SKILLS, Informasjonsteknologi og medieproduksjon

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Antigua & Barbuda Jamaica Trinidad & Tobago Bermuda Grand Cayman Islands Montserrat St. Kitts & Nevis St. Vincent & Grenadines The Falkland Islands Virgin Islands (US & British)

ENGLISH IS THE FIRST LANGUAGE

Boston

MAINE

MASSACHUSETTS RHODE ISLAND CONNECTICUT NEW JERSEY MARYLAND DELAWARE WASHINGTON D.C.

The United States The United Kingdom The Republic of Ireland Canada Australia Guyana New Zealand Barbados Grenada The Bahamas

NEW YORK

PENNSYLVANIA

New York

Philadelphia

VIRGINIA WEST VIRGINIA

PACI F I C OCEAN

The Falkland Islands

ATL A N TI C OCEA N

Bermuda The Bahamas Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Antigua & Barbuda Dominica Barbados Gambia Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Guyana Guinea-Bissau Liberia Ghana Nigeria Cameroon

Namibia Botswana South Africa

Malta

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I N DI AN OC EAN

Singapore

India

Belize Botswana Ghana Gambia Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar

Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone South Africa Tanzania

Uganda Zambia Malta Fiji Hong Kong India Singapore Pakistan

ENGLISH IS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

Mauritius Madagascar Zimbabwe Swaziland Lesotho

Uganda Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Zambia Malawi

Pakistan

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The Republic of Ireland

The United Kingdom

ATL A N TI C OCE AN

IC H

Charlotte

NORTH CAROLINA OHIO

Detroit

Belize Grand Cayman Islands Jamaica

The United States of America

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Chicago

WISCONSIN MINNESOTA

IOWA

Indianapolis

KENTUCKY

Nashville

TENNESSEE

ILLINOIS INDIANA

MISSOURI

ARKANSAS

SOUTH CAROLINA MISSISSIPPI GEORGIA ALABAMA

Jacksonville

Canada

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NORTH DAKOTA

SOUTH DAKOTA

NEBRASKA

KANSAS

OKLAHOMA

Ku TH E ENGLI S H - SP EAK IN G WO R L D

MONTANA

WYOMING

Denver

S

Oklahoma City

A

LOUISIANA

AN

Cameroon Philippines Zimbabwe Dominica Puerto Rico St. Lucia Swaziland Papua New Guinea

Australia

Fiji

New Zealand

Papua New Guinea

Philippines

PAC I F I C OC EAN

R

O

F L I C A

WASHINGTON

IDAHO

UTAH

COLORADO

NEW MEXICO

X

Houston

FLORIDA ONT NEW HAMPSHIRE

Seattle

Portland

OREGON

Las Vegas

NEVADA

A

ARIZONA

Phoenix

T E

San Antonio

IG

San Francisco

N

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Los Angeles

San Diego

ALASKA

HAWAII VERM


Gro Lokøy • Janniche Langseth • Hege Lundgren • Sidsel Hellesøy

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SKILLS

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INFORMASJONSTEKNOLOGI OG MEDIEPRODUKSJON

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Engelsk for yrkesfag vg1

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Bokmål og Nynorsk


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SKILLS is a series of textbooks and digital resources, specifically tailored for your education programme. Each book has 8 chapters. The texts and tasks will make sure you work with all the competence aims in the curriculum.

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Using SKILLS Chapters 1, 2, 5 and 6 focus on topics that are relevant for your education programme and that will prepare you for an international workplace.

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Chapters 3, 4, 7 and 8 focus on general topics such as life skills and challenges, democracy and citizenship, cultural expressions and global perspectives.

CHAPTER 5

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Each chapter opens with useful information to help you prepare for the topics you will meet.

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Tools and Techniques

2

In this chapter you will focus on k tasks, tools and equipment within Crafts, Design and Product Development or Hairdressing, Floral and Retail Design

k design, creativity and

traditional handicrafts

k using listening strategies

Main focus: topics, skills and language

k giving an oral presentation k pronouns and determiners

Relevant words and phrases

Useful words and phrases furniture jewellery dyeing petals sketches fabric costumes traditions craftsmanship backdrop

What kind of equipment is important within design and crafts?

Questions for reflection and discussion

Why is accuracy an important personal quality in such trades?

201


In an intelligent home you can programme your kitchen stove to bake bread while you’re at work, and then greet you with a tasty smoothie when you come home. With a network of intelligent furniture, your home will adapt to your needs. Your smart bed will know when your alarm clock should wake you up. Your intelligent bathroom mirror will show you the latest news headlines and your messages, before informing you about your health condition.

IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

AIMS

A concept that covers both modern design and technological components is intelligent furniture. Creative design and traditional crafts, combined with technical innovations, make it possible to create long-lasting, multifunctional furniture for the future.

k reflect on the future of crafts and

STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS

k share information about modern

When you build a paragraph, follow these four steps:

design

technology

Listing ideas

1 Write a topic sentence. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph, and lets the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence can be a statement or a question.

Robots are already an important part of industrial production and intelligent self-driving vehicles already exist in many places, as do robot vacuums and lawn mowers. Today’s domestic robots can only perform simple tasks, but scientists are working on new models with artificial intelligence. The question is, does this evolution make our life easier, or does it also make us more vulnerable? An interesting technique for future artists and designers is digital fabrication. Already, 3D printers are used to create sculptures, instruments, furniture, buildings and other everyday objects. Shoe manufactures can produce 3D-printed, customized footwear from ocean plastic waste, designers can print jewellery in silver and gold, and contractors can build 3D-printed buildings of concrete. So far, digital fabrication methods are expensive, but with these new opportunities and unprecedented level of precision we have only seen the beginning of this new era in production and design.

278 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS

A supporting sentence comes after the topic sentence. Supporting sentences give facts, details and examples to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. There is usually more than one supporting sentence in a paragraph.

3 Write a closing sentence. The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It repeats the main idea of your paragraph but using different words. It can also answer a question asked in the topic sentence. Study this model paragraph:

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 279

First of

all, physical activity will improve your heart and lung capacity and reduce the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes. Second, it is great for reducing

Supporting sentences

stress and anxiety, and it makes you sleep better. Finally, research shows that an active lifestyle also helps improve concentration and memory. Therefore, it is recommended that you find time for at least one hour of

Closing sentence

Showing contrast

Showing result

in fact

on the other hand therefore

actually

however

consequently

furthermore

indeed

nevertheless

as a result

next

similarly

in other words

in spite of

in conclusion

finally

also

namely

on the contrary

thus

activity every day.

4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together When you write a paragraph, use sentence connectors. They are the glue that holds your sentences and paragraphs together, and help the reader follow your arguments. They also show contrast, or how ideas are related to each other. Here are a few examples of sentence connectors.

3.32 Which sentence connectors were used in the model paragraph on the previous page? 3.33 Fill in suitable sentence connectors in the open spaces. a Kirsty seems to be quite clever. , she often gets low marks. b The service at this restaurant is excellent. , the food is delicious. c I’ve never been to Egypt, having relatives there. d Adam is a careful driver. , he’s had several accidents. e Eileen scored a lot of goals for her team last season. , she was voted “Most Valuable Player”. f Amal is a talented painter. her favourite subject at school is Art. g There is no more food left. there are plenty of drinks. h They had worked on the problem for hours. , they found the solution. 3.34 Place these sentences in the right order to make a paragraph. a One reason for stress is that teenagers often have to make early decisions about school, careers and work. b For some teenagers, this change can be stressful, whereas others take it in their stride. c In fact, many teenagers feel that their school grades decide their whole future, and for some that can feel like a lot of pressure. d Another reason may be that they feel pressure or expectations from family, friends or media to fit in or take on a certain role. e Although stress is not necessarily a bad thing, it becomes a problem when there’s too much of it or it goes on for too long. f The teenage years are a time of growth and change, physically, mentally and socially. g Therefore, it is important to ask for help if it gets too much. h In addition, not all teenagers know how to cope with the stress and sometimes think nobody else has the same experience.

SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 109

108 | Chapter 3: That’s Life | SKILLS

In each chapter, there are courses to help you improve your skills systematically. These courses have step-by-step instructions and examples which show you how to become a better speaker and writer. You will learn such skills as selecting reliable and relevant sources, structuring texts, giving presentations, arguing a case, as well as using various learning strategies in the process.

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SKILLS contains a wide variety of texts we hope will interest and inform you, as well as inspire and entertain you. There are articles, fact files, films, short stories and novel excerpts from around the English-speaking world. Most importantly, you will read and listen to texts on vocational topics, such as safety in the workplace, processes, tools and materials. Some of the texts also have short versions.

Being active is important for your physical and mental health.

Topic sentence

Emphasis

in addition moreover

then

Practise

2 Write at least one supporting sentence.

concept konsept, idé component komponent, del innovation nyvinning multi-functional med flere funksjoner/med fleire funksjonar stove komfyr vehicles kjøretøy/køyretøy vacuum støvsuger/støvsugar lawn mower gressklipper/ grasklippar artificial kunstig customized spesialtilpasset/ spesialtilpassa contractors entreprenør concrete betong unprecedented som ikke har skjedd før/som ikkje har skjedd før

Giving more examples

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Future Design

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Before you start How do you see the future of interior design? What kind of technology do you think will be part of our everyday life?

LANGUAGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB definite article

adjective

adverb

indefinite article

noun

The happy students pose patiently on a red bench. noun

verb

preposition

adjective

Why Grammar?

Words are the building blocks of language learning. You need a certain knowledge of grammar to be able to use the words to communicate clearly. Words belong to different word classes. Articles: Nouns:

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person. Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state. An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

Adverbs:

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens.

Practise

5.76 The following words and phrases are examples of window dressing vocabulary. Match the words with the correct definitions.

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Adjectives:

Prepositions: Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. Pronouns:

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name.

Determiners: Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to.

An important part of grammar is syntax, the set of rules that decide word order and how to structure sentences. Such rules are quite similar in English and Norwegian, but there are important exceptions you should know about. Grammar also includes morphology, the knowledge of words and how they are formed. Often, we can add prefixes or suffixes to make new words with a different meaning and of another word class.

In oral communication pronunciation is central to understand other people. On the following pages you will learn the most important rules and how to avoid common errors.

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398 | Language Lab | SKILLS

grammar grammatikk word class ordklasse noun substantiv pronoun pronomen determiner bestemmingsord indefinite ubestemt definite bestemt syntax syntaks, ordstilling prefix forstavelse/forstaving suffix endelse/ending

SKILLS | Language Lab | 399

In the Language Lab section there are explanations, examples and tasks for you to practise your language skills. There are also tasks in every chapter which will help you learn new words, practise spelling and pronunciation, and improve your grammar.

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5.74 • Sum up the text by completing the sentences. a A good retail store window attracts … b First of all, you have to decide … c Choose something that is… d To create depth… e Display the items you want to sell in the… f A plain, white backdrop… g A more varied backdrop can… h You can use floodlights on the floor or ceiling to… 5.75 •• Explain what you need to consider when deciding a which items to put on display b how to arrange the items in the window c what to do about the backdrop d what to do about lighting

An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or non-specific (indefinite).

Verbs:

Read and understand

A

beam

1

window without a back to it

B

bust form

2

window with a back wall

C

closed window

3

styling a window

D

dressing

4

the placing of products on the floor

E

layout

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the light projected from a lamp

F

logo

H

6 open-back window 7 scheme 8

I

tag

G

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5.78 Study the picture of the display window on the previous page and discuss the following questions. a Do you think this window looks inviting? Explain. b To what extent does it follow the advice in the text? Check each point. c Would you suggest any changes to this window? Give examples.

Explore

5.79 Use online sources to find examples of display windows containing some of the features listed below. Collect pictures to share and describe in groups. Compare and discuss what you like and what you would improve in each window. Christmas season theme summer holiday theme white backdrop colourful backdrop floodlight hanging decorations

Halloween theme open-back window many layers

Write

5.80 You have been asked to make a big stand at a fashion fair to promote a clothing brand in a new, environmentally friendly material. a Choose product(s) and material(s) to put on display. Use your imagination! b Make a sketch for the stand. c Write an informative leaflet about your product for distribution, to explain why this is sustainable. Find or make your own illustrations.

price or informative ticket attached to the product torso of a mannequin to display tops name of a brand the overall idea or concept of the display

5.77 Choose the correct form of the reflexive pronouns to fill in the open spaces. Pay attention to the singular and plural forms. See the Language Lab section for information. myself – yourself – himself – herself – itself – ourselves – yourselves – themselves a b c d e f g h

Speak

My new colleague, Paul, wanted to see for the new window dressing. Anne was singing to while working on the display backdrop. “Did you hurt ?” the customer asked me. They usually enjoyed when they were dressing the window. We had to let out of the workshop yesterday. I don’t take very seriously. The colour on the backdrop won’t disappear by , will it? I can’t do the homework for all of you, you have to do it !

242 | Chapter 5: Tools and Techniques | SKILLS

5.81 Write a letter to the owner of the shop in the picture below. Explain that you are a qualified display window designer, and comment on the layout of his display window, in a polite way. Suggest improvements and offer to help.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss what makes a good window display YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to window dressing YES

ALMOST

NO

compare and reflect on effects in various displays YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Techniques | 243

In all chapters, you are invited to discuss, describe, explain, explore and share views with your fellow students. Both texts and tasks are differentiated, which means you will find some that you master well and some that will challenge you. At the end of each chapter, you are encouraged to revise what you have learnt, reflect on your own progress and apply your skills in a new context.

Additional resources can be found in Skolestudio.

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EXPECTATIONS Page 8 PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

10

Factual text

Play the Game

14

Game

Learning Strategies

16

Improve your skills

Vocational English

18

Factual text

English at Work

26

Timeline

Inventing the Internet by Robert Kahn

30

Factual text



Tools for Language Learning

36

Fact file



Events in the History of Media

40

Factual text

Sharing Information: “Show and Tell”

44

Improve your skills

Hall of Fame by The Script

46

Song lyrics

Chapter Checkpoint

50



LISTENING

“Why English?”

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IN SHORT

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TITLE This Is Me

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“Zoo Quest” “Which Invention?”

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ON THE SAFE SIDE Page 52 TITLE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT

LISTENING



ü

“Safety Equipment at Work”



ü

54

Factual text

Writing a Report

60

Improve your skills

The Crash by Robin Hardman

62

Blog article

Signs

68

Fact file

Stress

70

Factual text

Giving Instructions

74

Improve your skills

Con Man

76

Factual text



I Chose to Look the Other Way by Don Merrell

82

Poem



Chapter Checkpoint

86

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Safety First!

PAGE

4

 “Handling Stress”



ü “How to Treat an Unconscious Person”


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THAT’S LIFE Page 88 TITLE

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT

LISTENING

90

Novel excerpt

“What Makes Me Happy”

Look by Sharon G Flake

96

Poem

“Art or Mutilation?”

Does My Head Look Big in This? by Randa Abdel-Fattah

100

Novel excerpt

Structuring Paragraphs

108

Improve your skills

My Strange Addictions by Shane Dawson

110

Essay

It’s a Wonderful, Digital World?

116

Factual text

Using Formal and Informal Language

122

Improve your skills

Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda by Becky Albertalli

124

Novel excerpt

Chapter Checkpoint

130

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CITIZENS Page 132

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

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TITLE

LEVEL

134

Photos

Nothing on This Page is Real by Eli Saslow

138

Feature article

Selecting Sources

146

Improve your skills

Boy A by Jonathan Trigell

148

Novel excerpt

The UK

156

Fact file

Life in the UK

160

Factual text



You, Work and the Law

164

Factual text



Black Hoodie by Roddy Doyle

168

Short story



Structuring a Text

174

Improve your skills

The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas

176

Novel excerpt

The USA

184

Fact file

Life in the USA

188

Factual text



Young Activists

192

Factual text



Chapter Checkpoint

198

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Iconic Images



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Something About Me by Nick Hornby

IN SHORT

LISTENING

 



ü

“At the Station”

 

5


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TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY Page 200 PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

202

Factual text

Computers

206

Fact file

Printers are Evil by Caitlin Moran

210

Column text

Listening Strategies

216

Improve your skills

Ready Player One by Ernest Cline

218

Novel excerpt

Graphic Design

224

Factual text



Photography

232

Fact file



Giving a Presentation

236

Improve your skills

Great Storytellers

238

Factual text



What I Use at Work

242

Factual text



Chapter Checkpoint

244

IN SHORT

LISTENING

  

ü ü

“The OASIS”

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

ü

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TITLE Tech Tools

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"Media Technician"

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GOING PRO | 6 Page 246 TITLE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

IN SHORT



ü

248

Factual text

Writing a Formal Text

254

Improve your skills

Help Desk

256

Factual text

Web Design

260

Fact file



My not so Perfect Life by Sophie Kinsella

264

Novel excerpt



Discussing Vocational Topics

270

Improve your skills

Yes to Tech Optimism. And Pessimism. by Shira Ovide

272

Article



ü

Sojourner by Gunnar Helliesen

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Novel excerpt



ü

Future Jobs

284

Factual text

Chapter Checkpoint

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Customer Care

PAGE

6

“Welcome to Hell”



LISTENING

“Hacking Humans” “How Technology Will Create These 7 Jobs In The Future”


7|

ENCOUNTERS Page 292 IN SHORT

294

Factual text



ü

My Mother, the Crazy African by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

300

Short story



Discussing Literature and Film

306

Improve your skills

Hunt for the Wilderpeople

308

Film

New Zealand

312

Fact file

Street Art

316

Factual text



The Painting by Bruce Chatwin

318

Short story



Australia

322

Fact file

The Hockey Sweater by Roch Carrier

326

Short story

Canada

332

Fact file

Summarizing and Synthesizing Information

334

Improve your skills

Gaming Culture

340

Factual text

Chapter Checkpoint

346

8|

TITLE

PAGE 350

TEXT TYPE

Factual text

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Sustainable Development



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PERSPECTIVES Page 348

TEXT TYPE

Planet, or Plastic? by Laura Parker

356

Feature article

Arguing a Case

362

Improve your skills

366

Fact file

Women in India by Deepa Narayan

370

Opinion piece

Referring to Sources

376

Improve your skills

Home by Warsan Shire

380

English-Speaking Africa

India

LISTENING

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PAGE

“New Zealand’s Maori Culture”

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rd

TITLE

g

LEVEL

Across Borders



LEVEL

IN SHORT

“Making a Difference”

 

LISTENING

ü

“Sir”

Poem



“Child Soldier”

382

Fact file



Chameleon by Trevor Noah

386

Autobiography



Look at Africa by Alexander McCall Smith

398

Novel excerpt



Chapter Checkpoint

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“Mandela”

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LANGUAGE LAB Page 402

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X CHAPTER 1

Expectations


In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k vocational English k motivating yourself and others k people and inventions that

changed technology and the media

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k learning strategies and language tools

k sharing information

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k nouns and articles

Ku

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Useful words and phrases

upper secondary school education programme vocational occupation apprentice work placement vocabulary protocol network invention

If If you you could could be be anything you anything you want, want, what would you what would that be? be? What are good ways for you to learn English?

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This Is Me Mary, content producer

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This year I’ll start upper secondary school and I’m very excited about starting vocational training. The course is called Information Technology and Media Production. We will learn about media, design, typography and storytelling, and that will be fun. I would like to become a content producer, and my dream is to get a job within communication or media production.

Andrew, IT developer

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upper secondary school videregående skole/vidaregåande skole excited begeistret/begeistra vocational yrkesrettet/yrkesretta information technology and media production informasjonsteknologi og medieproduksjon content producer innhold­ produsent IT developer IT-utvikler/ IT-utviklar explore utforske programming programmering customer adaption kunde­ tilpasning/kundetilpassing attend delta, gå på intermediate course VG2 qualified kvalifisert, med fagbrev apprentice lærling shape form creative kreativ

I am thinking of becoming an IT developer, because I want to work with game and app development. I like to explore and create things on computers. This year I will learn about programming, networks and other things like customer adaption. I hope to make good friends in my class, and the teachers seem nice as well.

10 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

Sophie, media designer Since I was a child, I have always been interested in different types of media and now I’m attending an intermediate course to become a qualified media designer. Next year I will work as an apprentice, most likely in visual communication, for example web design. I love playing with colours, shapes and letters and being creative, so I am sure this will be the perfect career for me.


AIMS k speak about occupations in

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John, media technician

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During my intermediate year I will specialize to become an IT operations technician. I will learn to perform many different tasks such as operating and monitoring the facilities of a network, ensuring reliable services and performing regular network maintenance and repair work. After my apprenticeship I will hopefully get my craft certificate and work at a help desk centre or in a big office building.

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Tom, IT operations technician

information technology and media production k use words related to your education programme k introduce yourself

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After two years at upper secondary school, I was lucky to obtain an apprenticeship as a media technician at a conference centre. My tasks are primarily setting up, using and maintaining the audio-visual and computer media equipment we offer to our customers between and during events like meetings, conferences, lectures or seminars. More specifically I will have to install equipment, instruct our guests and monitor the running of the systems. I also participate in maintenance and troubleshooting of our audiovisual equipment and materials, and on rare occasion we actually need to create solutions when special needs occur, like for example multi-media seminars combined with video conferences and livestreaming of music performances. Such tasks may be challenging, but they make my days varied and rewarding, so I really enjoy my job.

IT operations technician IT-driftstekniker/ IT-driftsteknikar perform her: utføre operate her: betjene/betene monitor overvåke/overvake facility enhet/eining ensure sikre reliable pålitelig/påliteleg maintenance vedlikehold/­ vedlikehald apprenticeship læretid craft certificate fagbrev obtain oppnå media technician medie­ tekniker/medieteknikar primarily hovedsaklig/­ hovudsakleg audio-visual audiovisuell customer kunde event arrangement lecture foredrag install installere troubleshoot feilsøke solution løsning/løysing occur dukke opp performance opptreden/­ framsyning

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 11


Read and understand

1.1 • Mary and Andrew Decide which sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones.

Mary is not looking forward to starting school.

b

Mary goes to upper secondary school.

c

Andrew dislikes his teachers.

d

Mary will learn about typography.

e

Andrew wants to become an IT developer.

f

Andrew is not interested in games and apps.

g

Mary wants to work with media production.

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a

False

g

True

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1.2 •• Sophie and Tom Use words from the text to complete the sentences. a Since Sophie was a child, she . b She attends an . c Next year Sophie will . d Tom will specialize to become . e He will learn to . f He will work at a . 1.3 ••• John Answer the questions in full sentences. a Why does John consider himself lucky? b What kind of work and tasks does he do? c Why does he enjoy his job?

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Speak

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1.4 Take turns in asking and answering the questions. Work in pairs. a What are Mary’s plans for the future? Would you consider this profession? b What does Andrew like? Do you agree? c Which professions are Sophie and Tom interested in and why? What is interesting about such jobs? d Do you think you have the necessary skills for the job John is training for? Explain. e Do the people in the texts seem motivated for the education and professions they are preparing for? Give examples. f Are you motivated for this year? What are you particularly looking forward to? g How is it for you to start a new school? You may want to use some of the following adjectives. cool – interesting – terrifying – scary – challenging – exciting – stressful – enjoyable

12 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Practise

1.5 Match the words with the correct Norwegian translation. profession

1

videregående skole/vidaregåande skole

B

maintenance

2

lærling

C

monitor

3

feilsøking

D

craft certificate

4

yrke

E

service minded

5

yrkesfaglig/yrkesfagleg

F

apprentice

6

vedlikehold/vedlikehald

G

vocational

7

kvalifisert

H

troubleshooting

8

fagbrev

I

upper secondary school

9

Vg2

J

customer

K

intermediate course

10 serviceinnstilt 11 overvåke/overvake

L

qualified

12 kunde

er in

g

A

vu

rd

1.6 Choose the correct indefinite article. Check “Nouns and Articles” in the Language Lab section for rules. a Tom wants to become a/an IT operation technician. b Andrew thinks working with computers is a/an useful job. c Sophie wants to work as a/an media designer. d A media technician helps to organize a/an event or conference. e John is a/an apprentice in a conference centre.

Write

til

1.7 Who are you? Write a short text by completing these sentences. Share your texts in class. Hello, I am . I live in and I am years old. My family consists of . In my spare time I like to . In the future, I would like to become a because .

n

Explore

Ku

1.8 Which career in Information Technology and Media Production would you like to pursue? What makes it interesting to you? What do you think will be your daily tasks? Search for information and share your findings in class. You may start like this: In the future, I would like to work as a/an …

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can speak about occupations in Information Technology and Media Production YES

NO

use words related to my education programme YES

Useful words: interesting – useful – practical – exciting – interaction – creative – tools – skills – cooperate – communication – cheerful – polite – stress – conflicts – craft certificate

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

introduce myself YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 13


33

34

35

36

In 10 years, where will you be and what will you be doing?

30

If you could trade places with someone for a day, who would it be and why?

17

Describe the main character in a series you follow.

18

19

1

2

13

If you had to eat the same three things for the rest of your life, what would you put on the menu?

3

4 What is your favourite film, and why?

Ku

n

START

Name two listening strategies found in Chapter 5.

On which page in this textbook do you learn how to structure a text?

til

What word describes you best?

14

vu

15

20

rd

Describe the picture at the beginning of Chapter 7 in this book.

16

29

g

31

er in

32

If you could travel in time, would you go backward or forward?

Encourage each other: Good effort! Don’t give up! Awww – what a shame! Good job! There you go! You’re almost there! That’s great! Oh, well – it’s only a game!

14 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


38

39

40

What kind of tasks are you asked to do after each chapter in this textbook?

27

26

Describe your dream job.

21

Do you like to work alone or in a group?

22

23

5

How many chapters in this textbook focus on your vocational programme?

9

Say the English name for a tool that you know of.

til

What are the focus areas in Chapter 8?

10

vu

11

24

rd

Are there any song lyrics in this textbook? If so, on what page?

12

25

er in

28

FINISH

g

37

6

8 If you could invent a machine to do a boring job for you, what would it be?

Ku

n

If you had your own talk show, who would be your first guest?

7

Form groups of 2 to 4 players. You need a die or a downloaded dice-roller app, and something you can use as a counter. If your counter lands at the bottom of a ladder you can move up to the top when you have answered the question. If your counter lands on the top of an arrow, you must slide down to the bottom. You are allowed to ask each other for help on what words are called in English, but note that if you start speaking Norwegian you will have to go back to START.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 15


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LEARNING STRATEGIES The text below suggests five strategies that will help you learn efficiently.

g

1 Prepare your brain for learning. Leaf through the pages you are about to

2 Use different reading strategies.

er in

study. Read the headlines and notice what they are about. Also notice what the illustrations show. Are you getting the gist of it? Look at the questions you are supposed to be able to answer when you have read the text. Now your brain is getting the idea, and you are ready to start studying.

rd

Skim: Read the text quickly to get an overview. Ask yourself what the text is about. Your answer should be just a few words at this point. Scan: Browse the text for specific information, such as names or numbers. Close read: Study the text thoroughly. Take breaks and ask yourself what you just read.

3 Use your senses. When working with a text, use other senses than just

vu

your eyesight. Take notes. Ask yourself how the different elements in the text are related. Make illustrations like charts, mind maps or a timeline. Read out loud to yourself or make your own recordings and play them to yourself. Many books, including this one, provide you with useful sound files.

til

4 Expand your vocabulary. Make your own English word bank. Make memory

n

cards with English words on one side and the translation on the other. Work with a friend and challenge each other to learn new words and phrases. When learning names of tools and objects, place sticky notes on the items. Read more about tools for language learning in this chapter.

Ku

5 Repeat. Repetition is important if you want to remember what you learn. In breaks or in between tasks, skim through texts that you studied earlier. Do the tasks again to make sure you remember both content and vocabulary. Reflect on your learning strategies and choose them according to the task at hand.

16 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

er in

g

1.9 Choose the right alternative. a Give your brain a balance/chance/glance to prepare for work. b Using several senses/fences/lenses when studying will help you learn. c Reading out loud may help you yearn/learn/turn. d Solving tasks/masks/brass will help you learn. e Protect yourself from connections/distractions/collections. 1.10 Explain the following terms. a Skimming means … b Scanning means … c Close reading means …

til

vu

rd

1.11 Use different reading strategies. a Skim through the text on the following pages. Sum up in a few keywords what it is about. Share with a partner. b Scan the second paragraph of the text on the next page. Find and list the eight focus areas you will be studying and working on in your English classes this year. c Close read the fourth paragraph of the text on the next page. Explain how learning a specialized vocabulary is useful for you at school or work. d Reread the first text, “This Is Me”. Do the vocabulary task 1.5. again. Based on the vocabulary, write a summary of the text. microphone

n

lens

Ku

camera

When learning new words, make word groups to show how they are related.

sound script

image

Film light

music

actors content lines

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 17


Vocational English

g

til

vu

rd

er in

!

Before you start If you met someone on holiday who asked you about your studies and future career plans, what would you say?

When you think back on all the years you have studied English in school, you probably remember reading many different texts and watching films about a variety of topics. You may also remember learning about spelling and grammar, as well as memorizing new words, practising how to structure a text or giving a presentation. This year, studying English will be a little different. You will still focus on learning the language, reading, listening, speaking and writing. Knowledge about the English-speaking world and current issues is still important, but in addition, you will spend time on topics that are relevant to your own programme area. This is often referred to as vocational English. Learning vocational English means using material, vocabulary, methods and strategies that will help you prepare for working life. This could be learning to communicate well with colleagues and clients, discussing Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), or understanding specialized vocabulary. In fact, there should be a connection between what you learn in your English class and in your programme area subjects. Language is a tool for communication. A specialized vocabulary will help you understand written texts, such as articles, manuals or product descriptions. It will also help you understand and give instructions and demonstrations. You may be asked to present a case or produce reports, discuss new developments or compare how things are done in different cultures. Infographics and other forms of statistical information often have a mixture of general and specialized vocabulary. How much of the information in this illustration do you understand without knowing all the words?

n

End - to - End Encryption Explained

Ku

vocational yrkesfaglig/ yrkesfagleg profession yrke topic emne, tema knowledge kunnskap current aktuell issue her: sak vocabulary ordforråd HSE HMS compare sammenligne/ samanlikne infographics infografikk

1 When Alice starts the app a private and a public key are generated.

2 Alice’s private key never leaves her phone. Her public key is stored on a server, available to all who send her a message.

Alice

Bob

5 The file is received by Alice and her private key is used to decrypt the message. 11 x 7 = 187

18 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

3 When Bob writes to Alice her public key is retrieved and used to encrypt his message in such a way that only Alice’s private key can open it.

The product of 2 large random prime numbers is the backbone of encryption.

4 An encrypted file is sent through the server to Alice. Cracking the encryption means figuring out will take the 2 factors. Using brute-force, it takes decades with today's computers.


AIMS k explain how vocational English is

different from general English k suggest and describe topics that are relevant to your education programme k talk about how vocational English is important in a chosen profession

er in

g

The dictionary entry below explains the term “phishing”. It also shows what word class it is (noun) and how to pronounce it. Sometimes you will find that you need to look up more words to understand the definition itself. Did you know the words “duped” and “illicitly”?

Source: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/

vu

rd

The following text is an explanation of the device called "graphics card". Most students will find this text quite difficult if they don’t already know something about the topic. Find and count the words you don’t understand. Are they mostly general words, or vocabulary related to computers?

til

The CPU, working in conjunction with software applications, sends information about the image to the graphics card. The graphics card decides how to use the pixels on the screen to create the image. It then sends that information to the monitor through a cable. Creating an image out of binary data is a demanding process. To make a 3-D image, the graphics card first creates a wire frame out of straight lines. Then, it rasterizes the image (fills in the remaining pixels). It also adds lighting, texture and color. For fastpaced games, the computer has to go through this process about sixty times per second.

n

source: https://computer.howstuffworks.com/graphics-card.htm

Ku

Most of the texts you will study are not as difficult as the example shown above. However, if you come across more challenging texts or sources, use the strategies for learning new words. Focus on words that are relevant to the topic you are working on. Do you think this sounds demanding? Remember that you have already studied English for many years. This year, you will take your English one step further. You can actively work to develop the language skills you need in your future profession. The first step is to take part in planning activities, and to assess your own progress and how you learn best.

dictionary entry oppslagsord term her: begrep, uttrykk/ omgrep, uttrykk noun substantiv pronounce uttale device utstyr source kilde/kjelde demanding krevende/krevjande further videre/vidare assess vurdere progress framskritt/framsteg

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 19


Read and understand

1.12 • First match the sentence halves, then translate the sentences into Norwegian.

D E F G H

You will still focus on learning the language, reading, listening, In addition, you will study topics that are Learning vocational English means using material, vocabulary, methods and A specialized vocabulary will help you understand Focus on words that are relevant

3

relevant to your own education programme. strategies that will help you prepare for working life. will be a little different.

4

to the topic you are working on.

5

different texts and watching films about a variety of topics.

6

language skills you need in your future profession. speaking and writing.

2

g

C

1

er in

B

You probably remember reading many This year, studying English

You can actively work to develop the

7

8

written texts, such as articles, manuals or product descriptions.

rd

A

Ku

n

til

vu

1.13 •• Answer the following questions. a What is different about learning English this year? b What is similar? c Find the three examples of topics that may be relevant to your education programme mentioned in the text and list them. d Why is building a specialized vocabulary important? e Which of the three examples of specialized vocabulary is the most difficult to understand? Explain why. f Which example is the easiest to understand? g What should you do when coming across texts and other sources with more challenging vocabulary? h Why do you think it is important to take part in planning activities and to assess your own progress? 1.14 ••• Select the most important information to make a summary of the text. First choose ten words you think are relevant, then use the words to write your summary.

20 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


er in

1.15 Fill in the missing words to complete the text. clients – professions – manuals – colleagues – vocational – specialized – communicate – relevant – vocabulary a A vocabulary will help you understand articles, or product descriptions. b In many , you will most likely work with who speak other languages. c Studying topics that are to your own education programme is often referred to as English. d You may read texts with a challenging . e You will learn to well with and colleagues.

g

Practise

1.16 Match the name of the profession in English with the Norwegian translation. IT developer

1

medietekniker/medieteknikar

B

IT operations technician

2

mediedesigner/mediedesignar

C

media designer

3

IT-utvikler/IT-utviklar

D

media technician

4

medieinnholdprodusent/medieinnhaldsprodusent

E

media content producer

5

IT-driftstekniker/IT-driftsteknikar

vu

rd

A

Ku

n

til

1.17 There are many useful tools and items for making films. Can you name the objects in the photo? Use a dictionary to find words you don’t know.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 21


1.18 Computers a Match the following computer hardware items with the correct pictures. What are they called in Norwegian? D: headset E: joystick F: desktop computer case 2

4

5

3

er in

1

g

A: monitor B: keyboard C: mouse

vu

rd

6

b Match the computer devices with the correct descriptions. monitor

1

B

keyboard

2

C

mouse

3

D

headset

4

E

joystick

5

F

desktop computer case

6

Ku

n

til

A

22 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

A device where you can hear and speak with other people or listen to sound from your computer. A system unit that is small enough to be placed on a desk but too big to carry around. An input device often used to control video games or machines with push-buttons and a stick attached to a base. An input device used to type information with buttons that use printed characters for e.g. letters and numbers. An output device that displays visual information, images and text, on a screen. A small, handheld device which is moved on a flat surface to move the cursor on a computer screen.


1.19 Do you know the Norwegian translations for the equipment and tools shown in these pictures? In which professions or activities are they relevant? Work with a partner. Equipment and tools STEADY CAM

DRONE

SLOTTED SCREWDRIVER

PHILLIPS SCREWDRIVER

ALLEN WRENCH SET

MEMORY STICK/FLASH DRIVE

CD

PORTABLE HARD DRIVE

rd PROJECTOR

vu

MICROPHONE

LOUDSPEAKERS

MAGENTA

YELLOW

3D ANIMATION VIDEO

LIVE ACTION VIDEO

LAYOUT

TYPOGRAPHY

til

CYAN

er in

g

GLIDE CAM

Ku

n

2D ANIMATION VIDEO

IMAGE RESOLUTION AND PIXELS

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 23


Speak

1.20 Name at least three topics you think are relevant for your education programme. Make a list and share your lists in pairs.

g

1.21 Choose one of the professions listed in task 1.16. Discuss in pairs or small groups how and why vocational English is important for this profession.

er in

1.22 What will be important for your class to succeed when working with vocational English? Discuss in groups, and then share with the rest of the class.

Write

rd

1.23 • Answer the following questions in full sentences. a In what situations do you learn English? b Why is it useful for you to learn English? c How do you feel about learning English this year?

vu

1.24 •• Make a list of topics that you would like to work on in English class this year. Expand your list with brief explanations of why you think these topics are relevant and interesting.

Ku

n

til

1.25 ••• What are the benefits of learning English for Information Technology and Media Production? Write a short text.

24 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Listen

1.26 “Why English?� Most students see the value of being able to speak and write English well. Listen carefully to what Ola, Emilie, Henrik and Lise have to say, and answer the following questions.

4 5 6 7 8

Explore

er in

3

til

1.27 Choose one of the professions listed in 1.16. Find out which courses and subjects you study to become a skilled worker in your chosen profession. How many years do you have to study? Do you have to train as an apprentice? Search the English pages of www.vilbli.no for information.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain how vocational English is different from general English

n

Ku

Did you know

Lise

rd

2

Who likes to play games online? Who talks about being professional? Who says communicating in English is important at work? Who talks about travelling abroad? Who talks about interesting magazines in English? Who says Norway depends on international contact? Who thinks lyrics are important when listening to songs? Do you agree or disagree with any of the speakers?

Henrik

vu

1

Emilie

g

Ola

YES

ALMOST

NO

suggest and describe topics that are relevant for my education programme

About 4000 new words are added to the Oxford English dictionary every year. This is partly because of developments in technology which have led to a number of new words. Another reason is social media spreading new words quickly to the general public who start using them regularly, which again leads to the words being included in dictionaries. Still, it is estimated that 90% of all texts contain only 1000 different words.

YES

ALMOST

NO

talk about how vocational English is important in a chosen profession YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 25


Timeline: English 500 AD

800 AD Invaders

NORWAY

Ku

n

CALEDONIA (SCOTLAND)

HIBERNIA (IRELAND) Irish sea BRITANNIA (ENGLAND)

Former Roman Empire

English Channel

Battle of Hastings

Colonization

At the time of Shakespeare, English was spoken by fewer than 6 million people, and only in The British Isles. This, however, changed when the British colonized countries around the world, in North America, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. They spread their language and culture, but also picked up new vocabulary from local languages, e.g. canoe, chocolate, pyjamas, kangaroo, banana, caravan and tomato.

rd

From around 793 to 1066 Vikings raided, traded and settled in the northern parts of the British Isles. The Scandinavians had great impact on culture and language, and hundreds of words come from Old Norse, e.g. bag, die, gang, sky, steak, take and window. In 1066 Normans from France conquered England. The French influence on the English language is considerable, especially in the fields of culture, politics and economy, e.g. beef, colour, crime, govern, marine and money.

til

In the 5th century, tribes from the northern European continent invaded the British Isles. These tribes are referred to as AngloSaxons. Their Germanic languages form the origin of English, and around half of the commonly used words in English are of Anglo-Saxon origin, e.g. woman, man, child, house, chicken, sheep and year.

1500

vu

Early English

er in

g

English is today what we call a lingua franca, a language of communication across borders and cultures. It is the most widely spoken language in the world, has the largest vocabulary (500,000 words) and the largest number of speakers (400 million native speakers, and 1.5 billion second language speakers). Of the almost seven thousand languages in the world, how did English achieve this unique position as the dominant international language of work, science, culture and so much more?

North Sea

Vikings

Jutes Angles Saxons

Normans

26 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

1800

Industrialization

The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain and spread to the rest of the world, changed living conditions and working life. With all the inventions that needed names, a wide range of vocabulary was added to the English language, e.g. railroad, telephone, typewriter, horsepower, ambulance, camera, X-ray and revolver.


at Work

AIMS k describe how English became an

er in

g

international language for work k use knowledge of other languages to improve your English skills

1950s

2000s

Working life has become more globalized as companies have increased their international trade and production, and employees have moved to work in other countries. Consequently, more and more people have started using English at work daily. It has become common to use it in job interviews, instruction manuals, e-mails and online communication, but also with colleagues from other countries as a lingua franca. Therefore, learning English is more important than ever.

Ku

n

til

vu

Throughout the 1900s technological development continued at an increasing pace. After World War II the USA grew into a superpower. This made American English the dominant language of industry, science, economy, culture, media and computer technology. Furthermore, large international corporations established local production sites across the world, and the workforce needed a language to communicate across borders. Many specialised terms may have a foreign origin, but their English versions are now household words in most countries, e.g. reality show, rap, jeans, hypertext, web design, online, hedge funds, offshore and pacemaker.

Globalization

rd

Modern Technology

achieve oppnå unique enestående/eineståande tribe stamme invade invadere trade handle impact påvirkning/påverknad Old Norse norrønt conquer erobre considerable betydelig/ betydeleg establish opprette invention oppfinnelse/ oppfinning pace tempo corporation bedrift factory fabrikk employees ansatte/tilsette instruction manual bruksanvisning / bruksrettleiing

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 27


Read and understand

er in

g

1.28 Finish the sentences. Translate them into Norwegian. a Today, English is a lingua b The Anglo-Saxons came from c “Die” and “take” are words that come from d The Normans influenced English in the fields of e The British established colonies in f The Industrial Revolution started in g Throughout the 1900s English became the dominant language of h Companies across the world now establish English as the common

Practise

vu

rd

1.29 Use your own words to explain what the following sentences from the timeline mean. a Their Germanic languages form the origin of English. b Scandinavians had a great impact on culture and language. c Their language was spoken by the ruling elite. d They spread their language and culture, but also picked up new vocabulary. e All the inventions needed names. f The USA grew into a superpower. g Their English versions are now household words in most countries. h Working life has become more globalised. i It is used with colleagues from other countries as a lingua franca.

til

1.30 Use online dictionaries to translate the following words into Norwegian, German and French. The languages that resemble the English words most will usually show their origin. Compare your lists. English

Norwegian

A sun

n

B mountain C window

Ku

D father E hour F

cow

G pork

H water I

art

J

constitution

28 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

German

French


1.31 As the vocabulary of English comes from many different sources, it may sometimes seem as if there are no rules for spelling and pronunciation. Study the word pairs and practise pronouncing them. For more information on pronunciation, see the Language Lab section. e home/come f blood/good

1.32 When learning English there are many words you know already from Norwegian. Loan words are words in one language borrowed from another. Transparent words are words that resemble words in another language. Which of the following words belong to which category?

rd

bag, book, burger, calendar, caps, date, drink, fish, gangster, grass, keeper, milk, sister, socks

g

c sew/few d low/cow

er in

a gone/bone b break/weak

Explore

Speak

til

vu

1.33 “Beowulf � is a heroic poem and one of the most important texts written in Old English. It is the story of a brave man who saves people from the evil monster Grendel and its horrifying mother. The text has been turned into films and graphic novels. Use various sources to find at least two versions of the story and share in class. Is the story still interesting today?

How did you do?

Write

use knowledge of other languages to improve my English skills

Ku

n

1.34 Discuss the questions. a Today many people speak at least two languages. How is this an advantage when learning other languages? b How can your knowledge of Norwegian help you when learning English grammar, words and idioms? Give examples. c Can you think of any disadvantages in English being a dominant language in so many fields?

1.35 Create a family language tree to illustrate the languages or dialects that are or were spoken by the various members of your family.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how English became an international language for work YES

YES

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 29


g er in rd

til

vu

Inventing the Internet

n

!

Robert Kahn and his colleague Vint Cerf are considered to be the fathers of the Internet. Here Kahn shares some thoughts on the process and result.

Ku

Before you start What would your life be like if there were no Internet?

raging rasende/rasande protocol protokoll, transmisjonsteknologi nascent gryende/gryande summit her: toppmøte

I used to do white-water canoeing when I was a little younger. You put your canoe into the river and it just keeps going because of the raging rivers. And it feels a little bit like this whole Internet evolution has been like a raging white-water stream that we got into some 40-odd years ago, and still going. It’s pretty amazing to see what has happened around the world. In 1973, the initial work on Internet protocol development began, and, by the mid-1970s, a nascent Internet was created within the research community. It was not until 1983 that the Internet protocols were formally adopted for use. The most eye-opening of all of the events that I’ve witnessed was probably at the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva, when for the first

30 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


Ku

n

til

vu

rd

er in

g

time I got to witness all the nations of the world, coming together and publicly discussing what the impact of the AIMS Internet was on their country, and how they planned to deal with it, going forward. k explain the content of the text The Internet, as originally envisioned by me and k use words related to the Internet and the media others that I worked with, involved moving bits around from place to place on a worldwide basis, without k discuss various media genres having to know details like what network the party was on, how to route data, and so forth. It was a convenient way to get information (as essentially undifferentiated bits) from one place to another, reliably and rapidly. What occurred to me, a number of years ago, was that we needed to take an additional step forward, and begin to think about the Internet as a vehicle for managing information, as opposed to just delivery of undifferentiated bits. The problem with much of the technology on the Internet today is that it is a function of other technology that’s available on the Internet. To give you an example, when I first started in computer networking, the way we addressed computers was by the wire that the computer was connected to – on the one and only impact innvirkning/innverknad network in existence. When we got to multiple networks, then that wire envision se for seg/sjå for seg might actually go to another network, and so it wasn’t sufficient to say “send route sende it out on that wire”, you had to say “then what? Where else would it have convenient bekvem/behageleg, to go?” So, we created the notion of IP addresses to identify the machines, komfortabel regardless of where they were. And then we had to create simple ways undifferentiated udifferensiert for people to remember those addresses. That was a kind of application, manage administrere which is now well-known as the domain name system (DNS). We made the multiple flere/fleire sufficient nok decision to adopt the DNS in the mid-1980s; and it has served us well for regardless uansett more than two decades. application bruksområde When the World Wide Web was created, the idea there was that you could domain name domenenavn/ essentially simplify procedures that we had been using for decades. The idea domenenamn was to turn procedural methods, like having to log in somewhere and having decade tiår to know exactly what keys to type, into a clickable version, based on a URL, procedural prosedyremessige where the protocols behind the scenes would do essentially the same things URL = Universal Resource Locator standard for for you. But that tied it to the way it was implemented: specific machine internettadresser names which were resolvable through the DNS and then to specific files on implement iverksette/sette i those machines. The half-life of these URLs is not very long, and probably verk within five years the vast majority of them will either no longer work, or will resolvable mulig å løse/mogleg produce different information. So the notion that we had was to literally å løyse identify the information represented in the form of a persistently identifiable notion idé, tanke data structure. We called those data structures digital objects, and, by giving persistent her: holdbar, varig/ haldbar, varig each a separate identifier, every digital object is uniquely identifiable. identifier identifikator, navn/ The world is increasingly connected. The coming decades are going to identifikator, namn be as exciting as the past decades have been, probably in dimensions that envision forutse/føresjå we don’t really know how to predict or envision. It is ultimately the creativity ultimately til slutt

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 31


invigorate styrke enhance forbedre/forbetre

of the human spirit that is going to drive and fuel this, and anything that we can do to essentially stimulate that, and invigorate it, and enhance it, will probably help to come up with new and better ways of dealing with our societal needs going forward. From https://www.itu.int/net/itunews/issues/2010/04/pdf/201004_16.pdf

IN SHORT

til

protocol protokoll realize forstå summit her: toppmøte bits her: siffer i totallssystem, signal/siffer i totalssystem, signal manage administrere wire ledning/leidning connected to festet til/festa til reach nå domain name domenenavn/ domenenamn simplify forenkle/foreinkle decade tiår procedures prosedyrer/ prosedyrar URL standard for internettadresser identifiable identifiserbar increasing stadig mer/stadig meir

vu

rd

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Robert Kahn tells about when he invented the Internet. The Internet has developed so fast. We started working on Internet protocol in the 1970s, and in 1983 it was ready for use. I realized how important it had become during the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society. Everybody discussed how the Internet would change their countries. My colleagues and I wanted to create a way to move bits around from place to place on a worldwide basis. Soon the Internet became a tool for managing information, not just delivering bits. When I started in computer networking, we contacted computers by the wire they were connected to, on the only network that existed. As more networks were introduced, we needed IP addresses to be sure to reach the right network. Then we created ways for people to remember those addresses, the domain name system (DNS). When the World Wide Web was created, it simplified procedures that we had been using for decades. The idea was to turn procedures into clickable versions, based on a URL. But the life of these URLs is not long, and in a few years they no longer work. So, we wanted to identify the information in the form of identifiable data structures, which we called digital objects. The world is increasingly connected. I believe human creativity will stimulate the Internet in the future and help us move forward.

Read and Understand

Ku

n

1.36 • Choose the correct alternative. Write the sentences. a Kahn started working on Internet apps/summit/protocol in the 1970s. b When Kahn created the Internet there were many/were few/was only one network. c The World Wide Web was invented after/before/at the same time as the Internet. d Different procedures became identifiable/clickable/connected. e The world is increasingly/rarely/digitally global. f In the future human creativity will help the Internet move slowly/ backwards/forwards.

32 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


er in

Practise

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1.37 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a Why does Robert Kahn compare the Internet to white water canoeing? b When did Kahn realize the importance of his invention? c What was the original plan for the Internet? d Which features and inventions made the Internet what it is today? e What does Kahn think about the future of the Internet? Do you agree?

1.38 Find the missing letters in these words from the text. Spell the words in English. e pro o ol a wi e f co pu er b do a n g ap li at on c in er et h te hn lo y d n two k

rd

1.39 Learn the meaning of the words in the previous task and how to spell them. Work with a partner. Use techniques from “Learning strategies” to memorize the words.

vu

1.40 Fill in the words below in the open spaces in the text. provide – physical – networks – synonym – data – freely

Ku

n

til

What is the Internet? The Internet is not a hardware standard or a infrastructure. It is based on a set of software instructions, known as “protocols”, for sending over networks. It is the global system of interconnected computer that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide by electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. It can be adopted by anyone, and most networks are owned by private organizations or companies. The Internet protocols were designed to a neutral channel for non-territorial communication. The term WWW is often used incorrectly as a for the Internet, but the World Wide Web is actually a service that operates over the Internet.

1.41 Fill in the plural form of the nouns. For information about nouns, see the Language Lab section. f One child, two … a One family, two … g One baby, two … b One wife, two … h One tooth, two … c One husband, two … i One address, two … d One woman, two … j One community, two … e One man, two …

“By placing intelligence at the edges rather than control in the middle of the network, the Internet har created a platform for innovation.” “When we were designing and building the net, we were just a bunch of engineers trying to make it work. It didn’t even occur to us that anybody would want to wreck it. It was hard enough to get it to work at all, let alone mess it up.” Vint Cerf

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 33


Speak

til

vu

rd

er in

g

1.42 Discuss the questions in pairs. a How many hours a day are you online? When are you offline? b When and for what kinds of activities do you use the Internet? c For information and entertainment, do you mostly use the Internet or do you use other media sources too? Which types and genres of media do you use daily? And weekly? Compare. d Do you watch television? If so, what are your favourite genres of television programmes and why do you like them? If not, what do you watch or do instead? e Who is your favourite media personality? Explain why and give examples of films, programmes, videos, podcasts, blogs or novels with or by her or him. f Study the illustration of the “anatomy of shows” on television. Is there some truth in it? Discuss by comparing with programmes you have watched.

n

Did you know

Ku

Film was invented by the French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière in 1895. Their invention, the “Cinématographe”, was a threein-one device that could record, develop and project motion pictures. Their very first film shows workers leaving the factory owned by the Lumière family, and it lasts for 46 seconds. The first paid public screening took place in Paris in December the same year, consisting of 10 short films in black and white and without sound. 34 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


vu

Explore

rd

er in

1.43 “Zoo Quest” Listen to the excerpt from David Attenborough’s autobiography where he describes how television was made in the 1950s and explains how he got the idea for a new television programme concept, “Zoo Quest”. Then answer the questions. a What was it like to make television in the 1950s? b What kinds of equipment and techniques did they use? c Why had television production developed so slowly since its beginnings in 1936? d Which genres of television programmes did they have at the time? e Who was George Cansdale and why were his animal programmes so popular? f How did David Attenborough get his idea for a new type of animal programme? g Which elements made the two different types of animal programmes so popular? Do you think they would still be popular today? h What does Attenborough’s idea for “Zoo Quest” tell us about good storytelling in the media?

g

Listen

1.44 Look for more information about Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf and how they invented the Internet. Share in pairs.

Write

til

1.45 Look for videos, documentaries and film trailers related to the Internet. Choose one and share your thoughts about it in class.

n

1.46 • What makes good entertainment? Write a paragraph where you share your opinion and give examples.

Ku

1.47 •• To what extent is the Internet a part of your life? Write a paragraph where you reflect on when and why you use it and how you benefit from it. 1.48 ••• Is the Internet only something positive or are there challenges and even dangers connected to this invention? Write one or two paragraphs where you present various aspects of the Internet and discuss to what extent it has been a blessing for mankind.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the content of the text YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to the Internet and the media YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss various media genres YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 35


FACT FILE FACT FILE Tools for Language Learning

Ku

n

er in rd

til

vu

A dictionary can help you understand and write texts. It can also be used to make lists of words to improve your vocabulary. In paper dictionaries the words are organized alphabetically. Some explain the words in the same language, others translate the words into another language, and some do both. Such dictionaries often have grammar sections, too. In online or digital dictionaries, you type the word you are looking for and then get a translation and/ or explanation. Such tools often have an audio function, where you can hear how to pronounce words. Most dictionaries also provide useful information about word classes (e.g. n = noun, v = verb), pronunciation (e.g. I = [aÉŞ], house = [haĘŠs]), and examples of how you use the words in phrases.

g

Dictionaries

36 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


FACT FILE FACT FILE Spell checkers

Programs that translate whole texts into a different language can be useful if you are in a hurry and need to understand a text. However, they cannot always be trusted. If you use such tools, always double-check the text to make sure it is correct. Also, remember that you need to practise writing on your own to improve your English. No program can do that for you, and translation programs are not allowed on tests and exams.

til

vu

rd

er in

Many digital resources, e.g. Word, provide programs that can help you avoid mistakes in a text. A word spelled incorrectly will be underlined, and when you click on it, the program suggests alternatives. Be aware that the right word is not necessarily the one that pops up first. Look at this illustration. Which word is the correct one?

g

Translation tools

Ku

n

The spell checker will not detect the wrong use of a word if it is spelled correctly. Here are some examples of commonly confused words. They may sound more or less the same but have different spellings. Do you know the difference? his/he’s be/bee your/you’re site/sight

then/than witch/which how/who lose/loose

to/too/two where/were/we’re its/it’s/eats there/their/they’re

Apps and other tools There is an endless list of digital learning devices, vocabulary and grammar drills, language courses and tutorials available online, such as Memrise, Quizlet, Babble and Duolingo. Search for different types of resources and try out one or two for a few weeks to see what effect they have on your English skills. Discuss the results in class and choose one that you will continue to use this year.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 37


FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

rd

er in

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1.49 Place these words in alphabetical order. a dinner b supper c breakfast d lunch e day f afternoon g morning h sandwich i evening

vu

1.50 The words below are written in the phonetic alphabet. Try to pronounce them and write them in ordinary letters. Check your spelling with a dictionary. kɑː gɜːl ˈtiːʧə ˈlaʊzi ˌjʊərəˈpi(ː)ən ˈθʌrə

til

a b c d e f

Ku

n

I

υ

I

U

READ

SIT

BOOK

MEN

AMERICA

WORD

SORT

CAT

BUT

PART

NOT

e ə З æ Λ α ρ b t d f v Ө ð m n Ŋ h

TOO

eI DAY

John & Sarah Free Materials 1996

TOUR

BOY

GO

WEAR

MY

HOW

HERE

υə ɔI əυ eə αI αυ

k

PIG

BED

TIME

DO

CHURCH

JUDGE

KILO

GO

FIVE

VERY

THINK

THE

SIX

ZOO

SHORT

CASUAL

MILK

NO

SING

HELLO

LIVE

READ

WINDOW

YES

38 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

s l

z ʃ r w

j


FACT FILE FACT FILE

Plural

a goose b louse d elf e ox f index

g

vu

c knife

rd

1.52 A dictionary can also help you with your grammar. Look up the following words to find their plural form. Translate the words into Norwegian. Singular

tool verktøy improve forbedre/forbetre grammar grammatikk audio lyd pronounce uttale word class ordklasse noun substantiv provide skaffe spell checker stavekontroll suggest foreslå/føreslå pop up dukke opp detect oppdage improper uriktig common vanlig/vanleg spelling rettskriving device innretning tutorial instruksjonsvideo

er in

1.51 Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. Explain the meaning of the words. a John bought the car which/witch is parked outside. b Mary isn’t to/too happy about what you said to her. c It’s/Its nice to talk to my teacher. d The music is a bit load/loud, don’t you think?

Ku

n

til

1.53 Use an online translation program, e.g. Google Translate. First translate a and b into Norwegian, then translate c and d into English. a “I like fried eggs.” Do you agree with the translation? b “Let’s call it a day and hit the hay.” Did it still work? Explain. c “Han var ikke høy i hatten.” Did it work the other way? What is the problem here? d "På Vestlandet spiser man smalahove." What went wrong here?

Did you know

It can be useful to know what your preferred learning style is. Some of us remember better what we see than what we hear. Others remember better what they can work on with their hands and experience physically. If you know what your preferred learning style is, you will be able to plan your studies accordingly, and learn more efficiently. SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 39


Written texts have existed for thousands of years. Our stone-age ancestors carved messages in rocks and ancient Egyptians wrote hieroglyphics on papyrus paper. Around 60 BC, the Acta Diurna, the first newspaper, was handwritten by Julius Caesar’s officers and displayed on walls in Ancient Rome. News was spread by travellers or pigeons, and it could take months before important information reached its destination. Although the first printed book was made in China in the 800s, it wasn’t until Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press in 1449 that access to written texts boomed. Soon books, which until then had been copied by hand, were available to a larger audience, and the first printed newspapers appeared all over Europe. With the invention of the telegraph in the 1830s, news travelled faster, but until around 1900, media meant primarily written sources of information and entertainment.

n

til

vu

rd

Before you start List at least ten different types of media.

The written press

er in

!

g

Events in the History of Media

Ku

globalised globalisert crucial avgjørende/avgjerande familiar with kjent med/ kjend med television set tv-apparat ancestors forfedre/forfedrar display henge opp pigeon due printing press trykkpresse access to tilgang til available tilgjengelig/ tilgjengeleg

40 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


AIMS k name important inventions in the

g

history of media k listen to gather information about inventions k use words and expressions related to media

er in

Film, radio and television

til

vu

rd

The 20th century saw the rise of the information age, through different steps. The invention and first public screening of films took place in 1895. This started a whole new industry on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, but while Europe suffered hardships during and after WWI, Hollywood grew into the capital of film in the USA. The radio was developed simultaneously, and in 1901 Italian G. Marconi was the first to send a voice message across the Atlantic Ocean by radio waves. From the 1920s onwards, civilians started buying radios, and broadcasting companies like the BBC and NBC produced programmes for the audiences. The largest gamechanger, however, was the invention of television, a result of the work of many individuals over decades. Television companies and broadcasting stations started producing programmes in the 1930s, but the work slowed down during WWII, so the television industry didn’t take off until the 1950s. In 1946 only 8,000 American households owned television sets, whereas 46 million had them in 1960. Television, film and modern music became the ultimate symbols of American culture, spreading to the rest of the world at an impressive pace.

screening visning hardship motgang simultaneous samtidig radio waves radiobølger broadcast sende gamechanger hending som fører til endring decade tiår household husholdning/ hushaldning pace tempo breakthrough gjennombrudd/ gjennombrot expand vokse/vekse censorship sensur echo chamber ekkokammer

The Internet

Ku

n

It took another 40 years until the next big media breakthrough. The public use of the Internet took off with the invention of the World Wide Web in 1991. Since then, the world has seen a new, constantly expanding media world. In addition to the possibility of reading news, watching films, listening to the radio and watching television online, the Internet offers so much more, for example social media, blogs, podcasts, gaming, shopping and so on. The Internet is gradually replacing traditional media and because of the global network, news and entertainment are constantly updated from all over the world. This has many advantages, but it also raises some questions. Since anybody can post stories on the Web, what can we trust? Furthermore, who decides what we hear or read about?

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 41


Read and understand

1.54 • Decide whether the sentences are true or false. 100 years ago nobody had a television set.

b

In 1449, Gutenberg invented the film.

c

Because of the telegraph, books travelled faster.

d

The film industry started in Hollywood.

e f

In 1895 the first voice message was sent by radio waves across the Atlantic Ocean. In 1946 only 8,000 American households had television sets.

g

On the Internet, news is constantly updated.

er in

a

False

g

True

1.55 •• Write 6 questions about the text. In groups, ask and answer the questions.

Practise

vu

rd

1.56 Fill in the correct prepositions in the sentences. Check the Language Lab section for information about prepositions. a I heard that song the radio yesterday. 1 in b He sat right the television set. 2 down c We often listen this programme on Fridays. 3 in front of d We read the story the newspaper. 4 to e June copied the pictures the Internet. 5 from f My mom turned the sound on the television. 6 on

Ku

n

til

1.57 Combine the two halves to make words connected to the media. Use the words in sentences. A lap 1 press B printing 2 vision C Inter 3 page D tele 4 top E news 5 net F web 6 paper

Did you know

Roughly 30 years ago, very few people were familiar with the Internet, and 100 years ago nobody had a television set. Today there are many challenges in the world of the media, like censorship, fake news, echo chambers, trolling and cyber-attacks. Another concern is the health of a generation that grows up in front of screens, on their TVs, laptops or cell phones.

42 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


1.58 Combine these media-related expressions with the most suitable definitions. A when something becomes popular and spreads rapidly on the Internet B when ideas are reinforced through repetition, e.g. because of online algorithms

1

Speak

4 go viral 5 echo chamber 6 mouse potato

er in

E a person who spends a lot of time in front of a computer F a link on a web page starting with: “you won’t believe what happened when …”

2 page-turner 3 clickbait

g

C an exciting novel that you don’t want to put down D a dramatic end to a television series that makes you want to watch more next week

cliffhanger

1.59 Read the quotes to the left and discuss the questions next to each quote.

Lee DeForest, American radio pioneer in 1926

a Which elements make it commercially and financially possible to make television?

rd

While theoretically and technically television may be feasible, commercially and financially I consider it to be an impossibility, a development of which we need waste little time dreaming.

b Which changes in society have resulted in people having time to “sit and keep their eyes glued on a screen”?

vu

The problem with television is that people must sit and keep their eyes glued on a screen; the average American family hasn’t got time for this. A New York Times review of a demonstration of television at the World’s Fair in 1939

til

The future presented by the Internet is the mass amateurization of publishing and a switch from “Why publish this?” to “Why not?”. Clay Shirky, American writer, consultant and teacher

The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow.

n

Bill Gates, American business magnate, investor, author and humanitarian.

c What are the challenges and advantages when non-professionals can publish their views in the media? d What used to be the function of the town square in villages? Can the Internet replace this?

Ku

Listen

1.60 “Which invention?” Listen to the people talking about various inventions. Which are their favourite? Take notes and share your information.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can name important inventions in the history of media YES

NO

listen to gather information about inventions YES

1.61 Today powerful companies and corporations own many of the media channels that people use. Can you find any examples? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this situation?

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

use words and expressions related to media YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 43


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SHARING INFORMATION: “SHOW AND TELL” Become a better speaker by practising the following steps.

Much better

g

Not so good I’m gonna talk about my cell phone, because I didn’t have time to prepare or anything else.

When I woke up yesterday, I could not find my phone. While I was looking for it, I realized that without it, I could not get in touch with my friends, listen to my favourite music, or even take the bus to school! It has become such an important gadget in my life, so that’s why I want to talk about my cell phone.

2 Sound convincing Show that you are interested in the topic and that you are prepared. If possible, know your topic well enough to be able to speak without a manuscript. It is more interesting for your audience if you speak freely.

This is maybe not very exciting, and I’m not sure if I know how it works, but I’ll or give it a try.

This is a fascinating object and I bring it with me all the time. There is so much fun you can have with it, and I want to share some of its features with you.

vu

rd

er in

1 Introduce your topic Start in a way that catches the attention of the audience. Create an atmosphere or describe a situation, and then say what you will talk about.

I am not sure what the most interesting part is, really, so I’ll just sum up everything you can do with it.

4 Illustrate your point Use pictures or bring objects to show and demonstrate how your object works.

It is hard to explain when you can’t see it, but there is a button somewhere.

5 Make a good conclusion Sum up your main points and, if possible, return to your introduction. Finally, invite your audience to ask questions.

That’s more or less it. Any questions?

or

First, this phone takes amazing pictures, and has a large selection of filters. Second, it has a large storage capacity for films and music. Next, the processing power is great. This means that it is very fast when you go online, so you can download games and apps in no time. It also has a display which …

or

When you push this button, you turn on the cell phone. To unlock it, you can use touch id or face recognition. The camera is located here and …

Ku

n

til

3 Have a clear message Organize the order of your examples. Repeat words or phrases to emphasize your point. Explain difficult words. Take short pauses to make sure people follow you.

44 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

or

So, you can imagine my relief when I finally found my phone in my bag yesterday! When you know how to handle this little object you have music, a camera, all your apps and so much more in one single gadget. And best of all, you can even use it to call your friends! Thank you for your attention. Don’t hesitate to ask if you have any questions.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

g

1.62 Change the following introductions into something catchy. a I’m going to talk about an interesting object that I found in our basement. b I have been asked to talk about a famous invention in the history of health care.

er in

1.63 Improve the following conclusions. a I guess this object wasn’t too interesting after all, but do you have any questions? b That’s all I know about this invention, sort of.

1.64 Practise your “show and tell” skills. Choose an object from your school bag, a tool or a piece of equipment in the classroom and prepare a short presentation of the object. Use the steps from the instruction. Present your “show and tell” in groups or in class. Finally, give each other feedback. What was good? What can be improved?

vu

rd

1.65 Choose one of the following inventions or discoveries. a Use at least two sources to find information about the invention or discovery. b Give a short presentation of your findings in class. Use pictures to help you show and tell. When What 1449 The printing press

Who Johannes Gutenberg

1605

Johann Carolus

Relation, the first newspaper

Samuel Morse

1895

The film and cinematograph

Auguste and Louis Lumière

1946

ENIAC, the first electronic digital computer Spacewar!, the first digital computer game The founding of Microsoft

John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert

til

1830s The telegraph 1837 The Analytical Engine, the first mechanical computer 1800s The radio

n

1962

Ku

1975

1984

Charles Babbage Guglielmo Marconi

MIT, Stephen Russel and others Bill Gates and Paul Allen

The original Macintosh and its typography The World Wide Web

Steve Jobs

IBM, Frank Canova

2004

Simon personal communicator, the first smartphone Facebook

2006

Wikileaks

Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning

2012

TikTok

Zhang Yiming

1989

1994

Tim Berners-Lee

Mark Zuckerberg

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 45


Ku

n

til

Before you start a Do you have a favourite song? Tell a partner about songs that have inspired you or meant something special to you. b Find The Script’s “Hall of Fame” online and listen to it.

Yeah, you can be the greatest You can be the best You can be the King Kong banging on your chest You can beat the world You can beat the war You can talk to God, go banging on his door You can throw your hands up You can beat the clock You can move a mountain You can break rocks You can be a master Don’t wait for luck Dedicate yourself and you gon’ find yourself

vu

!

rd

er in

g

Hall of Fame

hall of fame æresgalleri champion mester/ meister politician politiker/ politikar preacher pastor, prest truth seekers sannhetssøkere/ sanningssøkarar

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame You can go the distance You can run the mile You can walk straight through hell with a smile You can be the hero

46 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


You can get the gold Breaking all the records they thought never could be broke Do it for your people Do it for your pride How are you ever gonna know if you never even try? Do it for your country Do it for your name ‘Cause there’s gonna be a day When you’re

g

k understand what the song is about k explain what metaphors mean k discuss what inspires you

er in

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame

AIMS

til

vu

Be students, be teachers Be politicians, be preachers Be believers, be leaders Be astronauts, be champions Be truth seekers Be students, be teachers Be politicians, be preachers Be believers, be leaders Be astronauts, be champions

rd

Be a champion, be a champion, be a champion, be a champion On the walls of the hall of fame

Ku

n

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame You can be the greatest, you can be the best

The Script ft. will.i.am Lyrics by Will Adams / Mark Sheehan / James Barry / Daniel O’Donoghue

“You can go the distance You can go the mile»

The Script, Hall of Fame

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 47


Read and understand

1.66 • Fill in the missing words to make a summary of the song. Read the complete summary out loud with a partner. rock – Fame – world – part – encourage – people’s – photos – Do – overcome

er in

g

The song Hall of is an inspirational song. It was written by The Script, an Irish pop and alternative band. In the text the writers address the listeners and them to try and make a difference in the . They do not literally expect us all to have a place in some “Hall of Fame” with our on a physical wall. However, we all meet obstacles in our lives, but they can be . If we play our , no matter how small, we can be important in other lives. Play your part! “ it for your country, do it for your name,” the song says.

vu

rd

1.67 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a What is a Hall of Fame? b What do you think the song writers mean by saying “don’t wait for luck”? c Find at least five examples of what the songwriters encourage us to be. d What does it mean to “go the distance”? e Sum up the message of the song in one sentence.

Practise

til

1.68 A contraction is a word or phrase that has been shortened by dropping one or more letters. An apostrophe indicates where letters are missing. Write the following words in contracted form.

Ku

n

a I am b do not

c we are d would not

e you will f we have

g she would h let us

1.69 The expressions below are informal. Write the sentences in formal language and without contractions. a And the world’s gonna know your name. b ‘cause there’s gonna be a day … c How are you ever gonna know if you never even try?

48 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


A You can beat the clock B You burn with the brightest flame C You can move mountains D You will be in the hall of fame

1

er in

1.71 Combine the metaphors from the song with the most suitable interpretation.

g

1.70 Metaphors are often used in song lyrics and poems, but also in everyday language. They are figures of speech used to describe something as if it were something else, for example “life is a rollercoaster”. Explain what the following metaphors mean. a You are my sunshine. b He has a heart of gold. c She is a walking encyclopaedia. d Love is a battlefield.

You can overcome obstacles

2 You can finish before the deadline 3 You will be honoured and respected

4 You are passionate about what you do

rd

1.72 Choose six nouns from the text and write them in the singular and plural forms. You may find it helpful to study “Nouns” in the Language Lab section.

vu

Speak

Write

til

1.73 Discuss the following statements. Do you agree or disagree? a “We can’t all be champions. Average is fine.” b “I want success in life, and I don’t care how I get it.” c “Music inspires and motivates me.” d “I don’t envy famous people. Happiness lies in being an ordinary person.” How did you do?

n

1.74 • Choose one or two lines from the song “Hall of Fame” that inspire you. Find an illustration that fits well and make a motivational poster.

Ku

1.75 •• Write a paragraph about an ordinary person that you admire. Why should he or she be in the Hall of Fame? 1.76 ••• Write a text about the song “Hall of Fame”. How does it inspire you? Choose quotes that you like particularly well and explain.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe what the song is about YES

ALMOST

NO

explain what metaphors mean YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss what inspires me YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 49


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

Assess your progress

g

1.78 What have you focused on in Chapter 1? Number the suggestions below from 1 to 7, where 1 has been most important for you.

er in

 Speaking  Understanding texts  Learning new words  Writing  Getting to know each other  Learning strategies (how to learn new things)  Finding information

rd

1.79 Which of the above do you find most difficult, and what do you think you master quite well? 1.80 Learning strategies a Which learning strategy do you most often use when you start working with a new text? b What can you do to remember new information? c Name at least four different ways of memorizing new words. Which one works best for you? d Look at the first text in Chapter 2. What do you think will be the best learning strategy for you when working with this text?

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1.77 After working with Chapter 1, it is time to revise what you have learnt. Discuss with your teacher whether the tasks should be done individually or in groups, in writing or orally, at home or in class. a Find a picture in this chapter that you like and explain why. b Which professions or occupations are mentioned in the text “This Is Me”? Briefly explain what the different people do. c What is English for vocational purposes? Explain and give examples of situations where you would need to use vocational English. d List five new words you have learnt while working with this chapter. e Give a short summary of one of the texts you have read in this chapter. f What is the message in the song “Hall of Fame”?

50 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

1.81 Sharing information a How should you introduce your topic when presenting something to an audience? b Why should you try to speak without a manuscript, if possible? c How can you help your audience remember what you have told them? 1.82 Look at the focus areas listed on the first page of this chapter. a Which ones do you think you master well or quite well? b Which ones do you think you will need to work on?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Apply your skills

til

1.83 Speak a • Choose a text or a task in this chapter that you like or find interesting. Describe what the text or task is about to a partner and explain what you find interesting about it.

1.84 Write a • Translate your own timetable into English. You can use the word list on Utdanningsdirektoratet’s web pages to find out what your subjects are called in English. b •• How will English be useful in your life? Make a list of situations both at work and in life where you think it will be important to know English well.

c ••• What are good ways to learn new skills? Which factors are important? First, make a list for yourself. Then, compare your lists in pairs. Finally, share in groups or with the rest of the class.

c ••• What do you expect to learn in English class this year? What would you like to learn? Write a short text for your teacher. To get you started, you may find it useful to look at the table of contents in this book, as well as the learning objectives in the English curriculum.

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b •• Describe a good media worker. In your opinion, which personal qualities are important? Share your views in small groups.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 51


til

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X CHAPTER 2

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On the Safe Side


In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k safety k accidents and first aid k work-related stress k writing reports k giving instructions

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k verbs and tenses

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til

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Useful words and phrases hazard injury safety signs ergonomics workplace culture backup cyber attack identity theft digital security first aid

If youiscould be Why it important anything you want, to learn about safety what would you be? at work? What do you know about first aid already?

53


g er in rd vu til n

Ku 54 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Safety First!

AIMS k discuss the importance of safety at

g

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What do you think kills most people in the world? Is it war, crime or drugs? No, it is work! Around two million people worldwide die every year from accidents or diseases related to their work.

work k understand and use words related to safety k talk about safety equipment and accident prevention

rd

The most dangerous jobs in the world are in agriculture, mining and construction. Even though the most common cause of death is work-related car accidents (23%), it is no surprise that falls in construction work is number two. Lumberjacks have a very high number of deaths at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employees. In the USA alone, around 6,000 people die at work each year, but this also includes those who have a heart attack while sitting at their desks.

til

vu

A lot has been done to reduce accidents at work. First, strict rules and safety instructions have improved working conditions. Second, protective clothing, like safety boots, hardhats and goggles help prevent injuries. Third, better health care saves more people after accidents and helps victims back to work after recovery. It is, however, obvious that things can get even better. Not all workers take necessary precautions. In some cases, the equipment or the instructions may not be good enough.

Ku

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In the world of information technology and media production, safety hazards may be electric shock, burns and strain from lifting warm or heavy objects. Working with parts inside a computer case can be dangerous, since many components store a lot of electrical energy. Also, one should focus on ergonomics and stress prevention, as many employees tend to spend most of their workday sitting in front of computer screens. Cyber security measures, like firewalls and encrypting, are important in preventing hacking and other security breaches where vital data can be lost or accessible to attack. Different jobs have different hazards, and workers should know which risks they face. In conclusion, to prevent accidents employees should always follow instructions, but the employer should also make sure that the working conditions are good enough. Consequently, safety is something that concerns everybody.

accident ulykke disease sykdom/sjukdom related to knyttet til/knytt til agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen lumberjacks tømmerhoggere/ tømmerhoggarar employees ansatte/tilsette include inkludere, også gjelde protective beskyttende/ vernande, beskyttande hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller prevent forebygge/førebyggje recovery rekonvalesens obvious åpenbart, klart/opplagt, innlysande, klart precaution forholdsregel hazard fare burns brannsår strain belastning ergonomics ergonomi measures her: tiltak accessible tilgjengelig/ tilgjengeleg employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgivar conditions forhold concern gjelde

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 55


IN SHORT

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Read and understand

2.1 • Decide whether these sentences are true or false.

a

What kills most people is drugs.

b

Lumberjacks have a very dangerous job.

c

6,000 people in the US die of a heart attack each year.

d

Wearing special clothes does not prevent accidents.

e

There are rules on how to behave at work.

f

Electric shock is not a hazard for IT workers.

g

Ergonomics is important when working on computers.

True

False

Ku

n

til

accident ulykke/ulukke disease sykdom/sjukdom related to knyttet til/knytt til agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen common her: vanlig/vanleg lumberjacks tømmerhoggere/ tømmerhoggarar employee ansatt/tilsett safety rules sikkerhetsregler/ tryggingsreglar protective beskyttende/ vernande, beskyttande hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller recovery rekonvalesens careless uforsiktig avoid unngå burns brannsår strain belastning ergonomics ergonomi prevent forebygge/førebyggje employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgivar

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g

What kills most people is work. Around two million people in the world die every year because of accidents or diseases related to their work. The most dangerous jobs are in agriculture, mining and construction. The most common causes of death are car accidents and falls in construction. Still, lumberjacks have the largest number of deaths at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employees. In the US, 6,000 people die at work every year. Strict safety rules have reduced the number of accidents. When workers wear protective clothing, like safety boots, hardhats and goggles, more lives are saved. They can often go back to work after recovery. However, workers are often careless and instructions are not good enough. Workers in information technology and media production must avoid electric shock, burns and strain. Parts inside a computer case can store a lot of electrical energy. Also, ergonomics is important for employees who work on computers, and so is cyber security. To prevent accidents, employees and employers should work together.

h

Employers do not have any responsibility regarding workplace safety.

2.2 •• Rewrite the false sentences in 2.1 so that they become true. 2.3 ••• Complete the following tasks. a Explain what surprises you in the text. b What does not surprise you? c Retell the contents of the text in ten sentences. Use your own words.

56 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Practise

sMka

1

vernebriller

b

doAiv

2

hansker

c

jyInru

3

bakterier

d

osveGl

4

unngå

e

tnePerv

5

skade

f

gseoglG

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forebygge

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neActidc

7

maske

h

eticrBaa

8

ulykke

er in

a

g

2.4 Unscramble the letters and find words related to safety. Combine with the right Norwegian translation. Write the correct words.

2.5 Use words from the text to make your own list of words with scrambled letters. Exchange lists with a partner and solve each other’s lists.

rd

2.6 First, translate the Norwegian words into English. Then, find the English words in the grid below.

O

G

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L

E

S

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F

A

L

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S

S

T

A

A

V

R

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K

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O

O

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streng unngå gruvearbeid dødsfall risiko

vernebriller hjelm støvler fallulykker ulykke

D

E

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A

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C

C

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There are four letters left when you have found all the words in the grid. Together they form one word. Can you find it? It’s ­ ­ ­

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 57


2.7 When do we need safety clothing? Match the equipment below with the correct situation and photo. to protect your feet from sharp objects on the floor to protect your eyes from smoke or dangerous liquids to prevent eye fatigue from glare on computer screens to avoid head injury from falling objects to avoid breathing in bacteria or air pollution to be seen when working in dark or crowded areas to avoid burning or cutting your fingers

g

a b c d e f g

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3

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goggles gloves hardhat reflective vest safety boots protective mask anti-glare filter

Ku

6

58 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

7


Speak

2.8 Describe the photos. a What kind of safety equipment are they wearing? b What kind of jobs do you think they have? Discuss and explain your point of view. C

B

D

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A

How did you do?

E

After working with the text and tasks, I can

Ku

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discuss the importance of safety at work

Listen

YES

ALMOST

NO

understand and use words related to safety YES

2.9 “Safety Equipment at Work” Listen to Becky and Jake, who talk about their jobs and the equipment they need to perform their jobs safely. Take notes and share in class.

ALMOST

NO

talk about safety equipment and accident prevention YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 59


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A REPORT

g

Writing a report is an important activity at work, both after finishing a job and after an accident. In a report your language should be formal and correct, and the content should be to the point. Example

1 Write a heading

er in

To: Mrs June Johnson, Safety Coordinator at Best Media Production From: Denise Darwin, Senior Media Producer Date: October 11, 2020 Subject: Apprentice injured during filming

• Who is it for? • Who is it from? • Place • Subject

2 Write an introduction

3 Sum up what happened

rd

This report is of an accident that took place on October 10, while our new media production • Explain why you write the report. • Give relevant background information. apprentice Edward Osborne and I were preparing studio 1 for the evening programmes. who – when – where – why … I had just instructed Mr Osborne on how to set up the lights and reflectors and he was working on his own, testing the lights, when suddenly one of the tripods tipped and an HMI 1800 Arri lamp fell on him. Fortunately, he was wearing gloves. Still, he got burns on his right arm. He was immediately driven to the doctor for treatment.

vu

• Write down the activities or events that took place, in chronological order.

4 Add relevant information

til

• Relevant facts may be statistics or photos. • Evaluate and comment on reasons why the accident occurred.

5 Write a conclusion

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• Suggest improvements or changes in routines and regulation.

6 Sign your report

60 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

This is the second accident in three months connected to handling lights and other equipment in studio 1. Reasons for this may be inexperienced staff and insufficient training in handling this equipment.

As a conclusion I suggest that we invest more time in teaching our apprentices how to perform challenging tasks like this before we let them work on their own. We must also make sure that the workers use high-quality protective gloves. Yours sincerely,

Denise Darwin


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

2.10 Place the sentence connectors in the open spaces below. Then write the paragraph. consequently – furthermore – inevitably – first – luckily – second – suddenly – however

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I was on my way from my office to meeting room 4 when the accident occurred. , being late, I was walking fast, and I was carrying my laptop, a portable projector, my charger and some cables. I slipped on a wet spot on the floor. I tripped and fell to the floor, and my laptop and projector landed on top of me. I did not break anything but sprained my wrist as I landed. My laptop, , was badly damaged. I will have to be more careful in future and watch my step.

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2.11 Study the illustrations and write a report. Use your imagination to fill in details.

til

2.12 Write a report about a project you have worked with at school. Include information on the preparation, the process, and the materials or equipment used. Explain the purpose of the work and evaluate the process and the result.

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2.13 Read the following quotes from real accident reports sent to insurance companies in the USA. Some of the explanations are rather curious. Work with a partner and do the tasks. a Discuss and explain what you think actually happened in each situation. b If you were to write the reports, how would you describe the course of events?

Accident Reports • A pedestrian hit me and went under my car. • Coming home, I drove into the wrong house and collided with a tree I don’t have. • I thought my window was down, but found it was up when I put my hand through it. • I had been driving for 40 years when I fell asleep at the wheel and had an accident. • I was thrown from my car as it left the road. I was later found in a ditch by some stray cows.

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 61


!

I sat down to work a couple weeks ago. It was a Sunday, but I had a lot to do, so I resolutely turned on my computer, opened a document, and – watched as the screen went blue. I run my own business. I have a computer repair place I trust, but no oncall IT staff, and it was a Sunday, after all. From what I could tell, this was a spectacular crash. An hour of frantic booting and rebooting, phone calls and “system restore”, and I had to face the truth: My computer was one with the angels. I didn’t waste a lot of time wondering what to do next. My computer ranks right on top of my “can’t live without” list. I marched off to J&R and bought myself a new one. I was back at my home office, setting it up, within hours. But as anyone who’s ever replaced a computer knows, here’s where the real headaches begin.

n

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Before you start If your computer broke down, what would you do?

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The Crash

Ku

resolutely besluttsomt/resolutt on-call beredskapsbooting oppstart system restore systemgjenoppretting rule out eliminere wireless trådløs/trådlaus connected her: koblet til/ kopla til paradoxical selvmotsigende/ sjølvmotsigande

Are you kidding me? The computer I settled on, once I had ruled out Macs as too risky (it wasn’t at all clear that my existing PC-created documents and emails would translate), was a Lenovo. I brought it home, powered it up, entered my wireless password and Voila! – nothing. Although the little icon assured me that I was connected to my home office network, this paradoxical phrase

62 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


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also appeared: “no internet access.” I checked the settings. I turned my computer on and off. I rebooted AIMS the modem. I called the cable company. Nothing. I called Lenovo. k explain what the text is about After the inevitable 16 centuries on hold, my call was k discuss computer problems and solutions answered by a woman who walked me through doing all the things I’d already done. Then she announced she’d k discuss statistics about accidents at work have to escalate the problem to someone in software. Another several lifetimes on hold and I found myself speaking to a woman in India, who instructed me to: Check my settings. Turn my computer on and off. Reboot the modem. Finally, she said something along these lines, “It looks like you have a software problem and the standard warranty only covers hardware. I can transfer you to someone who can help with this, but you’ll have to pay.” Mind you, the computer box and packing materials were still on the floor next to me. I’m willing to bet the engine of my car was still warm. It was one of the rare moments in my life when I was, quite literally, speechless. My husband, who had popped his head in to see how things were going, was not. The words he chose, sailing from across the room in New York City, but confirmed to have been heard in India, were not terribly creative, but did fit the bill. I recovered my voice and chimed in. “I bought this computer today, brand new. Are you saying it’s not your access tilgang inevitable uunngåelig/ problem that it doesn’t connect to the internet?” uunngåeleg What finally worked, of course, was politely but firmly asking to speak to a century århundre manager. Shortly after, the phone changed hands once more and some man settings innstillinger/ – maybe her manager, who knows? – walked me through fixing the problem.

til

Of course, I had everything backed-up

Ku

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You’d be utterly nuts to run a document-dependent business like mine and not have a reliable back-up system in place. For years, I’ve relied on Carbonite, one of those cloud back-up programs that runs in the background, snatching up (and encrypting) everything on my hard drive on a pretty much constant basis. Nonetheless, even in these days of digital miracles, it’s no fast or easy thing to recover over four years of digital content. There were glitches. Mismatches with Lenovo’s settings and built-in programs. Clashes with my firewall. It took hours on the phone with a total of four patient and kind tech support guys to get the download started, and it wasn’t completed for another six days.

My machine, my amour Most days, my relationship to my computer is like a bad marriage. I take for granted that it will daily accomplish feats that would have been unimaginable less than 20 years ago. I’ve grown accustomed to its face. Turning on a new

innstillingar warranty garanti transfer overføre literally bokstavelig/bokstaveleg pop in stikke inn(om) fit the bill passe til chime in si seg enig i/seie seg einig i reliable pålitelig/påliteleg snatch gripe tak i hard drive harddisk recover her: gjenopprette/rette opp att glitch teknisk glipp firewall brannmur tech support brukerstøtte/ brukarstøtte download laste ned feat prestasjon accustomed to vant til/vand til

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 63


er in

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tinker reparere, flikke font skrifttype pane vindusrute/vindaugsrute toolbar verktøylinje desktop skrivebord cluttered rotete

computer is like starting a whole new relationship. Suddenly I notice all I left behind. I’m embarrassed to admit how much time I’ve spent over the course of the last week, tinkering with settings to get my email to look exactly like it used to, down to the font and the size of the preview pane. I’ve taken time away from priority projects to add my favorite icons to the Word toolbar. Slowly, my new computer starts to feel like my old one (only lighter and faster). Here are all my precious documents, safe and sound. Once again, my favorite webpages are greeting me by name, and my desktop is already beginning to look cluttered. Why have I told you all this? Because for some of us, work sometimes comes down to this: being daily dependent on a technology that we barely understand.

IN SHORT

til

vu

rd

I sat down to work on my computer two weeks ago. When I turned on my computer, the screen went blue. I tried booting, rebooting and phone calls but nothing helped. It was a total crash and my computer was dead. I went to the store and bought myself a new one. But that was where the real headaches began. The computer I bought was a Lenovo. When I had powered it up and entered my wireless password nothing happened. A phrase appeared: “no internet access.” I checked the settings, turned it on and off. I rebooted the modem. I called the cable company. Nothing. I called Lenovo. After hours on hold, a woman walked me through doing all the things I’d already done. Still nothing. I was then put on hold again until a woman in India instructed me to: Check my settings. Turn my computer on and off. Reboot the modem. Finally, she said: “It looks like you have a software problem. I can transfer you to someone who can help, but you’ll have to pay.” This made me angry. “I bought this computer today. Are you saying it’s not your problem that it doesn’t connect to the internet?” I asked to speak to a manager. Some man – maybe her manager – finally walked me through fixing the problem. Luckily, I have a reliable back-up system in place. Still, it was no easy thing to recover all my digital content. There were mismatches with Lenovo’s settings. Clashes with my firewall. It took hours on the phone with four patient tech support guys to get it settled. I have spent hours fixing settings of my email, adding my favorite icons to the Word toolbar. Now my new computer starts to feel like my old one, with all my documents, safe and sound. But it is not easy to be dependent on a technology that we barely understand.

Ku

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booting oppstart wireless trådløs/trådlaus settings innstillinger/­ innstillingar on hold på vent transfer overføre connected her: koblet til/kopla til walk through veilede/rettleie reliable pålitelig/påliteleg recover her: gjenopprette/rette opp att firewall brannmur tech support brukerstøtte/­ brukarstøtte toolbar verktøylinje

64 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


robin hardman Robin Hardman is a writer and work-life expert who gives advice to companies on how to put together the best possible "great place to work" competition entries. She also blogs about work. Her slogan is: “You can’t win if you can’t tell your story.”

M

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Read and understand

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2.14 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. Write the correct sentences. a When Robin turned on her computer, the screen went black/blue/green. b She tried rebooting/recycling/returning the computer. c She went to the helpdesk/office/store and got herself a new computer. d When she entered her wireless password/username/surname nothing happened. e She finally called the computer brand’s helpdesk/office/store for assistance. f The advice she got at first helped her/did not/was too complicated to solve the problem. g Having to pay for assistance made Robin angry/relieved/sad. h It took several minutes/hours/weeks to finally get the computer online. i It was no problem/point in/easy thing to recover all the digital content and settings.

vu

2.15 •• Prepare at least eight questions about the text. Ask and answer each other’s questions in small groups.

n

til

2.16 ••• Read the text closely and answer the questions. a What did Robin try to do before she bought a new computer? b Why did she decide to buy a new computer the same day? c What kind of machine did she buy and why? d Whom did she call for help, and who could finally help her? e Why does she become speechless during her conversation? How does her husband react? f What kind of back-up system does she use and how does the recovery work? g What does she do to her new computer when it’s working, and why? h Why did she write this text? What is her message?

Practise

Ku

2.17 Match the two halves to complete the words. Then, use the words to make sentences about Robin’s computer crash experience. A re 1 ter B up 2 bar C en 3 support D fire 4 boot E tool 5 date F tech 6 less G down 7 wall H wire 8 load SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 65


g

2.18 Match the words with the right synonym or definition. Then, prepare five sentences using as many of the words as possible. A download 1 free B accustomed 2 initially C resolutely 3 disconnected D connected 4 indecisively E dependent 5 inexperienced F finally 6 upload

Speak

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2.19 Fill in the correct present simple form of the verbs in the sentences. You can read about verbs in the Language Lab section. a Safety at work very important. (be) b Everybody proper training to avoid accidents. (need) c We to take precautions every day. (have) d One of my colleagues not know the safety rules. (do) e Being observant a useful quality at work. (be) f Most of my friends a good break after work. (enjoy) g No one when I call this number. (answer) h Only one person in my class how to treat burns. (know)

vu

2.20 Discuss the questions in groups. a Robin is desperate when her computer crashes. Why is she so dependent on it and why is it so hard for her to get the new one started on her own? b Have you or anyone you know ever experienced job-related accidents or technology problems? Explain what happened.

til

Write

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2.21 After she finally gets her new computer set up, Robin Hardman writes a report to the management of Lenovo about the incident with the unqualified helpdesk employees. Use “Writing a report” in this chapter and your imagination to add details and write the text.

Explore

Ku

2.22 Use various sources to find more information about the following. Share in class. a Common errors that may make a computer break down or crash. b The two computer brands mentioned in the text, Mac and Lenovo: recent models, support services and other facts.

Did you know

According to new research on work and safety in the UK, more than a quarter of young people fail to follow the health and safety procedures in their workplace. 27% of workers between 18 and 34 admit having put themselves at risk by not following their company’s safety procedures. Also, 33% of the young workers do not know what to do if a hazardous situation occurs. For workers between 45 and 64, however, 92% follow safety andthe 67% answered that they knew what to do in dangerous situations. 66 |procedures Chapter 2: On Safe Side | SKILLS


Global safety statistics RIP

rd

This equates to over 6000 deaths every single day.

How did you do?

Hazardous substances alone are estimated to cause 651,279 deaths a year.

vu

Work-related accidents and diseases result in 2.3 million fatalities around the world every year.

g

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2.23 Study the statistics and infographic below and answer the questions. a What information do we get from the infographic about workrelated accidents worldwide? (ILO: International Labour Organization.) b What information do we get from the two graphs about work and health in the UK? c Use the Internet to find statistics on work-related accidents in Norway. How do the numbers compare to the statistics on this page?

Worldwide, there are 340 million occupational accidents and 160 million victims of work-related illnesses annually.

til

ILO updates indicate an increase of accidents and ill health.

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the text is about YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss computer problems and solutions YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss statistics about accidents at work YES

ALMOST

NO

Source: ILO/International Labour Organisation

Fatal injuries in the UK

The pie chart below gives some indication on what the more common incidents are and how they compare to each other.

3,0

Ku

Rate of fatal injury (per 100,000 workers)

n

100 people killed due to work-related activites in 2018/19

2,5

a b c d e

2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5

f g

0,0

1981

Source: www.hse.gov.uk/riddor

UK Statistics on Workplace Accidents

2020

h i

Hit by moving vehicle Handling (other) Hit something fixed or stationary Fall from height Slip or trip Hit by moving/falling object Contact with moving machinery Handling (manual handling) Other

5% 5% 14%

i

e

6%

d

5% 2%

c a

b

19%

g

f

17% h

27%

Source: www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/pdf/fatalinjuries.pdf

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 67


FACT FILE FACT FILE Signs

There are four main groups of signs.

Things that you must do Round, bright blue, white picture

vu

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Warns you of danger Europe: a triangle with white or yellow background, a red border, a black picture USA: yellow danger warning signs, black borders and a black picture

Mandatory signs

g

Danger warning signs

Prohibition signs

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Things that are not allowed Round, white background, black picture, red border, often red slash across

Sayings

What is the message in these sayings? • Safety never takes a holiday. • Better safe than sorry. • Safety doesn’t happen by accident.

68 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

Information signs

Many different types of information signs No international standard, different from country to country


FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

2.24 Study the signs (a–n). Group them according to what type of signs they are. • danger warning signs • mandatory signs

C

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• prohibition signs • information signs

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2.25 Combine the signs in task 2.24 with the correct text from the list below. 1 Do not drink the water 8 Accessible for wheelchairs 2 Wear hardhats 9 Caution, guard dog 3 Safety boots must be worn 10 High visibility clothing must be worn in this area 4 Wash hands 11 Apron must be worn 5 Toxic hazard 12 Toilet 6 Warning, flammable material 13 Slippery roads 7 No smoking 14 Danger, falling rocks

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2.26 Make a tour of your school. What kinds of signs do you see? Are there signs missing? Write two lists and suggest improvements.

Accidents Happen Kids messing about in the backs of cars Can sometimes cause accidents to happen While accidents in the backs of cars Almost always cause kids to happen Paul Curtis SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 69


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Stress

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Work-related stress is a growing problem around the world. It affects both the health and the well-being of workers, and the productivity and safety of companies. It is therefore important to identify elements that cause stress and to learn how to handle stressful situations.

til

How can I know that I’m stressed?

Ku

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There are many different symptoms of stress. First, physical symptoms may be headaches, sleeping problems and fatigue. Furthermore, the mental effects, for example irritability, anxiety and even depression, can make it hard to concentrate on tasks and participate in conversations. This in turn may lead to a change in behaviour, a drop in work performance and finally, an increase in sick days. If you experience such symptoms over a longer period, you should contact a supervisor or go see your doctor to sort out the situation.

Did you know

Almost 8 in 10 Americans are stressed at times and 44Â % feel stressed frequently.

What causes stress at work? Stress is not an illness; it’s a state. Up to a certain point stress is something positive. It is our brain making us produce adrenaline to perform better. However, if this situation of being on constant alert lasts for a long period of time, our brain will become overstimulated and we may develop mental or physical illnesses.

70 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Reasons why people experience stress may be long work hours, tedious or hard work, tight deadlines, strict supervision, harassment or personal challenges. It is not necessarily the amount of work that creates stress, but rather the feeling of not being in control of the situation.

AIMS k describe important reasons and

How can I prevent work-related stress?

til Fatigue

Exhaustion

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Performance

Stress curve

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Preventing or treating stress is not always easy, but there are some effective methods to help you along. First, take breaks and learn deep breathing and other stress-relief techniques. Then, organize your days by making lists of “must dos” and “can waits”. Also, talk to colleagues or friends about your problem, and take time to sleep, exercise and do things you enjoy. If this doesn’t help, go see a doctor! Furthermore, remember that employers are responsible for ensuring a safe and positive work environment. They should encourage and support their employees, make sure they are sufficiently trained for their job, reorganise duties and employ extra staff if necessary. To sum up, some stress is good, and being too laid back at work is not good for business or for you. However, if the demand for performance stays too high, for too long, it is time to slow down. A breakdown or burn-out is the last thing a worker should have to experience.

g

remedies for work-related stress k reflect on how you can handle and prevent stress k discuss what makes a good workplace culture

Anxiety/panic/anger

Ku

Laid back

Inactive

Too little stress (underload)

Breakdown

Optimum stress

Too much stress (overload)

Burn-out

Source: https://www.thechelseapsychologyclinic.com/blog/see-stress-curve/

Stress level

affect påvirke/ påverke identify identifisere cause forårsake handle håndtere/handtere fatigue utmattethet/utmatting anxiety engstelse/uro participate delta behaviour oppførsel work performance arbeidsprestasjon increase øke/auke supervisor arbeidsleder7 arbeidsleiar sort out finne ut av state tilstand perform prestere alert beredskap tedious kjedelig/ kjedeleg supervision overoppsyn harassment sjikane amount mengde prevent forebygge/ førebygge relief lindring, lettelse/ lindring, lette encourage oppmuntre sufficient nok, tilstrekkelig/ nok, tilstrekkeleg duty plikt burn-out utbrenthet/ kjenne seg utbrent

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 71


“Stress, anxiety and depression are caused when we are living to please others.”

2.27 • Complete the statements. Use information from the text. a Physical symptoms of stress may be … b Stress is our brain making us … c To prevent stress, take breaks and learn … d Employers are responsible for ensuring … e One important thing I learned from this text is …

g

Paul Coelho, Brazilian author

Read and understand

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2.29 Find words from the text that correspond to these definitions. Use the words to write sentences. a boring d deal with g give support to someone b enough e foreman h take part in c worker i have an effect on f exhaustion

Speak

2.30 Study the list below. Discuss which of these situations might increase or help reduce the stress level in a work environment. Some might do both. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Support from colleagues Varying tasks Promotion opportunities Risk of unemployment Working in teams Tight deadlines

til

“Ten years from now you’ll laugh at whatever’s stressing you out today. So why not laugh now?”

Practise

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Loretta LaRoche, American stress expert and humour consultant

vu

“Stressed spelled backwards is desserts.”

2.28 •• Answer the questions. a What are important symptoms of stress? b Why is stress also something positive? c What is the connection between stress and control? d What can employees do to reduce work-related stress? e What can employers do to reduce stress at a workplace?

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Tony Robbins, American live performance coach

“Stress is caused by being ‘here’, but wanting to be ‘there’.”

7 Lack of personal space 8 Easy access to social media 9 Taking a yoga break 10 Listening to music 11 Drinking a lot of coffee 12 Being a perfectionist

2.31 Discuss the quotes in the margin. What do they mean? Which one do you think gives the best advice? Give reasons for your choice.

Eckhart Tolle, German author and spiritual teacher

72 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Write

er in

2.33 • Study the stress curve illustration on the previous page. Write a paragraph where you explain the different levels of stress and their effect.

g

2.32 A good workplace culture is important for the wellbeing and efficiency of employees. Discuss the questions and give examples. a What kind of conditions and behaviour can create a good workplace culture? b What can cause a bad workplace culture? c What might be stress-related situations in your future job? d How can these hazards be avoided, or how can you prepare yourself for handling them?

rd

2.34 •• Study the infographic below about stress in the USA. Use the information to prepare a manuscript for a 2-minute speech about stress. Record your text afterwards.

Little known facts about stress Little Little known known facts facts about about stress stress 80% 80%80%

80% of workers 80% 80% of of workers workers feel feelfeel stress on the stress stress onon the the job. job.job. 42% say their 42% 42% say say their their co-workers need help. co-workers co-workers need need help. help.

HEALTHCARE HEALTHCARE HEALTHCARE

vu

ON THE JOB ON ONTHE THE JOB JOB

42% 42%42%

IN SCHOOL ININSCHOOL SCHOOL

CAUSES OF STRESS CAUSES CAUSES OF OFSTRESS STRESS

n

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Stress ahealth top health concern Stress Stress is is a top aistop health concern concern forfor for US teens 9th–12th grade. USUS teens teens 9th–12th 9th–12th grade. grade.

75% of healthcare costs 75% 75% of of healthcare healthcare costs costs are associated with are are associated associated with with chronic illness. chronic chronic illness. illness. Stress is#1 the #1 cause Stress Stress is is the the #1 cause cause of of of chronic illness. chronic chronic illness. illness.

Money Money Money Work Work Work

75% 75%75% 70% 70%70% 67% 67%67%

Economy Economy Economy Relationships Relationships Relationships Family responsibilities Family Family responsibilities responsibilities

57% 57%57%

Family health problems Family Family health health problems problems Personal health concerns Personal Personal health health concerns concerns

53% 53%53% 53% 53%53%

Job stability Job Job stability stability

58% 58%58%

49% 49%49%

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe important reasons and remedies for work-related stress YES

ALMOST

NO

Ku

Source: relaxlikeaboss.com Source: Source: relaxlikeaboss.com relaxlikeaboss.com

Listen

reflect on how I can handle and prevent stress YES

2.35 “Handling Stress” Listen to Lucy and Dave who talk about their jobs and how they handle stress. a How does each of them deal with work pressure and expectations? b Who seems to have the least stressful job? Explain.

ALMOST

NO

discuss what makes a good workplace culture YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 73


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING INSTRUCTIONS

2 Explain important and

Many employees in media-related jobs experience strain on their backs. This is often because we are careless, when lifting, for example, heavy objects like cameras, lamps and wire boxes. Therefore, I will show you how to lift heavy objects correctly Before we start I will explain some difficult words. Resilient means elastic, assistance means help and firm means good and strong.

rd

difficult words. Show objects or pictures if necessary.

g

Present the purpose of your instructions and explain their importance to get your audience interested.

Hello ,and welcome to these instructions on lifting techniques.

er in

1 Introduce the topic.

3 Explain the procedure

vu

step by step. Use words like: first of all, second, third, then, after that, meanwhile, finally.

First, it is important to have the right shoes, with resilient soles. Second, if possible, ask for assistance when lifting particularly heavy objects.

4 Demonstrate the

til

different steps of the procedure. Use your hands, illustrations or real objects to make your instructions clearer.

Ku

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purpose hensikt, mål procedure fremgangsmåte/ framgangsmåte repeat gjenta straight rett firm grip fast tak straighten rette opp

5 Make sure your

audience understands all the steps. Repeat your points if necessary, take pauses and ask your audience if they have any questions.

74 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

When you lift, you should have a straight back, like this (show). Then, bend your knees, like this (show). This is to avoid using your back to lift. Also, make sure you have a firm grip on the object. If you are going to lift a box, the best grip is in the corners, here and here (point). Finally, when you lift, straighten your knees. Then, of course, you repeat the procedure when putting the object back down. Do you remember the different steps? Do you have any questions?


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

1

2.36 Combine the instructions with the correct illustration. Then practise by giving instructions to a partner.

g

To get a strong body that can endure hard physical work, here are some exercises to do once a day ‌

er in

2

a To strengthen your tummy, lie on your back, on the floor. Bend your knees and do 30 sit-ups in a row. After a short break, repeat the activity.

3

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b Warm up your muscles with ten minutes of jogging, fast walking, cycling or dancing.

vu

c To strengthen your arms, do push-ups. First, stand on your hands and knees or toes. Keep your back straight. Then, bend your arms until your nose is 5 cm above the floor. Repeat as many times as you can.

til

d To strengthen your back, place yourself on your hands and knees. First, lift your left leg backwards and your right hand forwards. Second, hold and count slowly to ten. Then, switch to the opposite arm and leg. Repeat ten times.

n

viewing distance monitor height

Ku

seat back angle

seat height

arm & wrist angle mouse keyboard height

4

2.37 Work with a partner. Study the illustration. Then give instructions on how you should sit while working at a computer. 2.38 Choose a tool or object you use in your spare time or in your work. Give a short presentation with instructions on how to use it. If possible, bring the tool or object to class, and find pictures to help you explain. SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 75


!

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Before you start a If you were to choose a fake identity, what would that be? b Read the instructions in tasks 2.39 and 2.40 before you start working on the text.

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Con Man

con man svindler/svindlar fraud her: bedrageri forgery forfalskning/forfalsking cyber security nettsikkerhet/ nettsikkerheit obtain oppnå, skaffe seg

American Frank William Abagnale Jr. (1948–) is today a respected expert on fraud, forgery and cyber security. His career, however, started at the opposite end, as one of the greatest con men of all time, wanted in all 50 states and in more than 20 countries.

Frank Abagnale Jr., who grew up in New Rochelle, New York, started his criminal career at an early age. His first victim was his father, who trusted his 15-year-old son with his gasoline card, which Frank Jr. used to obtain great amounts of cash. When he was 16, his parents divorced and he ran away

76 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Ku

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from home, starting his five-year-long career of fraud, forgery and false identities. AIMS His first tricks were to write personal checks on his own overdrawn accounts, but realizing that he had to k share facts about the life and frauds of Frank W. Abagnale expand, he opened accounts in different banks using false names. He soon developed new strategies of k use vocabulary related to identity theft and cyber security defrauding, like printing and cashing false paychecks. He also made blank deposit slips with his own account k practise different reading strategies number on and put them in the stack in banks, so inattentive customers using the fake slips would deposit their money into his account. Having discovered that airlines and car rental businesses deposited their daily income into a drop box at the airport, he dressed up in a security guard disguise, and put a sign over the box saying “Out of service. Place deposits with security guard on duty.” To look older and more trustworthy when cashing his false checks, he check her: sjekk decided to pose as an airline pilot. He conned his way to a uniform from Pan overdrawn overtrukket/overtrekt American Airways and forged an I.D. and a pilot’s license. Thus, while still account konto expand utvide in his teens, he took more than 250 free flights, to 26 countries, while meals defrauding bedra, snyte and hotel stays were billed to the airline company. This made it possible to paycheck lønningssjekk continue his check swindling abroad. deposit slip innbetalingsseddel/ The FBI was on Frank’s trail, but he was always a step ahead, with new innbetalingssetel names and professions. For almost a year, he pretended to be a doctor and inattentive uoppmerkom/ got a temporary job in a hospital in Georgia. Later, he forged a law transcript uoppmerksam from Harvard and got a job at the Louisiana State Attorney General’s office. A deposit sette inn/sette inn income inntekt colleague soon became suspicious, so Frank decided to leave the job to avoid drop box nattsafe exposure. disguise utkledning He started a new life in France but was recognized by a woman he had forge her: forfalske dated, and was arrested by the French police in 1969, only 21 years old. He bill fakturere was sentenced to prison for fraud, and after 6 months in a French prison temporary midlertidig/ he was brought to Sweden for another six months of prison there. At his mellombels release Swedish authorities deported him to the USA. As soon as he landed State Attorney General påtalemyndighet/påtalemakt at J.F.K. airport in New York, he escaped and caught a train to Montreal. He exposure avsløring was recognized by Canadian police and returned to the US. While in prison, sentenced dømt/dømd he escaped again, pretending to be an undercover prison inspector. His deport utvist freedom was short-lived, and he was finally sentenced to 12 years in federal undercover hemmelig/ prison. After only five years, he was paroled on the condition he’d help federal hemmeleg authorities uncover other check forgers. paroled prøveløslatt/ Abagnale decided to use his experience to become a security and fraud prøvelauslaten uncover avdekke consultant, helping banks and other businesses improve their security forger forfalsker/forfalskar systems. He has now specialized in identity theft and cybercrime prevention. prevention forebygging/ Over the years, he has also made restitution of the $2.5 million he scammed førebygging from various people and institutions. restitution tilbakebetaling scam svindle

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 77


IN SHORT

til

run away stikke av fraud her: bedrageri identity identitet check sjekk account konto paycheck lønnssjekk drop box nattsafe forge her: forfalske fraud bedrageri license lisens, sertifikat flight flygning/flyging pretend late som lawyer advokat exposure avsløring deport utvise escape stikke av sentenced dømt/dømd paroled prøveløslatt/ prøvelauslaten uncover avdekke forger forfalsker/forfalskar scam svindle

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Frank Abagnale Jr. grew up in the state of New York. When he was 16, he ran away from home. For five years he followed a career of fraud, forgery and false identities. He wrote false checks and opened accounts in fake names. He also printed false paychecks and stole money from a drop box at the airport, dressed up as a security guard. He pretended to be a Pan Am airline pilot and forged an I.D. and a pilot’s license. Then he could take free flights around the world, stay for free in hotels and use his false checks abroad. The FBI was looking for Frank, but he changed names and professions. For example, he pretended to be a doctor in Georgia and a lawyer in Louisiana. Being afraid of exposure, he decided to move to France. In 1969 he was arrested and spent 6 months in a French prison and 6 months in a Swedish prison. Then he was deported to the USA. He escaped the police twice, but finally he was sentenced to 12 years in prison. After five years he was paroled as he promised to help uncover other forgers. Abagnale became a security and fraud consultant, helping banks with their security systems. He has specialized in identity theft and cybercrime. He has also paid back the $2.5 million he scammed from people.

Read and understand

Ku

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2.39 Skim the text and answer the questions in full sentences. a What kind of “work” did Frank Abagnale do? b What activities is he famous for? c What happened to Frank in the end? 2.40 Scan the text to find answers to the following questions. a When did Frank Abagnale start his criminal career? b Which airline company did he pretend to work for? c What did he do for a living in Georgia? d Where was he arrested? e How many years did he spend in federal prison? f How much did he scam from people and institutions?

78 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Practise

er in

2.42 Put the words in the right place to complete the text. sensitive – take – up – collected – technology – against – that – almost

g

2.41 Read the text closely to find answers to the following questions. a What kind of forgery techniques did Frank Abagnale use? b What were the benefits of pretending to be a pilot? c Why did the FBI struggle to get hold of Abagnale? d Why was he arrested in France? e What happened when he came back to the USA? f Why was he paroled? g To what extent has he made up for his criminal past?

vu

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Cyber security refers to the designed to protect online networks, programs and data from attack or damage. Such security technology is important because of the enormous amount of government, military, financial, medical and corporate information is stored online or on servers. To protect data unauthorized access or exposure, companies and organizations must precautions. They install software and hire experts that monitor how data is and stored, and who has access to information and transactions. As the number and scope of cyber attacks and digital spying grow, the threat is in constant change. Today it seems impossible to keep with developments to stay protected.

til

2.43 Find all the verbs in the past tense in the In Short version of “Con Man”. Include their subject and rewrite them in the present simple tense. Remember subject-verb agreement. See “Verbs” in Language Lab for advice.

Ku

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2.44 Which tense of the verb is correct in each sentence, present simple or present continuous? Choose the correct form. See “Verbs” in the Language Lab section for information. a Sue washes/is washing her car every week. b Normally my father is cleaning/cleans the kitchen with disinfectants. c Right now I listen/am listening to music. d My teachers are talking/talk about safety very often. e Outside my window some children play/are playing. f Soap dissolves/is dissolving in warm water. g At the moment we study/are studying safety in school. h Once a week we are discussing/discuss safety precautions.

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 79


Speak

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2.45 Take turns saying the following words out loud. Work in pairs. f temporary a account g defrauding b forgery h restitution c disguise i security system d exposure j cybercrime prevention e overdrawn

Write

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2.46 • Write a paragraph where you express your opinion of Frank Abagnale and his career. For advice see “Structuring paragraphs” in Chapter 3. Include expressions like “in my opinion”, “I think”, “on the other hand”, “therefore”.

rd

2.47 •• Write 1–2 paragraphs where you comment on, describe and compare numbers and facts from the infographic about cyber security on the next page. For advice see Chapter 3, “Structuring paragraphs”. Include sentence connectors like “first”, “second”, “in contrast”, “on the other hand”, “moreover”, “similarly”.

vu

2.48 ••• Write 2–3 paragraphs in which you describe and discuss how identity theft and security measures have developed since the 1960s, and whether Frank Abagnale could have done the same things today. Feel free to use sources to search for information but remember to use your own words when you write your text. For advice see Chapter 3, “Structuring paragraphs”. Include relevant sentence connectors.

til

Explore

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2.49 Use online sources to find information about one or two of the topics below. Share your information in class or make posters or infographics. a Frank Abagnale’s security company and other activities or programmes he has been involved in. b Examples of other con men, identity thieves, frauds, hackers and cyber attacks. c Laws and tools to ensure privacy protection and to block privacyintrusive data collection. d How the Corona virus outbreak in 2020 changed the use of digital tools at work and in private life. e The film “Catch Me If You Can” (2002) by Steven Spielberg, where Leonardo DiCaprio plays Frank Abagnale. Watch the trailer or the film, and discuss whether it seems to be an exact rendering of Abagnale’s early life.

80 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Credit Card Fraud Reports in the United States

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280,000 260,000 240,000 220,000 200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

7 % Auto loan or lease

45 % Credit card fraud — new accounts 32 % Miscellaneous identity theft

8 % Mobile telephone — new accounts

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Most prevalent forms of ID theft

2019

8 % Business or personal loan

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2019 Identity Theft By Age in the United States 19 years 20s 30s 40s

60s 70s

How did you do?

til

50s

After working with the text and tasks, I can share facts about the life and frauds of Frank W. Abagnale

80+

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25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 125,000 150,000 175,000

Ku

Source: https://www.iii.org/fact-statistic/facts-statistics-identity-theft-and-cybercrime

Did you know

YES

ALMOST

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use vocabulary related to identity theft and cyber security

People in their 20s are 25% more likely to lose money to fraud than people over 40. The most common frauds young adults are victims of are online shopping frauds, business imposters, fake check scams and romance scams. Shopping-related scams may be items that never arrive or that are not as advertised. Business frauds are often debt-related or investments.

YES

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practise different reading strategies YES

ALMOST

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SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 81


g er in rd vu til n

Ku 82 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


I Chose to Look the Other Way

first aid k give instructions

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But I didn’t want to seem a fool Or argue over a safety rule. I knew he’d done the job before; If I spoke up he might get sore.

rd

!

Before you start What would you do if you saw a friend or colleague taking a risk?

vu

The chances didn’t seem that bad; I’d done the same, he knew I had. So I shook my head and walked on by; He knew the risks as well as I.

k explain what the poem is about k understand and use words related to

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I could have saved a life that day, But I chose to look the other way. It wasn’t that I didn’t care; I had the time, and I was there.

AIMS

He took the chance, I closed an eye; And with that act, I let him die. I could have saved a life that day, But I chose to look the other way.

til

Now every time I see his wife, I know I should have saved his life. That guilt is something I must bear; But it isn’t something you need to share.

Ku

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If you see a risk that others take That puts their health or life at stake, The question asked or thing you say; Could help them live another day. If you see a risk and walk away, Then hope you never have to say, “I could have saved a life that day, But I chose to look the other way.” Don Merrell

argue krangle, diskutere sore sur, fornærmet/sur, fornærma act her: handling guilt skyldfølelse/skyldkjensle at stake i fare

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 83


Read and understand

2.50 Decide if the sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones. True a

False

The poem is about an accident where a man died.

The colleague thought what he did was safe.

f

The speaker could have prevented the accident.

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e

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b The speaker in the poem was somewhere else when the accident occurred. c The speaker was too busy with other tasks to help his colleague. d The colleague did not follow the safety rules.

Write

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2.51 •• Answer the following questions a How does the speaker in the poem feel about the accident and the result? b What is the message of this poem?

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2.52 The speaker in the poem writes an accident report after her or his colleague’s death where she or he explains what happened. Use your imagination and write the text. For advice on writing a report, see this chapter.

Ku

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2.53 Combine the injuries with the most relevant body parts. Then use the words to write sentences. There may be more than one solution. A concussion 1 ears B bleeding 2 head C sore/blind 3 nose D aching 4 knee E fractured 5 eyes F bruised 6 arteries G cut 7 bone H deaf 8 finger I blocked 9 wrist J sprained 10 teeth

Listen

2.54 “How to Treat an Unconscious Person” In the novel 61 Hours, the main character, Jack Reacher, is asked to inform a young wife about the death of her husband. Once she sees him on the doorsteps, she faints. a Listen to the text and sum up what happens. b Make a list of the different steps to follow if a person faints due to shock. Learn these steps by heart.

84 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS


Speak

2.55 Practise giving instructions on how to treat a person who has fainted due to shock. See “Giving instructions� in this chapter for advice. Work with a partner.

Practise

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A Cuts and bleeding 1 Cool the area with cold running water, cover with a sterile non-stick bandage. B Scrapes and grazes 2 Apply direct pressure with a sterile pad, fix the pad with a firm sterile bandage, hold wounded area above the heart. C Burns 3 Sit the person forward, pinch the soft part of area for ten minutes. D Nose bleeds 4 Wash with running water, remove dirt, cover with an adhesive plaster.

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2.56 Combine the injuries with the right treatment.

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2.57 Combine the following words with the correct illustration. a adhesive plaster b closure strips c bandage d cast

4

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

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3

2

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1

Explore

explain what the poem is about YES

ALMOST

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understand and use words related to first aid

2.58 Safety at work is not only about the health and wellbeing of employees, but also about keeping the environment clean from work related trash and pollution. Find information about measures taken in different workplaces in media production and information technology to become more environmentally friendly. Share and discuss the effect of the measures in class.

YES

ALMOST

NO

give instructions YES

ALMOST

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SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 85


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your progress

2.59 After working with Chapter 2, it is time to revise what you have learnt. Discuss with your teacher how you will work with the tasks. a Find a picture or illustration from this chapter that you like and explain why. b Which safety equipment is mentioned in the text “Safety First”? How and why do you use it? c How can you handle and prevent work-related stress? Give at least four examples. d Describe some procedures for first aid. e Explain how you can prevent injuries. f List eight new words that you have learnt in this chapter.

2.60 Think about your progress. a How would you describe your progress in English so far this year? Give examples of things you have learnt and can do now that you didn’t know in August. b How would you describe your own efforts in English so far this year? Give examples of activities and tasks that you think have been useful and helped you improve your English skills.

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Revise

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2.61 Writing a report a How do you structure a report? b What should you write in the conclusion of a report? c Name some sentence connectors that are useful in a report.

Ku

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2.62 Giving instructions a What is most important to remember when giving instructions? b Why should you demonstrate or illustrate the different steps? c Which sentence connectors are useful when you give instructions?

86 | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | SKILLS

2.63 Look at the focus areas for this chapter. a Which ones do you think you master well or quite well? b Which ones will you need to work on? How will you do that?


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills

b •• Why is it important to learn about safety at work in English class? Discuss in pairs or groups and give examples.

g

b •• You have a colleague who often fails to follow the regulations for safety at work. Worried about the consequences, you write a polite email to describe the risks of poor safety precautions in professions related to IT and media and suggest improvements.

rd

c ••• What characterizes a good work environment and workplace culture? In your opinion, which kinds of physical, mental and social elements are important? Discuss in groups.

2.65 Write a • Pretend you have a friend who suffers from stress symptoms. Write a friendly email where you give some advice on how to handle the problem.

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2.64 Speak a • Choose a text from this chapter that you find interesting. Explain to a partner what the text and tasks were about and what you learnt from them.

Ku

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c ••• You have been invited to give a speech about safety and a good work environment in a profession of your choice. Write your manuscript with the facts and instructions you would share.

SKILLS | Chapter 2: On the Safe Side | 87


Ku

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That’s Life

g

X CHAPTER 3


In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k life skills and challenges k structuring paragraphs k using formal and informal language

g

k adjectives and adverbs

first impression personality friendship emotion self-esteem appearance challenge courage addiction cyberbullying

What makes you happy?

If you could What is abe anything you want, good life? what would you be?

Ku

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Useful words and phrases

89


!

Before you start What do you think young people worry about most today?

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Something About Me

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Some suggestions: • school • career choices • friends/boyfriend/ girlfriend • family • physical appearance • global issues

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In Slam (2007), we meet 15-year-old Sam, who must deal with adult c­ hallenges. He discovers how small actions can change one’s life d ­ ramatically. Here is the beginning of the novel.

AIMS k explain what the story is about k share thoughts on young people’s

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concerns today So things were ticking along quite nicely. In fact, I’d say that good stuff had been happening pretty solidly for k discuss the importance of first impressions about six months. – For example: Mum got rid of Steve, her rubbish boyfriend. – For example: Mrs Gillett, my art and design teacher took me to one side after a lesson and asked whether I’d thought of doing art at college. – For example: I’d learned two new skating tricks, suddenly, after weeks of making an idiot of myself in public. (I’m guessing that not all of you are skaters, so I should say something straight away, just so there are no terrible misunderstandings. Skating = skateboarding. We never say skateboarding, usually, so if you keep thinking of me messing around on ice, then it’s your own stupid fault.) All that, and I’d met Alicia too. I was going to say that maybe you should know something about me before I go off about my mum and Alicia and all that. If you knew something about me, you might actually care about some of those things. But then, looking at what I just wrote, you know quite a lot already, or at least you could have guessed a lot of it. You could have guessed that my mum and dad don’t live together, for a start, unless you thought that my dad was the sort of person who wouldn’t mind his wife having boyfriends. Well, he’s not. You could have guessed that I skate, and you could have guessed that my best subject at school was art and design, unless you thought I might be the sort of person who’s always being taken to one side and told to apply for college by all the teachers in every subject. You know, and the teachers actually fight over me. “No, Sam! Forget art! Do physics!” “Forget physics! It ticking along rusler og går/ ruslar og går would be a tragedy for the human race if you gave up French!” And then they pretty solidly jevnt og trutt/ all start punching each other. jamt og trutt Yeah, well. That sort of thing really, really doesn’t happen to me. I can get rid of bli kvitt promise you, I have never ever caused a fight between teachers. rubbish søppel And you don’t need to be Sherlock Holmes or whatever to work out that in public offentlig/offentleg Alicia was a girl who meant something to me. I’m glad there are things apply for søke på/søkje på you don’t know and can’t guess, weird things, things that have only ever subject fag punch slå til happened to me in the whole history of the world, as far as I know. If you weird merkelig/merkeleg were able to guess it all from that first little paragraph, I’d start to worry that paragraph avsnitt I wasn’t an incredibly complicated and interesting person, ha ha. incredibly utrolig/utruleg This was a couple of years ago – this time when things were ticking along pathetic patetisk, latterlig/ OK – so I was fifteen, nearly sixteen. And I don’t want to sound pathetic, and patetisk, latterleg SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 91


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carry on fortsette/halde fram, gå vidare clear up klarne opp, ordne seg

I really don’t want you to feel sorry for me, but this feeling that my life was OK was new to me. I’d never had the feeling before, and I haven’t really had it since. I don’t mean to say that I’d been unhappy. It was more that there had always been something wrong before, somewhere – something to worry about. For instance, my parents were getting divorced, and they were fighting. Or they’d finished getting divorced, but they were still fighting anyway, because they carried on fighting long after they got divorced. Or maths wasn’t going very well – I hate maths – or I wanted to go out with someone who didn’t want to go out with me … All of this had just sort of cleared up, suddenly, without me noticing, really, the way the weather does sometimes. And that summer there seemed to be more money around. My mum was working, and my dad wasn’t as angry with her, which meant he was giving us what he ought to have been giving us all the time. So, you know. That helped. Nick Hornby

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Nick Hornby (1957–) is a British novelist and screenwriter. He is famous for his novels about people in different situations who try to cope with their everyday lives. Many of his novels have been made into successful films. He also co-founded a charity to offer young people a chance to develop their writing skills.

Read and understand

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3.1 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a Sam has a talent for French/art and design/physics. b Sam likes ice skating/his mother’s boyfriend/skateboarding. c Sam lives with his parents/mother/father. d Sam was unused/used/not used to feeling his life was ok. e Sam’s parents have quarrelled a lot/usually had a good relationship/ no contact. 3.2 •• Write one sentence about each of the characters in the text. a Sam b Alicia c mum d dad e Mrs Gillett f Steve

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Irony is the use of words that are the opposite of what you mean as a way of being funny. Repetition of words or phrases is used to emphasise their importance, make an idea clearer or more memorable.

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3.3 Discuss the following questions. a Which four facts about Sam do we learn at the beginning of this text? b How do your thoughts from the pre-reading activity match with Sam’s worries? c Based on the text, do you get a good first impression of Sam? Is he a person you would like to have as a friend? Explain. d How important are first impressions? What kind of first impression do you think you make on others? e Can you think of a case when your first impression of somebody turned out to be wrong? What made you change your opinion?

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3.4 A writer can use different literary devices to get the attention of the reader. Study the text again to find examples of humour, irony, direct speech, repetition and informal language. What effects do these devices have? Discuss in pairs and share views in class.

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3.5 Do you have a “guilty pleasure”? a Search for definitions of what a guilty pleasure is. b Look for texts or videos where people talk about their own guilty pleasures. c Make a one-minute video where you talk about your own guilty pleasure.

Direct speech, e.g. a dialogue, is used to show how characters react, move the story forward and give balance to the narrative, and is usually placed inside quotations marks.

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3.6 The following adjectives can be used to describe someone’s personality. Match them with the correct translation.

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A kind B brave C sociable D chatty E ambitious F adventurous G compassionate H generous I funny J moody

1 medfølende, omsorgsfull 2 eventyrlysten 3 snill 4 gavmild 5 morsom 6 modig 7 humørsyk 8 omgjengelig 9 snakkesalig, pratsom 10 ambisiøs

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3.7 Use the adjectives from task 3.6 to complete these sentences. Each adjective can only be used once, and you may have to use the comparative or superlative form. a My best friend is the best listener. He is always so . b Jenna loves to explore new places. She is very . c Hassan was enough to pay for our lunch yesterday. d My little brother is the person I know. He cracks jokes all the time. e Life has its ups and downs, and most teenagers can be from time to time. f The teacher told the class to quiet down. It was the class he had ever had. g Saima and Sarah both work hard to get good grades, but Saima is more . h George is friends with everyone and can talk about anything. He is unusually . i They were terribly nervous, but they were all enough to try. j Everyone you know is fighting a battle you know nothing about. Be always.

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3.8 Find at least five adjectives to describe your own personality. Use a dictionary if you need to look up words in English. Share your list with a partner.

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3.9 “What Makes Me Happy” Listen to three short interviews to find out what makes Ross, Jill and Thomas happy. Who talks about … a being part of a team? b finding happiness on the waves? c struggling hard to learn new things?

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3.11 •• Study the graphs and answer the questions. Write your answers in full sentences. a What percentage of Norwegian teenagers think they will have a happy life? b Are there any differences between boys and girls? If so, at what age do we find the biggest difference? c Do the percentages change with age? If so, how and for whom? What could be the reason?

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3.10 • How would you start the story of your life, your autobiography? Write the first paragraph.

Do young Norwegians think they will have a happy life?

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A happy life

3%

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Yes

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? I don‘t know

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How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the story is about YES

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discuss the importance of first impressions YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 95


!

Go ahead Look I would too If I saw what you see Me Sixteen Sexy as can be Me So fine I’m just about pretty Go ahead Look I work hard to get this way

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Before you start Many blogs, ads, magazines and television programmes focus on appearance. What impact do you think this has on followers, viewers and readers?

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Look

Running cross-country Playing baseball, football Lifting weights every day Go ahead Look If you lucky I’ll walk your way Maybe ask for your number Maybe kiss those lips today Go ahead Look It’s okay

Sharon G Flake Sharon G Flake (1955–) is the author of young adult fiction, including the award-winning novel The Skin I’m In. She has also written reviews and non-fiction for magazines. She was once a counsellor for youth placed in foster care, but now writes full time from her home in Pittsburgh, USA.

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Read and understand

3.13 •• Study the line “So fine I’m just about pretty.” What do you think the speaker means?

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3.12 • Answer the following questions. a In your mind, what does the speaker look like? b What do you think his/her personality is like? c How does the speaker feel about himself/ herself? d What activities does the speaker participate in? e Do you think the speaker actually cares what others think of him/her?

3.14 ••• This poem can be read and interpreted in different ways. Describe how you understand the poem. Use examples from the text to support your arguments.

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3.15 Match the English words with the correct Norwegian translation. A eyebrow 1 kjeve B eyelid 2 pekefinger C earlobe 3 øyebryn D cheekbone 4 ankel E nostril 5 hårfeste F lip 6 tommel G jaw 7 øreflipp H hairline 8 øyelokk I index finger 9 håndledd J thumb 10 nesebor K wrist 11 leppe L ankle 12 kinnben

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3.16 Many expressions in English include parts of the body. Can you fill in the open spaces below? lip – eye – heels – hair – chest a He fell head over in love with his best friend. b Julie is the apple of my . c I’m going to tell you a secret; there’s something I need to get off my . d The British often keep a stiff upper , even if they are insulted. e At the party, Susan really let her down.

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3.17 Discuss in small groups. a Find something you think is nice about the other members of the group, or something you think they do well. Tell them! b Think about how you respond to positive feedback. What do you say? c When someone gives you positive feedback, how does this make you feel?

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3.18 Share information and state your opinion. a Choose an example that you think illustrates society’s focus on appearance. Look for examples in magazines, blogs, videos, television shows or other relevant sources. b Describe the example you have chosen. What is the message, if any? What is the target group? Do you think it has been filtered or manipulated? c Would you say this focus on appearance is positive or negative, healthy or unhealthy? Give reasons to support your views.

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3.19 “Art or Mutilation?” Listen to the text and fill in the missing words. Compare your answers with those of a partner. a The earliest known was found on a 5000-year-old Egyptian mummy. b have been a tradition in native cultures in Polynesia and America for a long time. c People have wanted their decorated for many different reasons. d Over the last couple of decades, some forms of body art have become , and are now socially acceptable. e It involves searing the with hot metal. f is another extreme way to alter the body’s appearance. g Burmese tribes believed the metal objects were magical and gave . h would ask their parents for tattoos for their sixteenth birthday.

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3.21 The pictures below show a few practices that are or have been considered beautiful in different cultures. Choose one picture. Find out more about the practice, and also when and where this was considered beautiful. Make a digital poster to present your findings.

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3.20 Listen to the text again and find words that mean more or less the same as these expressions. a making a hole through a part of your body b using ink and needles to make patterns on your skin c not safe to use because it may be contaminated d another word for “navel” e using hot metal to make a scar f placing a metal object underneath the skin

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can understand the poem and the speaker’s attitude

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use words related to the body YES

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discuss society’s focus on appearance YES

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present findings on body modification YES

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Does My Head Look Big in This?

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High school can be tough enough without throwing a hijab into the mix. Amal is Australian-Muslim-Palestinian and a Year Eleven student. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. In this novel excerpt, she wonders what her class is going to say when she walks in wearing the hijab. Will they freak out? And what about Adam, who she really likes? What will they all say?

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Monday morning. And my class has finally decided to confront me about my hijab. I almost want to jump up and down with relief. I can handle an insult or an interrogation. I can’t handle going from getting along with everybody (with the obvious exception of Tia and her Mini-Mes) to being a social outcast.

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Somehow, in between classes after lunch on Monday everybody suddenly finds the guts to approach me, wanting to know what’s going on with my new look. “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks, all wide-eyed and appalled. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a sixty-five-year-old camel owner in Egypt.” “No!” She’s actually horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Really!” This is definitely a case of dropped from the cradle. “Hey! Amal!” Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?”

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Before you start a Describe what the people in the pictures are wearing. b Can you link the different outfits to religious beliefs? c Who or what decides your own clothing style?

confront konfrontere relief lettelse/lindring, trøyst insult fornærmelse/fornærming interrogation utspørring/ utspørjing exception unntak outcast utstøtt/utstøytt approach her: nærme seg appalled forferdet/redd, forferda dropped from the cradle falt fra vuggen (uttrykk: dum)/fall frå vogga

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“I’ve gone bald.” “Get out!” “I’m on the Advanced Hair Programme.” For a second his eyes flicker with shock. Then Josh punches him on the shoulder. “Rocked!” “Like I believed her,” Tim says, looking sheepish. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” “So is it like nuns? Are you married to Jesus now?”

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It’s unreal. Everybody’s asking me about my decision and seems genuinely interested in hearing what I have to say. They’re all huddled around me and I’m having the best time explaining to them how I put it on and when I have to wear it. Then Adam plants himself in front of me and starts joining in with the rest of them and I want to plant a massive kiss on his face except that really would be defeating the entire purpose of my entire spiritual roadtrip now, wouldn’t it? “So it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” “Like you see some women covering their faces and other women wearing really bright material with that red paint on their hand. Are they all Islamic too?” “You mean Muslim.” “Huh?” “What she means,” Josh says, “is that the religion is Islam and the followers are Muslim. Like you can’t say to somebody you’re a Judaism or a Catholicism. Get it?” “Right.” Adam nods his head. “So are they Muslim, like you?” “Yeah they are. But, every girl is going to interpret the hijab differently. It depends on their culture or their fashion sense, you know? There’s no uniform for it.” “I get you,” Adam says. “A lot of Africans wear those really colourful wrap-around dresses and veils,” I continue. “Um, stricter women cover their face, but it’s not required in Islam. It’s their choice to go to that extent.” “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks. “Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.”

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bald skallet/skalla flicker flakke punch slå, dulte rocked her: lurt genuinely oppriktig, ekte/ærleg, ekte huddle stimle sammen/stimle saman defeat her: ødelegge/øydeleggje purpose hensikt/formål, meining spiritual roadtrip åndelig reise/ åndeleg reise Judaism jødedom Catholicism katolisisme interpret tolke veil slør extent utstrekning, grad

[…]

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suede semsket/semska goss (gossip) sladre tart terte chick flick jentefilm decomposed råtten/ròten admit innrømme/vedgå pious gudfryktig hypocritical hyklersk coward feiging “wog” person fra Midtøsten (nedlatende, rasistisk)/person frå Midtausten (nedlatande, rasistisk) audience publikum appreciate sette pris på/setje pris på cope klare/greie, klare, makte average gjennomsnitt

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“Coffee at the Lounge Room, tonight?” Simone whispers to Eileen and me during History on Friday. Eileen’s on. I don’t know whether to go. The Lounge Room is a trendy café on Burke Road: long coffee tables centered between big suede lounge chairs and sofas, dim lamps and television screens with MTV and Friends reruns. It was our hang-out joint in the midyear break. Where we’d go to goss and eat strawberry tart and talk school and parents and top five chick flicks and the rest. Because I’d rather eat decomposed meat than be thought of as a chicken, I fake a big smile and tell them I’m all for it. I chicken out. I’m ashamed to admit it but after dinner I ring Simone and Eileen and tell them I can’t make it because we have visitors. They believe me. And why wouldn’t they? I’m supposed to be pious and God-fearing. Not a lying, hypocritical, pathetic coward. I’m lying on my bed listening to Craig David’s “I’m walking away.” On repeat. What’s happened to me? Haven’t I decided to wear the hijab because I feel proud of who I am? Suddenly I’m too chicken to go to a café? I don’t recognize myself. I’m the one who put her head out the school bus last year and yelled at a group of boys who threw a can of Coke at our “wog” school bus. It was me who stood up during a Year Nine interschool debate and told the audience that my team didn’t appreciate the other team’s whispers about competing against “terrorists”. When we were at the medical clinic and the secretary asked Leila if she could cope with filling out a form in English, it was me who pointed out that Leila’s never set foot out of Australia and can manage an A+ average in Eng Lit, and then some. So if that’s all me, then who’s this girl who’s making up excuses to avoid going out to a café?

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Randa Abdel-Fattah

Randa Abdel-Fattah (1979–) grew up in Melbourne, Australia. She is a lawyer, writer and human rights activist with a Palestinian and Egyptian background. She regularly visits schools to talk about social issues and her novels. Her novels have been published in over 15 countries. In 2011 she was given the Role Model of the Year Award in Australia.

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IN SHORT

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force her: tvinge bald skallet/skalla horrified skrekkslagen/skremd shower dusje per cent prosent gossip sladre tart terte chicken out være for feig/vere for feig excuse unnskyldning/orsaking recognize gjenkjenne/kjenne att

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Amal is a high school student living in Australia. She has a MuslimPalestinian background. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. What will her class say? “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt,” Amal answers. “No!” Kristy is horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Hey! Amal!! Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?” “I’ve gone bald,” Amal answers. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” Everybody is asking Amal about her decision. They all seem interested to hear what she has to say. Then Adam, a boy she really likes, joins the rest of them. “So, it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” Adam has seen women who cover their faces, and wants to know if they are Muslim too. Amal says that they are, but that girls will wear the hijab differently. It depends on their culture. “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks. “Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.” Simone and Eileen want Amal to go to the Lounge Room, a trendy café where they often hang out. They usually gossip, eat strawberry tart and talk about school and parents. Amal says she will go with them, but she chickens out. She phones her friends and makes up an excuse. She lies. Amal has decided to wear the hijab because she is proud of who she is, but now she doesn’t recognize herself.

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Read and understand 3.22 • Who says what in the story? Amal

Adam

Kristy

Tim

Eileen

a Did your parents force you?

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b My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt. c I was invited to the wedding. d What’s the deal with that thing on your head?

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e I’ve gone bald.

g One hundred per cent. h Wow … so how come it looks different on you?

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i Will you ever cover yours?

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f So, it’s your choice then?

j Nah! No way.

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3.23 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a What is Amal’s cultural background? b Amal is a high school student. What year is she in? c What has she decided to wear to school? d How does Amal feel when her class start asking questions? e What reason does Amal give when Kristy asks? f What reason does she give when Tim Manne asks? g Why does Adam think it looks different on her? h What does Amal say about being a Muslim and covering her face? i Where do Simone and Eileen want to go later that night? j Why doesn’t Amal go with them?

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3.24 Discuss in pairs or small groups. a Read the classmates’ reactions and questions again. Do you think Amal handles the situation well? Explain. b Put yourself in Amal’s situation. Would you have gone to the café? Explain why or why not. c How do you think Amal’s friends will react when she doesn’t show up at the café? d Amal feels bad about lying to her friends. What kind of advice would you give her, so that she doesn’t have to come up with more lies?

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3.25 Match the verbs from the text with the correct Norwegian translations. 1 å fornærme A to wear 2 å tvinge B to cover 3 å ha på seg C to insult 4 å takle, klare D to confront 5 å kjenne igjen E to interpret 6 å nærme seg F to recognize 7 å dekke til G to approach 8 å konfrontere H to cope 9 å innrømme I to force 10 å tolke J to admit

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3.26 Use the verbs in exercise 3.25 to complete the sentences. Each verb should be used only once. a When you put on a hijab, you your hair. b Amal decided to a hijab to school. c Her classmates soon came up to her to her about her choice. d Amal was pleased that they had the guts to her to find out what was going on. e Most of her classmates did not mean to her. f Muslim girls are going to the hijab rules differently. g Amal’s friend can with filling out a form in English. h When Amal decides not to go to the café, she doesn’t quite herself. i Amal did not want to to herself that she was worried. j In Amal’s case, no one had tried to her to wear the hijab.

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3.27 Identify the adverbs in each sentence. What do the adverbs describe? a Amal proudly wears a hijab to school. b Immediately, her classmates approach her to see what is going on. c Fortunately, nobody insults her. d Amal said that Muslims interpret the hijab rules differently. e Not everyone thinks Amal is easily recognizable with her hijab on. f She copes well with all the staring and weird questions. g The hijab covers Amal’s hair completely. h Reluctantly, Amal admits that she was a bit nervous. i The classmates specifically ask about her choice. j Amal suddenly makes up excuses to tell her friends.

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3.28 • Imagine that you are Amal’s best friend, and you know she is insecure about wearing the hijab to school. Write a text message to Amal to support and encourage her.

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3.29 •• Would you say there is peer pressure at your school when it comes to clothing styles? Write 2–3 paragraphs in which you express your opinion.

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3.30 ••• Your school has decided to make rules for what students can and cannot wear. All forms of religious clothing and symbols will be forbidden. Write a text in which you argue for or against the new rules.

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3.31 In many films or TV series, the main characters deal with personal challenges, often because of cultural conditions or differences. Have a brainstorming session in class to find examples of such films or series. In small groups, search for more information about one of them. Prepare a two-minute talk where you explain what kind of personal challenges and cultural conditions this film or series is about.

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give examples of personal and cultural challenges YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS When you build a paragraph, follow these four steps:

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The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph, and lets the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence can be a statement or a question.

2 Write at least one supporting sentence.

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A supporting sentence comes after the topic sentence. Supporting sentences give facts, details and examples to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. There is usually more than one supporting sentence in a paragraph.

3 Write a closing sentence.

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The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It repeats the main idea of your paragraph but using different words. It can also answer a question asked in the topic sentence. Study this model paragraph:

Being active is important for your physical and mental health.

First of

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Topic sentence

all, physical activity will improve your heart and lung capacity and reduce the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes. Second, it is great for reducing

Supporting sentences

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stress and anxiety, and it makes you sleep better. Finally, research shows

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Closing sentence

that an active lifestyle also helps improve concentration and memory. Therefore, it is recommended that you find time for at least one hour of activity every day.

4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together When you write a paragraph, use sentence connectors. They are the glue that holds your sentences and paragraphs together, and help the reader follow your arguments. They also show contrast, or how ideas are related to each other. Here are a few examples of sentence connectors.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Giving more examples

Emphasis

Showing ­contrast

first of all

in addition

in fact

on the other hand therefore

second

moreover

actually

however

consequently

then

furthermore

indeed

nevertheless

as a result

next

similarly

in other words

in spite of

in conclusion

finally

also

namely

on the contrary

thus

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Practise

Showing result

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Listing ideas

3.32 Which sentence connectors were used in the model paragraph on the previous page?

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3.33 Fill in suitable sentence connectors in the open spaces. a Kirsty seems to be quite clever. , she often gets low marks. b The service at this restaurant is excellent. , the food is delicious. c I’ve never been to Egypt, having relatives there. d Adam is a careful driver. , he’s had several accidents. e Eileen scored a lot of goals for her team last season. , she was voted “Most Valuable Player”. f Amal is a talented painter. her favourite subject at school is Art. g There is no more food left. there are plenty of drinks. h They had worked on the problem for hours. , they found the solution.

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3.34 Place these sentences in the right order to make a paragraph. a One reason for stress is that teenagers often have to make early decisions about school, careers and work. b For some teenagers, this change can be stressful, whereas others take it in their stride. c In fact, many teenagers feel that their school grades decide their whole future, and for some that can feel like a lot of pressure. d Another reason may be that they feel pressure or expectations from family, friends or media to fit in or take on a certain role. e Although stress is not necessarily a bad thing, it becomes a problem when there’s too much of it or it goes on for too long. f The teenage years are a time of growth and change, physically, mentally and socially. g Therefore, it is important to ask for help if it gets too much. h In addition, not all teenagers know how to cope with the stress and sometimes think nobody else has the same experience.

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Before you start What does it mean to be addicted to something? What types of addiction can you think of?

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My Strange Addictions

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The smell of death and bags of pee filled my nose as I laid in silence on a crunchy plastic sheet. I was nineteen and once again found myself in an emergency room hospital bed on a Sunday morning. I was used to this by now, considering I had been there at least six times already that year. Before I get into why I treated the ER like a rich person’s vacation home, I want to give you some backstory about an issue I’ve had my whole life. I’m addicted to everything. I know a lot of people say they have a “chocolate addiction” because they get an extra scoop of ice cream for dessert, or they have a “shoe addiction” because they have one too many pairs of Skechers Shape-ups. (Yes, I actually own those. Don’t judge me.) I am severely addicted to everything I see or touch that gives me some sense of joy. Luckily I’m not addicted to my Skechers Shape-ups. Those were murder on my calves and didn’t give me the ass they promised in the commercial. When I was a kid I became addicted to food, and not in the typical way kids do, but in a Hoover-vacuum-sucking-up-everything-in-its-path kind of way. I wouldn’t just eat an Oreo, I would eat the whole box and then move on to something else. I remember at one point running out of real food, so I started eating condiments and spices. You haven’t lived till you’ve had ketchup pepper soup. Every time I would go to a friend’s house I couldn’t even focus on the

pee urin sheet laken emergency room (ER) legevakt scoop her: kule severely alvorlig/alvorleg Hoover vacuum støvsuger/ støvsugar condiment tilbehør/tilbehøyr spice krydder

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games we were playing because I was thinking about what was in their kitchen. AIMS When my mom and I would take trips to the store she would have to drag me out of there because I would k explain what the essay is about just stand in the aisle and stare at every single product. k speak and write about forms of If I could have I would have eaten the entire store, clerks addiction and baggers included. I’m not above cannibalism. k share thoughts on how to convey When I was seventeen years old I had a pretty rough important messages experience that made me want to lose all my weight and lose it fast. I was with all my friends at an amusement park and we were going to ride the newest extreme roller coaster. I hadn’t ridden a roller coaster since I was a kid, so I was super pumped to get thrown around by a machine and then vomit into a trash can filled with cotton candy wrappers afterward. As I made my way onto the ride I realized that the seat belt wasn’t big enough to go around my waist. I had a full-on panic attack. How could this be? I was fat but I wasn’t “that fat.” Well, turns out I was. One of the workers walked over and escorted me off the ride. All my friends watched as I burst into tears and was taken to the exit. That was one of the worst days of my life, and even thinking about it now makes me feel like vomiting into an amusement park trash can. That experience sent me into overdrive. I lost 150 pounds in less than a year by eating nothing but chicken and doing nothing but running. I aisle midtgang stopped hanging out with friends, and I stopped being able to have a normal stare stirre, glo/stire, glo conversation with anyone because all I wanted to talk about was weight loss clerk butikkansatt/butikktilsett and health. bagger en som pakker varer i While I was losing the weight I became addicted to something that was poser/ein som pakkar varer i more harmful than any typical drug. I became addicted to the artificial sugar posar called Splenda. Now I know this is going to sound insane, and I’m sure you amusement park aren’t going to fully believe me, but at my peak I was eating over 250 packets fornøyelsespark/tivoli of Splenda a day. That’s enough to last a normal person over a year. That’s roller coaster berg- og dalbane vomit kaste opp, spy 250 times more than any human should consume, considering one of the trash can søppelkasse ingredients in Splenda is the same ingredient used in pool-cleaning products. cotton candy sukkerspinn I started using Splenda in everything. I put it in my cereal, on my waist midje vegetables, in my iced tea, and even directly into my mouth. After two years escort følge or so I got up to two full boxes a day, which added up to about 250 packets. pound 0,45 kg I started talking about it on my YouTube channel, and kids would send artificial kunstig packets to my PO box. Boxes and boxes were kept stored in my powderpeak topp covered garage. It looked like I was involved in some kind of drug-smuggling consume innta, konsumere/ operation. ete, konsumere The overdose of Splenda mixed with my unhealthy diet of chicken and cereal her: frokostblanding/ vegetables (and nothing else) brought me to the hospital six times in one frukostblanding year. My life was on a downward spiral, and I couldn’t get a grip on it. I was downward nedadgående/ constantly passing out from dehydration and having intense panic attacks nedovergåande that my doctor believed were side effects from too much artificial sugar and pass out besvime/svime av dehydration uttørring/uttørking too much caffeine. My family was always concerned but there was nothing poison gift they could say to me to change my mind. I loved that sweet poison, and I SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 111


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didn’t care about the side effects. At one point my skin even started to turn yellow, and not in a cute fake-tanner way, in a HOLY-SHIT-WHY-IS-THATGUY-YELLOW way. Which leads me to this specific trip to the ER, which changed everything. It was a hot summer day in Florida, and my family and I were hanging out at Disney World. I had never been there, so I was ready to see what all the hype was about. I had my huge iced tea with fifty Splendas mixed in and was ready to take on the day. The thing about Florida that I wasn’t aware of is that they have occasional summer rainstorms. The rain started sprinkling and my hair started frizzing. I started having a panic attack because I could feel the hot Florida air entering my lungs and sucking out all the moisture. My heart started racing because I knew that soon I was going to pass out. I ran to the bathroom because I figured it would be air-conditioned. My brother followed me inside. Brother: Dude, are you ok? Me: I just need air. I need cold air. The bathroom didn’t have airconditioning so he started splashing cold water from the sink on my face. This is when things began to get foggy, and I don’t remember much of what happened next. I got so dehydrated that I went a little crazy and started acting like a child star having a breakdown in front of TMZ cameras. My brother told me later what happened and it went something like this. Me: I think the devil is in me! Brother: What?? Me: He’s in me!! I want him out!!!! So I guess I took down my pants and hopped into the cold-water-filled sink and started screaming obscenities. Me: GET HIM OUT OF ME!!! I’M GONNA SHIT HIM OUT!!!! My mom rushed in and saw me having a total mental breakdown, so she called 911. The next thing I knew I was waking up in a hospital room with Disney characters all over the walls. I thought I was in hell. As I lay in the hospital bed I looked over and saw my mom asleep in the chair next to me. She looked so tired. The doctor walked in with a clipboard and a concerned look on his face. Doctor: Hello, Shane. Me: Hey. What’s going on? Doctor: So you had a little bit of an episode, didn’t you? Me: I don’t remember. Oh God, did I kill someone? My mom always said I reminded her of one of those kids who could snap one day. Doctor: No, you passed out. You were severely dehydrated, but don’t worry, we are giving you lots of fluids. Me: Oh. Ok, that’s fine. Doctor: Fine? Me: Ya, it happens all the time. I pass out like once a month pretty much. The ER by my house and I are friends on MySpace. Doctor: Why do you pass out? How is your diet? Me: Um … not great. Doctor: I’d like you to tell me. I want to understand what’s going on here. Me: Well … I eat ok. Chicken and veggies. It’s the fake sugar that’s kind of a situation.

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side effect bivirkning/biverknad occasional sporadisk, noen ganger/sporadisk, nokre gongar frizz kruse moisture fuktighet/fukt foggy tåkete TMZ amerikansk underholdningskanal/ amerikansk underhaldningskanal sink vask obscenity griseprat, slibrighet/ slibrige historier concerned bekymret/bekymra fluid væske

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gallon 3,78 liter (US), 4,55 liter (UK) inch 2,54 cm malfunction slutte å fungere, bryte sammen/ bryte saman recipe oppskrift starve sulte raging her: ukontrollert

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Doctor: How much fake sugar are you eating? Me: Two hundred fifty packets a day. Usually a couple gallons of iced tea. Sometimes a twelve-pack of diet soda. The expression on his face will forever be burned on my brain. Me: I know. It’s pretty bad. Doctor: You need to get off that ASAP. It’s extremely bad for you. How much water do you drink? Me: I swallow some by accident when I brush my teeth? Doctor: Shane, I’m going to share something with you that I haven’t even told your family. When you came in here today you were so dehydrated that you were inches away from slipping into a coma. If you had waited a few more hours to come in you would probably be in one right now. Me: Oh my God. Really? Doctor: Your entire insides were drier than a potato chip. Your brain was malfunctioning, which is why you were sitting in a public sink trying to shit out the devil. Me: WHAT? Doctor: It’s serious, Shane. Really, really serious. That hit me hard. It wasn’t just about me anymore, it was about everyone in my life. From that moment forward I decided to get off the packet once and for all. But I want to be clear: it wasn’t just the fake sugar that was causing me to go to the hospital. It was everything related to it. It was drinking gallons of iced tea every day because it tasted so good with Splenda in it. Iced tea is insanely dehydrating. Combine that with the fact that I hadn’t had actual water in a year, and you get a recipe for coma. I also wasn’t eating right and hadn’t been for a long time. I would starve myself and then go on binges and eat crazy amounts of frozen yoghurt and ranch dressing. Not together. I’m mentally sick but not that sick. So I started changing my diet and got on a normal routine, but the road hasn’t been easy. At twenty-six years old I still struggle every day with my addictions. All I want to do is get a big gallon of ice cream and lie in bed all day and watch Netflix, but I can’t. I don’t want my addictions to rule my life. This is a huge reason why I don’t drink or do any kind of drugs. I can’t imagine what my life would be like if I tried cocaine. I’m sure my house would be super clean and I’d be way funnier to hang out with, but the side effects wouldn’t be worth it. I think one day I might be able to have just one packet of Splenda and be ok, or have just one drink and not turn into a raging alcoholic. But. I’m not there yet. Right now I’m just living one daily vlog at a time. Did I mention I’m addicted to YouTube? Shane Dawson

Shane Dawson (1988–) is an American YouTuber, author, musician, comedian, actor and media personality. This essay is from his bestselling book, I Hate Myselfie, which was published in 2015. His YouTube channels have over 5 billion views, but he has also received criticism for the controversial contents of some of his videos and statements.

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3.35 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a When Shane Dawson was a kid, he was addicted to … b When he was 17, he realized that … c To lose weight, he lived on a diet of … d Shane ate 250 packets of … e His body was dehydrated because … f In a bathroom at Disney World, Shane had a … g At the hospital, Shane was told he was inches away from … h At the age of twenty-six, Shane still struggles …

3.36 •• In your own words, explain what type of addiction Shane had and what happened to him.

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3.37 ••• Answer the following questions. a Name some things and activities Shane Dawson has been addicted to. b Describe what made him start his diet and the effect it had on him. c What happened at Disney World and what caused this reaction? d What did Shane realize about his life after the conversation with the doctor? e At the end of the essay, does it seem like Shane is in control of his addictions? Explain. f What kind of narrative techniques does the writer use in this text? Find examples and explain their effect on the reader.

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3.38 Discuss the following questions in pairs, then share your views in class. a How did Shane Dawson’s addiction affect his behaviour? b In the essay you have just read, Shane Dawson uses humour when he describes his addiction. Do you think this is a good way to reach an audience about a serious problem? c It is also possible to become addicted to gaming, gambling and social media. How is this similar to or different from a drug addiction, or an eating disorder, for example?

Practise

3.39 Translate the following words into English. Practise spelling and pronouncing the words correctly. a avhengighet e væske b spiseforstyrrelse f besvime c sammenbrudd g vekttap d bekymret h akuttmottak

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3.41 •• Choose one addiction and make a poster for an awareness campaign. Think of a catchy slogan, select relevant information to be presented on the poster, and find a suitable illustration.

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3.40 • Write one paragraph where you share your opinion of the text “My Strange Addictions”. Is it an important text for young people to read? Explain.

3.42 Shane Dawson has been diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder. Use reliable sources to find information on this disorder and its symptoms.

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3.43 Search online for the video where Shane Dawson talks about his life with body dysmorphic disorder. After watching, discuss to what extent such videos can be relevant and maybe even helpful for young people.

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3.44 Search online for the song “Unwell” by Matchbox Twenty. Listen to the song and sum up how the speaker describes himself/herself and what you think the message is.

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It’s a Wonderful, Digital World? Teens say social media help build stronger friendships and that they become exposed to a more diverse world, but they also express concern that social media lead to conflicts, drama and social pressure.

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Before you start How active are you when it comes to social media? a How much time do you spend online per day? b Who do you follow? What is it about them that interests you?

Today, almost all teens around the world spend a considerable amount of time online, especially on social media platforms. Not surprisingly, many say they sometimes feel overwhelmed by all the drama on social media, and that they often experience pressure to show only positive images of themselves. At the same time, they credit social media with several positive outcomes, including creating new friendships, exposing them to different opinions

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In a recent survey among US teens, 81 % say they feel more connected to their friends when using online platforms to communicate and share content. As many as 68 % say using social media makes them feel as if they have emotional support when times are tough. In addition, 69 % of the teens in the survey say they interact with more diverse groups of people through their online activities than they would in real life. Gaming, for example, lets players interact and socialize while playing, thus creating large communities of people from many different backgrounds. As most teens know, however, social media can also become a social burden. Some feel pressure to post content that will get many likes and comments, or to be included in the most popular groups. Others may be concerned about presenting the “right” image of themselves online. In fact, recent research from Britain shows that many young people feel the need to have multiple social media profiles in order to show different images to different groups of people. Furthermore, they choose to show their “real self” only to a circle of close friends and in a carefully controlled manner. Surveys show that cyberbullying has increased significantly in recent years. According to a British report,

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the number of teens who AIMS say they have been bullied on k describe positive and negative aspects of social media social media has doubled in k extract information from statistics just two years. k make a survey Not even the most popular celebrities have been spared. Selena Gomez is one of the most followed stars on Instagram. Although she receives hundreds of positive messages on each post, the negative comments have forced her not to use the app so much. “You can’t avoid it sometimes,” she said to a newspaper. “I delete the app from exposed to utsatt for/utsett for diverse mangfoldig/mangfaldig my phone at least once a week.” concerned bekymret/bekymra Singer Ed Sheeran has also revealed considerable betraktelig/ that he has been affected by online betrakteleg haters. “I’ve actually come off Twitter overwhelmed overveldet/ completely. I can’t read it. I go on overvelda it, and there’s nothing but people credit her: gi ære saying mean things,” he said in an outcome resultat cause her: sak interview. recent nylig/ nyleg Although research shows there survey undersøkelse/ are many benefits to being active on undersøking social media, most young people content her: innhold/innhald also acknowledge the challenges interact samhandle/snakke of growing up in the digital age. saman, samarbeide Bullying is certainly not new to teens. thus og dermed burden byrde Yet, with an increased number of research forskning/forsking apps, channels and networks for multiple flere/fleire communication, it has become more manner her: måte difficult to avoid or escape, even for cyberbullying nettmobbing the most popular. significantly betydelig/

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and expressing themselves. They also claim social media help people their age learn about topics they are interested in and causes they care

betydeleg reveal avsløre affected påvirket/påverka acknowledge erkjenne, anerkjenne

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IN SHORT

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Today, almost all teens around the world spend a lot of time online, especially on social media platforms. Many say they feel overwhelmed by all the drama on social media and pressure to show only positive images of themselves. At the same time, they can make new friends on social media, and hear different opinions. They also say social media help people their age learn about topics they are interested in. In a recent survey among US teens, 81 % say they feel more connected to their friends on online platforms. As many as 68 % say using social media gives them emotional support when times are tough. In addition, 69 % of the teens in the survey say they interact with a greater diversity of people online than they would in real life, for example through gaming. As most teens know, social media can also become a social burden. Some feel pressure to get many likes and comments on their posts, or to be included in the most popular groups. Others worry about presenting the “right” image of themselves. In fact, research from Britain shows that many feel they need to have more than one social media profile, and only choose to show their “real self” to close friends. Surveys show that cyberbullying has increased a lot in recent years. Not even the most popular celebrities have been spared. Selena Gomez receives hundreds of positive messages on her posts, but the negative comments have forced her not to use the app so much. “You can’t avoid it sometimes,” she said to a newspaper. Singer Ed Sheeran has also talked about online haters. “I’ve actually come off Twitter completely. I can’t read it. I go on it, and there’s nothing but people saying mean things,” he said in an interview. Research shows there are many benefits to being active on social media, but there are also challenges. Bullying is not new to teens, but all the apps, channels and networks for communication make it more difficult to escape.

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3.45 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a Many teens say they feel b They often feel pressure to c However, they also say social media can d As many as 68 % say e Social media can also become f Others are concerned about presenting g Surveys show that cyberbullying h Not even the most popular

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3.46 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What positive outcomes of social media are mentioned in the article? b What does the US survey say about how teens experience communicating online? c How can gaming benefit players’ social life, according to the article? d In what ways can social media become a social burden? e What did British researchers discover about cyberbullying? f What has been Selena Gomez’s and Ed Sheeran’s experience with social media? 3.47 ••• Chose ten keywords from the article. Use the words to write a summary or a short informative text.

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3.48 Discuss the following questions. a Have you experienced cyberbullying yourself, or do you know someone who has? b What would you do if you discovered cyberbullying? Do you have a responsibility? c What kind of sanctions do you think should be used to stop cyberbullying? d You have probably read comment sections to people’s posts or news items. Do you think everyone should be allowed to say what they want in a public forum?

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3.49 Study the graph “Online gaming builds stronger connections with friends”. a What percentage say they feel more connected to friends they already know? b Describe the difference between playing with friends you already know and people you aren’t friends with yet. c How many say they feel happy and relaxed? d Are there more teens who say they feel angry and frustrated than who say they don’t feel happy and relaxed? e Would you say that these statistics support the claim that online gaming builds stronger connections with friends?

Online gaming builds stronger connections between friends

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More relaxed and happy

More angry and frustrated

Yes, a lot

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3.50 Compare the following adjectives. See the Language Lab section for information on adjectives. Example: happy – happier – happiest a responsible e many b positive f considerable c good g young d bad h difficult

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3.51 Change the following adjectives into adverbs. e careful a responsible f considerable b positive g fast c digital h significant d good

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3.52 • How and why do you use social media? Write one paragraph. Study “Structuring Paragraphs” in this chapter for advice.

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3.53 •• Ten years from now, what do you think we will use the Internet for? Write a short text. Study “Structuring Paragraphs” in this chapter for advice.

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3.54 Make your own survey. Perhaps you want to find out if there are differences between boys and girls, or between students in different classes. Here are some questions you might want to explore. a How many hours are spent online per week? b What types of online activities are most common? c How do students feel about using social media? d Which are the most popular online games? e What forms of cyberbullying have been experienced or witnessed?

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3.55 Watch and listen to the poem «To this day» performed by spoken-word artist Shane Koyczan on YouTube or TED.com. a What is the message of the poem? b How does the artist communicate his message to us, the audience? Comment on his choice of words, intensity and emotions, use of graphics and sound. c What is the effect of using the spoken-word format for this kind of message?

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extract information from statistics YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS USING FORMAL AND INFORMAL LANGUAGE

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Choosing the right style of language when you speak or write is important. Sometimes you need to change the way you speak or write in various situations or to different people. For example, you expect a certain style when reading a serious news article. You probably don’t have the same expectations when reading a text message from a friend.

1 Decide whether it is a formal or informal situation. 2 Decide what genre your text is going to be.

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If we know what genre a text belongs to, it is easier to decide what style of language to use, formal or informal. Here are some examples of genres: • letters • plays • reports • advertisements • instruction manuals • blogs • novels • text messages • song lyrics • articles • short stories • discussions (written or oral)

3 Decide who your audience is.

If you are speaking to a group of teenagers, you may use a less formal style of language than if you are writing a job application.

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4 Choose a style of language that suits the situation, genre and audience. If it is a formal situation:

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If it is an informal ­situation: • You may use contractions and abbreviations of words. Some examples of contractions are “there’s” and “won’t”. • Abbreviations like “phone” instead of “telephone” are accepted. • There may be slang and colloquialisms, but always avoid swearing. • Sentences can be simpler and shorter.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

3.58 What style of language do you expect to find in the following types of text? • an instruction manual • a blog • a job advertisement • a letter of complaint • a party invitation to a friend’s birthday • an accident report • an entry in a comment section on social media

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3.56 Look at this dialogue. Is this style of language right for a job interview, for example? Why or why not?

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3.59 Match the formal and the informal expressions. Practise using the expressions with a partner. 1 to help A to request 2 to put off B to contact 3 to ask for C to assist 4 to get in touch with D to verify 5 to say E to postpone 6 to check F to express

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3.57 Explain the difference between these two short texts. Comment on the choice of words, spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, contractions and abbreviations.

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“How do you do, Mr Moore?” “Not bad. You OK, dude?” “Thank you, I am quite well. Please, have a seat.” “Aw, thanks, man.” “So, why have you applied for the job?” “Well, it looks like a really cool company, kinda.”

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Example 1 You know that test we were cramming for last week? Guess what – I flunked! Now I’m gonna have to work my butt off if I wanna pass this subject.

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Example 2 This is to inform you that your test results are not up to the required standard, and you will therefore not receive a passing grade. If you wish to achieve a passing grade in this subject, I would suggest that you consider preparing more thoroughly for your next test.

3.60 The passive voice is used when the focus is on the action and not who or what is behind it. The passive voice is often used in academic writing, science, politics or other formal settings. Compare: Mistakes were made. Mike and Ella made several mistakes. Rewrite the sentences using the passive voice. a The doctor told Shane to stop eating artificial sugar. b The principal accused one of the students of cyberbullying. c Someone handed in a written complaint. d The new boss introduced a number of new regulations.

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Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda

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Simon Spier is a sixteen-year-old high school student who is not openly gay. He has found a friend online, who goes by the name “Blue” and who goes to the same school. They have confided in each other anonymously by email for months and have developed a crush on each other. However, their emails are accidently read by another student, Martin, who blackmails Simon and eventually decides to out him on the school’s gossip channel on Christmas Eve. In the excerpt you are about to read, Simon comes back to school with his sister Nora after the holidays.

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It’s the first day back at school, and I honestly consider spending the entire day in the parking lot. I can’t explain it. I thought I would be fine. But now that I’m here, I can’t seem to get out of the car. I feel a little sick thinking about it. Nora says, “I really don’t think anyone is going to remember.” I shrug. “It was on there for, what, three days? And that was over a week ago.” “Four days,” I say. “I don’t even think people really read the Tumblr.” We walk through the atrium together just as the first bell is ringing. People are stampeding and pushing down the main stairs. No one seems to pay any particular attention to me – and for all of Nora’s reassurances, I can see that she’s as relieved as I am. I move with the crowd, working my way towards my locker, and I think I’m finally starting to relax. A couple of people wave at me like normal. Garrett

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from my lunch table nods and says, “What’s up Spier?” I toss my backpack into my locker and pull out my AIMS books for English and French. No one has slid any homophobic notes into the slats of my locker, which is k explain who and what the story is about good. No one’s etched the word “fag” into my locker yet either, which is even better.” I’m almost ready to believe k identify and use informal language that things have gotten a little better at Creekwood. Or k discuss ethical dilemmas that no one saw Martin’s Tumblr post after all. k review a film Martin. God, I don’t even want to think about having to see his stupid evil face. And of course he’s in my first fucking period. I guess there’s still this quiet pulse of dread when I think about seeing Martin again. I’m just trying to breathe. As I’m walking into the language arts wing, this football guy I hardly recognize almost runs directly into me coming down the stairs. I step back to ready myself, but he puts his hand on my shoulder and looks me right in the eye. confide in betro seg til/ “Why, hello there,” he says. tru seg til blackmail utpressing “Hi … ” excerpt utdrag Then he grabs me by the cheeks and pulls my face in like he’s going to entire hele/heile kiss me. “Mwah!” He grins, and his face is so close I can feel the heat of his shrug trekke på skuldrene breath. And all around me, people laugh like fucking Elmo. atrium atrium, åpen plass i I yank my body away from him, cheeks burning. “Where are you going, bygning/atrium, open plass i Spier?” someone says. “McGregor wants a turn.” And everybody starts bygning laughing again. I mean, I don’t even know these people. I don’t know why in stampede her: strømme, skynde seg/strøyme, skynde seg God’s name this is funny to them. reassurance forsikring In English class, Martin won’t look at me. But all through the day, Leah relieved lettet/letta and Abby are like freaking pit bulls, throwing down the stink-eye in all locker bokskap directions whenever anyone even looks at me funny. I mean, it’s really pretty nod nikke sweet. And it isn’t a total disaster. Some people sort of whisper and laugh. toss kaste And a couple randomly give me these huge smiles in the hallway, whatever slat sprekk that means. These two lesbian girls I don’t even know come up to me at my etch risse inn evil ond/vond, slem locker and hug me and give me their phone numbers. And at least a dozen dread frykt straight kids make a point of telling me that they support me. One girl even cheek kinn confirms that Jesus still loves me. Elmo figur fra Sesame Street/ It’s a ton of attention. It kind of makes my head spin. Everything seems to go well until Simon goes to rehearsal for his play in the afternoon. He is harassed by a couple of students who show up to taunt him, but his teacher and two of his friends immediately take action. Then, after watching a bit of soccer practice, Simon is ready to head home. So, maybe it’s the winter air or maybe it’s soccer boy calves, but after everything that’s happened today, I’m actually in a pretty decent mood. Until I get to the parking lot. Because Martin Addison is leaning against my car.

figur frå Sesame Street yank her: rykke stink-eye ondt blikk/vondt, slemt blikk disaster katastrofe dozen dusin (12) rehearsal øving harass plage taunt spotte, være spydig/ vere spydig

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apology unnskyldning knuckle knoke progressive framskrittsvennlig/ framstegsvennleg rip me a new one her: kjefte på meg humiliate ydmyke/audmyke sob hulke sigh sukke

“Where have you been?” he says. I wait for him to move. I mean, I don’t even want to look at him. “Can we talk for a second?” he asks. “I don’t have anything to say to you,” I say. “Okay, well.” He sighs, and I can actually see his breath. “Simon, just – I seriously owe you an apology.” I just kind of stand there. He stretches his arms forward, cracking his knuckles under his gloves. “God, I’m just. I’m just so sorry. What happened in there. I didn’t know that would – I mean, I didn’t think people still did shit like that.” “Right, who’d have guessed? Because Shady Creek is just so progressive.” Martin shakes his head. “I just seriously didn’t think it would be such a big thing.” I don’t even know what to say to that. “Look, I’m sorry, all right? I was pissed off. The whole Abby thing. I wasn’t thinking. And then my brother basically ripped me a new one, and I was just … I just feel like shit, okay. And I deleted those screenshots ages ago. I swear to God. So can you please just say something?” I mean, I almost start laughing. “What the fuck do you want me to say?” “I don’t know,” he says. “I’m just trying –“ “Okay, how about this? I think you’re an asshole. I think you’re a huge fucking asshole. I mean, don’t even fucking pretend you didn’t know this would happen. You blackmailed me. This was – I mean, wasn’t that the whole goddamn point? Humiliating me?” He shakes his head and opens his mouth to reply, but I cut him off. “And you know what? You don’t get to say it’s not a big thing. This is a big fucking thing, okay? This was supposed to be – this is mine. I’m supposed to decide when and where and who knows and how I want to say it.” Suddenly, my throat gets thick. “So yeah, you took that from me. And then you brought Blue into it? Seriously? You fucking suck, Martin. I mean, I don’t even want to look at you.” He’s crying. He’s trying not to, but he’s seriously, full-on crying. And my heart sort of twists. “So can you just step away from my car,” I say, “and leave me the fuck alone?” He nods, puts his head down, and walks away quickly. I get in my car. And turn it on. And then I just start sobbing. Becky Albertalli Becky Albertalli (1982 – ) is an award-winning American writer who lives in Atlanta. She is also a psychologist who has worked with teenagers. Simon vs The Homo Sapiens Agenda is her first novel. It has been translated into many different languages, and a popular film adaptation called Love, Simon was released in 2018.

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Read and understand

3.61 • Choose the correct alternative. a The main character in this text is 1 Martin. 2 Abby. 3 Simon.

c He was outed to the whole school by 1 one of his fellow students. 2 his anonymous email crush. 3 his sister Nora.

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b He is 1 openly gay. 2 not openly gay. 3 straight.

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d On his first day back after the school holidays, he 1 was bullied by most of the other students. 2 realized that nobody had seen the Tumblr post. 3 received a lot of support from his friends.

e After school, Martin was waiting in the parking lot because 1 he wanted to apologize to Simon. 2 he wanted to talk about Abby. 3 he thought Simon had overreacted about the whole thing.

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f Simon says that 1 he forgives him. 2 Martin is an asshole. 3 he is going to get revenge.

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3.62 •• Answer the following questions. a Who is “Blue” and how does Simon know him? b Why is Simon anxious about going back to school? c What was he expecting to see at his locker? d Explain what happened when Simon ran into the football guy. e How does Martin behave when Simon finds him waiting for him after school? f Why doesn’t Simon believe Martin when he says he didn’t understand the consequences?

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3.63 ••• Find evidence in the text to support the following statements. Write down your answers in full sentences. a Simon was expecting comments and harassment when coming back to school. b His first day was both good and bad. c All the attention he is given makes Simon confused. d Simon feels betrayed by Martin’s actions. e Martin seems to be genuinely sorry for what he did. f Simon is more hurt by what happened than he admits.

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3.64 Discuss in pairs, and then share your views in class. a How do you think Simon felt when he discovered someone had read his private emails and spread the information? How would you feel if it happened to you? b How do you think Simon handled the situation when Martin wanted to apologize? c What do you think of the way Simon’s friends handled the situation? d What would you do if one of your friends were in the same situation as Simon?

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3.65 There are many examples of informal language in the text. Explain what the following expressions mean and rewrite them in more formal language. a “I was pissed off.” b “… my brother basically ripped me a new one.” c “I just feel like shit, okay.” d “You fucking suck, Martin.” e “Leah and Abby are like freaking pit bulls, throwing down the stinkeye in all directions whenever anyone even looks at me funny.” 3.66 Adjective or adverb? Find the mistakes and correct the sentences. a Simon is quite nervously about going back to school. b He had communicated anonymous by email with another boy from his school. c Nobody is paying any particularly attention to him. d Suddenly, a football guy is running direct into him in the hallway. e Martin starts crying in the parking lot and walks away quick.

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Write

3.68 •• Friendship is an important theme in this novel. Based on the excerpt you have read, write a text where you explain how Simon’s friends supported him. Also describe what friendship means to you.

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3.67 • “I’m supposed to decide when and where and who knows and how I want to say it,” Simon says to Martin. Who has the right to spread private information about other people? Write one paragraph where you express your opinion.

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3.69 Watch the film adaption of the novel Love, Simon. a At the beginning of the film, we hear Simon’s voiceover, saying he has “a huge-ass secret.” Why does he resent having to come out at all, and how does he imagine it should be for straight kids? b Choose one character you think is interesting. Describe this character’s personality, using statements and actions to support your description. c In one scene, Simon’s mother says to him “You can exhale now, Simon.” Describe Simon’s family and the relationship he has with his parents. Use scenes from the film as examples. d The identity of “Blue” is not revealed until the end. Did you guess who it was? Are we given any clues? Is Simon surprised? e “Love, Simon is filled with humor–in its characters, dialogue, and situations–but it doesn’t sacrifice emotional depth,” one critic wrote in his review of the film. Do you agree? Explain why or why not. f How would you review the film? Make a short video where you express your opinion.

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

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3.71 Choose three of the texts you have studied in this chapter. a What were the aims of each of the texts? b Which aims do you think you master well? c What would you like to improve? Explain why and what you think you will have to do.

3.72 Pick one task you have worked on in this chapter. What did you learn? How can you use this when working on future tasks?

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3.73 Structuring paragraphs a What is a topic sentence? b How many supporting sentences should there be in a paragraph, at the least? c What do supporting sentences do? d Give examples of at least five sentence connectors. e How does the use of sentence connectors improve your text?

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3.70 After working with Chapter 3, it is time to revise what you have learnt. a Give examples of challenges and ethical dilemmas you have read about in this chapter. b Mention some things young people worry about. c What would you say is the message of the poem “Look”? d Which novel extracts have students as the main characters? e Give examples of different types of addictions. Explain how Shane Dawson’s addiction affected him. f Describe some of the benefits and challenges of being active on social media.

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3.74 Using formal and informal language a What is the difference between formal and informal language? Give examples. b In what situations do you use formal language? c Give examples of when you can use informal language. d Mention three decisions you have to make before choosing the appropriate style of language. e For what types of text do we often use the passive voice?

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills

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b •• Which of the texts you have studied in this chapter has the most informal language, and which text has the most formal language? Use examples from the texts to support your arguments. How does the style of language affect you as a reader or listener?

b •• A number of celebrities are known for their addiction to alcohol or drugs. Write at least three paragraphs in which you discuss celebrities’ lifestyle and to what extent they are role models for young people. You may want to include the following points:

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3.75 Speak a • Choose one of the texts from this chapter. Explain to a partner what the text is about and what you liked or disliked about it.

c ••• Write a text in which you discuss the advantages and challenges of living in a digital age. Your text should have:

3.76 Write a • Write one paragraph for each of the following topic sentences. Make sure your paragraphs have supporting sentences and a closing sentence. Also try to use sentence connectors.

• a short introduction • one paragraph on the advantages • one paragraph on the challenges • one paragraph where you state your opinion • a conclusion

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c ••• Compare the challenges the characters are facing in at least two of the novel extracts from this chapter. How are they similar? What are the differences? Point to examples in the texts to support your arguments. Discuss in groups.

• Smartphones can be useful in the classroom. • There are many different kinds of addiction. • Gaming and social media can improve your English.

You may also want to check “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 for advice.

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Citizens

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In this chapter you will focus on k social conditions k democracy k racism and other crimes k structuring texts k selecting sources

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echo chamber fake news manipulation activism election civil rights movement law enforcement protest ethnic minority empowerment

How can you influence society? How do you decide which sources you can trust? <<4 sider>>

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A good photograph can tell a whole story in a split second. Therefore, news articles almost always include pictures. Readers and viewers are bombarded with information every hour of the day, so most news stories are forgotten. Still, many photos make a lasting impression. Some of these are later found in history books because of the way they impacted people’s opinions and civic engagement, and even governments’ decisions. Here are some examples of photos that have become iconic. Study the pictures and the events they illustrate.

Ku impression inntrykk impact påvirke/påverke opinion mening/meining civil engagement samfunnsengasjement civil rights borgerrettigheter/ borgarrettar plesiosaurus svaneøgle supposedly angivelig/påstått hoax bløff

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Photographer: Angelo Cozzi

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Photographer: Neil Armstrong

The whole world was watching as the first human beings set foot on the Moon in July 1969. The photo shows one of the American astronauts, Edwin (“Buzz”) Aldrin, walking on the Moon’s surface. Television was new at the time, but even so, the images were spread faster than ever before.

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The fight for civil rights in the US continued through the 1960s. Successful athletes took the opportunity to show their support internationally. This photo shows gold and bronze medal winners Tommie Smith and John Carlos raising their hands in a black power salute at the Olympics in Mexico City in 1968. It was an inspiration for many to keep up the fight. The belief that a plesiosaurus-like monster lives in Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands dates back at least 1500 years. Many people claim to have seen it. A British doctor, Robert Wilson, supposedly took this picture. It was published in the newspaper Daily Mail in 1934 and sparked huge international interest. The photograph was later proved to be a hoax, but the hunt for the Loch Ness Monster continues to this day and it has become an important tourist attraction.


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The Beatles released Abbey Road in 1969. It was the last album the band would record before it split up. The picture for the front cover shows the four band members on a zebra crossing near the studio. A policeman held up traffic while the photographer took the picture from the top of a stepladder. Abbey Road Studios is now a listed building, and there is an online webcam recording everything that goes on at the zebra crossing in Abbey Road.

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The war in Vietnam had been going on for many years. In June 1972, a load of napalm was dropped on the village of Trang Bang. The picture shows children running in terror and pain from the village. The photo became a symbol of how civilians suffer the consequences of war. It helped to change people’s opinion about the Vietnam War and led to the withdrawal of US troops. The Vietnam War finally ended in 1975.

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On 11 September 2011, two passenger airplanes crashed into two skyscrapers in Manhattan, New York. This was part of a terror attack carried out by Islamic extremists. The towers were part of the World Trade Center complex. The images from the incident went viral and had a lasting impact on people around the world.

zebra crossing fotgjengerfelt/ fotgjengarfelt stepladder gardintrapp listed her: vernet/verna webcam webkamera incident hendelse/hending lasting varig civilians sivilbefolkning suffer lide consequences konsekvenser/ konsekvensar withdrawal tilbaketrekking

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Read and understand

4.1 • Combine the sentence halves. Write down the complete sentences. A Readers and viewers are bombarded B Therefore, news articles almost always C Most news stories are forgotten,

but some photos have a lasting impact. 2 a whole story in a split second.

D A good photo can tell

4 because of the way they influenced governments’ decisions. 5 with information every hour of the day. 6 become iconic.

include pictures.

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4.2 •• Make headlines from the jumbled words and combine them with the correct pictures. Headline

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Hit Twin Passenger Planes Towers Walk the Successful Moon on Bombs Civilians in Vietnam Hit Napalm with Is the Monster this Loch Ness? The Last on the Front of the Album they Cover Recorded Beatles by Political Afro-American Statements Shown Athletes

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4.4 Explain these expressions in English. Use a dictionary if necessary. a televised event g civic engagement d spark interest b impact h withdrawal e civilians c opinion i hoax f go viral

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4.6 Shocking pictures help newspapers sell well and generate more clicks. Which ethical problems arise when pictures of suffering people are published? Discuss in class.

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4.5 Study the photos on the previous pages again, in pairs. Focus on one picture at a time and ask each other the following questions: a What do you see in this picture? b How does the picture make you feel? c Why do you think this photograph made a lasting impression on the public?

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4.7 • Suggest captions for the three photos to the right. For each caption, explain why you think it is suitable.

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4.8 •• Write the lead to match one of the photos to the right. Feel free to make up facts about the incident in the photo.

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4.9 ••• Write a short news article to accompany one of the photos to the right. Use your imagination to describe the situation and context in which the photo was taken. Choose a suitable headline for your article, and a caption for the photo.

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4.10 Visit newseum.org and study the front pages of today’s newspapers. Choose one picture that catches your attention. Prepare a short presentation of this picture. Share in class. See “Sharing information” in Chapter 1 for advice on how to show and tell.

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Did you know?

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suggest suitable captions

The naked girl in the photograph on the previous page is Phan Thi Kim Phuc. She suffered severe burns in this attack and almost died. In 1997 she set up the Kim Phuc Foundation, which aims to give psychological support and medical help to children who are victims of war. Phan Thi Kim Phuc lives in Canada and is a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador.

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IRUS V R E T COMPU MANS U H O T S SPREAD

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Before you start Where do get your news? Do you always trust your news providers to tell you the truth? Discuss in pairs.

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“We live in an Idiocracy,” read a small note on Blair’s desk, and he was taking full advantage. In a good month, the advertising revenue from his website earned him as much as $ 15,000, and it had also won him a loyal army of online fans. Hundreds of liberals now visited America’s Last Line of Defense to humiliate conservatives who shared Blair’s fake stories as fact. […] “How could any thinking person believe this nonsense?” he said. He hit the publish button and watched as his lie began to spread.

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Now he hunched over a desk, […] scanning through conservative forums on Facebook for something that might inspire his next post. […] He noticed a photo online of Trump standing at attention for the national anthem during a White House ceremony. Behind the president were several dozen dignitaries, including a white woman standing next to a black woman, and Blair copied the picture, circled the two women in red and wrote the first thing that came into his mind.

again at the picture. The AIMS white woman k explain what the article is about was not in k use words related to information fact Chelsea and fake news Clinton. […] k share information on fake news and The black fact-checking sites woman was not Michelle Obama. […] Neither Obama nor Clinton had been invited to the ceremony. Nobody had flipped off the president. The entire premise was utterly ridiculous, which was exactly Blair’s point.

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NORTH WATERBORO, Maine The only light in the house came from the glow of three computer monitors, and Christopher Blair, 46, sat down at a keyboard and started to type. […] Waiting online was his other community, an unreality where nothing was exactly as it seemed. […] “Nothing on this page is real,” read one of the 14 disclaimers on Blair’s site, and yet his stories had become real, reinforcing people’s biases, […] amassing an audience of as many 6 million visitors each month who thought his posts were factual. What Blair had first conceived of as an elaborate joke was beginning to reveal something darker.

“President Trump extended an olive branch and invited Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton,” Blair wrote. “They thanked him by giving him ‘the finger’ during the national anthem. Lock them up for treason!” Blair finished typing and looked

[…] It was barely dawn in Pahrump, Nevada when Shirley Chapian, 76, logged onto […] her Facebook news feed. […] She put her finger on the mouse and began scrolling down. “Click LIKE if you believe we must stop Sharia Law from coming to America before it’s too late,” read the first item, and she clicked “like.” “Share to help END the ongoing

monitor skjerm community fellesskap disclaimer ansvarsfraskrivelse/ ansvarsfråskriving reinforce forsterke bias forutinntatt holdning/ fordomsfull handling amass samle conceive of komme på elaborate her: utspekulert hunch sitte sammenbøyd/ sitte samanbøygd stand at attention stå i givakt dignitary viktig person extend an olive branch her: strekke ut en hånd/strekke ut ei hand treason landssvik premise premiss, forutsetning/ føresetnad ridiculous latterlig/latterleg revenue inntekter humiliate ydmyke/audmjuke dawn daggry

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“Is Michelle Obama really dating Bruce Springsteen?”

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Blair had invented thousands of stories in the past two years, always trafficking in the same stereotypes to fool the same people, but he never tired of watching a post take off: Eight shares in the first minute, 160 within 15 minutes, more than 1,000 by the end of the hour. […] “Aaaaand, we’re viral,” he wrote, in a message to his liberal supporters on his private Facebook page.

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“Iowa Farmer Claims Bill Clinton had Sex with Cow during ‘Cocaine Party.’ ” […]

Chapian looked at the photo and nothing about it surprised her. Of course Trump had invited Clinton and Obama to the White House in a generous act of patriotism. Of course the Democrats – or “Demonrats,” as Chapian sometimes called them – had acted badly and disrespected America. It was the exact same narrative she saw playing out on her screen hundreds of times each day, and this time she decided to click ‘like’ and leave a comment. “Well, they never did have any class,” she wrote.

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The house was empty and quiet except for the clicking of her computer mouse. She lived alone, and on many days her only personal interaction occurred here, on Facebook. Mixed into her morning news feed were photos and updates from some of her 300 friends, but most items came directly from political groups Chapian had chosen to follow. […] Each political page published several posts each day directly into Chapian’s feed, many of which claimed to be “BREAKING NEWS.” […] “BREAKING: Democrat mega-donor accused of sexual assault!!!”

in the background were two women, one black and one white. “President Trump extended an olive branch and invited Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton,” the post read. “They thanked him by giving him ‘the finger’ during the national anthem.”

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migrant invasion!” read another, and she clicked “share.”

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Chapian didn’t believe everything she read online, but she was also distrustful of mainstream factcheckers and reported news. It sometimes felt to her like real facts had become indiscernible – that the truth was often somewhere in between. What she trusted most was her own ability to think critically and discern the truth, and increasingly her instincts aligned with the online community where she spent most of her time. […] “I’m not a conspiracy-theory-type person, but. . .” she wrote, before sharing a link to an unsourced story suggesting that Democratic donor George Soros had been a committed Nazi, or that a Parkland shooting survivor was actually a paid actor. Now another post arrived in her news feed, from a page called America’s Last Line of Defense, which Chapian had been following for more than a year. It showed a picture of Trump standing at a White House ceremony. Circled

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By the standards of America’s Last Line of Defense, the item about Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton was only a moderate success. It included no advertisements, so it wouldn’t earn Blair any money. It wasn’t even the most popular of the 11 items he’d published that day. But, just an hour earlier, Blair had come up with an idea at his computer in Maine, and now hundreds or maybe thousands of people across the country believed Obama and Clinton had flipped off the president. “Gross. Those women have no respect for themselves,” wrote a woman in Fort Washakie, Wyo.


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assault overgrep distrustful mistroisk/mistruisk indiscernible umulig å skille fra hverandre/umogleg å skilje frå kvarandre align with være på linje med/ vere på linje med conspiracy konspirasjon, sammensvergelse/ samansverjing unsourced som mangler kilde/ som manglar kjelde narrative fortelling/forteljing shunned utstøtt/utstøytt prominently tydelig/tydeleg pseudo-patriotic liksompatriotisk demote degradere offensive støtende/ støytande rerun her: publisere på nytt intentionally med hensikt

[…] “Jail them now!!!”

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Blair had fooled them. Now came his favorite part, the gotcha, when he could let his victims in on the joke. “OK, […] here’s your reality check,” he wrote on America’s Last Line of Defense, placing his comment prominently alongside the original post. “That is Omarosa and Hope Hicks, not Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton. They wouldn’t be caught dead posing for this pseudo-patriotic nationalistic garbage … Congratulations, stupid.”

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“They deserve to be publicly shunned,” said a man in Gainesville, Fla.

Beyond the money he earned, this was what Blair had conceived of as the purpose for his website: to engage directly with people who spread false or extremist stories and prove those stories were wrong. Maybe, after people had been publicly embarrassed, they would think more critically about what they shared online. Maybe they would

Blair didn’t have time to personally confront each of the several hundred thousand conservatives who followed his Facebook page, so he’d built a community of more than 100 liberals to police the page with him. […] Blair said he and his followers had gotten hundreds of people banned from Facebook and several others fired or demoted in their jobs for offensive behavior online. He had also forced Facebook to shut down 22 fake news sites for plagiarizing his content, many of which were Macedonian sites that reran his stories without labeling them as satire. What Blair wasn’t sure he had ever done was change a single person’s mind. He had begun to include more obvious disclaimers at the top of every post and to intentionally misspell several words in order to highlight the idiocy of his work, but still traffic continued to climb. Sometimes he wondered: Rather than of awakening people to reality, was he pushing them further from it? SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 141


“Well, they never did have any class,” commented Shirley Chapian, from Pahrump, Nev., and Blair watched his liberal followers respond. […] “You’re a gullible moron who just fell for a fake story on a Liberal satire page.”

Chapian recoiled from the screen. “Please!” she said. “If I had a kid in a school system like that, I’d yank them out so fast.” She had seen hundreds of stories on Facebook about the threat of sharia, and this confirmed much of what she already believed. It was probably true, she thought. It was true enough. “Do people understand that things like this are happening in this country?” she said. She clicked the post and the traffic registered back to a computer in Maine, where Blair watched another story go viral and wondered when his audience would get his joke.

“Welcome to the internet. Critical thinking required.” […]

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Instead of responding directly to strangers on America’s Last Line of Defense, Chapian wrote on her own Facebook page. “Nasty liberals,” she said, and then she went back to her news feed, each day blending into the next. A Muslim woman with her burqa on fire: like. […] Hillary Clinton looking gaunt and pale: like. A military helicopter armed with machine guns and headed toward the caravan of immigrants: like. […] A picture of undocumented immigrants laughing inside a voting booth: like. “Deep State Alive and Well”: like.

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classroom. “California School children forced to Sharia in Class,” it read. “All of them have stopped eating bacon. Two began speaking in Allah. Stop making children pray to imaginary Gods!!”

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By Eli Saslow, Washington Post, November 17, 2018 (abridged version)

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She scrolled upon another post from America’s Last Line of Defense, reading fast, oblivious to the satire labels and not noticing Blair’s trademark awkward phrasings and misspellings. It showed a group of children kneeling on prayer mats in a

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gullible godtroende/ godtruande gaunt mager caravan karavane, stort følge av reisende/stort reisefølgje voting booth stemmeavlukke oblivious uten å legge merke til/ utan å legge merke til trademark varemerke phrasing formulering awkward klønete recoil skvette yank trekke, røske confirm bekrefte

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Eli Saslow

Eli Saslow (1982–) is an American journa­ list. He writes for the Washington Post. In 2014 he won the Pulitzer Prize. He has also published books about American society and has won several other awards for his writing.

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4.12 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a He noticed a picture/photo/text online of Trump standing at attention for the national anthem during a White House ceremony. b Lock them up for murder/disrespect/treason! c She lived alone, and on many days her only personal interaction/ intervention/interrogation occurred here, on Facebook. d It included no commercials/advertisements/advertising, so it wouldn’t earn Blair any money. e Maybe they would begin to question/doubt/examine the root of some of their ideas. f “You’re a stupid/gushing/gullible moron who just fell for a fake story on a Liberal satire page.” g It showed a group of children/kids/adolescents kneeling on prayer mats in a classroom. h It was probably untrue/true/correct, she thought.

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Read and understand

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4.13 •• Complete these sentences with information from the text. a Christopher Blair scanned through conservative forums on Facebook to find . b Blair invented a fake story claiming that . c Shirley Chapian lived alone, and on many days . d Chapian didn’t believe everything she read online, but . e Apart from the money he earned, the purpose of Blair’s website was to engage directly with people who . f Blair had built a community of more than 100 liberals to . g Blair had forced Facebook to . h To make people aware of the fact that his stories were not true, Blair had begun to include .

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4.14 ••• Give at least one example from the text of the following. a How Christopher Blair communicates to his readers that the stories he posts are untrue. b How Christopher Blair has profited from his website America’s Last Line of Defense. c The kind of stories that Shirley Chapian reads and believes to be true. d How the story about Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton confirms what Shirley Chapian already believes. e The kind of response Christopher Blair gets from people who think what he writes is true. f How Blair and his followers have forced people to face the consequences of offensive behavior online. g The kind of language mistakes Christopher Blair deliberately makes so people will understand that his stories are fake. h How people such as Shirley Chapian read Christopher Blair’s posts and believe them anyway. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 143


Practise

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4.15 Choose five of the expressions below. Write a sentence for each of them to show that you understand what they mean. Look up words you are not sure of and make a note of your source. Do you trust this source? Why? a idiocracy b satire c breaking news d conspiracy theory e deep state f echo chamber g confirmation bias h mainstream fact-checkers

Speak

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4.16 Visit a fake news or satire website and study the stories you find there. Some examples are naturalenews.com and theonion.com. Work in pairs and discuss the following questions: a What does the website claim has happened? b What could make you believe that the stories might be true? c What makes you realize that these stories cannot be true? d If these stories had been posted on a news website, would you have thought they reported the truth? Why?/Why not?

Write

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4.17 • Fill in the missing words and write out the text. biz – URL – accurate – digital tools – faked – believe – disagree – context – fake news – check Fake news There are many kinds of (a) The first is stories that are lies. They have been made up to make people (b) something that is not true. The second kind are stories that are not (c) , but contain some truth. Some people use the term ‘fake news’ about news that they (d) with. If you wonder whether a news item is true or not, there are some things you should (e) . If it contains spelling mistakes or strange sentences, this might mean that you should double-check the story. You should also check the (f) . If it is something like infonet or (g) , you could be right in thinking that the story might not be true. Pictures can also easily be (h) and this can be difficult to see. If you are not sure, you can use various (i) to check if an image has been used in the wrong (j) or altered in some way.

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7 Types of Mis- and Disinformation Misleading Content

Imposter Content

Fabricated Content

No intention to cause harm but has potential to fool

Misleading use of information to frame an issue or individual

When genuine sources are impersonated

New content that is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm

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INCREASING INTENT TO DECEIVE

False Context

When headlines, visuals or captions dont’t support the content

When genuine content is shared with false contextual information

Source: https://www.pnas.org/content/114/48/12631

Manipulated content

When genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive

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False Connection

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4.18 •• What advice would you give to Shirley Chapian when she reads her news feed? Make a list of important things for her to remember so she will not be fooled again.

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4.19 ••• Use your imagination and write a short fake news story. Find a picture to illustrate your story or use digital tools to manipulate a photo.

Explore

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4.20 Study the infographic on this page. Choose at least two types of misor disinformation. Research and find one example of each. Present your examples in class.

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the article is about YES

4.21 Visit a fact-checker website, such as Full Fact, Snopes, PolitiFact or Fact Checker. Which news stories do you find here? Have you read or heard about any of them before? How can a fact checker be a useful tool for you?

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How did you do?

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use words related to information and fake news YES

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share information on fake news and fact-checking sites YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SELECTING SOURCES

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Most students look for information online for their projects, papers and presentations. But unlike some traditional sources of information, such as books and magazines, the content you find online is not necessarily checked or approved before it is published. So how do you know that the information is reliable and relevant? Here is a guideline for selecting sources.

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1 Be focused. Think through what kind of information you need for your task. Don’t let yourself be tempted to jump from topic to topic.

2 Narrow your search. Use the search engine’s tabs for documents, images, news, maps or videos. If you use quotation marks, e.g. “American news media”, the search engine will search for the whole phrase and thus generate a more relevant result, instead of providing millions of hits for all three words in random order.

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3 Is the information relevant? Be critical. Does your source add useful information

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to support an argument or illustrate a point? Also check when the information was published. Many websites are not updated and the information you find may not be relevant any more.

4 Is the information reliable? Who has published the information? If you cannot find this

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on the site itself, it may not be very serious. The URL may also give you some idea of who is behind a site. Also ask yourself why this information was published and who the target group is.

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.com is a commercial server .gov is a governmental or public server .edu is usually an educational institution .org is an organization .no is a Norwegian site

5 Cross-check your information with at least one other source. If the information differs considerably, cross-check with more sources or discard the source as unreliable.

6 Refer to your sources. Remember that someone else has the copyright to material you are using. This also includes illustrations, encyclopaedia entries, films and online videos, speeches, interviews, blogs, podcasts and broadcasts. Do not simply copy and paste into your own work. See “Referring to sources” in Chapter 8 for more information.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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4.22 Answer the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. a Would you use a blog to find facts for a project on birth control? b Would you use a Wiki site to find information about political parties? c Would you use a website with the url.edu to help you find facts about population statistics? d Would you use a website with the URL.org to find information on fake news? e Would you trust a website with a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes? f If you were researching gun violence in the USA, would you trust information from the official website of the National Rifle Association?

d Infowars e BBC f Reuters

g The Guardian h Al Jazeera i Addicting Info

j Fox News k PBS l The Huffington Post

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a The Economist b USA Today c CNN

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4.23 Look up the following news providers online and study the top headlines. Rank the websites from the one that has the most sensational clickbait news to the one you think seems the most trustworthy. Discuss your results in class.

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4.24 Suggest at least three reliable and relevant sources for each of the following topics. a studying in the UK b the history of Brexit c the presidency of Donald Trump d organised crime in the USA

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4.25 Does the domain, i.e. the last element of the Internet address, say anything about the reliability of the website? Discuss in class, then find out what these domains stand for. d .in e .za f .au

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a .mil b .net c .ru

Note! Wikipedia may be a good starting point when exploring a new topic, but you should remember that the information is provided by volunteers who are not necessarily experts on the subject. It is not considered a reliable source on its own.

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 147


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Ku 148 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS


AIMS k explain the main content of this

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Boy A

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novel excerpt k use words and expressions related to crime k discuss society’s reaction to perpetrators of crime

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As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. This crime created massive media interest and public outrage. Jack has spent most of his life in different institutions. Now, at the age of 24, he has just been released with a new identity, new surroundings and a new job with the firm DV transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Jack has moved in with landlady Kelly, made friends with coworker Chris, who picks him up for work in the mornings, and fallen in love with the office-girl Michelle. At the point where we enter the story, Kelly is working the night shift, Michelle has disappeared and Jack’s boss Dave calls him to say that he needn’t come to work. Jack doesn’t understand at first and thinks it is because of some stock that has been stolen …

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‘Jack?’ ‘Yes!’ ‘We’re not going to need you at work for the moment. Well …’ he tails off. ‘What do you mean?’ ‘Don’t come in today.’ ‘Don’t come in until … unless … if, I ask you to. It’s not good for the business.’ ‘What’s this about, Dave?’ Jack is aware of the desperation in his voice. ‘Is it the stock? It’s not me, I haven’t taken a thing.’ ‘You know what it’s about. I’m sorry but that’s the end of it. I don’t wish to continue this discussion.’ ‘Dave,’ Jack says, ‘Dave?’ But the line is dead.

!

Before you start a In English, explain what the term “age of criminal responsibility” means. b Do you know what the age of criminal responsibility is in Norway? Do you know what it is in England? If not, find out.

guilty skyldig horrible fryktelig/frykteleg released her: løslatt/lauslaten public outrage offentlig forargelse/offentleg forarging case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past fortid landlady utleier, vertinne/ utleigar, vertinne coworker kollega disappear forsvinne tail off her: bli stille stock her: varer

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 149


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panic button trygghetsalarm/ tryggingsalarm pager personsøker/ personsøkar saliva spytt hover bevege seg over do time sitte i fengsel pick-up her: henting engaged her: opptatt tremulous skjelvende/ skjelvande quiver bevre/bivre, skjelve spew out bryte ut notch hakk squirm her: lure seg hallway gang, entré deserted forlatt/forlaten, forlate pre-dawn før soloppgang squalid ussel ominous illevarslende/ illevarslande devoid of helt uten/heilt utan determined bestemt

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He puts his work clothes on anyway, not sure why, perhaps because they are lying ready for him over the chair. He can’t understand what just happened. He doesn’t want to believe the most obvious explanation for Dave’s behaviour: that he knows; somehow he knows. Jack clips the panic button/pager to his belt, and slides it round his hip, to beneath his right hand. Swallowing saliva as he realizes what he is admitting to himself. That he believes today he might need this machine. He is tempted to press it straightaway. He actually flips up the screen cap, and his finger hovers over the button. But that would be crazy. As freaked out as he is, he has to stay rational. How would Dave know? He’d be the last one to know. He’s got his head up his own arse most of the time. It’s much more likely that it’s to do with the stolen stock. He’s bound to be the first suspect; Dave knows he’s done time. He’ll wait until half seven or eight, and then phone Terry. He sits down on the sprawl of his unmade bed. Maybe he’d better call Chris now, though, tell him not to bother with the pick-up, in case he doesn’t know. Find out what Dave’s told him, if he does. Chris is engaged constantly. It’s 6:57 when Jack finally makes the connection. He pours out about being told not to come in, before Chris has a chance to open his mouth. ‘I know,’ Chris says coldly. ‘Dave’s given me the day off.’ ‘Is it the stock?’ Jack asks. ‘It’s you Jack, or whoever you are. It’s about you. How could you? I mean why? I mean what the fuck?’ Chris’ voice is tremulous now, you can almost hear his lip quivering. But then he spews out in total rage: ‘Have you hurt her? Just tell me that, have you hurt Michelle?’ ‘No, never, I couldn’t. What’s happened, have they found her?’ ‘Read the fucking paper. Read the Sun. I’ve already had them phone me this morning. ‘His anger drops a notch, or at least his voice does. ‘All the lies. How could you? How could you keep that up? How could you just squirm your way into our world? I’d tell you I’m done with you. But then, I don’t know who the fuck you are anyway.’ He puts the phone down. Jack is left standing in the hallway, with the buzz of his handset in his ear. Hearing this from Chris is like being beaten with his birthday present. But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. He needs to know what they’ve written. Peering through the window of Kelly’s room, he sees that the streets are still deserted. Grey with grimy pre-dawn light, looking squalid, ominous, but at least devoid of life. He can run down to the paper shop in less than a minute. Jack gets his dv cap from the drawer, a hat that has helped him escape detection before, and pulls it down hard with determined hands. He scans the street once more from Kelly’s window, and then again from the front room, before he walks stiff-legged to the door. Every muscle is tense as he twists the Yale lock. He realizes he has no money, and lets it click back into

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cautiously forsiktig momentum fart blur gjøre utydelig/gjere utydeleg vision syn wheely-bin søppelkasse concealment skjulested/ gøymestad succession rekkefølge/ rekkefølgje crouch down bøye seg ned topple vakle pus-green gulgrønn/gulgrøn illuminate opplyse letterbox brevsprekk

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the clasp of the frame, while he dashes upstairs to get his wallet. He has to do this while he still has the nerve. He checks the panic button is still to hand and that he has his keys, before he opens the door again. Cautiously, studying the road, he lets it close behind him. He has just raised his right leg to provide the starting momentum for his run when the first flash catches him. It blinds him, blurring his vision, leaving an imprint on his eyes. He raises his hand to block out the light, as another flash comes from the same spot behind a wheelybin in the neighbour’s dark alley. It’s joined by a second bulb from a similar concealment across the street, then a third. All now firing in rapid succession. He turns and tries to force his key back into the lock. It won’t fit. They must have stuffed something in the hole to keep him out here. ‘Have you got anything you want to say?’ a man shouts. ‘Put your side before they all get here.’ Jack crouches down with his face to the door, and presses the panic button on the pager. Three or four times he pushes it, sinking it as hard as he can. Until the end of his finger bends back and the pain shoots him off it. He starts to topple in towards the door, losing his balance. His left hand goes out automatically to hold him off it. Clutched in his white fingers is the wrong key he’s been trying. With both palms he slides himself up the towering pus-green wood. The flashes, which are close around him now, parade how much his hand is shaking. It appears at different points around the lock, illuminated by this hateful personal strobe show. The key bounces off the lock’s metal surround, but this one fits. The door opens to let Jack fall into the hallway. One final explosion from a long-barrelled Canon hits his face, before he pushes the lens away and forces the threshold shut. They try and lift the letterbox. But he slams his elbow against it to keep it closed. His head collapses into the crook of the same arm. Only his will is holding them back …

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 151


IN SHORT

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As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. Jack has spent most of his life in prison. Now he is 24. He has just been released. He has a new identity and a new job with the firm dv transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Things are going well for Jack. He has made friends at work. He is in love with office-girl Michelle. But Michelle has disappeared and no one knows where she is. One morning his boss, Dave, calls him. He tells Jack that he doesn’t need to come to work any more. Jack cannot understand how Dave has found out about him. Jack tries to call his coworker Chris. Chris usually picks Jack up in the mornings, but today it isn’t necessary. Chris’s phone is busy. At last, Chris answers the phone. Chris has been given the day off, too. It is because the media has found out about Jack. Chris is very angry. He wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. Jack says he hasn’t.

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Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. He looks out of a window, but the streets are dark. He starts to leave the house, but he is blinded by the flash of a camera. Jack tries to get back into the house, but the key doesn’t fit. Lots of photographers are hiding in the street. They take pictures of Jack. He has a panic button, but Terry doesn’t answer it. Jack finds the right key and manages to unlock the door. He gets into the hallway. He forces the door shut behind him, but the photographers are still outside …

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guilty skyldig horrible fryktelig/frykteleg released her: løslatt/lauslaten case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past fortid office kontor disappear forsvinne understand forstå coworker kollega blinded blendet/blenda hide gjemme seg/gøyme seg panic button trygghetsalarm/ tryggingsalarm unlock låse opp hallway gang, entrè force tvinge

Jonathan Trigell

Jonathan Trigell (1974–) is a British writer. His first novel, Boy A, was highly praised by critics and has won several awards. A film adaptation of the novel was released in 2007.

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152 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS


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4.26 • Place these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the “in short” version of the text. a Chris wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. b Jack tries to call Chris, but his phone is busy. c Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. d Jack is blinded by the flash of a camera. e Jack’s boss calls him to say he doesn’t need to come to work. f Jack manages to get back into the house and forces the door shut. g Jack says he hasn’t hurt Michelle. h Finally, Chris answers the phone.

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Read and understand

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4.27 •• Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the original version of the text. a Jack decides to call Chris to tell him that he doesn’t need to pick Jack up for work. b Jack suspects that Dave knows about his past, but cannot understand how that has happened. c Jack leaves the house, only to find that the street is full of press photographers. d Jack decides to go out and buy a newspaper to see what they have written about him. e Dave says that Jack doesn’t need to come to work because it is bad for the business. f Jack clips his panic button onto his belt and realizes that today he might need it. g Chris tells Jack that his phone has been busy because he has been talking to the press. h Jack puts on his work clothes.

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4.28 ••• Explain these words and expressions from the text in your own words. a The line is dead. b As freaked out as he is. c He’s got his head up his own arse. d Dave knows he’s done time. e He pours out about being told not to come in. f But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. g He has to do this while he still has the nerve. h Put your side before they all get here.

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 153


Practise

4.29 Write down the word that fits each definition. Look up words you don’t know. theft – robbery – kidnapping – homicide – assault – arson – blackmail – fraud – hijacking – hooliganism

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Stealing something from someone. The use of threats or violence to take control of a plane. Killing someone. Stealing money, usually from a bank or shop, by using violence. Destroying somebody’s property on purpose. Taking somebody away by force to get money for returning them. Illegally getting money from someone by tricking them. Getting money by threatening to tell secrets about someone. Deliberately setting fire to something, usually a building. The crime of attacking someone.

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a b c d e f g h i j

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4.30 The following expressions are known as phrasal verbs. They consist of verbs with prepositions. First, make sure you know what they mean, then use each of the phrasal verbs in sentences of your own. a be angry with b agree on c argue about d run into e turn down f break out g take off h fall apart i go after j hold onto

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Speak

4.31 Discuss these questions and sum up your opinions. a Do you think that the purpose of a prison is to punish, or should it be a place where people who have made bad choices can be rehabilitated? b It has been claimed that Norwegian prisons are more like hotel rooms and do not punish criminals at all. Do you agree? c When you hear or read about crimes in the news, how are they presented? How can media coverage influence our opinions on crime? If you can, give examples to support your views.

154 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS


Write

4.32 • What is the last crime you can remember reading or hearing about in the news? What happened and who was involved? Make a list of facts.

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4.34 ••• Should people who were convicted of crimes when they were children be allowed to start a new life with a new identity when they are grown up? Or does the community have a right to know? Write a text in which you discuss this.

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4.33 •• What do you think the age of legal responsibility should be? Write one paragraph and give reasons why.

Explore

4.35 Boy A has been made into a film. Watch the film and write a short review.

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4.36 The novel Boy A is loosely based on the James Bulger case. Find out what happened to him in 1993. How were the two young criminals treated? What kind of debate did this crime cause?

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4.37 Many people enjoy watching television series about true crimes. a Find examples of such television series. Choose one. b What types of crimes are featured in the series? c How are the crimes, the ones who committed them and their victims portrayed? d What is the purpose of such television series? e Why do you think they have become so popular with viewers?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the main content of this novel excerpt YES

ALMOST

NO

use words and expressions related to crime YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss society’s reaction to perpetrators of crime YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 155


FACT FILE THE UK FACT Football

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In the 1800s many important inventions were made in Britain. It also had some of the world’s largest reserves of coal to drive the new machines. Many factories were built to produce textiles, iron and steel which could be exported to other countries.

Football is the most popular team sport in the world. The London Football Association created the first rules in 1863 and football became an Olympic event in 1908. But actually, football was invented by the Chinese more than 2000 years ago.

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The Workshop of the World

By 1921, the British Empire covered more than 37 million square kilometres. It had a population of between 470 and 570 million people, which was about one quarter of the world’s population at the time. After World War II the British Empire gradually fell apart, but many of the former colonies still choose to remain part of the Commonwealth of Nations.


FILE THE UK FACT FILE

UK facts

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On June 23 2016 a referendum was held in the United Kingdom. The question was whether the UK should leave the European Union or remain a member state. More than 30 million people turned out to vote. 51.9 % of these wanted to leave. In Scotland 62 % of the voters wished to remain EU members. In Northern Ireland there was a majority of 55.8 % in favour of remaining. After much political debate and negotiations, the UK left the EU on 31 January 2020.

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Brexit

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The British Empire United Kingdom Eire

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Canada

Newfoundland

Bermuda

Belize

Cook Isl. Tonga

Pitcairn

Bahamas

Gibraltar

Malta

Palestine Iraq Trans Jordan Kuwait Indian Empire Trucial Oman

Hong Kong Gold Nigeria Coast The Gambia Br. Somaliland Sudan Bruneii Ceylon Uganda Sierra N. Borneo Papua Gilbert & Malaysia Maldives Leone Liberia Rwanda New Ellice Is. Singapore Sarawak Kenya Br. Guiana Guinea Cameroon Tanganyika Seychelles Zanzibar Solomon Ascension Chagos Cocos Is. Rhodesia Nyasaland Is. Archipelago St. Helena New Southwest Bechuanaland Hebrides Mauritius Australia Africa Tristan da Swaziland Fiji Is. Cunha Basutoland Gough Is. South Africa Falkland Is. New Zealand

Jamaica

Official name: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Size: 244,820 square kilometres Population: 66,959,016 Geography: 4 regions: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland Capital: London Scotland: Edinburgh Wales: Cardiff Northern Ireland: Belfast Government: Constitutional monarchy. Parliament Head of state: Queen/King National day Wales: March 1, St David’s Day Northern Ireland: March 17, St Patrick’s Day England: April 23, St George’s Day Scotland: November 30, St Andrew’s Day Currency: pound sterling Agriculture: Cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, fish Important industries: Machine tools, electric power equipment, shipbuilding, oil and gas production Popular sports: Football, golf, rugby, cricket, athletics, tennis and swimming


FACT FILE THE UK FACT AIMS

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k give some examples of British politics and culture k describe Britain’s influence in the past k sum up background information about the

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United Kingdom

Read and understand

Shetland Islands Orkney Islands Hebrides SCOTLAND

The ENGLAND Irish Leeds Manchester Sea Liverpool WALES Birmingham London Cardiff Bristol Brighton Channel

4.39 •• Answer these questions. a What is the official name of the UK? b What is the capital of Wales? c What does the Welsh flag look like? d When were the first rules for football created? e When did football become an Olympic event? f What percentage of Scottish voters voted to leave the EU in June 2016? g How many people belonged to the British Empire in 1921? h Whose picture do you find on British money?

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The English

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Belfast Dublin IRELAND

Edinburgh Glasgow

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NORTHERN IRELAND

The N o r t h S ea

4.38 • Find the wrong word in each of the sentences below and change it to the correct one. a The capital of Scotland is Glasgow. b The head of state in the UK is the President. c The currency in the uk is the Euro. d The official name of the UK is the United Kingdom of Little Britain and Northern Ireland. e Popular sports in the UK are football, golf, rugby, ski jumping, tennis and swimming. f The national day in Scotland is St Andrew’s Day on September 30. g The capital of Northern Ireland is Dublin.

4.40 ••• Sum up what the UK fact file tells you about c industry e history a the population d sports f the UK leaving the EU b the geography

Speak

4.41 What do you associate with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland? Do these countries have their own identities, cultures and languages? Discuss and share opinions in groups. 158 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS


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FILE THE UK FACT FILE

Practise

4.42 Match the English word with the correct Norwegian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

kandidat valgdag stemme flertall valg til nasjonalforsamlingen stemmeseddel valglokale valgkrets

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cast a vote constituency majority polling day polling station ballot paper candidate general election

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A B C D E F G H

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4.43 Fill in words from task 4.42. In the United Kingdom a (a) must take place at least every five years. Each (b) decides which politician it wants to represent the voters in Parliament. Usually many political parties field a candidate. On (c) , the voters go to the (d) to (e) . The voters do this by writing an X on the (f) in the box next to the name of the (g) or party they vote for. It is the candidate who gets the (h) of votes who wins the seat.

After working with the text and tasks, I can give some examples of British politics and culture

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Explore

4.44 Make a timeline starting on June 23rd 2016 and fill in the most important dates and events in the Brexit process.

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How did you do?

4.45 Find out how old you have to be to vote in the UK. Is it the same in all the countries of the UK? 4.46 What are the most important industries in the UK? Use relevant and reliable sources to find more information. Choose how you want to present your findings.

YES

ALMOST

NO

describe Britains’s influence in the past YES

ALMOST

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sum up background information about the United Kingdom YES

ALMOST

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 159

NO


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Life in the UK

A multicultural society

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Modern Britain is home to many ethnic groups, but the majority of the population is still English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish. In the large cities, you will see a variety of nationalities. Many of them come from former British colonies. In London, for example, at least 250 languages are spoken every day, and you can find restaurants from nearly every corner of the world. However, there are also conflicts between cultures and generations. Young people whose parents or grandparents come from other countries may have a very different experience of growing up than their parents. Today, there are programmes helping immigrants settle and become part of the local community, but there are also those who are strongly opposed to immigration.

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Family life

population befolkning former tidligere/tidlegare opposed to imot increase økning/auke household husholdning/ hushald poll meningsmåling/ meiningsmåling three quarters tre fjerdedeler/ tre fjerdedelar

Over the past ten years there has been an increase in the number of families, but the typical British family is changing. More couples live together without getting married. Also, more children are born to unmarried couples. Around 15 % of households are single parents with children, and the number of singleparent families has in fact decreased. Furthermore, one in four young adults between 20 and 34 are living with their parents, according to the Office of National Statistics. It is more common for young men to live with their parents than for young women. When asked in a recent poll, three quarters of all Britons said they were optimistic about their family’s future. More than 90 % described their family life as happy.

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Education in the UK

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AIMS Although most British children go to ordinary state schools and live at home, for some middle-class and k give examples of British culture and upper-class families it is a tradition to send their values children away to boarding schools at an early age. These k compare aspects of life in the UK schools are often independent and very expensive, and and Norway there are waiting lists to get in. Members of the royal k use reading strategies family, the very rich and famous, and top politicians from around the world send their sons and daughters to these schools. Most schools offer scholarships to good students who cannot afford the school fees themselves. An education from one of these famous schools, or from prestigious universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, will open many doors. However, many state schools and universities have improved their quality of education, and now rank very high on the lists of good schools.

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“Keep calm and carry on” was the slogan on a poster made during World War II. This is in many ways typical of the British people. Even when the going gets tough, the British are usually seen as calm and collected, and often joke about their own situation. There is, however, a feeling of collective responsibility. Healthcare, including dentistry, is free to all permanent residents and paid for by taxes. A recent survey showed that most Britons are satisfied with the medical help they get from the National Health Service despite many negative articles in the press. There are also housing projects funded by the government. Although Britain is not a large country, there are great differences in the standard of living, income levels and number of unemployed workers, for example between the north and south of England.

independent her: privat scholarship stipend fee skolepenger/skolepengar prestigious prestisjefylt rank rangere slogan slagord dentistry tannlegebehandling resident innbygger/innbyggjar survey undersøkelse/ undersøking fund finansiere income level inntektsnivå

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Read and understand

4.47 • Read the text once to get a general idea of what the text is about. Then write keywords for each of the following headings. Compare your keywords with those of a partner, then share in class. A multicultural society – Family life – Education in the UK – Health and welfare

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4.48 •• Scan the text for specific information to fill in the open spaces in the text below.

Although the majority of the in the UK is English, , Scottish and , there are many different groups in the UK. In London, at least languages are spoken every day. However, there are also between cultures and .

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Family in Britain is changing. In the UK, around of the households are parents with children. Still, more than % describe their family life as .

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Most British children go to ordinary schools and live at . For middle and upper families it is a tradition to send their away to schools. These schools are often very , and there are lists to get in. An education from prestigious such as and Cambridge will open many doors.

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The British are usually seen as and collected, and often joke about their own . There is, however, a feeling of collective . In the UK, is free to all permanent and paid for by . There are great differences in the of living and number of workers, for example between the and south of England. 4.49 ••• Close-read the texts «Education in the UK» and «Health and Welfare». Answer the following questions. a How are independent schools different from state schools? b How can students from families who cannot afford the tuition fees get into independent schools? c Why are universities like Oxford and Cambridge considered attractive? d Mention four characteristics used to describe the British in the text. e Do the British enjoy any health and welfare benefits? f How do the north and south of England differ?

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Speak

4.50 From any of the four texts, choose one piece of information that you find interesting or did not already know. Share this information with a partner.

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4.52 What do you associate with life in the UK? What or who has influenced your views? Discuss in groups.

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4.51 Choose one of the four topics from the text and compare it with Norway. Work in groups of four and divide the topics between you.

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4.53 Practise pronouncing the following words from the text with a partner. c prestigious e politician a survey d increase f scholarship b statistics

Explore

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4.54 The drama series Years and Years (2019), produced by the BBC and HBO, follows the Lyons family from Manchester as they deal with changes in a futuristic Britain, spanning from 2019 to 2034. Watch the series or a few episodes and comment on the following questions. a Who are the members of the Lyons family? Describe their family life, how they live and what they do. b Who is Vivian Rooke, and what is her message? How and why does she become so popular? c What are some of the technological innovations that affect the lives of the Lyons family? Are these innovations purely positive, or are there any ethical dilemmas involved? d Who are the refugees in this version of British society? What is their situation? e Does the series present a realistic picture of the near future? Explain.

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use reading strategies YES

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You, Work and the Law

Working Environment Act Arbeidsmiljøloven contribute bidra ensure sikre

Working is an important aspect of being a citizen and contributing to society. To ensure safe working conditions and to protect workers’ rights are the aims of the Working Environment Act. Young people getting a part-time job, a summer job, or perhaps an apprenticeship come across this law for the first time. It specifies vital facts you should be aware of as a young employee.

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AIMS k understand parts of the Working

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The Working Environment Act states that you have the right to a written contract. This contract must say what kind of job you will do, what your working hours are and how much you will be paid. In many countries, including Norway, there is no official minimum wage. This means that it is up to you and the employer to agree on your salary. If you are a member of a trade union, you can demand tariff pay. Your employer must give you a written, itemized pay statement. This shows how many hours you have worked, how much you pay in taxes, if you do, and anything else that is deducted from your pay. You should keep these statements as they are important documentation. The Working Environment Act also says that your employer must give you appropriate training. This includes instructions for how the job should be done, as well as the safety rules and regulations that apply in the workplace. You must be paid for the time that this training takes. If you need special safety equipment, it is the employer’s responsibility to provide it – and that includes paying for it. There are age limits on how much you can work and what kind of job you can have. If you are under 18, you cannot be asked to work overtime or at night. If you work for more than 4 ½ hours you must have at least one 30-minute break. If you cannot leave your work to take that break, it must be counted as part of your working hours and you must be paid for it. According to the Working Environment Act your employer must have good and relevant reasons to terminate your employment and must give you written notice. If you give notice you must let your employer know at least one month in advance that you plan to leave. However, you can be dismissed immediately if you commit a serious offence. Stealing from the workplace or turning up for work in an intoxicated state could lead to immediate dismissal. When you quit your job you have the right to a written reference. This reference must say how long you were employed for and what kind of job you did. A reference is an important document since it is the written proof that you actually had a job. When you apply for further education or for other jobs later, a good reference could prove very valuable.

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minimum wage minstelønn trade union fagforening/ fagforeining itemized spesifisert pay statement lønnslipp/ lønnsslipp deduct trekke fra/trekke frå terminate avslutte notice her: oppsigelse/ oppseiing give notice si opp/seie opp reference attest

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Read and understand

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4.55 • Answer these questions. a Does the Working Environment Act say anything about a written contract? b Do we have a minimum wage in Norway? c Must your employer give you appropriate training? d Must you pay for your own safety equipment? e Should you throw away your pay statement when you have looked it over? f Can you work overtime if you are under 18? g Can you lose your job at once if you steal from your workplace? h Can a good reference be valuable later in life?

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4.56 •• Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a The Working Environment Act contains important information you should be aware of as a young employer/young employee/young employed/young unemployed. b We don’t have a minimum wage in Norway, so young workers earn very little/young workers earn less than in the US/your employer and you must agree on your salary/you must be really greedy. c It is the employer’s responsibility to provide safety equipment and also to pay for it/but you must pay cash for it/but the cost will be deducted from your pay/but your parents must pay for it. d If you cannot leave the workplace to take a break, you must tell customers to come back in 30 minutes/go to the toilet for 30 minutes/ manage without a break/be paid for the time you should have had a break. e Stealing from the workplace or turning up for work in an intoxicated state could lead to immediate promotion/your losing your job at once/ your being told to come back tomorrow/a large sum being deducted from your pay.

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4.57 Fill in the correct preposition. a In the past, many British children worked factories. b Children would work many hours each day. c 1833, the British Parliament passed the Factory Act. d The Factory Act stated that no child the age of nine could work in a factory. e The Factory Act also stated that children of nine and thirteen could not work for more than nine hours a day. f According to the Factory Act children could not work night. g Children must also go school for at least two hours every day. h This act of Parliament slowly improved life child workers.

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4.58 Look at the picture and discuss these questions. a How old do you think this child is? b What do you think is produced here? c What do you think the working conditions are like in this place?

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4.59 Is child labour only a thing of the past? Find a picture which shows children at work in our own time. Discuss what you think the working conditions are like. How did you do?

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4.60 The text “You and the Working Environment Act” on the previous page is a five-paragraph text. Check the guidelines for how to write such a text in this chapter and compare the two. Is this text correctly structured? Would you add or change anything? If so, what? Make a short list.

Explore

4.61 What does the term “gig economy” mean? What are positive and negative aspects of this development? How did you do?

After working with the text and tasks, I can understand parts of the Working Environment Act relevant to young workers YES

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discuss working conditions YES

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Black Hoodie

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In this abridged short story you will meet three Irish teenagers who are in Transition Year at school. In Ireland this is an optional one-year programme. It aims to give students not only an academic education, but also to encourage creativity and independence, as well as life skills and work experience. To this end, the three of them form a mini-company. Their teacher, who the students refer to as Ms TheyDon’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night, doesn’t understand their idea at first …

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MY GIRLFRIEND IS Nigerian, kind of, and when we go through the shops, we’re followed all the way. We stop – the security guards stop. We go up the escalator – they’re three steps behind us, and there’s another one waiting at the top. We look at something, say, a shoe, and they all look at us looking at the shoe. And people – ordinary people, like – they see the security guards looking at us, and they stop and start looking at us, in case something good’s going to happen. You’re never lonely if you’re with a black girl, or even if your hoodie is black. I said she was Nigerian, kind of. I didn’t mean she was kind of Nigerian. I meant she’s kind of my girlfriend. She’s lovely and, I have to admit, I kind of like the attention. No one really noticed me until I started going with her, kind of. Now they all look, and you can see it in their faces; they’re thinking, There’s a white fella with a black girl, or something along those lines. I’m the white fella.

escalator rulletrapp hoodie hette(genser)

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I’m dead into her. I’d love it if she was my girlfriend – full time, like. My da says I should just go ahead and ask AIMS her. But I don’t know. What if she says No? I’m not telling you her name. And that means I can’t k extract information while reading and listening use my own name either. Because, how many Nigerian girls is the average Irish teenager going to be hanging k reflect on aspects of stereotyping around with? If I give my name, I might as well give k use prepositions correctly hers. So no. So, there we are, myself and my Nigerian friend, and we’re walking through the shop, being tailed by the Feds. And meanwhile, our friend, who’s in a – And now, there’s another problem. There’s a fella in a wheelchair in the story. How many male teenagers in the greater Dublin area share their leisure time with young men in wheelchairs and Nigerian women? Our friend is in a wheelchair, but he doesn’t need it. It’s his brother’s. His brother is in McDonald’s, waiting for us. And while the Feds follow me because (a) I’m with a black person, and (b) I’m wearing a hoodie, he’s robbing everything he can stretch to, because (a) he’s in the wheelchair, and (b) he’s wearing glasses. It’s an experiment. Market research. Let me explain. We aren’t robbing the stuff because we want it, or just for the buzz. No. We are a mini-company. Three of us are in Transition Year, in school. The brother who actually owns the wheelchair isn’t. He’s in Sixth Year. We used to call him Superman, but he asked us to stop. So, fair enough; we stopped. Anyway, as part of our Transition Year programme, me and Ms Nigeria and not-Superman’s brother had to form a mini-company, to help us learn about the real world and commerce and that. We’re the last. And Ms TheyDon’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night is staring at us, her pen, like, held right over her list, waiting for our brainwave. And it comes. – Stereotyping, says Ms Nigeria. – What? says Ms They-Don’t-Know etc. – I mean – what do you mean? – Well, says the young woman I secretly love, – we’re constantly being labelled. She always talks like she’s on the News or something. I like it – a lot. – Oh, excellent! says Ms etc. – You’re going to make labels. Accessorize. tail her: følge etter – Well, says the Nigerian newsreader. – No, actually. You misunderstood. leisure time fritid – We’re being clever, are we – Name Omitted? she says. buzz her: spenning – No, says Name Omitted. – I’m quite happy to explain. Transition Year overgangsår I’d be quite happy to lie down and lick her feet. But it probably isn’t the mellom ungdomsskolen time or the place. og videregående skole/ – We are all labelled and stereotyped, she says. Automatically: We don’t vidaregåande skole have to say or do anything. For example, I walk into a shop and the security mini-company elevbedrift staff immediately decide that I am there to shoplift. locked her: beruset/rusa – Because you’re black? omitted utelatt/utelaten, utelate – Because I’m young, says Ms Nigeria. – And, yes, because I’m black. shoplifting butikktyveri/ – What has this got to do with your mini-company? butikktjuveri SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 169


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wastage sløsing consultancy firm konsulentfirma retail outlet butikk practice praksis garda politi CCTV footage film fra overvåkingskamera/film frå overvakingskamera muppet idiot NME irsk musikkblad overheads utgifter premises lokale reconvene møtes igjen/møtast igjen wheelbarrow trillebår shin-guards leggskinn/ leggskinne trap her: kjeften wipe tørke av Fed politi plainclothes sivilkledd inflict påføre incarcerate sperre inne business venture forretningsforetak/ forretningsføretak

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– Well, says Name Omitted. – Can you imagine the wastage of man-hours and goodwill – oh, all sorts of things – that results directly from this? She certainly knows her onions – whatever that means. – Go on, says Ms They-Don’t-Know. – Well, says Name Omitted, – myself and my colleagues here – and she points at me and the other fella – are going to establish a consultancy firm, to advise retail outlets on stereotyping of young people, and best practice towards its elimination. And that’s how we end up in Pearse Street Garda Station. It’s me who comes up with the name, Black Hoodie Solutions. I’m wearing a black hoodie and my Nigerian lover is black and she’s got a hoodie too – kind of a girl one – and the other fella’s got one too. So that’s Black Hoodie. And the Solutions bit – it just sounds cool. So, there you go – Black Hoodie Solutions. Ms They-Don’t-Know writes it down, and the bell goes. Next thing you know, we’re robbing shops. And it’s cool; business is brisk. The manager of the Spar near the school is a bit freaked when we bring back the stuff we’ve just stolen, but she’s quite impressed when she sees the CCTV footage of her security muppet walking after Ms Nigeria’s arse – true – while I’m right behind him, the hoodie off, taking four packs of microwave popcorn and an NME. She even pays us a tenner and a Cornetto, each – the Cornettos, not the tenner. But we’re happy; we’re ahead. A whole tenner, no overheads – the Irish economy doesn’t know what hit it. Anyway. Ms Nigeria hands our weekly report to Ms They-Don’t-Know-IWas-Locked-Yet-Again-Last-Night. Three pages, a black folder, logo and all. Anyway. Ms They-Don’t-Know is impressed, but a bit suspicious. She looks at me. – So, she said. – What’s next? – Well, says Ms Nigeria. – We’re taking it to a new level. – Yes, I agree. – Oh shite, says not-Supermans’s brother. And that’s where you meet us, back where I started, robbing the bigger places in town: him in his brother’s wheelchair, doing the larceny bit, while me and Ms Nigeria drag the muppets up and down the escalators, through all the bras and plasma screens. It’s a large department store, much loved by Dublin’s mammies; and, again, all goes to plan. We leave the premises, by different exits. We reconvene, give not-Superman back his wheelbarrow. And we re-enter, to hand back the goods and negotiate our consultancy fee. We ask Svetlana at the information desk for the manager. And, while we wait, we smile and – yeah – we giggle. And I’m really close to grabbing Ms Nigeria’s hand and asking her to go with me, when another hand grabs my shoulder and I nearly wet myself. I think I yelp or something – I’m not sure.

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Roddy Doyle Roddy Doyle (1958–) is an Irish writer of novels for both adults and children, as well as screenplays and short story collections. Some of his books have been made into films. Roddy Doyle has won the Man Booker Prize and several other awards for his work.

Read and understand

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4.62 • Who says what in this story, Ms They-Don’t-Know-I-Was-LockedLast-Night, or Ms Nigeria? a I mean – what do you mean? b You’re going to make labels. Accessorize. c No, actually. You misunderstood. d We are all labelled and stereotyped. e Because you’re black? f Can you imagine the wastage of man-hours and goodwill – oh, all sorts of things – that results directly from this? g Go on. h We’re taking it to a new level.

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4.63 •• Decide whether the sentences below are true, false, or that there is no information in the text. True

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No info

This short story takes place in Dublin.

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b The characters in the short story are all from Nigeria. c The characters in the short story are all 15 years old. d Ms Nigeria has a good idea for a mini-company. e

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The students are robbing shops for fun and for pocket money. The narrator is in love with Ms Nigeria.

g Ms Nigeria claims that security staff in shops will automatically think that she is there to shoplift. h The mini-company Black Hoodie Solutions only lasted for about three weeks.

SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 171


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4.64 ••• Exchange the underlined words or expressions with synonyms or near-synonyms which do not change the meaning of the sentence. a I’m dead into her. b So, there we are, myself and my Nigerian friend, and we’re walking through the shop, being tailed by the Feds. c Let me explain. We aren’t robbing the stuff because we want it, or just for the buzz. d And Ms They-Don’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night is staring at us, her pen, like, held right over her list, waiting for our brainwave. e She certainly knows her onions – whatever that means. f A whole tenner, no overheads – the Irish economy doesn’t know what hit it. g We reconvene, give not-Superman back his wheelbarrow. h And I’m really close to grabbing Ms Nigeria’s hand and asking her to go with me, when another hand grabs my shoulder and I nearly wet myself.

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4.65 “At the Station” • Listen to the rest of the short story. Match each sentence with the correct Norwegian translation.

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English A – We actually took nothing, she says. B He points at not-Superman’s little brother. C But she’s calm. D It’s my da. He smiles like it hurts. E – What’s your name, by the way? F And listen to this.

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G Is that too much to ask? H – Shoplifting, he says.

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Norwegian Men hun er rolig.

2 Og hør på dette her. 3

– Butikktyveri, sier han.

4 Han peker på ikke-Supermanns lillebror. 5 Er det for mye å be om? 6

– Hva heter du, forresten?

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4.66 •• After listening, note down keywords for information about the following. a How a police officer uses racist language to intimidate Ms Nigeria. b How Ms Nigeria is angry, but remains calm. c How the narrator is frightened by the police. d How the narrator defies the police and confronts an officer. e How both the narrator and Ms Nigeria have their parents’ support in the situation they are in. f How the short story ends.

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4.67 Fill in the missing prepositions. There may be more than one correct answer. a Before long, they had arrived the police station. b They did not actually steal department stores. c The main character asked the police officer’s name. d The wheelchair belonged not-Superman. e Black Hoodie Solutions had borrowed the wheelchair him. f Ms Nigeria explained her business idea the teacher. g Ms Nigeria waited her parents to arrive. h They are no longer worried their daughter.

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4.68 Discuss the questions below. Support your arguments by examples as far as possible. a Do you think Ms Nigeria is right when she says, “For example, I walk into a shop and the security staff immediately decide that I am there to shoplift”? b Do you think Black Hoodie Solutions sounds like a good business idea? Do you think such a mini-company could make a difference? Why?/Why not? c Do you think people from ethnic minorities might have the same experiences of stereotyping as the characters in “Black Hoodie”? d Do you think police officers could behave this way where you live?

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can extract information while reading and listening YES

4.69 If someone experiences intimidating behaviour from people in authority, where and how can he or she make a complaint? Find out.

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reflect on aspects of stereotyping YES

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use prepositions correctly YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING A TEXT In your English course and in exams, you will be asked to write longer texts on different topics. This step-by-step guide will help you in the process.

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Read the instructions well and underline the verbs. What is your topic? Does it say what type of text you are going to write, and who your reader will be? Text type and target group decide what style of language to use when you write. Study “Using formal and informal language” in Chapter 3 for more information on what style of language is appropriate for different types of texts.

2 Find information

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What do you already know about the topic? Have a brainstorming session, for example with other classmates. At this point, all ideas are good for the process. Group your ideas together. Then research the topic. Cross-check your sources. Make sure you write down where you found the information. For advice, see “Selecting sources” in this chapter.

3 Organize your text in paragraphs

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4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together

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5 Revise your text

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• Check the instructions for the assignment one last time. Have you done what you were asked to do? • Is your text well structured in clear paragraphs? Do you need to expand on some points? • Have you used a varied vocabulary? For nuance, try to replace some of the words you use most frequently with synonyms. For example, some synonyms of new are current, up to date, fresh, modern or contemporary. • Run a spelling check and a grammar check. They won’t catch every mistake, but they may spot some that you have missed yourself.

6 Before you hand in your text Have you listed all the sources you have used to find information about your topic? Study “Referring to sources” in Chapter 8 for more advice.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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“No one who has lived through the second half of the 20th century could possibly be blind to the enormous impact of exchange programs on the future of countries.” These are the words of former American president Bill Clinton. If you have considered going abroad as an apprentice, you have probably thought more about what it would mean on a personal level than how it would affect the world. The personal benefits may seem obvious, but there are also challenges. First of all, discovering a new place and making new friends are often the most exciting aspects of living and working abroad. Many young people look forward to experiencing a culture that is unlike their own, and to improving their language skills. Second, some develop interests and participate in activities they would never have tried at home. In addition, a year or even some months abroad may help you become more independent and tolerant, which can prove to be of real value when applying for jobs in the future. On the other hand, some find it difficult to adapt to a new cultural environment. It may take time to understand social codes and local customs, for example when to arrive if invited to a party or something as simple as how to greet someone. Living in shared accomodation with roomates you do not know also requires an open mind and a positive attitude from everyone. Furthermore, getting used to a new company culture can also be a challenge. Not only are all the work operations carried out in a foreign language, the work methods can be unfamiliar as well. It is not unusual to spend the first few months trying to understand how things are done and what is expected from you. All in all, working as an apprentice abroad may seem daunting, but the rewards are many once you overcome the initial challenges. Successfully completing an apprenticeship abroad may give you a sense of achievement and memories that last a lifetime. It will most likely change the way you view the world, and who knows, perhaps you will even change the future of your country.

Paragraph 1 Start the introduction with a general statement to let the reader know what the text will focus on, a surprising fact or a quote to catch the reader’s attention.

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Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 These paragraphs make up the body of your text where you describe, explain and argue for or against your topic. If relevant, state your own opinion in a paragraph. Paragraph 5 In the conclusion, give a final perspective on your topic, but do not repeat the same sentences as in previous paragraphs. Do not introduce new ideas in the conclusion.

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4.70 Collaborate to write a well-structured text. a Make an outline for a text called “Why is fact-checking important?” b Swap outlines with a partner. Have a brainstorming session to get more ideas and good arguments. c Write an introduction to the text. What would be a good way to get the reader’s attention and make him/her want to read on? Work in pairs. d Use the following keywords to write a conclusion to the text. Swap texts with a partner. Compare and give each other constructive feedback. all in all – many reasons – source – reliable – relevant – fake – in conclusion

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The Hate U Give

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Before you start a What would you do if you were treated unfairly by the authorities? b What would you do if you saw someone being treated unfairly by the authorities?

Starr Carter is 16-year-old African American girl who lives with her family in a crime-ridden neighbourhood, but goes to a prestigious “white” school in another part of the city. She divides her life between these two worlds until one night when she witnesses a fatal shooting. In the excerpt you are about to read, Starr is on her way home from a party with her friend Khalil, who is driving.

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When I was twelve, my parents had two talks with me. One was the usual birds and bees. Well, I didn’t really get the usual version. My mom, Lisa, is a registered nurse, and she told me what went where, and what didn’t need to go here, there, or any damn where till I’m grown. Back then I doubted anything was going anywhere anyway. While all the other girls sprouted breasts between sixth and seventh grade, my chest was as flat as my back. The other talk was about what to do if a cop stopped me. Momma fussed and told Daddy I was too young for that. He argued that I

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wasn’t too young to get arrested or shot. about “Starr-Starr, you do whatever they tell you to do,” he k discuss aspects of discrimination said. “Keep your hands visible. Don’t make any sudden and citizenship moves. Only speak when they speak to you.” k create a news segment I knew it must’ve been serious. Daddy has the biggest mouth of anybody I know, and if he said to be quiet, I needed to be quiet. I hope somebody had the talk with Khalil. He cusses under his breath, turns Tupac down, and maneuvers the Impala to the side of the street. We’re on Carnation where most of the houses are abandoned and half the streetlights are busted. Nobody around but us and the cop. Khalil turns the ignition off. “Wonder what this fool wants.” The officer parks and puts his brights on. I blink to keep from being blinded. I remember something else Daddy said. If you’re with somebody, you better hope they don’t have nothing on them, or both of y’all going down. “K, you don’t have anything in the car, do you?” I ask. He watches the cop in his side mirror. “Nah.” The officer approaches the driver’s door and taps the window. Khalil cranks the handle to roll it down. As if we aren’t blinded enough, the officer beams his flashlight in our faces. “License, registration, and proof of insurance.” Khalil breaks a rule – he doesn’t do what the cop wants. “What you pull us over for?” “License, registration, and proof of insurance.” “I said what you pull us over for?” “Khalil,” I plead. “Do what he said.” visible synlig/synleg Khalil groans and takes his wallet out. The officer follows his movements cuss banne with his flashlight. maneuver manøvrere, styre abandoned forlatt/forlaten, My heart pounds loudly, but Daddy’s instructions echo in my head: Get a forlate good look at the cop’s face. If you can remember his badge number, that’s even ignition tenning better. brights fjernlys With the flashlight following Khalil’s hands, I make out the numbers on crank sveive the badge – one-fifteen. He’s white, mid-thirties to early forties, has a brown license førerkort/førarkort buzz cut and a thin scar over his top lip. registration vognkort Khalil hands the officer his papers and license. insurance forsikring One-Fifteen looks over them. “Where are you two coming from tonight?” pound her: banke badge skilt “Nunya,” Khalil says, meaning none of your business. “What you pull me buzz cut snauklipt hår over for?” SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 177


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“Your taillight’s broken.” “So are you gon’ give me a ticket or what?” Khalil asks. “You know what? Get out the car, smart guy.” “Man, just give me my ticket – “ “Get out the car! Hands up, where I can see them.” Khalil gets out with his hands up. One-Fifteen yanks him by his arm and pins him against the back door. I fight to find my voice. “He didn’t mean – “ “Hands on the dashboard!” the officer barks at me. “Don’t move!” I do what he tells me, but my hands are shaking too much to be still. He pats Khalil down. “Okay, smart mouth, let’s see what we find on you today.” “You ain’g gon’ find nothing,” Khalil says. One-Fifteen pats him down two more times. He turns up empty. “Stay here,” he tells Khalil. “And you.” He looks in the window at me. “Don’t move.” I can’t even nod. The officer walks back to his patrol car. My parents haven’t raised me to fear the police, just to be smart around them. They told me it’s not smart to move while a cop has his back to you. Khalil does. He comes to his door. It’s not smart to make a sudden move. Khalil does. He opens the driver’s door. “You okay, Starr – “ Pow! One. Khalil’s body jerks. Blood splatters from his back. He holds on to the door to keep himself upright. Pow! Two. Khalil gasps. Pow! Three. Khalil looks at me, stunned. He falls to the ground. An ear-splitting scream emerges from my gut, explodes in my throat, and uses every inch of me to be heard. Instinct says don’t move, but everything else says check on Khalil. I jump out the Impala and rush around to the other side. Khalil stares at the sky as if he hopes to see God. His mouth is open like he wants to scream. I scream loud enough for the both of us. “No, no, no,” is all I can say, like I’m a year old and it’s the only word I know. I’m not sure how I end up on the ground next to him. My mom once said that if someone gets shot, try to stop the bleeding, but there’s so much blood. Too much blood.

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After the shooting, Starr’s identity as a witness is kept secret from her friends as well as the media, but it soon becomes too much to bear. With the help of a civil rights lawyer, her family and boyfriend, Starr decides to take a stand. This puts Starr and her family in grave danger.

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“No, no, no.” Khalil doesn’t move. He doesn’t utter a word. He doesn’t even look at me. His body stiffens, and he’s gone. I hope he sees God. Someone else screams. I blink through my tears. Officer One-Fifteen yells at me, pointing the same gun he killed my friend with. I put my hands up.

Angie Thomas

Angie Thomas (1988–) is an American writer and former rapper. Her first novel, The Hate U Give, was published in 2017 and became an instant hit with teens and adults alike. It quickly reached number 1 on the New York Times bestseller list, where it remained for 50 weeks. The novel has won many prestigious awards and has been translated into a number of languages. The critically acclaimed film adaptation was released in the US in 2018.

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4.71 • Complete the sentences based on information from the novel excerpt. a Starr is a . b When Starr was twelve, her parents . c She was told what to do if . d One night, she is leaving a party with . e They are stopped by . f Starr is scared but remembers . g When Khalil ask why they are stopped, the officer . h He pats Khalil down because . i When Khalil moves to open the car door . j Starr jumps out of the car to check on Khalil, but .

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4.72 •• Watch the film adaptation and answer the following questions. a Describe Starr’s home life. b How is her life at school different? c Why does Starr need to keep her identity as a witness secret? d How do Starr’s parents react when she brings her boyfriend home? e What or who makes Starr change her mind about being interviewed and testifying in the court hearing? f What happens to the police officer who shot Khalil, and how do people in the neighbourhood react when they find out? g Starr decides to become more active. What does she do, and who tries to stop her? h In the final scene, Starr makes a promise. What is it?

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4.73 ••• As you watch the film, take notes. Then share notes and work out full answers in pairs. a How does Starr cope with Khalil’s death? Give examples of what she does. b At the police station, Starr gives a detailed explanation of what happened before the shooting, but then the detective shifts her focus to Khalil’s past. Why do you think she does this, and how does Starr react? c Why does Starr become increasingly frustrated with her friends? d How does Starr’s little brother, Sekani, suddenly change the course of events when they are threatened by King, the gang leader? e Many of the characters in the film act bravely in difficult situations. Give examples of such acts. What do you think made them show courage in these situations?

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4.75 Media presentation Work in pairs or small groups. Choose a media format, e.g. filmed news segment, radio broadcast, podcast or photo journal. Based on the information given in the novel excerpt, produce a news segment in your chosen media format in which you report the story of Khalil’s death.

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4.74 After watching the film, discuss the following statements. a It takes a lot of courage to speak up against discrimination. b Police brutality in the USA is a central theme in The Hate U Give. c The film gives a convincing description of the situation for African Americans today. d Racism is a serious threat to democracy.

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4.76 Use the words below to complete the text, and then translate the text into Norwegian.

passengers – skin – ethnic – accused – police – cases – guards – profiling – search – hijab

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Racial profiling is when certain people are targeted because of their background, race or national origin. Examples of racial profiling can be officers who stop and a person mainly because of his or her colour, or security who ask a passenger to leave an airplane because the she is wearing makes other nervous. In the US, there have been many in recent years where police officers and other law enforcement officials have been of racial .

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4.77 • Imagine that you are one of Starr’s friends and would like to show your support. Write a message to her where you explain what you think she should do after being threatened. 4.78 •• Phones play a significant role in the story, not only for communication, but also for recording important incidents. Answer the following questions. a How does using her phone give Starr power in a particular situation where she otherwise wouldn’t have any? b Many people are quick to get their phone cameras out when accidents happen. What are the ethical dilemmas involved in such behaviour? Discuss both positive and negative consequences. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 181


4.79 ••• Can stories such as The Hate U Give influence the way we view society? Write a text in which you express your opinion of the film and explain whether you think fictional stories like this one can have an impact, e.g. by shedding light on social issues, or by making people act, speak up or take a stand.

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4.80 This image by award-winning photojournalist Jonathan Bachmann was taken at a rally in Louisiana, in 2016. The rally was organized to protest the recent killings of black men by the police. The photo quickly hit social media and went viral. a Describe the situation you see in the photo. Be specific. b What makes this such a powerful photograph? c What do you think happened just seconds after this photo was taken?

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4.81 The novel’s author, Angie Thomas, has said that the rapper and poet Tupac Shakur (1971–1996) has been an important inspiration for her writing. One of his tattoos gave the novel its title, and his music is also used in the movie. a Tupac’s tattoo reads THUG LIFE. Find out what the letters stand for. b Search online for his poem “The Rose that Grew from Concrete.” Read or listen to it. c What do you think the poem is about, and how is it relevant to the message and characters in The Hate U Give?

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4.82 The Black Panthers, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and Tupac Shakur are a few real-life activists who are mentioned or referred to in the novel/ film The Hate U Give. Choose one you would like to know more about, select and collate information from reliable sources, and create a short digital presentation. At the end of your presentation, list the sources you have used and explain why they are both relevant and reliable.

Did you know

Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a people’s movement that first started as a hashtag on social media in 2013, after a neighbourhood watchman was acquitted of fatally shooting a 17-year-old African American high school student. The boy was unarmed. The movement received international attention when protesters took to the streets and violent riots were sparked in Ferguson, Missouri, following the shooting of another African American boy in 2014. Since then, activists have organized thousands of demonstrations across the US to protest against cases of police violence and racial profiling, but some have also been criticized and accused of vandalism. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 183


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More than 44 million people who live in the US today were born in another country. These make up about 13.6 % of the total population. More than 11 million Mexicans have chosen to move to the US, and so have nearly 3 million Chinese and more than 2.5 million people from India. The US has also resettled about 3 million refugees since 1980, more than any other country. About 62 % of Americans agree that immigrants strengthen the country because of their talents and hard work.

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Even though slavery was officially ended after the Civil War, black people in the US did not have the same rights as whites. Especially in the South, there was widespread segregation. From the 1950s the Civil Rights Movement became more and more active in working to secure black people their constitutional rights. In 1963 the March on Washington took place and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous speech “I Have a Dream” to an audience of more than 250 000. He was shot and killed in 1968.

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

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The Fight for Civil Rights

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The American government has three branches. The Executive Branch is headed by the President. Before a bill can become a law, it must be signed by the President. The President of the United States serves for four years and may be elected for a second term. The Legislative Branch is headed by Congress. It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress’ main job is to debate and pass laws. There are 435 Representatives who serve for two years. The Senate has 100 Senators, two from each state, who serve terms of six years. The Judicial Branch is headed by Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is made up of nine Justices who are appointed for life. The main task of the Supreme Court is to decide if a law agrees with the Constitution or not.

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Official name: The United States of America Size: 9,826,675 square kilometres Population: 329,256,192 (2019) Whites: 73.3 % Hispanics: 18 % African Americans: 12.6 % Asians and Pacific Islanders: 3.7 % Alaska Native and American Indian: 0.8 %. * Individuals may report more than one race. Capital: Washington, DC Largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia Geography: 50 States Government: Federal Republic Head of state: President National day: July 4 Currency: US Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, corn, cotton, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products Important industries: Petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing Popular sports: American football, basketball, track and field


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4.83 • Study the fact file on the previous pages. Fill in the missing information. a In 2019 people lived in the US. b Of the US population % were white. c Of the US population % were African American. d The US is a republic. e There are states in the US. f The in the US is the dollar. g On July 4 Americans celebrate their day. h The President is the of state.

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4.84 •• Answer these questions. a What is the total size of the USA? b What are some popular sports in the US? c How many terms can the us President serve in total? d What does Congress consist of? e How many Representatives are there, and how long do they serve for? f How many Senators does each state have in Congress and how long does a Senator serve for? g How many Justices are there in the Supreme Court? h What is the main task of the Supreme Court? 4.85 ••• Use the information on the previous pages to explain these words and expressions. a refugee e bill b civil rights f executive branch c segregation g legislative branch d constitutional rights h judicial branch

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4.86 Every American school day starts with the students’ recital of the Pledge of Allegiance. Which values do you think are reflected here? Should Norwegian students pledge allegiance to the Norwegian flag? Explain why or why not.

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4.87 At the top of this page there are five small pictures. What do they tell you about the US?

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4.89 Dr. King’s speech “I Have a Dream” is available online, both as text and sound files. a Read or listen to the speech. What was Dr. King’s dream? b What are the values Dr. King wished to present, do you think? c This speech is described as a masterpiece of rhetoric. Do you agree? How did you do?

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4.90 Inside the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty there is a famous poem. Find out which poem this is and who wrote it. Which values do you think this poem represents?

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4.91 Search online for timelines showing the history of immigration to the USA. Assess your sources for reliability and relevance. 4.92 How is the President of the USA elected? Study the information and watch the video on the official government website, https://www.usa.gov/ election. a What are the requirements for presidential candidates? b Which are the two main political parties? c What happens at the National Convention? d What is the electoral college?

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Life in the USA

The US – a multicultural society

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Did you know that about 99 % of all American citizens have their roots in other countries? The forefathers of many African Americans were brought over as slaves to work on plantations. In the 1800s immigrants from Europe left their home countries to start a new life as Americans. In more recent years, people from other continents, such as Asia and Latin America, have come to settle in the US. They have brought their traditions, festivals, languages, religions, music and food. This great variety of cultures is most evident in the big cities but can also be found in small-town America. Although the US is a nation of immigrants, prejudice and cultural conflicts between the many ethnic groups are not uncommon. In fact, one of the most debated topics in American politics in recent years has been immigration from Latin America and the Middle East.

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Personal freedom is an important value in American culture. Not only do Americans believe in freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and even the right to carry guns – they also believe everyone is responsible for his or her own life, health and welfare. As a result, most Americans pay for their own health services. Some are insured through their workplace, but there are millions of people who cannot afford medical help when they need it. Going to hospital, for example, is very expensive. However, senior citizens and the very poor can get some medical help through programs funded by the government. Still, it is because of another American value – volunteerism – that the many poor and needy find help. A large number of Americans engage in some form of voluntary work, such as running food stations, homeless shelters or after school programs. achieve oppnå scholarship stipend MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology insure forsikre senior citizen pensjonist volunteerism frivillig arbeid engage in delta i homeless shelter overnattingssted for hjemløse/overnattingsplass for heimlause

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4.93 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a About of all American have their roots in other . b Although the US is a nation of immigrants, prejudice and cultural are not uncommon. c Family are still important in American society. d The traditional American family consists of adults and or children. e Americans like to think that can become with hard work. f There are many for students who are at something, for example sports. g Personal is an important value in American , but they also believe you are for your own life. h A large number of Americans engage in some form of work, for example at for the homeless.

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4.95 Based on information in the text, find at least one value that is said to be typically American. In your own words, describe these values to a partner, then share in class. 4.96 How are we influenced by American culture in our daily lives? Below are some keywords to get you started. Share your thoughts in class. media – food – entertainment – fashion – transport – literature – traditions

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4.97 • Choose one of the ways we are influenced by American culture. Find arguments to show how this can be positive and/or negative. Write at least three paragraphs. For advice, see “Structuring paragraphs” in Chapter 3.

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4.98 •• Compare the text with the information given in “Life in the UK” in this chapter. Point out differences and similarities between the two countries in the four categories multicultural society, family life, education, and health and welfare. The US

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4.99 ••• Compare the text with the information given in “Life in the UK” in this chapter. First, take notes as you re-read the two texts. Use your notes to find differences and similarities between the two countries in the four categories below. Sum up your findings in four paragraphs. For advice, see «Structuring paragraphs» in chapter 3.

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4.100 In the film McFarland, USA we see how sports can be a path to success for young people from poor communities. Watch the film and comment on the following: – what ethnicity dominates McFarland, California. – how the White family experience the community in McFarland. – how the boys on the team reach their goals.

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4.101 Some of the world’s most famous brands come from the US. Choose three brands you think are representative of the US. Find information, pictures and ads, and present these brands in a collage. Also explain why you think they have become household names.

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Young Activists

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March for Our Lives, the fight for gun control in the US On March 24, 2018 more than 1.8 million young people marched throughout the US protesting against gun violence. They had seen enough shootings in schools and were pleading with the politicians to implement gun control measures. The world had just witnessed yet another school shooting, this time in Parkland, Florida on Feb. 14 2018. 17 students and staff were killed, and 17 others injured. In Washington, DC the streets were packed with young

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Activism is often called the “politics of direct action”. When important political issues are up for discussion, some people think that words are not enough. They feel the urge to act. Taking part in demonstrations and rallies is a common way of showing engagement, whether support or resistance. Young people are often particularly active in demonstrations and rallies. History has shown that activism has played an important role in decision making, both in the past and the present. Study the following examples of young people who aim to make the world a better place.

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people, carrying posters with slogans like “Am I next?” and “Enough is enough”. The movement insists on universal background checks before firearms can be sold, bans on high-capacity bullet magazines and raising the minimum age for owning guns. In some states, authorities have acted in accordance with the demands of the young activists.

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“I want you to act as if your house was on fire.” These are words delivered by another bold spokesperson for the environment, Greta Thunberg, from Sweden. She is famous for having started the movement Global Climate Strike for the Future. In August 2018 she went on a solitary school strike against climate change, protesting in front of the Swedish parliament building. Shortly after, more than 20,000 students had joined her in weekly protests and the movement is spreading worldwide. Thunberg is famous for her uncompromising style of speaking. In January 2019, she said to representatives of the wealthiest countries in the world: “Adults keep saying: ‘We owe it to the young people to give them hope.’ But I don’t want your hope. I don’t want you to be hopeful. I want you to panic.” Greta Thunberg is also famous for backing up her talk with action, like refusing to travel to the US by airplane because of the high level of emissions of greenhouse gases.

Autumn Peltier, water warrior, Canada

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Autumn Peltier was only 13 when she spoke to the United Nations General Assembly in New York about the importance of clean water. Coming from the Wikwemikong tribe in Northern Ontario, Canada, she had learnt that water was sacred, and that life depended on it. In front of the United Nations General Assembly, she expressed her deep concern about polluted water in indigenous communities. She was inspired by her aunt to join the “Water Warriors”, a group of activists who appeal to politicians and organize rallies to influence public opinion. “Our water is not for sale,” she said in her speech. “We all have a right to this water, as we need it, all people, not just rich people.”

activist aktivist cause sak, mål rally samling/samle resistance motstand prominent fremtredende/ framståande rural landlig/landleg solitary ensom/einsam emission utslipp/utslepp plead bønnfalle implement innføre universal for alle measure tiltak background check bakgrunnssjekk high-capacity bullet magazine kulemagasin til automatvåpen modified modifisert in accordance i samsvar

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Malala Yousafzai, the fight for Muslim girls’ right to education

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Malala Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Peace Prize laureate so far. “One child, one teacher, one book and one pen can change the world,” is one of her famous public statements. Malala, now in her twenties, lives in Birmingham, England, and is a Pakistani activist for girls’ right to education. In the Swat valley where she grew up, the Taliban had banned girls from attending school. Malala started writing blog posts about this topic on BBC Urdu, which gave this issue international attention. One day on her way back from school she was shot in the head by a Taliban soldier. She survived the attack and was brought to England for treatment. In fact, this act of violence only served to generate more attention and support for her cause.

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Nobel Prize Laureate nobelprisvinner/ nobelprisvinnar statement ytring quarterback spiller som tar strategiske valg på banen/ spelar som tek strategiske val på bana national anthem nasjonalsang/ nasjonalsong condemnation fordømmelse/ fordømming subsequently som en følge/ som ei følge

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Colin Kaepernick had seen enough. He was tired of witnessing the unfair treatment of minorities in his home country, the US. Being a successful quarterback on the San Francisco 49ers, he decided to make a silent statement before a football match. Instead of standing up during the national anthem he went down on one knee. “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of colour,” he said afterwards in an interview. Kaepernick drew attention worldwide, both support and condemnation. The US president stated publicly that kneeling NFL players should be fired. Subsequently, Kaepernick was without a team as the 2017 season began. However, his quiet form of protest had expanded into something much larger, with several players on NFL teams making a point of “taking a knee” during the anthem, and athletes from other sports demonstrating their support as well.

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Colin Kaepernick, the fight for social justice in the US.

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Read and understand

4.102 • Combine each activist in Column A with the correct cause in Column B. Column A A Colin Kaepernick B Greta Thunberg

Column B female education

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2 clean water 3 stop global warming

4.103 •• What does the text say about how the activists work for their cause? Activist A Colin Kaepernick B Greta Thunberg

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2 appealing to politicians and organizing rallies 3 organizing marches across the US 4 kneeling during national anthem 5 school strike

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C Malala Yousafzai D The fight for our lives

writing blog posts

E Autumn Peltier

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4.104 ••• Answer these questions. a What is an activist? b What are the “Water Warriors”? c How does Greta Thunberg back up her talk with action? d What are the demands of the March for Our Lives movement? e How did Malala Yousafzai gain public attention? f What was the price Colin Kaepernick had to pay for “taking a knee” during the national anthem?

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4.105 Combine each word with the correct Norwegian translation.

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C rally D take a knee

E cause F quarterback

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spiller på amerikansk fotballag

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SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 195


4.106 Translate this paragraph into English. Aktivister har en sak de kjemper for. De må være villige til å ofre tid og privatliv for å lykkes i kampen for en bedre verden. De må være utholdende og målrettet. Mange aktivister har ofret sine liv for det de trodde på. De blir martyrer for saken. Deres død gir ofte saken de trodde på mer oppmerksomhet.

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4.107 Choose one of the activists mentioned in the text. Work in pairs. Ask each other these questions. a What cause does he/she promote? b What do you know about his/her background? c Would you join this campaign if you could?

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4.108 Prepare a 2-minute speech about one cause mentioned in the text. Imagine that you are trying to get people to support this cause.

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4.109 • Write a short message to one of the activists mentioned in the text. Remember to be polite and supportive. Include the following: • Express your support to her/his particular cause. • Ask if there are rallies or demonstrations close to where you live in the near future. • Wish her/him good luck with upcoming projects.

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4.110 •• Choose one of the issues below. Make an outline for a speech or an email where you express your concern and suggest ways of taking action. • the right to free education • the employment rights of young workers • substance abuse • negative stereotyping • the death penalty • the use of religious symbols in public • protect the rights of ethnic minorities • affordable housing for young people 4.111 ••• Write a five-paragraph text about a social or environmental issue of your choice. See “Selecting sources” and “Structuring a text” for advice.

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Explore

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4.113 The Women’s Social and Political Union was established in 1903 in the United Kingdom. The photo shows Annie Kenny and Christabel Pankhurst, two of the front women in this organization, whose main cause was women’s right to vote. Find information about this organization. Make a timeline based on the information you find. Include major events from the organization’s foundation until the right to vote was granted to all women in the UK.

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4.112 Search online for a film from CBC News called “The teen fighting to protect Canada’s water – meet Autumn Peltier”. a Take notes as you watch the film. b Compare your notes. Work in pairs. c Write a summary based on the notes you both took.

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4.114 In some cases people can disagree on what is the best approach when fighting for a cause. Search for information about how the organizations below experienced internal conflict over the use of violent methods. Write out a list of bullet points. a Civil rights movement, USA b Anti-apartheid organization ANC, South Africa c Irish Republican Army, Ireland

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss some activists and their causes YES

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prepare a speech about a cause YES

ALMOST

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reflect on methods used by activists YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 197


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

E citizenship F crime G law H education

being a member of a state or society

2 an action that is illegal 3 learning, usually in a school

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C stereotype D election

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4 a situation when people only take into account information that agrees with what they already believe 5 an official rule you can be punished for breaking 6 choosing someone for political office 7 false stories that seem to be news 8

a set of ideas that people have about someone or something

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A echo chamber B fake news

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4.115 Match these words with the correct definition.

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4.116 Complete these sentences. a In this chapter there are two texts where one of the main characters is a black girl. The texts’ titles are b In a text in this chapter a man deliberately published fake news. The title of this text is c A text in this chapter compares living conditions in the US and the UK. This text is found on page d The first text in this chapter is about e In several of the texts in this chapter crimes are committed. The crimes are f One of the texts in this chapter is about a law. This law is called g The last text in this chapter is about h Two films are based on the novels you can read an excerpt from in this chapter. They are

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your Progress

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4.118 Structuring ideas. Search for online tools that can help you structure your ideas. Select one. Choose a list of ideas you have already made. Use the tool to structure your ideas. Does this tool work for you?

4.119 Structuring a text. a What are the six steps listed in “Structuring a text”? Which step do you think is most challenging for you? b How can a spidergram be a good tool when you structure your ideas? c Why is it useful to make an outline before writing your text? d How can you start an introduction? e What should you avoid doing in a conclusion? f Find the sentence connectors used in the sample text “Apprenticeships abroad?” How do they help the reader follow the writer’s arguments?

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4.117 Selecting sources. a How can you narrow an online search for information, and why should you do it? b What is important to check if you want to find out if a source is relevant? c In general, how do you know if a source is reliable? d Name some news organizations that provide unreliable stories. e Why should you not use Wikipedia as a source without cross-checking with other sources?

Apply your Skills

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4.120 Speak a • What are important considerations in giving and receiving feedback? Work with a partner and agree on a list of important points to keep in mind.

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b •• How can you keep yourself informed about what goes on in the world? What should be your main sources for news? How can you know if they are reliable? Discuss in groups and share your views in class. c ••• Find the website of “America’s Last Line of Defense” (ALLOD). Choose one story. Study the guidelines in “Selecting sources” in this chapter, especially numbers 4 and 5, and examine the story critically. What do you find? Discuss in groups.

4.121 Write a • What is brainstorming? Make a list of ideas. Structure your ideas and write an outline for a text. b •• Use your outline to write one paragraph for when, one paragraph for how, and one paragraph for why you would brainstorm. Then write a short introduction and a conclusion. c ••• Find reliable sources that give information about brainstorming. Select information that is relevant to your text. Expand your text with examples to support your arguments and make the necessary changes.


CHAPTER 5

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Tools and Technology


In this chapter you will focus on k tasks, tools and equipment in information technology and media production

k media genres and techniques k using listening strategies

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k pronouns and determiners

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Useful words and phrases servers binary cartridge paper jam virtual reality popular culture typography storytelling design coding

What equipment is important for media production? Why is dexterity important when working on computers?

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Tech Tools

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Today most people use computers, both at work and in their private life. With the massive digital expansion, the need for computer experts is also growing. Whether you are a “pro� who wants to build, upgrade or repair computers, or just use your computer to perform simple tasks, some basic facts can be useful.

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Software and programming

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Software is the programs and instructions installed in computers to tell the hardware what to do and thus make it work. Without any such programs there would be only a blue screen and it would be impossible to perform tasks on the machine. Software can be divided into two main categories. First, system software controls the internal computer operation and manages the computer devices and operations, e.g. the operating system and utility program. Second, application software is all programs that perform specific tasks for users, e.g. word processors, web browsers and games. When software is downloaded from the Internet or a CD, setup files are run to start the installation process on the computer. It is, however, also possible to use software online without downloading it first. For creating programs, software developers or programmers write instructions using a programming language which is then interpreted into machine code. There is software for all kinds of purposes, and new programmes and apps are constantly being developed. Not all software is good, however. Malicious software (malware) like spyware, computer viruses and worms can destroy content on computers or make it possible for others to access programs and documents. All computers that are connected to networks and have online access must therefore be equipped with software to protect them against hacking and viruses, a so-called firewall.

Application Software Word Processor

Data Games

File Viewer

System Software Operating System

Spreadsheet

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Hardware Keyboard

Web Browser

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Printers Mouse

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AIMS Hardware is the parts of a computer that have a physical structure, such as the internal parts, the keyboard, the k name important tech tools screen and the mouse. Computers are normally connected k explain the difference between to peripherals, such as printers, scanners, speakers, hardware and software headphones, microphones, cameras, game controllers k give examples of software and routers. Such equipment can be categorized as input devices (e.g. keyboard, mouse, scanner) and output devices (e.g. screen, printer, loudspeaker). The various hardware items can be connected either in a wireless system or by different types of cables and cords, like USB and HDMI. Some of the ports may be colour coded, to make it easier to set them up. It is easy to replace parts of or upgrade a Before you start computer since many components are off-the-shelf and plug-and-play.

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How many computer parts can you name? Work with a partner.

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There are some specific tools commonly used for repairing computers and installing components. First, a precision screwdriver set is essential, as all computer parts are fastened with some kind of screws. Phillips, Torx and Hex screwdrivers are most common. Avoid screwdrivers with a magnetic tip, since magnetized objects inside a computer case can damage circuits and drives. Other useful items in a tech tool kit are wire cutters and strippers, a crimping tool for joining cables, a spudger for separating small components and tweezers for picking up and holding small objects like screws. Furthermore, small plastic zip ties help to organize cables and wires, a grounding strap and an antistatic mat prevent static electricity, and a multimeter is used to measure electric current. Finally, computers become dirty and dusty, so cleaning products and equipment are also important. A lint-free cloth helps to remove dirt, and a can of compressed air and a small computer vacuum cleaner are used for removing dust that can harm the components in a computer.

expansion utvidelse peripheral her: periferienhet/ periferieining device her: utstyrsenhet/ utstyrseining cord (Am) ledning/leidning software programvare operating system operativsystem utility program serviceprogram word processor tekstbehandlingsprogram malicious ondsinnet/vondsinna access her: få tilgang til firewall brannmur Phillips screwdriver stjerneskrujern circuit krets/krins drive her: driver/drivar wire stripper avisoleringstang/ avisoleringstong crimping tool krimptang/ krimptong spudger pirkepinne tweezers pinsett zip ties kabelstrips grounding strap jordledning/ jordleidning lint fiber, tråd vacuum (cleaner) støvsuger/ støvsugar

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 203


Read and understand

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5.1 Answer the questions. a What is the difference between hardware and software? b What are the two main categories of software? c What is malware? d What is a Phillips screwdriver? e Why should you avoid tools with a magnetic tip when working with computers? f Which tools and equipment connected to wires are mentioned in the text? g How can you avoid static electricity? h What equipment do you need to keep the inside of a computer case clean?

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5.2 Make a list of all the input devices you know and a second list of all the output devices you know. Compare your lists in groups. 5.3 Look for 12 words from the text in the word grid. Then translate the words into Norwegian. M

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Did you know

To store data computers use binary, a number system represented by 0 (OFF) or 1 (ON). A binary digit, or bit, is the smallest unit of data in computing. Bits can be grouped together into bytes. The circuits in a computer’s processor are made up of billions of transistors, tiny switches that are activated by the electronic signals responding to the digits 1 and 0 and turning the transistors on and off. Computer programs are sets of instructions to translate binary codes into machine code.

204 | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | SKILLS

Bits and Bytes

1 byte

1 bit 1 byte = 1 kilobyte = 1 megabyte = 1 gigabyte = 1 terabyte =

8 bits 1024 bytes 1024 kilobyte 1024 megabyte 1024 gigabyte


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5.5 Match the cables with the correct illustration. a Video cable (VGA) d USB cable b Ethernet cable (RJ-45 cable) e USB C c HDMI cable f Headphone jack (TSR connector)

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5.6 Discuss the questions in groups. a What kind of hardware do you have at home? b What kind of hardware do you use at school? c What kind of software do you use daily? d What kind of software have you used at school so far? e Have you ever performed repair work or upgrades on a computer? Explain the process. Which tools did you use?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can name important tech tools

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Explore

5.7 Find at least two examples of software that you would like to install on your computer. Share in groups and explain why you want them.

Write

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5.4 Find the names of the following equipment. a This is a machine used to measure electric current. b This is something you use to type letters on a computer. c This is a device that can be used to remove dust from a computer case. d This is a device that makes it possible to get a paper copy of what is on your computer screen. e This is something you should have to avoid malware. f This is something you need to be able to see what is on your computer.

NO

explain the difference between hardware and software YES

5.8 Write a short text for a user manual about a hardware device or software program that you use regularly. Explain what it looks like, how to use it and what tasks it performs. Include illustrations.

ALMOST

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give examples of software YES

ALMOST

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SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 205


FACT FILE COMPUTERS Computers

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Supercomputers are powerful and taskspecific machines, used for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations, for example weather forecasting, space exploration and other types of research. They are enormous and fill entire rooms.

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1: Supercomputers 3: Minicomputers or servers 2: Mainframe computers 4: Microcomputers or personal computers

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A computer is an electronic device that can store, retrieve and process data. It can be used for a multitude of tasks, like typing documents, sending emails, browsing the Web, playing games, creating presentations and films, running machinery and so much more. Computers are traditionally divided into the following categories:

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Mainframe computers are also large, powerful machines, normally the size of a cabinet with a large storage capacity and processing power. They can execute billions of instructions per second, and thus run a number of programs and have many users at the same time. They are used in hospitals, banks, educational institutions and airlines, which require high volumes of data processing.

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Servers are smaller but advanced computers, or a series of computers, that store and distribute information to other users in networks. When you use the Internet, what you look at is stored on servers. Companies and institutions use local file servers to store and share files internally.

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Personal computers (PCs) come in many shapes and sizes, depending on their purpose. These computers are the fastest growing category, and are widely used for entertainment, education and work purposes. Laptops are compact, portable and battery powered, and can be used anywhere. Desktop computers are designed to be placed on a desk and are made up of different parts: the computer case, a monitor, a keyboard and a mouse. Other types of computers are tablets, smartpones, wearables (e.g. smartwatches), game consoles and smart TVs.


FACT FILE COMPUTERS Desktop Computer Cases

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The motherboard is the computer's main circuit board, a thin plate that holds the centre processing unit (CPU), short term memory (RAM), connectors for the hard drive and optical drives, expansion cards to control the video and audio, and connections to the computer’s ports (such as USB ports). This part connects to every part of the computer. The processor, a two-inch ceramic square with a silicon chip inside, is the “brain” of the computer. If you press a key or click the mouse you send an instruction to the CPU.

An operating system is the low-level software that manages and supports the basic functions of a computer. Every computer must have an OS to run other programs or applications and to allow the end user to communicate with the computer. Common desktop operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Linux and Apple macOS.

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A computer case, or chassis, is the metal or plastic box that contains the main components of the computer.

Operating System

Mark-up Language

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A mark-up language is a computer language of keywords, names or tags that define elements within a document and help format the overall view of a page and its data. It is used for creating webpages, and a mark-up file contains standard words and basic page tags, like beginning and end tags: (< … > and </… >) with the content placed between the tags <head>, <body>, and <div>. The two most common are HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) and XML (Extensible Markup Language). You can view the HTML source of an open webpage by selecting the “View Source” option, a feature found in the View menu of most Web browsers.

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The hard disc drive or hard drive is longterm storage unit where your operating system, software, documents and other files are stored. When you save a file or install a program, data is written with a magnetic head to platters inside the hard drive.

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The power supply unit (PSU) converts AC power to low voltage regulated DC power adjusted to the various internal components of a computer. Inside there are e.g. capacitors, inductors, transistors, transformers, a circuit board and a cooling fan. Never open the casing of a power supply unless you know what you are doing. The expansion slots are used if you want to upgrade your computer. You can add expansion cards, e.g. for better graphic performance.

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 207


FACT FILE COMPUTERS Practise

5.10 Study the English language computer keyboard and compare it to your own. a Which letters are missing? Are there other differences? b Find photos of keyboards for languages with other alphabets. What is different and what is the same as on your own keyboard?

5.11 Fill in the words in the open spaces in the text. Then translate the text into Norwegian. types – world – analogue – others – numbers – scanned Digitization is the conversion of physical, source material into digital, numerical format, in the form of binary , to make it readable for a computer. Digitalization is leveraging digitized material to improve various of processes and activities. For example, documents that used to be stored on paper in a filing cabinet can be and stored on a computer – digitization – and then people from all over the can get access to those documents and share them with online – digitalization.

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retrieve her: laste opp process her: bearbeide/­ tilarbeide mainframe stormaskin computer case pc-kabinett access her: få tilgang til motherboard hovedkort/­ hovudkort connector koblingspunkt/­ koplingspunkt expansion card utvidelseskort/ utvidingskort platter her: platelagerskive voltage spenning capacitor kondensator inductor feltmagnet operating system operativ­ system markup language markeringsspråk format her: formatere

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5.9 Write a list of at least 6 things you learnt from the Fact File.

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5.12 A fact file about computers could contain much more information than the one on the previous pages. First, in groups, agree on 5 details or elements that you think should be included in the fact file. Then choose one each, use sources for information, find suitable illustrations and write a short entry about “your” topic. Finally, share your texts and make a fact file poster to present in class.

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FACT FILE COMPUTERS Speak

Solution 1 Check for updates.

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Problem A My computer freezes.

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5.13 Study the list of computer problems and choose the best solutions. Discuss whether you would do the same if you had these problems with your computer.

I suspect a virus on my machine.

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Check your display cable.

C

It takes forever to upload a program.

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Call tech support.

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Nothing shows up on my screen.

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You must reboot.

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The hard drive system doesn’t turn on.

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I have tried everything, but nothing helps.

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Check the settings on your firewall and run a virus check. Check the power plug and power button.

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5.14 Discuss the questions. a How much do you know about your own computer, e.g. its storage capacity, processing power, operating system and extension cards? b How important is your computer in your everyday life? When and how do you use it?

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5.15 Choose a webpage you like, then use the description from the fact file to find the HTML version of the page. Study the tags and content words and then make your own mark-up document of the fact file text you wrote in task 5.12. Compare with your classmates.

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5.16 What is a database? Find two definitions, compare them, then use them to write your own definition of the term. Share in groups.

5.17 Use reliable sources to find information about the Quantum computers and qubits. Share facts in class.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can use vocabulary related to computers YES

ALMOST

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discuss varieties of computers YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 209


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Before you start Do you own a printer? Does it always work?

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Printers are Evil

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Look, I’m only going to talk about this if we all promise not to get angry about it. I know most columns about abortion, Israel, freedom of speech, Europe and the prospect of a female Doctor in Doctor Who should start like this – but, to be fair, those are all subjects we could all agree on if everyone went down the pub, with the conversation chaired by a couple of mums who made it very clear that everyone had to be on best behaviour, no shouting, and it all to be finished by 5pm, so they could get back and pop a whites wash on. This subject, however, has no such possibility of resolve. For it is printers. Printers – the motherbeeping hate units that inspire more loathing than any other invention on Earth. Their evil unreliability is the high water mark by which every other device, past and future, must be measured. To purchase one is an act comparable to purchasing a succubus, demon, or tiny Nazi for £200, plus VAT. The printer’s grasp of evil is perfect – for they prey on your weakest moment, when you need them most. There’s a taxi idling outside – all you need to do is print out your train tickets/boarding pass/homework/speech notes. You bought the printer four months ago and you’ve only used it six times, so pressing ‘Print’ will mean a joyous printing sound, followed by you running out of the house. Hang on. What. What? WHAT? ‘Replace cyan

chair her: lede/leide resolve løse loathing avsky unreliability upålitelighet/ upålitelegheit high water mark flomål succubus kvinnelig demon/ kvinneleg demon VAT (value added tax) moms idle her: gå på tomgang

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cartridge,’ ‘Invalid driver.’ ‘Print is not aligned.’ ‘Paper jam’. AIMS What are you SAYING to me? What does this MEAN? k discuss the content of the text ‘Print is not aligned’ – that’s just a Situationist k use vocabulary related to printers slogan about post-internet media, daubed on k explain how to perform maintenance on technical devices a wall. It’s not telling me what button to press. HOW am I supposed to ‘align print’? Do you want me to do a seminar on a 360-joined-up media? Because, so help me God I will – except I can’t, because I would need to print out all my notes on it first. ‘Invalid driver?’ To me, this means ‘too drunk to get home, order a taxi.’ IT’S NOT TELLING ME WHICH PART OF THE PRINTER TO PUNCH. ‘Paper jam.’ Okay – I know that one. It’s the state wherein a single, noncomplex sheet of A4 paper has, by some inexplicable process, been rendered into a solid origami swan of bullshit by your printer. Said swan is now lodged in a part of your printer wholly inaccessible by any of the useless trapdoors, which means you have to grab the swan’s tail and yank it from the machine, even as the manual insists this will totally invalidate your warranty. But that doesn’t matter! Because you’re about to throw the printer out of the window anyway! The thing is, the more you learn about printers, the more you hate them. You know that infuriating little ‘whurdegurdy deee huurrrr dee hurr’ that an ink printer makes for three minutes, on start-up, that makes it sound like a pompous man at the dinner table about to say ‘I’m not racist, but…’? That’s the printer lavishly squirting ink out, to ‘clear the nozzles’ – ink which PC cartridge her: patron World recently calculated costs £2,291 per gallon. That is more expensive aligned justert than blood, or liquid Ecstasy. This means it’s perfectly possible to run a jam her: blokkering cartridge dry simply from turning a printer on and off again – without ever slogan slagord daub smøre printing a single document. Yes. Things suddenly make more sense now, inexplicable uforklarlig don’t they? render her: gjøre om, forvandle But don’t think getting a laser printer would be better – according to an origami papirbrettingsteknikk Australian study, the ultra-fine particles they emit cause a health risk equal lodge her: klemme, sitte fast to passive smoking. Whether from stress or lung cancer, your printer will kill inaccessible utilgjengelig you. yank rykke In Game of Thrones, the unfortunate Ayra has witnessed most of those invalidate ugyldiggjøre/gjere ugyldig she loves being slaughtered. Consequently, she now recites a list of those warranty garanti she must kill, like a prayer: ‘Cersei, Joffrey, Walder Frey, The Mountain, Meryn infuriating fryktelig irriterende/ Trant.’ frykteleg irriterande I have an almost identical prayer, except mine goes ‘Hewlett-Packard, lavishly her: sløsende/sløsande Canon, Epson, Fujitsu’. One of each of the eleven printers whose last act was nozzle munnstykke, tut to insist ‘Wifi not detected’, even as I bodily rubbed them against the router, gallon 3,8 liter screaming ‘LOOK! THERE IT IS! CONNECT!’ Or insisted they needed a full recite lese opp, deklamere SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 211


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rider her: ekstra klausul i artistkontrakt som sikrer ytterlige tjenester/ekstra klausul i artistkontrakt som sikrar ytterlege tenester pampered bortskjemt John Lewis britisk varehuskjede Waitrose britisk supermarkedskjede spiritual åndelig

cyan cartridge, even though I was printing in black and white – essentially acting like some rock star insisting they want all the blue M&Ms removed from their rider. I threw them all out of the window. All. How can printers have become so spoiled and demanding? They are the ultimate basic bitch item. I have devices in my pocket that will allow me to video-conference someone on a beach in Tasmania – and yet my pampered, toad-like printer, used just six times a year, cannot manage to do something that peasants were handling in the sixteenth century, by using carved pieces of wood. COME ON! I beg any half-competent organisation to start making printers. John Lewis, Waitrose – even ISIS, at a push. The world cannot tolerate this much longer. Our spiritual cyan is running dry. We have a paper jam in our souls. PRINT IS NOT ALIGNED.

From Moranifesto by Caitlin Moran, Ebury Press

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Caitlin Moran (1975–) is an English journalist and broadcaster at The Times where she writes three columns a week. She is also the best-selling author of How to be a Woman (2011), How to Build a Girl (2014) and Moranifesto (2016) – a collection of her best columns. Her first novel, How to Be Famous, was published in 2018.

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Caitlin Moran is angry with her moody printer… Printers are evil. They are the worst invention on Earth. To buy one is like buying a demon or a tiny Nazi for £200, plus VAT. The printers always fail you when you need them most. When the taxi is waiting and you just need to print out your train tickets, boarding pass or homework. You bought the printer four months ago. It should work fine. Hang on. What? WHAT? ‘Replace cyan cartridge.’ ‘Invalid driver.’ ‘Print is not aligned.’ ‘Paper jam’. What are you SAYING to me? What does this MEAN? HOW am I supposed to ‘align print’? What is an ‘Invalid driver?’ ‘Paper jam.’ Okay – I know that one. But it is impossible to get the paper out! I’m about to throw the printer out of the window! It turns out, the printer squirts out lots of ink during start up. No wonder the cartridge runs dry without even printing a single document. And the ink costs £2,291 per gallon! But don’t think getting a laser printer would be better. They emit particles that are as unhealthy as passive smoking. Whether from stress or lung cancer, your printer will kill you. How did printers become so spoiled? Why can’t they perform the simple task of writing? COME ON! The world cannot tolerate this much longer. We have a paper jam in our souls. PRINT IS NOT ALIGNED.

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moody humørsyk/humørsjuk invention oppfinnelse/ oppfnning VAT moms cyan blåfarge cartridge her: patron aligned justert jam blokkering squirt skvette gallon 3,8 liter emit slippe ut/sleppe ut cancer kreft spoiled her: bortskjemt

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5.18 • Fill in the missing information in the sentences. a The author thinks are the worst on Earth. b The printers always you when you them most. c The taxi is and you just need to print out your tickets. d Then the printer announces: ‘replace cartridge’ or ‘paper ’. e The author wants to the printer out of the . f Particles from laser printers are as as passive . g Whether from or lung cancer, your printer will you. h The author asks: How did printers so ?

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5.19 •• Answer the following questions. a What does the writer compare printers to? b What types of printer problems has she experienced? c What kind of information would she rather find on the printer display? d What does she want to do – and claim to have done – to her printers? e Which personal qualities does she claim her printers possess? f What kind of “device in her pocket” is she referring to and what can it do? g How does she suggest solving the printer problem?

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5.20 ••• Comment on the style and tone of Caitlin Moran’s text and give examples of the effects that you find. How does she get her message across? What is your opinion of the text?

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5.21 Match the words with the correct picture. Then use the words to write sentences. e 3D printer a paper jam f ink printer b cyan cartridge g printed documents c video conference h origami swan d wifi router 2

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remove dust from the inside clean the glass with a damp cloth check toner level check paper rollers for paper jam choose the right refill toner use high-quality paper

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5.22 The list below shows a variety of maintenance routines for photocopiers or multifunctional printers. Match the operations with the correct number on the illustration.

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5.23 Replace the underlined nouns in the sentences with a personal pronoun. Check “Personal pronouns” in the Language Lab section for more information. a The woman talks with the printer repairman. b The man invites his female colleague to the video conference. c The printer doesn’t work and the documents are jammed. d My sister and I did not like printing as much as our friends.

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5.24 • Use vocabulary and expressions from tasks 5.21 and 5.22 to write step by step instructions on how to keep a printer or photocopier in good condition. See Chapter 2 for advice on giving instructions. You may also want to record or make an instruction video with text.

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5.26 ••• Create a text where you discuss to what extent our dependence on digital resources, which sometimes fail to perform their tasks, influences our life and mental health. You may want to use sources for details. See Chapter 4 for advice on structuring a text.

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5.25 •• Imagine that you work in a repair shop for printers. Write an e-mail to a frustrated customer where you explain some common printer errors and how to fix them. Use the text and tasks for inspiration, and other sources if you wish. Remember to be polite.

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5.27 Discuss the following questions in pairs. After you have answered all the questions, move on to a new partner and go through them again. a Have you ever become so angry with an object that you wanted to throw it out the window – or actually did throw it? Share your stories. b In the text, Moran refers to two television series. Which ones and in what context? Do you know these series? What are they about and how do you like them? c In the text there are several examples of informal and even improper language. Find some of them and discuss the effect such vocabulary has on the style and message of the text. d Do you agree with Moran that printers are actually evil? Can you understand her frustration? e What kind of information or instructions should be displayed on malfunctioning printers, or other digital devices, for them to be more helpful? f To what extent and in which situations do you use a printer today? What technological changes and environmental aspects have made us use printers more rarely today than only a decade ago? g Are there other digital tools, like apps and robot generated services, that can cause the same type of frustration as described in the text? Give examples.

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5.28 Use sources to find information about at least two of the printer brands mentioned in the text and some of their recent models. Which printer would you recommend? Share in class. 5.29 Today 3D printers are becoming increasingly popular in many fields. Find examples of products made by various types of 3D printers. Share in class.

5.30 Go online to find more texts by or videos with Caitlin Moran. How would you describe her?

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explain how to perform maintenance on technical devices YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LISTENING STRATEGIES

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You probably spend more time using your listening skills than any other kind of skill. Most of us listen for entertainment on a daily basis – to music, podcasts, audiobooks or when we keep the radio on while doing something else. Every now and then, we may not even realize that we are actually listening until something suddenly catches our attention. Yet, like other skills, listening takes practice. Choosing the right listening strategy will help you get the information you need. Listening for gist or overview • understand the main idea or content of what is said • not necessary to understand every word

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After listening, you should be able to sum up what is most important or explain what the main message is.

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Listening for specific information • listen for details, such as names, numbers, dates, places, certain words • useful in many work situations, for example when taking a phone message or an order, understanding instructions or important safety warnings After listening, you should be able to provide specific information.

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1 Before listening to a text, decide what the purpose of listening is. What do you need to find out? What do you already know about the topic? What type of text is it? What words are useful to know?

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2 While listening, take notes. If you are listening for specific information, focus on keywords and facts. If you are listening for overview, focus on understanding what the text is about.

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3 After listening, review your notes. Expand your notes and look up words you don’t understand. If necessary, listen to difficult passages again or ask the speaker to repeat what was said.

4 Be an active listener. In face-to-face communication, the speaker’s body language, facial expressions and tone of voice will help you understand the message. When you cannot see the speaker, it becomes even more important to think about what you are listening to and why you are listening. With good listening skills, you may be able to hear more than the words spoken.

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5.31 How do you listen in the following situations? a A news report about an accident on the radio. b A dialogue between two characters in a film. c Flight information on the loudspeaker system at the airport. d A podcast on current issues. e Someone calls to leave a message for your boss. f An elderly person talks to you about the old days. g Your best friend tells you a secret. h Your teacher introduces a new topic in class.

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5.32 Listen to this short text and fill in the missing information. a The Empire State Building is a in New York City, and one of the most buildings in the world. The skyscraper is feet tall and has stories. More than million tourists visit the observation decks every year to take of themselves and the view from the top. The skyscraper was officially opened in . For years, it was the tallest building in the world. b Which listening strategy did you use to find the missing information?

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5.33 Listen to this short text and answer the questions. a What is the conversation about? b What is important to remember after listening to the conversation? c Which listening strategy did you use to answer the questions?

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5.34 Listen to what Ian says about his job and answer the following questions. a Where does he work and what does he do? b When does he start work in the morning? c What does he not like about his job? d In general, would you say that Ian likes his job? Why? e Which listening strategy (or strategies) did you use to answer the questions?

5.35 Are you a good listener? a How can you show that you are paying attention to what is being said in a conversation? b How can you show that you are interested in what is being said? c “Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply.” Do you agree? d In small groups, tell each other about the latest film or series you watched. Practise being active listeners.

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Ready Player One

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It is the year 2044, and the real world has become an ugly place of famine, poverty, disease, a wrecked climate and few energy sources. Like most other humans, eighteen-year-old Wade escapes this depressing reality into the OASIS, a virtual utopia founded by James Halliday, also known as Anorak, his avatar name. Before he died, Halliday planted an “Easter Egg” – a set of riddles – in the OASIS, and the one who finds it will become incredibly rich and the owner of the OASIS. Needless to say, the Hunt is on, and to find the “keys” the egg hunters, or “gunters”, need insight into the popular culture of the 1980s, Halliday’s favorite decade.

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I pulled out my laptop and powered it on. It was a bulky, heavy beast, almost ten years old. I’d found it in a trash bin behind the abandoned strip mall across the highway. I’d been able to coax it back to life by replacing its system memory and reloading the stoneage operating system. The processor was slower than a sloth by current standards, but it was fine for my needs. The laptop served as my portable research library, video arcade, and home theater system. Its hard drive was filled with old books, movies, TV show episodes, song files, and nearly every videogame made in the twentieth century. I booted up my emulator and selected Robotron 2084, one of my all-time favourite games. I’d always loved its frenetic pace and brutal simplicity. Robotron was all about instinct and reflexes. Playing old videogames never failed to clear my mind and set me at ease. If I was feeling depressed or frustrated about my lot in life, all I had to do was tap the Player One button, and my worries would instantly slip away as my mind focused itself on the relentless pixelated onslaught on the screen in front of me. There, inside the game’s two-dimensional universe, life was simple: It’s just you against the machine. Move with your left hand, shoot with your right, and try to stay alive as long as possible. I spent a few hours blasting through wave after wave of Brains, Spheroids, Quarks, and Hulks in my unending battle to Save the Last Human Family! But eventually my fingers started to cramp up and I began to lose my rhythm.

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famine hungersnød utopia idealsamfunn avatar spillfigur/spelfigur riddle gåte sloth her: dovendyr boot her: starte opp emulator omstillingsprogram simplicity enkelhet/enkelheit ease her: ro relentless ubøyelig/ubøyeleg pixelated delt inn i pixler/delt inn i pixlar onslaught angrep deteriorate forverre, bli dår­ ligere/forverre, bli dårlegare

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When that happened at this level, things deteriorated AIMS quickly. I burned through all my extra lives in a matter of minutes, and my two least-favorite words appeared on the screen: GAME OVER. k discuss virtual reality and other types of media I shut down the emulator and began to browse through my video files. Over the past five years, I’d k listen for overview and details downloaded every single movie, TV show, and cartoon mentioned in Anorak’s Almanac. I still hadn’t watched all of them yet, of course. That would probably take decades. I selected an episode of Family Ties, an ‘80s sitcom about a middle-class family living in central Ohio. I’d downloaded the show because it had been one of Halliday’s favorites, and I figured there was a chance that some clue related to the Hunt might be hidden in one of the episodes. I’d become addicted to the show immediately, and had now watched all 180 episodes, multiple times. I never seemed to get tired of them. Sitting alone in the dark, watching the show on my laptop, I always found myself imagining that I lived in that warm, well-lit house, and that those smiling, understanding people were my family. That there was nothing so wrong in the world that we couldn’t sort it out by the end of a single half-hour episode (or maybe a two-parter, if it was something really serious). My own home life had never even remotely resembled the one depicted in Family Ties, which was probably why I loved the show so much. I was the only child of two teenagers, both refugees who’d met in the stacks where I’d grown up. I don’t remember my father. When I was just a few months old, he was shot dead while looting a grocery store during a power blackout. The only thing I really knew about him was that he loved comic books. I’d found several old flash drives in a box of his things, containing complete runs of multiple flere/fleire The Amazing Spider-Man, The X-Men, and Green Lantern. My mom once told two-parter historie over to me that my dad had given me an alliterative name, Wade Watts, because he episoder/historie over to thought it sounded like the secret identity of a superhero. Like Peter Parker episodar or Clark Kent. Knowing that made me think he must have been a cool guy, depict skildre stacks stabler (her brukt for despite how he died. ­stabler av bobiler hvor folk My mother, Loretta, had raised me on her own. We’d lived in a small bor)/stablar (her brukt for RV in another part of the stack. She had two full-time OASIS jobs, one as a stablar av bubilar kor folk bur) telemarketer, the other as an escort in an online brothel. She used to make loot her: plyndre me wear earplugs at night so I wouldn’t hear her in the next room, talking flash drive minnepinne dirty to tricks in other time zones. But earplugs didn’t work very well, so I alliterative med bokstavrim would watch old movies instead, with the volume turned way up. RV=recreational vehicle campingbil I was introduced to the OASIS at an early age, because my mother used it brothel bordell as a virtual babysitter. As soon as I was old enough to wear a visor and a pair trick her: horekunde of haptic gloves, my mom helped me create my first OASIS avatar. Then she visor VR-briller stuck me in a corner and went back to work, leaving me to explore an entirely haptic gloves VR-hansker/ new world, very different from the one I’d known up until then. VR-hanskar SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 219


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chunk del penniless pengeløs/pengelaus blessing velsignelse/velsigning

From that moment on, I was more or less raised by the OASIS interactive educational programs, which any kid could access for free. I spent a big chunk of my childhood hanging out in a virtual-reality simulation of Sesame Street, singing songs with friendly Muppets and playing interactive games that taught me how to walk, talk, add, subtract, read, write, and share. Once I’d mastered those skills, it didn’t take me long to discover that the OASIS was also the world’s biggest public library, where even a penniless kid like me had access to every book ever written, every song ever recorded, and every movie, television show, video game, and piece of artwork ever created. The collected knowledge, art, and amusement of all human civilization were there, waiting for me. But gaining access to all of that information turned out to be something of a mixed blessing. Because that was when I found out the truth.

From Ready Player One (2011) by Ernest Cline

IN SHORT

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I turned on my old laptop. I’d found it in a trash bin but had fixed it. The processor was slow, but I could use it for old books, movies, TV series, music and videogames. I booted up my emulator and started playing Robotron 2084. I loved that it was so simple: tap the Player One button, and then: It’s just you against the machine. I spent a few hours playing, until my fingers started to cramp up and I burned all my extra lives: GAME OVER. I began to browse through my video files. I selected an episode of Family Ties, an ‘80s sitcom about a middle-class family in Ohio. I loved the show and had watched all 180 episodes multiple times. Sitting alone in the dark, watching the show, I imagined what it would be like if those nice people were my family. That there was nothing so wrong that we couldn’t sort it out. My own home life had never been easy. I was the only child of two teenagers. I don’t remember my father. When I was a baby, he was shot dead. The only thing I knew about him was that he loved comic books. My mother, Loretta, had raised me on her own. She had two full-time OASIS jobs, one as a telemarketer, the other as an escort in an online brothel. I was introduced to the OASIS at an early age, because my mother used it as a virtual babysitter. My mom helped me create my first OASIS avatar. Then she stuck me in a corner and went back to work. From that day on, I was raised by the OASIS interactive educational programs. I spent most of my childhood in virtual reality, playing interactive games, learning to walk, talk, add, subtract, read and write. Then I discovered that the OASIS was also the world’s biggest public library. I had access to every book ever written, every song ever recorded, and every movie, television show, video game, and piece of artwork ever created. But finding this also meant that I found out the truth.

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trash bin søppelspann boot her: starte emulator omstillingsprogram simple enkelt browse søke, bla gjennom multiple flere/fleire imagine forestille seg/førestille seg comic books tegneseriehefter/ teikneseriehefte telemarketer telefonselger/ telefonseljar brothel bordell avatar digital rollefigur corner hjørne add legge til subtract trekke fra/trekke frå library bibliotek access tilgang record spille inn/spele inn create skape

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5.36 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a Wade is playing on his laptop/processor/trash bin. b The processor on his laptop is new/fast/slow. c After a few hours Wade saved/burned/won extra lives. d He wanted to watch an old film/documentary/television series from the ‘80s. e Wade’s home life had never/always/often been easy. f Wade’s dad loved the OASIS/video games/comic books. g Wade’s mother spent a lot of time with him/worked a lot/died when he was a baby. h Wade grew up in virtual reality/with his parents/with a lot of friends.

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5.37 •• Answer the questions. a What kind of game does Wade play on his laptop? Why does he like it so much? b Which sitcom series does he watch next? Why does he love this programme? c What do we learn about Wade’s family? How was his childhood? d What is the OASIS? What kind of equipment is needed and what kind of activities does it offer? 5.38 ••• Use information from the text to write a character description of Wade.

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5.39 Match the words with the correct synonym or definition. Use the words to write sentences.

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5.40 Fill in the correct form of the relative pronouns, who, which, that, whom or whose, in the open spaces. For information, see the Language Lab section. a There are strict rules on cyber security, must be followed. b The laptop Wade uses is really old. c I know someone makes a lot of money as a gamer. d The gamer, with I discussed the new games, was really talented. e Wade got the position he applied for, made him very happy. f Wade, dream was to win the egg hunt, was happy when he found the first key. g The students, had access to the program, all had to write logs. h Wade’s teacher made a list of the films they were to watch that year.

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5.41 Discuss the following questions. Work in groups. a What types of media are mentioned in the text? Which are your favourites? Why? b What is your experience with virtual reality technology? What types of hardware and software have you tested, if any? In what fields can VR technology be useful? c How can old films, television programmes, songs and other types of text still be relevant and move us today? Can you give any examples? d Wade claims that he was raised by interactive programmes in the OASIS. Do you think this could actually be possible, and if so, is it desirable to have programs that replace parents, teachers and friends? e Do you know any of the comic-book characters mentioned in the text? Who are they? Do you know other examples? Is this kind of literature still interesting? f What is the difference between fine art and popular culture? Give examples. Where would you put the references mentioned in the text?

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5.42 “The OASIS” Listen to the text where Wade enters the world of the OASIS. a Listen once to get an overview. In a few sentences, sum up what happens. b Listen one more time. This time listen for information to answer the following questions. 1 Why was Wade happy when he discovered the old van? 2 What did the van become to him and what does he keep there? 3 How does he get electric power and what does he need electricity for? 4 What are Wade’s most valuable possessions? What are they like? 5 What has Wade done to get good reception for his OASIS console? 6 What are the log-in procedures for entering the OASIS? 7 Where is Wade’s avatar, Parzival, when he enters the OASIS, and what does the place look like? 8 What does Parzival look like, compared to Wade? 9 What is the school dress code for avatars?

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5.43 Steven Spielberg’s filmed version of Ready Player One (2018) has been called “the best film ever made” but also “a disappointment for gamers”. Watch trailers, some scenes or the entire film and discuss reasons why there are such different opinions of the film. What is your opinion of what you have seen?

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5.44 Read the novel Ready Player One. Then write or record a book review. If you have also watched the film, comment on the similarities and differences between the original text and the film adaption of the story.

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5.45 At the end of the novel Ready Player One, Halliday gives Wade a piece of advice, quoted below. Read the quote and reflect on its meaning. Then write a text in which you share your thoughts on positive and negative aspects of virtual reality as an escape from real life.

‘I created the OASIS because I never felt at home in the real world. I didn’t know how to connect with the people there. I was afraid, for all of my life. Right up until I knew it was ending. That was when I realized, as terrifying and painful as reality can be, it’s also the only place where you can find true happiness. Because reality is real. Don’t make the same mistake I did. Don’t hide in here forever.’

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss virtual reality and other types of media YES

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Graphic Design

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Have you ever noticed that many film posters look similar? That is because most posters are made using the same formulas, usually depending on the genre of the film.

graphic design k create an ad or poster with digital tools

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Artfully designed posters have been central in the promotion of films since the 1920s. The purpose of the poster is still the same today – to summarize the film in one image in order to catch the attention of a potential audience. This is no easy feat, but when it is cleverly done it can immortalize the film. Throughout the decades, designers have used different visual approaches and a variety of tools to create film posters. Until the 1980s when digital tools became more common, illustrators would make elaborate drawings. The design of these old posters is still a major source of influence, however, even in today’s digital world. To develop an appealing film poster, both knowledge of design and illustration skills are important. Some designs have several visual images that reflect the film’s plot. This is often referred to as collage style and contains quite a lot of information. The main characters are set against a background, for example specific scenes from the film, a skyline or vast landscapes to symbolize the setting. Minor characters may also hover in the background, sometimes with a different facial expression to show conflict or relationship with the main characters. Posters for superhero films often seem to cram as many characters as possible into the frame, stacked on top of each other and facing in various directions while looking fierce and determined. Another design is using a striking single image, which in itself can give insight into the film’s theme and genre. For some blockbusters the design can even be reduced to a logo on a black background, such as Jurassic Park or Batman, yet the audience still identify them immediately. Typography is also a key aspect of film posters. It usually reflects the genre and can help establish the tone of the film. You will rarely see the same typeface used for a historical period drama as for a science fiction film. Similarly, a designer will most likely not choose the same style for a horror film as for a romantic comedy. A red title against a black and white image gives a more dramatic impression, whereas gold lettering with serifs will give different associations. Combinations of typefaces and line weights are not uncommon. Colour schemes are perhaps the most recognizable feature in film poster

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Before you start What can you learn about a film by looking at the promotional poster? What elements of graphic design are used?

formula formel purpose hensikt potential potensiell, mulig/ potensiell, mogleg feat bragd immortalize udødeliggjøre/ udødeleggjere decade tiår approach her: tilnærming elaborate utførlig/utførleg composition komposisjon, sammensetning/ komposisjon, samansetjing appealing tiltalende/tiltalande plot handling hover sveve cram presse, stappe frame her: ramme determined besluttsom/viljefast striking slående/slåande blockbuster kassasuksess typography typografi aspect side typeface skrift lettering bokstaver/bokstavar

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design. The colour blue, for example, is associated with thrillers. A longstanding trend for action films is the combination of high contrast, black and white imagery with orange elements such as explosions and fires. Shades of blue and orange are complementary colours and one of the most used colour combinations for a range of genres, from dramas to fantasy and science fiction, sometimes with green and purple details. Another trend is the red and white combination used to market comedies to a mainstream audience. They are often well-lit, studio photo shoots against a clean, white background with red or hot pink lettering. Posters for independent films with smaller budgets often seem to use a bright yellow background with black lettering. Designing film posters is a commercial art form. It may be just advertising, but with a well-crafted poster the graphic designer has the power to suggest adventure, drama, laughter and the emotional journeys that await the film’s audience. Next time you pass by or come a across film poster, will you look at it with new eyes?

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similar lik formula her: oppskrift purpose hensikt summarize oppsummere/ summere opp, samanfatte image bilde attention oppmerksomhet/ oppmerksemd audience publikum theme tema genre sjanger blockbuster kassasuksess typography typografi typeface skrift recognizable gjenkjennelig/ attkjennande complementary komplementær lettering bokstaver/bokstavar independent uavhengig commercial kommersiell art kunst

Have you ever noticed that many film posters look similar? That is because most posters are made using the same formulas. The purpose of the poster is to summarize the film in one image. If it is done well, it will help catch the attention of the audience. To make a poster, knowledge of design and illustration skills are important. Some designs have a collage style. The main characters are set against a background, for example scenes from the film, a skyline or landscapes. Other designs have a single image, which gives an idea of the film’s theme and genre. For some blockbuster films the design can even be just a logo on a black background. Typography is also important. A designer will most likely not use the same typeface for a historical period drama as for a science fiction film, a horror film or a romantic comedy. Combinations of typefaces are not uncommon. Colours are perhaps the most recognizable feature in film poster design. The colour blue, for example, is associated with thrillers. Action film posters often have a combination of black and white imagery with orange elements such as explosions and fires. Blue and orange are complementary colours and used for many genres, from dramas to fantasy and science fiction. Studio photo shoots with a clean white background and red lettering are often used for comedies. Independent film posters seem to have a yellow background. Designing film posters is a commercial art form. Next time you pass by a film poster, will you look at it with new eyes?

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Read and understand 5.46 • Match the sentence halves. The purpose of the poster is to

1

and illustration skills are important.

B

To make a poster, knowledge of design

2

feature in film poster design.

C

3

summarize the film in one image.

4

a commercial art form.

5

F

The main characters are set against a background, A designer will most likely not use the same typeface for Colours are perhaps the most recognizable The colour blue, for example, is

for example scenes from the film, a skyline or landscapes. will you look at it with new eyes?

G

Designing film posters is

7

H

Next time you pass by a film poster,

8

E

6

er in

D

g

A

a historical period drama as for a science fiction film. associated with thrillers.

til

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rd

5.47 •• Complete the sentences with information from the text. a Many film posters look similar because . b Since the 1920s and throughout the decades, designers have . c Some designs have several visual images, often referred to as . d Posters for superhero films seem to . e Using a single striking image can . f Typography usually reflects . g A designer will most likely not choose . h Blue and orange are . i A red and white combination is used to . j With a well-crafted poster, .

Ku

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5.48 ••• Sum up the text with the help of the following keywords. film poster – purpose – design – image – typography – colour schemes – commercial art

Did you know

Saul Bass (1920–1996) was an American graphic designer who worked for some of Hollywood’s most prominent filmmakers, such as Alfred Hitchcock and Stanley Kubrick. With minimalistic and symbolic designs and distinctive typography, he transformed film advertising. He also designed iconic logos for large corporations, some of which are still in use today. SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 227


Practise

5.49 The following words are useful when you talk about graphic design. Fill in the missing English or Norwegian words. Look up words you don’t know and practise spelling with a partner. Add to the list if you can. English

Norwegian

alignment

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metning gradient

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palett resolution

størrelsesforhold placeholder

beskjæring

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5.50 Study the colour wheel. a Name the primary colours. b Which are secondary colours? c How do you get tertiary colours? d What are complementary colours? Use the circle to explain and give examples.

5.51 Write the noun and adjective for each of the shapes below. The first one has been done for you. 2

3

4

5

6

Noun: circle

Noun:

Noun:

Noun:

Noun:

Noun:

Adjective: circular

Adjective:

Adjective:

Adjective:

Adjective:

Adjective:

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1

5.52 Use an online dictionary to find definitions and translations of the following typography terms. Compare your answers with those of a partner. Practise pronunciation and spelling. a bold e tracking b italic f leading c serifs g ascenders d kerning h descenders

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4

5

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2

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5.54 Use the terms and descriptions from the tasks above to explain what you see in the following images.

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5.53 Match the terms with the most suitable description. A logo 1 a picture representing a word or phrase B trademark 2 a symbol or sign representing an idea or concept C monogram 3 a symbol made to identify a specific product or company D pictogram 4 a motif with two or more letters, typically initials E ideogram 5 a symbol or word legally registered to represent a product or company

Speak

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5.55 Fill in the correct determiner – this, that, these, those – in the open spaces. a logo here is more recognizable than logo over there. b ads here are more interesting than ads over there. c font here is better suited than fonts over there. d colours here are more striking than colour over there.

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5.56 Study the film posters on the previous page. In pairs or groups, describe the motif, colour scheme and typography. What genres do you think these films represent? 5.57 Are the same design characteristics true of Norwegian film posters? Or other parts of the world? Find examples and discuss similarities and differences. Present your examples and share information in class.

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5.58 You have been asked to design the packaging for a new brand of VR headsets for a start-up company. What design elements would you focus on? Work in pairs or small groups. a Discuss what shape, material, logo and typeface you would choose. b Which factors influence your choices? c Make a multimodal presentation where you pitch your choice of packaging design to the company's management team.

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5.59 Study the two ads below. a Comment on the use of visual imagery and typography. b Discuss how the advertisers get their message across.

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Write

5.60 • Look around your classroom. How many examples of graphic design can you spot? Make a list and explain whether they have a function or are just decorative. Function

Decorative

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5.61 •• Use digital tools to create an ad or vignette which is to be used in a campaign for a new streaming service. Also write a short text where you describe your ad or vignette and the steps involved in creating it.

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Examples of graphic design

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Explore

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5.62 ••• Imagine that one of the short stories or novel excerpts you have read this year is going to be made into a feature film, and you have been asked to design the promotional poster. Choose a text and create the poster using digital tools. In addition to representing the plot and theme of the text, you will have to consider the mood, colour palette, typeface, font size and weight, composition and motif. Feel free to use your favourite actors in the lead roles. Also write a short text where you describe your poster and explain your choices.

til

5.63 Divide the class into groups. Each group chooses a decade. Search for examples of ads or film posters from your decade and analyse them. What do they tell you about the time in which they were made? How do older ads and film posters differ from modern ones? Share your findings in class.

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5.64 Find an example of a magazine cover you think is either well or poorly designed. Show the cover to a partner and describe the design choices. Discuss how it exemplifies good or bad design. For advice on how to “show and tell”, see Chapter 1.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe design elements YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to graphic design YES

ALMOST

NO

analyse and discuss examples of graphic design YES

ALMOST

NO

create an ad or poster with digital tools YES

ALMOST

NO

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Photography

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Today, digital tools make it possible to edit images almost beyond recognition. Still, knowing how to compose a photograph will always make it easier to get better shots to work with.

Rule of thirds

rd

To create a well-balanced shot, break the image into thirds both horizontally and vertically to get nine sections. Place the main motif or key elements at the points where the lines cross to make the image more dynamic. However, centring a subject works well when you want to show symmetry and for close-ups.

One way to improve the composition is to look for lines – horizontal, vertical, diagonal and curving. Lines are everywhere, in walls, fences, roads, horizons, rays of sunlight or clouds in the sky. People’s faces and bodies also have lines. Leading lines provide perspective and depth. Use them to draw the viewer into your image.

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rule of thirds tredelsregelen horizontally horisontalt, vannrett/horisontalt, vassrett vertically vertikalt, loddrett motif motiv leading lines linjeføring depth of field dybdeskarphet/ dybdeskarpleik distraction forstyrrelse/ forstyrring entire hele/heile crop beskjære/skjere feature her: trekk frame her: ramme inn context kontekst, sammenheng/kontekst, samanheng branch her: grein arch buegang/bogegang convey formidle portray skildre tranquillity ro interaction samhandling lack mangel

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Leading lines

Depth of field To isolate a subject from a busy street scene or remove distractions in the background of your motif, use a small depth of field to make the background blurry. A landscape shot, on the other hand, will need a large depth of field so that the entire scene is sharp from foreground to the horizon.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE AIMS

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k discuss composition k use words related to photography k describe a colour palette k create a multimodal presentation

Crop and frame

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Tell a story

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For a portrait, draw attention to the subject by zooming in until their face fills the frame. Look for the strongest features and do not be afraid to crop. Framing means using elements of a scene to create borders, perspective and context. Use light and shadow or shoot through e.g. a window, doorway, curtains, branches or arches to highlight your subject.

Ku

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How do you want viewers to feel when they look at your photo? What do you want to convey? Are you trying to portray excitement or tranquillity? A story can be told in someone’s eyes, or in the interaction between subjects – or lack thereof. What you include in your photograph should add to the story.

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 233


FACT FILE FACT FILE

Robert Capa, war photographer (1913–1954)

g

5.66 •• Answer the following questions. a What is the rule of thirds? b What is the function of leading lines? c What do you achieve by using a large depth of field? d How can you use frames when composing a photograph? e How can you tell a story with your photograph?

Speak

5.67 Discuss the composition of these photographs with a partner. 1

2

til

“If you want to be a better photographer, stand in front of more interesting stuff.”

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“If your pictures aren’t good enough, you’re not close enough.”

5.65 • Rearrange the words to make sentences based on information from the text. Then translate the sentences into Norwegian. a well-balanced create the thirds into shot To image a break. b want subject to works a symmetry show Centring you when well. c also and bodies have faces People’s lines. d depth provide lines Leading and perspective. e field the blurry depth a make to small background of Use. f afraid for the strongest Look and not features do be crop to. g scene means Framing of borders to using a create elements. h should include your What to add in the story you photograph.

rd

Ansel Adams, landscape photographer (1902–1984)

Read and understand

vu

“There are always two people in every picture: the photographer and the viewer.”

n

Jim Richardson, photojournalist (1947–)

Ku

“A thing that you see in my pictures is that I was not afraid to fall in love with these people.” Annie Leibovitz, portrait photographer (1949–)

3

4

5.68 What is the difference between using an optical zoom and a digital zoom? Discuss with a partner and share in class.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

g

5.69 Match the term with the correct explanation. Then translate the terms into Norwegian. aperture

1

the amount of time the shutter is opened during an exposure

B

exposure

2

the camera’s ability to correct colour under different lighting conditions

C

ISO

3

the opening in the lens through which light passes to the digital sensor

D

shutter speed

4

the number of pixels that the camera is capable of capturing

E

resolution

5

the amount of light reaching the digital sensor

F

wide angle lens

6

the focal length gives a magnified image and a narrow field of view

G

telephoto lens

7

the range in front of or behind the point of focus where objects remain sharp

H

white balance

8

the field of view allows more to be fit into the frame

I

compression

9

the sensitivity of the camera’s digital sensor to light

J

depth of field

10 the method of reducing the size of a digital image file

rd

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A

Write

vu

5.70 • Use digital tools to create a colour palette for a photograph of your choice. Describe the colours you have chosen, their hue, value and saturation.

til

5.71 •• Choose a photograph from your portfolio. Describe how you would edit the photograph and which tools you would use. The following words may be useful. exposure – contrast – balance – colour vibrancy – saturation – clarity – noise reduction – framing – cropping

Explore

n

After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss composition

5.72 Search for what you think are good examples of photojournalism or fashion, portrait, landscape or wildlife photography. Create a multimodal product to present your chosen images.

Ku

How did you do?

YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to photography YES

ALMOST

NO

describe a colour palette YES

ALMOST

NO

create a multimodal presentation YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 235


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING A PRESENTATION

g

Learning to give presentations is useful for both school and work. Oral presentations typically involve three stages; planning, practising and presenting. As the following guidelines show, most of your time and effort should be spent on the first two. With good planning and enough practice, you will become a more confident speaker.

1 What, why, who and how

2 Structure your presentation

rd

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• Study the task carefully. What are you asked to do? Underline instruction verbs. Does the task have certain requirements? What sources will be relevant? • Identify your purpose. Why are you making this presentation? What do you want to achieve? Inform/describe/persuade/entertain/instruct/discuss … • Identify the audience. Who will you be talking to, and what is the context? Classmates/coworkers/customers/examiners … • Adjust your language to the task at hand. Consider the situation, your audience and your topic. For advice on using formal and informal language, see Chapter 3.

vu

The introduction Catch the audience’s attention. You can start by asking a question, making a statement or telling a story to introduce your topic. “Have you ever been inside an ambulance?” “When I was a child, I often went to ... ” Give your audience an idea of what to expect. For example, tell them how your presentation is structured. “First, I am going to say a few words about ... Next, there will be information about ... and finally, I will give my own opinion on ... ”

n

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The main part Organise your points into sections. One point per section makes it easy to follow. Give evidence or examples to support your points, and then explain in your own words. Make your transitions clear to the audience. Let your listeners know when you are moving on to the next point, example or section by using sentence connectors or briefly recapping what you have just said. “In contrast, these charts show that ... ” “Another example I would like to ... ” “Now that we have looked at ..., we can go on to ... ”

Ku

The conclusion Sum up in a few short sentences what you have talked about. “In conclusion I would like to say that ... ” “To sum up this presentation, ... ” Thank your audience for listening. “Thank you for your attention.” “Thanks for listening. Are there any questions?”

3 Use visuals

Short videos, photos, charts or animations can be used to support your presentation. If you use digital presentation tools, do not overload each slide. Select the most important facts and make sure the audience can read the text and see the images clearly.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 4 Practise

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The more you practise, the more comfortable you will become with the material. • Write down keywords and main points on index cards so you remember what to say. • Practise how to pronounce difficult words. • Get feedback from a friend if possible. • Time your presentation. If your assignment is to give a three-minute talk, make sure you finish on time.

5 Present

rd

Use the following tips to keep your audience engaged during your presentation. • Speak slowly and clearly. Try to avoid fillers such as “uh, like, I mean, you know, okay”. • Keep eye contact with your listeners. • Include short pauses to allow yourself to think ahead and your listeners to keep up. • Remember to breathe. It is ok to be a bit nervous. • Speak with confidence. You are the authority on your topic, but do not pretend to know everything.

Practise

vu

5.73 Make introductions to presentations on the following topics. Practise in pairs and give each other feedback. Try not to use a manuscript. a The most important life skills for young people today. b What it means to be a role model. When someone is giving a presentation, be a c The importance of practical training. good listener. Look at the person who is speaking and make sure your body language is positive. Try to come up with a question or a relevant response afterwards.

til

What to look for: • Does the introduction make you want to hear more? • Does the speaker make eye contact with you? • Does he/she speak without a manuscript?

5.74 Choose one of the topics that you have studied earlier in the course. First decide on a purpose and an audience, then prepare a presentation. Use digital presentation tools.

n

Suggested topics

Ku

• Safety in the workplace • My favourite app • An artist with a message • A book or film I would like to recommend • A cause I support • An interesting fact about the USA/UK • What inspires me the most • What to do (and not to do) on social media

Purpose

Audience

Entertain Describe Inform Argue a point or case Persuade Instruct

Children An elderly person Classmates Your teacher Co-workers Local politicians Examiners in the oral exam

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 237


!

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Before you start What is a good story to you? How and when do you enjoy stories?

Ku

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til

Great Storytellers

transmit overføre significant viktig suspense spenning

Telling stories is something deeply rooted in mankind, and throughout history we have constantly developed new media for storytelling. From cave paintings, orally transmitted fairy tales and legends and handwritten stories on papyrus, to printed novels, films, radio and television, computer games and podcasts, the main point has always been to communicate a message and to entertain. Although telling a story is something most people are capable of, clearly some storytellers are better than others, to the extent that they have become legendary. But why is it so? First, good stories are characterized by a plot that keeps the audience interested and engaged. This happens if the story seems relevant and significant and if it contains conflict, tension, suspense and surprise. Also,

238 | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | SKILLS


Ku

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til

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the characters in the story should be memorable and believable, preferably special in some way, but also AIMS have universal character traits to create a feeling of recognition and identification. Some narratives may be k describe features of good storytelling long and complex with a large number of characters, k present a storyteller like in television series that go on, season after season. k explain and discuss quotes Others may have few characters and a limited time span, like short stories or advertisements. Of course, a well-told tale is also characterized by a message or a lesson to be learned, conveyed with creativity and authenticity. Second, successful storytelling depends on the choice of techniques and type of media, e.g. visual or auditory, printed or digital, documentary or fiction, live action or animation, virtual or augmented reality. The way people choose to tell their story opens up different possibilities. For printed media, the words are often the only tool to get the message out. Charles Dickens moved his readers with such powerful stories about the poor that he also contributed to social awareness and reforms. In films, however, the story is told on many levels, through images, sound and actors following a written script. George Méliès’ invention of special effects in the early 1900s revealed the potential of fiction film as a channel for storytelling, and since then great directors have explored, developed and refined the concept. Lately, so-called interactive narratives are growing in popularity, through online, non-linear and open-ended games, where the players create their own story as they memorable minneverdig proceed. trait trekk recognition gjenkjenning/ Finally, when storytellers succeed it is also because they adjust the form attkjenning and content to the target group the story is intended for. When Walt Disney narrative fortelling/forteljing first introduced his feature-length animated films, he reached a massive convey formidle audience, since his charming stories for children also contained humour live action levende film/levande and underlying references that appealed to grownups. This is an important film aspect of family entertainment. Also, when Oprah Winfrey invited guests augmented reality utvidet to her studio, ordinary people could tell their often surprising or moving virkelighet/utvida røyndom contribute bidra stories. Talk shows became an immensely popular genre with wide appeal, refine foredle partly because of the human penchant for voyeurism but mainly because non-linear ikke-lineær, ikke people identify with the stories they hear. We can see the same in today’s fortløpende/ikkje-lineær, ikkje blogs and podcasts, where the sharing of everyday events by common fortløpande people attracts a large audience. Moreover, the gaming industry, which proceed gå fremover/ was long dominated by the traditional fight and shoot quests, is gradually gå framover offering new concepts for storylines that appeal to a more varied group. target group målgruppe feature-length helaftens/ To conclude, stories are still important, and the number of people who heilaftan tell them is growing. With the expansion of social media and easy access to penchant hang, dragning an online audience, it is now possible for everybody to become a storyteller. voyeurism sniktitting, The quality of their tales, however, depends on how they address and reach kikkermentalitet/sniktitting, out to an audience that never gets tired of a good story. kikkarmentalitet SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 239


Read and understand

5.75 • Decide whether the sentences are true or false. Then correct the false ones. True Good stories need a plot that is printed in a book.

b

The characters should be memorable and believable.

c

In films, the words are the most important elements.

d

Georges Méliès wrote novels about actors.

e

In interactive storytelling the players create their own story.

f

Walt Disney’s films were interesting mostly for children.

g

Oprah Winfrey invited only celebrities to her talk shows.

h

With social media everybody can tell their stories.

er in

g

a

False

Practise

rd

5.76 •• Answer the questions. a What is important when creating plot and characters in a story? b How are printed media different from films and television? c What made Walt Disney and Oprah Winfrey so successful? d How has the gaming industry developed recently?

vu

5.77 Match the words with the right definition and use them to write sentences about stories. plot

1

not chronological

B

convey

2

a feeling of excited uncertainty

C

non-linear

3

the people a message is intended to appeal to

D

target group

4

the events in a story

E

suspense

5

a story

F

narrative

6

communicate a message

til

A

Ku

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5.78 Choose the correct form of the reflexive pronouns to fill in the open spaces. Pay attention to the singular and plural forms. myself – yourself – himself – herself – itself – ourselves – yourselves – themselves a Disney wanted to see for what his films looked like in theatres. b Oprah Winfrey was talking to while she was planning the show. c “Did you enjoy ?” the director asked the actors. d They usually enjoyed when they were playing games. e We had to let out of the studio yesterday. f I don’t take very seriously. g The trash won’t disappear by , will it? h I can’t do the homework for all of you; you have to do it !

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Explore

5.79 Use sources to find information about and examples of various types of special effects. You may want to start with some clips from Georges Méliès’s old films. Share in groups.

er in

5.80 Discuss the questions. a What makes a good character? A unique voice, flaws and strengths, distinctive appearance, or anything else? b “There is no such thing as a one-way story. When a story is told, it is interpreted by the audience, filtered through their experiences and opinions, and becomes something new.” What does this mean? c Study the quotes below and explain their meaning in your own words. Which is your favourite?

g

Speak

rd

“No story lives unless someone wants to listen.” J. K. Rowling, British writer

vu

“That’s what we storytellers do. We restore order with imagination. We instil hope again and again and again.” Walt Disney, American animator, writer and film producer

“Storytellers broaden our minds: engage, provoke, inspire, and ultimately, connect us.”

til

Robert Redford, American actor

n

“The most powerful person in the world is the storyteller. The storyteller sets the vision, values and agenda of an entire generation that is to come.”

Ku

Steve Jobs, American entrepreneur, inventor and media proprietor

5.81 Choose a film director or another storyteller you admire or find interesting. Find information about her or his career and illustrations of her or his work, and prepare a presentation. For advice, see this chapter.

Write

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe features of good storytelling YES

ALMOST

NO

present a storyteller YES

ALMOST

NO

explain and discuss quotes

5.82 Create a storyboard for a graphic text, an animated video or a film. Choose a story you know or make up a new one. Which techniques and visual and auditory effects would you use?

YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 241


What I Use at Work

Ku

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Hello, my name is Mary and I’m an IT developer. I work for a company that sells IT solutions to both private and public corporations and organizations. I analyse our customers’ needs and then design, test and develop software, applications and systems to meet those needs. Creating software programs is the most fun part of the job, but building the digital infrastructure and seeing that things actually work is also fascinating. Troubleshooting, when things don’t work, can be pretty frustrating. Needless to say, in my job I need computer skills, but also creativity, problem-solving skills and careful attention to detail. I spend most of my often long workdays in front of computer screens, but I have good colleagues and it is exciting to work with people who are as passionate about high-tech as myself.

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Hi, I’m Elvis and I work as a media designer in a small firm. In my job I plan, visualize and create different sorts of materials, for example for marketing, information campaigns and events. Also, sometimes a company comes to us because they want to create a certain look or corporate image. We make both printed and web-based products, and most of my tasks are done on computers. When designing a website or brochure I must capture the cultural and social appeal of the company and know how to address their specific target group. I need to stay updated on new trends, apps and technologies, and my knowledge about coding and style sheets is useful too. We normally work in teams, and I appreciate my talented, skilful and artistic colleagues. I love the creativity!


Read and understand

AIMS k talk about some professions in IT

and media k present a profession in a text or fact file

Practise

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5.84 Fill in the correct possessive pronouns. For information, see the Language Lab section. a Mary likes her computer. The computer is . b The design for the brochures was my idea. The idea was . c Was this software solution Elvis’s idea? Yes, the idea was . d We made it clear that these are our desks. The desks are .

g

5.83 Answer the questions. a What tasks does Mary do? b What does she particularly like about her job? c What tasks does Elvis do? d What does he like about his job?

Listen

vu

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5.85 Choose the correct quantifiers to complete the sentences. For information, see the Language Lab section. a Could I have some/any help, please? b They didn’t know if they had some/any brochures left. c Are there some/any cables we must replace? d You have every/any right to follow your dream. e We went through every/all website. f The IT technician had all/no idea what the problem was.

Speak

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5.86 “Media Technician” Listen to Kelly, who has specialized in modern surveillance technology. What does she think public video surveillance is good for? What does she think might be the problem with it?

Ku

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5.87 Imagine that you are interviewing the employees presented in the text about their jobs, tasks, equipment, working conditions and how they enjoy the work. Use your imagination and knowledge from this chapter and act out the conversations with a partner.

Write

5.88 Choose a profession in IT and media. Create a text or a fact file with illustrations where you describe and explain typical tasks and equipment for this job and explain whether you would want this job or not. Search vilbli.no for English names for the professions.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can talk about some professions in IT and media YES

ALMOST

NO

present a profession in a text or fact file YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools and Technology | 243


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise 5.89 After working with Chapter 5, it is time to revise what you have learnt.

g

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Assess your progress

e Explain what virtual reality is. f Which occupations are mentioned in this chapter? g Describe some of the challenges of working in the media industry. h Name some famous storytellers.

rd

a Leaf through the chapter. Which texts and tasks have you worked with? b Mention some computer-related tools and equipment in English. c List three items found in a computer. d Why is it useful to learn about graphic design?

vu

5.90 Turn to the first pages of this chapter and look at the ten words and phrases listed. In groups, discuss how they are relevant to this chapter and test each other on spelling and meaning. 5.91 In this chapter you have worked with topics that require a specialized vocabulary. Use the categories below to make a list of relevant words for these topics. Then describe what strategies you used for learning these words. You may want to check “Learning strategies” and “Tools for language learning” in Chapter 1 to jog your memory.

Hardware

Software

Graphic design

Photography

til

5.92 Useful qualities when working in IT and media are accuracy and creativity. a Find examples of tasks and situations where these qualities are important. b Based on your experience, do you consider yourself to be creative? Explain why or why not.

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5.93 Listening strategies a What do you do when you listen for overview? b In what situations do you need to listen for details? c What can you do before listening to a new text? d How is listening without face-to-face communication different from when you can see the speaker? 5.94 Giving an oral presentation a How should you start an oral presentation? b Why is structure important when giving a presentation? c How should you end your presentation? d How can you be a good listener when others are giving a presentation?

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills

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b •• Use facts from this chapter to write a brochure for young people about why to choose a job in IT and media production and how to prepare for the job. c ••• Why is it important that young people choose a profession in computer and media technology? Create a text where you reflect on and discuss the question above and explain your views by giving examples from texts and topics you have worked with this year.

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b •• There are many books, films and TV programmes about working in IT or media. Prepare an oral presentation in which you give some examples, give your opinion on why they have become popular, reflect on and discuss what you can learn from such films, books and programmes.

5.96 Write a • Write a list of the steps to consider when telling a story.

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5.95 Speak a • Choose a text from this chapter. Prepare a two-minute speech to a partner where you explain what the text is about and why your partner should read it.

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c ••• Spending long days working on computers can sometimes be challenging for our health. What are your thoughts on this matter? Make an oral presentation where you reflect on and discuss this.

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CHAPTER 6

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Going Pro


In this chapter you will focus on k communication with clients and customers

k tasks and titles in the

information and media industry

k IT and media in the future

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k writing a formal text

k discussing vocational topics

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k spelling and commonly confused words

customer teamwork reliability management confidentiality web design caption tech optimism cyber attack clean energy

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Useful words and phrases

What does it mean to be professional? Which innovations do you think will be the most important in the future?

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Customer Care

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Customers do not like being taken for granted and will leave if not satisfied. Even though most clients are friendly and pleasant, not all of them are easy to handle. Still, without them you would be out of work. Therefore, it is important to know how to handle customers in a good way, to make them happy and to make sure they come back.

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Before you start Which personal qualities are most important when dealing with customers or clients?

Listen First, it is important to work on your communication skills. Whether it is on the phone or across the counter, be an active listener, take notes and do not interrupt. To avoid misunderstandings, summarize what the client said and ask for details to clarify. Also, remember that there are all kinds of clients, including shy, nervous and angry ones. Do not lose your temper; try instead to show empathy and that you are interested and want to help. To calm down the situation, you can try: “I understand your frustration and will do my best to help.� Active listening is the first step to successful communication.

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Respond

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AIMS Good communication skills also involve how you respond and which words you use. When talking with k explain the importance of good customers, simplify your language when describing customer care your products and giving recommendations. To build k reflect on and discuss confidence, use words like definitely, absolutely and communication strategies certainly. This removes uncertainty from a conversation k use polite phrases in conversations and can calm down a customer complaining about a and texts job. Also, thank your customers for using your company. Do not, however, say “Thank you for your time” to customers who have been waiting for 20 minutes. In that case, thank them for their patience and understanding. Finally, saying “Sorry” or “Thanks” is not always enough. To make sure your customer will want to come back, offer a small special treat, or at least free coffee. Stay Calm

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At most workplaces there are days that are busier and more stressful than others, and clients that are more demanding than the average person. Handling stress is an important skill, and good customer care includes being able to communicate with all kinds of people. Keep your own emotional stress under control by taking a deep breath and relaxing your muscles, then focus on solving the task. Remember, do not take it personally if a customer is complaining about a job. Also, the customer is not “always right”, but the customer is always the customer, so keep calm, count to ten and smile.

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Build Trust

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Customers who return usually do so because they get what they pay for and have experienced that the company can be trusted. Be professional and show that you know what you are talking about. If you are in doubt, ask a colleague instead of giving bad advice or selling the wrong product. In case of complaint, do not blame it on your co-workers, just promise that you will look into the matter. You must also be careful with the kind of information you share with customers. Some details are classified, like product information or photos, and should be kept a business secret. The way you represent your company and handle customers and colleagues may help you get more responsibility or a leading position later. Poor customer service can do a lot of harm to a company. A happy client, however, will want to come back and may also recommend you to others. A friendly and service minded staff, taking their time to listen and help, is the key to success for any kind of business. Are you up to the challenge?

for granted or gitt/for gjeve counter disk clarify oppklare empathy medfølelse/ medkjensle simplify forenkle recommendation anbefaling confidence tillit demanding krevende/krevjande average middels solve løse/løyse complaint klage classified hemmelig/hemmeleg

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IN SHORT Customers like to be seen; if not, they may leave. It is important to know how to handle clients in a good way, to make sure they want to come back.

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Listen First, it is important to be an active listener. Take notes and ask for details to clarify. Also, show that you are interested and want to help.

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Respond When talking with customers, simplify your language when you explain your work. To build confidence, use words like absolutely and certainly. Also, thank your customers for using your company. To make sure your customer will want to come back, offer a treat, like free coffee.

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Stay Calm Some days at work can be stressful and clients can be demanding. To handle stress take a deep breath, relax your muscles and focus on the task. Do not take it personally if a customer complains about a job.

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Build Trust Customers return if they get what they pay for. Be professional and show that you know what you are talking about. If you are in doubt, ask a colleague for advice. In case of complaint, do not blame your co-workers. Also do not share business secrets. Poor customer service can do a lot of harm to a company. Happy clients often come back and may recommend you to others. A friendly staff is the key to success. Are you up to the challenge?

Read and understand

6.1 • Choose the word that is correct according to the text. a It is important to know how to handle/like/sell customers in a good way. b To be an active listener, take photos/a break/notes. c You may need to simplify your language when you recommend/ complain/explain your work. d To make sure your customer wants to come back, offer a key/treat/ complaint. e To handle stress, take a deep breath/task/doubt. f Do not take it stressful/demanding/personally if a customer complains. g Colleagues/Customers/Businesses return if they get what they pay for. h Poor customer service can do a lot of harm/complaint/challenge to a company.

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handle håndtere/handtere clarify forklare simplify forenkle confidence tillit treat godsak demanding krevende/krevjande complain klage doubt tvil complaint klage blame klandre co-worker kollega customer service kundeservice recommend anbefale staff ansatte/tilsette challenge utfordring

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6.3 ••• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What characterizes good communication with customers? b How do you handle complaints and angry customers? c What is important if you want to build trust? d What should you not say to or share with a customer?

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6.2 •• Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Customers don’t like to be taken …. b To avoid misunderstandings, summarize …. c Do not lose you temper; try instead to show …. d To build confidence, use words like …. e To make sure your customer will want to come back, …. f In case of complaint, do not blame …. g A happy client will want to ….

Practise

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6.4 Explain the following words in English. Look up words you don’t know. Which words describe good qualities when handling customers? a indifference e firm handshake b eloquence f confidentiality c adaptability g extrovert behaviour d open posture h patronizing comments 6.5 The phrases below are from conversations at work between Jane and her boss Michael at Mike's Media. Combine the polite phrases with the best answer. 1

Of course I can. I’ll get right to it.

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A Good morning, Jane. Nice to see you. B How are you?

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C Could you start working on the T-shirt ads this morning? D How much time do you need, do you think? E Good, don’t let me keep you. See you at lunch then. F Did you manage to finish the work on the t-shirt ads? G Well done, Jane! Now have your lunch, and I will look at the files. H You did a good job on those ads, Jane.

2 I did. It went really well. 3 Thank you, sir. I did my best.

4 Good morning, sir. 5 Thanks, I’m starving. 6 I’m fine, thanks. And you, sir? 7 Hopefully, I’ll be done before lunchtime. 8 Yes, till lunch, then.

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 251


6.6 Here are some useful phrases when talking on the telephone. Match each word with the correct sentence. line – please – day – message – call – speaking – put – repeat – spell – number

6.7 Discuss the questions below. a Have you ever been treated badly as a customer? Tell your fellow students about it. b In which ways do you, or people you know, communicate differently at work and in private life? Give examples of how you modify your language and behaviour in various situations. c Which of the following aspects to work do you think will be the greatest challenge for you in dealing with customers? Explain. • stress • confidentiality • active listening • demanding customers

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“If you do build a great experience, customers tell each other about that. Word of mouth is very powerful.”

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Damon Richards, Business Consultant

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“Your customers don't care how much you know until they know how much you care.”

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a Michael: Thank you for calling Mike's Media, Michael Brown . b Client: Hello, Mr Brown. Could you me through to Jane Jenkins, please? c Michael: Could you hold the , please? d Michael: I am afraid she is in a meeting right now. Would you like to leave a ? e Client: Could you tell her that Ms Krüger called? f Michael: Would you that for me, please? g Client: K R Ü G E R. And my is 356–22 567. h Michael: Could you the number, please? I Michael: Thanks, I will ask her to you back when she gets in. j Client: Thank you sir, and have a nice .

6.8 Use the scenes below and act out conversations, either as phone calls or dialogues across the counter. Work with a partner and take turns being the customer and the employee. a An angry customer demands to talk to the manager after buying a product that doesn’t work. b A friendly customer asks for prices and delivery times for various types of digital services. c A young, inexperienced and nervous person asks about a vacant position in a media business of your choice. d A very talkative and nosy customer asks about some newly developed apps that are not yet on the market.

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Jeff Bezos, CEO, Amazon.com

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6.9 English phonetic spelling is sometimes used to avoid misunderstanding when you spell names and addresses on the telephone. When you spell you say, for example, “A for Alpha”, “B for Bravo” and “C for Charlie”.

N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whisky X-ray Yankee Zulu

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Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M

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a Study this alphabet.

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b Work in pairs. Practise spelling your own names, addresses or other words.

Write

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6.10 Write a short text where you give advice about good customer care. Use the photo below for inspiration. How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the importance of good customer care YES

ALMOST

NO

reflect on and discuss communication strategies YES

ALMOST

NO

use polite phrases in conversation and texts YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 253


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A FORMAL TEXT In formal emails, you should be polite, keep your text short and use correct grammar, spelling and punctuation to avoid misunderstandings. Fill in the ­subject line

This will be shown in the list of messages in your recipient’s inbox and should say what your email is about.

2

Start your email with a greeting

“Dear Ms Nguyen”. If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, you write “Dear Sir/Madam”. If this is the first time you email someone, you would normally not write “Dear Louie” or “Hi Ricky”.

3

Say what your ­reference is

“Regarding the advertisement for … ”, “With reference to your ad … ”

4

Say what your ­purpose is­

“I request information about … ”, “I am writing to enquire about … ”

5

Ask for more ­information

“I would also like information about … ” “I would also like to know if … ”

6

Request action

“Please get back to me with … ”, “Could you please call me … ”, “I look forward to hearing from you.”

7 8

“Best wishes”, “Best regards”, “Many thanks”, “Yours sincerely”, “Yours End with an ­appropriate closing faithfully” are all phrases that can be used here.

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Your name

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1

1

Dear Mr Cairns,

2

I am writing with regard to the advertisement for Rick’s Driving School on Facebook. I will be 16 this year, have passed my learner’s test and would like to start driving lessons within the next few weeks. I would like information about availability, costs and any additional courses I should take. Driving lessons will need to take place before or after school and I would also like to know if that will be a problem.

3

Thank you for your help. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

6

Best regards, Charlotte Harper

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Subject: Driving lessons, request for information

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Inbox

254 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS

4 5


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 6.11 Decide whether the phrases below belong in a formal or an informal text. e To whom it may concern, f Hugs, g Sort it out! Now! h You won’t get away with this, you know.

g

Dear Mummy! We would like to place an immediate order. Yours faithfully, Kindly adhere to the terms of the agreement.

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a b c d

6.12 Place the sentences below in the correct order so that they become a text.

To: buybest.com

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a I would therefore like to request a replacement, or a full refund. b Sincerely, Neil Gallagher c I finally received the cell phone on November 10th. The packaging appeared to be undamaged, so I opened the parcel, but soon noticed that the screen was broken. d Dear Sirs, e I have spoken to representatives of the shipping company in question. They assured me that if the box is undamaged, it must be an issue with the manufacturer. f Thank you for your kind cooperation. Please contact me at your earliest convenience. g Your terms clearly stated that it would be delivered to my home address within 10 business days. After three weeks I had still not received it. Further to my enquiry, an associate claimed that delivery would only be a matter of days. h I bought a cell phone from your online retailers, buybest.com on October 12th. My confirmation number is SF2341PC.

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Outbox

6.13 Answer these questions. a Who wrote the text in the task above? b What has this person bought? c What is the problem? d What would the writer of this email like to happen now? 6.14 Give at least three examples of phrases which show that this is a formal text. SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 255


Help Desk

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The help desk industry is growing fast, as more and more people use computers for an increasing number of tasks. Here, some help desk employees explain what they think is important or like about their work.

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“Working on a help desk really challenges my patience at times, but I also feel that I really make a difference, that I help people who are lost or at least at a loss for how to handle a specific technical problem.”

Anna, 23

Sam, 25

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“I must have a positive approach to problem-solving, try to work ‘with’ and not ‘for’ the customers, show them respect and still be clear and creative. So, even if some of them can be pretty impatient, even rude, I must try not to be patronizing.”

“I like the troubleshooting part of my job, the ‘detective-like’ investigations into a problem. Sometimes it is hardware trouble, other times software, but very often it is human error, and a step by step approach, eliminating possible faults, is fun.”

“I think customers appreciate talking to a living person, not just meeting a chatbot when they have technical problems. And to be helpful, I really need to stay updated and constantly develop my skills. Luckily, I am a computer geek, so I usually know my stuff.”

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Ranveer, 22

256 | Chapter 6: Going Pro | SKILLS

Julie, 20


AIMS k reflect on how help desk workers

Read and understand

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6.15 Answer the questions. a Who enjoys “detective work”? b Who is happy about making a difference? c Who tries to cooperate with the customers? d Who is most concerned about skills and competence? e Which of the aspects of working at a help desk do you think you would appreciate most?

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communicate with clients k use vocabulary related to tech support k create a chatbot conversation

Speak

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6.16 Read the following conversations in pairs and discuss the questions. a What is the problem in each situation? b What skills are required from the support person in each scene? c What would you say to each of the customers?

Customer: “I have a very big problem!” Tech Support: “Well sir, what can I do for you?” Customer: “Well, I just got my system today, and my friend installed a screen saver, and it comes up fine … BUT EVERY TIME I MOVE THE MOUSE IT GOES AWAY!!!!!!!”

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Customer: “So, is there a spray I can buy for my computer?” Tech support: “Er, I beg your pardon?” Customer: “You know, a spray – one that I can spray the inside of my computer with.” Tech support: “What sort of spray are we talking about here?” Customer: “Well, I was hoping that there would be a spray that would kill all the viruses.” Tech support: “Aaaah … ummm … you mean like a bug spray? For computer viruses?” Customer: “Yes! Would that help?” Tech support: “I’m really very sorry, but nobody makes anything like that. Computer viruses are just a name we give to malicious software. We use the word ‘virus’ because it explains how the software behaves.” Customer: “So … no spray then?”

Help desk: “Your password is the small letter a as in apple, a capital letter V as in Victor, the number 7…” Customer: “Is that 7 in capital letters?”

Help desk: “Are you sure you used the right password?” Customer: “Yes, I’m sure. I saw my colleague do it.” Help desk: “Can you tell me what the password was?” Customer: “Five stars.”

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 257


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6.17 Discuss the questions in groups. a Have you ever called a help desk for tech support? What was it like? b Why do people call help desks? List reasons. c What kinds of skills are required for help desk workers? d What do the dialogues in the previous task show about the various levels of competence and experience among customers who contact help desks and the importance of being able to adjust instructions accordingly?

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6.18 “Welcome to Hell” Listen to the following conversation between an employee at a hightech service centre and a calling customer. What turns out to be the problem? What makes this an example of good customer care?

Practise

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6.19 Look for the “odd one out”, the word that does not fit in on each line. Explain why it does not fit and what the others have in common. trouble shooting – calling – rebooting – installing

b

printer – projector – pencil – photocopier

c

Word – YouTube – Excel – PowerPoint

d

virus – worm – butterfly – Trojan horse

e

file – document – program – cable

f

employer – friend – employee – customer

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6.20 Fill in the words in the correct spaces in the text. food – take – simulate – standardized – on – business – visitors – in A chatbot is an artificial intelligence program that is used to independently communicate with to a website through a live chat customer service window. Chatbots are designed to real-time, human conversation. They can be customized to specific fields of and to perform various services, like order inquiries, complaints, hotel check , take away orders and so much more. The chatbots respond with accurate, predefined answers, based keyword recognition. A chatbot normally handles simple, tasks. If complicated issues or questions occur, it will notify the staff for them to over.

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I am sorry to hear about that. May I have your order number?

DH139081

Your order no. DH139081 has been dispatched.

Please let us know if it still hasn’t arrived in the next 5 working days.

Ok, I see, thank you.

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Knowledge Base Domain specific source content which the bot accesses and then determines the correct knowledge to serve to the end user

rd

N.L.P.

Data Storage Interaction history, monitoring and analytics (helps make responses more effective)

I am still waiting for the things I purchased from you weeks ago!

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Natural Language Processing recieves message and fetches appropriate response

Hello, how can I help you?

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6.21 You have been asked to design a chatbot for a company of your choice. In pairs, decide on the type of services the chatbot will perform. Then write a list of questions, answers and other types of responses your chatbot will be programmed with. Use the illustrations for for ideas. You may also find chatbot conversation-builder tips online to help you get started.

Write

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6.22 Many companies have outsourced their support services to India or other low-cost countries. The film Outsourced explores some of the challenges connected to this phenomenon. Watch the trailer or the film. What are the reasons why companies choose to outsource online services and what may be challenging?

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6.23 You are unhappy with the service you received when calling a help desk recently and decide to write an email to the company to complain. Use your imagination and advice on writing formal texts in this chapter and write the email.

Did you know

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can reflect on how help desk workers communicate with clients YES

ALMOST

NO

use vocabulary related to tech support

The most frequent reasons why people call IT support are email setup and activation of mobile devices, followed by application support on work devices and helping employees who are locked out of devices. Only a few years ago password reset was among the most common problems, but today such problems are solved with software.

YES

ALMOST

NO

create a chatbot conversation YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 259


FACT FILE FACT FILE Web Design

g

Web design is an important field that requires skill and creativity. Whether you want to set up your own webpage or you work for a company that sells web page concepts, there are important elements and features you should know about.

Mobile friendly

A website should work as well on a mobile phone as on a computer, so create a mobile-friendly version of your site, with fewer page elements and a smaller scale for images and logos.

til

Design

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Before you start, decide what idea and identity you want to communicate. A webpage must be easy to understand and functional. Keep it clean and clear to get your core message out immediately. Visitors normally scan pages, and focus mostly on a few words and images, so they should understand what your website is about as soon as possible without having to click or scroll. Keep the text short and to the point, in bite-sized, legible paragraphs.

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Short and simple

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Websites can have many different visual looks. They can be classy, minimalistic, playful, modern, etc. An important principle of web design is a visual hierarchy that helps lead the attention to certain elements on the page. Use large and bold titles to highlight business names, logos and headings. Also, spread your content: white space or blank areas give a balanced impression. Choose colours, images and fonts that appeal to emotions, and use high-quality media features like nice pictures, vector images or icons. Pictures of people stand out, but make sure they give the impression of being "real people", as stock photos often seem less genuine and therefore do not build trust. Other features that attract attention are contrast colours and arrows to highlight links and buttons. Finally, strips, columns and grids are web design elements that create a strong visual hierarchy and help steer the visitor’s eyes in the right direction.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Navigation

Readability

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The content of a website should be easy to read, so choose a type of font/ typography without serifs. Limit the number of fonts to not more than 3 different typefaces to ensure a well-organized impression. Create a hierarchy varied in size, with a large title, smaller subheadings and even smaller fonts on body text, but avoid smaller than 16pt. Furthermore, make sure there is sufficient contrast between the text and background colour; if in doubt, use an online contrast checker. As far as language is concerned, choose words and a sentence structure that visitors can scan or skim effortlessly to get easy access to the information. If you organize text in lists, note that people tend to remember the first and last words, but often forget the ones in the middle, so make sure the most important information is placed at the top or the bottom.

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A webpage should be easy to navigate, so create a path that guides users through your site. A classic horizontal menu works well. The content should have a vertical navigation with a “back to top” button at the end. Users like scrolling more than clicking, so put the whole text in one long page and avoid carousels and rotating sliders. Do not include too many click options at the top of the page, since the visitors then may leave your site before reading anything. Instead, add a footer with important links, contact information and social media share and follow icons at the bottom. Place the most important content first, above the fold (the visible part of a webpage without scrolling). Include call-toaction (CTA) buttons to encourage readers to perform the action you want them to (join, buy…), but not more than one per page. Finally, speed is crucial: if your webpage is too slow, visitors leave before they get the message, so invest in good software. Web Design Standards

Placement of features on the top 50 marketing websites

100%

44% 88% 80% 76%

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Logo in the top left ...................... Contact in the top right ............... Main navigation in the header .... Value proposition up high ........... Call to action up high .................. Slideshow on the homepage ...... Search in the header .................. Email sign up in the header ........ Social media icons in the header Social media icons in the footer Responsive web design ...............

32%

54%

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24% 26%

72% 68%

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What is the most important factor in the design of a website? 10% Beautiful appearance 9% Cutting edge interactive experience 5% Other 76% Easy to find what I want

Websites should be visually appealing, but what is most important is that visitors find what they are looking for.

core kjerne legible leselig/leseleg hierarchy rangsordning font skrifttype genuine ekte strip her: stripe grid rutenett readability lesbarhet/lesbarheit typeface skrifttype subheading undertittel footer bunntekst

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FACT FILE FACT FILE AIMS

Read and understand

6.24 • Write ten keywords to sum up the main content from the fact file.

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k use vocabulary related to web design k discuss web pages

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6.25 •• Explain what the fact file says about the following. a colours and photos b typography and language c scrolling and footers d mobile phones

Practise

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2

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6.26 Study the webpage and match the words with the correct number. Use the words to write a description of the webpage. f background colour a icon / company logo g horizontal navigation menu c heading h search bar d illustration i call-to-action button e body text

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7

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We are proud to announce that we are nominated for the Beazley Designs of the Year! See the work that got us in this prestigious company here:

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3

4


FACT FILE FACT FILE UX (or user experience) design is a multidisciplinary field, relating to any type of interaction a user has with a service or a product, for example online. Knowledge about visitors' habits and preferences can help designers create and adapt webpages to improve user experience. For example, visitors tend to spend 80% of their time above the fold, and stand-out colours on CTA buttons receive 60% more clicks.

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6.27 Choose a webpage for a company, brand, sports club, artist or something else you find interesting. Then, in groups, present the webpages and discuss to what extent they follow the advice on design, readability and navigation from the fact file. Do they also have a mobilefriendly version?

Did you know

g

Speak

Explore

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6.28 Discuss the questions. a What do you think is most important to remember when designing a webpage? b What typography and design elements do you prefer? c Why is it important to avoid too much information and too many different elements on a webpage? d What is a call-to-action button? Give examples. e What is a target group and why is it important to know about this when designing webpages? Choose three different target groups and discuss how you would adapt a webpage to the various groups. f What is your opinion of your school’s webpage? Would you change anything? Give examples.

til

6.29 There are many online tutorial videos about web design. Choose one and watch it. Does it contain more ideas or other advice than the ones in the fact file? Share in groups.

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6.30 Find examples of a well designed webpage and one you think should be improved. Make a short presentation where you compare the two and explain why you think one is better than the other.

Ku

Write

6.31 You have been asked to design a webpage for a brand or firm of your choice. a • Make an outline for the webpage, with keywords and suggested illustrations. b •• Create the webpage. c ••• Create the webpage and write a short text where you comment on and explain your choices.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can use vocabulary related to web design YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss web pages YES

ALMOST

NO

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My not so Perfect Life

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The novel “My not so Perfect Life” (2017) explores what really goes on behind our perfect social media feeds. Katie has the perfect life: a flat in London, a glamorous job and a super-cool Instagram feed… OK, it’s not exactly a flat – just a tiny room – and the job? Well… Tired after her long commute home from work, she discovers that Alan, one of her weird flatmates, has filled the hall with cardboard boxes with vanilla flavoured whey, as he is planning to add to his unstable web designer income with online sales. Katie gets no support from her other flatmate, grumpy Anita, who is going away for a while. Anyway, I think as I turn away, who cares? Because I’m having lunch with Alex Astalis! Already my spirits are lifting again. It’s all good. I’ll have some supper and then go on Instagram – What? I’m standing, aghast, at the door to the kitchen. It’s a sea of boxes. The whole floor is covered, two-deep. Boxes are blocking the bottom cupboards. And the freezer. And the oven. ‘Alan!’ I yell furiously. I head back to his door and pound on it. ‘What’s going on in the kitchen!’

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‘What?’ As Alan opens the door, he has a belligerent AIMS look. ‘I couldn’t fit it all in the hall. It’s only temporary, till I sell it.’ ‘But-’ k explain what the text is about ‘This is my business, OK? Could you try supporting it?’ k use vocabulary related to social media He shuts the door, and I glare at it. But there’s no point trying again. And I’m starving. k discuss the media and handling of data I return to the kitchen and cautiously step on to the top layer of boxes. They’re so high, my head is nearly brushing the ceiling. I feel like Alice in bloody Wonderland. Surely this is a fire hazard? An everything hazard. Perilously teetering on the cardboard, I just about manage to open the fridge, get out two eggs, and put them on the hob, which is around the level of my knees. At that moment, I get an Instagram private message from Fi, my best friend from uni. I only talk to Fi on Instagram these days; I think she’s forgotten there’s any other way to communicate.

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Hi! How’s it going? Sun’s shining in Washington Sq Park. God I love this place. It’s great even in winter. Having soy lattes with Dane and Jonah, I told you about them? They are HILARIOUS! You have to come visit!

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She’s attached a selfie in what I assume is Washington Square Park (I’ve never been to New York). The sky is vivid blue and her nose is pink, and she’s laughing at something out of shot. And I can’t help feeling a small wrench inside. Living in New York was always Fi’s aim, just like mine was to live in London. It became a running joke between us at uni – trying to persuade each other to switch allegiance. One Christmas I bought her a Big Ben snow globe and Fi got me an inflatable Statue of Liberty. It was a game. But now it’s real. After graduation, I headed towards London in my roundabout way, while Fi moved to New York to do an internship. And she’s never come back. She’s totally in love with the city, and she really has got a crew of quirky friends, who live in the West Village and rollerblade and go antiquing at markets every weekend. She posts pictures all the time and she’s even started writing in American spelling. I mean, I’m glad for her. Really, I am. But sometimes I imagine how it would have been if she’d come to London instead. We could have shared a flat… everything would have been different… Anyway. There’s no point feeling wistful. I quickly message back. All good here! Was just hanging out with Alan and Anita, we have such a laugh!!! London life is crazy fun!!!

I bend down to stir my eggs, nearly cricking my back. And I’m about to add some cayenne pepper when –

whey type proteinpulver aghast forskrekket/forskrekka pound hamre belligerent hissig temporary midlertidig/ mellombels glare glane sint perilous farefylt teeter vakle hob kokeplate uni = university universitet hilarious kjempemorsom vivid livlig/livleg out of shot utenfor kamera/ utanfor kamera wrench stikk, smerte allegiance troskap/truskap inflatable oppblåsbar internship praktikantstilling quirky snål, rar wistful vemodig crick få kink i

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pouch pose fug stank vile ekkel plonk slenge seg, bumse nedpå hammock hengekøye seethe her: være sint/vere sint swoop stupe disclosure avsløring

‘Aaargh!’ I hear myself cry out before I realize what’s happened. The box beneath me has given way. I’m knee-deep in pouches of whey. And some of them must have burst, because white powder is floating up in the most revolting vanilla fug. ‘What’s happened?’ Alan must have heard my scream, because he’s already at the door of the kitchen, glowering. ‘Are you damaging my whey?’ ‘No, your whey’s damaging me!’ I yell. One of my ankles does actually feel a bit twisted. And the cloud of whey powder is coating my eggs, I suddenly notice. Which is vile. But I can’t make anything else – all my other food is trapped in the freezer. And I’m so hungry. […] Somehow I manage to retrieve my foot and crawl cautiously back over the boxes to the kitchen door, with my plate of eggs balanced in one hand. […] I head to my room, shut the door and plonk myself on my single bed. My room is so small, there isn’t any room for a cupboard, so I keep all my stuff in a kind of hammock thing slung over my bed. (That’s why I wear a lot of non-iron clothes. Plus they’re cheap.) I sit cross-legged on the bed, put a forkful of scrambled eggs in my mouth and shudder at the hideous synthetic vanilla flavour. I need to stop seething. I need to calm down and be Zen. I will therefore distract myself. I find my Instagram account, consider for a moment, then post a picture of the Shard, with the caption: Another amazing day, balancing work, play and not much rest!! Then I find a gorgeous photo of a hot chocolate with marshmallows, which I took the other day. It wasn’t actually my hot chocolate, it was on an outside table at a café in Marylebone. The girl had gone to the Ladies’ and I swooped in for a picture. OK, full disclosure: I stalk expensive cafés for Instagram pictures. Is there anything wrong with that? I’m not saying I drank the hot chocolate. I’m saying, Look: hot chocolate! If people assume it was mine… well, that’s up to them. I post it up with a simple caption: Yum!!! and a few moments later, a new message comes in from Fi. Life in London sounds a blast!

I shoot back a reply: It totally is!!! Then for good measure, I add: Guess what, I have a date tomorrow…!

I know that’ll get her attention, and sure enough her reply comes ten seconds

later. A DATE?? Spill!!!

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Just seeing her reaction makes me glow. […] I know it’s just lunch. But still. Every relationship starts off with just something, doesn’t it? Like, Romeo and Juliet started off with just falling madly in love with each other at first sight. OK. Bad example. I add emojis of a cocktail glass and a smiley face and then – just for fun – I add a love heart. I send the message, sit back and take another bite of the horrible eggs. Then, on impulse, I scroll back through my previous Instagram posts, looking at the photos of London cafés, sights, drinks and smiling faces (mostly strangers). The whole thing is like a feel-good movie, and what’s wrong with that? Loads of people use coloured filters or whatever on Instagram. Well, my filter is the this-is-how-I’d-like-to-be filter. It’s not that I lie. I was in those places, even if I couldn’t afford a hot chocolate. It’s just I don’t dwell on any of the not-so-great stuff in my life, like the commute or the prices or having to keep all my stuff in a hammock. Let alone vanilla-whey-coated eggs and obnoxious flatmates. And the point is, it’s something to aspire to, something to hope for. One day my life will match my Instagram posts. One day! Sophie Kinsella

Sophie Kinsella (1969 - ) is a British writer whose real name is Madeleine Sophie Wickham. At 24, she wrote her first novel which became an instant best-seller. Her books have been translated into 40 languages and have sold millons of copies around the world.

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6.32 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a Katie lives in a small and shares a kitchen with two other . b When she comes home from work, the and the kitchen are filled with boxes. c Katie opens the and takes out two that she fries for dinner. d She receives an message from her friend Fi who lives in . e Katie answers that she is having fun with her flatmates, Alan and , and that London life is . f While eating her eggs, Katie checks her Instagram , and posts a of the Shard. g Katie takes pictures of London and smiling to pretend she has a perfect life. h She hopes that one day her life will her Instagram .

6.33 •• Based on the information in the text, what is your impression of the following? a Katie’s life and her relationship to social media. b Katie’s flatmate Alan and his storage of boxes in their flat. c Katie’s friend Fi, and her Instagram activity. d Katie’s this-is-how-I’d-like-to-be filter. SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 267


6.34 Match the emojis with a suitable caption. a This makes me sooo angry! b Congratulations! c Feeling so embarrassed right now. d I feel really sick today. e I am so sorry to hear about this. f I’m tired, need to sleep.

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6.35 Match the words with the correct synonym or definition. Then use the words to write sentences. A aghast 1 knock very hard B perilous 2 be angry C temporary 3 stare angrily D quirky 4 very funny E pound 5 weird F seethe 6 shocked G hilarious 7 sad H glare 8 for a while I obnoxious 9 dangerous J wistful 10 disgusting

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6.36 Fill in the word in the correct spaces in the text about data. by – clear – access – bought – firm – up – giving – support Cambridge Analytica was a British-based political consulting that used sensitive data analysis to create communication plans for political candidates. They created a Facebook survey that gave the firm to the data of all the people that took the survey, and then stole data about their friends as well. They ended with user information for about 50 million Facebook users, and used this data to, amongst other things, influence the “persuadable” voters to Trump in the 2016 elections. The Great Hack (2019) is a Netflix documentary that shows how the company got access to data and used it to manipulate people, through Behaviour Change Strategy or microtargeting. It becomes that the most valuable resource on our planet today is not oil or gold but data about people, institutions and companies. For example, a health insurance company would want data on the food and clothing size purchased their clients, and advertisers would be interested in likes, clicks and purchases of potential customers. Such information can be from Google analytics, a service that tracks and reports website traffic. Luckily, governments and other institutions and individuals are working hard to ensure data protection laws and data rights of individuals. Still, users are often fooled into away sensitive information by clicking: “I accept”.

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Did you know

Algorithms are sets of instructions that are used as specifications for data processing, performing calculations, automated reasoning, and many other tasks. Algorithms are at the heart of just about everything in the digital world, from traffic management and automated dishwashers to search engines, social media feeds, security and encryption.

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6.37 Find 13 social media-related words in the grid. Then use each word in a sentence.

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6.38 Discuss the questions. a Why do some social media apps and websites become instant global phenomena? Which factors make them so successful? b What do you think is the main objective for developers of social media sites and apps? Use some you know yourself as examples. c A number of former employees from well-known social media networks have warned against how their algorithms are designed to collect data about the users, e.g. their interests and habits. Should we be concerned about this? Explain. d Do you always read the terms and conditions when you download a new app or sign up for an account on a social media site? Why/why not? e Do developers of social media apps and sites have an ethical responsibility? Find arguments for and against and discuss. Follow the guidelines in “Discussing Vocational Topics” in this chapter.

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6.39 Compare texts. a Compare the information in the text "It's a Wonderful, Digital world?" in Chapter 3 and «My not so Perfect Life». What do the two texts have in common? What types of texts are they? Share views in small groups. b If you were to write a text in the exam about social media, how could you use these texts and related tasks? Discuss.

Write

6.40 If you were to visit London or New York, where would you go and what would you do? Make a poster with ten photos and captions that sum up your ideal trip.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the text is about YES

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6.41 Start following an English language newspaper on social media. After a week, discuss what you have learned. SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 269


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS DISCUSSING VOCATIONAL TOPICS

Source Vocational education and training is designed to produce skilled tradespeople. In coming years there will be a great need for workers with this kind of training in both the private and the public sectors.

Referring to experts, institutions or people of authority is likely to give added weight to your arguments.

By 2030, there will be a need for more than 300,000 employees with a vocational background from upper secondary school, and 300,000 with a shorter higher education. This is evidenced by a comprehensive study from Statistics Norway (ssb).

Claim

“More workers with vocational training will be needed in the future, says the government’s webpage.”

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Find arguments Information can often be found as statistics and contain numbers. Using these in a discussion shows that what you say can be trusted.

Source: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/

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Discussing vocational topics means practising skills that are useful both for language learning now and in your professional life later. To discuss meaningfully it is necessary to use relevant and valid arguments. You will easily find a lot of information, but you must often turn this into arguments and claims yourself. The ability to listen to others and understand their viewpoints is also important in a discussion.

“According to Statistics Norway, this country will soon need more than 300,000 employees with a vocational background.”

“I didn’t quite catch what you said. Could you please repeat … ” “Could you please explain what … ”

Respond to the arguments of others

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Listen carefully Phrases you can use when you want a speaker To respond to what to clarify what he or she means. other people say in a discussion, you need to remember what is said. Write down key words to help you concentrate while listening.

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Source: https://karrierestart.no/karrierevalg/607-de-sikreste-yrkene-­ for-fremtiden

Put forward your own views

You can agree absolutely and offer further support or evidence.

“In addition to what Sarah said about people choosing traditionally, statistics show that …”

You can disagree respectfully and explain why.

“I see what you mean, but I still think …”

You can point out something that you think the speaker has overlooked.

“What about …?”, “Have you thought about …?”

When a discussion is more about exploring a topic than reaching a conclusion, you may want to use phrases to express the fact that your mind is not already made up.

“I wonder if …” “It seems to me that …” “Maybe it is the case that …” “I think it might be that …” “I think that …” “I don’t think that …” “In my opinion …”

When you want to forcefully state your opinion, you can be more direct.

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“People should …”


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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Education academics Thjis Bol and Herman van de Werfhorst used the data from 29 countries, including the UK, to study the impact of vocational qualifications on employment. They found that countries that enabled young people to study for highly specific vocational qualifications while still at school typically had much lower rates of youth unemployment than countries whose students did solely academic subjects. Young people in these countries also spent less time looking for work when between jobs.

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TAFE (technical and further education) vs University

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6.42 Use the information from Australia on the right and develop five arguments for why young people should choose vocational education and training (VET) instead of university.

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of university students take 4+ years to complete their degrees compared to VET students

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of the highest growth jobs in the next five years only need a VET qualification

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/ jan/21/snobbery-vocational-academic-educationopportunities-children

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6.44 Use the arguments from the tasks above. Work in small groups. Take turns reading your arguments aloud and referring to them. Use phrases such as: “As Thea just said …”, “According to Anders …”, “Ariba claims that …”

Source:

https://www.tafecourses.com.au/ resources/tafe-is-better-than-universityand-heres-why/

6.45 Make a list of arguments for and against the claim “A vocational education is a good idea”. Then discuss the topic in groups. Remember to refer to each other’s arguments.

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 271


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Before you start Are you optimistic or pessimistic about the current technological developments? Discuss.

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Yes to Tech Optimism. And Pessimism. BY SHIRA OVIDE. THE NEW YORK TIMES, SEPT. 1, 2020

I recently made a promise to myself, and I would like you to join me. When I consider something new bubbling up in technology, I have vowed not to get overly excited about either its potential benefits or its downsides. I know nuance is rare these days, but please join me in the vast zone of complexity between “wow, cool!” and “that won’t work” or “that’s evil!” I want to live in those shades of gray.

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I’ve been thinking about this gray zone because of two things: a tweet and Elon Musk.

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Sriram Krishnan, a technology executive whom I k discuss high-tech challenges and innovations respect, tweeted a few days ago asking for more optimistic descriptions in movies and television of k present an idea for concept development people building technology. He didn’t put it quite this way, but I imagined he wanted less fiction like “The Circle,” about a surveillance-state corporate cult, and more like “Iron Man,” in which a tech nerd cobbles together a suit that saves his life and gives him superhero powers. I get what Krishnan is saying, and there’s a bigger meaning behind it. Right now, there’s a lot of pessimism about the harm of social media, the creepiness of digital surveillance of our smartphones and our faces and the nefarious power of tech giants.

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Those downers sometimes drown out the ways that we know technology has made many of our lives immeasurably better. Both “The Circle” and “Iron Man” encompass some form of reality, but it’s easy to see technology as either one or the other. You could see that in reactions to Musk’s flashy demonstration […] of brainimplanted computer chips that he hopes may someday help combat serious health conditions like strokes and spinal cord injuries.

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Musk is a master showman, and every time he does an act about an underground car tunnel in Los Angeles or bulletproof electric pickup trucks, there is the same reaction: Some people say he is making amazing and life-changing innovations. And other people say that Musk’s promises are unproven and unoriginal hype.

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I can’t predict what happens with Musk’s Neuralink company. Musk has repeatedly promised technology that doesn’t pan out or that seems pointless. His companies have also helped advance electric cars, enabled commercial space travel and forced the entire auto industry to rethink what cars combined with computers can do. Sometimes the doubters are right about Musk. But so are the cheerleaders. That’s why I want both “The Circle” and “Iron Man.” I don’t know how to get the balance right, but it’s worth starting by acknowledging that both sunny and grumpy people have a point.

vow love overly altfor benefit nytte downside bakside, ulempe executive leder/leiar corporate bedriftscobble her: lappe nefarious ondskapsfull/ vondskapsfull downer grinebiter/grinebitar immeasurable grenseløs/ grenselaus encompass inneholde/ innehalde spinal cord ryggmarg pan out lykkes/lykkast enable muliggjøre/mogleggjere acknowledge anerkjenne Eeyore Tussi humility ydmykhet/ audmjukskap

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We need tech optimists to shoot for the moon – literally, in Musk’s case. But I sometimes think tech companies also need to give more voice to chief pessimism officers who ask, what if this technology doesn’t work? Who might be harmed by this technology, and how can we prevent that? And do we need this at all? Give those Eeyores a corner office.

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The tech downers and the “Iron Man”-loving optimists need each other more than ever. Technology is not something that exists in a bubble; it is a phenomenon that changes how we live or how our world works in ways that help and hurt. That calls for more humility and bridges across the optimism-pessimism divide from people who make technology, those of us who write about it, government officials and the public. We need to think on the bright side. And we need to consider the horribles.

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In a tweet, technology expert Sriram Krishnan asked for more optimistic descriptions in movies and television of people building technology. Right now, there’s a lot of pessimism about social media, digital surveillance and the power of tech giants. These pessimists forget that technology has also made our lives much better.

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excited begeistret/begeistra build bygge surveillance overvåking/ overvaking power makt giant her: storbedrift brain-implanted operert inn i hjernen cure kurere innovation nyvinning unproven ikke bevist/ikkje bevist predict forutse/føresjå pan out lykkes/lykkast advance fremskynde, fremme/ framskunde, fremme doubter tviler/tvilar cheerleaders heiagjeng bridge bro/bru divide kløft the public folket

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I have decided never to be too excited or too critical about new technology. I want to stay somewhere between “wow, cool!” and “that won’t work”. This is because of two things: a tweet and Elon Musk.

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We saw this when Musk presented the brain-implanted computer chips that may help cure serious health conditions. Musk is a showman, and when he presents new technology, some people say he is making amazing innovations. And other people say his promises are unproven. I can’t predict what happens with Musk’s Neuralink company. Not all his technology pans out. But he has helped advance electric cars, space travel and computers in cars. Sometimes the doubters are right, but so are the cheerleaders. We need tech optimists, but I think tech companies also need pessimists who ask, what if this doesn’t work? And do we need this at all? Technology changes our lives and our world in ways that help and hurt. We need bridges across the optimism-pessimism divide for those who make technology, those who write about it, government officials and the public. We need to see the bright side and the horribles.

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6.46 • Decide whether these sentences are true or false. Then correct the false ones. The writer thinks it is important to always be critical about new technology.

b

She refers to two things: an Instagram post and Elon Musk.

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Sriram Krishnan wanted more optimistic films about building technology.

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6.47 •• Answer the questions. a What has inspired Shira Ovide to write the opinion piece? b What is the message in Sriram Krishnan’s tweet? c Which two films does Shira Ovide refer to in her text, and what are these films about? d What has caused the pessimism towards technology that we see today? e What seems to be Shira Ovide’s opinion about Elon Musk’s innovations? Give examples. f Why is high-tech optimism important? g Why shoould the high-tech industry listen to the pessimists? What should their role be? h What is Shira Ovide’s message in the text?

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6.48 ••• Study the quotes from the text, reflect on what the writer means and give examples to support your views. a Technology has made many of our lives immeasurably better. b Technology is not something that exists in a bubble. c That calls for more humility.

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6.49 Choose the correct word in each sentence. See the Language Lab section for information on commonly confused words. a My sister likes her/here new laptop. b The writer wants a future were/where optimists work with pessimists. c The film is popular because of its/it’s special effects. d The companies share they’re/their information. e Musk talked about he’s/his innovation. f We try to protect our/hour smartphones. SKILLS | Chapter 6: Going Pro | 275


6.50 Match the words from the text with the correct person in the photo, A or B.

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6.51 Concept development is an important part of modern technology. In pairs, decide on a media concept or a concept for a new app. Use relevant sources and tools to create a presentation of your concept, live or on film. Follow the steps from the illustration below. For advice on oral presentations, see Chapter 5. Remember to be optimistic about your concept.

A concept is a broad, general approach to achieving a goal. It is an umbrella under which many ideas can be gathered, but also a compass that gives directions, like “How should we market this project? How should we communicate with our target audience?� The steps in concept development are:

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6.52 In pairs or groups, decide who are going to be grumpy pessimists and who are the optimistic cheerleaders. Then act out a discussion where you present your views on some of the topics below. See advice on discussing vocational topics in this chapter. a digital surveillance of smartphones e the surveillance state b the power of high-tech giants f cars run by computers c brain-implanted computer chips g Elon Musk's SpaceX d facial recognition in surveillance technology h the Iron Man film

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6.53 “Hacking Humans” Listen to this excerpt from 21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari. Study the following questions first, and take notes as you listen. a Why is it important to know what you want in life, according to the author? b How do biotechnology, machine learning and algorithms work and how do they influence you? c What are the two options concerning your personal existence and future life? d What is the message in this text? What is your opinion of it?

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6.54 The Circle (2017) is a film about high-tech surveillance. Watch the trailer and read reviews to find out more about the plot, themes and message of the film. Does it seem realistic? Is it a film you would like to watch? Discuss in class.

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6.55 Look for information about weapons-grade communication techniques, psychographics (PSYOPS) and SCL Defence. Write key words and share in groups.

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6.56 In 1949 British writer George Orwell published the novel Nineteen Eighty-four, a dystopian science fiction story of warfare, violation of human rights and surveillance, set in 1984. The phrase “Big Brother is watching you” is from this novel. Look for more information about the novel and discuss whether Orwell was right when predicting the surveillance state. Work in pairs.

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6.57 What is the GDPR – General Data Protection Regulation? Look for definitions and examples.

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6.58 • Do you agree with Shira Ovide’s views that we need both optimists and pessimists in the world of technology? Write a text where you share your opinion and give examples. 6.59 •• Do you share the view that there should be more optimistic descriptions in movies and television of people building technology? Discuss and present ideas. 6.60 ••• Write a creative text about technological challenges, cyber security or digital surveillance. Choose a genre and feel free to use your imagination. You may find inspiration in the text and tasks above.

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OX1 Mazie G could feel someone looking at her. It was already past 8 PM and she knew for a fact that she was alone in the lab, but the feeling of being watched was too strong to shake. She removed her headphones and got up from the old couch she’d been lounging on while trying to solve a particularly vexing coding problem. The lights were dim, the air was still, and there were no sounds except the hum coming from the cooling fans of about a hundred computers, large and small, spread out all over the room. She scanned the lab, but nothing seemed out of place, or different. It was a hyper-modern space, filled with a form of organized computer hardware chaos that only true IT geeks could love. There were no windows, but one whole wall was covered in an experimental wallpaper that could be programmed like a digital display. It was showing a live image from the rim of the Grand Canyon at night, creating the illusion that it was possible to step out of the lab and fall into the chasm. “Godfrey, when was the last time anyone entered the lab?” The artificial assistant was one of her employer’s most successful products. Mazie had hacked the building’s access control systems, so that she could tie Godfrey into it. The digital assistant was powered by a form of machine learning that was improving and growing in leaps and bounds, surprising the hell out of even its creators.

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to shake her: bli kvitt vexing irriterende/irriterande dim svak hum summing display fremvisning, bilde/ framvising, bilde rim kant chasm avgrunn machine learning maskinlæring leaps and bounds stormskritt/ stormsteg

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“The last person to enter the lab was you, at 6:34 PM, after a short visit to the restroom.” AIMS Mazie absentmindedly wondered how Godfrey could know where she’d gone when she left the lab a few k explain what the text is about hours earlier, but she put it aside. k discuss hacking and other data hazards “Godfrey, is anyone watching me right now?” “No, Mazie. With the exception of myself, no one is k create an audio-visual presentation watching you.” Mazie felt the hairs on the back of her neck stand on end. She’d been part of the team that created the software for Godfrey, and they’d decided early on not to give Godfrey an ego, a self. Trying to make the gadget carry a conversation and feel like a real person introduced a whole new level of complexity, one that wasn’t needed. It was designed to deflect attempts to engage it in conversation, and it sure as hell wasn’t supposed to refer to itself as someone. “Godfrey, did you just say you’re watching me?” There was no reply.

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OX2 Mazie’s employer was the search giant Atlas, one of the largest companies in the world. Two days earlier they’d announced that they had an ongoing IT security breach. The attacker was unknown, as was their motive. As far as the company could tell, no customer data had been compromised. The problem was, the intruder still had free rein of their systems. For most people, this was just business as usual. A large corporation got hacked, so what? But to IT security experts, this was unheard of. Atlas was known for their uncompromising stance on security and for employing only the very best InfoSec people. If that team couldn’t stop the incursion, something truly remarkable was going on. Soon, rumors started flying. Someone on the inside let slip to a friend that the unknown hackers were truly unknown. They seemed to be originating from code inside of Atlas’ own core systems. Which was impossible, of course. Someone had to be pulling the strings. Except no one was. After investigating and monitoring for months, Atlas’ security experts were sure of it. So, they took the logical next step: They investigated their own people. Then they investigated their own software. And yet; nothing. The breakthrough came when Mazie traced a piece of the original code back to a large radio telescope in Australia. The code was a sophisticated attack, very precisely targeting Atlas. She’d found the proverbial loose end, so she kept pulling at it. It led her to another radio telescope in Africa, and then to one in Chile. They all had one thing in common: They were part of the research arm of the Atlas network.

gadget innretning deflect unngå search giant søkergigant/ søkjargigant security breach sikkerhetsbrudd/ sikkerheitsbrot compromised her: blottlagt/ blottlagd free rein fritt spillerom/fritt spelerom stance standpunkt incursion angrep trace spore target rette mot proverbial kjent/kjend

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scope omfang get wind of få ferten av reasoning resonnement estimate beregning/berekning artificial kunstig cognitive tenkende/tenkande chunk stykke contribute bidra deceit bedrageri dumbfounded rystet/rysta accounting regnskap/ rekneskap tamper with tukle med stringent streng benign godartet/godarta jeopardize sette i fare annihilate tilintetgjøre/gjere til inkjes

This wasn’t common knowledge, but somehow the attacker knew. Once they were on the inside, they had access to vast computing resources. Mazie eventually realized that this was their motive all along: Not to steal information, but to steal those resources. Once they found what they were looking for, they started expanding, and fast. By the time Mazie realized the scope of what was going on, she was powerless to stop it. She reported her findings to Warren L, her supervisor. He didn’t much like her, mainly because she was a young woman who was much more competent than him. He knew better than to disrespect her to her face, so he thanked her, and told her he’d read the report right away. Instead, he barely read the executive summary before filing it away and forgetting about it. Lucky for Mazie, and unlucky for Warren, she had admirers higher up in Atlas and they soon got wind of her research. Like Warren, they had a problem with Mazie’s conclusion, but unlike Warren, they had no reason to distrust her reasoning. So, they did what they had to do. They directed all of Atlas’ InfoSec people to chase down every single lead Mazie had dug up. They soon realized that if anything, she’d been too conservative in her estimates. The attackers’ code was everywhere. It had been a considerable factor in their success as a company. Atlas had been working on artificial intelligence and machine learning for quite some time. They’d recently seen some important breakthroughs, especially in cognitive learning. Now they knew why. They’d had outside help. Some very advanced and very central chunks of code had been contributed by the username ‘sojourner,’ who had also approved the changes. Every single coder and every single manager had thought they knew who Sojourner was. They almost all had a different person in mind, and they were all wrong. When the simplicity and the scope of the deceit dawned on them, they were dumbfounded. There wasn’t a single part of the Atlas organization that hadn’t been touched by the foreign code, from production to accounting to facilities management. Even the firm’s own computer hardware product designs had been tampered with. No one knew how this was possible. They had stringent procedures in place, fanatical quality control, and layers and layers of security. Despite that, the owners and employees of Atlas soon had to come to terms with a scary reality: they’d effectively lost control of their own company. So far, the attackers had been relatively benign. You could even make the case that they’d improved every aspect of the company and its products that they’d touched. Just like Mazie had found before them, the InfoSec teams concluded that the attackers wanted Atlas to be successful, so the company could grow. That

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IN SHORT

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From Sojourner: Life will never be the same. Nor will death (2019) by Gunnar Helliesen

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0x1 Mazie G felt someone looking at her. She was working late alone in the large computer lab. She got up, scanned the lab, but nothing seemed wrong. “Godfrey, when was the last time anyone entered the lab?”, she asked the artificial, digital assistant. “The last person to enter the lab was you, after a visit to the restroom.” Mazie wondered how Godfrey could know where she had gone when she left the lab earlier. “Godfrey, is anyone watching me right now?” “No, Mazie. Except for myself, no one is watching you.” Mazie turned cold. She had been on the team that created Godfrey, and they designed it without a self. It should not refer to itself as someone. “Godfrey, did you say you’re watching me?” There was no reply.

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0x2 Mazie’s employer was the search giant Atlas, one of the largest companies in the world. Two days earlier they had discovered an IT security breach. The attacker was unknown. No customer data had been stolen but the hackers had free access to their systems. The InfoSec people discovered that the hackers used code from inside Atlas’ own systems. They investigated their own people and software but found nothing. Then Mazie traced the original code to a large radio telescope in Australia. It led to another radio telescope in Africa, and then to one in Chile. All were part of the Atlas network. Mazie realized that the hackers did not want to steal information, but to use the Atlas resources. Atlas had been working on artificial intelligence and machine learning. The hackers, with the username ‘sojourner’, seemed to help them with this work by adding advanced code everywhere. No one knew how this was possible. Atlas had a very high level of security. Still, they’d lost control of their own company. The owners needed to know what they were dealing with, and how to stop it and get rid of the hackers.

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way Atlas could provide more room and resources for the attackers’ programs to grow in sophistication. The attackers were patient, and playing a long game. They were expert coders, and it seemed they also had a pretty good understanding of the business side of Atlas. On the other hand, they were taking substantial risks, to the point of jeopardizing the future of the company. Management and the owners of Atlas wanted to know what they were dealing with, and not just how to stop them, but how to annihilate them. It was important to set an example, so no one else would ever try a stunt like this again.

scan se over/sjå over enter gå inn artificial kunstig restroom toalett watch se på/sjå på reply svar employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgivar search giant kjempesøkemotor, søkegigant security breach sikkerhetsbrudd/sikringsbrot attacker angriper/angripar customer kunde access tilgang InfoSec = information security informasjonssikkerhet/ informasjonssikkerheit investigate etterforske trace spore telescope kikkert realize skjønne machine learning maskinlæring accounting regnskap/rekneskap management ledelse/leiing deal with håndtere/handtere

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Gunnar Helliesen Gunnar Helliesen is a Norwegian writer of short stories and novellas. With a long career in IT, he describes himself as a techie, gadget freak and car nut. He moved to California in 2011 and lives near the ocean with an assortment of humans and pets.

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6.61 • Complete the sentences by using information from the text. a When Mazie was working alone in the computer lab, she felt … b She asked Godfrey when the last time was … c Godfrey said Mazie entered the lab after a visit … d When Mazie asked if Godfrey was watching her, there was … e Atlas was one of the largest … f They had recently discovered an IT … g They discovered that the hackers used code … h The hackers did not want to steal information but to use … i In spite of a high level of security, Atlas had lost control of … j The owners wanted to get rid …

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6.62 •• Answer the questions by referring to the content in the text. a Where does Mazie work and in what kind of work environment? b What makes her realize that something is wrong? c What kind of security breach has Atlas been the victim of, and do they know how to handle the situation? d What does Mazie discover about the origin of the foreign code? e What seems to be the attacker’s motive for hacking into the Atlas systems? f Why do the owners want to get rid of the attackers, even though they are helping the company?

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6.63 ••• Study on the questions and share your opinion. a Why was the artificial assistant Godfrey such a popular invention and why was it designed without a self? b Which techniques, tools and hardware were used by the hackers to infiltrate the Atlas resources? c Why are the attackers interested in the Atlas resources? Why do they help them develop artificial intelligence? d Which aspects of working life in a high-tech company make it believable that nobody questioned the origin of the username “sojourner”? e Why do the owners of Atlas think it is important to “set an example”? f Even if this is a science fiction story, are there aspects in it that seem realistic based on the current technological situation?

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Practise

6.64 Choose ten words that you did not know already from the vocabulary list. Practise spelling and pronouncing the words. Test yourself with a partner. 6.65 Match the expressions in the left column with their Norwegian translations. Then use the expressions to write sentences. leaps and bounds

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6.66 Discuss the questions. a Who do you think hacked into the Atlas resources and what might their motive be? b Do you know any examples of real-life hackers? What happened? c Which methods do hackers or cyber attackers use and what kind of damage can they do? d Hackers are not always criminals; some become respected experts within their field. What kinds of companies would want to hire a hacker? Look up “Con Man” in Chapter 2 if you need to jog your memory. e What kind of investigation and troubleshooting would you try if you suspected your computer had been hacked? What kind of software can prevent hacking? What kind of login procedures can help? f Developing artificial intelligence seems to be a key task in Atlas. What might be advantages and possible disadvantages of this kind of technology? g Look up the meaning of the word “sojourner”. Where do you think the hackers in the story come from?

Explore

6.67 It turns out that Atlas was hacked by aliens. Find other examples of fiction or films where aliens or robots take control of human technology and resources. Share in class.

6.68 Search for information about one of the topics below and make an audio-visual presentation of your findings. c famous or dreaded hackers a machine learning d large radio telescopes and their purpose b digital assistants

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the text is about YES

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Many of the jobs we will have in the future have not yet been invented. Technology is developing fast, and new inventions will create other needs and tasks. One thing is certain, however: more and more jobs will involve digital activity and computer work. The age of technology, robotics and space exploration will need people to design, manufacture and operate advanced software and computers. Also, services that require human contact and decision making will remain. Still, some jobs will be gone for good, many others will be modified and new ones will emerge.

Work Environment A recent trend is that more people work from home, and thanks to webcams and computers, telepresence will reduce the number of travelling days. This means big savings for companies and increased sustainability in general. People working in offices will see more openness and flexibility concerning workplace and hours. Furthermore, the younger generation of workers, being fluent in mobile technology, social media and networking, will expect more transparency and open work environments. Finally, increasingly advanced technology will change equipment, multi-functional computer screen desks will replace workstations, and cloud computing will make paperwork a thing of the past. This gives flexibility, but also presents challenges linked to information flow and security. Therefore, securing networks and encrypting data to protect privacy will be important tasks in future offices.

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require kreve/krevje telepresence tilstedeværelse via skjerm og lyd/det å vere til stades via skjerm og lyd savings innsparinger/­ innsparingar sustainability bærekraft/­ berekraft fluent in her: flink i transparency gjennomsiktighet,/det å vere gjennomsiktig encrypting kryptering custom-made spesialtilpasset/ spesialtilpassa

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AIMS k talk about future jobs in IT and

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The Media

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Already, we have seen the development of a new media landscape, and in the future, more online services for entertainment, news and other purposes will appear. As digital media grow and streaming video services on mobile devices replace the subscription to a traditional cable TV service, we will see new platforms that adjust to social media channels and mobile friendly formats for on-demand services. Future media concepts will expand the use of virtual and augmented reality and will also allow new voices, like bloggers, vloggers and YouTubers, to replace traditional TV celebrities. Online presence data analysis will shape future media concepts and content, and artificial intelligence (AI) that recognizes patterns and movement will help create custom-made media solutions. This, however, will also make people more concerned with privacy and security, sharing fewer personal data and moving to “dark social” channels for online communication.

streaming strømming subscription abonnement on-demand ved forespørsel/ved førespurnad online presence nettaktivitet biometric basert på biologiske trekk facial recognition ansiktsgjenkjenning/andletsattkjenning parabolic microphone høysensitiv mikrofon/ høgsensitiv mikrofon transaction her: overføring “cyber-vulnerability” “nettsår­ barhet”/“nettsårbarheit”

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In addition to the obvious demand for updated cyber-security software, there will also be other security tools. Biometric authentication technology that analyzes human characteristics, such as fingerprints and iris pattern scanning as well as facial, signature and voice recognition, already exists and will probably become more common. Also, using drones with surveillance cameras, equipped with infrared cameras and parabolic microphones, to identify people from a long distance will become a safety measure in high-security buildings. Digital surveillance also involves credit-card transactions and Internet and telephone activity. Advanced cyber-security, however, also creates “cyber-vulnerability” because of the amount of data stored about individuals. Future technology will have to find the right balance between security and privacy.

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Sustainability With a digital expansion, where more and more people use increasingly powerful hardware and enormous amount of data is stored on servers, the need for energy is constantly rising. Some of the largest data centres contain many tens of thousands of IT devices and require more than 100 megawatts (MW) of power capacity, equivalent to the consumption of 80,000 households. Between 2010 and 2020 the global traffic on the Internet increased more than ten-fold and global data centre storage capacity grew even more. Still, energy consumption has not increased at the same rate, since modern computers have more efficient cooling systems that minimize energy use. This kind of technology will have to be developed further in the future, and the energy sources will hopefully be renewable and clean. Another challenge is the use of rare and precious metals, like neodymium, indium and gold, in mobile phones, computers and monitors. We will have to increase the recycling rate of e-waste in the future, since these rare resources will soon be depleted. It will also be necessary to explore other, more environmentally friendly types of materials and energy sources.

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expansion utvidelse, ekspansjon equivalent tilsvarende/ tilsvarande depleted oppbrukt

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6.69 • Find the wrong word or expression in each sentence and replace it with the right one. a Telepresence will increase the number of travelling days. b Between 2010 and 2020 the global traffic on the Internet doubled. c Cloud computing will make paperwork more important. d Securing networks and encrypting data to prevent privacy will be important tasks. e Streaming services will be replaced by subscriptions to cable TV services. f Artificial intelligence will help create more privacy in media solutions. g Biometric authentication technology analyzes credit-card transactions. h Cyber-security creates “cyber-vulnerability” because of telephone activity. i Because of increasingly powerful hardware the need for energy is reduced. 6.70 •• What do you find interesting and what seems to be challenging about the IT and media jobs of the future?

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Practise

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Robotics and artificial intelligence Until recently, robots have mostly performed tasks like lifting and moving heavy loads or mowing lawns and vacuuming floors. Such robots are programmed to tasks and respond to input, but scientists are working on new models that can be controlled by brain or even think for themselves with artificial intelligence. This is Sophia, a social humanoid with scripting software, a chat system and an AI system designed for general reasoning. Sophia imitates human gestures and facial and makes simple conversations about predefined topics. With an AI program that analyzes conversations and extracts data which will improve responses in the future, Sophia is expected to get “smarter” over . The robot was first presented in 2016 and since then several “siblings”, for example “Little Sophia” aimed at children, and other versions of AI robots have been . Would you want such robots as colleagues? And would you call Sophia “she” “it”?

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6.71 Fill in the words in the correct space in the text. time – expressions – perform – or – robot – simple – designed – signals

Social humanoid robot Sophia, a creation by Hanson Robotics. Speaks during a press conference in Kiev 2018.

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6.72 Read the sentences carefully and correct the spelling mistakes. Notice that many of them are not found by the spell checker on your PC. a Johns robot is very god at cleaning the kitchen, but its pretty slow when it comes two gardening. b Sam doesn’t want to bee alone with the robot pet, since it ate he’s shoes last weak. c I know there are knew digital tools an instruments witch we must learn too operate in the future. d My parents turned of they’re robotic lawn mower since they didn’t now were the charger was.

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6.73 “How Technology Will Create These 7 Jobs In The Future” This text contains seven job advertisements for future jobs. Listen to the description of the jobs, and the responsibilities and skills required for people who want to apply for them. Take notes as your listen. Then choose one of the jobs and write an application. Use your imagination and advice on formal texts in this chapter.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Hologram Stylist Virtual Couture Designer Autonomous Car Licensed Specialist Augmented Reality Life Designer B2R2C Marketing Manager Personal Brain Trainer Chief Empathy Officer

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6.74 Discuss the following questions. a What kinds of new jobs do you think will appear in the future? b Why is the information-technology sector the fastest growing industry today? c Media consumption has moved from nationally standardized institutions, where everybody watches the same programmes and learns about the same news, towards a more custom-made, individually tailored activity. What are the consequences of this for our society in general and for groups and individuals? d In a media world where everybody has a voice and can spread their own pictures, opinions and perspectives freely, how can this threaten or strengthen democracy, human values and ethics? e For which tasks do you think computers or robots will replace human beings? f If you were to have a domestic robot, which tasks would you want it to perform for you? g What kinds of sustainable energy sources do you know of? What are the pros and cons linked to the various sources? h How can the IT and media industry become “green�? i What do you think the job that you are training for will be like in the future? 6.75 In groups, make a video or vlog about your hopes for the future. Include illustrations and facts, and refer to at least one text you have studied in this chapter. Share in class.

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6.76 Look for information about types of robots that already exist. Make a short presentation of one such robot. Include illustrations and facts about it, for example material, production, price, tasks it can perform and so on. See Chapter 5 for advice on giving oral presentations.

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6.77 What is Bitcoin? Do you think it will ever replace real money? Discuss.

Did you know

Most of our electronic devices are manufactured using rare earth metals. Such metals include indium, gallium, lanthanum, yttrium, europium and neodymium. Lanthanum is required to make nickel metal hydride batteries, used in hybrid cars. Neodymium is essential for motors and generators like those used in wind turbines. These metals are found only in a few places on Earth: China, Australia and North America, with a few deposits in India, Brazil, Malaysia and South Africa.

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6.78 Study the illustration of surface web, deep web and dark web. What characterizes the different levels? Use your own words to explain. SURFACE WEB

Surface Web: e.g. Google, Yahoo, Wikipedia

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6.79 Find out what the following terms mean. Use reliable sources and compare your answers in class. d Immersive technology a Digital minimalism e Blockchain b Augmented reality f Internet of things c Deep fake

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6.80 • You want to apply for a job as a computer technician at a space station on a newly discovered planet in a nearby solar system. Use your imagination and write the letter of application. For advice on writing formal texts, see this chapter.

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6.81 •• You have purchased an advanced humanoid robot, but it turns out that it doesn’t live up to expectations. Use your imagination and write a letter of complaint to the manufacturer to ask for a new robot or your money back. For advice on writing formal texts, see this chapter.

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6.82 ••• What are the advantages and possible disadvantages of the technological developments we see today? Write a five-paragraph text. See Chapter 4 for advice on how to structure a text. Your text should include: – an introduction – a discussion of the positive effects of technology in the future – examples of challenges and threats such developments may bring – your own opinion of the use of technology at work and at home – a conclusion where you explain to what extent you think the future is something to look forward to

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your progress

Revise

6.85 Writing a formal text a Give some examples of formal text types. b Why are correct grammar, spelling and punctuation important in a formal text? c What greeting would you use when you do not know the name of the person you are writing to? d What is an appropriate closing of an email?

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6.86 Discussing vocational topics a Why is referring to statistics or to experts a good idea in a discussion? b What can you do to remember what is said in a discussion? c What phrases can you use to ask speakers to clarify what they mean? d Give examples of how you can respond to what someone says in a discussion.

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6.84 Choose 4 pictures that you think are relevant to what you have learnt in this chapter. Explain your choice to a partner.

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6.83 Unscramble these words. They are all about topics you have worked with in this chapter. a aMdie b tsbooR c nrMtoio d pEomelye e irEonnvntme f yircsCbye-eurt

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

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6.88 Write a • Rewrite this message so that it becomes more formal.

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b •• Give a short talk about why it is important to be patient with colleagues and customers who have inadequate digital competence.

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c ••• Think of a controversial issue in IT and media. Work in groups. • On pieces of paper write down four different arguments for or against this issue. • Shuffle them and choose one. • Create a sentence that expresses the argument. • Pick another. Find a way to express this argument and link it to the first one.

From: Student C Sent: 03.05.20.. To: Peter Cambers Subject: Talk assignment Yo, Pete! I wanna talk about my paper with you. The deadline’s too soon for me. I need more time. Gimme another week, plz. Student C b •• Write a formal letter where you apply for a job in a newly established company. Try to show that you are highly motivated for the job. Use your imagination and advice from this chapter. c ••• Write a formal letter where you try to convince a board of your choice to give you grants to help you set up your own media business. Use your imagination and advice from this chapter.

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CHAPTER 7

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Encounters

Street art by artist Pony Wave depicting two people kissing while wearing face masks on Venice Beach, California.


In this chapter you will focus on k cultural expressions k ways of life in Canada, New Zealand and Australia

k discussing literature and film k summarizing and synthesizing

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What is culture? How do you express your cultural identity? <<6 sider>>

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! Across Borders From the very beginning of human existence, about 2 million years ago in Africa, people have migrated and gradually spread to all corners of the planet. It is, however, only in the last few centuries that we have been travelling the world on a larger scale. With the development of modern transport and mass tourism, the world has become smaller and its population more multicultural.

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Before you start What are the advantages of meeting people from other places? What might be the challenges?

migrate vandre, forflytte seg/ vandre, flytte pü seg multi-cultural flerkulturell/ fleirkulturell border grense diversity mangfold/mangfald increase økning/auke

New skills The movement of people across borders and continents has led to globalization and cultural diversity. We see an increase in international trade, business, education and communication, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This diversity has a lot of positive aspects, but can also be a source for misunderstandings, culture clashes and even

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conflicts. Therefore, we need new skills and a cultural awareness that can help us interpret and understand what we hear and see when we meet new people.

Defining culture

AIMS k define what culture is k give examples of cultural differences k discuss communication and

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What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as stereotypes individuals and as part of a family, community and k explain the meaning of selected larger society. Cultural differences are traditions and sayings behaviour, like the food we eat, the clothes we wear, our political and social values, religious beliefs and, maybe most importantly, our language. Each culture will have linguistic features which may not be obvious to foreigners. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as so important that they will say “yes” in the sense of “yes, I hear you”, while other cultures will interpret it as “yes, I agree”. They will say “this may be difficult” when they mean “this trade her: handel aspect side av en sak, is impossible”. In some parts of Asia, for example, it is considered rude for synsvinkel/side av ei sak pupils to tell their teacher that they don’t understand his or her instructions. awareness bevissthet /medvit Imagine the possible consequences when teaching the pupils how to swim!

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Body language is another issue. Actually, facial expressions for happiness and sadness seem to be quite universal, but there are other features one should be more aware of. For example, to what extent do we touch or look at people we meet? How do we use our voice and gestures? When we meet a friend, we may use a hand shake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek or a bow, or press noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. This shows that body language can cause misunderstandings. Also, which finger do you use for pointing? In the western world we use the index finger but in other cultures they use the middle finger or the thumb.

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All this shows us that communication across borders can be a challenging experience. However, it is also important to remember that although we are identified by a set of traditions and customs, we are also individuals with our own personal features and behaviour. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? It is easy to make assumptions and even be prejudiced about lifestyles and customs, based on the limited knowledge of a culture and its people we get from the media or short holiday trips. Still, we should avoid seeing humans as stereotypes. Not all Americans love hamburgers, nor are most British males football hooligans. Meeting people with an open mind is the most important key to successful cross-cultural encounters.

interpret tolke individual individ values verdier/verdiar obvious åpenbar/opplagd foreigner utlending sense her: betydning consider anse non-verbal ikke-språklig/ikkjespråkleg issue sak facial expression ansiktsuttrykk/ andletsuttrykk feature trekk gesture håndbevegelse/ handrørsle index finger pekefinger/ peikefinger custom her: vane assumption antagelse/aning, gjetting prejudiced fordomsfull stereotype forenklet, generalisert oppfatning av personer/forenkla, generalisert oppfatning av personar cross-cultural tverrkulturell encounter møte

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IN SHORT

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New skills Globalization means that there is contact between people around the world, in different ways. Business and education are reasons to travel, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This is both positive and challenging. We need new skills so that we understand what we hear and see when we meet new people.

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Non-verbal communication Our body language is a part of our communication. We may greet a friend with a handshake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek or a bow, or by pressing noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. Meeting a person with different body language may complicate our communication. In spite of cultural differences, we are also individuals with our own personal habits. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? We must not use impressions from the media or a short holiday trip to judge people and their culture. Avoid seeing others as stereotypes, because not “all Americans love hamburgers”. We should always meet new people with an open mind.

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globalization globalisering ethnic etnisk challenging utfordrende/ utfordrande define definere individual individ society samfunn certain sikker regard betrakte, se på/ betrakte, sjå på sense betydning non-verbal ikke-språklig/ ikkjespråkleg greet hilse på/helse på handshake håndtrykk/ handtrykk complicate gjøre komplisert/ gjere komplisert habit vane impression inntrykk judge dømme avoid unngå stereotype forenklet, generalisert oppfatning av personer/forenkla, generalisert oppfatning av personar

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Defining culture What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as individuals and as part of a family and society. Even if we think we understand each other, there may be problems. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as extremely important and will often say “yes” in the sense of “yes, I hear you”. People from other cultures will hear “yes, I agree”. Moreover, “this may be difficult” could also mean “this is impossible”!

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Read and understand 7.1 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. Correct the false ones. True

False

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a Globalization means that there are many people on the planet. b Economy and education are important reasons why we meet new cultures today. c The word “culture” refers mostly to art and music. d The word “yes” is always a sign of full agreement. e Non-verbal communication means to speak a foreign language. f Body language is not the same all over the world. g A short holiday trip gives you good knowledge of a country’s culture. h Having a stereotypical view of people will help you communicate well.

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7.2 •• Answer the following questions. a What has contributed to the diversity and globalization we see today? b What does the expression “culture” refer to? c How can the word “yes” mean different things? d Which varieties of non-verbal communication are mentioned in the text? e Why should we be aware of our own assumptions and avoid stereotypes when we want to communicate with new people?

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7.3 Study the signs. Explain what makes them funny or wrong.

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7.4 All cultures have expressions and sayings related to their languages or geographical areas. a Study the cartoon below. Which are the two sayings used by the Norwegian? How does the other person respond to the first saying? What do you think will be his response to the second?

b How would you explain the following sayings to an Englishspeaking person? Do you know the corresponding English sayings? ugler i mosen stå med skjegget i postkassa

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tråkke i salaten ha is i magen

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c What do you think these English sayings mean? Do we have sayings in Norwegian that mean more or less the same? don’t judge a book by its cover curiosity killed the cat

always put your best foot forward you can’t have your cake and eat it too

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7.5 Because of migration and the position of English as a world language, English has many loan words from other languages. Study the list of words below and combine them with their language of origin. Do the words say anything about the culture of the country they come from? a moped b karaoke c siesta d café e kindergarten f fjord g wok h paparazzi i sheikh j avatar

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1 French 2 Norwegian 3 Arabic 4 Swedish 5 Chinese 6 Japanese 7 Sanskrit 8 German 9 Spanish 10 Italian


Write

7.6 • What do you think is most important to remember when communicating with someone from another culture? Write a paragraph to share your opinion.

Epictetus, Greek philosopher, (AD 55-c.135)

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We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.

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7.7 •• Study the quote below. Use it as source of inspiration to write a short text about communication.

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7.8 ••• Write a text where you present and discuss at least three stereotypes from English-speaking countries. Give your text a suitable title and find photos to illustrate your text.

After working with the text and tasks, I can define what culture is YES

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explain the meaning of selected sayings YES

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How did you do?

How did you do?

Did you know?

Hand gestures do not always mean the same thing around the world. “Thumbs up”, for example, means “good” in Western Europe and North America, but will be taken as an insult, meaning “up yours” in some Latin American and West African countries. Body language and how we relate to strangers will also vary in different cultures, such as the need for personal space, where to sit on the bus or starting a conversation with someone you don’t know. This is not only a cultural feature, but also highly personal. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 295


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My Mother, the Crazy African

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Before you start Look at the title of this short story. What and who do you think the story is about, and where does it take place?

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In this abridged short story, we meet Ralindu, or Lin as she likes to call herself. Lin’s parents are from Nigeria, but the family has moved to the USA where Lin goes to school. It is not always easy for her mother to understand or accept American culture, and she speaks their native language, Igbo, to Lin. When Lin gets a boyfriend, it does not make things easier.

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I HATE HAVING AN accent. I hate it when people ask me to repeat things sometimes and I can hear them laughing inside because I am not American. Now I reply to Father’s Igbo with English. I would do it with Mother too, but I don’t think she would go for that just yet. When people ask where I am from, Mother wants me to say Nigeria. The first time I said Philadelphia, she said, “say Nigeria.” The second time she slapped the back of my head and asked, in Igbo, “is something wrong with your head?” By then I had started school and I told her, Americans don’t do it that way. You are from where you are born, or where you live, or where you intend to live for a long time. Take Cathy for example. She is from Chicago because she was born there. Her brother is from here, Philadelphia, because he was

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born in Jefferson Hospital. But their Father, who was AIMS born in Atlanta, is now from Philadelphia because he lives here. Americans don’t care about that nonsense of being k explain what the short story is about from your ancestral village, where your forefathers k describe the setting and theme owned land, where you can trace your lineage back k discuss advantages and challenges of a cross-cultural upbringing hundreds of years. So you trace your lineage back, so what? k use derivations and conversions Just like I call myself Lin when Mother isn’t here. She likes to go on and on, how Ralindu is a beautiful Igbo name, how it means so much to her too, that name, Choose Life, because of what she went through, because of my brothers who died as babies. And I am sorry, don’t get me wrong, but a name like Ralindu and an accent are too much for me right now, especially now that Matt and I are together. When my friends call, Mother goes, “Lin?” for a second, as though she doesn’t know who that is. You would think she hasn’t been here three whole years (sometimes I tell people six years) the way she acts. It’s a lot better now though. She no longer crosses herself, shivering whenever a murder is reported on the news. She no longer peers at Father’s written directions as she drives to the grocery store or mall. She still has the directions in Father’s precise hand in the glove compartment though. She still clutches the wheels tight, and glances often at the rear-view mirror for police cars. And I have taken to saying, Mother, the American police do not just stop you. You have to do something wrong first, like speed. ***

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Matt is coming over today, we are writing a paper together. Mother has been walking up and down the house. In Nigeria, girls make friends with girls and boys make friends with boys. With a girl and a boy, it is not just friends, it is something more. I tell Mother it’s different in America and she says she knows. She places a plate of fresh-dried chin-chin on the dining table, where Matt and I will work. When she goes back upstairs, I take the chin-chin into the kitchen. I can imagine Matt’s face as he says, what the hell is that? Mother comes out and puts the chin-chin back. “It’s for your guest,” she says. The phone rings and I pray that it will keep her long. The doorbell rings, and there is Matt, earring glittering, holding a folder. Matt and I study for a while. Mother comes in and when he says hi, she stares at him, pauses then says, “How are you?” She asks if we are almost done, in Igbo, and before I say yes, I pause for a long moment so Matt won’t think I understand Igbo so easily. Mother goes upstairs and shuts her door. “Let’s go to your room, and listen to a CD,” Matt says, after a while. “My

ancestral forfedre-, slektstrace spore lineage avstamning/ avstamming peer her: kikke precise hand tydelig håndskrift/ tydeleg handskrift glove compartment hanskerom clutch her: gripe rear-view mirror bakspeil/ bakspegel paper oppgave, skolestil/ oppgåve, skolestil plate tallerken chin-chin frityrstekt snack/ frityrsteikt snack folder mappe

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couch sofa urgent rask, hurtig enclose her: holde om/halde om sheathe dekke, omslutte/dekke, omgje bra bh unhook løsne/løyse moan stønne rapt henført/begeistra, gripen frenetic frenetisk, opphisset bunch her: folde seg exposed utsatt/utsett moistness fuktighet/fukt startling oppsiktsvekkende/ oppsiktsvekkande shove dytte motionless urørlig/urørleg nod nikke burst utbrudd/utbrot shuffle subbe lace her: lisse clench knipe sammen/knipe saman thyme timian promiscuous promiskuøs, “lett på tråden”

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room’s a mess,” I say, instead of “My mom would never let a boy in my room.” “Let’s go to the couch then. I’m tired.” We sit on the couch and he puts a hand under my T-shirt. I hold his hand. “Just through my shirt.” “Come on,” he says. His breathing is as urgent as his voice. I let go and his hand snakes under my shirt, encloses a breast sheathed in a nylon bra. Then quickly, it weaves its way to my back and unhooks my bra. Matt is good, even I cannot unhook my bra that quickly with one hand. His hand snakes back and encloses the bare breast. I moan, because it feels good and I know that is what I am supposed to do. In the movies, the women’s faces always turn rapt right about this point. He’s frenetic now, like he has malaria fever. He pushes me back, pulls my shirt up so it bunches around my neck, takes my bra off. I feel a sudden coolness on my exposed upper body. Sticky warm moistness on my breast. I once read a book where a man sucked his wife’s breast so hard he left nothing for the baby. Matt is sucking like that man. Then I hear a door open. I grab Matt’s head up and pull my shirt on in the space of a second. My bra, startling white against the tan leather furniture, is blinking at me. I shove it behind the sofa just as Mother walks in. “Isn’t it time for your guest to leave?” she asks in Igbo. I am afraid to look at Matt, I am afraid he will have milk on his lips. “He was just leaving,” I say in English. Mother continues to stand there. I say to Matt, “I guess you better get going.” He is standing, picking up papers from the table. “Yeah. Good night.” Mother stands motionless, looking at us both. “He was talking to you, Mother. He said good night.” She nods, arms folded, staring. Suddenly a burst of Igbo words. Was I crazy to have a boy stay that long? She thought I had good sense! When did we leave the dining table and come to the couch? Why were we sitting so close? Matt shuffles to the door as she talks. His sneaker laces have come undone and flap as he walks. “See you later,” he says at the door. Mother finds the bra behind the couch almost immediately. She stares at it for a long time before she asks me to go to my room. She comes up a moment later. Her lips are clenched tight. “Yipu efe gi,” she says. Take your clothes off. I watch her, surprised, but I slowly undress. “Everything,” she says when she sees that I still have my panties on. “Sit on the bed, spread your legs.” My heart beats wildly in my ears. I settle on the bed, spread-eagled. She comes closer, kneels before me, and I see what she is holding. Ose Nsukka, the hot twisted peppers that Mama Nnukwu sends dried from Nigeria, in little bottles that originally held curry or thyme. “Mother! No!” “Do you see this pepper?” she asks. “Do you see it? This is what they do to girls who are promiscuous, this is what they do to girls who do not

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charcoal kullfarget/kolfarga gleam glitre ground her: gi husarrest

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use the brain in their head, but the one between their legs.” She brings the pepper so close that I pee right there, and feel the warm wetness on the mattress. But she doesn’t put it in. She is shouting in Igbo. I watch her, the way her charcoal eyes gleam with tears, and I wish I was Cathy. Cathy’s mom apologizes after she punishes Cathy. She asks Cathy to go to her room, she grounds Cathy for a few hours or at most, a day. The next day, Matt says, laughing, “Your mom weirded me out last night. She’s a crazy-ass African!” My lips feel too stiff to laugh. He is looking at some other girl as we talk. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (1977–) was born in Nigeria. She studied medicine and pharmacy before moving to the USA where she got university degrees in creative writing and African studies. She has written short stories, poetry and essays, but is best known for her novels. Her work has been translated into over 30 languages and won many awards.

Read and understand

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7.9 • Use information from the text to finish the following sentences. a Lin says she is from Philadelphia, but her mother wants... b Lin’s mother has lived in America for, but she still... c Matt is coming to Lin’s house because they are... d Lin doesn’t take Matt to her room because... e When they are alone, Matt quickly... f When Lin’s mother comes back... g Lin’s mother makes her take off... h The pepper she holds up makes Lin... i When Lin’s friend Cathy does something wrong... j The next day, Matt tells Lin that...

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7.10 •• Make a short summary of the short story. Use the following keywords to get started. accent – Nigeria – Ralindu – mother – boyfriend – upstairs – couch – bra – leave – angry – undress – peppers – African

7.11 ••• Describe the characters in the short story. Use information from the text to support your description. a Lin b Lin’s mother c Matt

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Speak

7.12 Why do you think Lin’s mother behaves the way she does? Is she right to do so? Discuss in pairs and then share your views in class.

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7.13 Describe the setting of the short story. Where and when does it take place? What is the mood? Point to information in the text to support your arguments.

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7.14 Which of the following suggestions do you think best describes the themes of the short story? Choose one or two and explain why. Can you suggest other suitable themes? culture clash – relationships – strict parenting – immigration – feeling ashamed – fitting in

Practise

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7.15 Which of the following verbs can also be nouns or adjectives? Make sentences for each of the forms to show their use. a shuffle b slap f bunch h trace d open c laugh g wet e glitter

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7.16 Make new words by adding prefixes and suffixes to the following words. What word class are your new words? d agree a cool e punish b happy f moral c kind

Write

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7.17 What is it like to grow up with parents from a different culture than the country where you live? Write a text in which you express your opinion and discuss possible advantages and challenges. a First, have a brainstorming session with a partner. Take notes and list ideas. b Use your notes to make an outline for your text. Check “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 for advice. c Write your first draft. Swap drafts with a partner and give each other feedback on contents and structure. d Use the feedback to improve your text. Pay extra attention to paragraph structure, the introduction and the conclusion. e Check your text for spelling and grammar mistakes. Remember to list your sources if you have used any.

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7.18 Watch the first six minutes of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s TED talk “The danger of a single story” online. You may also find it helpful to read the transcript of her talk. a What does she say about the stories she read as a child? b What was Adichie’s impression of Fide, their house boy, and his family? What did she learn when she visited their village? c Describe the experience Adichie had with her American roommate at university. d Why do you think Adichie’s talk is called “The danger of a single story”? What is her message?

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“The problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.”

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Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the short story is about YES

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describe the setting and theme YES

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discuss advantages and challenges of a crosscultural upbringing YES

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use derivations and conversions YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS DISCUSSING LITERATURE AND FILM When working with short stories, novels and films, there are some terms you should know and use.

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In fiction, the writer usually creates a narrator. First-person narrators refer to themselves as “I”, and they are directly involved in the story. What the reader knows is limited to what the narrator knows. When an outside observer tells a story, it has a third-person narrator. The characters in the story are all referred to as “he”, “she” or “they”. A writer can also use a mixture of techniques. In film, the point of view usually changes with each shot. Voiceover is a technique where someone speaks off camera to explain or move the story along.

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Character

Point of view

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Where and when does the story take place? Are we given specific information (e.g. London in the 1800s), or a general description (e.g. a remote cabin in the mountains)? Is it set in the past, the present or the future, or a certain time of day? The setting can help us understand the characters or the action, and often creates a certain atmosphere or mood. For example, a stormy night can be the background for a scary incident.

of plots are conflicts and suspense. The writer may hold back information to make it more interesting for the reader.

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Setting

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Who are the main characters in the story? What we learn about a character’s looks, thoughts, feelings, and even name gives us information about his or her personality. The main character of a story is usually referred to as the protagonist. In many stories there is also an antagonist, someone or something the protagonist struggles against. Other characters may be more or less important, depending on their roles in the story.

Plot

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What happens in the story? Plot refers to the events that make up the story. Often a writer starts at the beginning and continues to tell the events in chronological order until we come to the end. Other times plots do not follow this pattern. There may be flashbacks, or the writer may jump several years to continue the story. Some important elements

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Theme What is the central idea behind a story? Sometimes the theme may be a moral lesson that the writer or director wants to teach us, and it is clearly stated in the text. This is often the case with legends, fables and fairy tales. In many stories, however, the theme is hidden in the plot, setting or actions of the characters. The title of a text or film may give clues about the theme. Note that there can be more than one theme.


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

1 Introduction and background: It is

7.19 Read the sentences below and identify which of the following terms they correspond to. setting – characters – plot – point of view – theme

2 Setting: Describe where and when the story takes place. What do we learn from the first paragraphs or the opening scene? What is the atmosphere or mood?

3 Characters: Go on to say something

a Annie is a young, ambitious girl who enjoys school. She always has time for her friends and is very supportive, but her behaviour changes when she experiences … b This is a story about love and friendship, but it also shows how people find ways to deal with loss. c The story takes place in Australia in the late 1990s. d She lives a happy and carefree life until one day her brother dies in an accident. At first, she refuses to talk about it, but then she meets … e The story is told through a first-person narrator. We have access to Annie’s thoughts and feelings, but this also means we see other characters and events through Annie’s eyes.

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about the characters. Who are the main characters? What do we learn about them? When you describe characters, remember to give examples.

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interesting to know something about the author or director, when the story was published, or the film’s release date. Also say something about the genre.

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Tips for writing

4 Plot: How does the story develop? Are

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the characters involved in a conflict, and if so, how is it resolved? In a summary of the plot, include only the most important events.

5 Point of view: Is the story told through a

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first-person or a third-person narrator? Does the point of view change? Is how the story is narrated important for our understanding of the characters and plot?

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6 Theme: Sum up by explaining what you think is the theme. Is there a message?

7 Opinion: If you are asked to do so, give your own opinion of the story or film. Would you recommend it to others? Explain why or why not.

7.20 Choose one of the short stories or films you studied earlier this year. a What is the setting? b Who are the main characters? c Sum up the plot in a few sentences. d What is the point of view? Is there more than one? e What do you think is the theme?

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Hunt for the Wilderpeople

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bush – villmark foster care – fosterhjem/ fosterheim Child Welfare Services – Barnevernet skux – kul, rå (slang) chur – ja, takk, kult (slang) wildebeest – gnu ranger – skogvokter/skogvaktar juvie (juvenile prison) – ungdomsfengsel

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Before you start a Watch the film’s trailer online. What genre of film do you think this is? b Some of the following expressions used by the characters in the film may be unfamiliar to you:

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Ricky Baker is a city kid and troublemaker who gets a fresh start in the New Zealand countryside with his new foster parents and a dog named Tupac. When tragedy strikes, Ricky and his grumpy foster dad embark on an adventure as they are running away from the Child Welfare Services. Hunt for the Wilderpeople tells a story that is both hilarious and heart-warming. Shot entirely in locations across New Zealand, the film quickly became the country’s biggest box-office hit after its release in 2016.

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The screenplay for Hunt for the Wilderpeople is based on the book Wild Pork and Watercress by one of New Zealand’s best-loved writers, Barry Crump (1935–1996).

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AIMS k use notes to speak and write about

7.21 • Use the keywords below to take notes as you watch the film. Keywords

Your notes

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Setting • where the story takes place Main characters • Ricky • Aunt Bella • Uncle Hector • Child Welfare Services • police officers • Psycho Sam Plot • how it starts • what happens in the story • how it ends Theme • what the film is about • message or moral

a film k describe and discuss characters k listen for and summarize information

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7.22 •• Use your notes to answer the following questions. a What are we told about Ricky’s background in the first scenes? How are we told? b Describe Ricky’s first days with Bella and Hector. c When Bella suddenly dies, they receive a letter from the Child Welfare Services. What does it say, and how does Ricky react? d Give a short summary of what happens next. Use the following words in your summary: runaway – survive – leg – food – cabin – poster – company – manhunt e What do we learn about Hector while he and Ricky are on the run? f After they find the critically ill ranger, Ricky goes for help and meets a Maori girl. Describe Ricky’s meeting with the girl’s father and his stay with them. g Who is Psycho Sam? h What happens to Hector and Ricky after they are caught? i In the final scenes, Ricky and Hector embark on a new adventure. What is their mission? j What do you think is the film’s theme?

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7.23 Discuss the following questions. Remember to give examples to support your arguments. a What is your impression of the woman from Child Welfare Services? b How are the police officers portrayed in the film? c Whose side are you on when watching this film? How are we persuaded to take sides? d The film has both Maori and Pakeha (non-Maori) characters. Do you think ethnic origin has anything to do with whether the characters are portrayed as protagonists or antagonists?

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7.24 What makes a good comedy? Share opinions in class. a Give examples of comedies and try to explain what makes them funny. b Humour is sometimes used as a tool when dealing with difficult subjects. Is this the case in Hunt for the Wilderpeople?

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7.25 • Give a detailed description of the main character Ricky. The following questions may help you get started. • How old is he? • What does he look like? • What is his background? • What is he interested in? • What is he worried about? • How does he relate to the other main characters? • Does he change as the story develops?

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7.26 •• In this film, the characters are clearly portrayed as either protagonists or antagonists. a Place the characters in the two categories. b Can any of the protagonists be described as round characters? Explain why/why not. 7.27 ••• Write a review of the film. Your review should include the following: • a few facts on the release date, main actors and director • where the story takes place • who the main characters are and how they are portrayed • what the main conflict is without revealing how it is resolved • your opinion of the film and who you think it is suitable for

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7.28 “New Zealand’s Maori Culture” a Study the keywords below before listening. 1 greeting 6 language 2 ceremony 7 haka 3 Europeans 8 tattoos 4 rights 9 unemployment 5 traditions 10 pride

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b After listening, use the keywords to sum up what you have learned about Maoris. Write one sentence for each keyword.

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a The Dark Horse b Top of the Lake c Boy d Matariki e Daffodils f The Shannara Chronicles g The Whale Rider h Once Were Warriors

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7.29 In the past few decades, New Zealand has established a successful screen industry for film and television. Choose one of the productions listed below. Search for information about your chosen film or television series and share your findings in class.

Did you know?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can use notes to speak and write about a film

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The New Zealand accent is easily recognizable. The first thing people notice is that words are often shortened. Breakfast becomes brekkie, and relatives are rellies. Second, some vowels are pronounced differently, such as the long ‘e’ in ten (‘teen’) and the ‘i’ in fish (‘fush’). Furthermore, with rising intonation at the end of sentences, it often sounds like New Zealanders are asking questions when they are simply making statements. Another typical trait is saying ‘yeah-nah’ when they want to say no without giving offence. Finally, most people use a number of Maori words in their everyday speech. In fact, as many as 1000 Maori words are integrated into New Zealand English.

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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND

Tasman Sea

Lake Taupo

Co

Rotorua

Mt Tongariro Wellington

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SOUTH ISLAND Mt Cook/ Aoraki Invercargill

St ew ar t Isl an d

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NORTH ISLAND

Auckland

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The expression means “welcome” in Maori, the language of the native population of New Zealand, but it is used by everyone. In the past, New Zealand was one of Britain’s many colonies. Today, it is an independent country with a strong national pride. Most visitors are impressed by the stunning natural beauty, from volcanoes, beautiful mountain ranges and deep fiords to rolling farmland and small seaside towns. It became the perfect location for the filmmakers of The Lord of the Rings, The Chronicles of Narnia and many other films. Although parts of the South Island have been rocked by earthquakes and suffered a terrorist attack, tourists still flock to the country to see the sights.

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Kia Ora!

Dunedin

ai

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Christchurch

PACIFIC OCEAN


FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND

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Play as you go!

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New Zealand is a dream for adrenaline junkies, and Queenstown is the capital of innovative and extreme sports. Skiing, paragliding, mountain biking, rafting, jet boating, kayaking and hiking are just some of the outdoor activities offered in the area. It is said that bungy jumping was invented here. In general, New Zealanders love sports and outdoor life. Sailing is very popular, and the country is extremely proud of the national rugby team known as the All Blacks.

Ku

New Zealand Facts

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New Zealanders are often nicknamed Kiwis. A Kiwi is in fact a bird that cannot fly, and that is endemic to New Zealand. Another unique bird is the Kea, a very friendly parrot known to steal things and wreck cars. You might also encounter penguins, whales and dolphins, the largest insect in the world, and 30 million sheep.

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Kiwis and other animals

Official name: New Zealand, Aotearoa (Maori) Capital: Wellington Population: 4.8 million Main ethnic groups: European 71%, Maori 14%, Asian 11%, Pacific Islander and other Geography: Islands in the South Pacific (the 3 main islands are North Island, South Island and Stewart Island) Landscape: Mountains, coastal plains, urban areas Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: February 6 (Waitangi Day) Currency: New Zealand Dollar Agriculture: Dairy products, meat, fish; wheat, barley, fruits, vegetables; wool Industry: Agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, mining, construction, tourism


FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND AIMS k share some facts about New

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Zealand k describe New Zealand’s landscape k present travel plans

Read and understand

Ku

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7.30 Scan the text boxes in the fact file for information to answer the following questions. a What is the nickname for a person from New Zealand? b Name two birds that are endemic to New Zealand. c How many people live in New Zealand? d Which is the largest ethnic group? e What percentage of the population are Maori? f What is the Maori name for New Zealand? g What kinds of disasters have rocked the South Island? h New Zealand has been the location for some very famous films. Which ones? i Name three agricultural products from New Zealand. j How many sheep are there per person? k Who is the head of state, even though New Zealand is an independent country? l Which extreme sport was invented in the Queenstown area?

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7.31 Study the map and the pictures in the fact file. a Describe the landscapes you see in the pictures. b What do you see on New Zealand’s coat of arms? c What is the capital and where is it located on the map? d Where on the map do you find Auckland, the biggest city? e Name two mountains and one lake.


er in

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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND

Speak

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7.32 In addition to rugby, extreme sports are very popular in New Zealand. a Name as many extreme sports as you can. b Have you tried any extreme sports yourself? If so, which ones? c Are there some you would like to try, or absolutely not like to try? Explain.

Explore

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7.33 Plan a visit to New Zealand for your next holiday. Find out how to get there, what you want to see and what you would like to do. Use reliable sources and digital tools to make a presentation of your travel plans.

til

7.34 Search for online newspapers from New Zealand. What are the most current issues? Choose one news story you think is interesting. Read the article, make a short summary and present it in class.

After working with the text and tasks, I can share some facts about New Zealand YES

ALMOST

NO

describe New Zealand’s landscape YES

ALMOST

NO

present travel plans YES

ALMOST

NO

Ku

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7.35 New Zealand has quite a few «firsts». Find and share information on the following «firsts». a The first country to give women the right to vote. b The first person to climb Mt Everest and reach both poles. c The first person to split the atom.

How did you do?

Did you know?

In New Zealand, you find one of the longest place names in the world. Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu is the Maori name for a hill on the North Island. In English it means “the summit where Tamatea, the man with the big knees, the climber of mountains, the land-swallower who travelled about, played his nose flute to his loved one”. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 311


Street Art

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Street art is not a new concept, yet it is one of the most striking forms of modern cultural expression. Artists see street art as a way to raise awareness of social or political issues, a humorous comment on society, or just a way to bring colour and beauty to a neighbourhood. From simple stencil graffiti to elaborate murals, street artists use walls, trains, bridges and other constructions as their canvases. Today, street art has become an acknowledged urban art form and can be found in countries around the world.

Political commentary

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In Northern Ireland, politics and art have long gone hand in hand. Historically, the country has been divided along political and religious lines, and communities on both sides have used art to express their views. Murals and slogans have been painted onto the gables of houses in villages, towns and cities across the country, often to mark territorial boundaries. Lately, however, images of the old paramilitary “heroes� and political leaders are starting to be replaced by more positive street art promoting diversity and peace.

312 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS

Social commentary Many of today’s graffiti artists blend creativity with social commentary. Their artworks often carry important messages about the world around us, our values and our choices. Some see themselves as activists supporting causes, or combating a variety of issues, such as racial injustice, climate change or economic inequality. Many of the most famous artists use pseudonyms and wish to remain anonymous, sometimes because they risk getting arrested in countries where freedom of expression is not protected sufficiently.


AIMS k explain what street art is k present an example of street art

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and/or artist

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Making history

Read and understand

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When their main industry failed in the 1980s, the small seaside community of Chemainus in western Canada was about to become a ghost town. Hoping to attract new tourists, the locals decided to revitalize the whole town. Detailed scenes from history, portraits of townspeople and explanatory texts were painted on almost every blank wall. Their strategy worked as the town now receives a great number of tourists who come to see the murals. It has also been an inspiration for other communities to explore their roots.

til

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7.36 Answer the following questions. a What is the purpose of street art? b What do street artists use as their canvas? c How has street art been used as political commentary in Northern Ireland? d Explain how some street artists see themselves as activists. e Why did the people of Chemainus paint murals all over town? f Are there examples of street art where you live?

Explore

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7.37 Find information about a form of street art or artist you think is interesting. Choose one work of art to represent the art form or artist and prepare a two-minute presentation. Include information on location, style and message if there is one.

Ku

concept konsept, idé striking slående/slåande awareness bevissthet, oppmerksomhet/bevisstheit, oppmerksemd canvas lerret stencil sjablong elaborate innfløkt mural veggmaleri acknowledge anerkjenne commentary kommentar gable gavl territorial territoriell boundary grense promote fremme diversity mangfold/mangfald paramilitary paramilitær, sivil våpenstyrke blend blande cause sak combat kjempe mot injustice urettferdighet/urettferd inequality ulikhet/ulikskap revitalize revitalisere, gjenopplive explanatory forklarende/ forklarande

7.38 The artists Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat are often credited as the first to turn graffiti into high art. Find out more about one or both artists. Make a visual presentation of your findings. 7.39 Petroglyphs, some more than 15,000 years old, may be the original form of street art. Find examples of petroglyphs in Norway and compare them with those found in other countries, such as the rock art of South Africa, Australia and North America.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what street art is YES

ALMOST

NO

present an example of street art and/or artist YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 313


g

The Painting

!

Winston Japurula, the most “important” artist working at Cullen, had, only the week before, completed a major canvas and was waiting for Mrs Houston, of the Aboriginal Arts Bureau in Sydney, to come and buy it from him. Like many artists, he was generous with hand-outs and had run up big debts at the store.

til

Before you start How would you feel if you discovered someone had cheated you out of a great deal of money? What would you do?

This is how the story begins.

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In this short story, set in the Australian Outback, we meet two people with different cultural backgrounds. One is an Aboriginal artist, the other is an arts buyer from the big city.

Ku

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Mrs Houston had the habit of driving round the settlements to check up on her artists. She brought them paint and brushes and canvas and would pay for finished work by cheque. She was a very determined woman. She always camped in the bush, alone – and was never not in a hurry. Next morning, Winston was waiting for her, cross-legged, naked to the waist, on a patch of level ground beside the petrol drums … Bruce Chatwin Bruce Chatwin (1940–1989) was an English travel writer and novelist. Before he became a writer, he worked at Sotheby’s auctions in London where he learned a lot about art and its commercial value. Chatwin was also fascinated by the history and culture of Australian Aboriginals.

m

314 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


AIMS

7.40 • After listening to the short story once, fill in the missing words to complete the text.

characters and plot k use prefixes and suffixes

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fair – because – Aboriginal – pleased – enough – painting – profit – charged – Therefore – gallery

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Listen and understand

k extract information while listening k describe and discuss the story’s

rd

In the short story, Mrs Houston, an art buyer, comes to an community to collect a new piece of art. Winston Japurula, who has just finished a beautiful , is waiting for her. When she sees the painting, Mrs Houston hides how she is. This is she wants to buy the painting cheaply and sell it with a big . Winston Japurula has had of this. , he makes it clear that he knows what is for his paintings at the in Adelaide, and that he wants to be paid a price for his art.

Speak

til

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7.41 •• Listen to the short story again and answer the questions in full sentences. a When Mrs Houston sees Winston’s new painting, what does she say about the use of colour? b What is her reaction when she sees the tear in the canvas? c How does Winston react to Mrs Houston’s outbursts? d What does Mrs Houston really think of the new painting? e Why is she not being honest with Winston? f How does the writer reveal Mrs Houston’s real opinion?

Ku

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7.42 Discuss the following questions in pairs, and then share your answers in class. a What is the setting of “The Painting”? b Briefly describe the two main characters. How are they different? c Read the second paragraph again. What do we learn about Mrs Houston’s personality? What is explicit, and what is implied? d Listen once more to the dialogue where Mrs Houston asks Winston about the story of the painting. Do you think he is being difficult on purpose? What evidence can you find in the text to support this? e Where in the text is the turning point? f How does the story end? Can you think of an alternative ending?

canvas lerret generous gavmild/gåvmild hand-out gave til trengende/ gåve til trengande debt gjeld habit vane settlement bosetning/busetting determined bestemt cross-legged med beina i kryss petrol drums bensintønner doodle skrible scrap of card pappbit air strip flystripe haunches bakenden gingerly forsiktig squiggle snirkel tear her: rift restorer reparatør chink åpning/opning drawl dra på ordene/dra på orda syllable stavelse/staving bellow brøle aggrieved krenket/krenkt, krenkte exhibition utstilling

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 315


7.43 The following text describes some of the core values as stated by the Australian Government on their official web pages.

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“Australian society values equality of opportunity for individuals, regardless of their race, religion or ethnic background. Australian citizenship is a shared identity, a common bond which unites all Australians while respecting their diversity.”

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a How do these values compare with how Winston Japarula is treated in the short story you have just listened to? b Do you think Mrs Houston would have tried to con other artists in the same way she treated Winston, regardless of their ethnic background? Explain why/why not.

Practise

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7.44 Choose the correct prefix to make new words. Explain how the meaning changes. dis- im- un- bi- ree agree f paint g real h like

vu

a possible b move c racial d imaginable

Write

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7.45 • Write a summary of the short story by placing the sentences in the right order. a Mrs Houston is shocked and almost falls off her stool when she hears Winston’s demand. b Winston Japarula is a respected Aboriginal artist. c Her name is Mrs Houston. d At the beginning of the story, he is waiting for his regular art buyer to visit. e She buys paintings cheaply and sells them at a great profit. f This time, however, Winston Japarula demands more money for his art. g He has found out that Mrs Houston sells his art for a lot of money in the city. h She is a determined, impatient woman. 7.46 •• Write one paragraph to describe what happened and what was said after Winston had named the price for his painting.

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7.47 ••• Write a news article based on the incident in the short story. Feel free to add details.

til

vu

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7.48 Search for video clips to learn more about Bruce Chatwin. What information can you find about the following? a travels b books c biographical facts

g

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can extract information while listening YES

n

NO

describe and discuss the story’s characters and plot YES

Ku

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

use prefixes and suffixes YES

ALMOST

NO

Did you know?

Aborigines do not have their own written language. Instead they use symbols or iconography in their artwork. These artworks tell stories. They can vary from one Aboriginal group to another, but their meaning may also differ depending on whether the stories are told to children, adults or elders. The stories expressed through Aboriginal art are central to their identity and cultural heritage. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 317


FACT FILE AUSTRALIA Down Under Darwin

INDIAN OCEAN

Australia has animals you will not find in the wild anywhere else, for example kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, dingoes, wombats and the platypus. There are also crocodiles and many venomous snakes and spiders. A number of these animals are endangered. In some areas the kangaroos have become a big problem, attacking people, jumping into houses, ruining crops and colliding with cars on the roads. 318 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS

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Alice Springs

QUEENSLAND

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WESTERN AUSTRALIA

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Perth

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Ku

Amazing Wildlife

Cairns

NORTHERN TERRITORY

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Australia is not only a country, but also a continent. Because of its varied landscape, good climate and relaxed lifestyle, Australia is a very popular tourist destination and attracts a high number of immigrants. It is also an attractive place to study for young people from all over the world. In the past, however, Australia was used as a penal colony by the British. People who had committed crimes were sent there to work as punishment. Today, Australia is a unique and diverse country with a lively cultural environment, although it has been affected by severe droughts and devastating bushfires in recent years.

Adelaide

Brisbane

NEW SOUTH WALES

Sydney AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL Melbourne TERRITORY Canberra

VICTORIA

Tasmania

Tasman Sea

Hobart


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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA

Aussie facts

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Official name: The Commonwealth of Australia Capital: Canberra Population: 22 million Ethnic groups: European 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1% Geography: 6 states and 2 territories Landscape: Urban areas, farmland, rainforest, desert Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a GovernorGeneral Government: Parliamentary system National day: January 26 (Australia Day) Currency: Australian Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry Industry: Mining, food processing, chemicals, steel, equipment for industry

Ku

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The Outback

The Australian “bush,” also known as the Outback, has a special status in Australian life. It is part of Australia’s national identity, and the setting of many myths and legends. Bushrangers, drovers and farmers struggling to survive in the harsh and wild landscape were helped by the survival skills of the Aborigines. Many writers, painters, musicians and filmmakers focus on the Australian bush experience in their work. The vast areas are used for cattle farming, and also for hiking, horse riding, cycling and bird watching.

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 319


FACT FILE AUSTRALIA AIMS k mention some facts about Australia k describe the landscapes and wildlife

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of Australia k present information on Australia’s culture or history

Read and understand

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7.49 Study the short text “Down Under”. Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Australia is different from other countries because … b Three reasons why Australia has become a popular tourist destination are … c Young people come to Australia to … d In the past, people who had committed … e Australia’s cultural environment today is …

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7.50 Study the “Aussie facts” and the map of Australia. Answer in keywords. a How many people live in Australia? b Which is the largest ethnic group? c What is the name of the capital? d Where in the country do you find the capital? e Find the names of seven other Australian cities. f Australia is divided into states and territories. What are they called? g Who is the head of state? h Is the Australian currency dollars or pounds? i When is Australia Day? j Name the most important agricultural products and industries in Australia. 7.51 Study the short text “Amazing Wildlife”. Answer in full sentences. a What animals are mentioned in the text? b Which ones can only be found in Australia? c What does it mean when an animal is endangered? d How can kangaroos be a problem?

320 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA

Practise

How did you do?

Speak

After working with the text and tasks, I can

vu

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7.52 Match these typical Australian expressions with the correct explanation. Search online for definitions and try pronouncing them with an Australian accent! a barbie 1 campfire b ace 2 mosquito c tucker 3 barbeque d arvo 4 food e mozzie 5 excellent f bush telly 6 afternoon

7.53 Study the short text “The Outback”. First, choose three keywords from the text. Then, exchange keywords with a partner and give a summary of the text based on your partner’s chosen keywords.

til

Explore

Ku

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7.54 Find out more about the culture or history of Australia. Choose one of the following topics, and select information from reliable and relevant sources. Choose how you want to present your findings. Remember to list your sources, including illustrations. a Studying in Australia b Current news from Australia c Australian wildlife d Australia’s past as a penal colony e Popular sports in Australia f Australian films and/or television series

Did you know

mention some facts about Australia YES

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describe the landscapes and wildlife of Australia YES

ALMOST

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present information on Australia’s culture or history YES

ALMOST

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Around 90 % of Australia’s population live along the coast in cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth, Darwin and Brisbane. Still, some Australians live so far from towns and cities that doctors have to travel by airplanes to give medical help. The small planes of the Royal Flying Doctor Service carry equipment for emergencies and general health care services. Children in remote areas are taught by School of the Air, using the Internet and high frequency radio. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 321


The Hockey Sweater

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Most Canadians are also very passionate about their sports. Communities take great pride in supporting their local teams, and there are often rivalries with neighbouring towns. In “The Hockey Sweater”, one of Canada’s most loved short stories, the author shares an episode from his own childhood where he illustrates the importance of showing support for the right team.

rd

Before you start a Do you play sports? Do you have a favourite team? b “Sport is a universal language that can connect cultures.” Do you agree?

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!

Canada is a multicultural society. Not only has Canada been colonized by both the English and the French in the past, but the country also welcomes immigrants from all faiths and corners of the world. For example, the greater Toronto area is now the most diverse city on the planet, with half its residents born outside the country. For many newly arrived Canadians, the first point of contact with their new communities is often on the soccer pitch, on the basketball court, in the ice rink, or in other fields of play. Sport becomes a universal language that can connect cultures.

Ku

n

til

vu

The winters of my childhood were long, long seasons. We lived in three places – the school, the church and the skating rink – but our real life was on the skating rink. Real battles were won on the skating rink. The real leaders showed themselves on the skating rink. School was a sort of punishment.

322 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


AIMS k explain what the short story is about k describe the point of view k use vocabulary related to sports k discuss sports culture and national identity

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We all wore the same uniform as he, the red, white and blue uniform of the Montreal Canadiens, the best hockey team in the world; we all combed our hair in the same style as Maurice Richard, and to keep it in place we used a sort of glue – a great deal of glue. We laced our skates like Maurice Richard, we taped our sticks like Maurice Richard. We cut all his pictures out of the papers. Truly, we knew everything about him.

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Parents always want to punish children and school is their most natural way of punishing us. However, school was also a quiet place where we could prepare for the next hockey game, lay out our next strategies. As for church, we found there the tranquility of God: there we forgot school and dreamed about the next hockey game. Through our daydreams it might happen that we would recite a prayer: We would ask God to help us play as well as Maurice Richard.

vu

rd

On the ice, when the referee blew his whistle the two teams would rush at the puck; we were five Maurice Richards taking it away from five other Maurice Richards; we were ten players, all of us wearing with the same blazing enthusiasm the uniform of the Montreal Canadians. On our backs, we all wore the famous number 9.

Ku

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One day my Montreal Canadiens sweater had become too small; then it got torn and had holes in it. My mother said: “If you wear that old sweater people are going to think we’re poor!” Then she did what she did whenever we needed new clothes. She started to leaf through the catalogue the Eaton company sent us in the mail every year. My mother was proud. She didn’t want to buy our clothes at the general store; the only things that were good enough for us were the latest styles from Eaton’s catalogue. My mother didn’t like the order forms included with the catalogue; they were written in English and she didn’t understand a word of it. To order my hockey sweater, she did what she usually did; she took out her writing paper and wrote in her gentle schoolteacher’s hand: “Cher Monsieur Eaton, Would you be kind enough to send me a Canadiens sweater for my son who is ten years old and a little too tall for his age and Docteur Robitaille thinks he’s a little too thin? I’m sending you three dollars and please send me what’s left if there’s anything left. I hope your wrapping will be better than last time.” Monsieur Eaton was quick to answer my mother’s letter. Two weeks later we received the sweater. That day I had one of the greatest disappointments of my life! I would even say that on that day I experienced a very great sorrow. Instead of the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater, Monsieur

skating rink skøytebane battle slag tranquility ro recite framsi/seie fram prayer bønn Maurice Richard ishockeylegende comb kjemme, gre/kjemme, greie glue lim lace her: skolisse stick hockeykølle referee dommer/dommar blazing glødende/glødande leaf through bla gjennom order form bestillingsskjema gentle hand her: forsiktig håndskrift/forsiktig handskrift wrapping innpakning disappointment skuffelse/ motgang, vonbrot sorrow sorg

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 323


g

Eaton had sent us a blue and white sweater with a maple leaf on the front – the sweater of the Toronto Maple Leafs. I’d always worn the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater; all my friends wore the red, white and blue sweater; never had anyone in my village ever worn the Toronto sweater, never had we even seen a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater. Besides, the Toronto team was regularly trounced by the triumphant Canadiens. With tears in my eyes, I found the strength to say:

er in

“I’ll never wear that uniform.” “My boy, first you’re going to try it on! If you make up your mind about things before you try, my boy, you won’t go very far in this life.” My mother had pulled the blue and white Toronto Maple Leafs sweater over my shoulders and already my arms were inside the sleeves. She pulled the sweater down and carefully smoothed all the creases in the abominable maple leaf on which, right in the middle of my chest, were written the words “Toronto Maple Leafs”. I wept.

My mother sighed in despair and explained to me: “If you don’t keep this sweater which fits you perfectly I’ll have to write to Monsieur Eaton and explain that you don’t want to wear the Toronto Maple Leafs. And if he’s insulted do you think he’ll be in a hurry to answer us? Spring will be here and you won’t have played a single game, just because you didn’t want to wear that perfectly nice blue sweater.”

Ku

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maple lønn/løn trounce her: slå, banke smooth glatte ut sleeve erme crease krøll abominable avskyelig/avskyeleg chest bryst glove hanske despair fortvilelse/fortviling insult fornærme be obliged to være nødt til/vere nøydd til forward løper, angrep/løpar, angrep penalty straffe rink bane persecution forfølgelse/ forfølging relieved lettet/letta debris avfall vicar prest moth møll

vu

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“I’ll never wear it.” “Why not? This sweater fits you … like a glove.” “Maurice Richard would never put it on his back.” “You aren’t Maurice Richard. Anyway, it isn’t what’s on your back that counts, it’s what you’ve got inside your head. “You’ll never put it into my head to wear a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater.”

So I was obliged to wear the Maple Leafs sweater. When I arrived on the rink, all the Maurice Richards in red, white and blue came up, one by one, to take a look. When the referee blew his whistle I went to take my usual position. The captain came and warned me I’d be better to stay on the forward line. A few minutes later the second line was called; I jumped onto the ice. The Maple Leafs sweater weighed on my shoulders like a mountain. The captain came and told me to wait; he’d need me later, on defense. By the third period I still hadn’t played; one of the defensemen was hit in the nose with a stick and it was bleeding. I jumped on the ice: my moment had come! The referee blew his whistle; he gave me a penalty. He claimed I’d jumped on the ice when there were already five players. That was too much! It was unfair!

324 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


“My child; he said, just because you’re wearing a new Toronto Maple Leafs sweater unlike the others, it doesn’t mean you’re going to make the laws around here. A proper young man doesn’t lose his temper. Now take off your skates and go to the church and ask God to forgive you.”

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Wearing my Maple Leafs sweater I went to the church, where I prayed to God; I asked him to send, so quickly as possible, moths that would eat up my Toronto Maple Leafs sweater.

g

It was persecution! It was because of my blue sweater! I struck my stick against the ice so hard it broke. Relieved, I bent down to pick up the debris. As I straightened up I saw the young vicar, on skates, before me.

Roch Carrier

m

vu

Read and understand

rd

Roch Carrier (1937–) is a novelist and short story writer from Québec, Canada. He has written film scripts, plays and poems. Several of his works have become classics and are used in schools around the world, in both French and English.

7.55 • Decide if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. True

False

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a The story is about a boy who likes to play hockey. b He thought the best hockey team in the world was the Toronto Maple Leafs. c Their idol, Maurice Richard, had the number 99 on his back.

n

d The mother bought a new hockey sweater from the local store. e The boy was very disappointed when he got the new sweater.

Ku

f His mother took the sweater back to change it for the right one.

g The captain of the team would not let the boy play.

h The referee gave him a penalty for playing rough. i When the boy broke his stick, the vicar sent him to school. j He prayed for moths to come and eat up his sweater.

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 325


er in

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7.56 •• Complete the following sentences. a For the boy in the text, real life was … b In church, he would ask God to … c All the children wore … d When the boy needed a new hockey sweater, the mother … e When the new sweater arrived, it was … f The boy said he would never … g When the boy wanted to play, … h He jumped on the ice when … i The referee blew his whistle because … j Instead of asking God for forgiveness, the boy …

vu

rd

7.57 ••• Close-read the text to answer the following questions. Study “Discussing literature and film” in this chapter for advice. a Describe the setting of the story. Where does the story take place? What time of year is it? b Describe the boy. What is most important to him? c Describe the mother. How does she deal with the problem? d How do the other players and the coach react, and why? e How does the story end? Is there a turning point? f What do you think is the theme of this short story?

Speak

7.58 Who do you sympathize with in this short story, the boy or the mother? Discuss in class. Give reasons for your views.

Ku

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7.59 Describe the point of view the author uses in this short story. a Who is the narrator of the story? b How does this point of view affect our understanding of what happens in the story? c If the story were told from another point of view, e.g. the mother or a third-person narrator, how would that change the story? 7.60 How important do you think sports are for a nation’s identity, for example in Norway? Discuss the role of sports and share views in class.

Did you know?

French is the mother tongue of almost a quarter of the Canadian population. French has been spoken in Canada since the colonists arrived in the early 1600s. Today, most native French speakers live in the province of Québec. The Québecois have wanted to become independent from the rest of Canada, but there has not been enough support among the population. Both English and French are official languages in Canada. In two of the northern territories indigenous languages also 7: have official status. 326 | Chapter Encounters | SKILLS


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7.61 Fill in the missing letters to complete these sports words. a so er b ma at on c no boa di g d ba k tb ll e k y c ing f w e tl ng g ol e ba l h ro i g

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7.62 Match the English names of sports with the Norwegian ones.

Write

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1 fekting 2 aking 3 langrenn 4 innebandy 5 bueskyting 6 stavsprang 7 skiskyting 8 kunstløp 9 turn 10 hekkeløp

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a floor ball b pole vault c gymnastics d biathlon e hurdles f fencing g figure skating h archery i luge j cross country

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7.63 • Think back to your own childhood. Did you have to wear something you didn’t like? Were you not allowed to do a certain thing because an adult said so? How did you react? Write a short text.

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7.64 •• If the short story took place today, the mother would probably have ordered the hockey sweater from a website. Imagine that you are going to order new sports gear for yourself online. Check “Writing a formal text” in Chapter 6 for advice and complete the following tasks. a Write an email to the store to enquire about sizes, delivery and payment options. b When you finally receive your package, you find something entirely different from what you ordered. Write a formal complaint to the store.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the short story is about YES

ALMOST

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describe the point of view YES

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use vocabulary related to sports YES

ALMOST

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discuss sports culture and national identity YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 327


FACT FILE CANADA

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR QUÉBEC PRINCE ATLA N TIC EDWARD OCE A N ISLAND Winnipeg Regina ONTARIO Québec St. John's Montréal Charlottetown Ottawa UNITED STATES Toronto Fredericton Halifax NOVA SCOTIA NEW BRUNSWICK

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Vancouver Victoria

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328 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS

Iqaluit

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NORTHWEST NUNAVUT TERRITORY YUKON TERRITORIES TERRITORY C A N A D A Whitehorse Yellowknife Hud son BRITISH ALBERTA Bay COLUMBIA MANITOBA Edmonton

PAC I FI C OC EAN

Canada is the second largest country in the world, with vast areas north of the Arctic Circle where winters are harsh and distances are measured in days rather than kilometres. Churchill, Manitoba, is known as the polar bear capital of the world. If you visit the Newfoundland coast you are likely to see icebergs floating by. Many First Nations communities are found in the Nunavut and Northwest Territories. Most Canadians, however, live along the US border in the south where the climate is milder. Still, Canadians often joke about the weather, claiming their seasons are “almost winter, winter, still winter, and roadworks”.

Baffin Bay

SASKATCHEWAN

ALASKA (US)

Beauf ort Sea

GREENLAND

True North


FACT FILE CANADA Canada Facts

Eh?

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Canadians are known to be very polite. They will say “sorry” even if you’re the one who should apologize. You may also hear Canadians say “eh”, usually meaning “isn’t it”, at the end of sentences to soften direct questions or criticism. In fact, Canadians have fairly strong ideas of what is socially acceptable despite their generally laidback attitude and informal lifestyle.

Official name: Canada (the Dominion of Canada) Capital: Ottawa Population: 36 million Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, First Nations 4.4%. (Mixed origin 41%.) Geography: 10 provinces and 3 territories Landscape: Mountain ranges in the west, permanently frozen areas in the north, plains and farmland in the south Head of State: The British King or Queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: July 1 (Canada Day) Currency: Canadian Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, barley, oilseed, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish Industry: Chemicals, minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas.

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Canada is often ranked very high in surveys measuring quality of life. The country is known for its political stability and its high personal safety. Canadians, often called Canucks, appreciate good education systems, free health care and long life expectancy.

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The Good Life


FACT FILE CANADA AIMS k explore and describe Canadian

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culture and ways of life k explain the meaning of selected quotes

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7.65 • Study the pictures on the previous pages. a Describe the Canadian flag. b Which sports do you see in the pictures? c What types of landscapes can you find in Canada? d What cultural heritage can you see in the coat of arms?

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7.66 •• Study the map on the previous page. a How many provinces and territories are there? b Where is the capital located? c In which province do you find Montréal? d What is the easternmost province called? e What is the province capital of British Columbia? f Which territory is the largest?

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7.67 ••• Answer the following questions. a Why is Canada often ranked high when measuring quality of life? b How many people live in Canada and where do most of them live? c Which is the biggest ethnic group in Canada? d How many say they have a mixed background? e When is Canada’s national day? f Who is Canada’s head of state? g Why do Canadians say “sorry” so often? h What is the meaning of “eh” at the end of sentences?

Practise

7.68 Below are some words and expressions associated with Canada and Canadians. Use online dictionaries or encyclopedias to find definitions and explanations. mounted police – maple syrup – lumberjacks – poutine – loonies and toonies – tuque – inukshuk – toboggan

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FACT FILE CANADA

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7.69 Study the quotes below. In your own words, explain what is said in the quotes.

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“I’m not a hockey fan, which is probably why I had to leave Canada in the first place.” Ryan Reynolds

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“This is a country where a man can die simply from being caught outside.” Alden Nowlan

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7.70 • How many Canadian icons can you see in the illustration? Write down as many as possible. Choose five from your list and explain why they are typical of Canada.

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7.71 •• Based on what you learned from studying the fact file and reading “The Hockey Sweater”, write a short text where you describe Canadian culture. Start like this: “In general, Canadians are … ” Swap your text with a partner’s and give each other constructive feedback.

Explore

7.72 Find information about a Canadian invention or a famous Canadian, for example in music, film or sports. Use reliable and relevant sources, and make a short multimodal presentation.

explore and describe Canadian culture and ways of life YES

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explain the meaning of selected quotes YES

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SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 331


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SUMMARIZING AND SYNTHESIZING INFORMATION

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Being able to summarize and synthesize information is an essential skill. It shows that you have understood the material you have studied, and that you can select what is most relevant and use it. A summary is a shortened version of a text where you highlight the main points. A synthesis is when you combine information from several sources, comparing and contrasting important points. The following strategies are relevant for working with a variety of sources such as statistics, documentaries, feature films and audio files, as well as written texts.

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How to summarize 1 Study the text carefully. 2 Select the most relevant information. What are the main ideas or the most interesting facts? 3 Highlight or write down keywords. Think through why these keywords are relevant. 4 Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences, using your own words. 5 Use linking words to show how the ideas and facts are connected. 6 Check your summary. Would it make sense to someone who hasn’t seen the original material?

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How to synthesize 1 Study the information from your sources carefully. 2 Find the relevant ideas and main points. 3 Organise the information, for example in a Venn diagram. List similar information together. 4 Comment on each point. Use the PEED method: state your point, support it with examples from the text followed by an explanation, and then develop your point if relevant. 5 Compare the ideas and main points. Use sentence connectors to show similarities and contrasts. 6 Sum up and conclude.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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The following is an example of how to extract information from two short texts on multiculturalism in Australia and Canada, then synthesizing the main points in a paragraph.

immigration languages multilingual

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heterogeneous

In the wake of immigration, Canada has become a truly multilingual country with more than 200 mother tongues. Among those whose first language is not one of Canada's official languages, Chinese is most common, followed by Tagalog, Spanish and Punjabi.

diversity policy

strength

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Overall, more than 200 languages are spoken, and the most common are Italian, Arabic, Chinese and Greek. The country considers the rich cultural diversity its main strength and what embodies its national identity.

multicultural

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Australia can be described as a vibrant, multicultural nation. One in every four Australians was born overseas, and 46% have at least one parent who has immigrated to the country. Furthermore, almost 20% of Australians speak a language that is not English.

Canada is ethnically heterogeneous, with citizens coming from a number of cultural backgrounds and countries of origin. In fact, the government encourages immigration and multiculturalism is an official policy. Today, around 20% of the population are foreign born.

national identity

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Summarized and synthesized text: Canada and Australia are both multicultural nations. There are several similarities between the two countries; for example, the percentage of foreign-born citizens, which is 20% and 25% respectively. Another example is the linguistic diversity they share as a result of immigration, with more than 200 spoken languages in each country. Although their immigrants’ mother tongues may not be the same, Chinese is common in both countries. Moreover, it seems both countries consider cultural diversity an important aspect of their national identity. In fact, multiculturalism is an official policy in Canada, whereas in Australia it is considered the country’s main strength. Tip: If you are asked to compare the contents or language of two texts, don’t write about one first and then the other. Discuss similarities and differences of both texts as you go.

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 333


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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7.73 Read the text below and complete the tasks. a Follow the six steps on the previous pages to summarize the information. b The writers clearly found the episode in the elevator both surprising and funny. Find evidence or examples in the text to support this statement. c Compare the episode described in this text with information from the short text “Eh?” in the fact file on Canada. Follow the steps on the previous pages to synthesize the information.

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To blend in amongst Canadians, you first must A. locate them, B. dress like them, and C. learn to insult them in a casual, carefree manner. Fortunately, all three objectives are fairly easy. Especially the last one.

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Canadians are very easy to insult. Ian was once on an elevator in downtown Toronto, and the only other occupant was a dear old lady who kept asking him if he knew her grandson. The elevator doors were about to close when a smartly dressed young woman came running up. The elderly lady immediately stopped the doors with her cane and called out, “Come on in, sweetie.” The younger woman got on and glared at the older woman. “I think that was very rude,” she said. True story. Ian was agog. He waited until the grandma, obviously flustered, got off on her floor, and then asked the wounded party what had set her off. Well, it turns out that her last name was Svenson or something. She was of Swedish extraction, you see, and she thought the old woman was making a racial slur. “Sweetie/Swedie.” Get it? And no, we aren’t kidding.

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blend in passe inn insult fornærme' casual uformell objective mål cane stokk agog her: spent, forventningsfull flustered forvirret, oppskjørtet/ forvirra, oppskjørta wounded såret/såra extraction her: avstamming slur fornærmelse/fornærming herring sild Mississauga storby sør for Toronto

So, hell, Ian did the only thing he could do. Which was to tell this woman to take her Ikea-buying, herring-eating, Abba-playing, saunasweating, meatball-making ass back to wherever it was she came from. Which as it turned out, was Mississauga. Those damn Swedes. We let them in, give them jobs, and the next thing you know they’re taking over. This used to be a great country until those damned “Swedies” moved in. Excerpt from How to be a Canadian by Will & Ian Ferguson

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS PEED = POINT, EXAMPLE, EXPLAIN, DEVELOP Make a point to answer the question you have been given. Give an example from the text.

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Explain how your example supports your point.

Develop your point, e.g. comment on the writer’s intention or what the effect on the reader is, or give your own opinion.

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7.74 Study the following paragraph from a student’s answer. Find and underline the four steps of the PEED method.

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The old lady in the elevator did not mean to insult the young woman. She called the young woman “sweetie” and even stopped the doors from closing so that she could get on. This shows that the old lady was not rude at all. The young woman thought she said something else and clearly misunderstood the situation. In addition to sharing a funny episode, I think the writer’s intention is to show how easily some people can be offended.

Languages Most Used On the Web vs. IRL

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7.76 Study the statistics. a Summarize the information in the bar chart on the left. b Summarize the information in the pie chart on the right. c Synthesize the information by comparing and contrasting the two charts.

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7.75 Find an article about an issue you think is interesting and read it. a Explain what the main idea or message of the article is, using the PEED method. Work in pairs and discuss possible answers. b Summarize the article in one paragraph.

Number of first-language speakers (estimates in billions)

Chinese Spanish English Hindi Arabic Portuguese Bengali Russian Japanese Lahnda German Korean French Marathi Italian Polish

Percentage of websites using various content languages* 1.20

a

0.40 0.36

b c •

5.0%

0.26 0.24 0.20 0.19

d e

h b i

f

2.6%

g

2.2%

e a d j

0.17 0.13 • 0.09 h 0.08 • 0.08 i

2.1% 1.9%

c •

54.4%

11.4%

0.08

• 0.07 • 0.06 j 0.04

f

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4.7% 4.1%

5.9%

5.7%

Other

• 2.66

* top 10 million websites

Source: Mashable statista and w3techs.com/Entologue

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 335


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Gaming Culture

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Before you start Which games are popular in your class? What consoles are most common?

appealing tiltalende/tiltalande evolve utvikle seg decade tiĂĽr

Computer games – a part of our culture Even in the earliest days of computers, there were games. Scoring points and advancing in a digital hierarchy soon turned out to be both appealing and at times addictive. In just a few decades, creating games has grown into a billion-dollar industry. Players who excel at popular games can now make a living from it. In fact, playing computer or video games is now considered a sport, and just like other forms of sports, gaming has become a cultural expression.

336 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


The evolution of computer games

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AIMS All of this would have been unthinkable just a few decades ago when gamers would gather at local arcades. k describe how computer games have That was before the Internet. During the late 1980s evolved and 1990s, gaming moved out of the arcades and into k discuss gaming as a cultural homes, where players could enjoy longer and more expression complex games. As gaming attracted more and more k create an outline for a game attention in the 1990s, so did the content of games that k collect data for a survey included increasingly realistic graphics. A number of studies have followed in the years since, attempting to find out whether there is a link between violent games and aggressive behaviour. So far, no conclusive connection has been found. Contact through games

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As the range of games evolved, players have also specialized in their favourite types of game. There are massive multiplayer online games (MMO), simulations, adventure games, real time strategy games (RTS), first-person shooter games (FPS), sports games and many more. Subsequently, online forums were established where gamers could discuss challenges, exchange tips and tricks, and provide walkthroughs for tough sections of their favourite games. Online, gamers can communicate with each other across borders, without regard to age, gender, appearance or race. There are also a number of subcultures related to gaming, such as cosplayers dressing up as their favourite games’ heroes or villains. Some have even become well-paid models who attend conventions. Undoubtedly, belonging to a group with shared interests also has benefits on a psychological level. Players support each other and become friends, and some have even married after having met each other through a game.

Language and norms

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Over time, these digital communities have developed cultural features that connect the participants in various ways. Language is one, for example by using abbreviations, also known as leetspeak. GG, meaning “good game”, may be used to show good sportsmanship at the end of a game. BM, short for “bad manners”, is used to show an opponent that he or she is breaking commonly accepted rules of behaviour. Quite a few abbreviations that originated from online gaming have been adopted in everyday speech, such as noob and FTW. Gaming forums also have traditions, like LANs, where gamers come together in real life and play. At LANs, as well as in forums and games, players usually cooperate and communicate in English, as they join forces on their quests to solve riddles, unlock levels or combat enemies.

rapid rask in the making under utvikling excel utmerke seg arcade spillehall/spelehall graphics grafikk attempt forsøke connection sammenheng/ samanheng distinguish skille exposure eksponering range utvalg/utval subsequently følgelig, som følge av/følgeleg, som følge av establish etablere exchange utveksle provide gi, sørge for appearance utseende/utsjånad cosplayer (costume player) cosplay-utøver/cosplay-utøvar villain kjeltring convention her: spillkonferanse/ spelekonferanse community samfunn feature trekk, kjennetegn/ trekk, kjenneteikn abbreviation forkortelse opponent motspiller/motspelar originate stamme fra/stamme frå quest oppdrag, søken solve løse/løyse riddle gåte combat bekjempe/kjempe mot

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 337


What’s next?

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With change, people often disagree on whether it is for the better or the worse. Researchers study the effect of such changes and try to predict what will happen next. What we do know is that gamification has made its way into education. Gaming can support learning in various ways, from teaching content to learning coding and programming skills, as well as critical thinking and collaboration. Being able to analyse, plan ahead, try new ideas and solve problems is an important skill in the 21st century. Transferring these gaming skills to other areas of our lives can open up a lot of opportunities.

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gamification spillifisering, anvendelse av spillprinsipper i andre sammenhenger/ speleifisering, bruk av speleprinsipp i andre samanhengar foresee forutse/føresjå collaboration samarbeid transfer overføre

Read and understand

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7.77 • Choose the correct alternative in the sentences. a Scoring points in a game can be strongly appearance/appealing/ accepted. b Creating games has shown/grown/blown into a billion-dollar industry. c Playing computer games has become a cultural expression/ abbreviation/collaboration. d Players meet online in forums to share riddles/quests/tips. e Belonging to a group with shared conventions/interests/features has benefits on a psychological level. f Gamers can communicate/originate/transfer across borders. g They join forces to collaborate/combat/exchange villains. h Gaming can support/attempt/evolve learning.

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7.78 •• Write questions to fit these statements. a People would play computer games in local arcades. b It is considered a sport. c Gamers communicate mostly in English. d The players discuss challenges and exchange tips and tricks. e It is a form of communication which consists of abbreviations. f It means “good game”. g They dress up as fictional characters from their favourite game. h No conclusive connection has been found. 7.79 ••• Answer the following questions. a What does the text say about the evolution of computer games? b What does the text say about different kinds of games? c What does the text say about communication? d Give examples of 21st-century skills that can be acquired through gaming.

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Practise

7.80 Combine the words with the correct translation. A evolve

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B quest

2 nivĂĽ

C convention

3 utvikle seg

D collaboration

4 motspiller

E abbreviation

5 samarbeid

f

6 spillehall

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G arcade

7 spillkonferanse

H opponent

8 oppdrag, søken

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forkortelse

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7.81 Explain the following expressions in other English words. a professional gamer b online forum c cosplay d leetspeak e LAN f quest g gamification

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7.82 Discuss the following questions and share your views in class. a What do you think makes a good computer game? b What skills are required to become a good gamer? c Do you think being a professional gamer is an attractive profession? d Is gaming a sport? e Is gaming an example of cultural expression?

Ku

7.83 Make a presentation based on one of the following topics. a A highly rated game. Use expressions like characters, setting, plot, quest, theme. b A famous gamer. Use expressions like skills, features, attitude, language, levels, merits. c A gaming forum. Use expressions like language, values, norms, behaviour, traditions.

SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 339


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7.84 Many games are easily recognized because of their elaborate graphics. Discuss the following questions in groups. a Study the examples below. Describe what you see. What types of games do you think they are? Do you recognize any of them? b How do graphics contribute to the mood and atmosphere of the game? c How important is the quality of a game’s graphics to you?

340 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


7.85 • Write a short text where you argue for or against using games in education. Start your text with a statement, then support your statement with examples and explanations. End your text with a concluding sentence to sum up your argument. 7.86 •• Compare two different games of your choice. For advice, study “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how computer games have evolved YES

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Explore

YES

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create an outline for a game YES

ALMOST

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collect data for a survey YES

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7.88 Interview fellow students about their gaming habits. Work in groups. Agree on at least three questions, collect data and make a survey. Present your findings in class.

NO

discuss gaming as a cultural expression

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7.87 ••• Make an outline for a game you would like to create. Include information on genre and type of game, setting, characters, story line, plot, theme and reward. Present your ideas in class.

How did you do?

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7.89 Norway has a number of renowned game developers, some of whom have won international prizes. Find information about these developers and their games. Who are they and what have they created? Which prizes have they won? Have you played any of their games?

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7.90 In March 2020, an «Uncensored Library» was built using Minecraft, the iconic gaming platform that welcomes more than 145 million players each month. Find out who built the virtual library, how long it took, what it contains, and what its purpose is.

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How did you do

Did you know?

Super Mario is a hugely popular game figure, known by children all over the world. His name came from the landlord of Nintendo’s first warehouse, Mr Mario Segale. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 341


CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

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7.92 Go back to the focus areas listed at the beginning of this chapter. a For each of the focus areas listed, find examples of what you have learnt from working with the texts and tasks. b What do you think you master well? c What would you like to improve? Explain why and what you think you will have to do.

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7.91 After working with chapter 7, it is time to recap and revise what you have learnt. a What is culture? b What is a stereotype? c Give examples of cultural expressions you have studied in this chapter. d What have you learnt about culture and ways of life in the countries you have studied in this chapter? e Which texts have you read or listened to? Give brief summaries. f Choose one text or film and one illustration from this chapter and explain why you think they are relevant.

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Revise

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7.93 Discussing literature and film a Explain what setting is. b What is the difference between plot and theme? c Name two different points of view. d Give examples of protagonists and antagonists in stories you have read or watched. e Explain the difference between explicit and implicit information.

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7.94 Summarizing and synthesizing information a What should you remember when you write a summary? b What do you do when you synthesize information? c How is summarizing different from synthesizing? d What is the PEED method?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

7.96 Write a • Choose a story you have read, a film or an episode from a TV series you have watched recently. Describe what the main conflict is, how the plot develops, if there is one or more turning points, and how the conflict is resolved.

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7.95 Speak a • What form of cultural expression do you enjoy the most, and why? Prepare a three-minute speech with examples.

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b •• When you look back on all the stories you have studied this year, which character do you think is the most interesting? What makes the character interesting, and how does the writer achieve this? Explain to each other in groups.

Ku

c ••• Choose two computer games you have played or know well. Compare the genre, setting and theme in these two games. How are they similar? How are they different? Discuss in small groups.

b •• Describe the challenges experienced by the main character in the short story “My Mother, the Crazy African”. Compare them with challenges experienced by one or more characters in other English-language literary texts or films you have studied this year. Study “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter for advice. c ••• Compare the points of view in two of the texts from this chapter and a film you have studied this year. How do the perspectives contribute to how we relate to the characters and understand the plot? Study “Discussing literature and film” and “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter for advice. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 343


CHAPTER 8

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Perspectives


In this chapter you will focus on k social issues in historical contexts

k global challenges k culture and society in India and Africa

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k arguing a case

k referring to sources

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k word order and punctuation

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Useful words and phrases

sustainable development microplastics civil war refugees segregation decolonization literacy perception prosperity progress

How do you feel about the future of our planet? Who can solve the challenges we are facing today?

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Sustainable Development

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Before you start “Sustainable development” means that one generation is able to meet its needs without ruining the possibility for the next generations to meet their needs. In which fields do you think sustainability is important?

The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945, after World War II, to work for international peace, social progress and human rights. In 2015 all the 193 UN member states agreed on a plan for sustainable development to face the challenges in the world today. The 17 goals are set for 2030.

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No Poverty

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While global poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 2000, one in ten people in developing regions are still living with their families on less than the international poverty line of US $ 1.90 a day, and there are millions more who make little more than this daily amount. Significant progress has been made in Asia, but up to 42 % of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to live below the poverty line. Poverty is more than shortage of money. It is also visible in poor health, hunger, discrimination and lack education.

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Zero Hunger

It is time to rethink how we grow, share and consume our food. If done right, agriculture, forestry and fisheries can provide nutritious food for all. Right now, our soils, fresh water, oceans, forests and biodiversity are being rapidly degraded. Many people in rural areas can no longer make ends meet on their land, forcing them to migrate to cities in search of opportunities. Poor food security is also causing severe malnutrition. A profound change in the global food and agriculture system is needed if we are to nourish the 815 million people who are hungry today.

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developing region utviklings­ region poverty line fattigdomsgrensen/ fattigdomsgrensa progress framskritt/framsteg access tilgang consume forbruke forestry skogsdrift biodiversity biologisk mangfold/ biologisk mangfald degrade nedbryte/bryte ned rural landlig/landleg migrate flytte, migrere malnutrition underernæring nourish ernære

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AIMS k explain the concept of sustainable

Quality Education

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development k discuss ways to achieve sustainability k share information about a sustainable development goal

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Education is the foundation to creating sustainable development. Over 265 million children are currently out of school and 22 % of them are of primary school age. Additionally, even children who are attending schools are lacking basic skills in reading and maths. Basic literacy skills have improved but investment is needed in educational scholarship, teacher training, school building and improvement of water and electricity access for schools.

Gender Equality

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While the world has achieved progress towards gender equality, women and girls continue to suffer discrimination and violence in every part of the world. Gender equality is not only a fundamental right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. Unfortunately, 1 in 5 women and girls between the ages of 15–49 have reported experiencing physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner within a 12-month period, and 49 countries currently have no laws protecting women from domestic violence. There is progress regarding harmful practices such as child marriage and FGM (female genital mutilation), which has declined by 30 % in the past decade, but there is still much work to be done. Equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes are crucial to ending gender-based discrimination.

foundation grunnlag gender equality likestilling mellom kjønnene/likestilling mellom kjønna fundamental right grunnleggende rettighet/grunnleggande rett prosperous velstående, rik/ velståande, rik domestic violence vold i hjemmet/vald i heimen genital mutilation kjønnslemlestelse/ kjønnslemlesting decline avta/minke, stilne crucial vesentlig/ vesentleg

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Read and understand

8.1 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. Correct the sentences that are wrong.

True Sustainable means to use as many resources as possible.

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The United Nations is a large and important organization with a long history.

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There are more poor people today than in 2000.

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Africa is the continent with the largest percentage of poor people.

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Production and consumption of food is already sustainable.

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If they can’t make a living from farming, people often move to the cities.

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22 % of the children on earth do not go to school.

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Discrimination of women and girls is still a big problem in many countries.

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8.2 •• Answer these questions. a How many sustainable development goals are there and when is their deadline? b What is the international poverty line? c How does poverty affect the lives of those who struggle with it? d Why is it necessary to change global food production? e How many children do not go to school? f What is said about genital mutilation and child marriage? g In which fields do women need equal access before there will be gender equality? 8.3 ••• Use information from the text on the previous pages to explain what the situation is today for each of the four goals. What kind of positive changes have already taken place and which challenges must be addressed in the future?

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Practise

1 Raise your voice against discrimination against people of minorities.

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2 Recycle paper, plastic, glass and metals.

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3 Cycle, walk or use public transportation to keep our cities’ air clean.

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4 Buy from green companies that are equal opportunity employers.

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5 Use only energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs, and turn off lights when not in use.

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8.4 Match the development goals in the left column with the corresponding activities in the right column.

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6 Use your democratic right to elect the leaders in your country and local community.

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7 Plant trees and flowers and be kind to animals and insects.

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8 Avoid throwing away food and do not buy more than you plan to eat.

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8.5 Word grid a Find words from the text in the word grid below. b Use the words from the grid to write full sentences.

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by fattigdom forbruke fremskritt kjønn kvinner landlig mangfold mat migrere nedbryte rettighet rik skole tilgang utvikling

8.6 Choose one of the sustainability goals. Use the United Nations website and other sources to find facts and numbers about the topic. Then use the information to give a short presentation. For advice, see “Sharing Information” in Chapter 1.

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8.7 Who can contribute to reaching the goals? What can we do as individuals, what should politicians do, and what can organizations or others do? Discuss and make a list.

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8.8 The deadline for the UN Sustainable development goals is 2030. How many years are left? Look for recent information on the progress towards the various goals. Does it seem realistic to reach them by 2030? 8.9 Use digital resources to find facts about global wealth inequality or how wealth is distributed across the world. Does anything surprise you about the numbers you find? Can you think of solutions to this problem?

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Listen

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the concept of sustainable development YES

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share information about a sustainable development goal YES

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Take notes while you listen, then compare and discuss with a partner, and finally share your information in class. For advice, see “Listening strategies” in Chapter 5.

NO

discuss ways to achieve sustainability

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8.11 “Making a Difference” There are many organizations and individuals who work to help people and the environment in various ways. In this text Emma and Sam discuss volunteerism and the importance of humanitarian and environmental organizations.

How did you do?

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8.10 Find statistics on population growth. How does an increasing population on the planet affect food production, energy consumption and waste? Share and discuss in class.

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Planet, or ­Plastic?

Plastic is fantastic. It is cheap, versatile and easy to shape. However, its durability has become a problem. It will not dissolve, either on land, or in the ocean. This has become a source of concern in most parts of our planet.

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BY LAURA PARKER, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. ABRIDGED VERSION

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f plastic had been invented when the Pilgrims sailed from Plymouth, England, to North America, and the Mayflower had been stocked with bottled water and plastic-wrapped snacks, their plastic trash would likely still be around, four centuries later.

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Before you start How many items made from plastic can you spot from where you are? What do you know about plastic pollution in the world today?

We should give thanks that the Pilgrims didn’t have plastic, I thought recently as I rode a train to

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Plymouth along England’s south coast. I was on my way to see a man who would help me make sense of the whole mess we’ve made with plastic, especially in the ocean. Because plastic wasn’t invented until the late 19th century, and production really only took off around 1950, we have a mere 9.2 billion tons of the stuff to deal with. Of that more than 6.9 billion tons have become waste.


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Meanwhile, AIMS ocean plastic is estimated to kill millions k discuss problems related to plastic of marine k present some environmental challenges and solutions animals every year. Nearly 700 species, including endangered ones, are known to have been affected by it. Some are harmed visibly, strangled by abandoned fishing nets or discarded six-pack rings. Many more are probably harmed invisibly. Marine species of all sizes, from zooplankton to whales, now eat microplastics, the bits smaller than one-fifth of an inch across. On versatile allsidig Hawaii’s Big Island, on a beach that durability varighet/varigheit seemingly should have been pristine, dissolve løse seg opp/løyse seg as no paved road leads to it, I walked opp ankle-deep through microplastics. stocked fylt After that, I could understand why plastic-wrapped innpakket i some people see ocean plastic plast/pakka inn i plast century århundre/hundreår as a looming catastrophe, worth mere bare/berre mentioning in the same breath as waste søppel climate change.

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And of that waste, a staggering 6.3 billion tons never made it to a recycling bin, a figure that stunned the scientists who crunched the numbers in 2017.

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No one knows how much unrecycled plastic waste ends up in the ocean, Earth’s last sink. In 2015, Jenna Jambeck, a University of Georgia engineering professor, caught everyone’s attention with a rough estimate of between 5.3 million and 14 million tons each year just from coastal regions. It’s unclear how long it will take for that plastic to completely biodegrade into its constituent molecules. Estimates range from 450 years to never.

And yet there’s a key difference: Ocean plastic is not as complicated as climate change. There are no ocean trash deniers, at least so far. To do something about it, we don’t have to remake our planet’s entire energy system. “This isn’t a problem where we don’t know what the solution is,” says Ted Siegler, a Vermont resource economist who has spent more than 25 years working with developing nations on garbage. “We know how

staggering forbløffende/ forbløffande stun lamslå crunch numbers knuse tall, regne ut sink utslagsvask estimate beregning/ berekning coastal region kystområder/ kystområde biodegrade bryte ned constituent her: iboende, bestanddel/ibuande, delemne species art abandon forlate discard kaste microplastics mikroplast pristine ren, ubrukt/rein, ubrukt looming truende/truande denier fornekter/fornektar

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Gradually, Thompson and his scientist colleagues found the answer: plastic is getting broken into pieces so small they’re hard to see. In a 2004 paper, Thompson coined the term “microplastics” for these small bits.

“We do know the concentrations of chemicals at the time of manufacture in some cases are very high,” Thompson said. “We don’t know how much additive is left in the plastic by the time it becomes bitesize to a fish.

As Thompson and I talked about all this, a boat called the Dolphin was carrying us through a light chop in the Sound, off Plymouth. Thompson reeled out a fine-mesh net called a manta trawl, usually used for studying plankton. We were close to the spot where, a few years earlier, other researchers had collected 504 fish of 10 species and given them to

Thompson is careful not to get ahead of the science on his subject. He’s far from an alarmist, but he’s also convinced that plastic trash in the ocean is far more than an aesthetic problem. “I don’t think we should be waiting for a key finding of whether or not fish are hazardous to eat,” he said. “We have enough evidence to act.”

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In Plymouth, Richard Thompson, marine ecologist, waited in a Marine Station, at the edge of the harbor. In 1993 he was working on a Ph.D. on limpets and microalgae that grow on coastal rocks when he participated in his first beach clean-up, on the Isle of Man. While other volunteers zoomed in on the plastic bottles and bags and nets, Thompson focused on the small stuff, the tiny particles that lay underfoot, ignored, at the high tide line. At first, he was not even sure they were plastic. He had to consult forensic chemists to confirm it.

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Thompson. Dissecting the fish, he was surprised to find microplastics in the guts of more than one-third of them. The finding made international headlines. After we’d steamed along for a while, Thompson reeled the manta trawl back in. There was a smattering of coloured plastic confetti at the bottom. Thompson himself doesn’t worry much about microplastics in his fish and chips. There’s little evidence yet that they pass from the gut of a fish into the flesh we actually eat. He worries more about the things that none of us can see, the chemicals added to plastics to give them desirable properties, such as malleability, and the even tinier nanoplastics that microplastics presumably degrade into. Those might pass into the tissues of fish and humans.

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dispose of kvitte seg med irretrievable uopprettelig/ uoppretteleg Ph.D. doktorgrad limpet albueskjell/albueskjel high tide line høyvannslinje/ høgvasslinje forensic chemist rettskjemiker/ rettskjemikar coin a term finne på et nytt ord/ finne på eit nytt ord chop urolig sjø/uroleg sjø reel spole, vinde fine-mesh finmasket/finmaska gut innvoller/ innvolar smattering lag confetti småbiter/småbitar desirable ønskelig/ønskeleg property her: egenskap/ eigenskap malleability formbarhet/ formbarheit additive tilsettingsstoff alarmist panikkspreder/ panikkspreiar aesthetic estetisk

to pick up garbage. Anyone can do it. We know how to dispose of it. We know how to recycle. It’s a matter of building the necessary institutions and systems,” he says, “ideally before the ocean turns, irretrievably and for centuries to come, into a thin soup of plastic.”

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IN SHORT

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Ocean plastic kills millions of marine animals every year. Some are strangled by abandoned fishing nets. Some eat plastic items, often degraded into microplastics. But plastic waste is a problem where we know the solution. We all know how to pick up trash and we know how to recycle.

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Because plastic wasn’t invented until the late 19th century, we only have 9.2 billion tons of the stuff to deal with. At least 6 billion tons of plastic has become waste. Every year, millions of tons of plastic waste end up in the ocean. It takes at least 450 years – maybe forever – for plastic to completely biodegrade.

Richard Thompson, a marine ecologist, discovered microplastics while cleaning up beaches on the Isle of Man. Later he also found tiny pieces of plastics in the guts of fish.

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He worries about the chemicals in plastics that might pass into the tissues of fish and humans.

Read and understand

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8.12 • Choose the correct alternatives in the sentences below and write the sentences. a Every year millions of tons of plastic end up on beaches/in fish guts/ in the ocean. b It takes at least 45 years/450 years/45 months for plastic waste to biodegrade. c Hundreds/ thousands/millions of animals die every year from contact with plastic waste. d In the ocean plastic is recycled/degraded/increased into little bits, called microplastics. e Microplastics are found in the guts/flesh/blood of living fish. f Plastic contains tissues/chemicals/fishing nets that may be dangerous for fish and humans.

century århundre/hundreår waste avfall biodegrade bryte ned strangle kvele abandon forlate fishing net fiskegarn microplastics mikroplast solution løsning/løysing trash søppel recycle resirkulere gut innvoller/innvolar chemicals kjemikalier/ kjemikaliar tissue vev

8.13 •• Write five questions to the text. The answers should be found in the article. Work in pairs and ask each other the questions. SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 355


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8.14 ••• Use your own words to explain and comment on the quotes from the text. a We should give thanks that the Pilgrims didn’t have plastic. b A staggering 6.3 billion tons never made it to a recycling bin. c Estimates range from 450 years to never. d There are no ocean trash deniers, at least so far. e Thompson coined the term “microplastics” for these small bits. f He worries more about the things that none of us can see. g He’s far from an alarmist, but he’s also convinced that plastic trash in the ocean is far more than an aesthetic problem.

Practise

8.15 Insert the words where they belong.

microplastics – deny – looming – aesthetic – recycled – biodegrade – trash

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Plastic pollution is not just an problem. It is a major challenge in the oceans, which no one can . It takes a long time for plastic to completely. Marine animals and birds fill their stomachs with plastic bags and smaller bits, called . Instead of polluting the oceans, plastics should be . Anyone can pick up their own .

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8.16 Discuss the questions. a What is the problem with plastic pollution and what can be done? b Which other environmental challenges do we face today? c What can you as individuals and as a class do to help meet environmental challenges? d What can be done by politicians, industries, scientists and the media to solve these problems?

Did you know?

Explore

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When it comes to recycling plastic bottles, Norway is the leading country in the world. We recover 97 per cent of our plastic bottles. They are reused, some as many as 50 times! These results are so impressive that many other nations are now following suit.

8.17 On National Geographic’s website there are many short films about different environmental challenges. Choose two films that you find interesting. Compare the content and the way the information is communicated. 8.18 In the documentary “Before the Flood” Leonardo Di Caprio explores climate change. Watch the trailer or the film. As you watch, write keywords about places and people you see and facts that are presented. Why do you think this film became so popular? Is it a film you would recommend? Discuss.

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• overpopulation • industrial waste • garbage handling • energy production and consumption

• endangered animal species • fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture • mineral shortage in manufacturing

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• deforestation • air pollution • transport • consumption • global warming

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8.19 Choose one of the environmental challenges below. Search for reliable and relevant sources and make a presentation. Include • reasons for the problem • consequences of the situation • possible solutions

8.20 • Find a picture that illustrates the plastic problem or another environmental issue you are interested in. Make a poster for a campaign with a catchy slogan and a short text to inspire people to act.

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8.21 •• Use information from the illustration below to create a text where you reflect on the amount of waste we generate in our modern world. Also discuss how our society should change to meet the challenge.

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How long until it’s decomposed?

Fish hooks 600 years

Plastic bags 10 - 20 years

Cigarettes 10 years

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Drinking cans 200 years

Cardboard 2 months

Glass 4000 years

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss problems related to plastic

Plastic cutlery 100 - 1000 years

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present some environmental challenges and solutions Diapers 450 years

Some plastics Never

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Source: NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US)

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS ARGUING A CASE

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Whether you are preparing for an oral presentation, planning a debate or writing a text, the steps below will be useful if you want to argue a case, discuss a topic and convince your audience.

Start with a statement that can be argued and proven by evidence. Make sure your opinion is valid.

2 Be logical, clear and simple

It is estimated that 8 million tons of plastic are washed into the ocean every year, worldwide. Furthermore, according to recent research, one hundred thousand marine animals are killed by this yearly.

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Present evidence, facts and logic to support your arguments. This is called logos.

One of the biggest environmental challenges today is ocean pollution.

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1 Make a claim

3 Be trustworthy

I have read several reports thoroughly and discovered that most of this waste is singleuse plastic. This means that we recycle next to nothing, even though I know from experience that recycling is really easy.

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Show that you can be trusted by sharing knowledge and personal experience and by referring to credible sources. This is called ethos.

4 Win your audience

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Make your audience or readers identify with your arguments and become interested by appealing to emotions and creating a sense of unity. This is called pathos.

5 Respect alternative views

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Listen to other opinions and respond to your opponent’s point of view in a polite way, but also point out their weaknesses or illogical reasoning.

6 Sum up

Repeat your main points.

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It is horrible to see the beautiful creatures in our oceans suffer and die because of the harmful waste we force upon these defenceless animals. We must join forces to solve this terrible situation. Some claim that removing plastic from the ocean is pointless if we do not stop the constant flow of new waste. I respect this point of view, but I am convinced that we need to do both to solve this problem. Therefore, I am certain that we need to collect waste in the ocean and recycle it, and we can all contribute!


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

a My message to you is therefore to take this issue seriously and contribute to stopping the development.

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b I am here today to tell you about the challenges caused by global warming.

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8.22 Which statement belongs to the various steps of arguing a case? 1. claim 2. logos 3. ethos 4. pathos 5. alternative views 6. sum up

c Some people claim that global warming is a natural process, not caused by humans, but I think there is enough evidence to disagree.

d According to data from NASA, carbon dioxide levels in the air are now at their highest in 650,000 years and the temperatures are rising.

I have visited glaciers in both Norway and France and seen how the ice has melted over the past few decades.

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e It makes me sad to see defenceless animals suffer when their habitat is ruined by drought, flooding or melting ice.

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8.23 When arguing with an opponent, it is easy to get carried away. Which of these sentences would you use, and which ones should you avoid? Discuss and explain. a Can you explain to me why you think this is so wrong? b You have no idea what you are talking about. c I respect your point of view, but in my opinion this is not a good solution. d Let’s discuss a couple of options and then see if we can agree. e I know I am right, and you are wrong! f I don’t see any sense in what you are saying.

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8.24 Practise using the six steps as you act out conversations and argue your case with a partner. Start with the following questions. a What is the best form of sport? b Who is the best artist or actor in the world? c What is the best pizza topping?

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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8.25 In a discussion it is important to listen carefully to your opponents and give a relevant response to their arguments. Study the sentences below and place them in a logical order to find out what Dean and Sue are discussing. a Sue: I’m afraid I disagree; transport is not the only problem here. It is more important that we stop eating meat, since food production demands lots of energy. b Dean: Exactly, so you do agree that we should reduce the use of airplanes, do you? c Dean: That may be true if you only think about saving time when travelling, but it is too short-sighted since you ruin the planet at the same time. Still, to conclude, I can see that at least we both want to save the planet, and that is good! d Sue: To some extent I do, when there are other, energy saving alternatives for transportation of goods. For people who travel far, however, airplanes are the best solution. e Dean: Let me first say that I am convinced that the best way to save the climate is to stop flying and to limit the use of cars. f Sue: I agree that the widespread and constant use of digital tools demands energy, but it is more efficient than printing paper and sending it by planes across nations. g Dean: But a growing population needs food! We will need even more food in the future, so instead we will have to cut other activities that demand energy. One example is to reduce the use of computers.

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8.26 Read out the corrected version of the discussion above and answer the questions. Work in pairs. a How do Sue and Dean respond to each other’s point of view in the discussion? b Which words and expressions do they use to follow up each other’s arguments? c Explain the views and arguments used by Sue and Dean. Do you agree with any of them? Explain why.

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Guidelines for debates 1 Speak only when it is your turn; do not interrupt. 2 Act dignified and avoid personal attacks. 3 Focus on the topic. 4 Present facts truthfully. 5 Do not become overly emotional in your appeals.

8.27 Organize a debate in the classroom. Follow the guidelines for debates. In advance, make sure that there are different opinions on the issues. a Should we reduce the use of fossil-run vehicles in the cities? b Wind turbines – are they good or bad for the environment? c Should young people today be more aware of a healthy lifestyle? d A good education is the solution to most problems in the world.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 8.28 Study the following quotes by famous leaders. Find examples of how they use pathos and other language features or rhetorical devices to get their message out to the audience. Compare your answers with those of a partner, then share in class.

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“We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”

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“In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence.”

Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, June 1940.

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Mahatma Ghandi, Indian liberator and statesman, Bombay, August 1942.

“If there is one quote that echoes forth from this conference, let it be that human rights are women’s rights and that women’s rights are human rights once and for all. Let us not forget that among those rights are the right to speak freely and the right to be heard.”

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“And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”

Hillary Clinton, American politician at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995.

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John F. Kennedy, American president, Inauguration speech 1961.

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“But even the ugliest of viruses can exist in places they are not welcome. Racism exists, but it is not welcome here. An assault on the freedom of any one of us who practices their faith or religion is not welcome here. Violence, and extremism in all its forms, is not welcome here. And over the last two weeks we have shown that, you have shown that, in your actions.” Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister, at the memorial after shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, 2019.

envisage forestille seg/ førestille seg assault angrep


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India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, and has been influential in areas such as language, art, mathematics, astronomy and religion. In the past, India consisted of many different kingdoms and states. In the 1800s, the British colonized most of the country. After almost 100 years of British rule, India finally declared its independence in 1947. Despite political unrest and social problems, India now has a fast-growing economy and is expected to become one of the superpowers of the 21st century.

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In the second most populous country in the world, the traditional and the modern live side by side. Flashy cars, rickshaws and cows compete for space on the busy streets. Indians may go to work in suits and smart dresses, but will often wear traditional Indian clothes for weddings, religious festivals and important events. Modern technology is available everywhere. However, there are still enormous contrasts between rich and poor, and between life in the big cities and the countryside.

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FILE INDIA FACT FILE CHINA Kashmir BHUTAN NEPAL

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According to the World Health Organization, India is home to 14 of the world’s most polluted cities. Air pollution alone causes over one million deaths a year. Although India produces far less waste than western countries, it struggles with how to get rid of it. Huge landfills sometimes go up in flames, causing severe health problems. Other issues are water pollution, deforestation and overpopulation. As environmental issues are becoming more important for voters, India is investing in renewable sources of energy and banning single-use plastics, but efforts to reduce the use of pesticides and coalpowered industry have not yet been successful.

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PAKISTAN

Official name: The Republic of India (Bharat) Capital: New Delhi Population: 1.3 billion Official languages: Hindi, English (and 20 more) Geography: 28 states and 7 union territories Landscape: Urban areas, mountains, northern plains, coastal plains, desert Head of state: President Government: Parliamentary democracy National day: August 15 (Independence Day) Currency: Indian rupee Agriculture: Wheat, rice, fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, cotton, spices Industry: Information technology, film industry, electronics, chemicals, textiles, mining Natural hazards: Droughts, floods, monsoon rains Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism Popular sports: Cricket, field hockey, football


FACT FILE INDIA FACT AIMS k present facts about India k name some social and

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environmental challenges k recognize Hindi and Urdu words in modern English

Read and understand

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8.29 • Complete the sentences with information from the fact file on India. a The population of India is . b The capital of India is called . c Important religions in India are . d The currency in India is called . e India’s National Day is . f Popular sports in India are . g Important crops that are grown in India are . h The head of state in India is .

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8.30 •• Decide if the following statements are true or false, and then correct the false statements. a India is the most populous country in the world. b India used to be a French colony. c India declared its independence in 1947. d There is no modern technology in India. e India shares borders with Pakistan, Bangladesh and Thailand. f There is little difference between life in the cities and in the countryside. g Some of the world’s most polluted cities are in India. h Voters are not interested in environmental issues. 8.31 ••• Based on information from the fact file, describe some of the challenges India faces today.

Did you know

Mumbai, known as Bombay in the past, is where you find Bollywood, one of the largest film production centres in the world. Most films are produced in Hindi. Bollywood films typically include music and dance, drama and romance, fantasy and realism. The most successful Bollywood stars have become national icons and household names in India as well as in Indian communities all over the world.


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FILE INDIA FACT FILE

Practise

8.32 Here are some English words that come from Hindi or Urdu. Match them with the correct explanation. Which ones are also used in Norwegian?

Speak

a spiritual teacher a wilderness or forest a house in the Bengal style a tropical cyclone or hurricane trousers worn for horseback riding a porch or balcony a scarf tied around the head or neck clothing worn in bed

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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bandanna bungalow pyjamas guru verandah typhoon jungle jodhpurs

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a b c d e f g h

8.33 Choose one of the five small pictures above. Which place would you like to visit? Give at least three reasons for your choice.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

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present facts about India

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8.34 Look at the pictures on the previous pages. Find out what the Indian flag symbolizes, what the Taj Mahal is, who Gandhi was, what the three lions mean. Also find out what status the peacock has. 8.35 Search online for video clips from Bollywood films. Choose one and find out what it is about. How do Bollywood films differ from Hollywood productions?

YES

ALMOST

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name some social and environmental challenges YES

ALMOST

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recognize Hindi and Urdu words in modern English YES

ALMOST

8.36 India is expected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country. Find out more about the population of India.

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 365

NO


Women in India

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India has an old and fascinating culture, but also a past of colonization, unrest and poverty. Recently, changes have been made and India is now turning into a prosperous and technologically advanced country. Still, there are important challenges to deal with.

I am proud of the beauty and the ancient culture of my country, India. I am not proud of the fact that India has been named “the most dangerous country in the world for women” in a recent Thomson Reuters Foundation survey.

The survey simply asks: are women safe and free? It forces us to consider how women are actually treated in a culture, despite formal law, education, employment or income.

rd

It is a jolt to see India scoring worse than wartorn countries such as Afghanistan or Syria or monarchies such as Saudi Arabia where women have few rights. Everyone expects more and better for women from India, the world’s largest functioning democracy. That is precisely why it shocks.

voice, movement and rights over their own bodies. India’s designation hurts national pride because it is a country where millions of smartly dressed women go to work in high-rise offices every day, where laws have changed to protect women and where women and men have spilled into the streets to protest against rapes of children and trafficking of women.

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Opinion: The most dangerous country for women

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India is in denial of the fact that a majority of its women do not feel safe alone on the streets, at work, in markets, or at home, even though they have learned how to cope with this existential

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After all, the Indian constitution enshrines women’s rights to equality, including freedom of

366 | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS


AIMS k present some challenges for women in India and other parts of the world k reflect on how society and governments can solve social problems k share information on economic and cultural aspects of India

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Indian women are in a constant state of vigilance, like a country on terrorist alert. Satish, a 52-year old banker, told me: “For rape there is no fixed time: always be alert.” No democracy is a democracy if half its population lives in fear.

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anxiety. When I asked young, educated women in Delhi if they feel safe, most said no. And most of those who said yes, had learned to modify their behaviour to feel safe – they don’t go out alone unnecessarily; come home at night before dark; get permission to go out; are always careful and alert; and they censor their speech, their clothes and their body posture, including whether or not they look men in the eyes.

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Yet men are surprised when they hear this from women. Their common reaction is: “You must be mistaken.” The paradox is that women have protected men and their families by keeping quiet. This is honourable behaviour, a part of our “honour society”. But recent National Crime Records Bureau statistics show that approximately 40 % of female reported rape victims were minors and 95 % knew the rapist. The rapist belonged to the “circle of trust” of extended family and friends. Young girls have nowhere to go.

til

What rape statistics reflect is a vicious cultural agreement that women have little value. Which means in turn that girls must be trained to act as if they do not exist. This sounds archaic in this day and age, but it is true in India and to a greater and lesser degree across many cultures, irrespective of wealth and education.

Ku

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The dirty secret about men’s crass abuse of power through sexual violence against women hit the global press. The #MeToo movement in the US, in which highly successful and wealthy women finally broke the silence about their experiences of sexual violence, resulted in the US ranking as the 10th most dangerous country for women. Without wide media coverage there is no possibility of cultural shift, and with media coverage, the illusion of women’s safety breaks. India – and the rest of the world – would do well to make women’s safety and freedom central goals of democracy and development, and learn about the science of cultural change. Advertising firms and big data companies know how to change culture. We need these skills to change conversations about what it means to be a man, so women can flourish without being imprisoned in the name of safety. By Deepa Narayan, social scientist and author, The Guardian, July 2018, abridged version

war-torn krigsherjet/krigsherja enshrine bevare designation betegnelse/ nemning high-rise høyhus trafficking menneskehandel consider tenke over despite til tross for/trass i denial fornektelse/fornekting existential anxiety eksistensiell angst modify endre behaviour oppførsel censor begrense/avgrense vigilance årvåkenhet/aktsemd fixed fast alert her: på vakt honour society æressamfunn approximately omtrent minor mindreårig vicious ond/vond, slem value verdi archaic gammeldags/ gammaldags irrespective uansett abuse misbruk coverage dekning shift her: endring flourish blomstre affirmative action kvotering pros and cons fordeler og ulemper/fordelar og ulemper mindset tankesett/tankegang impact innvirkning/innverknad

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Read and understand

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8.37 • Use information from the text to finish the sentences. a The writer is proud of … b On safety for women, India scores worse than … c India is the world’s largest … d The Indian constitution enshrines women’s … e The women in Delhi who say they feel safe modify … f Women have protected men and their families by … g Rape statistics show that in many cultures women … h In the #MeToo movement, successful women … i We need to change conversations about what it means …

8.38 •• Answer the following questions. a What information has inspired the author to write the text? b What are the challenges described in the text? c How does the writer suggest solving the problems?

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8.39 ••• Use the following quotes from the text to explain how the writer argues her case and what her message is. a “India’s designation hurts national pride” b “women are in a constant state of vigilance” c “this sounds archaic in this day and age” d “with media coverage, the illusion of women’s safety breaks”

Practise

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8.40 Unscramble the letters to find words from the vocabulary list. Use the words to write sentences. a e u b s A e r e B u h a i o v b n o C r e s f e C e o r v a g c i M d y f o g n i c T a r f i f g k d r F h l u o i s h p x A p r m o i a y t e l 8.41 Place the words in the correct order to make sentences. For information about word order, see the Language Lab section. a when Arranged decides who marriage is the family their will child marry. b Asian It common is many still a practise in and countries African. c weddings Every year arranged 55 % are of the in world the marriages. d is The rate marriage of India arranged in 90 %. e bride each other and the groom have not seen Sometimes before wedding the day. f on What your is arranged opinion marriage?

368 | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS


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harry and ranjit were waiting for me waiting to take me to derby to a wedding my wedding a wedding that i hadn’t asked for that i didn’t want to a girl who i didn’t know if they had bothered to open their eyes they would have seen me seventeen angry upset but determined to do my own thing to choose my own path in life

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8.42 Read the novel excerpt below. a Fill in the missing punctuation and capital letters in the text. Check the Language Lab section for information about punctuation. b What is the theme of the text?

Speak

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Bali Rai, (UN)ARRANGED MARRIAGE (2018)

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8.43 How would you compare the situation for women in India and Norway? Discuss in groups. a Do Norwegian women also modify their behaviour and how they dress in order to stay safe? b What are historical reasons and possible solutions to such challenges? c How can politicians and individuals contribute to improving gender equality in a country?

Did you know?

Forced marriage, and especially child marriage, is condemned by the United Nations. Each year, 12 million girls under 18 are married off to adult men. SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 369


Explore

8.44 Find out more about Indian society, culture or history. Below are some suggested topics. Use reliable sources and information from the fact file. Present your findings as an audio or video documentary.

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• Indian cuisine • languages and religions in Indian • regions and geography • great political leaders • tourist attractions • pollution and rubbish • natural resources • the Ganges River

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• computer technology and call centres • organizations fighting for women’s rights • animal life and endangered species • the Diwali and Holi festivals • the Bollywood film industry • public transport and rickshaws • slumdogs and child labour • the caste system

Listen

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8.45 “Sir” The film Sir (2018) is a love story, but it also portrays challenges related to social class and gender in modern India. Listen to the text and questions and then write your answers.

8.46 Do you watch films in other languages than English and your own mother tongue? Explain why/why not and share opinions on how and why foreign language films from around the world should get a wider audience.

370 | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS


8.47 • Write a blog entry about why you would like, or not like, to visit India. Give reasons and support your arguments with examples. Use a personal, informal style. For advice see “Formal and informal language” in Chapter 3.

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8.48 •• Find examples of logos, ethos and pathos in Deepa Narayan’s text «The most dangerous country for women». Briefly explain why you have chosen these examples. For advice, see «Arguing a case» in this chapter.

initiation innvielse/innviing turmeric-dyed gurkemeiefarget/ gurkemeiefarga sapling ungtre, avlegger/ ungtre, avleggar scholar lærd festivities festligheter, feiring/ festlegheitar, feiring gorge fråtse mere kun perennial varig, flerårig/varig, fleirårig canopy skyggeteppe, teltduk unfurling utfoldelse/utfolding petulant amper, hårsår defiance trass incident hendelse/hending

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8.49 •• In her book Stepping Out, Life and Sexuality in Rural India, author Mrinal Pande tells a story from her childhood. Write a text where you reflect on and comment on the content and theme of this short excerpt. How does the author use her personal experience to make a general point? Also, discuss and give examples of how rituals reflect culture and society in a country.

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The year was 1950. I was five. One of my male cousins, about the same age as I, was to go through the akshararambh ceremony: the Brahminical ritual of a boy’s formal initiation into learning.

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As he sat on the painted wooden stool, we, the sisters, held a turmeric-dyed yellow cloth dotted with many holy objects over his little head. We watched him enter the awesome and sacred world of letters, as the older women sang a song about how this little sapling from the family tree would one day go to Varanasi and emerge a real scholar. Once the ritual was over, the festivities began and we were all urged to gorge on sweets. After an initial moment of joy, I was suddenly overcome by a feeling of powerlessness, of the ultimate invisibility of my little person. No matter how brilliant I turned out to be, I felt I would remain a mere sister to my brothers, the perennial holder of ritual canopies over the unfurling of a boy’s male power. I had to be firmly escorted out into the courtyard by my much distressed older sister, before I could be punished for my petulant defiance. She cleaned my face, got me an extra sweet, and let me play with her favourite toy. We sisters never again spoke of the incident.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can present some challenges for women in India and other parts of the world YES

ALMOST

NO

reflect on how society and governments can solve social problems YES

ALMOST

NO

share information on economic and cultural aspects of India YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 371


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS REFERRING TO SOURCES

1 Choose a reference style

2 Cite your sources as you write

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There are two ways to include information from your sources in your text.

Visit https://sokogskriv.no/en for information about different reference styles.

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There are several styles to choose from. Most common in formal writing are the APA and Chicago styles. Whichever method you choose, be consistent.

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When you select and collate information from sources for an assignment, make sure you cite and list the sources you have used. If you use other people’s thoughts and ideas, you should always be careful to give credit where it is due. The same applies to photos, illustrations, sound files, films, documentaries and any other original material you use.

Quotes

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Sometimes you may want to copy a few sentences, a paragraph or a short passage from someone else’s text. If your sentences are identical to those in the original text, you use quotations marks to show these are not your own words. Give the author’s name and year of publication in parentheses after the quote, then say where the quote is from in your list of sources. Paraphrases

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When you are using other people’s ideas, but rewrite them into your own words and sentences, you paraphrase. For this, you do not need quotations marks. Give the author’s name and year of publication in parentheses where your paraphrase ends and say where you have found the information in your list of sources.

Example The United Nations Secretary General claims there is a trend for “people to be more nationalistic, less and less open to the need to understand that global challenges need global responses”. (Guterres, 2019)

Example In a speech, the United Nations Secretary General claims that people have become more nationalistic, and that they do not understand that global challenges need a global response. (Guterres, 2019)

3 Use reporting verbs

For variation and nuance, use different reporting verbs when you quote and paraphrase. To state

To express agreement

To express disagreement

say, think, claim, believe, argue, insist

support, acknowledge, praise, agree

deny, reject, question, disagree

372 | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS


IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 4 Make a list of references

Illustrations

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Book Anand, J. (2018) The State of the World. New Delhi: Diwali Publishing Co. Newspapers/magazines Jones, D. (2020, July 30) “A Global Success”. London: The Sunday Telegraph Articles from the web United Nations. https://www.britannica. com/topic/United-Nations [read 1 Aug. 2020] Films, documentaries, sound files, podcasts, etc India’s Forbidden Love (2019). Documentary. London: BBC World Service News

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List all the sources you have used at the end of your document or presentation. It is common to list them alphabetically by author’s surname, or by the title of the work if the author is unknown. Note that there are some minor differences in the way you list the different types of sources.

Kyung-Hoon, K. (2018). Honduran woman flees teargas with her children. Photograph. Retrieved from https://widerimage.reuters.com/photographer/ kim-kyung-hoon

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Practise

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8.50 Write one paragraph about what you think is the most important global challenge we face today. Search online to find a suitable quote to include in your paragraph.

Ku

8.51 Make an outline for a presentation about Trevor Noah whose text you can find in this chapter. Include at least one relevant quote and one paraphrase to show that you know how to refer to sources. List your sources.

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 373


Home No one leaves home unless home is the mouth of a shark.

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You must understand, no one puts their children in a boat unless the water is safer than the land.

You only run for the border when you see the whole city running as well.

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No one would leave home unless home chased you, fire under feet, hot blood in your belly.

No one would choose to crawl under fences, be beaten until your shadow leaves you raped, then drowned, forced to the bottom of a boat because you are darker, be sold, starved, shot at the border like a sick animal, be pitied, lose your name, lose your family, make a refugee camp a home for a year or two or ten stripped and searched, find prison everywhere and if you survive and you are greeted on the other side go home blacks, refugees dirty immigrants, asylum seekers sucking our country dry of milk, dark, with their hands out smell strange, savage – look what they’ve done to their own countries, what will they do to ours?

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Your neighbours running faster than you, the boy you went to school with who kissed you dizzy behind the old tin factory is holding a gun bigger than his body, you only leave home when home won’t let you stay.

Who would choose days and nights in the stomach of a truck, unless the miles travelled meant something more than journey.

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It’s not something you ever thought about doing, and so when you did – you carried the anthem under your breath, waiting until the airport toilet to tear up the passport and swallow – each mouthful making it clear that you would not be going back.

374 | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS


AIMS k explain and reflect on why people

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No one leaves home until home is a damp voice in your ear saying leave, run now, I don’t know what I’ve become. Warsan Shire

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Before you start Is your home or your hometown important to you? Write down at least four things that you like about your home.

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I want to go home, but home is the mouth of a shark home is the barrel of the gun and no one would leave home unless home chased you to the shore unless home tells you to leave what you could not behind, even if it’s human.

!

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The dirty looks in the street feel softer than a limb torn off, the indignity of everyday life more tender than fourteen men who look like your father, Between your legs. Insults easier to swallow than rubble, than your child’s body in pieces – for now, forget about pride your survival is more important.

become refugees k share thoughts on dilemmas and challenges faced by refugees

border grense dizzy svimmel tin factory hermetikkfabrikk belly mage anthem nasjonalsang/ nasjonalsong stomach mage fence gjerde pity synes synd på/synast synd på strip search kroppsvisitere asylum seeker asylsøker/ asylsøkar savage vill limb lem indignity krenkelse/krenking tender øm, mild insult fornærmelse/fornærming rubble grus pride stolthet/stoltheit survival overlevelse/overleving barrel her: revolverløp damp klam

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 375


Read and understand

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8.52 • Fill in the missing words in the lines from the poem. Translate into Norwegian. a you only leave home when won’t let you . b Who would choose and nights in the of a truck c make a camp a home for a or or . d and you are on the side e unless home you to the .

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8.53 •• Complete the sentences. a This poem is about … b The people in the text are running away from … c The people travel by … d When they arrived they are welcomed … e They accept this treatment because … f The theme and message of this poem is … g My reaction to this poem is …

Speak

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8.54 ••• Use information from the poem to tell the story of a refugee.

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8.55 Read the poem “Home” aloud in pairs. For advice on pronunciation, see the Language Lab section.

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8.56 Discuss what you would do if faced with the following dilemmas. a Become a child soldier or run away from your home? b See your children starve or put them on a boat to an uncertain future? c Accept being bullied and criticized or go back to a dangerous life in your home country?

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8.57 Share the four things you wrote in the pre-reading activity in groups. Compare your answers to find differences and similarities, and explain your choices.

Ku

Practise

8.58 In the text “Home” there are many examples of language devices. Look for examples of contrasts, repetitions, metaphors and symbols. Reflect on and discuss the effect such devices have on the text. Here are some examples to help you get started. home is a damp voice – like a sick animal – home tells you

Did you know?

The word “refugee” comes from French and originally referred to the 400,000 French protestants – the Huguenots – who had to flee France in 1685. Many of them left for Protestant England. During World War II, around 60,000 Norwegians fled Norway. Today there are around 70 million refugees in 376world | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS the (2020). Some run from religious or political persecution, others from war, terror or hunger.


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8.59 “Child Soldier” As a young boy, Ishmael Beah experienced the terrors of civil war in his home country, Sierra Leone. Listen to this excerpt from Ishmael’s memoirs A Long Way Gone, where he describes his first mission as a 13-year-old child soldier. a How does Ishmael feel when he goes on his first mission? b In your own words, explain what happens to Ishmael in the forest. c How does Ishmael react when the fire exchange starts? d What happened to Ishmael after he was released from the army? e Where does he live today and what does he do?

Explore

8.60 Find information about the writer of “Home”, Warsan Shire. Where is she from, where does she live, and what does she do for a living? Cross-check your information with at least one more source.

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8.61 On YouTube there is an animated version of the poem where Shire reads it herself. Watch and listen to the text. How do you like this version? Is it different from the version in the book? Explain.

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8.62 In the margin are the last lines from the poem “What You Need to Be Warm” by Neil Gaiman. a Compare and share your thoughts on this manner of receiving refugees to how it is described in “Home”. b Gaiman asked his Twitter followers to tell him what reminded them of warmth. He used the almost 1,000 answers to write “What You Need to Be Warm”. If you want to read the whole poem, you will find it online.

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8.63 Search for maps and statistics that show where refugees come from and to which countries they go. Based on the poem and your search results, why do people become refugees?

Write

Ku

8.64 Choose one of the words below and create a text for a teen magazine where you reflect on the meaning of the word and how it relates to the current refugee situation. Use both logos and pathos, and select and collate information from at least two sources. welcome – diversity – resource – friend – fear Use at least two sources to select and collate information. Include both logos and pathos. For advice, see “Arguing a case” and “Referring to sources” in this chapter.

Sometimes it only takes a stranger, in a dark place, to hold out a badly knitted scarf, to offer a kind word, to say we have the right to be here, to make us warm in the coldest season. You have the right to be here.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain and reflect on why people become refugees YES

ALMOST

NO

share thoughts on dilemmas and challenges faced by refugees YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 377


FACT FILE FACT FILE

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1750

European arrival

• Driven by scientific and economic interests • Explored the continent, its people, wildlife and natural resources • Established trading posts for gold, diamonds, slaves

Slave trade

• An estimated total of 15 million people taken as slaves • The majority transported to the Americas • The slave trade ended in the 19th century

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Pre-colonial Africa

• Many different kingdoms and empires • Trade amongst themselves and with Arab countries • Also warfare and tribal conflicts

George Abungu, Kenyan archeologist

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1700

So far the evidence that we have in the world points to Africa as the Cradle of Humankind.

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EnglishSpeaking Africa

378 | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS

1800

Colonization

• Rivalry among European countries, the scramble for Africa • Africa divided into colonies by the Europeans in the 1880s • Borders drawn with no regard to ethnic groups and languages • Main purpose to gain natural resources and power

Culture and Wildlife in Africa Today, Africa is famous for so much more than a troubled past. An increasing number of African musicians, writers, athletes and football players have reached international fame and glory. Also living conditions have improved together with economic growth and profit from natural resources. In many African countries tourists can enjoy adventurous safari trips, excellent food, wine and beautiful beaches.


FACT FILE FACT FILE Mn

Cu Cu

Cu

Oil

g

Mn

Cu

Gas

Mn

Diamonds Uranium Cu Mn

Cu

Copper

Mn

Cu

Manganese Iron

Mn

Gold

Period of adjustment • Hard to gain economic independence • Civil wars, religious and ethnic conflicts, corruption, drought and hunger

Present-day challenges

• Diseases: Aids and hiv (25 million people), malaria, Ebola, insufficient healthcare • Climate: drought resulting in hunger and poverty in some areas • The literacy rate: 65 %, 200 million people cannot read or write

Improvements

• Better conditions for women and children • Information about diseases, birth control campaigns • Vaccination programs, cheaper medicine • Fund raising and international aid trade handel • Focus on fair trade and empire keiserdømme / better use of resources keisardømme

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• After WWII most Africans wanted freedom • Some countries: negotiations through political parties and trade unions • Other countries: uprising or armed conflicts • Most of Africa independent by the early 1960s • Southern African colonies not independent until the 1970s or later

2000

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Decolonization

1970

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1950

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In most African countries there are several ethnic groups, and most of them have their own mother tongue. Although English is the official language in many of these countries, and therefore the language of politics, the media, education, trade etc, it is not the mother tongue of most people. For example, in South Africa there are eleven official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. Very often children learn English when they start school.

English French Portuguese Spanish Swahili Arabic African languages

tribal rivalry stammerivalisering scramble kappløp border grense purpose hensikt negotiation forhandling trade union fagforening / fagforeining uprising oppstand armed væpnet / væpna civil war borgerkrig / borgarkrig drought tørke insufficient utilstrekkelig / utilstrekkeleg poverty fattigdom literacy lese- og skriveferdighet profit fortjeneste / forteneste

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Read and understand

Practise

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8.66 Fill in the missing words in the text.

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8.65 Answer the questions. a What was Africa like before the Europeans arrived? b What was “the scramble for Africa”? c Where were most slaves sent? d How did the colonies gain independence? e What can you enjoy as a tourist in many African countries? f Roughly, how many people cannot read or write on the African continent? g What are the challenges in many African countries today? h In which fields have many Africans recently gained international fame?

discovered – death – disease – organizations – sample – spreading – country – prevent – condoms – treatment

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HIV and AIDS

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The first documented occurrence of HIV is from a blood taken in the Congo in 1959. At that time, however, nobody knew that this was a new . In spite of several cases in the 1970s it wasn’t until the 80s that the epidemic was taken seriously. This was when it started to other continents. Gradually, scientists the source of the illness and found out how it spread. They also found a cure to HIV from turning into AIDS, and medicine to improve the condition of AIDS patients. Sadly, the drugs were expensive and at first only people in the Western world had access to them. In 2001 there were 20 million people living with AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, and only 8000 received drug . Many governments and international started different projects to improve the situation. In 2002 Botswana was the first to launch a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) project. By 2007, 95 % of HIV positive people in the country were being treated. In other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, however, HIV/AIDS is still the most common cause of and around 50 % of the patients are not on treatment. Today we see behavioural changes in most parts of Africa. Increased use of and fewer casual sex partners are the most important measures to avoid further spread.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Speak

k explain why European countries

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wanted colonies in Africa k describe some present-day challenges in Africa k mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

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If we can get cold Coca-Cola and beer to every remote corner of Africa, it should not be impossible to do the same with medicine.

AIMS

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8.67 Discuss the following questions. a After reading the fact file about Africa, what would you like to see or experience on this continent? b What did you know already and what was new information? c Did anything surprise you? Explain.

Joep Lange, former president of the international AIDS Society

Nelson Mandela

How did you do?

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8.68 What was the Atlantic triangular slave trade? Find facts and explanations from at least two sources. Summarize and synthesize the information. List your sources.

Ku

8.69 Use at least two reliable sources to find information on life expectancy in African countries. Are there differences? Which country has the highest life expectancy, and which has the lowest? Summarize and synthesize the information. List your sources.

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain why European countries wanted colonies in Africa YES

NO

describe some present-day challenges in Africa YES

8.70 Search for information about the illegal ivory trade. How many elephants are killed each year? What do the authorities do to stop this activity? What can the international community do to help? Use reliable and relevant sources. Share and discuss in class.

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 381


Chameleon !

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Before you start What do you know about South Africa? In pairs, write keywords and then share in class.

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Part One One afternoon I was playing with my cousins. I was a doctor and they were my patients. I was operating on my cousin Bulelwa’s ear with a set of matches when I accidentally perforated her eardrum. All hell broke loose. My grandmother came running in from the kitchen. “Kwenzeka ntoni?!” “What’s happening?!” There was blood coming out of my cousin’s head. We were all crying. My grandmother patched up Bulelwa’s ear and made sure to stop the bleeding. But we kept crying. Because clearly we’d done something we were not supposed to do, and we knew we were going to be punished. My grandmother finished up with Bulelwa’s ear and whipped out a belt and she beat the shit out of Bulelwa. Then she beat the shit out of Mlungisi, too. She didn’t touch me. Later that night my mother came home from work. She found my cousin with a bandage over her ear and my gran crying at the kitchen table. “What’s going on?” My mom said. “Oh, Nombuyiselo,” she said. “Trevor is so naughty. He’s the naughtiest child I’ve ever come across in my life.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can’t hit him.” “Why not?” “Because I don’t know how to hit a white child,” she said. “A black child, I understand. A black child, you hit them and they stay black. Trevor, when you hit him he turns blue and green and yellow and red. I’ve never seen those

perforate perforere, trenge gjennom eardrum trommehinne patch up bandasjere, plastre whip out snappe frem, piske/ snappe fram, piske

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colors before. I’m scared I’m going to break him. I don’t want to kill a white person. I’m so afraid. I’m not going AIMS to touch him.” And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My k summarize the story grandfather did, too, only he was even more extreme. He k understand and use idioms and called me “Mastah.” In the car, he insisted on driving me expressions from the text as if he were my chauffeur. “Mastah must always sit in k discuss themes and ideas in the text the backseat.” I never challenged him on it. What was I k share information about South going to say? “I believe your perception of race is flawed, Africa Grandfather.” No. I was five. I sat in the back. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. I was having a great time. My own family basically did what the American justice system does: I was given more lenient treatment than the black kids. Misbehavior that my cousins would have been punished for, I was given a warning and let off. And I was way naughtier than either of my cousins. I was trouble. My mom was the only force I truly feared. She believed if you spare the rod, you spoil the child. But everyone else said, “No, he’s different,” and they gave me a pass. Growing up the way I did, I learned how easy it is for white people to get comfortable with a system that awards them all the perks. I knew my cousins were getting beaten for things that I’d done, but I wasn’t interested in changing my grandmother’s perspective, because that would mean I’d get beaten, too. Why would I do that? I had a choice. I could champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies. I went with the cookies.

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At that point I didn’t think of the special treatment as having to do with color. I thought of it as having to do with Trevor. It wasn’t, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is white.” It was, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is Trevor.” Trevor can’t go outside. Trevor can’t walk without supervision. It’s because I’m me; that’s why this is happening. I had no other points of reference. There were no other mixed kids around so that I could say, “Oh, this happens to us.” Nearly one million people lived in Soweto. Ninety-nine point nine percent of them were black – and then there was me. I was famous in my neighborhood just because of the color of my skin. I was so unique people would give directions using me as a landmark. “The house on Makhalima Street. At the corner you’ll see a light-skinned boy. Take a right there.” Whenever the kids in the street saw me they’d yell, “Indoda yomlungu!” “The white man!” Some of them would run away. Others would call out to their parents to come look. Others would run up and try to touch me to see if I was real. What I didn’t understand at the time was that the other kids genuinely had no clue what a white person was. Black kids in the township didn’t leave the township. Few people had televisions. They’d seen the white police roll through, but they’d never dealt with a white person face-to-face, ever.

mastah (master) herre challenge utfordre perception oppfatning flawed mangelfull, feil perk her: ekstra fordel lenient mild misbehavior dårlig oppførsel/ dårleg oppførsel rod pisk champion her: forsvare, kjempe for justice rettferdighet/rettferd supervision overvåking/ overvaking mixed her: blandingsrase genuinely oppriktig

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I’d go to funerals and I’d walk in and the bereaved would look up and see me and they’d stop crying. They’d start whispering. Then they’d wave and say, “Oh!” like they were more shocked by me walking in than by the death of their loved ones. I think people felt like the dead person was more important because a white person had come to the funeral.

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As a kid I understood that people were different colors, but in my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate. Dad was the white chocolate, mom was the dark chocolate, and I was the milk chocolate. But we were all just chocolate. I didn’t know any of it had anything to do with “race.” I didn’t know what race was. My mother never referred to my dad as white or to me as mixed. So when the other kids in Soweto called me “white”, even though I was light brown, I just thought they had their colors mixed up.

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I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language. Soweto was a melting pot: families from different tribes and homelands. Most kids in the township spoke only their home language, but I learned several languages because I grew up in a house where there was no option but to learn them. My mom made sure English was the first language I spoke. If you’re black in South Africa, speaking English is the one thing that can give you a leg up. English is the language of money. If you’re looking for a job, English is the difference between getting the job or staying unemployed. If you’re standing in the dock, English is the difference between getting off with a fine or going to prison. After English, Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. When my mother was angry she’d fall back on her home language. As a naughty child, I was well versed in Xhosa threats. Outside of that, my mother picked up different languages here and there. She learned Zulu because it’s similar to Xhosa. She spoke German because of my father. She spoke Afrikaans because it is useful to know the language of your oppressor. Sotho she learned in the streets. Living with my mom, I saw how she used language to cross boundaries, handle situations, navigate the world. We were in a shop once, and the shopkeeper, right in front of us, turned to his security guard and said, in Afrikaans, “Volg daai swartes, netnou steel hulle iets.” “Follow those blacks in case they steal something.” My mother turned around and said, in beautiful, fluent Afrikaans, “Hoekom volg jy nie daai swartes sodat jy hulle kan help kry waarna hulle soek nie?” “Why don’t you follow these blacks so you can help them find what they’re looking for?” “Ag, jammer!” he said, apologizing in Afrikaans. Then – and this was the funny thing – he didn’t apologize for being racist; he merely apologized for aiming his racism at us. “Oh, I’m so sorry,” he said. “I thought you were like the other blacks. You know how they love to steal.” I learned to use language like my mother did.

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It became a tool that served me my whole life. One day as a young man I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys was walking behind me, closing in on me, and I could hear them talking to one another [in Zulu] about how they were going to mug me. “Let’s get this white guy. You go to his left, and I’ll come up behind him.” I didn’t know what to do. I couldn’t run, so I just spun around real quick and said, [in their language] “Yo, guys, why don’t we just mug someone together? I’m ready. Let’s do it.” They looked shocked for a moment, and then they started laughing. “Oh, sorry, dude. We thought you were something else. We weren’t trying to take anything from you. We were trying to steal from white people. Have a good day, man.” They were ready to do me violent harm, until they felt we were part of the same tribe, and then we were cool. That made me realize that language, even more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn’t change, but I could change your perception of my color. If you spoke to me in Zulu, I replied to you in Zulu. If you spoke to me in Tswana, I replied to you in Tswana. Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

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Part Two As apartheid was coming to an end, South Africa’s elite private schools started accepting children of all colors. My mother’s company offered bursaries, scholarships, for underprivileged families, and she managed to get me into Maryvale College, an expensive private Catholic school. Classes taught by nuns. Mass on Fridays. The whole bit. I started preschool there when I was three, primary school when I was five. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black kids, white kids, Indian kids, colored kids. Most of the white kids were pretty well off. Every child of color pretty much wasn’t. But because of scholarships we all sat at the same table. We wore the same maroon blazers, the same gray slacks and skirts. We had the same books. We had the same teachers. There was no racial separation. Kids still got teased and bullied, but it was over usual kid stuff: being fat or being skinny, being tall or being short, being smart or being dumb. I don’t remember anybody being teased about their race. I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like. I had crushes on white girls. I had crushes on black girls. Nobody asked me what I was. I was Trevor. It was a wonderful experience to have, but the downside was that it sheltered me from reality. But the real world doesn’t go away. Racism exists. People are getting hurt, and just because it’s not happening to you doesn’t mean it’s not happening. And at some point, you have to choose. Black or white. At the end of grade six I left Maryvale to go to H. A. Jack Primary, a government school. I had to take an aptitude test before I started, and, based on the results of the test, the school counselor told me, “You’re going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” I showed up for the first day of school and went to my classroom. Of the thirty or so kids in my class, almost all of them were white. There was one Indian kid, maybe one or two black kids, and me.

mug rane chameleon kameleon bursary stipend scholarship stipend underprivileged upriviligert nun nonne mass her: messe well off velstående/velståande maroon rødbrun/raudbrun blazer dressjakke slacks bukse separation adskillelse/åtskiljing, separasjon tease erte bully mobbe crush forelskelse/forelsking downside ulempe shelter beskytte pick a side velge side/velje side aptitude test ferdighetstest counselor rådgiver/rådgivar

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Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. It was an ocean of black, like someone had opened a tap and all the black had come pouring out. I was like, Where were they all hiding? The white kids I’d met that morning, they went in one direction, the black kids went in another direction, and I was left standing in the middle, totally confused. I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time. In the townships you don’t see segregation, because everyone is black. Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together, occupying the same space yet choosing not to associate with each other in any way. In an instant I could see, I could feel, how the boundaries were drawn. Groups moved in color patterns across the yard, up the stairs, down the hall. It was insane. I stood there awkwardly by myself in this no-man’s-land in the middle of the playground. Luckily, I was rescued by the Indian kid from my class, a guy named Theesan. He ran over to introduce himself. “Hello, fellow anomaly! You’re in my class. Who are you? What’s your story?” We started talking and hit it off. Through our conversation it came up that I spoke several African languages, and Theesan thought a colored kid speaking black languages was the most amazing trick. He brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them, “and he’ll show you he understands you.” One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied to him in Zulu. Everyone cheered. Another kid said something in Xhosa, and I replied to him in Xhosa. Everyone cheered. For the rest of recess Theesan took me around to different black kids on the playground. “Show them your trick. Do your language thing.” The black kids were fascinated. In South Africa back then, it wasn’t common to find a white person or a colored person who spoke African languages. “How come you speak our languages?” they asked. “Because I’m black,” I said, “like you.” “You’re not black.” “Yes, I am.” “No, you’re not. Have you not seen yourself?” They were confused at first. Because of my color, they thought I was a colored person, but speaking the same languages meant that I belonged to their tribe. It just took them a moment to figure it out. It took me a moment, too. At some point I turned to one of them and said, “Hey, how come I don’t see you guys in any of my classes?” It turned out they were in the B classes, which also happened to be the black classes. That same afternoon, I went back to the A classes, and by the end of the day I realized that they weren’t for me. Suddenly, I knew who my people were, and I wanted to be with them. I went to see the school counselor.

recess friminutt tap kran pour her: renne segregation raseskille/raseskilje pattern mønster anomaly en som skiller seg ut/ ein som skil seg ut switch over bytte til/byte til

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“I’d like to switch over,” I told her. “I’d like to go to the B classes.” She was confused. “Oh, no” she said. “I don’t think you want to do that.” “Why not?” “Because those kids are … you know.” “No, I don’t know. What do you mean?” “Look,” she said, “you’re a smart kid. You don’t want to be in that class.” “But aren’t the classes the same? English is English. Math is math.” “Yeah, but that class is … those kids are gonna hold you back. You want to be in the smart class.” “But surely there must be some smart kids in the B class.” “No, there aren’t.” “But all my friends are there.” “You don’t want to be friends with those kids.” “Yes, I do.” We went back and forth. Finally she gave me a stern warning. “You do realize the effect this will have on your future? You do understand what you’re giving up? This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” “I’ll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I decided I’d rather be held back with people I liked than move ahead with people I didn’t know. Being at H. A. Jack made me realize I was black. Before that recess I’d never had to choose, but when I was forced to choose, I chose black. The world saw me as colored, but I didn’t spend my life looking at myself. I spent my life looking at other people. I saw myself as the people around me, and the people around me were black. My cousins are black, my mom is black, my gran is black. I grew up black. Because I had a white father, because I’d been in white Sunday school, I got along with the white kids, but I didn’t belong with the white kids. I wasn’t a part of their tribe. But the black kids embraced me. “Come along,” they said. “You’re rolling with us.” With the black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was.

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From Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood by Trevor Noah

Trevor Noah

Trevor Noah (1984–) is a South African comedian and actor, and the host of the American television program The Daily Show. With a black mother and a white father, he was born a crime, since it was illegal for people of different colours to be together during the apartheid regime in South Africa. In his autobiography he writes about his childhood.

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back and forth frem og tilbake/ frem og tilbake/fram og tilbake stern streng impact påvirke/påverke

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IN SHORT

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Part two After Apartheid, South Africa’s elite schools accepted children of all colors. I got a scholarship, so I went to a private school. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black, white, Indian, colored. But we had the same school uniforms, the same books, the same teachers. There was no racial separation. At the end of grade six, I got to a government school. I took an aptitude test and the school counselor told me, “You're going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” Of the thirty kids in my class, all were white, except one Indian kid, two black kids, and me. Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. The white kids in my class went one way, the black kids another. I was left in the middle, confused. I was eleven, and saw the segregation in my country for the first time. I was rescued by the Indian kid. When I told him that I spoke several African languages, he brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them. One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied in Zulu. Another said something in Xhosa, and I replied in Xhosa. Everyone cheered, fascinated. “How come you speak our languages?” “Because I'm black,” I said, “like you.” “You're not black.” They were confused, because of my color, but since I spoke their languages I belonged to their tribe. They were in the B classes. I wanted to be with them so I went to the school counselor. “I'd like to go to the B classes,” I told her. “Oh, no,” she said. “You don’t want to do that. Those kids will hold you back.” “I'll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I'd never had to choose before, but when I had to, I chose black. The world saw me as colored, but I saw myself as the people around me, and they were black.

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Part one One afternoon I was playing doctor with my cousin. I accidentally perforated her eardrum. My grandmother came running; my cousin was bleeding. My grandmother patched up the ear and then she beat my cousin. She didn't touch me. When my mother came home from work, my gran said. “Trevor is so naughty.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can't hit a white child,” she said. And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My grandfather did, too. He called me “Mastah” and insisted that I sit in the backseat of the car. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. I didn't think the special treatment was because of my color. I thought it was because I was me. Where I grew up, in Soweto, everybody was black. I understood that people were different colors, but I didn't know it had anything to do with “race.” My mom made me learn languages. English for job opportunities. Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. She also spoke Zulu, German because of my father and Afrikaans, the language of the oppressor. She used language to cross boundaries, handle situations. I learned to use language like my mother did. One day I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys behind me were discussing how to mug me. I spun around and said. "Yo, guys, why don't we just mug someone together?" They looked shocked, and then they started laughing. “Sorry. We thought you were something else. We only steal from white people.” I realized that language, more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn't change, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

From Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood

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8.71 •/•• Read the In Short or the full version of the text and answer the questions.

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Part One a How did Trevor’s grandparents treat him when he was a child? b What did Trevor think about the treatment he got as a child? c How did he learn so many languages, and in which way did he use them to establish relationships with people he met?

accidentally ved et uhell/ ved eit uhell perforate perforere, lage hull eardrum trommehinne patch up bandasjere, plastre mastah (master) herre perks fordeler/fordelar special treatment spesialbehandling opportunity mulighet/ moglegheit oppressor undertrykker boundary grense mug rane realize forstå chameleon kameleon scholarship stipend racial separation raseskille/ raseskilje aptitude evne, ferdighet/ evne, ferdigheit counselor rådgiver recess her: friminutt playground lekeplass/leikeplass confused forvirret/forvirra segregation raseskille/ raseskilje rescue redde several flere/fleire reply svare cheer heie tribe stamme

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Part Two d When and how did Trevor first realize that there was racial segregation in his country? e What did he decide to do when he met the kids in the B class? Why? f What did the school counsellor advise him to do, and how did she explain her views? g How did Trevor feel when he had picked a side? Why? h Why is the text called “Chameleon”? i Use your answers to the questions above to summarize the story.

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8.72 ••• Use your own words to explain what these quotes from the text tell you about Trevor Noah’s childhood. a “There were so many perks to being ‘white’ in a black family.” b “I could champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies.” c “In my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate.” d “I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language.” e “Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if l spoke like you, I was you.” f “I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like.” g “I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time.” h “Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together.” i “This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” j “With the black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was.”

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8.73 An important part of learning a language is understanding idioms and expressions. Combine the expressions from the text with the correct explanation.

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8.74 In the text there are several examples of dialogues. Choose one and read it out loud with a partner. Act out the scenes.

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8.75 Discuss the questions in groups. a What is your opinion of the text? b If you were in Trevor Noah’s position, would you choose the A or the B class? Give reasons for your choice and explain what you think is most important when choosing a school. c What is your opinion of the way Trevor’s grandparents treated him? Can you understand their behaviour? Did Trevor understand it? Explain. d Trevor’s mother learned Afrikaans because “it is useful to know the language of your oppressor”. What does that mean, and why was it important in South Africa at the time? e How does speaking languages open up doors for Trevor? Is this true for all people? Share your thoughts and give examples. f Trevor says that “language, even more than color, defines who you are to people”. From your own experience, is this true? What defines our identity? Explain. g Based on what the school counsellor tells Trevor, what does education mean in terms of having good opportunities in life? Do all children who go to school have the same opportunities? h What do you think are the most important themes in this text? Here are some suggestions. Discuss them and give reasons for your choice. childhood – identity – racism – friendship – family – poverty – apartheid – education – language – multi-culturalism – prejudice – tolerance

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8.76 Search for videos from Trevor Noah’s The Daily Show or some of his stand-up performances. a Do you think he is a talended comedian? Give reasons to support your views. b In one episode of The Daily Show Trevor brings a TV team to go see his grandmother in Soweto, South Africa. Watch it and discuss to what extent it supports information from the text.

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8.77 For many years South Africa was ruled by a set of laws called apartheid. Use reliable and relevant sources to find out how it worked, what made it possible for the small, white minority to keep their privileges and how the international community contributed to ending this. What does this teach us about democracy? Choose a way to share your findings in class.

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8.78 “Mandela” There are many films about Nelson Mandela (1918–2013), the first black president of South Africa. Listen to Peter who talks about two such films. Which one of them do you think sounds the most interesting? Explain by referring to what Peter says. After listening to Peter, what is your impression of Mandela and his leadership qualities?

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8.79 • Write at least one paragraph where you discuss how quality education can help children in poor areas get better opportunities in life. Use information from “Chameleon” and “Sustainable Development” in this chapter to support your views. Make a list of keywords before you write. Check Chapter 3 for information about structuring paragraphs.

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8.80 •• Write a text where you explain what you think is the message in Trevor Noah’s text “Chameleon”. Make an outline with keywords before you write the text. Check “Discussing literature and film” in Chapter 7 for advice.

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8.81 ••• Write a text where you compare the themes in the texts “Chameleon”, “The Hate U Give” and “Black Hoodie” from Chapter 4. Exchange drafts with a partner and give each other constructive feedback before you finish your text. For advice, check the following: • “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 • “Discussing literature and film” in Chapter 7 • “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in chapter 7 • “Referring to sources” in this chapter

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can summarize the story YES

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discuss themes and ideas in the text YES

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share information about South Africa YES

ALMOST

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Look at Africa From her table at a local café, Mma Ramotswe, founder of the No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, observes people and thinks about how her country, Botswana, and its people have changed. That morning she had witnessed a woman scrape the side of a neighbouring car while she tried to park. The woman had stopped, quickly inspected the damage, and had then driven off. Mma Ramotswe had watched this incredulously, and half-risen to her feet to protest, but was too late: the woman’s car had by then turned the corner and disappeared and she did not even have time to see its number-plate.

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Before you start Study the following words. What do they mean? • prosperity • corruption • ignorance • progress

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She had sat down again and poured herself another AIMS cup of tea. It was not true that such a thing could not have happened in the old Botswana – it could – but it was undoubtedly true that this was much more likely to k describe how some African countries have changed over the last decades happen today. There were many selfish people around these days, people who seemed not to care if they k reflect on what prosperity means to people’s lives scraped the cars of others or bumped into people while walking on the street. Mma Ramotswe knew that this is k discuss what it means to be a decent person what happened when towns became bigger and people became strangers to one another; she knew, too, that this was a consequence of increasing prosperity, which, curiously enough, just seemed to bring out greed and selfishness. But even if she knew why all this happened, it did not make it any easier to bear. The rest of the world might become as rude as it wished, but this was not the way of things in Botswana and she would always defend the old Botswana way of doing things.

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But there was no point in throwing up one’s hands in despair. People had always done that – the throwing up of hands, the shrug – but one got nowhere in doing so. The world might have changed for the worse in some respects, but in others it was a much better place, and it was important to remember this. Lights went off in some places, but went on in others. Look at Africa – there had been so much to shake one’s head over – corruption, civil wars, and the rest – but there was also so much which was now much better. There had been slavery in the past, and all the suffering which that had brought, and there had been all the cruelties of apartheid just those few miles away over the border, but all that was now over. There had been ignorance, but now more and more people were learning to write, and were graduating from universities. Women had been held in such servitude, and now they could vote and express themselves and claim lives for themselves, even if there were still many men who did not want such things to be. There were good things that happened and one had to remember them.

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Alexander Mccall Smith

Alexander McCall Smith (1948–) was born in former Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, where he lived until he left to study law in Scotland. Later he taught in Belfast, then at the University of Botswana before returning to Edinburgh to specialize in medical law. He is famous for his numerous novels, for example the series about The No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, which is set in Botswana.

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8.82 • Make a list of the things that Mma Ramotswe does not like about present day Botswana. Make a second list of things that she thinks have improved in Africa.

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8.83 •• Answer the questions. a Why is Mma Ramotswe shocked by the woman in the car? b What does she say happens to people when towns become bigger? c How does prosperity change people, according to Mma Ramotswe? d How has the situation for women changed?

Speak

rd

8.84 Later that day Mma Ramotswe meets a friend. She tells about the episode with the car and shares her opinion on prosperity and greed. Her friend wants to know more and disagrees on some points. Act out the scene.

Ku

n

til

vu

8.85 Read the list of advice in “How to Be a Decent Person” and discuss the questions. Use the guidelines for debates and discussions in “Arguing a case” in this chapter to get your point across in a clear but friendly way. a One “not-so-decent” point got into the list. Can you find it? b What is your opinion of the list? Which advice is the most important? Is there something missing? c Do you think Mma Ramotswe would agree with this list? Explain. d Is it true that prosperity leads to “greed and selfishness”? Give examples. e What would be the decent thing to do for the driver of the car in the text? What would you do?

How to Be a Decent Person Be open minded. Learn how to forgive. Be honest and kind. Provide support when necessary. Make sure you get the last word. Do not attack others for their beliefs. Don’t exploit the generosity of others. Be grateful and appreciate kindness.

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Practise

Explore

er in

1 far away 2 poverty 3 generosity 4 kindness 5 superiority 6 reduce 7 doubtfully 8 hope

a despair b undoubtedly c increase d servitude e neighbouring f prosperity g selfishness h cruelty

g

8.86 Combine the words with their antonyms, words with an opposite meaning.

vu

rd

8.87 The film “Queen of Katwe” is based on a true story. It depicts the life of Phiona Mutesi, a Ugandan girl growing up in a slum in Katwe. She discovers that she has a talent that changes her life. a Watch the trailer of the film and use other sources for information about Phiona Mutesi and what she does today. Share in class. b Many other Africans have achieved international success in the world of sports and art. How many do you know already? Look for more examples.

Write

til

8.88 • Imagine Mma Ramotswe wanted to let the owner of the car know what she had witnessed. Write a note to attach to the car’s front window, with the message you think Mme Ramotswe would share.

Ku

n

8.89 •• Search for information about places and activities that tourists would want to see and do in Botswana. Write two paragraphs in which you recommend a visit. Use pathos to engage the readers.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how some African countries have changed over the last decades YES

ALMOST

NO

reflect on what prosperity means to people’s lives YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss what it means to be a decent person YES

ALMOST

NO

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your progress

Revise

8.92 Arguing a case a Explain the words ethos, logos and pathos. b How should you argue in a discussion where you disagree with your opponent? c List the rules for good behaviour in a debate.

Ku

n

til

vu

8.90 After working with Chapter 8, it is time to recap and revise what you have learnt. a Choose a text or an illustration from this chapter that you like and explain why. b How many sustainable development goals are there? Which ones do you remember? c How can we handle the problem of plastic in the oceans? Give at least three examples. d What is the situation for many women in India? What is being done to change this? e Mention some challenges African countries face today or have had in the past. To what extent has the situation improved?

rd

er in

g

8.91 How would you describe your progress in English this year? a How has your vocabulary changed? b What can you do better now than in August? c To what extent are you pleased with your own efforts throughout the year? d How has working with texts and tasks this year helped you prepare for the exam and your future career? Give examples.

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8.93 Referring to sources a What is the difference between quotes and paraphrases? b How do we refer to and list sources? c Why is referring to sources so important? d Which expressions are useful when referring to sources?


Apply your skills

8.95 Write a • You are concerned about the pollution and trash in the sea. Write a letter to a state leader in a country of your choice, where you describe the situation and argue for making changes. Use facts from this chapter, formal language and advice from “Arguing a case”.

rd

8.94 Speak a • If you were to use this textbook as a source when answering an exam task, how would you refer to it?

er in

g

CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

vu

b •• Why is it important to learn about social issues and global challenges in English class? Discuss and give examples in pairs or groups, using advice from “Arguing a case” in this chapter.

Ku

n

til

c ••• Based on your knowledge of texts and tasks in this chapter, how have events, decisions and habits of the past created challenges for people in different parts of the world today? In your opinion, is it important to know the historical context of an issue to better understand it and find solutions? Discuss in groups.

b •• You have been asked to give a speech on equal rights. Write the manuscript. Use formal language, information from this chapter and other reliable sources. c ••• Create a text where you discuss why children are used as soldiers in armed conflicts. Make sure you use reliable sources, and that you refer to them correctly. Your text should include • an introduction • examples of armed conflicts where children are used as soldiers • possible reasons for the use • how it affects their lives • a conclusion

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA adjective

adverb

indefinite article

noun

g

definite article

verb

preposition

Ku

n

til

vu

rd

noun

er in

The happy students pose patiently on a red bench.

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adjective


AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB Words are the building blocks of language learning. You need a certain knowledge of grammar to be able to use the words to communicate clearly.

er in

Words belong to different word classes.

g

Why Grammar?

An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or non-specific (indefinite).

Nouns:

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person.

Verbs:

Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state.

Adjectives:

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

Adverbs:

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens.

vu

rd

Articles:

Prepositions: Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. Pronouns:

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name.

til

Determiners: Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to.

n

An important part of grammar is syntax, the set of rules that decide word order and how to structure sentences. Such rules are quite similar in English and Norwegian, but there are important exceptions you should know about.

Ku

Grammar also includes morphology, the knowledge of words and how they are formed. Often, we can add prefixes or suffixes to make new words with a different meaning and of another word class.

In oral communication pronunciation is central to understanding other people. On the following pages you will learn the most important rules and how to avoid common errors.

grammar grammatikk word class  ordklasse noun substantiv pronoun pronomen determiner bestemmingsord indefinite ubestemt definite bestemt syntax syntaks, ordstilling prefix forstavelse/forstaving suffix endelse/ending

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Articles An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or ­nonspecific (indefinite). Examples You use a before words that start a new school with a consonant sound.

Indefinite

You use an before words that start with a vowel sound.

Definite

You use the about a particular place, thing or person.

er in

an interesting game

She missed the bus.

d mean girl e incredibly mean girl f red umbrella

rd

1 Use a or an. a house b empty house c yellow bicycle

g

Indefinite

vu

2 Translate these sentences into English. a Vinduet er åpent. b Jeg kan se en grønn ball. c Jeg bor i et gammelt hus. d Det gamle huset er rødt. e Jeg kom en time senere.

til

Nouns

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person. This is a book.

n

Safety is important.

Ku

Pretoria is the capital of South Africa.

sound lyd vowel vokal noun substantiv capital hovedstad/hovudstad author forfatter/forfattar improve forbedre/forbetre

Angie Thomas is an American author.

3 Find the nouns in these sentences. a How do you feel about your new school? b Computer games can improve your language skills. c Many people are inspired by music. d The students will learn many new things this year. e Carol wonders what her new classmates are like. f My mother comes from Perth in Australia.

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Proper nouns A proper noun is the name for a particular person, place or thing. It is written with a capital letter.

proper noun egennavn/ eigennamn capital letter stor bokstav programme area programområde

Sarah has started school. Kavi used to live in Sri Lanka, but now he lives in Norway.

one textbook – two textbooks a vase – several vases

rd

Most nouns To make a noun plural, add -s to the singular form.

er in

From singular to plural

g

4 Put capital letters where you think they should be. a This year you will learn english relevant to your programme area. b The script is a band that comes from ireland. c john green has written several novels. d School starts in august. e I took the train to paris.

one key – two keys

Nouns ending in -x, -ch or -s When a noun ends in -x, -ch or -s, you add -es to form the plural.

the box – the boxes the match – the matches the kiss – the kisses

Nouns ending in -f or -fe When a noun ends in -f or -fe, the plural usually ends in -ves.

a leaf – many leaves a wife – two wives a calf – two calves

Irregular plurals Some nouns have an irregular plural form.

one woman – three women one foot – two feet

Nouns from Latin and Greek Some words from Latin and Greek have irregular plural endings.

a phenomenon – two phenomena a parenthesis – two parentheses

n

til

vu

Nouns ending in -y When a noun ends in a vowel + -y, you add -s to form the plural form. When a word ends in a consonant + -y, you change the -y to -i and add -es

one baby – two babies

money luggage transport a jug of water a piece of advice

Only plural Some nouns are used only in the plural form.

binoculars tights

Collective nouns Collective nouns are used to describe a group of people, animals or things.

a herd of cows the school staff a set of tools

Ku

Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns are nouns that cannot be counted. You do not use a or an in front of these, and they do not have a plural form. You often use a quantifier with an uncountable noun.

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er in

6 Write the plural forms of these nouns. a one family – two b one way – two c one day – two d one story – two

g

5 Find the missing words. a one cat – three b one – five lamps c one bird – a flock of d one – a swarm of bees

rd

7 Fill in the plural forms. a We have won all our this year. (match) b I don’t know what is in those . (box) c There are many at our school. (class) d The are hiding in the . (fox) (bush)

vu

8 Write the plural forms of these nouns. a one thief – many b one knife – many c one half – two d one wolf – a pack of

til

9 Find the missing words. a one mouse – three b one – five children c one tooth – a full set of d one – four men e one goose – a flock of

10 Choose the correct plural ending. a criterion – criterions/criteria b analysis – analyses/analysises c hypothesis – hypothesises/hypotheses d bacterium – bacteria/bacteriums e basis – bases/basises f stratum – strata/stratums

Ku

n

singular entall/eintal plural flertall/fleirtal several flere/fleire swarm sverm pack flokk uncountable utellelig/uteljeleg luggage bagasje quantifier mengdeord binoculars kikkert tights strømpebukser scissors saks crew mannskap staff personale stack stabel remove fjerne

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11 Match each quantifier with the correct noun. a a jar of 1 news b a loaf of 2 honey c a bar of 3 tea d a cup of 4 chocolate e a piece of 5 bread

g

vu

Genitive

rd

13 Translate these sentences into English. a Politiet kommer. b Jeg har kjøpt et nytt verktøysett. c Mannskapet ble reddet da skipet sank. d Personalet gjør en god jobb. e Jeg skal flytte denne stabelen med stoler.

Furniture means møblement. If you refer to one item, you say a piece of furniture.

er in

12 Choose the correct alternative. a I can’t find my earphones/earphone. b I only have one scissors/one pair of scissors. c I use goggles/a goggle for welding. d The stair/stairs are quite dangerous.

NOTE TO SELF

The genitive form shows ownership or belonging. Use ’ + s to show that something belongs to someone. Use the preposition of when the owner is not an animal or a person.

til

the cat’s tail my sisters’ bikes

the days of the week

n

the windows of the house

Ku

14 Choose the correct alternative. a All the children/children’s/child clothes are on the floor. b The windows the school building/the school’s building/of the school building are open. c My mother’s/mothers/mothers’ name is Elsa. d The colour my new car/of my new car/my new car’s is blue. e Thomas’/Thomas’s/Thomases shoes are black.

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Verbs Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state. We use different verb tenses to show when the action took place. I speak English. Yesterday we met in Liverpool.

g

Sam lives in London.

er in

15 Find the verbs in the sentences. a Mary likes to go shopping when she visits London. b My parents often drive to Bath to see their friends who own a hotel there.

rd

THE PRESENT TENSE There are two present tenses in English. Present simple Present continuous

I speak English. I am speaking with Sam.

vu

Present simple We use present simple for general information, facts, feelings and things we normally do. Oil floats on water.

I love strawberries.

til

I play football every day.

n

Present continuous We use the present continuous when an action is going on right now or is planned or in progress at the moment. Sam is talking to Linda.

Ku

We are going to London this summer. I am learning Spanish this year.

16 Present simple or present continuous? Correct the mistakes. a Hurry up! I wait for you. b Every morning I am waking up at 7 o’clock. c The two men over there talk with my sister. d In the spring the birds are singing beautifully.

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Subject-verb agreement In the present tense the verb must agree with its subject. When the subject is in the 3rd person singular form (he, she or it, or words that can be replaced with he, she or it) we must add an -s - or -ies or -es to the verb I/you love

he/she/it loves

we/you/they love

Subject-verb agreement is also referred to as concord.

g

To love:

NOTE TO SELF

er in

I speak English and Sam (=he) speaks Spanish. My Swedish grandfather’s elder sister (=she) loves strawberries. Nobody knows where Sam is.

rd

Some verbs are irregular. To be: I am – you are – he/she/it is – we/you/they are

To have: I/you have – he/she/it has – we/you/they have

I try – she tries I wish – she wishes

til

I kiss – she kisses

vu

For verbs that end in -y we use the ending -ies in the 3rd person singular. For verbs that end in -sh, -ch, -s, -x, -z or -o, we use -es.

Ku

n

17 Fill in the correct present tense form of the verbs. a I listening to music. (love) b Paul being late for work. (hate) c Jane often to New York. (go) d Right now Paul a new car. (test) e One of the boys in my class a new bicycle. (have) f This summer we to Ibiza. (go) g My father often my bike. (fix) h My sister rarely about her homework. (worry) i At the moment I Spanish. (learn) j Be quiet! We to the song. (listen)

state tilstand verb tense verbtid present tense presens present continuous presens samtidsform in progress som pågår/som går føre seg agreement samsvar singular entall/eintal plural flertall/feirtal concord samsvar, overensstemmelse/ samsvar, i samsvar med, overeinskomst irregular uregelrett

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THE PAST TENSE Several verb tenses are used to describe states or actions that took place in the past. The most important ones are: I talked to Sam. I was talking to Sam. I have talked to Sam.

g

Past simple Past continuous Present perfect

er in

Past simple We use past simple form of a verb when something happened at a particular time, or over a limited period of time in the past, and no longer takes place. Last Friday I walked to school. To express feelings and thoughts, use the past simple! She hated apples, but she loved donuts.

Sam lived in London when he was younger.

For regular verbs we make the past simple by adding, -ed, -d or -ied. Regular verbs Most regular verbs

rd

NOTE TO SELF

vu

Verbs ending in -e: Verbs ending in consonant and -y: Verbs ending in a vowel and consonant:

play watch like cry slip

played watched liked cried slipped

Most irregular verbs have special forms in the past tenses.

Ku

n

til

Some examples of irregular verbs buy bought eat ate know knew make made go went sleep slept swim swam write wrote

Normally there is no subject-verb agreement in the past simple, but there is one exception. To be: I was – you were – he/she/it was – we/you/they were

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Past continuous We use the past continuous when something was happening over a period of time in the past or when something was going on when something else occurred. I was sleeping when Sam called me.

er in

We make the past continuous from be in the past simple + the -ing form of the main verb. Remember that there is subject-verb agreement for be.

g

At 9 o’clock I was still talking to him on the phone.

To sleep: I was sleeping – you were sleeping – he/she/it was sleeping – we/you/they were sleeping

rd

18 Complete the sentences. a When I called, Mary television. (watch) b When Tom came home, his parents dinner. (make) c At 10 pm Kate a novel. (read) d Last night we our homework. (do)

vu

Present perfect We use the present perfect tense when something that started in the past is still going on or when we refer to experiences without focusing on when they happened. Sam has lived in London for four years now.

til

I have tried bungee jumping twice.

n

We make present perfect by using to have in the present tense + the past participle of the main verb. For regular verbs we make the past participle by adding -ed, -d, or -ied. Most irregular verbs have special forms. Remember that there is subject-verb agreement for have. I have talked. He has tried. Thet have bought.

Ku

talk try buy

19 Answer the questions with complete sentences. a Have you ever talked to a famous person? b Have you ever played tennis? c Have you ever eaten pretzels? d Have you ever written a poem?

past fortid particular spesiell limited begrenset/avgrense exception unntak occur inntreffe, skje refer to henvise til/vise til, tilvise past participle perfektum partisipp pretzel salt vannkringle/salt vasskringle

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Imperative We use the imperative form of the verb to give orders and instructions. The imperative form in English is the same as the infinitive form of the verb. Lift the boxes carefully. Shut up and go to bed!

g

To give orders and still be polite, just add please!

20 Translate into English. a Gi meg blyanten og si meg hva jeg skal skrive. b Kjør forsiktig og vær høflig. c Spis mer vitaminer og lev sunt. d Unngå forurensing og resirkuler glass og papir.

er in

NOTE TO SELF

rd

21 Work in pairs and give orders and instructions on how to a make a pizza b get from the classroom to the nearest bus stop c operate a gadget, tool or machine you use at school

vu

The modal auxiliary verbs The main function of modal auxiliary verbs is to express opinion, attitude, probability or certainty. There is no subject-verb agreement for these verbs and they are followed by the infinitive of the main verb. You may go to London.

You should go to London. He will go to London.

til

For questions, place the verb in front of the subject. Can you speak English? For negations, just add not. Anne will not speak Spanish.

Ku

n

The most common auxiliary verbs and when to use them

Examples

For instructions and can, could ability

He can walk over there. She said he could help me.

For permission and possibility

may, might

You may leave the table. We might go to Brighton.

For obligation and recommendations

must, ought to

You must finish the tasks. He ought to go to London.

For plans and intentions

shall, should, will, would

I shall be there tomorrow at noon. We will always be there for you.

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22 Use modal auxiliary verbs and write what you should say if you ‌ a are planning a trip to Bath this summer b offer to help an old lady across the street c invite a friend to come with you to the USA d need to go to the toilet e intend to come to a party f ask for permission to leave early g recommend a film to a friend h insist that a colleague put on safety equipment

Norwegians tend to use can to ask for permission, while in English could and may are more polite.

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The active and passive voice Usually we use the active voice to focus on who does what. However, we may also use the passive voice if we want to focus on what happened to the object in a sentence.

g

NOTE TO SELF

Mary wrote a novel

rd

The novel was written by Mary

vu

The object of an active sentence becomes the subject of a passive sentence. The passive voice is used to stress certain information and is more common in formal language. Just like the active voice, the passive form can be used in different verb tenses. If we want to include the actual subject, we use by. Past simple: The novel was written in 1889 by a famous American writer. Future tense: Mary’s novel will be published next year.

n

til

23 Write these sentences in the passive voice. a John built a house in 1994. b Many people in Kenya speak English. c The firemen extinguished the fire. d I made this cake.

NOTE TO SELF

Ku

The gerund The gerund is a noun made from a verb + -ing. Gerunds do not exist in Norwegian but are very common in English, as the subject in a sentence or after verbs and prepositions. Dancing is fun.

I love dancing.

Jane is interested in dancing.

Not all verbs are followed by the gerund. Verbs like want, plan, expect etc. are followed by to + infinitive, as in Norwegian. Check a dictionary if you are uncertain.

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Adjectives Grammar is very interesting. I am older than you.

er in

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

g

24 Translate the sentences into Norwegian. a Swimming is my favourite spare-time activity. b John often goes fishing after visiting his mother. c Jogging and walking are both healthy activities. d I would like to learn more about working in a safe environment.

vu

rd

25 Find the adjectives. a 1476 was an important year in the long history of English media. b This was when the famous William Caxton set up the first printing press in England. c He had moved to the Netherlands as a young and adventurous man. d The king was very impressed with Caxton’s remarkable work. Comparing with short adjectives When you compare shorter adjectives, you use the endings -er and -est. My brother is younger than me.

til

Omid Djalili is the funniest comedian I know.

Most short adjectives

small – smaller – smallest

Adjectives ending in a consonant + y When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, you change the y to i and add the ending.

angry – angrier – angriest

Adjectives ending in a vowel + a single consonant For some short adjectives which end in a vowel and a single consonant, you double the consonant and add the ending.

hot – hotter – the hottest

Irregular adjectives Some adjectives are irregular.

bad – worse – the worst good – better – the best little – less – the least many – more – the most

Ku

n

imperative bydeform order ordre modal auxiliary verb hjelpeverb ability evne, det å være i stand til/evne, det å vere i stand til possibility mulighet/ moglegheit obligation forpliktelse/ forplikting recommendation anbefaling intention intensjon, hensikt describe beskrive adventurous eventyrlysten impressed imponert remarkable oppsiktsvekkende/ oppsiktsvekkande

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26 Fill in the missing forms. a Maxine is fast, Susan is and Marie is the . b Tim is tall, Brian is and Sam is the .

g

27 Fill in the missing forms. a – happier – the happiest b silly – – the silliest c hungry – hungrier – the

rd

29 Translate these sentences into English. a Det var den verste dagen i mitt liv. b Det er lengre til Australia enn til England. c Anne er en god spiller, men Iris er bedre.

er in

28 Fill in the missing forms. a September was wet, but October was (våtere). b The girl looks sad, but the boy looks (tristere). c My aunt is slim, but my uncle is (slankere). d A zebra is big, but a giraffe is (større).

vu

Comparing with longer adjectives When you compare longer adjectives you use more and most.

Martin Luther King Jr. was probably more influential than Malcolm X. I think English is the most interesting subject on my timetable.

n

til

30 Choose the right form of the adjective. a The Namibian flag is more colourful/colourfuller than the Danish flag. b Rugby is a more interesting/interestinger sport than cricket. c Lake Baikal is the deepest/most deep lake on our planet. d Botox is one of the most toxic/toxicest chemicals we know. e Neil Armstrong is a famouser/more famous astronaut than James Lovell Jr.

Ku

The order of adjectives When more than one adjective describes a noun, the adjectives are usually in a certain order.

1 opinion 2 size

3 age 4 shape

5 colour 6 origin

7 material 8 purpose

She was wearing a lovely, long, red silk dress. We have just bought a large, square, teak sitting-room table.

influential innflytelsesrik/ innverknadsrik toxic giftig

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er in

Adverbs

g

31 Choose the correct alternative. a a green, big insect/a big, green insect b a warm, new, woollen coat/a woollen, new, warm coat c a charming, old, china teacup/a china, old, charming teacup d a short, useful, plastic paintbrush/a plastic, useful, short paintbrush e a delicious, big, strawberry ice cream/a strawberry, big, delicious ice cream

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens. It can describe a verb, an adjective or another adverb. The evening passed quickly.

rd

It is a very good idea to learn safety rules really well.

You can make an adverb from an adjective by adding the ending -ly. When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, you remove y and add -ily.

vu

He is grumpy.

He looked at me grumpily.

til

32 Adjective or adverb? Find the mistakes and correct the sentences. a There are a largely number of tourist attractions in New York. b Read the instructions good before you start. c You must drive careful in the wintertime. d The huge crocodile looked at me lazy.

n

Good and well Good is an adjective and well is an adverb.

Ku

She is a good mechanic. She does her work well.

33 Fill in good or well in the sentences below. a Nowadays, we are aware of safety regulations. b Nicole did a job with the paintwork. c In the past, the ways bacteria spread were not understood. d Get soon!

describe beskrive grumpy gretten

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g

34 Use an adverb instead of an adjective and rewrite the sentences below. Example: Usman is a good football player – Usman plays football well. a She gave a deep sigh. b Usman is an energetic player. c The firefighter had a bad injury. d The patient had a serious shock.

er in

Prepositions Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. She ran across the road to catch the bus.

Prepositions of place Prepositions of place are words that tell us where something is. The most common prepositions of place are in, on and at.

The pencil is on my desk. Right now I am at school. There are ten students in the classroom

vu

Prepositions of movement Prepositions of movement show movement from one place to another. You often use them with verbs of motion.

rd

School starts at 8:30.

til

Prepositions of time Prepositions of time tell us when something happened. The most common prepositions of time are in, on and at. Use in for months, years and longer periods of time. Use on for dates and days. Use at for a specific time.

I walked round the village and took some nice pictures. Get up, you lazy slob!

n

This garden is lovely in the spring. I’m meeting Sharon on Monday. Her bus arrives at 8 pm.

Ku

Fixed expressions with prepositions English has many fixed expressions with I went by plane to London. prepositions. Some examples are: I am not at my best in the at the same time, by car, by accident, for morning. good, in advance, in vain, off duty, on time, I insist on getting paid in advance. out of work, to excess, under repair, with I will learn all these prepositions regard to, within grasp, without exception, by heart. and many, many more. They will stick in my mind for life. I didn’t smash your coffee mug on purpose. At least I did apologise.

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up

down

away from

to

er in

g

vu

rd

across into out of through

o ver past along around

Ku

n

til

35 Choose the correct preposition. a I live a house with a garden. b I have always wanted to go Australia. c Alex works a farm. d There is someone the door. e There is a mistake the top of the page.

movement bevegelse verbs of motion bevegelsesverb

36 Choose a suitable preposition. There may be more than one correct answer. a Who is standing Jeremy? b Who is that boy the door? c You should not stand a tree during a thunderstorm. d Our house is a big lake. e She ran the street without looking. f Suddenly, a motorbike came the corner. g The burglars got the building a broken window. h Please take your feet that old mahogany table.

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er in

38 Translate these expressions into Norwegian. a Finish these grammar exercises at once. b It is now five o’clock on the dot. c Long skirts are completely out of fashion. d They broke out of prison by means of a small kitchen knife. e We take a happy life for granted.

g

37 Choose the correct preposition. a I have a dentist’s appointment Thursday. b To be there time, I have to get up seven the morning. c I will be there eight, I think. d This building closes nine the evening. e I have to leave five minutes. f I was ill a week. g I will be back a week.

rd

Pronouns

vu

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name. There are different forms, depending on the word they replace and their function in the sentence. Pronouns are most commonly used to replace words that have been mentioned earlier.

til

Sam loves Mary. – He loves her.

My sister bought Tom’s car. – She bought his car. – She bought it.

Ku

n

Personal pronouns The personal pronouns replace nouns and names that are the subject or the object in a phrase. The purpose is often to avoid repeating nouns and names. Subject pronouns replace the subject. My father likes his car. He likes his car.

Object pronouns replace the object. My father likes his car. My father likes it.

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Singular st

1 person 2nd person 3rd person

Plural

Subject

Object

Subject

Object

I you he, she, it

me you him, her, it

we you they

us you them

er in

g

39 Replace the nouns and names with a personal pronoun. Translate into Norwegian and compare the sentences. a Alice went ice skating. b The dog ate the sausages. c My friends and I love ice cream. d My teacher talked to John. e The girls invited my sister to the party. f My friends looked at me and my father.

rd

Possessive pronouns We use possessive pronouns to show ownership. There are two sets of possessive words. The possessive adjectives are determiners. They are placed before a noun and do not replace it. The possessive pronouns are used alone.

NOTE TO SELF

This is her book. – This book is hers.

Singular

Possessive pronouns (determiners)

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns (determiners)

1st person

my

mine

our

ours

2nd person

your

yours

your

yours

3rd person

his, her, its

his, hers, its

their

theirs

n

Ku

Plural

Possessive adjectives

til

Do not confuse its with it’s or their with they’re or there.

vu

It is my car. – The car is mine.

40 Fill in the correct form of the possessive adjectives and pronouns. a I own this guitar. guitar is a Fender. b Jean has two siblings. brother is called Fred, and sister is called Ann. c John drives own car, while Mary drives . d We like new home.

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I cut myself on the saw. We told ourselves to work harder.

1 person 2nd person 3rd person

Singular

Plural

myself yourself himself, herself, itself

ourselves yourselves themselves

rd

st

er in

Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject in a phrase, when the subject of an action is the same as its object. Only certain verbs are always reflexive; some can be used both with and without reflexive pronouns.

g

41 Complete the answers to the questions. a Alice, is this your phone? Yes, it’s . b Do your parents own these horses? Yes, they are . c Do you and Pete own this flat? Yes, it is . d Does Sally own these shoes? Yes, they are .

vu

42 Fill in the correct reflexive pronoun in the sentences. a Sarah blames for the accident. b My friends hurt on the tools. c Tom found in a difficult situation. d Did you see in the mirror this morning? (two possible answers)

til

Relative pronouns In Norwegian there is one relative pronoun, som, while in English there are several. Who is used about people, and which about animals and things. If the information in the relative clause is necessary to identify the person or thing in question, we use that.

n

My sister, who is working in a café, earns £15 per hour.

The girl that almost drowned is my sister.

Ku

My new car, which is parked outside, was rather expensive.

The tools that I bought yesterday are sharp.

When referring to a whole sentence, use which. I finally found my dog, which made me very happy.

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Whom and whose are also relative pronouns. Whose is the possessive form of who. Whom is the object form of who but is also used after prepositions and instead of who in formal language. My sister, whose car was stolen, just bought a new Ferrari. The boy whom we met in London is from Dublin.

g

DETERMINERS Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. Some examples are articles (a, the), numbers (one, two), possessive adjectives (my, his), distributives (all, both, every) and more. Here we will look at two such groups. Demonstratives The demonstratives this, that, these, those are used to show if something is near or further away.

rd

If you can replace the relative pronoun with he or she, use who; if you can replace it with him or her use whom in formal language.

My friends, with whom I spent the weekend, left for London today.

er in

NOTE TO SELF

This pizza is mine, and that pizza is yours.

Those books are less interesting than these books.

this that

these those

Quantifiers Quantifiers are words that indicate amounts of things. We use some and any for an indefinite amount, every to include all and no when there is nothing.

til

When we ask for something we use any if we don’t know the answer, but some if we expect a yes. “May I have some tea? Do you have any sugar?”

Plural

vu Near Far

NOTE TO SELF

Singular

Ku

n

I would like some tea, but no milk.

We can combine the quantifiers -some -any -every and -no with -body -thing and -one. Use the 3rd person singular of the verbs with such words. Nobody has entered the building, but there is somebody in there. Everyone was listening to the teacher, but no one took notes.

43 Fill in the correct demonstratives and quantifiers in the sentences. a girl over there is Samantha. b Can you see boys over there? c Is your bike or is it one over there?

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d e f g h

cake over there looks much better than old cakes here. May I have bread with my soup please? I can’t see people on the beach. I need to speak to girl in class about this issue. John has idea about who stole his car.

er in

g

44 Translate into English. a Alle liker ost men ingen spiser fisk. b Det har vært noen i huset, men ingenting har blitt stjålet.

replace erstatte purpose hensikt repeat gjenta possessive pronoun eiendomspronomen/ eigedomspronomen ownership eierskap/eigarskap determiners bestemmelsesord/ bestemmingsord reflexive pronoun refleksivt pronomen relative clause relativsetning distributives konjunksjon som fordeler størrelser/ konjunksjon som fordeler størrelsar demonstrative pekeord/ peikeord quantifier mengdesord/ mengdeord

Spelling and Commonly Confused Words

rd

English can be a rather confusing language; it has many words with almost the same spelling or pronunciation. Also, since English and Norwegian have some of the same origins, words often resemble each other, but sometimes they have a different meaning.

vu

Here are some of the most commonly confused or misspelled words for Norwegian users of English. Words that resemble each other Example

She gave me a piece of advice. She said it aloud.

advise (verb) allowed (permitted) bare (adjective, naked)

She advised me to leave. No swimming allowed.

bear (noun, animal or verb, support or endure) desert (a dry place) effect (noun)

I can’t bear to see this. There is a bear behind that tree. The Sahara desert is huge.

dessert (food)

Food has an effect on your health. He walked farther than me.

affect (verb)

I love ice cream for dessert. Food affects your health.

I lie down on the coach.

lay (place something)

Ku

n

til

advice (noun) aloud (out loud)

farther (physical distance) lie (recline)

Example

further (abstract)

He walked with bare feet.

I need further information. I lay the books on the table.

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Words that are often confused by learners of English Example She can speak English.

may (be allowed to)

May I say something?

follow (go behind)

I follow if you lead.

accompany (go together)

I accompany you to the theatre.

for (still going on)

I have lived here for two years.

ago (in the past)

I lived there two years ago.

lend (give to)

I can lend you my bike.

borrow (get from)

Could I borrow you bike, please?

teach (instruct)

Jean teaches English learn I learned English to children. (get knowledge) last year.

er in

who (people)

The man who lives next door is French.

That’s not what I mean.

The car which is parked outside, is French.

til

vu

45 Choose the correct alternative. a I wonder if you can me on this issue. (advice/advise) b Are we to go into this room? (aloud/allowed) c There is a big, brown lurking behind the house. (bear/bare) d John’s head is completely . (bear/bare) e Sorry, I not dance. (can/may) f She loves all kinds of , but especially fruit salad. (desert/dessert) g I think too much gaming has a bad on my friend. (affect/effect) h Jane ran and faster than all the boys in class. (farther/further) i I told the children to me to the playground. (follow/accompany) j After playing the drums four years, he left the band two years . (ago/for) k I cannot you my car next weekend, but my sister says you can hers. (lend/borrow) l Mary promised to the table, but first she had to down on the bed for a while. (lie/lay) m I want to how to play an instrument, so I have asked Pete to me to play the guitar. (teach/learn) n I don’t I’m stupid, but I really don’t understand what you by this. (think/mean) o I just met the man owns the boat was stolen last week. (that/who)

n

Ku

mean (intend or explain meaning) which (things)

rd

In English we say “Yes please” and “No thanks”.

g

can (be able to)

I think you should think come. (ponder or share opinion)

NOTE TO SELF

Example

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Words that are often misspelled Example

Example

Example

To be or not to be

too This is too much. two (2) (excessively, also)

I have two sisters.

where (location)

Where are you?

we’re (we are)

We’re late.

were (be in the past tense)

They were out.

there (location)

There you are.

they’re (they are)

They’re late.

their (ownership)

It’s their car.

er in

Example

g

to (preposition and infinitive)

Example

It’s late.

its (ownership)

The car lost its wheel.

he’s (he is)

He’s late.

his (ownership)

He lost his shoes.

who’s (who is)

Who’s there?

whose (ownership)

Whose car is this?

which (question word, pronoun)

Which car is yours?

witch (bad lady)

The witch gave Snow White an apple.

then (time)

First he got up, then he had breakfast.

than (comparison)

He is taller than me.

lose (not win)

They often lose the matches.

loose (not tight)

I love my loose sweater.

hear (verb)

I can hear the music.

here (place)

I am here with my friends.

meat (noun)

I rarely eat meat for dinner.

meet (verb)

Meet me outside.

break (crush, pause)

She breaks the cup during brake (car part) lunch break.

The brakes failed.

til

vu

rd

it’s (it is)

Ku

n

46 Choose the correct alternative. a These sandwiches are far much for me, would you like have some? (to/too/two) b looking for the girls who here yesterday. Do you know they are? (where/were/we’re) c in car over . (there/they’re/their) d clear that this school takes good care of students. (it’s/its) e Tom lost watch and looking for it now in the garden. (his/he’s) f house is this and that lady at the window? (who’s/whose) g The old lady said she was a but she would not tell us magic tricks she uses. (which/witch) h Our palace was smaller yours, but we built a new section on the west wing. (then/than) i I didn’t want to the boat race but the propeller was . (loose/lose) j Come over , I can’t you. (here/hear) k I bought the in the market where you your sister every Monday. spelling rettskriving pronunciation uttale (meet/meat) origin opphav l If you don’t now you will fall and your legs. (break/brake)

misspelled feilstavet/feilstava

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Word Formation and Morphology

English is a very flexible language and there are many ways to make new words. boycott from Charles Boycott saxophone from Adolphe Sax marathon from the Greek city

er in

Compounding Compounds are longer words made from two or more shorter ones. Compounds can be written as one word, as two words with a hyphen or flowerpot as two words with a space in between. part-time

g

Eponyms Some words are made from the names of people and places.

zoological garden – zoo examination – exam

rd

Clipping Some words have been made by shortening longer ones.

vu

Blending A blend is made by combining the parts and meanings of words.

United States of America p USA

Conversion Sometimes a word changes its grammatical function.

a text (noun) p to text (verb)

Derivation With derivation you can make new words from existing ones. You can add one or more prefixes to the beginning of a word or a root, and suffixes to the end of it. In this way you can change the meaning and the grammar of a word.

Un + im + port + ant + ly De+ port + ment Trans + port + ed De + port + ation

til

Acronyms Acronyms are made from the first letters of words.

n

Ku

Frankenstein + food p Frankenfood: genetically modified food Spanish + English p Spanglish: a mixture of spoken English and Spanish

47 Find out the names of the people that the words below are based on. a diesel b hooligan c sandwich d nicotine

hooligan pøbel part-time deltid

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air

pool

B swimming

2

place

C cross-

3

port

D fire

4

over

49 What is the shortened form of the words below? a laboratory b omnibus c refrigerator

er in

1

A

g

48 Match the words in the two columns to make compound words.

B

documentary

alcoholic

global

analyzer

breath

drama

work

angry

hungry

English

vu

A

rd

50 Match words, or parts of them, in column A with words in column B to create blends.

til

51 Find the acronyms. a light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation b radio detection and ranging c self-contained underwater breathing apparatus d acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Ku

n

52 Translate these sentences into Norwegian. a She unfriended me on Facebook. b Brian downed a beer. c They partied all night.

53 Which words are the underlined verbs in the previous task based on? 54 Underline the prefixes in these words and explain what they mean. a unusual b disappeared c bilingual d international

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55 Underline the suffixes in these words and explain what they mean. a useless b excitement c adorable d courageously

g

Punctuation S

er in

Sentences A sentence has a subject and a verb and is a complete unit of meaning. V

She laughed.

Declarative sentences make a statement and end with a full stop.

Mars has two moons.

?

Interrogative sentences ask a question and end with a question. mark (?).

Do you think people will travel to Mars any time soon?

!.

Imperative sentences make a request or give a command and end with an exclamation mark or a full stop.

Hand me the hammer, please. Get out of here!

!

Exclamatory sentences express strong feelings and end with an exclamation mark.

What a great day we had!

. = full stop

.

, = comma ’= apostrophe

til

“…” = inverted commas

vu

? = question mark ! = exclamation mark

rd

There are four main types of sentences. Notice the use of the different punctuation marks.

Ku

n

56 Use the correct punctuation mark. a What day is it today b What horrible weather c You must wear warm clothes when it is cold outside d It’s not fair e My book is on the table f What do you think?

punctuation tegnsetting/ teiknsetting exclamation utrop statement påstand

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The comma From my window I can see a car, a lorry, two motorbikes and a bus.

When you start a sentence with words like No, Well, Still, However, you use a comma after it.

Well, I hated every page of that awful book!

You need a comma before words like and, but, for, or, nor, so and yet when you make one long sentence from two or more short ones.

I cleaned the car. You polished the hub caps. I cleaned the car, but you polished the hub caps.

When there is information in a sentence that is not necessary for the main idea, you use commas to separate this information.

The mechanic told us the spare parts would arrive next week. The mechanic, shrugging his shoulders, told us the spare parts would arrive next week.

er in

g

You use a comma between the different items in a list. When the items in the list are linked by and or or, you do not need a comma.

vu

rd

57 Place commas where you think they should be. a The waitress smiling politely asked us all to sit down. b For my birthday I got a new watch a pair of gloves a scarf and an exciting computer game. c I cleared the table but you did the dishes. d No I think you should apologize. e I would like a burger some fries a green salad and a glass of water please. Contractions You use an apostrophe (’) in contracted forms where there are letters missing.

It’s gone.

They will not return.

til

It is gone.

They won’t return.

Ku

n

58 Write the contracted forms and put the apostrophes where they should be. a You should not believe everything you hear. b Do not listen to him. c Does she not like fish? d Can you not keep still for one second?

shrug heve på shoulder skulder waitress servitør politely høflig/høfleg gloves hansker/hanskar do the dishes vaske opp

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Direct and indirect speech In direct speech we use inverted commas (“…”) and write the exact words someone says. Use another punctuation mark before the second inverted comma. “Where is the school nurse’s office?” asked Susan.

g

“It’s just up the stairs, second door on the left,” replied Kim.

er in

59 There are at least 10 mistakes with punctuation marks and capital letters in the text below. Find and correct them. “theres nothing I can do said Annes mum. “are you sure,” Replied Anne. “I dont understand.” Said her mum. “i think you do”

rd

In indirect speech we do not use the exact words someone says. We refer to the speaker and report what is said. Often the verb tense also needs to be changed. Susan asked where the school nurse’s office was.

vu

Kim replied that it was just up the stairs, second door on the left.

Ku

n

til

60 Change these sentences into direct speech. a He said he had been a mechanic for many years. b Bill told Jamie to get his bike. c Maxine said it wasn’t fair to blame the cat.

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61 Change these sentences into indirect speech. a “What day is it today?” Sue asked. b “Tomorrow will be a sunny day,” Jeremy said happily. c “Math is such a fun subject!” Elsie exclaimed.


Word order

Sentence structure in English is similar to the sentence structure in Norwegian. In a declarative sentence the structure will be subject + verb + object in both languages. If you change the word order you will change the meaning of the sentence. V

O

g

S

S

V

er in

Bob hit Miles.

O

62 Place the words in the correct order. a car A has a wheel. steering b You juice. drink a of glass c library. I to the went

rd

Miles hit Bob.

In subordinate clauses the subject comes before the verb.

vu

When we came back, Bob had already left.

Unlike in Norwegian, short adverbs like sometimes, often and never will be placed before the verb.

til

Bob never hits Miles, but sometimes they have loud arguments.

When a sentence starts with a negative adverb the verb will be placed before the subject.

n

Not until yesterday did I realize that Bob is such an unpleasant person.

Ku

63 Place the adverbials correctly in these sentences. a Elsie forgets her assignments. (never) b I visit my friends. (often) c I spend my money on sweets. (rarely) d I am in bed by 11 pm. (always)

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When you ask a question, the verb will come before the subject. Do you realize what an unpleasant person Bob is? Do you know if he has always been like that?

er in

g

64 Make questions to fit these answers. Start each question with the words Do you ‌ a I like fish. b I don’t remember Miles at all. c I wish I were rich. d I think grammar is necessary.

Modifiers A modifier is a word or phrase that adds description and detail in sentences. Modifiers are usually adverbials. They must be correctly placed in the sentence so that they are clearly linked to the words they describe.

rd

Wrong: Drenched in chocolate fudge sauce, the waiter brought our ice creams. Right: The waiter brought our ice creams, drenched in chocolate fudge sauce.

til

vu

65 Correct these sentences. a High up on the wall we could see the beautiful, old paintings. b Printed on small notices, Mary read the information about each painting. c Susan got all the information about the old masterpieces that she needed. d Remember to take out the water bottles from your bag that you want.

Pronunciation

Ku

n

English words may be pronounced very differently from how they are spelled, and it is not always easy to guess how to say a word that you see in print. Here are some useful rules. Consonant sounds English has many of the same consonant sounds that Norwegian has, and these will cause us few problems. English also has some additional consonant sounds, for example ch, w and th. They will need a little extra practice.

Vowel sounds a, e, i o, u are the vowel sounds found in English. These vowel sounds can be either long or short. A long vowel will be pronounced the way you would say the name of the letter.

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Diphthongs A diphthong is a sound where one vowel blends into another vowel in the same syllable.

er in

The syllable A syllable is one unit of sound or writing. It must have a vowel. The syllable may also contain one or more consonants. A syllable is sometimes called the “beat” of a spoken language.

g

oily, safety

eth-i-cal, prob-lem

Pronounciation rules

A vowel sound followed by a single consonant at the end of a word will be pronounced as a short vowel.

mad, bid, pet, slim

Rule 2

If there is a silent e at the end of a word, the vowel sound before it will be pronounced as a long vowel.

made, bide, Pete, slime

Rule 3

If a vowel is followed by two consonants at the end of a word, the vowel will be pronounced as a short vowel.

hand, bids, pets

Rule 4

If there is a vowel at the end of a word, it will be pronounced as a long vowel.

cargo, also

Rule 5

If there is a consonant after a vowel in the middle of a word, this consonant is the first sound in the next syllable.

la-ter (not lat-er), ba-by (not bab-y)

Rule 6

When there are two consonants after a vowel in the middle of a word, the first consonant will be pronounced at the end of the first syllable. The second consonant will be the first sound in the next syllable.

in-fant (not inf-ant) en-sure (not ens-ure)

til

vu

rd

Rule 1

Ku

n

Stressed and unstressed syllables Spoken English uses stressed and unstressed syllables. It is a good idea, especially as you work on your vocational vocabulary, to note which is the stressed syllable in new words you learn. Sometimes stress distinguishes between words. desert – desert, addict – addict, protest – protest

In these examples, the first word in each pair is a noun. The second word is a verb.

Unstressed syllables in English will be pronounced much less clearly than stressed syllables. In rapid speech they may almost disappear.

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Intonation The way the voice rises and falls in speech is called intonation.

g

Falling intonation Falling intonation is when the voice falls on the final stressed syllable of a group of words or on a phrase. This intonation is often used when someone asks a question starting with a word beginning in wh.

er in

Where is the nearest pharmacy? When is your appointment?

We also use falling intonation in sentences when we want to be clear or definite about something.

Whatever accent or standards you choose, try to be consistent.

On this X-ray we can see a fractured clavicle.

Rising intonation Rising intonation is very often used to ask a yes/no question.

rd

NOTE TO SELF

vu

Are you feeling OK?

Is that the new assistant?

til

Accents, dialects and standards English is spoken on every continent and there may be great differences in pronunciation, intonation and vocabulary between the various dialects and standards.

Ku

n

Speakers of American English (as well as some British dialects) will pronounce the r sound in all words. British English will generally not pronounce the r, for example in words like car and market. The short a sound may also be pronounced differently in American and British English. In American English the words ant and aunt may sound almost the same.

In the Caribbean, the regional varieties of English are easily recogniz­able. Typically, the th sound will be pronounced t in think, but as d in that. It is common to skip final consonant sounds, e.g. respeck instead of respect. Wherever English is spoken as a second language or as an official language, it will be influenced by other languages spoken in the area, both in terms of pronunciation and intonation.

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g

66 Pronounce these words. Look up words you are not sure of. a hat – hate b tape – tap c net – neat d bit – bite e hop – hope f cube – cub g cope – cop h not – note

er in

67 In a foreign language we need especially to practise the sounds not found in our mother tongue. Work in pairs and practise saying these tongue twisters to each other. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood.

til

vu

rd

A tree toad loved a she-toad, Who lived up in a tree. He was a three-toed tree toad, But a two-toed toad was she. The three-toed tree toad tried to win, The two-toed she-toad’s heart, For the three-toed tree toad loved the ground, That the two-toed tree toad trod. But the three-toed tree toad tried in vain. He could not please her whim. From her tree toad bower, With her two-toed power, The she-toad vetoed him.

n

Which are the sounds that cause particular problems for us?

Ku

68 Find out how to pronounce these words correctly. Take note of which syllable the stress is on. a perseverance e laboratory b advertisement f vegetable c Worcestershire g thoroughly d exaggerate h deteriorate 69 How can you recognize an American accent? Listen to a sample and decide what makes it sound American to you.

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