Janniche Langseth • Gro Lokøy • Hege Lundgren • Sidsel Hellesøy
Bygg- og anleggsteknikk Engelsk for yrkesfag Vg1/Vg2
© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2013 1. utgave, 1. opplag Læreboka er skrevet etter gjeldende læreplan i engelsk Vg2, yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogram Printed in Norway by: 07 Media – 07.no, 2013 ISBN 978-82-05-40310-9 Redaktør: Kari Anne G. Arnkværn Bilderedaktør: Sissel Falck Design og layout: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Design Omslagsdesign: Dimitri Kayiambakis/Concorde Design Omslagsfoto: Jaro Hollan/Statsbygg Kart på omslagets innside: Kart & grafikk, Gerd Eng Kielland Gyldendal Norsk Forlag ASA is grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given their permission for the use of copyright material. As it has proved impossible to identify all the material used, the publishers would welcome information from the copyright owners. Det må ikke kopieres fra denne boka i strid med åndsverkloven eller avtaler om kopiering inngått med KOPINOR, interesseorgan for rettighetshavere til åndsverk. Kopiering i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Alle henvendelser om forlagets utgivelser kan rettes til: Gyldendal Undervisning Redaksjonen for videregående skole Postboks 6860 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo E-post: firstname.lastname@example.org www.gyldendal.no/undervisning Alle Gyldendals bøker er produsert i miljøsertifiserte trykkerier. Se www.gyldendal.no/miljo
Dear student, Welcome to SKILLS, written specifically for your vocational programme. SKILLS covers the full 5-hour course in English at the Vg1 and Vg2 levels of upper secondary school. In this textbook you will find many different types of tasks. The wide range of exercises and activities will help you improve your English. Many of these tasks are differentiated. This means you can choose activities that you will master, but also that there are some that will challenge you. In every chapter you will be asked to work systematically with your speaking and writing skills – step by step – from short oral presentations to structuring a text. You will learn to use different reading and listening strategies, and to use your digital competence when searching for and presenting information. There is also a wide variety of texts in SKILLS. You will be asked to read or listen to short stories, excerpts from novels and films, a play, poems, news articles, fact files and factual texts. We have chosen texts that we hope will entertain, inspire and interest you. At the end of Vg2 there may be an exam waiting for you. By working systematically with the texts and tasks, SKILLS will prepare you for that. At the end of this textbook, we have included suggestions of how to prepare for both a written exam and an oral exam. We trust that working with SKILLS will give you new experiences and help you develop your language skills - which in turn will help you in your chosen career and in everyday life. More than one billion people around the world communicate in English. You are one of them, and we hope you will do it well. Best wishes, the authors SKILLS: English for vocational studies consists of the following components: • SKILLS textbook • web site for students • web site for teachers • Smartbok basic version • Smartbok plus version, including BASIC SKILLS
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 EXPECTATIONS 10 2 LOOKING BACK 44 3 THAT’S LIFE 78 4 SAFE AND SOUND 122 5 CULTURAL AFFAIRS 160 6 Tools and Materials 214 7 GLOBAL CHALLENGES 260 8 GOING PRO 300 9 OTHER VOICES 334 10 TOMORROW AND BEYOND 396
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
Expectations page 10 TITLE
This Is Me
English? Why English?
Learning New Words in English
Listening exercise Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies
Maybe You Should Know Something About Me by Nick Hornby
The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins
Read and Remember
Improve your SKILLS: Reading strategies
Dreams by Langston Hughes
Nouns and Articles
looking back page 44
Milestones in Construction
Using a Dictionary
Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens
Oliver Twist – Film or Novel?
Sharing Information: Show and Tell
Isambard Kingdom Brunel: A Portrait
Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies
Improve your SKILLS: Speaking
Tom Builder Draws the Cathedral by Ken Follett
Preserving the Past
Verbs: Tenses and Concord
Listening exercise Language Lab
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
that’s life page 78 TITLE
TEXT TYPE Poem
Nice Ass by Jesse Cameron Alick
What Makes Me Happy
Does My Head Look Big In This? by Randa Abdel-Fattah
Improve your SKILLS: Writing
Paranoia by Nikki Sixx
Teacher’s Online Horror
Using Formal and Informal Language
Dear Mama by Tupac Shakur
Improve your SKILLS: Speaking, writing
Finding My Way by Kevin W. Batch
Talking to the Boss
Sticks and Stones by Ruby Redfort
safe and sound page 122
Writing a Report
Improve your SKILLS: Writing
Hollywood is Fake by Judd Hampton
Improve your SKILLS: Speaking, writing
The Miracle Mineral
Shantaram by Gregory David Roberts
Adjectives and Adverbs
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
cultural affairs page 160 TITLE
English – a World Language
Varieties of English
Unrelated Incidents by Tom Leonard
Using the Internet as a Source of Information
Slumdog Millionaire by Vikas Swarup
Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies, digital competence
Writing a Film Review
Improve your SKILLS: Writing
Remember the Titans
Aspects of Culture and Values
Boy A by Jonathan Trigell
The British by Benjamin Zéphaniah
What I Do at Work
Improve your SKILLS: Listening
How to Build a Solid House
A Carpenter's Gift
Writing a Five-Paragraph Text
Improve your SKILLS: Writing
A Rat and Some Renovations by Bernard MacLaverty
I Hear America Singing by Walt Whitman
Pronouns + It/There
Tools and Materials page 214
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
global challenges page 260 TITLE
Making a Difference
Writing a Formal Letter
Improve your SKILLS: Writing
Trainers – A True Story
Giving an Oral Presentation
Improve your SKILLS: Speaking
A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah
Look at Africa by Alexander McCall Smith
Apostrophe + Direct/Indirect Speech
8| On Call-Out
Understanding and Using Statistics
Improve your SKILLS: Numeric competence
Speaking to Convince
Improve your SKILLS: Speaking
Building Bridges by Andrea Davis Pinkney
The Construction Process
Bugs in the Air by Aaron Derfel
The Road Ahead
The Road Ahead: The A14
Listening exercise Language Lab
GOING PRO page 300
•• •• ••
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
other voices page 334 TITLE
We Are More by Shane Koyczan
Nunavut – Inuit Territory
The Hockey Sweater by Roch Carrier
Working With Short Stories and Novels
Improve your SKILLS: Reading, writing
The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie
Powhiri by Jacq Carter
New Zealand’s Maori Culture
Using and Referring to Sources
Improve your SKILLS: Learning strategies
The Stolen Generation
The Muster by Ali Lewis
Preparing for the Worst
Uglies by Scott Westerfeld
tomorrow and beyond page 396 Factual text
Easily Confused Words
Cross-curricular topics and project work
Preparing for a Written Exam
Preparing for an Oral Exam
In this chapter, you will focus on
• communication in different situations and cultures • why English is useful • learning new words • how to read and remember • nouns and articles Useful words and phrases introduction dictionary upper secondary school communication culture social skills body language behaviour society globalisation
Are you up for a new start?
After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ speak
about Sharon and Leo and their plans for the future ▶▶ use some words related to work and construction ▶▶ present yourself in a short written text
This Is Me Hi – I’m Sharon! This year I’ll start vocational school in Caernarvon in Wales. I have to leave my family and live at school, because in the village where I come from there are no schools covering my interests. I have decided to become a painter/ decorator. This is something that interests me, and I plan to specialize in restoration work, using old techniques but with new tools and materials. I hope to get a job once I’ve got my journeyman’s certificate. I’m really looking forward to this year – to meeting new friends and learning a trade through practical work – not just books.
upper secondary school videregående skole (UK)/ videregåande skule (UK) painter/decorator maler restoration restaurering, bevaring trade yrke journeyman’s certificate svennebrev mason murer entrepreneur entreprenør tinsmith blikkenslager roofer taktekker
My name is Leo. I’m from Salford in the north west of England. This year I’ll start upper secondary school in Manchester. I’m not very keen on schoolwork, but I like to be part of a team, and I like to make myself useful. My father started out as a mason, and now he’s an entrepreneur with his own construction company. Both my brothers are already involved in the family firm. That’s the main reason I have decided to become a tinsmith, or roofer, but in the future I would like to set up my own business – you know, be my own boss. If my plans don’t work out, I may try for a career as a racecar driver because that’s my big passion in life!
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Read and understand
1.1 Put these words in the right order. a in school start Sharon Caernarvon will. b a tinsmith wants to Leo become or a roofer. c this year Sharon forward is really looking to. d secondary Leo will start school in Manchester upper. e new forward to is meeting Sharon looking friends. f Racecar passion driving is big in life Leo’s.
1.2 Answer these questions. Work in pairs. a What are Sharon’s plans for the future? b What does Leo want to do? c What do the two have in common? d What is it like to start at a new school? To answer this question, you may want to use some of these adjectives: nice, cool, interesting, terrifying, scary, challenging, exciting.
1.3 Match the words from the text with the right Norwegian translation. 1 praktisk arbeid a tinsmith 2 yrke b look forward to 3 svennebrev c roofer 4 se fram til d trade 5 videregående skole e practical work 6 taktekker f upper secondary school 7 restaurering g make myself useful 8 lidenskap h painter/decorator 9 blikkenslager i journeyman’s certificate 10 gjøre nytte for meg j restoration 11 maler k career 12 karriere l passion
After working with the text and exercises,
I can use some words related to work and construction.
1.4 Who are you? Write a short text by completing these sentences. Hi, my name is … I live in … I like to … In the future, I would like to …
How did you do?
I can speak about Sharon and Leo and their plans for the future. YES
I can present myself in a short written text. YES
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 13
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After working with the listening text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ give
at least two good reasons for learning English ▶▶ talk about your own motivation for learning English ▶▶ give your teacher information about your English skills
Before you start You are used to learning English. Do you sometimes wonder what all the work is good for?
English? Why English? Listen and understand
1.5 Listen carefully to Ali, Karoline, Henrik and Tom, and answer the questions afterwards. Ali
What speaker likes to play games online? What speaker says communicating in English is important for business? Who talks about working abroad? Who talks about interesting magazines in English? Who says Norway depends on international contact? Who thinks lyrics are important to songs? Who wants to be able to communicate well with foreign customers?
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 15
1.6 Answer these questions. Work in pairs. a What motivation do you have for learning English? b Do you agree with any of the speakers? c Why is it useful for you to learn English? 1.7 Interview a classmate. Use the questions below. Present your results in class. a How do you feel about learning English this year? b What do you expect to read about? c Do you know any good ways to learn new words? d What do you think is easiest? Is it speaking, reading, writing or just understanding? e In what situations do you learn English? f How much time are you prepared to spend on learning English every week?
1.8 Fill in the missing words. customers – profession – have to – important – polite – language a Knowing English is for several reasons. b In your future , you will have to deal with English speaking clients, and even colleagues. c You will need to know how to be , not just being understood. d And you will be able to speak and write, not only understand the . 1.9 Pretend that you are at a party where you know very few people. Introduce yourselves to each other, small talk for a little while, and then walk on to other guests. Introduce the people you have just met to other people at the party as well. Act out the situation. Here are some useful expressions to help you get started: – Hi, how are you? How do you do? Hello, I'm ... Pleased to meet you! – May I introduce my friend...? Have you met...? – Nice talking to you! I've really enjoyed meeting you! Do excuse me, I must say hello to... – Hope to see you again! Good bye! Thank you so much!
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1.10 Write a few sentences about what you are good at and what you find challenging when learning English.
1.11 Use the Internet to find information. a How many people in the world speak English as their first language? b Name at least five countries where English is an official language.
Did you know
People speak English in countries all over the world. This is because Britain had many colonies in the past. English became the international language for business and government in the British Empire. Since the 20th century, American culture has become more dominant. Today American films, music and TV-programs are popular almost everywhere.
How did you do? After working with the listening text and exercises, I can give at least two good reasons for learning English. YES
I can talk about my own motivation for learning English. YES
Sometimes you may have to modify your language to be understood.
I can give my teacher information about my English skills. YES
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 17
improve your skills Learning New Words in English Learning a language means learning new words, all the time. How can we do this? Most importantly, get into the habit of looking up words you donâ€™t know. If you are using an online dictionary or have downloaded a dictionary program on your computer, keep it open and at hand. Here are some suggestions on how you can learn new words systematically. 1 Make your own English word bank Write down words and phrases in a separate book. From each lesson, choose the words you think will be most useful for you. Write them down in two columns, the English word in the first and the Norwegian translation in the second. Practise writing them and saying them out loud. Hide one column and check if you remember what is hidden. 2 Use memory cards Write down three to five new words on one side of a card. Write the Norwegian translations on the other side. Test yourself without flipping the card over, or ask someone else to test your memory by holding up one side of the card. Play Memory Game! 3 Use illustrations Many students remember new words more easily if they are illustrated. In your word bank or on your memory cards, you can make drawings or copy pictures. Cover the new word with your hand, and try to remember by looking at the picture. 4 Use post-it notes In the workshop, the kitchen, the clinic, the laboratory, the classroom etc., you are surrounded by things, tools and equipment. Write down their names on post-it notes and place them on some of the things. Every time you look at them, you are reminded of what they are called in English. 5 Make word groups If you group words together in topics, you may find that they are easier to remember. Start with one word or expression, and make a word map.
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improve your skills carpenter
6 Use and practise Write a list of words that you want to learn. Practise by writing sentences where you use the new words as many times as possible. 7 Use the new words when you speak and write For your next oral presentation or written assignment, make sure you use some of the new words. Once you start using the new words actively, it will be much easier to remember them later.
Practise 1.12 Now try at least two of the suggestions above on the text you are going to read on page 21, â€œMaybe You Should Know Something About Me.â€? Make a note of which method works best for you.
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 19
After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain
Maybe You Should Know Something About Me
what the story is about ▶▶ introduce yourself ▶▶ talk and write about social skills in general ▶▶ find your way in this book
Before you start If you were going to introduce yourself to people you have never met before, which three or four facts would you mention? Write down some keywords.
In Slam (2007), we meet 15-year-old Sam who must deal with adult challenges. He discovers how small actions may change one’s life dramatically. Here is the beginning of the novel. So things were ticking along quite nicely. In fact, I’d say that good stuff had been happening pretty solidly for about six months. – For example: Mum got rid of Steve, her rubbish boyfriend. – For example: Mrs Gillett, my art and design teacher took me to one side after a lesson and asked whether I’d thought of doing art at college. – For example: I’d learned two new skating tricks, suddenly, after weeks of making an idiot of myself in public. (I’m guessing that not all of you are skaters, so I should say something straight away, just so there are no terrible misunderstandings. Skating = skateboarding. We never say skateboarding, usually, so if you keep thinking of me messing around on ice, then it’s your own stupid fault.) All that, and I’d met Alicia too. I was going to say that maybe you should know something about me before I go off about my mum and Alicia and all that. If you knew something about me, you might actually care about some of those things. But then, looking at what I just wrote, you know quite a lot already, or at least you
ticking along rusler og går/ ruslar og går pretty solidly jevnt og trutt/ jamt og trutt get rid of bli kvitt rubbish søppel in public offentlig/offentleg actually faktisk
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 21
unless hvis ikke, bortsett fra/ dersom ikkje, bortsett frå apply for søke på/søkje på subject fag punch slå til weird merkelig/merkeleg paragraph avsnitt incredibly utrolig/utruleg pathetic patetisk, latterlig/ patetisk, latterleg carry on fortsette/halde fram, gå vidare get divorced bli skilt/bli skild clear up klarne opp, ordne seg
could have guessed a lot of it. You could have guessed that my mum and dad don’t live together, for a start, unless you thought that my dad was the sort of person who wouldn’t mind his wife having boyfriends. Well, he’s not. You could have guessed that I skate, and you could have guessed that my best subject at school was art and design, unless you thought I might be the sort of person who’s always being taken to one side and told to apply for college by all the teachers in every subject. You know, and the teachers actually fight over me. “No, Sam! Forget art! Do physics!” “Forget physics! It would be a tragedy for the human race if you gave up French!” And then they all start punching each other. Yeah, well. That sort of thing really, really doesn’t happen to me. I can promise you, I have never ever caused a fight between teachers. And you don’t need to be Sherlock Holmes or whatever to work out that Alicia was a girl who meant something to me. I’m glad there are things you don’t know and can’t guess, weird things, things that have only ever happened to me in the whole history of the world, as far as I know. If you were able to guess it all from that first little paragraph, I’d start to worry that I wasn’t an incredibly complicated and interesting person, ha ha. This was a couple of years ago – this time when things were ticking along OK – so I was fifteen, nearly sixteen. And I don’t want to sound pathetic, and I really don’t want you to feel sorry for me, but this feeling that my life was OK was new to me. I’d never had the feeling before, and I haven’t really had it since. I don’t mean to say that I’d been unhappy. It was more that there had always been something wrong before, somewhere – something to worry about. For instance, my parents were getting divorced, and they were fighting. Or they’d finished getting divorced, but they were still fighting anyway, because they carried on fighting long after they got divorced. Or maths wasn’t going very well – I hate maths – or I wanted to go out with someone who didn’t want to go out with me ... All of this had just sort of cleared up, suddenly, without me noticing, really, the way the weather does sometimes. And that summer there seemed to be more money around. My mum was working, and my dad wasn’t as angry with her, which meant he was giving us what he ought to have been giving us all the time. So, you know. That helped. nick hornby Nick Hornby (1957–) is a British writer. He is famous for his many novels about people in different situations who try to cope with their everyday life. Many of his novels have been made into successful films.
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Read and understand
1.13 • Choose the right alternative in each sentence. a Sam has a talent for French / art and design / physics. b Sam likes ice skating / his mother’s boyfriend / skateboarding. c Sam lives with his parents / mother / father. d Sam was unused / used / not used to feeling his life was OK. e Sam’s parents have quarreled a lot / usually had a good relationship / no contact. 1.14 •• Write one sentence about each of the characters in the text. a Sam b Alicia c mum d dad e Mrs. Gillett f Steve 1.15 Sherlock Holmes is referred to in the text. Who is he?
1.16 Discuss the following questions. a Which four facts about Sam do we learn in the beginning? b Which four facts did you and your partner mention about yourselves in the prereading activity? c Based on the information you have shared, introduce your partner to the rest of your class. Start with: I would like to introduce …
1.17 How would you start the story of your life, your autobiography? Write the first paragraph.
1.18 Get to know your English book. Leaf through this book and answer the following questions. a What kind of information do you find in the table of contents (page 5–9)? b What different kinds of texts can you find in chapter 3? c What seem to be the main topics in chapter 5? d Give examples of texts or tasks related to your specific field of study. e Do you find activities related to films? f Do you find any activities where you practise listening? g Are there any grammar tasks in this book? h Are all the tasks on the same level of difficulty? i Do you find any song lyrics in this book? j Based on what you have seen so far, what do you expect to learn about this year? Make a list.
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 23
Test Your Social Skills
1a = 2 points, 1b = 1 point, 1c = 3 points.
You are invited to a party, what do you bring to the host or hostess? a A CD with your favorite music. b Some old clothes that you had planned to get rid of. c A box of chocolate or flowers.
You meet a new person but he or she tells you to bugger off. What do you do? a Leave immediately. b Punch him or her in the face. c Sit down and try to pick up a conversation with him or her.
You work with a person who smells bad because he or she rarely changes clothes. a You say he or she stinks and tell him or her to stay away from you. b You carefully suggest he or she should shower and change more often. c You don’t say anything but avoid him or her all the time.
You meet a person that you actually don’t like but he or she seems to like you. a You pretend to be interested in keeping up a conversation. b You make an excuse to escape from the room. c You tell the person that you are not interested and to get lost.
At work, a bothersome customer shows up in your office to complain about your work. a You assume he or she is right and promise that you will look into the problem and call back. b You assure the customer that you always do your best and that you find it unlikely that you have made a mistake. c You make it clear that you don’t believe him or her and tell him or her to leave.
You see a person who is blind, but he or she doesn’t know that you are there. a You introduce yourself and take the person’s hand to greet him or her. b You avoid the person and sneak out quietly. c You talk to the other people in the room and leave the blind person alone.
2a = 2 points, 2b = 1 point, 2c = 3 points. 3a = 1 point, 3b = 3 points, 3c = 2 points. 4a = 3 points, 4b = 2 points, 4c = 1 point. 5a = 3 points, 5b = 2 points, 5c = 1 point. 6a = 3 points, 6b = 1 point, 6c = 2 points. Points: 15–18 You have an open mind and seem to be a sociable and friendly person. You act according to the rules of good behavior and are probably a popular person. Points: 10–14 You have fairly well developed social skills and will probably get along with most people, even though you may risk to offend some of the people that cross your path. Points: 6–9 Your social skills do not seem to be too great, maybe you should work on your behavior to avoid annoying people you meet?
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1.19 In pairs, discuss the results. Do you agree with the conclusion? Is this you? 1.20 Do you behave any differently when you are among friends your own age than at a dinner party with elderly relatives present? 1.21 Do you treat people differently online than in real life?
1.22 • Write a list of social skills that are important to you. 1.23 •• What social skills are important to young people today? Write a short text.
1.24 Use the Internet or other sources. Find information about how people introduce themselves to others in different cultures around the world. Write down your findings and use illustrations. How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the story is about. Yes
I can introduce myself to a stranger. YES
I can talk and write about social skills in general. Yes
I can find my way in this book. Yes
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 25
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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ retell
what happens when Katniss performs for the Gamemakers ▶▶ describe the basic content of the first book of the Hunger Games trilogy ▶▶ express your opinion about violent content in films for young adults
The Hunger Games In a dark vision of the near future, twelve boys and twelve girls are forced to appear in a live TV-show called The Hunger Games. The basic rule is: stay alive until the end. In the country of Panem people in the districts are poor and they are oppressed by the authorities in the Capitol. The Hunger Games is a reminder of The Dark Days when the districts rebelled and were brutally put back into place. Every year the names of two tributes are drawn from a glass bowl, a public event watched by a crowd struck with horror. When sixteen-year-old Katniss Everdeen from District Twelve hears her little sister’s name being drawn from the bowl, she steps forward to take her place in the games. Together with Peeta, whose name is drawn from the boys’ bowl, Katniss leaves for the Capitol to train and fight for her life. To gain support by sponsors, it is important to impress the Gamemakers. All the tributes get a chance to show their personal skills. Katniss is an experienced hunter. When it is her turn to perform, she goes for the bow and arrow.
oppressed undertrykket / undertrykt authorities myndigheter / styresmakter reminder påminnelse / påminning brutally brutalt tribute offer, hyllest public offentlig / offentleg event hendelse, show / hending, show struck with slått av horror skrekk impress imponere
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 27
slate sette opp / setje opp linger bli værende / ble verande summon kalle inn weights vekter nod nikke smooth glatte instantly øyeblikkelig / med ein gong archery bueskyting / bogeskyting itch klø arrow pil flawless feilfri uniform likeformede / likeforma sling slenge quiver beholder/ behaldar til piler shooting range skytefelt bulls-eye blink human silhouettes omriss av menneskekropper/ menneskekroppar target mål dummy dukke / dokke rigid stram humiliated ydmyket / audmjuka initial opprinnelige / opphavlege skewer spidde sever splitte shower dusj spark gnist / gneiste fixture (lys-)armatur approval anerkjennelse / anerkjenning fixated fiksert roast pig stekt gris / steikt gris
On the third day of training, they start to call us out of lunch for our private sessions with the Gamemakers. District by district, first the boy, then the girl tribute. As usual, District 12 is slated to go last. We linger in the dining room, unsure where else to go. No one comes back once they have left. As the room empties, the pressure to appear friendly lightens. By the time they call Rue, we are left alone. We sit in silence until they summon Peeta. He rises. “Remember what Haymitch said about being sure to throw the weights.” The words come out of my mouth without permission. “Thanks, I will,” he says. “You … shoot straight.” I nod. I don’t know why I said anything at all. Although if I’m going to lose, I’d rather Peeta win than the others. Better for our district, for my mother and Prim. After about fifteen minutes, they call my name. I smooth my hair, set my shoulders back, and walk into the gymnasium. Instantly, I know I’m in trouble. They’ve been here too long, the Gamemakers. Sat through twentythree other demonstrations. Had too much wine, most of them. Want more than anything to go home. There’s nothing I can do but continue with the plan. I walk to the archery station. Oh, the weapons! I’ve been itching to get my hands on them for days! Bows made of wood and plastic and metal and materials I can’t even name. Arrows with feathers cut in flawless uniform lines. I choose a bow, string it, and sling the matching quiver of arrows over my shoulder. There’s a shooting range, but it’s much too limited. Standard bull’s-eyes and human silhouettes. I walk to the center of the gymnasium and pick my first target. The dummy used for knife practice. Even as I pull back on the bow I know something is wrong. The string’s tighter than the one I use at home. The arrow’s more rigid. I miss the dummy by a few centimeters and lose what little attention I had got. For a moment, I’m humiliated; then I head back to the bull’s-eye. I shoot again and again until I get the feel of these new weapons. Back in the center of the gymnasium, I take my initial position and skewer the dummy right through the heart. Then I sever the rope that holds the sandbag of boxing, and the bag splits open as it slams to the ground. Without pausing, I shoulder-roll forward, come up on one knee, and send an arrow into one of the hanging lights high above the gymnasium floor. A shower of sparks bursts from the fixture. It’s excellent shooting. I turn to the Gamemakers. A few are nodding approval, but the majority of them are fixated on a roast pig that has just arrived at their banquet table. Suddenly I am furious, that with my life on the line, they don’t even have the decency to pay attention to me. That I’m being upstaged by a dead pig. My heart starts to pound, I can feel my face burning. Without thinking, I
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pull an arrow from my quiver and send it straight at the Gamemakers’ table. I hear shouts of alarm as people stumble back. The arrow skewers the apple in the pig’s mouth and pins it to the wall behind it. Everyone stares at me in disbelief. “Thank you for your consideration,” I say. Then I give a slight bow and walk straight towards the exit without being dismissed. suzanne collins
decency anstendighet / anstendigheit upstaged by overskygget av / overskygd av shouts of alarm redselsskrik disbelief vantro / vantru consideration omtanke be dismissed få lov til å gå
Suzanne Collins (1962–) is an American writer of science fiction, fantasy, and literature for children and young adults. She started her career as a writer of television series for children. The Hunger Games trilogy was released between 2008 and 2010, and became a huge success. The film version of the first book became even more popular.
Read and understand
1.25 • Fill in the missing words, and write down the complete sentences. districts – place – attention – tributes – arranged – hunter – impress – feels a The Hunger Games takes in the country of Panem. b It is once a year. c Young people from 12 are picked to participate. d Katniss and Peeta are the from District 12. e Katniss is an experienced . f Katniss tries to the Gamemakers with her skills with the bow and arrow. g When she misses, she humiliated. h In the end, Katniss gets the Gamemakers’ . 1.26 •• Translate into Norwegian the sentences you completed in task 1.25. 1.27 ••• Answer the following questions. a How does Katniss become a tribute? b Why is Katniss itching to get to the bows and arrows? c Why is it important that Katniss performs well in front of the Gamemakers? d Why does Katniss miss her target? e Why are the Gamemakers not paying attention to Katniss? f How does Katniss feel about being ignored? g How does Katniss finally get the Gamemakers’ attention? h How does she finish her performance?
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 29
1.28 When the film version of The Hunger Games was released, it brought about a discussion about its violent content in the media. Read the statements below and discuss in class. Based on what you know about the film, which statement do you agree with the most? “Me and my 12-year old left the cinema before the film was over. There was too much gore and blood. Is this really a film for young adults?” Mother from Leeds “Even if you do not see all the violence, you know it is happening. The implicated killings do not make things any better. It makes it even more shocking to youngsters. Still, my 11-year-old son loved the film.” Vera B. Cardiff “What I like about the film is the main character, Katniss Everdeen. First, she voluntarily takes her sister’s place in the games. She is a character young people can relate to, an action hero, a loyal friend, compassionate and athletic. Still, she has emotions that teenagers recognise. A true heroine, in my opinion.” “Bookmark, 95” “The British Board of Film Classification asked for less blood to give the film a 12 year rating. The rating is not the problem, it’s the manuscript itself. The film should never have been made!” Granny Belle “There are issues in The Hunger Games well worth thinking through. The way the districts are oppressed, the role of the media, how violence is used as entertainment and the public interest for reality shows… It is all there, in the books and the film. As consumers in the Western world we can relate to all of this. The violence in itself is a minor problem. Sometimes art is an eye opener. This story is important!” Pinky, 22
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1.29 Discuss the following questions. a How important are first impressions? b What is more important? Expectations from others, or expecting things from yourself? c Can expectations be helpful in some situations? Explain.
1.30 Match the English words with the Norwegian translations. Use a dictionary to look up words you don’t know. 1 mål a impress 2 undertrykket b disbelief 3 myndigheter c approval 4 feilfri d attention 5 ydmyket e perform 6 imponere f target 7 oppmerksomhet g flawless 8 opptre, prestere h humiliated 9 vantro i oppressed 10 anerkjennelse j authorities
How did you do?
1.31 • Write five sentences about Katniss, using words from the list in 1.30. 1.32 •• Write an answer to one of the statements listed on page 30. 1.33 ••• Imagine Katniss being alone in her room, after the humiliating experience before the Gamemakers. Write a letter as you imagine she could have written it, to her best friend Gale back in District 12.
1.34 a Search the Internet and find out what inspired Suzanne Collins to write The Hunger Games. b Search the Internet for the filmed version of the scene described in this excerpt. Is this how you pictured it when you read the text?
After working with the text and exercises, I can retell what happens when Katniss performs for the Gamemakers. Yes almOST NO
I can describe the basic content of the first book in The Hunger Games trilogy. Yes almOST NO
I can express my opinion about violent content in films for young adults. Yes almOST NO
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improve your skills Read and Remember Have you ever spent hours reading about something, and still, when you need to remember what you read, it is all gone? Wouldn’t it be nice if we could study texts and remember them well?
The Helpful Hand Follow these five good steps. 1 Prepare yourself Prepare yourself for reading. Protect yourself against disturbances. What do you already know about this topic? Study the pictures, and read what is written in connection with illustrations. What are the headlines here? What do they tell you about the topic?
revise repetere advice råd trade yrke vocabulary ordforråd opportunities muligheter/ sjansar, tilbod, moglegheiter commit forplikte progress framgang a wide range et stort utvalg/eit stort utval topic emne skim skumlese thoroughly grundig prefer foretrekke/favorisere, velje, setje høgare look up slå opp memorize lære utenat/lære utanåt summary summere opp structure oppbygging paragraph avsnitt content innhold/innhald contest konkurranse
2 Read There are three different reading strategies to choose from. Skim through the text. When you have got an overview, ask yourself: What is this text about? Your answer should be just one or two words at this point. Scan. Sometimes you need to scan a text for specific information. Practice will make you good at this. Close read. Study the text thoroughly. Write down words you need to start using when writing and talking about this topic. Use a dictionary when necessary. 3 Tasks Now that you have read the text and understood the content, work on the tasks and activities. Write a short summary of the text, for example by writing one sentence for each paragraph of the text. 4 Learn new words Why not work with a friend? Use memo notes. Use your mobile phone. Make a contest. If you learn five new words every week, how much is that during a school year? You find good advice in the text on page 18. 5 Revise When you have studied the text, learned the words and worked on the tasks, you still need to read the text again. Listening to the sound file is also a good way to revise. You could also make your own recording.
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improve your skills Practise 1.35 Put the words in the correct order. a smart There to ways study are. b remember what you want have Repeat read if you to it. c the before Get it overview of text you an study. d about is words English learning Learning. e you friend Work a when revise with. 1.36 What are the steps in order to read and remember? Put the sentences below in the correct order. a Do the tasks and activities made for you in connection with the text. b Write down words you need to start using. c Work with a friend when you learn the words. d Skim through the text. e Get ready to study by turning off sources that might distract you. f Read the headlines. g Read thoroughly and slowly. h Revise words and content. 1.37 Complete the following sentences. a Skimming means to … b Scanning means to … c Close reading means to … 1.38 Look at the illustration again, and learn the principles of reading and remembering, by heart. 1.39 What is your main challenge when it comes to homework? Turning off the phone? Learning the words? Identify your main challenge, and plan how you want to work on this. 1.40 Use the advice from this text when you go on to study the text “Across Borders”, on page 34.
Did you know
Learning styles. Some of us remember better what we see than what we hear. Others remember better what they can work on with their hands, and experience physically. If you know what your preferred learning style is, you will be able to plan your studies accordingly, and hopefully this will help you learn and remember.
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 33
Across Borders The world seems to become smaller. We travel more than only a few decades ago and are also more likely to have neighbours or friends from a foreign culture. Humans have migrated or explored new areas since they first appeared in Africa about 2 million years ago. However, it is only in the last centuries that we have travelled across the world, thanks to the great explorers of the 1600s and 1700s. The mass tourism and migration we see today has only lasted for around fifty years. 34 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills
Before you start Today, people travel a lot. We meet new cultures and people who live and behave differently from how we do. What are the advantages of meeting people from other places? What are the challenges? Discuss in class.
New skills The movement of people across borders and continents has led to globalisation and cultural diversity. We see an increase in international trade, business, education and communication, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This diversity has a lot of positive aspects. However, it may also cause misunderstandings, culture clash and even conflicts. Therefore we need new skills and a cultural awareness that can help us interpret and understand what we hear and see when we meet new people.
After working with this text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ speak
and write about the meaning of globalisation ▶▶ give some examples of cultural differences ▶▶explain what culture is
Defining culture What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as individuals and as part of a family and a society. Cultural differences are traditions and behaviour, like the food we eat, the clothes we wear, our political, social and religious values and maybe most important, our language. Each culture will have linguistic features which may not be obvious to foreigners. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as so important that they will say “yes” in the sense “Yes, I hear you” while other cultures will interpret it as a “Yes, I agree.” They will say “this may be difficult” when they mean to say “this is impossible”. Asian pupils consider it rude to tell their teacher that they don’t understand his or her instructions. Imagine the consequences if this person was teaching the pupils how to swim!
Non-verbal communication Body language is another issue. Actually, facial expressions for happiness and sadness seem to be quite universal, but there are other features one should be more aware of. For example, to what extent do we touch or look at people we meet? How do we use our voice and gestures? When we meet a friend, we may use a hand shake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek, a bow or press noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. This shows that body language can cause misunderstandings. Also, which finger do you use for pointing? In the western world we use the index finger but in other cultures they use the middle finger or the thumb. All this shows us that communication across borders can be a challenging experience. However, it is also important to remember that, although we are part of a set of traditions and customs, we are also individuals with our own personal features and behaviour. What is, in your opinion, a typical Norwegian? Is there such a creature at all? Although it is important to be aware of cultural differences, it is equally important to avoid having a stereotypical view of people.
decade tiår likely sannsynlig/sannsynleg appear dukke opp migrate vandre, forflytte seg/ vandre, flytte seg explorers oppdagere/ utforskarar, oppdagarar diversity mangfold/mangfald increase øke/auke ethnic etnisk aspect side av en sak, synsvinkel/side av ei sak, synsvinkel skills ferdigheter/ferdigheiter awareness bevissthet/medvit interpret tolke society samfunn behaviour oppførsel/åtferd values verdier/verdiar linguistic features språktrekk obvious åpenbar/opplagd interpret tolke intercultural mellom kulturer/ mellom kulturar non-verbal ikkje-språklig/ikkjespråkleg features trekk gestures håndbevegelser/ handrørsler Maoris folkegruppe på New Zealand index finger pekefinger/ peikefinger features trekk equally important like viktig stereotypical view fastlåst bilde av/fastlåst bilete av
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 35
People travel a lot these days. It has become quite common to have friends or neighbours from a foreign culture. Humans have always been on the move. However, the mass tourism and migration we see today has only lasted for around fifty years. New skills Globalisation means that there is contact between people around the world, in many ways. Business and education are reasons to travel, and different ethnic groups live side by side in most cities. This is both positive and challenging. We need new skills so that we understand what we hear and see when we meet new people. Defining culture What is culture? It is the way we think and act, as individuals and as part of a family and a society. Even if we think we understand each other, there may be problems. For example, can we always be certain that a “yes” really means “yes”? The Chinese and Japanese regard harmony as extremely important and will often say “yes” in the sense “Yes, I hear you”. People from other cultures will hear “Yes, I agree.” Moreover, some will say “this may be difficult” when meaning “this is impossible”!
foreign utenlandsk/ utanlandsk migration forflytning/flytting globalisation globalisering ethnic etnisk challenging utfordrende/ utfordrande culture kultur society samfunn certain sikker regard se på, betrakte/sjå på, vurdere, studere non-verbal ikke-verbal/ikkjeverbal greet hilse/helse complicate komplisere individuals enkeltmennesker/ enkeltmenneske habit vane creature skapning avoid unngå equally important like viktig stereotypical view fastlåst bilde/fastlåst bilete
Non-verbal communication Our body language is a part of our communication. We may greet a friend with a handshake, a hug, a kiss on the cheek, a bow or by pressing noses like the Maoris do. Another example is how the Greek shake their heads when they say “yes”. Meeting a person with a different body language may complicate our communication. In spite of cultural differences, we are also individuals with our own personal habits. What is, in your opinion a typical Norwegian? Is there such a creature at all? Although it is important to be aware of cultural differences, it is equally important to avoid having a stereotypical view of people.
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Read and understand
1.41 • Read the statements and decide whether they are true or false. True
a Travelling to foreign countries has only taken place for around 50 years. b Economy and education are important reasons why we meet new cultures today. c The word culture refers mostly to art and music. d The way we dress and our cooking traditions are also part of our culture. e The word “Yes” will always be a sign of full agreement. f Non-verbal communication means to speak a foreign language. g Facial expressions are very different from culture to culture. h Hand gestures may also have a different meaning in different cultures. i Having a stereotypical view of people will help you communicate well.
1.42 •• Answer these questions by scanning the text. a What is globalisation? b What is meant by the expression “culture”? c How can the word “yes” mean different things? d Based on information from the text, give examples of body language that varies in different cultures. e What is the meaning of the word stereotype? Look it up in a dictionary.
1.43 Study the following signs. Explain what makes these signs funny or wrong.
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 37
1.44 All cultures have expressions and sayings related to their languages or geographical areas. Study the cartoon below. a Which are the two sayings the Norwegian uses? How does the other character respond to them? b Draw a fourth frame to the cartoon strip where you show what you think will happen next. c Do you know any sayings in English? Make a list and share in class.
1.45 • What do you think is most important to remember when communicating with someone from another culture? Write at least three sentences. 1.46 •• Read the following quotes on communication. Choose two, and write down your answers to the following questions. a What is their message? b Which of the quotes do you agree with? Explain why.
“We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.”
“Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless.” Mother Teresa of Calcutta, (1910–1997)
Epictetus (Greek philosopher, AD 55-c.135)
“Communication – the human connection – is the key to personal and career success.” 38 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills
Paul J. Meyer (Successful businessman, 1928–2009)
1.47 ••• A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication. Study the illustrations below. Write a short text for a tourist magazine where you explain in full sentences how different gestures may be interpreted in different ways according to the culture and the country you visit.
Good (Western Europe and North America) Up yours (Latin America and West Africa) One
OK (UK and USA) Money (Japan) Zero (Russia) Insult (Brazil)
Two (USA) Up yours (Britain – palm inwards) Victory (USA and Britain – with palm outwards)
Did you know
According to research, there is a distinct difference between men and women when it comes to speech patterns. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words a day, whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. Girls learn to speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, they have a vocabulary twice that of boys. The reason lies in the wiring of our brains. For men, speech is located in the left side of the brain, but for women, speech is located in both halves. Therefore men will communicate in a logical way, while female speech will be a mixture of logic and emotion. This is also why women talk more than men. – Is this true for your class? How about your family?
How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can speak and write about the meaning of globalisation. YES
I can give some examples of cultural differences. YES
There is all the difference in the world between having something to say and having to say something.
I can explain what culture is. YES
John Dewey (American professor, 1859–1952)
Skills | Chapter 1: Expectations | 39
Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. broken-winged med brukket/ brekt vinge barren gold, Ă¸de/aud
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Read and understand
1.48 In this poem, the writer expresses how important dreams are to human beings. In pairs, discuss and write down your answers to the questions below. a Who do you think the poet speaks to, in this poem? b What does he compare life to, when dreams die or go?
did you do 1|How in this chapter? Yes
1 I can speak about Sharon and Leo and their future plans. 2 I can use words related to my educational program. 3 I can introduce myself in a short text. 4 I can listen to a text and understand what it is about. 5 I can name at least two good reasons for learning English. 6 I can talk about my own motivation for learning English. 7 I can speak and write about Sam from the novel Slam. 8 I can introduce myself or a friend to a stranger. 9 I can find my way in the English book. 10 I can speak and write about social skills in general. 11 I can explain what the first book of The Hunger Games trilogy is about. 12 I can extract content from a text and talk about it. 13 I can use new words related to communication. 14 I can explain the meaning of globalisation. 15 I can mention examples of cultural differences. 16 I can explain what culture is. 17 I can describe what the poem â€œDreamsâ€? is about.
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language lab langua improve your skills nouns and articles Nouns Most nouns are either in the singular or in the plural.
One hospital – two hospitals
If you add an –s to nouns that end in x, sh, ch, s and z you add an extra e so the word becomes easier to say.
One church – two churches One bus – two buses
When a noun ends in a –y and the letter before the – y is a vowel, you add s to form the plural.
One key – two keys
When a noun ends in a –y and the letter before –y is a consonant, the –y is changed to an –i and is followed by –es.
One lady – two ladies
Some nouns are irregular in the plural. It is best to look these up in a dictionary.
One woman – two women One child – two children
Some nouns are used only in the singular.
The furniture is old.
Some nouns are used only in the plural.
The police are on their way.
Proper nouns and nationalities are spelled with a capital letter.
Sam, Australia, Australian
1.49 Make these nouns plural. a One story two b One brush two c One lady two d One family two e One way two f One key two g One country two h One day two i One box two j One valley two 42 | Chapter 1: Expectations | Skills
1.50 Choose the right word. a It is important to look after your foot / feet. b Also, you should brush your tooth / teeth twice a day. c A man / men speaks between 7,000 and 10,000 words per day. d A woman / women on the other hand, speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words per day.
age lab language lab improve your skills e f g h i j
This is because a woman uses both half / halves of the brain to produce speech. For men, speech is located in the left half / halves of the brain. As regards child / children, girls usually learn to speak before boys do. Dreams are important in people’s life / lives. My book of Langston Hughes’ poetry is on the middle shelf / shelves. If you can’t sleep, you might try counting sheep / sheeps.
1.51 Write capital letters where you think they should be. a sam’s mother had a boyfriend called steve. b sam never liked steve, and nobody else did, either. c mrs gillett suggested that sam should study art when he went to college. d sam dreams of going to the university of the arts in london. e this is europe’s largest art university and is divided into six colleges. f nick hornby is a british writer. g have you seen the new film about sherlock holmes? h do you think doctor watson is actually quite smart? i alicia is very important in sam’s life. j alicia is good at both maths and french.
Articles You use a before words that start with a consonant sound. You use an before words that start with a vowel sound. You use the if you are talking about a particular place, thing or person.
a disease an interesting case She missed the bus.
1.52 Fill in a, an or the. a Alicia is interesting girl. b Sherlock Holmes was famous detective. c Mum got rid of Steve, boyfriend nobody liked. d Mrs Gillett is art teacher at my school. e After few weeks of practice Sam learnt two new skating tricks. f subject Sam likes the most is Arts and Design. g Sam and his mum have moved to new place. h feeling that things are ok is new to Sam. i Actually, Sam has had pretty complicated life. j most difficult time for Sam was when his parents were getting a divorce.
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In this chapter you will focus on
• building and construction in the past • changes in society • inventions in the history of building and construction • using a dictionary • sharing information • verbs
Useful words and phrases craftsman apprentice restore repair preserve monument canal sewer social conscience workhouse
What do you know about building techniques in the past?
Building History Stonehenge
In southern England, near the old town of Salisbury, there is an old stone monument. The oldest part of it is probably from around 3000 B.C. Stonehenge was built in at least three stages. Eighty of the stones that were used weighed up to 4 tonnes each. They came from a quarry about 240 miles away, in Wales. The giant stones that form the outer circle were transported from «only» 20 miles away, but they do weigh about 50 tons each. How the people of Stone Age Britain actually did that remains a mystery.
The Pyramids At Giza, about 10 miles west of Cairo, there are three pyramids. The biggest one was built by the pharaoh Khufu around 2530 B.C. The pyramid is made from 2 ½ million blocks of limestone. They weigh anything from 2 to 70 tonnes. How the ancient Egyptian builders managed to get the blocks to the building site, and then to build such a giant construction, is not easy to explain.
The Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China was started more than 2000 years ago. Its purpose was to defend China against the warlike tribes to the north. It has been rebuilt many times. It is more than 6400 kilometers long, 4.5 to 9 metres thick, up to 7.5 metres tall and made mostly from bricks and packed earth. During the Ming dynasty, from 1368 to 1644, the towers were added. The Great Wall of China is one of the largest building projects ever to be completed.
Great Zimbabwe Great Zimbabwe is the biggest medieval city south of the Sahara. It was built between 1100 and 1400 A.D. When Great Zimbabwe was at its biggest, as many as 18 000 people may have lived there. They were skilled engineers and built dams and irrigation canals. Today the old city lies in ruins, but the terraces that were used for growing crops and the old granite walls can still be seen.
Angkor Wat The building of Angkor Wat started in the mid-1100s and took nearly 50 000 workers about 40 years to finish. To start with, it was a Hindu temple, but it became a Buddhist temple later. The temples and palaces cover more than 200 km2, which makes it the world’s largest religious building complex. The wonderful buildings and statues were almost completely covered by jungle, but most of Angkor Wat has now been restored. 46 | Chapter 2: LookingBack | Skills
After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to
ancient buildings and monuments ▶▶ describe challenges builders experienced in ancient times ▶▶ use words related to construction in history
Machu Picchu was built between 1460 and 1470 A.D by the ruler Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. It lies 8000 feet above sea level, in the Andes mountains in what is today Peru. It consists of about 200 buildings. People lived in most of them, but there are also storehouses and temples. The amazing thing about Machu Picchu is how skillfully it is built. The granite blocks were cut with bronze or stone tools and fit together without mortar, even though none of the blocks are the same size. The Spanish conquerors never found Machu Picchu, so it was not destroyed like many other cities in this part of the world.
Read and understand
2.1 • Write down the name of the place or building that fits the description. a It was built between 1460 and 1470 A.D. b It was almost completely covered by jungle. c They are found at Giza, near Cairo. d It lies in southern England. e It was built between 1100 and 1400 A.D. f It is one of the largest building projects ever to be completed. g It took nearly 50 000 workers about 40 years to finish. h It was never found by the Spanish conquerors. 2.2 •• Write down the name of the place or building that fits the description. a It was first a Hindu temple, but became a Buddhist one later. b It is built from 2 ½ million blocks of stone. c It is about 6400 miles long. d It is the biggest mediaeval city south of Sahara. e It is the world’s largest religious building complex. f Eighty of its stones come from 240 miles away. g It is built from stone blocks that fit together without mortar. h As many as 18 000 people may have lived there.
B.C f.Kr. stage stadium quarry steinbrudd / steinbrot remain forbli / bli verande limestone kalkstein ancient oldtidens / frå oldtida purpose hensikt / føremål packed her: sammenpakket / samanpakka medieval middelalder- / mellomalderdam demning irrigation canal kunstig vanningssystem / kunstig vatningssystem crop avling above sea level over havet consist of bestå av mortar mørtel conqueror erobrer / erobrar destroy ødelegge / øydeleggje 1 mile 1609 m
Skills | Chapter 2: LookingBack | 47
2.3 ••• Complete these sentences with information from the text. a The Khufu pyramid is made from … b Stonehenge was built in at least … c Some of the stones that Stonehenge was built from came from a quarry … d Great Zimbabwe is the biggest … e At first, Angkor Wat was a Hindu temple, but later it became a … f Most of Angkor Wat has now … g Machu Picchu consists of about … h Bronze or stone tools were used to …
2.4 Tools have changed quite a lot in the last century or two. Match each old tool with the correct modern tool. Use a dictionary to find out what the tools are called both in English and in Norwegian. Make a list. OLD 1
3 4 2 8
E F G H
48 | Chapter 2: LookingBack | Skills
2.5 Choose one of the following tasks. a Have you ever visited a historical building or monument? Work in groups and tell each other about your experiences. b Choose one historical building or monument that you would like to visit. Give reasons why this might be interesting or fun.
2.6 “Milestones in Construction” Listen carefully to the text about some famous constructions. You may have to listen more than once. a What are the four constructions mentioned in the text? b Choose the right alternative. 1 Today, most lanes / paths / roads are covered with asphalt. 2 Asphalt is made from rude / crude / cruet oil. 3 In 1848–49 about 1400 / 140 000 / 14 000 people died from cholera. 4 The Panama Canal is about 48 kilometres / miles / yards long. 5 Conditions turned out to be very complicated / hard / difficult in the tropical jungle. 6 The Panama Channel / Chunnel / Canal was officially opened on August 15th 1914. 7 The first steam-operated railway / pathway /motorway was the Stockton-Darlington Line. 8 In Australia the first train / line / road was opened in 1854 and the railway system grew quickly. c What events took place in the following years? 5 1870s 1 1802 6 1881 2 1825 7 1893 3 1854 8 1914 4 1865
2.7 Choose one old building or monument. What kinds of tools and materials would have been needed to build it? Present your old building or monument in class.
How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can describe ancient buildings and monuments. Yes almOST NO
I can describe challenges builders experienced in ancient times. Yes almOST NO
I can use words related to construction in history. Yes almOST NO
Skills | Chapter 2: LookingBack | 49
improve your skills
50 | Chapter 2: LookingBack | Skills
improve your skills Using a dictionary There are two main types of dictionaries. The first type translates a word into another language. The second type explains what a word means in the same language. Some dictionaries do both. Most dictionaries also give examples of how words are used. In online dictionaries you will often find sound files that tell you how a word should be pronounced. • Words are arranged alphabetically. A dictionary can help you spell a word correctly. • Look for the translation or explanation of a word. What does the word mean? • Look at the examples. How is the word used? • In a dictionary you find information about word classes. Example: n = noun, v = verb What word class does the word you have chosen belong to? • Most dictionaries show how words are pronounced. A special alphabet is used for this, called the phonetic alphabet. You can also see which syllable in a word that should be stressed. This is marked by a vertical line ' before the stressed syllable. How is your word pronounced? Which syllable is stressed? • Most dictionaries use symbols and short forms for extra information. Study the user key in your dictionary to be sure you find what you are looking for. • Many dictionaries also have grammar sections, maps and other useful information. What kind of information does your dictionary have?
Practise 2.8 Put these words in alphabetical order. e supper a dinner f lunch b morning g evening c breakfast h afternoon d day 2.9 Put these words in alphabetical order. a embarrassed e escape b energetic f explain c example g explode d effect h eat
dictionary ordbok pronounce uttale spell stave noun substantiv phonetic fonetisk syllable stavelse stress ha trykk på, utheve vertical vertikal, loddrett user key brukerveiledning / brukarrettleiing
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improve your skills 2.10 The words below are spelled wrong. Use the dictionary page on page 50 to find the correct words and do the following tasks. a Write the correct form of the word. b What does the word mean? c What word class does it belong to? d How is the word pronounced? e Are there examples of how the word is used? f Is there information about American forms or the origin of any of the words? 1 ethnick 2 evacjuate
3 eternall 5 ett cettera 4 euforia 6 evcalyptus
2.11 Study the words below, written in the phonetic alphabet. Try to pronounce the words. Write the words with ordinary letters. Check with the spelling on page 50. a [etʃ] c [ˈeθɪks] e [ˌjʊərəˈpɪən] b [ɪˈtɜːnl] d [ˈetiket] f [ˌjuːθəˈneɪzɪə]
e ə З æ Λ α ρ b t d f v Ө ð m n Ŋ h
John & Sarah Free Materials 1996
υə ɔI əυ eə αI αυ
z ʃ r w
2.12 Intonation refers to the sound pattern of sentences. Our intonation is different in statements and in questions, because the pitch of our voice is different. a In statements we use a falling intonation. I am hungry. b In yes/no questions we use a rising intonation. Are you hungry? c In wh-questions we use a falling intonation. What would you like? d In lists we use a rising and falling intonation. I would like ham, egg and toast. Now listen to the dialogue. What kind of intonation do you hear in each sentence and what types of sentences are they?
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improve your skills 2.13 Use a digital dictionary and answer the following questions in full sentences. a What are the available languages in your digital or online dictionary? b How do you choose languages? c What information is given for each word? d Does this dictionary do other things than translating words? e In what situations would this dictionary be useful? 2.14 Use the Internet to find the Oxford Advanced Learnerâ€™s Dictionary. Look up the following words. Listen to the sound files, pronounce the words and write down the meaning. a asphalt c excavator e insulation g membrane b bradawl d grinder f joint h reinforcement 2.15 Use an online translation program, for example Google Translate. Translate these sentences from English to Norwegian. Do you agree with the translation? a The plumber comes later today. b A service pipe connects your house to the water main. c You must always wear a hardhat on a construction site. Now try some sentences that are a little more complicated. What is wrong with some of the Norwegian sentences? Why does this happen, do you think? d Every day three construction workers die in the United States. e Construction workers sometimes fall from roofs and scaffoldings. f Roofing tiles may be taken off and replaced by shingles. 2.16 Discuss in groups. a When and how do you use Google Translate or similar programs? b In what situations are online translation programs a useful tool? c When should you avoid using them? Explain. d How can programs like Google Translate help you improve your English? e Can such programs also slow down your progress in English? Explain.
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After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain
what the novel excerpt is
about ▶▶ discuss social conditions in Victorian London ▶▶ express opinions and feelings
Oliver Twist was born in a workhouse. The children were starved and cruelly treated. One day Oliver was so hungry that he asked for more food. He was beaten and locked up in a dark cellar for a week. A notice was placed on the gate. It said that the parish would pay five pounds to anyone who would take Oliver away from the workhouse. «This boy, Sir, that you want to apprentice,» said Mr. Gamfield. «Yes,» said Mr. Limbkins. «What about him?» «If you would like him to learn a good trade, in a good respectable chimney-sweeping business,» said Mr. Gamfield, «I want an apprentice, and I will take him.» «Come in,» said Mr. Limbkins. Mr. Gamfield followed him into the room. «It’s a nasty trade,» said Mr. Limbkins, when Gamfield had repeated his wish. «Young boys have suffocated in chimneys before now,» said another gentleman. «That’s because they made the straw wet before they lit it in the chimney to make them come down,» said Gamfield; «that’s all smoke, and no flame. Smoke ain’t no use at all in making a boy come down, for it only makes him sleep, and that’s what he likes. Boys are very stubborn, and very lazy, gentlemen, but there’s nothing like a good hot fire to make them come down fast. If they’re stuck in the chimney, roasting their feet makes them struggle to get loose.» The board then talked amongst themselves for a few minutes, but so low that only the words «saving of money,» «looked well in the accounts,» could be heard. After a while the whispering stopped and Mr. Limbkins said: «We have discussed your question, and we don’t like it.» «Absolutely not,» added the other members. «So you won’t let me have him, gentlemen?» said Mr. Gamfield. «No,» replied Mr. Limbkins; «but as it’s a nasty business, we think you ought to accept less than the price we asked.» Mr. Gamfield’s face brightened. He came back to the table, and said, «What’ll you give, gentlemen? Come! Don’t be too hard on a poor man. What’ll you give?»
Before you start a What do you think was the worst about being poor in the 19th century? b Based on the vocabulary list in the margin below, what do you think this story is about?
workhouse fattighus starve sulte / svelte parish prestegjeld apprentice lærling suffocate bli kvalt / bli kvelt stubborn sta roast steke / steikje struggle kjempe board styre accept godta
Skills | Chapter 2: LookingBack | 55
hesitate nøle magistrate dommer / dommar tremble skjelve sob hulke rascal kjeltring sweep feier / feiar honest ærlig / ærleg open-hearted åpenhjertig / openhjarta inkstand blekkhus kneel knele stunned lamslått
«I think three pound ten is enough,» said Mr. Limbkins. «Come on!» said Gamfield; «say four pound, gentlemen. Say four pound and you’ve got rid of him for good!» «Three pound ten,» repeated Mr. Limbkins, firmly. «You’re terribly hard on me, gentlemen,» said Gamfield, hesitating. «Nonsense. Take him, you silly fellow! He’s just the boy for you. You have to beat him now and then: it’ll do him good.» Mr. Gamfield smiled and the deal was done. A magistrate would need to sign the papers. Little Oliver was ordered to put on a clean shirt. Then he was given food, which made him start crying. «Don’t make your eyes red, but eat your food and be thankful,» said Mr. Bumble. «You’re a going to be an apprentice, Oliver.» «An apprentice, Sir!» said the child, trembling. «Yes, Oliver,» said Mr. Bumble. «The kind and blessed gentlemen are going to apprentice you and make a man of you, although the price is three pound ten! – three pound ten- and all for a naughty boy who nobody can love.» The tears rolled down the poor child’s face, and he sobbed bitterly. On their way to the magistrate, Mr. Bumble told Oliver that all he would have to do was to look very happy. When the gentleman asked him if he wanted to be apprenticed, he should say that he would like it very much indeed. When they arrived at the office, he was shut up alone in a little room. Mr. Bumble told him to wait there until he came back. There the boy stayed for half an hour. Then Mr. Bumble came and said: «Now, Oliver, my dear, come to the gentlemen.» Then he added, in a low voice, «Remember what I told you, you young rascal!» Then they went into the office. «This is the boy, Sir,» said Mr. Bumble. An old gentleman was reading the newspaper. «Oh, is this the boy?» he asked. «This is him, Sir,» replied Mr. Bumble. «Bow to the magistrate, my dear.» Oliver bowed. «Well,» said the old gentleman, «I suppose he likes chimney-sweeping?» «He loves it, Sir,» said Bumble; and pinched Oliver, to tell him that he had better not say he didn’t. «And he wants to be a sweep, does he?» asked the old gentleman. «If we suggested any other job tomorrow, he’d run away at once, Sir,» answered Bumble. «And this man that’s going to be his master – you, Sir – you’ll treat him well, and feed him, and do all that sort of thing, will you?» said the old gentleman.
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«When I say I will, I mean I will,» answered Mr. Gamfied. «You’re a rough speaker, my friend, but you look an honest, openhearted man,» said the old gentleman: looking in the direction of Mr. Gamfield, who had a cruel face. «I hope I am, Sir,» said Mr. Gamfield, with an ugly smile. «I think you are, my friend,» answered the old gentleman: putting his glasses on his nose, and looking for the inkstand. It was the critical moment of Oliver’s fate. If the inkstand had been where the old gentleman thought it was, he would have dipped his pen into it, and signed the papers, and Oliver would have been sent away. But since it was right under his nose he looked all over his desk for it. By chance he looked straight ahead and saw the pale and terrified face of Oliver Twist: too obvious to be mistaken, even by a half-blind magistrate. The old gentleman stopped, laid down his pen and looked at Oliver. «My boy!» he said, leaning over the desk. Oliver was scared and burst into tears. «My boy!» he said again, «you look pale and frightened. What is the matter?» «Move away from him, Bumble,» said the other magistrate: laying down the paper, and leaning forward. «Now, boy, tell us what’s the matter: don’t be afraid.» Oliver kneeled and clasping his hands together, prayed that they would take him back to the dark room- that they would starve him- beat him- kill him if they liked- rather than send him away with that dreadful man. «Well!» said Mr. Bumble, «Well! Of all the boys that ever I see, Oliver, you are one of the worst.» «Be quiet, Bumble,» said the second old gentleman «I beg your pardon,» said Mr. Bumble. «Did you speak to me?» «Yes. Be quiet.» Mr. Bumble was stunned. «We refuse to sign these papers,» said the old gentleman. «Take the boy back to the workhouse, and be kind to him. He seems to need it.» The next morning, the public were once more informed that Oliver Twist was again To Let, and that five pounds would be paid to anybody who would take him. charles dickens Charles Dickens (1812–1870) is a well-known writer of Victorian literature. His focus on the living conditions of the poor changed popular opinion and helped to improve peoples’ lives. He is still one of the most widely read authors in the English language.
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Oliver Twist is a poor boy. He has no parents. Mr. Gamfield, a chimneysweep, calls at the workhouse where Oliver lives. He wants Oliver as an apprentice. Being a chimney-sweep is a dangerous job and many children die. The board members of the workhouse decide that they will let Mr. Gamfield have Oliver. A magistrate must sign the agreement. Mr. Bumble from the workhouse takes Oliver to the magistrate’s office. He tells Oliver that when the magistrate asks him if he wants to be an apprentice he must lie. He must say that he would like it very much. Oliver is terrified and starts crying. The magistrate asks him what is wrong. Oliver tells the magistrate that they can beat him or kill him rather than send him away with Mr. Gamfield, who is a cruel man. The magistrate refuses to sign the document. He tells Mr. Bumble to take Oliver back to the workhouse and be kind to him. The next day a notice is on the gate of the workhouse. It says that five pounds will be paid to anyone who will take Oliver away.
poor fattig parents foreldre workhouse fattighus chimney-sweep feier / feiar apprentice lærling board member styremedlem decide beslutte / avgjere, bestemme magistrate dommer / dommar sign skrive under på agreement avtale terrified vettskremt / vitskremd cruel ond / vond refuse nekte
Did you know?
The Victorian Era is named after Queen Victoria (1819–1901), who reigned over Britain and the British Empire for 63 years. This was a period of political and scientific development, medical improvements and growing social conscience. Many important laws were passed at this time, for example the Factory Act (1833) which said that children under 9 could not work in a factory.
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Read and understand
2.17 • Complete the sentences and write them down. a Oliver Twist lives … b Mr. Gamfield wants Oliver as … c Being a chimney-sweep is a … d The board members of the workhouse decide … e A magistrate must … f Mr. Bumble tells Oliver to … g The magistrate asks Oliver what … h The magistrate tells Mr. Bumble to … 2.18 •• Match each sentence with the right character from the novel. Oliver
a Was born in a workhouse. b Offers to take Oliver as an apprentice. c Takes Oliver to the magistrate. d Looks all over his desk for his inkstand. e Comes back to the table and tries to get a f g h i j k l
higher price to take Oliver. Is made to put on a clean shirt. Tells Mr. Bumble to take Oliver back to the workhouse and be kind to him. Is described as having a cruel face. Pinches Oliver. Kneels and clasps his hands together. Is stunned when he is asked to keep quiet. Refuses to sign the agreement.
2.19 ••• Write a summary of the text. Remember that a summary should contain no direct speech.
2.20 Unscramble the words. They all have to do with chimneys and sweeping. Use a dictionary to look up words you don’t know. a uhBsr e Soto b Speew f Felu c ymCheni g rFeplcaie d sAh h oekSm
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2.21 Use some of the words and expressions to express what you feel. I feel sorry for / sadness / anger / disgust / joy … I pity / hate / dislike / like / fear / doubt … It makes me sad / happy / angry / surprised / curious that … a What do you feel about Oliver and the way he is treated? b What do you feel about the way Mr. Gamfield talks about boys? c What is your reaction to the text? 2.22 Study the painting. What do you think the boy’s life is like? What is your opinion of the painting? What do you feel when you look at it? Discuss.
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2.23 • Fill in the following words to complete the text about Charles Dickens. school – born – week – left – eight – as – novel – back – worked – films – first – of – are – prison Charles Dickens was in 1812 as the second of children. When his father lost his job and ended in in 1824, Charles was boarded elsewhere. To help his family he left to work in a warehouse where he earned 6 shillings a . The financial situation of the family improved and Charles could go to school, but never forgot that he had been by his parents. Dickens as a clerk at a law office, and later as a freelance reporter. In 1833, his story was published in a magazine. In 1836 he wrote his first «The Pickwick Papers». During his life he wrote more than a dozen novels as well short stories, plays and articles. His many characters among the most memorable in English literature. Many his novels have been made into . 2.24 •• Write a short text about life in the 1800s. Use the information below to form your own sentences. large and poor families poor diet and nutrition child labour in mines and factories working hours: up to 14 hours a day 1840s: only 20 % of children at school 1850s: of a total of 50 000 deaths a year, 21 000 children under 10 1875: The Chimney Sweepers Act: the use of children forbidden
How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can explain what the novel excerpt is about. Yes almOST NO
I can discuss social conditions in Victorian London.
“Oliver Twist – Film or Novel?” 2.25 Many of Charles Dickens’s novels have been made into films. Listen to Peter and Sophie who talk about a film based on the novel Oliver Twist. Then answer the questions. a What does Peter think about the novel Oliver Twist? b What does Sophie say about the film? c Which do you prefer, a novel or a film based on a novel? Explain.
Yes almOST NO
I can express opinions and feelings. Yes almOST NO
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improve your skills Sharing information: "Show and tell" Become a better speaker by practising the following steps. Not so good
1 Introduce your topic in a way that catches the attention of the audience. Create an atmosphere. What do you want to make your audience feel? Scared, curious, amused …? Try to create a picture in their heads.
I’m gonna talk about my favourite gadget, my cell phone, ‘cause I didn’t have time to prepare anything else.
Have you ever wanted to listen to a special song, but couldn’t because the CD was in your mother’s car? Or have you seen the most wonderful sunset, but been unable to take a picture, because your camera was at home? Well, the answer to such needs is this tiny gadget, my cell phone.
2 Convince your audience that you are interested in the topic, maybe even passionate about it. Show that you know your topic well. Don’t show any signs of uncertainty.
This is maybe not very exciting, and I’m not sure if I or know how it works, but I’ll do my best.
This is a fascinating object and I carry it in my pocket all the time. There is so much fun you can have with it, and I want to share some of it with you.
3 Decide what your message is. Repeat words or phrases that underline your point. Maybe you will have to explain some difficult words. Take short breaks to make sure people follow you.
I am not sure what the most interesting part is, really, so I’ll just sum up everything you can do with it.
First, it is very important that you have network access if you want to use the Internet. Second, always be sure that your battery has enough power …
4 Use pictures or bring objects to illustrate your point. Show and demonstrate how your object works.
It is hard to explain when you can’t see it, or but there is a button somewhere …
5 A good conclusion is important That’s more or less because that is what your it. Any questions? audience will remember afterwards. Sum up your main points and, if possible, return to your introduction. Always learn your introduction and or conclusion by heart to sound convincing. The best is to know your topic well enough to be able to speak without a manuscript. For your audience it is far more interesting to listen to you speaking than reading from a paper.
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When you push this button, you turn on the cell phone. To key in the access code, you must touch the screen here … So when you know how to handle this little object you have music, camera and much more in one single gadget. And best of all, you can even use it to call your friends! Thank you for your attention and please don’t hesitate to ask if you have any questions.
improve your skills Practise 2.26 Change the following introductions into more catchy ones. a I’m going to talk about an interesting object that I found in our basement. b I would like to say a few words about spanners. c I have been asked to talk about a useful innovation in the history of building and construction. 2.27 Change the following conclusions into more catchy ones. a I guess this object wasn’t too interesting after all, but do you have any questions? b So now you know more about spanners. c That’s all I know about this invention, sort of. 2.28 Choose an object from your backpack or your pockets and explain what it is and how it works. Work in groups. Repeat the same activity using the same objects, but in new groups. Example: This is my English book / cell phone / lip gloss. If you open it, like this, you can … and you will also find / be able to … 2.29 Now it is time to show and tell. Choose an object at home, a personal belonging, a useful item or something you find fun or interesting. Prepare a short presentation of the object, using the steps from p. 62. Give your «show and tell» in groups or in class. Finally, give each other feedback on your presentations. What was good? What can be improved?
“This is my great grandpa. He lives in a wooden box under the ground. He doesn’t talk much and smells pretty bad too – but he’s really fun to play with in the sand box.” Skills | Chapter 2: LookingBack | 63
Isambard Kingdom Brunel: A Portrait
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A flood destroys the tunnel. Brunel is badly hurt and cannot work for many months. He is sent to Bristol to get well again. There he enters a competition to build a new bridge. He wins the competition and the work begins, but the Clifton Suspension Bridge is not finished until three years after Brunel dies.
dock dokk, havn / dokk, hamn field hospital feltsykehus / feltsjukehus prefabricated prefabrikkert return komme tilbake / kome tilbake collapse rase sammen / rase saman delay forsinke / forseinke underground T-bane flood oversvømmelse / overfløyming, flaum competition konkurranse suspension bridge hengebru / hengjebru appoint utnevne / utnemne innovation nyvinning, ny konstruksjon voyage reise
Brunel finishes his education and returns to London. There he works with his father, also an engineer, on the Thames Tunnel. It is very dangerous and the tunnel collapses several times. This delays the work and the Thames Tunnel is not opened until 1843. It is still part of the London Underground today.
Brunel is appointed chief engineer of the Great Western Railway. Work begins on the railway line between London and Bristol. This line has many innovations designed by Brunel. These include the Maidenhead Bridge, the Box Tunnel and Bristol Temple Meads Station.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel is one of the great engineers of the 1800s. He was born in 1806. As a boy he was taught by his father and was very good at drawing and mathematics. Brunel went on to build over one hundred bridges, twenty-five railway lines, eight dock systems, three ships and one field hospital made from prefabricated elements.
Brunel becomes interested in ships. He designs the Great Western. When it is finished, it is the largest steam ship the world has seen. It is 72 metres long and built mainly from wood. Its first voyage from Bristol to New York takes 15 days. The Great Western has four masts for sails, but is the first ship to cross the Atlantic powered only by steam.
After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to
In this year Brunel completes another ship, the Great Britain. This is the first ship to be built from metal instead of wood. It is powered by a propeller – not sails and oars. It has a crew of 130 and can carry 250 passengers as well as 1,200 tons of cargo. This ship has been restored and is now a museum.
In 1849 Brunel is asked to rebuild Paddington Station in London. This is the terminus of the Great Western Railway. He decides on a building made mostly from wrought iron and glass. Paddington Station is opened in 1854 and parts of it are still in use today.
innovations that are important in the history of building and construction ▶▶ use words related to building and construction in the past ▶▶ share information in class
Brunel is very busy, but he still finds the time to design a field hospital. This consists of prefabricated modules and includes both drainage and ventilation. The hospital is shipped to the Crimea where Britain is fighting a war. 1300 men are treated here.
This is the year Brunel finishes work on the Royal Albert Bridge. This railway suspension bridge crosses the river Tamar at Saltash. It has two main spans of 139 metres and the actual railway tracks are 30 metres above the water. This is because ships must be able to sail underneath the bridge.
Towards the end of his life Isambard Kingdom Brunel started the construction of another big ship, the Great Eastern. The work was very difficult. Brunel was a workaholic and a heavy smoker. The strain was affecting his health. On the deck of the Great Eastern he suffered a heart attack and collapsed. He died in 1859 at the age of 53.
powered drevet / driven complete gjøre ferdig / gjere ferdig crew mannskap cargo last restore restaurere terminus endestasjon wrought iron smijern drainage avløp span spenn
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Read and understand
2.30 • Match each year with the right sentence. a b c d e f
1823 1828 1833 1838 1845 1849
1 2 3 4 5 6
Brunel designs the ship Great Western. Brunel is asked to rebuild Paddington Station. Brunel works with his father on the London Underground. Brunel finishes work on the Royal Albert Bridge. Brunel designs a field hospital. Brunel is appointed chief engineer of the Great Western Railway. Brunel designs the first ship to be built from metal instead of wood. Brunel wins a competition to build a new bridge.
2.31 •• Choose the right alternative. a In 1823 Brunel 1 got married. 2 finished his education. 3 started his education. b In 1828 Brunel 1 went to France because he was ill. 2 learnt to swim. 3 went to Bristol to recover after an accident. c In 1833 Brunel 1 started work on the Great Western Railway. 2 started work on the Great Eastern Railway. 3 started work on the ship Great Western. d In 1838 Brunel 1 went on his first trip to New York. 2 crossed the Atlantic powered by steam. 3 designed the world’s largest steam ship until then. e In 1845 Brunel 1 completed the first ship to be built from metal. 2 designed a museum. 3 restored a museum. f In 1849 Brunel 1 was asked to rebuild Victoria Station. 2 was asked to decorate King’s Cross Station. 3 was asked to rebuild Paddington Station. g In 1855 Brunel 1 went to hospital. 2 visited the Crimea. 3 designed a field hospital. 66 | Chapter 2: LookingBack | Skills
2.32 ••• Make questions to fit these answers. a In 1809. b He was also an engineer. c Three years after Brunel died. d It was the first to cross the Atlantic powered only by steam. e It was powered by a propeller instead of ships and oars. f It was opened in 1854. g To the Crimea. h On the deck of the Great Eastern.
2.33 Unscramble the letters and find words to do with construction. Then combine each word with the right picture. a Bidlguni tSei c allW e trrnioiagI anCal b Tewro d amD f pemelT 1
How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can describe innovations that are important in the history of building and construction.
Yes almOST NO
I can use words related to building and construction. Yes almOST NO
2.34 Find one picture and some more information about one of the buildings, railways or ships that Brunel designed. Show the picture and tell your class about it.
I can share information in class. Yes almOST NO
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Tom Builder Draws the Cathedral
After working with the text and exercises, you should be able to ▶▶ explain
what the novel excerpt is
about ▶▶ use words related to building drawing ▶▶ discuss the importance of maintaining historical buildings
The novel Pillars of the Earth is set in England in the 1100s. These are troubled times. Civil war leads to poverty and famine. But this is also a time of great innovation in building and construction. Prior Philip of Kingsbridge dreams of a magnificent cathedral. Tom Builder’s only wish is to build one. But first, the building must be planned. Tom sits down to draw the cathedral for Prior Philip. He imagined that the cathedral was like long loaf of bread, then he cut off the crust at the west end, to see inside, and he began to draw. It was very simple. He drew a tall flat-topped archway. That was the nave, seen from the end. It would have a flat wooden ceiling, like the old church. Tom would have greatly preferred to build a curved stone vault, but he knew Philip could not afford it. On top of the nave he drew a triangular roof. The width of the building was determined by the width of the roof, and that in turn was limited by the timber available. It was difficult to get hold of beams longer than about thirty-five feet – and they were fiercely expensive. (Good timber was so valuable that a fine tree was liable to be chopped down by its owner long before it was that high.) The nave of Tom’s cathedral would probably be thirty-two feet wide, or twice the length of Tom’s iron pole. The nave he had drawn was high, impossibly high. But a cathedral had to be a dramatic building, awe-inspiring in its size, pulling the eye heavenward with its loftiness. One reason people came to them was that cathedrals were the largest buildings in the world: a man who never went to a cathedral could go through life without seeing a building much bigger than the hovel he lived in. Unfortunately, the building Tom had drawn would fall down. The weight of the lead and timber in the roof would be too much for the walls, which would buckle outwards and collapse. They had to be propped up. For that purpose Tom drew two round-topped archways, half the height
civil war borgerkrig / borgarkrig famine hungersnød crust skalk nave midtskip archway buegang / bogegang ceiling himling vault hvelv / kvelv available tilgjengelig / tilgjengeleg beam bjelke fiercely voldsomt be liable to risikere loftiness høyde lead bly hovel skur buckle gi etter / gje etter prop up støtte opp
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aisle sideskip sloping skrått lean-to roof pulttak brace forsterke buttress støttepilar turret lite tårn foundations grunnmur laymen her: vanlige mennesker / her: vanlege menneske plaster gips semicircular halvsirkelformet / halvsirkelforma column søyle unobstructed uhindret / uhindra clerestory lysgang, øverste vindusrekke / lysgang, øvste vindaugsrekkja mean her: usle true her: i lodd
of the nave, one on either side. These were the aisles. They would have curved stone ceilings: as the aisles were lower and narrower, the expense of stone vaults was not so great. Each aisle would have a sloping, lean-to roof. The side aisles, joined to the nave by their stone vaults, provided some support, but they did not reach quite high enough. Tom would build extra supports, at intervals, in the roof space of the side aisles, above the vaulted ceiling and below the lean-to roof. He drew one of them, a stone arch rising from the top of the aisle wall across to the nave wall. Where the support rested on the aisle wall, Tom braced it further with a massive buttress jutting out from the side of the church. He put a turret on top of the buttress, to add weight and make it look nicer. You could not have an awesome tall church without the strengthening elements of aisles, supports and buttresses; but this might be difficult to explain to a monk, and Tom had drawn the sketch to help make it clear. He also drew the foundations, going far underground beneath the walls. Laymen were always surprised at how deep foundations were. It was a simple drawing, too simple to be of much use to builders; but it should be right for showing to Prior Philip. Tom wanted him to understand what was being proposed, visualize the building and get excited about it. It was hard to imagine a big, solid church when what was in front of you was a few lines scratched in plaster. Philip would need all the help Tom could give him. The walls he had drawn looked solid, seen end-on, but they would not be. Tom now began to draw the side view of the nave wall, as seen from inside the church. It was pierced at three levels. The bottom half was hardly a wall at all: it was just a row of columns, their tops joined by semi-circular arches. It was called the arcade. Through the archways of the arcade could be seen the round-headed windows of the aisles. The windows would be neatly lined up with the archways, so that light from the outside could fall, unobstructed, into the nave. The columns in between would be lined up with the buttresses on the outside wall. Above each arch of the arcade was a row of three small arches, forming the tribune gallery. No light would come through these, for behind them was the lean-to roof of the side aisle. Above the gallery was the clerestory, so called because it was pierced with windows which lit the upper half of the nave. In the days when the old Kingsbridge Cathedral had been built, masons had relied on thick walls for strength, and had nervously inserted mean little windows that let in hardly any light. Modern builders understood that a building would be strong enough if its walls were straight and true. Tom designed the three levels of the nave wall – arcade, gallery and clerestory – strictly in the proportions 3:1:2. The arcade was half the height of the wall, and the gallery was one third of the rest. Proportion was
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everything in a church: it gave a subliminal feeling of rightness to the whole building. Studying the finished drawing, Tom thought it looked perfectly graceful. But would Philip think so? Tom could see the tiers of arches marching down the length of the church, with their mouldings and carvings picked out by an afternoon sun … but would Philip see the same? He began the third drawing. This was a floor plan of the church. In his imagination he saw twelve arches in the arcade. The church was therefore divided into twelve sections, called bays. The nave would be six bays long, the chancel four. In between, taking up the space of the seventh and eighth bays, would be the crossing, with the transepts sticking out either side and the tower rising above. All cathedrals and nearly all churches were cross-shaped. The cross was the single most important symbol of Christianity, of course, but there was a practical reason too: the transepts provided useful space for extra chapels and offices such as the sacristy and vestry. When he had drawn a simple floor plan Tom returned to the central drawing, which showed the interior of the church viewed from the west end. Now he drew the tower rising above and behind the nave. The tower should be either one and a half times the height of the nave, or double it. The lower alternative gave the building an attractively regular profile, with the aisles, the nave and the tower rising in equal steps, 1:2:3. The higher tower would be more dramatic, for then the nave would be double the size of the aisles, and the tower double the nave, the proportions being 1:2:4. Tom had chosen the dramatic: this was the only cathedral he would ever build, and he wanted it to reach for the sky. He hoped Philip would feel the same. If Philip accepted the design Tom would have to draw it again, of course, more carefully and exactly to scale. And there would be many more drawings, hundreds of them: plinths, columns, capitals, corbels, doorcases, turrets, stairs, gargoyles, and countless other details – Tom would be drawing for years. But what he had in front of him was the essence of the building, and it was good: simple, inexpensive, graceful and perfectly proportioned. He could not wait to show it to someone. ken follett Ken Follett was born in Wales in 1949. He is known as a writer of crime fiction and thrillers. Pillars of the Earth, published in 1989, is a very different novel. It has been made into a BBC mini-series and many games have been based on this story. Pillars of the Earth continues to be a best-seller. In 2008 the author published a sequel.
subliminal her: storslått graceful elegant, smidig tier rekke / rekkje moulding profilering carving utskjæring / utskjering floor plan plantegning / planteikning bay søylerom chancel kor transept tverrskip sacristy sakristi vestry våpenhus to scale riktig målestokk / rett målestokk corbel dekorert konsoll gargoyle dragehode / drakehovud
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innovation nyvinning simple enkelt archway buegang / bogegang nave midtskip ceiling himling triangular trekantet / trekanta support støtte aisle sideskip foundations grunnmur, fundament level nivå clerestory lysgang, øverste vindusrekke / lysgang, øvste vindaugsrekkja height høyde floor plan plantegning / planteikning rise stige opp tower tårn sky himmel accept godta carefully nøyaktig to scale i riktig målestokk / i rett målestokk
The novel Pillars of the Earth is set in England in the 1100s. This is a time of great innovation in building and construction. Prior Philip of Kingsbridge dreams of a big cathedral. Tom Builder wants to build one. But first, the building must be planned. Tom sits down to draw the cathedral for Prior Philip. It was very simple. He drew a tall archway. That was the nave, seen from the end. It would have a flat wooden ceiling. On top of the nave he drew a triangular roof. The building Tom had drawn would fall down. The roof would be too heavy for the walls. They had to be supported. For this Tom drew two archways, one on each side. These were the aisles. He also drew the foundations. It was a simple drawing; but it should be right for showing to Prior Philip. Tom wanted him to get excited about this great cathedral. Next, Tom designed the three levels of the nave wall – arcade, gallery and clerestory – strictly in the proportions 3:1:2. The arcade was half the height of the wall, and the gallery was one third of the rest. He began the third drawing. This was a floor plan of the church. When he had drawn this Tom went back to the central drawing, which showed the inside of the church seen from the west end. Then he drew the tower rising above and behind the nave. The tower should be either one and a half times the height of the nave, or double it. The higher tower would be more dramatic. The nave would be double the size of the aisles, and the tower double the nave. The proportions would be 1:2:4. Tom had chosen the dramatic. This was the only cathedral he would ever build, and he wanted it to reach for the sky. He hoped Philip would feel the same. If Philip accepted the design Tom would have to draw it again, more carefully and exactly to scale. And there would be many more drawings, hundreds of them. But what he had in front of him was good: simple and perfectly proportioned. He could not wait to show it to someone.
Read and understand
2.35 • Answer these questions. a What did Tom draw first? b What shape was the roof that Tom drew? c Why would the building Tom had drawn fall down? d Who was going to see Tom’s drawings? e What was the third drawing Tom made? f What proportions would the tall tower have? g Why did Tom choose the tallest tower for his design? h How did Tom feel about his design?
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2.36 •• Answer these questions. a Why was there poverty and famine in 12th century England? b What kind of ceiling would the nave have? c What part of the cathedral would prop up the walls of the nave? d Why would Tom put a turret on top of the buttress? e What effect did Tom hope the drawings would have on Prior Philip? f How many bays long would the nave be? g What was the practical reason for a cross-shaped cathedral? h What kind of tower did Tom choose for this cathedral? 2.37 ••• Put these sentences in the right order according to what happens in the text. a Tom began the third drawing. This was a floor plan of the church. b Tom drew two round-topped archways, half the height of the nave, one on either side. c Tom drew the foundations, going far underground beneath the walls. d Tom drew a tall flat-topped archway. That was the nave, seen from the end. e Tom realized that his design was good and wanted to show it to someone. f Tom sat down to draw the cathedral for Prior Philip. g Tom began to draw the side view of the nave wall, as seen from inside the church. h Tom designed the three levels of the nave wall – arcade, gallery and clerestory – strictly in the proportions 3:1:2.
2.38 Match each word with the right explanation. a b
c d e f
3 4 5 6
foundations in proportion
one of the sides of a room or a building showing the size of one element compared to another or to the whole the outside surface on top of a building a tall building, often part of a church or castle a drawing of a building as seen from above the inner surface of the top part of a room or building showing the relationship between the size of something on a drawing and its actual size the solid layer that is under a building to support it
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2.39 • Think of something that you have made or built which turned out well. Write one paragraph. 2.40 •• In the margin are three different ways of drawing a building. What kind of information does each of them give? Write a short text. 2.41 ••• Tom Builder drew his cathedral by hand. Most buildings nowadays are designed using programs like SketchUp or CAD. What are the advantages of using programs like these? Write a short text.
2.42 “Preserving the Past” In most countries there are buildings that people are proud of, and which they identify with. First, listen to find out more about one such building, the Cathedral of St. Magnus in the Orkney Islands. Then, fill in the missing words. a The building of the cathedral was started by the … earl Rognvald. b The … would continue for much of the next 850 years. c The government gave a grant of £3,000 and … could begin d Water leaked through the …, and much of the stonework was crumbling badly. e In 1913 the … went up again. f This was now … and a tall spire, more like the original, replaced it. g New expensive … were urgently needed. h The restoration of any historic building means challenges and requires …
2.43 Discuss these questions. a Who should pay for the maintenance of historical buildings? b Who should decide which buildings are worth preserving? c Who should pay for training so that qualified craftspeople are able to restore old buildings? d What should be done so that the skills needed to restore and maintain old buildings are not lost?
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How did you do? After working with the text and exercises, I can use words related to building drawing. Yes almOST NO
I can discuss the importance of maintaining historical buildings. Yes almOST NO
did you do 2|How in this chapter? Leaf through the pages and write down â€Ś 3 things you know or can do well. 2 things you would like to know or do better. 1 thing you will learn before you go on.
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language lab langua improve your skills Verbs: Tenses and Concord Verbs are used in different tenses. The tenses tell you when in time something happened. I often watch films. I am watching a film right now. I watched a film yesterday. I was watching a film when Peter called. Note that verbs in the simple past tense usually end in –ed but there are some irregular forms too. Check a dictionary for a complete list. A verb must agree with its subject. This is called subject-verb agreement. A verb ends in –s or –es when the subject is in the 3rd person singular form. He / she / it Tom talks to Mary. Other forms My parents talk to Mary. Some words are special. Here are some of them. 1 Indefinite pronouns ending in -body/-one/-thing must have a verb with -s Example: Everybody here knows me, but no one has met my brother. 2 Uncountable nouns like furniture, money, news must have a verb with -s Example: Money is pretty tight, but this furniture is just perfect for my living room. 3 Some words are singular in English but plural in Norwegian, or the other way round. Example: The police are doing a great job but their wages are too low. 4 Some words are both singular – when regarded as a group, and plural – when regarded as individuals, for example people, team, family. Example: People often hate it, but my family just loves Haggis.
2.44 Choose the right form of the verb in the sentences. a Mr. Gamfield wants / want a new apprentice. b The members of the board feels / feel the price is too high. c They thinks / think Mr. Gamfield should accept a lower price. d Oliver gets / get a clean shirt. e He is / are also given some food. f Oliver bursts / burst into tears. g Mr. Bumble tells / tell Oliver to bow to the magistrate. h Mr. Gamfield have / has an ugly smile.
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age lab language lab improve your skills 2.45 Fill in the right present simple form of the verbs. a I learning English. love b My friends a lot of books in English. read c My uncle safety important. think, be d The furniture in these offices old and ugly. be e Many pupils their homework too late in the evening. do f One of my friends the instruction manual at home. have g Anne usually the reports in our team. write h The wages of an engineer pretty good. be 2.46 Present simple or present continuous. Choose the right verb form. a John often talks / is talking to his mother. b Sorry, but I talk / am talking to my mother now. c A chimney sweep has / is having a challenging job. d Most evenings, my friend and I watch / are watching the sunset. e This spring, some birds build / are building a nest in my garden. f It is well known that oil floats / is floating on water. g I can see that you expect / are expecting a baby. h Can you help me, I look / am looking for my dentist’s office.
The verb to be is special.
Present tense I am you are he/she/ it is we are you are they are
Past tense I was you were he/she/ it was we were you were they were
Note: There are two forms of the present tense in English. Present simple is used to express a habit, a fact or to express feelings. It can also be used for future actions. Present continuous is used when something is going on right now or planned to happen.
2.47 Simple past. Choose the verb which is conjugated correctly. Use a dictionary to look up verbs you don’t know. a Tom Builder drawed / drew a cathedral. b The roof was / been too heavy for the walls. c The drawing Tom made / maked was a simple one. d Tom thinked / thought Prior Philip would like it. e Tom want / wanted Prior Philip to get excited about the building. f The arcade was / were half the height of the wall. g Tom beginned / began the third drawing. h After this, Tom went / goed back to his first drawing. i Tom chose / chosed the dramatic tower. j Tom knew / knowed he would only build one cathedral. 2.48 Simple past or past continuous. Fill in the right past tense of the verb. Note: The past continuous form of a verb is used when a longer action in the past is interrupted by a shorter action in the simple past. Example: I was doing my homework when Peter knocked on my door. a I my hands when Tom in. wash/come b Anne reading when we her. read/call c When I the class room, my teacher on the black board. enter/write d Mary her car but then she . drive/faint Skills | Chapter 2: LookingBack | 77