, Bombay, August 1942.

“If there is one quote that echoes forth from this conference, let it be that human rights are women’s rights and that women’s rights are human rights once and for all. Let us not forget that among those rights are the right to speak freely and the right to be heard.”

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“And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”

Hillary Clinton, American politician at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995.

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John F. Kennedy, American president, Inauguration speech 1961.

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“But even the ugliest of viruses can exist in places they are not welcome. Racism exists, but it is not welcome here. An assault on the freedom of any one of us who practices their faith or religion is not welcome here. Violence, and extremism in all its forms, is not welcome here. And over the last two weeks we have shown that, you have shown that, in your actions.” Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister, at the memorial after shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, 2019.

envisage forestille seg/ førestille seg assault angrep


FACT FILE INDIA FACT History at a glance

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India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, and has been influential in areas such as language, art, mathematics, astronomy and religion. In the past, India consisted of many different kingdoms and states. In the 1800s, the British colonized most of the country. After almost 100 years of British rule, India finally declared its independence in 1947. Despite political unrest and social problems, India now has a fast-growing economy and is expected to become one of the superpowers of the 21st century.

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Tradition and modernity

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In the second most populous country in the world, the traditional and the modern live side by side. Flashy cars, rickshaws and cows compete for space on the busy streets. Indians may go to work in suits and smart dresses, but will often wear traditional Indian clothes for weddings, religious festivals and important events. Modern technology is available everywhere. However, there are still enormous contrasts between rich and poor, and between life in the big cities and the countryside.

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FILE INDIA FACT FILE CHINA Kashmir BHUTAN NEPAL

Agra

I N D I A Mumbay Hyderàbàd

Arabian Sea Bangalore

BANGLADESH Bay of Bengal

Chennai INDIAN

KERALA

Maldives

Darjeeling

OCEAN SRI LANKA

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PAKISTAN

MYANMAR (BURMA)

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Environmental challenges

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According to the World Health Organization, India is home to 14 of the world’s most polluted cities. Air pollution alone causes over one million deaths a year. Although India produces far less waste than western countries, it struggles with how to get rid of it. Huge landfills sometimes go up in flames, causing severe health problems. Other issues are water pollution, deforestation and overpopulation. As environmental issues are becoming more important for voters, India is investing in renewable sources of energy and banning single-use plastics, but efforts to reduce the use of pesticides and coalpowered industry have not yet been successful.

India Facts

Official name: The Republic of India (Bharat) Capital: New Delhi Population: 1.3 billion Official languages: Hindi, English (and 20 more) Geography: 28 states and 7 union territories Landscape: Urban areas, mountains, northern plains, coastal plains, desert Head of state: President Government: Parliamentary democracy National day: August 15 (Independence Day) Currency: Indian rupee Agriculture: Wheat, rice, fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, cotton, spices Industry: Information technology, film industry, electronics, chemicals, textiles, mining Natural hazards: Droughts, floods, monsoon rains Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism Popular sports: Cricket, field hockey, football


FACT FILE INDIA FACT AIMS environmental challenges k recognize Hindi and Urdu words in modern English

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k present facts about India k name some social and

Read and understand

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8.29 • Complete the sentences with information from the fact file on India. a The population of India is . b The capital of India is called . c Important religions in India are . d The currency in India is called . e India’s National Day is . f Popular sports in India are . g Important crops that are grown in India are . h The head of state in India is .

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8.30 •• Decide if the following statements are true or false, and then correct the false statements. a India is the most populous country in the world. b India used to be a French colony. c India declared its independence in 1947. d There is no modern technology in India. e India shares borders with Pakistan, Bangladesh and Thailand. f There is little difference between life in the cities and in the countryside. g Some of the world’s most polluted cities are in India. h Voters are not interested in environmental issues. 8.31 ••• Based on information from the fact file, describe some of the challenges India faces today.

Did you know

Mumbai, known as Bombay in the past, is where you find Bollywood, one of the largest film production centres in the world. Most films are produced in Hindi. Bollywood films typically include music and dance, drama and romance, fantasy and realism. The most successful Bollywood stars have become national icons and household names in India as well as in Indian communities all over the world.


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FILE INDIA FACT FILE

Practise

8.32 Here are some English words that come from Hindi or Urdu. Match them with the correct explanation. Which ones are also used in Norwegian?

Speak

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

a spiritual teacher a wilderness or forest a house in the Bengal style a tropical cyclone or hurricane trousers worn for horseback riding a porch or balcony a scarf tied around the head or neck clothing worn in bed

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bandanna bungalow pyjamas guru verandah typhoon jungle jodhpurs

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a b c d e f g h

8.33 Choose one of the five small pictures above. Which place would you like to visit? Give at least three reasons for your choice.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

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present facts about India

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8.34 Look at the pictures on the previous pages. Find out what the Indian flag symbolizes, what the Taj Mahal is, who Gandhi was, what the three lions mean. Also find out what status the peacock has. 8.35 Search online for video clips from Bollywood films. Choose one and find out what it is about. How do Bollywood films differ from Hollywood productions?

YES

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name some social and environmental challenges YES

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recognize Hindi and Urdu words in modern English YES

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8.36 India is expected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country. Find out more about the population of India.

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 365

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Women in India India has an old and fascinating culture, but also a past of colonization, unrest and poverty. Recently, changes have been made and India is now turning into a prosperous and technologically advanced country. Still, there are important challenges to deal with.

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Opinion: The most dangerous country for women

I am proud of the beauty and the ancient culture of my country, India. I am not proud of the fact that India has been named “the most dangerous country in the world for women” in a recent Thomson Reuters Foundation survey.

The survey simply asks: are women safe and free? It forces us to consider how women are actually treated in a culture, despite formal law, education, employment or income. India is in denial of the fact that a majority of its women do not feel safe alone on the streets, at work, in markets, or at home, even though they have learned how to cope with this existential

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It is a jolt to see India scoring worse than wartorn countries such as Afghanistan or Syria or monarchies such as Saudi Arabia where women have few rights. Everyone expects more and better for women from India, the world’s largest functioning democracy. That is precisely why it shocks.

voice, movement and rights over their own bodies. India’s designation hurts national pride because it is a country where millions of smartly dressed women go to work in high-rise offices every day, where laws have changed to protect women and where women and men have spilled into the streets to protest against rapes of children and trafficking of women.

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After all, the Indian constitution enshrines women’s rights to equality, including freedom of

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AIMS k present some challenges for women in India and other parts of the world k reflect on how society and governments can solve social problems k share information on economic and cultural aspects of India

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anxiety. When I asked young, educated women in Delhi if they feel safe, most said no. And most of those who said yes, had learned to modify their behaviour to feel safe – they don’t go out alone unnecessarily; come home at night before dark; get permission to go out; are always careful and alert; and they censor their speech, their clothes and their body posture, including whether or not they look men in the eyes.

Indian women are in a constant state of vigilance, like a country on terrorist alert. Satish, a 52-year old banker, told me: “For rape there is no fixed time: always be alert.” No democracy is a democracy if half its population lives in fear.

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Yet men are surprised when they hear this from women. Their common reaction is: “You must be mistaken.” The paradox is that women have protected men and their families by keeping quiet. This is honourable behaviour, a part of our “honour society”. But recent National Crime Records Bureau statistics show that approximately 40 % of female reported rape victims were minors and 95 % knew the rapist. The rapist belonged to the “circle of trust” of extended family and friends. Young girls have nowhere to go.

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What rape statistics reflect is a vicious cultural agreement that women have little value. Which means in turn that girls must be trained to act as if they do not exist. This sounds archaic in this day and age, but it is true in India and to a greater and lesser degree across many cultures, irrespective of wealth and education.

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The dirty secret about men’s crass abuse of power through sexual violence against women hit the global press. The #MeToo movement in the US, in which highly successful and wealthy women finally broke the silence about their experiences of sexual violence, resulted in the US ranking as the 10th most dangerous country for women. Without wide media coverage there is no possibility of cultural shift, and with media coverage, the illusion of women’s safety breaks. India – and the rest of the world – would do well to make women’s safety and freedom central goals of democracy and development, and learn about the science of cultural change. Advertising firms and big data companies know how to change culture. We need these skills to change conversations about what it means to be a man, so women can flourish without being imprisoned in the name of safety. By Deepa Narayan, social scientist and author, The Guardian, July 2018, abridged version

war-torn krigsherjet/krigsherja enshrine bevare designation betegnelse/ nemning high-rise høyhus trafficking menneskehandel consider tenke over despite til tross for/trass i denial fornektelse/fornekting existential anxiety eksistensiell angst modify endre behaviour oppførsel censor begrense/avgrense vigilance årvåkenhet/aktsemd fixed fast alert her: på vakt honour society æressamfunn approximately omtrent minor mindreårig vicious ond/vond, slem value verdi archaic gammeldags/ gammaldags irrespective uansett abuse misbruk coverage dekning shift her: endring flourish blomstre affirmative action kvotering pros and cons fordeler og ulemper/fordelar og ulemper mindset tankesett/tankegang impact innvirkning/innverknad

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Read and understand

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8.37 • Use information from the text to finish the sentences. a The writer is proud of … b On safety for women, India scores worse than … c India is the world’s largest … d The Indian constitution enshrines women’s … e The women in Delhi who say they feel safe modify … f Women have protected men and their families by … g Rape statistics show that in many cultures women … h In the #MeToo movement, successful women … i We need to change conversations about what it means …

8.38 •• Answer the following questions. a What information has inspired the author to write the text? b What are the challenges described in the text? c How does the writer suggest solving the problems?

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8.39 ••• Use the following quotes from the text to explain how the writer argues her case and what her message is. a “India’s designation hurts national pride” b “women are in a constant state of vigilance” c “this sounds archaic in this day and age” d “with media coverage, the illusion of women’s safety breaks”

Practise

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8.40 Unscramble the letters to find words from the vocabulary list. Use the words to write sentences. a eubsA e reBuhaiov b noCres f eCeorvag c iMdyfo g nicTarfifgk d rFhluois h pxAprmoiaytel 8.41 Place the words in the correct order to make sentences. For information about word order, see the Language Lab section. a when Arranged decides who marriage is the family their will child marry. b Asian It common is many still a practise in and countries African. c weddings Every year arranged 55 % are of the in world the marriages. d is The rate marriage of India arranged in 90 %. e bride each other and the groom have not seen Sometimes before wedding the day. f on What your is arranged opinion marriage?

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8.42 Read the novel excerpt below. a Fill in the missing punctuation and capital letters in the text. Check the Language Lab section for information about punctuation. b What is the theme of the text?

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harry and ranjit were waiting for me waiting to take me to derby to a wedding my wedding a wedding that i hadn’t asked for that i didn’t want to a girl who i didn’t know if they had bothered to open their eyes they would have seen me seventeen angry upset but determined to do my own thing to choose my own path in life

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Bali Rai, (UN)ARRANGED MARRIAGE (2018)

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8.43 How would you compare the situation for women in India and Norway? Discuss in groups. a Do Norwegian women also modify their behaviour and how they dress in order to stay safe? b What are historical reasons and possible solutions to such challenges? c How can politicians and individuals contribute to improving gender equality in a country?

Did you know?

Forced marriage, and especially child marriage, is condemned by the United Nations. Each year, 12 million girls under 18 are married off to adult men. SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 369


Explore

8.44 Find out more about Indian society, culture or history. Below are some suggested topics. Use reliable sources and information from the fact file. Present your findings as an audio or video documentary.

computer technology and call centres organizations fighting for women’s rights animal life and endangered species the Diwali and Holi festivals the Bollywood film industry public transport and rickshaws slumdogs and child labour the caste system

• • • • • • • •

Indian cuisine languages and religions in Indian regions and geography great political leaders tourist attractions pollution and rubbish natural resources the Ganges River

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• • • • • • • •

Listen

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8.45 “Sir” The film Sir (2018) is a love story, but it also portrays challenges related to social class and gender in modern India. Listen to the text and questions and then write your answers.

8.46 Do you watch films in other languages than English and your own mother tongue? Explain why/why not and share opinions on how and why foreign language films from around the world should get a wider audience.

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Write

8.47 • Write a blog entry about why you would like, or not like, to visit India. Give reasons and support your arguments with examples. Use a personal, informal style. For advice see “Formal and informal language” in Chapter 3.

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8.48 •• Find examples of logos, ethos and pathos in Deepa Narayan’s text «The most dangerous country for women». Briefly explain why you have chosen these examples. For advice, see «Arguing a case» in this chapter.

initiation innvielse/innviing turmeric-dyed gurkemeiefarget/ gurkemeiefarga sapling ungtre, avlegger/ ungtre, avleggar scholar lærd festivities festligheter, feiring/ festlegheitar, feiring gorge fråtse mere kun perennial varig, flerårig/varig, fleirårig canopy skyggeteppe, teltduk unfurling utfoldelse/utfolding petulant amper, hårsår defiance trass incident hendelse/hending

8.49 •• In her book Stepping Out, Life and Sexuality in Rural India, author Mrinal Pande tells a story from her childhood. Write a text where you reflect on and comment on the content and theme of this short excerpt. How does the author use her personal experience to make a general point? Also, discuss and give examples of how rituals reflect culture and society in a country.

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The year was 1950. I was five. One of my male cousins, about the same age as I, was to go through the akshararambh ceremony: the Brahminical ritual of a boy’s formal initiation into learning.

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As he sat on the painted wooden stool, we, the sisters, held a turmeric-dyed yellow cloth dotted with many holy objects over his little head. We watched him enter the awesome and sacred world of letters, as the older women sang a song about how this little sapling from the family tree would one day go to Varanasi and emerge a real scholar. Once the ritual was over, the festivities began and we were all urged to gorge on sweets. After an initial moment of joy, I was suddenly overcome by a feeling of powerlessness, of the ultimate invisibility of my little person. No matter how brilliant I turned out to be, I felt I would remain a mere sister to my brothers, the perennial holder of ritual canopies over the unfurling of a boy’s male power. I had to be firmly escorted out into the courtyard by my much distressed older sister, before I could be punished for my petulant defiance. She cleaned my face, got me an extra sweet, and let me play with her favourite toy. We sisters never again spoke of the incident.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can present some challenges for women in India and other parts of the world YES

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reflect on how society and governments can solve social problems YES

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share information on economic and cultural aspects of India YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 371


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS REFERRING TO SOURCES

Choose a reference style

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When you select and collate information from sources for an assignment, make sure you cite and list the sources you have used. If you use other people’s thoughts and ideas, you should always be careful to give credit where it is due. The same applies to photos, illustrations, sound files, films, documentaries and any other original material you use.

There are several styles to choose from. Most common in formal writing are the APA and Chicago styles. Whichever method you choose, be consistent.

Cite your sources as you write

Visit https://sokogskriv.no/en for information about different reference styles.

There are two ways to include information from your sources in your text. Quotes

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Sometimes you may want to copy a few sentences, a paragraph or a short passage from someone else’s text. If your sentences are identical to those in the original text, you use quotations marks to show these are not your own words. Give the author’s name and year of publication in parentheses after the quote, then say where the quote is from in your list of sources. Paraphrases

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When you are using other people’s ideas, but rewrite them into your own words and sentences, you paraphrase. For this, you do not need quotations marks. Give the author’s name and year of publication in parentheses where your paraphrase ends and say where you have found the information in your list of sources.

Example The United Nations Secretary General claims there is a trend for “people to be more nationalistic, less and less open to the need to understand that global challenges need global responses”. (Guterres, 2019)

Example In a speech, the United Nations Secretary General claims that people have become more nationalistic, and that they do not understand that global challenges need a global response. (Guterres, 2019)

Use reporting verbs

For variation and nuance, use different reporting verbs when you quote and paraphrase. To state

To express agreement

To express disagreement

say, think, claim, believe, argue, insist

support, acknowledge, praise, agree

deny, reject, question, disagree

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Make a list of references

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List all the sources you have used at the end of your document or presentation. It is common to list them alphabetically by author’s surname, or by the title of the work if the author is unknown. Note that there are some minor differences in the way you list the different types of sources.

Illustrations

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Book Anand, J. (2018) The State of the World. New Delhi: Diwali Publishing Co. Newspapers/magazines Jones, D. (2020, July 30) “A Global Success”. London: The Sunday Telegraph Articles from the web United Nations. https://www.britannica. com/topic/United-Nations [read 1 Aug. 2020] Films, documentaries, sound files, podcasts, etc India’s Forbidden Love (2019). Documentary. London: BBC World Service News

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Kyung-Hoon, K. (2018). Honduran woman flees teargas with her children. Photograph. Retrieved from https://widerimage.reuters.com/photographer/ kim-kyung-hoon

Practise

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8.50 Write one paragraph about what you think is the most important global challenge we face today. Search online to find a suitable quote to include in your paragraph.

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8.51 Make an outline for a presentation about Trevor Noah whose text you can find in this chapter. Include at least one relevant quote and one paraphrase to show that you know how to refer to sources. List your sources.

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 373


Home No one leaves home unless home is the mouth of a shark.

Your neighbours running faster than you, the boy you went to school with who kissed you dizzy behind the old tin factory is holding a gun bigger than his body, you only leave home when home won’t let you stay.

Who would choose days and nights in the stomach of a truck, unless the miles travelled meant something more than journey.

No one would choose to crawl under fences, be beaten until your shadow leaves you raped, then drowned, forced to the bottom of a boat because you are darker, be sold, starved, shot at the border like a sick animal, be pitied, lose your name, lose your family, make a refugee camp a home for a year or two or ten stripped and searched, find prison everywhere and if you survive and you are greeted on the other side go home blacks, refugees dirty immigrants, asylum seekers sucking our country dry of milk, dark, with their hands out smell strange, savage – look what they’ve done to their own countries, what will they do to ours?

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No one would leave home unless home chased you, fire under feet, hot blood in your belly.

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You only run for the border when you see the whole city running as well.

You must understand, no one puts their children in a boat unless the water is safer than the land.

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It’s not something you ever thought about doing, and so when you did – you carried the anthem under your breath, waiting until the airport toilet to tear up the passport and swallow – each mouthful making it clear that you would not be going back.

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AIMS k explain and reflect on why people

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Before you start Is your home or your hometown important to you? Write down at least four things that you like about your home.

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I want to go home, but home is the mouth of a shark home is the barrel of the gun and no one would leave home unless home chased you to the shore unless home tells you to leave what you could not behind, even if it’s human.

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The dirty looks in the street feel softer than a limb torn off, the indignity of everyday life more tender than fourteen men who look like your father, Between your legs. Insults easier to swallow than rubble, than your child’s body in pieces – for now, forget about pride your survival is more important.

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Warsan Shire

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No one leaves home until home is a damp voice in your ear saying leave, run now, I don’t know what I’ve become.

border grense dizzy svimmel tin factory hermetikkfabrikk belly mage anthem nasjonalsang/ nasjonalsong stomach mage fence gjerde pity synes synd på/synast synd på strip search kroppsvisitere asylum seeker asylsøker/ asylsøkar savage vill limb lem indignity krenkelse/krenking tender øm, mild insult fornærmelse/fornærming rubble grus pride stolthet/stoltheit survival overlevelse/overleving barrel her: revolverløp damp klam

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Read and understand

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8.52 • Fill in the missing words in the lines from the poem. Translate into Norwegian. a you only leave home when won’t let you . b Who would choose and nights in the of a truck c make a camp a home for a or or . d and you are on the side e unless home you to the . 8.53 •• Complete the sentences. a This poem is about … b The people in the text are running away from … c The people travel by … d When they arrived they are welcomed … e They accept this treatment because … f The theme and message of this poem is … g My reaction to this poem is …

8.54 ••• Use information from the poem to tell the story of a refugee.

Speak

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8.55 Read the poem “Home” aloud in pairs. For advice on pronunciation, see the Language Lab section.

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8.56 Discuss what you would do if faced with the following dilemmas. a Become a child soldier or run away from your home? b See your children starve or put them on a boat to an uncertain future? c Accept being bullied and criticized or go back to a dangerous life in your home country?

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8.57 Share the four things you wrote in the pre-reading activity in groups. Compare your answers to find differences and similarities, and explain your choices.

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Practise

8.58 In the text “Home” there are many examples of language devices. Look for examples of contrasts, repetitions, metaphors and symbols. Reflect on and discuss the effect such devices have on the text. Here are some examples to help you get started. home is a damp voice – like a sick animal – home tells you

Did you know?

The word “refugee” comes from French and originally referred to the 400,000 French protestants – the Huguenots – who had to flee France in 1685. Many of them left for Protestant England. During World War II, around 60,000 Norwegians fled Norway. Today there are around 70 million refugees in 376world | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS the (2020). Some run from religious or political persecution, others from war, terror or hunger.


Listen

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8.59 “Child Soldier” As a young boy, Ishmael Beah experienced the terrors of civil war in his home country, Sierra Leone. Listen to this excerpt from Ishmael’s memoirs A Long Way Gone, where he describes his first mission as a 13-year-old child soldier. a How does Ishmael feel when he goes on his first mission? b In your own words, explain what happens to Ishmael in the forest. c How does Ishmael react when the fire exchange starts? d What happened to Ishmael after he was released from the army? e Where does he live today and what does he do?

Explore

8.60 Find information about the writer of “Home”, Warsan Shire. Where is she from, where does she live, and what does she do for a living? Cross-check your information with at least one more source. 8.61 On YouTube there is an animated version of the poem where Shire reads it herself. Watch and listen to the text. How do you like this version? Is it different from the version in the book? Explain.

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8.62 In the margin are the last lines from the poem “What You Need to Be Warm” by Neil Gaiman. a Compare and share your thoughts on this manner of receiving refugees to how it is described in “Home”. b Gaiman asked his Twitter followers to tell him what reminded them of warmth. He used the almost 1,000 answers to write “What You Need to Be Warm”. If you want to read the whole poem, you will find it online.

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8.63 Search for maps and statistics that show where refugees come from and to which countries they go. Based on the poem and your search results, why do people become refugees?

Write

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8.64 Choose one of the words below and create a text for a teen magazine where you reflect on the meaning of the word and how it relates to the current refugee situation. Use both logos and pathos, and select and collate information from at least two sources. welcome – diversity – resource – friend – fear Use at least two sources to select and collate information. Include both logos and pathos. For advice, see “Arguing a case” and “Referring to sources” in this chapter.

Sometimes it only takes a stranger, in a dark place, to hold out a badly knitted scarf, to offer a kind word, to say we have the right to be here, to make us warm in the coldest season. You have the right to be here.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain and reflect on why people become refugees YES

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share thoughts on dilemmas and challenges faced by refugees YES

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FACT FILE FACT FILE

EnglishSpeaking Africa

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1700

European arrival

• Driven by scientific and economic interests • Explored the continent, its people, wildlife and natural resources • Established trading posts for gold, diamonds, slaves

George Abungu, Kenyan archeologist

1750

Slave trade

• An estimated total of 15 million people taken as slaves • The majority transported to the Americas • The slave trade ended in the 19th century

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Pre-colonial Africa

• Many different kingdoms and empires • Trade amongst themselves and with Arab countries • Also warfare and tribal conflicts

So far the evidence that we have in the world points to Africa as the Cradle of Humankind.

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1800

Colonization

• Rivalry among European countries, the scramble for Africa • Africa divided into colonies by the Europeans in the 1880s • Borders drawn with no regard to ethnic groups and languages • Main purpose to gain natural resources and power

Culture and Wildlife in Africa Today, Africa is famous for so much more than a troubled past. An increasing number of African musicians, writers, athletes and football players have reached international fame and glory. Also living conditions have improved together with economic growth and profit from natural resources. In many African countries tourists can enjoy adventurous safari trips, excellent food, wine and beautiful beaches.


FACT FILE FACT FILE Oil

Gas

Mn

Diamonds Uranium Copper Mn

Manganese Iron

Gold

1950

Period of adjustment • Hard to gain economic independence • Civil wars, religious and ethnic conflicts, corruption, drought and hunger

Present-day challenges

• Diseases: Aids and hiv (25 million people), malaria, Ebola, insufficient healthcare • Climate: drought resulting in hunger and poverty in some areas • The literacy rate: 65 %, 200 million people cannot read or write

Improvements

• Better conditions for women and children • Information about diseases, birth control campaigns • Vaccination programs, cheaper medicine • Fund raising and international aid trade handel • Focus on fair trade and empire keiserdømme / better use of resources keisardømme

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• After WWII most Africans wanted freedom • Some countries: negotiations through political parties and trade unions • Other countries: uprising or armed conflicts • Most of Africa independent by the early 1960s • Southern African colonies not independent until the 1970s or later

2000

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Decolonization

1970

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In most African countries there are several ethnic groups, and most of them have their own mother tongue. Although English is the official language in many of these countries, and therefore the language of politics, the media, education, trade etc, it is not the mother tongue of most people. For example, in South Africa there are eleven official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. Very often children learn English when they start school.

English French Portuguese Spanish Swahili Arabic African languages

tribal rivalry stammerivalisering scramble kappløp border grense purpose hensikt negotiation forhandling trade union fagforening / fagforeining uprising oppstand armed væpnet / væpna civil war borgerkrig / borgarkrig drought tørke insufficient utilstrekkelig / utilstrekkeleg poverty fattigdom literacy lese- og skriveferdighet profit fortjeneste / forteneste

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Read and understand

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8.65 Answer the questions. a What was Africa like before the Europeans arrived? b What was “the scramble for Africa”? c Where were most slaves sent? d How did the colonies gain independence? e What can you enjoy as a tourist in many African countries? f Roughly, how many people cannot read or write on the African continent? g What are the challenges in many African countries today? h In which fields have many Africans recently gained international fame?

8.66 Fill in the missing words in the text.

discovered – death – disease – organizations – sample – spreading – country – prevent – condoms – treatment

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HIV and AIDS

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The first documented occurrence of HIV is from a blood taken in the Congo in 1959. At that time, however, nobody knew that this was a new . In spite of several cases in the 1970s it wasn’t until the 80s that the epidemic was taken seriously. This was when it started to other continents. Gradually, scientists the source of the illness and found out how it spread. They also found a cure to HIV from turning into AIDS, and medicine to improve the condition of AIDS patients. Sadly, the drugs were expensive and at first only people in the Western world had access to them. In 2001 there were 20 million people living with AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, and only 8000 received drug . Many governments and international started different projects to improve the situation. In 2002 Botswana was the first to launch a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) project. By 2007, 95 % of HIV positive people in the country were being treated. In other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, however, HIV/AIDS is still the most common cause of and around 50 % of the patients are not on treatment. Today we see behavioural changes in most parts of Africa. Increased use of and fewer casual sex partners are the most important measures to avoid further spread.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Speak

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8.67 Discuss the following questions. a After reading the fact file about Africa, what would you like to see or experience on this continent? b What did you know already and what was new information? c Did anything surprise you? Explain.

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wanted colonies in Africa k describe some present-day challenges in Africa k mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

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If we can get cold Coca-Cola and beer to every remote corner of Africa, it should not be impossible to do the same with medicine.

k explain why European countries

Nelson Mandela

How did you do?

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Joep Lange, former president of the international AIDS Society

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8.68 What was the Atlantic triangular slave trade? Find facts and explanations from at least two sources. Summarize and synthesize the information. List your sources.

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8.69 Use at least two reliable sources to find information on life expectancy in African countries. Are there differences? Which country has the highest life expectancy, and which has the lowest? Summarize and synthesize the information. List your sources.

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain why European countries wanted colonies in Africa YES

NO

describe some present-day challenges in Africa YES

8.70 Search for information about the illegal ivory trade. How many elephants are killed each year? What do the authorities do to stop this activity? What can the international community do to help? Use reliable and relevant sources. Share and discuss in class.

ALMOST

ALMOST

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mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries YES

ALMOST

NO

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Chameleon !

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Before you start What do you know about South Africa? In pairs, write keywords and then share in class.

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Part One One afternoon I was playing with my cousins. I was a doctor and they were my patients. I was operating on my cousin Bulelwa’s ear with a set of matches when I accidentally perforated her eardrum. All hell broke loose. My grandmother came running in from the kitchen. “Kwenzeka ntoni?!” “What’s happening?!” There was blood coming out of my cousin’s head. We were all crying. My grandmother patched up Bulelwa’s ear and made sure to stop the bleeding. But we kept crying. Because clearly we’d done something we were not supposed to do, and we knew we were going to be punished. My grandmother finished up with Bulelwa’s ear and whipped out a belt and she beat the shit out of Bulelwa. Then she beat the shit out of Mlungisi, too. She didn’t touch me. Later that night my mother came home from work. She found my cousin with a bandage over her ear and my gran crying at the kitchen table. “What’s going on?” My mom said. “Oh, Nombuyiselo,” she said. “Trevor is so naughty. He’s the naughtiest child I’ve ever come across in my life.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can’t hit him.” “Why not?” “Because I don’t know how to hit a white child,” she said. “A black child, I understand. A black child, you hit them and they stay black. Trevor, when you hit him he turns blue and green and yellow and red. I’ve never seen those

perforate perforere, trenge gjennom eardrum trommehinne patch up bandasjere, plastre whip out snappe frem, piske/ snappe fram, piske

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colors before. I’m scared I’m going to break him. I don’t want to kill a white person. I’m so afraid. I’m not going AIMS to touch him.” And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My k summarize the story grandfather did, too, only he was even more extreme. He k understand and use idioms and called me “Mastah.” In the car, he insisted on driving me expressions from the text as if he were my chauffeur. “Mastah must always sit in k discuss themes and ideas in the text the backseat.” I never challenged him on it. What was I k share information about South going to say? “I believe your perception of race is flawed, Africa Grandfather.” No. I was five. I sat in the back. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. I was having a great time. My own family basically did what the American justice system does: I was given more lenient treatment than the black kids. Misbehavior that my cousins would have been punished for, I was given a warning and let off. And I was way naughtier than either of my cousins. I was trouble. My mom was the only force I truly feared. She believed if you spare the rod, you spoil the child. But everyone else said, “No, he’s different,” and they gave me a pass. Growing up the way I did, I learned how easy it is for white people to get comfortable with a system that awards them all the perks. I knew my cousins were getting beaten for things that I’d done, but I wasn’t interested in changing my grandmother’s perspective, because that would mean I’d get beaten, too. Why would I do that? I had a choice. I could champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies. I went with the cookies.

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At that point I didn’t think of the special treatment as having to do with color. I thought of it as having to do with Trevor. It wasn’t, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is white.” It was, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is Trevor.” Trevor can’t go outside. Trevor can’t walk without supervision. It’s because I’m me; that’s why this is happening. I had no other points of reference. There were no other mixed kids around so that I could say, “Oh, this happens to us.” Nearly one million people lived in Soweto. Ninety-nine point nine percent of them were black – and then there was me. I was famous in my neighborhood just because of the color of my skin. I was so unique people would give directions using me as a landmark. “The house on Makhalima Street. At the corner you’ll see a light-skinned boy. Take a right there.” Whenever the kids in the street saw me they’d yell, “Indoda yomlungu!” “The white man!” Some of them would run away. Others would call out to their parents to come look. Others would run up and try to touch me to see if I was real. What I didn’t understand at the time was that the other kids genuinely had no clue what a white person was. Black kids in the township didn’t leave the township. Few people had televisions. They’d seen the white police roll through, but they’d never dealt with a white person face-to-face, ever.

mastah (master) herre challenge utfordre perception oppfatning flawed mangelfull, feil perk her: ekstra fordel lenient mild misbehavior dårlig oppførsel/ dårleg oppførsel rod pisk champion her: forsvare, kjempe for justice rettferdighet/rettferd supervision overvåking/ overvaking mixed her: blandingsrase genuinely oppriktig

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I’d go to funerals and I’d walk in and the bereaved would look up and see me and they’d stop crying. They’d start whispering. Then they’d wave and say, “Oh!” like they were more shocked by me walking in than by the death of their loved ones. I think people felt like the dead person was more important because a white person had come to the funeral.

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As a kid I understood that people were different colors, but in my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate. Dad was the white chocolate, mom was the dark chocolate, and I was the milk chocolate. But we were all just chocolate. I didn’t know any of it had anything to do with “race.” I didn’t know what race was. My mother never referred to my dad as white or to me as mixed. So when the other kids in Soweto called me “white”, even though I was light brown, I just thought they had their colors mixed up.

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I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language. Soweto was a melting pot: families from different tribes and homelands. Most kids in the township spoke only their home language, but I learned several languages because I grew up in a house where there was no option but to learn them. My mom made sure English was the first language I spoke. If you’re black in South Africa, speaking English is the one thing that can give you a leg up. English is the language of money. If you’re looking for a job, English is the difference between getting the job or staying unemployed. If you’re standing in the dock, English is the difference between getting off with a fine or going to prison. After English, Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. When my mother was angry she’d fall back on her home language. As a naughty child, I was well versed in Xhosa threats. Outside of that, my mother picked up different languages here and there. She learned Zulu because it’s similar to Xhosa. She spoke German because of my father. She spoke Afrikaans because it is useful to know the language of your oppressor. Sotho she learned in the streets. Living with my mom, I saw how she used language to cross boundaries, handle situations, navigate the world. We were in a shop once, and the shopkeeper, right in front of us, turned to his security guard and said, in Afrikaans, “Volg daai swartes, netnou steel hulle iets.” “Follow those blacks in case they steal something.” My mother turned around and said, in beautiful, fluent Afrikaans, “Hoekom volg jy nie daai swartes sodat jy hulle kan help kry waarna hulle soek nie?” “Why don’t you follow these blacks so you can help them find what they’re looking for?” “Ag, jammer!” he said, apologizing in Afrikaans. Then – and this was the funny thing – he didn’t apologize for being racist; he merely apologized for aiming his racism at us. “Oh, I’m so sorry,” he said. “I thought you were like the other blacks. You know how they love to steal.” I learned to use language like my mother did.

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bereaved sørgende/sørgande bridge bygge bro over/bygge bru over gap kløft melting pot smeltedigel homeland sted man kommer fra/plass ein kjem frå township gettolignende bydel/ gettolignande bydel give a leg up gi en fordel/gi ein fordel in the dock på tiltalebenken be well versed kjenne godt til oppressor undertrykker boundary grense merely bare, kun/berre, kun

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It became a tool that served me my whole life. One day as a young man I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys was walking behind me, closing in on me, and I could hear them talking to one another [in Zulu] about how they were going to mug me. “Let’s get this white guy. You go to his left, and I’ll come up behind him.” I didn’t know what to do. I couldn’t run, so I just spun around real quick and said, [in their language] “Yo, guys, why don’t we just mug someone together? I’m ready. Let’s do it.” They looked shocked for a moment, and then they started laughing. “Oh, sorry, dude. We thought you were something else. We weren’t trying to take anything from you. We were trying to steal from white people. Have a good day, man.” They were ready to do me violent harm, until they felt we were part of the same tribe, and then we were cool. That made me realize that language, even more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn’t change, but I could change your perception of my color. If you spoke to me in Zulu, I replied to you in Zulu. If you spoke to me in Tswana, I replied to you in Tswana. Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

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Part Two As apartheid was coming to an end, South Africa’s elite private schools started accepting children of all colors. My mother’s company offered bursaries, scholarships, for underprivileged families, and she managed to get me into Maryvale College, an expensive private Catholic school. Classes taught by nuns. Mass on Fridays. The whole bit. I started preschool there when I was three, primary school when I was five. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black kids, white kids, Indian kids, colored kids. Most of the white kids were pretty well off. Every child of color pretty much wasn’t. But because of scholarships we all sat at the same table. We wore the same maroon blazers, the same gray slacks and skirts. We had the same books. We had the same teachers. There was no racial separation. Kids still got teased and bullied, but it was over usual kid stuff: being fat or being skinny, being tall or being short, being smart or being dumb. I don’t remember anybody being teased about their race. I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like. I had crushes on white girls. I had crushes on black girls. Nobody asked me what I was. I was Trevor. It was a wonderful experience to have, but the downside was that it sheltered me from reality. But the real world doesn’t go away. Racism exists. People are getting hurt, and just because it’s not happening to you doesn’t mean it’s not happening. And at some point, you have to choose. Black or white. At the end of grade six I left Maryvale to go to H. A. Jack Primary, a government school. I had to take an aptitude test before I started, and, based on the results of the test, the school counselor told me, “You’re going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” I showed up for the first day of school and went to my classroom. Of the thirty or so kids in my class, almost all of them were white. There was one Indian kid, maybe one or two black kids, and me.

mug rane chameleon kameleon bursary stipend scholarship stipend underprivileged upriviligert nun nonne mass her: messe well off velstående/velståande maroon rødbrun/raudbrun blazer dressjakke slacks bukse separation adskillelse/åtskiljing, separasjon tease erte bully mobbe crush forelskelse/forelsking downside ulempe shelter beskytte pick a side velge side/velje side aptitude test ferdighetstest counselor rådgiver/rådgivar

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Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. It was an ocean of black, like someone had opened a tap and all the black had come pouring out. I was like, Where were they all hiding? The white kids I’d met that morning, they went in one direction, the black kids went in another direction, and I was left standing in the middle, totally confused. I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time. In the townships you don’t see segregation, because everyone is black. Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together, occupying the same space yet choosing not to associate with each other in any way. In an instant I could see, I could feel, how the boundaries were drawn. Groups moved in color patterns across the yard, up the stairs, down the hall. It was insane. I stood there awkwardly by myself in this no-man’s-land in the middle of the playground. Luckily, I was rescued by the Indian kid from my class, a guy named Theesan. He ran over to introduce himself. “Hello, fellow anomaly! You’re in my class. Who are you? What’s your story?” We started talking and hit it off. Through our conversation it came up that I spoke several African languages, and Theesan thought a colored kid speaking black languages was the most amazing trick. He brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them, “and he’ll show you he understands you.” One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied to him in Zulu. Everyone cheered. Another kid said something in Xhosa, and I replied to him in Xhosa. Everyone cheered. For the rest of recess Theesan took me around to different black kids on the playground. “Show them your trick. Do your language thing.” The black kids were fascinated. In South Africa back then, it wasn’t common to find a white person or a colored person who spoke African languages. “How come you speak our languages?” they asked. “Because I’m black,” I said, “like you.” “You’re not black.” “Yes, I am.” “No, you’re not. Have you not seen yourself?” They were confused at first. Because of my color, they thought I was a colored person, but speaking the same languages meant that I belonged to their tribe. It just took them a moment to figure it out. It took me a moment, too. At some point I turned to one of them and said, “Hey, how come I don’t see you guys in any of my classes?” It turned out they were in the B classes, which also happened to be the black classes. That same afternoon, I went back to the A classes, and by the end of the day I realized that they weren’t for me. Suddenly, I knew who my people were, and I wanted to be with them. I went to see the school counselor.

recess friminutt tap kran pour her: renne segregation raseskille/raseskilje pattern mønster anomaly en som skiller seg ut/ ein som skil seg ut switch over bytte til/byte til

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“I’d like to switch over,” I told her. “I’d like to go to the B classes.” She was confused. “Oh, no” she said. “I don’t think you want to do that.” “Why not?” “Because those kids are … you know.” “No, I don’t know. What do you mean?” “Look,” she said, “you’re a smart kid. You don’t want to be in that class.” “But aren’t the classes the same? English is English. Math is math.” “Yeah, but that class is … those kids are gonna hold you back. You want to be in the smart class.” “But surely there must be some smart kids in the B class.” “No, there aren’t.” “But all my friends are there.” “You don’t want to be friends with those kids.” “Yes, I do.” We went back and forth. Finally she gave me a stern warning. “You do realize the effect this will have on your future? You do understand what you’re giving up? This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” “I’ll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I decided I’d rather be held back with people I liked than move ahead with people I didn’t know. Being at H. A. Jack made me realize I was black. Before that recess I’d never had to choose, but when I was forced to choose, I chose black. The world saw me as colored, but I didn’t spend my life looking at myself. I spent my life looking at other people. I saw myself as the people around me, and the people around me were black. My cousins are black, my mom is black, my gran is black. I grew up black. Because I had a white father, because I’d been in white Sunday school, I got along with the white kids, but I didn’t belong with the white kids. I wasn’t a part of their tribe. But the black kids embraced me. “Come along,” they said. “You’re rolling with us.” With the black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was.

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From Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood by Trevor Noah

trevor noah

Trevor Noah (1984–) is a South African comedian and actor, and the host of the American television program The Daily Show. With a black mother and a white father, he was born a crime, since it was illegal for people of different colours to be together during the apartheid regime in South Africa. In his autobiography he writes about his childhood.

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back and forth frem og tilbake/ frem og tilbake/fram og tilbake stern streng impact påvirke/påverke

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IN SHORT Part two After Apartheid, South Africa’s elite schools accepted children of all colors. I got a scholarship, so I went to a private school. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black, white, Indian, colored. But we had the same school uniforms, the same books, the same teachers. There was no racial separation. At the end of grade six, I got to a government school. I took an aptitude test and the school counselor told me, “You're going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” Of the thirty kids in my class, all were white, except one Indian kid, two black kids, and me. Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. The white kids in my class went one way, the black kids another. I was left in the middle, confused. I was eleven, and saw the segregation in my country for the first time. I was rescued by the Indian kid. When I told him that I spoke several African languages, he brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them. One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied in Zulu. Another said something in Xhosa, and I replied in Xhosa. Everyone cheered, fascinated. “How come you speak our languages?” “Because I'm black,” I said, “like you.” “You're not black.” They were confused, because of my color, but since I spoke their languages I belonged to their tribe. They were in the B classes. I wanted to be with them so I went to the school counselor. “I'd like to go to the B classes,” I told her. “Oh, no,” she said. “You don’t want to do that. Those kids will hold you back.” “I'll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I'd never had to choose before, but when I had to, I chose black. The world saw me as colored, but I saw myself as the people around me, and they were black.

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Part one One afternoon I was playing doctor with my cousin. I accidentally perforated her eardrum. My grandmother came running; my cousin was bleeding. My grandmother patched up the ear and then she beat my cousin. She didn't touch me. When my mother came home from work, my gran said. “Trevor is so naughty.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can't hit a white child,” she said. And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My grandfather did, too. He called me “Mastah” and insisted that I sit in the backseat of the car. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. I didn't think the special treatment was because of my color. I thought it was because I was me. Where I grew up, in Soweto, everybody was black. I understood that people were different colors, but I didn't know it had anything to do with “race.” My mom made me learn languages. English for job opportunities. Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. She also spoke Zulu, German because of my father and Afrikaans, the language of the oppressor. She used language to cross boundaries, handle situations. I learned to use language like my mother did. One day I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys behind me were discussing how to mug me. I spun around and said. "Yo, guys, why don't we just mug someone together?" They looked shocked, and then they started laughing. “Sorry. We thought you were something else. We only steal from white people.” I realized that language, more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn't change, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

From Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood

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Read and understand 8.71 •/•• Read the In Short or the full version of the text and answer the questions.

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Part One a How did Trevor’s grandparents treat him when he was a child? b What did Trevor think about the treatment he got as a child? c How did he learn so many languages, and in which way did he use them to establish relationships with people he met?

accidentally ved et uhell/ ved eit uhell perforate perforere, lage hull eardrum trommehinne patch up bandasjere, plastre mastah (master) herre perks fordeler/fordelar special treatment spesialbehandling opportunity mulighet/ moglegheit oppressor undertrykker boundary grense mug rane realize forstå chameleon kameleon scholarship stipend racial separation raseskille/ raseskilje aptitude evne, ferdighet/ evne, ferdigheit counselor rådgiver recess her: friminutt playground lekeplass/leikeplass confused forvirret/forvirra segregation raseskille/ raseskilje rescue redde several flere/fleire reply svare cheer heie tribe stamme

Part Two d When and how did Trevor first realize that there was racial segregation in his country? e What did he decide to do when he met the kids in the B class? Why? f What did the school counsellor advise him to do, and how did she explain her views? g How did Trevor feel when he had picked a side? Why? h Why is the text called “Chameleon”? i Use your answers to the questions above to summarize the story.

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8.72 ••• Use your own words to explain what these quotes from the text tell you about Trevor Noah’s childhood. a “There were so many perks to being ‘white’ in a black family.” b “I could champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies.” c “In my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate.” d “I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language.” e “Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if l spoke like you, I was you.” f “I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like.” g “I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time.” h “Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together.” i “This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” j “With the black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was.”

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Practise

8.73 An important part of learning a language is understanding idioms and expressions. Combine the expressions from the text with the correct explanation. to give someone a leg up to stand in the dock to be well versed to mug someone to have a crush to pick a side to hit it off to roll with someone

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

to rob someone to get along well with someone to give someone an advantage over others to go somewhere to have fun with someone to be tried in a court to know a lot about something to choose who you will support or be with to be in love

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8.74 In the text there are several examples of dialogues. Choose one and read it out loud with a partner. Act out the scenes.

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8.75 Discuss the questions in groups. a What is your opinion of the text? b If you were in Trevor Noah’s position, would you choose the A or the B class? Give reasons for your choice and explain what you think is most important when choosing a school. c What is your opinion of the way Trevor’s grandparents treated him? Can you understand their behaviour? Did Trevor understand it? Explain. d Trevor’s mother learned Afrikaans because “it is useful to know the language of your oppressor”. What does that mean, and why was it important in South Africa at the time? e How does speaking languages open up doors for Trevor? Is this true for all people? Share your thoughts and give examples. f Trevor says that “language, even more than color, defines who you are to people”. From your own experience, is this true? What defines our identity? Explain. g Based on what the school counsellor tells Trevor, what does education mean in terms of having good opportunities in life? Do all children who go to school have the same opportunities? h What do you think are the most important themes in this text? Here are some suggestions. Discuss them and give reasons for your choice. childhood – identity – racism – friendship – family – poverty – apartheid – education – language – multi-culturalism – prejudice – tolerance

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8.76 Search for videos from Trevor Noah’s The Daily Show or some of his stand-up performances. a Do you think he is a talended comedian? Give reasons to support your views. b In one episode of The Daily Show Trevor brings a TV team to go see his grandmother in Soweto, South Africa. Watch it and discuss to what extent it supports information from the text.

8.77 For many years South Africa was ruled by a set of laws called apartheid. Use reliable and relevant sources to find out how it worked, what made it possible for the small, white minority to keep their privileges and how the international community contributed to ending this. What does this teach us about democracy? Choose a way to share your findings in class.

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8.78 “Mandela” There are many films about Nelson Mandela (1918–2013), the first black president of South Africa. Listen to Peter who talks about two such films. Which one of them do you think sounds the most interesting? Explain by referring to what Peter says. After listening to Peter, what is your impression of Mandela and his leadership qualities?

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8.79 • Write at least one paragraph where you discuss how quality education can help children in poor areas get better opportunities in life. Use information from “Chameleon” and “Sustainable Development” in this chapter to support your views. Make a list of keywords before you write. Check Chapter 3 for information about structuring paragraphs.

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8.80 •• Write a text where you explain what you think is the message in Trevor Noah’s text “Chameleon”. Make an outline with keywords before you write the text. Check “Discussing literature and film” in Chapter 7 for advice. 8.81 ••• Write a text where you compare the themes in the texts “Chameleon”, “The Hate U Give” and “Black Hoodie” from Chapter 4. Exchange drafts with a partner and give each other constructive feedback before you finish your text. For advice, check the following: • “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 • “Discussing literature and film” in Chapter 7 • “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in chapter 7 • “Referring to sources” in this chapter

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can summarize the story YES

ALMOST

NO

understand and use idioms and expressions from the text YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss themes and ideas in the text YES

ALMOST

NO

share information about South Africa YES

ALMOST

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NO


Look at Africa From her table at a local café, Mma Ramotswe, founder of the No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, observes people and thinks about how her country, Botswana, and its people have changed. That morning she had witnessed a woman scrape the side of a neighbouring car while she tried to park. The woman had stopped, quickly inspected the damage, and had then driven off. Mma Ramotswe had watched this incredulously, and half-risen to her feet to protest, but was too late: the woman’s car had by then turned the corner and disappeared and she did not even have time to see its number-plate.

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Before you start Study the following words. What do they mean? • prosperity • corruption • ignorance • progress

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!

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She had sat down again and poured herself another AIMS cup of tea. It was not true that such a thing could not have happened in the old Botswana – it could – but it was undoubtedly true that this was much more likely to k describe how some African countries have changed over the last decades happen today. There were many selfish people around these days, people who seemed not to care if they k reflect on what prosperity means to people’s lives scraped the cars of others or bumped into people while walking on the street. Mma Ramotswe knew that this is k discuss what it means to be a decent person what happened when towns became bigger and people became strangers to one another; she knew, too, that this was a consequence of increasing prosperity, which, curiously enough, just seemed to bring out greed and selfishness. But even if she knew why all this happened, it did not make it any easier to bear. The rest of the world might become as rude as it wished, but this was not the way of things in Botswana and she would always defend the old Botswana way of doing things.

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But there was no point in throwing up one’s hands in despair. People had always done that – the throwing up of hands, the shrug – but one got nowhere in doing so. The world might have changed for the worse in some respects, but in others it was a much better place, and it was important to remember this. Lights went off in some places, but went on in others. Look at Africa – there had been so much to shake one’s head over – corruption, civil wars, and the rest – but there was also so much which was now much better. There had been slavery in the past, and all the suffering which that had brought, and there had been all the cruelties of apartheid just those few miles away over the border, but all that was now over. There had been ignorance, but now more and more people were learning to write, and were graduating from universities. Women had been held in such servitude, and now they could vote and express themselves and claim lives for themselves, even if there were still many men who did not want such things to be. There were good things that happened and one had to remember them.

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alexander mccall smith

Alexander McCall Smith (1948–) was born in former Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, where he lived until he left to study law in Scotland. Later he taught in Belfast, then at the University of Botswana before returning to Edinburgh to specialize in medical law. He is famous for his numerous novels, for example the series about The No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, which is set in Botswana.

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number-plate nummerskilt pour helle, tømme undoubtedly uten tvil/utan tvil increasing økende/aukande prosperity velstand selfishness egoisme despair mismot shrug skuldertrekk in some respects på noen måter/på nokre måtar civil war borgerkrig/borgarkrig cruelty grusomhet/hjarteløyse ignorant uvitende/uvitande graduate bli uteksaminert servitude underkastelse/ underkasting claim kreve/krevje

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Read and understand

8.82 • Make a list of the things that Mma Ramotswe does not like about present day Botswana. Make a second list of things that she thinks have improved in Africa.

Speak

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8.83 •• Answer the questions. a Why is Mma Ramotswe shocked by the woman in the car? b What does she say happens to people when towns become bigger? c How does prosperity change people, according to Mma Ramotswe? d How has the situation for women changed?

8.84 Later that day Mma Ramotswe meets a friend. She tells about the episode with the car and shares her opinion on prosperity and greed. Her friend wants to know more and disagrees on some points. Act out the scene.

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8.85 Read the list of advice in “How to Be a Decent Person” and discuss the questions. Use the guidelines for debates and discussions in “Arguing a case” in this chapter to get your point across in a clear but friendly way. a One “not-so-decent” point got into the list. Can you find it? b What is your opinion of the list? Which advice is the most important? Is there something missing? c Do you think Mma Ramotswe would agree with this list? Explain. d Is it true that prosperity leads to “greed and selfishness”? Give examples. e What would be the decent thing to do for the driver of the car in the text? What would you do?

How to Be a Decent Person Be open minded. Learn how to forgive. Be honest and kind. Provide support when necessary. Make sure you get the last word. Do not attack others for their beliefs. Don’t exploit the generosity of others. Be grateful and appreciate kindness.

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Practise

8.86 Combine the words with their antonyms, words with an opposite meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

despair undoubtedly increase servitude neighbouring prosperity selfishness cruelty

Explore

far away poverty generosity kindness superiority reduce doubtfully hope

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a b c d e f g h

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8.87 The film “Queen of Katwe” is based on a true story. It depicts the life of Phiona Mutesi, a Ugandan girl growing up in a slum in Katwe. She discovers that she has a talent that changes her life. a Watch the trailer of the film and use other sources for information about Phiona Mutesi and what she does today. Share in class. b Many other Africans have achieved international success in the world of sports and art. How many do you know already? Look for more examples.

Write

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8.88 • Imagine Mma Ramotswe wanted to let the owner of the car know what she had witnessed. Write a note to attach to the car’s front window, with the message you think Mme Ramotswe would share.

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8.89 •• Search for information about places and activities that tourists would want to see and do in Botswana. Write two paragraphs in which you recommend a visit. Use pathos to engage the readers.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how some African countries have changed over the last decades YES

ALMOST

NO

reflect on what prosperity means to people’s lives YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss what it means to be a decent person YES

ALMOST

NO

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your progress

Revise

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8.91 How would you describe your progress in English this year? a How has your vocabulary changed? b What can you do better now than in August? c To what extent are you pleased with your own efforts throughout the year? d How has working with texts and tasks this year helped you prepare for the exam and your future career? Give examples.

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8.90 After working with Chapter 8, it is time to recap and revise what you have learnt. a Choose a text or an illustration from this chapter that you like and explain why. b How many sustainable development goals are there? Which ones do you remember? c How can we handle the problem of plastic in the oceans? Give at least three examples. d What is the situation for many women in India? What is being done to change this? e Mention some challenges African countries face today or have had in the past. To what extent has the situation improved?

8.92 Arguing a case a Explain the words ethos, logos and pathos. b How should you argue in a discussion where you disagree with your opponent? c List the rules for good behaviour in a debate.

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8.93 Referring to sources a What is the difference between quotes and paraphrases? b How do we refer to and list sources? c Why is referring to sources so important? d Which expressions are useful when referring to sources?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Apply your skills

8.94 Speak a • If you were to use this textbook as a source when answering an exam task, how would you refer to it?

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b •• Why is it important to learn about social issues and global challenges in English class? Discuss and give examples in pairs or groups, using advice from “Arguing a case” in this chapter.

8.95 Write a • You are concerned about the pollution and trash in the sea. Write a letter to a state leader in a country of your choice, where you describe the situation and argue for making changes. Use facts from this chapter, formal language and advice from “Arguing a case”.

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c ••• Based on your knowledge of texts and tasks in this chapter, how have events, decisions and habits of the past created challenges for people in different parts of the world today? In your opinion, is it important to know the historical context of an issue to better understand it and find solutions? Discuss in groups.

b •• You have been asked to give a speech on equal rights. Write the manuscript. Use formal language, information from this chapter and other reliable sources. c ••• Create a text where you discuss why children are used as soldiers in armed conflicts. Make sure you use reliable sources, and that you refer to them correctly. Your text should include • an introduction • examples of armed conflicts where children are used as soldiers • possible reasons for the use • how it affects their lives • a conclusion

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA definite article

adjective

adverb

indefinite article

noun

verb

preposition

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noun

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The happy students pose patiently on a red bench.

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adjective


AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB Why Grammar? Words belong to different word classes.

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Words are the building blocks of language learning. You need a certain knowledge of grammar to be able to use the words to communicate clearly.

An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or non-specific (indefinite).

Nouns:

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person.

Verbs:

Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state.

Adjectives:

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

Adverbs:

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens.

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Articles:

Prepositions: Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. Pronouns:

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name.

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Determiners: Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to.

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An important part of grammar is syntax, the set of rules that decide word order and how to structure sentences. Such rules are quite similar in English and Norwegian, but there are important exceptions you should know about.

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Grammar also includes morphology, the knowledge of words and how they are formed. Often, we can add prefixes or suffixes to make new words with a different meaning and of another word class.

In oral communication pronunciation is central to understand other people. On the following pages you will learn the most important rules and how to avoid common errors.

grammar grammatikk word class ordklasse noun substantiv pronoun pronomen determiner bestemmingsord indefinite ubestemt definite bestemt syntax syntaks, ordstilling prefix forstavelse/forstaving suffix endelse/ending

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Articles An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or nonspecific (indefinite). Examples You use a before words that start a new school with a consonant sound.

Indefinite

You use an before words that start with a vowel sound.

an interesting game

You use the about a particular place, thing or person.

She missed the bus.

Definite

1

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Indefinite

Use a or an. a house b empty house c yellow bicycle

Translate these sentences into English. a Vinduet er åpent. b Jeg kan se en grønn ball. c Jeg bor i et gammelt hus. d Det gamle huset er rødt. e Jeg kom en time senere.

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d mean girl e incredibly mean girl f red umbrella

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Nouns

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person. This is a book.

n

Safety is important.

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Pretoria is the capital of South Africa.

sound lyd vowel vokal noun substantiv capital hovedstad/hovudstad author forfatter/forfattar improve forbedre/forbetre

Angie Thomas is an American author.

3

Find the nouns in these sentences. a How do you feel about your new school? b Computer games can improve your language skills. c Many people are inspired by music. d The students will learn many new things this year. e Carol wonders what her new classmates are like. f My mother comes from Perth in Australia.

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Proper nouns A proper noun is the name for a particular person, place or thing. It is written with a capital letter.

proper noun egennavn/ eigennamn capital letter stor bokstav programme area programområde

Sarah has started school. Kavi used to live in Sri Lanka, but now he lives in Norway.

Put capital letters where you think they should be. a This year you will learn english relevant to your programme area. b The script is a band that comes from ireland. c john green has written several novels. d School starts in august. e I took the train to paris.

From singular to plural

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4

one textbook – two textbooks a vase – several vases

Nouns ending in -y When a noun ends in a vowel + -y, you add -s to form the plural form. When a word ends in a consonant + -y, you change the -y to -i and add -es

one key – two keys

Nouns ending in -x, -ch or -s When a noun ends in -x, -ch or -s, you add -es to form the plural.

the box – the boxes the match – the matches the kiss – the kisses

Nouns ending in -f or -fe When a noun ends in -f or -fe, the plural usually ends in -ves.

a leaf – many leaves a wife – two wives a calf – two calves

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Most nouns To make a noun plural, add -s to the singular form.

one baby – two babies

one woman – three women one foot – two feet

Nouns from Latin and Greek Some words from Latin and Greek have irregular plural endings.

a phenomenon – two phenomena a parenthesis – two parentheses

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Irregular plurals Some nouns have an irregular plural form.

money luggage transport a jug of water a piece of advice

Only plural Some nouns are used only in the plural form.

binoculars tights

Collective nouns Collective nouns are used to describe a group of people, animals or things.

a herd of cows the school staff a set of tools

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Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns are nouns that cannot be counted. You do not use a or an in front of these, and they do not have a plural form. You often use a quantifier with an uncountable noun.

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Find the missing words. a one cat – three b one – five lamps c one bird – a flock of d one – a swarm of bees

6

Write the plural forms of these nouns. a one family – two b one way – two c one day – two d one story – two

7

Fill in the plural form. a We have won all our this year. (match) b I don’t know what is in those . (box) c There are many at our school. (class) d The are hiding in the . (fox) (bush)

8

Write the plural forms of these nouns. a one thief – many b one knife – many c one half – two d one wolf – a pack of

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Find the missing words. a one mouse – three b one – five children c one tooth – a full set of d one – four men e one goose – a flock of

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10 Choose the correct plural ending. a criterion – criterions/criteria b analysis – analyses/analysises c hypothesis – hypothesises/hypotheses d bacterium – bacteria/bacteriums e basis – bases/basises f stratum – strata/stratums

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singular entall/eintal plural flertall/fleirtal several flere/fleire swarm sverm pack flokk uncountable utellelig/uteljeleg luggage bagasje quantifier mengdeord binoculars kikkert tights strømpebukser scissors saks crew mannskap staff personale stack stabel remove fjerne

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11 Match each quantifier with the correct noun. a a jar of 1 news b a loaf of 2 honey c a bar of 3 tea d a cup of 4 chocolate e a piece of 5 bread

NOTE TO SELF

12 Choose the correct alternative. a I can’t find my earphones/earphone. b I only have one scissors/one pair of scissors. c I use goggles/a goggle for welding. d The stair/stairs are quite dangerous.

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Furniture means møblement. If you refer to one item, you say a piece of furniture.

Genitive

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13 Translate these sentences into English. a Politiet kommer. b Jeg har kjøpt et nytt verktøysett. c Mannskapet ble reddet da skipet sank. d Personalet gjør en god jobb. e Jeg skal flytte denne stabelen med stoler.

The genitive form shows ownership or belonging. Use ’ + s to show that something belongs to someone. Use the preposition of when the owner is not an animal or a person.

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the cat’s tail

my sisters’ bikes

the days of the week

n

the windows of the house

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14 Choose the correct alternative. a All the children/children’s/child clothes are on the floor. b The windows the school building/the school’s building/of the school building are open. c My mother’s/mothers/mothers’ name is Elsa. d The colour my new car/of my new car/my new car’s is blue. e Thomas’/Thomas’s/Thomases shoes are black.

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Verbs Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state. We use different verb tenses to show when the action took place. I speak English. Sam lives in London.

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Yesterday we met in Liverpool.

15 Find the verbs in the sentences. a Mary likes to go shopping when she visits London. b My parents often drive to Bath to see their friends who own a hotel there. THE PRESENT TENSE There are two present tenses in English. Present simple Present continuous

I speak English. I am speaking with Sam.

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Present simple We use present simple for general information, facts, feelings and things we normally do. Oil floats on water.

I love strawberries.

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I play football every day.

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Present continuous We use the present continuous when an action is going on right now or is planned or in progress at the moment.

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Sam is talking to Linda.

We are going to London this summer. I am learning Spanish this year.

16 Present simple or present continuous? Correct the mistakes. a Hurry up! I wait for you. b Every morning I am waking up at 7 o’clock. c The two men over there talk with my sister. d In the spring the birds are singing beautifully.

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Subject-verb agreement In the present tense the verb must agree with its subject. When the subject is in the 3rd person singular form (he, she or it, or words that can be replaced with he, she or it) we must add an -s - or -ies or -es to the verb I/you love

he/she/it loves

we/you/they love

Subject-verb agreement is also referred to as concord.

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To love:

NOTE TO SELF

I speak English and Sam (=he) speaks Spanish.

My Swedish grandfather’s elder sister (=she) loves strawberries. Nobody knows where Sam is.

Some verbs are irregular.

To be: I am – you are – he/she/it is – we/you/they are

To have: I/you have – he/she/it has – we/you/they have

I try – she tries I wish – she wishes

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I kiss – she kisses

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For verbs that end in -y we use the ending -ies in the 3rd person singular. For verbs that end in -sh, -ch, -s, -x, -z or -o, we use -es.

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17 Fill in the correct present tense form of the verbs. a I listening to music. (love) b Paul being late for work. (hate) c Jane often to New York. (go) d Right now Paul a new car. (test) e One of the boys in my class a new bicycle. (have) f This summer we to Ibiza. (go) g My father often my bike. (fix) h My sister rarely about her homework. (worry) i At the moment I Spanish. (learn) j Be quiet! We to the song. (listen)

state tilstand verb tense verbtid present tense presens present continuous presens samtidsform in progress som pågår/som går føre seg agreement samsvar singular entall/eintal plural flertall/feirtal concord samsvar, overensstemmelse/ samsvar, i samsvar med, overeinskomst irregular uregelrett

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THE PAST TENSE Several verb tenses are used to describe states or actions that took place in the past. The most important ones are: Past simple Past continuous Present perfect

I talked to Sam. I was talking to Sam. I have talked to Sam.

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Past simple We use past simple form of a verb when something happened at a particular time, or over a limited period of time in the past, and no longer takes place. Last Friday I walked to school. NOTE TO SELF To express feelings and thoughts, use the past simple! She hated apples, but she loved donuts.

Sam lived in London when he was younger.

For regular verbs we make the past simple by adding, -ed, -d or -ied. Regular verbs Most regular verbs

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Verbs ending in -e: Verbs ending in consonant and -y: Verbs ending in a vowel and consonant:

play watch like cry slip

played watched liked cried slipped

Most irregular verbs have special forms in the past tenses.

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Some examples of irregular verbs buy bought eat ate know knew make made go went sleep slept swim swam write wrote

Normally there is no subject-verb agreement in the past simple, but there is one exception. To be: I was – you were – he/she/it was – we/you/they were

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Past continuous We use the past continuous when something was happening over a period of time in the past or when something was going on when something else occurred. I was sleeping when Sam called me.

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At 9 o’clock I was still talking to him on the phone.

We make the past continuous from be in the past simple + the -ing form of the main verb. Remember that there is subject-verb agreement for be. To sleep: I was sleeping – you were sleeping – he/she/it was sleeping – we/you/they were sleeping

18 Complete the sentences. a When I called, Mary television. (watch) b When Tom came home, his parents dinner. (make) c At 10 pm Kate a novel. (read) d Last night we our homework. (do)

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Present perfect We use the present perfect tense when something that started in the past is still going on or when we refer to experiences without focusing on when they happened. Sam has lived in London for four years now.

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I have tried bungee jumping twice.

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We make present perfect by using to have in the present tense + the past participle of the main verb. For regular verbs we make the past participle by adding -ed, -d, or -ied. Most irregular verbs have special forms. Remember that there is subject-verb agreement for have. I have talked. He has tried. Thet have bought.

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talk try buy

19 Answer the questions with complete sentences. a Have you ever talked to a famous person? b Have you ever played tennis? c Have you ever eaten pretzels? d Have you ever written a poem?

past fortid particular spesiell limited begrenset/avgrense exception unntak occur inntreffe, skje refer to henvise til/vise til, tilvise past participle perfektum partisipp pretzel salt vannkringle/salt vasskringle

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Imperative We use the imperative form of the verb to give orders and instructions. The imperative form in English is the same as the infinitive form of the verb. Lift the boxes carefully. Shut up and go to bed!

To give orders and still be polite, just add please!

20 Translate into English. a Gi meg blyanten og si meg hva jeg skal skrive. b Kjør forsiktig og vær høflig. c Spis mer vitaminer og lev sunt. d Unngå forurensing og resirkuler glass og papir.

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NOTE TO SELF

21 Work in pairs and give orders and instructions on how to a make a pizza b get from the classroom to the nearest bus stop c operate a gadget, tool or machine you use at school

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The modal auxiliary verbs The main function of modal auxiliary verbs is to express opinion, attitude, probability or certainty. There is no subject-verb agreement for these verbs and they are followed by the infinitive of the main verb. You may go to London.

You should go to London.

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He will go to London.

For questions, place the verb in front of the subject. Can you speak English? For negations, just add not. Anne will not speak Spanish.

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The most common auxiliary verbs and when to use them

Examples

For instructions and can, could ability

He can walk over there. She said he could help me.

For permission and possibility

may, might

You may leave the table. We might go to Brighton.

For obligation and recommendations

must, ought to

You must finish the tasks. He ought to go to London.

For plans and intentions

shall, should, will, would

I shall be there tomorrow at noon. We will always be there for you.

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22 Use modal auxiliary verbs and write what you should say if you … a are planning a trip to Bath this summer b offer to help an old lady across the street c invite a friend to come with you to the USA d need to go to the toilet e intend to come to a party f ask for permission to leave early g recommend a film to a friend h insist that a colleague put on safety equipment

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NOTE TO SELF

The active and passive voice Usually we use the active voice to focus on who does what. However, we may also use the passive voice if we want to focus on what happened to the object in a sentence. Mary wrote a novel The novel was written by Mary

Norwegians tend to use can to ask for permission, while in English could and may are more polite.

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The object of an active sentence becomes the subject of a passive sentence. The passive voice is used to stress certain information and is more common in formal language. Just like the active voice, the passive form can be used in different verb tenses. If we want to include the actual subject, we use by. Past simple: The novel was written in 1889 by a famous American writer.

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Future tense: Mary’s novel will be published next year.

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23 Write these sentences in the passive voice. a John built a house in 1994. b Many people in Kenya speak English. c The firemen extinguished the fire. d I made this cake.

NOTE TO SELF

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The gerund The gerund is a noun made from a verb + -ing. Gerunds do not exist in Norwegian but are very common in English, as the subject in a sentence or after verbs and prepositions. Dancing is fun.

I love dancing. Jane is interested in dancing.

Not all verbs are followed by the gerund. Verbs like want, plan, expect etc. are followed by to + infinitive, as in Norwegian. Check a dictionary if you are uncertain.

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24 Translate the sentences into Norwegian. a Swimming is my favourite spare-time activity. b John often goes fishing after visiting his mother. c Jogging and walking are both healthy activities. d I would like to learn more about working in a safe environment.

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Adjectives

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun. Grammar is very interesting. I am older than you.

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25 Find the adjectives. a 1476 was an important year in the long history of English media. b This was when the famous William Caxton set up the first printing press in England. c He had moved to the Netherlands as a young and adventurous man. d The king was very impressed with Caxton’s remarkable work. Comparing with short adjectives When you compare shorter adjectives, you use the endings -er and -est. My brother is younger than me.

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Omid Djalili is the funniest comedian I know.

Most short adjectives

small – smaller – smallest

Adjectives ending in a consonant + y When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, you change the y to i and add the ending.

angry – angrier – angriest

Adjectives ending in a vowel + a single consonant For some short adjectives which end in a vowel and a single consonant, you double the consonant and add the ending.

hot – hotter – the hottest

Irregular adjectives Some adjectives are irregular.

bad – worse – the worst good – better – the best little – less – the least many – more – the most

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imperative bydeform order ordre modal auxiliary verb hjelpeverb ability evne, det å være i stand til/evne, det å vere i stand til possibility mulighet/ moglegheit obligation forpliktelse/ forplikting recommendation anbefaling intention intensjon, hensikt describe beskrive adventurous eventyrlysten impressed imponert remarkable oppsiktsvekkende/ oppsiktsvekkande

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26 Fill in the missing forms. a Maxine is fast, Susan is and Marie is the . b Tim is tall, Brian is and Sam is the .

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27 Fill in the missing forms. a – happier – the happiest b silly – – the silliest c hungry – hungrier – the 28 Fill in the missing forms. a September was wet, but October was (våtere). b The girl looks sad, but the boy looks (tristere). c My aunt is slim, but my uncle is (slankere). d A zebra is big, but a giraffe is (større). 29 Translate these sentences into English. a Det var den verste dagen i mitt liv. b Det er lengre til Australia enn til England. c Anne er en god spiller, men Iris er bedre.

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Comparing with longer adjectives When you compare longer adjectives you use more and most.

Martin Luther King Jr. was probably more influential than Malcolm X. I think English is the most interesting subject on my timetable.

n

til

30 Choose the right form of the adjective. a The Namibian flag is more colourful/colourfuller than the Danish flag. b Rugby is a more interesting/interestinger sport than cricket. c Lake Baikal is the deepest/most deep lake on our planet. d Botox is one of the most toxic/toxicest chemicals we know. e Neil Armstrong is a famouser/more famous astronaut than James Lovell Jr.

Ku

The order of adjectives When more than one adjective describes a noun, the adjectives are usually in a certain order.

1 2

opinion size

3 4

age shape

5 6

colour origin

7 8

She was wearing a lovely, long, red silk dress. We have just bought a large, square, teak sitting-room table.

material purpose influential innflytelsesrik/ innverknadsrik toxic giftig

SKILLS | Language Lab | 411


rd er in g

31 Choose the correct alternative. a a green, big insect/a big, green insect b a warm, new, woollen coat/a woollen, new, warm coat c a charming, old, china teacup/a china, old, charming teacup d a short, useful, plastic paintbrush/a plastic, useful, short paintbrush e a delicious, big, strawberry ice cream/a strawberry, big, delicious ice cream

Adverbs

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens. It can describe a verb, an adjective or another adverb. The evening passed quickly.

It is a very good idea to learn safety rules really well.

You can make an adverb from an adjective by adding the ending -ly. When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, you remove y and add -ily.

vu

He is grumpy.

He looked at me grumpily.

til

32 Adjective or adverb? Find the mistakes and correct the sentences. a There are a largely number of tourist attractions in New York. b Read the instructions good before you start. c You must drive careful in the wintertime. d The huge crocodile looked at me lazy.

n

Good and well Good is an adjective and well is an adverb.

Ku

She is a good mechanic. She does her work well.

33 Fill in good or well in the sentences below. a Nowadays, we are aware of safety regulations. b Nicole did a job with the paintwork. c In the past, the ways bacteria spread were not understood. d Get soon!

describe beskrive grumpy gretten

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Prepositions

rd er in g

34 Use an adverb instead of an adjective and rewrite the sentences below. Example: Usman is a good football player – Usman plays football well. a She gave a deep sigh. b Usman is an energetic player. c The firefighter had a bad injury. d The patient had a serious shock.

Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. She ran across the road to catch the bus. School starts at 8:30.

Prepositions of place Prepositions of place are words that tell us where something is. The most common prepositions of place are in, on and at.

vu

Prepositions of movement Prepositions of movement show movement from one place to another. You often use them with verbs of motion.

The pencil is on my desk. Right now I am at school. There are ten students in the classroom

til

Prepositions of time Prepositions of time tell us when something happened. The most common prepositions of time are in, on and at. Use in for months, years and longer periods of time. Use on for dates and days. Use at for a specific time.

I walked round the village and took some nice pictures. Get up, you lazy slob!

n

This garden is lovely in the spring. I’m meeting Sharon on Monday. Her bus arrives at 8 pm.

Ku

Fixed expressions with prepositions English has many fixed expressions with I went by plane to London. prepositions. Some examples are: I am not at my best in the at the same time, by car, by accident, for morning. good, in advance, in vain, off duty, on time, I insist on getting paid in advance. out of work, to excess, under repair, with I will learn all these prepositions regard to, within grasp, without exception, by heart. and many, many more. They will stick in my mind for life. I didn’t smash your coffee mug on purpose. At least I did apologise.

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across

into

over

away from

to

rd er in g

down

vu

up

past

out of

through

along

around

Ku

n

til

35 Choose the correct preposition. a I live a house with a garden. b I have always wanted to go Australia. c Alex works a farm. d There is someone the door. e There is a mistake the top of the page.

movement bevegelse verbs of motion bevegelsesverb

36 Choose a suitable preposition. There may be more than one correct answer. a Who is standing Jeremy? b Who is that boy the door? c You should not stand a tree during a thunderstorm. d Our house is a big lake. e She ran the street without looking. f Suddenly, a motorbike came the corner. g The burglars got the building a broken window. h Please take your feet that old mahogany table.

414 | Language Lab | SKILLS


rd er in g

37 Choose the correct preposition. a I have a dentist’s appointment Thursday. b To be there time, I have to get up seven the morning. c I will be there eight, I think. d This building closes nine the evening. e I have to leave five minutes. f I was ill a week. g I will be back a week. 38 Translate these expressions into Norwegian. a Finish these grammar exercises at once. b It is now five o’clock on the dot. c Long skirts are completely out of fashion. d They broke out of prison by means of a small kitchen knife. e We take a happy life for granted.

Pronouns

vu

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name. There are different forms, depending on the word they replace and their function in the sentence. Pronouns are most commonly used to replace words that have been mentioned earlier.

til

Sam loves Mary. – He loves her.

My sister bought Tom’s car. – She bought his car. – She bought it.

Ku

n

Personal pronouns The personal pronouns replace nouns and names that are the subject or the object in a phrase. The purpose is often to avoid repeating nouns and names. Subject pronouns replace the subject. My father likes his car. He likes his car.

Object pronouns replace the object. My father likes his car. My father likes it.

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Singular st

1 person 2nd person 3rd person

Plural

Subject

Object

Subject

Object

I you he, she, it

me you him, her, it

we you they

us you them

rd er in g

39 Replace the nouns and names with a personal pronoun. Translate into Norwegian and compare the sentences. a Alice went ice skating. b The dog ate the sausages. c My friends and I love ice cream. d My teacher talked to John. e The girls invited my sister to the party. f My friends looked at me and my father. Possessive pronouns We use possessive pronouns to show ownership. There are two sets of possessive words. The possessive adjectives are determiners. They are placed before a noun and do not replace it. The possessive pronouns are used alone.

NOTE TO SELF

This is her book. – This book is hers.

Singular

Possessive pronouns (determiners)

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns (determiners)

1st person

my

mine

our

ours

2nd person

your

yours

your

yours

his, her, its

his, hers, its

their

theirs

n

3rd person

Ku

Plural

Possessive adjectives

til

Do not confuse its with it’s or their with they’re or there.

vu

It is my car. – The car is mine.

40 Fill in the correct form of the possessive adjectives and pronouns. a I own this guitar. guitar is a Fender. b Jean has two siblings. brother is called Fred, and sister is called Ann. c John drives own car, while Mary drives . d We like new home.

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41 Complete the answers to the questions. a Alice, is this your phone? Yes, it’s . b Do your parents own these horses? Yes, they are . c Do you and Pete own this flat? Yes, it is . d Does Sally own these shoes? Yes, they are .

I cut myself on the saw. We told ourselves to work harder.

st

1 person 2nd person 3rd person

rd er in g

Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject in a phrase, when the subject of an action is the same as its object. Only certain verbs are always reflexive; some can be used both with and without reflexive pronouns.

Singular

Plural

myself yourself himself, herself, itself

ourselves yourselves themselves

vu

42 Fill in the correct reflexive pronoun in the sentences. a Sarah blames for the accident. b My friends hurt on the tools. c Tom found in a difficult situation. d Did you see in the mirror this morning? (two possible answers)

n

til

Relative pronouns In Norwegian there is one relative pronoun, som, while in English there are several. Who is used about people, and which about animals and things. If the information in the relative clause is necessary to identify the person or thing in question, we use that. My sister, who is working in a café, earns £15 per hour.

The girl that almost drowned is my sister.

Ku

My new car, which is parked outside, was rather expensive.

The tools that I bought yesterday are sharp.

When referring to a whole sentence, use which. I finally found my dog, which made me very happy.

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Whom and whose are also relative pronouns. Whose is the possessive form of who. Whom is the object form of who but is also used after prepositions and instead of who in formal language. My sister, whose car was stolen, just bought a new Ferrari. The boy whom we met in London is from Dublin.

If you can replace the relative pronoun with he or she, use who; if you can replace it with him or her use whom in formal language.

My friends, with whom I spent the weekend, left for London today.

DETERMINERS Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. Some examples are articles (a, the), numbers (one, two), possessive adjectives (my, his), distributives (all, both, every) and more. Here we will look at two such groups.

rd er in g

NOTE TO SELF

Demonstratives The demonstratives this, that, these, those are used to show if something is near or further away. This pizza is mine, and that pizza is yours.

Those books are less interesting than these books. Plural

this that

these those

vu Near Far

Quantifiers Quantifiers are words that indicate amounts of things. We use some and any for an indefinite amount, every to include all and no when there is nothing.

til

NOTE TO SELF

Singular

I would like some tea, but no milk.

Ku

n

When we ask for something we use any if we don’t know the answer, but some if we expect a yes. “May I have some tea? Do you have any sugar?”

We can combine the quantifiers -some -any -every and -no with -body -thing and -one. Use the 3rd person singular of the verbs with such words. Nobody has entered the building, but there is somebody in there. Everyone was listening to the teacher, but no one took notes.

43 Fill in the correct demonstratives and quantifiers in the sentences. a girl over there is Samantha. b Can you see boys over there? c Is your bike or is it one over there?

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d e f g h

cake over there looks much better than old cakes here. May I have bread with my soup please? I can’t see people on the beach. I need to speak to girl in class about this issue. John has idea about who stole his car.

rd er in g

44 Translate into English. a Alle liker ost men ingen spiser fisk. b Det har vært noen i huset, men ingenting har blitt stjålet.

replace erstatte purpose hensikt repeat gjenta possessive pronoun eiendomspronomen/ eigedomspronomen ownership eierskap/eigarskap determiners bestemmelsesord/ bestemmingsord reflexive pronoun refleksivt pronomen relative clause relativsetning distributives konjunksjon som fordeler størrelser/ konjunksjon som fordeler størrelsar demonstrative pekeord/ peikeord quantifier mengdesord/ mengdeord

Spelling and Commonly Confused Words

English can be a rather confusing language; it has many words with almost the same spelling or pronunciation. Also, since English and Norwegian have some of the same origins, words often resemble each other, but sometimes they have a different meaning.

vu

Here are some of the most commonly confused or misspelled words for Norwegian users of English. Words that resemble each other Example

She gave me a piece of advice. She said it aloud.

bear (noun, animal or verb, support or endure) desert (a dry place) effect (noun)

I can’t bear to see this. There is a bear behind that tree.

n

til

advice (noun) aloud (out loud)

Ku

The Sahara desert is huge.

farther (physical distance) lie (recline)

Example

advise (verb) allowed (permitted) bare (adjective, naked)

She advised me to leave. No swimming allowed.

dessert (food)

I love ice cream for dessert. Food affects your health.

Food has an effect on your health. He walked farther than me.

affect (verb)

I lie down on the coach.

lay (place something)

further (abstract)

He walked with bare feet.

I need further information. I lay the books on the table.

SKILLS | Language Lab | 419


Words that are often confused by learners of English Example She can speak English.

may (be allowed to)

May I say something?

follow (go behind)

I follow if you lead.

accompany (go together)

I accompany you to the theatre.

for (still going on)

I have lived here for two years.

ago (in the past)

I lived there two years ago.

lend (give to)

I can lend you my bike.

borrow (get from)

Could I borrow you bike, please?

rd er in g

can (be able to)

teach (instruct)

Jean teaches English learn I learned English to children. (get knowledge) last year.

I think you should think come. (ponder or share opinion)

NOTE TO SELF In English we say “Yes please” and “No thanks”.

who (people)

The man who lives next door is French.

mean (intend or explain meaning) which (things)

That’s not what I mean.

The car which is parked outside, is French.

til

vu

45 Choose the correct alternative. a I wonder if you can me on this issue. (advice/advise) b Are we to go into this room? (aloud/allowed) c There is a big, brown lurking behind the house. (bear/bare) d John’s head is completely . (bear/bare) e Sorry, I not dance. (can/may) f She loves all kinds of , but especially fruit salad. (desert/dessert) g I think too much gaming has a bad on my friend. (affect/effect) h Jane ran and faster than all the boys in class. (farther/further) i I told the children to me to the playground. (follow/accompany) j After playing the drums four years, he left the band two years . (ago/for) k I cannot you my car next weekend, but my sister says you can hers. (lend/borrow) l Mary promised to the table, but first she had to down on the bed for a while. (lie/lay) m I want to how to play an instrument, so I have asked Pete to me to play the guitar. (teach/learn) n I don’t I’m stupid, but I really don’t understand what you by this. (think/mean) o I just met the man owns the boat was stolen last week. (that/who)

n

Ku

Example

420 | Language Lab | SKILLS


Words that are often misspelled Example

Example

Example

To be or not to be

too This is too much. two (2) (excessively, also)

I have two sisters.

where (location)

Where are you?

we’re (we are)

We’re late.

were (be in the past tense)

They were out.

there (location)

There you are.

they’re (they are)

They’re late.

their (ownership)

It’s their car.

rd er in g

to (preposition and infinitive)

Example It’s late.

its (ownership)

The car lost its wheel.

he’s (he is)

He’s late.

his (ownership)

He lost his shoes.

who’s (who is)

Who’s there?

whose (ownership)

Whose car is this?

which (question word, pronoun)

Which car is yours?

witch (bad lady)

The witch gave Snow White an apple.

then (time)

First he got up, then he had breakfast.

than (comparison)

He is taller than me.

lose (not win)

They often lose the matches.

loose (not tight)

I love my loose sweater.

hear (verb)

I can hear the music.

here (place)

I am here with my friends.

meat (noun)

I rarely eat meat for dinner.

meet (verb)

Meet me outside.

break (crush, pause)

She breaks the cup during brake (car part) lunch break.

The brakes failed.

til

vu

it’s (it is)

Example

Ku

n

46 Choose the correct alternative. a These sandwiches are far much for me, would you like have some? (to/too/two) b looking for the girls who here yesterday. Do you know they are? (where/were/we’re) c in car over . (there/they’re/their) d clear that this school takes good care of students. (it’s/its) e Tom lost watch and looking for it now in the garden. (his/he’s) f house is this and that lady at the window? (who’s/whose) g The old lady said she was a but she would not tell us magic tricks she uses. (which/witch) h Our palace was smaller yours, but we built a new section on the west wing. (then/than) i I didn’t want to the boat race but the propeller was . (loose/lose) j Come over , I can’t you. (here/hear) k I bought the in the market where you your sister every Monday. spelling rettskriving pronunciation uttale (meet/meat) origin opphav l If you don’t now you will fall and your legs. (break/brake)

misspelled feilstavet/feilstava

SKILLS | Language Lab | 421


Word Formation and Morphology

English is a very flexible language and there are many ways to make new words. boycott from Charles Boycott saxophone from Adolphe Sax marathon from the Greek city

rd er in g

Eponyms Some words are made from the names of people and places.

Compounding Compounds are longer words made from two or more shorter ones. Compounds can be written as one word, as two words with a hyphen or flowerpot as two words with a space in between. part-time Clipping Some words have been made by shortening longer ones.

vu

Blending A blend is made by combining the parts and meanings of words.

Frankenstein + food p Frankenfood: genetically modified food Spanish + English p Spanglish: a mixture of spoken English and Spanish

United States of America p USA

Conversion Sometimes a word changes its grammatical function.

a text (noun) p to text (verb)

Derivation With derivation you can make new words from existing ones. You can add one or more prefixes to the beginning of a word or a root, and suffixes to the end of it. In this way you can change the meaning and the grammar of a word.

Un + im + port + ant + ly De+ port + ment Trans + port + ed De + port + ation

til

Acronyms Acronyms are made from the first letters of words.

n

Ku

zoological garden – zoo examination – exam

47 Find out the names of the people that the words below are based on. a diesel b hooligan c sandwich d nicotine

hooligan pøbel part-time deltid

422 | Language Lab | SKILLS


48 Match the words in the two columns to make compound words. 1

pool

B swimming

2

place

C cross-

3

port

D fire

4

over

A

air

rd er in g

49 What is the shortened form of the words below? a laboratory b omnibus c refrigerator

50 Match words, or parts of them, in column A with words in column B to create blends. B

documentary

alcoholic

global

analyzer

breath

drama

work

angry

hungry

English

vu

A

til

51 Find the acronyms. a light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation b radio detection and ranging c self-contained underwater breathing apparatus d acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Ku

n

52 Translate these sentences into Norwegian. a She unfriended me on Facebook. b Brian downed a beer. c They partied all night.

53 Which words are the underlined verbs in the previous task based on? 54 Underline the prefixes in these words and explain what they mean. a unusual b disappeared c bilingual d international

SKILLS | Language Lab | 423


55 Underline the suffixes in these words and explain what they mean. a useless b excitement c adorable d courageously

rd er in g

Punctuation Sentences A sentence has a subject and a verb and is a complete unit of meaning. S

V

She laughed.

There are four main types of sentences. Notice the use of the different punctuation marks. Declarative sentences make a statement and end with a full stop.

Mars has two moons.

?

Interrogative sentences ask a question and end with a question. mark (?).

Do you think people will travel to Mars any time soon?

!.

Imperative sentences make a request or give a command and end with an exclamation mark or a full stop.

Hand me the hammer, please. Get out of here!

Exclamatory sentences express strong feelings and end with an exclamation mark.

What a great day we had!

. = full stop

.

! = exclamation mark , = comma ’= apostrophe

til

“…” = inverted commas

vu

? = question mark

!

Ku

n

56 Use the correct punctuation mark. a What day is it today b What horrible weather c You must wear warm clothes when it is cold outside d It’s not fair e My book is on the table f What do you think?

punctuation tegnsetting/ teiknsetting exclamation utrop statement påstand

424 | Language Lab | SKILLS


The comma From my window I can see a car, a lorry, two motorbikes and a bus.

When you start a sentence with words like No, Well, Still, However, you use a comma after it.

Well, I hated every page of that awful book!

You need a comma before words like and, but, for, or, nor, so and yet when you make one long sentence from two or more short ones.

I cleaned the car. You polished the hub caps. I cleaned the car, but you polished the hub caps.

When there is information in a sentence that is not necessary for the main idea, you use commas to separate this information.

The mechanic told us the spare parts would arrive next week. The mechanic, shrugging his shoulders, told us the spare parts would arrive next week.

rd er in g

You use a comma between the different items in a list. When the items in the list are linked by and or or, you do not need a comma.

vu

57 Place commas where you think they should be. a The waitress smiling politely asked us all to sit down. b For my birthday I got a new watch a pair of gloves a scarf and an exciting computer game. c I cleared the table but you did the dishes. d No I think you should apologize. e I would like a burger some fries a green salad and a glass of water please.

It is gone. It’s gone.

til

Contractions You use an apostrophe (’) in contracted forms where there are letters missing. They will not return. They won’t return.

Ku

n

58 Write the contracted forms and put the apostrophes where they should be. a You should not believe everything you hear. b Do not listen to him. c Does she not like fish? d Can you not keep still for one second?

shrug heve på shoulder skulder waitress servitør politely høflig/høfleg gloves hansker/hanskar do the dishes vaske opp

SKILLS | Language Lab | 425


Direct and indirect speech In direct speech we use inverted commas (“…”) and write the exact words someone says. Use another punctuation mark before the second inverted comma. “Where is the school nurse’s office?” asked Susan.

rd er in g

“It’s just up the stairs, second door on the left,” replied Kim.

59 There are at least 10 mistakes with punctuation marks and capital letters in the text below. Find and correct them. “theres nothing I can do said Annes mum. “are you sure,” Replied Anne. “I dont understand.” Said her mum. “i think you do”

In indirect speech we do not use the exact words someone says. We refer to the speaker and report what is said. Often the verb tense also needs to be changed. Susan asked where the school nurse’s office was.

vu

Kim replied that it was just up the stairs, second door on the left.

Ku

n

til

60 Change these sentences into direct speech. a He said he had been a mechanic for many years. b Bill told Jamie to get his bike. c Maxine said it wasn’t fair to blame the cat.

426 | Language Lab | SKILLS

61 Change these sentences into indirect speech. a “What day is it today?” Sue asked. b “Tomorrow will be a sunny day,” Jeremy said happily. c “Math is such a fun subject!” Elsie exclaimed.


Word order

Sentence structure in English is similar to the sentence structure in Norwegian. In a declarative sentence the structure will be subject + verb + object in both languages. If you change the word order you will change the meaning of the sentence. V

O

Bob hit Miles.

S

V

O

Miles hit Bob.

62 Place the words in the correct order. a car A has a wheel. steering b You juice. drink a of glass c library. I to the went

rd er in g

S

In subordinate clauses the subject comes before the verb.

vu

When we came back, Bob had already left.

Unlike in Norwegian, short adverbs like sometimes, often and never will be placed before the verb.

til

Bob never hits Miles, but sometimes they have loud arguments.

When a sentence starts with a negative adverb the verb will be placed before the subject.

n

Not until yesterday did I realize that Bob is such an unpleasant person.

Ku

63 Place the adverbials correctly in these sentences. a Elsie forgets her assignments. (never) b I visit my friends. (often) c I spend my money on sweets. (rarely) d I am in bed by 11 pm. (always)

SKILLS | Language Lab | 427


When you ask a question, the verb will come before the subject. Do you realize what an unpleasant person Bob is? Do you know if he has always been like that?

rd er in g

64 Make questions to fit these answers. Start each question with the words Do you … a I like fish. b I don’t remember Miles at all. c I wish I were rich. d I think grammar is necessary.

Modifiers A modifier is a word or phrase that adds description and detail in sentences. Modifiers are usually adverbials. They must be correctly placed in the sentence so that they are clearly linked to the words they describe. Wrong: Drenched in chocolate fudge sauce, the waiter brought our ice creams. Right: The waiter brought our ice creams, drenched in chocolate fudge sauce.

til

vu

65 Correct these sentences. a High up on the wall we could see the beautiful, old paintings. b Printed on small notices, Mary read the information about each painting. c Susan got all the information about the old masterpieces that she needed. d Remember to take out the water bottles from your bag that you want.

Pronunciation

Ku

n

English words may be pronounced very differently from how they are spelled, and it is not always easy to guess how to say a word that you see in print. Here are some useful rules. Consonant sounds English has many of the same consonant sounds that Norwegian has, and these will cause us few problems. English also has some additional consonant sounds, for example ch, w and th. They will need a little extra practice.

Vowel sounds a, e, i o, u are the vowel sounds found in English. These vowel sounds can be either long or short. A long vowel will be pronounced the way you would say the name of the letter. 428 | Language Lab | SKILLS


Diphthongs A diphthong is a sound where one vowel blends into another vowel in the same syllable. oily, safety

rd er in g

The syllable A syllable is one unit of sound or writing. It must have a vowel. The syllable may also contain one or more consonants. A syllable is sometimes called the “beat” of a spoken language. eth-i-cal, prob-lem

Pronounciation rules

A vowel sound followed by a single consonant at the end of a word will be pronounced as a short vowel.

mad, bid, pet, slim

Rule 2

If there is a silent e at the end of a word, the vowel sound before it will be pronounced as a long vowel.

made, bide, Pete, slime

Rule 3

If a vowel is followed by two consonants at the end of a word, the vowel will be pronounced as a short vowel.

hand, bids, pets

Rule 4

If there is a vowel at the end of a word, it will be pronounced as a long vowel.

cargo, also

Rule 5

If there is a consonant after a vowel in the middle of a word, this consonant is the first sound in the next syllable.

la-ter (not lat-er), ba-by (not bab-y)

Rule 6

When there are two consonants after a vowel in the middle of a word, the first consonant will be pronounced at the end of the first syllable. The second consonant will be the first sound in the next syllable.

in-fant (not inf-ant) en-sure (not ens-ure)

til

vu

Rule 1

Ku

n

Stressed and unstressed syllables Spoken English uses stressed and unstressed syllables. It is a good idea, especially as you work on your vocational vocabulary, to note which is the stressed syllable in new words you learn. Sometimes stress distinguishes between words. desert – desert, addict – addict, protest – protest

In these examples, the first word in each pair is a noun. The second word is a verb.

Unstressed syllables in English will be pronounced much less clearly than stressed syllables. In rapid speech they may almost disappear.

SKILLS | Language Lab | 429


Intonation The way the voice rises and falls in speech is called intonation.

rd er in g

Falling intonation Falling intonation is when the voice falls on the final stressed syllable of a group of words or on a phrase. This intonation is often used when someone asks a question starting with a word beginning in wh.

Where is the nearest pharmacy? When is your appointment?

We also use falling intonation in sentences when we want to be clear or definite about something.

NOTE TO SELF Whatever accent or standards you choose, try to be consistent.

On this X-ray we can see a fractured clavicle.

Rising intonation Rising intonation is very often used to ask a yes/no question.

vu

Are you feeling OK?

Is that the new assistant?

til

Accents, dialects and standards English is spoken on every continent and there may be great differences in pronunciation, intonation and vocabulary between the various dialects and standards.

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Speakers of American English (as well as some British dialects) will pronounce the r sound in all words. British English will generally not pronounce the r, for example in words like car and market. The short a sound may also be pronounced differently in American and British English. In American English the words ant and aunt may sound almost the same.

In the Caribbean, the regional varieties of English are easily recognizable. Typically, the th sound will be pronounced t in think, but as d in that. It is common to skip final consonant sounds, e.g. respeck instead of respect. Wherever English is spoken as a second language or as an official language, it will be influenced by other languages spoken in the area, both in terms of pronunciation and intonation.

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66 Pronounce these words. Look up words you are not sure of. a hat – hate b tape – tap c net – neat d bit – bite e hop – hope f cube – cub g cope – cop h not – note

67 In a foreign language we need especially to practise the sounds not found in our mother tongue. Work in pairs and practise saying these tongue twisters to each other. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood.

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A tree toad loved a she-toad, Who lived up in a tree. He was a three-toed tree toad, But a two-toed toad was she. The three-toed tree toad tried to win, The two-toed she-toad’s heart, For the three-toed tree toad loved the ground, That the two-toed tree toad trod. But the three-toed tree toad tried in vain. He could not please her whim. From her tree toad bower, With her two-toed power, The she-toad vetoed him.

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Which are the sounds that cause particular problems for us?

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68 Find out how to pronounce these words correctly. Take note of which syllable the stress is on. a perseverance e laboratory b advertisement f vegetable c Worcestershire g thoroughly d exaggerate h deteriorate 69 How can you recognize an American accent? Listen to a sample and decide what makes it sound American to you.

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Acknowledgements

From Boy: Tales of Childhood by Roald Dahl © The Roald Dahl Story Company Ltd. Publishers: Jonathan Cape Ltd & Penguin Books Ltd. Reprinted by permission of Daivd Higham Associates Ltd.

From Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda by Becky Albertalli (Penuin Books 2015). Copyright © Becky Albertalli 2015.

“Nothing on This page is real” by Eli Saslow. From The Washington Post © 2018. The Washington Post. All rights reserved. Used under license. From Black Hoodie by Roddy Doyle. Published by Vintage. Reprinted by permission of The Random House Group Limited. © 2008

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From 61 Hours by Lee Child

From I hate myselfie by Shane Dawson. Copyright © 2015 by Shane Dawson tv, Inc. Reprinted with the permission of Keywords Press/Atria, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. All rights reserved.

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“Hall of Fame” Words & Music by William Adams, Mark Sheehan, Daniel O’Donoghue & James Barry. © Copyright 2012 Universal Music-Z Tunes llc/bmg Sapphire Songs/I Am Composing llc/Madnotes Production Ltd. bmg Rights Management (us) llc/Concord Music Publishing llc/Kobalt Music Publishing Limited. All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. Used by permission of Hal Leonard Europe Limited.

“Maybe You Should Know Something About Me” from Slam by Nick Hornby 2007. Reprinted with permission of The Random House Group Ltd. © Nick Hornby

From The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas. Copyright Text © 2017 Angela Thomas. Reproduced by permission of Walker Books Ltd, London SE11 5HJ. www.walker.co.uk

“Look” from You Don’t Even Know Me: Stories and poems about boys Copyright 2010 © by Sharon G. Flake. Published by agreement with Licht & Burr Literary Agency Copenhagen and Jennifer Lyons Agency, LLC.

From Convenience Store Woman by Sayaka Murata, translated by Ginny Tapley Takemori. Reprinted by permission of Granta Books.

“Does My Head Look Big In This?” Text Copyright © Randa Abdel-Fattah, 2005. Reproduced with the permission of Scholastic Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

From Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine by Gail Honeyman. © 2018 Gail Honeyman. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.

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Adiós Hydraulics by Elliot Hetster

“Boy A” by Jonathan Trigell. Reprinted by permission from Profile Books, London.

From Working Days by Lois Metzger

From The Lost Flowers of Alice Hart by Holly Ringland. Reproduced with permission of the Licensor through PLSclear.

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From The Temp by Serena Mackesy. Published by Cornerstone. Reprinted by permission of The Random House Group Limited. © 1998 Extracts from My Mother the Crazy African by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Copyright © Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie 2009, used by permission of The Wylie Agency (uk) Limited. From The Hockey Sweater and Other Stories by Roch Carrier, copyright © 1979 House of Anansi Press. Translated by Sheila Fischmann. Reproduced with permission. www.houseofanansi.com

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From https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/poverty/; https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/hunger/; https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/education/ and https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/gender-equality/. © 2019 United Nations. Used with the permission of the United Nations.

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“Women in India” by Deepa Narayan, from The Guardian, July 2018, abridged version. Used with permission. “Home” By Warsan Shire, copyright © 2014. Reprinted by permission of the author

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“Look at Africa” from In the Company of Cheerful Ladies by Alexander McCall Smith. Reprinted with permission of David Higham UK. Excerpt(s) from Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood by Trevor Noah, copyright © 2016 by Trevor Noah. Used by permission of Spiegel & Grau, an imprint of Random House, a division of Penguin Random House llc. All rights reserved.

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© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2020 2. utgave, 1. opplag Denne boka er en del av læreverket Skills Salg, service og reiseliv. Læreverket dekker målene i læreplan for engelsk Vg1 YF etter LK20. Printed by GPS Group, Slovenia, 2020 ISBN 978-82-05-52345-6

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Forfatterne har mottatt stipend fra Det faglitterære forfatterfond, www.nffo.no

Gyldendal Norsk Forlag ASA is grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given permission for the use of copyright material. As it has proved impossible to identify all material used, the publisher would welcome information from the copyright owners.

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Materialet i denne boka er beskyttet etter åndsverklovens bestemmelser. Enhver kopiering, avfotografering eller annen form for eksemplarframstilling og tilgjengeliggjøring av materialet i denne boka er kun tillatt dersom det finnes lovhjemmel eller er inngått særskilt avtale med Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS.

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Utnytting i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning, og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Alle henvendelser om forlagets utgivelser kan rettes til: Gyldendal Undervisning Redaksjonen for videregående skole Postboks 6860 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo E-post: undervisning@gyldendal.no www.gyldendal.no/undervisning Alle Gyldendals bøker er produsert i miljøsertifiserte trykkerier. Se www.gyldendal.no/miljø

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Bilderedaktør: NTB (Hege Røyert, Johanna Figur Waddington og Ingrid Ellingsen) Illustrasjoner: Lotte Thori: side 14 Nova M. Lie: side 19, 67ø, 67nv, 67nh, 71, 73, 81, 95, 120, 215n, 267, 274, 145, 335, 357n Gerd Eng Kielland: side 26v, 157n, 158m, 185øv, 258, 308nv, 318øh, 328øh, 363øv, 379øv, 379nh Sandra Wilmann: side 294m Ingrid Rognstad: side 75n

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320øh: Ingus Kruklitis / Shutterstock, 320øv: Shutterstock, 321øh: camac / Alamy / ImageSelect, 321øv: Shutterstock, 322: Glowimages / Alamy / Imageselect, 328: stockstudioX / E+ / Getty Images, 328øv: Ton Koene / agefotostock / Picture Point, 329nv: Jim West / Alamy / ImageSelect, 329: Marcin Szymczak / Shutterstock, 329øh: Shutterstock, 329nh: Shutterstock, 330øv: Anthony C Gibson / rex / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 330øh: Shutterstock, 331øh: Cayman / Alamy / ImageSelect, 331øv: Shutterstock, 331øm: Shutterstock, 331m: Shutterstock, 336: Roman Kosolapov / Shutterstock, 340n: Microsoft Flight Simulator, 340m: Rockstar Games, 340ø: Square Enix Limited, 341: Nicescene / Shutterstock, 344: skaman306 / Moment / Getty Images, 346n: FN, 346ø: FN, 347ø: FN, 347m: FN, 347n: FN, 349a: FN, 349b: FN, 349c: FN, 349d: FN, 349f: FN, 349g: FN, 349h: FN, 351: Jose Luis Pelaez Inc / DigitalVision / Getty Images, 352: FabioFilzi / E+ / Getty Images, 357ø: Shutterstock, 361: Xinhua / Sipa USA / NTB, 362n: Shutterstock, 362: Tim Graham / Getty Images News, 362ø: Zvonimir Atletic / Shutterstock, 363nh: GU-arkiv, 363nv: Saurav022 / Shutterstock, 363øh: Shutterstock, 364h: OlgaCanals / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 364v: Shutterstock, 365v: Janniche Langseth, 365m: Peter Schickert / ImageSelect, 365h: Shutterstock, 366: Valerie Armstrong / Alamy / ImageSelect, 369: Scotty Robson Photography / Moment / Getty Images, 370: TCD / Prod.DB / Alamy / ImageSelect, 373: Kim Kyung-Hoon / Reuters / NTB, 374: Giannis Papanikos / Shutterstock, 377: Harper Collins Publishers, 378v: Blaine Harrington III / Alamy / ImageSelect, 378h: Torkil Adsersen / Ritzau Scanpix / NTB, 379nv: Athit Perawongmetha / Reuters / NTB, 379øh: Zeljkosantrac / E+ / Getty Images, 382: Sunshine Seeds / Shutterstock, 387: Jeff Schear / Stringer / Getty Images Entertainment, 391ø: Allstar Picture Library / Alamy / ImageSelect, 391n: TCD / Prod.DBAlamy / ImageSelect, 392: Film Afrika Worldwide / BBC / Mirage Enterprises / Album / ImageSelect, 395n: Shutterstock, 395ø: Walt Disney Pictures / courtesy Everett Collection / NTB, 398: Henrik Sorensen / DigitalVision / Getty Images, 402n: Shutterstock, 402ø: Taviphoto / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 404n: AntonioGuillem / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 404ø: Shutterstock, 405: Shutterstock, 406: Shutterstock, 407: FluxFactory / E+ / Getty Images, 408: Shutterstock, 410: Shutterstock, 412: Shutterstock, 413: Shutterstock, 414: Shutterstock, 417: Shutterstock, 420: Shutterstock, 426: Simon Belcher / Imagebroker / NTB, 431: Shutterstockck


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