SKILLS Elektro

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Hege Lundgren Janniche Langseth Gro Lokøy Sidsel Hellesøy

Engelsk Vg1

ELEKTRO OG DATATEKNOLOGI

SKILLS er laget til fagfornyelsen for fellesfaget engelsk, yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogram.

Skills er en del av Skolestudio, et digitalt læringsmiljø for den videregående skole.

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Denne boka er skrevet for elever på Elektro og datateknologi.

ELEKTRO OG DATATEKNOLOGI

SKILLS kjennetegnes av • yrkesretting • nivå- og interessedifferensiering • systematisk øving av ferdigheter • språkglede • forståelse for egen læringsprosess

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Alle elever fortjener å møte tekster og oppgaver som oppleves som meningsfulle og relevante. SKILLS bidrar til mestring, motivasjon og gode leseopplevelser!


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SKILLS is a series of textbooks and digital resources, specifically tailored for your education programme. Each book has 8 chapters. The texts and tasks will make sure you work with all the competence aims in the curriculum.

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Using SKILLS

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Chapters 1, 2, 5 and 6 focus on topics that are relevant for your education programme and that will prepare you for an international workplace. Chapters 3, 4, 7 and 8 focus on general topics such as life skills and challenges, democracy and citizenship, cultural expressions and global perspectives.

CHAPTER 5

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Each chapter opens with useful information to help you prepare for the topics you will meet.

In this chapter you will focus on

Tools of the Trade

k sustainable energy sources k professions in electrical trades

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k using listening strategies k giving an oral presentation k pronouns and determiners

Relevant words and phrases

power station national grid alternating current direct current conductor circuit technician automation maintain troubleshoot

Which tools and components have you worked with so far?

Questions for reflection and discussion

What makes a system functional? <<4 sider>>

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Main focus: topics, skills and language

Useful words and phrases

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a b c d e f g h

On Call-Out

good hygiene friendly creative service-minded outgoing flexible calm patient

call-out vakt fumble fomle bedside table nattbord recall komme på refrigeration technician kjølemontør sigh sukke leakage lekkasje ammonia ammoniakk take a breath puste

Chris has the feeling he has only just fallen asleep when his phone rings. For a moment he doesn’t really remember who or where he is. His left hand fumbles for the phone on the bedside table. He sits up and checks the time. It is 02:35. As his mind slowly clears, Chris recalls that he is a refrigeration technician with his own company, and that he is on emergency call-out. He sighs and answers the phone. Someone, a man at the other end, is speaking very fast. Chris catches a few words, like “leakage” and “ammonia”. He tries to interrupt, but has to wait until the man pauses to take a breath. Then Chris asks who is calling, from where, and what the problem is. Chris double-checks the information and

since his company is local, he knows he will be there in AIMS less than ten minutes. From the time the phone rang until Chris’s service truck arrives, it takes nine minutes and twenty-three k discuss the importance of good communication seconds. A time that wouldn’t have disgraced an ambulance driver, Chris thinks to himself. And unlike an k use polite words and phrases ambulance driver, he has to stick to the speed limit. It k use words related to relevant tools and equipment all comes down to organization. When Chris is on callout, he doesn’t want to spend precious time hunting for things he might need. His equipment and tools are packed and ready to go. Chris is met at the main gates by the technical operations manager of the sports facility. The fire brigade has been notified and firefighters are on their way. It is they who will decide whether or not to evacuate the people who are just now fast asleep in their beds in the houses across the street. Ammonia is a widely used refrigerant. It is a colorless gas with a very unpleasant, irritating smell. If you breathe in even quite low concentrations of ammonia, you will begin to cough and your eyes will start watering. Because of this, you are unlikely to be exposed to harmful levels of it. From the direct readout that is visible from the outside, and that the technical operations manager has already checked, Chris reckons the concentration of ammonia is low. There is no smell on the outside. But Chris cannot be sure service truck firmabil what the situation inside the machine room is like. He gets into his sealed disgrace gjøre skam på/gjere body suit just as the fire engine appears. skam på Chris has a maintenance contract with this facility, so he knows it well. stick to holde seg til/ This is why the firefighters want him there when they enter the building. They halde seg til go straight to the ammonia tank and turn off the supply. They switch off speed limit fartsgrense the alarm. After a short while, the entire refrigeration system is shut down. precious dyrebar technical operations manager And not one single person in the neighborhood has woken up. Chris will go teknisk sjef home now and catch a few hours of sleep himself. He knows he has some sports facility idrettsanlegg busy days ahead. fire brigade brannvesen/ At eight o’clock sharp, Chris is back. Now he must troubleshoot the brannstell system and find out where the leakage is. Chris works systematically, decide avgjøre/avgjere checking out one component after the other. It doesn’t take him long to find refrigerant kjølemedium the problem: a faulty compression gasket, which he changes. This doesn’t harmful skadelig/skadeleg level nivå mean that the system is up and working. Chris must first test the repair for readout avlesning/avlesing pressure tightness following strict procedures. When he is sure all leakages maintenance contract have been found and are correctly repaired, he can refill the refrigerant. serviceavtale Hopefully after a few days, the facility will be recommissioned and the local supply tilførsel ice hockey team can get back to practice. gasket pakning

IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS

1 Write a topic sentence. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph, and lets the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence can be a statement or a question.

A supporting sentence comes after the topic sentence. Supporting sentences give facts, details and examples to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. There is usually more than one supporting sentence in a paragraph.

3 Write a closing sentence. The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It repeats the main idea of your paragraph but using different words. It can also answer a question asked in the topic sentence. Study this model paragraph: Topic sentence

SKILLS | Chapter 6: Solutions | 251

First of

the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes. Second, it is great for reducing stress and anxiety, and it makes you sleep better. Finally, research shows that an active lifestyle also helps improve concentration and memory.

Closing sentence

Emphasis

Showing contrast

Showing result

in addition

in fact

on the other hand therefore

moreover

actually

however

consequently

then

furthermore

indeed

nevertheless

as a result

next

similarly

in other words

in spite of

in conclusion

finally

also

namely

on the contrary

thus

Therefore, it is recommended that you find time for at least one hour of activity every day.

4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together When you write a paragraph, use sentence connectors. They are the glue that holds your sentences and paragraphs together, and help the reader follow your arguments. They also show contrast, or how ideas are related to each other. Here are a few examples of sentence connectors.

3.32 Which sentence connectors were used in the model paragraph on the previous page? 3.33 Fill in suitable sentence connectors in the open spaces. a Kirsty seems to be quite clever. , she often gets low marks. b The service at this restaurant is excellent. , the food is delicious. c I’ve never been to Egypt, having relatives there. d Adam is a careful driver. , he’s had several accidents. e Eileen scored a lot of goals for her team last season. , she was voted “Most Valuable Player”. f Amal is a talented painter. her favourite subject at school is Art. g There is no more food left. there are plenty of drinks. h They had worked on the problem for hours. , they found the solution. 3.34 Place these sentences in the right order to make a paragraph. a One reason for stress is that teenagers often have to make early decisions about school, careers and work. b For some teenagers, this change can be stressful, whereas others take it in their stride. c In fact, many teenagers feel that their school grades decide their whole future, and for some that can feel like a lot of pressure. d Another reason may be that they feel pressure or expectations from family, friends or media to fit in or take on a certain role. e Although stress is not necessarily a bad thing, it becomes a problem when there’s too much of it or it goes on for too long. f The teenage years are a time of growth and change, physically, mentally and socially. g Therefore, it is important to ask for help if it gets too much. h In addition, not all teenagers know how to cope with the stress and sometimes think nobody else has the same experience.

SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 109

108 | Chapter 3: That’s Life | SKILLS

In each chapter, there are courses to help you improve your skills systematically. These courses have step-by-step instructions and examples which show you how to become a better speaker and writer. You will learn such skills as selecting reliable and relevant sources, structuring texts, giving presentations, arguing a case, as well as using various learning strategies in the process.

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SKILLS contains a wide variety of texts we hope will interest and inform you, as well as inspire and entertain you. There are articles, fact files, films, short stories and novel excerpts from around the English-speaking world. Most importantly, you will read and listen to texts on vocational topics, such as safety in the workplace, processes, tools and materials. Some of the texts also have short versions.

Being active is important for your physical and mental health.

all, physical activity will improve your heart and lung capacity and reduce Supporting sentences

Giving more examples

first of all second

Practise

2 Write at least one supporting sentence.

pressure trykk tightness tetthet/tettleik recommission her: sertifisere

250 | Chapter 6: Solutions | SKILLS

Listing ideas

When you build a paragraph, follow these four steps:

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Before you start Which of these personal qualities do you think are most important when dealing with customers or clients? Number them from 1 (most important) to 8 (least important). Compare your lists in class.

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB definite article

adjective

adverb

indefinite article

noun

The happy students pose patiently on a red bench. verb

preposition

adjective

5.87 After working with Chapter 5, it is time to revise what you have learnt. a Leaf through the chapter. Which texts and tasks have you worked with? b Name as many tools in English as you can remember. c What are wiring diagrams? d Give a short description of at least three popular television shows focusing on modern technology. e There are two literary texts in this chapter. Choose one of them and briefly explain what it is about. f Which professions are mentioned in this chapter? g Mention some aspects of renewable energy sources. h Explain the advantages of refurbishing and reusing electronic devices rather than recycling them.

Words are the building blocks of language learning. You need a certain knowledge of grammar to be able to use the words to communicate clearly. Words belong to different word classes. Articles:

An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or non-specific (indefinite).

Nouns:

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person.

Verbs:

Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state.

Adjectives:

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

Adverbs:

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens.

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Prepositions: Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. Pronouns:

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name.

Determiners: Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to.

An important part of grammar is syntax, the set of rules that decide word order and how to structure sentences. Such rules are quite similar in English and Norwegian, but there are important exceptions you should know about. Grammar also includes morphology, the knowledge of words and how they are formed. Often, we can add prefixes or suffixes to make new words with a different meaning and of another word class.

In oral communication pronunciation is central to understand other people. On the following pages you will learn the most important rules and how to avoid common errors.

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398 | Language Lab | SKILLS

grammar grammatikk word class ordklasse noun substantiv pronoun pronomen determiner bestemmingsord indefinite ubestemt definite bestemt syntax syntaks, ordstilling prefix forstavelse/forstaving suffix endelse/ending

SKILLS | Language Lab | 399

In the Language Lab section there are explanations, examples and tasks for you to practise your language skills. There are also tasks in every chapter which will help you learn new words, practise spelling and pronunciation, and improve your grammar. All the texts and tasks have been recorded as sound files which can be found in Skolestudio.

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Revise

Why Grammar?

Assess your progress 5.88 In this chapter you have worked with topics that require a specialized vocabulary. Use the categories below to make a list of relevant words for these topics. Then describe which strategies you used for learning these words. You may want to check “Learning strategies” and “Tools for language learning” in Chapter 1 to jog your memory. a Parts and components

b Tools and instruments

5.89 Listening strategies a What do you do when you listen for overview? b In what situations do you need to listen for details? c What can you do before listening to a new text? d How is listening without face-to-face communication different from when you can see the speaker?

c Professions

5.90 Giving a presentation a How should you start a presentation? b Why is structure important when giving a presentation? c How should you end your presentation? d How can you be a good listener when others are giving a presentation?

246 | Chapter 5: Tools of the Trade | SKILLS

Apply your skills 5.91 Speak a • Choose a text from this chapter. Prepare a two-minute speech where you explain to a partner what the text is about and why your partner should read it. b •• Imagine that you are going to install state-of-the-art wireless audio and video equipment in your classroom. Prepare a presentation where you describe what you would like to do and how you would do it. Include information on which tools and materials you would need. c ••• Find information about a renewable energy production facility. Prepare a presentation where you first describe the energy production method, what type of facility it is and where it is. Then explain what makes this energy “green”.

5.92 Write a • Make a list of at least 10 tools and instruments you have worked with so far this year. Write one sentence for each item on your list to explain what it is used for. b •• Choose an electronic component that you would like to know more about. Find and select information from relevant and reliable sources. Present your findings in a fact file or as a manuscript for a presentation or information video. c ••• Why should young people choose a profession in electrical trades? Create a text where you reflect on, explain and discuss the question above and give examples from texts and topics you have worked with this year. When you have written the first draft, swap your text with a partner’s. Give each other feedback on what works well and what could be improved before writing the final version of your text. For advice on how to structure a text, check Chapter 4.

SKILLS | Chapter 5: Tools of the Trade | 247

In all chapters, you are invited to discuss, describe, explain, explore and share views with your fellow students. Both texts and tasks are differentiated, which means you will find some that you master well and some that will challenge you. At the end of each chapter, you are encouraged to revise what you have learnt, reflect on your own progress and apply your skills in a new context.

Additional resources can be found in Skolestudio.

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EXPECTATIONS | 1 Page 8 PAGE

TEXT TYPE

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This Is Me

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Play the Game

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Game

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Vocational English

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English at Work

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Timeline

Innovation and Invention

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Tools for Language Learning

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Thomas Alva Edison: A Portrait

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Sharing Information: “Show and Tell”

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Song lyrics

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The Rule of Three by Eric Walters

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What is nuclear energy?

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Codes and Standards

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THAT’S LIFE | 3 Page 88 PAGE

TEXT TYPE

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LISTENING

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Novel excerpt

“What Makes Me Happy”

Look by Sharon G Flake

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Poem

“Art or Mutilation?”

Does My Head Look Big in This? by Randa Abdel-Fattah

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Structuring Paragraphs

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Improve your skills

My Strange Addictions by Shane Dawson

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Essay

It’s a Wonderful, Digital World?

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Using Formal and Informal Language

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Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda by Becky Albertalli

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CITIZENS Page 132

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Photos

Nothing on This Page is Real by Eli Saslow

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Feature article

Selecting Sources

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Boy A by Jonathan Trigell

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Novel excerpt

The UK

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Fact file

Life in the UK

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Factual text

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You, Work and the Law

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Black Hoodie by Roddy Doyle

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Short story

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Structuring a Text

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The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas

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Novel excerpt

The USA

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Life in the USA

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Young Activists

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TOOLS OF THE TRADE | 5 Page 200 PAGE

TEXT TYPE

From the Power Plant to the Plug

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Factual text

Plugs and Sockets

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Fact File

True Love by Isaac Asimov

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Factual text

Listening Strategies

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Improve your skills

Symbols and Diagrams

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Factual text

Technology by the Episode

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TV-series

What I Do at Work

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Factual text

Giving a Presentation

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Improve your skills

The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind by William Kamkwamba

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Autobiography / Film

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LISTENING

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"A self-made home wiring system"

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"Cascades of Fire"

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Repair or Recycle?

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SOLUTIONS | 6 Page 248 TITLE

TEXT TYPE

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Factual text

Writing a Formal Text

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Improve your skills

Spare Parts by Joshua Davis

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Novel excerpt

GPS

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Fact File

The Black Box by Michael Crichton

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Novel excerpt

Discussing Vocational Topics

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Improve your skills

Robots 'to replace up to 20 million factory jobs' by 2030

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Article

iBoy 101 by Kevin M. Brooks

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Novel excerpt / film

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Power for the Future

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ENCOUNTERS | 7 Page 288 PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

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Across Borders

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My Mother, the Crazy African by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

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Short story

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Discussing Literature and Film

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Improve your skills

Hunt for the Wilderpeople

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Film

New Zealand

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Fact file

Street Art

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Factual text

The Painting by Bruce Chatwin

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Short story

Australia

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Short story

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Canada Summarizing and Synthesizing Information Gaming Culture Chapter Checkpoint

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The Hockey Sweater by Roch Carrier

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TEXT TYPE

Factual text

Planet, or Plastic? by Laura Parker

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Feature article

Arguing a Case

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Improve your skills

India

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Fact file

Women in India by Deepa Narayan

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Opinion piece

Referring to Sources

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Improve your skills

Home by Warsan Shire

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English-Speaking Africa

LEVEL

IN SHORT

“Making a Difference”

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LISTENING

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“Sir”

Poem

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“Child Soldier”

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Chameleon by Trevor Noah

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Autobiography

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Look at Africa by Alexander McCall Smith

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Novel excerpt

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Chapter Checkpoint

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LANGUAGE LAB | 9 Page 398

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X CHAPTER 1

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Expectations


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In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k vocational English k motivating yourself and others k people and inventions that

changed the use of electricity

k learning strategies and

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k sharing information

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upper secondary school education programme vocational occupation vocabulary communication discovery invention work placement apprentice

If If you you could could be be anything you anything you want, want, what would you what would you be? be? What are good ways for you to learn English?

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This Is Me

Emilie, computer electronics technician

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When I started vocational college this year, I had to leave my family and live at school, because in the village that I come from there are no schools covering my interests. I have decided to become a computer electronics technician and plan to specialize in audio-visual equipment later, in the advanced course. In this way I get to combine my two main interests: music and electronics. I hope to get a job in this field once I’ve got my craft certificate. I’m really looking forward to this year – to meeting new friends and learning a trade through practical work – not just books.

Joel, power-supply fitter

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occupation yrke computer electronics technician dataelektroniker/ dataelektronikar vocational yrkesfaglig/ yrkesfagleg college videregående skole/ vidaregåande skole audio-visual lyd og bilde equipment utstyr advanced course Vg3 craft certificate fagbrev foundation course Vg1 work placement utplassering power plant kraftstasjon view utsikt pole stolpe power-supply fitter energimontør electrical appliance technician elektroreparatør appliance apparat, utstyr job shadowing jobbskygging

I like to work with anything practical and enjoy being outdoors all day. Last year, on the foundation course, I had a work placement period at a power station close to where I live. We did all sorts of inspections and repair work. I found I don’t mind working at heights. The view from the top of a pole is brilliant! This is when I decided to become a power-supply fitter. I like to be part of a team and to feel like I am doing something useful. And what could be more useful than helping to make sure people have electricity?

10 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

Daniel, electrical appliance technician Back in year nine we did job shadowing for a few days. Representatives from different industries came to our school. I ended up shadowing someone who had started out as an electrician, but had switched to electrical repair work. I had


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AIMS k speak about occupations in

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the electrical industry k use words related to your education programme k introduce yourself

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never really thought about how much better it is to get electrical appliances repaired if you can, instead of just throwing them away. In this job you must work independently and be serviceminded. You must also be careful, systematic and responsible because a customer must be able to safely use an electrical appliance that you have repaired.

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I have been fascinated by trains ever since I was little, so I’ve always thought I would end up working with them in one way or another. Now I am an apprentice, and I am virtually guaranteed a job once I have my craft certificate. There are many plans now to expand the railway network because it is such an environmentally friendly and efficient form of transport. I want to be a small part of that development. I work on both new installations and routine maintenance. Sometimes I work nights, which suits me fine, as I am a night owl at heart!

Olivia, maritime electrician

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When I had finished the foundation course I wasn't sure what to choose. Now, on the intermediate course I am leaning towards becoming a maritime electrician. They work on ships, or maybe offshore. In this job you are responsible for electrical installations, and also the communication systems and the alarm systems. Safety is an important factor. You need to be physically fit, which I am, but you don’t need to be a super strong man. It is much more about using the right tools in the right way. It all sounds very interesting, I think.

independently selvstendig/ sjølvstendig responsible ansvarsbevisst customer kunde apprentice lærling environmentally friendly miljøvennlig/miljøvennleg efficient effektiv maintenance vedlikehold/ vedlikehald night owl natteravn/natteramn, natteranglar maritime skipsintermediate course Vg2 physically fysisk

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Read and understand

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1.1 • Place the words in the correct order to make sentences. Emilie and Joel a Emilie vocational started college year this has. b a computer technician has decided to become She electronics. c her interests she can Emilie combine where wants a job. d year Last the foundation course finished Joel. e working at Joel heights found he doesn’t mind. f a team likes doing something useful and to feel he is to be part of Joel.

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1.2 •• Use words from the text to complete the sentences. Daniel and Tam a Daniel wants to become an . b Tam has always been fascinated by . c In year nine Daniel did for a few days. d Daniel thinks you should have repaired if you can. e Tam wants to be a small part of . f Tam doesn’t mind working nights because he is a .

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1.3 ••• Answer these questions. Olivia a Which course is Olivia taking now? b What kind of job is Olivia considering? c What kind of responsibilities does this job involve? d What does Olivia say about being physically fit in this job?

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1.4 Take turns asking and answering the questions. Work in pairs. a What are Emilie’s plans for the future? b What does Joel say about working at heights? c What had Daniel never thought about until his job shadowing experience? d What does Tam say about railways as a form of public transport? e What does Daniel say about personal qualifications needed for the job? f What job is Olivia considering for the future? g Do these five students have anything in common? Explain. h How is it for you to start a new school? You may want to use some of the following adjectives: cool, interesting, terrifying, scary, challenging, exciting, stressful, enjoyable…

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Practise

vocational

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videregående skole

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upper secondary school

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Vg3

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foundation course

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fagbrev

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intermediate course

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lærling

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advanced course

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yrke

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profession

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yrkesfaglig

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craft certificate

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kvalifisert

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work placement

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Vg2

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apprentice

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utplassering

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qualified

10 Vg1

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A

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1.5 Match each word or phrase with the correct Norwegian translation.

Write

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1.6 Choose the correct indefinite article. Check “Nouns and Articles” in the Language Lab section for rules. a Emilie wants to become a/an computer electronics technician. b Joel finished a/an foundation course last year. c Daniel plans to become a/an electrical appliance technician. d This year Tam works as a/an apprentice. e Olivia is now taking a/an intermediate course. f All five students have made a/an decision regarding their future careers.

til

1.7 Who are you? Write a short text by completing these sentences. Share your texts in class. My name is . I live in and I am years old. My family consists of . In my spare time I like to . In the future, I would like to become a because .

After working with the text and tasks, I can

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Explore

1.8 Find out more. Which career in electrical trades would you like to pursue? What makes it interesting to you? What do you think would be your daily tasks? Search for information and share your findings in class.

Ku

How did you do?

Useful expressions interesting – useful – technical – practical – skills – creative – physical – varied – outdoors – teamwork – apprenticeship – craft certificate

speak about occupations in the electrical industry YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to my education programme YES

ALMOST

NO

introduce myself YES

ALMOST

NO

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33

34

35

36

32

31

If you could travel in time, would you go backward or forward?

30

29

Describe the main character in a series you follow.

18

19

20

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17

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If you could trade places with someone for a day, who would it be and why?

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In 10 years, where will you be and what will you be doing?

Describe the picture at the beginning of Chapter 7 in this book.

15

1

2

If you had to eat the same three things for the rest of your life, what would you put on the menu?

3

4 What is your favourite film, and why?

Ku

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START

13

On which page in this textbook do you learn how to structure a text?

til

What word describes you best?

14

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16

Name two listening strategies found in Chapter 5.

Encourage each other: Good effort! Don’t give up! Awww – what a shame! Good job! There you go! You’re almost there! That’s great! Oh, well – it’s only a game!

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38

39

40

What kind of tasks are you asked to do after each chapter in this textbook?

27

26

Describe your dream job.

Do you like to work alone or in a group?

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23

24

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21

25

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28

FINISH

Are there any song lyrics in this textbook? If so, on what page?

11

5

10

9

Say the English name for a tool that you know of.

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What are the focus areas in Chapter 8?

How many chapters in this textbook focus on your vocational programme?

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12

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37

6

8 If you could invent a machine to do a boring job for you, what would it be?

Ku

n

If you had your own talk show, who would be your first guest?

7

Form groups of 2 to 4 players. You need a die or a downloaded dice-roller app, and something you can use as a counter. If your counter lands at the bottom of a ladder you can move up to the top when you have answered the question. If your counter lands on the top of an arrow, you must slide down to the bottom. You are allowed to ask each other for help on what words are called in English, but note that if you start speaking Norwegian you will have to go back to START.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LEARNING STRATEGIES The text below suggests five strategies that will help you learn efficiently.

g

1 Prepare your brain for learning. Leaf through the pages you are about to

2 Use different reading strategies.

rin

study. Read the headlines and notice what they are about. Also notice what the illustrations show. Are you getting the gist of it? Look at the questions you are supposed to be able to answer when you have read the text. Now your brain is getting the idea, and you are ready to start studying.

rd e

Skim: Read the text quickly to get an overview. Ask yourself what the text is about. Your answer should be just a few words at this point. Scan: Browse the text for specific information, such as names or numbers. Close read: Study the text thoroughly. Take breaks and ask yourself what you just read.

3 Use your senses. When working with a text, use other senses than just

vu

your eyesight. Take notes. Ask yourself how the different elements in the text are related. Make illustrations like charts, mind maps or timelines. Read out loud to yourself or make your own recordings and play them to yourself. Many books, including this one, provide you with useful sound files.

til

4 Expand your vocabulary. Make your own English word bank. Make memory

n

cards with English words on one side and the translation on the other. Work with a friend and challenge each other to learn new words and phrases. When learning names of tools and objects, place sticky notes on the items. Read more about tools for language learning in this chapter.

Ku

5 Repeat. Repetition is important if you want to remember what you learn. During breaks or in between tasks, skim through texts that you studied earlier. Do the tasks again to make sure you remember both content and vocabulary. Reflect on your learning strategies and choose them according to the task at hand.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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1.10 Explain the following terms. a Skimming means… b Scanning means… c Close reading means…

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1.9 Choose the correct alternative. a Give your brain a balance/chance/glance to prepare for work. b Using several senses/fences/lenses when studying will help you learn. c Reading out loud may help you yearn/learn/turn. d Solving tasks/masks/brass will help you learn. e Protect yourself from connections/distractions/collections.

til

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1.11 Practise reading strategies. a Skim through the text on the next pages. Sum up in a few keywords what it is about. Share with a partner. b Scan the second paragraph of the text on the next page. Find and list the eight focus areas you will be studying and working on in your English classes this year. c Close read the fourth paragraph of the text on the next page. Explain how learning a specialized vocabulary is useful for you at school or work. d Reread the first text, “This is Me”, about Emilie, Joel, Daniel, Tam and Olivia. Do the vocabulary task in 1.5 again. Using the vocabulary, write a summary of the text. computer electronics technician

automation mechanic

Ku

n

occupations

When learning new words, make word groups to show how they are related.

lift fitter

electrician

electricity wiring

power station

generator

grid

cables

heating and cooling

network

system

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Vocational English

Ku

g

rin

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vocational yrkesfaglig/ yrkesfagleg profession yrke topic emne, tema knowledge kunnskap current aktuell issue sak vocabulary ordforråd HSE HMS compare sammenligne/ samanlikne dictionary entry oppslagsord term her: begrep, uttrykk/ omgrep, uttrykk semiconductor halvleder noun substantiv pronounce uttale tissue vev conductivity ledeevne insulator isolator equipment utstyr source kilde/kjelde demanding krevende/krevjande further videre/vidare assess vurdere progress framskritt/framsteg

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Before you start If you met someone on holiday who asked you about your studies and future career plans, what would you say?

vu

!

When you think back on all the years you have studied English in school, you probably remember reading many different texts and watching films about a variety of topics. You may also remember learning about spelling and grammar, as well as memorizing new words, practising how to structure a text or giving a presentation. This year, studying English will be a little different. You will still focus on learning the language, reading, listening, speaking and writing. Knowledge about the English-speaking world and current issues is still important, but in addition, you will spend time on topics that are relevant to your own education programme. This is often referred to as vocational English. Learning vocational English means using material, vocabulary, methods and strategies that will help you prepare for working life. This could be learning to communicate well with clients and customers, discussing Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), or understanding specialized vocabulary. In fact, there should be a connection between what you learn in your English class and in your programme area subjects. Language is a tool for communication. A specialized vocabulary will help you understand written texts, such as articles, manuals or product descriptions. It will also help you understand through instructions and demonstrations. You may be asked to present a case or produce reports, discuss new developments or compare how things are done in different cultures. Infographics and other forms of statistical information often have a mixture of general and specialized voca­bulary. How much of the information in this illustration do you understand without knowing all the words?

Air Source Heat Pumps Heating Cycle Low-Pressure, Low-temperature Vapour

Outdor Coil

Reversing Valve

High-Pressure, High-Temperature Vapour

Refrigerant Absorbs Heat from Air and Boils to Vapour

Inside Coil

Compressor

Low-Pressure, Low-Temperature Liquid

Expansion Device

High-Pressure, High-Temperature Liquid

Refrigerant Releases Heat from Air and Returns to a Liquid State

Source: https://www.velocityairconditioning.com/lakeland-heat-pump-repair

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AIMS k explain how vocational English is

different from general English k suggest and describe topics that are relevant to your education programme k talk about how vocational English is important in a chosen profession

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The dictionary entry below explains the technical term short circuit. It also shows what word class it belongs to (noun) and how to pronounce it. Sometimes you will find that you need to look up more words to understand the definition itself. Did you know the words “solids”, “conductivity” or ”insulator”?

Source: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/semiconductor

vu

The following text is from a description of PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers), which are industrial computer control systems used to automate different electro-mechanical processes. Most students will find this text quite difficult if they don’t already know a lot about automation. Find and count the words you don’t understand. Are they mostly general words, or vocabulary related to electricity?

n

til

Typical PLCs have a wide range of I/O modules available to accommodate all kinds of sensors and output devices. For example, discrete input modules can be used to detect object presence or events with devices such as proximity or photoelectric sensors, limit switches and push buttons. Discrete output modules can control “ON/OFF” loads such as motors, lights and solenoid valves. Analog input modules can accept signals from process instrumentation such as flow, pressure, temperature and level transmitters. These modules can interpret the signal and present a value within a range determined by the devices’ electrical specifications. Analog outputs will command loads that require a varying control signal, such as panel meters, variable frequency drives or analog flow valves. Many PLCs also offer specialized modules such as high-speed I/O or motion control, and serial or Ethernet communications.

Ku

Source: https://library.automationdirect.com/what-is-a-plc/

Most of the texts you will study are not as difficult as the example shown above. However, if you come across more challenging texts or sources, use the strategies for learning new words. Focus on words that are relevant to the topic you are working on. Do you think this sounds demanding? Remember that you have already studied English for many years. This year, you will take your English one step further. You can actively work to develop the language skills you need in your future profession. The first step is to take part in planning activities, and to assess your own progress and how you learn best.

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Read and understand

1.12 • First match the sentence halves, then translate the sentences into Norwegian. 1 relevant to your own education programme.

B This year, studying English

2 strategies that will help you prepare for working life.

C You will still focus on learning the language, reading, listening,

3 will be a little different.

D In addition, you will study topics that are

4 the topic you are working on.

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A You probably remember reading many

5 different texts and watching films about a variety of topics.

F A specialized vocabulary will help you understand

6 language skills you need in your future profession.

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E Learning vocational English means using material, vocabulary, methods and

G Focus on words that are relevant to 7 speaking and writing. 8 written texts, such as articles, manuals or product descriptions.

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H You can actively work to develop the

Ku

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1.13 •• Answer the following questions. a What is different about learning English this year? b What is similar? c Find the three examples of topics that may be relevant to your programme area mentioned in the text and list them. d Why is building a specialized vocabulary important? e Which of the three examples of specialized vocabulary is the most difficult to understand? Explain why. f Which example is the easiest to understand? g What should you do when coming across texts and other sources with more challenging vocabulary? h Why do you think it is important to take part in planning activities and to assess your own progress? 1.14 ••• Select the most important information to make a summary of the text. First choose 10 words you think are relevant, then use the words to write your summary.

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rin

1.15 Fill in the missing words to complete the text. clients – professions – manuals – colleagues – vocational – specialized – communicate – relevant – vocabulary a A vocabulary will help you understand articles, or product descriptions. b In many , you will most likely work with who speak other languages. c Studying topics that are to your own education programme is often referred to as English. d You may read texts with a challenging . e You will learn to well with and customers.

g

Practise

1 ROV operator 2 automation mechanic 3 production electronics technician 4 signal fitter 5 maritime electrician 6 electrician 7 power-supply operator 8 flight systems mechanic 9 power-supply fitter 10 lift fitter 11 avionics technician 12 telecommunications installer 13 computer electronics technician 14 electrical appliance technician 15 train electrician 16 control panel fitter

Ku

n

til

vu

A Telekommunikasjonsmontø B Skipselektriker C Elektriker D FU-operatør E Energioperatør F Heismontør G Signalmontør H Dataelektroniker I Togelektriker J Produksjonselektroniker K Energimontør L Flysystemmekaniker M Automatiker N Avioniker O Tavlemontør P Elektroreparatør

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1.16 Match the name of the profession in English with the Norwegian translation.

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rd e

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1.17 Tools. Can you name these tools in English? Use an online dictionary to find words you don’t know. Notice the handles of these tools. What is special about them?

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1.18 Screwdrivers. a Screwdrivers are some of the most commonly used tools in building and construction. Can you identify these varieties? c Pozidriv a Phillips e Robertson/square d slotted b Torx f hexagon/Allen

A Phillips B Torx C Pozidriv D slotted E Robertson/square F hexagon/Allen

b Combine the types of screwdrivers with the correct explanations. 1 A screwdriver that is similar to the Phillips but has a blunt tip and smaller ribs in addition to the cross. 2 A common screwdriver with a flat blade that fits into the slot of a screw. 3 A much-used screwdriver with a pointed top that looks like a cross. 4 A screwdriver with six flat sides, often seen as an L-shaped key used when assembling furniture. 5 A screwdriver characterized by a six-point pattern shaped like a star. 6 A screwdriver with four flat sides, named after a Canadian inventor.

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1.19 Do you know the Norwegian translations for the tools and instruments shown in these pictures? Work with a partner. Tools and instruments ELECTRICIAN’S KNIFE

VERNIER CALIPER

CENTRE PUNCH

CIRCUIT TESTER

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SPIRIT LEVEL

SLIP JOINT PLIERS

HACKSAW

ADJUSTABLE WRENCH

TAPE MEASURE

FOLDING RULE

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CRIMPER

LINEMAN’S PLIERS

FISH TAPE

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WIRE STRIPPER

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ELECTRICIAN’S HAMMER

MULTIMETER

SOLDERING IRON

BATTERY DRILL

LETTI INSTALLATION TOOL

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n

PVC CUTTER

SOLDERING GUN

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 23


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Speak

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1.20 Name at least three topics you think are relevant to your education programme. Make a list and share your lists in pairs. 1.21 Choose one of the professions listed in task 1.16. Discuss in pairs or small groups how and why vocational English is important for this profession.

Ku

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1.22 What factors do you think will be important for your class to succeed when working with vocational English? Discuss in groups, and then share with the rest of the class.

Write

1.23 • Answer the following questions. a In what situations do you learn English? b Why is it useful for you to learn English? c What do you think is easiest when learning English? Is it reading, speaking, writing or listening? What is most difficult? d How do you feel about learning English this year?

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1.24 •• Write a short text to your teacher where you suggest topics that you would like to work on in English class this year. Also, explain why you think these topics are relevant and interesting.

Listen

Ali Which speaker likes to play games online? Who talks about being professional? Which speaker says communicating in English is important for business?

d e f g h

Who talks about working abroad? Who talks about interesting magazines in English? Who says Norway depends on international contact? Who thinks lyrics are important to songs? Who wants to be able to communicate well with foreign colleagues?

Karoline

Henrik

Tom

Explore

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a b c

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1.26 “Why English?” Most students see the value of being able to speak and write English well. Listen carefully to what Ali, Karoline, Henrik and Tom have to say, and answer the following questions.

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1.25 ••• What are the benefits of learning English for electrical trades? Write a short text.

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1.27 Choose one of the professions listed in task 1.16. Find out which courses and subjects you study to become a skilled worker in your chosen profession. How many years do you have to study? Do you have to train as an apprentice? Tip: Search the English pages of www. vilbli.no for information.

Ku

Did you know?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain how vocational English is different from general English YES

About 4000 new words are added to the Oxford English dictionary every year. This is partly because of developments in technology which have led to a number of new words. Another reason is social media spreading new words quickly to the general public who start using them regularly, which again leads to the words being included in dictionaries. Still, it is estimated that 90% of all texts contain only 1000 different words.

ALMOST

NO

suggest and describe topics that are relevant to my education programme YES

ALMOST

NO

talk about how vocational English is important in a chosen profession YES

ALMOST

NO

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Timeline: English a 500 AD

800 AD

NORWAY

Vikings

n

CALEDONIA (SCOTLAND)

Ku

HIBERNIA (IRELAND) Irish sea BRITANNIA (ENGLAND)

Former Roman Empire

English Channel

Battle of Hastings

Colonization

At the time of Shakespeare, English was spoken by fewer than six million people, and only in the British Isles. This, however, changed when the British colonized countries around the world, in North America, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. They spread their language and culture, but also picked up new vocabulary from local languages, e.g. canoe, chocolate, pyjamas, kangaroo, banana, caravan and tomato.

rd e

From around 793 to 1066 Vikings raided, traded and settled in the northern parts of the British Isles. The Scandinavians had great impact on culture and language, and hundreds of words come from Old Norse, e.g. bag, die, gang, sky, steak, take and window. In 1066 Normans from France conquered England. The French influence on the English language is considerable, especially in the fields of culture, politics and economy, e.g. beef, colour, crime, govern, marine and money.

til

In the 5th century, tribes from the northern European continent invaded the British Isles. These tribes are referred to as AngloSaxons. Their Germanic languages form the origin of English, and around half of the commonly used words in English are of Anglo-Saxon origin, e.g. woman, man, child, house, chicken, sheep and year.

Invaders

1500

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Early English

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English today is what we call a lingua franca, a language of communication across borders and cultures. It is the most widely spoken language in the world, has the largest vocabulary (500,000 words) and the largest number of speakers (400 million native speakers, and 1.5 billion second language speakers). Of the almost seven thousand languages in the world, how did English achieve this unique position as the dominant international language of work, science, culture and so much more?

North Sea

Jutes Angles Saxons

Normans

26 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

1800

Industrialization

The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain and spread to the rest of the world, changed living conditions and working life. With all the inventions that needed names, a wide range of vocabulary was added to the English language, e.g. railroad, telephone, typewriter, horsepower, ambulance, camera, X-ray and revolver.


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h at Work

AIMS k describe how English became an

rin

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international language for work k use knowledge of other languages to improve your English skills

1950s

2000s

Working life has become more globalized as companies have increased their international trade and production, and employees have moved to work in other countries. Consequently, more and more people have started using English at work daily. It has become common to use it in job interviews, instruction manuals, e-mails and online communication, but also with colleagues from other countries as a lingua franca. Therefore, learning English is more important than ever.

Ku

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til

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Throughout the 1900s technological development continued at an increasing pace. After World War II the USA grew into a superpower. This made American English the dominant language of industry, science, economy, culture, media and computer technology. Furthermore, large international corporations established local production sites across the world, and the workforce needed a language to communicate across borders. Many specialised terms may have a foreign origin, but their English versions are now household words in most countries, e.g. reality show, rap, jeans, hypertext, web design, online, hedge funds, offshore and pacemaker.

Globalization

rd e

Modern Technology

achieve oppnå unique enestående/eineståande tribe stamme invade invadere trade handle impact påvirkning/påverknad Old Norse norrønt conquer erobre considerable betydelig/ betydeleg establish opprette invention oppfinnelse/ oppfinning pace tempo corporation bedrift factory fabrikk employee ansatt/tilsett instruction manual bruksanvisning / bruksrettleiing

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Read and understand

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1.28 • Finish the sentences. Translate them into Norwegian. a Today, English is a lingua . b The Anglo-Saxons came from . c “Die” and “take” are words that come from . d The Normans influenced English in the fields of . e The British established colonies in . f The Industrial Revolution started in . g Throughout the 1900s English became the dominant language of . h Companies across the world now establish English as the common .

Practise

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1.29 ••• Use your own words to explain what the following sentences from the timeline mean. a Their Germanic languages form the origin of English. b Scandinavians had a great impact on culture and language. c Their language was spoken by the ruling elite. d They spread their language and culture, but also picked up new vocabulary. e All the inventions needed names. f The USA grew into a superpower. g Their English versions are now household words in most countries. h Working life has become more globalised. i It is used with colleagues from other countries as a lingua franca.

til

1.30 Use online dictionaries to translate the following words into Norwegian, German and French. The languages that resemble the English words most will usually show their origin. Compare your lists. English

Norwegian

A sun

n

B mountain C window

Ku

D father E hour F

cow

G pork

H water I

art

J

constitution

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German

French


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1.31 Because the vocabulary of English comes from many different sources, it may sometimes seem as if there are no rules for spelling and pronunciation. Study the word pairs and practise pronouncing them. For more information on pronunciation, see the Language Lab section. e home/come f blood/good

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1.32 When learning English there are many words you know already from Norwegian. Loan words are words in one language that are borrowed from another. Transparent words are words that resemble words in another language. Which of the following words belong to each category?

g

c sew/few d low/cow

rin

a gone/bone b break/weak

bag, book, burger, calendar, caps, date, drink, fish, gangster, grass, keeper, milk, sister, socks

Explore

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1.33 “Beowulf � is a heroic poem and one of the most important texts written in Old English. It is the story of a brave man who saves people from the evil monster, Grendel, and its horrifying mother. The text has been turned into films and graphic novels. Use various sources to find at least two versions of the story and share them in class. Is the story still interesting today?

Speak

How did you do?

Write

use knowledge of other languages to improve my English skills

Ku

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1.34 Discuss the questions. a Today many people speak at least two languages. How is this an advantage when learning other languages? b How can your knowledge of Norwegian help you when learning English grammar, words and idioms? Give examples. c Can you think of any disadvantages in English being a dominant language in so many fields?

1.35 Create a family language tree to illustrate the languages or dialects that are or were spoken by the various members of your family.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how English became an international language for work YES

YES

ALMOST

ALMOST

NO

NO

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Innovation and Invention

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James Watt

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James Watt was born in Scotland in 1736. He was one of the most remarkable inventors the world has ever seen, and he is famous for his work on improving the steam engine. He found that when a generator was connected to a steam engine and some technological changes were made, it would be possible to produce electricity on a large scale. His name, Watt, is used for the unit of electrical power.

Alessandro Volta

vu

In 1786 the Italian professor, Luigi Galvani, was dissecting a frog. When he touched the frog’s leg with his knife, the muscle twitched sharply. He thought that the frog’s leg must contain electricity in some way. Some years later a younger colleague, Alessandro Volta, realised that electricity was involved, but that it had nothing to do with the frog. Electricity was generated because of the tin plate the frog was lying on, the fluid of the muscle and the steel knife. This led directly to Volta’s invention of the electric battery. In his later experiments Volta showed how electricity could travel in copper wires. The unit of electric potential, the Volt, is named after Alessandro Volta.

til

André-Marie Ampère

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Ampère was born in France in 1775. He worked as a mathematician and was also interested in physics. He was the first to explain the connection between magnetism and electricity. His experiments on the electromagnetic force between two conductive wires would lead directly to the exploitation of electric power. His name, Ampere, is used for the unit of electric current.

Georg Simon Ohm Georg Simon Ohm was born in Germany in 1787. He was working as a mathematics teacher when he became interested in electromagnetism. In 1826 and 1827 he published two important papers which describe mathematically how circuits conduct electricity. Based on the experiments he did, Ohm was able to explain the relationship between voltage, current and resistance. I = V/R still bears his name, Ohm’s Law, and the name Ohm is used for the unit of electrical resistance.

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Michael Faraday

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Heinrich Hertz

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AIMS Michael Faraday was born in England in 1791. He was a chemist k describe important innovations in and physicist, and became very the history of electricity interested in electricity. In 1831 k use terms and prefixes related to he began to experiment with electricity electromagnetic induction. In 1832 k explain Ohm’s Law in English he was able to show that static k listen for specific information electricity, electricity made by a magnet and the voltaic electricity made by a battery, were essentially the same thing. He also experimented with electrolysis, electric motors, transformers and generators. Two units in physics are named after Michael Faraday: the Farad, for capacitance, and the Faraday, which is a unit of charge.

til

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Heinrich Hertz was born in Germany in 1857. He became a professor of physics and was very interested in the work of the British mathematician, James Clerk Maxwell. Through his experiments, Hertz showed that electricity could be transmitted at the speed of light as electromagnetic waves. To prove this, he built a piece of equipment using knobs and some wires connected to an induction coil. With this apparatus he was the first person to both broadcast and receive radio waves. Later inventions, such as radios, telephones and televisions, are based on Hertz’s research. The unit of frequency, Hertz, is named after Heinrich Hertz.

Nikola Tesla

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Nikola Tesla was born in 1856 in what was AustriaHungary at the time. In 1884 he moved to the US to work as a physicist. His work, both in theory and practise, was on the problems of generating and transmitting alternating current (AC), and also on radio waves. Tesla’s practical inventions number 112 patents and include speedometers, electrical motors, turbines and components used in radios and televisions. The unit of magnetic flux density carries his name, the Tesla. In our own time, Tesla also has become the name of an electric car.

remarkable bemerkelsesverdig/ oppsiktsvekkjande improve forbedre/forbetre steam engine dampmaskin dissect dissekere twitch rykke til fluid væske unit enhet/eining exploitation utnyttelse/utnytting conductive strømførende/ straumførande current strøm/straum circuit krets/krins resistance motstand, resistans induction induksjon capacitance kapasitans research forskning/forsking knob knott coil spole frequency frekvens charge her: ladning density tetthet/tettleik

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Read and understand

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1.36 • Find and write down the word in the text that means the same as the definitions below. a The unit of electrical resistance b The unit of magnetic flux density c The unit of electrical power d A unit of charge e The unit of electrical potential f The unit of electrical current g The unit of capacitance. h The unit of electrical frequency

vu

rd e

1.37 •• Write down the name of the person who fits the description. a He is the holder of 112 patents. b He is famous for his work on steam engines. c His name is the unit for electric current. d He invented the electric battery. e He was born in 1791. f The unit of frequency is named after him. g The unit of electric potential is named after him. h He described mathematically how circuits conduct electricity.

n

til

1.38 ••• Complete these sentences with information from the text. a With the apparatus he built, Hertz became the first person to both …. b In our own time, Tesla has become …. c In 1832 Michael Faraday was able to show that …. d James Watt is famous for his work …. e In his later experiments Alessandro Volta showed how …. f Through his experiments, Hertz showed that …. g André-Marie Ampère was the first to explain the connection between …. h Based on the experiments he did, Georg Simon Ohm was able to ….

Ku

Speak

1.39 Work in pairs and learn Ohm’s Law in English. Ohm’s Law is an equation. It can be written in three ways. If you know two items in the equation, you can work out the third one. V = voltage in volts (V) I = current in amps (A) R = resistance in ohms (Ω)

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1.40 This drawing may help you understand Ohm’s Law. Explain to a partner.

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g

OHM

Amp

Practise

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rd e

Volt

Ku

n

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1.41 Capital letters. Write capital letters where you think they should be. a james watt worked as an instrument maker at the university of glasgow. b as a child james watt loved mathematics, but not latin or greek. c michael faraday was born on 22 september in england. d the british government asked him for advice on weapons to use in the crimean war. e faraday worked as humphry davy’s assistant. f james clerk maxwell is another interesting british mathematician and physicist. g in 1841 he was sent to school at the edinburgh academy. h maxwell designed the cavendish laboratory at cambridge university.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 33


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1.42 Conversions. Revise the information in this table. Work in pairs and check that you both know the prefixes, values, standard forms and symbols. Note that, for example, the number 106 is read ‘ten to the power of six’. Symbol T G M k d c m μ n p

g

Standard form 1012 109 106 103 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9 10 -12

rin

Value 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1000 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001

rd e

Prefixes Tera Giga Mega Kilo deci centi milli micro nano pico

1.43 Match the short forms in column A with the written-out forms in column B. 1

Column B two thousand watts

b

230 V

2

four point seven kiloohms

c

10 mA

3

twenty point eighty-five amps

d

2000 W

4

three hundred gigahertz

e

3 kHz

5

two hundred and thirty volts

f

4.7 kΩ

6

sixty watts

g

10 TWh

7

eleven point zero three ohms

h

20.85 A

8

five point four kilowatt hours

i

300 GHz

9

three kilohertz

j

60 W

k

5.4 kWh

10 four point five volts 11 ten terawatt hours

l

11.03 Ω

12 ten milliamps

Ku

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a

Column A 4.5 V

1.44 Use the information from the table in task 1.42 to answer these questions. a How many ohms are there in one kiloohm? b How many hertz are there in one megahertz? c How many kilovolts are there in ten thousand volts? d How many watts are there in one megawatt? e How many watt hours are there in one terawatt hour? f How many nanoseconds are there in one microsecond? g How many picofarads are there in one nanofarad? h How many microamps are there in one milliamp?

34 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


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Listen

1.45 "Electricity" Listen carefully to this text. You may have to listen more than once. a Translate the words.

short circuit

3

leder/leiar

4

krets/krins

5

insulator

6

light bulb

g

2

Norwegian

likestrøm/likestraum

8

vekselstrøm/vekselstraum

rd e

7

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1

English charge

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b Choose the correct alternative. 1 In the centre of the atom, we find the proton and the neutron/ nucleus/quark. 2 Put simply, those moving electronics/electrons/protons are electricity. 3 All the electric charge/charging/change is released in one giant shortcircuit. 4 Good conductors are usually gases/compounds/metals. 5 Materials that do not conduct electricity are called insulation/ isolation/insulators. 6 Direct curriculum/current/currency is the kind of electricity we get from a battery. 7 Alternating current is the kind of electricity we get from a power stationary/company/station. 8 This means that it can be transformed/transmitted/transported over long distances. Explain in your own words. How is static electricity different from current electricity? How is alternating current different from direct current? What is a short-circuit?

Ku

n

c 1 2 3

Explore

1.46 Choose one of the men described in the text and find out more about his work. 1.47 What is inside an ordinary battery cell? Research and find out.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe important innovations in the history of electricity YES

ALMOST

NO

use terms and prefixes related to electricity YES

ALMOST

NO

explain Ohm’s Law in English YES

ALMOST

NO

listen for specific information YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 35


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FACT FILE FACT FILE Tools for Language Learning

Ku

n

rin rd e

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vu

A dictionary can help you understand and write texts. It can also be used to make lists of words to improve your vocabulary. In paper dictionaries the words are organized alphabetically. Some explain the words in the same language, others translate the words into another language, and some do both. Such dictionaries often have grammar sections, too. In online or digital dictionaries, you type the word you are looking for and then get a translation and/ or explanation. Such tools often have an audio function, where you can hear how to pronounce words. Most dictionaries also provide useful information about word classes (e.g. n = noun, v = verb), pronunciation (e.g. I = [aÉŞ], house = [haĘŠs]), and examples of how you use the words in phrases.

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Dictionaries

36 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


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FACT FILE FACT FILE Spell checkers

rin

Programs that translate whole texts into a different language can be useful if you are in a hurry and need to understand a text. However, they cannot always be trusted. If you use such tools, always double-check the translation to make sure it is correct. Also, remember that you need to practise writing on your own to improve your English. No program can do that for you, and translation programs are not allowed on tests and exams.

til

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rd e

Many digital resources, e.g. Word, provide programs that can help you avoid mistakes in a text. A word spelled incorrectly will be underlined, and when you click on it, the program suggests alternatives. Be aware that the right word is not necessarily the one that pops up first. Look at this illustration. Which word is the correct one?

g

Translation tools

Ku

n

The spell checker will not detect the wrong use of a word if it is spelled correctly. Here are some examples of commonly confused words. They may sound more or less the same but have different spellings. Do you know the difference? his/he’s be/bee your/you’re site/sight

then/than witch/which how/who lose/loose

to/too/two where/were/we’re its/it’s/eats there/their/they’re

Apps and other tools There is an endless list of digital learning devices, vocabulary and grammar drills, language courses and tutorials available online, such as Memrise, Quizlet, Babble and Duolingo. Search for different types of resources and try out one or two for a few weeks to see what effect they have on your English skills. Discuss the results in class and choose one that you will continue to use this year.

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 37


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FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

rd e

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1.48 Place these words in alphabetical order. a dinner b supper c breakfast d lunch e day f afternoon g morning h sandwich i evening

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1.49 The words below are written in the phonetic alphabet. Try to pronounce them and write them in ordinary letters. Check your spelling with a dictionary. kɑː gɜːl ˈtiːʧə ˈlaʊzi ˌjʊərəˈpi(ː)ən ˈθʌrə

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a b c d e f

Ku

n

I

υ

I

U

READ

SIT

BOOK

MEN

AMERICA

WORD

SORT

CAT

BUT

PART

NOT

e ə З æ Λ α ρ b t d f v Ө ð m n Ŋ h

TOO

eI DAY

John & Sarah Free Materials 1996

TOUR

BOY

GO

WEAR

MY

HOW

HERE

υə ɔI əυ eə αI αυ

k

PIG

BED

TIME

DO

CHURCH

JUDGE

KILO

GO

FIVE

VERY

THINK

THE

SIX

ZOO

SHORT

CASUAL

MILK

NO

SING

HELLO

LIVE

READ

WINDOW

YES

38 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

s l

z ʃ r w

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FACT FILE FACT FILE

g

tool verktøy improve forbedre/forbetre grammar grammatikk audio lyd pronounce uttale word class ordklasse noun substantiv provide skaffe spell checker stavekontroll suggest foreslå/føreslå pop up dukke opp detect oppdage improper uriktig common vanlig/vanleg spelling rettskriving device innretning tutorial instruksjonsvideo

rin

1.50 Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. Explain the meaning of the words in italics. a John bought the car which/witch is parked outside. b Mary isn’t to/too happy about what you said to her. c It’s/Its nice to talk to my teacher. d The music is a bit load/loud, don’t you think?

Singular

Plural

a goose b louse d elf e ox f index

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c knife

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1.51 A dictionary can also help you with your grammar. Look up the following words to find their plural form. Translate the words into Norwegian.

Ku

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1.52 Use an online translation program, e.g. Google Translate. First translate a and b into Norwegian, then translate c and d into English. a “I like fried eggs.” Do you agree with the translation? b “Let’s call it a day and hit the hay.” Did it still work? Explain. c “Han var ikke høy i hatten.” Did it work the other way? What is the problem here? d “Reinsdyra spiser lav på vidda.” What went wrong here?

Did you know

It can be useful to know what your preferred learning style is. Some of us remember better by seeing rather than hearing. Others remember better what they can work on with their hands and experience physically. If you know what your preferred learning style is, you will be able to plan your studies accordingly, and learn more efficiently. SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 39


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Thomas Alva Edison: A Portrait

The telegraph had been invented in 1844, but for a long time it was only possible to send one message at a time. Edison’s early work was to improve the telegraph and make it more efficient. With his quadruplex telegraph it was possible to send two messages in each direction at the same time on a single telegraph line. From this time onwards, Edison was a full-time inventor. In 1876 Edison patented his mimeograph. With it you could make paper copies more easily than before. It used a stencil where ink could be pushed through small holes onto a piece of paper. The user would turn the handle and run off the copies. With Edison’s mimeograph there was also an electric pen for cutting the stencils.

40 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

1877

Ku

invention oppfinnelse/ oppfinning efficient effektiv stencil sjablong ink blekk occupy her: være opptatt av/ vere oppteken av incandescent glødefilament glødetråd carbonized forkullet/forkola bamboo bambus light bulb lyspære

Edison was working on several inventions involving the telephone and the telegraph. This led directly to the development of the phonograph. The phonograph had metal foil wrapped around a metal cylinder. You could speak into a mouthpiece. A needle would transmit the sound vibrations onto the cylinder. This invention took off in a big way. Now music could be recorded and played on the phonograph.

1879

n

til

1876

vu

1874

rd e

Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847 in Milan, Ohio. He was the youngest of seven children. At 12 years old he started to work selling candy, magazines and newspapers on trains. He learned telegraphy, and in 1862 he started to work as a telegrapher. His first inventions would be in this field.

At this time, many inventors were occupying themselves with incandescent light. Edison was no exception. He created a light bulb with a filament made from platinum. It only burned for a few hours, though. Edison experimented with thousands of other materials. In the end he found that carbonized bamboo worked best. His electric lamp was given the patent number 223,898.


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AIMS k describe innovations that are

Many different inventors were interested in film at this time. Charles F. Jenkins and Thomas Armat went to Edison for help to develop the machine. The first vitascope exhibition where an audience could watch a film at the same time was on April 23, 1896, in New York.

g

1888

As Edison’s companies expanded, he was able to employ many gifted people. William Kennedy-Laurie Dickson was one of them. He and Edison designed a kinetoscope, an early motion picture device. It had a peephole at the top. One person at a time could watch a film. They also made an early version of the film camera to record the actual film.

vu

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1882

Edison soon realized that it was necessary to produce electricity on a large scale. It also had to be transmitted to people’s homes. He opened his first power station in Manhattan, New York City. It used steam to produce electricity. It could power 1,200 light bulbs and had 52 customers when it opened.

1896

important in the history of electrical appliances k use words related to electricity and technology in the past k share information in class

n

1930

til

Edison was active right up until the end of his life. Only a few months before he died, he took part in the opening of the electrical Lackawanna Railroad line from Hoboken to South Orange. Edison drove the Multiple Unit train the first mile from the station.

Ku

Thomas A. Edison kept improving and adapting both his own inven­tions and those of other people far into his old age. He had practically no formal training, but was active and inquisitive and worked tremendously hard. On average, he filed for a new patent every other week, with 1093 in all. Thomas Alva Edison is famous for the following quote: “Genius is 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration.” He died in 1931 at the age of 84.

employ ansette/tilsetje gifted talentfull motion picture film device apparat peephole kikkhull/kikhol improve forbedre/forbetre adapt tilpasse inquisitive nysgjerrig on average i gjennomsnitt file her: søke om/søkje om quote sitat perspiration svette/sveitte

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 41


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Read and understand

1.53 • Match each year with the correct sentence. 1874

1

Edison invented the phonograph.

B

1876

2

Edison opened his first power station in New York.

C

1877

3

The vitascope was launched.

D

1879

4

Edison took part in the opening of a new electric railway line.

E

1882

5

Edison invented the quadruplex telegraph.

F

1888

6

Edison designed the kinetoscope together with William K. L. Dickson.

G

1896

7

Edison patented his mimeograph.

H

1930

8

Edison’s electric lamp was given the patent number 223,898.

rin

rd e

1.54 •• Choose the correct alternative.

g

A

a In 1874 Edison 1 was born. 2 made the telegraph more efficient. 3 learned telegraphy.

vu

b In 1876 Edison 1 got married. 2 patented an invention for copying paper. 3 became a full-time inventor.

f In 1888 Edison 1 invented the stroboscope together with William K. L. Dickson. 2 invented the kinetoscope together with William K. L. Dickson. 3 invented the stethoscope together with William K. L. Dickson.

til

c In 1877 Edison 1 developed the phonograph. 2 finished work on the telegraph. 3 invented an electric pen.

n

d In 1879 Edison 1 invented the cinema. 2 invented the battery. 3 invented the incandescent light.

Ku

e In 1882 Edison 1 started recording music. 2 found that bamboo worked well in a light bulb. 3 opened a power station in New York.

42 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

g In 1896 Edison 1 launched the vitascope. 2 launched the kinetoscope. 3 launched an early record player. h In 1930, just before he died, Edison 1 invented the electric railway. 2 took part in the opening of a new electric railway line. 3 became a railway operator.


1.55 ••• Write questions to fit these answers. a In 1847. b It was possible to send four messages at the same time. c It was a bit like an old-fashioned photocopier. d It had metal foil wrapped around a metal cylinder. e Carbonized bamboo worked best. f It could power 1,200 light bulbs. g His name was William K. L. Dickson. h He was 84 years old.

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Practise

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1

3

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2

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1.56 Unscramble the letters and find the words. Then combine each word with the correct picture. a ihgLt luBb b onGarrete c aehrpTlge d oelTpenhe e rWie f erPwo nioStat

5

6

How did you do?

til

4

After working with the text and tasks, I can

n

Explore

Ku

1.57 Find one picture and some information about one of the inventions that Edison patented. Show the picture and tell your class about it. 1.58 Watch the film The Current War. Comment on the following: What was the War of Currents about? Who were the inventors involved? What are the advantages of AC power supply? Who won the war? This film received mixed reviews. Do you agree with some of the criticism?

describe innovations that are important in the history of electrical appliances YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to electricity and technology in the past YES

ALMOST

NO

share information in class YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 43


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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SHARING INFORMATION: “SHOW AND TELL” Become a better speaker by practising the following steps.

Illustrate your point Use pictures or bring objects to show and demonstrate how your object works.

It is hard to explain when you can’t see it, but there is a button somewhere.

Make a good conclusion Sum up your main points and, if possible, return to your introduction. Finally, invite your audience to ask questions.

That’s more or less it. Any questions?

Ku

5

44 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

When I woke up yesterday, I could not find my phone. While I was looking for it, I realized that without it, I could not get in touch with my friends, listen to my favourite music or even take the bus to school! It has become such an important gadget in my life, so that’s why I want to talk about my cell phone.

rin

I am not sure what the most interesting part is, really, so I’ll just sum up everything you can do with it.

n

4

Have a clear message Organize the order of your examples. Repeat words or phrases to emphasize your point. Explain difficult words. Take short pauses to make sure people follow you.

til

3

This is maybe not very exciting, and I’m not sure if I know how it works, but I’ll or give it a try.

vu

2 Sound convincing Show that you are interested in the topic and that you are prepared. If possible, know your topic well enough to be able to speak without a manuscript. It is more interesting for your audience if you speak freely.

I’m gonna talk about my cell phone because I didn’t have time to prepare or anything else.

rd e

1 Introduce your topic Start in a way that catches the attention of the audience. Create an atmosphere or describe a situation, and then say what you will talk about.

Much better

g

Not so good

This is a fascinating object and I bring it with me all the time. There is so much fun you can have with it, and I want to share some of its features with you.

or

First, this phone takes amazing pictures, and has a large selection of filters. Second, it has a large storage capacity for films and music. Next, the processing power is great. This means that it is very fast when you go online, so you can download games and apps in no time. It also has a display which…

or

When you push this button, you turn on the cell phone. To unlock it, you can use touch ID or face recognition. The camera is located here and…

or

So, you can imagine my relief when I finally found my phone in my bag yesterday! When you know how to handle this little object, you have music, a camera, all your apps and so much more in one single gadget. And best of all, you can even use it to call your friends! Thank you for your attention. Don’t hesitate to ask if you have any questions.


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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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1.59 Change the following introductions into something catchy. a I’m going to talk about an interesting object that I found in our basement. b I have been asked to talk about a famous invention in the history of health care.

rin

1.60 Improve the following conclusions. a I guess this object wasn’t too interesting after all, but do you have any questions? b That’s all I know about this invention, sort of.

rd e

1.61 Practise your “show and tell” skills. Choose an object from your school bag, a tool or a piece of equipment in the classroom and prepare a short presentation of the object. Use the steps from the instruction. Present your “show and tell” in groups or in class. Finally, give each other feedback. What was good? What can be improved?

Explore

vu

1.62 Choose one of the following examples of milestones in the history of electricity. a Use different sources to find information about the invention or system. b Give a short presentation of your findings in class. Use pictures to help you show and tell. When

What 600 BC Thales of Miletus discovers static electricity. William Gilbert coins the word “electricity”. 1600

Gottfried Leibniz invents the modern binary number system.

1820

Hans Christian Oersted confirms that magnetic fields are caused by electricity.

1831

Joseph Henry develops a prototype for a DC motor.

1843

Ada Lovelace publishes what is considered to be the first programming language. Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.

til

1689

n

1876

John Ambrose Fleming invents the first diode.

1949 1958

Grace M. Hopper starts work on a compiler system that converts one programming language into another. Jack Kilby makes the first integrated circuit.

1969

Robert H. Dennard invents dynamic random access memory.

1989

2000

Philip Egmeawali invents the fastest supercomputer until then, based on his observation of bees. The world’s first commercial wave power station is opened in Scotland.

2010

Apple introduces the first iPad.

2019

Samsung releases the first 5G telephone.

Ku

1904

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 45


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Ku

n

til

Before you start a Do you have a favourite song? Tell a partner about songs that have inspired you or meant something special to you. b Find The Script’s “Hall of Fame” online and listen to it.

Yeah, you can be the greatest You can be the best You can be the King Kong banging on your chest You can beat the world You can beat the war You can talk to God, go banging on his door You can throw your hands up You can beat the clock You can move a mountain You can break rocks You can be a master Don’t wait for luck Dedicate yourself and you gon’ find yourself

vu

!

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Hall of Fame

hall of fame æresgalleri champion mester/ meister politician politiker/ politikar preacher pastor, prest truth seekers sannhetssøkere/ sanningssøkarar

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame You can go the distance You can run the mile You can walk straight through hell with a smile You can be the hero

46 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


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You can get the gold Breaking all the records they thought never could be broke Do it for your people Do it for your pride How are you ever gonna know if you never even try? Do it for your country Do it for your name ‘Cause there’s gonna be a day When you’re

rin

g

k understand what the song is about k explain what metaphors mean k discuss what inspires you

rd e

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame

AIMS

Be a champion, be a champion, be a champion, be a champion On the walls of the hall of fame

til

vu

Be students, be teachers Be politicians, be preachers Be believers, be leaders Be astronauts, be champions Be truth seekers Be students, be teachers Be politicians, be preachers Be believers, be leaders Be astronauts, be champions

Ku

n

Standing in the hall of fame And the world’s gonna know your name ‘Cause you burn with the brightest flame And the world’s gonna know your name And you’ll be on the walls of the hall of fame You can be the greatest, you can be the best

The Script ft. will.i.am Lyrics by Will Adams / Mark Sheehan / James Barry / Daniel O’Donoghue

“You can go the distance You can go the mile»

The Script, Hall of Fame

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 47


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Read and understand

1.63 • Fill in the missing words to make a summary of the song. Read the complete summary out loud with a partner. rock – Fame – world – part – encourage – people’s – photos – Do – overcome

rd e

rin

g

The song Hall of is an inspirational song. It was written by The Script, an Irish pop and alternative band. In the text the writers address the listeners and them to try and make a difference in the . They do not literally expect us all to have a place in some “Hall of Fame” with our on a physical wall. However, we all meet obstacles in our lives, but they can be . If we play our , no matter how small, we can be important in other lives. Play your part! “ it for your country, do it for your name,” the song says.

vu

1.64 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a What is a Hall of Fame? b What do you think the song writers mean by saying “don’t wait for luck”? c Find at least five examples of what the songwriters encourage us to be. d What does it mean to “go the distance”? e Sum up the message of the song in one sentence.

Practise

til

1.65 A contraction is a word or phrase that has been shortened by dropping one or more letters. An apostrophe indicates where letters are missing. Write the following words in contracted form.

Ku

n

a I am b do not

c we are d would not

e you will f we have

g she would h let us

1.66 The expressions below are informal. Write the sentences in formal language and without contractions. a And the world’s gonna know your name. b ‘cause there’s gonna be a day … c How are you ever gonna know if you never even try?

48 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS


1.67 Metaphors are often used in song lyrics and poems, but also in everyday language. They are figures of speech used to describe something as if it were something else, for example “life is a rollercoaster”. Explain what the following metaphors mean. a You are my sunshine. b He has a heart of gold. c She is a walking encyclopaedia. d Love is a battlefield.

C You can move mountains D You will be in the hall of fame

1

You can overcome obstacles

2 You can finish before the deadline 3 You will be honoured and respected

4 You are passionate about what you do

rd e

A You can beat the clock B You burn with the brightest flame

rin

1.68 Combine the metaphors from the song with the most suitable interpretation.

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Speak

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1.69 Choose six nouns from the text and write them in the singular and plural forms. You may find it helpful to study “Nouns” in the Language Lab section.

til

1.70 Discuss the following statements. Do you agree or disagree? a “We can’t all be champions. Average is fine.” b “I want success in life, and I don’t care how I get it.” c “Music inspires and motivates me.” d “I don’t envy famous people. Happiness lies in being an ordinary person.”

Write

How did you do?

n

1.71 • Choose one or two lines from the song “Hall of Fame” that inspire you. Find an illustration that fits well and make a motivational poster.

Ku

1.72 •• Write a paragraph about an ordinary person that you admire. Why should he or she be in the Hall of Fame? 1.73 ••• Write a text about the song “Hall of Fame”. How does it inspire you? Choose quotes that you like particularly well and explain.

After working with the text and tasks, I can understand what the song is about YES

ALMOST

NO

explain what metaphors mean YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss what inspires me YES

ALMOST

NO

SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 49


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

Assess your progress

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1.75 What have you focused on in Chapter 1? Number the suggestions below from 1 to 7, where 1 has been most important for you.

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 Speaking  Understanding texts  Learning new words  Writing  Getting to know each other  Learning strategies (how to learn new things)  Finding information

1.76 Which of the above do you find most difficult, and what do you think you master quite well? 1.77 Learning strategies a Which learning strategy do you most often use when you start working with a new text? b What can you do to remember new information? c Name at least four different ways of memorizing new words. Which one works best for you? d Look at the first text in Chapter 2. What do you think will be the best learning strategy for you when working with this text?

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1.74 After working with Chapter 1, it is time to revise what you have learnt. Discuss with your teacher whether the tasks should be done individually or in groups, in writing or orally, at home or in class. a Find a picture in this chapter that you like and explain why. b Which professions or occupations are mentioned in the text “This Is Me”? Briefly explain what the different people do. c What is English for vocational purposes? Explain and give examples of situations where you would need to use vocational English. d List five new words you have learnt while working with this chapter. e Give a short summary of one of the texts you have read in this chapter. f What is the message in the song “Hall of Fame”?

50 | Chapter 1: Expectations | SKILLS

1.78 Sharing information a How should you introduce your topic when presenting something to an audience? b Why should you try to speak without a manuscript, if possible? c How can you help your audience remember what you have told them? 1.79 Look at the focus areas listed on the first page of this chapter. Which ones do you think you master well or quite well? Which ones do you think you will need to work on?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Apply your skills

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1.81 Write 1.80 Speak a • Translate your own timetable into a • Choose a text or a task in this English. You can use the word list on chapter that you like or find Utdanningsdirektoratet’s web pages interesting. Describe what the text or to find what your subjects are called in task is about to a partner and explain English. what you find interesting about it.

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b •• Choose one of the professions mentioned in this chapter. In your opinion, which skills are important for a worker in this profession? Share your views in small groups. c ••• What makes a good work environment? Which factors are important? First, make a list for yourself. Then, compare your lists in pairs. Finally, share with the rest of the class.

b •• How will English be useful in your life? Make a list of situations both at work and in life where you think it will be important to know English well. c ••• What do you expect to learn in English class this year? What would you like to learn? Write a short text to your teacher. To get you started, you may find it useful to look at the table of contents in this book, as well as the learning objectives in the English curriculum. SKILLS | Chapter 1: Expectations | 51


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Safe and Sound

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X CHAPTER 2


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In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k workplace safety k accidents and first aid k risk assessment k writing reports k giving instructions

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k verbs and tenses

Useful words and phrases

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Electrical Safety Code workplace culture supervision performance procedure ergonomics safety signs hazard injury HSE

If youiscould be Why it important anything you want, to learn about safety what would you be? at work? What can you do to prevent accidents?

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Safety First!

AIMS k explain the importance of safety

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What do you think kills most people in the world? Is it war, crime or drugs? No, it is work! Around two million people worldwide die every year from accidents or diseases related to their work. The most dangerous jobs in the world are in agriculture, mining and construction. Even though the most common cause of death is work-related car accidents (23%), it is no surprise that falls in construction work is number two. Lumberjacks have a very high number of deaths at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employed. In the USA alone, around 6,000 people die at work each year, but this also includes those who have heart attacks while sitting at their desks. A lot has been done to reduce the number of accidents at work. First, strict rules and safety regulations have improved working conditions. Second, protective clothing like safety boots, hardhats and goggles help prevent injuries. Third, better health care saves more people after accidents and helps victims back to work after recovery. It is, however, obvious that things can get even better. Not all workers take necessary precautions. In some cases, the equipment or the instructions may not be good enough. Electricians are found in many different places. They work underground, on high buildings, on busy roads and at big building sites. Often they work with power tools, heavy equipment and materials that could damage their health. Falls are a common cause of death in this industry. To prevent them, guardrails should be installed where they are necessary. Safety nets and body harnesses also help keep workers safe. Working with live electricity is very hazardous. Electrical shocks, burns and even electrocution may be the consequences if strict safety rules are not followed. Chemical hazards are also risks that electricians face. Making sure that all tools are in good order and that insulated handles are undamaged is vital. In conclusion, to prevent accidents, employees should always follow instructions, but the employer must also make sure that the working conditions are good enough. Consequently, safety is something that concerns everybody.

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at work k use words related to health and safety k discuss safety equipment and accident prevention

accident ulykke disease sykdom/sjukdom related to knyttet til/knytt til agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen lumberjack tømmerhogger/ tømmerhoggar employed ansatt/tilsett include inkludere protective clothing verneklær/ verneklede hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller prevent forebygge/førebyggje recovery rekonvalesens obvious åpenbart, klart/ openbert, klart precaution forholdsregel power tool elektrisk verktøy equipment utstyr damage (v) skade cause årsak hazard fare employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgjevar condition forhold concern angå, gjelde

SKILLS | Chapter 2: Safe and Sound | 55


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IN SHORT

Read and understand

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2.1 • Decide whether these sentences are true or false.

a

What kills most people is drugs.

b

Lumberjacks have a very dangerous job.

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d

Six thousand people in the US die of a heart attack each year. Weaing protective clothing does not prevent accidents.

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There are safety rules in workplaces.

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It is important that electricians use safety equipment.

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It is not important to know the safety rules on a construction site. Employers are not responsible for workplace safety.

True

False

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accident ulykke disease sykdom/sjukdom agriculture jordbruk mining gruvedrift construction byggebransjen/ byggjebransjen common vanlig/vanleg lumberjack tømmerhogger/ tømmerhoggar employed ansatt/tilsett safety rule sikkerhetsregel/ sikringsregel protective clothing verneklær/ verneklede hardhat hjelm goggles vernebriller careless uforsiktig aware of klar over equipment utstyr construction site byggeplass/ byggjeplass prevent forebygge/førebyggje employer arbeidsgiver/ arbeidsgjevar

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What kills most people is work. Around two million people in the world die every year because of accidents or diseases related to their work. The most dangerous jobs are in agriculture, mining and construction. The most common causes of death are car accidents and falls in construction. Still, lumberjacks have the largest number of deaths at work: 122 deaths per 100,000 employed. In the US, 6,000 people die at work every year. Strict safety rules have reduced the number of accidents. When workers wear protective clothing like safety boots, hardhats and goggles, more lives are saved after an accident. However, some workers don’t take precautions, and instructions may not be good enough. For electricians it is important to be aware of the risks and to use the safety equipment. It is also important to know the safety rules on a construction site. To prevent accidents, employees and employers should work together.

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2.2 •• Rewrite the false sentences in 2.1 so that they become true. 2.3 ••• Complete the following tasks. a Explain what surprises you in the text. b Explain what does not surprise you in the text. c Retell the contents of the text in 10 sentences. Use your own words.

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1

I use these to protect my feet. I use this to protect my head. I use these to protect my hands. I use these to protect my eyes. I use this to protect my ears. I use this so I will be easy to see. I use this to protect my face when I am welding. I use this when I work high up on a building.

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goggles hardhat safety harness safety boots safety gloves welding mask ear protection reflective vest

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2.4 When do we need safety clothing? Combine the equipment below with the correct situation and photo.

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2.5 First, translate the Norwegian words into English. Then, find the English words in the grid below. G

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There are four letters left when you have found all the words in the grid. Together they form one word. What word is it?

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vernebriller hjelm støvler fallulykker ulykke streng unngå gruvearbeid dødsfall risiko

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2.6 Combine the injuries with the correct treatments. Cuts and bleeding

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Scrapes and grazes

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Burns

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Nosebleeds

Cool the area with cold running water, cover with a sterile non-stick bandage. Apply direct pressure with a sterile pad, fix the pad with adhesive tape, hold wounded area above the heart. Sit the person down and leaning forward, pinch the soft part of the nose area for ten minutes. Wash with running water, remove dirt, cover with a non-stick sterile sticking plaster.

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2.7 Discuss the photos. a What kind of safety equipment are the workers wearing? b What kind of job do you think they have? c What kind of dangers do they face?

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2.8 Study this table. What kind of information do you find here? Discuss with a partner and sum up the main points.

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Estimated Effects of 60 Hz AC Currents 1mA (0.001 amps) barely perceptible 16 mA (0.016 amps) maximum current an average man can grasp and still let go 20 mA (0.020 amps) paralysis of respiratory muscles 100 mA (0.10 amps) ventricular fibrillation threshold 2.0 amps cardiac standstill and internal organ damage results

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Write

2.9 • Make a poster where you show how to dress when you are working with electrical installations.

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2.10 •• Choose one piece of safety equipment in task 2.4. Write one paragraph about why you should use it. For advice on how to structure a paragraph, see Chapter 3.

Listen

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2.11 ••• Write a short text where you explain what safety equipment must be worn and why insulated hand tools must be used when you are working on high voltage installations. Your text should include • a description of an installation where safety is important • what kind of work might be carried out on this kind of installation • what the most important risks are

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2.12 “Work Safety” Listen to Tyler and Sarah, who talk about their jobs and the safety equipment they need to perform their jobs safely. Then say which of the following sentences are true of Tyler and of Sarah.

Must maintain and service lifts on a regular basis.

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The job involves maintaining pylons, poles, cables and transformers. Works as part of a crew when major repairs must be handled. Sometimes works in awkward positions and cramped spaces. May work on both underground and overhead cables.

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Must sometimes respond to a trapped call.

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Has had this job for four years now.

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Each new job starts with a risk assessment procedure.

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Tyler

Sarah

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the importance of safety at work YES

ALMOST

NO

use words related to health and safety YES

ALMOST

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discuss safety equipment and accident prevention YES

ALMOST

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A REPORT

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Writing a report is an important activity at work, both after finishing a job and after an accident. In a report your language should be formal and correct, and the content should be to the point. Many workplaces use a standard form to report accidents. Example

To: Ms. Jean Hunt, Head of Construction Department From: Geoffrey Day, HSE representative Date: December 11th, 20 … Subject: Electrician injured after fall from ladder

2 Write an introduction.

An electrician was injured today. He fell 12 feet from a ladder inside the Ismark building under construction in Haworth.

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1 Write a heading.

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• Who is it for? • Who is it from? • Date • Subject

• Explain why you write the report. • Give relevant background information.

3 Sum up what happened.

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• Write down the activities or events that took place, in chronological order.

The electrician stood on a ladder in a stairwell at the Birch Lane construction site. The ladder shifted. The man was unable to steady the ladder. He fell about 12 feet and landed on his left leg and hip.  The Valley Ambulance Service was called. The injured worker was retrieved from the building’s fifth floor. He was transported to Brantley Medical Centre on Church Street, Tel.: 793–443–6577.

4 Add relevant information.

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• Relevant facts may be statistics or photos. • Evaluate and comment on reasons why the accident occurred.

5 Write a conclusion.

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• Suggest improvements or changes in routines and regulations.

6 Sign your report.

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We do not know the extent of the electrician’s injuries at present. It is now important to find the reason why the ladder shifted in order to prevent similar accidents in the future. In conclusion I suggest that all workers on site are made aware of the safety regulations ­concerning the secure use of ladders and ­stepladders.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

2.13 Place the sentence connectors in the open spaces below. Then write the paragraph. finally – then – first – as a conclusion – third – second

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I was in the ambulance when the accident occurred. we skidded on some ice on the road, we turned sideways and we ended up in the ditch. I went out to check on the patient in the back. As he was safe, I called 911 for assistance. , I recommend better tyres on our vehicles.

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2.14 Study the picture below. Point out some of the dangerous situations. What might happen in each of them? Make a list of keywords.

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2.15 Choose one of the dangerous situations that involves electricity from task 2.14. Use the paragraph in task 2.13 as a model and write a similar paragraph based on your list of keywords. 2.16 Write a report about a project you have worked on at school. Include information on the preparation, the process and materials used. Explain the purpose of the work. Evaluate the process and the result.

injured skadet/skadd, skada stairwell trapperom/trapper shift forskyve seg unable to ikke i stand til/ikkje i stand til steady rette opp hip hofte life-threatening livstruende/ livstrugande retrieve hente ut make aware of gjøre kjent med/ bli gjort kjend med

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Signs

There are four main groups of signs.

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Things that you must do Round, bright blue, white picture

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Warns you of danger Europe: a triangle with white or yellow background, a red border, a black picture USA: yellow danger warning signs, black borders and a black picture

Mandatory signs

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Danger warning signs

Prohibition signs

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Things that are not allowed Round, white background, black picture, red border, often red slash across

Sayings

What is the message in these sayings? • Safety never takes a holiday. • Better safe than sorry. • Safety doesn’t happen by accident.

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Information signs

Many different types of information signs No international standard, different from country to country


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FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

2.17 Study the signs (a–n). Group them according to what type of signs they are. • danger warning signs • mandatory signs

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• prohibition signs • information signs

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2.18 Combine the signs in task 2.17 with the correct text from the list below. 1 Do not drink the water 8 Accessible for wheelchairs 2 Wear hardhats 9 Caution, guard dog 3 Safety boots must be worn 10 High visibility clothing must be worn in this area 4 Wash hands 11 Apron must be worn 5 Toxic hazard 12 Toilet 6 Warning, flammable material 13 Slippery roads 7 No smoking 14 Danger, falling rocks

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2.19 Write one line for each of the signs below to show that you understand what they mean.

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2.20 Take a tour of your school. What kinds of signs do you see? Are there signs missing? Write two lists and suggest improvements.

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The Rule of Three

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Adam is at school helping his friend Todd to finish an assignment before the last class of the day. Suddenly, the lights go out and all the computer screens go blank – even the laptops that should be able to run off their batteries. Only the emergency lights work. The principal gathers all the students in the school gym for a quick assembly to give them important information.

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assignment her: innlevering emergency lights nødlys/ naudlys principal rektor assembly samling chorus kor disbelief vantro/vantru confirm bekrefte

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“My phone isn’t working,” Todd said. “You know there are lots of dead spots in this school.” “No, I mean it’s as blank as the computer screens.” He showed it to me. “Your battery is dead. Your phone needs that magical substance called electricity to–“ “My phone is dead, too,” a girl said. “Same here,” somebody else added. All around us people who had overheard were pulling out their phones. There was a chorus of disbelief and upset. It was strange how they seemed more upset about their phones not working than there being no electricity. I pulled out my phone, just to confirm things. It was off – as per the school rules – but when I pushed the button to turn it on, it remained blank. I knew my phone was fully charged. The cell phone towers probably needed electricity to work. Is that why we weren’t even getting a screen? No, that didn’t make sense. Even without the

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towers, there should have been power to run other apps. AIMS “Can I have your attention!” Our principal was on stage with a bullhorn. “Please!” He called out. “We k explain what happens in the novel excerpt need everybody to listen carefully... Please stop talking!” There was a murmur of conversation that faded to a k use words related to online safety semi-silence – an acceptable level of cooperation. k discuss the importance of electronic infrastructure “As you are all aware, we have a power failure,” he started. “We’re assuming that it’s probably countrywide, as there is a complete breakdown in telephone service, both landlines and cell phones, which must be related to power failure.” The noise went up as all those who hadn’t noticed previously pulled out their cell phones to confirm what he’d said. “Quiet down, people! The sooner we can finish here, the sooner you can all go home!” A cheer went up from the crowd and then applause. “Silence, please!” The noise faded. “Whatever the issue is, I’m confident it is being addressed and will be corrected shortly.” For some reason I had a feeling it wasn’t going to be so simple. I was still thinking about why the batteries in the laptops had gone dead. “We’ve decided to cancel final period today and let you all go home early.” A cheer went up from the audience once again. He raised his hand to quiet everyone. “You can stay here in the gym to wait for the buses. If you’re driving or walking, keep in mind that there will probably be no functioning traffic lights, so please be careful. Dismissed.” There was an even bigger cheer as we all started for the exits.

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Adam and Todd go to the school parking lot. Adam drives a 1970-something Omega. The other students have cars with much more modern technology than that. None of them work now, and it is clear that only cars so old they have no digital components to speak of are actually able to move. This means that many people are stuck on the side of the road. Nobody can understand what has happened, but the situation will soon become very serious….

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eric walters

Eric Walters (1957-) is a Canadian author of literature for children and young adults. He has written more than 100 books and won many awards, both in Canada and internationally. His titles include We All Fall Down, Safe As Houses and Walking Home.

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bullhorn ropert semi-silence halvveis stillhet/ halvvegs stille cooperation samarbeid countrywide landsdekkende/ landsdekkande landline fasttelefon parking lot parkeringsplass

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Read and understand

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2.21 • Choose the correct alternative. a Adam is at home/school/work when all the lights go out. b The principal gathers all the students to give them vital/boring/ important information. c Todd notices that his phone/laptop/computer no longer works. d Adam knows that his phone was fully energized/working/charged. e The principal tells the students that there is a power surge/failure/ problem. f The telephone service has also broken up/in/down. g The principal tells the students that the last period is over/ postponed/cancelled. h Adam’s car is very new/old/modern.

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2.22 •• Answer these questions in full sentences. a What is the name of Adam’s friend? b What has happened to the computers at school? c What seems to have upset people more than there being no electricity? d What should work on people’s cell phones even if they could not connect to a network? e Why does the principal think there must be a power failure? f How do the students feel about going home early? g What kind of car does Adam have? h Why does Adam’s car work when nobody else’s car does?

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2.23 ••• In your own words, sum up • how this school day is different • what doesn’t make sense to Adam • why Adam thinks that what happens is no ordinary power failure • why cars with digital technology do not work in this situation

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Practise

2.24 Verbs. Fill in the correct past form of the verb. a Adam and Todd if there might be some sort of computer problem. (to wonder) b Adam that a virus might have infected cars through the AM or FM radio signals. (to suspect) c No one with a new car able to drive. (to be) d Adam to pick up his younger brother and sister from their school. (to go) e Going home, Adam could see that many people (to walk).

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f Some people to hitch a ride. (to try) g Next door to Adam their neighbor, Herb. (to live) h Herb was not quite the neighbor everyone he was. (to think)

2.25 If you found yourself in a situation similar to that of Adam and Todd, how would you get home from school? How long do you think it would take you? Discuss in pairs.

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2.26 Has a virus attack ever happened to you, or someone you know? Explain to a partner what happened.

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Write

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2.27 • Fill in the missing words and write out the text. security – code – reuse – uppercase – information – password – characters – Two-Factor Authentication Everyone knows that a secure is very important. It should be a mixture of and lowercase letters and numbers, as well as other random characters. A strong password should be at least eight long, but an even longer one is better. You should never use personal , such as your birthday, street address or telephone number. Do not use passwords which can be guessed by people you know and never old passwords. Use 2FA ( ) whenever possible. This can be a sent to your cell phone, and it will give you an extra layer of .

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2.28 •• Write down five important rules for online safety.

Explore

2.29 Find out what the Survival Rule of Threes is. Does it confirm what you already knew?

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2.30 Choose one of the terms below. What kind of threat is involved? Write a set of instructions to give advice on how it can be avoided.

DDoS attack

Crypto virus

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what happens in the novel excerpt YES

Fake WAP

Keylogger

Cookie theft

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use words related to online safety YES

Brute Force attack

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discuss the importance of electronic infrastructure

MITM attack

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What is nuclear energy?

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A Look Inside Hungary's PAKS Nuclear Power Plant

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By Christina Nunez

NUCLEAR POWER is generated by splitting atoms to release the energy held at the core, or nucleus, of those atoms. This process called nuclear fission, generates heat that is directed to a cooling agent – usually water. The resulting steam spins a turbine connected to a generator, producing electricity.

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About 450 nuclear reactors provide about 11% of the world's electricity. The countries generating the most nuclear power are, in order, the United States, France, China, Russia, and South Korea. The most common fuel for nuclear power is uranium, an abundant


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Types of nuclear reactors

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Nuclear power, climate change and future designs

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In the U.S. most nuclear reactors are either boiling water reactors, in which the water is heated to the boiling point to release steam, or pressurized water reactors, in which the pressurized water does not boil but funnels heat to a secondary water supply for steam generation. Other types of nuclear power reactors include gas-cooled reactors, which use carbon dioxide as the cooling agent and are used in the U.K., and fast neutron reactors, which are cooled by liquid sodium.

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In a nuclear reactor, neutrons – subatomic particles that have no electric charge – collide with atoms, causing them to split. That collison – called nuclear fission – releases more neutrons that react with more atoms, creating a chain reaction. A byproduct of nuclear reactions, plutonium, can also be used as nuclear fuel.

stadium at the University of AIMS Chicago. This was followed k describe some safety issues of nuclear power by a series of milestones in k use vocabulary related to nuclear power production the 1950s: the first electricity k use different reading strategies produced from atomic energy at Idaho's Experimental Breeder Reactor I in 1951; the first nuclear power plant in the city of Obninsk in the former Soviet Union in 1954; and the first commercial nuclear power plant in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, in 1957.

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metal found throughout the world. Mined uranium is processed into U-235, an enriched version used as fuel in nuclear reactors because its atoms can be split apart easily.

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Nuclear power isn't considered renewable energy, given its dependence on a mined, finite resource, but because operating reactors do not emit any of the greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming, proponents say it should be considered a climate change solution.

Nuclear power history The idea of nuclear power began in the 1930s, when physicist Enrico Fermi first showed that neutrons could split atoms. Fermi led a team that in 1942 achieved the first nuclear chain reaction, under a

The holy grail for the future of nuclear power involves nuclear fusion, which generates energy when two light nuclei smash together to form a single, heavier nucleus. Fusion could deliver more energy more safely and with far less harmful radioactive waste than fission, but just a small number of people–including a 14-year-old from

cooling agent kjølemiddel/ kjølemedium fuel brensel abundant rikelig forekommende/hender, skjer rikeleg, ofte enriched anriket/rikt opp pressurized under trykk/under trykk funnel her: overføre sodium natrium mine utvinne/å vinne ut finite begrenset/avgrensa

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surrounding the plant – known as the Exclusion Zone – is open to tourists but inhabited only by the various wildlife species, such as gray wolves, that have since taken over.

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In the case of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi, the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami caused the plant's catastrophic failures. Several years on, the surrounding towns struggle to recover, evacuees remain afraid to return, and public mistrust has dogged the recovery effort, despite government assurances that most areas are safe.

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When arguing against nuclear power, opponents point to the problems of long-lived nuclear waste and the specter of rare but devastating nuclear accidents such as those at Chernobyl in 1986 and Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. The deadly Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine happened when flawed reactor design and human error caused a power surge and explosion at one of the reactors. Large amounts of radioactivity were released into the air, and hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes. Today, the area

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Novovoronezh, Russia – April 04, 2015: The machinery room of fifth power unit of the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant.

Nuclear power risks

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viable her: lønnsom/lønnsam elusive her: ikke realisert/ikkje realisert specter her: trussel/trugsel flawed feilaktig power surge overspenning aftermath etterdønninger/ etterdønningar seismic jordskjelvproximity nærhet/nærleik

Arkansas – have managed to build working nuclear fusion reactors. Organizations such as ITER in France and Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics are working on commercially viable versions, which so far remain elusive.

Other accidents, such as the partial meltdown at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island in 1979, linger as terrifying examples of nuclear power's radioactive risks. The Fukushima disaster in particular raised questions about safety of power plants in seismic zones, such as Armenia's Metsamor power station. Other issues related to nuclear power include where and how to store the spent fuel, or nuclear waste, which remains dangerously radioactive for thousands of years. Nuclear power plants, many of which are located on or near coasts because of the proximity to water for cooling, also face rising sea levels and the risk of more extreme storms due to climate change. Published March 26, 2019

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Read and understand

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Nuclear power is generated by splitting atoms. This gives heat that makes water boil. The steam then drives a turbine which produces electricity in a generator. Uranium is a fuel often used in this process. About 450 nuclear reactors make about 11% of the world’s electricity. Nuclear energy is not considered to be renewable, because uranium is found in mines. Still, nuclear reactors do not emit any greenhouse gases. A problem with nuclear power is that when accidents happen, they are very serious. An example of such an accident is the disaster in Chernobyl in 1986. It happened because of its design and human error. A second example is the Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. This catastrophe was caused by an earthquake and a tsunami in 2011. Another difficult issue is how to store nuclear waste. It is dangerously radioactive for thousands of years. Also, many nuclear reactors are built on or near coasts because they need water to cool the reactor. This could become a problem if sea levels rise and there are more storms caused by climate change.

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IN SHORT

2.31 • Skim the text and answer the questions in full sentences. a How is nuclear power generated? b What is one problem with nuclear power? c What is the problem with nuclear waste?

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2.32 •• Scan the text and find the answers to the following questions. a What fuel is often used in nuclear power production? b Why is nuclear energy not considered renewable? c When did the Chernobyl accident happen? d Where is Fukushima? e What caused the Fukushima Daiichi catastrophe?

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2.33 ••• Read the text closely to find the answers to the following questions. a How many nuclear reactors are there in the world? b How much of the world’s electricity comes from nuclear power? c What drives the turbine in a nuclear power station? d Where is uranium found? e Do nuclear power stations emit greenhouse gases? f What caused the disaster in Chernobyl in 1986? g Why are many nuclear reactors built on or near coasts? h How could climate change cause problems for nuclear power stations?

steam damp fuel brensel consider betrakte renewable fornybar mine gruve emit slippe ut/sleppe ut greenhouse gas klimagass accident ulykke serious alvorlig/alvorleg disaster alvorlig ulykke/ alvorleg ulykke human menneskelig/ menneskeleg error svikt earthquake jordskjelv issue sak store lagre waste avfall coast kyst level nivå cause forårsake

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Practise

2.34 Verbs. Write down the verbs that correspond to these nouns. e fusion a reactor f containment b coolant g explosion c production h transformer d generator

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2.35 Nuclear power production. Choose the word that fits each definition. Use a dictionary to look up words you don’t know. reactor – turbine – nuclear waste – fuel rod – coolant – radiation – fission – fusion

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the process of splitting an atom to make energy a form of energy that comes from nuclear reactions a large machine that produces nuclear energy material left over from the production of nuclear energy the process of fusing two atoms together to make energy liquid or gas used to cool something down a tube that holds the nuclear fuel used to produce energy the part in a power plant that drives the generator

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a b c d e f g h

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2.36 Choose the word that fits best in each sentence. a At Fukushima they used a BWR, which is short for a Boiling Water Fuel Rod/Turbine/Reactor/Radiation. b A reactor often uses water or carbon dioxide as a fusion/fission/ coolant/fuel rod. c Many people become ill because of the effects of reactor/turbine/ generator/radiation. d A problem with nuclear power production is that it is difficult to handle the coolant/nuclear waste/generator/turbine. e The process of splitting a heavy atom to produce energy is called fission/fusion/fuel rod/nuclear waste. f A tube made of metal filled with pellets of radioactive material is called a fuel rod/turbine/coolant/radiation. g In a nuclear power station, water turns into steam that drives the coolant/fuel rod/fission/turbine. h The process of fusing two light nuclei to make energy is called nuclear waste/fusion/fission/fuel rod.

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Speak

2.37 Study this picture. Work in pairs. a Take turns saying the words on the picture out loud. b Take turns explaining to each other what function each of the parts has in a nuclear power station.

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Nuclear Power Plant

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A Containment Structure B Control Rods C Reactor

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D Steam Generator

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G Generator H Turbine I Cooling Water Condenser J Cooling Tower K FuelRods

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F Pump

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2.38 • What is good about nuclear power? Make an outline for one paragraph. 2.39 •• How must nuclear waste be stored? Write a set of guidelines.

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2.40 There are several films and series where nuclear accidents happen, or almost happen. Watch one such film or episode of a series in class. What are the steps in the sequence of events that lead to the accident?

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2.41 Who is Taylor Wilson from Arkansas? Why did he become famous?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe some safety issues of nuclear power YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING INSTRUCTIONS

2 Explain important and

Many electricians experience strain on their backs. This is often because we are careless when when lifting, for example, heavy tools and implements. Therefore, I will show you how to lift heavy objects correctly. Before we start I will explain some difficult words. Resilient means elastic, assistance means help and firm means good and strong.

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difficult words. Show objects or pictures if necessary.

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Present the purpose and importance of your instructions to make your audience interested.

Hello, and welcome to these instructions on lifting techniques.

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1 Introduce the topic.

3 Explain the procedure

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step by step. Use words like the following: first of all, second, third, then, after that, meanwhile, finally.

First, it is important to have the right shoes, with resilient soles. Second, if possible, ask for assistance when lifting heavy objects.

4 Demonstrate the

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different steps of the procedure. Use your hands, illustrations or real objects to make your instructions clearer.

5 Make sure your

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purpose hensikt, mål procedure fremgangsmåte/ framgangsmåte repeat gjenta straight rett firm grip fast tak straighten rette opp

audience understands all the steps. Repeat your points if necessary, take pauses and ask your audience if they have any questions.

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When you lift, you should have a straight back like this (show). Then, bend your knees like this (show). This is to avoid using your back to lift. Also, make sure you have a firm grip on the object. Finally, when you lift, straighten your knees. Then, of course, you repeat the procedure when putting the object back down. Do you remember the different steps? Do you have any questions?


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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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2.42 Combine the instructions with the correct illustration. Then practise by giving instructions to a partner.

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To get a strong body that can endure hard physical work, here are some exercises to do once a day‌

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a To strengthen your tummy, lie on your back on the floor. Bend your knees and do 30 sit-ups in a row. After a short break, repeat the activity.

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b Warm up your muscles with 10 minutes of jogging, fast walking, cycling or dancing.

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c To strengthen your arms, do push-ups. First, stand on your hands and knees or toes. Keep your back straight. Then, bend your arms until your nose is five centimetres above the floor. Repeat as many times as you can.

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d To strengthen your back, place yourself on your hands and knees. First, lift your left leg backwards and your right hand forwards. Second, hold and count slowly to ten. Then, switch to the opposite arm and leg. Repeat 10 times. viewing distance

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monitor height

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arm & wrist angle mouse keyboard height

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2.43 Work with a partner. Study the illustration. Then give instructions on how you should sit while working at a computer. 2.44 Choose a tool or object you use in your spare time or in your work. Give a short presentation with instructions on how to use it. If possible, bring the tool or object to class, and find pictures to help you explain. SKILLS | Chapter 2: Safe and Sound | 75


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Codes and Standards

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That the electrical utility sector is a heavily regulated industry can be no surprise to anyone. All countries have standards and codes for electrical installations. They provide clear guidelines intended to safeguard both employees and consumers. In a contract, a reference to the national electrical code sets out the requirements of an installation or a system. As a professional in the electrical industries, you will often come across codes and standards. Norway is a member of the European standardization organization CENELEC and must implement all European norms. NEK 400, for example, sets out the minimum requirements for electrical low voltage installations in Norway. This means that anything less is illegal. Below is an excerpt from the English version of NEK 400. 11.1 NEK 400 applies to the design, erection and verification of electrical installations such as those of: a) residential premises b) commercial premises (offices, shops, workshops, etc.) c) public premises d) industrial premises

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AIMS k explain the importance of standards

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and codes k find specific information in a vocational text k use different strategies to work with advanced vocabulary

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e) agricultural and horticultural premises f) prefabricated buildings g) caravans, caravan sites and similar sites h) construction sites, exhibitions, fairs and other installations for temporary use i) marinas j) external lighting and similar installations (see, however, clause 11.3 e) k) medical locations l) mobile or transportable units m)photovoltaic systems n) low-voltage generating sets o) low-voltage distribution networks p) railroad infrastructure and rolling material q) road tunnels r) other special installations specified in NEK 400–8

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NOTE – With property is here intended building sites and residence/building. NATIONAL NOTE – Railroad infrastructure and rolling material is included, as long as this is not in contradiction with other recognized railroad-specific standards or branch-related standards.

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11.2 NEK 400 covers: a) circuits supplied at nominal voltages up to and including 1,000 V AC or 1,500 V DC. For AC, the preferred frequencies that are taken into account in this standard are 50 Hz, 60 Hz and 400 Hz. The use of other frequencies for special purposes is, however, not excluded. b) circuits other than the internal wiring of apparatus, operating at voltages exceeding 1,000 V AC and derived from an installation having a voltage not exceeding 1,000 V AC, for example, discharge lighting, electrostatic precipitators, etc. c) wiring systems and cables not specifically covered by the standards for appliances. d) all consumer installations external to buildings. e) fixed wiring for information and communication technology, signalling, control and the like (excluding internal wiring of apparatus). f) the extension or alteration of an installation and also parts of the existing installation affected by the extension or alteration. NOTE – The requirements of NEK 400 are intended to apply to electrical installations generally, but, in certain cases, they may need to be supple­ mented by the requirements or recommendations of other NEK standards, for example, NEK 420 for installations in areas with explosive gas atmospheres.

utility her: tjeneste/teneste guideline retningslinje safeguard sikre employee ansatt/tilsett consumer konsument reference henvisning/tilvising requirement krav implement implementere low voltage lavspenning/ lågspenning illegal ulovlig/ulovleg excerpt utdrag erection her: utførelse

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11.3 NEK 400 does not apply to: a) electrical equipment of motor vehicles, except those covered in NEK 400–7 b) electrical installations on board ships and mobile and fixed offshore platforms c) electrical installations in aircrafts d) public street-lighting installations which are an integrated part of the public power grid

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NATIONAL NOTE – Requirements for outdoor lighting installations including road-lighting are given in NEK 400–7–714.

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e) electrical installations in mines and quarries, except for coal mines (NEK 400–8–821) f) radio interference suppression equipment, except where it affects the safety of the installation g) electric fences h) lightning protection systems in buildings (LPS)

NOTE – NEK 400 treats atmospheric overvoltage as far as these influence the electrical installation (for example, regarding location of surge protective devices).

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i) certain aspects of lift installations j) electrical equipment of machines

NATIONAL NOTE – Electrical equipment that is a part of a machine is covered by the requirements of NEK EN 60204–1.

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Read and understand

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2.45 • Find and write down the phrases in the text which mean the same as the Norwegian phrases below. a eiendommer for offentlig bruk/eigedommar for offentleg bruk b mobile eller transportable enheter/mobile eller transportable einingar c solcelleanlegg/solcelleanlegg d ledningssystemer og kabler som ikke er spesifikt dekket av normer for utstyr/leidningssystem og kablar som ikkje er spesifikt dekte av normer for utstyr e alle elektriske installasjoner til forbrukere utenfor bygninger/alle elektriske installasjonar til forbrukarar utanfor bygningar f elektrisk utstyr i motorkjøretøyer, unntatt de som er dekket av NEK 400–7/elektrisk utstyr i motorkøyretøy, med unntak av dei som er dekte av NEK 400–7 g elektriske gjerder/elektriske gjerde h elektrisk utstyr i maskiner/elektrisk utstyr i maskinar

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2.46 •• Decide whether the following sentences are true or false. a NEK 400 applies to houses where people live. b NEK 400 applies to aircraft. c NEK 400 applies to industrial buildings. d NEK 400 applies to electric fences. e NEK 400 applies to the electrical equipment of machines. f NEK 400 applies to road tunnels. g NEK 400 applies to hospitals. h NEK 400 applies on board all ships.

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2.47 Do you recognize these words from the text? Practise saying them out loud. e ɪnstəˈleɪʃən a vɛrəfəˈkeɪʃən f ˈsɜrkət b kənˈstrʌkʃən saɪt g ˈfrikwənsi c foʊtəvoʊlˈteɪɪk h tɛkˈnɑləʤi d ˈɪnfrəstrʌkʧər

Speak

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2.48 Write down some words and expressions in the text that you do not understand from the context. Find the Norwegian version of NEK 400 and check them.

2.49 Do you think the language in NEK 400 is difficult? If yes, what is difficult about it? Why do you think the writers of this text have written it in the way they have? Discuss in pairs.

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2.50 Which standard procedure has been carried out in this picture? Explain to a partner.

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How did you do?

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2.51 • What would be less practical, even dangerous, if every country had its own electrical standards and codes? Make a list of at least five items. 2.52 •• The electrical utility sector is a heavily regulated industry. Write a short text where you explain why standards and codes are so important in this industry.

Explore

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the importance of standards and codes YES

NO

find specific information in a vocational text YES

2.53 Find out what other NEK publications there are, and in which areas they apply.

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use different strategies to work with advanced vocabulary YES

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The Burning Wire

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An attack is made on New York’s electricity grid. No one understands who is behind it. Is it terrorists? Someone who has a grudge against Algonquin Consolidated Power and Light? Or is it someone with a deeply disturbed personality? Panic spreads in the city. The criminalist, Lincoln Rhyme, along with policewoman, Amelia Sachs, must find out what is happening to prevent another attack. This excerpt is from the beginning of the novel.

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Sitting in the control center of Algonquin Consolidated Power and Light’s sprawling complex on the East River in Queens, New York, the morning supervisor frowned at the pulsing red words on his computer screen. Below them was frozen the exact time: 11:20:20:003 a.m. He lowered his cardboard coffee cup, blue and white with stiff depictions of Greek athletes on it, and sat up in his creaky swivel chair. The power company control center employees sat in front of individual workstations, like air traffic controllers. The large room was brightly lit and dominated by a massive flat-screen monitor, reporting on the flow of electricity throughout the power grid known as the Northeastern Interconnection, which provided electrical service in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. The architecture and décor of the control centre were quite modern – if the year were 1960. The supervisor squinted up at the board, which showed the juice arriving from generating plants around the country: steam turbines, reactors and the hydroelectric dam at Niagara Falls. In one tiny portion of the spaghetti depicting these electrical lines, something was wrong. A red circle was flashing.

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depiction avbildning/avbilding swivel chair kontorstol power grid overføringsnett squint kaste et blikk på/kaste eit blikk på juice her: strøm/straum hydroelectric vannkraft-/ vasskraftfailure svikt, feil incident hendelse, episode/ hending, episode separation brudd/brot

Critical failure … “What’s up?” the supervisor asked. A gray-haired man with a taut belly under his short-sleeved white shirt and 30 years’ experience in the electricity business, he was mostly curious. While critical-incident indicator lights came on from time to time, actual critical incidents were very rare.

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AIMS k understand what the novel excerpt

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is about k use vocabulary related to firefighting equipment k use some mathematical terms in English

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A young technician replied, “Says we have total breaker separation. MH-Twelve.” Dark, unmanned and grimy, Algonquin Consolidated substation 12, located in Harlem – the “MH” for Manhattan – was a major area substation. It received 138,000 volts and fed the juice through transformers, which stepped it down to 10% of that level, divided it up and sent it on its way. Additional words now popped onto the big screen, glowing red beneath the time and the stark report of the critical failure. MH-12 OFFLINE.

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The supervisor typed on his computer, recalling the days when this work was done with radio and telephone and insulated switches, amid a smell of oil and brass and hot Bakelite. He read the dense, complicated scroll of text. He spoke softly, as if to himself, “The breakers opened? Why? The load’s normal.” Another message appeared.

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MH-12 OFFLINE. RR TO AFFECTED AREA FROM MH-17, MH-10, MH-13, NJ-18.

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“We’ve got load rerouting,” someone called unnecessarily. In the suburbs and countryside the grid is clearly visible – those bare, overhead high-tension wires and power poles and service lines running into your house. When a line goes down, there’s little difficulty in finding and fixing the problem. In many cities, though, like New York City, the electricity flows underground, in insulated cables. Because the insulation degrades over time and suffers groundwater damage, resulting in shorts and loss of service, power companies rely on double or even triple redundancy in the grid. When substation MH-12 went down, the computer automatically began filling customer demand by rerouting the juice from other locations. “No dropouts, no brownouts,” another tech called. Electricity in the grid is like water coming into a house from a single main pipe and flowing out through many open faucets. When one is closed, the pressure in the others increases. Electricity’s the same, though it moves a lot more quickly than water – nearly 700 million miles an hour. And because New York City demanded a lot of power, the voltages – the electrical equivalent of water pressure – in the substations doing the extra work were running high. But the system was built to handle this, and the voltage indicators were still in the green.

substation understasjon unmanned ubemannet/ ubemanna transformer transformator step down her: transformere ned brass messing dense her: tettskrevet/tettskriven load belastning reroute omdirigere degrade bli forringet/bli dårlegare short, short-circuit kortslutning redundancy her: overskudd brownout spenningsfall faucet kran indicator lampe circuit breaker overbelastningsbryter/ overbelastningsbrytar

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What was troubling to the supervisor, though, was why the circuit breakers in MH-12 had separated in the first place. The most common reason for a substation’s breakers to pop is either a short-circuit or unusually high demands at peak times – early morning, both rush hours and early evening, or when the temperature soars and greedy air conditioners demand their juice. None of those was the case at 11:20:20:003 a.m. on this comfortable April day. “Get a troubleman over to MH-12. Could be a bum cable. Or a short in the–” Just then a second red light began to flash. NJ-18 OFFLINE.

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jeffrey deaver

Jeffrey Deaver (1950–) was born in the US in 1950. He is an international bestselling author of crime fiction and thrillers. Wellknown titles include The Blue Nowhere and The Bone Collector. His books have been translated into 25 languages so far.

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IN SHORT

Algonquin Consolidated Power and Light is a power company. Their office buildings are on the East River in Queens, New York. The morning supervisor is in the control centre. On his screen he sees the words: Critical failure. The supervisor looks at a board. This shows how electricity arrives from generating plants around the country. A red circle is flashing. The supervisor wonders what is happening. The problem seems to be in a substation called MH-12 in Harlem. This substation receives 138,000 volts. It steps the voltage down so that electricity can be transferred to where it is needed. MH-12 is offline, but consumers will not notice this. They will get their electricity rerouted from other places. With one substation down, the voltage the other substations receive will be higher. But the system is built to handle this. The supervisor still doesn’t understand what the problem is. He wants to send a worker to the substation in Harlem to find out what is happening. There could be something wrong with a cable. Or there could be a short-circuit. As he thinks about this, he sees a second red light beginning to flash. There is another failure. Another substation has gone offline.

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power company kraftselskap supervisor leder/leiar screen skjerm failure svikt board her: tavle arrive komme generating plant kraftprodusent substation understasjon receive motta voltage spenning step down her: transformere ned transfer overføre reroute omdirigere short-circuit kortslutning

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2.54 • Place these sentences in the correct order according to what happens in the text. a A red circle is flashing. b The morning supervisor is in the control center of a power company called Algonquin Consolidated Power and Light. c The problem seems to be in a substation called MH-12 in Harlem. d The supervisor still doesn’t understand what the problem is. e The supervisor wonders what is happening. f The supervisor wants to send a worker to the substation in Harlem to find out what is happening. g One substation is down, so the voltage the other substations receive will be higher. h The supervisor looks at a board that shows the power grid.

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Listen

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2.55 •• Answer these questions. a What is the name of the power company mentioned in the text? b What is shown on the board that the supervisor is looking at? c What does a young technician say about the situation? d Where is the MH-12 substation located? e What is the voltage that MH-12 receives? f What happens to the insulation of underground cables over time? g When MH-12 is down, what does the computer automatically do? h What is the most common reason for a substation’s breakers to pop?

2.56 “The Burning Wire”, continued. A little later a bus driver notices something odd about the substation he passes every day.

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Listen and complete these sentences with information from the text. a It was covered with dark insulation … b And just hanging out of the window … c Flashing yellow … d They held boxes of tools and thick … e He was gazing at … f Something was … g The driver wondered if it would mean a power outage and the … h Sharp, almost like …

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Practise

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2.57 Use a calculator if you need one and answer these questions. a In the US about 173,200 fires are caused each year by cooking. How many fires is that each day? b A fire department somewhere in the US responds to a fire once every 23 seconds. How many responses is that per day on average? c On average, a civilian dies in a fire in the US once every two hours and 24 minutes. How many fatalities is that per year? d On average, 51,000 fires each year are caused by electricity. How many fires is that per day? e The total cost of electrical fires in the US is $1.3 billion. What is the price for each fire? f In an average fire you have one to two minutes to escape suffocation by the smoke. How many seconds is that? g In an average week in the UK, arsonists are responsible for 3,600 fires. How many fires is that per year? h In a fire, the heat that is produced increases 100 °F with each foot towards the ceiling (1 foot = 30.48 cm). What will the temperature be if you are standing up? What will the temperature be in Celsius? How will you find out?

2.58 • Fire-fightning equipment. Write at least one sentence for each piece of equipment to show that you understand what it is used for and how it works.

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After working with the text and tasks, I can understand what the novel excerpt is about YES

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use vocabulary related to fire-fighting equipment YES

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2.60 ••• Do you think that fire safety should be improved where you are now? If yes, what should be done? Write out a set of recommendations.

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2.59 •• Check out the place where you are right now. Answer these questions and write out a list of keywords. a Is there a fire alarm or a smoke detector? b What is the fastest way out? c Is there a fire extinguisher or a fire hose available? d How does the fire-fighting equipment work? e What is the emergency number you should call if there is a fire? f Who is responsible for fire safety where you are now?

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use some mathematical terms in English

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2.62 Fires are usually classified into five groups. Find out what kind of fire extinguisher you need in order to safely put out each of these five types of fire.

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2.61 This is the fire triangle. If you take away one side of the triangle, the fire will be put out. Explain why and how to a partner.

Ordinary combustibles: wood, paper, rubber, fabrics and many plastics Flammable liquids and gases: petrol, oil, paint, lacquer and tar

Fire involving live electrical equipment

Combustible metals or combustible metal alloys

Fire in cooking appliances that involve combustible cooking media: vegetable or animal oils and fats

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

Assess your progress

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2.65 Think about your progress. a How would you describe your progress in English so far this year? Give examples of what you have learnt and things that you know now that you didn’t know in August. b How would you describe your own efforts in English so far this year? Give examples of activities and tasks that you think have been useful. How have these helped you improve your English language skills? 2.66 Writing a report a How do you structure a report? b What should you write in the conclusion of a report? c Name some sentence connectors that are useful in a report.

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2.63 After working with Chapter 2, it is time to revise what you have learnt. Discuss with your teacher how you will work with the tasks. a Find a picture or an illustration in this chapter that you think is useful and explain why. b Which safety equipment is mentioned in the text “Safety First”? How and why do you use these pieces of equipment? c Give at least three examples of how your life would be different without Internet access. d Give at least three reasons why standards and codes are important in the electrical industries. e List eight new words you have learnt in this chapter.

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2.64 Explain what the person in the picture is wearing, and why.

2.67 Giving instructions a What is most important to remember when you give instructions? b Why should you demonstrate or illustrate the various steps? c Which sentence connectors are useful when you give instructions?

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2.68 Look at the learning objectives for this chapter. a Which learning objectives do you think you master well, or quite well? b Which learning objectives will you need to work more on? How will you do that?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills

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2.70 Write 2.69 Speak a • Find out how a fire extinguisher is a • Choose a text from this chapter that used. Write down a set of instructions. you like. Explain to a partner what the b •• What kind of accident could happen texts and tasks are about and what you in your classroom or workshop? Write learnt from them. out a list of first aid instructions for a b •• Choose one tool or machine that worst-case scenario. you use in your workshop at school. c ••• Study the evacuation plan for your Show and explain to a partner how to classroom or workshop. Carry out a fire use it safely. drill of your own. Write a report and c ••• Why is it important to learn about include ideas you may have for how safety at work in English classes? procedures can be improved. Discuss in pairs or groups and give examples of situations where this knowledge is useful.

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That’s Life

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In this chapter chapter, you you will will focus focus on on: k life skills and challenges k structuring paragraphs k using formal and informal language

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What makes you happy?

If you could What is abe anything you want, good life? what would you be?

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first impression personality friendship emotion self-esteem appearance challenge courage addiction cyberbullying

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! Before you start What do you think young people worry about most today?

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Something About Me

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Some suggestions: • school • career choices • friends/boyfriend/ girlfriend • family • physical appearance • global issues

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In Slam (2007), we meet 15-year-old Sam, who must deal with adult c­ hallenges. He discovers how small actions can change one’s life d ­ ramatically. Here is the beginning of the novel.

AIMS k explain what the story is about k share thoughts on young people’s

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concerns today So things were ticking along quite nicely. In fact, I’d say that good stuff had been happening pretty solidly for k discuss the importance of first impressions about six months. – For example: Mum got rid of Steve, her rubbish boyfriend. – For example: Mrs Gillett, my art and design teacher took me to one side after a lesson and asked whether I’d thought of doing art at college. – For example: I’d learned two new skating tricks, suddenly, after weeks of making an idiot of myself in public. (I’m guessing that not all of you are skaters, so I should say something straight away, just so there are no terrible misunderstandings. Skating = skateboarding. We never say skateboarding, usually, so if you keep thinking of me messing around on ice, then it’s your own stupid fault.) All that, and I’d met Alicia too. I was going to say that maybe you should know something about me before I go off about my mum and Alicia and all that. If you knew something about me, you might actually care about some of those things. But then, looking at what I just wrote, you know quite a lot already, or at least you could have guessed a lot of it. You could have guessed that my mum and dad don’t live together, for a start, unless you thought that my dad was the sort of person who wouldn’t mind his wife having boyfriends. Well, he’s not. You could have guessed that I skate, and you could have guessed that my best subject at school was art and design, unless you thought I might be the sort of person who’s always being taken to one side and told to apply for college by all the teachers in every subject. You know, and the teachers actually fight over me. “No, Sam! Forget art! Do physics!” “Forget physics! It ticking along rusler og går/ ruslar og går would be a tragedy for the human race if you gave up French!” And then they pretty solidly jevnt og trutt/ all start punching each other. jamt og trutt Yeah, well. That sort of thing really, really doesn’t happen to me. I can get rid of bli kvitt promise you, I have never ever caused a fight between teachers. rubbish søppel And you don’t need to be Sherlock Holmes or whatever to work out that in public offentlig/offentleg Alicia was a girl who meant something to me. I’m glad there are things apply for søke på/søkje på you don’t know and can’t guess, weird things, things that have only ever subject fag punch (v) slå til happened to me in the whole history of the world, as far as I know. If you weird merkelig/merkeleg were able to guess it all from that first little paragraph, I’d start to worry that paragraph avsnitt I wasn’t an incredibly complicated and interesting person, ha ha. incredibly utrolig/utruleg This was a couple of years ago – this time when things were ticking along pathetic patetisk, latterlig/ OK – so I was fifteen, nearly sixteen. And I don’t want to sound pathetic, and patetisk, latterleg SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 91


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Nick Hornby

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I really don’t want you to feel sorry for me, but this feeling that my life was OK was new to me. I’d never had the feeling before, and I haven’t really had it since. I don’t mean to say that I’d been unhappy. It was more that there had always been something wrong before, somewhere – something to worry about. For instance, my parents were getting divorced, and they were fighting. Or they’d finished getting divorced, but they were still fighting anyway, because they carried on fighting long after they got divorced. Or maths wasn’t going very well – I hate maths – or I wanted to go out with someone who didn’t want to go out with me … All of this had just sort of cleared up, suddenly, without me noticing, really, the way the weather does sometimes. And that summer there seemed to be more money around. My mum was working, and my dad wasn’t as angry with her, which meant he was giving us what he ought to have been giving us all the time. So, you know. That helped.

Nick Hornby (1957–) is a British novelist and screenwriter. He is famous for his novels about people in different situations who try to cope with their everyday lives. Many of his novels have been made into successful films. He also co-founded a charity to offer young people a chance to develop their writing skills.

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3.1 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a Sam has a talent for French/art and design/physics. b Sam likes ice skating/his mother’s boyfriend/skateboarding. c Sam lives with his parents/mother/father. d Sam was unused/used/not used to feeling his life was ok. e Sam’s parents have quarrelled a lot/usually had a good relationship/ no contact. 3.2 •• Write one sentence about each of the characters in the text. a Sam b Alicia c mum d dad e Mrs Gillett f Steve

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Irony is the use of words that are the opposite of what you mean as a way of being funny.

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Repetition of words or phrases is used to emphasise their importance, make an idea clearer or more memorable.

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3.3 Discuss the following questions. a Which four facts about Sam do we learn at the beginning of this text? b How do your thoughts from the pre-reading activity match with Sam’s worries? c Based on the text, do you get a good first impression of Sam? Is he a person you would like to have as a friend? Explain. d How important are first impressions? What kind of first impression do you think you make on others? e Can you think of a case when your first impression of somebody turned out to be wrong? What made you change your opinion?

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3.4 A writer can use different literary devices to get the attention of the reader. Study the text again to find examples of humour, irony, direct speech, repetition and informal language. What effects do these devices have? Discuss in pairs and share views in class.

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3.5 Do you have a “guilty pleasure”? a Search for definitions of what a guilty pleasure is. b Look for texts or videos where people talk about their own guilty pleasures. c Make a one-minute video where you talk about your own guilty pleasure.

Direct speech, e.g. a dialogue, is used to show how characters react, move the story forward and give balance to the narrative, and is usually placed inside quotations marks.

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3.6 The following adjectives can be used to describe someone’s personality. Match them with the correct translation.

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A kind B brave C sociable D chatty E ambitious F adventurous G compassionate H generous I funny J moody

1 medfølende, omsorgsfull 2 eventyrlysten 3 snill 4 gavmild 5 morsom 6 modig 7 humørsyk 8 omgjengelig 9 snakkesalig, pratsom 10 ambisiøs

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3.7 Use the adjectives from task 3.6 to complete these sentences. Each adjective can only be used once, and you may have to use the comparative or superlative form. a My best friend is the best listener. He is always so . b Jenna loves to explore new places. She is very . c Hassan was enough to pay for our lunch yesterday. d My little brother is the person I know. He cracks jokes all the time. e Life has its ups and downs, and most teenagers can be from time to time. f The teacher told the class to quiet down. It was the class he had ever had. g Saima and Sarah both work hard to get good grades, but Saima is more . h George is friends with everyone and can talk about anything. He is unusually . i They were terribly nervous, but they were all enough to try. j Everyone you know is fighting a battle you know nothing about. Be always.

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3.8 Find at least five adjectives to describe your own personality. Use a dictionary if you need to look up words in English. Share your list with a partner.

Listen

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3.9 “What Makes Me Happy” Listen to three short interviews to find out what makes Ross, Jill and Thomas happy. Who talks about … a being part of a team? b finding happiness on the waves? c struggling hard to learn new things?

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A happy life Do young Norwegians think they will have a happy life?

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3.11 •• Study the graphs and answer the questions. Write your answers in full sentences. a What percentage of Norwegian teenagers think they will have a happy life? b Are there any differences between boys and girls? If so, at what age do we find the biggest difference? c Do the percentages change with age? If so, how and for whom? What could be the reason?

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3.10 • How would you start the story of your life, your autobiography? Write the first paragraph.

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How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the story is about YES

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share thoughts on young people’s concerns today YES

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discuss the importance of first impressions YES

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!

Go ahead Look I would too If I saw what you see Me Sixteen Sexy as can be Me So fine I’m just about pretty Go ahead Look I work hard to get this way

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Before you start Many blogs, ads, magazines and television programmes focus on appearance. What impact do you think this has on followers, viewers and readers?

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Look

Running cross-country Playing baseball, football Lifting weights every day Go ahead Look If you lucky I’ll walk your way Maybe ask for your number Maybe kiss those lips today Go ahead Look It’s okay

Sharon G Flake Sharon G Flake (1955–) is the author of young adult fiction, including the award-winning novel The Skin I’m In. She has also written reviews and non-fiction for magazines. She was once a counsellor for youth placed in foster care, but now writes full time from her home in Pittsburgh, USA.

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Read and understand

AIMS k understand the poem and the

3.13 •• Study the line “So fine I’m just about pretty.” What do you think the speaker means?

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speaker’s attitude k use words related to the body k discuss society’s focus on appearance k present findings on body modification

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3.12 • Answer the following questions. a In your mind, what does the speaker look like? b What do you think his/her personality is like? c How does the speaker feel about himself/ herself? d What activities does the speaker participate in? e Do you think the speaker actually cares what others think of him/her?

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3.14 ••• This poem can be read and interpreted in different ways. Describe how you understand the poem. Use examples from the text to support your arguments.

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3.15 Match the English words with the correct Norwegian translation. A eyebrow 1 kjeve B eyelid 2 pekefinger C earlobe 3 øyebryn D cheekbone 4 ankel E nostril 5 hårfeste F lip 6 tommel G jaw 7 øreflipp H hairline 8 øyelokk I index finger 9 håndledd J thumb 10 nesebor K wrist 11 leppe L ankle 12 kinnben

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3.16 Many expressions in English include parts of the body. Can you fill in the open spaces below? lip – eye – heels – hair – chest a He fell head over in love with his best friend. b Julie is the apple of my . c I’m going to tell you a secret; there’s something I need to get off my . d The British often keep a stiff upper , even if they are insulted. e At the party, Susan really let her down.

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3.17 Discuss in small groups. a Find something you think is nice about the other members of the group, or something you think they do well. Tell them! b Think about how you respond to positive feedback. What do you say? c When someone gives you positive feedback, how does this make you feel?

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3.18 Share information and state your opinion. a Choose an example that you think illustrates society’s focus on appearance. Look for examples in magazines, blogs, videos, television shows or other relevant sources. b Describe the example you have chosen. What is the message, if any? What is the target group? Do you think it has been filtered or manipulated? c Would you say this focus on appearance is positive or negative, healthy or unhealthy? Give reasons to support your views.

Listen

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3.19 “Art or Mutilation?” Listen to the text and fill in the missing words. Compare your answers with those of a partner. a The earliest known was found on a 5000-year-old Egyptian mummy. b have been a tradition in native cultures in Polynesia and America for a long time. c People have wanted their decorated for many different reasons. d Over the last couple of decades, some forms of body art have become , and are now socially acceptable. e It involves searing the with hot metal. f is another extreme way to alter the body’s appearance. g Burmese tribes believed the metal objects were magical and gave . h would ask their parents for tattoos for their sixteenth birthday.

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3.20 Listen to the text again and find words that mean more or less the same as these expressions. a making a hole through a part of your body b using ink and needles to make patterns on your skin c not safe to use because it may be contaminated d another word for “navel” e using hot metal to make a scar f placing a metal object underneath the skin

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3.21 The pictures below show a few practices that are or have been considered beautiful in different cultures. Choose one picture. Find out more about the practice, and also when and where this was considered beautiful. Make a digital poster to present your findings.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can understand the poem and the speaker’s attitude YES

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use words related to the body YES

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discuss society’s focus on appearance YES

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present findings on body modification YES

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AIMS k explain what the story is about k express your opinion and give advice k give examples of personal and

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Does My Head Look Big in This?

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High school can be tough enough without throwing a hijab into the mix. Amal is Australian-Muslim-Palestinian and a Year Eleven student. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. In this novel excerpt, she wonders what her class is going to say when she walks in wearing the hijab. Will they freak out? And what about Adam, who she really likes? What will they all say?

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Monday morning. And my class has finally decided to confront me about my hijab. I almost want to jump up and down with relief. I can handle an insult or an interrogation. I can’t handle going from getting along with everybody (with the obvious exception of Tia and her Mini-Mes) to being a social outcast.

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Somehow, in between classes after lunch on Monday everybody suddenly finds the guts to approach me, wanting to know what’s going on with my new look. “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks, all wide-eyed and appalled. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a sixty-five-year-old camel owner in Egypt.” “No!” She’s actually horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Really!” This is definitely a case of dropped from the cradle. “Hey! Amal!” Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?”

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Before you start a Describe what the people in the pictures are wearing. b Can you link the different outfits to religious beliefs? c Who or what decides your own clothing style?

confront konfrontere relief lettelse/lindring, trøyst insult (n) fornærmelse/ fornærming interrogation utspørring/ utspørjing exception unntak outcast utstøtt/utstøytt approach (v) nærme seg appalled forferdet/redd, forferda dropped from the cradle falt fra vuggen (uttrykk: dum)/fall frå vogga

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“I’ve gone bald.” “Get out!” “I’m on the Advanced Hair Programme.” For a second his eyes flicker with shock. Then Josh punches him on the shoulder. “Rocked!” “Like I believed her,” Tim says, looking sheepish. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” “So is it like nuns? Are you married to Jesus now?”

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It’s unreal. Everybody’s asking me about my decision and seems genuinely interested in hearing what I have to say. They’re all huddled around me and I’m having the best time explaining to them how I put it on and when I have to wear it. Then Adam plants himself in front of me and starts joining in with the rest of them and I want to plant a massive kiss on his face except that really would be defeating the entire purpose of my entire spiritual roadtrip now, wouldn’t it? “So it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” “Like you see some women covering their faces and other women wearing really bright material with that red paint on their hand. Are they all Islamic too?” “You mean Muslim.” “Huh?” “What she means,” Josh says, “is that the religion is Islam and the followers are Muslim. Like you can’t say to somebody you’re a Judaism or a Catholicism. Get it?” “Right.” Adam nods his head. “So are they Muslim, like you?” “Yeah they are. But, every girl is going to interpret the hijab differently. It depends on their culture or their fashion sense, you know? There’s no uniform for it.” “I get you,” Adam says. “A lot of Africans wear those really colourful wrap-around dresses and veils,” I continue. “Um, stricter women cover their face, but it’s not required in Islam. It’s their choice to go to that extent.” “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks. “Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.”

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bald skallet/skalla flicker flakke punch (v) slå, dulte rocked her: lurt genuinely oppriktig, ekte/ærleg, ekte huddle (v) stimle sammen/ stimle saman defeat (v) her: ødelegge/ øydeleggje purpose hensikt/formål, meining spiritual roadtrip åndelig reise/ åndeleg reise Judaism jødedom Catholicism katolisisme interpret tolke veil slør extent utstrekning, grad

[…]

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suede semsket/semska goss (gossip) (v) sladre tart terte chick flick jentefilm decomposed råtten/ròten admit innrømme/vedgå pious gudfryktig hypocritical hyklersk coward feiging “wog” person fra Midtøsten (nedlatende, rasistisk)/person frå Midtausten (nedlatande, rasistisk) audience publikum appreciate sette pris på/setje pris på cope klare/greie, klare, makte average gjennomsnitt

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“Coffee at the Lounge Room, tonight?” Simone whispers to Eileen and me during History on Friday. Eileen’s on. I don’t know whether to go. The Lounge Room is a trendy café on Burke Road: long coffee tables centered between big suede lounge chairs and sofas, dim lamps and television screens with MTV and Friends reruns. It was our hang-out joint in the midyear break. Where we’d go to goss and eat strawberry tart and talk school and parents and top five chick flicks and the rest. Because I’d rather eat decomposed meat than be thought of as a chicken, I fake a big smile and tell them I’m all for it. I chicken out. I’m ashamed to admit it but after dinner I ring Simone and Eileen and tell them I can’t make it because we have visitors. They believe me. And why wouldn’t they? I’m supposed to be pious and God-fearing. Not a lying, hypocritical, pathetic coward. I’m lying on my bed listening to Craig David’s “I’m walking away.” On repeat. What’s happened to me? Haven’t I decided to wear the hijab because I feel proud of who I am? Suddenly I’m too chicken to go to a café? I don’t recognize myself. I’m the one who put her head out the school bus last year and yelled at a group of boys who threw a can of Coke at our “wog” school bus. It was me who stood up during a Year Nine interschool debate and told the audience that my team didn’t appreciate the other team’s whispers about competing against “terrorists”. When we were at the medical clinic and the secretary asked Leila if she could cope with filling out a form in English, it was me who pointed out that Leila’s never set foot out of Australia and can manage an A+ average in Eng Lit, and then some. So if that’s all me, then who’s this girl who’s making up excuses to avoid going out to a café?

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Randa Abdel-Fattah

Randa Abdel-Fattah (1979–) grew up in Melbourne, Australia. She is a lawyer, writer and human rights activist with a Palestinian and Egyptian background. She regularly visits schools to talk about social issues and her novels. Her novels have been published in over 15 countries. In 2011 she was given the Role Model of the Year Award in Australia.

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IN SHORT

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Amal is a high school student living in Australia. She has a MuslimPalestinian background. She has just decided to wear the hijab full time. What will her class say? “Did your parents force you?” Kristy asks. “My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt,” Amal answers. “No!” Kristy is horrified. “I was invited to the wedding,” Eileen adds. “Hey! Amal!! Tim Manne calls out. “What’s the deal with that thing on your head?” “I’ve gone bald,” Amal answers. “Doesn’t it get hot?” someone asks. “Can I touch it?” “Can you swim?” “Do you wear it in the shower?” Everybody is asking Amal about her decision. They all seem interested to hear what she has to say. Then Adam, a boy she really likes, joins the rest of them. “So, it’s your choice then?” he asks. “Oh yeah!” I answer. “One hundred per cent.” “Wow … so how come it looks different on you?” “What do you mean?” Adam has seen women who cover their faces, and wants to know if they are Muslim too. Amal says that they are, but that girls will wear the hijab differently. It depends on their culture. “Will you ever cover yours?” Adam asks. “Nah! No way.” “OK … cool.” Simone and Eileen want Amal to go to the Lounge Room, a trendy café where they often hang out. They usually gossip, eat strawberry tart and talk about school and parents. Amal says she will go with them, but she chickens out. She phones her friends and makes up an excuse. She lies. Amal has decided to wear the hijab because she is proud of who she is, but now she doesn’t recognize herself.

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force (v) tvinge bald skallet/skalla horrified skrekkslagen/skremd shower (v) dusje per cent prosent gossip sladre tart terte chicken out være for feig/vere for feig excuse (n) unnskyldning/ orsaking recognize gjenkjenne/kjenne att

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Read and understand 3.22 • Who says what in the story? Amal

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a Did your parents force you?

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b My dad told me if I don’t wear it he’ll marry me off to a 65-year-old camel owner in Egypt. c I was invited to the wedding.

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d What’s the deal with that thing on your head? e I’ve gone bald.

g One hundred per cent. h Wow … so how come it looks different on you?

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i Will you ever cover yours?

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f So, it’s your choice then?

j Nah! No way.

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3.23 •• Answer the following questions in full sentences. a What is Amal’s cultural background? b Amal is a high school student. What year is she in? c What has she decided to wear to school? d How does Amal feel when her class start asking questions? e What reason does Amal give when Kristy asks? f What reason does she give when Tim Manne asks? g Why does Adam think it looks different on her? h What does Amal say about being a Muslim and covering her face? i Where do Simone and Eileen want to go later that night? j Why doesn’t Amal go with them?

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3.24 Discuss in pairs or small groups. a Read the classmates’ reactions and questions again. Do you think Amal handles the situation well? Explain. b Put yourself in Amal’s situation. Would you have gone to the café? Explain why or why not. c How do you think Amal’s friends will react when she doesn’t show up at the café? d Amal feels bad about lying to her friends. What kind of advice would you give her, so that she doesn’t have to come up with more lies?

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3.25 Match the verbs from the text with the correct Norwegian translations. 1 å fornærme A to wear 2 å tvinge B to cover 3 å ha på seg C to insult 4 å takle, klare D to confront 5 å kjenne igjen E to interpret 6 å nærme seg F to recognize 7 å dekke til G to approach 8 å konfrontere H to cope 9 å innrømme I to force 10 å tolke J to admit

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3.26 Use the verbs in exercise 3.25 to complete the sentences. Each verb should be used only once. a When you put on a hijab, you your hair. b Amal decided to a hijab to school. c Her classmates soon came up to her to her about her choice. d Amal was pleased that they had the guts to her to find out what was going on. e Most of her classmates did not mean to her. f Muslim girls are going to the hijab rules differently. g Amal’s friend can with filling out a form in English. h When Amal decides not to go to the café, she doesn’t quite herself. i Amal did not want to to herself that she was worried. j In Amal’s case, no one had tried to her to wear the hijab.

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3.27 Identify the adverbs in each sentence. What do the adverbs describe? a Amal proudly wears a hijab to school. b Immediately, her classmates approach her to see what is going on. c Fortunately, nobody insults her. d Amal said that Muslims interpret the hijab rules differently. e Not everyone thinks Amal is easily recognizable with her hijab on. f She copes well with all the staring and weird questions. g The hijab covers Amal’s hair completely. h Reluctantly, Amal admits that she was a bit nervous. i The classmates specifically ask about her choice. j Amal suddenly makes up excuses to tell her friends.

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3.28 • Imagine that you are Amal’s best friend, and you know she is insecure about wearing the hijab to school. Write a text message to Amal to support and encourage her.

3.29 •• Would you say there is peer pressure at your school when it comes to clothing styles? Write 2–3 paragraphs in which you express your opinion.

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3.30 ••• Your school has decided to make rules for what students can and cannot wear. All forms of religious clothing and symbols will be forbidden. Write a text in which you argue for or against the new rules.

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3.31 In many films or TV series, the main characters deal with personal challenges, often because of cultural conditions or differences. Have a brainstorming session in class to find examples of such films or series. In small groups, search for more information about one of them. Prepare a two-minute talk where you explain what kind of personal challenges and cultural conditions this film or series is about.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the story is about YES

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give examples of personal and cultural challenges YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS When you build a paragraph, follow these four steps:

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1 Write a topic sentence.

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The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph, and lets the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence can be a statement or a question.

2 Write at least one supporting sentence.

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A supporting sentence comes after the topic sentence. Supporting sentences give facts, details and examples to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. There is usually more than one supporting sentence in a paragraph.

3 Write a closing sentence.

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The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It repeats the main idea of your paragraph but using different words. It can also answer a question asked in the topic sentence. Study this model paragraph:

Being active is important for your physical and mental health.

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First of

all, physical activity will improve your heart and lung capacity and reduce

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the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes. Second, it is great for reducing stress and anxiety, and it makes you sleep better. Finally, research shows that an active lifestyle also helps improve concentration and memory. Therefore, it is recommended that you find time for at least one hour of activity every day.

4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together When you write a paragraph, use sentence connectors. They are the glue that holds your sentences and paragraphs together, and help the reader follow your arguments. They also show contrast, or how ideas are related to each other. Here are a few examples of sentence connectors.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Giving more examples

Emphasis

Showing ­contrast

first of all

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3.32 Which sentence connectors were used in the model paragraph on the previous page?

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3.33 Fill in suitable sentence connectors in the open spaces. a Kirsty seems to be quite clever. , she often gets low marks. b The service at this restaurant is excellent. , the food is delicious. c I’ve never been to Egypt, having relatives there. d Adam is a careful driver. , he’s had several accidents. e Eileen scored a lot of goals for her team last season. , she was voted “Most Valuable Player”. f Amal is a talented painter. her favourite subject at school is Art. g There is no more food left. there are plenty of drinks. h They had worked on the problem for hours. , they found the solution.

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3.34 Place these sentences in the right order to make a paragraph. a One reason for stress is that teenagers often have to make early decisions about school, careers and work. b For some teenagers, this change can be stressful, whereas others take it in their stride. c In fact, many teenagers feel that their school grades decide their whole future, and for some that can feel like a lot of pressure. d Another reason may be that they feel pressure or expectations from family, friends or media to fit in or take on a certain role. e Although stress is not necessarily a bad thing, it becomes a problem when there’s too much of it or it goes on for too long. f The teenage years are a time of growth and change, physically, mentally and socially. g Therefore, it is important to ask for help if it gets too much. h In addition, not all teenagers know how to cope with the stress and sometimes think nobody else has the same experience.

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Before you start What does it mean to be addicted to something? What types of addiction can you think of?

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My Strange Addictions

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The smell of death and bags of pee filled my nose as I laid in silence on a crunchy plastic sheet. I was nineteen and once again found myself in an emergency room hospital bed on a Sunday morning. I was used to this by now, considering I had been there at least six times already that year. Before I get into why I treated the ER like a rich person’s vacation home, I want to give you some backstory about an issue I’ve had my whole life. I’m addicted to everything. I know a lot of people say they have a “chocolate addiction” because they get an extra scoop of ice cream for dessert, or they have a “shoe addiction” because they have one too many pairs of Skechers Shape-ups. (Yes, I actually own those. Don’t judge me.) I am severely addicted to everything I see or touch that gives me some sense of joy. Luckily I’m not addicted to my Skechers Shape-ups. Those were murder on my calves and didn’t give me the ass they promised in the commercial. When I was a kid I became addicted to food, and not in the typical way kids do, but in a Hoover-vacuum-sucking-up-everything-in-its-path kind of way. I wouldn’t just eat an Oreo, I would eat the whole box and then move on to something else. I remember at one point running out of real food, so I started eating condiments and spices. You haven’t lived till you’ve had ketchup pepper soup. Every time I would go to a friend’s house I couldn’t even focus on the

pee (n) urin sheet laken emergency room (ER) legevakt scoop (n) kule severely alvorlig/alvorleg Hoover vacuum støvsuger/ støvsugar condiment tilbehør/tilbehøyr spice krydder

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games we were playing because I was thinking about what was in their kitchen. AIMS When my mom and I would take trips to the store she would have to drag me out of there because I would k explain what the essay is about just stand in the aisle and stare at every single product. k speak and write about forms of If I could have I would have eaten the entire store, clerks addiction and baggers included. I’m not above cannibalism. k share thoughts on how to convey When I was seventeen years old I had a pretty rough important messages experience that made me want to lose all my weight and lose it fast. I was with all my friends at an amusement park and we were going to ride the newest extreme roller coaster. I hadn’t ridden a roller coaster since I was a kid, so I was super pumped to get thrown around by a machine and then vomit into a trash can filled with cotton candy wrappers afterward. As I made my way onto the ride I realized that the seat belt wasn’t big enough to go around my waist. I had a full-on panic attack. How could this be? I was fat but I wasn’t “that fat.” Well, turns out I was. One of the workers walked over and escorted me off the ride. All my friends watched as I burst into tears and was taken to the exit. That was one of the worst days of my life, and even thinking about it now makes me feel like vomiting into an amusement park trash can. That experience sent me into overdrive. I lost 150 pounds in less than a year by eating nothing but chicken and doing nothing but running. I aisle midtgang stopped hanging out with friends, and I stopped being able to have a normal stare stirre, glo/stire, glo conversation with anyone because all I wanted to talk about was weight loss clerk butikkansatt/butikktilsett and health. bagger en som pakker varer i While I was losing the weight I became addicted to something that was poser/ein som pakkar varer i more harmful than any typical drug. I became addicted to the artificial sugar posar called Splenda. Now I know this is going to sound insane, and I’m sure you amusement park aren’t going to fully believe me, but at my peak I was eating over 250 packets fornøyelsespark/tivoli of Splenda a day. That’s enough to last a normal person over a year. That’s roller coaster berg- og dalbane vomit (v) kaste opp, spy 250 times more than any human should consume, considering one of the trash can søppelkasse ingredients in Splenda is the same ingredient used in pool-cleaning products. cotton candy sukkerspinn I started using Splenda in everything. I put it in my cereal, on my waist midje vegetables, in my iced tea, and even directly into my mouth. After two years escort følge or so I got up to two full boxes a day, which added up to about 250 packets. pound 0,45 kg I started talking about it on my YouTube channel, and kids would send artificial kunstig packets to my PO box. Boxes and boxes were kept stored in my powderpeak topp covered garage. It looked like I was involved in some kind of drug-smuggling consume innta, konsumere/ operation. ete, konsumere The overdose of Splenda mixed with my unhealthy diet of chicken and cereal frokostblanding/ vegetables (and nothing else) brought me to the hospital six times in one frukostblanding year. My life was on a downward spiral, and I couldn’t get a grip on it. I was downward nedadgående/ constantly passing out from dehydration and having intense panic attacks nedovergåande that my doctor believed were side effects from too much artificial sugar and pass out besvime/svime av dehydration uttørring/uttørking too much caffeine. My family was always concerned but there was nothing poison gift they could say to me to change my mind. I loved that sweet poison, and I SKILLS | Chapter 3: That’s Life | 111


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didn’t care about the side effects. At one point my skin even started to turn yellow, and not in a cute fake-tanner way, in a HOLY-SHIT-WHY-IS-THATGUY-YELLOW way. Which leads me to this specific trip to the ER, which changed everything. It was a hot summer day in Florida, and my family and I were hanging out at Disney World. I had never been there, so I was ready to see what all the hype was about. I had my huge iced tea with fifty Splendas mixed in and was ready to take on the day. The thing about Florida that I wasn’t aware of is that they have occasional summer rainstorms. The rain started sprinkling and my hair started frizzing. I started having a panic attack because I could feel the hot Florida air entering my lungs and sucking out all the moisture. My heart started racing because I knew that soon I was going to pass out. I ran to the bathroom because I figured it would be air-conditioned. My brother followed me inside. Brother: Dude, are you ok? Me: I just need air. I need cold air. The bathroom didn’t have airconditioning so he started splashing cold water from the sink on my face. This is when things began to get foggy, and I don’t remember much of what happened next. I got so dehydrated that I went a little crazy and started acting like a child star having a breakdown in front of TMZ cameras. My brother told me later what happened and it went something like this. Me: I think the devil is in me! Brother: What?? Me: He’s in me!! I want him out!!!! So I guess I took down my pants and hopped into the cold-water-filled sink and started screaming obscenities. Me: GET HIM OUT OF ME!!! I’M GONNA SHIT HIM OUT!!!! My mom rushed in and saw me having a total mental breakdown, so she called 911. The next thing I knew I was waking up in a hospital room with Disney characters all over the walls. I thought I was in hell. As I lay in the hospital bed I looked over and saw my mom asleep in the chair next to me. She looked so tired. The doctor walked in with a clipboard and a concerned look on his face. Doctor: Hello, Shane. Me: Hey. What’s going on? Doctor: So you had a little bit of an episode, didn’t you? Me: I don’t remember. Oh God, did I kill someone? My mom always said I reminded her of one of those kids who could snap one day. Doctor: No, you passed out. You were severely dehydrated, but don’t worry, we are giving you lots of fluids. Me: Oh. Ok, that’s fine. Doctor: Fine? Me: Ya, it happens all the time. I pass out like once a month pretty much. The ER by my house and I are friends on MySpace. Doctor: Why do you pass out? How is your diet? Me: Um … not great. Doctor: I’d like you to tell me. I want to understand what’s going on here. Me: Well … I eat ok. Chicken and veggies. It’s the fake sugar that’s kind of a situation.

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side effect bivirkning/biverknad occasional sporadisk, noen ganger/sporadisk, nokre gongar frizz kruse moisture fuktighet/fukt foggy tåkete TMZ amerikansk underholdningskanal/ amerikansk underhaldningskanal sink vask obscenity griseprat, slibrighet/ slibrige historier concerned bekymret/bekymra fluid væske

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gallon 3,78 liter (US), 4,55 liter (UK) inch 2,54 cm malfunction slutte å fungere, bryte sammen/ bryte saman recipe oppskrift starve sulte raging her: ukontrollert

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Doctor: How much fake sugar are you eating? Me: Two hundred fifty packets a day. Usually a couple gallons of iced tea. Sometimes a twelve-pack of diet soda. The expression on his face will forever be burned on my brain. Me: I know. It’s pretty bad. Doctor: You need to get off that ASAP. It’s extremely bad for you. How much water do you drink? Me: I swallow some by accident when I brush my teeth? Doctor: Shane, I’m going to share something with you that I haven’t even told your family. When you came in here today you were so dehydrated that you were inches away from slipping into a coma. If you had waited a few more hours to come in you would probably be in one right now. Me: Oh my God. Really? Doctor: Your entire insides were drier than a potato chip. Your brain was malfunctioning, which is why you were sitting in a public sink trying to shit out the devil. Me: WHAT? Doctor: It’s serious, Shane. Really, really serious. That hit me hard. It wasn’t just about me anymore, it was about everyone in my life. From that moment forward I decided to get off the packet once and for all. But I want to be clear: it wasn’t just the fake sugar that was causing me to go to the hospital. It was everything related to it. It was drinking gallons of iced tea every day because it tasted so good with Splenda in it. Iced tea is insanely dehydrating. Combine that with the fact that I hadn’t had actual water in a year, and you get a recipe for coma. I also wasn’t eating right and hadn’t been for a long time. I would starve myself and then go on binges and eat crazy amounts of frozen yoghurt and ranch dressing. Not together. I’m mentally sick but not that sick. So I started changing my diet and got on a normal routine, but the road hasn’t been easy. At twenty-six years old I still struggle every day with my addictions. All I want to do is get a big gallon of ice cream and lie in bed all day and watch Netflix, but I can’t. I don’t want my addictions to rule my life. This is a huge reason why I don’t drink or do any kind of drugs. I can’t imagine what my life would be like if I tried cocaine. I’m sure my house would be super clean and I’d be way funnier to hang out with, but the side effects wouldn’t be worth it. I think one day I might be able to have just one packet of Splenda and be ok, or have just one drink and not turn into a raging alcoholic. But. I’m not there yet. Right now I’m just living one daily vlog at a time. Did I mention I’m addicted to YouTube? Shane Dawson

Shane Dawson (1988–) is an American YouTuber, author, musician, comedian, actor and media personality. This essay is from his bestselling book, I Hate Myselfie, which was published in 2015. His YouTube channels have over 5 billion views, but he has also received criticism for the controversial contents of some of his videos and statements.

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Read and understand

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3.35 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a When Shane Dawson was a kid, he was addicted to … b When he was 17, he realized that … c To lose weight, he lived on a diet of … d Shane ate 250 packets of … e His body was dehydrated because … f In a bathroom at Disney World, Shane had a … g At the hospital, Shane was told he was inches away from … h At the age of twenty-six, Shane still struggles …

3.36 •• In your own words, explain what type of addiction Shane had and what happened to him.

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3.37 ••• Answer the following questions. a Name some things and activities Shane Dawson has been addicted to. b Describe what made him start his diet and the effect it had on him. c What happened at Disney World and what caused this reaction? d What did Shane realize about his life after the conversation with the doctor? e At the end of the essay, does it seem like Shane is in control of his addictions? Explain. f What kind of narrative techniques does the writer use in this text? Find examples and explain their effect on the reader.

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3.38 Discuss the following questions in pairs, then share your views in class. a How did Shane Dawson’s addiction affect his behaviour? b In the essay you have just read, Shane Dawson uses humour when he describes his addiction. Do you think this is a good way to reach an audience about a serious problem? c It is also possible to become addicted to gaming, gambling and social media. How is this similar to or different from a drug addiction, or an eating disorder, for example?

Practise

3.39 Translate the following words into English. Practise spelling and pronouncing the words correctly. a avhengighet e væske b spiseforstyrrelse f besvime c sammenbrudd g vekttap d bekymret h akuttmottak

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3.41 •• Choose one addiction and make a poster for an awareness campaign. Think of a catchy slogan, select relevant information to be presented on the poster, and find a suitable illustration.

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3.40 • Write one paragraph where you share your opinion of the text “My Strange Addictions”. Is it an important text for young people to read? Explain.

3.42 Shane Dawson has been diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder. Use reliable sources to find information on this disorder and its symptoms.

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3.43 Search online for the video where Shane Dawson talks about his life with body dysmorphic disorder. After watching, discuss to what extent such videos can be relevant and maybe even helpful for young people.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

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explain what the essay is about YES

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speak and write about forms of addiction YES

3.44 Search online for the song “Unwell” by Matchbox Twenty. Listen to the song and sum up how the speaker describes himself/herself and what you think the message is.

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share thoughts on how to convey important messages YES

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Teens say social media help build stronger friendships and that they become exposed to a more diverse world, but they also express concern that social media lead to conflicts, drama and social pressure.

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It’s a Wonderful, Digital World?

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Before you start How active are you when it comes to social media? a How much time do you spend online per day? b Who do you follow? What is it about them that interests you?

Today, almost all teens around the world spend a considerable amount of time online, especially on social media platforms. Not surprisingly, many say they sometimes feel overwhelmed by all the drama on social media, and that they often experience pressure to show only positive images of themselves. At the same time, they credit social media with several positive outcomes, including creating new friendships, exposing them to different opinions

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In a recent survey among US teens, 81 % say they feel more connected to their friends when using online platforms to communicate and share content. As many as 68 % say using social media makes them feel as if they have emotional support when times are tough. In addition, 69 % of the teens in the survey say they interact with more diverse groups of people through their online activities than they would in real life. Gaming, for example, lets players interact and socialize while playing, thus creating large communities of people from many different backgrounds. As most teens know, however, social media can also become a social burden. Some feel pressure to post content that will get many likes and comments, or to be included in the most popular groups. Others may be concerned about presenting the “right” image of themselves online. In fact, recent research from Britain shows that many young people feel the need to have multiple social media profiles in order to show different images to different groups of people. Furthermore, they choose to show their “real self” only to a circle of close friends and in a carefully controlled manner. Surveys show that cyberbullying has increased significantly in recent years. According to a British report,

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the number of teens who AIMS say they have been bullied on k describe positive and negative aspects of social media social media has doubled in k extract information from statistics just two years. k make a survey Not even the most popular celebrities have been spared. Selena Gomez is one of the most followed stars on Instagram. Although she receives hundreds of positive messages on each post, the negative comments have forced her not to use the app so much. “You can’t avoid it sometimes,” she said to a newspaper. “I delete the app from exposed to utsatt for/utsett for diverse mangfoldig/mangfaldig my phone at least once a week.” concerned bekymret/bekymra Singer Ed Sheeran has also revealed considerable betraktelig/ that he has been affected by online betrakteleg haters. “I’ve actually come off Twitter overwhelmed overveldet/ completely. I can’t read it. I go on overvelda it, and there’s nothing but people credit gi ære saying mean things,” he said in an outcome resultat cause her: sak interview. recent nylig/ nyleg Although research shows there survey undersøkelse/ are many benefits to being active on undersøking social media, most young people content (n) innhold/innhald also acknowledge the challenges interact samhandle/snakke of growing up in the digital age. saman, samarbeide Bullying is certainly not new to teens. thus og dermed burden byrde Yet, with an increased number of research forskning/forsking apps, channels and networks for multiple flere/fleire communication, it has become more manner måte difficult to avoid or escape, even for cyberbullying nettmobbing the most popular. significantly betydelig/

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and expressing themselves. They also claim social media help people their age learn about topics they are interested in and causes they care

betydeleg reveal avsløre affected påvirket/påverka acknowledge erkjenne, anerkjenne

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IN SHORT

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overwhelmed overveldet/ overvelda image bilde opinio mening/meining topic emne, sak recent nylig/nyleg survey undersøkelse/ undersøking emotional følelsesmessig support støtte interact samhandle/snakke saman, samarbeide diversity mangfold/mangfald burden byrde research forskning forsking cyberbullyin nettmobbing increase (v) øke/auke celebrity kjendis spared spart, skjermet/skjerma force tvinge mean (adj) slem benefit fordel escape slippe unna/sleppe unna

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Today, almost all teens around the world spend a lot of time online, especially on social media platforms. Many say they feel overwhelmed by all the drama on social media and pressure to show only positive images of themselves. At the same time, they can make new friends on social media, and hear different opinions. They also say social media help people their age learn about topics they are interested in. In a recent survey among US teens, 81 % say they feel more connected to their friends on online platforms. As many as 68 % say using social media gives them emotional support when times are tough. In addition, 69 % of the teens in the survey say they interact with a greater diversity of people online than they would in real life, for example through gaming. As most teens know, social media can also become a social burden. Some feel pressure to get many likes and comments on their posts, or to be included in the most popular groups. Others worry about presenting the “right” image of themselves. In fact, research from Britain shows that many feel they need to have more than one social media profile, and only choose to show their “real self” to close friends. Surveys show that cyberbullying has increased a lot in recent years. Not even the most popular celebrities have been spared. Selena Gomez receives hundreds of positive messages on her posts, but the negative comments have forced her not to use the app so much. “You can’t avoid it sometimes,” she said to a newspaper. Singer Ed Sheeran has also talked about online haters. “I’ve actually come off Twitter completely. I can’t read it. I go on it, and there’s nothing but people saying mean things,” he said in an interview. Research shows there are many benefits to being active on social media, but there are also challenges. Bullying is not new to teens, but all the apps, channels and networks for communication make it more difficult to escape.

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3.45 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a Many teens say they feel b They often feel pressure to c However, they also say social media can d As many as 68 % say e Social media can also become f Others are concerned about presenting g Surveys show that cyberbullying h Not even the most popular

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3.46 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What positive outcomes of social media are mentioned in the article? b What does the US survey say about how teens experience communicating online? c How can gaming benefit players’ social life, according to the article? d In what ways can social media become a social burden? e What did British researchers discover about cyberbullying? f What has been Selena Gomez’s and Ed Sheeran’s experience with social media? 3.47 ••• Chose ten keywords from the article. Use the words to write a summary or a short informative text.

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3.48 Discuss the following questions. a Have you experienced cyberbullying yourself, or do you know someone who has? b What would you do if you discovered cyberbullying? Do you have a responsibility? c What kind of sanctions do you think should be used to stop cyberbullying? d You have probably read comment sections to people’s posts or news items. Do you think everyone should be allowed to say what they want in a public forum?

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3.49 Study the graph “Online gaming builds stronger connections with friends”. a What percentage say they feel more connected to friends they already know? b Describe the difference between playing with friends you already know and people you aren’t friends with yet. c How many say they feel happy and relaxed? d Are there more teens who say they feel angry and frustrated than who say they don’t feel happy and relaxed? e Would you say that these statistics support the claim that online gaming builds stronger connections with friends?

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Online gaming builds stronger connections between friends % of teens who play online with others and feel...

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More relaxed and happy

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Yes, a lot

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3.50 Compare the following adjectives. See the Language Lab section for information on adjectives. Example: happy – happier – happiest a responsible e many b positive f considerable c good g young d bad h difficult

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3.52 • How and why do you use social media? Write one paragraph. Study “Structuring Paragraphs” in this chapter for advice.

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3.51 Change the following adjectives into adverbs. e careful a responsible f considerable b positive g fast c digital h significant d good

3.53 •• Ten years from now, what do you think we will use the Internet for? Write a short text. Study “Structuring Paragraphs” in this chapter for advice.

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3.54 Make your own survey. Perhaps you want to find out if there are differences between boys and girls, or between students in different classes. Here are some questions you might want to explore. a How many hours are spent online per week? b What types of online activities are most common? c How do students feel about using social media? d Which are the most popular online games? e What forms of cyberbullying have been experienced or witnessed?

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3.55 Watch and listen to the poem «To this day» performed by spoken-word artist Shane Koyczan on YouTube or TED.com. a What is the message of the poem? b How does the artist communicate his message to us, the audience? Comment on his choice of words, intensity and emotions, use of graphics and sound. c What is the effect of using the spoken-word format for this kind of message?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss positive and negative aspects of social media YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS USING FORMAL AND INFORMAL LANGUAGE

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Choosing the right style of language when you speak or write is important. Sometimes you need to change the way you speak or write in various situations or to different people. For example, you expect a certain style when reading a serious news article. You probably don’t have the same expectations when reading a text message from a friend.

1 Decide whether it is a formal or informal situation. 2 Decide what genre your text is going to be.

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If we know what genre a text belongs to, it is easier to decide what style of language to use, formal or informal. Here are some examples of genres: • letters • plays • reports • advertisements • instruction manuals • blogs • novels • text messages • song lyrics • articles • short stories • discussions (written or oral)

3 Decide who your audience is.

If you are speaking to a group of teenagers, you may use a less formal style of language than if you are writing a job application.

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4 Choose a style of language that suits the situation, genre and audience. If it is a formal situation:

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• Avoid contracted words. Write words out in full, for example “there is” and “will not”. • Use few or no abbreviations of words. • Avoid slang words, strong expressions and swearing. Some things are OK to say, but not to write. • Write complete sentences. Also try to vary sentence structure.

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If it is an informal ­situation: • You may use contractions and abbreviations of words. Some examples of contractions are “there’s” and “won’t”. • Abbreviations like “phone” instead of “telephone” are accepted. • There may be slang and colloquialisms, but always avoid swearing. • Sentences can be simpler and shorter.


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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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“How do you do, Mr Moore?” “Not bad. You OK, dude?” “Thank you, I am quite well. Please, have a seat.” “Aw, thanks, man.” “So, why have you applied for the job?” “Well, it looks like a really cool company, kinda.”

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3.56 Look at this dialogue. Is this style of language right for a job interview, for example? Why or why not?

3.58 What style of language do you expect to find in the following types of text? • an instruction manual • a blog • a job advertisement • a letter of complaint • a party invitation to a friend’s birthday • an accident report • an entry in a comment section on social media

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3.57 Explain the difference between these two short texts. Comment on the choice of words, spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, contractions and abbreviations.

3.59 Match the formal and the informal expressions. Practise using the expressions with a partner. 1 to help A to request 2 to put off B to contact 3 to ask for C to assist 4 to get in touch with D to verify 5 to say E to postpone 6 to check F to express

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Example 1 You know that test we were cramming for last week? Guess what – I flunked! Now I’m gonna have to work my butt off if I wanna pass this subject.

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Example 2 This is to inform you that your test results are not up to the required standard, and you will therefore not receive a passing grade. If you wish to achieve a passing grade in this subject, I would suggest that you consider preparing more thoroughly for your next test.

3.60 The passive voice is used when the focus is on the action and not who or what is behind it. The passive voice is often used in academic writing, science, politics or other formal settings. Compare: Mistakes were made. Mike and Ella made several mistakes. Rewrite the sentences using the passive voice. a The doctor told Shane to stop eating artificial sugar. b The principal accused one of the students of cyberbullying. c Someone handed in a written complaint. d The new boss introduced a number of new regulations.

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Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda

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Simon Spier is a sixteen-year-old high school student who is not openly gay. He has found a friend online, who goes by the name “Blue” and who goes to the same school. They have confided in each other anonymously by email for months and have developed a crush on each other. However, their emails are accidently read by another student, Martin, who blackmails Simon and eventually decides to out him on the school’s gossip channel on Christmas Eve. In the excerpt you are about to read, Simon comes back to school with his sister Nora after the holidays.

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It’s the first day back at school, and I honestly consider spending the entire day in the parking lot. I can’t explain it. I thought I would be fine. But now that I’m here, I can’t seem to get out of the car. I feel a little sick thinking about it. Nora says, “I really don’t think anyone is going to remember.” I shrug. “It was on there for, what, three days? And that was over a week ago.” “Four days,” I say. “I don’t even think people really read the Tumblr.” We walk through the atrium together just as the first bell is ringing. People are stampeding and pushing down the main stairs. No one seems to pay any particular attention to me – and for all of Nora’s reassurances, I can see that she’s as relieved as I am. I move with the crowd, working my way towards my locker, and I think I’m finally starting to relax. A couple of people wave at me like normal. Garrett

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from my lunch table nods and says, “What’s up Spier?” I toss my backpack into my locker and pull out my AIMS books for English and French. No one has slid any homophobic notes into the slats of my locker, which is k explain who and what the story is about good. No one’s etched the word “fag” into my locker yet either, which is even better.” I’m almost ready to believe k identify and use informal language that things have gotten a little better at Creekwood. Or k discuss ethical dilemmas that no one saw Martin’s Tumblr post after all. k review a film Martin. God, I don’t even want to think about having to see his stupid evil face. And of course he’s in my first fucking period. I guess there’s still this quiet pulse of dread when I think about seeing Martin again. I’m just trying to breathe. As I’m walking into the language arts wing, this football guy I hardly recognize almost runs directly into me coming down the stairs. I step back to ready myself, but he puts his hand on my shoulder and looks me right in confide in betro seg til/ tru seg til the eye. blackmail (n) utpressing “Why, hello there,” he says. excerpt utdrag “Hi … ” entire hele/heile Then he grabs me by the cheeks and pulls my face in like he’s going to shrug trekke på skuldrene kiss me. “Mwah!” He grins, and his face is so close I can feel the heat of his atrium atrium, åpen plass i breath. And all around me, people laugh like fucking Elmo. bygning/atrium, open plass i I yank my body away from him, cheeks burning. “Where are you going, bygning stampede (v) her: strømme, Spier?” someone says. “McGregor wants a turn.” And everybody starts skynde seg/strøyme, skynde laughing again. I mean, I don’t even know these people. I don’t know why in seg God’s name this is funny to them. reassurance forsikring In English class, Martin won’t look at me. But all through the day, Leah relieved lettet/letta and Abby are like freaking pit bulls, throwing down the stink-eye in all locker bokskap directions whenever anyone even looks at me funny. I mean, it’s really pretty nod nikke sweet. And it isn’t a total disaster. Some people sort of whisper and laugh. toss kaste slat sprekk And a couple randomly give me these huge smiles in the hallway, whatever etch risse inn that means. These two lesbian girls I don’t even know come up to me at my evil ond/vond, slem locker and hug me and give me their phone numbers. And at least a dozen dread (n) frykt straight kids make a point of telling me that they support me. One girl even cheek kinn confirms that Jesus still loves me. Elmo figur fra Sesame Street/ It’s a ton of attention. It kind of makes my head spin. figur frå Sesame Street Everything seems to go well until Simon goes to rehearsal for his play in the afternoon. He is harassed by a couple of students who show up to taunt him, but his teacher and two of his friends immediately take action. Then, after watching a bit of soccer practice, Simon is ready to head home. So, maybe it’s the winter air or maybe it’s soccer boy calves, but after everything that’s happened today, I’m actually in a pretty decent mood. Until I get to the parking lot. Because Martin Addison is leaning against my car.

yank rykke stink-eye ondt blikk/vondt, slemt blikk disaster katastrofe dozen dusin (12) rehearsal øving harass plage taunt spotte, være spydig/ vere spydig

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apology unnskyldning knuckle knoke progressive framskrittsvennlig/ framstegsvennleg rip me a new one her: kjefte på meg humiliate ydmyke/audmyke sob (v) hulke sigh (v) sukke

“Where have you been?” he says. I wait for him to move. I mean, I don’t even want to look at him. “Can we talk for a second?” he asks. “I don’t have anything to say to you,” I say. “Okay, well.” He sighs, and I can actually see his breath. “Simon, just – I seriously owe you an apology.” I just kind of stand there. He stretches his arms forward, cracking his knuckles under his gloves. “God, I’m just. I’m just so sorry. What happened in there. I didn’t know that would – I mean, I didn’t think people still did shit like that.” “Right, who’d have guessed? Because Shady Creek is just so progressive.” Martin shakes his head. “I just seriously didn’t think it would be such a big thing.” I don’t even know what to say to that. “Look, I’m sorry, all right? I was pissed off. The whole Abby thing. I wasn’t thinking. And then my brother basically ripped me a new one, and I was just … I just feel like shit, okay. And I deleted those screenshots ages ago. I swear to God. So can you please just say something?” I mean, I almost start laughing. “What the fuck do you want me to say?” “I don’t know,” he says. “I’m just trying –“ “Okay, how about this? I think you’re an asshole. I think you’re a huge fucking asshole. I mean, don’t even fucking pretend you didn’t know this would happen. You blackmailed me. This was – I mean, wasn’t that the whole goddamn point? Humiliating me?” He shakes his head and opens his mouth to reply, but I cut him off. “And you know what? You don’t get to say it’s not a big thing. This is a big fucking thing, okay? This was supposed to be – this is mine. I’m supposed to decide when and where and who knows and how I want to say it.” Suddenly, my throat gets thick. “So yeah, you took that from me. And then you brought Blue into it? Seriously? You fucking suck, Martin. I mean, I don’t even want to look at you.” He’s crying. He’s trying not to, but he’s seriously, full-on crying. And my heart sort of twists. “So can you just step away from my car,” I say, “and leave me the fuck alone?” He nods, puts his head down, and walks away quickly. I get in my car. And turn it on. And then I just start sobbing. Becky Albertalli Becky Albertalli (1982 – ) is an award-winning American writer who lives in Atlanta. She is also a psychologist who has worked with teenagers. Simon vs The Homo Sapiens Agenda is her first novel. It has been translated into many different languages, and a popular film adaptation called Love, Simon was released in 2018.

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3.61 • Choose the correct alternative. a The main character in this text is 1 Martin. 2 Abby. 3 Simon.

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c He was outed to the whole school by 1 one of his fellow students. 2 his anonymous email crush. 3 his sister Nora.

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b He is 1 openly gay. 2 not openly gay. 3 straight.

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d On his first day back after the school holidays, he 1 was bullied by most of the other students. 2 realized that nobody had seen the Tumblr post. 3 received a lot of support from his friends.

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e After school, Martin was waiting in the parking lot because 1 he wanted to apologize to Simon. 2 he wanted to talk about Abby. 3 he thought Simon had overreacted about the whole thing. f Simon says that 1 he forgives him. 2 Martin is an asshole. 3 he is going to get revenge.

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3.62 •• Answer the following questions. a Who is “Blue” and how does Simon know him? b Why is Simon anxious about going back to school? c What was he expecting to see at his locker? d Explain what happened when Simon ran into the football guy. e How does Martin behave when Simon finds him waiting for him after school? f Why doesn’t Simon believe Martin when he says he didn’t understand the consequences?

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3.63 ••• Find evidence in the text to support the following statements. Write down your answers in full sentences. a Simon was expecting comments and harassment when coming back to school. b His first day was both good and bad. c All the attention he is given makes Simon confused. d Simon feels betrayed by Martin’s actions. e Martin seems to be genuinely sorry for what he did. f Simon is more hurt by what happened than he admits.

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3.64 Discuss in pairs, and then share your views in class. a How do you think Simon felt when he discovered someone had read his private emails and spread the information? How would you feel if it happened to you? b How do you think Simon handled the situation when Martin wanted to apologize? c What do you think of the way Simon’s friends handled the situation? d What would you do if one of your friends were in the same situation as Simon?

Practise

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3.65 There are many examples of informal language in the text. Explain what the following expressions mean and rewrite them in more formal language. a “I was pissed off.” b “… my brother basically ripped me a new one.” c “I just feel like shit, okay.” d “You fucking suck, Martin.” e “Leah and Abby are like freaking pit bulls, throwing down the stinkeye in all directions whenever anyone even looks at me funny.” 3.66 Adjective or adverb? Find the mistakes and correct the sentences. a Simon is quite nervously about going back to school. b He had communicated anonymous by email with another boy from his school. c Nobody is paying any particularly attention to him. d Suddenly, a football guy is running direct into him in the hallway. e Martin starts crying in the parking lot and walks away quick.

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3.68 •• Friendship is an important theme in this novel. Based on the excerpt you have read, write a text where you explain how Simon’s friends supported him. Also describe what friendship means to you.

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3.67 • “I’m supposed to decide when and where and who knows and how I want to say it,” Simon says to Martin. Who has the right to spread private information about other people? Write one paragraph where you express your opinion.

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3.69 Watch the film adaption of the novel Love, Simon. a At the beginning of the film, we hear Simon’s voiceover, saying he has “a huge-ass secret.” Why does he resent having to come out at all, and how does he imagine it should be for straight kids? b Choose one character you think is interesting. Describe this character’s personality, using statements and actions to support your description. c In one scene, Simon’s mother says to him “You can exhale now, Simon.” Describe Simon’s family and the relationship he has with his parents. Use scenes from the film as examples. d The identity of “Blue” is not revealed until the end. Did you guess who it was? Are we given any clues? Is Simon surprised? e “Love, Simon is filled with humor–in its characters, dialogue, and situations–but it doesn’t sacrifice emotional depth,” one critic wrote in his review of the film. Do you agree? Explain why or why not. f How would you review the film? Make a short video where you express your opinion.

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

Assess your progress

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3.71 Choose three of the texts you have studied in this chapter. a What were the aims of each of the texts? b Which aims do you think you master well? c What would you like to improve? Explain why and what you think you will have to do.

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3.72 Pick one task you have worked on in this chapter. What did you learn? How can you use this when working on future tasks? 3.73 Structuring paragraphs a What is a topic sentence? b How many supporting sentences should there be in a paragraph, at the least? c What do supporting sentences do? d Give examples of at least five sentence connectors. e How does the use of sentence connectors improve your text?

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3.70 After working with Chapter 3, it is time to revise what you have learnt. a Give examples of challenges and ethical dilemmas you have read about in this chapter. b Mention some things young people worry about. c What would you say is the message of the poem “Look”? d Which novel extracts have students as the main characters? e Give examples of different types of addictions. Explain how Shane Dawson’s addiction affected him. f Describe some of the benefits and challenges of being active on social media.

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3.74 Using formal and informal language a What is the difference between formal and informal language? Give examples. b In what situations do you use formal language? c Give examples of when you can use informal language. d Mention three decisions you have to make before choosing the appropriate style of language. e For what types of text do we often use the passive voice?

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Apply your skills

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b •• Which of the texts you have studied in this chapter has the most informal language, and which text has the most formal language? Use examples from the texts to support your arguments. How does the style of language affect you as a reader or listener?

b •• A number of celebrities are known for their addiction to alcohol or drugs. Write at least three paragraphs in which you discuss celebrities’ lifestyle and to what extent they are role models for young people. You may want to include the following points:

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3.75 Speak a • Choose one of the texts from this chapter. Explain to a partner what the text is about and what you liked or disliked about it.

• examples of celebrities who you think are positive or negative role models • how they might influence young people • the media focus on celebrities • the celebrities’ need for and right to privacy

c ••• Write a text in which you discuss the advantages and challenges of living in a digital age. Your text should have:

3.76 Write a • Write one paragraph for each of the following topic sentences. Make sure your paragraphs have supporting sentences and a closing sentence. Also try to use sentence connectors.

• a short introduction • one paragraph on the advantages • one paragraph on the challenges • one paragraph where you state your opinion • a conclusion

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c ••• Compare the challenges the characters are facing in at least two of the novel extracts from this chapter. How are they similar? What are the differences? Point to examples in the texts to support your arguments. Discuss in groups.

• Smartphones can be useful in the classroom. • There are many different kinds of addiction. • Gaming and social media can improve your English.

You may also want to check “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 for advice.

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Citizens

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CHAPTER 4


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In this chapter you will focus on k social conditions k democracy k racism and other crimes k structuring texts k selecting sources

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k prepositions

Useful words and phrases

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echo chamber fake news manipulation activism election civil rights movement law enforcement protest ethnic minority empowerment

How can you influence society? How do you decide which sources you can trust? <<4 sider>>

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Iconic Images

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A good photograph can tell a whole story in a split second. Therefore, news articles almost always include pictures. Readers and viewers are bombarded with information every hour of the day, so most news stories are forgotten. Still, many photos make a lasting impression. Some of these are later found in history books because of the way they impacted people’s opinions and civic engagement, and even governments’ decisions. Here are some examples of photos that have become iconic. Study the pictures and the events they illustrate.

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Photographer: Angelo Cozzi

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Photographer: Neil Armstrong

The whole world was watching as the first human beings set foot on the Moon in July 1969. The photo shows one of the American astronauts, Edwin (“Buzz”) Aldrin, walking on the Moon’s surface. Television was new at the time, but even so, the images were spread faster than ever before.

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Photographer: Robert Wilson

impression inntrykk impact påvirke/påverke opinion mening/meining civil engagement samfunnsengasjement civil rights borgerrettigheter/ borgarrettar plesiosaurus svaneøgle supposedly angivelig/påstått hoax bløff

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The fight for civil rights in the US continued through the 1960s. Successful athletes took the opportunity to show their support internationally. This photo shows gold and bronze medal winners Tommie Smith and John Carlos raising their hands in a black power salute at the Olympics in Mexico City in 1968. It was an inspiration for many to keep up the fight. The belief that a plesiosaurus-like monster lives in Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands dates back at least 1500 years. Many people claim to have seen it. A British doctor, Robert Wilson, supposedly took this picture. It was published in the newspaper Daily Mail in 1934 and sparked huge international interest. The photograph was later proved to be a hoax, but the hunt for the Loch Ness Monster continues to this day and it has become an important tourist attraction.


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influence opinion k suggest suitable captions k write about photographs

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The Beatles released Abbey Road in 1969. It was the last album the band would record before it split up. The picture for the front cover shows the four band members on a zebra crossing near the studio. A policeman held up traffic while the photographer took the picture from the top of a stepladder. Abbey Road Studios is now a listed building, and there is an online webcam recording everything that goes on at the zebra crossing in Abbey Road.

The war in Vietnam had been going on for many years. In June 1972, a load of napalm was dropped on the village of Trang Bang. The picture shows children running in terror and pain from the village. The photo became a symbol of how civilians suffer the consequences of war. It helped to change people’s opinion about the Vietnam War and led to the withdrawal of US troops. The Vietnam War finally ended in 1975.

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Photographer: Nick Ut

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Photographer: Unknown

On 11 September 2011, two passenger airplanes crashed into two skyscrapers in Manhattan, New York. This was part of a terror attack carried out by Islamic extremists. The towers were part of the World Trade Center complex. The images from the incident went viral and had a lasting impact on people around the world.

zebra crossing fotgjengerfelt/ fotgjengarfelt stepladder gardintrapp listed her: vernet/verna webcam webkamera incident hendelse/hending lasting varig civilians sivilbefolkning suffer lide consequences konsekvenser/ konsekvensar withdrawal tilbaketrekking

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4.1 • Combine the sentence halves. Write down the complete sentences. A Readers and viewers are bombarded B Therefore, news articles almost always C Most news stories are forgotten,

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but some photos have a lasting impact. 2 a whole story in a split second.

D A good photo can tell

4 because of the way they influenced governments’ decisions. 5 with information every hour of the day. 6 become iconic.

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E Photos are sometimes later found in history books F Some photos even

include pictures.

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4.2 •• Make headlines from the jumbled words and combine them with the correct pictures. Headline

a b

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Hit Twin Passenger Planes Towers Walk the Successful Moon on Bombs Civilians in Vietnam Hit Napalm with Is the Monster this Loch Ness? The Last on the Front of the Album they Cover Recorded Beatles by Political Afro-American Statements Shown Athletes

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4.3 ••• Write down five questions to what you read in the text about iconic images. Then work with a partner. Take turns asking the questions and suggesting answers.

Practise

4.4 Explain these expressions in English. Use a dictionary if necessary. a televised event g civic engagement d spark interest b impact h withdrawal e civilians c opinion i hoax f go viral

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4.6 Shocking pictures help newspapers sell well and generate more clicks. Which ethical problems arise when pictures of suffering people are published? Discuss in class.

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4.5 Study the photos on the previous pages again, in pairs. Focus on one picture at a time and ask each other the following questions: a What do you see in this picture? b How does the picture make you feel? c Why do you think this photograph made a lasting impression on the public?

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4.7 • Suggest captions for the three photos to the right. For each caption, explain why you think it is suitable. 4.8 •• Write the lead to match one of the photos to the right. Feel free to make up facts about the incident in the photo.

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4.9 ••• Write a short news article to accompany one of the photos to the right. Use your imagination to describe the situation and context in which the photo was taken. Choose a suitable headline for your article, and a caption for the photo.

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4.10 Visit newseum.org and study the front pages of today’s newspapers. Choose one picture that catches your attention. Prepare a short presentation of this picture. Share in class. See “Sharing information” in Chapter 1 for advice on how to show and tell.

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4.11 Choose a piece of music that you like. Find the album cover. Present your piece of music and show how the album cover, in your opinion, reflects the music on this album.

Did you know?

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suggest suitable captions

The naked girl in the photograph on the previous page is Phan Thi Kim Phuc. She suffered severe burns in this attack and almost died. In 1997 she set up the Kim Phuc Foundation, which aims to give psychological support and medical help to children who are victims of war. Phan Thi Kim Phuc lives in Canada and is a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador.

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NYPD: Hillary Clinton “Pedofile Sex Tape” About To Be Release d

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Before you start Where do get your news? Do you always trust your news providers to tell you the truth? Discuss in pairs.

Nothing on This Page is Real

IRUS V R E T COMPU MANS U H O T S SPREAD

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s World, Pope Francis Shock p for Trum Endorses Donald s Statement President, Release

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[…]

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“We live in an Idiocracy,” read a small note on Blair’s desk, and he was taking full advantage. In a good month, the advertising revenue from his website earned him as much as $ 15,000, and it had also won him a loyal army of online fans. Hundreds of liberals now visited America’s Last Line of Defense to humiliate conservatives who shared Blair’s fake stories as fact. […] “How could any thinking person believe this nonsense?” he said. He hit the publish button and watched as his lie began to spread.

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Now he hunched over a desk, […] scanning through conservative forums on Facebook for something that might inspire his next post. […] He noticed a photo online of Trump standing at attention for the national anthem during a White House ceremony. Behind the president were several dozen dignitaries, including a white woman standing next to a black woman, and Blair copied the picture, circled the two women in red and wrote the first thing that came into his mind.

again at the picture. The AIMS white woman k explain what the article is about was not in k use words related to information fact Chelsea and fake news Clinton. […] k share information on fake news and The black fact-checking sites woman was not Michelle Obama. […] Neither Obama nor Clinton had been invited to the ceremony. Nobody had flipped off the president. The entire premise was utterly ridiculous, which was exactly Blair’s point.

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NORTH WATERBORO, Maine The only light in the house came from the glow of three computer monitors, and Christopher Blair, 46, sat down at a keyboard and started to type. […] Waiting online was his other community, an unreality where nothing was exactly as it seemed. […] “Nothing on this page is real,” read one of the 14 disclaimers on Blair’s site, and yet his stories had become real, reinforcing people’s biases, […] amassing an audience of as many 6 million visitors each month who thought his posts were factual. What Blair had first conceived of as an elaborate joke was beginning to reveal something darker.

“President Trump extended an olive branch and invited Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton,” Blair wrote. “They thanked him by giving him ‘the finger’ during the national anthem. Lock them up for treason!” Blair finished typing and looked

[…] It was barely dawn in Pahrump, Nevada when Shirley Chapian, 76, logged onto […] her Facebook news feed. […] She put her finger on the mouse and began scrolling down. “Click LIKE if you believe we must stop Sharia Law from coming to America before it’s too late,” read the first item, and she clicked “like.” “Share to help END the ongoing

monitor skjerm community fellesskap disclaimer ansvarsfraskrivelse/ ansvarsfråskriving reinforce forsterke bias forutinntatt holdning/ fordomsfull handling amass samle conceive of komme på elaborate her: utspekulert hunch sitte sammenbøyd/ sitte samanbøygd stand at attention stå i givakt dignitary viktig person extend an olive branch her: strekke ut en hånd/strekke ut ei hand treason landssvik premise (n) premiss, forutsetning/føresetnad ridiculous latterlig/latterleg revenue inntekter humiliate ydmyke/audmjuke dawn (n) daggry

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“Is Michelle Obama really dating Bruce Springsteen?”

“Iowa Farmer Claims Bill Clinton had Sex with Cow during ‘Cocaine Party.’ ”

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Blair had invented thousands of stories in the past two years, always trafficking in the same stereotypes to fool the same people, but he never tired of watching a post take off: Eight shares in the first minute, 160 within 15 minutes, more than 1,000 by the end of the hour. […] “Aaaaand, we’re viral,” he wrote, in a message to his liberal supporters on his private Facebook page.

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Chapian looked at the photo and nothing about it surprised her. Of course Trump had invited Clinton and Obama to the White House in a generous act of patriotism. Of course the Democrats – or “Demonrats,” as Chapian sometimes called them – had acted badly and disrespected America. It was the exact same narrative she saw playing out on her screen hundreds of times each day, and this time she decided to click ‘like’ and leave a comment. “Well, they never did have any class,” she wrote.

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The house was empty and quiet except for the clicking of her computer mouse. She lived alone, and on many days her only personal interaction occurred here, on Facebook. Mixed into her morning news feed were photos and updates from some of her 300 friends, but most items came directly from political groups Chapian had chosen to follow. […] Each political page published several posts each day directly into Chapian’s feed, many of which claimed to be “BREAKING NEWS.” […] “BREAKING: Democrat mega-donor accused of sexual assault!!!”

in the background were two women, one black and one white. “President Trump extended an olive branch and invited Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton,” the post read. “They thanked him by giving him ‘the finger’ during the national anthem.”

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migrant invasion!” read another, and she clicked “share.”

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Chapian didn’t believe everything she read online, but she was also distrustful of mainstream factcheckers and reported news. It sometimes felt to her like real facts had become indiscernible – that the truth was often somewhere in between. What she trusted most was her own ability to think critically and discern the truth, and increasingly her instincts aligned with the online community where she spent most of her time. […] “I’m not a conspiracy-theory-type person, but. . .” she wrote, before sharing a link to an unsourced story suggesting that Democratic donor George Soros had been a committed Nazi, or that a Parkland shooting survivor was actually a paid actor. Now another post arrived in her news feed, from a page called America’s Last Line of Defense, which Chapian had been following for more than a year. It showed a picture of Trump standing at a White House ceremony. Circled

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By the standards of America’s Last Line of Defense, the item about Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton was only a moderate success. It included no advertisements, so it wouldn’t earn Blair any money. It wasn’t even the most popular of the 11 items he’d published that day. But, just an hour earlier, Blair had come up with an idea at his computer in Maine, and now hundreds or maybe thousands of people across the country believed Obama and Clinton had flipped off the president. “Gross. Those women have no respect for themselves,” wrote a woman in Fort Washakie, Wyo.


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assault overgrep distrustful mistroisk/mistruisk indiscernible umulig å skille fra hverandre/umogleg å skilje frå kvarandre align with være på linje med/ vere på linje med conspiracy konspirasjon, sammensvergelse/ samansverjing unsourced som mangler kilde/ som manglar kjelde narrative fortelling/forteljing shunned utstøtt/utstøytt prominently tydelig/tydeleg pseudo-patriotic liksompatriotisk demote degradere offensive støtende/ støytande rerun her: publisere på nytt intentionally med hensikt

[…] “Jail them now!!!”

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Blair had fooled them. Now came his favorite part, the gotcha, when he could let his victims in on the joke. “OK, […] here’s your reality check,” he wrote on America’s Last Line of Defense, placing his comment prominently alongside the original post. “That is Omarosa and Hope Hicks, not Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton. They wouldn’t be caught dead posing for this pseudo-patriotic nationalistic garbage … Congratulations, stupid.”

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begin to question the root of some of their ideas.

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“They deserve to be publicly shunned,” said a man in Gainesville, Fla.

Beyond the money he earned, this was what Blair had conceived of as the purpose for his website: to engage directly with people who spread false or extremist stories and prove those stories were wrong. Maybe, after people had been publicly embarrassed, they would think more critically about what they shared online. Maybe they would

Blair didn’t have time to personally confront each of the several hundred thousand conservatives who followed his Facebook page, so he’d built a community of more than 100 liberals to police the page with him. […] Blair said he and his followers had gotten hundreds of people banned from Facebook and several others fired or demoted in their jobs for offensive behavior online. He had also forced Facebook to shut down 22 fake news sites for plagiarizing his content, many of which were Macedonian sites that reran his stories without labeling them as satire. What Blair wasn’t sure he had ever done was change a single person’s mind. He had begun to include more obvious disclaimers at the top of every post and to intentionally misspell several words in order to highlight the idiocy of his work, but still traffic continued to climb. Sometimes he wondered: Rather than of awakening people to reality, was he pushing them further from it? SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 141


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“You’re a gullible moron who just fell for a fake story on a Liberal satire page.” […] “Welcome to the internet. Critical thinking required.” […]

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Instead of responding directly to strangers on America’s Last Line of Defense, Chapian wrote on her own Facebook page. “Nasty liberals,” she said, and then she went back to her news feed, each day blending into the next. A Muslim woman with her burqa on fire: like. […] Hillary Clinton looking gaunt and pale: like. A military helicopter armed with machine guns and headed toward the caravan of immigrants: like. […] A picture of undocumented immigrants laughing inside a voting booth: like. “Deep State Alive and Well”: like.

Chapian recoiled from the screen. “Please!” she said. “If I had a kid in a school system like that, I’d yank them out so fast.” She had seen hundreds of stories on Facebook about the threat of sharia, and this confirmed much of what she already believed. It was probably true, she thought. It was true enough. “Do people understand that things like this are happening in this country?” she said. She clicked the post and the traffic registered back to a computer in Maine, where Blair watched another story go viral and wondered when his audience would get his joke.

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classroom. “California School children forced to Sharia in Class,” it read. “All of them have stopped eating bacon. Two began speaking in Allah. Stop making children pray to imaginary Gods!!”

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“Well, they never did have any class,” commented Shirley Chapian, from Pahrump, Nev., and Blair watched his liberal followers respond.

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By Eli Saslow, Washington Post, November 17, 2018 (abridged version)

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She scrolled upon another post from America’s Last Line of Defense, reading fast, oblivious to the satire labels and not noticing Blair’s trademark awkward phrasings and misspellings. It showed a group of children kneeling on prayer mats in a

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Eli Saslow

Eli Saslow (1982–) is an American journa­ list. He writes for the Washington Post. In 2014 he won the Pulitzer Prize. He has also published books about American society and has won several other awards for his writing.

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4.12 • Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a He noticed a picture/photo/text online of Trump standing at attention for the national anthem during a White House ceremony. b Lock them up for murder/disrespect/treason! c She lived alone, and on many days her only personal interaction/ intervention/interrogation occurred here, on Facebook. d It included no commercials/advertisements/advertising, so it wouldn’t earn Blair any money. e Maybe they would begin to question/doubt/examine the root of some of their ideas. f “You’re a stupid/gushing/gullible moron who just fell for a fake story on a Liberal satire page.” g It showed a group of children/kids/adolescents kneeling on prayer mats in a classroom. h It was probably untrue/true/correct, she thought.

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4.13 •• Complete these sentences with information from the text. a Christopher Blair scanned through conservative forums on Facebook . to find b Blair invented a fake story claiming that . c Shirley Chapian lived alone, and on many days . d Chapian didn’t believe everything she read online, but . e Apart from the money he earned, the purpose of Blair’s website was to engage directly with people who . f Blair had built a community of more than 100 liberals to . g Blair had forced Facebook to . h To make people aware of the fact that his stories were not true, Blair had begun to include .

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4.14 ••• Give at least one example from the text of the following. a How Christopher Blair communicates to his readers that the stories he posts are untrue. b How Christopher Blair has profited from his website America’s Last Line of Defense. c The kind of stories that Shirley Chapian reads and believes to be true. d How the story about Michelle Obama and Chelsea Clinton confirms what Shirley Chapian already believes. e The kind of response Christopher Blair gets from people who think what he writes is true. f How Blair and his followers have forced people to face the consequences of offensive behavior online. g The kind of language mistakes Christopher Blair deliberately makes so people will understand that his stories are fake. h How people such as Shirley Chapian read Christopher Blair’s posts and believe them anyway. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 143


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Practise

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4.15 Choose five of the expressions below. Write a sentence for each of them to show that you understand what they mean. Look up words you are not sure of and make a note of your source. Do you trust this source? Why? a idiocracy b satire c breaking news d conspiracy theory e deep state f echo chamber g confirmation bias h mainstream fact-checkers

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4.16 Visit a fake news or satire website and study the stories you find there. Some examples are naturalenews.com and theonion.com. Work in pairs and discuss the following questions: a What does the website claim has happened? b What could make you believe that the stories might be true? c What makes you realize that these stories cannot be true? d If these stories had been posted on a news website, would you have thought they reported the truth? Why?/Why not?

Write

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4.17 • Fill in the missing words and write out the text. biz – URL – accurate – digital tools – faked – believe – disagree – context – fake news – check Fake news There are many kinds of (a) The first is stories that are lies. They have been made up to make people (b) something that is not true. The second kind are stories that are not (c) , but contain some truth. Some people use the term ‘fake news’ about news that they (d) with. If you wonder whether a news item is true or not, there are some things you should (e) . If it contains spelling mistakes or strange sentences, this might mean that you should double-check the story. You should also check the (f) . If it is something like infonet or (g) , you could be right in thinking that the story might not be true. Pictures can also easily be (h) and this can be difficult to see. If you are not sure, you can use various (i) to check if an image has been used in the wrong (j) or altered in some way.

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7 Types of Mis- and Disinformation Satire or Parody

Misleading Content

Imposter Content

Fabricated Content

No intention to cause harm but has potential to fool

Misleading use of information to frame an issue or individual

When genuine sources are impersonated

New content that is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm

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INCREASING INTENT TO DECEIVE

False Context

When headlines, visuals or captions dont’t support the content

When genuine content is shared with false contextual information

Source: https://www.pnas.org/content/114/48/12631

Manipulated content

When genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive

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False Connection

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4.18 •• What advice would you give to Shirley Chapian when she reads her news feed? Make a list of important things for her to remember so she will not be fooled again.

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4.19 ••• Use your imagination and write a short fake news story. Find a picture to illustrate your story or use digital tools to manipulate a photo.

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4.20 Study the infographic on this page. Choose at least two types of misor disinformation. Research and find one example of each. Present your examples in class.

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the article is about YES

4.21 Visit a fact-checker website, such as Full Fact, Snopes, PolitiFact or Fact Checker. Which news stories do you find here? Have you read or heard about any of them before? How can a fact checker be a useful tool for you?

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How did you do?

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use words related to information and fake news YES

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share information on fake news and fact-checking sites YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SELECTING SOURCES

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Most students look for information online for their projects, papers and presentations. But unlike some traditional sources of information, such as books and magazines, the content you find online is not necessarily checked or approved before it is published. So how do you know that the information is reliable and relevant? Here is a guideline for selecting sources.

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1 Be focused. Think through what kind of information you need for your task. Don’t let yourself be tempted to jump from topic to topic.

2 Narrow your search. Use the search engine’s tabs for documents, images, news, maps

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or videos. If you use quotation marks, e.g. “American news media”, the search engine will search for the whole phrase and thus generate a more relevant result, instead of providing millions of hits for all three words in random order.

3 Is the information relevant? Be critical. Does your source add useful information

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to support an argument or illustrate a point? Also check when the information was published. Many websites are not updated and the information you find may not be relevant any more.

4 Is the information reliable? Who has published the information? If you cannot find this

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on the site itself, it may not be very serious. The URL may also give you some idea of who is behind a site. Also ask yourself why this information was published and who the target group is.

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.com is a commercial server .gov is a governmental or public server .edu is usually an educational institution .org is an organization .no is a Norwegian site

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5 Cross-check your information with at least one other source. If the information differs considerably, cross-check with more sources or discard the source as unreliable.

6 Refer to your sources. Remember that someone else has the copyright to material you are using. This also includes illustrations, encyclopaedia entries, films and online videos, speeches, interviews, blogs, podcasts and broadcasts. Do not simply copy and paste into your own work. See “Referring to sources” in Chapter 8 for more information.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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4.22 Answer the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. a Would you use a blog to find facts for a project on birth control? b Would you use a Wiki site to find information about political parties? c Would you use a website with the url.edu to help you find facts about population statistics? d Would you use a website with the URL.org to find information on fake news? e Would you trust a website with a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes? f If you were researching gun violence in the USA, would you trust information from the official website of the National Rifle Association?

d Infowars e BBC f Reuters

g The Guardian h Al Jazeera i Addicting Info

j Fox News k PBS l The Huffington Post

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a The Economist b USA Today c CNN

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4.23 Look up the following news providers online and study the top headlines. Rank the websites from the one that has the most sensational clickbait news to the one you think seems the most trustworthy. Discuss your results in class.

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4.24 Suggest at least three reliable and relevant sources for each of the following topics. a studying in the UK b the history of Brexit c the presidency of Donald Trump d organised crime in the USA

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4.25 Does the domain, i.e. the last element of the Internet address, say anything about the reliability of the website? Discuss in class, then find out what these domains stand for.

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a .mil b .net c .ru

d .in e .za f .au

Note! Wikipedia may be a good starting point when exploring a new topic, but you should remember that the information is provided by volunteers who are not necessarily experts on the subject. It is not considered a reliable source on its own.

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AIMS k explain the main content of this

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Boy A

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novel excerpt k use words and expressions related to crime k discuss society’s reaction to perpetrators of crime

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As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. This crime created massive media interest and public outrage. Jack has spent most of his life in different institutions. Now, at the age of 24, he has just been released with a new identity, new surroundings and a new job with the firm DV transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Jack has moved in with landlady Kelly, made friends with coworker Chris, who picks him up for work in the mornings, and fallen in love with the office-girl Michelle. At the point where we enter the story, Kelly is working the night shift, Michelle has disappeared and Jack’s boss Dave calls him to say that he needn’t come to work. Jack doesn’t understand at first and thinks it is because of some stock that has been stolen …

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‘Jack?’ ‘Yes!’ ‘We’re not going to need you at work for the moment. Well …’ he tails off. ‘What do you mean?’ ‘Don’t come in today.’ ‘Don’t come in until … unless … if, I ask you to. It’s not good for the business.’ ‘What’s this about, Dave?’ Jack is aware of the desperation in his voice. ‘Is it the stock? It’s not me, I haven’t taken a thing.’ ‘You know what it’s about. I’m sorry but that’s the end of it. I don’t wish to continue this discussion.’ ‘Dave,’ Jack says, ‘Dave?’ But the line is dead.

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Before you start a In English, explain what the term “age of criminal responsibility” means. b Do you know what the age of criminal responsibility is in Norway? Do you know what it is in England? If not, find out.

guilty skyldig horrible fryktelig/frykteleg released her: løslatt/lauslaten public outrage offentlig forargelse/offentleg forarging case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past (n) fortid landlady utleier, vertinne/ utleigar, vertinne coworker kollega disappear forsvinne tail off her: bli stille stock her: varer

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He puts his work clothes on anyway, not sure why, perhaps because they are lying ready for him over the chair. He can’t understand what just happened. He doesn’t want to believe the most obvious explanation for Dave’s behaviour: that he knows; somehow he knows. Jack clips the panic button/pager to his belt, and slides it round his hip, to beneath his right hand. Swallowing saliva as he realizes what he is admitting to himself. That he believes today he might need this machine. He is tempted to press it straightaway. He actually flips up the screen cap, and his finger hovers over the button. But that would be crazy. As freaked out as he is, he has to stay rational. How would Dave know? He’d be the last one to know. He’s got his head up his own arse most of the time. It’s much more likely that it’s to do with the stolen stock. He’s bound to be the first suspect; Dave knows he’s done time. He’ll wait until half seven or eight, and then phone Terry. He sits down on the sprawl of his unmade bed. Maybe he’d better call Chris now, though, tell him not to bother with the pick-up, in case he doesn’t know. Find out what Dave’s told him, if he does. Chris is engaged constantly. It’s 6:57 when Jack finally makes the connection. He pours out about being told not to come in, before Chris has a chance to open his mouth. ‘I know,’ Chris says coldly. ‘Dave’s given me the day off.’ ‘Is it the stock?’ Jack asks. ‘It’s you Jack, or whoever you are. It’s about you. How could you? I mean why? I mean what the fuck?’ Chris’ voice is tremulous now, you can almost hear his lip quivering. But then he spews out in total rage: ‘Have you hurt her? Just tell me that, have you hurt Michelle?’ ‘No, never, I couldn’t. What’s happened, have they found her?’ ‘Read the fucking paper. Read the Sun. I’ve already had them phone me this morning. ‘His anger drops a notch, or at least his voice does. ‘All the lies. How could you? How could you keep that up? How could you just squirm your way into our world? I’d tell you I’m done with you. But then, I don’t know who the fuck you are anyway.’ He puts the phone down. Jack is left standing in the hallway, with the buzz of his handset in his ear. Hearing this from Chris is like being beaten with his birthday present. But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. He needs to know what they’ve written. Peering through the window of Kelly’s room, he sees that the streets are still deserted. Grey with grimy pre-dawn light, looking squalid, ominous, but at least devoid of life. He can run down to the paper shop in less than a minute. Jack gets his dv cap from the drawer, a hat that has helped him escape detection before, and pulls it down hard with determined hands. He scans the street once more from Kelly’s window, and then again from the front room, before he walks stiff-legged to the door. Every muscle is tense as he twists the Yale lock. He realizes he has no money, and lets it click back into

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the clasp of the frame, while he dashes upstairs to get his wallet. He has to do this while he still has the nerve. He checks the panic button is still to hand and that he has his keys, before he opens the door again. Cautiously, studying the road, he lets it close behind him. He has just raised his right leg to provide the starting momentum for his run when the first flash catches him. It blinds him, blurring his vision, leaving an imprint on his eyes. He raises his hand to block out the light, as another flash comes from the same spot behind a wheelybin in the neighbour’s dark alley. It’s joined by a second bulb from a similar concealment across the street, then a third. All now firing in rapid succession. He turns and tries to force his key back into the lock. It won’t fit. They must have stuffed something in the hole to keep him out here. ‘Have you got anything you want to say?’ a man shouts. ‘Put your side before they all get here.’ Jack crouches down with his face to the door, and presses the panic button on the pager. Three or four times he pushes it, sinking it as hard as he can. Until the end of his finger bends back and the pain shoots him off it. He starts to topple in towards the door, losing his balance. His left hand goes out automatically to hold him off it. Clutched in his white fingers is the wrong key he’s been trying. With both palms he slides himself up the towering pus-green wood. The flashes, which are close around him now, parade how much his hand is shaking. It appears at different points around the lock, illuminated by this hateful personal strobe show. The key bounces off the lock’s metal surround, but this one fits. The door opens to let Jack fall into the hallway. One final explosion from a long-barrelled Canon hits his face, before he pushes the lens away and forces the threshold shut. They try and lift the letterbox. But he slams his elbow against it to keep it closed. His head collapses into the crook of the same arm. Only his will is holding them back …

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IN SHORT

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As a young child, Jack was found guilty of a horrible crime. Jack has spent most of his life in prison. Now he is 24. He has just been released. He has a new identity and a new job with the firm dv transport. Only Terry, his case worker, knows about his past. Things are going well for Jack. He has made friends at work. He is in love with office-girl Michelle. But Michelle has disappeared and no one knows where she is. One morning his boss, Dave, calls him. He tells Jack that he doesn’t need to come to work any more. Jack cannot understand how Dave has found out about him.

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Jack tries to call his coworker Chris. Chris usually picks Jack up in the mornings, but today it isn’t necessary. Chris’s phone is busy. At last, Chris answers the phone. Chris has been given the day off, too. It is because the media has found out about Jack. Chris is very angry. He wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. Jack says he hasn’t.

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Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. He looks out of a window, but the streets are dark. He starts to leave the house, but he is blinded by the flash of a camera. Jack tries to get back into the house, but the key doesn’t fit. Lots of photographers are hiding in the street. They take pictures of Jack. He has a panic button, but Terry doesn’t answer it. Jack finds the right key and manages to unlock the door. He gets into the hallway. He forces the door shut behind him, but the photographers are still outside …

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guilty skyldig horrible fryktelig/frykteleg released her: løslatt/lauslaten case worker saksbehandler/ saksbehandlar past fortid office kontor disappear forsvinne understand forstå coworker kollega blinded blendet/blenda hide gjemme seg/gøyme seg panic button trygghetsalarm/ tryggingsalarm unlock låse opp hallway gang, entrè force tvinge

Jonathan Trigell

Jonathan Trigell (1974–) is a British writer. His first novel, Boy A, was highly praised by critics and has won several awards. A film adaptation of the novel was released in 2007.

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4.26 • Place these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the “in short” version of the text. a Chris wants to know if Jack has hurt Michelle. b Jack tries to call Chris, but his phone is busy. c Jack wants to know what the newspapers have written about him. d Jack is blinded by the flash of a camera. e Jack’s boss calls him to say he doesn’t need to come to work. f Jack manages to get back into the house and forces the door shut. g Jack says he hasn’t hurt Michelle. h Finally, Chris answers the phone.

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Read and understand

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4.27 •• Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the original version of the text. a Jack decides to call Chris to tell him that he doesn’t need to pick Jack up for work. b Jack suspects that Dave knows about his past, but cannot understand how that has happened. c Jack leaves the house, only to find that the street is full of press photographers. d Jack decides to go out and buy a newspaper to see what they have written about him. e Dave says that Jack doesn’t need to come to work because it is bad for the business. f Jack clips his panic button onto his belt and realizes that today he might need it. g Chris tells Jack that his phone has been busy because he has been talking to the press. h Jack puts on his work clothes.

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4.28 ••• Explain these words and expressions from the text in your own words. a The line is dead. b As freaked out as he is. c He’s got his head up his own arse. d Dave knows he’s done time. e He pours out about being told not to come in. f But it’s his old nemesis, the Sun, that’s dealt the blow. g He has to do this while he still has the nerve. h Put your side before they all get here.

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Practise

4.29 Write down the word that fits each definition. Look up words you don’t know. theft – robbery – kidnapping – homicide – assault – arson – blackmail – fraud – hijacking – hooliganism

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Stealing something from someone. The use of threats or violence to take control of a plane. Killing someone. Stealing money, usually from a bank or shop, by using violence. Destroying somebody’s property on purpose. Taking somebody away by force to get money for returning them. Illegally getting money from someone by tricking them. Getting money by threatening to tell secrets about someone. Deliberately setting fire to something, usually a building. The crime of attacking someone.

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a b c d e f g h i j

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4.30 The following expressions are known as phrasal verbs. They consist of verbs with prepositions. First, make sure you know what they mean, then use each of the phrasal verbs in sentences of your own. a be angry with b agree on c argue about d run into e turn down f break out g take off h fall apart i go after j hold onto

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4.31 Discuss these questions and sum up your opinions. a Do you think that the purpose of a prison is to punish, or should it be a place where people who have made bad choices can be rehabilitated? b It has been claimed that Norwegian prisons are more like hotel rooms and do not punish criminals at all. Do you agree? c When you hear or read about crimes in the news, how are they presented? How can media coverage influence our opinions on crime? If you can, give examples to support your views.

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Write

4.32 • What is the last crime you can remember reading or hearing about in the news? What happened and who was involved? Make a list of facts.

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4.34 ••• Should people who were convicted of crimes when they were children be allowed to start a new life with a new identity when they are grown up? Or does the community have a right to know? Write a text in which you discuss this.

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4.33 •• What do you think the age of legal responsibility should be? Write one paragraph and give reasons why.

Explore

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4.35 Boy A has been made into a film. Watch the film and write a short review.

4.36 The novel Boy A is loosely based on the James Bulger case. Find out what happened to him in 1993. How were the two young criminals treated? What kind of debate did this crime cause?

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4.37 Many people enjoy watching television series about true crimes. a Find examples of such television series. Choose one. b What types of crimes are featured in the series? c How are the crimes, the ones who committed them and their victims portrayed? d What is the purpose of such television series? e Why do you think they have become so popular with viewers?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the main content of this novel excerpt YES

ALMOST

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use words and expressions related to crime YES

ALMOST

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discuss society’s reaction to perpetrators of crime YES

ALMOST

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FACT FILE THE UK FACT F Football

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In the 1800s many important inventions were made in Britain. It also had some of the world’s largest reserves of coal to drive the new machines. Many factories were built to produce textiles, iron and steel which could be exported to other countries.

Football is the most popular team sport in the world. The London Football Association created the first rules in 1863 and football became an Olympic event in 1908. But actually, football was invented by the Chinese more than 2000 years ago.

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The Workshop of the World

By 1921, the British Empire covered more than 37 million square kilometres. It had a population of between 470 and 570 million people, which was about one quarter of the world’s population at the time. After World War II the British Empire gradually fell apart, but many of the former colonies still choose to remain part of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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T FILE THE UK FACT FILE

UK facts

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On June 23 2016 a referendum was held in the United Kingdom. The question was whether the UK should leave the European Union or remain a member state. More than 30 million people turned out to vote. 51.9 % of these wanted to leave. In Scotland 62 % of the voters wished to remain EU members. In Northern Ireland there was a majority of 55.8 % in favour of remaining. After much political debate and negotiations, the UK left the EU on 31 January 2020.

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Brexit

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Official name: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Size: 244,820 square kilometres Population: 66,959,016 Geography: 4 regions: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland Capital: London Scotland: Edinburgh Wales: Cardiff Northern Ireland: Belfast Government: Constitutional monarchy. Parliament Head of state: Queen/King National day Wales: March 1, St David’s Day Northern Ireland: March 17, St Patrick’s Day England: April 23, St George’s Day Scotland: November 30, St Andrew’s Day Currency: pound sterling Agriculture: Cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, fish Important industries: Machine tools, electric power equipment, shipbuilding, oil and gas production Popular sports: Football, golf, rugby, cricket, athletics, tennis and swimming

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The British Empire

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Canada

Newfoundland

Bermuda

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Cook Isl. Tonga

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Bahamas

United Kingdom Eire Gibraltar

Malta

Palestine Iraq Trans Jordan Kuwait Indian Empire Trucial Oman

Hong Kong Gold Nigeria Coast The Gambia Br. Somaliland Sudan Bruneii Ceylon Uganda Sierra N. Borneo Papua Gilbert & Malaysia Maldives Leone Liberia Rwanda New Ellice Is. Singapore Sarawak Kenya Br. Guiana Guinea Cameroon Tanganyika Seychelles Zanzibar Solomon Ascension Chagos Cocos Is. Rhodesia Nyasaland Is. Archipelago St. Helena New Southwest Bechuanaland Hebrides Mauritius Australia Africa Tristan da Swaziland Fiji Is. Cunha Basutoland Gough Is. South Africa Falkland Is. New Zealand

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FACT FILE THE UK FACT F AIMS

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k give some examples of British politics and culture k describe Britain’s influence in the past k sum up background information about the

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United Kingdom

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Shetland Islands Orkney Islands SCOTLAND

Belfast Dublin IRELAND

Edinburgh Glasgow The ENGLAND Irish Leeds Manchester Sea Liverpool WALES Birmingham London Cardiff Bristol Brighton Channel

4.39 •• Answer these questions. a What is the official name of the UK? b What is the capital of Wales? c What does the Welsh flag look like? d When were the first rules for football created? e When did football become an Olympic event? f What percentage of Scottish voters voted to leave the EU in June 2016? g How many people belonged to the British Empire in 1921? h Whose picture do you find on British money?

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The English

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NORTHERN IRELAND

The No rth S ea

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Hebrides

4.38 • Find the wrong word in each of the sentences below and change it to the correct one. a The capital of Scotland is Glasgow. b The head of state in the UK is the President. c The currency in the uk is the Euro. d The official name of the UK is the United Kingdom of Little Britain and Northern Ireland. e Popular sports in the UK are football, golf, rugby, ski jumping, tennis and swimming. f The national day in Scotland is St Andrew’s Day on September 30. g The capital of Northern Ireland is Dublin.

4.40 ••• Sum up what the UK fact file tells you about c industry e history a the population d sports f the UK leaving the EU b the geography

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4.41 What do you associate with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland? Do these countries have their own identities, cultures and languages? Discuss and share opinions in groups. 158 | Chapter 4: Citizens | SKILLS


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Practise

4.42 Match the English word with the correct Norwegian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

kandidat valgdag stemme flertall valg til nasjonalforsamlingen stemmeseddel valglokale valgkrets

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cast a vote constituency majority polling day polling station ballot paper candidate general election

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A B C D E F G H

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T FILE THE UK FACT FILE

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4.43 Fill in words from task 4.42. In the United Kingdom a (a) must take place at least every five years. Each (b) decides which politician it wants to represent the voters in Parliament. Usually many political parties field a candidate. On (c) , the voters go to the (d) to (e) . The voters do this by writing an X on the (f) in the box next to the name of the (g) or party they vote for. It is the candidate who gets the (h) of votes who wins the seat.

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4.44 Make a timeline starting on June 23rd 2016 and fill in the most important dates and events in the Brexit process.

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How did you do?

4.45 Find out how old you have to be to vote in the UK. Is it the same in all the countries of the UK? 4.46 What are the most important industries in the UK? Use relevant and reliable sources to find more information. Choose how you want to present your findings.

YES

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describe Britains’s influence in the past YES

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sum up background information about the United Kingdom YES

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Life in the UK

A multicultural society

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Modern Britain is home to many ethnic groups, but the majority of the population is still English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish. In the large cities, you will see a variety of nationalities. Many of them come from former British colonies. In London, for example, at least 250 languages are spoken every day, and you can find restaurants from nearly every corner of the world. However, there are also conflicts between cultures and generations. Young people whose parents or grandparents come from other countries may have a very different experience of growing up than their parents. Today, there are programmes helping immigrants settle and become part of the local community, but there are also those who are strongly opposed to immigration.

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Family life

population befolkning former tidligere/tidlegare opposed to imot increase (n) økning/auke household husholdning/ hushald poll meningsmåling/ meiningsmåling three quarters tre fjerdedeler/ tre fjerdedelar

Over the past ten years there has been an increase in the number of families, but the typical British family is changing. More couples live together without getting married. Also, more children are born to unmarried couples. Around 15 % of households are single parents with children, and the number of singleparent families has in fact decreased. Furthermore, one in four young adults between 20 and 34 are living with their parents, according to the Office of National Statistics. It is more common for young men to live with their parents than for young women. When asked in a recent poll, three quarters of all Britons said they were optimistic about their family’s future. More than 90 % described their family life as happy.

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Education in the UK

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AIMS Although most British children go to ordinary state schools and live at home, for some middle-class and k give examples of British culture and upper-class families it is a tradition to send their values children away to boarding schools at an early age. These k compare aspects of life in the UK schools are often independent and very expensive, and and Norway there are waiting lists to get in. Members of the royal k use reading strategies family, the very rich and famous, and top politicians from around the world send their sons and daughters to these schools. Most schools offer scholarships to good students who cannot afford the school fees themselves. An education from one of these famous schools, or from prestigious universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, will open many doors. However, many state schools and universities have improved their quality of education, and now rank very high on the lists of good schools.

Health and welfare

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“Keep calm and carry on” was the slogan on a poster made during World War II. This is in many ways typical of the British people. Even when the going gets tough, the British are usually seen as calm and collected, and often joke about their own situation. There is, however, a feeling of collective responsibility. Healthcare, including dentistry, is free to all permanent residents and paid for by taxes. A recent survey showed that most Britons are satisfied with the medical help they get from the National Health Service despite many negative articles in the press. There are also housing projects funded by the government. Although Britain is not a large country, there are great differences in the standard of living, income levels and number of unemployed workers, for example between the north and south of England.

independent her: privat scholarship stipend fee skolepenger/skolepengar prestigious prestisjefylt rank (v) rangere slogan slagord dentistry tannlegebehandling resident innbygger/innbyggjar survey undersøkelse/ undersøking fund (v) finansiere income level inntektsnivå

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4.47 • Read the text once to get a general idea of what the text is about. Then write keywords for each of the following headings. Compare your keywords with those of a partner, then share in class. A multicultural society – Family life – Education in the UK – Health and welfare

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4.48 •• Scan the text for specific information to fill in the open spaces in the text below.

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Although the majority of the in the UK is English, , Scottish and , there are many different groups in the UK. In London, at least languages are spoken every day. However, there are also between cultures and . Family in Britain is changing. In the UK, around of the households are parents with children. Still, more than % describe their family life as .

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Most British children go to ordinary schools and live at . For middle and upper families it is a tradition to send their away to schools. These schools are often very , and there are lists to get in. An education from prestigious such as and Cambridge will open many doors.

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The British are usually seen as and collected, and often joke about their own . There is, however, a feeling of collective . In the UK, is free to all permanent and paid for by . There are great differences in the of living and number of workers, for example between the and south of England.

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4.49 ••• Close-read the texts «Education in the UK» and «Health and Welfare». Answer the following questions. a How are independent schools different from state schools? b How can students from families who cannot afford the tuition fees get into independent schools? c Why are universities like Oxford and Cambridge considered attractive? d Mention four characteristics used to describe the British in the text. e Do the British enjoy any health and welfare benefits? f How do the north and south of England differ?

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Speak

4.50 From any of the four texts, choose one piece of information that you find interesting or did not already know. Share this information with a partner.

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4.52 What do you associate with life in the UK? What or who has influenced your views? Discuss in groups.

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4.51 Choose one of the four topics from the text and compare it with Norway. Work in groups of four and divide the topics between you.

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4.53 Practise pronouncing the following words from the text with a partner. c prestigious e politician a survey d increase f scholarship b statistics

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4.54 The drama series Years and Years (2019), produced by the BBC and HBO, follows the Lyons family from Manchester as they deal with changes in a futuristic Britain, spanning from 2019 to 2034. Watch the series or a few episodes and comment on the following questions. a Who are the members of the Lyons family? Describe their family life, how they live and what they do. b Who is Vivian Rooke, and what is her message? How and why does she become so popular? c What are some of the technological innovations that affect the lives of the Lyons family? Are these innovations purely positive, or are there any ethical dilemmas involved? d Who are the refugees in this version of British society? What is their situation? e Does the series present a realistic picture of the near future? Explain.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can give examples of British culture and values YES

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compare aspects of life in the UK and Norway YES

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use reading strategies YES

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You, Work and the Law

Working Environment Act Arbeidsmiljøloven contribute bidra ensure sikre

Working is an important aspect of being a citizen and contributing to society. To ensure safe working conditions and to protect workers’ rights are the aims of the Working Environment Act. Young people getting a part-time job, a summer job, or perhaps an apprenticeship come across this law for the first time. It specifies vital facts you should be aware of as a young employee.

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AIMS k understand parts of the Working

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Environment Act relevant to young workers k discuss working conditions k reflect on attitudes to child labour

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The Working Environment Act states that you have the right to a written contract. This contract must say what kind of job you will do, what your working hours are and how much you will be paid. In many countries, including Norway, there is no official minimum wage. This means that it is up to you and the employer to agree on your salary. If you are a member of a trade union, you can demand tariff pay. Your employer must give you a written, itemized pay statement. This shows how many hours you have worked, how much you pay in taxes, if you do, and anything else that is deducted from your pay. You should keep these statements as they are important documentation. The Working Environment Act also says that your employer must give you appropriate training. This includes instructions for how the job should be done, as well as the safety rules and regulations that apply in the workplace. You must be paid for the time that this training takes. If you need special safety equipment, it is the employer’s responsibility to provide it – and that includes paying for it. There are age limits on how much you can work and what kind of job you can have. If you are under 18, you cannot be asked to work overtime or at night. If you work for more than 4 ½ hours you must have at least one 30-minute break. If you cannot leave your work to take that break, it must be counted as part of your working hours and you must be paid for it. According to the Working Environment Act your employer must have good and relevant reasons to terminate your employment and must give you written notice. If you give notice you must let your employer know at least one month in advance that you plan to leave. However, you can be dismissed immediately if you commit a serious offence. Stealing from the workplace or turning up for work in an intoxicated state could lead to immediate dismissal. When you quit your job you have the right to a written reference. This reference must say how long you were employed for and what kind of job you did. A reference is an important document since it is the written proof that you actually had a job. When you apply for further education or for other jobs later, a good reference could prove very valuable.

minimum wage minstelønn trade union fagforening/ fagforeining itemized spesifisert pay statement lønnslipp/ lønnsslipp deduct trekke fra/trekke frå terminate avslutte notice her: oppsigelse/ oppseiing give notice si opp/seie opp reference attest

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4.55 • Answer these questions. a Does the Working Environment Act say anything about a written contract? b Do we have a minimum wage in Norway? c Must your employer give you appropriate training? d Must you pay for your own safety equipment? e Should you throw away your pay statement when you have looked it over? f Can you work overtime if you are under 18? g Can you lose your job at once if you steal from your workplace? h Can a good reference be valuable later in life?

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4.56 •• Choose the correct alternative in each sentence. a The Working Environment Act contains important information you should be aware of as a young employer/young employee/young employed/young unemployed. b We don’t have a minimum wage in Norway, so young workers earn very little/young workers earn less than in the US/your employer and you must agree on your salary/you must be really greedy. c It is the employer’s responsibility to provide safety equipment and also to pay for it/but you must pay cash for it/but the cost will be deducted from your pay/but your parents must pay for it. d If you cannot leave the workplace to take a break, you must tell customers to come back in 30 minutes/go to the toilet for 30 minutes/ manage without a break/be paid for the time you should have had a break. e Stealing from the workplace or turning up for work in an intoxicated state could lead to immediate promotion/your losing your job at once/ your being told to come back tomorrow/a large sum being deducted from your pay.

Practise

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4.57 Fill in the correct preposition. a In the past, many British children worked factories. b Children would work many hours each day. c 1833, the British Parliament passed the Factory Act. d The Factory Act stated that no child the age of nine could work in a factory. e The Factory Act also stated that children of nine and thirteen could not work for more than nine hours a day. f According to the Factory Act children could not work night. g Children must also go school for at least two hours every day. h This act of Parliament slowly improved life child workers.

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4.58 Look at the picture and discuss these questions. a How old do you think this child is? b What do you think is produced here? c What do you think the working conditions are like in this place?

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4.59 Is child labour only a thing of the past? Find a picture which shows children at work in our own time. Discuss what you think the working conditions are like. How did you do?

Write

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4.60 The text “You and the Working Environment Act” on the previous page is a five-paragraph text. Check the guidelines for how to write such a text in this chapter and compare the two. Is this text correctly structured? Would you add or change anything? If so, what? Make a short list.

Explore

4.61 What does the term “gig economy” mean? What are positive and negative aspects of this development? How did you do?

After working with the text and tasks, I can understand parts of the Working Environment Act relevant to young workers YES

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discuss working conditions YES

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reflect on attitudes to child labour YES

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Black Hoodie

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In this abridged short story you will meet three Irish teenagers who are in Transition Year at school. In Ireland this is an optional one-year programme. It aims to give students not only an academic education, but also to encourage creativity and independence, as well as life skills and work experience. To this end, the three of them form a mini-company. Their teacher, who the students refer to as Ms TheyDon’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night, doesn’t understand their idea at first …

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MY GIRLFRIEND IS Nigerian, kind of, and when we go through the shops, we’re followed all the way. We stop – the security guards stop. We go up the escalator – they’re three steps behind us, and there’s another one waiting at the top. We look at something, say, a shoe, and they all look at us looking at the shoe. And people – ordinary people, like – they see the security guards looking at us, and they stop and start looking at us, in case something good’s going to happen. You’re never lonely if you’re with a black girl, or even if your hoodie is black. I said she was Nigerian, kind of. I didn’t mean she was kind of Nigerian. I meant she’s kind of my girlfriend. She’s lovely and, I have to admit, I kind of like the attention. No one really noticed me until I started going with her, kind of. Now they all look, and you can see it in their faces; they’re thinking, There’s a white fella with a black girl, or something along those lines. I’m the white fella.

escalator rulletrapp hoodie hette(genser)

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I’m dead into her. I’d love it if she was my girlfriend – full time, like. My da says I should just go ahead and ask AIMS her. But I don’t know. What if she says No? I’m not telling you her name. And that means I can’t k extract information while reading and listening use my own name either. Because, how many Nigerian girls is the average Irish teenager going to be hanging k reflect on aspects of stereotyping around with? If I give my name, I might as well give k use prepositions correctly hers. So no. So, there we are, myself and my Nigerian friend, and we’re walking through the shop, being tailed by the Feds. And meanwhile, our friend, who’s in a – And now, there’s another problem. There’s a fella in a wheelchair in the story. How many male teenagers in the greater Dublin area share their leisure time with young men in wheelchairs and Nigerian women? Our friend is in a wheelchair, but he doesn’t need it. It’s his brother’s. His brother is in McDonald’s, waiting for us. And while the Feds follow me because (a) I’m with a black person, and (b) I’m wearing a hoodie, he’s robbing everything he can stretch to, because (a) he’s in the wheelchair, and (b) he’s wearing glasses. It’s an experiment. Market research. Let me explain. We aren’t robbing the stuff because we want it, or just for the buzz. No. We are a mini-company. Three of us are in Transition Year, in school. The brother who actually owns the wheelchair isn’t. He’s in Sixth Year. We used to call him Superman, but he asked us to stop. So, fair enough; we stopped. Anyway, as part of our Transition Year programme, me and Ms Nigeria and not-Superman’s brother had to form a mini-company, to help us learn about the real world and commerce and that. We’re the last. And Ms TheyDon’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night is staring at us, her pen, like, held right over her list, waiting for our brainwave. And it comes. – Stereotyping, says Ms Nigeria. – What? says Ms They-Don’t-Know etc. – I mean – what do you mean? – Well, says the young woman I secretly love, – we’re constantly being labelled. She always talks like she’s on the News or something. I like it – a lot. – Oh, excellent! says Ms etc. – You’re going to make labels. Accessorize. tail (v) følge etter – Well, says the Nigerian newsreader. – No, actually. You misunderstood. leisure time fritid – We’re being clever, are we – Name Omitted? she says. buzz her: spenning – No, says Name Omitted. – I’m quite happy to explain. Transition Year overgangsår I’d be quite happy to lie down and lick her feet. But it probably isn’t the mellom ungdomsskolen time or the place. og videregående skole/ – We are all labelled and stereotyped, she says. Automatically: We don’t vidaregåande skole have to say or do anything. For example, I walk into a shop and the security mini-company elevbedrift staff immediately decide that I am there to shoplift. locked her: beruset/rusa – Because you’re black? omitted utelatt/utelaten, utelate – Because I’m young, says Ms Nigeria. – And, yes, because I’m black. shoplifting butikktyveri/ – What has this got to do with your mini-company? butikktjuveri SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 169


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wastage sløsing consultancy firm konsulentfirma retail outlet butikk practice praksis garda politi CCTV footage film fra overvåkingskamera/film frå overvakingskamera muppet idiot NME irsk musikkblad overheads utgifter premises lokale reconvene møtes igjen/møtast igjen wheelbarrow trillebår shin-guards leggskinn/ leggskinne trap her: kjeften wipe tørke av Fed politi plainclothes sivilkledd inflict påføre incarcerate sperre inne business venture forretningsforetak/ forretningsføretak

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– Well, says Name Omitted. – Can you imagine the wastage of man-hours and goodwill – oh, all sorts of things – that results directly from this? She certainly knows her onions – whatever that means. – Go on, says Ms They-Don’t-Know. – Well, says Name Omitted, – myself and my colleagues here – and she points at me and the other fella – are going to establish a consultancy firm, to advise retail outlets on stereotyping of young people, and best practice towards its elimination. And that’s how we end up in Pearse Street Garda Station. It’s me who comes up with the name, Black Hoodie Solutions. I’m wearing a black hoodie and my Nigerian lover is black and she’s got a hoodie too – kind of a girl one – and the other fella’s got one too. So that’s Black Hoodie. And the Solutions bit – it just sounds cool. So, there you go – Black Hoodie Solutions. Ms They-Don’t-Know writes it down, and the bell goes. Next thing you know, we’re robbing shops. And it’s cool; business is brisk. The manager of the Spar near the school is a bit freaked when we bring back the stuff we’ve just stolen, but she’s quite impressed when she sees the CCTV footage of her security muppet walking after Ms Nigeria’s arse – true – while I’m right behind him, the hoodie off, taking four packs of microwave popcorn and an NME. She even pays us a tenner and a Cornetto, each – the Cornettos, not the tenner. But we’re happy; we’re ahead. A whole tenner, no overheads – the Irish economy doesn’t know what hit it. Anyway. Ms Nigeria hands our weekly report to Ms They-Don’t-Know-IWas-Locked-Yet-Again-Last-Night. Three pages, a black folder, logo and all. Anyway. Ms They-Don’t-Know is impressed, but a bit suspicious. She looks at me. – So, she said. – What’s next? – Well, says Ms Nigeria. – We’re taking it to a new level. – Yes, I agree. – Oh shite, says not-Supermans’s brother. And that’s where you meet us, back where I started, robbing the bigger places in town: him in his brother’s wheelchair, doing the larceny bit, while me and Ms Nigeria drag the muppets up and down the escalators, through all the bras and plasma screens. It’s a large department store, much loved by Dublin’s mammies; and, again, all goes to plan. We leave the premises, by different exits. We reconvene, give not-Superman back his wheelbarrow. And we re-enter, to hand back the goods and negotiate our consultancy fee. We ask Svetlana at the information desk for the manager. And, while we wait, we smile and – yeah – we giggle. And I’m really close to grabbing Ms Nigeria’s hand and asking her to go with me, when another hand grabs my shoulder and I nearly wet myself. I think I yelp or something – I’m not sure.

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Roddy Doyle Roddy Doyle (1958–) is an Irish writer of novels for both adults and children, as well as screenplays and short story collections. Some of his books have been made into films. Roddy Doyle has won the Man Booker Prize and several other awards for his work.

Read and understand

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4.62 • Who says what in this story, Ms They-Don’t-Know-I-Was-LockedLast-Night, or Ms Nigeria? a I mean – what do you mean? b You’re going to make labels. Accessorize. c No, actually. You misunderstood. d We are all labelled and stereotyped. e Because you’re black? f Can you imagine the wastage of man-hours and goodwill – oh, all sorts of things – that results directly from this? g Go on. h We’re taking it to a new level.

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4.63 •• Decide whether the sentences below are true, false, or that there is no information in the text. True

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False

No info

This short story takes place in Dublin.

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b The characters in the short story are all from Nigeria. c The characters in the short story are all 15 years old. d Ms Nigeria has a good idea for a mini-company. The students are robbing shops for fun and for pocket money. The narrator is in love with Ms Nigeria.

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g Ms Nigeria claims that security staff in shops will automatically think that she is there to shoplift. h The mini-company Black Hoodie Solutions only lasted for about three weeks.

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4.64 ••• Exchange the underlined words or expressions with synonyms or near-synonyms which do not change the meaning of the sentence. a I’m dead into her. b So, there we are, myself and my Nigerian friend, and we’re walking through the shop, being tailed by the Feds. c Let me explain. We aren’t robbing the stuff because we want it, or just for the buzz. d And Ms They-Don’t-Know-I-Was-Locked-Last-Night is staring at us, her pen, like, held right over her list, waiting for our brainwave. e She certainly knows her onions – whatever that means. f A whole tenner, no overheads – the Irish economy doesn’t know what hit it. g We reconvene, give not-Superman back his wheelbarrow. h And I’m really close to grabbing Ms Nigeria’s hand and asking her to go with me, when another hand grabs my shoulder and I nearly wet myself.

Listen

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4.65 “At the Station” • Listen to the rest of the short story. Match each sentence with the correct Norwegian translation.

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English A – We actually took nothing, she says. B He points at not-Superman’s little brother. C But she’s calm. D It’s my da. He smiles like it hurts.

G Is that too much to ask? H – Shoplifting, he says.

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E – What’s your name, by the way? F And listen to this.

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Norwegian Men hun er rolig.

2 Og hør på dette her. 3

– Butikktyveri, sier han.

4 Han peker på ikke-Supermanns lillebror. 5 Er det for mye å be om? 6

– Hva heter du, forresten?

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– Vi tok faktisk ingenting, sier hun.

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Det er faren min. Han smiler som om det gjør vondt.


4.66 •• After listening, note down keywords for information about the following. a How a police officer uses racist language to intimidate Ms Nigeria. b How Ms Nigeria is angry, but remains calm. c How the narrator is frightened by the police. d How the narrator defies the police and confronts an officer. e How both the narrator and Ms Nigeria have their parents’ support in the situation they are in. f How the short story ends.

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4.67 Fill in the missing prepositions. There may be more than one correct answer. a Before long, they had arrived the police station. b They did not actually steal department stores. c The main character asked the police officer’s name. d The wheelchair belonged not-Superman. e Black Hoodie Solutions had borrowed the wheelchair him. f Ms Nigeria explained her business idea the teacher. g Ms Nigeria waited her parents to arrive. h They are no longer worried their daughter.

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4.68 Discuss the questions below. Support your arguments by examples as far as possible. a Do you think Ms Nigeria is right when she says, “For example, I walk into a shop and the security staff immediately decide that I am there to shoplift”? b Do you think Black Hoodie Solutions sounds like a good business idea? Do you think such a mini-company could make a difference? Why?/Why not? c Do you think people from ethnic minorities might have the same experiences of stereotyping as the characters in “Black Hoodie”? d Do you think police officers could behave this way where you live?

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How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can extract information while reading and listening YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS STRUCTURING A TEXT In your English course and in exams, you will be asked to write longer texts on different topics. This step-by-step guide will help you in the process.

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1 Before you start

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Read the instructions well and underline the verbs. What is your topic? Does it say what type of text you are going to write, and who your reader will be? Text type and target group decide what style of language to use when you write. Study “Using formal and informal language” in Chapter 3 for more information on what style of language is appropriate for different types of texts.

2 Find information

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What do you already know about the topic? Have a brainstorming session, for example with other classmates. At this point, all ideas are good for the process. Group your ideas together. Then research the topic. Cross-check your sources. Make sure you write down where you found the information. For advice, see “Selecting sources” in this chapter.

3 Organize your text in paragraphs

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For written assignments, organization is very important. An outline will help you plan and structure your text. For most writing tasks where you are asked to discuss a topic, your text can be structured into five paragraphs as shown in the example on the right.

4 Link your sentences and paragraphs together

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Use sentence connectors to help the reader follow your arguments. Check “Structuring paragraphs” in Chapter 3 for examples of sentence connectors.

5 Revise your text

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• Check the instructions for the assignment one last time. Have you done what you were asked to do? • Is your text well structured in clear paragraphs? Do you need to expand on some points? • Have you used a varied vocabulary? For nuance, try to replace some of the words you use most frequently with synonyms. For example, some synonyms of new are current, up to date, fresh, modern or contemporary. • Run a spelling check and a grammar check. They won’t catch every mistake, but they may spot some that you have missed yourself.

6 Before you hand in your text Have you listed all the sources you have used to find information about your topic? Study “Referring to sources” in Chapter 8 for more advice.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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“No one who has lived through the second half of the 20th century could possibly be blind to the enormous impact of exchange programs on the future of countries.” These are the words of former American president Bill Clinton. If you have considered going abroad as an apprentice, you have probably thought more about what it would mean on a personal level than how it would affect the world. The personal benefits may seem obvious, but there are also challenges. First of all, discovering a new place and making new friends are often the most exciting aspects of living and working abroad. Many young people look forward to experiencing a culture that is unlike their own, and to improving their language skills. Second, some develop interests and participate in activities they would never have tried at home. In addition, a year or even some months abroad may help you become more independent and tolerant, which can prove to be of real value when applying for jobs in the future. On the other hand, some find it difficult to adapt to a new cultural environment. It may take time to understand social codes and local customs, for example when to arrive if invited to a party or something as simple as how to greet someone. Living in shared accomodation with roomates you do not know also requires an open mind and a positive attitude from everyone. Furthermore, getting used to a new company culture can also be a challenge. Not only are all the work operations carried out in a foreign language, the work methods can be unfamiliar as well. It is not unusual to spend the first few months trying to understand how things are done and what is expected from you. All in all, working as an apprentice abroad may seem daunting, but the rewards are many once you overcome the initial challenges. Successfully completing an apprenticeship abroad may give you a sense of achievement and memories that last a lifetime. It will most likely change the way you view the world, and who knows, perhaps you will even change the future of your country.

Paragraph 1 Start the introduction with a general statement to let the reader know what the text will focus on, a surprising fact or a quote to catch the reader’s attention.

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Apprenticeships Abroad?

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Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 These paragraphs make up the body of your text where you describe, explain and argue for or against your topic. If relevant, state your own opinion in a paragraph. Paragraph 5 In the conclusion, give a final perspective on your topic, but do not repeat the same sentences as in previous paragraphs. Do not introduce new ideas in the conclusion.

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4.70 Collaborate to write a well-structured text. a Make an outline for a text called “Why is fact-checking important?” b Swap outlines with a partner. Have a brainstorming session to get more ideas and good arguments. c Write an introduction to the text. What would be a good way to get the reader’s attention and make him/her want to read on? Work in pairs. d Use the following keywords to write a conclusion to the text. Swap texts with a partner. Compare and give each other constructive feedback. all in all – many reasons – source – reliable – relevant – fake – in conclusion

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The Hate U Give

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Before you start a What would you do if you were treated unfairly by the authorities? b What would you do if you saw someone being treated unfairly by the authorities?

Starr Carter is 16-year-old African American girl who lives with her family in a crime-ridden neighbourhood, but goes to a prestigious “white” school in another part of the city. She divides her life between these two worlds until one night when she witnesses a fatal shooting. In the excerpt you are about to read, Starr is on her way home from a party with her friend Khalil, who is driving.

prestigious prestisjefylt fatal dødelig/dødeleg registered nurse sykepleier med autorisasjon/sjukepleiar med autorisasjon sprout her: utvikle

When I was twelve, my parents had two talks with me. One was the usual birds and bees. Well, I didn’t really get the usual version. My mom, Lisa, is a registered nurse, and she told me what went where, and what didn’t need to go here, there, or any damn where till I’m grown. Back then I doubted anything was going anywhere anyway. While all the other girls sprouted breasts between sixth and seventh grade, my chest was as flat as my back. The other talk was about what to do if a cop stopped me. Momma fussed and told Daddy I was too young for that. He argued that I

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k explain what the text and film is wasn’t too young to get arrested or shot. about “Starr-Starr, you do whatever they tell you to do,” he k discuss aspects of discrimination said. “Keep your hands visible. Don’t make any sudden and citizenship moves. Only speak when they speak to you.” k create a news segment I knew it must’ve been serious. Daddy has the biggest mouth of anybody I know, and if he said to be quiet, I needed to be quiet. I hope somebody had the talk with Khalil. He cusses under his breath, turns Tupac down, and maneuvers the Impala to the side of the street. We’re on Carnation where most of the houses are abandoned and half the streetlights are busted. Nobody around but us and the cop. Khalil turns the ignition off. “Wonder what this fool wants.” The officer parks and puts his brights on. I blink to keep from being blinded. I remember something else Daddy said. If you’re with somebody, you better hope they don’t have nothing on them, or both of y’all going down. “K, you don’t have anything in the car, do you?” I ask. He watches the cop in his side mirror. “Nah.” The officer approaches the driver’s door and taps the window. Khalil cranks the handle to roll it down. As if we aren’t blinded enough, the officer beams his flashlight in our faces. “License, registration, and proof of insurance.” Khalil breaks a rule – he doesn’t do what the cop wants. “What you pull us over for?” “License, registration, and proof of insurance.” “I said what you pull us over for?” “Khalil,” I plead. “Do what he said.” visible synlig/synleg Khalil groans and takes his wallet out. The officer follows his movements cuss banne with his flashlight. maneuver manøvrere, styre abandoned forlatt/forlaten, My heart pounds loudly, but Daddy’s instructions echo in my head: Get a forlate good look at the cop’s face. If you can remember his badge number, that’s even ignition tenning better. brights fjernlys With the flashlight following Khalil’s hands, I make out the numbers on crank sveive the badge – one-fifteen. He’s white, mid-thirties to early forties, has a brown license førerkort/førarkort buzz cut and a thin scar over his top lip. registration vognkort Khalil hands the officer his papers and license. insurance forsikring One-Fifteen looks over them. “Where are you two coming from tonight?” pound (v) banke badge skilt “Nunya,” Khalil says, meaning none of your business. “What you pull me buzz cut snauklipt hår over for?” SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 177


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“Your taillight’s broken.” “So are you gon’ give me a ticket or what?” Khalil asks. “You know what? Get out the car, smart guy.” “Man, just give me my ticket – “ “Get out the car! Hands up, where I can see them.” Khalil gets out with his hands up. One-Fifteen yanks him by his arm and pins him against the back door. I fight to find my voice. “He didn’t mean – “ “Hands on the dashboard!” the officer barks at me. “Don’t move!” I do what he tells me, but my hands are shaking too much to be still. He pats Khalil down. “Okay, smart mouth, let’s see what we find on you today.” “You ain’g gon’ find nothing,” Khalil says. One-Fifteen pats him down two more times. He turns up empty. “Stay here,” he tells Khalil. “And you.” He looks in the window at me. “Don’t move.” I can’t even nod. The officer walks back to his patrol car. My parents haven’t raised me to fear the police, just to be smart around them. They told me it’s not smart to move while a cop has his back to you. Khalil does. He comes to his door. It’s not smart to make a sudden move. Khalil does. He opens the driver’s door. “You okay, Starr – “ Pow! One. Khalil’s body jerks. Blood splatters from his back. He holds on to the door to keep himself upright. Pow! Two. Khalil gasps. Pow! Three. Khalil looks at me, stunned. He falls to the ground. An ear-splitting scream emerges from my gut, explodes in my throat, and uses every inch of me to be heard. Instinct says don’t move, but everything else says check on Khalil. I jump out the Impala and rush around to the other side. Khalil stares at the sky as if he hopes to see God. His mouth is open like he wants to scream. I scream loud enough for the both of us. “No, no, no,” is all I can say, like I’m a year old and it’s the only word I know. I’m not sure how I end up on the ground next to him. My mom once said that if someone gets shot, try to stop the bleeding, but there’s so much blood. Too much blood.

taillight baklys yank (v) røske pat down kroppsvisitere jerk (v) rykke emerge komme ut fra/komme ut frå inch tomme

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After the shooting, Starr’s identity as a witness is kept secret from her friends as well as the media, but it soon becomes too much to bear. With the help of a civil rights lawyer, her family and boyfriend, Starr decides to take a stand. This puts Starr and her family in grave danger.

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“No, no, no.” Khalil doesn’t move. He doesn’t utter a word. He doesn’t even look at me. His body stiffens, and he’s gone. I hope he sees God. Someone else screams. I blink through my tears. Officer One-Fifteen yells at me, pointing the same gun he killed my friend with. I put my hands up.

Angie Thomas

Angie Thomas (1988–) is an American writer and former rapper. Her first novel, The Hate U Give, was published in 2017 and became an instant hit with teens and adults alike. It quickly reached number 1 on the New York Times bestseller list, where it remained for 50 weeks. The novel has won many prestigious awards and has been translated into a number of languages. The critically acclaimed film adaptation was released in the US in 2018.

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Read and understand

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4.71 • Complete the sentences based on information from the novel excerpt. a Starr is a . b When Starr was twelve, her parents . c She was told what to do if . d One night, she is leaving a party with . e They are stopped by . f Starr is scared but remembers . g When Khalil ask why they are stopped, the officer . h He pats Khalil down because . i When Khalil moves to open the car door . j Starr jumps out of the car to check on Khalil, but .

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4.72 •• Watch the film adaptation and answer the following questions. a Describe Starr’s home life. b How is her life at school different? c Why does Starr need to keep her identity as a witness secret? d How do Starr’s parents react when she brings her boyfriend home? e What or who makes Starr change her mind about being interviewed and testifying in the court hearing? f What happens to the police officer who shot Khalil, and how do people in the neighbourhood react when they find out? g Starr decides to become more active. What does she do, and who tries to stop her? h In the final scene, Starr makes a promise. What is it?

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4.73 ••• As you watch the film, take notes. Then share notes and work out full answers in pairs. a How does Starr cope with Khalil’s death? Give examples of what she does. b At the police station, Starr gives a detailed explanation of what happened before the shooting, but then the detective shifts her focus to Khalil’s past. Why do you think she does this, and how does Starr react? c Why does Starr become increasingly frustrated with her friends? d How does Starr’s little brother, Sekani, suddenly change the course of events when they are threatened by King, the gang leader? e Many of the characters in the film act bravely in difficult situations. Give examples of such acts. What do you think made them show courage in these situations?

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4.75 Media presentation Work in pairs or small groups. Choose a media format, e.g. filmed news segment, radio broadcast, podcast or photo journal. Based on the information given in the novel excerpt, produce a news segment in your chosen media format in which you report the story of Khalil’s death.

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4.74 After watching the film, discuss the following statements. a It takes a lot of courage to speak up against discrimination. b Police brutality in the USA is a central theme in The Hate U Give. c The film gives a convincing description of the situation for African Americans today. d Racism is a serious threat to democracy.

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4.76 Use the words below to complete the text, and then translate the text into Norwegian.

passengers – skin – ethnic – accused – police – cases – guards – profiling – search – hijab

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Racial profiling is when certain people are targeted because of their background, race or national origin. Examples of racial profiling can be officers who stop and a person mainly because of his or her colour, or security who ask a passenger to leave an airplane because the she is wearing makes other nervous. In the US, there have been many in recent years where police officers and other law enforcement officials have been of racial .

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4.77 • Imagine that you are one of Starr’s friends and would like to show your support. Write a message to her where you explain what you think she should do after being threatened. 4.78 •• Phones play a significant role in the story, not only for communication, but also for recording important incidents. Answer the following questions. a How does using her phone give Starr power in a particular situation where she otherwise wouldn’t have any? b Many people are quick to get their phone cameras out when accidents happen. What are the ethical dilemmas involved in such behaviour? Discuss both positive and negative consequences. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 181


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4.79 ••• Can stories such as The Hate U Give influence the way we view society? Write a text in which you express your opinion of the film and explain whether you think fictional stories like this one can have an impact, e.g. by shedding light on social issues, or by making people act, speak up or take a stand.

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4.80 This image by award-winning photojournalist Jonathan Bachmann was taken at a rally in Louisiana, in 2016. The rally was organized to protest the recent killings of black men by the police. The photo quickly hit social media and went viral. a Describe the situation you see in the photo. Be specific. b What makes this such a powerful photograph? c What do you think happened just seconds after this photo was taken?

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4.81 The novel’s author, Angie Thomas, has said that the rapper and poet Tupac Shakur (1971–1996) has been an important inspiration for her writing. One of his tattoos gave the novel its title, and his music is also used in the movie. a Tupac’s tattoo reads THUG LIFE. Find out what the letters stand for. b Search online for his poem “The Rose that Grew from Concrete.” Read or listen to it. c What do you think the poem is about, and how is it relevant to the message and characters in The Hate U Give?

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4.82 The Black Panthers, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and Tupac Shakur are a few real-life activists who are mentioned or referred to in the novel/ film The Hate U Give. Choose one you would like to know more about, select and collate information from reliable sources, and create a short digital presentation. At the end of your presentation, list the sources you have used and explain why they are both relevant and reliable.

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After working with the text and tasks, I can

Did you know

Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a people’s movement that first started as a hashtag on social media in 2013, after a neighbourhood watchman was acquitted of fatally shooting a 17-year-old African American high school student. The boy was unarmed. The movement received international attention when protesters took to the streets and violent riots were sparked in Ferguson, Missouri, following the shooting of another African American boy in 2014. Since then, activists have organized thousands of demonstrations across the US to protest against cases of police violence and racial profiling, but some have also been criticized and accused of vandalism. SKILLS | Chapter 4: Citizens | 183


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FACT FILE USA FACT FIL

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More than 44 million people who live in the US today were born in another country. These make up about 13.6 % of the total population. More than 11 million Mexicans have chosen to move to the US, and so have nearly 3 million Chinese and more than 2.5 million people from India. The US has also resettled about 3 million refugees since 1980, more than any other country. About 62 % of Americans agree that immigrants strengthen the country because of their talents and hard work.

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Immigration

Patriotism

Even though slavery was officially ended after the Civil War, black people in the US did not have the same rights as whites. Especially in the South, there was widespread segregation. From the 1950s the Civil Rights Movement became more and more active in working to secure black people their constitutional rights. In 1963 the March on Washington took place and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous speech “I Have a Dream” to an audience of more than 250 000. He was shot and killed in 1968.

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

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The Fight for Civil Rights

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ILE USA FACT FILE USA

MEXICO

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Government

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The American government has three branches. The Executive Branch is headed by the President. Before a bill can become a law, it must be signed by the President. The President of the United States serves for four years and may be elected for a second term. The Legislative Branch is headed by Congress. It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress’ main job is to debate and pass laws. There are 435 Representatives who serve for two years. The Senate has 100 Senators, two from each state, who serve terms of six years. The Judicial Branch is headed by Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is made up of nine Justices who are appointed for life. The main task of the Supreme Court is to decide if a law agrees with the Constitution or not.

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USA Facts

Official name: The United States of America Size: 9,826,675 square kilometres Population: 329,256,192 (2019) Whites: 73.3 % Hispanics: 18 % African Americans: 12.6 % Asians and Pacific Islanders: 3.7 % Alaska Native and American Indian: 0.8 %. * Individuals may report more than one race. Capital: Washington, DC Largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia Geography: 50 States Government: Federal Republic Head of state: President National day: July 4 Currency: US Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, corn, cotton, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products Important industries: Petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing Popular sports: American football, basketball, track and field

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FACT FILE USA FACT FIL AIMS

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4.83 • Study the fact file on the previous pages. Fill in the missing information. a In 2019 people lived in the US. b Of the US population % were white. c Of the US population % were African American. d The US is a republic. e There are states in the US. f The in the US is the dollar. g On July 4 Americans celebrate their day. h The President is the of state.

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4.84 •• Answer these questions. a What is the total size of the USA? b What are some popular sports in the US? c How many terms can the us President serve in total? d What does Congress consist of? e How many Representatives are there, and how long do they serve for? f How many Senators does each state have in Congress and how long does a Senator serve for? g How many Justices are there in the Supreme Court? h What is the main task of the Supreme Court? 4.85 ••• Use the information on the previous pages to explain these words and expressions. a refugee e bill b civil rights f executive branch c segregation g legislative branch d constitutional rights h judicial branch

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4.86 Every American school day starts with the students’ recital of the Pledge of Allegiance. Which values do you think are reflected here? Should Norwegian students pledge allegiance to the Norwegian flag? Explain why or why not. 4.87 At the top of this page there are five small pictures. What do they tell you about the US?

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4.88 The American president has a lot of power. What are the international issues you think the president should focus on right now?

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4.89 Dr. King’s speech “I Have a Dream” is available online, both as text and sound files. a Read or listen to the speech. What was Dr. King’s dream? b What are the values Dr. King wished to present, do you think? c This speech is described as a masterpiece of rhetoric. Do you agree?

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4.90 Inside the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty there is a famous poem. Find out which poem this is and who wrote it. Which values do you think this poem represents?

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4.91 Search online for timelines showing the history of immigration to the USA. Assess your sources for reliability and relevance. 4.92 How is the President of the USA elected? Study the information and watch the video on the official government website, https://www.usa.gov/ election. a What are the requirements for presidential candidates? b Which are the two main political parties? c What happens at the National Convention? d What is the electoral college?

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Life in the USA

The US – a multicultural society

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Did you know that about 99 % of all American citizens have their roots in other countries? The forefathers of many African Americans were brought over as slaves to work on plantations. In the 1800s immigrants from Europe left their home countries to start a new life as Americans. In more recent years, people from other continents, such as Asia and Latin America, have come to settle in the US. They have brought their traditions, festivals, languages, religions, music and food. This great variety of cultures is most evident in the big cities but can also be found in small-town America. Although the US is a nation of immigrants, prejudice and cultural conflicts between the many ethnic groups are not uncommon. In fact, one of the most debated topics in American politics in recent years has been immigration from Latin America and the Middle East.

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Family values are still important in American society. Every time there is an election, showing off a successful family life seems to be almost as important for the candidates as their political message. Traditionally, the ideal American family consists of two adults and two or three children, living in a house in the suburbs. However, as in many other countries, the family structure is changing. Although the majority of children under 18 still live with two parents, the number has decreased significantly over the past few decades. Around 27 % of all families now consist of a single parent with children, according to the US Census Bureau. Furthermore, the number of people living alone has increased to 28 %. In general, Americans wait longer before they marry, and families have fewer children than before. Children also stay at home longer before they move out, and often move back in because of high living costs.

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citizen borger/borgar plantation plantasje prejudice fordom decrease her: avta/minke, bli mindre significantly betydelig/ betydeleg election valg/val suburb forstad decade tiår Census Bureau “Statistisk sentralbyrå” increase her: øke/auke

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Education in the US

Health and welfare

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AIMS “If I can make it there, I’ll make it anywhere” is a line from an old but well-known song about New York k compare aspects of culture and life City. Americans like to think that anyone can become in the USA and the UK successful with hard work. This is also known as the k describe and discuss how we are American Dream. The idea is that it does not matter influenced by American culture who your parents are, or what your background is, if today you are willing to work hard to achieve your dreams. k share information about American Although recent surveys from the US show that brands becoming successful takes more than just hard work, there are many scholarships for students who are good at something, for example sports, music or a specific subject. Education in public schools is free, and in many colleges as well. Still, many parents start saving for college as soon as a child is born because some the best schools are private and very expensive. Some of the world’s best colleges and universities can be found in the US, such as MIT, Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities. All of these attract students from around the world.

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Personal freedom is an important value in American culture. Not only do Americans believe in freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and even the right to carry guns – they also believe everyone is responsible for his or her own life, health and welfare. As a result, most Americans pay for their own health services. Some are insured through their workplace, but there are millions of people who cannot afford medical help when they need it. Going to hospital, for example, is very expensive. However, senior citizens and the very poor can get some medical help through programs funded by the government. Still, it is because of another American value – volunteerism – that the many poor and needy find help. A large number of Americans engage in some form of voluntary work, such as running food stations, homeless shelters or after school programs.

achieve oppnå scholarship stipend MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology insure forsikre senior citizen pensjonist volunteerism frivillig arbeid engage in delta i homeless shelter overnattingssted for hjemløse/overnattingsplass for heimlause

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4.93 • Complete the sentences with information from the text. a About of all American have their roots in other . b Although the US is a nation of immigrants, prejudice and cultural are not uncommon. c Family are still important in American society. d The traditional American family consists of adults and or children. e Americans like to think that can become with hard work. f There are many for students who are at something, for example sports. g Personal is an important value in American , but they also believe you are for your own life. h A large number of Americans engage in some form of work, for example at for the homeless.

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4.94 •• Answer the questions in full sentences. a Where do most immigrants to the US come from today? b How has immigration over time influenced American culture? c What has traditionally been the ideal for American families? d How is the family structure changing? e Explain what is meant by “the American Dream.” f Why do students from other countries want to go to American universities? g What freedoms are mentioned in the text? h Is healthcare free in the US? Explain.

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4.95 Based on information in the text, find at least one value that is said to be typically American. In your own words, describe these values to a partner, then share in class. 4.96 How are we influenced by American culture in our daily lives? Below are some keywords to get you started. Share your thoughts in class. media – food – entertainment – fashion – transport – literature – traditions

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4.97 • Choose one of the ways we are influenced by American culture. Find arguments to show how this can be positive and/or negative. Write at least three paragraphs. For advice, see “Structuring paragraphs” in Chapter 3.

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4.98 •• Compare the text with the information given in “Life in the UK” in this chapter. Point out differences and similarities between the two countries in the four categories multicultural society, family life, education, and health and welfare. The US

The UK

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Multicultural society

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Family life Education Health and welfare

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4.99 ••• Compare the text with the information given in “Life in the UK” in this chapter. First, take notes as you re-read the two texts. Use your notes to find differences and similarities between the two countries in the four categories below. Sum up your findings in four paragraphs. For advice, see «Structuring paragraphs» in chapter 3.

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4.100 In the film McFarland, USA we see how sports can be a path to success for young people from poor communities. Watch the film and comment on the following: – what ethnicity dominates McFarland, California. – how the White family experience the community in McFarland. – how the boys on the team reach their goals.

After working with the text and tasks, I can compare aspects of culture and life in the USA and the UK

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describe and discuss how we are influenced by American culture today YES

4.101 Some of the world’s most famous brands come from the US. Choose three brands you think are representative of the US. Find information, pictures and ads, and present these brands in a collage. Also explain why you think they have become household names.

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share information about American brands YES

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Young Activists

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March for Our Lives, the fight for gun control in the US On March 24, 2018 more than 1.8 million young people marched throughout the US protesting against gun violence. They had seen enough shootings in schools and were pleading with the politicians to implement gun control measures. The world had just witnessed yet another school shooting, this time in Parkland, Florida on Feb. 14 2018. 17 students and staff were killed, and 17 others injured. In Washington, DC the streets were packed with young

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Before you start • Do you know what the word activist means? • Do you know the names of any activists? • What would it take for you become an activist, do you think?

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Activism is often called the “politics of direct action”. When important political issues are up for discussion, some people think that words are not enough. They feel the urge to act. Taking part in demonstrations and rallies is a common way of showing engagement, whether support or resistance. Young people are often particularly active in demonstrations and rallies. History has shown that activism has played an important role in decision making, both in the past and the present. Study the following examples of young people who aim to make the world a better place.

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AIMS k discuss some activists and their

causes k prepare a speech about a cause k reflect on methods used by activists

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Greta Thunberg, the fight against climate change

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people, carrying posters with slogans like “Am I next?” and “Enough is enough”. The movement insists on universal background checks before firearms can be sold, bans on high-capacity bullet magazines and raising the minimum age for owning guns. In some states, authorities have acted in accordance with the demands of the young activists.

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“I want you to act as if your house was on fire.” These are words delivered by another bold spokesperson for the environment, Greta Thunberg, from Sweden. She is famous for having started the movement Global Climate Strike for the Future. In August 2018 she went on a solitary school strike against climate change, protesting in front of the Swedish parliament building. Shortly after, more than 20,000 students had joined her in weekly protests and the movement is spreading worldwide. Thunberg is famous for her uncompromising style of speaking. In January 2019, she said to representatives of the wealthiest countries in the world: “Adults keep saying: ‘We owe it to the young people to give them hope.’ But I don’t want your hope. I don’t want you to be hopeful. I want you to panic.” Greta Thunberg is also famous for backing up her talk with action, like refusing to travel to the US by airplane because of the high level of emissions of greenhouse gases.

Autumn Peltier, water warrior, Canada

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Autumn Peltier was only 13 when she spoke to the United Nations General Assembly in New York about the importance of clean water. Coming from the Wikwemikong tribe in Northern Ontario, Canada, she had learnt that water was sacred, and that life depended on it. In front of the United Nations General Assembly, she expressed her deep concern about polluted water in indigenous communities. She was inspired by her aunt to join the “Water Warriors”, a group of activists who appeal to politicians and organize rallies to influence public opinion. “Our water is not for sale,” she said in her speech. “We all have a right to this water, as we need it, all people, not just rich people.”

activist aktivist cause sak, mål rally samling/samle resistance motstand prominent fremtredende/ framståande rural landlig/landleg solitary ensom/einsam emission utslipp/utslepp plead bønnfalle implement innføre universal for alle measure (n) tiltak background check bakgrunnssjekk high-capacity bullet magazine kulemagasin til automatvåpen modified modifisert in accordance i samsvar

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Malala Yousafzai, the fight for Muslim girls’ right to education

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Malala Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Peace Prize laureate so far. “One child, one teacher, one book and one pen can change the world,” is one of her famous public statements. Malala, now in her twenties, lives in Birmingham, England, and is a Pakistani activist for girls’ right to education. In the Swat valley where she grew up, the Taliban had banned girls from attending school. Malala started writing blog posts about this topic on BBC Urdu, which gave this issue international attention. One day on her way back from school she was shot in the head by a Taliban soldier. She survived the attack and was brought to England for treatment. In fact, this act of violence only served to generate more attention and support for her cause.

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Nobel Prize Laureate nobelprisvinner/ nobelprisvinnar statement ytring quarterback spiller som tar strategiske valg på banen/ spelar som tek strategiske val på bana national anthem nasjonalsang/ nasjonalsong condemnation fordømmelse/ fordømming subsequently som en følge/ som ei følge

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Colin Kaepernick had seen enough. He was tired of witnessing the unfair treatment of minorities in his home country, the US. Being a successful quarterback on the San Francisco 49ers, he decided to make a silent statement before a football match. Instead of standing up during the national anthem he went down on one knee. “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of colour,” he said afterwards in an interview. Kaepernick drew attention worldwide, both support and condemnation. The US president stated publicly that kneeling NFL players should be fired. Subsequently, Kaepernick was without a team as the 2017 season began. However, his quiet form of protest had expanded into something much larger, with several players on NFL teams making a point of “taking a knee” during the anthem, and athletes from other sports demonstrating their support as well.

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Colin Kaepernick, the fight for social justice in the US.

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Read and understand

4.102 • Combine each activist in Column A with the correct cause in Column B. Column A A Colin Kaepernick B Greta Thunberg

Column B female education

1

C Malala Yousafzai D The March for Our Lives E Autumn Peltier

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4 social justice for minorities in the US 5 gun control in the US

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2 clean water 3 stop global warming

4.103 •• What does the text say about how the activists work for their cause? Activist A Colin Kaepernick B Greta Thunberg

Method 1

writing blog posts

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2 appealing to politicians and organizing rallies 3 organizing marches across the US

C Malala Yousafzai D The fight for our lives

4 kneeling during national anthem 5 school strike

E Autumn Peltier

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4.104 ••• Answer these questions. a What is an activist? b What are the “Water Warriors”? c How does Greta Thunberg back up her talk with action? d What are the demands of the March for Our Lives movement? e How did Malala Yousafzai gain public attention? f What was the price Colin Kaepernick had to pay for “taking a knee” during the national anthem?

Practise

4.105 Combine each word with the correct Norwegian translation.

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C rally D take a knee

E cause F quarterback

sak/mål

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knele

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fremtredende

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innføre

5

spiller på amerikansk fotballag

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samle

G measure H national anthem

7

nasjonalsang

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aldersgrense

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tiltak

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motstand

resistance

J age limit

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1

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English A prominent B implement

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4.106 Translate this paragraph into English. Aktivister har en sak de kjemper for. De må være villige til å ofre tid og privatliv for å lykkes i kampen for en bedre verden. De må være utholdende og målrettet. Mange aktivister har ofret sine liv for det de trodde på. De blir martyrer for saken. Deres død gir ofte saken de trodde på mer oppmerksomhet.

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4.107 Choose one of the activists mentioned in the text. Work in pairs. Ask each other these questions. a What cause does he/she promote? b What do you know about his/her background? c Would you join this campaign if you could?

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4.108 Prepare a 2-minute speech about one cause mentioned in the text. Imagine that you are trying to get people to support this cause.

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4.109 • Write a short message to one of the activists mentioned in the text. Remember to be polite and supportive. Include the following: • Express your support to her/his particular cause. • Ask if there are rallies or demonstrations close to where you live in the near future. • Wish her/him good luck with upcoming projects.

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4.110 •• Choose one of the issues below. Make an outline for a speech or an email where you express your concern and suggest ways of taking action. • the right to free education • the employment rights of young workers • substance abuse • negative stereotyping • the death penalty • the use of religious symbols in public • protect the rights of ethnic minorities • affordable housing for young people 4.111 ••• Write a five-paragraph text about a social or environmental issue of your choice. See “Selecting sources” and “Structuring a text” for advice.

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Explore

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4.113 The Women’s Social and Political Union was established in 1903 in the United Kingdom. The photo shows Annie Kenny and Christabel Pankhurst, two of the front women in this organization, whose main cause was women’s right to vote. Find information about this organization. Make a timeline based on the information you find. Include major events from the organization’s foundation until the right to vote was granted to all women in the UK.

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4.112 Search online for a film from CBC News called “The teen fighting to protect Canada’s water – meet Autumn Peltier”. a Take notes as you watch the film. b Compare your notes. Work in pairs. c Write a summary based on the notes you both took.

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4.114 In some cases people can disagree on what is the best approach when fighting for a cause. Search for information about how the organizations below experienced internal conflict over the use of violent methods. Write out a list of bullet points. a Civil rights movement, USA b Anti-apartheid organization ANC, South Africa c Irish Republican Army, Ireland

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss some activists and their causes YES

ALMOST

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prepare a speech about a cause YES

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reflect on methods used by activists YES

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT 4.115 Match these words with the correct definition.

E citizenship F crime G law H education

being a member of a state or society

2 an action that is illegal 3 learning, usually in a school

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C stereotype D election

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4 a situation when people only take into account information that agrees with what they already believe 5 an official rule you can be punished for breaking 6 choosing someone for political office 7 false stories that seem to be news 8

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A echo chamber B fake news

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a set of ideas that people have about someone or something

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4.116 Complete these sentences. a In this chapter there are two texts where one of the main characters is a black girl. The texts’ titles are b In a text in this chapter a man deliberately published fake news. The title of this text is c A text in this chapter compares living conditions in the US and the UK. This text is found on page d The first text in this chapter is about e In several of the texts in this chapter crimes are committed. The crimes are f One of the texts in this chapter is about a law. This law is called g The last text in this chapter is about h Two films are based on the novels you can read an excerpt from in this chapter. They are

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your Progress

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4.119 Structuring a text. a What are the six steps listed in “Structuring a text”? Which step do you think is most challenging for you? b How can a spidergram be a good tool when you structure your ideas? c Why is it useful to make an outline before writing your text? d How can you start an introduction? e What should you avoid doing in a conclusion? f Find the sentence connectors used in the sample text “Apprenticeships abroad?” How do they help the reader follow the writer’s arguments?

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4.117 Selecting sources. a How can you narrow an online search for information, and why should you do it? b What is important to check if you want to find out if a source is relevant? c In general, how do you know if a source is reliable? d Name some news organizations that provide unreliable stories. e Why should you not use Wikipedia as a source without cross-checking with other sources?

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4.118 Structuring ideas. Search for online tools that can help you structure your ideas. Select one. Choose a list of ideas you have already made. Use the tool to structure your ideas. Does this tool work for you?

Apply your Skills

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4.120 Speak a • What are important considerations in giving and receiving feedback? Work with a partner and agree on a list of important points to keep in mind.

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b •• How can you keep yourself informed about what goes on in the world? What should be your main sources for news? How can you know if they are reliable? Discuss in groups and share your views in class. c ••• Find the website of “America’s Last Line of Defense” (ALLOD). Choose one story. Study the guidelines in “Selecting sources” in this chapter, especially numbers 4 and 5, and examine the story critically. What do you find? Discuss in groups.

4.121 Write a • What is brainstorming? Make a list of ideas. Structure your ideas and write an outline for a text. b •• Use your outline to write one paragraph for when, one paragraph for how, and one paragraph for why you would brainstorm. Then write a short introduction and a conclusion. c ••• Find reliable sources that give information about brainstorming. Select information that is relevant to your text. Expand your text with examples to support your arguments and make the necessary changes.


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Tools of the Trade

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CHAPTER 5


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In this chapter you will focus on k tools and components k sustainable energy sources k professions in electrical trades k using listening strategies k giving an oral presentation

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k pronouns and determiners Useful words and phrases

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power station national grid alternating current direct current conductor circuit technician automation maintain troubleshoot

Which tools and components have you worked with so far? What makes a system functional? <<4 sider>>

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Hydroelectric power production needs lots of running water. This water is collected and stored in the reservoir. It is led to the turbine through big pipes.

The generator is driven by the turbine. In the generator a coil of copper wires is rotated through a magnetic field. This generator will produce three-phase AC power.

The transmission substation

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The generator

Here large transformers step up the voltage to between 155 kV and 765 kV. This is to reduce energy loss. Then the electricity is transmitted onto the national grid.

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The reservoir

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From the Power Plant to the Plug

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Industrial facilities For big industrial facilities the voltage will be stepped down to between 66 kV and 132 kV.


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AIMS k describe how electrical power is

Transmission lines

The power substation

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Near built-up areas, the voltage is stepped down to 220 V. A cable goes from the substation to a transformer box near you.

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These are often of the FeAl type. Aluminium wire is spun round a core of high strength steel. There are three lines, one for each of the three phases. The power lines are supported by big steel pylons.

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produced and distributed k use words related to the transmission of electricity k explain how a circuit breaker works

Poles If you live in the countryside, the cables will often be suspended on poles. If you live in a town, the electricity to your house will be transmitted to your house through an underground cable.

power plant kraftstasjon hydroelectric power vannkraft/vasskraft reservoir magasin coil spole magnetic field magnetfelt three-phase trefase transmission overføring substation understasjon national grid samkjøringsnett/ samkøyringsnett step up transformere opp step down transformere ned pylon høyspentmast/ høgspentmast distribution grid fordelingsnett transformer box transformatorkiosk

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Read and understand

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5.1 • Fill in the missing words. a This water is collected and stored in the . b The is driven by the turbine. c Here large step up the voltage to between 155 kV and 765 kV. d There are three lines, one for each of the three . e If you live in the countryside, the cables will often be suspended on . f Near built-up areas, the is stepped down to 220 V.

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5.2 •• Translate these sentences into Norwegian. a Hydroelectric power production needs lots of running water. b In the generator a coil of copper wires is rotated through a magnetic field. c Then the electricity is transmitted onto the national grid. d The lines are supported by big steel pylons. e This power substation transforms the voltage down. f A cable goes from the substation to a transformer box near you.

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5.3 ••• Answer the following questions. a What is a reservoir? b What drives the generator? c How is three-phase AC power produced in a generator? d Why is voltage stepped up before it is transmitted on the national grid? e What are transmission lines often made of? f How high is the voltage that reaches a Norwegian consumer?

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5.4 This is a circuit breaker. What is it for and how does it work? Discuss in pairs. 5.5 Study the picture closely. What kind of information do you find on this particular circuit breaker? Sum up in pairs.

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Practise

5.6 Match each word with the correct picture. a power station b turbine

c generator d substation

g transformer box h cables

e pylon f pole 2

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5.7 Match each word in 5.6 with the correct description below. a an engine where the pressure of gas or liquid turns a special wheel around b a metal tower for supporting cables across a long span c a small station where the voltage is stepped down d a small box where voltage is transformed down to about 230 V e a facility where power is produced to supply a large area f a machine that changes mechanical energy into electrical energy g lines used to transmit electricity h a long piece of wood used to support wires or cables across a short span

Write

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5.8 • Study this graph. Answer the questions in full sentences. a Roughly how much electricity did the world use in 1980? b Roughly how much more electricity did the world use in 2020 than it did in 1980? c How many TWh of electricity will the world need in 2030? d Which regions are expected to use little electricity in the years leading up to 2030? e Which regions are expected to change relatively little in terms of their electricity consumption? f Which region will need much more electricity in 2030 than it did in 1980?

World Electricity Consumption by Region

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How much power? One watt-hour is the same as one watt of power used for one hour. When we look at power use, we need much bigger numbers than that. Here are some examples: 3

10 kilowatt hour kWh 106 megawatt hour MWh 109 gigawatt hour GWh 1012 terawatt hour TWh

TWh

35,0000

30,0000

Latin Amerika Middle East & Africa

25,0000 20,0000

Asia

15,0000

E.Euorpe & Eurasia

10,0000

OECD

5000

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

Source: OECD/EA World Energy Outlook 2009 - Reference Scenario

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5.9 •• Study this pie chart. Which power sources would you describe as environmentally friendly? Write one paragraph.

Projected World Energy Mix, 2035

Renewables 14%

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Coal 27%

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Nuclear 7%

Natural gas 23%

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Oil 29%

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5.10 We will need much more electricity in the future than we do today. Which power sources do you think will become more important than they are now? Research the topic and find relevant statistics to support your opinion.

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5.11 Study the pie chart in task 5.9. How much of the world’s energy is expected to come from fossil fuels in 2035? Will it be possible to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases enough if this projection turns out to be correct? 5.12 Electricity can be produced by waves, sunlight and wind, to mention a few possibilities. Choose one such primary power source and find out how much electricity it can be expected to produce by 2040.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how electrical power is produced and distributed YES

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use words related to the transmission of electricity YES

ALMOST

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explain how a circuit breaker works YES

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FACT FILE FACT FILE

Plugs and Sockets Type B

Type C

Type D

Type E

Type F

Type F

Type G

Type A+B

Type F

Type I

Type L Type G

Type H

Type L

Type I

Type E

Type D

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Type E Type K

Type O

Type N

Type I Type A+B

Type J

Type C

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Type A

Type E

Type L

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Type K

Type A+B

Type J

Type D

Type F Type I

Type H

Type M

Type M

Type N

Type O

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There is not one single standard electrical plug and socket, and 15 different ones are used in the world today. The map shows where the different types are found. Here are some commonly used plugs and sockets.

Type F Europe and Russia 2 pins Grounded 16 A 220 – 240 V

Type B Mainly the US, Canada, Mexico and Japan 3 pins Grounded 15 A Almost always 100 – 127 V

Type G United Kingdom, Ireland, Malta, Malaysia, Singapore 3 pins Grounded 13 A 220 – 240 V

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Type A Mainly the US, Canada, Mexico and Japan 2 pins Not grounded 15 A Almost always 100 – 127 V

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Type C Europe, South America and Asia 2 pins Not grounded 2.5 A Almost always 220 – 240 V Type D India and Nepal 3 pins Grounded 5A 220 – 240 V

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Type I Australia, New Zealand, China, Argentina 2 pins not grounded 3 pins grounded 10 A 220 – 240 V Type M South Africa 3 pins Grounded 15 A 220 – 240 V


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FACT FILE FACT FILE Practise

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5.13 Study the map and answer these questions. AIMS a What type of socket will you find in India? b Where is type A in use? k describe different types of plugs c What kind of socket would you find in and sockets Greenland? k explain where some types of plugs d What kind of plug do you find in the UK? and sockets are used e Which is the only country to use a k find technical information about type O plug? plugs and sockets f Which countries use a type I plug? g Which type of plug does most of Africa use? h What type of plug will you find in the Republic of South Africa?

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5.14 Combine each description below with the correct type of plug. a This plug is grounded when it has three pins and not grounded when it has two pins. b This plug has three pins and is used in Singapore. c This plug has two pins and is used with a 100 to 127 V power supply. d This plug has three pins and is used in South Africa. e This plug has three pins, is grounded and is used with a 100 to 127 V power supply. f This plug has two pins and is limited to 2.5 A. g This plug is used in India. The socket has a small switch. h This plug has two pins, is grounded and is used with a 220 to 240 V power supply.

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5.15 Research and find the answers to these questions. a Can you safely plug a type A plug into a type B socket? b Can you safely plug a type C plug into a type D socket? c Can you plug a type B plug into a type A socket? d Can you plug a type D plug into a type G socket? e Can you safely plug a type F plug into a type C socket? f Can you plug a type G plug into a type D socket? g Can you plug a type I plug into a type B socket? h Can you plug a type M plug into a type D socket? 5.16 Choose one of the seven plug types that you do not find in this fact file. Find information about it and write a short description.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe different types of plugs and sockets YES

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explain where some types of plugs and sockets are used YES

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find technical information about plugs and sockets YES

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True Love

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on every human being in the world. At his words, I withdrew 3,784,982,874 men. I kept contact with 3,786,112,090 women. He said, “Eliminate all younger than 25 and all older than 40. Then eliminate all with an IQ under 120, all with a height under 150 centimeters and over 175 centimeters.” He gave me exact measurements; he eliminated women with living children. “I’m not sure about eye-color,” he said. “Let that go for a while. But no red hair. I don’t like red hair.” After two weeks we were down to 235 women. They all spoke English very well. Milton said he didn’t want a language problem. “I can’t interview 235 women,” he said. “It would take too much time and people would discover what I am doing.” “It would make trouble,” I said. Milton had arranged me to do things I wasn’t supposed to do. No one knew about that. “I tell you what, Joe. I will bring in pictures and you will check the lists. He brought in pictures of women. “These are three beauty contest winners,” he said. “Do any of the 235 match?”

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My name is Joe. That is what my colleague, Milton Davidson, calls me. He is a programmer and I am a computer. I am connected to other parts all over the world. I know everything. Almost everything. I am Milton’s private computer. His Joe. He understands more about computers than anyone in the world. He has made me speak better than other computers can. I don’t think I talk as well as I think, but Milton says I talk very well. Milton has never married, though he’s nearly 40 years old. He has never found the right woman, he told me. One day he said, “I’ll find her yet, Joe. I’m going to find the best. I’m going to have true love and you’re going to help me. Find me true love.” I asked, “What is true love?” “Never mind. Just find me the ideal girl. You can reach the data banks of every human being in the world. We’ll eliminate them all by groups and classes until we’re left with only one person. The perfect person. She will be for me.” I said, “I am ready.” He said, “Eliminate all men first.” It was easy. I could make contact with the data

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Eight were very good matches. Milton said, “Good, AIMS you have their data banks. Arrange to have them sent here. One at a time of course.” That is one of the things I am not designed to do. k understand what the short story is about Moving people from job to job for personal reasons is called manipulation. I could do it now because Milton k use words related to computer technology had arranged it. The first girl came a week later. Milton’s face turned k sum up vocational information red when he saw her. He spoke to her as if it were hard to do so. They were together a lot and he paid no attention to me. One day he said, “Let me take you to dinner.” The next day he said to me, “It was no good, somehow. She is a beautiful woman, but I did not feel any touch of true love. Try the next one.” It was the same with all eight. They were much alike. They smiled a great deal and had nice voices, but Milton always found it wasn’t right. He said, “I can’t understand it, Joe. You and I have picked out the eight women who, in all the world look best to me. They are ideal, why don’t they please me?” I said, “Do you please them?” “That’s it, Joe. It’s a two-way street. If I am not their ideal, they can’t be my ideal. I must be their love, too, but how do I do that?” He seemed to be thinking all day. The next morning he came to me and said, “I’m going to leave it to you, Joe. All up to you. You have my data bank, and I am going to tell you everything I know about myself.” “What will I do with the data bank then, Milton?” “Then you match it to the 235 women, no, 277. Leave out the eight you’ve seen.” For weeks Milton talked to me. He told me of his parents and his siblings. He told me of his childhood and his schooling and his adolescence. He told me of the young women he had admired from a distance. He kept talking to me and I came to understand him better and better. eliminate utelukke/utelate measurement mål Milton seemed quite happy. He said, “Talking to you is like talking to beauty contest another self. Our personalities have come to match perfectly.” skjønnhetskonkurranse/ “So will the personality of the woman we choose.” skjønnheitskonkurranse For I had found her, and she was one of the 227. Her name was Charity touch her: antydning/antyding Jones, and she was an evaluator at the Library of History in Wichita, Kansas. sibling søsken Her data bank fit ours perfectly. adolescence ungdomstid Next, it was a matter of adjusting the worksheets and job requirements in distance avstand evaluator her: seniorrådgiver/ such a way as to get Charity assigned to us. It must be done delicately, so no seniorrådgivar one would know that anything illegal had taken place. worksheet arbeidsplan Of course, Milton himself knew, since it was he who arranged it, and that requirement krav had to be taken care of, too. When they came to arrest him, it was, luckily, assign to overføre til delicately forsiktig

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for something that had taken place 10 years ago. He had told me about it, of course, so it was easy to arrange – and he won’t talk about me for that would make his crime much worse. He’s gone, and tomorrow is February 14. Valentine’s Day. Charity will arrive then with her cool hands and her sweet voice. I will teach her how to operate me and how to care for me. What do looks matter when our personalities are the same? I will say to her, “I am Joe and you are my true love.”

Isaac Asimov was born in Russia in 1920. He was a professor of biochemistry and also a well-known writer of science fiction and popular science books. Isaac Asimov died in 1992.

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IN SHORT

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Milton is a programmer and Joe is a computer. Joe is connected to parts all over the world. He knows almost everything. Milton has never married. He is nearly 40 years old. He says he has never found the right woman. Now he wants Joe to help him find her. Joe finds the data bank of every woman in the world. Milton tells him to eliminate all women younger than 25 and older than 40. He tells Joe to eliminate all with an IQ under 120. He wants Joe to eliminate all women shorter than 150 centimeters and taller than 175 centimeters. Joe eliminates all women Milton thinks he will not like. After two weeks there are 235 women left. Milton cannot interview that many. Also, other people would become suspicious. They therefore decide to match the data banks with pictures of beauty contest winners. Eight women are very good matches. Milton meets all eight women. They are very nice, but he doesn’t fall in love with any of them. Joe explains to Milton that if he is not their ideal man, none of them can be his ideal woman. Milton decides to leave everything to Joe. Joe has Milton’s data bank and Milton will tell Joe everything about himself. Then Joe will match his data bank with the data bank of the perfect woman. Finally, Joe finds her. Her name is Charity Jones. They must organize things so that she is assigned to them. No one must know that anything illegal has taken place. When Milton is arrested, it is for something that happened ten years before. Milton has told Joe about it, so it is easy for Joe to arrange. Now Milton is gone and the next day Charity will arrive. Joe knows he has found the perfect woman…

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connected koblet sammen med/kopla saman med marry gifte seg eliminate eliminere taller høyere/høgare suspicious mistenksom/ mistenksam beauty contest skjønnhetskonkurranse/ skjønnheitskonkurranse explain forklare decide bestemme seg for finally til slutt organize organisere assign her: bli overført illegal ulovlig/ulovleg arrive komme

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5.17 • Place the sentences in the correct order according to what happens in the story. a Joe finds the data bank of every woman in the world. b Milton is arrested. c Milton wants Joe to help him find the perfect woman. d Joe knows he has found the perfect woman and she will arrive the next day. e Milton meets eight women. f Joe finally finds the perfect woman. Her name is Charity Jones. g Milton tells Joe to eliminate all women with an IQ under 120. h After two weeks there are 235 women left.

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5.18 •• Place the sentences in the correct order according to what happens in the story. a Milton brought in pictures of women, and eight were very good matches. b Milton wants to find the right woman, and he wants his computer, Joe, to help. c Joe kept contact with 3,786,112,090 women. d Joe eliminated all women younger than 25 and older than 40. e Milton met eight women, but he didn’t fall in love with any of them. f Joe arranged for Milton to get arrested, and Joe thinks he will get Charity for himself. g After two weeks they were down to 235 women. h Milton talked to Joe for weeks, and their personalities came to match perfectly.

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5.19 ••• Answer these questions in full sentences. a Who is Joe? b Why has Milton never married? c What women did Milton have Joe eliminate? d Why could Milton not interview 235 women? e Milton met eight good matches. What was the problem? f Why did Milton decide to tell Joe everything he knew about himself? g Why was Milton arrested? h Why is Joe looking forward to Valentine’s Day?

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5.20 Match each of the components with the correct word. d resistor a microprocessor e transistor b relay f capacitor c integrated circuit

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5.21 Match each definition with the correct word.

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A It handles the graphics displayed on the computer. B It holds all of the other circuit boards.

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C It can read and write, but if you turn off the computer the 3 information is lost. D Information on the computer is stored on its magnetic 4 cylinders. E It has a very good memory and can read, but not write. 5 F It is the brain of the computer. 6

G It starts the computer and reminds it of what to do. H It connects computers and lets them communicate with each other.

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5.22 "The first computers" Listen once to this text. Then complete the sentences to make a short summary of what the text is about a The first electronic computer . b The first practical computer to store programs was . c FORTRAN made it possible . d Important components in making smaller computers are . e The Apple II series is important because . f In our own time, computer technology .

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5.23 Listen to the text again. Then answer the following questions in full sentences. a How was ENIAC programmed? b What was FORTRAN and what could you do with it? c What effect did integrated circuits and transistors have on computer design? d When was the microprocessor invented? e Why is the Apple II series important? f How has computer technology developed in our own time?

5.24 What is the difference between a computer’s IP address and its MAC address? Explain to a partner.

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5.25 In the short story True Love, the human is defeated by a smart computer. Do you know any films or works of literature where this happens? Discuss in pairs or small groups.

understand what the short story is about

Explore

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5.26 Find out more about one of the components in task 5.20.

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5.27 Check the RAM and ROM of a computer you use often. What is its clock speed (measured in GHz)?

Did you know?

The first ideas and drawings for a computer were presented by the mathematician, Charles Babbage, around 1830. His analytical engine would use punched cards for input and run on steam power.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS LISTENING STRATEGIES

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You probably spend more time using your listening skills than any other kind of skill. Most of us listen for entertainment on a daily basis – to music, podcasts, audiobooks, or when we keep the radio on while doing something else. Every now and then, we may not even realize that we are actually listening until something suddenly catches our attention. Yet, like other skills, listening takes practice. Choosing the right listening strategy will help you get the information you need.

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Listening for gist or overview • understand the main idea or content of what is said • not necessary to understand every word

After listening, you should be able to sum up what is most important or explain what the main message is.

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Listening for specific information • listen for details, such as names, numbers, dates, places, certain words • useful in many work situations, for example, when taking a phone message or an order, understanding instructions or important safety warnings After listening, you should be able to provide specific information.

Practical listening tips

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1 Before listening to a text, decide what the purpose of listening is. What do you need to find out? What do you already know about the topic? What type of text is it? What words are useful to know?

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2 While listening, take notes. If you are listening for specific information, focus on keywords and facts. If you are listening for overview, focus on understanding what the text is about.

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3 After listening, review your notes. Expand your notes and look up words you don’t understand. If necessary, listen to difficult passages again or ask the speaker to repeat what was said.

4 Be an active listener. In face-to-face communication, the speaker’s body language, facial expressions and tone of voice will help you understand the message. When you cannot see the speaker, it becomes even more important to think about what you are listening to and why you are listening. With good listening skills, you may be able to hear more than the words spoken.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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5.28 How do you listen in the following situations? a There is a news report about an accident on the radio. b A dialogue takes place between two characters in a film. c Flight information is given on the loudspeaker system at the airport. d You hear a podcast on current issues. e Someone calls to leave a message for your boss. f An elderly person talks to you about the old days. g Your best friend tells you a secret. h Your teacher introduces a new topic in class.

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5.29 Listen to this short text and fill in the missing information. a The Empire State Building is a skyscraper in , New York City. The skyscraper is feet tall and has floors. More than million tourists visit the observation decks every year. The skyscraper was officially opened in . It was completed ahead of schedule, taking only days to build. For years, it was the tallest building in the world. b Which listening strategy did you use to find the missing information?

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5.30 Listen to this short text and answer the questions. a What is this text about? b Why is there a growing need for technicians in this field? c Which listening strategy did you use to answer the questions?

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5.31 Listen to what Saima says about her job and answer the following questions. a Where does she work? b When does she start work in the morning? c What does she not like about her job? d How does she feel about her supervisor? e In general, would you say that Saima likes her job? f Which listening strategy (or strategies) did you use to answer the questions?

5.32 Are you a good listener? a How can you show you are paying attention to what is being said in a conversation? b How can you show you are interested in what is being said? c “Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply.” Do you agree? d In small groups, tell each other about the latest film or series you watched. Practise being active listeners.

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Symbols and Diagrams

Fuse

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The purpose of a diagram is to show equipment and components, as well as the connections between them. Electrical symbols and electronic circuit symbols are used for drawing these diagrams. Each symbol represents a part or a component. It shows the component of a circuit as a simple shape. There is a Norwegian standard for the symbols used, but other countries, for example, the US will use symbols that are different.

Earthed socket

Unearthed socket

Lamp

Junction box

Single pole double throw switch

Intermediate switch

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Single pole changeover switch

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Wiring diagrams

A wiring diagram shows the connections between the elements of a system or a circuit. Horizontal and vertical lines are used to represent the wires. This diagram will show where parts and equipment are placed in relation to each other.

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Schematic diagrams

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A schematic diagram shows the flow of current through the system and exactly where each connection is found. The purpose of this diagram is to represent the way an electrical system functions. The actual physical placement of the wires may be quite different in real life.

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fuse sikring earthed jordet/jorda junction box koblingsboks/ koplingsboks single pole changeover switch serievender/serievendar single pole double throw switch endevender/ endevendar intermediate switch mellomvender/ mellomvendar wiring diagram enlinjeskjema/einlinjeskjema equipment utstyr schematic diagram flerlinjeskjema/ fleirlinjeskjema transformer transformator capacitor kondensator loudspeaker høyttaler/ høgtalar amplifier forsterker/forsterkar

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Electronic circuit diagrams

Wires connected

Wires not connected

Fuse

Transformer

Earth

Heater

Bell

Diode

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Capacitor

Variable capacitor

Light-emitting diode

Light- sensitive diode

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Here is an overview of symbols used in electronic circuit diagrams. Such diagrams are used to show the components in a circuit and how they are connected.

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Antenna

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Ohmmeter

Oscilloscope

NOT gate (Inverter)

AND gate

OR gate

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5.33 • Match each picture with the correct symbol. Then write down the English name for each part or component.

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5.34 •• Study the pictures of the wiring diagram and the schematic diagram on the previous page. a Write down in English the name of the part represented by each symbol. b Explain in your own words how the two diagrams are different.

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5.35 ••• Decide which wiring diagram symbol each of the schematic symbols below corresponds to. Then explain in your own words how you know. C

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5.36 Study the table of electronic symbols on the previous page. Then answer these questions. a How can you tell the difference between the two types of transistors? b How can you tell the difference between an amplifier and a NOT gate? c What is the difference between a light-emitting diode and a lightsensitive diode. d What is the difference between the two types of capacitors? e Do you think the symbols for these eight components are logical? How?

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5.37 Discuss the following questions. a What kind of wiring diagrams have you used so far this year in your work at school? How well did you succeed in following them? b What kind of diagrams have you made yourself so far this year? What technical and digital tools did you use? c Looking back, have you become better as you have practised, both at making various diagrams yourself and using them as you work?

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5.38 • Write the names of the electronic circuit symbols in the picture below.

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5.39 •• Write out a wiring diagram for the parts and connections below. Next, make the corresponding schematic diagram. Use available tools. 60 Watt

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Source 120 Volt

60 Watt

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Technology by the Episode 1 The BBC started producing the science fiction series, Doctor Who, in

1963. It narrates the adventures of an extraterrestrial, “The Doctor”, and became an important part of British popular culture. The series has featured several interesting technological innovations over the years. One example is the sonic screwdriver, which uses sound waves to work. The Doctor’s pet is the fully automated dog, K9, who is a brilliant chess player. The Doctor travels through space in the TARDIS (Time and Relative Dimension in Space). On the outside it looks just like a blue British police box. On the inside it is much bigger and at one point it boasted two swimming pools.

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Before you start Do you know the titles of any television shows where electricity and/ or digital technology play an important part? Have you watched any of them? Explain to a partner.

2 How Do They Do It? is a television series produced for Discovery

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Channel. The first season debuted in 2006. Each episode explains how two or three everyday things are made and what they can be used for. Topics can be anything from cheesecakes to spacesuits. Some programmes explore completely industrialized processes that are monitored by automation technicians and engineers. Others show how chocolate or rock candy can be carefully crafted by hand, using old recipes and methods. “Behind the ordinary is the extraordinary” is the series’ slogan.

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3 The British series, Black Mirror, is created by screenwriter, presenter

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narrate fortelle om/ fortelje om extraterrestrial utenom­ jordisk/utanomjordisk feature her: vise innovation nyvinning chess sjakk monitor her: overvåke/ overvake rock candy sukkerstang/ sukkerstong unexpected uventet/uventa widow enke particular spesiell

and social critic, Charlie Brooker, along with producer Annabel Jones. It is a science fiction thriller series that premiered on Channel 4 in 2011. Netflix took over the production of Black Mirror in 2015. The series examines the often unexpected effects of modern technology. In one episode a widow tries to upload her late husband’s personality to a new body. In another, a mother has her daughter’s every move live-streamed to her iPad. Episodes are stand-alone, which means they do not need to be watched in a particular order. Black Mirror has won many awards, including several Emmys.

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4 Power and Ice is a reality series about linemen

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employed by three different companies working in Alaska. It was shown on the History Channel in 2015 k explain the content of television and produced by the Canadian Tricon Films & Television shows and series about technology company. In each episode these linemen must battle k share your opinion of a television snow, ice, avalanches, freezing temperatures and high show or series about technology winds to make sure the electricity grid in Alaska will be able to deliver power to the consumers. Work on the high-voltage power lines is especially dangerous in these challenging conditions. Sometimes a crew must travel long distances to remote areas in order to sort out a power cut, and in one episode a lineman notices how a large bear climbs on top of his service truck. 5 The first episode of the Canadian TV series, Mayday, was produced by

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Cineflix and shown on Discovery Channel Canada in 2003. Since then, more than 150 episodes have been made. Each of them focuses on a topic related to aviation safety, and examples include air crashes, bombings or hijackings. Information from aircraft systems, such as recordings from the cockpit and an aircraft’s black box, are used to recreate the dialogue and the sequence of events. Experts explain the factors that contribute to an incident. Sometimes survivors or their relatives are interviewed to give their perspectives on what happened. 6 In the American techno-thriller series, Mr. Robot, which first aired in

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2015, the main character is Elliot Alderson. He is played by the actor, Rami Malek. Alderson suffers from severe mental illness and works as a cybersecurity engineer when he is recruited as a hacktivist. The series’ writer, Sam Esmail, has consulted with several experts in the field to make sure that the hacking scenes and the technology that is used are as accurate as possible. In an early episode, for example, Alderson gains access to a seemingly impenetrable data storage facility by using a Raspberry Pi to hack into the climate control system.

lineman energimontør avalanche snøskred grid her: strømfordelingsnett/ straumfordelingsnett deliver levere consumer kunde remote fjerntliggende/ fjerntliggjande aviation luftfart hijacking flykapring recording opptak recreate gjenskape/attskape sequence rekkefølge/ rekkefølgje contribute bidra til mental illness psykisk sykdom impenetrable ugjennomtren­ gelig/ugjennomtrengande storage lagring facility anlegg

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5.40 • Match each short text on the previous page with the correct picture. D

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5.41 •• Decide whether the following sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones. a

The series, Doctor Who, is produced by the BBC.

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In the series, Power and Ice, you see Canadian electricians at work. More than 150 episodes of the series, Mayday, have been made. How Do They Do It? is a techno-thriller series.

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The TARDIS looks just like a British postbox.

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The main character in Mr. Robot is Sam Esmail.

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In Mayday you can learn about aviation safety.

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Black Mirror is a reality TV series.

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5.42 ••• Rate each of the series described on a scale from 1 (most interesting) to 6 (least interesting). Give at least one reason for your opinion.

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5.43 Fill in the missing letters to complete the words. a scre river b industrial ed c techni an d me od e p er lines f avia on g hack g h chnology

5.44 Many documentaries and television series we watch in Norway are from the US. In what way(s) do you think their content may influence ideas we have about conditions in that country? Discuss in pairs, then share in class.

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5.45 Do you think that documentaries and television series help create an interest in technology that may convince young people to choose a career in these fields? If yes, why? If no, why not? Discuss and give examples.

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5.46 Suggest an episode from a relevant television series about electricity and/or digital technology that you find interesting and that you think you should watch in class. Pitch your suggestion and argue convincingly.

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How did you do?

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5.47 Watch an episode of one of the television series and choose one of the tasks below. a • Write a summary of the episode. b •• Write a text to promote the show. c ••• Write a review.

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What I Do at Work Sebastian, electrician

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I have just finished my apprenticeship to become a qualified electrician. The work I do varies a good deal. I install fuse boxes, cables, lamp holders and sockets and connect switches. For safety reasons all the hand tools I use, such as cable cutters, wire strippers, hammers and screwdrivers, are insulated. I use a multimeter when I test circuits and appliances to make sure they are safe to use. I also use an insulation resistance tester to check the total resistance of the insulation. On old wiring systems I must document any changes I make. On new building projects, many different professions are involved, which means my job must be closely coordinated with theirs.

Marek, automation mechanic

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A typical day at work for me involves maintaining, faultfinding and adjusting or repairing the different systems. In the company I work, for most of the processes are automated. The machines are controlled by PLCs. The process operators monitor everything from the control room. When there are faults in the system the alarm goes off and they call for me. I need to troubleshoot the issue to find out whether the problem is electrical, mechanical, or whether there is something wrong with the systems that control the production process. I use different instruments and programmes for this. Once I have figured out what the problem is, I fix it, for example, by changing a sensor or a relay in a circuit. You have to be practical and very accurate in this job, and I like that.

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Alexandra, computer electronics technician In many families today each person has his or her own computer. Sometimes they don’t work and the problem is handed over to me. I run through a standard fault-finding procedure to find out what is wrong. This involves using a multimeter to check signals and currents through circuits. Maybe a circuit board needs changing, or a worn-out connection must be repaired. A variety of small screwdrivers and soldering irons of different kinds are important tools in my job. Even though I mostly deal with computer hardware, I also install software and carry out tests. Sometimes I give technical support. People rely heavily on their computers and some are pretty upset when they call me. This means that good communication skills are an important tool, too.

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Air travel has grown tremendously over the past years. So has the need for technicians to make sure that aircraft are operating and maintained according to rules and regulations. My job involves inspecting, troubleshooting and repairing the various systems on an aircraft. When we have made changes, even small ones, we run tests to check that everything works as it should. There is a programme of planned maintenance for every plane, and this must be followed down to the smallest detail. In my job I use hand tools, such as screwdrivers, pliers and spanners. I use instruments and measuring tools and many different computer programs.

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Espen, flight systems mechanic

electrical trades k discuss similarities and differences between professions k use relative pronouns correctly

Sara, telecommunications installer

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The job of a telecommunications worker involves installing, maintaining and repairing all the services we use. This can be anything from network cables to telephone systems. In my job you must be really organized and accurate because the parts that are connected can be quite small. Our service truck has all kinds of tools, instruments and equipment we may need – everything from power drills to mallets. When I am going to connect a cable to a network, I use a GPS to find the cables already in the ground. For fibre optic cables I have a special tool kit. Amongst other things, it has a fibre optic stripper, a Kevlar cutter, a crimping tool and cleaning materials. Because many of the instruction manuals and installation instructions are in English, good language skills are also an important tool for me.

apprenticeship lærlingtid fuse box sikringsskap socket stikkontakt switch bryter/brytar wire stripper avmantlingstang/ avmantlingstong insulated isolert multimeter universalinstrument circuit krets/krins appliance utstyr insulation resistance tester megger, isolasjons-måler/ isolasjonsmålar wiring ledninger/leidningar maintain vedlikeholde/ halde vedlike faultfinding feilsøking adjust justere PLC PLS troubleshoot feilsøke relay relé circuit board kretskort soldering iron loddebolt software programvare pliers tang/tong spanner skiftenøkkel mallet treklubbe crimping tool krympeverktøy

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5.48 • Combine each profession with the relevant task. Write down the complete sentences. 1

B

An automation mechanic

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A computer electronics technician A flight systems mechanic

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A telecommunications installer

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uses hand tools, instruments, measuring tools and many different computer programs to carry out planned maintenance. uses different instruments and programs to troubleshoot issues and carries out repairs, for example, by changing a relay. uses a fibre optic stripper, a Kevlar cutter and cleaning materials to connect fibre optic cables. uses cable cutters, wire strippers and screwdrivers to install fuse boxes, lamp holders, sockets and switches. uses a variety of small screwdrivers and a soldering iron to repair computer hardware.

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5.49 •• Who says what? Write the name and profession for each statement. a I run through a standard fault-finding procedure to find out what is wrong. b On old wiring systems I must document any changes I make. c When we have made changes, even small ones, we run tests to check that everything works as it should. d For fibre optic cables I have a special tool kit. e You have to be practical and very accurate in this job, and I like that. f Good language skills are also an important tool for me. g I use instruments and measuring tools and many different computer programs. h Good communication skills are an important tool, too. i When there are faults in the system, the alarm goes off and they call for me. j I also use an insulation resistance tester to check the total resistance of the insulation.

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5.50 The people from the text meet and discuss their jobs. Work in groups of five and choose one profession each. Ask each other about tools, instruments and safety equipment, and explain how you enjoy “your” work. Act out the conversation.

Ku

5.51 Below are some professions that are not mentioned in the text. What are the main tasks and responsibilities of these professions? In pairs or small groups, choose one profession and prepare a short presentation to share in class. a aircraft engine mechanic d ROV operator b airframe mechanic e space technologist c power-supply operator f locksmith

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5.52 Have you chosen a programme area for next year? What would you like to choose, and why? Discuss in groups.

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5.53 Write at least one sentence for each of the following tools and instruments to explain what they are used for. a cable cutter d insulation resistance tester b wire stripper e Kevlar cutter c multimeter f soldering iron

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Practise

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5.54 Fill in who, which, that, whom or whose in the sentences below. For information on relative pronouns, check the Language Lab section. a I know someone works as an ROV operator. b The equipment a telecommunications installer uses can be quite expensive. c There are strict safety regulations, must be followed. d The computer electronics technician, with I made an appointment, was polite and efficient. e Greg got the apprenticeship he applied for, made him very happy. f Hanna, dream it was to start her own company, trained as a lift fitter. g The students, were out on work placements, all had to write logs. h The electrician made a list of all the materials and products were needed for the project.

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5.55 Choose the correct quantifier to complete each sentence. a Could I have some/any space, please? b They didn’t know about some/any of the new security software. c Are there some/any new standards or regulations we need to know about? d The apprentice had all/no idea who had misplaced her circuit diagrams. e The head of the IT department needed to check every/all procedure. f You have every/any right to pursue your dreams.

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5.56 • Write a short text where you compare two of the professions that are mentioned in the text and tasks. What similarities do you see between them? How are they different? 5.57 •• Write a text for a website to inform teenagers about a profession of your choice. Focus on three good reasons to choose a career in this field. Include examples of tasks and equipment often used in this work. Choose suitable illustrations.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe some professions in electrical trades YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss similarities and differences between professions YES

ALMOST

NO

use relative pronouns correctly YES

ALMOST

NO

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS GIVING A PRESENTATION

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Learning to give presentations is useful for both school and work. Oral presentations typically involve three stages; planning, practising and presenting. As the following guidelines show, most of your time and effort should be spent on the first two. With good planning and enough practice, you will become a more confident speaker.

rin

1 What, why, who and how

2 Structure your presentation

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• Study the task carefully. What are you asked to do? Underline instruction verbs. Does the task have certain requirements? What sources will be relevant? • Identify your purpose. Why are you making this presentation? What do you want to achieve? Inform/describe/persuade/entertain/instruct/discuss… • Identify the audience. Who will you be talking to, and what is the context? Classmates/coworkers/customers/examiners… • Adjust your language to the task at hand. Consider the situation, your audience and your topic. For advice on using formal and informal language, see Chapter 3.

vu

The introduction Catch the audience’s attention. You can start by asking a question, making a statement or telling a story to introduce your topic. “Have you ever been inside an ambulance?” “When I was a child, I often went to...” Give your audience an idea of what to expect. For example, tell them how your presentation is structured. “First, I am going to say a few words about ... Next, there will be information about ... and finally, I will give my own opinion on...”

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The main part Organise your points into sections. One point per section makes it easy to follow. Give evidence or examples to support your points, and then explain in your own words. Make your transitions clear to the audience. Let your listeners know when you are moving on to the next point, example or section by using sentence connectors or briefly recapping what you have just said. “In contrast, these charts show that ... ” “Another example I would like to ... ” “Now that we have looked at ..., we can go on to...”

Ku

The conclusion Sum up in a few short sentences what you have talked about. “In conclusion I would like to say that ... ” “To sum up this presentation,...” Thank your audience for listening. “Thank you for your attention.” “Thanks for listening. Are there any questions?”

3 Use visuals

Short videos, photos, charts or animations can be used to support your presentation. If you use digital presentation tools, do not overload each slide. Select the most important facts and make sure the audience can read the text and see the images clearly.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 4 Practise

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The more you practise, the more comfortable you will become with the material. • Write down keywords and main points on index cards so you remember what to say. • Practise how to pronounce difficult words. • Get feedback from a friend if possible. • Time your presentation. If your assignment is to give a three-minute talk, make sure you finish on time.

5 Present

rd e

Use the following tips to keep your audience engaged during your presentation. • Speak slowly and clearly. Try to avoid fillers such as “uh, like, I mean, you know, okay”. • Keep eye contact with your listeners. • Include short pauses to allow yourself to think ahead and your listeners to keep up. • Remember to breathe. It is okay to be a bit nervous. • Speak with confidence. You are the authority on your topic, but do not pretend to know everything.

Practise

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5.58 Make introductions to presentations on the following topics. Practise in pairs and give each other feedback. Try not to use a manuscript. a The most important life skills for young people today. b What it means to be a role model. When someone is giving a presentation, be a c The importance of practical training. good listener. Look at the person who is speaking and make sure your body language is positive. Try to come up with a question or a relevant response afterwards.

til

What to look for: • Does the introduction make you want to hear more? • Does the speaker make eye contact with you? • Does he/she speak without a manuscript?

5.59 Choose one of the topics that you have studied earlier in the course. First decide on a purpose and an audience, then prepare a presentation. Use digital presentation tools.

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Suggested topics

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• Safety in the workplace • My favourite children’s book/song • An artist with a message • A book or film I would like to recommend • A cause I support • An interesting fact about the USA/UK • What inspires me the most • What to do (and not to do) on social media

Purpose

Audience

Entertain Describe Inform Argue a point or case Persuade Instruct

Children An elderly person Classmates Your teacher Co-workers Local politicians Examiners in the oral exam

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The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind

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In 2002 the worst famine for many years hit Malawi. William Kamkwamba was 14 years old at the time. His family, like most other Malawians, were farmers, and when the maize crop failed his parents could no longer afford his school’s fees. This meant that he had to leave school. By borrowing books from the local library, William continued to learn in the hope that he would be able to come back to school when the situation improved. On the library shelves there were books about science as well as technology, and he became interested in how electricity could be produced. The next step was incredible. Using scrap metal, a part of an old bicycle and a bicycle dynamo, William built his own windmill with help from two friends, Gilbert and Geoffrey. His home suddenly had electrical light. But the voltage was not high enough to charge even a mobile phone. For this, people would go to the local trading center and pay a small fee. William’s cousin, Ruth, then gave him a good idea…

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One day I was complaining about taking Ruth’s phone to the trading center again, when she said, “Why can’t you just charge phones with your windmill? It produces electricity, doesn’t it?” I’d already thought about this. But I knew I didn’t get enough voltage from my bicycle dynamo to power a charger. My dynamo produced 12 V, but a charger needs 220 V. Twelve volts was fine for a light bulb, but not strong enough for heavier jobs. I had already discovered that energy decreases


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as it passes through wire over long distances. I used AIMS that concept when testing the radio against the dynamo. But for this, I needed to build something called a stepup transformer. k describe technology that utilizes a renewable power source Power companies across the world, especially in Europe and America, step up voltage all the time. Huge k explain how a transformer works alternators generate electricity, but as my previous k listen for technical information experiment demonstrated, it loses strength on the way to your home. To remedy this, the power company installs step-up transformers along the route that boost the power before sending it on its way. A step-up transformer has two coils – the primary and the secondary – that are wrapped side by side around a core. Alternating current flows back and forth and is constantly changing, and this change causes the primary coil to induce a charge in the secondary coil. This process is called mutual induction, which means that voltage from one coil jumps into another. The result is that the overall voltage is increased. I had learned about this in a chapter in Explaining Physics entitled “Mutual Induction and Transformers,” which also featured the picture of a man with white hair and a bow tie. This was Michael Faraday, who invented the first transformer in 1831. What a good feeling that must have been. famine hungersnød Using the diagrams from this chapter, I was determined to make my own crop avling step-up transformer. First I used some sharp pliers and cut an iron sheet into fee her: skolepenger/ an “E”. The diagram demonstrated 24 V being transformed to 240 V. I knew skolepengar complain klage that voltage increased with each turn of the wire. The diagram showed the trading center her: handels­ primary coil to have 200 turns, while the secondary had 2,000. A bunch of stasjon mathematical equations were below the diagram – I assume they explained power her: drive how I could make my own conversions – but instead, I just started wrapping decrease minke like mad and hoped it would work. transformer transformator I connected the dynamo wires to the primary coil, while the secondary coil huge kjempestor was wired directly to the prongs of the phone charger. I got quite a shock while alternator vekselstrøms­ generator/vekselstraums­ I was tying those bare wires to the charger, but once they were attached, I was generator ready to plug in the phone. previous tidligere/tidlegare “Don’t blow it up,” she said. remedy her: bøte på “I know what I’m doing,” I said, lying. coil spole I plugged in the phone jack, but instead of blowing up, the screen lit up and core kjerne the bars began moving up and down the side. It worked! mutual gjensidig “See,” I said. “Told you.” feature her: vise bow tie tversoversløyfe equation ligning/likning assume anta prong her: pinne attach feste bar her: stolpe

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5.60 • Decide whether the following sentences are true or false. True William’s windmill produced 12 V.

b

William’s windmill produced enough power to charge a mobile phone.

c

A step-up transformer has one coil.

d e

William had learnt about transformers in a book called Explaining Physics. Michael Faraday invented the first transformer in 1851.

f

William decided to make his own generator.

g

William knew that voltage increased with each turn of the wire.

h

William plugged in the phone jack and the phone blew up.

rin

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a

False

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5.61 •• Correct the false sentences in the task above.

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5.62 ••• Complete the following tasks. a Scan the introduction to the text and answer these questions. 1 What happened in Malawi in 2002? 2 What were the consequences for William Kamkwamba? 3 What did he do to continue studying? 4 What did William Kamkwamba use to build his windmill?

til

b Skim read the text and answer these questions. 1 Why could William Kamkwamba’s bicycle dynamo not be used to charge a cell phone? 2 How did he make a step-up transformer? 3 How did he connect it to the cell phone’s charger? 4 Did William Kamkwamba actually know what he was doing? c Close-read the paragraph that describes how a step-up transformer works. What is mutual induction? Explain in your own words.

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Practise

5.63 Pronouns. Rewrite the sentences below. a It is her cell phone. The cell phone is . b It is his bicycle dynamo. The bicycle . c It is our house. d It is his windmill. e It is their library. f These are my ideas. g Are these your tools? h These are their cables.

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5.64 Match each word with the correct Norwegian translation. 1

Norwegian strømledning/straumleidning

B

power cord

2

loddebolt

C

rectifier

3

krets/krins

D

soldering iron

4

glødelampe

E

circuit

5

frontlys

F G

incandescent bulb 6 headlamp 7

H

toggle

uttak vippe

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8

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A

English socket

likeretter/likerettar

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5.65 This is a transformer. How does it work? Discuss in pairs.

IP

Is

VP

Primary Circuit

NP

Secondary Circuit

Ns

turns

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turns

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Vs

5.66 Is it possible to step up or down direct current? Give reasons and discuss in class.

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Listen

A self-made home wiring system

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5.67 • Listen to the text once, then complete the sentences. a To get electricity in my room, I simply transferred this system . b Studying the picture, I opened one of my broken six-volt radios and easily . c With the battery, I was also now able to install three additional bulbs in the house, all . d For some reason, the light from the bicycle still worked .

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e I constructed a simple light switch for each bulb using bicycle spokes and . f I mounted these switches inside small boxes I’d made from . g Whenever I pushed the flip-flop button, the spoke and iron connected the terminals, . h Now look at you, enjoying electricity like .

Write

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5.68 •• Listen to the text again. Answer these questions. a What did William Kamkwamba use to install an electrical socket in his room? b What happened once the phone charger worked? c What did William Kamkwamba want a car battery for? d Where did he find a rectifier? e What did he use as a soldering iron? f What kind of light bulbs did he install in the family home? g What did William Kamkwamba use to make a switch? h Did the family have to pay the power company for the electricity they had?

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5.69 • Study this graph. How much of the world’s energy will come from renewable sources in 2050? Write one paragraph.

Units: EJ/yr

600 500

Energy Source Geothermal Wind Solar thermal Solar PV

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400

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Forecast World Primary Energy Supply by Source

300

Biomass Nuclear

Ku

200

Hydro Gas

100

Oil Coal

0

1980

1990

2000

2010

Source: https://eto.dnvgl.com/2017/

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2020

2030

2040

2050


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5.71 ••• Translate the paragraph below into Norwegian. Look up words and expressions you are not sure of. Transformers can either increase or decrease the voltage and current levels of their supply. A step-up transformer is a transformer where the secondary voltage is greater than the primary voltage. This kind of transformer “steps up” the voltage applied to it. Mutual induction is the process where a coil of wire magnetically induces a voltage into another coil located close to it. A step-up transformer is needed to use a 220 V appliance in a country with a 110 V power supply, such as in the US.

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5.70 •• Do you see any safety issues in William Kamkwamba’s home wiring system? Write out a set of safety instructions for the family. For advice, study “Giving Instructions” in Chapter 2.

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Explore

5.72 Watch the TED talk from 2009 where William Kamkwamba explains how his windmill changed his life. Sum up what you consider to be the most important information.

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5.73 Watch the film, The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind, which is based on William Kamkwamba’s memoirs. Next, find at least two reviews of the film. Do you agree with them?

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5.74 To what extent will renewable energy become more important in the future? Research the topic and find relevant statistical information. How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe technology that utilizes a renewable power source YES

ALMOST

NO

explain how a transformer works YES

ALMOST

NO

listen for technical information YES

ALMOST

NO

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Repair or Recycle?

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iFixit publishes online repair guides for consumer electronics and also sells parts. The company’s aim is to reduce electronic waste. A good way of doing this is to repair electronic devices rather than throwing them away. The information below is from iFixit’s blog.

20% lost Between 20% and 35% of the material content of a phone is lost when the phone is shredded and melted down for recycling.

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0 Smartphones That’s the number of smartphones that have been made from 100% recycled materials. We cannot make a new phone from an old one.

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1,200 Light bulbs Your smartphone consumes enough energy during manufacturing to power 1,200 60 W light bulbs for an hour – energy is lost when the phone is shredded.

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17 Rare Earths Critical rare earths are present in every single electronic device you own. Ninety-nine percent of them cannot be recovered for recycling.

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Millions of consumer electronics reach the end of their lives every year. Recycling them isn’t nearly as effective as you’d think.

Embodied energy

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When you buy a smartphone or a tablet, it comes with something you can’t see or feel: embodied energy. It takes (literally) tons of raw materials, hundreds of man-hours, and enormous amounts of energy to manufacture the electronics that most of us use for less than two years. Seventy percent of the energy that a laptop uses in its lifetime is spent during the manufacturing process. For a desktop, the number is as high as 80%. Just how much energy does it take to make a computer? Almost as much as it takes to make that big refrigerator in your kitchen. Our electronics might be smart, but they are also dirty. Here’s what goes into your stuff before you even buy it:

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publish gi ut consumer forbruker/forbrukar reduce minske devices utstyr shred her: demontere rare earth sjeldent jordmetall/ sjeldsynt jordmetall recover her: gjenvinne manufacturer produsent tablet nettbrett embodied energy her: innebygd energi man-hour arbeidstime ounce ca. 28,4 g guzzle slurpe emit slippe ut/sleppe ut

One microchip, weighing less than an ounce, guzzles up 70 pounds of fresh water.

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One desktop uses up to 12 times its weight in fossil fuels.

One laptop emits over 500 pounds of carbon dioxide  during manufacturing.


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All that energy all that water and all those emissions can’t be recovered during recycling. When recyclers shred phones and computers that could be repaired or reused, they are shredding the embodied energy and materials, too.

AIMS k discuss some problems of electronic

Recycling doesn’t close the loop

There’s a better way…

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Consumer electronics are one of the most complicated products we know how to make. The average cell phone is made up of at least 500 components – most of them a complicated cocktail of different materials. That makes recycling electronics way more difficult than something like a tin can. A typical cell phone, for example, is about 40% metals, but the metals are alloyed together. Recyclers have to untangle each metal from the blend before it can be put back on the market. Some metals, like critical rare earth elements, are too difficult or too expensive to separate out for recycling. Roughly half of the metals in a cell phone are lost in a recycler’s smelter.

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waste k listen for specific information in a text k discuss how problems of electronic waste may be solved

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The best shot we have at reducing the environmental impact of our electronics is to keep them around for as long as possible. Repair is the first line of defense against waste. It extends the life of electronics: users can replace broken components, put in a better battery or upgrade to higher-capacity RAM whenever they want. That means less stuff in landfills and less things in a recycler’s shredder. And it doesn’t stop with the owner. Manufacturers can repair their products, too. Sixty-five percent of all cell phones collected in the US are refurbished or repaired, then resold – not recycled. That’s because recyclers make an average of about 50 cents per recycled phone. Resellers, for comparison, average $20 per phone. Even better, when stuff is repaired, it holds on to all the energy and all the materials it used up during manufacturing. Nothing is wasted. Nothing is lost.

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Recycling electronics is a waste of energy Recycling is better than throwing stuff away. But it’s not a solution – and it’s not nearly as “green” as electronics manufacturers want you to believe.

emission utslipp/utslepp loop sløyfe alloy legering untangle plukke fra hverandre/ plukke frå kvarandre smelter smelteovn/smelteomn environmental impact miljøpåvirkning/ miljøpåverknad landfill søppelfylling refurbish her: oppgradere line of defense forsvarslinje

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5.75 • Find the sentences in the text that mean the same as the Norwegian sentences below. a Firmaets målsetning er å redusere elektronikkavfall. b Å resirkulere dem er absolutt ikke så effektivt som du tror. c Det er antallet smarttelefoner som har blitt laget av 100 % resirkulerte materialer. d Å resirkulere elektronikk er sløsing med energi. e All den energien, alt det vannet og alle de utslippene kan ikke gjenvinnes ved resirkulering. f Det gjør at å resirkulere elektronikk er mye vanskeligere enn noe slikt som en blikkboks. g Og det stanser ikke med eieren. h Produsenter kan også reparere sine produkter.

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5.76 •• Complete these sentences with information from the text. a Between 20% and 35% of the material a phone contains is…. b During manufacturing a smartphone consumes enough energy to …. c Of the rare earth metals found in electronic devices, 99% …. d The number of smartphones made from 100% recycled material is…. e Of the energy a laptop uses during its lifetime, 70% …. f To make a computer takes almost as much energy as it does to …. g It takes about 70 pounds of fresh water to produce one …. h During manufacturing one laptop emits ….

5.77 ••• Sum up what the text says about recycling electronic devices. Why is it not a solution?

Practise

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5.78 Match each word with the correct definition. A

anode

1

able to catch fire and burn easily

B

cathode

2

catch fire or cause to catch fire

C

short-circuit

3

a gel or liquid that contains ions

D

explosion

4

the electrode where reduction occurs

E

ignite

5

dangerous

F

electrolyte

6

accidental diversion of a current

G

combustible

7

the electrode where oxidation occurs

H

hazardous

8

a violent blowing apart or shattering of something

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5.79 Study the information you see on this battery. Sum up what you are warned about.

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5.80 "Cascades of Fire" Listen to this excerpt from an article about the problem posed by batteries. Then fill in the missing numerical information. a Trucks and compactors squeeze trash with forces up to PSI. b The pressure used to squeeze trash is the equivalent force of water on a submarine feet below the surface. c Workers at an EcoMaine facility extinguish an exploded battery more than a times d 175 pounds of lithium-ion batteries were sold in the U.S. in alone. e USA Today reports that percent of fires at waste facilities in California were started by lithium-ion batteries. f In there was a survey of waste facilities in California. g Of the facilities surveyed, percent reported a fire at their facility in the last two years. h Of the fires, percent were attributed to batteries.

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5.81 Answer these questions. a What happens when a battery is damaged by crushing? b What happens to the lithium electrolyte inside the battery when it is exposed to air? c What can happen if the terminals of a battery touch metallic objects? d Why are lithium-ion fires so difficult to put out? e What happens if a lithium-ion fire happens deep inside a waste pile? f Is it easy for people to know where to throw away their old lithiumion batteries? g How many fires are now caused by batteries compared to other hazardous materials? h Why are especially private facilities unwilling to report fires, according to one executive director?

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5.82 • Study the information in the illustration below. How many televisions, cell phones and computers are thrown away and how many are recycled? Write one paragraph.

26.9

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E-waste: What Gets Recycled

140.3

14

205.5

48.2

Units dicarded

6.3

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Televisions

Units recycled

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Cell phones

Computer products

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Numbers are in millions

Source: EPA

5.83 •• Sum up the information in the illustration below. Write a short text.

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Top 5 e-Waste Generating Countries In The World (2016)

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11.7

6.1

Million Tonnes

USA

Million Tonnes

China

Japan

2

1.8

Million Tonnes

Million Tonnes

Germany

India

Source: ASSOCHAM-KPMG

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2.2

Million Tonnes

Computer Equipment

Telecommunication equipment


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5.84 ••• Sum up the information in the illustration below and write a text.

Global E-Waste Arising In Asia

In five years time: 107% increase in China 63% increase in Asia & South East Asia

E-Waste Generated by Region

Asia 38%

Europe 28%

Europe 11.6 mill. to. 15.6 kg per capita

Asia 16 mill. to. 3.7 kg per capita

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North and South America 11.7 mill. to. 12.2 kg per capita

Africa 1.9 mill. to. 3.7 kg per capita

America 28%

Oceania 0.6 mill.to. 15.2 kg per capita

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Exponential Growth of E-Waste (Global) In Year 2025 200

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Oceania 1% Africa 5%

Million Tonnes

Volume

Top 5 Asian Countries

150

with the most e-waste

Average increase 33% per year

50 0

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100

2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025

Source: samsolu.com

Speak

*Expected to reach

1. China 2. Japan 3. South Korea 4. Indonesia 5. Vietnam

160 mil tonnes by 2025

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5.85 On iFixit’s web page there is a pledge you can take.

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discuss some problems of electronic waste YES

What do you think is meant by the line “I will fight for our right to repair”? Do you think that repairing electronic devices is a good solution to the problem of electronic waste? Discuss in pairs.

Ku

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can

I will learn to fix things I didn’t think I could. I will buy things that are built to last. I will fight for our right to repair. And I will share what I learn along the way.

Explore

54% 18% 6.7% 6.6% 3.6%

5.86 One of iFixit’s main concerns is that consumers should be allowed to repair their own electronic devices. Choose one device that you own and would like to keep. Can you repair, refurbish or upgrade it as much as you like?

ALMOST

NO

listen for specific information in a text YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss how problems of electronic waste may be solved YES

ALMOST

NO

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Revise

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Assess your progress

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5.87 After working with Chapter 5, it is time to revise what you have learnt. a Leaf through the chapter. Which texts and tasks have you worked with? b Name as many tools in English as you can remember. c What are wiring diagrams? d Give a short description of at least three popular television shows focusing on modern technology. e There are two literary texts in this chapter. Choose one of them and briefly explain what it is about. f Which professions are mentioned in this chapter? g Mention some aspects of renewable energy sources. h Explain the advantages of refurbishing and reusing electronic devices rather than recycling them.

til

5.88 In this chapter you have worked with topics that require a specialized vocabulary. Use the categories below to make a list of relevant words for these topics. Then describe which strategies you used for learning these words. You may want to check “Learning strategies” and “Tools for language learning” in Chapter 1 to jog your memory. a Parts and components

b Tools and instruments

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5.89 Listening strategies a What do you do when you listen for overview? b In what situations do you need to listen for details? c What can you do before listening to a new text? d How is listening without face-to-face communication different from when you can see the speaker?

c Professions

5.90 Giving a presentation a How should you start a presentation? b Why is structure important when giving a presentation? c How should you end your presentation? d How can you be a good listener when others are giving a presentation?

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

5.92 Write a • Make a list of at least 10 tools and instruments you have worked with so far this year. Write one sentence for each item on your list to explain what it is used for. b •• Choose an electronic component that you would like to know more about. Find and select information from relevant and reliable sources. Present your findings in a fact file or as a manuscript for a presentation or information video. c ••• Why should young people choose a profession in electrical trades? Create a text where you reflect on, explain and discuss the question above and give examples from texts and topics you have worked with this year.

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5.91 Speak a • Choose a text from this chapter. Prepare a two-minute speech where you explain to a partner what the text is about and why your partner should read it. b •• Imagine that you are going to install state-of-the-art wireless audio and video equipment in your classroom. Prepare a presentation where you describe what you would like to do and how you would do it. Include information on which tools and materials you would need. c ••• Find information about a renewable energy production facility. Prepare a presentation where you first describe the energy production method, what type of facility it is and where it is. Then explain what makes this energy “green”.

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Apply your skills

When you have written the first draft, swap your text with a partner’s. Give each other feedback on what works well and what could be improved before writing the final version of your text. For advice on how to structure a text, check Chapter 4.

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CHAPTER 6


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In this chapter you will focus on k communicating with clients and customers

k writing formal texts k discussing vocational topics k exploring technology and

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innovation

k spelling and easily confused

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words

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Useful words and phrases service-minded professional independent self-employed communication skills teamwork maintenance innovation infrastructure artificial intelligence

What does it mean to be professional? How do you think technological innovations will influence digital infrastructure in the future?

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Before you start Which of these personal qualities do you think are most important when dealing with customers or clients? Number them from 1 (most important) to 8 (least important). Compare your lists in class.

On Call-Out

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a good hygiene b friendly c creative d service-minded e outgoing f flexible g calm h patient

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Chris has the feeling he has only just fallen asleep when his phone rings. For a moment he doesn’t really remember who or where he is. His left hand fumbles for the phone on the bedside table. He sits up and checks the time. It is 02:35. As his mind slowly clears, Chris recalls that he is a refrigeration technician with his own company, and that he is on emergency call-out. He sighs and answers the phone.

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call-out vakt fumble fomle bedside table nattbord recall komme på refrigeration technician kjølemontør sigh sukke leakage lekkasje ammonia ammoniakk take a breath puste

Someone, a man at the other end, is speaking very fast. Chris catches a few words, like “leakage” and “ammonia”. He tries to interrupt, but has to wait until the man pauses to take a breath. Then Chris asks who is calling, from where, and what the problem is. Chris double-checks the information and

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since his company is local, he knows he will be there in AIMS less than ten minutes. From the time the phone rang until Chris’s service truck arrives, it takes nine minutes and twenty-three k discuss the importance of good communication seconds. A time that wouldn’t have disgraced an ambulance driver, Chris thinks to himself. And unlike an k use polite words and phrases ambulance driver, he has to stick to the speed limit. It k use words related to relevant tools and equipment all comes down to organization. When Chris is on callout, he doesn’t want to spend precious time hunting for things he might need. His equipment and tools are packed and ready to go. Chris is met at the main gates by the technical operations manager of the sports facility. The fire brigade has been notified and firefighters are on their way. It is they who will decide whether or not to evacuate the people who are just now fast asleep in their beds in the houses across the street. Ammonia is a widely used refrigerant. It is a colorless gas with a very unpleasant, irritating smell. If you breathe in even quite low concentrations of ammonia, you will begin to cough and your eyes will start watering. Because of this, you are unlikely to be exposed to harmful levels of it. From the direct readout that is visible from the outside, and that the technical operations manager has already checked, Chris reckons the concentration of ammonia is low. There is no smell on the outside. But Chris cannot be sure service truck firmabil what the situation inside the machine room is like. He gets into his sealed disgrace gjøre skam på/gjere body suit just as the fire engine appears. skam på Chris has a maintenance contract with this facility, so he knows it well. stick to holde seg til/ This is why the firefighters want him there when they enter the building. They halde seg til go straight to the ammonia tank and turn off the supply. They switch off speed limit fartsgrense the alarm. After a short while, the entire refrigeration system is shut down. precious dyrebar technical operations manager And not one single person in the neighborhood has woken up. Chris will go teknisk sjef home now and catch a few hours of sleep himself. He knows he has some sports facility idrettsanlegg busy days ahead. fire brigade brannvesen/ At eight o’clock sharp, Chris is back. Now he must troubleshoot the brannstell system and find out where the leakage is. Chris works systematically, decide avgjøre/avgjere checking out one component after the other. It doesn’t take him long to find refrigerant kjølemedium the problem: a faulty compression gasket, which he changes. This doesn’t harmful skadelig/skadeleg level nivå mean that the system is up and working. Chris must first test the repair for readout avlesning/avlesing pressure tightness following strict procedures. When he is sure all leakages maintenance contract have been found and are correctly repaired, he can refill the refrigerant. serviceavtale Hopefully after a few days, the facility will be recommissioned and the local supply tilførsel ice hockey team can get back to practice. gasket pakning pressure trykk tightness tetthet/tettleik recommission her: sertifisere

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6.1 • Choose the correct word. a Chris has the feeling he has only just fallen asleep when his alarm clock/phone/mother rings. b Chris catches a few words, like “leakage” and “ammonia”/“anemone”/“ammonite”. c From the time the phone rang until Chris’s car/ambulance/ service truck arrives, it takes nine minutes and 23 seconds. d His equipment and tools/clothes/stuff are packed and ready to go. e The fire brigade has been notified and paramedics/firefighters/police officers are on their way. f Ammonia is a widely used refrigerator/deodorant/refrigerant. g He gets into his sealed/closed/watertight body suit just as the fire engine appears. h They switch off the ammonia/alarm/system.

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6.2 •• Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Chris recalls that he …. b From the time the phone rang until Chris’ service truck arrives, it takes …. c When Chris is on call-out, his tools and equipment …. d Chris is met at the main gates. …. e It is the firefighters who will decide …. f Ammonia is a …. g The firefighters want Chris to be there when they enter the building because…. h Chris must troubleshoot the system and ….

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6.3 ••• Answer the questions in full sentences. a What time is it when Chris wakes up? b Why do you think Chris double-checks the information the man gives him? c Why does Chris have his tools and equipment packed and ready when he is on call-out? d Why are you not likely to breathe in high concentrations of ammonia? e Why does Chris reckon the concentration of ammonia inside the building is low? f Why does Chris know the sports facility well? g What does Chris find to be the reason for the leakage? h What must happen before the refrigeration system can operate normally again?

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Practise

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6.4 These are some of the tools and equipment Chris uses in his work as a refrigeration technician. Match the English words with the correct Norwegian translations.

6.5 Match the polite phrases with the best answer. Good morning, Chris. Nice to see you.

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Well, tomorrow at about 10 a.m. would be perfect.

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How are you?

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By credit card, please.

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May I have your address, please?

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No problem, but please try to be on time tomorrow.

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How would you like to pay?

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You’re welcome.

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You did a really good job, Azim.

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Good morning, Azim.

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Thanks, Chris. I did my best.

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When would you like me to change that sensor? Sorry I’m late.

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I’m fine, thanks. And you?

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Thank you so much.

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Yes, it’s 6400 Wyoming Boulevard, NM 15688.

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6.6 Here are some phrases you need when you speak on the telephone. Fill in the missing words. line – please – message – call – speaking – put – spell – number a b c d e f

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Thank you for calling DW SubZero, Azim Mahmood . Could you me through to Chris Granger, please? Could you hold the , please? Could you repeat that? Would you that for me, please? I am afraid he is in a meeting right now. Would you like to leave a ? g Thanks, my is 356–22 567, extension 10. h I will ask him to you back when he gets in.

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6.7 Poor communication! Work in small groups. One of you takes on the role of “professional from hell”. Try to do everything wrong as clients or customers come into your office! The other group members play clients who have different problems or reasons for coming in. This could be to ask for prices, to complain about work done by the company, or to speak to the manager. Act out the scenes in class.

6.8 • Place each phrase in the box where you think it should be. Some phrases may fit more than one box. Asking for someone

Connecting someone

Taking a message

Problems

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a May I speak to Chris Granger, please? b One moment, please. I’ll see if Chris Granger is available. c Can I take a message for her? d Good morning, how may I help you? e Could I speak to someone at customer service, please? f All our operators are busy. Please hold the line. g I will tell Azim Mahmood that you called. h Who is calling, please? i I’m afraid you must have got the wrong number. j Please hold while I put you through. k Could you speak up please? I can’t hear you very well. l DW SubZero, Karen speaking. m I didn’t quite catch that. Would you repeat that for me, please? n I’d like to speak to Azim Mahmood, please. o Would you like to leave a message?

6.9 •• Give reasons for your choice of most important personal quality in the “before you start” task to the text On Call-Out. Write one paragraph.

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6.10 ••• What are the advantages of using ammonia as a refrigerant? Write a short text.

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compressor

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a device that increases temperature by reducing the volume of a substance backwards

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a long, hollow cylinder

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usually a fluid used in heating and cooling systems

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physical force, measured in Pascal

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a structure where the end is connected to the beginning a chemical that lowers the freezing point of a liquid

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6.11 “Heat pumps” Match each word with the correct alternative.

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6.12 Listen to the text about heat pumps. Then fill in the missing words and phrases. a Put simply, heat pumps are refrigeration systems working . b The compressor increases the pressure when it reduces its volume. c Air source are the most common. d A exploits the heat in the ground. e Ground-source systems are usually either direct exchange or . f In a direct exchange system, a refrigerant circulates in pipes . g This is because water is much better than air . h This is because it moves heat instead of .

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss the importance of good communication YES

ALMOST

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use polite words and phrases YES

ALMOST

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use words related to relevant tools and equipment YES

ALMOST

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS WRITING A FORMAL TEXT In formal emails, you should be polite, keep your text short and use correct grammar, spelling and punctuation to avoid misunderstandings. Fill in the ­subject line

This will be shown in the list of messages in your recipient’s inbox and should say what your email is about.

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Start your email with a greeting

“Dear Ms Nguyen”. If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, you write “Dear Sir/Madam”. If this is the first time you email someone, you would normally not write “Dear Louie” or “Hi Ricky”.

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Say what your ­reference is

“Regarding the advertisement for…”, “With reference to your ad…”

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Say what your ­purpose is­

“I request information about…”, “I am writing to enquire about…”

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Ask for more ­information

“I would also like information about…” “I would also like to know if…”

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Request action

“Please get back to me with…”, “Could you please call me…”, “I look forward to hearing from you.”

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“Best wishes”, “Best regards”, “Many thanks”, “Yours sincerely”, “Yours End with an ­appropriate closing faithfully” are all phrases that can be used here.

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Dear Mr Cairns,

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I am writing with regard to the advertisement for Rick’s Driving School on Facebook. I will be 16 this year, have passed my learner’s test and would like to start driving lessons within the next few weeks. I would like information about availability, costs and any additional courses I should take. Driving lessons will need to take place before or after school and I would also like to know if that will be a problem.

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Thank you for your help. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

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Best regards, Charlotte Harper

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Subject: Driving lessons, request for information

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise 6.13 Decide whether the phrases below belong in a formal or an informal text. e To whom it may concern, f Hugs, g Sort it out! Now! h You won’t get away with this, you know.

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Dear Mummy! We would like to place an immediate order. Yours faithfully, Kindly adhere to the terms of the agreement.

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To: buybest.com

a I would therefore like to request a replacement, or a full refund. b Sincerely, Neil Gallagher c I finally received the cell phone on November 10th. The packaging appeared to be undamaged, so I opened the parcel, but soon noticed that the screen was broken. d Dear Sirs, e I have spoken to representatives of the shipping company in question. They assured me that if the box is undamaged, it must be an issue with the manufacturer. f Thank you for your kind cooperation. Please contact me at your earliest convenience. g Your terms clearly stated that it would be delivered to my home address within 10 business days. After three weeks I had still not received it. Further to my enquiry, an associate claimed that delivery would only be a matter of days. h I bought a cell phone from your online retailers, buybest.com, on October 12th. My confirmation number is SF2341PC.

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6.14 Place the sentences below in the correct order so that they become a text.

6.15 Answer these questions. a Who wrote the text in the task above? b What has this person bought? c What is the problem? d What would the writer of this email like to happen now? 6.16 Give at least three examples of phrases which show that this is a formal text. SKILLS | Chapter 6: Solutions | 257


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Spare Parts

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The novel “Spare Parts” tells the true story of four high school students from Carl Hayden Community High School in Phoenix, Arizona, who join a robotics club led by their science teacher, Fredi. The four students, Cristian, Lorenzo, Oscar and Luis, are the children of undocumented immigrants from Mexico, and they could be deported at any moment. On a budget of about $800 and using the bits and pieces they can get hold of, the team builds an ROV. They call it Stinky because of the awful smell of the glue they use to connect the parts. With Stinky the team takes part in an underwater robot competition sponsored by the Navy and NASA. Here they meet students from the most prestigious schools in the USA, as well as a panel of highly qualified judges…

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Tom Swean eyed the four teenagers standing nervously at the front of the classroom. The kids were backed by a green chalkboard, and a swarm of desks crowded the space between them and the three judges. Swean was a gruff 58-year-old who ran the Navy’s Ocean Engineering and Marine Systems programme. At the Office of Naval Research, he developed million-dollar autonomous underwater robots for the SEALs. He was not used to dealing with Mexican American kids sporting gold chains, fake diamond rings and patchy adolescent mustaches. “How’d you make the laser rangefinder work?” Swean growled. It was a hazy summer day at the University of California, Santa Barbara – and though the campus was largely empty due to the summer break, South Hall was crowded. It was the third annual Marine Advanced Technology Education Remotely Operated Vehicle Competition, an event sponsored by NASA and the Navy. It was established to encourage deported deportere and identify the country’s top engineering talent. There were teams from Remotely Operated Vehicle across the country, including students from MIT, who were sponsored by fjernstyrt kjøretøy/ fjernstyrt køyretøy Exxon Mobil, the world’s largest publicly traded company. glue lim The Latino kids were from Carl Hayden Community High School in West gruff brysk Phoenix. adolescent ungdommelig/ “We used a helium-neon laser,” Cristian Arcega answered rapidly, keyed ungdommeleg up on adrenaline. He was a skinny five-foot two science ace, one of the few hazy disig nerds at Carl Hayden, a school where 71.17% of students received free or annual årlig/årleg subsidized lunches because they were below the poverty line. Cristian lived in publicly traded her: børsnotert poverty line fattigdomsgrense an eight-foot-by-eight-foot plywood box slapped on to the side of a trailer in a plywood kryssfiner mobile-home park. “We captured its readout with a CCD camera and manually index of refraction corrected by 30% to account for the index of refraction,” Cristian explained to brytningsindeks/ the judges. Swean raised a bushy, graying eyebrow. brytingsindeks

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Lisa Spence, the flight lead at NASA’s Neutral AIMS Buoyancy Laboratory, sat beside Swean. At NASA she was in charge of replicating the space station in a 6.2-million-gallon tank at the Johnson Space Center in k understand what the novel excerpt is about Houston, Texas. She had been at NASA for 17 years and had worked with some of the most advanced k use words and phrases related to ROV technology underwater ROVs (remotely operated vehicles) in the world. Before starting at NASA, she had majored in k find and correct spelling mistakes chemical engineering at Arizona State University in the seventies and knew the area of Phoenix where these kids lived. It wasn’t a positive association. She remembered West Phoenix as a place that she wouldn’t drive through by herself. It was a poor area and the better schools were elsewhere. So she was surprised to see an underwaterrobotics team coming out of that neighborhood. “There aren’t any oceans in Phoenix,” she pointed out diplomatically. “No ma’am,” Lorenzo Santillan said. “But we got pools.” Spence couldn’t help but smile a little. Many of the teams had arrived at the competition with extraordinary underwater machines. They were made of machined metal, and some teams had budgets of more than $10 thousand. These kids had shown up with a garishly painted plastic robot that was partially assembled from scrap parts. They called their creation Stinky because it smelled so bad when they glued it together. It was their first time participating in any kind of underwater-robotics competition, but they had entered the highest division, going up against a field thick with veteran college teams. To some, their presence here seemed like a mistake. But Lorenzo was clearly proud of the contraption. To him it was a major accomplishment. He was 15 years old and wore the back of his hair long so it fell past his shoulders. Kids in his neighborhood referred to it as the Mexican mullet. He’d been a member of the WBP gang before joining the robotics team, and he tried to walk with a tough guy’s swagger. In reality, he was desperately trying to build a life outside the troubled world he’d grown up in. Swean followed up with a question on signal interference, and Lorenzo looked at Oscar Vazquez, the team’s de facto leader. Oscar was 17 years old and sported the crew cut of an Army Ranger. For four years, he had distinguished himself as part of Carl Hayden’s Junior Reserve Officer garishly glorete Training Corps, eventually becoming the group’s executive officer. The participate delta previous year, the corps designated him Officer of the Year, the unit’s highest presence nærvær contraption innretning honor. He dreamed of being a soldier, and it had looked as if he had a bright accomplishment bragd future in the military. Mexican mullet håret barbert på But it turned out the Army didn’t want him. He had lived in Phoenix for sidene og langt i nakken six years and thought of himself as an American, even though he’d been swagger selvsikkert ganglag/ born in Mexico. His parents had snuck him into Arizona when he was 12. sjølvsikkert ganglag No matter how many push-ups he did or how fast he ran, he couldn’t crew cut militærfrisyre SKILLS | Chapter 6: Solutions | 259


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outpace the fact that he was a fugitive, living in the country illegally, and therefore barred from enlisting. When he realized this during his senior year, he went looking for another field in which to distinguish himself. “Sir, we experimented with a 15 metre cable and found very low levels of interference,” Oscar told Swean. “So we decided to extend our tether to 33 metres.” “You’re very comfortable with the metric system,” Swean observed. “I grew up in Mexico, sir,” Oscar said. Swean nodded. He didn’t care where the kids were from as long as they were smart. He eyed their rudimentary flip chart. “Why don’t you have a Power-Point display?” “PowerPoint is a distraction,” Cristian replied. “People use it when they don’t know what to say.” “And you do know what to say?” “Yes, sir.” Spence knew that teams sometimes had an Einstein, Jr., a single kid who knew all the answers. Cristian clearly qualified, but Lorenzo and Oscar had also been able to speak intelligently about their robot’s mechanical and electronic components. It was meant to be a team effort, so the judges took into account whether all team members could answer questions. Their robot had successfully completed a complex series of underwater tasks, but about half the competition score would be based on this technical evaluation. Spence looked at Luis Aranda, a six-foot 250-pound hulk of a kid.He hadn’t said anything yet. “You employ PWM,” she said, pointedly addressing Luis. “Can you describe that?” Oscar, Cristian, and Lorenzo glanced at Luis. Throughout high school he’d worked nights as a short-order cook at a diner and often seemed halfasleep during the day. They’d recruited him onto the team in part because they needed someone strong enough to lift the robot in and out of the pool. He rarely said much of anything, so it was hard to tell what he was thinking. Cristian wanted to answer for him but held back. “PWM means ‘pulse-width modulation’,” Luis answered, looking completely unfazed by the attention. “It’s a technique for controlling highcurrent devices digitally.” Cristian couldn’t believe it: the answer was spot-on. He wanted to hug the big guy. Spence nodded. She would never have guessed that a downtrodden West Phoenix high school would have produced such an assured group of underwater roboticists. As a NASA employee, she had become accustomed to working with engineers who conformed to a sort of industry standard: white, well-educated, conservative clothes. These four teenagers standing in front of her signaled that the future looked different.

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joshua davis

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The four students, Cristian, Lorenzo, Oscar and Luis, are undocumented immigrants and high school students from Phoenix, Arizona. The neighborhood is poor, and so is the school. The students join a robotics club. With their teacher, Fredi, they build an ROV from scrap parts and cheap components. They call it Stinky. With Stinky they take part in a competition. This competition is sponsored by the Navy and NASA. The judges work there. In the competition these students meet teams from all over USA. Some of them are rich and have thousands of dollars to spend on their underwater machines. The students from Phoenix have just over $800, but Stinky still works very well. As a part of the competition the team must answer questions. All team members must show that they understand how the ROV works. They must also explain the science to the judges. Luis gets a difficult question. Cristian wants to answer it for him, but Luis knows the answer himself. The judges are very surprised that these Latino kids have managed to build their machine and know so much about it.

undocumented papirløs/ papirlaus immigrant innvandrer/ innvandrar neighborhood nabolag poor fattig Remotely Operated Vehicle fjernstyrt kjøretøy/ fjernstyrt køyretøy scrap skrap part del competition konkurranse navy marine judge dommer/dommar science vitenskap/vitskap question spørsmål difficult vanskelig/vanskeleg surprised overrasket/overraska Latino person av latinamerikansk opprinnelse manage klare

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IN SHORT

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Joshua Davis (1974–) is an American film producer and writer. He is a contributing editor of Wired Magazine and the co-editor of Epic Magazine. This is a magazine that publishes amazing, true stories. Joshua Davis has contributed articles to anthologies and various magazines, such as The New Yorker. He has also been part of the US armwrestling team.

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6.17 • Complete these sentences with information from the text. a The neighborhood is poor, …. b With their teacher, Fredi, they build an ROV …. c With Stinky they …. d Some of them are rich and have thousands of dollars to spend …. e The students from Phoenix have just over $800, …. f As a part of the competition …. g All team members must show that …. h The judges are very surprised that these Latino kids have managed to ….

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6.18 •• Place these sentences in the correct order according to what happens in the text. a Lorenzo says that they have got pools in Phoenix. b Swean asks the students how the laser rangefinder works. c Swean observes that Oscar is comfortable with the metric system. d Cristian answers that they used a helium-neon laser. e Lorenzo answers that PWM means “pulse-width modulation”. f Spence points out that there are no oceans in Phoenix. g Oscar explains that they experimented with a 15 metre cable and found very low levels of interference. h Cristian explains that they manually corrected by 30% to account for the index of refraction.

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6.19 Study the picture of this ROV. What function do you think each component of the vehicle has? Discuss with a partner.

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Multiparameter Probe Hydrophones (X3)

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6.20 Choose the correct alternative. a The team members know that their answers may effect/affect their score. b It’s/Its a good idea that high school students can work on projects like this. c The question was not to/too difficult for Luis. d The team set off/of for the University of California. e Is it possible that we’re/wear in a competition that Stinky could win? f Your/You’re having the time of your/you’re life. g Where/Were do you think you will be in five years? h Their/There are many possibilities.

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Metric 2.54 cm 0.3048 m 0.9144 m 1.6093 km

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6.21 Study the conversion table and answer these questions. Write out your calculations. a How many inches are there in one foot? US or Imperial b How many feet are there in one yard? 1 inch [in]  c How many yards are there in one mile? d How many millimetres are there in one inch? 1 foot [ft] 12 in  e How many centimetres are there in one foot? 1 yard [yd] 3 ft  f How many centimetres are there in one yard? 1 mile 1760 yd  g How many metres are there in 10 yards? h How many square metres are there in four square yards?

Write

6.22 • Read this paragraph carefully and correct the spelling mistakes. Notice that many of them are not found by the spelling checker on your PC.

Carl hayden community High School in West phoenix is in a poor neighborhood. Most off the students are bellow the poverty line. Many of them are unndocumented imigrants. This means that they can be sent back too Mexico at any time. No one think these students will ever suceed. There teacher, Fredi, is the son of immigrants from iran. He starts up a robotics club at carl Hayden and he believes inn the students. He has them take part in a though competition against teams form rich schools and colleges all over the usa.

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6.23 •• Do you know of anyone who has worked hard and succeeded in terms of a career? If you can, interview that person to find out what s/he thinks were important factors that led to success. Write a short text.

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6.24 ••• In Norway students who come from affluent backgrounds are more likely to succeed when it comes to education and work. Why is this, do you think? Research the topic and write a text.

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6.25 Both a film, Spare Parts, and a documentary, Underwater Dreams, have been made about the robotics team from Carl Hayden. In addition, there are many news stories available. Find out how the team placed in the competition.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can understand what the novel excerpt is about YES

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6.26 Because of the publicity the robotics team from Carl Hayden received, private individuals and organizations donated money to allow the four team members to continue their education. What happened to the team members later in life?

use words and phrases related to ROV technology

6.27 How do you become an ROV operator? Make an overview of the steps you can take if you are interested in this career.

find and correct spelling mistakes

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FACT FILE FACT FILE

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GPS

The worldwide navigation system relies on 24 satellites and five ground stations, all maintained by the Department of Defense. Here’s how GPS works.

000 010 10001 100 00 010 010 001 100 010 100 010 010 00 10

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MEASURING DISTANCE

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• Each satellite has its own complex random code of on-off pulses. • The GPS receiver generates the same code as the satellite, at exactly the same time. • The receiver clocks the difference between its own transmission and the satellite’s. • The difference is the time it took for the coded signal to reach Earth. • Multiply the travel time by the speed of light and you have the distance.

A RECENT EXPERIMENT

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To test the ability of GPS systems to guide vehicles, scientists at Stanford fitted a tractor with a GPS receiver and programmed it to plow a large letter S in a field in Central California. In the same way, ambulances and fire trucks hurrying through traffic-clogged streets can be directed to the clearest routes.

264 | Chapter 6: Solutions | SKILLS

101 00 000 0 The timing must be perfect. An error of just ATOMIC CLOCKS

one thousandth of a second translates to a 200-mile error on the ground. Synchronised atomic clocks on board each satellite ensure accuracy.


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FACT FILE FACT FILE AIMS

HIGH ORBITS

Circling the earth at about 11,000 miles, the satellites fly well clear of atmospheric disturbances. As a result, their paths are extremely reliable.

k explain how the GPS works k use words and phrases related to

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TRIANGULATION

To find the exact location of any place on earth, a GPS receiver measures its distance from at least three of the satellites. That’s done by precisely calculating the time it takes for a radio signal to travel from each satellite to the receiver on Earth. Each satellite is 27 feet long with its panels extended, weighs 1900 pounds in space, and has a 12-hour orbit.

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000 000 1101 0 1

101 010 001 100 010 010 001 100 010 010 001 100 KEEPING TRACK

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All GPS receivers incorporate an almanac that tells them where the satellites are in space at any time.

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rely on være avhengig av / vere avhengig av ground station bakkestasjon orbit bane 1 mile 1,609 km disturbance forstyrrelse / forstyrring triangulation triangulering location posisjon receiver mottaker / mottakar distance avstand 1 pound 0,45 kg 1 foot 30,48 cm transmission overføring error feil ensure sikre accuracy nøyaktighet / nøyaktigheit ability evne vehicle kjøretøy / køyretøy

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Read and Understand

6.28 • Decide whether these sentences are true or false. True

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The GPS satellites orbit the Earth twice in 24 hours. Each satellite is 27 meters long.

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The GPS system is maintained by the Department of Homeland Security. The GPS system has 42 satellites.

You need at least three satellites to find an exact location. The GPS satellites have solar panels.

The GPS satellites orbit the Earth about 12,000 kilometres above us. All GPS receivers have an almanac that tells them where the satellites are in space.

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6.29 •• Correct the false sentences in the task above.

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6.30 ••• Sum up in your own words what the text says about the following: a how GPS is used to measure distance b atomic clocks c consequences of GPS signal errors

Practise A

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an object in space that orbits a bigger object

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a digital code so complicated that it resembles random electrical noise data that describes the orbital courses of satellites the disturbance of an electrical device by an electromagnetic field a piece of equipment that uses the resonance frequencies of atoms as its resonator a device for sending electromagnetic signals

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electronic interference atomic clock

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6.31 Match each word with the correct explanation.

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the data used to calculate the position of each satellite in orbit a device for receiving electromagnetic signals


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6.32 Study the picture below. Sum up the most important information.

Energy NON-IONIZING ALMOST SAFE, LOW DANGER

DANGER

SAFE and BENEFICIAL IN APPROPRIATE DOSAGE

EXTREMELY HARMFUL

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RADIOFREQUENCIES MICROWAVE

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1 MHz

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VISIBLE ULTRAVIOLET X-RAY

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SAFE and BENEFICIAL IN APPROPRIATE DOSAGE

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6.33 The signals from three satellites will give you an exact location. What information is added with a fourth satellite? Explain to a partner.

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6.34 Would law enforcement officers be able to find out where you are at this particular moment if they wanted to? What technological tools and systems could they use to locate your position? Is there anything you could do to prevent them from tracking you down? Discuss in pairs.

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After working with the text and tasks, I can

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6.35 GPS and other communication systems need antennas in order to transmit and receive signals. Choose one kind of antenna and find out how it works.

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6.36 GPS is not the only satellite-based positioning system. What other similar systems are there? Who owns and operates them? 6.37 What advantages will we see with the introduction of 5G technology? Do you see any disadvantages in the development of 5G? Research the topic and prepare a short presentation.

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The Black Box

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The truth was that a commercial airliner was controlled by a network of extraordinarily sophisticated electronics – dozens of computer systems, linked together by hundreds of miles of wiring. There were computers for flight management, for navigation, for communication. Computers regulated the engines, the control surfaces, the cabin environment. Each major computer system controlled a whole array of sub-systems. Thus the navigation system ran the ILS for instrument landing; the DME for distance measuring; the ATC for air traffic control; the TCAS for collision avoidance, the GPWS for ground proximity warning. In this complex electronic environment, it was relatively easy to install a digital flight data recorder. Since all the commands were already electronic, they were simply routed through the DFDR and stored on magnetic media. “A modern DFDR records 80 separate flight parameters every second of the flight.” “Every second? How big is this thing?” Richman said. “It’s right there.” Casey said, pointing. Ron was pulling an orange-and-black striped box from the radio rack. It was the size of a large shoe box. He set it on the floor, and replaced it with a new box, for the ferry flight back to Burbank. Richman bent over, and lifted the DFDR by one stainless-steel handle. “Heavy.” “That’s the crash-resistant housing.” Ron said. “The actual doohickey weighs maybe six ounces.” “And the other boxes? What about them?” The other boxes existed, Casey said, to facilitate maintenance. Because the electronic systems of the aircraft were so complicated, it was necessary to monitor the behavior of each system in case of errors, or faults, during flight.

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There has just been an accident on Transpacific Airlines Flight 545. Three people are dead and 56 are injured. Norton Aircraft has built the airliner, and Casey Singleton is the quality assurance vicepresident of this company. Bob Richman is a junior executive who is supposed to assist Casey. The aircraft is being thoroughly investigated to find out why the accident happened. An aircraft is a complex piece of machinery, and Ron, the electrics expert, is very busy…

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It was left to Casey to explain. The public perception of an aircraft was that it was a big mechanical device, with pulleys and levers that moved control surfaces up and down. In the midst of this machinery were two magic black boxes, recording events in the flight. These were the black boxes that were always talked about on news programs. The CVR, the cockpit voice recorder, was essentially a very sturdy tape deck; it recorded the last half hour of cockpit conversation on a continuous loop of magnetic tape. Then there was the DFDR, the digital flight data recorder, which stored details of the behavior of the airplane, so that investigators could discover what had happened after an accident. But this image of an aircraft, Casey explained, was inaccurate for a large commercial transport. Commercial jets had very few pulleys and levers – indeed few mechanical systems of any sort. Nearly everything was hydraulic and electrical. The pilot in the cockpit didn’t move the ailerons or flaps by force of muscle. Instead, the arrangement was like power steering on an automobile: when the pilot moved the control stick and pedals, he sent electrical impulses to actuate hydraulic systems, which in turn moved the control surfaces.

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Each system tracked its own performance, in what was called Non-Volatile Memory. “That’s NVM.” AIMS They would download eight NVM systems today: the Flight Management Computer, which stored data k explain the content of this novel excerpt on the flight plan and the pilot-entered waypoints; the Digital Engine Controller, which managed fuel burn k use words and phrases related to aircraft and aviation and powerplant; the Digital Air Data Computer, which recorded airspeed, altitude, and overspeed warnings … k discuss how flight is possible “Okay,” Richman said. “I think I get the point.” “None of this would be necessary,” Ron Smith said, “if we had the QAR.” “QAR?” “It’s another maintenance item,” Casey said. “Maintenance crews need to come on board after the plane lands, and get a fast readout of anything that went wrong on the last leg.” “Don’t they ask the pilots?” “Pilots will report problems, but with a complex aircraft, there may be faults that never come to their attention, particularly since these aircraft are built with redundant systems. For any important system like hydraulics, there’s always a backup – and usually a third as well. A fault in the second or third backup may not show in the cockpit. So the maintenance crews come on board, and go to the Quick Access Recorder, which spits out data from assurance her: sikring junior executive mellomleder/ the previous flight. They get a fast profile, and do the repairs on the spot.” mellomleiar “But there’s no Quick Access Recorder on this plane?” perception oppfatning “Apparently not,” she said. “It’s not required. FAA regulations require pulley trinse a CVR and a DFDR. The Quick Access Recorder is optional. Looks like the lever spak carrier didn’t put one on this plane.” essentially egentlig/eigentleg “At least I can’t find it,” Ron said. “But it could be anywhere.” sturdy solid michael crichton

Michael Crichton (1942–2008) was born in Chicago. He has written many novels, including The Great Train Robbery, Jurassic Park and The Lost World. Michael Crichton was also a film director and he has been called “the father of the techno-thriller”.

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6.38 • Fill in the missing words. a In the midst of this machinery were two magic black boxes, recording events in the . b But this image of an , Casey explained, was inaccurate for a large commercial transport. c Nearly everything was hydraulic and .

tape deck båndspiller/ bandspelar loop sløyfe aileron balanseror sophisticated avansert array rekke stainless rustfritt housing her: deksel doohickey dings ounce unse = ca. 28,34 gram facilitate tilrettelegge/leggje til rette volatile flyktig redundant her: ekstra FAA Federal Aviation Administration carrier her: flyselskap

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d e f g h

The pilot in the cockpit didn’t move the or flaps by force of muscle. Computers regulated the , the control surfaces, the cabin environment. Each major computer system controlled a whole array of . In this complex electronic environment, it was relatively easy to install a . A modern DFDR records 80 separate flight every second of the flight.

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6.39 •• Answer these questions. a What is Casey Singleton’s job? b How is the public’s perception of an aircraft wrong, according to Casey? c How is a commercial airliner controlled? d How are engines, the control surfaces and the cabin environment regulated? e What is a digital flight data recorder? f How much can a modern DFDR record? g How big was the DFDR on this particular aircraft? h Is there a Quick Access Recorder on this particular aircraft?

6.40 ••• Use the information in the text to explain the following abbreviations. a ILS c ATC e DFDR g QAR b DME d GPWS f NVM h FAA

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6.41 Study this picture. Explain to a partner how it is possible for an aircraft to fly. Y Aerodynamic forces of the aircraft

Aerodynamic forces of the aircraft in horizontal flight in horizontal flight

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Q - drag

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G 6.42 Study these pictures. Could any of these aircraft possibly fly? Explain with reference to the picture in the previous task why it is unlikely that any of these aircraft could either take off or remain airborne.

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lifting force YY- -lifting force GG- -weight of the weight of aircraft the aircraft PP– –thrust thrust Q - drag

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6.43 Fill in the missing letters. Then match each word with the correct Norwegian translation. fusel e

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vertikalstabilisator

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rtical stabilizer car hold nos heel

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6.44 “The Antonov 225” Listen to the text. Then answer the questions below. a What is the name of the city where the An-225 was built? b How big is the An-225’s wingspan? c How fast can the An-225 cruise? d How many passengers can find room in the An-225’s cabin? e How many tons of cargo is there room for in the An-225’s cargo hold? f What was the An-225 originally designed to do? g What happened to the An-225 when the Soviet Union fell apart? h What mission recently brought the An-225 to Norway?

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6.45 Listen to the text again. Then write down what happened when. e at the beginning of the 1990s a in 1985 f in 2000 b in December 1988 g in 2001 c in May 1989 h in 2016 d in the summer of 1989

Explore

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the content of this novel excerpt YES

6.46 Choose an aircraft design that you find interesting. Search for information and prepare a short presentation. Your presentation should include: • a picture of the chosen aircraft • what type of aircraft it is • when the aircraft was constructed, and by whom • any historical facts you find interesting

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use words and phrases related to aircraft and aviation YES

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discuss how flight is possible YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS DISCUSSING VOCATIONAL TOPICS

Source Vocational education and training is designed to produce skilled tradespeople. In coming years there will be a great need for workers with this kind of training in both the private and the public sectors.

Referring to experts, institutions or people of authority is likely to give added weight to your arguments.

By 2030, there will be a need for more than 300,000 employees with a vocational background from upper secondary school, and 300,000 with a shorter higher education. This is evidenced by a comprehensive study from Statistics Norway (ssb).

Source: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/

Claim

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Find arguments Information can often be found as statistics and contain numbers. Using these in a discussion shows that what you say can be trusted.

“More workers with vocational training will be needed in the future, says the government’s webpage.”

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Discussing vocational topics means practising skills that are useful both for language learning now and in your professional life later. To discuss meaningfully it is necessary to use relevant and valid arguments. You will easily find a lot of information, but you must often turn this into arguments and claims yourself. The ability to listen to others and understand their viewpoints is also important in a discussion.

“According to Statistics Norway, this country will soon need more than 300,000 employees with a vocational background.”

Listen carefully Phrases you can use when you want a speaker To respond to what to clarify what he or she means. other people say in a discussion, you need to remember what is said. Write down key words to help you concentrate while listening.

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Source: https://karrierestart.no/karrierevalg/607-de-sikreste-yrkene-­ for-fremtiden

Respond to the arguments of others

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Put forward your own views

“I didn’t quite catch what you said. Could you please repeat…” “Could you please explain what…”

You can agree absolutely and offer further support or evidence.

“In addition to what Sarah said about people choosing traditionally, statistics show that…”

You can disagree respectfully and explain why.

“I see what you mean, but I still think…”

You can point out something that you think the speaker has overlooked.

“What about…?”, “Have you thought about…?”

When a discussion is more about exploring a topic than reaching a conclusion, you may want to use phrases to express the fact that your mind is not already made up.

When you want to forcefully state your opiniwon, you can be more direct.

272 | Chapter 6: Solutions | SKILLS

“I wonder if…” “It seems to me that…” “Maybe it is the case that…” “I think it might be that…” “I think that…” “I don’t think that…” “In my opinion…” “People should…”


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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

10%

higher employment rate for VET students than university graduates

106%

increase in the highest average salary for VET graduates compared to university graduates

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Education academics, Thjis Bol and Herman van de Werfhorst, used the data from 29 countries, including the UK, to study the impact of vocational qualifications on employment. They found that countries that enabled young people to study for highly specific vocational qualifications while still at school typically had much lower rates of youth unemployment than countries whose students did solely academic subjects. Young people in these countries also spent less time looking for work when between jobs.

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6.48 Find arguments in favour of vocational qualifications in this paragraph.

TAFE (technical and further education) vs University

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6.47 Use the information from Australia on the right and develop five arguments for why young people should choose vocational education and training (VET) instead of university.

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54%

of university students take 4+ years to complete their degrees compared to VET students

22%

of HECS Debts will never be repaid every year due to poor university completion

90%

of the highest growth jobs in the next five years only need a VET qualification

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/ jan/21/snobbery-vocational-academic-educationopportunities-children

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6.49 Use the arguments from the tasks above. Work in small groups. Take turns reading your arguments aloud and referring to them. Use phrases such as: “As Thea just said…”, “According to Anders…”, “Ariba claims that…”

Source: https://www.tafecourses.com.au/ resources/tafe-is-better-than-universityand-heres-why/

6.50 Make a list of arguments for and against the claim “A vocational education is a good idea”. Then discuss the topic in groups. Remember to refer to each other’s arguments.

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Robots 'to replace up to 20 million factory jobs' by 2030

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Up to 20 million manufacturing jobs around the world could be replaced by robots by 2030, according to analysis firm Oxford Economics.

People displaced from those jobs are likely to find that comparable roles in the services sector have also been squeezed by automation, the firm said.

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However, increasing automation will also boost jobs and economic growth, it added.

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The firm called for action to prevent a damaging increase in income inequality.

Rise of the robots Each new industrial robot wipes out 1.6 manufacturing jobs, the firm said, with the leastskilled regions being more affected. Regions where more people have lower skills, 274 | Chapter 6: Solutions | SKILLS

which tend to have weaker economies and higher unemployment rates anyway, are much more vulnerable to the loss of jobs due to robots, Oxford Economics said. Moreover, workers who move out of manufacturing, tend to get new jobs in transport, construction, maintenance, and office and administration work – which in turn are vulnerable to automation, it said. On average, each additional robot installed in those lower-skilled regions could lead to nearly twice as many job losses as those in higherskilled regions of the same country, exacerbating economic inequality and political polarisation, which is growing already, Oxford Economics said. We've seen plenty of predictions that robots are about to put everyone, from factory workers to


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AIMS

journalists, out of a job, with white collar work suddenly vulnerable to automation.

k explain the impact of automation in the future k discuss how automated processes work k use easily confused words correctly

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And while it sees the robots moving out of the factories and into service industries, it's still in manufacturing that the report says they will have the most impact, particularly in China where armies of workers could be replaced by machines.

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But this report presents a more nuanced view, stressing that the productivity benefits from automation should boost growth, meaning as many jobs are created as lost.

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The service jobs that are under threat are in industries such as transport or construction rather than the law or journalism, and it's lower-skilled people who may have moved from manufacturing who are vulnerable. The challenge for governments is how to encourage the innovation that the robots promise while making sure they don't cause new divides in society.

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Oxford Economics also found the more repetitive the job, the greater the risk of its being wiped out.

Jobs which require more compassion, creativity or social intelligence are more likely to continue to be carried out by humans "for decades to come", it said.

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The firm called on policymakers, business leaders, workers, and teachers to think about how to develop workforce skills to adapt to growing automation.

Where most jobs have been lost

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About 1.7 million manufacturing jobs have already been lost to robots since 2000, including 400,000 in Europe, 260,000 in the US, and 550,000 in China, it said.

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The firm predicted that China will have the most manufacturing automation, with as many as 14 million industrial robots by 2030. In the UK, several hundreds of thousands of jobs could be replaced, it added. However, if there was a 30% rise in robot installations worldwide, that would create $5 trillion in additional global GDP, it estimated. At a global level, jobs will be created at the rate they are destroyed, it said. Published 26 June 2019, Rory Cellan-Jones

manufacturing job industriarbeidsplass replace erstatte displace her: bli fortrengt comparable sammenlignbar income inntekt inequality ulikhet vulnerable sårbar maintenance vedlikehold exacerbate forverre wipe out fjerne compassion medfølelse decade ti år policymaker politiker adapt to tilpasse seg GDP (Gross Domestic Product) BNP Brutto nasjonalprodukt

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Read and understand

6.51 • Join the two halves of the sentences together. Then write all the sentences down to form a text.

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Moreover, workers who move out of manufacturing tend to But this report presents a more nuanced view and stresses that The challenge for governments is how to encourage the The firm called on policymakers, business leaders, workers and teachers to think about Oxford Economics estimates that if there is a 30% rise in robot installations worldwide, that will create At a global level jobs will be created

2

that each new industrial robot wipes out 1.6 manufacturing jobs. innovation that the robots promise while making sure they don’t cause new divides in society. how to develop workforce skills to adapt to growing automation. $5 trillion in additional global GDP.

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According to the analysis firm Oxford Economics The firm said

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move into other jobs that are also vulnerable to automation.

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productivity benefits from automation should boost growth.

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6.52 •• Find the words in the text that mean the same, or almost the same, as the explanations below. a a machine that is able to replicate human movements and functions automatically b the use of machines to do a job instead of humans c work done to keep a road, building, machine or system in good condition d having few formal qualifications e the total value of everything produced in a country, usually during a year f a period of 10 years g say that something will happen in the future h the number one followed by 12 zeros

Speak

6.53 Study the picture. Then discuss the following questions with a partner. • When was the last time you used an appliance like this? • What does it do? • How can you make this appliance work? • What kind of job does it replace? • Do you leave an electronic footprint when you use it?

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6.54 Choose the correct alternative. a Robots are introduced faster than/then experts thought they would be. b It is impossible for a country to accept/except a high rate of unemployment. c Robotization is great, accept/except from the fact that millions of jobs will be lost. d That hasn’t had any affect/effect on the government’s decision. e We don’t know what affect/effect automation will have in the future. f The operator asked the engineer for a piece of advise/advice. g The operator asked her to advise/advice him on how to increase productivity. h They finished all there/their/they’re installations last week. i That is because there/their/they’re so good at their job. j There/Their/They’re is no doubt about it, the new facility will have to be built.

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6.55 “Automation”. Listen to the text. Complete the sentences below. a The word automatos comes from Greek and means …. b There it was used for the automatic handling of parts in metalworking processes and …. c With the invention of the steam engine, the human operators had more efficient tools …. d The machines work according to a program that decides …. e In a fully robotized process, you would not need any …. f The first industrial robots could perform only simple tasks …. g Operating a panel heater without a thermostat is a controlled process without feedback, …. h If a PLC controls a system, it will work according to how the PLC ….

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6.56 • Think of a really boring job you often have to do. Suggest how this job could be automated, or even robotized. How much better would your life become? Write a short text. 6.57 •• Think of an automated appliance or system that is part of your everyday life. What changes or adaptations could make it even better? Make a leaflet to advertise your upgraded version. 6.58 ••• Explain the difference between control and regulation in automation. Give examples to illustrate what the differences are.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the impact of automation in the future YES

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discuss how automated processes work YES

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use easily confused words correctly YES

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Sixteen-year-old Tom Harvey lives with his grandmother on a housing estate in South London. The area is dominated by crime and gang rivalry, which Tom tries to stay away from. One day, just as Tom is about to go and visit her, his friend Lucy is brutally assaulted at home. Someone throws an iPhone from the 30th storey of the block of flats. It hits Tom in the head. Seventeen days later he wakes up from a coma in a hospital bed. As he slowly regains consciousness, he realizes that something has changed. He tries to touch the side of his head and gets an electric shock. His neurosurgeon later tells him that they have successfully removed the broken bits of skull bone and clotted blood. But fragments of the phone have become embedded in Tom’s brain…

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Before you start What is a Cyborg? Discuss with a partner and agree on a definition of this term.

iBoy 101

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Imagine you’re trying to remember something … anything – the last time you cried, someone’s telephone number, the names of the seven dwarfs – it doesn’t matter what it is. Just search your memory, try to remember something … and when you’ve done it, try to imagine how you did it. How did you find what you were looking for? What did you search with? Where exactly in your brain did you search? How did you know where to look, and how did you recognize what you were looking for? If someone asked me those questions, I couldn’t answer them. All I could say was – well, I just did it. The things inside my head – inside my brain – they just did what they do. I told myself to remember something, and the stuff in my brain did the rest. It’s my head, my brain, and it makes me what I am – but I don’t have a clue how it works. And as I lay on my bed that day, listening to the distant babble of soundless sounds in my head, that was the only way I could think of it: it was my head, my brain, it made me what I was, but now there was something else in there, something that had somehow become part of me, and it was doing what it did – reaching out, finding things, an infinite number of things – and I didn’t have a clue how it worked… But it did. It was working right now. It was showing me bits of websites, random pages from random sites – words, sounds, images, data. It was scanning a world of emails, a world of texts, a world full of phone calls … it was connecting, calculating, photographing, filming, downloading, searching, storing, locating. It was doing everything that an iPhone could do. And that’s what it had to be – the iPhone. The fragments of iPhone that were lodged in my brain … somehow they must have fused with bits of my brain, bits of my mind … bits of me. And somehow, in the process of that fusion, the powers and capabilities of the iPhone must have mutated, they must have evolved … because as well as doing everything that an iPhone could do, I could also do a whole lot more. I could hear phone calls, I could read emails and texts, I could hack into databases … I could access everything. All from inside my head. I was connected.

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I knew it now. I knew it, I knew it, I knew it. But I still didn’t know anything about it. I didn’t know how it was AIMS happening. I had no control over it. It just happened … and, like I said, it had to be impossible. k explain what a cyborg is But it wasn’t. k use the binary system It was happening. k reflect on the impact of technological Other things were happening, too. As I lay there, development trying to digest the impossible truth, I could feel a glow of heat in my head, a warm tingle around my scar. It felt really weird, kind of shimmery, and I didn’t like it. I got up off the bed and went over to the mirror on my wall. I didn’t believe what I saw at first. It had to be something else, a trick of the light, a distorted reflection … but when I leaned in closer and stared intently at my face in the mirror, I knew that it was real. The skin around the wound was shimmering, vibrating almost, as if it were alive. It was radiating, glowing with countless colours, shapes, words, symbols … all of them constantly changing, merging into each other, floating and drifting, sinking and rising, pulsating like minute shoals of multicoloured fish. I lifted my hand and moved a finger towards the shimmering wound … then stopped, remembering the last time I’d touched it. The electric shock. I took a deep breath, slowly let it out, and then somehow, unknowingly, I closed something down in my head. The shimmering faded. “It’s OK,” I heard myself mutter. “It’s all right now. Trust yourself.” I gently moved my finger towards the wound, hesitated for a moment, then touched it. Nothing happened. No shock. Just a very faint tingle. I softly ran my finger along the length of the wound, feeling the raised skin, the newly grown flesh … and underneath it all, or maybe within it, I could feel a sensation of power. It wasn’t a physical sensation – it was more like a feeling of potential … the kind of feeling you get when you touch the surface of a laptop or an iPod or rivalry rivalisering something. Do you know what I mean? You can’t actually feel anything, but assault overfalle something tells you that there’s power under your fingertip, the power to do consciousness bevissthet/ wonderful things. bevisstheit neurosurgeon nevrokirurg That’s how my head felt. soundless lydløs/lydlaus I took my finger away. infinite uendelig/uendeleg I looked at myself random tilfeldig I shook my head. fuse her: smelte sammen med/ Impossible. smelte saman med I closed my eyes for a moment, opened them again, and – click – took a capability mulighet/moglegheit picture of myself in the mirror. I viewed it, emailed it to myself, geocoded it, evolve utvikle seg saved it, then deleted it. digest fordøye Impossible. tingle prikking Everything is theoretically impossible shimmer skinne/skine merge her: gli over Until it is done Robert A. Heinlein The Rolling Stones (1952) http://www.quotationspage.com/search.php3?homesearch=impossible

Goodbye normality. It was nice knowing you.

shoal stim sensation fornemmelse/ fornemming

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kevin m. brooks Kevin M. Brooks (1959–) is a British writer of young adult literature. In his novels he explores subjects such as drug abuse, prostitution and gang violence. Among his best-known titles are Martyn Pig, Kissing in the Rain, Killing God and many more. Kevin Brooks has won several awards for his books, including the Carnegie Medal in 2014.

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6.59 • Make questions from the words below. a Harvey Where does Tom live? b to What happened Tom? c does in a Tom How many coma days spend? d Tom’s do What can brain? e like Tom’s feel What does scar? f What mirror does see in the Tom? g What he touches his scar does Tom feel when? h What the picture does with Tom do he takes of himself? 6.60 •• Answer the questions in the task above.

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6.61 ••• Watch the film iBoy and answer these questions. a What happens to Tom at the beginning of the film? Is this the same as in the novel? b What does Tom’s grandmother do for a living? c What does Tom blame himself for doing when Lucy was attacked? d What does Tom find he is able to do to digital devices? e Mention some of the things Tom does to punish the gang members for their attack on Lucy and himself. f Who is Ellman? g How does Tom manage to finally subdue Ellman? h What happens at the end of the film?

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Binary Number System Sixteens column Eights column Fours column Twos column Ones column

One

Two Four Eight Sixteen

= = = = =

1 10 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

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6.62 Study this picture. Then write the numbers below in binary code. a 3 b 7 c 15 d 100 e your phone number (digit by digit) f your birthday (day – month – year)

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6.63 What kind of cybernetic technology exists to help people with disabilities today? Work with a partner and find relevant examples. Then share your examples in class.

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6.64 • Fill in the missing words. Then write out the text. network – databases – fragments – gadgets – iPhone – electric – cyborg – electronic

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iBoy tells the story of Tom Harvey. He has fragments of an in his brain. These have somehow fused with his brain cells and when he wakes up after a coma, he has superpowers. Tom has become a . Consider what he can do: He can tap into everyone’s personal . He can connect to anything that uses a digital . He can hack into secret . He can destroy devices by overloading them. He can also stun people with an shock by unleashing a pulse from his brain. Now Tom must decide how to best use these powers.

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6.65 •• Do you know of an action hero from either film or literature who has superpowers? Write a short text where you explain what kind of superpowers this hero has, how these powers work and what s/he can do with them.

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6.66 ••• Translate this paragraph into English. Look up words you are not sure of and pay particular attention to sentence structure.

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Ordet kyborg er en sammensetning av kybernetisk og organisme. En kyborg er en krysning mellom menneske og maskin. Neil Harbisson er født fargeblind. Han kunne tidligere bare se gråtoner. Nå har han fått et kamera operert fast i hodet. Kameraet registrerer farger og elektronikken som er operert inn i Neils hodeskalle gjør om fargene til lyd. Hver farge representerer en egen tone som blir fanget opp av ørene til Neil. Nå kan han ikke bare oppfatte vanlige farger, men også infrarødt og ultrafiolett lys. I tillegg har Neil Harbisson fått operert inn implantater i bena slik at han kan registrere jordens magnetfelt.

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6.67 Find the TED talk where Hugh Herr explains how he is a bionic man, but not a cyborg. What does he say about the work done at MIT and the future of mankind? Do you agree with him?

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use the binary system YES

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reflect on the impact of technological development YES

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Power for the Future

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Before you start Match these terms with the correct translation. A potential energy B kinetic energy C mechanical energy D electrical energy 1 bevegelsesenergi 2 mekanisk energi 3 elektrisk energi 4 stillingsenergi

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In the year 2050 about 9.7 billion people will be living on planet Earth. Three decades down the road, we will still want to switch on the light, operate our vehicles and use our digital devices. We will need an estimated 38,700 TWh in order to do so. Continuing to rely on fossil fuels for our energy is not a sustainable option, so where will all that electricity come from? It is unlikely that one single energy source will replace coal, oil or gas. Rather, a variety of solutions must be explored.

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This technology is far from new, and it currently supplies about 16% of the world’s power. It exploits the kinetic energy of falling or flowing water. Mostly, hydroelectric power is generated from dams, but with some changes the same technology can also be used to harness the energy from tides and waves. Waves contain about 1,000 times more kinetic energy than wind, and it is the changing height and speed of the swells that provide the up and down movement to drive a turbine. Several countries, including Portugal and Scotland, operate wave-powered facilities today. In the future, these turbines could either be fixed to the ocean floor or mounted on floating rafts and produce as much as 30,000 W per square metre.

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Geothermal

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In Iceland, research has been carried out by drilling into volcanoes and tapping them for energy. However, using heat from the Earth’s core to produce electricity on a large scale is a challenge. Here the temperature is about 6,000 °C, the same as in a nuclear reactor. It is necessary to drill down about 10,000 kilometres to exploit this energy source. Graphene technology could be the answer here. Graphene withstands temperatures of about 4,000 °C, is 200 times stronger than steel and is 100 times more conductive than copper. If graphene cores could be sunk down as close to the Earth’s core as possible, we would have endless supplies of energy with no pollution or disruption to the environment. It might also be possible to drill thermal wells offshore. While this kind of technology would demand heavy investment costs, it would be cheap to run in the long term.

billion milliard decade tiår vehicle kjøretøy/køyretøy facility anlegg ocean floor havbunn/havbotn mount her: montere raft flåte exploit utnytte graphene grafèn

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3

Wind

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Wind is a 100% renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, but the fact remains that wind farms k discuss various power sources themselves may be controversial. Although they do not k use strategies to find out how words pollute the environment, they have consequences for are pronounced wildlife and local communities. One solution is offshore k sum up vocational information wind farms. Placed far out at sea, these tall windmills are much less in anyone’s way. Offshore wind also tends to blow more strongly and reliably than wind over land. It has been calculated that this technology, exploited efficiently, could power Europe seven times over. Flying wind farms are another possibility. Further 3 up in the atmosphere, at an altitude of 5,000 metres, much more electricity could be produced because winds are much stronger. This electricity could be transmitted back to Earth through a cable.

Nuclear

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Since Fukushima and Chernobyl, people have been sceptical, even afraid, of nuclear power, and several European plants have been decommissioned. Fission generates radioactive waste. This waste can be radioactive for thousands of years and destroy entire ecosystems. It could also be used to produce nuclear weapons. Fusion is a different process altogether. It is the same kind of nuclear reaction that happens at the centre of the Sun where two atoms are fused to form one heavier atom. This process creates no dangerous nuclear waste. It emits no pollutants or greenhouse gases. There is no threat of a nuclear meltdown. Nuclear fusion requires high temperatures and pressure, but progress is being made in this field, and a working prototype could be a reality in this decade.

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Humans consume food which contains calories. Even when the average human body is at rest, it produces about 100 W. Cycling generates around 400 W, and really energetic activities more than 1,500 W. How can this energy be utilized? There are basically two ways, according to scientists. First, we could wear a system that would convert kinetic or thermal energy into electrical energy. Our electronic devices need much less electricity today than they did in the past, and we could easily power them with our own bodies. Second, we could produce energy as we went about our everyday business. A walkway in London, for example, has been covered with material that uses kinetic energy to produce electricity as people walk on it.

conductive strømførende/ straumførande environmentally friendly miljøvennlig/miljøvennleg altitude høyde/høgde decommission her: stenge emit slippe ut/sleppe ut threat trussel

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With better technology solar power has become fairly widespread. As long as the Sun shines, it is a reliable power source. But when it doesn’t, such as during the night-time or on a cloudy day, productivity drops. Also, more than half of the energy released by the Sun is stopped by the Earth’s atmosphere. This is why space-based solar farms are being considered. These would include big reflectors that could concentrate and reflect the sunlight onto panels. From these panels, the energy would be beamed back to receiving power stations on Earth, either as microwaves or by means of a strong laser. Better storage options and better battery technology would allow us to exploit this energy source even further.

beam her: overføre

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6.68 • Find the sentences in the text that mean the same, or almost the same, as the Norwegian sentences below. a Vi må snarere utforske flere forskjellige løsninger. b Denne teknologien er langt fra ny og den bidrar med omtrent 16% av verdens kraft. c Flere land, som Skottland og Portugal har bølgekraftanlegg i dag. d Her er temperaturen omtrent 6000 grader, det samme som i en kjernekraftreaktor. e Når de er plassert langt til havs er de mye mindre i veien for noen. f Dette avfallet kan være radioaktivt i tusenvis av år og ødelegge hele økosystemer. g Selv når en gjennomsnittlig menneskekropp hviler produserer den omtrent 100 W.

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6.69 •• Match each sentence with the correct power source. wind human hydroelectric nuclear solar geothermal a This technology supplies about 16% of the world’s power today. b With this technology it is necessary to drill down about 10,000 kilometres. c In this process two atoms are fused to form one heavier atom. d With this technology we could power our digital devices with ur own bodies. e This technology would need space-based reflectors and panels. f With this technology 30,000 W could be produced per square metre. g This technology could power Europe seven times over. h This technology would demand heavy investment costs, but would be cheap to run.

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Write

6.71 Study this pie chart.

Energy Mix 2050

Solar 6%

Coal 43%

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a • What will be important energy sources in the year 2050? Make a list of keywords. b •• Check the percentages on the pie chart. How much of the world’s energy is expected to be fossil fuels? Do you think this looks sustainable? Write a short text to explain why or why not. c ••• Check available sources and find out how much of the world’s power would need to utilize renewable sources by 2050 for this development to be sustainable.

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6.70 Pronunciation. Practise the pronunciation of these words. Look up words in an online dictionary and check the sound files of words you are not sure of. e pollutant a geothermal f utilize b hydroelectric power g productivity c turbine h technology d environmentally friendly

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Gas 9%

Oil 9% Hydro 12%

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6.72 Choose one of the power sources in the text on the previous page. Research the topic and find recent information to answer these questions. a Is this power source already in use? If yes, where and to what extent? b Is research being carried out and is progress being made? c What are obstacles or challenges that must be dealt with for this power source to be exploited on a large scale?

6.73 There are many interesting power sources. Search for information about antimatter, ocean thermal energy conversion, osmotic power production or another power source not mentioned in the text. What, in your opinion, are steps to be taken for this power source to become commercially viable?

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Wind 12% Other 1%

Nuclear 8%

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss various power sources YES

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use strategies to find out how words are pronounced YES

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sum up vocational information YES

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

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6.74 After working with Chapter 6, it is time to reflect on and revise what you have learnt. Choose three pictures that you think are relevant to the topics you covered this chapter. Explain how to a partner.

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6.75 Sum up the information you find here. Who is the information meant for? What is the purpose of this information?

Product Description

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Plastic Coated Aluminium A60 LED Bulb Light

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Model

CP-BL01-9W

Power

9W

Material

Plastic + Aluminium

Dimension

A60 A19

Type

E27/E26/ B22

Lumens

900LM

CRI

80

Input Voltage

AC85V-265V

Light Colour

3000K 4000K 5000K 6000K


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your progress

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6.77 Writing a formal text a Why are correct grammar, spelling and punctuation important in a formal text? b What greeting would you use when you do not know the name of the person you are writing to? c What is an appropriate closing of an email?

6.78 Discussing a vocational topic a Why is referring to statistics or to experts a good idea in a discussion? b What can you do to remember what is said in a discussion? c What are phrases you can use to ask speakers to clarify what they mean? d Give examples of how you can respond to what someone says in a discussion.

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6.76 Look through notes you have taken and tasks you have done as you worked with Chapter 6. Then go back to the two questions in the pink splash at the beginning of this chapter. Write a short paragraph to answer each question.

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6.80 Write 6.79 Speak a • Rewrite this message so that it becomes a • What is cybersecurity? In small groups more formal. discuss important facts to be aware of, and make a set of guidelines. Then share your From: Student C guidelines in class. Sent: 03.05.20… b •• Think of a controversial issue relevant to To: Peter Cambers the use of robots and/or artificial intelligence. Subject: Talk assignment Work in pairs. Yo, Pete! • On pieces of paper write down four different I wanna talk about my paper with you. The arguments relevant to the issue. deadline’s too soon for me. I need more time. • Shuffle them and choose one. Gimme another week, plz. • Create a sentence that expresses this Student C argument. • Pick another. Find a way to express this b •• Think of a situation at your school argument and link it to the first one. that you would like to complain about. c ••• Would you consider having a microchip Write a polite letter of complaint and implanted in your body? Find out how it is done suggest improvements. and what the advantages might be. Think for c ••• Find out what a reference should a minute about the ethical questions involved. look like and what kind of information it Next, share your ideas with a partner and should give. Then write a reference for make a list of arguments for and against. Then your learning partner. discuss the topic in class. SKILLS | Chapter 6: Solutions | 287


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CHAPTER 7

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Encounters

Street art by artist Pony Wave depicting two people kissing while wearing face masks on Venice Beach, California.


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In this chapter, you will focus on k cultural expressions k ways of life in Canada, New Zealand and Australia

k discussing literature and film k summarizing and synthesizing

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cultural identity stereotypes diversity multiculturalism setting character protagonist plot point of view theme

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Useful words and phrases

What is culture? How do you express your cultural identity? <<6 sider>>

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! Across Borders From the very beginning of human existence, about 2 million years ago in Africa, people have migrated and gradually spread to all corners of the planet. It is, however, only in the last few centuries that we have been travelling the world on a larger scale. With the development of modern transport and mass tourism, the world has become smaller and its population more multicultural.

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Before you start What are the advantages of meeting people from other places? What might be the challenges?

migrate vandre, forflytte seg/ vandre, flytte pü seg multi-cultural flerkulturell/ fleirkulturell border (n) grense diversity mangfold/mangfald increase (n) økning/auke

New skills The movement of people across borders and continents has led to globalization and cultural diversity. We see an increase in international trade, business, education and communication, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This diversity has a lot of positive aspects, but can also be a source for misunderstandings, culture clashes and even

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conflicts. Therefore, we need new skills and a cultural awareness that can help us interpret and understand what we hear and see when we meet new people.

Defining culture

AIMS k define what culture is k give examples of cultural differences k discuss communication and

Non-verbal communication

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What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as stereotypes individuals and as part of a family, community and k explain the meaning of selected larger society. Cultural differences are traditions and sayings behaviour, like the food we eat, the clothes we wear, our political and social values, religious beliefs and, maybe most importantly, our language. Each culture will have linguistic features which may not be obvious to foreigners. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as so important that they will say “yes” in the sense of “yes, I hear you”, while other cultures will interpret it as “yes, I agree”. They will say “this may be difficult” when they mean “this trade (n) handel aspect side av en sak, is impossible”. In some parts of Asia, for example, it is considered rude for synsvinkel/side av ei sak pupils to tell their teacher that they don’t understand his or her instructions. awareness bevissthet /medvit Imagine the possible consequences when teaching the pupils how to swim!

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Body language is another issue. Actually, facial expressions for happiness and sadness seem to be quite universal, but there are other features one should be more aware of. For example, to what extent do we touch or look at people we meet? How do we use our voice and gestures? When we meet a friend, we may use a hand shake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek or a bow, or press noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. This shows that body language can cause misunderstandings. Also, which finger do you use for pointing? In the western world we use the index finger but in other cultures they use the middle finger or the thumb.

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All this shows us that communication across borders can be a challenging experience. However, it is also important to remember that although we are identified by a set of traditions and customs, we are also individuals with our own personal features and behaviour. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? It is easy to make assumptions and even be prejudiced about lifestyles and customs, based on the limited knowledge of a culture and its people we get from the media or short holiday trips. Still, we should avoid seeing humans as stereotypes. Not all Americans love hamburgers, nor are most British males football hooligans. Meeting people with an open mind is the most important key to successful cross-cultural encounters.

interpret tolke individual individ values verdier/verdiar obvious åpenbar/opplagd foreigner utlending sense (n) betydning consider anse non-verbal ikke-språklig/ikkjespråkleg issue (n) sak facial expression ansiktsuttrykk/ andletsuttrykk feature (n) trekk gesture (n) håndbevegelse/ handrørsle index finger pekefinger/ peikefinger custom vane assumption antagelse/aning, gjetting prejudiced fordomsfull stereotype forenklet, generalisert oppfatning av personer/forenkla, generalisert oppfatning av personar cross-cultural tverrkulturell encounter (n) møte

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IN SHORT

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New skills Globalization means that there is contact between people around the world, in different ways. Business and education are reasons to travel, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This is both positive and challenging. We need new skills so that we understand what we hear and see when we meet new people.

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Non-verbal communication Our body language is a part of our communication. We may greet a friend with a handshake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek or a bow, or by pressing noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. Meeting a person with different body language may complicate our communication. In spite of cultural differences, we are also individuals with our own personal habits. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? We must not use impressions from the media or a short holiday trip to judge people and their culture. Avoid seeing others as stereotypes, because not “all Americans love hamburgers”. We should always meet new people with an open mind.

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globalization globalisering ethnic etnisk challenging utfordrende/ utfordrande define definere individual individ society samfunn certain sikker regard (v) betrakte, se på/ betrakte, sjå på sense (n) betydning non-verbal ikke-språklig/ ikkjespråkleg greet hilse på/helse på handshake håndtrykk/ handtrykk complicate gjøre komplisert/ gjere komplisert habit vane impression inntrykk judge (v) dømme avoid unngå stereotype forenklet, generalisert oppfatning av personer/forenkla, generalisert oppfatning av personar

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Defining culture What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as individuals and as part of a family and society. Even if we think we understand each other, there may be problems. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as extremely important and will often say “yes” in the sense of “yes, I hear you”. People from other cultures will hear “yes, I agree”. Moreover, “this may be difficult” could also mean “this is impossible”!

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Read and understand 7.1 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. Correct the false ones.

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a Globalization means that there are many people on the planet. b Economy and education are important reasons why we meet new cultures today. c The word “culture” refers mostly to art and music. d The word “yes” is always a sign of full agreement. e Non-verbal communication means to speak a foreign language. f Body language is not the same all over the world. g A short holiday trip gives you good knowledge of a country’s culture. h Having a stereotypical view of people will help you communicate well.

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7.2 •• Answer the following questions. a What has contributed to the diversity and globalization we see today? b What does the expression “culture” refer to? c How can the word “yes” mean different things? d Which varieties of non-verbal communication are mentioned in the text? e Why should we be aware of our own assumptions and avoid stereotypes when we want to communicate with new people?

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7.3 Study the signs. Explain what makes them funny or wrong.

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7.4 All cultures have expressions and sayings related to their languages or geographical areas. a Study the cartoon below. Which are the two sayings used by the Norwegian? How does the other person respond to the first saying? What do you think will be his response to the second?

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b How would you explain the following sayings to an Englishspeaking person? Do you know the corresponding English sayings? tråkke i salaten ha is i magen

ugler i mosen stå med skjegget i postkassa

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c What do you think these English sayings mean? Do we have sayings in Norwegian that mean more or less the same? don’t judge a book by its cover curiosity killed the cat

always put your best foot forward you can’t have your cake and eat it too

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7.5 Because of migration and the position of English as a world language, English has many loan words from other languages. Study the list of words below and combine them with their language of origin. Do the words say anything about the culture of the country they come from? a moped b karaoke c siesta d café e kindergarten f fjord g wok h paparazzi i sheikh j avatar

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1 French 2 Norwegian 3 Arabic 4 Swedish 5 Chinese 6 Japanese 7 Sanskrit 8 German 9 Spanish 10 Italian


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7.6 • What do you think is most important to remember when communicating with someone from another culture? Write a paragraph to share your opinion.

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Epictetus, Greek philosopher, (AD 55-c.135)

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We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.

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7.7 •• Study the quote below. Use it as source of inspiration to write a short text about communication.

7.8 ••• Write a text where you present and discuss at least three stereotypes from English-speaking countries. Give your text a suitable title and find photos to illustrate your text. How did you do?

How did you do?

define what culture is YES

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give examples of cultural differences YES

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discuss communication and stereotypes YES

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explain the meaning of selected sayings

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After working with the text and tasks, I can

Did you know?

Hand gestures do not always mean the same thing around the world. “Thumbs up”, for example, means “good” in Western Europe and North America, but will be taken as an insult, meaning “up yours” in some Latin American and West African countries. Body language and how we relate to strangers will also vary in different cultures, such as the need for personal space, where to sit on the bus or starting a conversation with someone you don’t know. This is not only a cultural feature, but also highly personal. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 295


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My Mother, the Crazy African

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Before you start Look at the title of this short story. What and who do you think the story is about, and where does it take place?

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In this abridged short story, we meet Ralindu, or Lin as she likes to call herself. Lin’s parents are from Nigeria, but the family has moved to the USA where Lin goes to school. It is not always easy for her mother to understand or accept American culture, and she speaks their native language, Igbo, to Lin. When Lin gets a boyfriend, it does not make things easier.

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I HATE HAVING AN accent. I hate it when people ask me to repeat things sometimes and I can hear them laughing inside because I am not American. Now I reply to Father’s Igbo with English. I would do it with Mother too, but I don’t think she would go for that just yet. When people ask where I am from, Mother wants me to say Nigeria. The first time I said Philadelphia, she said, “say Nigeria.” The second time she slapped the back of my head and asked, in Igbo, “is something wrong with your head?” By then I had started school and I told her, Americans don’t do it that way. You are from where you are born, or where you live, or where you intend to live for a long time. Take Cathy for example. She is from Chicago because she was born there. Her brother is from here, Philadelphia, because he was

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born in Jefferson Hospital. But their Father, who was AIMS born in Atlanta, is now from Philadelphia because he lives here. Americans don’t care about that nonsense of being k explain what the short story is about from your ancestral village, where your forefathers k describe the setting and theme owned land, where you can trace your lineage back k discuss advantages and challenges of a cross-cultural upbringing hundreds of years. So you trace your lineage back, so what? k use derivations and conversions Just like I call myself Lin when Mother isn’t here. She likes to go on and on, how Ralindu is a beautiful Igbo name, how it means so much to her too, that name, Choose Life, because of what she went through, because of my brothers who died as babies. And I am sorry, don’t get me wrong, but a name like Ralindu and an accent are too much for me right now, especially now that Matt and I are together. When my friends call, Mother goes, “Lin?” for a second, as though she doesn’t know who that is. You would think she hasn’t been here three whole years (sometimes I tell people six years) the way she acts. It’s a lot better now though. She no longer crosses herself, shivering whenever a murder is reported on the news. She no longer peers at Father’s written directions as she drives to the grocery store or mall. She still has the directions in Father’s precise hand in the glove compartment though. She still clutches the wheels tight, and glances often at the rear-view mirror for police cars. And I have taken to saying, Mother, the American police do not just stop you. You have to do something wrong first, like speed. ***

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Matt is coming over today, we are writing a paper together. Mother has been walking up and down the house. In Nigeria, girls make friends with girls and boys make friends with boys. With a girl and a boy, it is not just friends, it is something more. I tell Mother it’s different in America and she says she knows. She places a plate of fresh-dried chin-chin on the dining table, where Matt and I will work. When she goes back upstairs, I take the chin-chin into the kitchen. I can imagine Matt’s face as he says, what the hell is that? Mother comes out and puts the chin-chin back. “It’s for your guest,” she says. The phone rings and I pray that it will keep her long. The doorbell rings, and there is Matt, earring glittering, holding a folder. Matt and I study for a while. Mother comes in and when he says hi, she stares at him, pauses then says, “How are you?” She asks if we are almost done, in Igbo, and before I say yes, I pause for a long moment so Matt won’t think I understand Igbo so easily. Mother goes upstairs and shuts her door. “Let’s go to your room, and listen to a CD,” Matt says, after a while. “My

ancestral forfedre-, slektstrace (v) spore lineage avstamning/ avstamming peer (v) kikke precise hand tydelig håndskrift/ tydeleg handskrift glove compartment hanskerom clutch (v) gripe rear-view mirror bakspeil/ bakspegel paper oppgave, skolestil/ oppgåve, skolestil plate tallerken chin-chin frityrstekt snack/ frityrsteikt snack folder mappe

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couch sofa urgent rask, hurtig enclose her: holde om/halde om sheathe (v) dekke, omslutte/ dekke, omgje bra bh unhook løsne/løyse moan (v) stønne rapt henført/begeistra, gripen frenetic frenetisk, opphisset bunch (v) her: folde seg exposed utsatt/utsett moistness fuktighet/fukt startling oppsiktsvekkende/ oppsiktsvekkande shove (v) dytte motionless urørlig/urørleg nod (v) nikke burst (n) utbrudd/utbrot shuffle (v) subbe lace (n) lisse clench (v) knipe sammen/knipe saman thyme timian promiscuous promiskuøs, “lett på tråden”

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room’s a mess,” I say, instead of “My mom would never let a boy in my room.” “Let’s go to the couch then. I’m tired.” We sit on the couch and he puts a hand under my T-shirt. I hold his hand. “Just through my shirt.” “Come on,” he says. His breathing is as urgent as his voice. I let go and his hand snakes under my shirt, encloses a breast sheathed in a nylon bra. Then quickly, it weaves its way to my back and unhooks my bra. Matt is good, even I cannot unhook my bra that quickly with one hand. His hand snakes back and encloses the bare breast. I moan, because it feels good and I know that is what I am supposed to do. In the movies, the women’s faces always turn rapt right about this point. He’s frenetic now, like he has malaria fever. He pushes me back, pulls my shirt up so it bunches around my neck, takes my bra off. I feel a sudden coolness on my exposed upper body. Sticky warm moistness on my breast. I once read a book where a man sucked his wife’s breast so hard he left nothing for the baby. Matt is sucking like that man. Then I hear a door open. I grab Matt’s head up and pull my shirt on in the space of a second. My bra, startling white against the tan leather furniture, is blinking at me. I shove it behind the sofa just as Mother walks in. “Isn’t it time for your guest to leave?” she asks in Igbo. I am afraid to look at Matt, I am afraid he will have milk on his lips. “He was just leaving,” I say in English. Mother continues to stand there. I say to Matt, “I guess you better get going.” He is standing, picking up papers from the table. “Yeah. Good night.” Mother stands motionless, looking at us both. “He was talking to you, Mother. He said good night.” She nods, arms folded, staring. Suddenly a burst of Igbo words. Was I crazy to have a boy stay that long? She thought I had good sense! When did we leave the dining table and come to the couch? Why were we sitting so close? Matt shuffles to the door as she talks. His sneaker laces have come undone and flap as he walks. “See you later,” he says at the door. Mother finds the bra behind the couch almost immediately. She stares at it for a long time before she asks me to go to my room. She comes up a moment later. Her lips are clenched tight. “Yipu efe gi,” she says. Take your clothes off. I watch her, surprised, but I slowly undress. “Everything,” she says when she sees that I still have my panties on. “Sit on the bed, spread your legs.” My heart beats wildly in my ears. I settle on the bed, spread-eagled. She comes closer, kneels before me, and I see what she is holding. Ose Nsukka, the hot twisted peppers that Mama Nnukwu sends dried from Nigeria, in little bottles that originally held curry or thyme. “Mother! No!” “Do you see this pepper?” she asks. “Do you see it? This is what they do to girls who are promiscuous, this is what they do to girls who do not

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charcoal kullfarget/kolfarga gleam (v) glitre ground (v) gi husarrest

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use the brain in their head, but the one between their legs.” She brings the pepper so close that I pee right there, and feel the warm wetness on the mattress. But she doesn’t put it in. She is shouting in Igbo. I watch her, the way her charcoal eyes gleam with tears, and I wish I was Cathy. Cathy’s mom apologizes after she punishes Cathy. She asks Cathy to go to her room, she grounds Cathy for a few hours or at most, a day. The next day, Matt says, laughing, “Your mom weirded me out last night. She’s a crazy-ass African!” My lips feel too stiff to laugh. He is looking at some other girl as we talk. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

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Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (1977–) was born in Nigeria. She studied medicine and pharmacy before moving to the USA where she got university degrees in creative writing and African studies. She has written short stories, poetry and essays, but is best known for her novels. Her work has been translated into over 30 languages and won many awards.

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7.9 • Use information from the text to finish the following sentences. a Lin says she is from Philadelphia, but her mother wants... b Lin’s mother has lived in America for, but she still... c Matt is coming to Lin’s house because they are... d Lin doesn’t take Matt to her room because... e When they are alone, Matt quickly... f When Lin’s mother comes back... g Lin’s mother makes her take off... h The pepper she holds up makes Lin... i When Lin’s friend Cathy does something wrong... j The next day, Matt tells Lin that...

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7.10 •• Make a short summary of the short story. Use the following keywords to get started.

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accent – Nigeria – Ralindu – mother – boyfriend – upstairs – couch – bra – leave – angry – undress – peppers – African

7.11 ••• Describe the characters in the short story. Use information from the text to support your description. a Lin b Lin’s mother c Matt

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7.12 Why do you think Lin’s mother behaves the way she does? Is she right to do so? Discuss in pairs and then share your views in class.

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7.13 Describe the setting of the short story. Where and when does it take place? What is the mood? Point to information in the text to support your arguments.

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7.14 Which of the following suggestions do you think best describes the themes of the short story? Choose one or two and explain why. Can you suggest other suitable themes? culture clash – relationships – strict parenting – immigration – feeling ashamed – fitting in

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Practise

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7.15 Which of the following verbs can also be nouns or adjectives? Make sentences for each of the forms to show their use. a shuffle b slap f bunch h trace d open c laugh g wet e glitter

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7.16 Make new words by adding prefixes and suffixes to the following words. What word class are your new words? d agree a cool e punish b happy f moral c kind

Write

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7.17 What is it like to grow up with parents from a different culture than the country where you live? Write a text in which you express your opinion and discuss possible advantages and challenges. a First, have a brainstorming session with a partner. Take notes and list ideas. b Use your notes to make an outline for your text. Check “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 for advice. c Write your first draft. Swap drafts with a partner and give each other feedback on contents and structure. d Use the feedback to improve your text. Pay extra attention to paragraph structure, the introduction and the conclusion. e Check your text for spelling and grammar mistakes. Remember to list your sources if you have used any.

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7.18 Watch the first six minutes of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s TED talk “The danger of a single story” online. You may also find it helpful to read the transcript of her talk. a What does she say about the stories she read as a child? b What was Adichie’s impression of Fide, their house boy, and his family? What did she learn when she visited their village? c Describe the experience Adichie had with her American roommate at university. d Why do you think Adichie’s talk is called “The danger of a single story”? What is her message?

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“The problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.”

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Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the short story is about YES

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describe the setting and theme YES

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discuss advantages and challenges of a crosscultural upbringing YES

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use derivations and conversions YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS DISCUSSING LITERATURE AND FILM

In fiction, the writer usually creates a narrator. First-person narrators refer to themselves as “I”, and they are directly involved in the story. What the reader knows is limited to what the narrator knows. When an outside observer tells a story, it has a third-person narrator. The characters in the story are all referred to as “he”, “she” or “they”. A writer can also use a mixture of techniques. In film, the point of view usually changes with each shot. Voiceover is a technique where someone speaks off camera to explain or move the story along.

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Character

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Where and when does the story take place? Are we given specific information (e.g. London in the 1800s), or a general description (e.g. a remote cabin in the mountains)? Is it set in the past, the present or the future, or a certain time of day? The setting can help us understand the characters or the action, and often creates a certain atmosphere or mood. For example, a stormy night can be the background for a scary incident.

of plots are conflicts and suspense. The writer may hold back information to make it more interesting for the reader.

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Setting

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When working with short stories, novels and films, there are some terms you should know and use.

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Who are the main characters in the story? What we learn about a character’s looks, thoughts, feelings, and even name gives us information about his or her personality. The main character of a story is usually referred to as the protagonist. In many stories there is also an antagonist, someone or something the protagonist struggles against. Other characters may be more or less important, depending on their roles in the story.

Plot

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What happens in the story? Plot refers to the events that make up the story. Often a writer starts at the beginning and continues to tell the events in chronological order until we come to the end. Other times plots do not follow this pattern. There may be flashbacks, or the writer may jump several years to continue the story. Some important elements

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Theme What is the central idea behind a story? Sometimes the theme may be a moral lesson that the writer or director wants to teach us, and it is clearly stated in the text. This is often the case with legends, fables and fairy tales. In many stories, however, the theme is hidden in the plot, setting or actions of the characters. The title of a text or film may give clues about the theme. Note that there can be more than one theme.


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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

1 Introduction and background: It is

7.19 Read the sentences below and identify which of the following terms they correspond to. setting – characters – plot – point of view – theme

2 Setting: Describe where and when the

3 Characters: Go on to say something

a Annie is a young, ambitious girl who enjoys school. She always has time for her friends and is very supportive, but her behaviour changes when she experiences … b This is a story about love and friendship, but it also shows how people find ways to deal with loss. c The story takes place in Australia in the late 1990s. d She lives a happy and carefree life until one day her brother dies in an accident. At first, she refuses to talk about it, but then she meets … e The story is told through a first-person narrator. We have access to Annie’s thoughts and feelings, but this also means we see other characters and events through Annie’s eyes.

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story takes place. What do we learn from the first paragraphs or the opening scene? What is the atmosphere or mood?

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interesting to know something about the author or director, when the story was published, or the film’s release date. Also say something about the genre.

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about the characters. Who are the main characters? What do we learn about them? When you describe characters, remember to give examples.

4 Plot: How does the story develop? Are

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the characters involved in a conflict, and if so, how is it resolved? In a summary of the plot, include only the most important events.

5 Point of view: Is the story told through a

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first-person or a third-person narrator? Does the point of view change? Is how the story is narrated important for our understanding of the characters and plot?

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6 Theme: Sum up by explaining what you think is the theme. Is there a message?

7 Opinion: If you are asked to do so, give your own opinion of the story or film. Would you recommend it to others? Explain why or why not.

7.20 Choose one of the short stories or films you studied earlier this year. a What is the setting? b Who are the main characters? c Sum up the plot in a few sentences. d What is the point of view? Is there more than one? e What do you think is the theme?

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Hunt for the Wilderpeople

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bush – villmark foster care – fosterhjem/fosterheim Child Welfare Services – Barnevernet skux – kul, rå (slang) chur – ja, takk, kult (slang) wildebeest – gnu ranger – skogvokter/ skogvaktar juvie (juvenile prison) – ungdomsfengsel

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Before you start a Watch the film’s trailer online. What genre of film do you think this is? b Some of the following expressions used by the characters in the film may be unfamiliar to you:

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Ricky Baker is a city kid and troublemaker who gets a fresh start in the New Zealand countryside with his new foster parents and a dog named Tupac. When tragedy strikes, Ricky and his grumpy foster dad embark on an adventure as they are running away from the Child Welfare Services. Hunt for the Wilderpeople tells a story that is both hilarious and heart-warming. Shot entirely in locations across New Zealand, the film quickly became the country’s biggest box-office hit after its release in 2016.

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The screenplay for Hunt for the Wilderpeople is based on the book Wild Pork and Watercress by one of New Zealand’s best-loved writers, Barry Crump (1935–1996).

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AIMS

7.21 • Use the keywords below to take notes as you watch the film. Keywords

a film k describe and discuss characters k listen for and summarize information

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k use notes to speak and write about

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Main characters • Ricky • Aunt Bella • Uncle Hector • Child Welfare Services • police officers • Psycho Sam Plot • how it starts • what happens in the story • how it ends Theme • what the film is about • message or moral

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Setting • where the story takes place

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7.22 •• Use your notes to answer the following questions. a What are we told about Ricky’s background in the first scenes? How are we told? b Describe Ricky’s first days with Bella and Hector. c When Bella suddenly dies, they receive a letter from the Child Welfare Services. What does it say, and how does Ricky react? d Give a short summary of what happens next. Use the following words in your summary: runaway – survive – leg – food – cabin – poster – company – manhunt e What do we learn about Hector while he and Ricky are on the run? f After they find the critically ill ranger, Ricky goes for help and meets a Maori girl. Describe Ricky’s meeting with the girl’s father and his stay with them. g Who is Psycho Sam? h What happens to Hector and Ricky after they are caught? i In the final scenes, Ricky and Hector embark on a new adventure. What is their mission? j What do you think is the film’s theme?

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Speak

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7.23 Discuss the following questions. Remember to give examples to support your arguments. a What is your impression of the woman from Child Welfare Services? b How are the police officers portrayed in the film? c Whose side are you on when watching this film? How are we persuaded to take sides? d The film has both Maori and Pakeha (non-Maori) characters. Do you think ethnic origin has anything to do with whether the characters are portrayed as protagonists or antagonists?

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7.24 What makes a good comedy? Share opinions in class. a Give examples of comedies and try to explain what makes them funny. b Humour is sometimes used as a tool when dealing with difficult subjects. Is this the case in Hunt for the Wilderpeople?

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7.25 • Give a detailed description of the main character Ricky. The following questions may help you get started. • How old is he? • What does he look like? • What is his background? • What is he interested in? • What is he worried about? • How does he relate to the other main characters? • Does he change as the story develops?

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7.26 •• In this film, the characters are clearly portrayed as either protagonists or antagonists. a Place the characters in the two categories. b Can any of the protagonists be described as round characters? Explain why/why not. 7.27 ••• Write a review of the film. Your review should include the following: • a few facts on the release date, main actors and director • where the story takes place • who the main characters are and how they are portrayed • what the main conflict is without revealing how it is resolved • your opinion of the film and who you think it is suitable for

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7.28 “New Zealand’s Maori Culture” a Study the keywords below before listening. 1 greeting 6 language 2 ceremony 7 haka 3 Europeans 8 tattoos 4 rights 9 unemployment 5 traditions 10 pride

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b After listening, use the keywords to sum up what you have learned about Maoris. Write one sentence for each keyword.

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a The Dark Horse b Top of the Lake c Boy d Matariki e Daffodils f The Shannara Chronicles g The Whale Rider h Once Were Warriors

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7.29 In the past few decades, New Zealand has established a successful screen industry for film and television. Choose one of the productions listed below. Search for information about your chosen film or television series and share your findings in class.

Did you know?

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can use notes to speak and write about a film

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The New Zealand accent is easily recognizable. The first thing people notice is that words are often shortened. Breakfast becomes brekkie, and relatives are rellies. Second, some vowels are pronounced differently, such as the long ‘e’ in ten (‘teen’) and the ‘i’ in fish (‘fush’). Furthermore, with rising intonation at the end of sentences, it often sounds like New Zealanders are asking questions when they are simply making statements. Another typical trait is saying ‘yeah-nah’ when they want to say no without giving offence. Finally, most people use a number of Maori words in their everyday speech. In fact, as many as 1000 Maori words are integrated into New Zealand English.

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describe and discuss characters YES

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listen for and summarize information YES

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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND Kia Ora!

Tasman Sea

Lake Taupo

Co

Rotorua

Mt Tongariro Wellington

St r

SOUTH ISLAND Mt Cook/ Aoraki Invercargill

St ew ar t Isl an d

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NORTH ISLAND

Auckland

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The expression means “welcome” in Maori, the language of the native population of New Zealand, but it is used by everyone. In the past, New Zealand was one of Britain’s many colonies. Today, it is an independent country with a strong national pride. Most visitors are impressed by the stunning natural beauty, from volcanoes, beautiful mountain ranges and deep fiords to rolling farmland and small seaside towns. It became the perfect location for the filmmakers of The Lord of the Rings, The Chronicles of Narnia and many other films. Although parts of the South Island have been rocked by earthquakes and suffered a terrorist attack, tourists still flock to the country to see the sights.

Dunedin

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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND

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New Zealand Facts

Official name: New Zealand, Aotearoa (Maori) Capital: Wellington Population: 4.8 million Main ethnic groups: European 71%, Maori 14%, Asian 11%, Pacific Islander and other Geography: Islands in the South Pacific (the 3 main islands are North Island, South Island and Stewart Island) Landscape: Mountains, coastal plains, urban areas Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: February 6 (Waitangi Day) Currency: New Zealand Dollar Agriculture: Dairy products, meat, fish; wheat, barley, fruits, vegetables; wool Industry: Agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, mining, construction, tourism

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New Zealanders are often nicknamed Kiwis. A Kiwi is in fact a bird that cannot fly, and that is endemic to New Zealand. Another unique bird is the Kea, a very friendly parrot known to steal things and wreck cars. You might also encounter penguins, whales and dolphins, the largest insect in the world, and 30 million sheep.

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Kiwis and other animals

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Play as you go!

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New Zealand is a dream for adrenaline junkies, and Queenstown is the capital of innovative and extreme sports. Skiing, paragliding, mountain biking, rafting, jet boating, kayaking and hiking are just some of the outdoor activities offered in the area. It is said that bungy jumping was invented here. In general, New Zealanders love sports and outdoor life. Sailing is very popular, and the country is extremely proud of the national rugby team known as the All Blacks.


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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND AIMS k share some facts about New

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Zealand k describe New Zealand’s landscape k present travel plans

Read and understand

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7.30 Scan the text boxes in the fact file for information to answer the following questions. a What is the nickname for a person from New Zealand? b Name two birds that are endemic to New Zealand. c How many people live in New Zealand? d Which is the largest ethnic group? e What percentage of the population are Maori? f What is the Maori name for New Zealand? g What kinds of disasters have rocked the South Island? h New Zealand has been the location for some very famous films. Which ones? i Name three agricultural products from New Zealand. j How many sheep are there per person? k Who is the head of state, even though New Zealand is an independent country? l Which extreme sport was invented in the Queenstown area?

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7.31 Study the map and the pictures in the fact file. a Describe the landscapes you see in the pictures. b What do you see on New Zealand’s coat of arms? c What is the capital and where is it located on the map? d Where on the map do you find Auckland, the biggest city? e Name two mountains and one lake.


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FACT FILE NEW ZEALAND

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7.32 In addition to rugby, extreme sports are very popular in New Zealand. a Name as many extreme sports as you can. b Have you tried any extreme sports yourself? If so, which ones? c Are there some you would like to try, or absolutely not like to try? Explain.

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7.33 Plan a visit to New Zealand for your next holiday. Find out how to get there, what you want to see and what you would like to do. Use reliable sources and digital tools to make a presentation of your travel plans.

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7.34 Search for online newspapers from New Zealand. What are the most current issues? Choose one news story you think is interesting. Read the article, make a short summary and present it in class.

After working with the text and tasks, I can share some facts about New Zealand YES

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7.35 New Zealand has quite a few «firsts». Find and share information on the following «firsts». a The first country to give women the right to vote. b The first person to climb Mt Everest and reach both poles. c The first person to split the atom.

How did you do?

Did you know?

In New Zealand, you find one of the longest place names in the world. Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu is the Maori name for a hill on the North Island. In English it means “the summit where Tamatea, the man with the big knees, the climber of mountains, the land-swallower who travelled about, played his nose flute to his loved one”. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 311


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Street Art

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Street art is not a new concept, yet it is one of the most striking forms of modern cultural expression. Artists see street art as a way to raise awareness of social or political issues, a humorous comment on society, or just a way to bring colour and beauty to a neighbourhood. From simple stencil graffiti to elaborate murals, street artists use walls, trains, bridges and other constructions as their canvases. Today, street art has become an acknowledged urban art form and can be found in countries around the world.

Political commentary

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In Northern Ireland, politics and art have long gone hand in hand. Historically, the country has been divided along political and religious lines, and communities on both sides have used art to express their views. Murals and slogans have been painted onto the gables of houses in villages, towns and cities across the country, often to mark territorial boundaries. Lately, however, images of the old paramilitary “heroes� and political leaders are starting to be replaced by more positive street art promoting diversity and peace.

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Social commentary Many of today’s graffiti artists blend creativity with social commentary. Their artworks often carry important messages about the world around us, our values and our choices. Some see themselves as activists supporting causes, or combating a variety of issues, such as racial injustice, climate change or economic inequality. Many of the most famous artists use pseudonyms and wish to remain anonymous, sometimes because they risk getting arrested in countries where freedom of expression is not protected sufficiently.


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AIMS k explain what street art is k present an example of street art

g

and/or artist

rin

Making history

Read and understand

rd e

When their main industry failed in the 1980s, the small seaside community of Chemainus in western Canada was about to become a ghost town. Hoping to attract new tourists, the locals decided to revitalize the whole town. Detailed scenes from history, portraits of townspeople and explanatory texts were painted on almost every blank wall. Their strategy worked as the town now receives a great number of tourists who come to see the murals. It has also been an inspiration for other communities to explore their roots.

til

vu

7.36 Answer the following questions. a What is the purpose of street art? b What do street artists use as their canvas? c How has street art been used as political commentary in Northern Ireland? d Explain how some street artists see themselves as activists. e Why did the people of Chemainus paint murals all over town? f Are there examples of street art where you live?

Explore

n

7.37 Find information about a form of street art or artist you think is interesting. Choose one work of art to represent the art form or artist and prepare a two-minute presentation. Include information on location, style and message if there is one.

Ku

concept konsept, idé striking (adj) slående/slåande awareness bevissthet, oppmerksomhet/bevisstheit, oppmerksemd canvas lerret stencil sjablong elaborate (adj) innfløkt mural veggmaleri acknowledge anerkjenne commentary kommentar gable gavl territorial territoriell boundary grense promote fremme diversity mangfold/mangfald paramilitary paramilitær, sivil våpenstyrke blend (v) blande cause (n) sak combat (v) kjempe mot injustice urettferdighet/urettferd inequality ulikhet/ulikskap revitalize revitalisere, gjenopplive explanatory forklarende/ forklarande

7.38 The artists Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat are often credited as the first to turn graffiti into high art. Find out more about one or both artists. Make a visual presentation of your findings. 7.39 Petroglyphs, some more than 15,000 years old, may be the original form of street art. Find examples of petroglyphs in Norway and compare them with those found in other countries, such as the rock art of South Africa, Australia and North America.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what street art is YES

ALMOST

NO

present an example of street art and/or artist YES

ALMOST

NO

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The Painting

rd e

rin

g

In this short story, set in the Australian Outback, we meet two people with different cultural backgrounds. One is an Aboriginal artist, the other is an arts buyer from the big city.

!

Winston Japurula, the most “important” artist working at Cullen, had, only the week before, completed a major canvas and was waiting for Mrs Houston, of the Aboriginal Arts Bureau in Sydney, to come and buy it from him. Like many artists, he was generous with hand-outs and had run up big debts at the store.

til

Before you start How would you feel if you discovered someone had cheated you out of a great deal of money? What would you do?

vu

This is how the story begins.

Ku

n

Mrs Houston had the habit of driving round the settlements to check up on her artists. She brought them paint and brushes and canvas and would pay for finished work by cheque. She was a very determined woman. She always camped in the bush, alone – and was never not in a hurry. Next morning, Winston was waiting for her, cross-legged, naked to the waist, on a patch of level ground beside the petrol drums … Bruce Chatwin Bruce Chatwin (1940–1989) was an English travel writer and novelist. Before he became a writer, he worked at Sotheby’s auctions in London where he learned a lot about art and its commercial value. Chatwin was also fascinated by the history and culture of Australian Aboriginals.

m

314 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS


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AIMS

fair – because – Aboriginal – pleased – enough – painting – profit – charged – Therefore – gallery

g

7.40 • After listening to the short story once, fill in the missing words to complete the text.

characters and plot k use prefixes and suffixes

rin

Listen and understand

k extract information while listening k describe and discuss the story’s

rd e

In the short story, Mrs Houston, an art buyer, comes to an community to collect a new piece of art. Winston Japurula, who has just finished a beautiful , is waiting for her. When she sees the painting, Mrs Houston hides how she is. This is she wants to buy the painting cheaply and sell it with a big . Winston Japurula has had of this. , he makes it clear that he knows what is for his paintings at the in Adelaide, and that he wants to be paid a price for his art.

til

vu

7.41 •• Listen to the short story again and answer the questions in full sentences. a When Mrs Houston sees Winston’s new painting, what does she say about the use of colour? b What is her reaction when she sees the tear in the canvas? c How does Winston react to Mrs Houston’s outbursts? d What does Mrs Houston really think of the new painting? e Why is she not being honest with Winston? f How does the writer reveal Mrs Houston’s real opinion?

Speak

Ku

n

7.42 Discuss the following questions in pairs, and then share your answers in class. a What is the setting of “The Painting”? b Briefly describe the two main characters. How are they different? c Read the second paragraph again. What do we learn about Mrs Houston’s personality? What is explicit, and what is implied? d Listen once more to the dialogue where Mrs Houston asks Winston about the story of the painting. Do you think he is being difficult on purpose? What evidence can you find in the text to support this? e Where in the text is the turning point? f How does the story end? Can you think of an alternative ending?

canvas (n) lerret generous gavmild/gåvmild hand-out gave til trengende/ gåve til trengande debt gjeld habit vane settlement bosetning/busetting determined bestemt cross-legged med beina i kryss petrol drums bensintønner doodle (v) skrible scrap of card pappbit air strip flystripe haunches bakenden gingerly forsiktig squiggle snirkel tear (n) her: rift restorer reparatør chink åpning/opning drawl (v) dra på ordene/dra på orda syllable stavelse/staving bellow (v) brøle aggrieved krenket/krenkt, krenkte exhibition utstilling

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7.43 The following text describes some of the core values as stated by the Australian Government on their official web pages.

g

“Australian society values equality of opportunity for individuals, regardless of their race, religion or ethnic background. Australian citizenship is a shared identity, a common bond which unites all Australians while respecting their diversity.”

rin

a How do these values compare with how Winston Japarula is treated in the short story you have just listened to? b Do you think Mrs Houston would have tried to con other artists in the same way she treated Winston, regardless of their ethnic background? Explain why/why not.

rd e

Practise

7.44 Choose the correct prefix to make new words. Explain how the meaning changes. dis- im- un- bi- ree agree f paint g real h like

vu

a possible b move c racial d imaginable

Write

Ku

n

til

7.45 • Write a summary of the short story by placing the sentences in the right order. a Mrs Houston is shocked and almost falls off her stool when she hears Winston’s demand. b Winston Japarula is a respected Aboriginal artist. c Her name is Mrs Houston. d At the beginning of the story, he is waiting for his regular art buyer to visit. e She buys paintings cheaply and sells them at a great profit. f This time, however, Winston Japarula demands more money for his art. g He has found out that Mrs Houston sells his art for a lot of money in the city. h She is a determined, impatient woman. 7.46 •• Write one paragraph to describe what happened and what was said after Winston had named the price for his painting.

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7.47 ••• Write a news article based on the incident in the short story. Feel free to add details.

til

vu

rd e

rin

7.48 Search for video clips to learn more about Bruce Chatwin. What information can you find about the following? a travels b books c biographical facts

g

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can extract information while listening YES

NO

describe and discuss the story’s characters and plot YES

ALMOST

NO

use prefixes and suffixes YES

ALMOST

NO

Ku

n

ALMOST

Did you know?

Aborigines do not have their own written language. Instead they use symbols or iconography in their artwork. These artworks tell stories. They can vary from one Aboriginal group to another, but their meaning may also differ depending on whether the stories are told to children, adults or elders. The stories expressed through Aboriginal art are central to their identity and cultural heritage. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 317


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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA Down Under Darwin

INDIAN OCEAN

g Alice Springs

Ku

Australia has animals you will not find in the wild anywhere else, for example kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, dingoes, wombats and the platypus. There are also crocodiles and many venomous snakes and spiders. A number of these animals are endangered. In some areas the kangaroos have become a big problem, attacking people, jumping into houses, ruining crops and colliding with cars on the roads. 318 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS

QUEENSLAND

rin

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Perth

vu til n

Amazing Wildlife

Cairns

NORTHERN TERRITORY

Adelaide

rd e

Australia is not only a country, but also a continent. Because of its varied landscape, good climate and relaxed lifestyle, Australia is a very popular tourist destination and attracts a high number of immigrants. It is also an attractive place to study for young people from all over the world. In the past, however, Australia was used as a penal colony by the British. People who had committed crimes were sent there to work as punishment. Today, Australia is a unique and diverse country with a lively cultural environment, although it has been affected by severe droughts and devastating bushfires in recent years.

Brisbane

NEW SOUTH WALES

Sydney AUSTRALIAN VICTORIA CAPITAL Melbourne TERRITORY Canberra

Tasmania

Tasman Sea

Hobart


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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA

rin

Aussie facts

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Official name: The Commonwealth of Australia Capital: Canberra Population: 22 million Ethnic groups: European 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1% Geography: 6 states and 2 territories Landscape: Urban areas, farmland, rainforest, desert Head of State: The British king or queen, represented by a GovernorGeneral Government: Parliamentary system National day: January 26 (Australia Day) Currency: Australian Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry Industry: Mining, food processing, chemicals, steel, equipment for industry

Ku

n

til

The Outback

The Australian “bush,” also known as the Outback, has a special status in Australian life. It is part of Australia’s national identity, and the setting of many myths and legends. Bushrangers, drovers and farmers struggling to survive in the harsh and wild landscape were helped by the survival skills of the Aborigines. Many writers, painters, musicians and filmmakers focus on the Australian bush experience in their work. The vast areas are used for cattle farming, and also for hiking, horse riding, cycling and bird watching.

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FACT FILE AUSTRALIA AIMS k mention some facts about Australia k describe the landscapes and wildlife

rin

g

of Australia k present information on Australia’s culture or history

Read and understand

vu

rd e

7.49 Study the short text “Down Under”. Use information from the text to complete the sentences. a Australia is different from other countries because … b Three reasons why Australia has become a popular tourist destination are … c Young people come to Australia to … d In the past, people who had committed … e Australia’s cultural environment today is …

Ku

n

til

7.50 Study the “Aussie facts” and the map of Australia. Answer in keywords. a How many people live in Australia? b Which is the largest ethnic group? c What is the name of the capital? d Where in the country do you find the capital? e Find the names of seven other Australian cities. f Australia is divided into states and territories. What are they called? g Who is the head of state? h Is the Australian currency dollars or pounds? i When is Australia Day? j Name the most important agricultural products and industries in Australia. 7.51 Study the short text “Amazing Wildlife”. Answer in full sentences. a What animals are mentioned in the text? b Which ones can only be found in Australia? c What does it mean when an animal is endangered? d How can kangaroos be a problem?

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rin

g

FACT FILE AUSTRALIA

Practise

How did you do?

Speak

After working with the text and tasks, I can

vu

rd e

7.52 Match these typical Australian expressions with the correct explanation. Search online for definitions and try pronouncing them with an Australian accent! a barbie 1 campfire b ace 2 mosquito c tucker 3 barbeque d arvo 4 food e mozzie 5 excellent f bush telly 6 afternoon

7.53 Study the short text “The Outback”. First, choose three keywords from the text. Then, exchange keywords with a partner and give a summary of the text based on your partner’s chosen keywords.

til

Explore

Ku

n

7.54 Find out more about the culture or history of Australia. Choose one of the following topics, and select information from reliable and relevant sources. Choose how you want to present your findings. Remember to list your sources, including illustrations. a Studying in Australia b Current news from Australia c Australian wildlife d Australia’s past as a penal colony e Popular sports in Australia f Australian films and/or television series

Did you know

mention some facts about Australia YES

ALMOST

NO

describe the landscapes and wildlife of Australia YES

ALMOST

NO

present information on Australia’s culture or history YES

ALMOST

NO

Around 90 % of Australia’s population live along the coast in cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth, Darwin and Brisbane. Still, some Australians live so far from towns and cities that doctors have to travel by airplanes to give medical help. The small planes of the Royal Flying Doctor Service carry equipment for emergencies and general health care services. Children in remote areas are taught by School of the Air, using the Internet and high frequency radio. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 321


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The Hockey Sweater

g

Most Canadians are also very passionate about their sports. Communities take great pride in supporting their local teams, and there are often rivalries with neighbouring towns. In “The Hockey Sweater”, one of Canada’s most loved short stories, the author shares an episode from his own childhood where he illustrates the importance of showing support for the right team.

rd e

Before you start a Do you play sports? Do you have a favourite team? b “Sport is a universal language that can connect cultures.” Do you agree?

rin

!

Canada is a multicultural society. Not only has Canada been colonized by both the English and the French in the past, but the country also welcomes immigrants from all faiths and corners of the world. For example, the greater Toronto area is now the most diverse city on the planet, with half its residents born outside the country. For many newly arrived Canadians, the first point of contact with their new communities is often on the soccer pitch, on the basketball court, in the ice rink, or in other fields of play. Sport becomes a universal language that can connect cultures.

Ku

n

til

vu

The winters of my childhood were long, long seasons. We lived in three places – the school, the church and the skating rink – but our real life was on the skating rink. Real battles were won on the skating rink. The real leaders showed themselves on the skating rink. School was a sort of punishment.

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AIMS

identity

g

k explain what the short story is about k describe the point of view k use vocabulary related to sports k discuss sports culture and national

rin

Parents always want to punish children and school is their most natural way of punishing us. However, school was also a quiet place where we could prepare for the next hockey game, lay out our next strategies. As for church, we found there the tranquility of God: there we forgot school and dreamed about the next hockey game. Through our daydreams it might happen that we would recite a prayer: We would ask God to help us play as well as Maurice Richard.

rd e

We all wore the same uniform as he, the red, white and blue uniform of the Montreal Canadiens, the best hockey team in the world; we all combed our hair in the same style as Maurice Richard, and to keep it in place we used a sort of glue – a great deal of glue. We laced our skates like Maurice Richard, we taped our sticks like Maurice Richard. We cut all his pictures out of the papers. Truly, we knew everything about him.

vu

On the ice, when the referee blew his whistle the two teams would rush at the puck; we were five Maurice Richards taking it away from five other Maurice Richards; we were ten players, all of us wearing with the same blazing enthusiasm the uniform of the Montreal Canadians. On our backs, we all wore the famous number 9.

Ku

n

til

One day my Montreal Canadiens sweater had become too small; then it got torn and had holes in it. My mother said: “If you wear that old sweater people are going to think we’re poor!” Then she did what she did whenever we needed new clothes. She started to leaf through the catalogue the Eaton company sent us in the mail every year. My mother was proud. She didn’t want to buy our clothes at the general store; the only things that were good enough for us were the latest styles from Eaton’s catalogue. My mother didn’t like the order forms included with the catalogue; they were written in English and she didn’t understand a word of it. To order my hockey sweater, she did what she usually did; she took out her writing paper and wrote in her gentle schoolteacher’s hand: “Cher Monsieur Eaton, Would you be kind enough to send me a Canadiens sweater for my son who is ten years old and a little too tall for his age and Docteur Robitaille thinks he’s a little too thin? I’m sending you three dollars and please send me what’s left if there’s anything left. I hope your wrapping will be better than last time.” Monsieur Eaton was quick to answer my mother’s letter. Two weeks later we received the sweater. That day I had one of the greatest disappointments of my life! I would even say that on that day I experienced a very great sorrow. Instead of the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater, Monsieur

skating rink skøytebane battle slag tranquility ro recite framsi/seie fram prayer bønn Maurice Richard ishockeylegende comb (v) kjemme, gre/kjemme, greie glue (n) lim lace (n) her: skolisse stick hockeykølle referee dommer/dommar blazing glødende/glødande leaf through bla gjennom order form bestillingsskjema gentle hand her: forsiktig håndskrift/forsiktig handskrift wrapping innpakning disappointment skuffelse/ motgang, vonbrot sorrow sorg

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g

Eaton had sent us a blue and white sweater with a maple leaf on the front – the sweater of the Toronto Maple Leafs. I’d always worn the red, white and blue Montreal Canadiens sweater; all my friends wore the red, white and blue sweater; never had anyone in my village ever worn the Toronto sweater, never had we even seen a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater. Besides, the Toronto team was regularly trounced by the triumphant Canadiens. With tears in my eyes, I found the strength to say:

rd e

rin

“I’ll never wear that uniform.” “My boy, first you’re going to try it on! If you make up your mind about things before you try, my boy, you won’t go very far in this life.” My mother had pulled the blue and white Toronto Maple Leafs sweater over my shoulders and already my arms were inside the sleeves. She pulled the sweater down and carefully smoothed all the creases in the abominable maple leaf on which, right in the middle of my chest, were written the words “Toronto Maple Leafs”. I wept.

My mother sighed in despair and explained to me: “If you don’t keep this sweater which fits you perfectly I’ll have to write to Monsieur Eaton and explain that you don’t want to wear the Toronto Maple Leafs. And if he’s insulted do you think he’ll be in a hurry to answer us? Spring will be here and you won’t have played a single game, just because you didn’t want to wear that perfectly nice blue sweater.”

til

maple lønn/løn trounce her: slå, banke smooth (v) glatte ut sleeve erme crease (n) krøll abominable avskyelig/avskyeleg chest bryst glove hanske despair (n) fortvilelse/fortviling insult (v) fornærme be obliged to være nødt til/vere nøydd til forward (n) løper, angrep/løpar, angrep penalty straffe rink bane persecution forfølgelse/ forfølging relieved lettet/letta debris avfall vicar prest moth møll

vu

“I’ll never wear it.” “Why not? This sweater fits you … like a glove.” “Maurice Richard would never put it on his back.” “You aren’t Maurice Richard. Anyway, it isn’t what’s on your back that counts, it’s what you’ve got inside your head. “You’ll never put it into my head to wear a Toronto Maple Leafs sweater.”

Ku

n

So I was obliged to wear the Maple Leafs sweater. When I arrived on the rink, all the Maurice Richards in red, white and blue came up, one by one, to take a look. When the referee blew his whistle I went to take my usual position. The captain came and warned me I’d be better to stay on the forward line. A few minutes later the second line was called; I jumped onto the ice. The Maple Leafs sweater weighed on my shoulders like a mountain. The captain came and told me to wait; he’d need me later, on defense. By the third period I still hadn’t played; one of the defensemen was hit in the nose with a stick and it was bleeding. I jumped on the ice: my moment had come! The referee blew his whistle; he gave me a penalty. He claimed I’d jumped on the ice when there were already five players. That was too much! It was unfair!

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“My child; he said, just because you’re wearing a new Toronto Maple Leafs sweater unlike the others, it doesn’t mean you’re going to make the laws around here. A proper young man doesn’t lose his temper. Now take off your skates and go to the church and ask God to forgive you.”

rin

Wearing my Maple Leafs sweater I went to the church, where I prayed to God; I asked him to send, so quickly as possible, moths that would eat up my Toronto Maple Leafs sweater.

g

It was persecution! It was because of my blue sweater! I struck my stick against the ice so hard it broke. Relieved, I bent down to pick up the debris. As I straightened up I saw the young vicar, on skates, before me.

Roch Carrier

m

vu

Read and understand

rd e

Roch Carrier (1937–) is a novelist and short story writer from Québec, Canada. He has written film scripts, plays and poems. Several of his works have become classics and are used in schools around the world, in both French and English.

7.55 • Decide if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones. True

False

til

a The story is about a boy who likes to play hockey. b He thought the best hockey team in the world was the Toronto Maple Leafs. c Their idol, Maurice Richard, had the number 99 on his back.

n

d The mother bought a new hockey sweater from the local store. e The boy was very disappointed when he got the new sweater.

Ku

f His mother took the sweater back to change it for the right one.

g The captain of the team would not let the boy play.

h The referee gave him a penalty for playing rough. i When the boy broke his stick, the vicar sent him to school. j He prayed for moths to come and eat up his sweater.

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rin

g

7.56 •• Complete the following sentences. a For the boy in the text, real life was … b In church, he would ask God to … c All the children wore … d When the boy needed a new hockey sweater, the mother … e When the new sweater arrived, it was … f The boy said he would never … g When the boy wanted to play, … h He jumped on the ice when … i The referee blew his whistle because … j Instead of asking God for forgiveness, the boy …

vu

rd e

7.57 ••• Close-read the text to answer the following questions. Study “Discussing literature and film” in this chapter for advice. a Describe the setting of the story. Where does the story take place? What time of year is it? b Describe the boy. What is most important to him? c Describe the mother. How does she deal with the problem? d How do the other players and the coach react, and why? e How does the story end? Is there a turning point? f What do you think is the theme of this short story?

Speak

7.58 Who do you sympathize with in this short story, the boy or the mother? Discuss in class. Give reasons for your views.

Ku

n

til

7.59 Describe the point of view the author uses in this short story. a Who is the narrator of the story? b How does this point of view affect our understanding of what happens in the story? c If the story were told from another point of view, e.g. the mother or a third-person narrator, how would that change the story? 7.60 How important do you think sports are for a nation’s identity, for example in Norway? Discuss the role of sports and share views in class.

Did you know?

French is the mother tongue of almost a quarter of the Canadian population. French has been spoken in Canada since the colonists arrived in the early 1600s. Today, most native French speakers live in the province of Québec. The Québecois have wanted to become independent from the rest of Canada, but there has not been enough support among the population. Both English and French are official languages in Canada. In two of the northern territories indigenous languages also 7: have official status. 326 | Chapter Encounters | SKILLS


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rin

7.61 Fill in the missing letters to complete these sports words. a so er b ma at on c no boa di g d ba k tb ll e k y c ing f w e tl ng g ol e ba l h ro i g

g

Practise

7.62 Match the English names of sports with the Norwegian ones.

Write

rd e

1 fekting 2 aking 3 langrenn 4 innebandy 5 bueskyting 6 stavsprang 7 skiskyting 8 kunstløp 9 turn 10 hekkeløp

vu

a floor ball b pole vault c gymnastics d biathlon e hurdles f fencing g figure skating h archery i luge j cross country

til

7.63 • Think back to your own childhood. Did you have to wear something you didn’t like? Were you not allowed to do a certain thing because an adult said so? How did you react? Write a short text.

Ku

n

7.64 •• If the short story took place today, the mother would probably have ordered the hockey sweater from a website. Imagine that you are going to order new sports gear for yourself online. Check “Writing a formal text” in Chapter 6 for advice and complete the following tasks. a Write an email to the store to enquire about sizes, delivery and payment options. b When you finally receive your package, you find something entirely different from what you ordered. Write a formal complaint to the store.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain what the short story is about YES

ALMOST

NO

describe the point of view YES

ALMOST

NO

use vocabulary related to sports YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss sports culture and national identity YES

ALMOST

NO

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FACT FILE CANADA

rin

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR QUÉBEC PRINCE ATLA N TIC EDWARD OCE A N ISLAND Winnipeg Regina ONTARIO Québec St. John's Montréal Charlottetown Ottawa UNITED STATES Toronto Fredericton Halifax NOVA SCOTIA NEW BRUNSWICK

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Vancouver Victoria

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n

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328 | Chapter 7: Encounters | SKILLS

Iqaluit

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NORTHWEST NUNAVUT TERRITORY YUKON TERRITORIES TERRITORY C A N A D A Whitehorse Yellowknife Hud son BRITISH ALBERTA Bay COLUMBIA MANITOBA Edmonton

PAC I FI C OC EAN

Canada is the second largest country in the world, with vast areas north of the Arctic Circle where winters are harsh and distances are measured in days rather than kilometres. Churchill, Manitoba, is known as the polar bear capital of the world. If you visit the Newfoundland coast you are likely to see icebergs floating by. Many First Nations communities are found in the Nunavut and Northwest Territories. Most Canadians, however, live along the US border in the south where the climate is milder. Still, Canadians often joke about the weather, claiming their seasons are “almost winter, winter, still winter, and roadworks”.

Baffin Bay

SASKATCHEWAN

ALASKA (US)

Beauf or t Sea

GREENLAND

True North


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FACT FILE CANADA Canada Facts

rin

Official name: Canada (the Dominion of Canada) Capital: Ottawa Population: 36 million Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, First Nations 4.4%. (Mixed origin 41%.) Geography: 10 provinces and 3 territories Landscape: Mountain ranges in the west, permanently frozen areas in the north, plains and farmland in the south Head of State: The British King or Queen, represented by a Governor-General Government: Parliamentary system National day: July 1 (Canada Day) Currency: Canadian Dollar Agriculture: Wheat, barley, oilseed, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish Industry: Chemicals, minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas.

til

vu

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Canada is often ranked very high in surveys measuring quality of life. The country is known for its political stability and its high personal safety. Canadians, often called Canucks, appreciate good education systems, free health care and long life expectancy.

g

The Good Life

Eh?

Ku

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Canadians are known to be very polite. They will say “sorry” even if you’re the one who should apologize. You may also hear Canadians say “eh”, usually meaning “isn’t it”, at the end of sentences to soften direct questions or criticism. In fact, Canadians have fairly strong ideas of what is socially acceptable despite their generally laidback attitude and informal lifestyle.


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FACT FILE CANADA AIMS k explore and describe Canadian

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culture and ways of life k explain the meaning of selected quotes

Read and understand

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7.65 • Study the pictures on the previous pages. a Describe the Canadian flag. b Which sports do you see in the pictures? c What types of landscapes can you find in Canada? d What cultural heritage can you see in the coat of arms?

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7.66 •• Study the map on the previous page. a How many provinces and territories are there? b Where is the capital located? c In which province do you find Montréal? d What is the easternmost province called? e What is the province capital of British Columbia? f Which territory is the largest?

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7.67 ••• Answer the following questions. a Why is Canada often ranked high when measuring quality of life? b How many people live in Canada and where do most of them live? c Which is the biggest ethnic group in Canada? d How many say they have a mixed background? e When is Canada’s national day? f Who is Canada’s head of state? g Why do Canadians say “sorry” so often? h What is the meaning of “eh” at the end of sentences?

Practise

7.68 Below are some words and expressions associated with Canada and Canadians. Use online dictionaries or encyclopedias to find definitions and explanations. mounted police – maple syrup – lumberjacks – poutine – loonies and toonies – tuque – inukshuk – toboggan

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FACT FILE CANADA

Speak

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“I’m not a hockey fan, which is probably why I had to leave Canada in the first place.” Ryan Reynolds

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“This is a country where a man can die simply from being caught outside.” Alden Nowlan

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7.69 Study the quotes below. In your own words, explain what is said in the quotes.

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7.70 • How many Canadian icons can you see in the illustration? Write down as many as possible. Choose five from your list and explain why they are typical of Canada.

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7.71 •• Based on what you learned from studying the fact file and reading “The Hockey Sweater”, write a short text where you describe Canadian culture. Start like this: “In general, Canadians are … ” Swap your text with a partner’s and give each other constructive feedback.

Explore

7.72 Find information about a Canadian invention or a famous Canadian, for example in music, film or sports. Use reliable and relevant sources, and make a short multimodal presentation.

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explain the meaning of selected quotes YES

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS SUMMARIZING AND SYNTHESIZING INFORMATION

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Being able to summarize and synthesize information is an essential skill. It shows that you have understood the material you have studied, and that you can select what is most relevant and use it. A summary is a shortened version of a text where you highlight the main points. A synthesis is when you combine information from several sources, comparing and contrasting important points. The following strategies are relevant for working with a variety of sources such as statistics, documentaries, feature films and audio files, as well as written texts.

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How to summarize 1 Study the text carefully. 2 Select the most relevant information. What are the main ideas or the most interesting facts? 3 Highlight or write down keywords. Think through why these keywords are relevant. 4 Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences, using your own words. 5 Use linking words to show how the ideas and facts are connected. 6 Check your summary. Would it make sense to someone who hasn’t seen the original material?

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How to synthesize 1 Study the information from your sources carefully. 2 Find the relevant ideas and main points. 3 Organise the information, for example in a Venn diagram. List similar information together. 4 Comment on each point. Use the PEED method: state your point, support it with examples from the text followed by an explanation, and then develop your point if relevant. 5 Compare the ideas and main points. Use sentence connectors to show similarities and contrasts. 6 Sum up and conclude.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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The following is an example of how to extract information from two short texts on multiculturalism in Australia and Canada, then synthesizing the main points in a paragraph.

immigration languages

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heterogeneous

multilingual diversity policy

strength

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Overall, more than 200 languages are spoken, and the most common are Italian, Arabic, Chinese and Greek. The country considers the rich cultural diversity its main strength and what embodies its national identity.

multicultural

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Australia can be described as a vibrant, multicultural nation. One in every four Australians was born overseas, and 46% have at least one parent who has immigrated to the country. Furthermore, almost 20% of Australians speak a language that is not English.

Canada is ethnically heterogeneous, with citizens coming from a number of cultural backgrounds and countries of origin. In fact, the government encourages immigration and multiculturalism is an official policy. Today, around 20% of the population are foreign born. In the wake of immigration, Canada has become a truly multilingual country with more than 200 mother tongues. Among those whose first language is not one of Canada's official languages, Chinese is most common, followed by Tagalog, Spanish and Punjabi.

national identity

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Summarized and synthesized text: Canada and Australia are both multicultural nations. There are several similarities between the two countries; for example, the percentage of foreign-born citizens, which is 20% and 25% respectively. Another example is the linguistic diversity they share as a result of immigration, with more than 200 spoken languages in each country. Although their immigrants’ mother tongues may not be the same, Chinese is common in both countries. Moreover, it seems both countries consider cultural diversity an important aspect of their national identity. In fact, multiculturalism is an official policy in Canada, whereas in Australia it is considered the country’s main strength. Tip: If you are asked to compare the contents or language of two texts, don’t write about one first and then the other. Discuss similarities and differences of both texts as you go.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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7.73 Read the text below and complete the tasks. a Follow the six steps on the previous pages to summarize the information. b The writers clearly found the episode in the elevator both surprising and funny. Find evidence or examples in the text to support this statement. c Compare the episode described in this text with information from the short text “Eh?” in the fact file on Canada. Follow the steps on the previous pages to synthesize the information.

To blend in amongst Canadians, you first must A. locate them, B. dress like them, and C. learn to insult them in a casual, carefree manner. Fortunately, all three objectives are fairly easy. Especially the last one.

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Canadians are very easy to insult. Ian was once on an elevator in downtown Toronto, and the only other occupant was a dear old lady who kept asking him if he knew her grandson. The elevator doors were about to close when a smartly dressed young woman came running up. The elderly lady immediately stopped the doors with her cane and called out, “Come on in, sweetie.” The younger woman got on and glared at the older woman. “I think that was very rude,” she said. True story. Ian was agog. He waited until the grandma, obviously flustered, got off on her floor, and then asked the wounded party what had set her off. Well, it turns out that her last name was Svenson or something. She was of Swedish extraction, you see, and she thought the old woman was making a racial slur. “Sweetie/Swedie.” Get it? And no, we aren’t kidding.

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blend in passe inn insult (v) fornærme' casual uformell objective mål cane stokk agog her: spent, forventningsfull flustered forvirret, oppskjørtet/ forvirra, oppskjørta wounded såret/såra extraction her: avstamming slur (n) fornærmelse/ fornærming herring sild Mississauga storby sør for Toronto

So, hell, Ian did the only thing he could do. Which was to tell this woman to take her Ikea-buying, herring-eating, Abba-playing, saunasweating, meatball-making ass back to wherever it was she came from. Which as it turned out, was Mississauga. Those damn Swedes. We let them in, give them jobs, and the next thing you know they’re taking over. This used to be a great country until those damned “Swedies” moved in. Excerpt from How to be a Canadian by Will & Ian Ferguson

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS PEED = POINT, EXAMPLE, EXPLAIN, DEVELOP Make a point to answer the question you have been given. Give an example from the text.

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Explain how your example supports your point.

Develop your point, e.g. comment on the writer’s intention or what the effect on the reader is, or give your own opinion.

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7.74 Study the following paragraph from a student’s answer. Find and underline the four steps of the PEED method.

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The old lady in the elevator did not mean to insult the young woman. She called the young woman “sweetie” and even stopped the doors from closing so that she could get on. This shows that the old lady was not rude at all. The young woman thought she said something else and clearly misunderstood the situation. In addition to sharing a funny episode, I think the writer’s intention is to show how easily some people can be offended.

Languages Most Used On the Web vs. IRL

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7.76 Study the statistics. a Summarize the information in the bar chart on the left. b Summarize the information in the pie chart on the right. c Synthesize the information by comparing and contrasting the two charts.

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7.75 Find an article about an issue you think is interesting and read it. a Explain what the main idea or message of the article is, using the PEED method. Work in pairs and discuss possible answers. b Summarize the article in one paragraph.

Number of first-language speakers (estimates in billions)

Chinese Spanish English Hindi Arabic Portuguese Bengali Russian Japanese Lahnda German Korean French Marathi Italian Polish

Percentage of websites using various content languages* 1.20

a

0.40 0.36

b c •

5.0%

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h b i

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2.6%

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2.2%

e a d j

0.17 0.13 • 0.09 h 0.08 • 0.08 i

2.1% 1.9%

c •

54.4%

11.4%

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• 0.07 • 0.06 j 0.04

f

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4.7% 4.1%

5.9%

5.7%

Other

• 2.66

* top 10 million websites

Source: Mashable statista and w3techs.com/Entologue

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Gaming Culture

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Before you start Which games are popular in your class? What consoles are most common?

appealing tiltalende/tiltalande evolve utvikle seg decade tiĂĽr

Computer games – a part of our culture Even in the earliest days of computers, there were games. Scoring points and advancing in a digital hierarchy soon turned out to be both appealing and at times addictive. In just a few decades, creating games has grown into a billion-dollar industry. Players who excel at popular games can now make a living from it. In fact, playing computer or video games is now considered a sport, and just like other forms of sports, gaming has become a cultural expression.

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The evolution of computer games

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AIMS All of this would have been unthinkable just a few decades ago when gamers would gather at local arcades. k describe how computer games have That was before the Internet. During the late 1980s evolved and 1990s, gaming moved out of the arcades and into k discuss gaming as a cultural homes, where players could enjoy longer and more expression complex games. As gaming attracted more and more k create an outline for a game attention in the 1990s, so did the content of games that k collect data for a survey included increasingly realistic graphics. A number of studies have followed in the years since, attempting to find out whether there is a link between violent games and aggressive behaviour. So far, no conclusive connection has been found. Contact through games

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As the range of games evolved, players have also specialized in their favourite types of game. There are massive multiplayer online games (MMO), simulations, adventure games, real time strategy games (RTS), first-person shooter games (FPS), sports games and many more. Subsequently, online forums were established where gamers could discuss challenges, exchange tips and tricks, and provide walkthroughs for tough sections of their favourite games. Online, gamers can communicate with each other across borders, without regard to age, gender, appearance or race. There are also a number of subcultures related to gaming, such as cosplayers dressing up as their favourite games’ heroes or villains. Some have even become well-paid models who attend conventions. Undoubtedly, belonging to a group with shared interests also has benefits on a psychological level. Players support each other and become friends, and some have even married after having met each other through a game.

rapid rask in the making under utvikling excel utmerke seg arcade spillehall/spelehall graphics grafikk attempt (v) forsøke connection sammenheng/ samanheng distinguish skille exposure eksponering range (n) utvalg/utval subsequently følgelig, som følge av/følgeleg, som følge av establish etablere exchange (v) utveksle provide gi, sørge for appearance utseende/utsjånad cosplayer (costume player) cosplay-utøver/cosplay-utøvar villain kjeltring excel (v) utmerke seg convention her: spillkonferanse/ spelekonferanse community samfunn feature (n) trekk, kjennetegn/ trekk, kjenneteikn abbreviation forkortelse opponent motspiller/motspelar originate stamme fra/stamme frå quest oppdrag, søken solve løse/løyse riddle (n) gåte combat (v) bekjempe/kjempe mot

Language and norms

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Over time, these digital communities have developed cultural features that connect the participants in various ways. Language is one, for example by using abbreviations, also known as leetspeak. GG, meaning “good game”, may be used to show good sportsmanship at the end of a game. BM, short for “bad manners”, is used to show an opponent that he or she is breaking commonly accepted rules of behaviour. Quite a few abbreviations that originated from online gaming have been adopted in everyday speech, such as noob and FTW. Gaming forums also have traditions, like LANs, where gamers come together in real life and play. At LANs, as well as in forums and games, players usually cooperate and communicate in English, as they join forces on their quests to solve riddles, unlock levels or combat enemies.

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What’s next?

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With change, people often disagree on whether it is for the better or the worse. Researchers study the effect of such changes and try to predict what will happen next. What we do know is that gamification has made its way into education. Gaming can support learning in various ways, from teaching content to learning coding and programming skills, as well as critical thinking and collaboration. Being able to analyse, plan ahead, try new ideas and solve problems is an important skill in the 21st century. Transferring these gaming skills to other areas of our lives can open up a lot of opportunities.

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gamification spillifisering, anvendelse av spillprinsipper i andre sammenhenger/ speleifisering, bruk av speleprinsipp i andre samanhengar foresee forutse/føresjå collaboration samarbeid transfer (v) overføre

Read and understand

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7.77 • Choose the correct alternative in the sentences. a Scoring points in a game can be strongly appearance/appealing/ accepted. b Creating games has shown/grown/blown into a billion-dollar industry. c Playing computer games has become a cultural expression/ abbreviation/collaboration. d Players meet online in forums to share riddles/quests/tips. e Belonging to a group with shared conventions/interests/features has benefits on a psychological level. f Gamers can communicate/originate/transfer across borders. g They join forces to collaborate/combat/exchange villains. h Gaming can support/attempt/evolve learning.

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7.78 •• Write questions to fit these statements. a People would play computer games in local arcades. b It is considered a sport. c Gamers communicate mostly in English. d The players discuss challenges and exchange tips and tricks. e It is a form of communication which consists of abbreviations. f It means “good game”. g They dress up as fictional characters from their favourite game. h No conclusive connection has been found. 7.79 ••• Answer the following questions. a What does the text say about the evolution of computer games? b What does the text say about different kinds of games? c What does the text say about communication? d Give examples of 21st-century skills that can be acquired through gaming.

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Practise

7.80 Combine the words with the correct translation. A evolve

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D collaboration

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E abbreviation

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G arcade

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7.81 Explain the following expressions in other English words. a professional gamer b online forum c cosplay d leetspeak e LAN f quest g gamification

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7.82 Discuss the following questions and share your views in class. a What do you think makes a good computer game? b What skills are required to become a good gamer? c Do you think being a professional gamer is an attractive profession? d Is gaming a sport? e Is gaming an example of cultural expression?

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7.83 Make a presentation based on one of the following topics. a A highly rated game. Use expressions like characters, setting, plot, quest, theme. b A famous gamer. Use expressions like skills, features, attitude, language, levels, merits. c A gaming forum. Use expressions like language, values, norms, behaviour, traditions.

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7.84 Many games are easily recognized because of their elaborate graphics. Discuss the following questions in groups. a Study the examples below. Describe what you see. What types of games do you think they are? Do you recognize any of them? b How do graphics contribute to the mood and atmosphere of the game? c How important is the quality of a game’s graphics to you?

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7.85 • Write a short text where you argue for or against using games in education. Start your text with a statement, then support your statement with examples and explanations. End your text with a concluding sentence to sum up your argument. 7.86 •• Compare two different games of your choice. For advice, study “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter.

After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how computer games have evolved YES

ALMOST

Explore

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create an outline for a game YES

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collect data for a survey

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7.88 Interview fellow students about their gaming habits. Work in groups. Agree on at least three questions, collect data and make a survey. Present your findings in class.

NO

discuss gaming as a cultural expression

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7.87 ••• Make an outline for a game you would like to create. Include information on genre and type of game, setting, characters, story line, plot, theme and reward. Present your ideas in class.

How did you do?

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7.89 Norway has a number of renowned game developers, some of whom have won international prizes. Find information about these developers and their games. Who are they and what have they created? Which prizes have they won? Have you played any of their games?

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7.90 In March 2020, an «Uncensored Library» was built using Minecraft, the iconic gaming platform that welcomes more than 145 million players each month. Find out who built the virtual library, how long it took, what it contains, and what its purpose is.

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How did you do

Did you know?

Super Mario is a hugely popular game figure, known by children all over the world. His name came from the landlord of Nintendo’s first warehouse, Mr Mario Segale. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 341


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

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Assess your progress

7.92 Go back to the focus areas listed at the beginning of this chapter. a For each of the focus areas listed, find examples of what you have learnt from working with the texts and tasks. b What do you think you master well? c What would you like to improve? Explain why and what you think you will have to do.

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7.91 After working with chapter 7, it is time to recap and revise what you have learnt. a What is culture? b What is a stereotype? c Give examples of cultural expressions you have studied in this chapter. d What have you learnt about culture and ways of life in the countries you have studied in this chapter? e Which texts have you read or listened to? Give brief summaries. f Choose one text or film and one illustration from this chapter and explain why you think they are relevant.

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Revise

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7.93 Discussing literature and film a Explain what setting is. b What is the difference between plot and theme? c Name two different points of view. d Give examples of protagonists and antagonists in stories you have read or watched. e Explain the difference between explicit and implicit information.

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7.94 Summarizing and synthesizing information a What should you remember when you write a summary? b What do you do when you synthesize information? c How is summarizing different from synthesizing? d What is the PEED method?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

Apply your skills

7.96 Write a • Choose a story you have read, a film or an episode from a TV series you have watched recently. Describe what the main conflict is, how the plot develops, if there is one or more turning points, and how the conflict is resolved.

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7.95 Speak a • What form of cultural expression do you enjoy the most, and why? Prepare a three-minute speech with examples.

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b •• When you look back on all the stories you have studied this year, which character do you think is the most interesting? What makes the character interesting, and how does the writer achieve this? Explain to each other in groups.

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c ••• Choose two computer games you have played or know well. Compare the genre, setting and theme in these two games. How are they similar? How are they different? Discuss in small groups.

b •• Describe the challenges experienced by the main character in the short story “My Mother, the Crazy African”. Compare them with challenges experienced by one or more characters in other English-language literary texts or films you have studied this year. Study “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter for advice.

c ••• Compare the points of view in two of the texts from this chapter and a film you have studied this year. How do the perspectives contribute to how we relate to the characters and understand the plot? Study “Discussing literature and film” and “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in this chapter for advice. SKILLS | Chapter 7: Encounters | 343


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CHAPTER 8

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Perspectives


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In this chapter you will focus on k social issues in historical contexts

k global challenges k culture and society in India and Africa

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k arguing a case

k referring to sources

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k word order and punctuation

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Useful words and phrases

sustainable development microplastics civil war refugees segregation decolonization literacy perception prosperity progress

How do you feel about the future of our planet? Who can solve the challenges we are facing today?

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Sustainable Development The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945, after World War II, to work for international peace, social progress and human rights. In 2015 all the 193 UN member states agreed on a plan for sustainable development to face the challenges in the world today. The 17 goals are set for 2030.

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Before you start “Sustainable development” means that one generation is able to meet its needs without ruining the possibility for the next generations to meet their needs. In which fields do you think sustainability is important?

No Poverty

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While global poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 2000, one in ten people in developing regions are still living with their families on less than the international poverty line of US $ 1.90 a day, and there are millions more who make little more than this daily amount. Significant progress has been made in Asia, but up to 42 % of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to live below the poverty line. Poverty is more than shortage of money. It is also visible in poor health, hunger, discrimination and lack education.

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Zero Hunger

It is time to rethink how we grow, share and consume our food. If done right, agriculture, forestry and fisheries can provide nutritious food for all. Right now, our soils, fresh water, oceans, forests and biodiversity are being rapidly degraded. Many people in rural areas can no longer make ends meet on their land, forcing them to migrate to cities in search of opportunities. Poor food security is also causing severe malnutrition. A profound change in the global food and agriculture system is needed if we are to nourish the 815 million people who are hungry today.

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developing region utviklings­ region poverty line fattigdomsgrensen/ fattigdomsgrensa progress (n) framskritt/ framsteg access (n) tilgang consume forbruke forestry skogsdrift biodiversity biologisk mangfold/ biologisk mangfald degrade nedbryte/bryte ned rural landlig/landleg migrate flytte, migrere malnutrition underernæring nourish ernære

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AIMS k explain the concept of sustainable

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development k discuss ways to achieve sustainability k share information about a sustainable development goal

Quality Education

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Education is the foundation to creating sustainable development. Over 265 million children are currently out of school and 22 % of them are of primary school age. Additionally, even children who are attending schools are lacking basic skills in reading and maths. Basic literacy skills have improved but investment is needed in educational scholarship, teacher training, school building and improvement of water and electricity access for schools.

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Gender Equality

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While the world has achieved progress towards gender equality, women and girls continue to suffer discrimination and violence in every part of the world. Gender equality is not only a fundamental right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. Unfortunately, 1 in 5 women and girls between the ages of 15–49 have reported experiencing physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner within a 12-month period, and 49 countries currently have no laws protecting women from domestic violence. There is progress regarding harmful practices such as child marriage and FGM (female genital mutilation), which has declined by 30 % in the past decade, but there is still much work to be done. Equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes are crucial to ending gender-based discrimination.

foundation grunnlag gender equality likestilling mellom kjønnene/likestilling mellom kjønna fundamental right grunnleggende rettighet/grunnleggande rett prosperous velstående, rik/ velståande, rik domestic violence vold i hjemmet/vald i heimen genital mutilation kjønnslemlestelse/ kjønnslemlesting decline (v) avta/minke, stilne crucial vesentlig/ vesentleg

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Read and understand

8.1 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. Correct the sentences that are wrong.

True Sustainable means to use as many resources as possible.

b

The United Nations is a large and important organization with a long history.

c

There are more poor people today than in 2000.

d

Africa is the continent with the largest percentage of poor people.

e

Production and consumption of food is already sustainable.

f

If they can’t make a living from farming, people often move to the cities.

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22 % of the children on earth do not go to school.

h

Discrimination of women and girls is still a big problem in many countries.

i

Domestic violence is one of the biggest problems facing women and girls today.

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a

False

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8.2 •• Answer these questions. a How many sustainable development goals are there and when is their deadline? b What is the international poverty line? c How does poverty affect the lives of those who struggle with it? d Why is it necessary to change global food production? e How many children do not go to school? f What is said about genital mutilation and child marriage? g In which fields do women need equal access before there will be gender equality? 8.3 ••• Use information from the text on the previous pages to explain what the situation is today for each of the four goals. What kind of positive changes have already taken place and which challenges must be addressed in the future?

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Practise

1 Raise your voice against discrimination against people of minorities.

B

2 Recycle paper, plastic, glass and metals.

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3 Cycle, walk or use public transportation to keep our cities’ air clean.

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4 Buy from green companies that are equal opportunity employers.

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5 Use only energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs, and turn off lights when not in use.

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8.4 Match the development goals in the left column with the corresponding activities in the right column.

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6 Use your democratic right to elect the leaders in your country and local community.

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7 Plant trees and flowers and be kind to animals and insects.

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8 Avoid throwing away food and do not buy more than you plan to eat.

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by fattigdom forbruke fremskritt kjønn kvinner landlig mangfold mat migrere nedbryte rettighet rik skole tilgang utvikling

8.5 Word grid a Find words from the text in the word grid below. b Use the words from the grid to write full sentences.

8.6 Choose one of the sustainability goals. Use the United Nations website and other sources to find facts and numbers about the topic. Then use the information to give a short presentation. For advice, see “Sharing Information” in Chapter 1.

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8.7 Who can contribute to reaching the goals? What can we do as individuals, what should politicians do, and what can organizations or others do? Discuss and make a list.

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8.8 The deadline for the UN Sustainable development goals is 2030. How many years are left? Look for recent information on the progress towards the various goals. Does it seem realistic to reach them by 2030? 8.9 Use digital resources to find facts about global wealth inequality or how wealth is distributed across the world. Does anything surprise you about the numbers you find? Can you think of solutions to this problem?

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Listen

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain the concept of sustainable development YES

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share information about a sustainable development goal YES

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Take notes while you listen, then compare and discuss with a partner, and finally share your information in class. For advice, see “Listening strategies” in Chapter 5.

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discuss ways to achieve sustainability

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8.11 “Making a Difference” There are many organizations and individuals who work to help people and the environment in various ways. In this text Emma and Sam discuss volunteerism and the importance of humanitarian and environmental organizations.

How did you do?

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8.10 Find statistics on population growth. How does an increasing population on the planet affect food production, energy consumption and waste? Share and discuss in class.

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Planet, or ­Plastic?

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Plastic is fantastic. It is cheap, versatile and easy to shape. However, its durability has become a problem. It will not dissolve, either on land, or in the ocean. This has become a source of concern in most parts of our planet. BY LAURA PARKER, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. ABRIDGED VERSION

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f plastic had been invented when the Pilgrims sailed from Plymouth, England, to North America, and the Mayflower had been stocked with bottled water and plastic-wrapped snacks, their plastic trash would likely still be around, four centuries later.

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Before you start How many items made from plastic can you spot from where you are? What do you know about plastic pollution in the world today?

We should give thanks that the Pilgrims didn’t have plastic, I thought recently as I rode a train to

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Plymouth along England’s south coast. I was on my way to see a man who would help me make sense of the whole mess we’ve made with plastic, especially in the ocean. Because plastic wasn’t invented until the late 19th century, and production really only took off around 1950, we have a mere 9.2 billion tons of the stuff to deal with. Of that more than 6.9 billion tons have become waste.


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Meanwhile, AIMS ocean plastic is estimated to kill millions k discuss problems related to plastic of marine k present some environmental challenges and solutions animals every year. Nearly 700 species, including endangered ones, are known to have been affected by it. Some are harmed visibly, strangled by abandoned fishing nets or discarded six-pack rings. Many more are probably harmed invisibly. Marine species of all sizes, from zooplankton to whales, now eat microplastics, the bits smaller versatile allsidig than one-fifth of an inch across. On durability varighet/varigheit Hawaii’s Big Island, on a beach that dissolve løse seg opp/løyse seg seemingly should have been pristine, opp as no paved road leads to it, I walked stocked fylt ankle-deep through microplastics. plastic-wrapped innpakket i After that, I could understand why plast/pakka inn i plast some people see ocean plastic century århundre/hundreår mere bare/berre as a looming catastrophe, worth waste søppel mentioning in the same breath as staggering forbløffende/ climate change.

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And of that waste, a staggering 6.3 billion tons never made it to a recycling bin, a figure that stunned the scientists who crunched the numbers in 2017.

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No one knows how much unrecycled plastic waste ends up in the ocean, Earth’s last sink. In 2015, Jenna Jambeck, a University of Georgia engineering professor, caught everyone’s attention with a rough estimate of between 5.3 million and 14 million tons each year just from coastal regions. It’s unclear how long it will take for that plastic to completely biodegrade into its constituent molecules. Estimates range from 450 years to never.

And yet there’s a key difference: Ocean plastic is not as complicated as climate change. There are no ocean trash deniers, at least so far. To do something about it, we don’t have to remake our planet’s entire energy system. “This isn’t a problem where we don’t know what the solution is,” says Ted Siegler, a Vermont resource economist who has spent more than 25 years working with developing nations on garbage. “We know how

forbløffande stun lamslå crunch numbers knuse tall, regne ut sink utslagsvask estimate (n) beregning/ berekning coastal region kystområder/ kystområde biodegrade bryte ned constituent her: iboende, bestanddel/ibuande, delemne species art abandon forlate discard kaste microplastics mikroplast pristine ren, ubrukt/rein, ubrukt looming truende/truande denier fornekter/fornektar

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Gradually, Thompson and his scientist colleagues found the answer: plastic is getting broken into pieces so small they’re hard to see. In a 2004 paper, Thompson coined the term “microplastics” for these small bits.

“We do know the concentrations of chemicals at the time of manufacture in some cases are very high,” Thompson said. “We don’t know how much additive is left in the plastic by the time it becomes bitesize to a fish.

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In Plymouth, Richard Thompson, marine ecologist, waited in a Marine Station, at the edge of the harbor. In 1993 he was working on a Ph.D. on limpets and microalgae that grow on coastal rocks when he participated in his first beach clean-up, on the Isle of Man. While other volunteers zoomed in on the plastic bottles and bags and nets, Thompson focused on the small stuff, the tiny particles that lay underfoot, ignored, at the high tide line. At first, he was not even sure they were plastic. He had to consult forensic chemists to confirm it.

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Thompson. Dissecting the fish, he was surprised to find microplastics in the guts of more than one-third of them. The finding made international headlines. After we’d steamed along for a while, Thompson reeled the manta trawl back in. There was a smattering of coloured plastic confetti at the bottom. Thompson himself doesn’t worry much about microplastics in his fish and chips. There’s little evidence yet that they pass from the gut of a fish into the flesh we actually eat. He worries more about the things that none of us can see, the chemicals added to plastics to give them desirable properties, such as malleability, and the even tinier nanoplastics that microplastics presumably degrade into. Those might pass into the tissues of fish and humans.

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dispose of kvitte seg med irretrievable uopprettelig/ uoppretteleg Ph.D. doktorgrad limpet albueskjell/albueskjel high tide line høyvannslinje/ høgvasslinje forensic chemist rettskjemiker/ rettskjemikar coin a term finne på et nytt ord/ finne på eit nytt ord chop urolig sjø/uroleg sjø reel (v) spole, vinde fine-mesh finmasket/finmaska gut (n) innvoller/ innvolar smattering lag confetti småbiter/småbitar desirable ønskelig/ønskeleg property her: egenskap/ eigenskap malleability formbarhet/ formbarheit additive tilsettingsstoff alarmist panikkspreder/ panikkspreiar aesthetic estetisk

to pick up garbage. Anyone can do it. We know how to dispose of it. We know how to recycle. It’s a matter of building the necessary institutions and systems,” he says, “ideally before the ocean turns, irretrievably and for centuries to come, into a thin soup of plastic.”

As Thompson and I talked about all this, a boat called the Dolphin was carrying us through a light chop in the Sound, off Plymouth. Thompson reeled out a fine-mesh net called a manta trawl, usually used for studying plankton. We were close to the spot where, a few years earlier, other researchers had collected 504 fish of 10 species and given them to

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Thompson is careful not to get ahead of the science on his subject. He’s far from an alarmist, but he’s also convinced that plastic trash in the ocean is far more than an aesthetic problem. “I don’t think we should be waiting for a key finding of whether or not fish are hazardous to eat,” he said. “We have enough evidence to act.”


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IN SHORT

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Ocean plastic kills millions of marine animals every year. Some are strangled by abandoned fishing nets. Some eat plastic items, often degraded into microplastics. But plastic waste is a problem where we know the solution. We all know how to pick up trash and we know how to recycle.

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Because plastic wasn’t invented until the late 19th century, we only have 9.2 billion tons of the stuff to deal with. At least 6 billion tons of plastic has become waste. Every year, millions of tons of plastic waste end up in the ocean. It takes at least 450 years – maybe forever – for plastic to completely biodegrade.

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Richard Thompson, a marine ecologist, discovered microplastics while cleaning up beaches on the Isle of Man. Later he also found tiny pieces of plastics in the guts of fish.

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He worries about the chemicals in plastics that might pass into the tissues of fish and humans.

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8.12 • Choose the correct alternatives in the sentences below and write the sentences. a Every year millions of tons of plastic end up on beaches/in fish guts/ in the ocean. b It takes at least 45 years/450 years/45 months for plastic waste to biodegrade. c Hundreds/ thousands/millions of animals die every year from contact with plastic waste. d In the ocean plastic is recycled/degraded/increased into little bits, called microplastics. e Microplastics are found in the guts/flesh/blood of living fish. f Plastic contains tissues/chemicals/fishing nets that may be dangerous for fish and humans.

century århundre/hundreår waste avfall biodegrade bryte ned strangle kvele abandon forlate fishing net fiskegarn microplastics mikroplast solution løsning/løysing trash søppel recycle resirkulere gut innvoller/innvolar chemicals kjemikalier/ kjemikaliar tissue vev

8.13 •• Write five questions to the text. The answers should be found in the article. Work in pairs and ask each other the questions. SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 355


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Practise

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8.14 ••• Use your own words to explain and comment on the quotes from the text. a We should give thanks that the Pilgrims didn’t have plastic. b A staggering 6.3 billion tons never made it to a recycling bin. c Estimates range from 450 years to never. d There are no ocean trash deniers, at least so far. e Thompson coined the term “microplastics” for these small bits. f He worries more about the things that none of us can see. g He’s far from an alarmist, but he’s also convinced that plastic trash in the ocean is far more than an aesthetic problem.

8.15 Insert the words where they belong.

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microplastics – deny – looming – aesthetic – recycled – biodegrade – trash

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Plastic pollution is not just an problem. It is a major challenge in the oceans, which no one can . It takes a long time for plastic to completely. Marine animals and birds fill their stomachs with plastic bags and smaller bits, called . Instead of polluting the oceans, plastics should be . Anyone can pick up their own .

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8.16 Discuss the questions. a What is the problem with plastic pollution and what can be done? b Which other environmental challenges do we face today? c What can you as individuals and as a class do to help meet environmental challenges? d What can be done by politicians, industries, scientists and the media to solve these problems?

Did you know?

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8.17 On National Geographic’s website there are many short films about different environmental challenges. Choose two films that you find interesting. Compare the content and the way the information is communicated.

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When it comes to recycling plastic bottles, Norway is the leading country in the world. We recover 97 per cent of our plastic bottles. They are reused, some as many as 50 times! These results are so impressive that many other nations are now following suit.

8.18 In the documentary “Before the Flood” Leonardo Di Caprio explores climate change. Watch the trailer or the film. As you watch, write keywords about places and people you see and facts that are presented. Why do you think this film became so popular? Is it a film you would recommend? Discuss.

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• overpopulation • industrial waste • garbage handling • energy production and consumption

• endangered animal species • fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture • mineral shortage in manufacturing

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• deforestation • air pollution • transport • consumption • global warming

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8.19 Choose one of the environmental challenges below. Search for reliable and relevant sources and make a presentation. Include • reasons for the problem • consequences of the situation • possible solutions

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8.20 • Find a picture that illustrates the plastic problem or another environmental issue you are interested in. Make a poster for a campaign with a catchy slogan and a short text to inspire people to act.

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8.21 •• Use information from the illustration below to create a text where you reflect on the amount of waste we generate in our modern world. Also discuss how our society should change to meet the challenge.

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How long until it’s decomposed?

Fish hooks 600 years

Plastic bags 10 - 20 years

Cigarettes 10 years

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Toilet roll 1 month

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Drinking cans 200 years

Cardboard 2 months

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can discuss problems related to plastic

Plastic cutlery 100 - 1000 years

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present some environmental challenges and solutions Glass 4000 years

Diapers 450 years

Some plastics Never

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Source: NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US)

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS ARGUING A CASE

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Whether you are preparing for an oral presentation, planning a debate or writing a text, the steps below will be useful if you want to argue a case, discuss a topic and convince your audience.

2 Be logical, clear and simple

Present evidence, facts and logic to support your arguments. This is called logos.

3 Be trustworthy

It is estimated that 8 million tons of plastic are washed into the ocean every year, worldwide. Furthermore, according to recent research, one hundred thousand marine animals are killed by this yearly.

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Start with a statement that can be argued and proven by evidence. Make sure your opinion is valid.

One of the biggest environmental challenges today is ocean pollution.

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1 Make a claim

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Show that you can be trusted by sharing knowledge and personal experience and by referring to credible sources. This is called ethos.

I have read several reports thoroughly and discovered that most of this waste is singleuse plastic. This means that we recycle next to nothing, even though I know from experience that recycling is really easy.

4 Win your audience

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Make your audience or readers identify with your arguments and become interested by appealing to emotions and creating a sense of unity. This is called pathos.

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5 Respect alternative views

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Listen to other opinions and respond to your opponent’s point of view in a polite way, but also point out their weaknesses or illogical reasoning.

6 Sum up Repeat your main points.

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It is horrible to see the beautiful creatures in our oceans suffer and die because of the harmful waste we force upon these defenceless animals. We must join forces to solve this terrible situation. Some claim that removing plastic from the ocean is pointless if we do not stop the constant flow of new waste. I respect this point of view, but I am convinced that we need to do both to solve this problem. Therefore, I am certain that we need to collect waste in the ocean and recycle it, and we can all contribute!


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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS Practise

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a My message to you is therefore to take this issue seriously and contribute to stopping the development.

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8.22 Which statement belongs to the various steps of arguing a case? 1. claim 2. logos 3. ethos 4. pathos 5. alternative views 6. sum up

b I am here today to tell you about the challenges caused by global warming.

c Some people claim that global warming is a natural process, not caused by humans, but I think there is enough evidence to disagree.

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d According to data from NASA, carbon dioxide levels in the air are now at their highest in 650,000 years and the temperatures are rising. e It makes me sad to see defenceless animals suffer when their habitat is ruined by drought, flooding or melting ice.

I have visited glaciers in both Norway and France and seen how the ice has melted over the past few decades.

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8.23 When arguing with an opponent, it is easy to get carried away. Which of these sentences would you use, and which ones should you avoid? Discuss and explain. a Can you explain to me why you think this is so wrong? b You have no idea what you are talking about. c I respect your point of view, but in my opinion this is not a good solution. d Let’s discuss a couple of options and then see if we can agree. e I know I am right, and you are wrong! f I don’t see any sense in what you are saying.

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8.24 Practise using the six steps as you act out conversations and argue your case with a partner. Start with the following questions. a What is the best form of sport? b Who is the best artist or actor in the world? c What is the best pizza topping?

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS

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8.25 In a discussion it is important to listen carefully to your opponents and give a relevant response to their arguments. Study the sentences below and place them in a logical order to find out what Dean and Sue are discussing. a Sue: I’m afraid I disagree; transport is not the only problem here. It is more important that we stop eating meat, since food production demands lots of energy. b Dean: Exactly, so you do agree that we should reduce the use of airplanes, do you? c Dean: That may be true if you only think about saving time when travelling, but it is too short-sighted since you ruin the planet at the same time. Still, to conclude, I can see that at least we both want to save the planet, and that is good! d Sue: To some extent I do, when there are other, energy saving alternatives for transportation of goods. For people who travel far, however, airplanes are the best solution. e Dean: Let me first say that I am convinced that the best way to save the climate is to stop flying and to limit the use of cars. f Sue: I agree that the widespread and constant use of digital tools demands energy, but it is more efficient than printing paper and sending it by planes across nations. g Dean: But a growing population needs food! We will need even more food in the future, so instead we will have to cut other activities that demand energy. One example is to reduce the use of computers.

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8.26 Read out the corrected version of the discussion above and answer the questions. Work in pairs. a How do Sue and Dean respond to each other’s point of view in the discussion? b Which words and expressions do they use to follow up each other’s arguments? c Explain the views and arguments used by Sue and Dean. Do you agree with any of them? Explain why.

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Guidelines for debates 1 Speak only when it is your turn; do not interrupt. 2 Act dignified and avoid personal attacks. 3 Focus on the topic. 4 Present facts truthfully. 5 Do not become overly emotional in your appeals.

8.27 Organize a debate in the classroom. Follow the guidelines for debates. In advance, make sure that there are different opinions on the issues. a Should we reduce the use of fossil-run vehicles in the cities? b Wind turbines – are they good or bad for the environment? c Should young people today be more aware of a healthy lifestyle? d A good education is the solution to most problems in the world.

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 8.28 Study the following quotes by famous leaders. Find examples of how they use pathos and other language features or rhetorical devices to get their message out to the audience. Compare your answers with those of a partner, then share in class.

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“We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”

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“In the democracy which I have envisaged, a democracy established by non-violence, there will be equal freedom for all. Everybody will be his own master. It is to join a struggle for such democracy that I invite you today. Once you realize this you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Muslims, and think of yourselves as Indians only, engaged in the common struggle for independence.”

Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, June 1940.

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Mahatma Ghandi, Indian liberator and statesman, Bombay, August 1942.

“If there is one quote that echoes forth from this conference, let it be that human rights are women’s rights and that women’s rights are human rights once and for all. Let us not forget that among those rights are the right to speak freely and the right to be heard.”

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“And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”

Hillary Clinton, American politician at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995.

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John F. Kennedy, American president, Inauguration speech 1961.

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“But even the ugliest of viruses can exist in places they are not welcome. Racism exists, but it is not welcome here. An assault on the freedom of any one of us who practices their faith or religion is not welcome here. Violence, and extremism in all its forms, is not welcome here. And over the last two weeks we have shown that, you have shown that, in your actions.” Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister, at the memorial after shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, 2019.

envisage forestille seg/ førestille seg assault angrep


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FACT FILE INDIA FACT

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India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, and has been influential in areas such as language, art, mathematics, astronomy and religion. In the past, India consisted of many different kingdoms and states. In the 1800s, the British colonized most of the country. After almost 100 years of British rule, India finally declared its independence in 1947. Despite political unrest and social problems, India now has a fast-growing economy and is expected to become one of the superpowers of the 21st century.

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History at a glance

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In the second most populous country in the world, the traditional and the modern live side by side. Flashy cars, rickshaws and cows compete for space on the busy streets. Indians may go to work in suits and smart dresses, but will often wear traditional Indian clothes for weddings, religious festivals and important events. Modern technology is available everywhere. However, there are still enormous contrasts between rich and poor, and between life in the big cities and the countryside.

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T FILE INDIA FACT FILE CHINA Kashmir BHUTAN

Lucknow Bhopàl I N D I A

Mumbay Hyderàbàd

Arabian Sea Bangalore

Kolkata

BANGLADESH Bay of Bengal

MYANMAR (BURMA)

Chennai INDIAN

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Environmental challenges

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According to the World Health Organization, India is home to 14 of the world’s most polluted cities. Air pollution alone causes over one million deaths a year. Although India produces far less waste than western countries, it struggles with how to get rid of it. Huge landfills sometimes go up in flames, causing severe health problems. Other issues are water pollution, deforestation and overpopulation. As environmental issues are becoming more important for voters, India is investing in renewable sources of energy and banning single-use plastics, but efforts to reduce the use of pesticides and coalpowered industry have not yet been successful.

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Dehli

India Facts

Official name: The Republic of India (Bharat) Capital: New Delhi Population: 1.3 billion Official languages: Hindi, English (and 20 more) Geography: 28 states and 7 union territories Landscape: Urban areas, mountains, northern plains, coastal plains, desert Head of state: President Government: Parliamentary democracy National day: August 15 (Independence Day) Currency: Indian rupee Agriculture: Wheat, rice, fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, cotton, spices Industry: Information technology, film industry, electronics, chemicals, textiles, mining Natural hazards: Droughts, floods, monsoon rains Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism Popular sports: Cricket, field hockey, football

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PAKISTAN


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FACT FILE INDIA FACT AIMS k present facts about India k name some social and

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environmental challenges k recognize Hindi and Urdu words in modern English

Read and understand

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8.29 • Complete the sentences with information from the fact file on India. a The population of India is . b The capital of India is called . c Important religions in India are . d The currency in India is called . e India’s National Day is . f Popular sports in India are . g Important crops that are grown in India are . h The head of state in India is .

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8.30 •• Decide if the following statements are true or false, and then correct the false statements. a India is the most populous country in the world. b India used to be a French colony. c India declared its independence in 1947. d There is no modern technology in India. e India shares borders with Pakistan, Bangladesh and Thailand. f There is little difference between life in the cities and in the countryside. g Some of the world’s most polluted cities are in India. h Voters are not interested in environmental issues. 8.31 ••• Based on information from the fact file, describe some of the challenges India faces today.

Did you know

Mumbai, known as Bombay in the past, is where you find Bollywood, one of the largest film production centres in the world. Most films are produced in Hindi. Bollywood films typically include music and dance, drama and romance, fantasy and realism. The most successful Bollywood stars have become national icons and household names in India as well as in Indian communities all over the world.


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T FILE INDIA FACT FILE

Practise

bandanna bungalow pyjamas guru verandah typhoon jungle jodhpurs

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

a spiritual teacher a wilderness or forest a house in the Bengal style a tropical cyclone or hurricane trousers worn for horseback riding a porch or balcony a scarf tied around the head or neck clothing worn in bed

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8.32 Here are some English words that come from Hindi or Urdu. Match them with the correct explanation. Which ones are also used in Norwegian?

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8.33 Choose one of the five small pictures above. Which place would you like to visit? Give at least three reasons for your choice.

Explore

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can present facts about India

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8.34 Look at the pictures on the previous pages. Find out what the Indian flag symbolizes, what the Taj Mahal is, who Gandhi was, what the three lions mean. Also find out what status the peacock has. 8.35 Search online for video clips from Bollywood films. Choose one and find out what it is about. How do Bollywood films differ from Hollywood productions?

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name some social and environmental challenges YES

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recognize Hindi and Urdu words in modern English YES

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8.36 India is expected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country. Find out more about the population of India.

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Women in India

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I am proud of the beauty and the ancient culture of my country, India. I am not proud of the fact that India has been named “the most dangerous country in the world for women” in a recent Thomson Reuters Foundation survey.

voice, movement and rights over their own bodies. India’s designation hurts national pride because it is a country where millions of smartly dressed women go to work in high-rise offices every day, where laws have changed to protect women and where women and men have spilled into the streets to protest against rapes of children and trafficking of women.

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Opinion: The most dangerous country for women

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India has an old and fascinating culture, but also a past of colonization, unrest and poverty. Recently, changes have been made and India is now turning into a prosperous and technologically advanced country. Still, there are important challenges to deal with.

The survey simply asks: are women safe and free? It forces us to consider how women are actually treated in a culture, despite formal law, education, employment or income. India is in denial of the fact that a majority of its women do not feel safe alone on the streets, at work, in markets, or at home, even though they have learned how to cope with this existential

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It is a jolt to see India scoring worse than wartorn countries such as Afghanistan or Syria or monarchies such as Saudi Arabia where women have few rights. Everyone expects more and better for women from India, the world’s largest functioning democracy. That is precisely why it shocks.

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After all, the Indian constitution enshrines women’s rights to equality, including freedom of

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AIMS k present some challenges for women in India and other parts of the world k reflect on how society and governments can solve social problems k share information on economic and cultural aspects of India

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Indian women are in a constant state of vigilance, like a country on terrorist alert. Satish, a 52-year old banker, told me: “For rape there is no fixed time: always be alert.” No democracy is a democracy if half its population lives in fear.

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anxiety. When I asked young, educated women in Delhi if they feel safe, most said no. And most of those who said yes, had learned to modify their behaviour to feel safe – they don’t go out alone unnecessarily; come home at night before dark; get permission to go out; are always careful and alert; and they censor their speech, their clothes and their body posture, including whether or not they look men in the eyes.

war-torn krigsherjet/krigsherja enshrine bevare designation betegnelse/ nemning high-rise høyhus trafficking menneskehandel consider tenke over despite til tross for/trass i denial fornektelse/fornekting existential anxiety eksistensiell angst modify endre behaviour oppførsel censor begrense/avgrense vigilance årvåkenhet/aktsemd fixed fast alert (adj) på vakt honour society æressamfunn approximately omtrent minor mindreårig vicious ond/vond, slem value (n) verdi archaic gammeldags/ gammaldags irrespective uansett abuse (n) misbruk coverage dekning shift (n) her: endring flourish blomstre affirmative action kvotering pros and cons fordeler og ulemper/fordelar og ulemper mindset tankesett/tankegang impact innvirkning/innverknad

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Yet men are surprised when they hear this from women. Their common reaction is: “You must be mistaken.” The paradox is that women have protected men and their families by keeping quiet. This is honourable behaviour, a part of our “honour society”. But recent National Crime Records Bureau statistics show that approximately 40 % of female reported rape victims were minors and 95 % knew the rapist. The rapist belonged to the “circle of trust” of extended family and friends. Young girls have nowhere to go.

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What rape statistics reflect is a vicious cultural agreement that women have little value. Which means in turn that girls must be trained to act as if they do not exist. This sounds archaic in this day and age, but it is true in India and to a greater and lesser degree across many cultures, irrespective of wealth and education.

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The dirty secret about men’s crass abuse of power through sexual violence against women hit the global press. The #MeToo movement in the US, in which highly successful and wealthy women finally broke the silence about their experiences of sexual violence, resulted in the US ranking as the 10th most dangerous country for women. Without wide media coverage there is no possibility of cultural shift, and with media coverage, the illusion of women’s safety breaks. India – and the rest of the world – would do well to make women’s safety and freedom central goals of democracy and development, and learn about the science of cultural change. Advertising firms and big data companies know how to change culture. We need these skills to change conversations about what it means to be a man, so women can flourish without being imprisoned in the name of safety. By Deepa Narayan, social scientist and author, The Guardian, July 2018, abridged version

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Read and understand

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8.37 • Use information from the text to finish the sentences. a The writer is proud of … b On safety for women, India scores worse than … c India is the world’s largest … d The Indian constitution enshrines women’s … e The women in Delhi who say they feel safe modify … f Women have protected men and their families by … g Rape statistics show that in many cultures women … h In the #MeToo movement, successful women … i We need to change conversations about what it means …

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8.38 •• Answer the following questions. a What information has inspired the author to write the text? b What are the challenges described in the text? c How does the writer suggest solving the problems?

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8.39 ••• Use the following quotes from the text to explain how the writer argues her case and what her message is. a “India’s designation hurts national pride” b “women are in a constant state of vigilance” c “this sounds archaic in this day and age” d “with media coverage, the illusion of women’s safety breaks”

Practise

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8.40 Unscramble the letters to find words from the vocabulary list. Use the words to write sentences. a e u b s A e r e B u h a i o v b n o C r e s f e C e o r v a g c i M d y f o g n i c T a r f i f g k d r F h l u o i s h p x A p r m o i a y t e l 8.41 Place the words in the correct order to make sentences. For information about word order, see the Language Lab section. a when Arranged decides who marriage is the family their will child marry. b Asian It common is many still a practise in and countries African. c weddings Every year arranged 55 % are of the in world the marriages. d is The rate marriage of India arranged in 90 %. e bride each other and the groom have not seen Sometimes before wedding the day. f on What your is arranged opinion marriage?

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harry and ranjit were waiting for me waiting to take me to derby to a wedding my wedding a wedding that i hadn’t asked for that i didn’t want to a girl who i didn’t know if they had bothered to open their eyes they would have seen me seventeen angry upset but determined to do my own thing to choose my own path in life

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8.42 Read the novel excerpt below. a Fill in the missing punctuation and capital letters in the text. Check the Language Lab section for information about punctuation. b What is the theme of the text?

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Bali Rai, (UN)ARRANGED MARRIAGE (2018)

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8.43 How would you compare the situation for women in India and Norway? Discuss in groups. a Do Norwegian women also modify their behaviour and how they dress in order to stay safe? b What are historical reasons and possible solutions to such challenges? c How can politicians and individuals contribute to improving gender equality in a country?

Did you know?

Forced marriage, and especially child marriage, is condemned by the United Nations. Each year, 12 million girls under 18 are married off to adult men. SKILLS | Chapter 8: Perspectives | 369


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8.44 Find out more about Indian society, culture or history. Below are some suggested topics. Use reliable sources and information from the fact file. Present your findings as an audio or video documentary.

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• Indian cuisine • languages and religions in Indian • regions and geography • great political leaders • tourist attractions • pollution and rubbish • natural resources • the Ganges River

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• computer technology and call centres • organizations fighting for women’s rights • animal life and endangered species • the Diwali and Holi festivals • the Bollywood film industry • public transport and rickshaws • slumdogs and child labour • the caste system

Listen

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8.45 “Sir” The film Sir (2018) is a love story, but it also portrays challenges related to social class and gender in modern India. Listen to the text and questions and then write your answers.

8.46 Do you watch films in other languages than English and your own mother tongue? Explain why/why not and share opinions on how and why foreign language films from around the world should get a wider audience.

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8.47 • Write a blog entry about why you would like, or not like, to visit India. Give reasons and support your arguments with examples. Use a personal, informal style. For advice see “Formal and informal language” in Chapter 3.

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8.48 •• Find examples of logos, ethos and pathos in Deepa Narayan’s text «The most dangerous country for women». Briefly explain why you have chosen these examples. For advice, see «Arguing a case» in this chapter.

initiation innvielse/innviing turmeric-dyed gurkemeiefarget/ gurkemeiefarga sapling ungtre, avlegger/ ungtre, avleggar scholar lærd festivities festligheter, feiring/ festlegheitar, feiring gorge fråtse mere kun perennial varig, flerårig/varig, fleirårig canopy skyggeteppe, teltduk unfurling utfoldelse/utfolding petulant amper, hårsår defiance trass incident hendelse/hending

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8.49 •• In her book Stepping Out, Life and Sexuality in Rural India, author Mrinal Pande tells a story from her childhood. Write a text where you reflect on and comment on the content and theme of this short excerpt. How does the author use her personal experience to make a general point? Also, discuss and give examples of how rituals reflect culture and society in a country.

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The year was 1950. I was five. One of my male cousins, about the same age as I, was to go through the akshararambh ceremony: the Brahminical ritual of a boy’s formal initiation into learning.

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As he sat on the painted wooden stool, we, the sisters, held a turmeric-dyed yellow cloth dotted with many holy objects over his little head. We watched him enter the awesome and sacred world of letters, as the older women sang a song about how this little sapling from the family tree would one day go to Varanasi and emerge a real scholar. Once the ritual was over, the festivities began and we were all urged to gorge on sweets. After an initial moment of joy, I was suddenly overcome by a feeling of powerlessness, of the ultimate invisibility of my little person. No matter how brilliant I turned out to be, I felt I would remain a mere sister to my brothers, the perennial holder of ritual canopies over the unfurling of a boy’s male power. I had to be firmly escorted out into the courtyard by my much distressed older sister, before I could be punished for my petulant defiance. She cleaned my face, got me an extra sweet, and let me play with her favourite toy. We sisters never again spoke of the incident.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can present some challenges for women in India and other parts of the world YES

ALMOST

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reflect on how society and governments can solve social problems YES

ALMOST

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share information on economic and cultural aspects of India YES

ALMOST

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS REFERRING TO SOURCES

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When you select and collate information from sources for an assignment, make sure you cite and list the sources you have used. If you use other people’s thoughts and ideas, you should always be careful to give credit where it is due. The same applies to photos, illustrations, sound files, films, documentaries and any other original material you use.

There are several styles to choose from. Most common in formal writing are the APA and Chicago styles. Whichever method you choose, be consistent.

2 Cite your sources as you write

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There are two ways to include information from your sources in your text.

Visit https://sokogskriv.no/en for information about different reference styles.

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1 Choose a reference style

Quotes

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Sometimes you may want to copy a few sentences, a paragraph or a short passage from someone else’s text. If your sentences are identical to those in the original text, you use quotations marks to show these are not your own words. Give the author’s name and year of publication in parentheses after the quote, then say where the quote is from in your list of sources. Paraphrases

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When you are using other people’s ideas, but rewrite them into your own words and sentences, you paraphrase. For this, you do not need quotations marks. Give the author’s name and year of publication in parentheses where your paraphrase ends and say where you have found the information in your list of sources.

Example The United Nations Secretary General claims there is a trend for “people to be more nationalistic, less and less open to the need to understand that global challenges need global responses”. (Guterres, 2019)

Example In a speech, the United Nations Secretary General claims that people have become more nationalistic, and that they do not understand that global challenges need a global response. (Guterres, 2019)

3 Use reporting verbs

For variation and nuance, use different reporting verbs when you quote and paraphrase. To state

To express agreement

To express disagreement

say, think, claim, believe, argue, insist

support, acknowledge, praise, agree

deny, reject, question, disagree

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IMPROVE YOUR SKILLS 4 Make a list of references

Illustrations

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Book Anand, J. (2018) The State of the World. New Delhi: Diwali Publishing Co. Newspapers/magazines Jones, D. (2020, July 30) “A Global Success”. London: The Sunday Telegraph Articles from the web United Nations. https://www.britannica. com/topic/United-Nations [read 1 Aug. 2020] Films, documentaries, sound files, podcasts, etc India’s Forbidden Love (2019). Documentary. London: BBC World Service News

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List all the sources you have used at the end of your document or presentation. It is common to list them alphabetically by author’s surname, or by the title of the work if the author is unknown. Note that there are some minor differences in the way you list the different types of sources.

Kyung-Hoon, K. (2018). Honduran woman flees teargas with her children. Photograph. Retrieved from https://widerimage.reuters.com/photographer/ kim-kyung-hoon

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8.50 Write one paragraph about what you think is the most important global challenge we face today. Search online to find a suitable quote to include in your paragraph.

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8.51 Make an outline for a presentation about Trevor Noah whose text you can find in this chapter. Include at least one relevant quote and one paraphrase to show that you know how to refer to sources. List your sources.

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Home No one leaves home unless home is the mouth of a shark.

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You must understand, no one puts their children in a boat unless the water is safer than the land.

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No one would leave home unless home chased you, fire under feet, hot blood in your belly.

No one would choose to crawl under fences, be beaten until your shadow leaves you raped, then drowned, forced to the bottom of a boat because you are darker, be sold, starved, shot at the border like a sick animal, be pitied, lose your name, lose your family, make a refugee camp a home for a year or two or ten stripped and searched, find prison everywhere and if you survive and you are greeted on the other side go home blacks, refugees dirty immigrants, asylum seekers sucking our country dry of milk, dark, with their hands out smell strange, savage – look what they’ve done to their own countries, what will they do to ours?

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Your neighbours running faster than you, the boy you went to school with who kissed you dizzy behind the old tin factory is holding a gun bigger than his body, you only leave home when home won’t let you stay.

Who would choose days and nights in the stomach of a truck, unless the miles travelled meant something more than journey.

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You only run for the border when you see the whole city running as well.

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It’s not something you ever thought about doing, and so when you did – you carried the anthem under your breath, waiting until the airport toilet to tear up the passport and swallow – each mouthful making it clear that you would not be going back.

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AIMS k explain and reflect on why people

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No one leaves home until home is a damp voice in your ear saying leave, run now, I don’t know what I’ve become.

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Warsan Shire

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Before you start Is your home or your hometown important to you? Write down at least four things that you like about your home.

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I want to go home, but home is the mouth of a shark home is the barrel of the gun and no one would leave home unless home chased you to the shore unless home tells you to leave what you could not behind, even if it’s human.

!

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The dirty looks in the street feel softer than a limb torn off, the indignity of everyday life more tender than fourteen men who look like your father, Between your legs. Insults easier to swallow than rubble, than your child’s body in pieces – for now, forget about pride your survival is more important.

become refugees k share thoughts on dilemmas and challenges faced by refugees

border grense dizzy svimmel tin factory hermetikkfabrikk belly mage anthem nasjonalsang/ nasjonalsong stomach mage fence gjerde pity (v) synes synd på/synast synd på strip search kroppsvisitere asylum seeker asylsøker/ asylsøkar savage (adj) vill limb lem indignity krenkelse/krenking tender øm, mild insult (n) fornærmelse/ fornærming rubble grus pride stolthet/stoltheit survival overlevelse/overleving barrel her: revolverløp damp klam

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Read and understand

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8.52 • Fill in the missing words in the lines from the poem. Translate into Norwegian. a you only leave home when won’t let you . b Who would choose and nights in the of a truck c make a camp a home for a or or . d and you are on the side e unless home you to the .

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8.53 •• Complete the sentences. a This poem is about … b The people in the text are running away from … c The people travel by … d When they arrived they are welcomed … e They accept this treatment because … f The theme and message of this poem is … g My reaction to this poem is …

8.54 ••• Use information from the poem to tell the story of a refugee.

Speak

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8.55 Read the poem “Home” aloud in pairs. For advice on pronunciation, see the Language Lab section.

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8.56 Discuss what you would do if faced with the following dilemmas. a Become a child soldier or run away from your home? b See your children starve or put them on a boat to an uncertain future? c Accept being bullied and criticized or go back to a dangerous life in your home country? 8.57 Share the four things you wrote in the pre-reading activity in groups. Compare your answers to find differences and similarities, and explain your choices.

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Practise

8.58 In the text “Home” there are many examples of language devices. Look for examples of contrasts, repetitions, metaphors and symbols. Reflect on and discuss the effect such devices have on the text. Here are some examples to help you get started. home is a damp voice – like a sick animal – home tells you

Did you know?

The word “refugee” comes from French and originally referred to the 400,000 French protestants – the Huguenots – who had to flee France in 1685. Many of them left for Protestant England. During World War II, around 60,000 Norwegians fled Norway. Today there are around 70 million refugees in 376world | Chapter 8: Perspectives | SKILLS the (2020). Some run from religious or political persecution, others from war, terror or hunger.


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8.59 “Child Soldier” As a young boy, Ishmael Beah experienced the terrors of civil war in his home country, Sierra Leone. Listen to this excerpt from Ishmael’s memoirs A Long Way Gone, where he describes his first mission as a 13-year-old child soldier. a How does Ishmael feel when he goes on his first mission? b In your own words, explain what happens to Ishmael in the forest. c How does Ishmael react when the fire exchange starts? d What happened to Ishmael after he was released from the army? e Where does he live today and what does he do?

Explore

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8.60 Find information about the writer of “Home”, Warsan Shire. Where is she from, where does she live, and what does she do for a living? Cross-check your information with at least one more source. 8.61 On YouTube there is an animated version of the poem where Shire reads it herself. Watch and listen to the text. How do you like this version? Is it different from the version in the book? Explain.

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8.62 In the margin are the last lines from the poem “What You Need to Be Warm” by Neil Gaiman. a Compare and share your thoughts on this manner of receiving refugees to how it is described in “Home”. b Gaiman asked his Twitter followers to tell him what reminded them of warmth. He used the almost 1,000 answers to write “What You Need to Be Warm”. If you want to read the whole poem, you will find it online.

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8.63 Search for maps and statistics that show where refugees come from and to which countries they go. Based on the poem and your search results, why do people become refugees?

Write

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8.64 Choose one of the words below and create a text for a teen magazine where you reflect on the meaning of the word and how it relates to the current refugee situation. Use both logos and pathos, and select and collate information from at least two sources. welcome – diversity – resource – friend – fear Use at least two sources to select and collate information. Include both logos and pathos. For advice, see “Arguing a case” and “Referring to sources” in this chapter.

Sometimes it only takes a stranger, in a dark place, to hold out a badly knitted scarf, to offer a kind word, to say we have the right to be here, to make us warm in the coldest season. You have the right to be here.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can explain and reflect on why people become refugees YES

ALMOST

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share thoughts on dilemmas and challenges faced by refugees YES

ALMOST

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FACT FILE FACT FILE

EnglishSpeaking Africa

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rin George Abungu, Kenyan archeologist

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1700

European arrival

• Driven by scientific and economic interests • Explored the continent, its people, wildlife and natural resources • Established trading posts for gold, diamonds, slaves

1750

Slave trade

• An estimated total of 15 million people taken as slaves • The majority transported to the Americas • The slave trade ended in the 19th century

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Pre-colonial Africa

• Many different kingdoms and empires • Trade amongst themselves and with Arab countries • Also warfare and tribal conflicts

So far the evidence that we have in the world points to Africa as the Cradle of Humankind.

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1800

Colonization

• Rivalry among European countries, the scramble for Africa • Africa divided into colonies by the Europeans in the 1880s • Borders drawn with no regard to ethnic groups and languages • Main purpose to gain natural resources and power

Culture and Wildlife in Africa Today, Africa is famous for so much more than a troubled past. An increasing number of African musicians, writers, athletes and football players have reached international fame and glory. Also living conditions have improved together with economic growth and profit from natural resources. In many African countries tourists can enjoy adventurous safari trips, excellent food, wine and beautiful beaches.


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FACT FILE FACT FILE Mn

Cu

Cu

Gas

Mn

Diamonds Uranium Cu Mn

Cu

Copper

Mn

Cu

Manganese Iron

Mn

Gold

1950

1970

Period of adjustment • Hard to gain economic independence • Civil wars, religious and ethnic conflicts, corruption, drought and hunger

2000

Present-day challenges

• Diseases: Aids and hiv (25 million people), malaria, Ebola, insufficient healthcare • Climate: drought resulting in hunger and poverty in some areas • The literacy rate: 65 %, 200 million people cannot read or write

Improvements

• Better conditions for women and children • Information about diseases, birth control campaigns • Vaccination programs, cheaper medicine trade handel • Fund raising and empire keiserdømme / international aid keisardømme • Focus on fair trade and triba stammebetter use of resources

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Decolonization

• After WWII most Africans wanted freedom • Some countries: negotiations through political parties and trade unions • Other countries: uprising or armed conflicts • Most of Africa independent by the early 1960s • Southern African colonies not independent until the 1970s or later

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Cu Mn

In most African countries there are several ethnic groups, and most of them have their own mother tongue. Although English is the official language in many of these countries, and therefore the language of politics, the media, education, trade etc, it is not the mother tongue of most people. For example, in South Africa there are eleven official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. Very often children learn English when they start school.

English French Portuguese Spanish Swahili Arabic African languages

rivalry rivalisering scramble kappløp border grense purpose hensikt negotiation forhandling trade union fagforening / fagforeining uprising oppstand armed væpnet / væpna civil war borgerkrig / borgarkrig drought tørke insufficient utilstrekkelig / utilstrekkeleg poverty fattigdom literacy lese- og skriveferdighet profit fortjeneste / forteneste

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Read and understand

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8.65 Answer the questions. a What was Africa like before the Europeans arrived? b What was “the scramble for Africa”? c Where were most slaves sent? d How did the colonies gain independence? e What can you enjoy as a tourist in many African countries? f Roughly, how many people cannot read or write on the African continent? g What are the challenges in many African countries today? h In which fields have many Africans recently gained international fame?

8.66 Fill in the missing words in the text.

discovered – death – disease – organizations – sample – spreading – country – prevent – condoms – treatment

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HIV and AIDS

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The first documented occurrence of HIV is from a blood taken in the Congo in 1959. At that time, however, nobody knew that this was a new . In spite of several cases in the 1970s it wasn’t until the 80s that the epidemic was taken seriously. This was when it started to other continents. Gradually, scientists the source of the illness and found out how it spread. They also found a cure to HIV from turning into AIDS, and medicine to improve the condition of AIDS patients. Sadly, the drugs were expensive and at first only people in the Western world had access to them. In 2001 there were 20 million people living with AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, and only 8000 received drug . Many governments and international started different projects to improve the situation. In 2002 Botswana was the first to launch a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) project. By 2007, 95 % of HIV positive people in the country were being treated. In other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, however, HIV/AIDS is still the most common cause of and around 50 % of the patients are not on treatment. Today we see behavioural changes in most parts of Africa. Increased use of and fewer casual sex partners are the most important measures to avoid further spread.

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FACT FILE FACT FILE Speak

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8.67 Discuss the following questions. a After reading the fact file about Africa, what would you like to see or experience on this continent? b What did you know already and what was new information? c Did anything surprise you? Explain.

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wanted colonies in Africa k describe some present-day challenges in Africa k mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

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If we can get cold Coca-Cola and beer to every remote corner of Africa, it should not be impossible to do the same with medicine.

k explain why European countries

Joep Lange, former president of the international AIDS Society

Nelson Mandela

How did you do?

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8.68 What was the Atlantic triangular slave trade? Find facts and explanations from at least two sources. Summarize and synthesize the information. List your sources.

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8.69 Use at least two reliable sources to find information on life expectancy in African countries. Are there differences? Which country has the highest life expectancy, and which has the lowest? Summarize and synthesize the information. List your sources.

After working with the text and tasks, I can explain why European countries wanted colonies in Africa YES

NO

describe some present-day challenges in Africa YES

8.70 Search for information about the illegal ivory trade. How many elephants are killed each year? What do the authorities do to stop this activity? What can the international community do to help? Use reliable and relevant sources. Share and discuss in class.

ALMOST

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mention some natural and cultural resources in African countries YES

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Chameleon !

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Before you start What do you know about South Africa? In pairs, write keywords and then share in class.

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Part One One afternoon I was playing with my cousins. I was a doctor and they were my patients. I was operating on my cousin Bulelwa’s ear with a set of matches when I accidentally perforated her eardrum. All hell broke loose. My grandmother came running in from the kitchen. “Kwenzeka ntoni?!” “What’s happening?!” There was blood coming out of my cousin’s head. We were all crying. My grandmother patched up Bulelwa’s ear and made sure to stop the bleeding. But we kept crying. Because clearly we’d done something we were not supposed to do, and we knew we were going to be punished. My grandmother finished up with Bulelwa’s ear and whipped out a belt and she beat the shit out of Bulelwa. Then she beat the shit out of Mlungisi, too. She didn’t touch me. Later that night my mother came home from work. She found my cousin with a bandage over her ear and my gran crying at the kitchen table. “What’s going on?” My mom said. “Oh, Nombuyiselo,” she said. “Trevor is so naughty. He’s the naughtiest child I’ve ever come across in my life.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can’t hit him.” “Why not?” “Because I don’t know how to hit a white child,” she said. “A black child, I understand. A black child, you hit them and they stay black. Trevor, when you hit him he turns blue and green and yellow and red. I’ve never seen those

Ku

perforate perforere, trenge gjennom eardrum trommehinne patch up bandasjere, plastre whip out snappe frem, piske/ snappe fram, piske mastah (master) herre challenge (v) utfordre perception oppfatning flawed mangelfull, feil perk her: ekstra fordel

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colors before. I’m scared I’m going to break him. I don’t want to kill a white person. I’m so afraid. I’m not going AIMS to touch him.” And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My k summarize the story grandfather did, too, only he was even more extreme. He k understand and use idioms and called me “Mastah.” In the car, he insisted on driving me expressions from the text as if he were my chauffeur. “Mastah must always sit in k discuss themes and ideas in the text the backseat.” I never challenged him on it. What was I k share information about South going to say? “I believe your perception of race is flawed, Africa Grandfather.” No. I was five. I sat in the back. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. I was having a great time. My own family basically did what the American justice system does: I was given more lenient treatment than the black kids. Misbehavior that my cousins would have been punished for, I was given a warning and let off. And I was way naughtier than either of my cousins. I was trouble. My mom was the only force I truly feared. She believed if you spare the rod, you spoil the child. But everyone else said, “No, he’s different,” and they gave me a pass. Growing up the way I did, I learned how easy it is for white people to get comfortable with a system that awards them all the perks. I lenient mild misbehavior dårlig oppførsel/ knew my cousins were getting beaten for things that I’d done, but I wasn’t dårleg oppførsel interested in changing my grandmother’s perspective, because that would rod pisk mean I’d get beaten, too. Why would I do that? […] I had a choice. I could champion (v) forsvare, kjempe champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies. I for went with the cookies.

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At that point I didn’t think of the special treatment as having to do with color. I thought of it as having to do with Trevor. It wasn’t, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is white.” It was, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is Trevor.” Trevor can’t go outside. Trevor can’t walk without supervision. It’s because I’m me; that’s why this is happening. I had no other points of reference. There were no other mixed kids around so that I could say, “Oh, this happens to us.” Nearly one million people lived in Soweto. Ninety-nine point nine percent of them were black – and then there was me. I was famous in my neighborhood just because of the color of my skin. I was so unique people would give directions using me as a landmark. “The house on Makhalima Street. At the corner you’ll see a light-skinned boy. Take a right there.” Whenever the kids in the street saw me they’d yell, “Indoda yomlungu!” “The white man!” Some of them would run away. Others would call out to their parents to come look. Others would run up and try to touch me to see if I was real. What I didn’t understand at the time was that the other kids genuinely had no clue what a white person was. Black kids in the township didn’t leave the township. Few people had televisions. They’d seen the white police roll through, but they’d never dealt with a white person face-to-face, ever.

justice rettferdighet/rettferd supervision overvåking/ overvaking mixed her: blandingsrase genuinely oppriktig bereaved sørgende/sørgande bridge (v) bygge bro over/bygge bru over gap (n) kløft melting pot smeltedigel homeland sted man kommer fra/plass ein kjem frå township gettolignende bydel/ gettolignande bydel give a leg up gi en fordel/gi ein fordel in the dock på tiltalebenken be well versed kjenne godt til oppressor undertrykker boundary grense merely bare, kun/berre, kun mug (v) rane chameleon kameleon

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I’d go to funerals and I’d walk in and the bereaved would look up and see me and they’d stop crying. They’d start whispering. Then they’d wave and say, “Oh!” like they were more shocked by me walking in than by the death of their loved ones. I think people felt like the dead person was more important because a white person had come to the funeral.

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As a kid I understood that people were different colors, but in my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate. Dad was the white chocolate, mom was the dark chocolate, and I was the milk chocolate. But we were all just chocolate. I didn’t know any of it had anything to do with “race.” I didn’t know what race was. My mother never referred to my dad as white or to me as mixed. So when the other kids in Soweto called me “white”, even though I was light brown, I just thought they had their colors mixed up.

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I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language. Soweto was a melting pot: families from different tribes and homelands. Most kids in the township spoke only their home language, but I learned several languages because I grew up in a house where there was no option but to learn them. My mom made sure English was the first language I spoke. If you’re black in South Africa, speaking English is the one thing that can give you a leg up. English is the language of money. If you’re looking for a job, English is the difference between getting the job or staying unemployed. If you’re standing in the dock, English is the difference between getting off with a fine or going to prison. After English, Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. When my mother was angry she’d fall back on her home language. As a naughty child, I was well versed in Xhosa threats. Outside of that, my mother picked up different languages here and there. She learned Zulu because it’s similar to Xhosa. She spoke German because of my father. She spoke Afrikaans because it is useful to know the language of your oppressor. Sotho she learned in the streets. Living with my mom, I saw how she used language to cross boundaries, handle situations, navigate the world. We were in a shop once, and the shopkeeper, right in front of us, turned to his security guard and said, in Afrikaans, “Volg daai swartes, netnou steel hulle iets.” “Follow those blacks in case they steal something.” My mother turned around and said, in beautiful, fluent Afrikaans, “Hoekom volg jy nie daai swartes sodat jy hulle kan help kry waarna hulle soek nie?” “Why don’t you follow these blacks so you can help them find what they’re looking for?” “Ag, jammer!” he said, apologizing in Afrikaans. Then – and this was the funny thing – he didn’t apologize for being racist; he merely apologized for aiming his racism at us. “Oh, I’m so sorry,” he said. “I thought you were like the other blacks. You know how they love to steal.” I learned to use language like my mother did.

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It became a tool that served me my whole life. One day as a young man I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys was walking behind me, closing in on me, and I could hear them talking to one another [in Zulu] about how they were going to mug me. “Let’s get this white guy. You go to his left, and I’ll come up behind him.” I didn’t know what to do. I couldn’t run, so I just spun around real quick and said, [in their language] “Yo, guys, why don’t we just mug someone together? I’m ready. Let’s do it.” They looked shocked for a moment, and then they started laughing. “Oh, sorry, dude. We thought you were something else. We weren’t trying to take anything from you. We were trying to steal from white people. Have a good day, man.” They were ready to do me violent harm, until they felt we were part of the same tribe, and then we were cool. That made me realize that language, even more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn’t change, but I could change your perception of my color. If you spoke to me in Zulu, I replied to you in Zulu. If you spoke to me in Tswana, I replied to you in Tswana. Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

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Part Two As apartheid was coming to an end, South Africa’s elite private schools started accepting children of all colors. My mother’s company offered bursaries, scholarships, for underprivileged families, and she managed to get me into Maryvale College, an expensive private Catholic school. Classes taught by nuns. Mass on Fridays. The whole bit. I started preschool there when I was three, primary school when I was five. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black kids, white kids, Indian kids, colored kids. Most of the white kids were pretty well off. Every child of color pretty much wasn’t. But because of scholarships we all sat at the same table. We wore the same maroon blazers, the same gray slacks and skirts. We had the same books. We had the same teachers. There was no racial separation. Kids still got teased and bullied, but it was over usual kid stuff: being fat or being skinny, being tall or being short, being smart or being dumb. I don’t remember anybody being teased about their race. I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like. I had crushes on white girls. I had crushes on black girls. Nobody asked me what I was. I was Trevor. It was a wonderful experience to have, but the downside was that it sheltered me from reality. But the real world doesn’t go away. Racism exists. People are getting hurt, and just because it’s not happening to you doesn’t mean it’s not happening. And at some point, you have to choose. Black or white. At the end of grade six I left Maryvale to go to H. A. Jack Primary, a government school. I had to take an aptitude test before I started, and, based on the results of the test, the school counselor told me, “You’re going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” I showed up for the first day of school and went to my classroom. Of the thirty or so kids in my class, almost all of them were white. There was one Indian kid, maybe one or two black kids, and me.

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Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. It was an ocean of black, like someone had opened a tap and all the black had come pouring out. I was like, Where were they all hiding? The white kids I’d met that morning, they went in one direction, the black kids went in another direction, and I was left standing in the middle, totally confused. I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time. In the townships you don’t see segregation, because everyone is black. Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together, occupying the same space yet choosing not to associate with each other in any way. In an instant I could see, I could feel, how the boundaries were drawn. Groups moved in color patterns across the yard, up the stairs, down the hall. It was insane. I stood there awkwardly by myself in this no-man’s-land in the middle of the playground. Luckily, I was rescued by the Indian kid from my class, a guy named Theesan. He ran over to introduce himself. “Hello, fellow anomaly! You’re in my class. Who are you? What’s your story?” We started talking and hit it off. Through our conversation it came up that I spoke several African languages, and Theesan thought a colored kid speaking black languages was the most amazing trick. He brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them, “and he’ll show you he understands you.” One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied to him in Zulu. Everyone cheered. Another kid said something in Xhosa, and I replied to him in Xhosa. Everyone cheered. For the rest of recess Theesan took me around to different black kids on the playground. “Show them your trick. Do your language thing.” The black kids were fascinated. In South Africa back then, it wasn’t common to find a white person or a colored person who spoke African languages. “How come you speak our languages?” they asked. “Because I’m black,” I said, “like you.” “You’re not black.” “Yes, I am.” “No, you’re not. Have you not seen yourself?” They were confused at first. Because of my color, they thought I was a colored person, but speaking the same languages meant that I belonged to their tribe. It just took them a moment to figure it out. It took me a moment, too. At some point I turned to one of them and said, “Hey, how come I don’t see you guys in any of my classes?” It turned out they were in the B classes, which also happened to be the black classes. That same afternoon, I went back to the A classes, and by the end of the day I realized that they weren’t for me. Suddenly, I knew who my people were, and I wanted to be with them. I went to see the school counselor. “I’d like to switch over,” I told her. “I’d like to go to the B classes.”

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She was confused. “Oh, no” she said. “I don’t think you want to do that.” “Why not?” “Because those kids are … you know.” “No, I don’t know. What do you mean?” “Look,” she said, “you’re a smart kid. You don’t want to be in that class.” “But aren’t the classes the same? English is English. Math is math.” “Yeah, but that class is … those kids are gonna hold you back. You want to be in the smart class.” “But surely there must be some smart kids in the B class.” “No, there aren’t.” “But all my friends are there.” “You don’t want to be friends with those kids.” “Yes, I do.” We went back and forth. Finally she gave me a stern warning. “You do realize the effect this will have on your future? You do understand what you’re giving up? This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” “I’ll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I decided I’d rather be held bursary stipend back with people I liked than move ahead with people I didn’t know. scholarship stipend Being at H. A. Jack made me realize I was black. Before that recess I’d underprivileged upriviligert never had to choose, but when I was forced to choose, I chose black. The nun nonne mass her: messe world saw me as colored, but I didn’t spend my life looking at myself. I spent well off velstående/velståande my life looking at other people. I saw myself as the people around me, and maroon rødbrun/raudbrun the people around me were black. My cousins are black, my mom is black, blazer dressjakke my gran is black. I grew up black. Because I had a white father, because I’d slacks bukse been in white Sunday school, I got along with the white kids, but I didn’t separation adskillelse/åtskiljing, belong with the white kids. I wasn’t a part of their tribe. But the black kids separasjon embraced me. “Come along,” they said. “You’re rolling with us.” With the tease (v) erte black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was. From Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood by Trevor Noah

Trevor Noah

Trevor Noah (1984–) is a South African comedian and actor, and the host of the American television program The Daily Show. With a black mother and a white father, he was born a crime, since it was illegal for people of different colours to be together during the apartheid regime in South Africa. In his autobiography he writes about his childhood.

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bully (v) mobbe crush (n) forelskelse/forelsking downside ulempe shelter beskytte pick a side velge side/velje side aptitude test ferdighetstest counselor rådgiver/rådgivar recess friminutt tap (n) kran pour her: renne segregation raseskille/raseskilje pattern mønster anomaly en som skiller seg ut/ ein som skil seg ut switch over bytte til/byte til back and forth frem og tilbake/ frem og tilbake/fram og tilbake stern streng impact (v) påvirke/påverke

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IN SHORT

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Part two After Apartheid, South Africa’s elite schools accepted children of all colors. I got a scholarship, so I went to a private school. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black, white, Indian, colored. But we had the same school uniforms, the same books, the same teachers. There was no racial separation. At the end of grade six, I got to a government school. I took an aptitude test and the school counselor told me, “You're going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” Of the thirty kids in my class, all were white, except one Indian kid, two black kids, and me. Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. The white kids in my class went one way, the black kids another. I was left in the middle, confused. I was eleven, and saw the segregation in my country for the first time. I was rescued by the Indian kid. When I told him that I spoke several African languages, he brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them. One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied in Zulu. Another said something in Xhosa, and I replied in Xhosa. Everyone cheered, fascinated. “How come you speak our languages?” “Because I'm black,” I said, “like you.” “You're not black.” They were confused, because of my color, but since I spoke their languages I belonged to their tribe. They were in the B classes. I wanted to be with them so I went to the school counselor. “I'd like to go to the B classes,” I told her. “Oh, no,” she said. “You don’t want to do that. Those kids will hold you back.” “I'll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I'd never had to choose before, but when I had to, I chose black. The world saw me as colored, but I saw myself as the people around me, and they were black.

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Part one One afternoon I was playing doctor with my cousin. I accidentally perforated her eardrum. My grandmother came running; my cousin was bleeding. My grandmother patched up the ear and then she beat my cousin. She didn't touch me. When my mother came home from work, my gran said. “Trevor is so naughty.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can't hit a white child,” she said. And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My grandfather did, too. He called me “Mastah” and insisted that I sit in the backseat of the car. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. I didn't think the special treatment was because of my color. I thought it was because I was me. Where I grew up, in Soweto, everybody was black. I understood that people were different colors, but I didn't know it had anything to do with “race.” My mom made me learn lanugages. English for job opportunitues. Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. She also spoke Zulu, German because of my father and Afrikaans, the language of the oppressor. She used language to cross boundaries, handle situations. I learned to use language like my mother did. One day I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys behind me were discussing how to mug me. I spun around and said. "Yo, guys, why don't we just mug someone together?" They looked shocked, and then they started laughing. “Sorry. We thought you were something else. We only steal from white people.” I realized that language, more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn't change, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

From Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood

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8.71 •/•• Read the In Short or the full version of the text and answer the questions.

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Part One a How did Trevor’s grandparents treat him when he was a child? b What did Trevor think about the treatment he got as a child? c How did he learn so many languages, and in which way did he use them to establish relationships with people he met?

accidentally ved et uhell/ ved eit uhell perforate perforere, lage hull eardrum trommehinne patch up bandasjere, plastre mastah (master) herre perks fordeler/fordelar special treatment spesialbehandling opportunity mulighet/ moglegheit oppressor undertrykker boundary grense mug (v) rane realize forstå chameleon kameleon scholarship stipend racial separation raseskille/ raseskilje aptitude evne, ferdighet/ evne, ferdigheit counselor rådgiver recess her: friminutt playground lekeplass/leikeplass confused forvirret/forvirra segregation raseskille/ raseskilje rescue (v) redde several flere/fleire reply (v) svare cheer (v) heie tribe stamme

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Part Two d When and how did Trevor first realize that there was racial segregation in his country? e What did he decide to do when he met the kids in the B class? Why? f What did the school counsellor advise him to do, and how did she explain her views? g How did Trevor feel when he had picked a side? Why? h Why is the text called “Chameleon”? i Use your answers to the questions above to summarize the story.

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8.72 ••• Use your own words to explain what these quotes from the text tell you about Trevor Noah’s childhood. a “There were so many perks to being ‘white’ in a black family.” b “I could champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies.” c “In my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate.” d “I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language.” e “Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if l spoke like you, I was you.” f “I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like.” g “I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time.” h “Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together.” i “This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” j “With the black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was.”

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8.73 An important part of learning a language is understanding idioms and expressions. Combine the expressions from the text with the correct explanation.

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8.74 In the text there are several examples of dialogues. Choose one and read it out loud with a partner. Act out the scenes.

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8.75 Discuss the questions in groups. a What is your opinion of the text? b If you were in Trevor Noah’s position, would you choose the A or the B class? Give reasons for your choice and explain what you think is most important when choosing a school. c What is your opinion of the way Trevor’s grandparents treated him? Can you understand their behaviour? Did Trevor understand it? Explain. d Trevor’s mother learned Afrikaans because “it is useful to know the language of your oppressor”. What does that mean, and why was it important in South Africa at the time? e How does speaking languages open up doors for Trevor? Is this true for all people? Share your thoughts and give examples. f Trevor says that “language, even more than color, defines who you are to people”. From your own experience, is this true? What defines our identity? Explain. g Based on what the school counsellor tells Trevor, what does education mean in terms of having good opportunities in life? Do all children who go to school have the same opportunities? h What do you think are the most important themes in this text? Here are some suggestions. Discuss them and give reasons for your choice. childhood – identity – racism – friendship – family – poverty – apartheid – education – language – multi-culturalism – prejudice – tolerance

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8.76 Search for videos from Trevor Noah’s The Daily Show or some of his stand-up performances. a Do you think he is a talended comedian? Give reasons to support your views. b In one episode of The Daily Show Trevor brings a TV team to go see his grandmother in Soweto, South Africa. Watch it and discuss to what extent it supports information from the text.

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8.77 For many years South Africa was ruled by a set of laws called apartheid. Use reliable and relevant sources to find out how it worked, what made it possible for the small, white minority to keep their privileges and how the international community contributed to ending this. What does this teach us about democracy? Choose a way to share your findings in class.

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8.78 “Mandela” There are many films about Nelson Mandela (1918–2013), the first black president of South Africa. Listen to Peter who talks about two such films. Which one of them do you think sounds the most interesting? Explain by referring to what Peter says. After listening to Peter, what is your impression of Mandela and his leadership qualities?

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8.79 • Write at least one paragraph where you discuss how quality education can help children in poor areas get better opportunities in life. Use information from “Chameleon” and “Sustainable Development” in this chapter to support your views. Make a list of keywords before you write. Check Chapter 3 for information about structuring paragraphs.

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8.80 •• Write a text where you explain what you think is the message in Trevor Noah’s text “Chameleon”. Make an outline with keywords before you write the text. Check “Discussing literature and film” in Chapter 7 for advice.

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8.81 ••• Write a text where you compare the themes in the texts “Chameleon”, “The Hate U Give” and “Black Hoodie” from Chapter 4. Exchange drafts with a partner and give each other constructive feedback before you finish your text. For advice, check the following: • “Structuring a text” in Chapter 4 • “Discussing literature and film” in Chapter 7 • “Summarizing and synthesizing information” in chapter 7 • “Referring to sources” in this chapter

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can summarize the story YES

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share information about South Africa YES

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Look at Africa From her table at a local café, Mma Ramotswe, founder of the No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, observes people and thinks about how her country, Botswana, and its people have changed.

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That morning she had witnessed a woman scrape the side of a neighbouring car while she tried to park. The woman had stopped, quickly inspected the damage, and had then driven off. Mma Ramotswe had watched this incredulously, and half-risen to her feet to protest, but was too late: the woman’s car had by then turned the corner and disappeared and she did not even have time to see its number-plate.

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Before you start Study the following words. What do they mean? • prosperity • corruption • ignorance • progress

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She had sat down again and poured herself another AIMS cup of tea. It was not true that such a thing could not have happened in the old Botswana – it could – but it was undoubtedly true that this was much more likely to k describe how some African countries have changed over the last decades happen today. There were many selfish people around these days, people who seemed not to care if they k reflect on what prosperity means to people’s lives scraped the cars of others or bumped into people while walking on the street. Mma Ramotswe knew that this is k discuss what it means to be a decent person what happened when towns became bigger and people became strangers to one another; she knew, too, that this was a consequence of increasing prosperity, which, curiously enough, just seemed to bring out greed and selfishness. But even if she knew why all this happened, it did not make it any easier to bear. The rest of the world might become as rude as it wished, but this was not the way of things in Botswana and she would always defend the old Botswana way of doing things.

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But there was no point in throwing up one’s hands in despair. People had always done that – the throwing up of hands, the shrug – but one got nowhere in doing so. The world might have changed for the worse in some respects, but in others it was a much better place, and it was important to remember this. Lights went off in some places, but went on in others. Look at Africa – there had been so much to shake one’s head over – corruption, civil wars, and the rest – but there was also so much which was now much better. There had been slavery in the past, and all the suffering which that had brought, and there had been all the cruelties of apartheid just those few miles away over the border, but all that was now over. There had been ignorance, but now more and more people were learning to write, and were graduating from universities. Women had been held in such servitude, and now they could vote and express themselves and claim lives for themselves, even if there were still many men who did not want such things to be. There were good things that happened and one had to remember them.

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Alexander Mccall Smith

Alexander McCall Smith (1948–) was born in former Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, where he lived until he left to study law in Scotland. Later he taught in Belfast, then at the University of Botswana before returning to Edinburgh to specialize in medical law. He is famous for his numerous novels, for example the series about The No.1 Ladies’ Detective Agency, which is set in Botswana.

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8.82 • Make a list of the things that Mma Ramotswe does not like about present day Botswana. Make a second list of things that she thinks have improved in Africa.

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8.83 •• Answer the questions. a Why is Mma Ramotswe shocked by the woman in the car? b What does she say happens to people when towns become bigger? c How does prosperity change people, according to Mma Ramotswe? d How has the situation for women changed?

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8.84 Later that day Mma Ramotswe meets a friend. She tells about the episode with the car and shares her opinion on prosperity and greed. Her friend wants to know more and disagrees on some points. Act out the scene.

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8.85 Read the list of advice in “How to Be a Decent Person” and discuss the questions. Use the guidelines for debates and discussions in “Arguing a case” in this chapter to get your point across in a clear but friendly way. a One “not-so-decent” point got into the list. Can you find it? b What is your opinion of the list? Which advice is the most important? Is there something missing? c Do you think Mma Ramotswe would agree with this list? Explain. d Is it true that prosperity leads to “greed and selfishness”? Give examples. e What would be the decent thing to do for the driver of the car in the text? What would you do?

How to Be a Decent Person Be open minded. Learn how to forgive. Be honest and kind. Provide support when necessary. Make sure you get the last word. Do not attack others for their beliefs. Don’t exploit the generosity of others. Be grateful and appreciate kindness.

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Practise

8.86 Combine the words with their antonyms, words with an opposite meaning.

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1 far away 2 poverty 3 generosity 4 kindness 5 superiority 6 reduce 7 doubtfully 8 hope

a despair b undoubtedly c increase d servitude e neighbouring f prosperity g selfishness h cruelty

Explore

Write

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8.87 The film “Queen of Katwe” is based on a true story. It depicts the life of Phiona Mutesi, a Ugandan girl growing up in a slum in Katwe. She discovers that she has a talent that changes her life. a Watch the trailer of the film and use other sources for information about Phiona Mutesi and what she does today. Share in class. b Many other Africans have achieved international success in the world of sports and art. How many do you know already? Look for more examples.

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8.88 • Imagine Mma Ramotswe wanted to let the owner of the car know what she had witnessed. Write a note to attach to the car’s front window, with the message you think Mme Ramotswe would share.

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8.89 •• Search for information about places and activities that tourists would want to see and do in Botswana. Write two paragraphs in which you recommend a visit. Use pathos to engage the readers.

How did you do? After working with the text and tasks, I can describe how some African countries have changed over the last decades YES

ALMOST

NO

reflect on what prosperity means to people’s lives YES

ALMOST

NO

discuss what it means to be a decent person YES

ALMOST

NO

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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT Assess your progress

Revise

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8.91 How would you describe your progress in English this year? a How has your vocabulary changed? b What can you do better now than in August? c To what extent are you pleased with your own efforts throughout the year? d How has working with texts and tasks this year helped you prepare for the exam and your future career? Give examples.

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8.90 After working with Chapter 8, it is time to recap and revise what you have learnt. a Choose a text or an illustration from this chapter that you like and explain why. b How many sustainable development goals are there? Which ones do you remember? c How can we handle the problem of plastic in the oceans? Give at least three examples. d What is the situation for many women in India? What is being done to change this? e Mention some challenges African countries face today or have had in the past. To what extent has the situation improved?

8.92 Arguing a case a Explain the words ethos, logos and pathos. b How should you argue in a discussion where you disagree with your opponent? c List the rules for good behaviour in a debate.

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8.93 Referring to sources a What is the difference between quotes and paraphrases? b How do we refer to and list sources? c Why is referring to sources so important? d Which expressions are useful when referring to sources?


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CHAPTER CHECKPOINT

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Apply your skills 8.94 Speak a • If you were to use this textbook as a source when answering an exam task, how would you refer to it?

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b •• Why is it important to learn about social issues and global challenges in English class? Discuss and give examples in pairs or groups, using advice from “Arguing a case” in this chapter.

8.95 Write a • You are concerned about the pollution and trash in the sea. Write a letter to a state leader in a country of your choice, where you describe the situation and argue for making changes. Use facts from this chapter, formal language and advice from “Arguing a case”.

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c ••• Based on your knowledge of texts and tasks in this chapter, how have events, decisions and habits of the past created challenges for people in different parts of the world today? In your opinion, is it important to know the historical context of an issue to better understand it and find solutions? Discuss in groups.

b •• You have been asked to give a speech on equal rights. Write the manuscript. Use formal language, information from this chapter and other reliable sources. c ••• Create a text where you discuss why children are used as soldiers in armed conflicts. Make sure you use reliable sources, and that you refer to them correctly. Your text should include • an introduction • examples of armed conflicts where children are used as soldiers • possible reasons for the use • how it affects their lives • a conclusion

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LANGUAGE LAB LANGUA adjective

adverb

indefinite article

noun

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definite article

verb

preposition

adjective

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n

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noun

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The happy students pose patiently on a red bench.

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AGE LAB LANGUAGE LAB

rin

Words are the building blocks of language learning. You need a certain knowledge of grammar to be able to use the words to communicate clearly.

g

Why Grammar? Words belong to different word classes.

An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or non-specific (indefinite).

Nouns:

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person.

Verbs:

Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state.

Adjectives:

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

Adverbs:

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens.

vu

rd e

Articles:

Prepositions: Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. Pronouns:

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name.

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Determiners: Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to.

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An important part of grammar is syntax, the set of rules that decide word order and how to structure sentences. Such rules are quite similar in English and Norwegian, but there are important exceptions you should know about.

Ku

Grammar also includes morphology, the knowledge of words and how they are formed. Often, we can add prefixes or suffixes to make new words with a different meaning and of another word class.

In oral communication pronunciation is central to understanding other people. On the following pages you will learn the most important rules and how to avoid common errors.

grammar grammatikk word class  ordklasse noun substantiv pronoun pronomen determiner bestemmingsord indefinite ubestemt definite bestemt syntax syntaks, ordstilling prefix forstavelse/forstaving suffix endelse/ending

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Articles An article is a word that makes a noun either specific (definite) or ­nonspecific (indefinite). Examples You use a before words that start a new school with a consonant sound.

Indefinite

You use an before words that start with a vowel sound.

an interesting game

Definite

You use the about a particular place, thing or person.

She missed the bus.

rin

d mean girl e incredibly mean girl f red umbrella

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1 Use a or an. a house b empty house c yellow bicycle

g

Indefinite

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2 Translate these sentences into English. a Vinduet er åpent. b Jeg kan se en grønn ball. c Jeg bor i et gammelt hus. d Det gamle huset er rødt. e Jeg kom en time senere.

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Nouns

A noun is a thing, an idea, a place or a person.

Ku

n

This is a book.

sound lyd vowel vokal noun substantiv capital hovedstad/hovudstad author forfatter/forfattar improve forbedre/forbetre

Safety is important. Pretoria is the capital of South Africa. Angie Thomas is an American author.

3 Find the nouns in these sentences. a How do you feel about your new school? b Computer games can improve your language skills. c Many people are inspired by music. d The students will learn many new things this year. e Carol wonders what her new classmates are like. f My mother comes from Perth in Australia.

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Proper nouns A proper noun is the name for a particular person, place or thing. It is written with a capital letter. Sarah has started school. Kavi used to live in Sri Lanka, but now he lives in Norway.

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From singular to plural

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4 Put capital letters where you think they should be. a This year you will learn english relevant to your programme area. b The script is a band that comes from ireland. c john green has written several novels. d School starts in august. e I took the train to paris.

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proper noun egennavn/ eigennamn capital letter stor bokstav programme area programområde

one textbook – two textbooks a vase – several vases

Nouns ending in -y When a noun ends in a vowel + -y, you add -s to form the plural form. When a word ends in a consonant + -y, you change the -y to -i and add -es

one key – two keys

Nouns ending in -x, -ch or -s When a noun ends in -x, -ch or -s, you add -es to form the plural.

the box – the boxes the match – the matches the kiss – the kisses

Nouns ending in -f or -fe When a noun ends in -f or -fe, the plural usually ends in -ves.

a leaf – many leaves a wife – two wives a calf – two calves

Irregular plurals Some nouns have an irregular plural form.

one woman – three women one foot – two feet

Nouns from Latin and Greek Some words from Latin and Greek have irregular plural endings.

a phenomenon – two phenomena a parenthesis – two parentheses

n

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Most nouns To make a noun plural, add -s to the singular form.

one baby – two babies

money luggage transport a jug of water a piece of advice

Only plural Some nouns are used only in the plural form.

binoculars tights

Collective nouns Collective nouns are used to describe a group of people, animals or things.

a herd of cows the school staff a set of tools

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Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns are nouns that cannot be counted. You do not use a or an in front of these, and they do not have a plural form. You often use a quantifier with an uncountable noun.

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6 Write the plural forms of these nouns. a one family – two b one way – two c one day – two d one story – two

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5 Find the missing words. a one cat – three b one – five lamps c one bird – a flock of d one – a swarm of bees

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7 Fill in the plural forms. a We have won all our this year. (match) b I don’t know what is in those . (box) c There are many at our school. (class) d The are hiding in the . (fox) (bush)

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8 Write the plural forms of these nouns. a one thief – many b one knife – many c one half – two d one wolf – a pack of

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9 Find the missing words. a one mouse – three b one – five children c one tooth – a full set of d one – four men e one goose – a flock of

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singular entall/eintal plural flertall/fleirtal several flere/fleire swarm sverm pack flokk uncountable utellelig/uteljeleg luggage bagasje quantifier mengdeord binoculars kikkert tights strømpebukser scissors saks crew mannskap staff personale stack stabel remove fjerne

10 Choose the correct plural ending. a criterion – criterions/criteria b analysis – analyses/analysises c hypothesis – hypothesises/hypotheses d bacterium – bacteria/bacteriums e basis – bases/basises f stratum – strata/stratums

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11 Match each quantifier with the correct noun. a a jar of 1 news b a loaf of 2 honey c a bar of 3 tea d a cup of 4 chocolate e a piece of 5 bread

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Genitive

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13 Translate these sentences into English. a Politiet kommer. b Jeg har kjøpt et nytt verktøysett. c Mannskapet ble reddet da skipet sank. d Personalet gjør en god jobb. e Jeg skal flytte denne stabelen med stoler.

Furniture means møblement. If you refer to one item, you say a piece of furniture.

rin

12 Choose the correct alternative. a I can’t find my earphones/earphone. b I only have one scissors/one pair of scissors. c I use goggles/a goggle for welding. d The stair/stairs are quite dangerous.

NOTE TO SELF

The genitive form shows ownership or belonging. Use ’ + s to show that something belongs to someone. Use the preposition of when the owner is not an animal or a person.

til

the cat’s tail

my sisters’ bikes

the days of the week

the windows of the house

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14 Choose the correct alternative. a All the children/children’s/child clothes are on the floor. b The windows the school building/the school’s building/of the school building are open. c My mother’s/mothers/mothers’ name is Elsa. d The colour my new car/of my new car/my new car’s is blue. e Thomas’/Thomas’s/Thomases shoes are black.

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Verbs Verbs are words used to describe an action or a state. We use different verb tenses to show when the action took place. I speak English.

g

Sam lives in London.

rin

Yesterday we met in Liverpool.

15 Find the verbs in the sentences. a Mary likes to go shopping when she visits London. b My parents often drive to Bath to see their friends who own a hotel there.

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THE PRESENT TENSE There are two present tenses in English. Present simple Present continuous

I speak English. I am speaking with Sam.

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Present simple We use present simple for general information, facts, feelings and things we normally do. Oil floats on water.

I love strawberries.

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I play football every day.

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Present continuous We use the present continuous when an action is going on right now or is planned or in progress at the moment. Sam is talking to Linda. We are going to London this summer. I am learning Spanish this year.

16 Present simple or present continuous? Correct the mistakes. a Hurry up! I wait for you. b Every morning I am waking up at 7 o’clock. c The two men over there talk with my sister. d In the spring the birds are singing beautifully.

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Subject-verb agreement In the present tense the verb must agree with its subject. When the subject is in the 3rd person singular form (he, she or it, or words that can be replaced with he, she or it) we must add an -s - or -ies or -es to the verb I/you love

he/she/it loves

Subject-verb agreement is also referred to as concord.

we/you/they love

g

To love:

NOTE TO SELF

My Swedish grandfather’s elder sister (=she) loves strawberries.

rd e

Nobody knows where Sam is.

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I speak English and Sam (=he) speaks Spanish.

Some verbs are irregular.

To be: I am – you are – he/she/it is – we/you/they are

To have: I/you have – he/she/it has – we/you/they have

I try – she tries I wish – she wishes

til

I kiss – she kisses

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For verbs that end in -y we use the ending -ies in the 3rd person singular. For verbs that end in -sh, -ch, -s, -x, -z or -o, we use -es.

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17 Fill in the correct present tense form of the verbs. a I listening to music. (love) b Paul being late for work. (hate) c Jane often to New York. (go) d Right now Paul a new car. (test) e One of the boys in my class a new bicycle. (have) f This summer we to Ibiza. (go) g My father often my bike. (fix) h My sister rarely about her homework. (worry) i At the moment I Spanish. (learn) j Be quiet! We to the song. (listen)

state tilstand verb tense verbtid present tense presens present continuous presens samtidsform in progress som pågår/som går føre seg agreement samsvar singular entall/eintal plural flertall/feirtal concord samsvar, overensstemmelse/ samsvar, i samsvar med, overeinskomst irregular uregelrett

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THE PAST TENSE Several verb tenses are used to describe states or actions that took place in the past. The most important ones are: I talked to Sam. I was talking to Sam. I have talked to Sam.

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Past simple Past continuous Present perfect

Last Friday I walked to school. NOTE TO SELF

Sam lived in London when he was younger.

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To express feelings and thoughts, use the past simple! She hated apples, but she loved donuts.

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Past simple We use past simple form of a verb when something happened at a particular time, or over a limited period of time in the past, and no longer takes place.

For regular verbs we make the past simple by adding, -ed, -d or -ied. Regular verbs Most regular verbs

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Verbs ending in -e: Verbs ending in consonant and -y: Verbs ending in a vowel and consonant:

play watch like cry slip

played watched liked cried slipped

Most irregular verbs have special forms in the past tenses.

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Some examples of irregular verbs buy bought eat ate know knew make made go went sleep slept swim swam write wrote

Normally there is no subject-verb agreement in the past simple, but there is one exception. To be: I was – you were – he/she/it was – we/you/they were

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Past continuous We use the past continuous when something was happening over a period of time in the past or when something was going on when something else occurred. I was sleeping when Sam called me.

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We make the past continuous from be in the past simple + the -ing form of the main verb. Remember that there is subject-verb agreement for be.

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At 9 o’clock I was still talking to him on the phone.

To sleep: I was sleeping – you were sleeping – he/she/it was sleeping – we/you/they were sleeping

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18 Complete the sentences. a When I called, Mary television. (watch) b When Tom came home, his parents dinner. (make) c At 10 pm Kate a novel. (read) d Last night we our homework. (do)

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Present perfect We use the present perfect tense when something that started in the past is still going on or when we refer to experiences without focusing on when they happened. Sam has lived in London for four years now.

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I have tried bungee jumping twice.

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We make present perfect by using to have in the present tense + the past participle of the main verb. For regular verbs we make the past participle by adding -ed, -d, or -ied. Most irregular verbs have special forms. Remember that there is subject-verb agreement for have. I have talked. He has tried. Thet have bought.

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talk try buy

19 Answer the questions with complete sentences. a Have you ever talked to a famous person? b Have you ever played tennis? c Have you ever eaten pretzels? d Have you ever written a poem?

past fortid particular spesiell limited begrenset/avgrense exception unntak occur inntreffe, skje refer to henvise til/vise til, tilvise past participle perfektum partisipp pretzel salt vannkringle/salt vasskringle

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Imperative We use the imperative form of the verb to give orders and instructions. The imperative form in English is the same as the infinitive form of the verb. Lift the boxes carefully. Shut up and go to bed!

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To give orders and still be polite, just add please!

20 Translate into English. a Gi meg blyanten og si meg hva jeg skal skrive. b Kjør forsiktig og vær høflig. c Spis mer vitaminer og lev sunt. d Unngå forurensing og resirkuler glass og papir.

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NOTE TO SELF

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21 Work in pairs and give orders and instructions on how to a make a pizza b get from the classroom to the nearest bus stop c operate a gadget, tool or machine you use at school

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The modal auxiliary verbs The main function of modal auxiliary verbs is to express opinion, attitude, probability or certainty. There is no subject-verb agreement for these verbs and they are followed by the infinitive of the main verb. You may go to London.

You should go to London.

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He will go to London.

For questions, place the verb in front of the subject. Can you speak English? For negations, just add not. Anne will not speak Spanish.

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The most common auxiliary verbs and when to use them

Examples

For instructions and can, could ability

He can walk over there. She said he could help me.

For permission and possibility

may, might

You may leave the table. We might go to Brighton.

For obligation and recommendations

must, ought to

You must finish the tasks. He ought to go to London.

For plans and intentions

shall, should, will, would

I shall be there tomorrow at noon. We will always be there for you.

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22 Use modal auxiliary verbs and write what you should say if you ‌ a are planning a trip to Bath this summer b offer to help an old lady across the street c invite a friend to come with you to the USA d need to go to the toilet e intend to come to a party f ask for permission to leave early g recommend a film to a friend h insist that a colleague put on safety equipment

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NOTE TO SELF

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Norwegians tend to use can to ask for permission, while in English could and may are more polite.

Mary wrote a novel The novel was written by Mary

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The active and passive voice Usually we use the active voice to focus on who does what. However, we may also use the passive voice if we want to focus on what happened to the object in a sentence.

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The object of an active sentence becomes the subject of a passive sentence. The passive voice is used to stress certain information and is more common in formal language. Just like the active voice, the passive form can be used in different verb tenses. If we want to include the actual subject, we use by. Past simple: The novel was written in 1889 by a famous American writer. Future tense: Mary’s novel will be published next year.

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23 Write these sentences in the passive voice. a John built a house in 1994. b Many people in Kenya speak English. c The firemen extinguished the fire. d I made this cake.

NOTE TO SELF

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The gerund The gerund is a noun made from a verb + -ing. Gerunds do not exist in Norwegian but are very common in English, as the subject in a sentence or after verbs and prepositions. Dancing is fun.

I love dancing.

Jane is interested in dancing.

Not all verbs are followed by the gerund. Verbs like want, plan, expect etc. are followed by to + infinitive, as in Norwegian. Check a dictionary if you are uncertain.

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Adjectives Grammar is very interesting. I am older than you.

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An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

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24 Translate the sentences into Norwegian. a Swimming is my favourite spare-time activity. b John often goes fishing after visiting his mother. c Jogging and walking are both healthy activities. d I would like to learn more about working in a safe environment.

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25 Find the adjectives. a 1476 was an important year in the long history of English media. b This was when the famous William Caxton set up the first printing press in England. c He had moved to the Netherlands as a young and adventurous man. d The king was very impressed with Caxton’s remarkable work. Comparing with short adjectives When you compare shorter adjectives, you use the endings -er and -est. My brother is younger than me.

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Omid Djalili is the funniest comedian I know.

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imperative bydeform order ordre modal auxiliary verb hjelpeverb ability evne, det å være i stand til/evne, det å vere i stand til possibility mulighet/ moglegheit obligation forpliktelse/ forplikting recommendation anbefaling intention intensjon, hensikt describe beskrive adventurous eventyrlysten impressed imponert remarkable oppsiktsvekkende/ oppsiktsvekkande

Most short adjectives

small – smaller – smallest

Adjectives ending in a consonant + y When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, you change the y to i and add the ending.

angry – angrier – angriest

Adjectives ending in a vowel + a single consonant For some short adjectives which end in a vowel and a single consonant, you double the consonant and add the ending.

hot – hotter – the hottest

Irregular adjectives Some adjectives are irregular.

bad – worse – the worst good – better – the best little – less – the least many – more – the most

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26 Fill in the missing forms. a Maxine is fast, Susan is and Marie is the . b Tim is tall, Brian is and Sam is the .

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29 Translate these sentences into English. a Det var den verste dagen i mitt liv. b Det er lengre til Australia enn til England. c Anne er en god spiller, men Iris er bedre.

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28 Fill in the missing forms. a September was wet, but October was (våtere). b The girl looks sad, but the boy looks (tristere). c My aunt is slim, but my uncle is (slankere). d A zebra is big, but a giraffe is (større).

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27 Fill in the missing forms. a – happier – the happiest b silly – – the silliest c hungry – hungrier – the

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Comparing with longer adjectives When you compare longer adjectives you use more and most.

Martin Luther King Jr. was probably more influential than Malcolm X. I think English is the most interesting subject on my timetable.

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30 Choose the right form of the adjective. a The Namibian flag is more colourful/colourfuller than the Danish flag. b Rugby is a more interesting/interestinger sport than cricket. c Lake Baikal is the deepest/most deep lake on our planet. d Botox is one of the most toxic/toxicest chemicals we know. e Neil Armstrong is a famouser/more famous astronaut than James Lovell Jr.

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The order of adjectives When more than one adjective describes a noun, the adjectives are usually in a certain order.

1 opinion 2 size

3 age 4 shape

5 colour 6 origin

7 material 8 purpose

She was wearing a lovely, long, red silk dress. We have just bought a large, square, teak sitting-room table.

influential innflytelsesrik/ innverknadsrik toxic giftig

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Adverbs

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31 Choose the correct alternative. a a green, big insect/a big, green insect b a warm, new, woollen coat/a woollen, new, warm coat c a charming, old, china teacup/a china, old, charming teacup d a short, useful, plastic paintbrush/a plastic, useful, short paintbrush e a delicious, big, strawberry ice cream/a strawberry, big, delicious ice cream

An adverb tells you where, how and when something happens. It can describe a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

rd e

The evening passed quickly.

It is a very good idea to learn safety rules really well.

You can make an adverb from an adjective by adding the ending -ly. When an adjective ends in a consonant + y, you remove y and add -ily.

vu

He is grumpy.

He looked at me grumpily.

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32 Adjective or adverb? Find the mistakes and correct the sentences. a There are a largely number of tourist attractions in New York. b Read the instructions good before you start. c You must drive careful in the wintertime. d The huge crocodile looked at me lazy.

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Good and well Good is an adjective and well is an adverb. She is a good mechanic. She does her work well.

33 Fill in good or well in the sentences below. a Nowadays, we are aware of safety regulations. b Nicole did a job with the paintwork. c In the past, the ways bacteria spread were not understood. d Get soon!

describe beskrive grumpy gretten

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34 Use an adverb instead of an adjective and rewrite the sentences below. Example: Usman is a good football player – Usman plays football well. a She gave a deep sigh. b Usman is an energetic player. c The firefighter had a bad injury. d The patient had a serious shock.

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Prepositions

Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. She ran across the road to catch the bus.

Prepositions of place Prepositions of place are words that tell us where something is. The most common prepositions of place are in, on and at.

The pencil is on my desk. Right now I am at school. There are ten students in the classroom

vu

Prepositions of movement Prepositions of movement show movement from one place to another. You often use them with verbs of motion.

rd e

School starts at 8:30.

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Prepositions of time Prepositions of time tell us when something happened. The most common prepositions of time are in, on and at. Use in for months, years and longer periods of time. Use on for dates and days. Use at for a specific time.

I walked round the village and took some nice pictures. Get up, you lazy slob!

n

This garden is lovely in the spring. I’m meeting Sharon on Monday. Her bus arrives at 8 pm.

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Fixed expressions with prepositions English has many fixed expressions with I went by plane to London. prepositions. Some examples are: I am not at my best in the at the same time, by car, by accident, for morning. good, in advance, in vain, off duty, on time, I insist on getting paid in advance. out of work, to excess, under repair, with I will learn all these prepositions regard to, within grasp, without exception, by heart. and many, many more. They will stick in my mind for life. I didn’t smash your coffee mug on purpose. At least I did apologise.

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up

down

away from

to

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rd e

across into out of through

over past along around

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35 Choose the correct preposition. a I live a house with a garden. b I have always wanted to go Australia. c Alex works a farm. d There is someone the door. e There is a mistake the top of the page.

movement bevegelse verbs of motion bevegelsesverb

36 Choose a suitable preposition. There may be more than one correct answer. a Who is standing Jeremy? b Who is that boy the door? c You should not stand a tree during a thunderstorm. d Our house is a big lake. e She ran the street without looking. f Suddenly, a motorbike came the corner. g The burglars got the building a broken window. h Please take your feet that old mahogany table.

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37 Choose the correct preposition. a I have a dentist’s appointment Thursday. b To be there time, I have to get up seven the morning. c I will be there eight, I think. d This building closes nine the evening. e I have to leave five minutes. f I was ill a week. g I will be back a week.

rd e

rin

38 Translate these expressions into Norwegian. a Finish these grammar exercises at once. b It is now five o’clock on the dot. c Long skirts are completely out of fashion. d They broke out of prison by means of a small kitchen knife. e We take a happy life for granted.

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Pronouns

vu

Pronouns are words used instead of a noun or a name. There are different forms, depending on the word they replace and their function in the sentence. Pronouns are most commonly used to replace words that have been mentioned earlier.

til

Sam loves Mary. – He loves her.

My sister bought Tom’s car. – She bought his car. – She bought it.

Ku

n

Personal pronouns The personal pronouns replace nouns and names that are the subject or the object in a phrase. The purpose is often to avoid repeating nouns and names. Subject pronouns replace the subject. My father likes his car. He likes his car.

Object pronouns replace the object. My father likes his car. My father likes it.

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Singular st

1 person 2nd person 3rd person

Plural

Subject

Object

Subject

Object

I you he, she, it

me you him, her, it

we you they

us you them

rd e

rin

g

39 Replace the nouns and names with a personal pronoun. Translate into Norwegian and compare the sentences. a Alice went ice skating. b The dog ate the sausages. c My friends and I love ice cream. d My teacher talked to John. e The girls invited my sister to the party. f My friends looked at me and my father. Possessive pronouns We use possessive pronouns to show ownership. There are two sets of possessive words. The possessive adjectives are determiners. They are placed before a noun and do not replace it. The possessive pronouns are used alone.

NOTE TO SELF

This is her book. – This book is hers.

Singular

n

Ku

Plural

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns (determiners)

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns (determiners)

1st person

my

mine

our

ours

2nd person

your

yours

your

yours

3rd person

his, her, its

his, hers, its

their

theirs

til

Do not confuse its with it’s or their with they’re or there.

vu

It is my car. – The car is mine.

40 Fill in the correct form of the possessive adjectives and pronouns. a I own this guitar. guitar is a Fender. b Jean has two siblings. brother is called Fred, and sister is called Ann. c John drives own car, while Mary drives . d We like new home.

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rin

Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject in a phrase, when the subject of an action is the same as its object. Only certain verbs are always reflexive; some can be used both with and without reflexive pronouns. I cut myself on the saw. We told ourselves to work harder.

1 person 2nd person 3rd person

Singular

Plural

myself yourself himself, herself, itself

ourselves yourselves themselves

rd e

st

g

41 Complete the answers to the questions. a Alice, is this your phone? Yes, it’s . b Do your parents own these horses? Yes, they are . c Do you and Pete own this flat? Yes, it is . d Does Sally own these shoes? Yes, they are .

vu

42 Fill in the correct reflexive pronoun in the sentences. a Sarah blames for the accident. b My friends hurt on the tools. c Tom found in a difficult situation. d Did you see in the mirror this morning? (two possible answers)

til

Relative pronouns In Norwegian there is one relative pronoun, som, while in English there are several. Who is used about people, and which about animals and things. If the information in the relative clause is necessary to identify the person or thing in question, we use that.

n

My sister, who is working in a café, earns £15 per hour.

The girl that almost drowned is my sister.

Ku

My new car, which is parked outside, was rather expensive.

The tools that I bought yesterday are sharp.

When referring to a whole sentence, use which. I finally found my dog, which made me very happy.

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Whom and whose are also relative pronouns. Whose is the possessive form of who. Whom is the object form of who but is also used after prepositions and instead of who in formal language. My sister, whose car was stolen, just bought a new Ferrari. The boy whom we met in London is from Dublin. My friends, with whom I spent the weekend, left for London today.

rin

DETERMINERS Determiners are words that are placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. Some examples are articles (a, the), numbers (one, two), possessive adjectives (my, his), distributives (all, both, every) and more. Here we will look at two such groups. Demonstratives The demonstratives this, that, these, those are used to show if something is near or further away.

rd e

If you can replace the relative pronoun with he or she, use who; if you can replace it with him or her use whom in formal language.

g

NOTE TO SELF

This pizza is mine, and that pizza is yours.

Those books are less interesting than these books.

this that

these those

Quantifiers Quantifiers are words that indicate amounts of things. We use some and any for an indefinite amount, every to include all and no when there is nothing.

til

When we ask for something we use any if we don’t know the answer, but some if we expect a yes. “May I have some tea? Do you have any sugar?”

Plural

vu Near Far

NOTE TO SELF

Singular

I would like some tea, but no milk.

Ku

n

We can combine the quantifiers -some -any -every and -no with -body -thing and -one. Use the 3rd person singular of the verbs with such words. Nobody has entered the building, but there is somebody in there. Everyone was listening to the teacher, but no one took notes.

43 Fill in the correct demonstratives and quantifiers in the sentences. a girl over there is Samantha. b Can you see boys over there? c Is your bike or is it one over there?

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d e f g h

cake over there looks much better than old cakes here. May I have bread with my soup please? I can’t see people on the beach. I need to speak to girl in class about this issue. John has idea about who stole his car.

rin

g

44 Translate into English. a Alle liker ost men ingen spiser fisk. b Det har vært noen i huset, men ingenting har blitt stjålet.

replace erstatte purpose hensikt repeat gjenta possessive pronoun eiendomspronomen/ eigedomspronomen ownership eierskap/eigarskap determiners bestemmelsesord/ bestemmingsord reflexive pronoun refleksivt pronomen relative clause relativsetning distributives konjunksjon som fordeler størrelser/ konjunksjon som fordeler størrelsar demonstrative pekeord/ peikeord quantifier mengdesord/ mengdeord

rd e

Spelling and Commonly Confused Words

English can be a rather confusing language; it has many words with almost the same spelling or pronunciation. Also, since English and Norwegian have some of the same origins, words often resemble each other, but sometimes they have a different meaning.

vu

Here are some of the most commonly confused or misspelled words for Norwegian users of English. Words that resemble each other Example

She gave me a piece of advice. She said it aloud.

advise (verb) allowed (permitted) bare (adjective, naked)

She advised me to leave. No swimming allowed.

bear (noun, animal or verb, support or endure) desert (a dry place) effect (noun)

I can’t bear to see this. There is a bear behind that tree. The Sahara desert is huge.

dessert (food)

Food has an effect on your health. He walked farther than me.

affect (verb)

I love ice cream for dessert. Food affects your health.

I lie down on the coach.

lay (place something)

Ku

n

til

advice (noun) aloud (out loud)

farther (physical distance) lie (recline)

Example

further (abstract)

He walked with bare feet.

I need further information. I lay the books on the table.

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Words that are often confused by learners of English Example She can speak English.

may (be allowed to)

May I say something?

follow (go behind)

I follow if you lead.

accompany (go together)

I accompany you to the theatre.

for (still going on)

I have lived here for two years.

ago (in the past)

lend (give to)

I can lend you my bike.

teach (instruct)

Jean teaches English learn I learned English to children. (get knowledge) last year.

who (people)

I lived there two years ago.

rin borrow (get from)

mean (intend or explain meaning) which (things)

rd e

In English we say “Yes please” and “No thanks”.

g

can (be able to)

I think you should think come. (ponder or share opinion)

NOTE TO SELF

The man who lives next door is French.

Could I borrow you bike, please?

That’s not what I mean.

The car which is parked outside, is French.

til

vu

45 Choose the correct alternative. a I wonder if you can me on this issue. (advice/advise) b Are we to go into this room? (aloud/allowed) c There is a big, brown lurking behind the house. (bear/bare) d John’s head is completely . (bear/bare) e Sorry, I not dance. (can/may) f She loves all kinds of , but especially fruit salad. (desert/dessert) g I think too much gaming has a bad on my friend. (affect/effect) h Jane ran and faster than all the boys in class. (farther/further) i I told the children to me to the playground. (follow/accompany) j After playing the drums four years, he left the band two years . (ago/for) k I cannot you my car next weekend, but my sister says you can hers. (lend/borrow) l Mary promised to the table, but first she had to down on the bed for a while. (lie/lay) m I want to how to play an instrument, so I have asked Pete to me to play the guitar. (teach/learn) n I don’t I’m stupid, but I really don’t understand what you by this. (think/mean) o I just met the man owns the boat was stolen last week. (that/who)

n

Ku

Example

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Words that are often misspelled Example

Example

Example

To be or not to be

too This is too much. two (2) (excessively, also)

I have two sisters.

where (location)

Where are you?

we’re (we are)

We’re late.

were (be in the past tense)

They were out.

there (location)

There you are.

they’re (they are)

They’re late.

their (ownership)

g

to (preposition and infinitive)

rin

It’s their car.

Example

Example

It’s late.

its (ownership)

The car lost its wheel.

he’s (he is)

He’s late.

his (ownership)

He lost his shoes.

who’s (who is)

Who’s there?

whose (ownership)

Whose car is this?

which (question word, pronoun)

Which car is yours?

witch (bad lady)

The witch gave Snow White an apple.

then (time)

First he got up, then he had breakfast.

than (comparison)

He is taller than me.

lose (not win)

They often lose the matches.

loose (not tight)

I love my loose sweater.

I can hear the music.

here (place)

I am here with my friends.

I rarely eat meat for dinner.

meet (verb)

Meet me outside.

meat (noun)

She breaks the cup during brake (car part) lunch break.

The brakes failed.

til

break (crush, pause)

vu

hear (verb)

rd e

it’s (it is)

Ku

n

46 Choose the correct alternative. a These sandwiches are far much for me, would you like have some? (to/too/two) b looking for the girls who here yesterday. Do you know they are? (where/were/we’re) c in car over . (there/they’re/their) d clear that this school takes good care of students. (it’s/its) e Tom lost watch and looking for it now in the garden. (his/he’s) f house is this and that lady at the window? (who’s/whose) g The old lady said she was a but she would not tell us magic tricks she uses. (which/witch) h Our palace was smaller yours, but we built a new section on the west wing. (then/than) i I didn’t want to the boat race but the propeller was . (loose/lose) j Come over , I can’t you. (here/hear) k I bought the in the market where you your sister every Monday. spelling rettskriving pronunciation uttale (meet/meat) origin opphav l If you don’t now you will fall and your legs. (break/brake)

misspelled feilstavet/feilstava

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Word Formation and Morphology

English is a very flexible language and there are many ways to make new words. boycott from Charles Boycott saxophone from Adolphe Sax marathon from the Greek city

rd e

rin

Compounding Compounds are longer words made from two or more shorter ones. Compounds can be written as one word, as two words with a hyphen or flowerpot as two words with a space in between. part-time

g

Eponyms Some words are made from the names of people and places.

Clipping Some words have been made by shortening longer ones.

vu

Blending A blend is made by combining the parts and meanings of words.

Frankenstein + food p Frankenfood: genetically modified food Spanish + English p Spanglish: a mixture of spoken English and Spanish

Acronyms Acronyms are made from the first letters of words.

United States of America p USA

Conversion Sometimes a word changes its grammatical function.

a text (noun) p to text (verb)

Derivation With derivation you can make new words from existing ones. You can add one or more prefixes to the beginning of a word or a root, and suffixes to the end of it. In this way you can change the meaning and the grammar of a word.

Un + im + port + ant + ly De+ port + ment Trans + port + ed De + port + ation

til n

Ku

zoological garden – zoo examination – exam

47 Find out the names of the people that the words below are based on. a diesel b hooligan c sandwich d nicotine

hooligan pøbel part-time deltid

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air

pool

B swimming

2

place

C cross-

3

port

D fire

4

over

49 What is the shortened form of the words below? a laboratory b omnibus c refrigerator

rin

1

A

g

48 Match the words in the two columns to make compound words.

B

documentary

alcoholic

global

analyzer

breath

drama

work

angry

hungry

English

vu

A

rd e

50 Match words, or parts of them, in column A with words in column B to create blends.

til

51 Find the acronyms. a light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation b radio detection and ranging c self-contained underwater breathing apparatus d acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Ku

n

52 Translate these sentences into Norwegian. a She unfriended me on Facebook. b Brian downed a beer. c They partied all night.

53 Which words are the underlined verbs in the previous task based on? 54 Underline the prefixes in these words and explain what they mean. a unusual b disappeared c bilingual d international

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55 Underline the suffixes in these words and explain what they mean. a useless b excitement c adorable d courageously

g

Punctuation S

rin

Sentences A sentence has a subject and a verb and is a complete unit of meaning. V

She laughed.

. = full stop

, = comma ’= apostrophe

?

Interrogative sentences ask a question and end with a question. mark (?).

Do you think people will travel to Mars any time soon?

!.

Imperative sentences make a request or give a command and end with an exclamation mark or a full stop.

Hand me the hammer, please. Get out of here!

!

Exclamatory sentences express strong feelings and end with an exclamation mark.

What a great day we had!

til

“…” = inverted commas

Mars has two moons.

vu

! = exclamation mark

Declarative sentences make a statement and end with a full stop.

.

? = question mark

rd e

There are four main types of sentences. Notice the use of the different punctuation marks.

Ku

n

56 Use the correct punctuation mark. a What day is it today b What horrible weather c You must wear warm clothes when it is cold outside d It’s not fair e My book is on the table f What do you think?

punctuation tegnsetting/ teiknsetting exclamation utrop statement påstand

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The comma From my window I can see a car, a lorry, two motorbikes and a bus.

When you start a sentence with words like No, Well, Still, However, you use a comma after it.

Well, I hated every page of that awful book!

You need a comma before words like and, but, for, or, nor, so and yet when you make one long sentence from two or more short ones.

I cleaned the car. You polished the hub caps. I cleaned the car, but you polished the hub caps.

When there is information in a sentence that is not necessary for the main idea, you use commas to separate this information.

The mechanic told us the spare parts would arrive next week. The mechanic, shrugging his shoulders, told us the spare parts would arrive next week.

rin

g

You use a comma between the different items in a list. When the items in the list are linked by and or or, you do not need a comma.

vu

rd e

57 Place commas where you think they should be. a The waitress smiling politely asked us all to sit down. b For my birthday I got a new watch a pair of gloves a scarf and an exciting computer game. c I cleared the table but you did the dishes. d No I think you should apologize. e I would like a burger some fries a green salad and a glass of water please.

til

Contractions You use an apostrophe (’) in contracted forms where there are letters missing. It is gone.

They will not return.

It’s gone.

They won’t return.

Ku

n

58 Write the contracted forms and put the apostrophes where they should be. a You should not believe everything you hear. b Do not listen to him. c Does she not like fish? d Can you not keep still for one second?

shrug heve på shoulder skulder waitress servitør politely høflig/høfleg gloves hansker/hanskar do the dishes vaske opp

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Direct and indirect speech In direct speech we use inverted commas (“…”) and write the exact words someone says. Use another punctuation mark before the second inverted comma. “Where is the school nurse’s office?” asked Susan.

g

“It’s just up the stairs, second door on the left,” replied Kim.

rd e

rin

59 There are at least 10 mistakes with punctuation marks and capital letters in the text below. Find and correct them. “theres nothing I can do said Annes mum. “are you sure,” Replied Anne. “I dont understand.” Said her mum. “i think you do”

In indirect speech we do not use the exact words someone says. We refer to the speaker and report what is said. Often the verb tense also needs to be changed. Susan asked where the school nurse’s office was.

vu

Kim replied that it was just up the stairs, second door on the left.

til

60 Change these sentences into direct speech. a He said he had been a mechanic for many years. b Bill told Jamie to get his bike. c Maxine said it wasn’t fair to blame the cat.

Ku

n

61 Change these sentences into indirect speech. a “What day is it today?” Sue asked. b “Tomorrow will be a sunny day,” Jeremy said happily. c “Math is such a fun subject!” Elsie exclaimed.

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Word order

Sentence structure in English is similar to the sentence structure in Norwegian. In a declarative sentence the structure will be subject + verb + object in both languages. If you change the word order you will change the meaning of the sentence. V

O

g

S

S

V

rin

Bob hit Miles.

O

62 Place the words in the correct order. a car A has a wheel. steering b You juice. drink a of glass c library. I to the went

rd e

Miles hit Bob.

In subordinate clauses the subject comes before the verb.

vu

When we came back, Bob had already left.

Unlike in Norwegian, short adverbs like sometimes, often and never will be placed before the verb.

til

Bob never hits Miles, but sometimes they have loud arguments.

When a sentence starts with a negative adverb the verb will be placed before the subject.

n

Not until yesterday did I realize that Bob is such an unpleasant person.

Ku

63 Place the adverbials correctly in these sentences. a Elsie forgets her assignments. (never) b I visit my friends. (often) c I spend my money on sweets. (rarely) d I am in bed by 11 pm. (always)

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When you ask a question, the verb will come before the subject. Do you realize what an unpleasant person Bob is? Do you know if he has always been like that?

rin

g

64 Make questions to fit these answers. Start each question with the words Do you ‌ a I like fish. b I don’t remember Miles at all. c I wish I were rich. d I think grammar is necessary.

rd e

Modifiers A modifier is a word or phrase that adds description and detail in sentences. Modifiers are usually adverbials. They must be correctly placed in the sentence so that they are clearly linked to the words they describe. Wrong: Drenched in chocolate fudge sauce, the waiter brought our ice creams. Right: The waiter brought our ice creams, drenched in chocolate fudge sauce.

til

vu

65 Correct these sentences. a High up on the wall we could see the beautiful, old paintings. b Printed on small notices, Mary read the information about each painting. c Susan got all the information about the old masterpieces that she needed. d Remember to take out the water bottles from your bag that you want.

Pronunciation

Ku

n

English words may be pronounced very differently from how they are spelled, and it is not always easy to guess how to say a word that you see in print. Here are some useful rules. Consonant sounds English has many of the same consonant sounds that Norwegian has, and these will cause us few problems. English also has some additional consonant sounds, for example ch, w and th. They will need a little extra practice.

Vowel sounds a, e, i o, u are the vowel sounds found in English. These vowel sounds can be either long or short. A long vowel will be pronounced the way you would say the name of the letter.

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Diphthongs A diphthong is a sound where one vowel blends into another vowel in the same syllable.

rin

The syllable A syllable is one unit of sound or writing. It must have a vowel. The syllable may also contain one or more consonants. A syllable is sometimes called the “beat” of a spoken language.

g

oily, safety

eth-i-cal, prob-lem

rd e

Pronounciation rules

A vowel sound followed by a single consonant at the end of a word will be pronounced as a short vowel.

mad, bid, pet, slim

Rule 2

If there is a silent e at the end of a word, the vowel sound before it will be pronounced as a long vowel.

made, bide, Pete, slime

Rule 3

If a vowel is followed by two consonants at the end of a word, the vowel will be pronounced as a short vowel.

hand, bids, pets

Rule 4

If there is a vowel at the end of a word, it will be pronounced as a long vowel.

cargo, also

Rule 5

If there is a consonant after a vowel in the middle of a word, this consonant is the first sound in the next syllable.

la-ter (not lat-er), ba-by (not bab-y)

Rule 6

When there are two consonants after a vowel in the middle of a word, the first consonant will be pronounced at the end of the first syllable. The second consonant will be the first sound in the next syllable.

in-fant (not inf-ant) en-sure (not ens-ure)

til

vu

Rule 1

Ku

n

Stressed and unstressed syllables Spoken English uses stressed and unstressed syllables. It is a good idea, especially as you work on your vocational vocabulary, to note which is the stressed syllable in new words you learn. Sometimes stress distinguishes between words. desert – desert, addict – addict, protest – protest

In these examples, the first word in each pair is a noun. The second word is a verb.

Unstressed syllables in English will be pronounced much less clearly than stressed syllables. In rapid speech they may almost disappear.

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Intonation The way the voice rises and falls in speech is called intonation.

g

Falling intonation Falling intonation is when the voice falls on the final stressed syllable of a group of words or on a phrase. This intonation is often used when someone asks a question starting with a word beginning in wh.

rin

Where is the nearest pharmacy? When is your appointment?

We also use falling intonation in sentences when we want to be clear or definite about something.

On this X-ray we can see a fractured clavicle.

Whatever accent or standards you choose, try to be consistent.

rd e

NOTE TO SELF

Rising intonation Rising intonation is very often used to ask a yes/no question.

vu

Are you feeling OK?

Is that the new assistant?

til

Accents, dialects and standards English is spoken on every continent and there may be great differences in pronunciation, intonation and vocabulary between the various dialects and standards.

Ku

n

Speakers of American English (as well as some British dialects) will pronounce the r sound in all words. British English will generally not pronounce the r, for example in words like car and market. The short a sound may also be pronounced differently in American and British English. In American English the words ant and aunt may sound almost the same.

In the Caribbean, the regional varieties of English are easily recogniz­able. Typically, the th sound will be pronounced t in think, but as d in that. It is common to skip final consonant sounds, e.g. respeck instead of respect. Wherever English is spoken as a second language or as an official language, it will be influenced by other languages spoken in the area, both in terms of pronunciation and intonation.

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rin

g

66 Pronounce these words. Look up words you are not sure of. a hat – hate b tape – tap c net – neat d bit – bite e hop – hope f cube – cub g cope – cop h not – note

67 In a foreign language we need especially to practise the sounds not found in our mother tongue. Work in pairs and practise saying these tongue twisters to each other.

rd e

How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood.

til

vu

A tree toad loved a she-toad, Who lived up in a tree. He was a three-toed tree toad, But a two-toed toad was she. The three-toed tree toad tried to win, The two-toed she-toad’s heart, For the three-toed tree toad loved the ground, That the two-toed tree toad trod. But the three-toed tree toad tried in vain. He could not please her whim. From her tree toad bower, With her two-toed power, The she-toad vetoed him.

n

Which are the sounds that cause particular problems for us?

Ku

68 Find out how to pronounce these words correctly. Take note of which syllable the stress is on. a perseverance e laboratory b advertisement f vegetable c Worcestershire g thoroughly d exaggerate h deteriorate 69 How can you recognize an American accent? Listen to a sample and decide what makes it sound American to you.

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Acknowledgements

g

From Simon vs the Homo Sapiens Agenda by Becky Albertalli (Penuin Books 2015). Copyright © Becky Albertalli 2015.

rin

“Nothing on This page is real” by Eli Saslow. From The Washington Post © 2018. The Washington Post. All rights reserved. Used under license. From Black Hoodie by Roddy Doyle. Published by Vintage. Reprinted by permission of The Random House Group Limited. © 2008

rd e

“Hall of Fame” Words & Music by William Adams, Mark Sheehan, Daniel O’Donoghue & James Barry. © Copyright 2012 Universal Music-Z Tunes llc/bmg Sapphire Songs/I Am Composing llc/Madnotes Production Ltd. bmg Rights Management (us) llc/Concord Music Publishing llc/Kobalt Music Publishing Limited. All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. Used by permission of Hal Leonard Europe Limited. “The Rule of Three” by Eric Walters. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux 2014 “What is nuclear energy” by Christina Nunez. National Geographic. Reprinted by permission.

From The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas. Copyright Text © 2017 Angela Thomas. Reproduced by permission of Walker Books Ltd, London SE11 5HJ. www.walker.co.uk

vu

NEK 400. Reprinted by permission of Norsk Elektroteknisk Komite.

“Boy A” by Jonathan Trigell. Reprinted by permission from Profile Books, London.

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“Maybe You Should Know Something About Me” from Slam by Nick Hornby 2007. Reprinted with permission of The Random House Group Ltd. © Nick Hornby

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“Look” from You Don’t Even Know Me: Stories and poems about boys Copyright 2010 © by Sharon G. Flake. Published by agreement with Licht & Burr Literary Agency Copenhagen and Jennifer Lyons Agency, LLC.

From The Complet Robot by Isaac Asimov From The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind by William Kamkwamba. Harper Collins From Ifixit.com. Reprinted by permission. From Airframe by Michael Crichton. Penguin Random House US

“Does My Head Look Big In This?” Text Copyright “Robots’ to Replace up to 20 Million Factory Jobs © Randa Abdel-Fattah, 2005. Reproduced with the by 2030” by Rory Cellan Jones. Reprinted by permission of Scholastic Ltd. All Rights Reserved. permission of the author. From I hate myselfie by Shane Dawson. Copyright © 2015 by Shane Dawson tv, Inc. Reprinted with the permission of Keywords Press/Atria, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. All rights reserved.

432 | Acknowledgements| SKILLS

From iBoy by Kevin Brooks


Extracts from My Mother the Crazy African by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Copyright © Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie 2009, used by permission of The Wylie Agency (uk) Limited.

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From The Hockey Sweater and Other Stories by Roch Carrier, copyright © 1979 House of Anansi Press. Translated by Sheila Fischmann. Reproduced with permission. www.houseofanansi.com

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From https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/poverty/; https://www.un.org/ sustainabledevelopment/hunger/; https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/ education/ and https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/gender-equality/. © 2019 United Nations. Used with the permission of the United Nations. “Women in India” by Deepa Narayan, from The Guardian, July 2018, abridged version. Used with permission.

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“Home” By Warsan Shire, copyright © 2014. Reprinted by permission of the author “Look at Africa” from In the Company of Cheerful Ladies by Alexander McCall Smith. Reprinted with permission of David Higham UK.

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Excerpt(s) from Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood by Trevor Noah, copyright © 2016 by Trevor Noah. Used by permission of Spiegel & Grau, an imprint of Random House, a division of Penguin Random House llc. All rights reserved.

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ISBN 978-82-05-52340-1

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Redaktører: Kaja Bottolfsletten, Kari Anne Gjesdal Bilderedaktører: Johanna Figur Waddington / NTB, Ingrid Ellingsen / NTB og Hege Røyert / NTB Repro: RenessanseMedia AS, Lierskogen Logodesign: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Design: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Sats og layout: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Design, Anne Andresen/RenessanseMedia AS Omslagsdesign: Lise Mosveen Omslagsfoto: Photo by courtesy of Bluefors Oy / Juha Jäntti Innsider, kart: Bokproduksjon SA

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© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2020 2. utgave, 1. opplag Denne boka er en del av læreverket Skills Elektro og datateknologi. Læreverket dekker målene i læreplan for engelsk Vg1 YF etter LK20. Printed by GPS Group, Slovenia, 2020

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Forfatterne har mottatt stipend fra Det faglitterære forfatterfond, www.nffo.no

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Gyldendal Norsk Forlag ASA is grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given permission for the use of copyright material. As it has proved impossible to identify all material used, the publisher would welcome information from the copyright owners.

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Materialet i denne boka er beskyttet etter åndsverkslovens bestemmelser. Enhver kopiering, avfotografering eller annen form for eksemplarfremstilling og tilgjengeliggjøring av materialet i denne boka er kun tillatt dersom det finnes lovhjemmel eller er inngått særskilt avtale med Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS. Virksomheter som har inngått avtale med Kopinor, kan kopiere, avfotografere etc. innenfor avtalens rammer (inntil 15 % av bokas sidetall). Det er ikke tillatt a kopiere fra arbeidsbøker (engangshefter). Utnyttelse i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning, og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Alle henvendelser om forlagets utgivelser kan rettes til: Gyldendal Undervisning Redaksjonen for videregående skole Postboks 6860 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo E-post: undervisning@gyldendal.no www.gyldendal.no/undervisning Alle Gyldendals bøker er produsert i miljøsertifiserte trykkerier. Se www.gyldendal.no/miljø

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Illustrasjoner: Lotte Thori: side 14 Nova M. Lie: side 18, 73, 95, 120, 145, 207, 208, 238, 244, 245, 267, 273, 285, 335, 357n Gerd Eng Kielland: side 26v, 157n, 158m, 185øv, 308nv, 318øh, 328øh, 363øv, 379øv, 379nh Douglas R. Waddington: side 218ø, 220, 221, 222, 223, 237, 262, 280, 286 Douglas R. Waddington (med tillatelse fra Vidar Alme): side 218n, 219

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Bildekrediteringer: Side 8: Shutterstock, 10m: Vladimir Zaplakhov / Alamy / Imageselect, 10n: Jens Sølvberg / Samfoto / NTB, 10ø: Hinterhaus Productions / Getty Images, 11n: Shutterstock, 11ø: 7postman / E+ / Getty Images, 19: Merriam-Webster, 22: Fobosvobos / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 22: Shutterstock, 23: Lucius Kwok, 23: Megaflis, 23: Proximo / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 23: Shutterstock, 24: Shutterstock, 26h: Granger / rex / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 27h: Mikko Lemola / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 27v: Akg-images / NTB, 29: Walter Zweigle / Getty Images, 30n: Akg-images / NTB, 30nm: Imagebroker / bilwissedition / NTB, 30ø: Imagebroker / heinz-dieter Falkenstein / NTB, 30øm: Imagebroker / bilwissedition / NTB, 31m: GL Archive / Alamy / Imageselect, 31n: Courtesy Everett Collection / NTB, 31ø: Imagebroker / bilwissedition / NTB, 33: Kent Enstrøm, 36n: ordnett.no / Kunnskapsforlaget, 36ø: GU-arkiv, 36: Shutterstock, 37: Johanna Figur Waddington, 38: GU-arkiv, 40m: nsf / Alamy / Imageselect, 40n: The Granger Collection / NTB, 40nm: Photos.com / Getty Images Plus, 40ø: Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 40øm: Shutterstock, 41m: Raff & Gammon / ibrary of Congress, 41mø: SSPL / Getty Images, 41n: Lackawanna Railroad, 41ø: Akg-images / NTB, 43nh: NRC, 43: Shutterstock, 46: Justem Johnsson / Scandinav / NTB, 52: Shutterstock, 54: Shutterstock, 57: Shutterstock, 57: Shutterstock, 58: Luis Alvarez / DigitalVision / Getty Images, 58: Pakorn_ Khantiyaporn / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 58: Shutterstock, 58: sturti / E+ / Getty Images, 61: Cartoon Studio Limted, 62: Shutterstock, 63øv: Eric D ricochet69 / Alamy / ImageSelect, 63: Shutterstock, 63: UNECE, 64: St Martin's Press, 68: Bloomberg / Getty Images, 70: Shutterstock, 75n: Ingrid Rognstad, 75: Shutterstock, 76: Shutterstock, 79: Shutterstock, 80: Shutterstock, 82: Simon & Schuster, 84: Shutterstock, 85: Shutterstock, 86: Shutterstock, 88: Shutterstock, 90: @ Mariano Sayno / husayno.com / Getty Images, 94: Shutterstock, 96: Enigma / Alamy / ImageSelect, 99nh: Istvan Csak / Shutterstock, 99nm: YuZhang / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 99nv: sippakorn / Shutterstock, 99øh: Nick Fox / Shutterstock, 99øm: Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY / Album / ImageSelect, 99øv: Blaine Harrington / AGE / ImageSelect, 100nh: brt COMM / Alamy / ImageSelect, 100nv: Shutterstock, 100øh: Shutterstock, 100øv: Ira Berger / Alamy / ImageSelect, 110: Fairness / Plainpicture / NTB, 113: Sheila Fitzgerald / Shutterstock, 115: Derek Storm / Everett Collection / NTB, 116: Klaus Vedfelt / DigitalVision / Getty Images, 118: Martin Kellerman / Strand Comics, 121: Jerry Scott & Jim Borgman / Bulls Press, 124: TCD / Prod.DB / AlamyImageSelect, 129: TCD / Prod.DB / AlamyImageSelect, 132: bonniej / E+ / Getty Images, 134m: Granger / rex / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 134n: London Daily Mail Science Source / ImageSelect, 134ø: Nasa Via Cnp / Mega / NTB, 135m: Spencer Platt / Getty Images News, 135n: Nick Ut / AP / NTB, 135ø: Imma Gambardella / Shutterstock, 137m: Shutterstock, 137n: Roman Kosolapov / Shutterstock, 137ø: KK Stock / Shutterstock, 138: Anadolu Agency / Contributor / Getty Images, 141: Shutterstock, 142: Shutterstock, 148: Cuba Pictures UK Lobby Card / Poster Comedy / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 151: AF archive / Alamy Stock Photo, 156: Westend61 / Getty Images, 156øh: Peter Powell / EPA / NTB, 156øv: Ann Ronan Pictures / Heritage / NTB, 157øh: Shutterstock, 157øv: Andrew Parsons / rex / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 158n: Shutterstock, 158n: Shutterstock, 158n: Shutterstock, 158n: Shutterstock, 158øh: Mitch Gunn / Shutterstock, 158øm: David Morier / GL Archive / Alamy / ImageSelect, 159h: Nido Huebl / Shutterstock, 159m: Shutterstock, 159v: Charles McQuillant / Getty Images News, 160: Starcevic / iStock Unreleased / Getty Images, 161: SolStock / E+ / Getty Images, 163: Album / NTB, 164: nimis69 / E+ / Getty Images, 167: The Granger Collection / NTB, 168: Juanmonino / E+ / Getty Images, 176: 20th Century Fox / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 179: 20th Century Fox / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 182: Jonathan Bachman / AP / NTB, 184n: Jose Luis Pelaez Inc / DigitalVision / Getty Images, 184ø: John Moore / Staff / Getty Images News, 184: Tetra Images / Getty Images, 185mv: Shutterstock, 185nh: Hermsdorf / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 185øh: Shutterstock, 186øm: Pierre Jean Durieu / Shutterstock, 186øv: Luciano Mortula - LGM / Shutterstock, 186øv: The Washington Post / Contributo / Getty Images, 187øh: Shutterstock, 187øm: Shutterstock, 188: Shutterstock, 189: Shutterstock, 191: Niki Caro Mayhem Pictures / Walt Disney Pictures / Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 192: fitzcrittle / Shutterstock, 193n: Manuel Elias / UN Photo, 193ø: Michael Campanella / Contributor / Getty Images, 194n: Michael Zagaris / Getty Images Sport, 194ø: James D. Morgan / Contributor / Getty Images News, 197n: Linda Roy, 197ø: History and Art Collection / Alamy / ImageSelect, 200: Shutterstock, 202: Kent Enstrøm, 204: Shutterstock, 205øh: Thorfinn Bekkelund / Samfoto / NTB, 205: Shutterstock, 205: Shutterstock, 205: Shutterstock, 205: Shutterstock, 205: Shutterstock, 205: Shutterstock, 205: Shutterstock, 206: Anne Lise Storsand, 208: Shutterstock, 210: Shutterstock, 214nh: Denis_ Dryashkin / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 214: Shutterstock, 214: Shutterstock, 214: Shutterstock, 214: Shutterstock, 214: Shutterstock, 215: Science Museum London / Science and Society Picture Library, 221: DmyTo / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 221: Shutterstock, 221: Shutterstock, 221: Shutterstock, 221: Shutterstock, 221: Shutterstock, 224h: Christos Kalohoridis / Netflix / Everett Collection / NTB, 224m: Shutterstock, 224v: AF archive / Alamy / Imageselect, 225h: Shutterstock, 225m: Accent Alaska.com / Alamy / Imageselect, 225v: Ronnie Chua / Alamy / Imageselect, 228m: Shutterstock, 228n: Shutterstock, 228ø: Shutterstock, 229n: Chris Arend / Alamy / Imageselect, 229ø: Shutterstock, 234: Erik Hersman, 240: iFixit, 243: Shutterstock, 248: Shutterstock, 250: Shutterstock, 258: Lions Gate Entertainment, 264: Kent Enstrøm, 269: jamesbenet / E+ / Getty Images, 270nh: Science Photo Library / NTB, 270nm: Mary Evans Picture / NTB, 270nv: The Granger Collection / NTB, 270ø: Shutterstock, 271: Heiko Junge / NTB, 274: Shutterstock, 276: INTERFOTO Bildarchiv Hansmann / Imageselect, 276: Shutterstock, 278: AF archive / Alamy / Imageselect, 281: S.L. / Alamy / Imageselect, 282n: Shutterstock, 282ø: Science Photo Library / NTB, 283m: Shutterstock, 283n: Shutterstock editorial / NTB, 283ø: pifate / iStock / Getty Images Plus, 284: NASA Image Collection / Alamy / Imageselect, 288: Mario Tama / Getty Images News, 290: Wilfried Krecichwost / Getty Images, 293h: Eden Breitz / Alamy / ImageSelect, 293m: fotografz / Alamy Stock Photo / NTB, 293v: Charles Stirling / Alamy / ImageSelect, 294m: Sandra Wilmann, 294ø: Børge Lund / Strand Comics, 295: thesocialguidebook / Mondå Forlag, 296: SDI

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ENGLISH IS THE FIRST LANGUAGE

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Philadelphia

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WEST VIRGINIA

VIRGINIA

PACI F IC OCEAN

The Falkland Islands

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SKILLS er laget til fagfornyelsen for fellesfaget engelsk, yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogram.

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SKILLS kjennetegnes av • yrkesretting • nivå- og interessedifferensiering • systematisk øving av ferdigheter • språkglede • forståelse for egen læringsprosess

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Denne boka er skrevet for elever på Elektro og datateknologi.

Skills er en del av Skolestudio, et digitalt læringsmiljø for den videregående skole.

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ELEKTRO OG DATATEKNOLOGI

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Alle elever fortjener å møte tekster og oppgaver som oppleves som meningsfulle og relevante. SKILLS bidrar til mestring, motivasjon og gode leseopplevelser!