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Ellen M. Tudor Edwards Tone Omland Isabelle Royer Victoria Armstrong Solli

My Textbook Engelsk for barnetrinnet


My Textbook 7

Ellen M. Tudor Edwards Tone Omland Isabelle Royer Victoria Armstrong Solli

Engelsk for barnetrinnet


Contents Everyday Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Get Writing! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Use Linking Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Smart Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1 Explore Your Dreams!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Loud or Loudly? Adverbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 I Do Not or I Don’t? Contractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Write an Interview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2 Planet Football. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Get Up. Compound Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Good At. Adjectives and Prepositions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Write For and Against. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

3 Dig into Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Some or Any?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Who, Which, That . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Retell a Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

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4 Life Down Under. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Jane’s Kangaroo. The Genitive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Write a Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 It Is, There Is or There Are?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Verbs in Different Tenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

5 Why English? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Un- and -less. Prefixes and suffixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Slang or Not?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

6 One World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 This, That, These and Those. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 I Will. Simple Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

7 I’m OK!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Myself, Yourself. Reflexive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Make a Film. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Explore Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Wordlist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

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Bli kjent med

Oppstart med læringsmål

2

Planet Football

On the one hand, …

On the other hand, …

In my opinion, …

pitch

Kollasjene forteller noe om hva kapitlene handler om. Gå på jakt i bildene og snakk om det dere ser! Det er lyttetekster til kollasjene på Smart Tavle og egne oppgaver i arbeidsboka. Til venstre står viktige øveord. I snakke­ boblene til høyre står nye setningsmønstre du skal jobbe med, og i den blå rammen finner du læringsmål for kapitlet.

improve catch

footballer

however player

kick

I kapitlet vil du lære • om fotball rundt omkring i verden • om sammensatte verbuttrykk • å skrive argumenter for og imot et tema

equipment

40

41

Words to Learn Before you read

Can you find the name of five different spices in English? Look it up on the Internet with your learning partner. Influence from Asia

Spicing up the World Did you know that no other country in the world produces as many different spices as India? The spice trade started as early as 3000 B.C. Later, explorers like Vasco da Gama and Christopher Colombus wanted to reach India to find valuable spices.

Alle tekstene har ordforklaringer i margen. Words to learn er de øveordene du skal lære å lese, skrive og bruke. Utenfor rammen står flere ord fra teksten forklart. Dette er støtteord som hjelper deg til å forstå teksten.

Jaffar is visiting his family in India for the first time. He is excited. Today, he is going to the local market with his cousins, Deepa and Daud. A rickshaw is taking them.

Deepa: Jaffar: Deepa: Daud: Jaffar:

spices – krydder valuable – verdifullt excited – spent illness – sykdom

Deepa: Jaffar:

trade – handel rickshaw – sykkeltaxi cinnamon – kanel could afford – hadde råd  til impress – imponere

Daud: Jaffar:

Grandma wants us to buy pepper, cinnamon and some spices for the curry she is going to make tonight. Let’s have a look over there! This place really is something! In England, we buy everything at the supermarket. So I’ve heard. I’d love to go to England some time. Look, there’s the pepper! Actually, we had a school project about explorers and spices last year. Really? Yeah. We learnt about Vasco da Gama. He left from Europe and sailed around South Africa to India. It was really dangerous, but he wanted to get cheap spices, like pepper and cinnamon. And, of course, silk and porcelain. Yes! Pepper and other spices were very expensive in Europe. Only rich people could afford them. If they really wanted to impress people, they put some extra pepper in the food. Deepa (laughs): That’s quite a funny way of impressing people, isn’t it? Jaffar: They even used pepper as medicine! In fact, they believed pepper would heal illness. It was a real luxury product, as valuable as silver, actually. Deepa: You must do really well at school, Jaffar!

168 6 One World

Colourful spices at the market.

Cinnamon is often used in sweet dishes. It comes in sticks, powder or dried. What kinds of dishes do you use cinnamon in? Saffron adds a beautiful yellow colour to the food. It is the most expensive spice in the world. The upper band of the Indian National flag has a deep saffron colour. Turmeric is also called the poor man’s saffron. It is a lot cheaper than saffron and adds the same beautiful yellow colour. Curry is a mix of different spices. It is the most used spice mix in the world, and an important part of Indian cuisine. This spice mix is used in the popular dish chicken tikka masala. Fennel leaves can be used in salads, soups or meat dishes. The seeds are often used for cookies and cakes.

dish – rett expensive – dyrt adds – her: gir

17 What do you know about pepper? Write three facts. 18 Vasco da Gama travelled the seaway from Europe to India around South Africa. Why was the trip so dangerous? Use the Internet and find more information about his trip.

cheaper – billigere saffron – safran turmeric – gurkemeie cuisine – kjøkken,  kokekunst fennel – fenikkel

My Workbook page 128

6 One World

169

Differensiering på tre nivåer Explore har tekster og oppgaver med ulik vanskegrad fra 1–3:

Before you read

Third Stop: Northern Territory After Western Australia, Sophia and Philip fly northwards. The Northern Territory has varied landscapes as well as important Aboriginal sites, such as Uluru, which used to be named Ayers Rock until it finally got back its Aboriginal name. Sophia and Philip also want to see what Australia is famous for: amazing and sometimes dangerous animals. They head for the Kakadu National Park, Australia’s biggest national park.

Passer for alle. Passer for de fleste. Passer for deg som ønsker ekstra utfordringer. I Explore kan alle være med og dele leseopplevelsen. I arbeidsboka er det oppgaver til hver tekst fra nivå 1–3. Det er noe å gjøre for alle elever på alle sider.

Cranky Crocs Look at this warning sign in Kakadu National Park. Saltwater crocodiles are fascinating, but very dangerous creatures. Australians often call them salties. Usually, they are found in billabongs, rivers and lakes, and on beaches. Salties are the largest of all living reptiles. Males can be around 5 metres long and weigh about 500 kg. Females are much smaller and are rarely longer than 3 metres. Salties hide under the surface of the water, ready to jump out. They will eat almost anything that comes close to the edge of the water. Crocodiles attack people only when they are not careful. Follow the advice on the crocodile warning signs. And if in doubt, do not swim!

A Dangerous Dragon? The Northern Territory has its fair share of insects, spiders, lizards and snakes. One of them is the thorny devil or thorny dragon. It is a very peculiar, but small and harmless lizard. It is up to 20 centimetres long and has thorns all over its body. Predators, be warned! This lizard is not easy to swallow! One amazing fact about the thorny dragon is how it drinks water. It collects dew on its skin at night or when it goes past wet grass. The water is then carried through grooves in the skin before it ends up in the lizard’s mouth. Cheers!

Red Roos Australians often refer to kangaroos as roos. The red kangaroo is the largest of all the roos. A male can grow up to 2 metres in height and weigh over 80 kilos. A kangaroo’s tail is almost as long as its body. The roo uses its tail for balance when it is hopping. When the roo is resting, the tail is used as support, like a third leg. Kangaroos are the only large animals that move by hopping. Females are smaller, lighter, and faster than males. When a baby kangaroo is born, it is tiny, pink, not fully formed, hairless, and blind. Right after birth, it crawls into its mother’s pouch. Baby kangaroos stay in their mother’s pouch until they are around eight months. As they grow, their head and feet can often be seen hanging out of the pouch. It’s high time to get out!

northwards – nordover cranky – gretten warning sign – varselskilt fascinating – fascinerende,  spennende

lizards – øgler peculiar – merkelig predators – rovdyr swallow – svelge dew – dugg has its fair share – har en  god del, har mange thorny – tornete thorns – torner

13 Find out how big Kakadu National Park is.

be warned! – pass dere,  vær forsiktig!

surface – overflate

14 What do thorny dragons eat?

grooves – riller

edge of the water – vannkant

15 What do Australians call a baby kangaroo?

in doubt – i tvil

16 Find out how far and how high a red roo can jump.

billabong – sideelv rarely – sjelden

112 4 Life Down Under

4

Find the Northern Territory on a map of Australia. Look for the Kakadu National Park.

My Workbook page 81–82

cheers! – skål! is resting – hviler pouch – pung, pose

4 Life Down Under

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Hello, my name is Mr X. Plore. Do you remember me?

Mr X. Plore’s Tips Mr X. Plore’s Speaking Tip

Mr X. Plore er gjennomgangsfigur i Explore fra 5. til 7. trinn. I tillegg til å gi oppgaver underveis, dukker han opp med jevne mellomrom på egne sider. Her står tips og strategier for det å skrive, lese, snakke og lære engelsk. Modelltekster viser hvordan ulike teksttyper er bygd opp og hjelper deg i gang med å skrive selv.

Retell a Story

Setting: Where does the story take place? Characters: Who are the main characters in the story?

The story takes place in two different worlds: The Overland and the Underland. The Overland is where Gregor lives with his family in New York. The Underland is a dark and frightening world where most of the action takes place.

Gregor is the main character in the book. He is a friendly 11-year-old boy who falls into the Underland. He is brave, but afraid of heights. His sister is called Boots. She is two years old and falls into the Underland with him. She is very sociable. Vikus is the King of the Underland. He is kind and leads a quest against the enemy.

The Underland is in trouble. Rats are the big enemy and they are as large as humans. They are taking control by attacking the humans and other creatures there. There is an old saying that an Overlander will come to the Underland and save them. Could this Overlander be Gregor?

What is the main problem in the story?

At the beginning, Gregor is looking after his little sister Boots at his home in New York. Their father disappeared mysteriously two years before and Gregor desperately misses him. Suddenly Boots falls through a vent in the wall and he jumps after her. They fall and fall until they eventually land and find themselves in a very dark and frightening place. This is the Underland.

What happens at the beginning of the story?

In the middle of the story, the quest led by King Vikus starts. Many of the humans and their bats have already been killed by the rats. Gregor joins in the quest to help save the Underland. When they arrive at the Palace of the Rats, they find Gregor’s dad. He is a prisoner there.

What happens in the middle of the story?

At the end, there is a huge battle against the rats. Gregor realises that he is the one the rats want, so he dives off a cliff. The rats follow him and fall to their death. Gregor is saved in the fall by the bat Ares. He is finally reunited with his father and they are sent back home to the Overland.

What happens at the end of the story?

Practise two or three times on your own. Look at your audience and speak slowly and clearly. sociable – sosial quest – oppdrag reunited – gjenforent

76

My Workbook page 55

3 Dig into Reading

3 Dig into Reading

77

Explore Grammar Explore Grammar LOUD or LOUDLY?

10 Look at the pictures. How often do these people take part in demonstrations? Where do they demonstrate?

9 Look at the pictures and read the sentences. Can you spot the difference?

The music is loud.

They are happy.

He plays the music loudly.

They lived happily ever after.

adjective

adverb of manner

bad

badly

careful

carefully

quick

quickly

slow

slowly

easy

easily

Tidsadverb forteller når eller hvor ofte noe skjer, for eksempel never, sometimes, weekly, tomorrow, soon og before.

Adjektiv er ord som beskriver substantiv: personer, dyr, ting og steder. Måtesadverb forteller mer om verbet, om måten noe blir gjort på. De fleste måtesadverb er laget av et adjektiv + –ly på engelsk.

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1 Explore Your Dreams!

I tekstene får du oppleve grammatikken i sin naturlige sammenheng. I tillegg finner du egne sider i boka der du kan lære mer om grammatikk, uttale og rettskrivingsmønstre. Grammatiske mønstre du har lært tidligere, får du arbeide med på nytt i nye sammenhenger.

Adverbs of Time and Place Tids- og stedsadverb

Adjectives and Adverbs of Manner Adjektiv og måtesadverb

My Workbook pages 8–9

But remember: The word good is an adjective, but the adverb is well.

Stedsadverb forteller hvor noe skjer, for eksempel outside, inside, nearby, everywhere, here og there. take part in – delta i

1 Explore Your Dreams!

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Vurdering for læring A Work in pairs. Look at the picture and tell each other which well-known people you have learnt about in this chapter. B How is it important to behave on the Internet? Discuss with your learning partner. The thing is, … C What are the benefits of gaming? Discuss this in groups. Remember the speaking tip on page 7.

A Work together and make an exhibition in your classroom about inspiring people from English-speaking countries. Present different people you have read about. Use the Internet and books to find more information. Display drawings and pictures, too. B Search the Internet for Nobel Peace Prize winners through history. Choose one and make a digital presentation. Make sure to include why he or she won the Nobel Peace Prize.

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1 Explore Your Dreams!

A What are your interests? Who inspires you to continue doing what you like doing? B What are you good at? Use adverbs and write at least five sentences describing what you are good at. C What are you looking forward to? What do you hope is going to happen? Write down your thoughts: I am looking forward to … I hope …

A Make a quiz for your classmates. Find pictures of 10–12 well-known and inspiring people on the Internet. If your friends can guess who they are and give the correct names, they get one point. If they can explain why they are well-known, too, they get two points.

Til slutt i hvert kapittel får du repetere hva du har lært og bruke det i en ny sammenheng. Oppgavene knyttes til et myldrebilde som du kan utforske både i boka og på Smart Tavle. I arbeidsboka kan du vurdere om du har nådd målene for hvert kapittel. Hjelp til underveisvurdering finner læreren i Teacher’s Book.

B Make a class survey of your classmates’ Internet habits. Choose your own questions and present the result to your classmates.

My Workbook pages 22–23

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Everyday Learning Meeting and Greeting! Every day you meet people. Some are classmates or old friends, others are people you have never met before. Here are some useful sentences that can get you talking.

When You Meet – Hello, I’m Carly. What’s your name? – My name is …

Get Talking

What would you like to do?

6

How about …?

 Everyday Learning

Saying Goodbye

– Hi, how are you? – I’m fine, thanks.

– Hi! What’s up? – So, what have you been up to lately?


What’s Your Opinion? When learning a new language, it is a good idea to use the language as much as possible. Discussions are a good way of practising English. Here are some phrases you might find useful when you discuss different topics. – What  do you think?

– What’s  your opinion?

– I think that …

 my – In opinion, …

– I  don’t think that …

– The  problem is that … – Well,  I see what you mean, but …

Do you agree?

– The  thing I don’t understand is …

Well, I see what you mean, but …

– Do  you agree? – Yes,  I agree because … – No,  I disagree because …

– Are you sure? – Actually, I …

– I suppose, …

Yes, I agree because …

No, I disagree because …

 Everyday Learning

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Mr X. Plore’s Writing Tip Get Writing! Before you start writing, you must decide what kind of text you are going to write. Are you going to write a factual text or a fictional text? Is it a fairy tale or an instruction? Here are some more tips to help you with your writing.

Brainstorming

What do you want to include in your text? Use the question words to get you on track. Where …?

Why …?

When …? What …?

Who …?

How …? Which …?

Organise Your Ideas

E AT TW

O CO DI L R CR ES

BO

SA

L

Decide what is the best way to sort and organise your ideas. Mind map Venn diagram Two column note Keywords

largest reptile live in rivers, lakes, beaches breathe air attack people

8

 Everyday Learning

X JELLYFISH

up to 3 metres live in water lay eggs

live in the sea

dangerous eat only meat

oxygen from water deadly venom


first

but and

finally because

so

then

Use Linking Words

Linking words help you connect your sentences and ideas while you are writing. They make it easier for the reader to understand your text. Read the sentences and look at these linking words. In what part of the sentence are they placed? At the beginning or in the middle?

therefore as a result however also

although

in addition

1 Choose a text in chapter 1, Explore Your Dreams. Scan the text and see which linking words you can find.

You can find all sorts of information on the Internet. However, you cannot trust every source you find. Football games can be very exciting although they can be quite boring if there are no goals during the game. English is the most widely spoken language in the world. Therefore, it is a good idea to learn English. As a result of global warming, the Great Barrier Reef is threatened. In addition, visitors of the reef are not always as careful as they should be. It is exciting to try food from other parts of the world. Also, food traditions teach us about different cultures.

After You Have Written

Read through your text. Will the reader understand your text? Check your spelling and your grammar. Use a spell check or a dictionary. You can also ask someone to read your text and give you response.

ďťż Everyday Learning

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Get It Right! Sometimes, it can be difficult to spell words correctly in English. But don’t give up! Mr X. Plore has some super-handy spelling tips in store to help you on your way. 2L  ook carefully at how the words in each circle are spelt. Say the words, listen and think. Can you spot a pattern?

-ight light fright night bright fight right

10

ďťż Everyday Learning


-ouout shout throughout house noun around ground loud

-ook look book cook took shook

3W  ork with your learning partner. Help each other learn how to spell the words above. Can you think of more words that have the same sound and spelling patterns in them?

ďťż Everyday Learning

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Smart Strategies Smart strategies make learning a new language a lot easier. In fact, you need strategies to become a good language learner. Here are some useful tips.

Learning New Words Have you ever heard the expression Use it or lose it!? As you might have guessed, it is about how to learn new words. A good way of expanding your vocabulary is to use the new words as often as possible. Find ways that work for you. Remember to make your own personal word list and to use the new words when you speak and write. Here is something you can try.

Picture or drawing

Definition

When there is something you want to learn, you set yourself a goal. Sometimes you have to work hard to reach your goals.

mål

Word

Synonyms

goal

aim

Make sentences with the word

This year, my goal is to become a better reader. The goal is to raise as much money as possible.

12

 Everyday Learning


Read, Read, Read! Reading is very important when learning a new language. Not only will you learn more words, but you will also become a better speller. Don’t hesitate! Start reading now!

Learning Log A learning log is a useful tool. It is a kind of personal journal that helps you know where you are in your learning process. It can also give you information about what you need to do next to reach your aims. Points to include in your learning log: – What was today’s lesson about? Today’s lesson was about … – Things you have done well. I have … – Things you have struggled with. … was difficult because … Today is – New words you have learnt a great day – Important information to learn – Drawings, diagrams and pictures something – Audios, videos, animations new!

tool – verktøy personal journal –   dagbok struggled with – kjempet med audios – lydopptak

 Everyday Learning

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1

Explore Your Dreams!

education

unfair aim

opportunity

inspiring achieve

skills

human rights

14


I am looking forward to …

I hope …

The thing is …

I kapitlet vil du lære • om kjente personer fra engelskspråklige land • å skrive et intervju • å bruke adjektiv og adverb

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Before you read

What famous and inspiring people from English-speaking countries do you know of? Make a list with your learning partner.

Follow Your Dreams Our world and our history are full of inspiring people who have followed their dreams. They have all been determined and worked hard to achieve their goals.

Michael Jackson American artist Michael Jackson has been nicknamed The King of Pop. He was an amazing singer and a brilliant dancer, too. He even invented his own dance moves. Have you seen him do the moonwalk? Michael took part in his first professional show when he was only six years old. His aim was to be an artist right from the start, and he made it. Jackson won hundreds of awards and was chosen by the Guinness Book of Records as the most successful entertainer of all time.

follow – følg determined – fast bestemte, urokkelige aim – mål skills – ferdigheter inspiring – inspirerende achieve their goals – nå sine mål has been nicknamed – har fått kallenavnet made it –  klarte det energetic –  energisk these days – nå for tiden

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Tony Hawk Anthony «Tony» Hawk is a determined man who has followed his dream. As a young boy, he was very energetic and spent hours every day practising his skateboarding skills. In 1999 he became the first skateboarder to land a 900, an amazing trick. He has built over 400 skateparks around the US. These days, he spends his time helping poor children. «I’m looking forward to opening even more skateparks,» he says.

1 Explore Your Dreams!

My Workbook pages 4–5


Walt Disney When Walter Elias Disney was a young kid, his favourite hobby was drawing. He used to draw pictures for his family and neighbours and practised his technique by copying cartoons he found in newspapers. Disney studied art in Chicago and became a worldfamous animator and film producer. At the age of 27, he created Mickey Mouse, one of his most popular characters. Disney kept on drawing and creating new cartoon characters throughout his life.

created – skapte newpapers – aviser throughout – gjennom finally – til slutt cartoon characters – tegneseriefigurer publish –   gi ut attempts – forsøk

J. K. Rowling

from rags to riches – fra fattig til rik

J. K. Rowling is a famous British writer and film producer. Her fantasy series about Harry Potter is the most-sold book series of all time. Already as a young child, Joanne enjoyed writing exciting fantasy stories. When she finished her first Harry Potter book, no one wanted to publish it. She was very unhappy and poor, but did not give up. Finally, after twelve attempts, her book was published. Joanne has had a real «from rags to riches» life. Today, she is one of the richest women in Great Britain, and she still does what she loves the most – she writes exciting stories.

1 Explore Your Dreams!

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Florence Nightingale When Florence was born in 1820, girls were not expected to have a career. However, from a very young age, the only thing Florence was interested in was helping poor and sick people in her village. She decided to become a nurse, even though her parents were against it. She held on to her dream and became world-famous for it. Today, Florence Nightingale is remembered as the mother of modern nursing.

Neil Armstrong

village –  landsby nurse – sykepleier fascinated by – fascinert, veldig opptatt av

Neil Armstrong is one of America’s great heroes. As a young boy, he was fascinated by aeroplanes. He learnt how to fly an aeroplane at the age of fifteen, even before he learnt how to drive a car. He studied aviation and worked as a test pilot for NASA. In 1969, Armstrong was the first person to land on the moon and to set a footprint there. His famous words were: That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.

footprint – fotavtrykk were not expected to –   ble ikke forventet å nursing – sykepleie aviation –   luftfart

1 Which one of these people do you want to find out more about? Search the Internet and find more facts about their lives and achievements.

leap – sprang mankind – menneskeheten

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1 Explore Your Dreams!

My Workbook pages 4–5


Bob Dylan Robert Allen Zimmerman, known as Bob Dylan, was born in Minnesota, USA in 1941. As a young boy, he used to love listening to music on the radio, especially to blues, country and rock and roll. During his years in high school, Bob sang and played the guitar in several different bands. As he got older, he wanted to sing songs that really meant something. He wanted to make people think and to change the world. This is why he started writing protest songs. He wrote political songs about things he thought were important, like civil rights and fighting for peace instead of going to war.

?

Did you know

Blowin’ in the Wind is one of Dylan’s most famous protest songs. The song is about freedom and peace and has been popular for over 50 years.

Bob Dylan followed his dream and became an influential and worldfamous singer-songwriter. Over the past fifty years he has sold more than 120 million records. He is one of the world’s best-selling artists and has won many awards. In 2016, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature for his poetic songs and for creating new expressions in the American song tradition. As a matter of fact, Dylan became the first musician ever to be awarded this prize.

high school – videregående skole (US) meant something – betydde noe civil rights – borgerrettigheter peace – fred war – krig influential – innflytelsesrik Dylan has written several hundred songs, but is especially famous for his protest songs.

awards – priser expressions – uttrykk

1 Explore Your Dreams!

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Before you read

Why can it be difficult to find exactly what you are looking for when you are searching the Internet for information?

Working the Web Sienna and Noel are working on a presentation in their English class. They have each chosen an interesting person they want to learn more about. At the moment, they are busy searching the Internet for facts they can include in their mini-talks.

at the moment –  for øyeblikket include –   ta med actually – faktisk decide – bestemme in order to – for å skip –   her: hoppe over challenging – utfordrende nope –   niks haven’t got a clue –   har ikke peiling

Sienna: How are you getting on, Noel? Have you found what you are looking for? Noel: Well, the thing is, I’ve actually found too much! I’m writing about Stephen Hawking. He is a world-famous English scientist and there are hundreds of pages about him on the web. I don’t know which pages to read and which I can just skip. I’ll have to skim the pages first and then decide. Sienna: I know what you mean. I’ve got the same problem. Our teacher told us to be very specific in order to find exactly what we are looking for. Sorting the information is really challenging! I’m writing about Mary Quant. Do you know what she is famous for? Noel: Nope, I haven’t got a clue! Sienna: Well, she is famous for inventing the miniskirt.

Stephen Hawking

world-famous English scientist

has done a lot of research on “black holes”

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My Workbook page 6


Noel: Are you serious? Sienna: Just listen! Do you remember how women in the old days had to wear long skirts? Well, Quant, a famous Welsh designer, wanted women to decide for themselves what they wanted to wear and how they wanted to look. It says here on this web page that Quant wanted to make clothes women could move more freely in, clothes they could run and cycle in. Skirts had become shorter during the 1950s, but in the 1960s, Mary and some other designers decided to make them even shorter. That’s why they are called miniskirts. The skirts became very popular, and still are. Noel: Cool! Well, Hawking is quite outstanding, too. Sienna: OK, so what have you found out? Noel: It says here that he was nicknamed «Einstein» at school. He studied physics, chemistry and maths and has been a professor of mathematics for many years. Over the years, he has done a lot of research on “black holes” in the universe. Sienna: That sounds interesting. Noel: That’s not all. He’s also made popular TV programmes and written several books where he tries to explain science in an easy way to adults and children. He has done all this despite being paralysed. He is in a wheelchair and talks to others by using a computer. Sienna: I love surfing the web. Just think of all the things we can learn from inspiring people. Quant opened doors for women and gave them more freedom in fashion, just like Hawking proved that people with disabilities can reach their goals and go even further, too!

Mary Quant one of the designers of the miniskirt

famous designer

outstanding – enestående despite – til tross for proved – beviste even further – enda lengre physics – fysikk

2 Why can it be difficult to find what you are looking for on the Internet? 3 What do you now know about Mary Quant and Stephen Hawking? 4 What do you hope to do in the future? Share your ideas. I am looking forward to … I hope …

chemistry – kjemi done a lot of research – forsket mye på several – flere paralysed – lam disabilities – funksjonshemninger

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Before you read

Are there activities boys can do that girls can’t? Are there hobbies and interests girls can have that are not suitable for boys? Discuss this with your learning partner.

Billy Elliot Melvin Burgess Born 1954 British

Billy Elliot is a young boy who dreams of becoming a dancer. He decides to quit boxing and take ballet classes instead, but he keeps it a secret from his father and his older brother. This is Billy’s story. Read what happens when his father finds out what he has been up to. I jump higher than all the little girls in the class, and I feel good. Miss says I’m good. She spends half the lesson with me. «Is it our turn now?» the girls ask. «You’re always with Billy.» «Be quiet, Debbie. I’m busy.» I love the class. I think about it all the time. I practise a lot and I’m stronger now. I can dance for hours. Michael was worried. «Your dad will find out about the ballet classes,» he said. «What will you do?» But I didn’t want to think about Dad. Just this week, just one more lesson, I thought.

dreams of becoming – drømmer om å bli quit – slutte med instead – i stedet for suitable – passende has been up to – har holdt på med Miss – her: danselæreren

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The film Billy Elliot was a huge success and starred Jamie Bell as Billy Elliot.

1 Explore Your Dreams!

My Workbook page 7


Then Dad walked into the ballet class. I was lifting my leg. I looked up and Dad was standing in the door. I stopped. He’s going to kill me, I thought. Miss was still teaching. «Up two three. Like a princess, Debbie. One two three … why aren’t you dancing?» she asked me. The music stopped and she saw Dad. His face was red. «You! Out! Now!» he shouted at me. I went out of the hall. I wanted to hide. Dad followed me out. He took my arm and pulled me home. He didn’t say anything and I was very frightened. In the kitchen he pointed to a chair next to the table, then he sat down opposite me. He didn’t speak for a long time. «Ballet,» he said finally. «What’s wrong with ballet?» I said. «It’s OK.» «How can it be OK?» I was frightened. He was angry and his face was white now. «I went to ballet class,» Nan said. She was sitting near the window, watching us. «It’s OK for you Nan. For girls, Billy, not for boys. Boys play football or they box». «What’s wrong with dancing?» I asked again. But I knew. Ballet isn’t for boys and strong, hard men. People in our town don’t dance ballet. Well, maybe I don’t want to be a miner. Maybe I’m different. I jumped up. «I hate you,» I screamed at him. Then I ran out of the room. He shouted at me, but I didn’t stop. Tears were running down my face. I want to dance, I thought. It’s the only thing I can do well. And Dad wants to stop me. I ran down to the beach. It was a windy day. I listened to the sea and I felt calmer. Adapted from Billy Elliot by Mervin Burgess, retold by Karen Holmes. opposite – overfor

5 Why doesn’t Billy’s dad like Billy taking ballet lessons? 6 What do you think will happen next? Discuss Billy’s dilemma with your learning partner. 7 Do you think Billy should go for a career as a dancer or not? 8 What do you think is the main message in this story?

screamed – skrek calmer – roligere was teaching – underviste hide – gjemme meg Nan – bestemor miner – gruvearbeider

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Explore Grammar LOUD or LOUDLY? Adjectives and Adverbs of Manner Adjektiv og måtes­adverb 9 Look at the pictures and read the sentences. Can you spot the difference?

The music is loud.

They are happy.

He plays the music loudly.

They lived happily ever after.

adjective

adverb of manner

bad

badly

careful

carefully

quick

quickly

slow

slowly

easy

easily

Adjektiv er ord som beskriver substantiv: personer, dyr, ting og steder. Måtesadverb forteller mer om verbet, om måten noe blir gjort på. De fleste måtesadverb er laget av et adjektiv + –ly på engelsk.

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My Workbook pages 8–9


Adverbs of Time and Place Tids- og stedsadverb 10 Look at the pictures. How often do these people take part in demonstrations? Where do they demonstrate?

Tidsadverb forteller når eller hvor ofte noe skjer, for eksempel never, sometimes, weekly, tomorrow, soon og before.

But remember: The word good is an adjective, but the adverb is well.

Stedsadverb forteller hvor noe skjer, for eksempel outside, inside, nearby, everywhere, here og there. take part in – delta i

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Before you read

the right to – retten til education – utdanning threatened – truet speak out –   si meningen sin caption – bildetekst valley – dal received – mottok owner – eier area – område encouraged – oppmuntret even though –   selv om

Look at the pictures and read the captions. What do you know about Malala? Tell your learning partner.

Malala Yousafzai Malala Yousafzai is a determined young woman who wishes to give girls the right to an education. Even though she has been threatened many times, she has not given up. For this, she received the Nobel Peace Prize. This is her story. Malala grew up in the Swat Valley in Pakistan with her mother, father and two little brothers. Her father was the owner of a primary school. He thought it was important that both boys and girls went to school and got an education. The Taliban controlled the area in Pakistan where Malala and her family lived. They decided that girls should no longer go to school. Malala was encouraged by her father to speak out, even though the Taliban was dangerous.

Malala, a brave and determined young woman.

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My Workbook pages 10–11


Malala wrote an anonymous blog on the BBC website describing what it was like to live in Pakistan under Taliban. She wrote in a critical voice. One day, a Taliban soldier showed up on the school bus. He asked «Who is Malala?» No one said anything, but the other children looked silently at Malala. The soldier pointed his gun at Malala and shot her in the head. Malala was seriously injured. She was first treated at a hospital in Pakistan, then in England. Malala now lives in England with her family. She goes to school there. Malala is still a women’s rights activist and has become an even more important voice campaigning for girls’ right to an education. After the shooting, she has taken her campaign around the world. She has spoken at important meetings in the UN and to presidents around the world. In the future, she hopes to be a politician so she can make positive changes in the Pakistan society. In 2014, Malala received the Nobel Peace Prize. She shared the prize with Kailash Satyarthi, who works for children’s rights in India. He also fights against child labour. Malala is the youngest person ever to win this prize. Malala generously decided to spend her prize money on building schools for girls in Pakistan.

I want every girl, every child to be educated. Malala Yousafzai

anonymous – anonym silently – stille injured –   skadet Malala receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo.

critical voice – kritisk stemme treated – behandlet

11 Why do you think many people describe Malala as brave? Give examples from the text.

women’s rights activist – kvinne­rettighets­ forkjemper UN – United Nations (FN)

12 What else would you like to know about Malala?

the Pakistan society – det pakistanske samfunnet

13 Why does Malala want every child in the world to go to school?

child labour – barnearbeid generously – generøst

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Before you read

What do you think is unfair? Tell your learning partner.

Important Peacemakers Throughout history, many people have fought for human rights in different ways. Here are two men who were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their work for human rights.

Ending Apartheid From 1948 to 1994, South Africa had laws which forced non-white and white people to live apart. These laws were called apartheid. Black and white people had to go to different schools and live in different areas. If black people went to areas meant for white people, they needed special papers. Otherwise, they could be arrested. Non-white people didn’t have the right to vote. Nelson Mandela wanted to change these laws. He thought everyone should have the same opportunities. Therefore, he led many demonstrations. Most of them were peaceful. In 1964, Mandela was given a life sentence in prison. Many people and countries around the world protested. Some even stopped doing business with South Africa. Finally, after 27 years in prison, Mandela was freed in 1990. He patiently kept on trying to change the laws. In 1994, Mandela was elected president of South-Africa. When he retired in 1999, he continued to spread his message of peace. unfair – urettferdig human rights – menneskerettigheter forced – tvang vote – stemme opportunities –   muligheter awarded –   tildelt, belønnet med apart – adskilt, fra hverandre life sentence – livstidsdom elected – valgt retired – pensjonert continued – fortsatte

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Nelson Mandela was the president of South Africa for five years.

1 Explore Your Dreams!

My Workbook pages 12–13


Equal Rights for All In the 1950s and 60s, Martin Luther King Jr. dedicated his life to getting equal rights for all Americans. He wanted to change unfair laws that kept African Americans and white Americans apart. Martin Luther King Jr. believed that peaceful demonstrations were more powerful than violent methods. He hoped the demonstrations would put an end to segregation. Because of what he believed in, King was threatened many times. On the 4th of April 1968, he was murdered. In his memory, Americans celebrate Martin Luther King Day every third Monday of January. King is known to be one of the greatest speakers in American history. On the 28th of August 1963, he spoke in front of 250,000 people in Washington D.C., giving his most famous speech. Here is a part of this speech, still famous today:

Martin Luther King Jr. giving his most famous speech, I Have a Dream.

I Have a Dream

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

equal rights – like rettigheter Jr – junior, den yngre segregation – å skille menneskegrupper fra hverandre i det samme samfunnet

14 Find Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi on a map of the US. 15 Read King’s speech again. Using your own words, explain what King’s dreams are.

speakers – talere speech –   tale brotherhood –   samhold, brorskap jugded –   dømt, bedømt content of their character – hvem de er og hva de står for

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Explore Grammar I DO NOT or I DON’T? Contractions Sammentrekninger

apostrof =

Når vi snakker engelsk er det vanlig å trekke sammen ord. På den måten flyter språket lettere. Vi kan også gjøre det når vi skriver uformelle tekster. Da må vi sette inn en apostrof der vi har tatt bort en eller flere bokstaver. I’m He’s

He is I am

They are

She is We are

They’re

She’s

It is

You are It’s

We’re You’re

16 Scan the text Working the Web on pages 20–21. Write down all the contractions you can find.

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My Workbook pages 14–15


17 Can you find out what we do with the word not when we talk and write informal texts?

Når vi snakker og svarer på spørsmål, er det vanlig å trekke sammen ord. Vi kan også gjøre det når vi skriver uformelle tekster. Da må vi sette inn en apostrof der vi har tatt bort en bokstav, for eksempel: I do not I don’t.

– Do you like boxing? – No, I do not.

– No, I don’t. – Does your dad like skiing? – No, he does not.

– No, he doesn’t.

– Has Malala stopped fighting for young girls’ rights? – No, she has not.

– No, she hasn’t.

– Did J.K. Rowling write Horrid Henry? – No, she did not.

– No, she didn’t.

– Have you been to the moon? – No, I have not.

– No, I haven’t.

– Can you skate like Tony Hawk? – No, I cannot.

– No, I can’t.

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Mr X. Plore’s Writing Tip Write an Interview Hassan is going to interview Melissa about her thoughts on the future. Hassan has already planned what he is going to ask Melissa. While he is interviewing her, he takes notes as she answers.

I am interviewing: Melissa Family: mother, father and twin sister Which words best describe you? «Stubborn», «kind», «funny» and «polite» What are your hobbies? Tennis and art Why do you like your hobbies? Because they are fun and challenging Who is your role model? My granny Is there any advice you would give others? Never to give up What do you want to be when you grow up? A professional tennis player What are your hopes for the future? To become a professional tennis player or a designer

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My Workbook pages 16–17


A Creative Tennis Player Melissa is always on the run. If she is not playing tennis, she likes making presents for her family. Melissa has just turned 13 years old. She sits next to her best friend, Nida. They spend a lot of time together. Melissa describes herself as stubborn, kind, funny and polite. Text and photo: Hassan Patel Interesting facts about this person What are you good at? Well, I’m quite good at playing tennis, but I’ve got other interests as well. The problem is, I’ve got too many interests. I like arts and crafts. I take an art class after school once a week. I often make presents for my family. They all love it. At least, that’s what they say. Find out more. Why do you like tennis? Tennis is fun and you really have to concentrate while you play. In a way, you have to try to think what your opponent will do next. I love the tournaments. Then I can watch matches and I learn a lot. Who is the role model? Who is your role model? Famous tennis players inspire me, but my biggest role model is my granny. She’s always positive and tells me never to give up my dream. I am looking forward to visiting her during the autumn break. Any advice to others? Is there any advice you would like to give others? I think it must be never to give up, like my granny taught me. There will always be challenges, but if I try hard, I’ll overcome them.

Who is the interview about?

What do you want to be when you grow up? I don’t know. I hope to be a professional tennis player one day, but I know it can be really difficult. If I don’t become a professional tennis player, I think I would like to be a designer. I love drawing. Summing up What are your hopes for the future? Last year, we learnt about children in the poor parts of the world. Many children don’t have a house to live in or enough food. My hopes for the future are that children all over the world get a safe place to live and enough food to eat.

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Before you read

Upload, view, rate, share and post are words related to the Internet. What do they mean?

The Internet Dream Ever since the invention of computers and the Internet, new jobs have been created. In the 70s, Bill Gates started Microsoft, which has now become the largest software company in the world. Dan Middleton is a well-known YouTuber. They both followed their dreams.

Bill Gates Bill Gates has been interested in programming computers since he was a teenager. His old schoolmate Paul Allen shared his interest. Together, Gates and Allen built up the Microsoft Company. It all started when Gates took a programming class at school. He learnt how to write computer programs, and he was only 13 years old when he made his first computer game. He developed his interest further and continued doing what he loved even when he became a student at Harvard University. However, he dropped out after the second year because he was determined to start his own company.

ever since – helt siden well-known – kjent computer game – dataspill software – programvare company – selskap, bedrift developed – utviklet further –   videre even when –   selv da

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Bill Gates chose to follow his dream and started the Microsoft Company.

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My Workbook pages 18–19


In 2010, Gates established the Giving Pledge, which encourages billionaires to give part of their fortune to charity. He invited wealthy families all over the world to become donors and give more than half of their fortune. Gates himself has given 95 %.

Dan Middleton YouTube was founded in 2005 by three young Americans. They came up with the idea of a video sharing site where others could view, rate and comment on videos. Here, anyone can upload videos. In fact, most of the videos are posted by amateurs. The most popular YouTubers have millions of subscribers. Dan Middleton is a British gamer and YouTuber. He started sharing videos on the Channel in 2012. After a few years, he got millions of subscribers. His goal was to create a professional kid gaming channel. Middleton makes the videos in his home studio. He often starts the day by making a video in the morning, editing it during the day before posting it in the evening.

Dan Middleton has got millions of subscribers on YouTube.

When Middleton was in his early school years, his family moved around a lot because of his father’s work. He often changed schools, which made it difficult for him to make friends. Perhaps that is why he spent so much time playing video games? He has won several awards because of his interest. One of them is the Nickelodeon Kids’ Choice Award. Many people are inspired by YouTubers like Middleton. In 2017, playing games or watching videos on the Internet was a trend among young people. What do you think will be the next Internet trend?

wealthy – rik, velstående rate – like eller ikke like, anmelde comment on – kommentere several – flere established – etablert, startet fortune – formue charity – veldedighet

18 How did Bill Gates become interested in computers?

donors – givere

19 Why do you think Dan Middleton got interested in gaming in the first place?

founded – grunnlagt

20 Why do you think some YouTubers earn a lot of money?

awards – priser

subscribers – abonnenter, følgere

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Before you read

What do the words diameter, rake, circle and drone mean?

Amazing Art To be an artist, you truly have to follow your dream and believe in your own ideas, even if others do not always believe in you. Many artists have been brave and gone their own way. As a result, they have created things the world has never seen before. American artist Andres Amador creates incredibly large works of art. Some of his creations are over thirty metres in diameter. Instead of using a canvas and a brush like most artists, he uses a beach and a rake. It all started in 2004 when he was camping with a friend on a beach. He was playing around with a stick and drew a circle in the sand. Suddenly, he had an idea. He saw clearly in his mind how the beach was the perfect place for creating art. Since then, he has made his extraordinary works of art on beaches around the US, in Hawaii, Ireland and New Zealand.

artist – kunstner gone their own way – gått sine egne veier result – resultat incredibly – utrolig creations – kunstverk canvas and brush – lerret og pensel stick – pinne extraordinary – utrolige works of art – kunstverk

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The artist hard at work.

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Amador’s piece of art, minutes before it is swallowed up by the waves.

My Workbook pages 20–21


Andres explains that it usually takes him about two to three hours to make a piece, but he has to work quickly so that he can finish his work before the tide comes in.» Believe me, I’ve had many dramatic races with the tide», he says. «The thing is, time is not on my side! I just hope I finish in time.» His goal is to always take a photo of his work when it is finished. He uses a drone to photograph the art piece from high up in the air. Once he has taken pictures, the artwork is swallowed up by the waves and disappears forever. But that doesn’t bother him. «In a way, it’s like the story of our lives. Our lives aren’t permanent either. And I love the fact that I don’t have anything to clean up, I don’t have to store the work anywhere and I can come back tomorrow and have a clean, new canvas to work with all over again,» he says, smiling.

races – kappløp piece – stykke, kunstverk A photo of Amador’s art taken from the air.

swallowed up – skylt vekk tide – tidevann

21 Which geometrical figures can you see in Amador’s art? 22 How does he create his amazing art? 23 What does Amador mean when he says: In a way, it’s like the story of our lives. Our lives aren’t permanent either?

waves – bølger doesn’t bother him –   bryr ham ikke aren’t permanent – varer ikke evig store – her: lagre

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A Work in pairs. Look at the picture and tell each other which well-known people you have learnt about in this chapter. B How is it important to behave on the Internet? Discuss with your learning partner. The thing is, … C What are the benefits of gaming? Discuss this in groups. Remember the speaking tip on page 7.

A Work together and make an exhibition in your classroom about inspiring people from English-speaking countries. Present different people you have read about. Use the Internet and books to find more information. Display drawings and pictures, too. B Search the Internet for Nobel Peace Prize winners through history. Choose one and make a digital presentation. Make sure to include why he or she won the Nobel Peace Prize.

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A What are your interests? Who inspires you to continue doing what you like doing? B What are you good at? Use adverbs and write at least five sentences describing what you are good at. C What are you looking forward to? What do you hope is going to happen? Write down your thoughts: I am looking forward to … I hope …

A Make a quiz for your classmates. Find pictures of 10–12 well-known and inspiring people on the Internet. If your friends can guess who they are and give the correct names, they get one point. If they can explain why they are well-known, too, they get two points. B Make a class survey of your classmates’ Internet habits. Choose your own questions and present the result to your classmates.

My Workbook pages 22–23


2

Planet Football

pitch

improve catch

footballer

however player

kick

equipment

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On the one hand, …

On the other hand, …

In my opinion, …

I kapitlet vil du lære • om fotball rundt omkring i verden • om sammensatte verbuttrykk • å skrive argumenter for og imot et tema

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Before you read

What do you need to play football? Describe the type of clothes you wear and the places where you can play. Discuss with your learning partner.

Football with a Twist You don’t have to be a football fan or an expert to enjoy football. All you need is a ball and a few keen players. You don’t need a special stadium either. You can play anywhere. But have you heard of futsal or foosball? Here are ways of playing football you have probably never dreamed of.

Futsal These players are practising futsal, football in a hall. The rules of the game are a bit different from traditional football. There are four players, and a goalkeeper. The goalkeeper is free to play anywhere on the pitch, which is much smaller than a football field. You can fit eight futsal pitches in a regular football field. The futsal ball is also smaller and has less bounce.

Spidermen in Football Shorts You can play football everywhere. On the picture you can see players attached to the top of a high building. They are playing football by swinging back and forth from long ropes. Like spidermen in football shorts, they are kicking a ball that is hanging between them. It takes a lot of training to run on a vertical wall. Apparently, it is much easier to do a backflip there than to run! keen – ivrige players – spillere pitch – bane field – bane ropes – tau regular – vanlig bounce – sprett attached to – festet til back and forth – fram og tilbake apparently – tydeligvis, visstnok

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2 Planet Football

My Workbook pages 26–27


Swamp Soccer Why on earth would anyone want to play in slimy mud? The answer lies in Finland, where top Finnish cross-country skiers started this as a summer training activity. Apparently, playing on soft, wet bog is an excellent way of training. It is actually so physically demanding that swamp soccer is played in two halves of only 12 minutes each. There are around 300 swamp soccer teams from all over the world. Swamp Soccer world championships are held every year.

Human Foosball Have you ever played table football or foosball? It’s fun, even if you are not very keen on football. Giant table football, or human foosball, is hilarious. The game is just like table football but with real people. Either the players are attached to the bars or they have to keep their hands on the bars. They can only move sideways to kick or stop the ball. The aim of the game is to score as many goals as possible, of course.

slimy – slimete keen on – interessert i, ivrig på hilarious – veldig morsom sideways – sidelengs kick – sparke swamp – sump Finnish – finsk

1 Find a video of human foosball on the Internet. Would you like to try it or not? Explain why.

cross-country skiers – langrennsløpere bog – myr physically – fysisk demanding –   krevende human – menneskelig

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Before you read

Which skills do professional football players need to have? Scan the text and find out what these football players are good at.

Football Heroes Professional football players need many skills. The players have often worked their whole lives to reach their goals. But, are footballers only heroes on the field? Here are some players who are heroes off the field as well.

The Award Winner Samuel Eto’o has won the African Player of the Year award four times. He is known for his good technique. Eto’o grew up in Cameroon. He has played for several professional football clubs in Europe. Unfortunately, some of the supporters shouted racist comments. He did not want his children to experience this and stopped bringing his family members to matches. Besides being a football player, he has organised charity matches with famous football players. The money goes to children and young people who need help. 2 Why did Samuel Eto’o stop bringing family members to football matches?

grew up – vokste opp experience – oppleve award –   pris besides – i tillegg til charity matches – veldedighetskamper

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A very happy Samuel Eto’o after scoring a goal for Inter Milan.

My Workbook pages 28–29


The Nicest Football Player Steven Naismith grew up in Scotland in a working-class family. At school, Naismith had a hard time learning to read and write, but he worked hard and never gave up. His father was a social worker, and Naismith often went with his father to work. There he met children who were much poorer than him. Early on, he learnt to respect people and never judge anybody at first sight. After he became a professional football player, he donated football tickets to unemployed Steven Naismith helps people. He also invited homeless people for serving Christmas lunch Christmas dinner. Naismith says that he to homeless people. wants to continue helping people in difficult situations. Naismith’s special skills as a football player are his long shots and his attacking instincts.

George Weah playing with children at a clinic in New York.

The Anti-War Footballer George Weah was born in the slum of Monrovia, Liberia. He was raised by his grandmother and grew up on the streets. His athletic talent made him a football star and brought him to professional football clubs in Italy, France and England. He was awarded the African Player of the Year award three times. Even more impressive is the World Player of the Year, which he got in 1995. He is the only African football player ever to receive this prize. He is known for his speed and dribbling skills. After he quit as a football player, he has helped children get an education.

3 Why is Steven Naismith called the nicest football player? 4 Choose two famous football players and make a Venn diagram. Compare the two and find out what is the same and what is different.

judge –  dømme at first sight – ved første blikk unemployed –   arbeidsledig footballer – fotballspiller especially – spesielt impressive – imponerende working-class – fra arbeiderklassen social worker – sosialarbeider was raised by – ble oppdratt av receive – motta athletic talent – idrettstalent

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Explore Grammar Compound Verbs Sammensatte verbuttrykk 5 Look at the verbs in the sentences. Can you spot the difference?

We get ice cream in the summer.

We get on really well.

Sammensatte verbuttrykk er verb som hører sammen med en preposisjon eller et adverb. Preposisjonen eller adverbet gir ofte verbet en annen betydning enn verbet har alene. keep on – continue

Et sammensatt verbuttrykk forteller hva noen eller noe gjør, på samme måte som et verb. believe in – to think something is true

break up – end a relationship

look after – take care of

put off – postpone, delay

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try on – put clothes on to see if they fit

calm down – relax after being angry or upset

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give up – stop trying, quit a habit

sleep over – stay somewhere for the night

find out – find the answer

cheer up – become happier

throw away – get rid of something

get along – like each other

hurry up – do something more quickly

6 Choose a compound verb and make up a funny sentence. Work with your learning partner.

My Workbook page 30


Adjectives and Prepositions Adjektiv og preposisjoner 7 Which of the two sentences gives more detailed information?

He is angry.

He is angry with his mother.

Noen adjektiv bruker vi sammen med preposisjoner. Det er faste uttrykk du mü lÌre deg. ous for its football

Manchester is fam

Peter is afr a

team. She is interested in

computer games.

id of the da

. g cars

rk.

epairin ad at r

He is b

They are excited ab

I am not very

ll.

a keen on footb

He is pleased with his progress.

out going to London

.

8 Answer the following questions. Compare with your learning partner. What do you have in common? What are you good at? What are you interested in? What stories in the news are you worried about? Who are you proud of? Name something that is good for your health and something that is bad for your health.

My Workbook page 31

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Before you read

?

Did you know Soccer is slang for association football.

How many centimetres are there in a yard? How long is 120 yards?

American Football Football in Europe is not the same as football in the US. In the US, football is called soccer, but American football is a lot more popular. In fact, it is the most played and watched game in the US. When playing American football, you can kick, throw or run with the ball in your hands. Two teams of eleven play against each other. The field is 120 yards long. The numbers on the field show how far it is from the goal post on each short side. There are many ways of scoring points. Touchdown gives you six points and is the highest point score you can get. Body contact is allowed, and the sport can seem a bit brutal to an outsider. There is a risk of getting injured. That is probably why all the safety equipment is required. You need a helmet and shoulder pads, thigh and knee pads. In addition, you need chest protectors and mouth guards. Seven referees at every match make sure the players follow the rules.

equipment –  utstyr is required – trengs, behøves referee – dommer goal post –   målstang outsider – en som står på utsiden pads – puter mouth guard – tannbeskyttelse chest protectors – brystbeskyttelse

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The quarterback is the leader of the team.

My Workbook page 32


The highest level of professional American football is called the National Football League, NLA. The championship game of each season is called the Super Bowl and is played at the beginning of February. Some people consider this day an unofficial national holiday, because the game is one of the most popular TV broadcasts. Millions of Americans watch the game every year.

Cheerleaders Cheerleading has become very popular all over the world. The sport is more than 100 years old. In the beginning, there were only men who did cheerleading. Today, there are almost four million children and adults doing cheerleading in the US alone. Most middle schools and high schools have their own squads, and both girls and boys can be members. To become a part of the group, you have to participate in a take-out. The Cheerleader squads support their team during the games and entertain the audience. They cheer, dance and tumble. Some do amazing stunts. Together with the band, the cheerleaders keep up the good spirit during the games. American football is not the only sport that has squads cheering during the games. Basketball and wrestling also have their own supporters. Cheerleader squads can have competitions, too. All Star is the highest ranked professional competition.

Cheerleaders often make amazing pyramids.

consider – anser squads – tropper participate – delta entertain – underholde audience – publikum

9 Which body parts are protected by the safety equipment used in American football?

competitions – konkurranser

10 Scan the text and write three facts about American football and cheerleading. Compare with your learning partner’s list.

championship game – mesterskapsfinale

11 Make a Venn-diagram and compare American and European football.

tumble – slå kollbøtte

broadcasts – sendinger take-out – audition ranked – rangert

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Before you read

Scan the text. Find the three verbs that mean balanserer, spark and fang. What are the English words?

Football Tricks Doing tricks with a ball is fun and requires a lot of training. Even professional football players have to practise. The Norwegian girl Charlotte Lade impresses both Messi and Ronaldo with her best tricks. When Charlotte was a little girl, she loved playing football. Unfortunately, she got ill and could not play any more. However, she kept on doing football tricks. Now Charlotte lives in London and has made a living out of doing tricks with a football. She is a professional football freestyler and has done commercials with some of the world’s most famous footballers. One of her aims is to make more girls interested in playing football. Do you like doing tricks with a ball? Here are a few tricks you can try in PE or at home. Charlotte Lade is a professional football freestyler.

Around the World Balance the ball on your foot. Lift your knee up and let the ball roll off your foot. Move your leg around the ball before you catch the ball with your foot again.

Neck Stall Kick the ball over your head. Catch the ball on your neck. Lift your shoulders to make a pocket for the ball to land on the top of you back. tricks – triks any more – mer, lenger however – likevel lift up – løft opp catch – fange commercials – reklame made a living out of – gjort det til sin jobb PE (physical education) – kroppsøving

The Rainbow Kick the ball from behind your back, over your head to the front of your body. Catch the ball with your foot again. 12 E  xplain a football trick or a game you like playing. Add pictures if you like.

pocket – lomme

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My Workbook page 33


Tongue Twister 3 and Jokes

/tʃ/ cheese, chicken, cheek /dʒ/ large, jail, legend – What lights up a football stadium? – A football match!

– Why are football players never invited to dinner? – Because they’re always dribbling!

A Legendary Challenge

Who is up for a legendary challenge – Manchester or Chelsea?

– Why don’t grasshoppers go to football matches? – They prefer cricket matches!

challenge – utfordring match – fyrstikk, kamp cricket – en type gresshoppe dribbling –   dribler, sikler

My Workbook page 34

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Mr X. Plore’s Writing Tip Write For and Against When you write arguments for and against, your goal is to show different sides of a topic. 1 Choose a topic you are interested in and find information. Different topics to write about are listed in My Workbook, page 35. 2 Find information in books or on the Internet. Organise and sort your facts and ideas. Write arguments for and against. 3 Use the information you found to write your text.

Title: Why is …?

Introduce your topic and tell your reader what your text is about.

Arguments FOR

Title: A question or a statement

All over the world, people are involved in football.

On the one hand, …

On the other hand, …

The thing is …

However, …

Arguments AGAINST

The problem is …

Your opinion

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To sum up, … In my opinion, …

My Workbook page 35


Title

Are You For or Against Football? People play football all over the world. It is a social sport and anyone can play it. Even though many people are not interested in football, it is one of the world’s most popular sports. What is it about this sport that makes it so popular? On the one hand, football is challenging and exciting. You always have to think about the next move. You can’t win a game on your own, and you need to work with your teammates. Working together as a team makes the sport even more interesting. It is great to work together as a group. You become good friends with your teammates. Playing football also improves your concentration. It teaches you to focus on what you are doing, which again might have a positive influence on your schoolwork. Even more important is the fact that you learn discipline and to respect others. Not only your teammates, but also the coach and parents who are helping out and supporting the team must be respected. On the other hand, playing football is hard work. You need to practise for many hours if you want to become a professional footballer. There is a risk of getting injured, too. Minor injuries like scrapes or sprains happen quite often. More serious accidents like head injuries may occur as well, but only very rarely. Some football players experience abuse from their fans, teammates or coaches. There are supporters who get really carried away in the stands. In addition, there are stories of violence between supporters from different teams. To sum up, playing football is mainly positive even though there are some people who get too involved in the sport. In my opinion, football is a great sport. Everyone can participate and you don’t need a lot of expensive equipment. It is a great way of meeting your friends.

Introduce your topic.

Arguments FOR

Arguments AGAINST

Your opinion

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Before you read

James Carter Born 1959 British

?

Did you know A football has 32 panels: 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons.

grab – gripe roll – rulle head –   heade biff – slå med hånda, daske boot –   sparke panels – sider hexagon – sekskant pentagon – femkant

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What Can yoU What DoWhat With a Can Can yoU yoU FootbaLL Do a Do With With a ? FootbaLL FootbaLL ? ? WeLL…

What can you do with a football? Tell your learning partner.

WeLL… WeLL… You can kick it - you can catch You can Youbounce can it - all it - you can can kick it -- you you canitcatch catch kick around. Youitcan grab you can it you can bounce it all it --you youcan can it --ground. all pat it rollbounce it - on the

around. You can grab it you can around. You can grab it you can it You can throw it you can head pat pat it it you you can can roll roll it it -- on on the the ground. ground. you can hit it - with a bat. You can You can throw it you can head it You can throw it you can head biff it you can boot it you can spinit you can hit it with You can youit canyou hitcan it -- shoot with aa itbat. bat. YouYou cancan you boot it you can spin biff itdrop you can can boot it you can biff it it you can stop it. Justspin it shoot it You can you can can it you likeshoot that!it You can drop can stop drop it it you youJames canCarter stop it. it. Just Just like like that! that! 13 H  ow many sides does a hexagon have? Can you think of something shaped as a hexagon? 14 Make a list of all the verbs you can find in the poem. 15 Write the poem in Norwegian. Remember, do not use the same verb more than once!

James Carter James James Carter Carter

My Workbook pages 36–37


Don’t Ever Ask a Centipede Don’t ever ask a centipede to play a game of soccer. Remember, he has 50 pairs of sneakers in his locker. He dribbles 50 soccer balls with 50 pairs of shoes, and kicks them all concurrently. He doesn’t often lose. He’s such a fierce competitor that, if you ever meet, at first you’ll see his hundred legs and then you’ll see defeat.

Kenn Nesbitt Born 1962 American

?

Did you know

In the US people wear sneakers. In the UK they wear trainers.

From the book The Tighty-Whitey Spider by Kenn Nesbitt

sneakers (US) – joggesko

16 What does you’ll see defeat mean? Can you think of another way of saying this? Discuss with your learning partner.

trainers (UK) – joggesko locker – skap centipede – tusenbein concurrently – samtidig fierce – voldsom competitor – konkurrent defeat – nederlag

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Before you read

Why is sport good for you? Think of two arguments.

Go, Grannies, Go! 17 W  hat do you do when your parents tell you it’s time to go outside and get some fresh air?

Many professional football players retire in their thirties, sometimes even earlier. But what about the man, or the woman, in the street? It looks like there is no age limit when it comes to playing football. The Vakhegula Vakhegula women’s football team is living proof of that. A few years ago, community leader Beka Ntsanwisi visited a hospital in Limpopo, in South Africa. The high number of female patients she saw there surprised her. A lot of women suffered from diabetes, high blood pressure and were overweight. Beka Ntsanwisi got a group of older women together. She decided to use football to help them exercise and improve their health. She created the Vakhegula Vakhegula squad. Vakhegula Vakhegula means grannies. The team has around 45 players, all women between the ages of 40 and 80. They practise twice a week, in the afternoon. One of the team members, who has 14 grandchildren, says: “I love and enjoy football because it has revived my health. I don’t feel any pain. My blood pressure is fine. I don’t have any problems.” The success of the Limpopo Soccer Grannies has set an example. There is no age limit to taking part in sports!

age limit –  aldersgrense exercise – trene improve – forbedre health – helse pain – smerte retire –   gå av med pensjon living proof – levende bevis community – lokalsamfunn female patients – kvinnelige pasienter blood pressure – blodtrykk overweight – overvektige revived – fornyet Football has no age limit!

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My Workbook pages 38–39


Before you read

Imagine playing football while you are blindfolded. Which sense do you think will be the most important one?

Blindfolded Football You would think that having bad eyesight makes playing football difficult. Blind footballers do have challenges sighted footballers don’t have, but not as many as you imagine. Blind Football has its own league in England and is a sport in the Paralympics. In England, there is even a football academy for blind footballers only. It is amazing to see how accurately blind footballers pass the ball, even though the passes are shorter than in sighted football. The field players are blindfolded to even out different degrees of eyesight. However, there are rules that give the blind footballers some advantages compared to sighted players. First of all, coaches stand behind the attacking goal and on the sideline and give directions to the players. The players have to let their opponents and teammates know where they are placed on the field. By saying particular words or their own name, the other players will know where they are. In addition, the field is smaller than a normal football field and is also surrounded by walls. These walls give an echo whenever the ball touches them, which helps the players find the ball. Blind footballers must hear the ball. Therefore, the audience has to be quiet during the game. The ball has a little bell inside which makes a soft rattling noise. This noise helps the players keep track of the ball. Blind football players need the same skills as any other football players, but they also need to practise running, stopping and changing directions. This is very important when playing blind football, so they are not a danger to themselves or to the other players. Have you ever tried to run blindfolded?

blindfolded – med bind for øynene eyesight – syn challenges – utfordringer sighted – seende, som kan se accurately –   presist

18 What kinds of special arrangement make it possible for blind people to play football? 19 How does blind football differ from sighted football? Name three differences.

field players – utespillere degrees – grader advantages – fordeler opponents –   motstandere surrounded by –   omgitt av rattling – klirrende

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A Work with your partner and look at the picture! Which action verbs can you use to describe what people are doing? Try to find as many compound verbs as possible.

A Make a list of all the football words you can think of. Compare your list with your learning partner’s list. Use the list and write a story or an informational text about football.

B Work with your learning partner. Take turns and ask each other questions about the weekend. Try to use all the question word.

B Choose a football player. Write a biography. Use digital tools and add pictures to your text.

C Look through the chapter and choose five words you have learnt. Explain each word and let your learning partner guess which word it is.

A Which football teams are the most popular in your class? Make a class survey and present the result in a bar chart. A Work together in groups and make an exhibition about football in your classroom. Choose a team or a football player and present what you have learnt.

B Make a football book on paper or use digital tools. Write new words, phrases and facts that you have learnt in this chapter.

B Make a list of the 10 biggest football stadiums in the world. Present what you have found in a bar chart. Choose one stadium and give a mini-talk.

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My Workbook pages 40–41


3

Dig into Reading

adventure

among take care of silence

wherever ordinary

encourage

frustrating

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takes place in …

at the beginning …

at the end …

I kapitlet vil du • • • •

lese utdrag fra kjente barnebøker gjenfortelle en tekst lære om some og any lære å bruke who, which og that

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Before you read

Have you read the book or seen the film called SVK in Norwegian? It is called The BFG in English. What do you think the letters BFG stand for?

The BFG Roald Dahl 1916–1990 BritishNorwegian

The BFG was Roald Dahl’s own favourite story. Even before he wrote the book, he told the story of the big friendly giant to his own children and, later, to his grandchildren. The book is the story of a girl called Sophie and a giant who collects dreams. Sophie couldn’t sleep. The other children in the dormitory had been asleep for hours. Sophie closed her eyes and lay quite still. She tried very hard to doze off. It was no good. The house was absolutely silent. No voices came up from downstairs. There were no footsteps on the floor above either. The window behind the curtain was wide open, but nobody was walking on the pavement outside. No cars went by on the street. Not the tiniest sound could be heard anywhere. Sophie had never known such a silence.

lay – lå silent – stille floor – etasje silence – stillhet dormitory – sovesal doze off – døse av, sove absolutely – helt footsteps – fottrinn curtain – gardin pavement – fortau

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This extract takes place in Sopie’s dormitory.

My Workbook pages 44–45


The Witching Hour Perhaps, she told herself, this was what they called the witching hour. The witching hour, somebody had once whispered to her, was a special moment in the middle of the night when every child and every grown-up was in a deep, deep sleep, and all the dark things came out from hiding and had the world to themselves. The moonbeam was brighter than ever on Sophie’s pillow. She decided to get out of bed and close the gap in the curtains. You got punished if you were caught out of bed after lights-out. Even if you said you had to go to the toilet, that was not accepted as an excuse and they punished you just the same. But there was no one about now, Sophie was sure of that.

whispered – hvisket

She reached out for her glasses that lay on the chair beside her bed. She could hardly see a thing without them. She put them on, then she slipped out of bed and tip-toed over to the window.

punished –  straffet

When she reached the curtains, Sophie hesitated. She really wanted to lean out of the window to see what the world looked like now that the witching hour was at hand.

the witching hour – heksetimen

1 Scan the text on page 62–63 and find the adjectives that mean vidåpen, dyp, mørk and stille.

hesitated – nølte lean out – lene seg ut

moonbeam – månestråle than ever – enn noen gang før after light-out – etter at lysene er slått av

2 Scan the text on page 62–63 and find the verbs that mean kjørte forbi, hvisket, bestemte seg and lente seg ut.

reached out for – strakk seg etter

3 What do you think about the rules where Sophie lives? Discuss with your learning partner.

tip-toed – gikk på tærne

slipped out of –  gled ut av was at hand – nærmet seg

3 Dig into Reading

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While you read

What do you think Sophie sees outside her window? Describe the scene she sees to your learning partner. Use adjectives.

Peeking Out She listened again. Everywhere it was deathly still. The longing to look out became so strong she couldn’t resist it. Quickly, she ducked under the curtains and leaned out of the window. In the silvery moonlight, the village street she knew so well seemed completely different. The houses looked bent and crooked, like houses in a fairy tale. Everything was pale and ghostly and milky-white. Across the road, she could see Mrs Rance’s shop, where you bought buttons and wool and bits of elastic. It didn’t look real. There was something dim and misty about that too. Sophie allowed her eye to travel further and further down the street. Suddenly she froze. There was something coming up the street on the opposite side. It was something black … Something tall and black … Something very tall and very black and very thin.

Who? deathly still – dødsstille longing – lengsel, ønske resist – stå imot ducked under – dukket under crooked – skjeve buttons – knapper elastic – strikk dim – dunkel misty – tåkete further –   lengre opposite – motsatte human –   menneske fright – skrekk shadowy – skyggefulle

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It wasn’t a human. It couldn’t be. It was four times as tall as the tallest human. It was so tall its head was higher that the upstairs windows of the houses. Sophie opened her mouth to scream, but no sound came out. Her throat, like her whole body, was frozen with fright. This was the witching hour all right. The tall black figure was coming her way. It was keeping very close to the houses across the street, hiding in the shadowy places where there was no moonlight.

My Workbook pages 44–45


On and on it came, nearer and nearer. It was much closer now and Sophie could see it more clearly. Looking at it carefully, she decided it had to be some kind of PERSON. Obviously it was not a human. But it was definitely a PERSON. A GIANT PERSON, perhaps. Sophie stared hard across the misty moonlit street. The Giant (if that was what he was) was wearing a long BLACK COAT. In one hand he was holding what looked like a VERY LONG, THIN TRUMPET. In the other hand, he held a LARGE SUITCASE. Sophie watched the Giant as he poked his trumpet through an upstairs window. As the Giant withdrew the trumpet from the window and bent down to pick up the suitcase he happened to turn his head and glance across the street. In the moonlight, Sophie caught a glimpse of an enormous long pale wrinkly face with the most enormous ears. The nose was sharp as a knife, and above the nose there were two bright flashing eyes, and the eyes were staring straight at Sophie. There was a fierce and devilish look about them. Sophie gave a yelp and pulled back from the window. She flew across the dormitory and jumped into her bed and hid under the blanket. And there she crouched, still as a mouse, and tingling all over. Roald Dahl

suitcase – koffert withdrew – trakk vekk glance across – kaste et blikk over glimpse –   glimt wrinkly – rynkete

4 Read the description of the Giant one more time. Imagine you are looking at him. How would you feel? Write down all your feelings in your exercise book. 5 Find a word that rhymes with right, a word that rhymes with suitcase and a word that rhymes with throat.

fierce – vill, rasende devilish – djevelsk yelp –   hyl, klynk crouched –   lå sammenkrøpet tingling –   kriblende

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Explore Grammar SOME or ANY? 6 Look at the sentences in this cartoon. Can you spot the difference?

Både some og any betyr noen eller noe. Vi bruker some i fortellende setninger, og any i åpne spørsmål og nektende setninger.

Vi bruker some i spørrende setninger når vi forventer et positivt svar eller når vi tilbyr noe.

7 With your learning partner, find out what there is in your classroom. Is there any …? Are there any …? There is some … There are some …

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My Workbook page 46


WHO, WHICH, THAT 8 Look at the sentences. Can you spot the differences?

I know a man who comes from Australia. The man is my neighbour.

+

He has a house which is by the beach.

He comes from Australia.

=

The man who comes from Australia is my neighbour.

På engelsk har vi tre ord for som. Vi bruker who når vi snakker eller skriver om personer. Vi bruker which når vi snakker eller skriver om dyr og ting.

I also know the man that comes from Australia. I have seen the house that is by the beach.

My Workbook page 47

Vi kan bruke that i stedet for who og which når som-setningen er nødvendig for at vi skal skjønne hvem eller hva vi snakker om.

9 Make three sentences with who and three sentences with which. I know a … who … I know a … which …

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Before you read

Katherine Rundell

Scan the text. Find three verbs, three nouns and three adjectives. Compare your words with the words your learning partner has found.

Rooftoppers

Born 1987 British

At the beginning of the story, a ship sinks in the English Channel. It is a dark night, and a baby girl is found floating in a cello case. Charles Maxim lifts her out of the cello case, names her Sophie and takes her to his home in London.

sinks – synker takes care of –   tar vare på smashes – smadrer, knuser among –   blant floating – flyter cello case – cellokasse Childcare Agency – barnevernet

Charles takes care of Sophie. Every week, Miss Eliot visits them. She works for the National Childcare Agency. Charles is a generous and very kind man. He loves Sophie and teaches her to love music and to read Shakespeare. Sophie is allowed to climb trees, she wears bright homemade trousers and boys’ shirts. Miss Eliot disagrees with Charles’s way of bringing Sophie up. When Sophie turns twelve, Charles receives a letter. Sophie will be taken away from him and placed in an orphanage. Sophie is so angry that she smashes her wooden cello case. And there, among the pieces of wood, she finds a plaque with the address of a cello maker in Paris.

bringing up – oppdra orphanage –   barnehjem plaque –   metallplate

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My Workbook pages 48–49


At the Cello Maker’s Shop Sophie has been told that her mother disappeared in the shipwreck, but she remembers seeing her wave for help. Is the address the first clue to where she may be? Charles and Sophie decide to go to Paris and look for Sophie’s mother. They go to the cello maker’s shop as soon as they arrive. The cello maker recognises the plaque straight away. “Who bought this one?” Sophie inched the plaque closer to him on the desk. “This is the only one I care about.” “That particular cello, I think, was bought by a woman about fifteen years ago.” “What else was she like?” Sophie said, “Please?” “She was tall, I think.” “And what else? What else?” said Sophie. She pulled the neck of her jersey up to her mouth and bit down on it. “What else? I’m afraid nothing very much.” “Please?” There was a roaring in Sophie’s ears. “It’s important!” “Well, I remember she had a musician’s fingers. Very pale, like the roots of a tree.” “Yes? And what else?” said Sophie. “She had short hair, and a lot of movement around the eyes.” “What colour hair? What colour eyes?” “Lightish, I suppose. Yellow hair. Or orange. Je ne sais pas.” “Please! Please, try! It’s important.” “I would like very much to help you, “he said, “but I must admit that I am no good at faces. I am better at instruments.” He squinted at the two of them, standing side by side in the gloom. “But she looked, I think, very like you. Not you, Sir. You.” Katherine Rundell

recognises – kjenner igjen straight away – med én gang roots – røtter movement – bevegelse I must admit – jeg må innrømme shipwreck – forlis inched –   dyttet that particular – akkurat den jersey – genser roaring – brøl musician – musiker

10 Why is there a roaring in Sophie’s ears?

pale – bleke

11 What does the cello maker remember about the woman who bought the plaque?

lightish – ganske lyst

12 Find five adjectives in the text and use them to describe someone you have seen on TV. Work with your learning partner.

squinted – myste

je ne sais pas (fransk) – jeg vet ikke gloom – halvmørke

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Before you read

What does being ordinary mean? Think of three things and discuss with your learning partner.

Raquel J. Palacio

Wonder

Born 1963 American

The story is about a 10-year-old boy called August Pullman. He likes doing ordinary things, just like everybody else. However, he does not look like other kids. He was born with a deformed face, and as a result of this, he is bullied and stared at. At the beginning of the story, life at school is really hard, but slowly things turn around. I know I’m not an ordinary ten year old kid. I mean, sure, I do ordinary things. I eat ice cream. I ride my bike. I play ball. I have an XBox. Stuff like that makes me ordinary. I guess. And I feel ordinary. Inside. But I know ordinary kids don’t make other ordinary kids run away screaming in playgrounds. I know ordinary kids don’t get stared at wherever they go. If I found a magic lamp and I could have one wish, I would wish I had a normal face that no one ever noticed at all. I would wish that I could walk down the street without people seeing me and then doing that look-away thing. Here’s what I think: the only reason I’m not ordinary is that no one else sees me that way.

ordinary – vanlig I guess – tenker jeg stared at – stirret på wherever – overalt hvor deformed – deformert, misdannet turn around – snur stuff like that – sånne ting ever – noen gang noticed – la merke til that look-away thing – den “se bort”-greia reason – grunn

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My Workbook pages 50–51


But I’m kind of used to how I look by now. I know how to pretend I don’t see the faces people make. We’ve all gotten pretty good at that sort of thing: me, Mom and Dad, Via. Actually, I take that back: Via’s not so good at it. She can get really annoyed when people do something rude. Like, for instance, one time in the playground some older kids made some noises. I don’t even know what the noises were exactly because I didn’t hear them myself, but Via heard and she just started yelling at the kids. That’s the way she is. I’m not that way. Via doesn’t see me as ordinary. She says she does, but if I were ordinary, she wouldn’t feel like she needs to protect me as much. And Mom and Dad don’t see me as ordinary, either. They see me as extraordinary. I think the only person in the world who realizes how ordinary I am is me. My name is August, by the way. I won’t describe what I look like. Whatever you’re thinking, it’s probably worse. R. J. Palacio

used to – vant med rude –   frekt either – heller extraordinary – spesiell, ekstraordinær whatever – uansett hva pretend – late som annoyed – irritert

13 What do you think August looks like?

for instance – for eksempel

14 What would you say to August if you met him?

startet yelling –  begynte å skrike

15 Who is Via? What do you know about her?

realizes – skjønner

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Before you read

Scan the text and find three insects or animals. Do you like them? Why or why not?

Gregor the Overlander Suzanne Collins Born 1962 American

Gregor is an 11-year-old boy. He lives in New York City, which in this book, lies in the Overland. Gregor’s father suddenly disappeared two years ago. For this reason, Gregor often has to look after his little two-year-old sister, Boots, while his mum goes to work. One day Gregor is doing the laundry, when his little sister crawls into a vent in the wall. Gregor throws himself after her and they both fall deep down into a strange, underground world called the Underland. In the Underland, there are giant cockroaches, rats and spiders as well as humans. This is a frightening and unsafe world. As Gregor and his little sister desperately try to find their way back home, Gregor gets drawn into a dangerous adventure. In the end, this leads him to his lost father who has been a prisoner in the Underland. Read on to find out more about Gregor’s visit in the Underland.

look after – passe på cockroaches – kakerlakker adventure – eventyr prisoner –   fange disappeared – forsvant doing the laundry – vaske tøy vent –   ventil unsafe – utrygg, farlig drawn into – dratt inn i

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My Workbook pages 52–53


The cockroaches had been freaky, the bats intimidating, but these rats were purely terrifying. Sitting back, they were a good six feet tall, and their legs, arms, whatever you call them, bulged with muscle under their gray fur. But the worst part of all was their teeth, six-inch incisors that stuck out of their mouths. No, the worst part was that they were clearly planning to eat Gregor and Boots. Some people thought rats didn’t eat people, but Gregor knew better. Even the regular-sized rats back home would attack a person if they were helpless. Rats preyed on babies, old people, the weak, the defenceless. There were stories … the homeless man in the alley … a little boy who’d lost two fingers … they were too horrible to think about. Gregor slowly got to his feet. He pressed Boots back against the wall. Fangor, the leader of the rats, and his accomplice Shed appeared. Fangor’s nose quivered. “This one had fish for supper. Mushrooms, grain, and just a bit of leaf. Now that’s flavorful, you must admit, Shed.” “But the pup has eaten stewed cow and cream,” returned Shed. “Not to mention, she is clearly milk-fed herself.” Now Gregor knew what all the fuss about bathing had been. If the rats could detect the handful of greens he’d eaten hours earlier, they must have an unbelievable sense of smell. The Underlanders hadn’t been rude when they’d wanted him to bathe. They had been trying to keep him alive! Both rats bared their teeth and moved in to him. Gregor slashed at them with the torch sending a trail of sparks through the air. He held it in front of him with both hands, like a sword, illuminating his face. Fangor lunged for Gregor’s throat.

freaky – underlige, skumle intimidating – truende helpless – hjelpeløs fuss – oppstyr purely terrifying –   rett og slett skremmende bulged –   bulte incisors – fortenner regular-sized – normalt store preyed on – jaktet på defenceless –   forsvarsløse

16 How do Gregor and Boots end up in the Underland? Tell your learning partner. First … Then … After that … 17 How do the rats know what Gregor and Boots ate for dinner?

alley – bakgate accomplice – medskyldig quivered – ristet, skalv bared their teeth – flekket tennene sine illuminating – lyste opp lunged for – kastet seg mot

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While you read

preoccupied – opptatte

What creature do you think saves Gregor from Fangor’s bite? The first bat came in so silently that neither Gregor nor the preoccupied rats saw it. It caught Fangor mid-leap, knocking him off course. Fangor plowed into Shed, and the rats landed in a heap. Instantly they regained their feet and turned on their assailants. Gregor saw three Underlanders riding their bats above the rats’ heads. Besides avoiding one another in limited space, they had to dodge the wicked claws of the rats. Fangor and Shed could easily leap ten feet in the air, and the sparkling ceiling of the cavern over the beach was not much higher. The humans began to dive at the rats, wielding swords. Fangor and Shed fought back viciously with claws and teeth. Blood began to stain the beach, but Gregor couldn’t tell whose it was. At that moment, Shed caught the wing of the first bat in his teeth and hung on. The bat struggled to free itself, but Shed held fast. A girl on a second bat came in behind Shed, taking off his ear with one stroke of her sword. Shed gave a howl of pain, releasing the first bat. But as the girl pulled out of her dive, Fangor leaped onto her bat, ripping a chunk of fur off its throat and hurling her to the ground. The girl hit her head on the cavern wall as she landed and was knocked out. Fangor loomed over her and aimed his teeth at her neck. Gregor didn’t remember thinking of his next move. It just happened. One minute he was pressed against the wall, and the next, he had jumped forward and thrust his torch into Fangor’s face. The rat shrieked and stumbled backward, right into the third Underlander’s sword. Fangor’s lifeless body fell to the ground, taking the sword with it.

mid-leap – midt i et hopp

Suzanne Collins

knocked off course – slått ut av balanse plowed into – krasjet inn i heap –   haug assailants – angripere dodge –   smette unna wielding swords – svinge sverd viciously – illsint, farlig loomed over – ruvet over thrust – dyttet

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18 Name two things Gregor does that show that he is brave. Tell your learning partner. 19 Who come to help Gregor and Boots fight the rats? 20 Which words would you use to describe the rats? 21 What do you think happens next? Tell your learning partner three possible things.

My Workbook pages 52–53


Tongue Twister 3 and Jokes

/j/ yes, your, year, uniform, use /dʒ/ genius, giant, June, July, joke

– What has a spine, but no bones? – A book.

– Doctor, Doctor, will I be able to read after I get my new glasses? – Yes, of course! – That’s great! I never could before.

– What reads and lives in an apple? – A book worm!

The Young, Yellow Unicorn The young, yellow unicorn jumped over Jupiter.

spine – ryggrad, bokrygg

My Workbook page 54

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Mr X. Plore’s Speaking Tip Retell a Story

Setting: Where does the story take place? Characters: Who are the main characters in the story?

What is the main problem in the story?

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The story takes place in two different worlds: The Overland and the Underland. The Overland is where Gregor lives with his family in New York. The Underland is a dark and frightening world where most of the action takes place.

Gregor is the main character in the book. He is a friendly 11-year-old boy who falls into the Underland. He is brave, but afraid of heights. His sister is called Boots. She is two years old and falls into the Underland with him. She is very sociable. Vikus is the King of the Underland. He is kind and leads a quest against the enemy.

The Underland is in trouble. Rats are the big enemy and they are as large as humans. They are taking control by attacking the humans and other creatures there. There is an old saying that an Overlander will come to the Underland and save them. Could this Overlander be Gregor?

My Workbook page 55


At the beginning, Gregor is looking after his little sister Boots at his home in New York. Their father disappeared mysteriously two years before and Gregor desperately misses him. Suddenly Boots falls through a vent in the wall and he jumps after her. They fall and fall until they eventually land and find themselves in a very dark and frightening place. This is the Underland.

What happens at the beginning of the story?

In the middle of the story, the quest led by King Vikus starts. Many of the humans and their bats have already been killed by the rats. Gregor joins in the quest to help save the Underland. When they arrive at the Palace of the Rats, they find Gregor’s dad. He is a prisoner there.

What happens in the middle of the story?

At the end, there is a huge battle against the rats. Gregor realises that he is the one the rats want, so he dives off a cliff. The rats follow him and fall to their death. Gregor is saved in the fall by the bat Ares. He is finally reunited with his father and they are sent back home to the Overland.

What happens at the end of the story?

Practise two or three times on your own. Look at your audience and speak slowly and clearly. sociable – sosial quest – oppdrag reunited – gjenforent

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Before you read

Charles Dickens 1812–1870 British

Look up the word scrooge in a dictionary. Do you think being a scrooge is a good thing?

A Christmas Carol Ebenezer Scrooge is a greedy old man. He dislikes happiness, family, love and, above all, Christmas. He is rich, but does not like to spend any money or give it to anybody else.

It is nearly Christmas and Ebenezer Scrooge is counting his money. It is as freezing inside as it is outside, but still he refuses to spend money on coal for the fire.

The ghost of his old business partner comes to visit. He was just as selfish and greedy as Scrooge is. Now he wants Scrooge to change. Three spirits are on their way to visit him.

The Ghost of Christmas Past visits Scrooge the next night. He takes Scrooge on a journey into his childhood.

He sees his family and friends again and his old love, Belle, who left him because of his greed for money. Scrooge feels sad and regretful.

greedy – grådig above all – mer enn noe annet refuses –   nekter selfish – egoistisk coal – kull ghost – gjenferd spirits – ånder the Ghost of Christmas Past –   fortidens ånd regretful – angrende

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My Workbook pages 56–57


The Ghost of Christmas Present comes to visit Scrooge in his bedroom. A journey around London shows how others are celebrating Christmas time.

People are enjoying themselves at Christmas parties. He also sees poor, but happy families making the most out of Christmas. Scrooge feels ashamed.

The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come is the last spirit to visit. On a mysterious journey, Scrooge sees various people talking about a certain man who has died.

He finds it strange that no one is sad. In fact, some of the people are positively happy. To his horror, Scrooge sees his own name on the grave. ashamed – skamfull in fact – faktisk positively – til og med, sannelig horror – skrekk grateful – takknemlig

On Christmas Day, Scrooge wakes with a rush of happiness. He is so grateful that he has been given a second chance and promises he will do everything he can to honour Christmas with all his heart and stop his greedy, miserable ways.

the Ghost of Christmas Present – nåtidens ånd the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come – framtidens ånd various – forskjellige

22 What did the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come do to make Scrooge see differently?

rush of happines – lykkerus honour –   ære miserable ways –   ynkelige væremåte

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Before you read

What do you want to be when you grow up? Tell your learning partner: I want to be a … when I grow up.

Over the Line Tom Palmer Born 1967 British

Have you heard of Stamford Bridge stadium? It has been the home ground of Chelsea Football Club since 1905. Jack Cock was an English footballer. When the First World War started, in 1914, he was just at the beginning of his career. He faced a difficult choice. On the one hand, he wanted to follow his dream and play football for his country. On the other hand, he felt he had to fight to protect his country. Over the Line is based on Jack’s story. Do people ever ask what you want to be when you grow up? What do you say to them? That you’d like to be a doctor? A singer? A soldier? A vet? Or do you say, “I want to be a footballer”? That was my dream when I was a boy. To be a footballer. To play for my country. And, for me, the dream came true. Sort of. So, now I am waiting for the whistle. When that whistle blows, my dream to play for my country will come true. I will go over the line. But I never dreamed it would be like this.

home ground – hjemmebane soldier – soldat whistle – fløyte First World War – første verdenskrig career – karriere faced a choice – sto overfor et valg

The Footballer It was the day of my debut as a professional footballer. My dream had come true. But even when your dream comes true, you still have to keep trying. Within a minute of kick-off, Fred Bullock passed the ball to me. He was my team captain at Huddersfield Town. I controlled the ball with my left foot, then played it wide to our winger. So far, so good.

based on – basert på over the line – over linja, har nådd målet the day of my debut – dagen jeg begynte played it wide – spilte ballen ut (til vingen) winger –   midtbanespiller

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My Workbook pages 58–59


Now it was my duty to get into the penalty area. I was a forward. I was a goal scorer. Our winger would cross the ball soon, so I needed to get up field. The mud was thick on the pitch, even though the game had only just begun. A Grimsby defender tracked me as I powered towards the goal. Sid Wheelhouse. His deep-furrowed frown made him look like a bull and he was big too. Big and strong. The ball came in from the left. I strained every muscle to reach it. I lunged towards the Grimsby keeper. But somehow Wheelhouse had come between us. I hit him hard, but I just bounced off him and the keeper collected the ball close to his chest. No goal. Not a sniff of a goal. And I wanted one. The first half of that first game was tough. I didn’t get past Wheelhouse once. He tracked my runs. He beat me to the ball. He protected his goalkeeper. When the referee blew the whistle for half-time, I put my hands on my knees. All that effort and nothing to show for it. I felt a fierce frustration deep inside – a sense of panic that things weren’t going to plan. I had to do better in the second half. Or this could end up being my last game as a professional footballer, as well as my first. I followed my team-mates off the pitch, the sweat on my body cooling now I had stopped running. Fred Bullock came up to me and gave me a powerful slap on the back. He pushed back his dark hair and smiled. “You worked hard,” he said. “You got into the right places. Keep doing what you’re doing.” I nodded, still too breathless to talk. But I was pleased. Perhaps I hadn’t been as bad as I thought. Tom Palmer

duty – plikt goal – mål tough – vanskelig, tøff effort – anstrengelse penalty area – straffefelt forward – angrepsspiller cross the ball – sparke langt, «crosse» ballen I powered –   jeg styrtet, løp så fort jeg kunne

23 Find the expression not a sniff of a goal in the text. What do you think it means?

his deep-furrowed frown – den dype rynken i pannen hans

24 Why did Jack put his hands on his knees when the referee blew his whistle at halftime? Mime the scene with your learning partner.

strained – spente collected – her: fanget tracked my runs – fulgte hakk i hæl beat me to the ball – fikk tak i ballen før meg fierce – voldsom

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Before you read

Describe the illustration at the bottom of the page.

The Protest The Huddersfield Town and Grimsby players are on the pitch. Play has stopped in the second half of their match because protesters have spilled onto the pitch. The protesters are angry that footballers are still playing when the country is at war. The players are not sure whether play will resume. Scene: Huddersfield Town FC Stadium

protesters – demonstranter spilled onto – strømmet ut whether –   om resume – fortsette, starte igjen onward –   framover

Protesters: [sing] Onward Christian soldiers, marching as to war … Wheelhouse: It’s not going to go away. Those protesters aren’t going anywhere. Neither is the war. Jack: [to himself] No. My dream’s only just come true and now it’s crumbling. Wheelhouse: Is that Larett Roebuck’s widow over there? Jack: It is. Wheelhouse: I heard he was ex-army. They called him up on the day they declared war. Jack: That’s what I heard too. Protesters: [sing] Onward Christian soldiers, marching as to war … [singing fades] Wheelhouse: Did you hear that MP going on about the Footballers’ Battalion at half time? Summers: What battalion? Wheelhouse: The Footballers’ Battalion. It was set up last month. There’s an artists’ battalion. A musicians’ battalion. And now there’s one for us. Summers: [panicky] Do you think you’ll do it, Jack? Jack: What? Sign up? Summers: Yes. Jack: No. Not me.

crumbling –  går i oppløsning widow – enke declared – erklærte MP (Member of Parliament) – stortingsrepresentant battalion – bataljon, gruppe av soldater

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My Workbook pages 58–59


Wheelhouse: So, you don’t care about the things people are saying about footballers, then? Jack: What are they saying? Wheelhouse: They say we’re not fit to fight. They say we’re just interested in making money from football. Rugby players are fighting. Cricketers are fighting. But not footballers. They say we’re too scared of being shot at and bombed. Jack: [annoyed] Lots of footballers have gone to fight. Roebuck went. Wheelhouse: He did. But he was called up. I’m talking about volunteers. People will keep saying those things until footballers start to volunteer. Jack: I hate it when people say bad things about football. What about you, Wheelhouse? What are you going to do? Wheelhouse: I’m going to volunteer. Jack: I can imagine you on the battlefield. Summers: You can’t volunteer, Sid. You’ve got kids, a wife. What if … Wheelhouse: What if I end up dead like Larrett Roebuck? [laughs, bitter] What if my wife ends up like her? [points to Larett Roebuck’s widow] Wheelhouse: I know a bloke whose wife and kids were killed in Scarborough. In the bombardment last December. The Germans are attacking us here, lads. Next time it could be my wife and my children. Unless we stop them. Jack: I read about that in the newspaper. The bombardment. FX: Referee’s whistle Wheelhouse: Come on then, lads, we’re starting again. Jump to it! Tom Palmer

fit to fight – egnet til å kjempe called up – vervet, innkalt

25 Scan the playscript and find compound verbs. Then, find another way of saying the same thing.

volunteers – frivillige volunteer [verb] – melde seg frivillig the battlefield – slagmarken bloke (UK) – fyr FX – her: effects, spesialeffekter lads – gutter Jump to it! – Kjør på!

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Before you read

Scan the text and find three adjectives. Do these adjectives give you any clues? What do you think this story is about?

The Fault in Our Stars John Green Born 1977 American

Hazel is a 16-year-old girl. She has lung cancer and has to carry around an oxygen tank wherever she goes. Her mum Frannie encourages her to go to a cancer support group so she can meet other teenagers in the same situation. This is the last thing Hazel wants to do. She would rather stay at home and watch America’s Next Top Model on TV. Finally, she agrees to go to the support group and she soon realises this is a good idea. There she meets a boy called Augustus. He has cancer, too. When they meet, Augustus can’t stop staring at Hazel. So she stares back without realising that this boy will totally change her life. Straight away there is a spark between them, and they soon fall in love. He knows that he does not have a long life ahead of him, so he wants his life to be meaningful. He wants to be remembered and lives every day to the fullest. From the moment Hazel meets Gus, her life changes. Every day is a new adventure for Hazel, and her illness is no longer her main focus. This is how Hazel describes their first meeting.

encourages – oppmuntrer teenagers – tenåringer rather – heller fall in love – blir forelsket lung cancer – lungekreft oxygen tank – oksygentank support group – støttegruppe spark –   gnist struggle – kamp ahead of –   foran main focus – det viktigste

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My Workbook pages 60–61


I grabbed a cookie and poured some lemonade into a dixie cup and then turned around. A boy was staring at me. I was quite sure I had never seen him before. Mahogany hair, straight and short. He looked my age, maybe a year older. I looked away suddenly aware of my appearance. I was wearing old jeans, which had once been tight but now sagged in weird places, and a yellow T-shirt advertising a band I didn’t even like anymore. Also my hair: I hadn’t even bothered to, like, brush it. And yet – I glanced at him and his eyes were still on me. I walked into the circle and sat down next to Isaac, two seats away from the boy, I glanced again. He was still watching me. Look, let me just say it: He was hot. A nonhot boy stares at you and it is at best awkward and, at worst, a form of assault. But a hot boy … well. I pulled out my phone and clicked it so it would display the time: 4.59. The circle filled in with the unlucky twelve-to-eighteens, and then Patrick started out with the serenity prayer: God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can and the wisdom to know the difference.

weird – rare

The guy was still staring at me. I felt rather blushy.

bothered – giddet

Finally, I decided that the proper strategy was to stare back. Boys do not have a monopoly on the Staring Business, after all. So I looked him over and soon it was a staring contest. After a while the boy smiled and then finally his blue eyes glanced away. When he looked back at me I flicked my eyebrows up to say, I win.

awkward – pinlig

John Green

26 How does it make you feel when someone you don’t know stares at you? 27 Write what you think happens next in the story.

glanced at – kikket på

dixie cup – pappkrus mahogany – mørkebrunt appearance – utseende sagged – hang assault – angrep display – vise serenity prayer – sinnsrobønn blushy – rødmende, flau staring contest – stirrekonkurranse flicked – flakket, hevet

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Before you read

What are typical girl clothes and typical boy clothes? Why is it so? Make a list with your learning partner.

The Boy in the Dress David Walliams Born 1971 British

What if a boy went to school dressed as a girl? The Boy in the Dress is the first book written by David Walliams. It is the story of a boy named Dennis, his best friend, Darvesh and the prettiest girl in school, Lisa.

Dennis was different.

dressed as – kledd som thoughts – tanker boring – kjedelig frustrating – frustrerende poetry – poesi, fine dikt Sikh – sikh patka – hodeplagg brukt av unge sikher bobble-hat – topplue aren’t supposed to – skal ikke

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When he looked in the mirror he saw an ordinary twelve-year-old boy. But he felt different – his thoughts were full of colour and poetry, though his life could be very boring. Dennis lived with his dad – who did have a name, but Dennis just called him Dad, so I will too – and his older brother John, who was fourteen. Dennis found it frustrating that his brother would always be two years older than him, and bigger, and stronger. Darvesh was a Sikh. As he was in the same year as Dennis and at only twelve he didn’t wear a turban yet. He wore a patka, a bobblehat-type thing that kept his hair out of his face. That’s because Sikh men aren’t supposed to cut their hair. There were lots of different types of kids at school, but Darvesh was the only one who wore a patka.

My Workbook pages 62–63


Dennis’s mother left when he was younger. Dennis misses her terribly. He only has an old picture of her wearing a yellow dress. When Dennis sees the same dress on the cover of a Vogue magazine, he buys it. His father finds the magazine and is furious. But Lisa invites him over to her house to look at magazines and talk about fashion. Then Lisa convinces Dennis to try on a dress. He closed his eyes as she lightly put some silver eye shadow with a little brush. “Looking good, Dennis,” she said. “Or should I say Denise!” “That’s what my brother called me when he found out about the magazine.” “Well, that’s your girl’s name I suppose. Your name is Dennis, but if you were a girl you’d be called Denise.” “Can I look in the mirror yet?” he asked. Lisa adjusted the dress expertly before silently leading him to the mirror on the bedroom wall. Dennis gazed at himself. For a moment he was shocked by what he saw. Then the shock turned to wonder, and he laughed. He felt so happy he wanted to dance. Sometimes you feel things so deeply that words aren’t enough. He started to move around in front of the mirror. Lisa joined him, humming some made-up music. […] That afternoon, Dennis ended up trying everything in Lisa’s wardrobe. Gold shoes, silver shoes, red shoes, green shoes, boots, big handbags, little handbags, clutch-bags, blouses, long flowing skirts, mini-skirts, earrings, bangles, hair scrunchies, fairy wings, even a tiara! “It’s not fair,” said Dennis. “Girls have got all the best stuff!” “Rules don’t apply here,” laughed Lisa. “Dennis, you can be whoever you want to be!”

terribly – fryktelig furious –   rasende I suppose –   antar jeg gazed at – stirret på convinced – overbevist adjusted – justerte humming – nynnet

28 Why do you think Dennis’s dad was furious? Discuss with your learning partner. 29 What do you think happens next?

some made-up music – musikk hun fant på i farten bangles – armbånd hair scrunchies – hårstrikker apply – gjelder

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While you read

Do you know what the word cross-dressing means? Find out with your learning partner.

The Second-Half

?

Did you know

David Walliams’s sister used to dress him up in girls’ clothes when he was little.

wig – parykk exchange student – utvekslingsstudent expelled – utvist cross-dressing – kle seg som det motsatte kjønn miserable – elendig lamé – en type stoff med metalltråder ball gown – ballkjole polka dot –   prikkete frock – kjole defenders – forsvarsspillere a variety of –   mange forskjellige outfits – antrekk bridesmaid – brudepike triumphantly – triumferende disgrace – skam

Lisa dresses Dennis in girl clothes and a wig, and they go to school. Dennis is Denise, Lisa’s French exchange student. Unfortunately, people find out that Denise is actually Dennis. He gets expelled for cross-dressing. The following Sunday, Dennis is watching the school football cup final. He is feeling miserable. He is not allowed to play and his team is losing badly. The second-half is about to begin, but the players are late. And where is Dennis? Then, suddenly, Lisa stepped out of the changing room and held the door open. First Gareth ran out wearing a gold lamé ball gown … Then Darvesh followed in a yellow polka dot frock … Then the defenders were right behind in matching cocktail dresses … The rest of the team followed in a variety of outfits from Lisa’s wardrobe … And finally Dennis came out of the dressing room – in a pink bridesmaid’s dress. There was a huge cheer from the crowd. Dennis looked at Lisa and smiled. “Go get’em kid!” she said. As they ran onto the pitch, Mr Hawtrey shouted at Gareth. “WHAT ON EARTH DO YOU THINK YOU ARE DOING, BOY?” “You expelled Dennis for wearing a dress. But you can’t expel us all, Sir!” he shouted back triumphantly. All the boys in the team lined up behind their captain. The crowd went wild. “THIS IS A DISGRACE!” shouted Mr Hawtrey. He stormed off, angrily brandishing his walking stick / seat thing. Gareth smiled at Dennis. “Come on boys. Let’s do it!” said Gareth. The referee blew his whistle before it fell out of his mouth. Within seconds Dennis had scored a goal. The Maudlin Street team were in shock. They were still 6–1 down, but Dennis and his team mates were back in the game.

brandishing –  fektet med

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3 Dig into Reading

My Workbook pages 62–63


“Woo!” shouted Darvesh, as he hitched up his skirt and ran round a defender. Laughing, Dennis scored again. He was on his way to a hat trick and he was a hundred times happier than he had ever been. He was doing the two things he loved most at once: playing football and wearing a dress. Then Darvesh scored sliding across the pitch. 6–3. They were on fire. Dennis set up a fantastic cross for Gareth, who just had to tap it into the net. 6–4. The crowd laughed and cheered. Then another goal followed. And another. 6–6. Now there were only a few more minutes of the game to play. One more to go. And they’d have done it. David Walliams

30 Why did the crowd cheer when the boys came out of the changing room? 31 Why did all the boys put dresses on for the second half of the match?

hitched up – dro opp

32 Who do you think Mr Hawtrey is? Look for clues in the text.

tap it into – sette den

set up a cross – lage en pasning

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A Look at the picture and tell your learning partner three things you remember from this chapter. What have you learnt that you did not know before? B Choose one of the stories in this chapter and tell your learning partner what it is about using three sentences. Use The story is about … Afterwards … and At the end …

A Choose a character from one of the texts and describe him or her. B Choose a setting from one of the texts and describe it. C Choose one of the texts you have read in this chapter and write how you imagine the story ends.

C Pick one of the characters in the picture and describe him, her or it to your learning partner. Can he or she guess which character it is? D Retell a story you have read. Use Mr X. Plore’s Speaking Tip on pages 76–77 to help you.

Work in groups. Pick a scene from one of the stories in this chapter and make a role-play. Act it out in front of the class.

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A Work in groups and make a poster about one of the books you have read about in this chapter. Include 10 sentences on what the story is about, the characters, the setting and at least one illustration. Present the poster to your class. B Make a book list. Do a survey in class. Have any of your classmates read a book in English? If so, would they recommend it to others?

My Workbook pages 64–65


4

Life Down Under

originally

prevent almost

magnificent

landscape convict

diverse

certainly

92


The text is about …

usually …

finally …

I kapitlet vil du lære • fakta om Australia • å skrive et sammendrag • å forstå og bruke genitivsform og sammentrekninger

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Before you read

Why do you think Australia is also called Down Under? Discuss with your learning partner.

Down Under Look at a globe and you will easily find Australia, the land on ”. Australia is home the other side of the planet, “Down to unique animals, stunning beaches, and diverse landscapes. Under

Did you know? • Australia is officially called the Commonwealth of Australia. • It is the sixth largest country in the world. • Australia is 7,692,024 square kilometres. This is 20 times bigger than Norway. • Although it is a huge country, only 24 million people live in Australia. • The capital of Australia is Canberra. It is also the only major Australian city that is not on the coast. • One of the national symbols is a tree called the golden wattle. unique –  unike, spesielle diverse – mangfoldig landscape – landskap country – land convict – straffange stunning –   vakkert coast – kyst wattle – akasie (tresort)

Famous Landmarks • • • • • • •

Sydney Opera House in New South Wales Uluru in the Northern Territory The Great Barrier Reef in Queensland The Pinnacles in Western Australia Adelaide Oval Stadium in South Australia The Twelve Apostles in Victoria Port Arthur Convict Site in Tasmania

reef –  rev apostle – apostel The Twelve Apostles in Victoria.

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My Workbook page 68


People, Places and History • The Aboriginal people are the indigenous people of Australia. About 60,000 years ago, they arrived by sea from Asia. • 10,000 years ago, the Aboriginal people invented the boomerang. It was used for hunting, sport and entertainment. • In 1770 Captain James Cook arrived on the east coast of Australia and claimed the land for Great Britain. • Between 1788 and 1868, around 160,000 convicts were sent to Australia. The indigenous people were driven off their land. • In 1803, an English navigator sailed around Australia, and people realised that it is surrounded by sea. • Canberra became the capital of Australia in 1927. • In 1976, Aboriginal people were given the right to claim back their land. • In 2008, the Australian parliament apologised to the Aboriginal people. • More than 80 percent of Australians live within 100 kilometres of the coast. • Two thirds of the country consist of desert landscape, which is called outback. • Aboriginal people make up 3 % of the Australian population today. • Australia has 19 World Heritage Sites, including historic townships, cities and landscapes.

Aboriginal – aborigin, innfødt

The red sands of the outback are quite spectacular.

entertainment – underholdning realised – innså apologised –   ba om unnskyldning indigenous people – urbefolkning claimed – gjorde krav på driven off –   fordrevet fra navigator – sjøfarer claim back – kreve tilbake consist of – består av townships – tettsteder, bydeler outback – øde villmark i Australia

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All Around Oz Oz – slanguttrykk for Australia continent – kontinent, landområde omgitt av vann

Australia is a long way from Europe. By plane, it takes over 20 hours to get there. It is one of the richest continents in the world. Wool, meat and gold are some of the things produced in this huge country.

1 Look at the photos and listen to the text. Put your finger on the photo that is being described.

1 2

4

3

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My Workbook page 69


5

6

8 7

9

10

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Explore Grammar The Genitive Genitiv Jane has a kangaroo.

2 Look at the picture and the sentences. Can you spot the difference?

It is Jane’s kangaroo.

apostrof =

Genitivsformen brukes når noen eier noe. Når vi skriver, legger vi til apostrof + s når substantivet står i entall: the dog’s tail is bushy

Sarah’s coat is green

that is John’s bike

Når substantivet står i flertall eller slutter på -s, -x, legger vi bare til en apostrof: the dogs’ tails are bushy

the fox’ tail

the boss’ daughter

Etter egennavn som slutter på -s eller -x, legger vi til apostrof + s Dennis’s story

Max’s pencil

St. James’s Square

Når substantivet er en gjenstand, bruker vi preposisjonen of: the bottom of the page

the top of the mountain

the back of the house

3 Look around and write. What have your classmates got? That’s Julia’s bag. That’s Leo’s mobile phone.

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My Workbook page 70


Tongue Twister 3 and Jokes

/uː/ boot, cool, too, June, move, through, you, who – What do you call a boomerang that won’t come back? – A stick.

– Why do kangaroo mums hate bad weather? – Their joeys have to play inside! – What kind of music do kangaroos listen to?

“Boo!” Said the Kangaroo

– Hip Hop.

“Boo!” said the kangaroo and threw the koala’s blue shoe.

4 Try another tongue twister! You have a cool blue pool at school.

joey – kenguru-unge

My Workbook page 71

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Before you read

Look at the map of Australia. Where would you like to go and why? I would like to go to … because …

A Continent Surrounded by Sea Sophia and Philip are on their way to Australia. They have never been so far away from home before, so they are very excited. In five minutes their plane lands in Sydney. Look at the places Sophia and Philip are going to visit.

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My Workbook pages 72–73


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harbour – havn as well as – i tillegg til lift – heis certainly –   helt sikkert magnificent – praktfull coat hanger – kleshenger arch – bue observation deck – utkikkspost literally – bokstavelig talt

Before you read

Scan the text and find three adjectives and three prepositions.

First Stop: Sydney Sophia and Philip are ready to visit Sydney. They already know that it is the largest city in Australia, and has a population of nearly four million people. They will soon find out that it is a buzzing city with peaceful green areas and white sandy beaches.

Sydney Harbour Bridge Sydney Harbour Bridge, also known as the “coat hanger”, is the world’s largest steel arch bridge. It was built in 1932 and rises 134 metres above the water. As well as driving over the bridge, you can take a walk across it. If you are feeling very brave you can even do the Sydney Bridge Climb. It is a 3 ½ hour guided walk to the top of the bridge … just don’t look down!

Sydney Opera House No other building on earth looks like the Sydney Opera House. With its shell-like shape it is certainly the most magnificent landmark in the Sydney harbour. It was designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon and opened in 1973.

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Sydney Tower At a height of 309 metres, Sydney Tower is the tallest building and one of the greatest landmarks in this city. For spectacular views, an express lift will take you up to the top. Here there is an observation deck with glass floors called the “Skywalk”. You can literally walk in the sky!

My Workbook pages 74–75


Royal Botanic Garden Imagine 300 square kilometres of orchids, roses, fruit trees and palms in the middle of a busy city! The garden is beautifully designed and open to everyone. You can take a quiet stroll, a run or even have a picnic on the hillside with breathtaking views of the Sydney harbour. Look closely at the tree in the picture. How many bats can you see sleeping in it?

Sydney Beaches The most well-known beach in Sydney is probably Bondi Beach. This sandy beach attracts people from near and far to enjoy the many fun activities that go on there: sunbathing, swimming, surfing and beach volleyball. This may be the perfect place for a lazy afternoon in the sun. It is also home to the oldest Australian Surf Life Saving Club. Over 100 years ago, lifeguards started patrolling the beaches to keep the public safe, both in and out of the water. Today their aim is to reduce drowning by 50 % by 2020. Apart from jellyfish and sharks, one of the biggest dangers is rip currents, simply known as “rips”. Sometimes these currents are so strong that within 30 seconds a boat might end up far out at sea.

public –  offentlighet / folk lifeguards – livreddere jellyfish – maneter although – selv om

5 Although Sydney is the largest city in Australia, it is not the capital city. Do you remember which city is the capital of Australia? Find it on the map.

life saving club – livredningsklubb patrolling – patruljere rip currents – kjempesterke strømmer

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Before you read

Look at the pictures. What do you think this text is about?

Convicts The Australian society is a mix of people from different countries. Over the last two hundred years, people from all over the world have settled here, many of them British. The story of how so many Brits came to Australia is quite interesting.

At the end of the 18th century, life in Britain was hard. Many people were poor and were forced to steal to survive.

Prisons were overcrowded and full. Soon there was no more room. So, convicts were sent away to Australia.

In 1787, the first ships sailed towards the land down under. The journey was hard. The convicts were often in chains. Many of them were sick, and disease spread quickly.

In 1788, the first ships, also called the First Fleet, arrived in Sydney Cove. Many of the prisoners were ill, and some died during the long journey.

forced – tvunget survive – overleve disease – sykdom during – under (reisen) society – samfunn settled – slått seg ned overcrowded – overfylte spread –   spredte seg fleet –   flåte, flere skip

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My Workbook page 76


Convicts had to do hard labour when they arrived. However, sentences were short, and soon the convicts were free again. As the convicts were freed, they started a new life in Australia. Eventually, they had children, and their children had children.

6 Write down three facts you have learnt from this story.

as – da, idet eventually – etter hvert descendants – etterkommere

Today, many Australians are the descendants of British convicts, and Australian English is the first language for most Australians. In total, almost 200,000 convicts were sent to Australia. The 26th of January is Australia’s National Day. It is celebrated with barbecues and fireworks. Australians remember the First Fleet and celebrate the diverse society of Australia.

almost – nesten sentences – straffene hard labour – hardt arbeid first language – morsmål diverse society – mangfoldig samfunn

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Before you read

Jackie French Born 1953 Australian

If you had been locked up under the deck of a ship for months, what would you first notice when you saw land?

Tom Appleby – Convict Boy This book is about Tom, an English eight-year-old boy. Tom steals to survive after he becomes an orphan. He is caught and sent to prison. Then he is transported to Australia on the First Fleet. After months at sea, Tom gets his first glimpse of Australia, at Sydney Cove. Tom scrambled up the hatchway and stared out. The world washed green and blue in front of him, too bright to look at directly after the darkness below. But he could smell the land more clearly now, a scent almost like pine oil but not quite, and the scent of sunlight, too. Slowly his eyes adjusted. He looked around. His first thought was shock at the wrongness – the too harsh light, the too-blue depth of sky. And the trees were the wrong colour, a washed-out green; the distance was far too blue, the rocks too golden brown.

scrambled up – krabbet opp hatchway – luke scent – duft, lukt adjusted – justerte wrongness – alt som var upassende og feil harsh – hard

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My Workbook page 77


It seemed so enormous, the trees – not even the right colour trees – reaching to the horizon. The ships and the settlement on shore looked tiny compared to the vastness of the land. Courage, he thought. I’ve survived worse. I’ll steal, lie or cheat if I have to, but I’ll survive this too … And suddenly as he stood and watched, the thought came to him: this land is beautiful. A flock of birds rose above the trees with weird, harsh cries. They were too far away to see clearly, but Tom had an impression of brightness and unbelievable colour. Unlike the adults, Tom had not yet been taught what beauty was. Many of the older settlers would never see the slim white trunks of gumtrees, the golden heads of wattle as anything but overly vivid splashes of colour in a barren land. Even the birds were alien, bright, their unfamiliar calls too strange to ever think of as musical. Tents had been erected and already the first few poles dug into the ground for huts. A clear stream twisted between the giant trees, then flowed through mud flats out into the bay. There were camp fires to cook the rations and privy holes and stockyards too, where already the goats and sheep bleated for freedom. Tom knew how they must feel. After eleven days, Tom is allowed to disembark at last. […] Tom sat back. The land looked so large, he thought, and the human settlement so small. Finally one of the sailors swung himself over the side of the boat, landing waist deep in the water, and pulled the boat onto the sand. He grinned at Tom. “You first, lad,” he said. “Put yer feet on Sydney Cove.” Jackie French overly vivid – altfor levende

7 Find Sydney Cove on a map.

barren – øde

8 What is Tom’s first reaction to the new land when he sees it?

erected – satt opp, reist

9 Find the sentence that starts with “Even the birds … ”. Who would say that? Is it Tom or the adults that have arrived?

privy holes – utedo stockyards – innhegninger til dyr bleated – brekte settlement – bosetting

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Before you read

Bunny is another word for rabbit. What do you know about rabbits? Make a list with your learning partner.

Second Stop: Western Australia Sophia and Philip travel by plane all the way to Western Australia. They are about to learn a few things they did not know about rabbits. Rabbits have caused serious problems in Australia for over 150 years. They arrived with the First Fleet in the 18th century and were originally used as food.

originally – opprinnelig caused problems – ført til problemer

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Rabbits were brought to Australia for hunting, but soon caused serious problems.

My Workbook page 78


Battle with the Bunny The problem started when wild rabbits were brought in for hunting. In 1859, an Englishman who missed his home and hunting asked his nephew to send him a dozen rabbits from England. He was hoping rabbits would spread so that people could hunt them. And they did spread! Rabbits can live just about anywhere in Australia, even in the desert. They spread so fast that by the 1920s, there were 10 billion rabbits in Australia! Bunnies eat all the plants they come across. They can remove native vegetation from whole areas. It takes many years to grow back again, if it grows back at all. Rabbits upset the natural balance in the native wildlife. Rabbit control is therefore part of programmes to protect other Australian animals, like the bilby and the boodie. Nowadays, the rabbit population is down to 200 million.

?

Did you know Rabbits breed all year round. A female rabbit can have 18 to 30 young a year.

10 How many rabbits were sent over from England in 1859?

bunny –  kanin hunting – jakt spread – spre seg remove – fjerne dozen – dusin desert – ørken billions – milliarder upset – her: forstyrrer come across – komme over, finne native vegetation – typisk australsk natur wildlife – dyrelivet population –   befolkning breed –   forplanter seg Rabbits eat the same food as the bilby (left) and the boodie (right).

young – her: unger

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Before you read

Look at the map on page 111. Find Jigalong and the Moore River Native Settlement.

Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence To prevent rabbits from coming into Western Australia, the Australian government built three rabbit-proof fences. The fences were finished in 1907. Unfortunately, they did not help, because rabbits had already settled there while the fences were built. However, the fences did help Molly, a young Aboriginal girl, find her way back home. Between approximately 1910 and 1970, many children who had an Aboriginal mother and a white father were taken away from their families. At this time, the Australian government believed that these children had to learn to live like white people. The film Rabbit-Proof Fence is based on Molly’s story. Her father was a white man who had worked on building the rabbit-proof fence, but then moved on. Molly and her little sister lived with their mother near the fence in Jigalong in Western Australia. One day in 1931, a policeman came and took Molly away, as well as her little sister, Daisy, and her cousin, Grace. The girls were taken to the Moore River Native Settlement, far, far away from their home.

prevent – forhindre fence – gjerde settle – bosette seg rabbit-proof – kaninsikre settlement – bosetting

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The fence helped Molly find her way back home.

My Workbook pages 79–80


When they arrived at the settlement, the three girls were put in a dormitory. The next day, they were given the same regulation dress. None of the Aboriginal children were allowed to speak their own language. Molly was a clever, strong and determined 14-year-old girl. She knew that children who ran away from the settlement were severely punished, but she hated being there. She took her little sister and her cousin with her and they escaped. Both a tracker and the police went after them, but Molly fooled them many times. Eventually, the girls found the rabbitproof fence. Molly knew that the fence ran north-south across Western Australia, and that it would lead them back home. Unfortunately, her cousin Grace was caught and taken back to the settlement. It took Molly and her sister nine weeks to get home. They walked 1,600 kilometres! It was a harsh journey. They were hungry and exhausted, but Molly never gave up. When Molly and her little sister got home, their mother and grandmother took them straight into the desert where they went into hiding.

The Stolen Generations The children who were taken from their families are often called the Stolen Generations. In 2008, the Prime Minister apologised to Australia’s Aboriginal people. He apologised particularly to the Stolen Generations, their families and their communities. This national apology was an important step towards building a better relationship between Aboriginal Australians and other Australians. 11 Scan the text and find five regular and five irregular verbs in the past tense. Write them down in your exercise book. Choose two verbs and make sentences about rabbits in Australia.

regulation dress – uniform

12 Scan the text and find the adjectives that mean smart, bestemt, sultne og utslitte.

eventually – til slutt

severely – hardt tracker – en som følger spor fooled – lurte exhausted – utslitt into hiding – i dekning

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Before you read

Find the Northern Territory on a map of Australia. Look for the Kakadu National Park.

Third Stop: Northern Territory After Western Australia, Sophia and Philip fly northwards. The Northern Territory has varied landscapes as well as important Aboriginal sites, such as Uluru, which used to be named Ayers Rock until it finally got back its Aboriginal name. Sophia and Philip also want to see what Australia is famous for: amazing and sometimes dangerous animals. They head for the Kakadu National Park, Australia’s biggest national park.

Cranky Crocs Look at this warning sign in Kakadu National Park. Saltwater crocodiles are fascinating, but very dangerous creatures. Australians often call them salties. Usually, they are found in billabongs, rivers and lakes, and on beaches. Salties are the largest of all living reptiles. Males can be around 5 metres long and weigh about 500 kg. Females are much smaller and are rarely longer than 3 metres. Salties hide under the surface of the water, ready to jump out. They will eat almost anything that comes close to the edge of the water. Crocodiles attack people only when they are not careful. Follow the advice on the crocodile warning signs. And if in doubt, do not swim!

northwards – nordover cranky – gretten warning sign –   varselskilt fascinating – fascinerende, spennende billabong – sideelv rarely – sjelden surface – overflate edge of the water – vannkant in doubt –   i tvil

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My Workbook page 81–82


A Dangerous Dragon? The Northern Territory has its fair share of insects, spiders, lizards and snakes. One of them is the thorny devil or thorny dragon. It is a very peculiar, but small and harmless lizard. It is up to 20 centimetres long and has thorns all over its body. Predators, be warned! This lizard is not easy to swallow! One amazing fact about the thorny dragon is how it drinks water. It collects dew on its skin at night or when it goes past wet grass. The water is then carried through grooves in the skin before it ends up in the lizard’s mouth. Cheers!

Red Roos Australians often refer to kangaroos as roos. The red kangaroo is the largest of all the roos. A male can grow up to 2 metres in height and weigh over 80 kilos. A kangaroo’s tail is almost as long as its body. The roo uses its tail for balance when it is hopping. When the roo is resting, the tail is used as support, like a third leg. Kangaroos are the only large animals that move by hopping. Females are smaller, lighter, and faster than males. When a baby kangaroo is born, it is tiny, pink, not fully formed, hairless, and blind. Right after birth, it crawls into its mother’s pouch. Baby kangaroos stay in their mother’s pouch until they are around eight months. As they grow, their head and feet can often be seen hanging out of the pouch. It’s high time to get out!

lizards – øgler peculiar –   merkelig predators – rovdyr swallow – svelge dew – dugg has its fair share – har en god del, har mange thorny – tornete thorns – torner

13 Find out how big Kakadu National Park is.

be warned! – pass dere, vær forsiktig!

14 What do thorny dragons eat?

grooves – riller

15 What do Australians call a baby kangaroo? 16 Find out how far and how high a red roo can jump.

cheers! – skål! is resting – hviler pouch –   pung, pose

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Mr X. Plore’s Writing Tip Write a Summary

Write sentences using your keywords.

1 Find keywords from your text. 2 Use the keywords to write sentences. 3 Make a summary of the text using these sentences. Read the text, and choose keywords you think are important.

Use the keywords and the sentences to write a summary. What is the text about? Finish off your summary using finally.

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Keywords

Sentences

dangerous creatures

Saltwater crocodiles are dangerous creatures.

salties

They are known as salties in Australia.

billabongs

Salties are found in billabongs, rivers, lakes and on beaches.

largest reptile

They are the largest reptiles in the world. Males can grow to be 5 metres long and females are up to 3 metres long.

hide

Salties hide just beneath the surface of the water, ready to jump out.

attack people

They eat almost anything, but only attack people if they are not careful.

warning signs

Remember to read the crocodile warning signs!

Summary

Start a sentence This text is about saltwater crocodiles. with usually when They are dangerous creatures and are known you state a fact. as salties in Australia. Salties are found in billabongs, rivers, lakes and on beaches. They are the largest reptiles in the world. Usually, males can grow up to 5 metres long and females are up to 3 metres long. Salties hide just beneath the surface of the water, ready to jump out. They will eat almost anything, but only attack people if they are not careful. So finally, remember to read the crocodile warning signs!

My Workbook page 83


Before you read

Scan the text and make a list of all the rhyming words you can find.

A Crocodile Sat Crying A crocodile sat crying By the river one fine day. His tears fell in the water And were swiftly swept away;

?

Did you know

If you cry crocodile tears it means you are pretending to be sad.

But as he sat there crying, From the corner of his eye, He looked around most carefully To see what would pass by. Swimming in the river Was a juicy little frog, Who thought the weeping crocodile Was just a fallen log. He hopped out of the water For a rest there by its side, But as he settled down he saw The crocodile who cried. “Come closer,” said the crocodile, And wipe away my tear.” The frog jumped backwards quickly And he answered, “No-NO! my dear. I’m sure you’d like to eat me For I know your little game.” And he jumped back in the water And was never seen again. Now listen, little animals, Here’s something you should know, Beware the weeping crocodile, His tears are all for show! Anonymous

juicy – saftig

17 Why do you think the crocodile was crying?

settled down – roet seg beware – pass dere for swiftly – raskt swept away – skylt vekk log – trestamme wipe away – tørke vekk for show – skuespill

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Before you read

What is your favourite barbecue meal? Describe it to your learning partner.

The Australian BBQ Thanks to the multicultural influences in Australia, its food culture is very diverse. One of the most popular food traditions is barbecuing. The climate is one of the main reasons Aussies want to take their food outside. Even the Christmas turkey is cooked on the barbecue!

meal – måltid barbecuing – grilling meat – kjøtt chilled – avkjølt multicultural influences – påvirkning fra andre kulturer Aussies – slang for australiere

– Why did the tomato blush?

surf and turf – blanding av sjømat og kjøtt

– Because he saw the salad dressing.

esky – kjølebag

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My Workbook page 84


You can get Australian seafood all year round, and for this reason lobsters, fish, prawns, squid, scallops and many more are thrown on the barbecue or “barbie”. Barbecued meat, like lamb, beef, chicken, emu and even kangaroo, is also popular. Barbecues are available to the public in most parks and on beaches. This is the perfect setting for families and friends on a hot, sunny afternoon.

Aussie Slang There are many everyday Australian words and expressions that are different from American and British English. If you are ever invited to an Australian barbecue, here are some expressions that are useful to know:

18 Look at the food on the barbecue. What would you like to eat? Tell your learning partner. I would like to eat …

lobster – hummer prawns – reker squid – en type blekksprut scallops – kamskjell

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Before you read

What Australian animals do you know of? What do you know about these animals? Discuss with your learning partner.

Fourth Stop: Magnetic Island Sophia and Philip were pretty excited after their visit to the Northern Territory. Now it is time for them to visit Magnetic Island in Queensland on the East coast. Magnetic Island is part of the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef in the world. The reef is over 2,300 kilometres long, and just off the northeast coast of Australia.

Bush Walk

coral reef – korallrev closely – nøye marsupials –   pungdyr

A rock-wallaby.

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Over half of Magnetic Island is a national park. The best way to explore the park is on foot. Watch closely! You might see allied rockwallabies. They are difficult to spot. That’s because their fur is the same colour as the rocks where they live. Look up! You might see a sleeping koala in a eucalyptus tree. Koalas rest by day and start eating in the late afternoon. There is very little energy in eucalyptus leaves, so koalas need a lot of rest.

A koala taking a nap in a eucalyptus tree.

My Workbook page 85


Look around! You might see echidnas. The echidna and the platypus are the only living mammals that lay eggs. Echidnas are also called spiny anteaters. Can you guess why? Watch your step! Keep to the walking tracks to avoid the venomous death adder. It usually hides under dead leaves or sand. This snake has a special head and a fat body.

An echidna or spiny anteater looking for ants.

A platypus.

19 Think of an Australian animal and make a riddle. Describe what it looks like and where it lives. Can your learning partner guess which animal it is? Make several riddles.

lay eggs – legge egg adder – slange anteater – maursluker keep to – hold deg til venomous – giftig (om slanger) Watch your step! The death adder likes to hide.

step on – tråkke på

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Reef Facts • • • •

The Great Barrier Reef is a World Heritage Site. It is the only living organism that can be seen from space. Fishing is not allowed. Over 1,500 kinds of fish live in the Great Barrier Reef. The smallest fish is only 7 millimetres long. The biggest can grow up to 12 metres long! • The famous animation character Nemo is based on the anemonefish, or clown fish, which can be seen all over the Great Barrier Reef.

Threats to the Coral Reef • Climate change is perhaps the biggest threat to the Great Barrier Reef. Water temperature and climate change upset the balance that keeps the coral alive. • Pollution is poisoning the reef. • The coral reef gets damaged when people touch reefs, collect coral or come too close with their boats.

20 Find out more information about coral. What is it? 21 Where can you find coral? Why is it important to protect coral?

threat – trussel climate change – klimaendringer pollution –   forurensing is a World Heritage Site – står på UNESCOs verdensarvliste poisoning –   forgifter

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My Workbook page 86


Explore Grammar IT IS, THERE IS or THERE ARE? 22 Look at the pictures and read the sentences. Can you spot the difference?

It is really hot today!

In Australia, there is a huge rock, 350 metres high, called Uluru.

Når vi på norsk ønsker å si det er …, er det ikke lett å velge riktig uttrykk på engelsk. Her er det nemlig tre uttrykk som betyr omtrent det samme: It is …, there is … eller there are … Vet du når du skal bruke de forskjellige setningsmønstrene? There is … eller there are … brukes der det er mulig å si at noe finnes et sted, og når du nevner noe for første gang i samtalen eller teksten din. There is a famous bridge in Sydney.

Det er / det finnes en kjent bro i Sydney.

There are many beaches in Australia.

Det er / det finnes mange strender i Australia.

It is … brukes: • om været • om temperatur • om klokka • om avstand • for å vise til noe som har vært sagt eller skrevet tidligere.

My Workbook page 87

It is hot today. It is 18 degrees outside. It is three o’clock. It is a long way to the moon. In Australia, there is a huge rock. It is called Uluru.

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Explore Grammar Verbs in Different Tenses Verb i ulike tider 23 Look at the pictures. Can you spot the difference?

Infinitiv It is important to play with your dog every day!

04_53

Enkel presens I play with my dog every day.

Presens samtidsform I am playing with my dog right now.

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My Workbook pages 88–89


Preteritum Yesterday, I played with my dog.

Presens perfektum I have played with my dog many times.

Futurum I am going to play with my dog tomorrow instead.

24 Make your own sentences in the same way as above with each of the following verbs: make, watch and go.

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Look at the picture and work in pairs. A Describe some of the things you can see in the picture. Use there is … and there are … B Tell your learning partner some facts about three things you can see in the picture. C Choose a text you have read about Australia and tell your learning partner what it is about. Use … is about …, Usually … and Finally …

A Work in groups and make a presentation about Australia. You can make a poster or a digital presentation. Use your textbook and the Internet. Present the facts you have learnt about Australia.

A Reread one of the texts about places or animals you have read in this chapter. Find keywords and write a summary. Use Mr X. Plore’s Writing Tip on page 114 to help you. B Australia Day is a big celebration. Search the Internet and find out more information about how Australians celebrate this day. C Write a conversation between two Australians having a barbecue. One of them wants some good tips. Include some Australian expressions.

Work in groups of three or four. Imagine you are a convict from Britain being sent to Australia. Make a role-play of the terrible journey.

B Choose one place in Australia you would like to know more about. Use the Internet and prepare a mini-talk.

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My Workbook pages 90–91


My Workbook page x–x

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125


5

Why English?

language

everywhere during

understand

for instance feelings

share

communicate

126


The fact is, …

What do you think …?

By the way, …

I kapitlet vil du lære • om engelsk som verdensspråk • om å bruke språket forskjellig i ulike situasjoner • om noen prefikser og suffikser i engelsk

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Before you read

?

Did you know

Seaspeak is the language used by  boats to communicate with very few words. “Say again?” means ”Could you say that again, please?”.

Where do people speak mostly English? Make a list of countries.

A World Language It is difficult to know exactly how many people speak English. Language experts say that about a quarter of all the people in the world speak or use English. It has become a world language.

Chinese is the most spoken language in the world, followed by Spanish and English.

Who Uses English? In Ireland, Canada and New Zealand, for example, most people have English as their first language. This means that they learn English at home and speak it all the time, at home, at school and at work.

language –  språk for instance – for eksempel the fact is – faktum er communicate – kommuniserer exactly – akkurat official –   offisielt international – internasjonal

128 5 Why English?

In other countries, like Pakistan, South Africa and Singapore, English is an official language, along with one or more other languages. The fact is, people communicate in English at school or at work, but they often speak another language at home. Finally, other people around the world learn English at school, like any other school subject. In Norway, for instance, most people speak Norwegian at home, at school and at work, but they learn English at school.

International Communication A lot of people use English at work when they communicate with people from other countries. English is also used in music and in films, from Hollywood in the USA to Bollywood in India.

My Workbook page 94


A Bit of History How did a language spoken on a small island in the north of Europe become such an important language? Because Britain is an island, the British developed a large fleet very early. In 1497, four years after Christopher Columbus had reached America, the British discovered new land in Canada and settled there. As time went by, they settled in North America, the Caribbean, Australia and Asia and later took control over parts of Africa and the South Pacific. These colonies formed the British Empire. English seamen sailed and traded all over the world. The British imported sugar, tobacco and other tropical food from the West Indies. They brought rubber back from India and tea from Bengal. They were slave traders and brought slaves from Africa to the Caribbean and America. The British also used colonies as prisons. Hundred years ago, the British Empire covered a fifth of the land in the world, and it was said that “the sun never sets on the British Empire”. Britain considered herself the ruler of the sea. However, after the First World War, the British Empire began to break up, and more and more of the colonies became independent countries.

And Now? English is still spoken in countries that were ruled by Britain. It continues to be used by speakers of other languages all over the world. However, languages never stay the same. They keep changing all the time.

1 Why did people say: “The sun never sets on the British Empire”? Discuss with your learning partner.

developed – utviklet traded – handlet covered – dekket independent –   uavhengig South Pacific – sør i Stillehavet rubber –   gummi considered herself – så på seg selv som ruler – hersker

Have you heard of Singlish? This is the name given to English spoken in Singapore. In the future, there might be more “World Englishes”, varieties of English that include words from the other language or languages spoken in the country. Or there might be one World Standard English. What do you think? Only time will tell.

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Before you read

When do you speak English? Discuss with your learning partner.

When Do You Speak English? All over the world people use English to communicate with one another. About 440 million people from different countries learn English as their first language. For them it is easy, but for over 600 million people English is their second language. They use English to communicate, even though it is not their mother tongue.

Adnan I used to live in Aleppo in Syria, but we had to leave our country. Now I live in Tromsø. My first language is Arabic, but I learnt English, too, at my old school in Aleppo. As no one else at my new school speaks Arabic, my Norwegian teachers and new friends speak English to me. I am trying to learn Norwegian, but it is quite hard! Until I am better at it, English is the language I use to communicate.

Maja For the past three years I have spent my summer holidays working at a theme park. My favourite part of the job is operating the loop. By the way, taking a trip on the loop is a real white-knuckle experience! Every day I meet people who don’t speak Danish, so we talk to each other in English. I have to explain things like where they must leave their bags and how they fasten their seatbelts. What do you think I say just before the carriage shoots off? “Enjoy the ride”, of course. And I hope they do!

one another – hverandre no one –   ingen by the way – forresten mother tongue –   morsmål theme park – fornøyelsespark operating –   her: å styre white-knuckle experience – skrekkopplevelse

130 5 Why English?

Amahle My goal is to become a famous rap musician. I live in South Africa and in my country there are 11 official languages. I speak Zulu with my family and friends, but when I write rap songs I write them in English. That is because I want as many people as possible to understand what I am saying. English is a world language and, who knows, maybe I’ll be world-famous one day, too!

My Workbook page 95


Pari There are many different languages spoken in India. At home with my family I speak Hindi, but at school we use English. My teachers speak English all the time and every lesson is taught in English. If I want to get a good job when I grow up, I have to speak English really well. In India, English is used in the courts and in the government. These days, English is used everywhere. Many Indian films and TV programmes are in English, and when I take the bus to school I pass huge billboards with advertisements in English.

Hans My favourite hobby is gaming. Most days after school I log on and disappear into a virtual world. When I play online, I play with people from many different places in the world. Since they don’t understand German, we use English to communicate. It is really cool that people who speak completely different languages can still understand each other just by using English. My mum sometimes sighs and tells me I spend too much time in front of the computer, but on the other hand, she is impressed with all the English I have picked up!

government – regjeringen advertisements –   reklame disappear – forsvinner since – siden, fordi completely –   helt

2 What is your first language?

courts – rettssalene

3 Which other languages do you speak? Is there a language you would like to learn?

billboards – reklameskilt

4 Why is it a good idea to learn English?

these days – nå for tiden virtual – virtuell sighs – sukker

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Before you read

Look at the map and find Norway. What is the capital city, the population and the official languages(s) of Norway?

Ten English-Speaking Countries Today, English is spoken in all corners of the world. People speak English in the UK, the US and Australia. Here are some countries that have English either as their first language or as their official language.

United Kingdom

USA

Australia

Capital city London Population 65,110,000 (2016) Languages English is the official language. There are also other regional languages.

Capital city Washington, D. C. Population 324,611,000 (2017) Languages English is the official language.

Capital city Canberra Population 24,379,800 (2017) Languages English is the official language.

132 5 Why English?

My Workbook pages 96–97


South Africa

Nigeria

Canada

Capital city Pretoria, Bloemfontein and Cape Town Population 54,900,000 (2015) Languages English is one of 11 official languages.

Capital city Abuja Population 182,000,000 (2015) Languages Over 500 different languages, but English is the official language.

Capital city Ottawa Population 36,000,000 (2016) Languages English and French

Pakistan

Singapore

Philippines

Capital city Islamabad Population 202,000,000 (2015) Languages English and Urdu

Capital city Singapore Population 5,781,700 (2016) Languages English is one of four official languages.

Capital city Manila Population 102,000,000 (2016) Languages English and Filipino

capital city – hovedstad population –   befolkning

New Zealand Capital city Wellington Population 4,700,000 (2016) Languages English and Maori

5 Compare the population in these countries. Make a list starting with the country that has the highest population. Where would you place Norway? Use the Internet to find out. 6 How many continents are there? Use the Internet and find the names of the different continents.

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Explore Grammar UN-, IM- or DIS-? Prefixes Prefikser 7 Look carefully at the puzzle. What happens to the meaning of the word happy when we add the prefix un-?

un + happy

un + happy

unhappy

Et prefiks er en uselvstendig del av et ord som settes i begynnelsen av et ord. Når prefikset er lagt til, får vi et nytt ord. Prefiksene un-, im- og dis- gjør at det nye ordet får en ny betydning, ofte det motsatte.

134 5 Why English?

un

+

lucky

un

lucky

un

+

fortunate

unfortunate

im

+

possible

impossible

im

+

perfect

imperfect

dis

+

appear

disappear

dis

+

like

dislike

dis

+

agree

disagree My Workbook page 98


-NESS, -LESS, -ISH, -ABLE, -FUL or -OUS? Suffixes Suffikser Et suffiks er en uselvstendig del av et ord som settes etter siste del av et ord. Når suffikset er lagt til, oppstår et nytt ord med en ny mening. Ordet kan for eksempel endre seg fra én ordklasse til en annen.

8 Work in pairs. Discuss how these words change into new words with new meanings when we add a suffix.

home

+

less

home

less

unusual

+

ness

unusualness

ill

+

ness

illness

mad

+

ness

madness

use

+

less

useless

care

+

less

careless

self

+

ish

selfish

green

+

ish

greenish

understand +

able

understandable

enjoy

+

able

enjoyable

help

+

ful

helpful

danger

+

ous

dangerous

My Workbook page 99

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Before you read

What is it important to think of when you communicate on the Internet? Discuss with your learning partner.

Global Citizens Trym, Tilla, Mohammad and the rest of 7b at Solfjell Primary School are taking part in an international online project. They are working in groups, communicating with young people from different parts of Europe. During the project, they become global citizens, learn more English and more about each other’s countries. Now, they have to decide how they want to present their own country, Norway, to the pupils they are working with online. Tilla: OK, so what do you think is important for young people in other countries to know about Norway? Mohammad: Well, Norway is quite famous for its beautiful nature, for all the mountains and the fjords. We could tell them about the wild animals we have here. Trym: Yes, that’s a good idea. And of course, basic facts about the population, the capital city and things like that, too.

project – prosjekt quite – ganske share – dele global citizens – verdensborgere present – presentere

136 5 Why English?

Tilla: What I think would be really interesting, is if we could learn more about each other’s countries. What is it like to be a teenager in, say Spain or Italy? Are they interested in the same things we are? I think we should share our interests, likes and dislikes. Mohammad: I agree, but we must be careful and not post personal details on the Internet. Trym: Good point! We must remember the dos and don’t on the Internet. Right, I am going to search the Internet for basic facts about Norway. Who wants to join me?

My Workbook pages 100–101


Internet Dos and Don’ts · Be polite and respect other people. Treat

·

· ·

· ·

others online the same way you would , like to be treated yourself, and don t write , things that can hurt other people s feelings. Be responsible and remember that when you write things online, in text messages, , blogs or e-mails, people can t tell if you are joking or not. This is why people easily misunderstand each other when , they don t meet face to face. Be smart and never share private information about yourself, like your address or mobile number. Be careful with which pictures you choose to share. Once you post a picture on the Internet, everyone can see it. Remember, you must always ask before you post pictures of others. Be wise, think twice before you post. Be brave, and do not answer threatening comments. If you feel uncomfortable, leave the website and tell a grown-up, like your parents or your teacher. polite – høflig responsible – ansvarlig misunderstand – misforstå

9 Scan the poster, then close your book. Work in pairs and make a list of all the dos and don’ts you can remember. 10 What five interesting facts about Norway, or teenage life in Norway, would you present to a teenager in another country?

face to face –  ansikt til ansikt uncomfortable – ubehagelig treat – behandle careful – forsiktig threatening – truende

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Mr X. Plore’s Language Tip Slang or Not? Have you ever thought about how you use your language when you communicate with others? Do you speak in the same way when you talk to your friends as when you talk to people you do not know very well?

Informal Language

When we speak to our friends and family, or when we write text messages and e-mails to people we know well, we often use informal English. This language has short sentences, contractions and even slang words.

10.20 am

Informal greeting

Exclamation marks

Messages

Josh

Contact

Hi, what’s up? Had a good holiday? Yeah, awesome! Went to Australia. Really? Liked it?

Contractions

Short, incomplete sentences

Loved it! Amazing beaches! Went scuba diving. Saw tons of weird fish.

SMS language and smileys

138 5 Why English?

Cool! Gonna play football. U wanna come?

Slang

OK! CU in 10 min.

My Workbook pages 102–103


Formal Language

We use formal English when we speak to someone we do not know well or when we write factual texts, articles and other texts for school or work. This language is more correct and the sentences are usually longer. We cannot use contractions when we write formal English, and we must use punctuation and capital letters. This is part of a factual text Josh wrote for a school project after his holiday in Australia. Title No contractions Australia

Australia is both a country and a continent. |t is the largest island in the world and has over 24,000,000 inhabitants. The largest city in Australia is Sydney, but the capital city is Canberra. The indigenous Australians are called Aborigines and have lived in Australia for more than 40,000 years. They spoke different Aboriginal languages. About 250 years ago, Europeans also discovered the island. Over the years, many Europeans have settled in Australia. Today, most Australians have English as their first language. Australia is famous for its wildlife and beaches. As Australia is an island, it has a long coastline. The Great Barrier Reef, which is on the eastern side of Australia, is about 3,000 kilometres long. |t is the largest coral reef in the world. Over 350 different kinds of corals have been found on the reefs. Scientists have also discovered more than 1,500 different species of fish there. The Great Barrier Reef is a popular place for scuba divers. No SMS-language or smileys

Linking words

More serious sentences which often include facts 11 Compare the two texts. Find examples of elements that are typical for informal and formal texts. 12 Would you use formal or informal language when writing a letter or an e-mail to the prime minister? Would you use formal or informal language when writing a poem or a rap song?

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Before you read

Work with your learning partner. How many body parts can you remember? Name at least ten different body parts.

Body Language

?

Did you know

Have you ever communicated with someone who does not speak the same language? How did you manage to do that? Did you mime to help them understand what you were trying to say?

Most people just repeat what they said and speak louder when someone does not understand what they say.

It is not just the words we say that are important. The way we use our voice, our face and our body is equally important. Body language is everything we say without words. When we communicate with someone face to face, we can see each other’s face. This helps us understand each other. Our eyes can, for instance, tell us how we are feeling. Scientists have found that body language showing feelings like happiness, sadness, anger, surprise or fear is understood by people all over the world. Test yourself and see if you can decide which of these five faces shows the feelings happy, sad, angry, surprised or frightened. body language – kroppsspråk

Did you get it? Did you understand how these people feel just by looking at their faces? How did you manage to do that?

understand – forstå equally – like feelings – følelser how did you manage? – hvordan klarte du det? mime –   mime way – her: måten

140 5 Why English?

My Workbook pages 104–105


Watch Your Body Language Remember, body language does not have the same meaning in all countries and cultures.

Head

In most countries, nodding your head means yes or that you agree. But in some countries, like Turkey or Bulgaria, nodding your head means no.

Eyes

In Northern Europe and in the US, eye contact is important. We show respect to the person we are talking to by looking them in the eye. Yet, in some other countries, it is the exact opposite. In those countries, it is a sign of disrespect.

Hands

In Northern Europe and in the US, thumbs up means yes and super. But in parts of West Africa, in Iran and Greece giving someone the thumb up is very rude. In the same way, the OK sign (a circle made with the index finger and thumb, with the three remaining fingers up) means fine or OK in most countries. However, in France and other European countries it means zero or worthless. It is an insult in countries like Italy and Brazil.

Feet

In Asia and the Middle East, pointing the sole of your shoe at another person is very rude. So don’t cross your legs if you don’t want to offend anyone! No wonder we sometimes misunderstand each other! That is why it is a good idea to learn a little about each other’s languages, countries and cultures.

thumbs up – tommel opp index finger – pekefinger no wonder – ikke rart

13 Take a look at the illustration. Discuss with your learning partner how you think the different people are feeling. Do the two of you agree? Yes, I agree. No, I don’t agree because …

nodding –  nikke disrespect –   respektløshet worthless – verdiløs insult – fornærmelse sole – såle

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Before you read

What were the first English words you learnt? How old were you when you said your first English words? Share your memories with your learning partner.

English Is All Around Us Practically everywhere you look and almost everywhere you listen, you will find examples of English. Just use your eyes and ears and give it a go!

everywhere – overalt memories –   minner

14 Ready for a challenge? Give yourself twenty minutes and see how many examples of English you can find in your neighbourhood.

practically – nesten

142 5 Why English?

My Workbook page 106


Before you read

How can you show someone that you really like him or her without using words? Show your ideas to your learning partner.

Deaf Donald

Shel Silverstein 1930–1999 American

deaf – døv, døve Shel Silverstein

forever – for alltid Talkie Sue –   Skravlete Sue

My Workbook page 107

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Before you read

If you can’t see or you can’t hear, how do you communicate? What if you are both deaf and blind?

Helen Keller healthy –  sunn signs – tegn frustrated – frustrert annoyed –   irritert bright – intelligent, begavet gestures – gester meaning –   betydning

Helen Keller was born in 1880, in Alabama, USA. She was a bright and healthy baby. She grew up on the family farm. When Helen was about one and a half years old, she became very ill. Luckily she survived, but when she got better, her parents realised she could no longer hear or see. Although she was deaf-blind, Helen tried to communicate with people around her. She used signs and gestures. However, it was difficult for people to understand what she wanted. As a result, she was often frustrated and angry. Helen’s parents realised that she needed help. They found a young woman called Anne Sullivan. She arrived at the farm on the 3rd of March 1887, a few months before Helen turned seven. She was to become Helen’s helper and lifelong friend. Anne understood straight away that Helen was a bright child. As soon as she arrived, she began to teach Helen words. For example, she put a cup in one of Helen’s hands and then formed the letters of the word C-U-P into the other hand. Helen enjoyed this new game. However, she did not understand that the hand signs had a meaning. One day, Anne tried to teach Helen the word D-O-L-L. Helen got annoyed and broke the doll. Anne took her out to try something else.

Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan became lifelong friends.

144 5 Why English?

My Workbook pages 108–109


autobiography – selvbiografi

Freedom at Last!

well-house – brønnhus

This is what Helen wrote in her autobiography, The Story of My Life.

drawing – her: hente

We walked down the path to the well-house. Someone was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under the spout. As the cool stream gushed over one hand, she spelt into the other the word water, first slowly, then rapidly. I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers. Suddenly the mystery of language was revealed to me. I knew then that “w-a-t-e-r” meant the wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand. That living word awakened my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free!

gushed –  rant

I left the well-house eager to learn. Everything had a name, and each name gave birth to a new thought. As we returned to the house every object which I touched seemed to quiver with life. That was because I saw everything with the strange, new sight that had come to me. On entering the door I remembered the doll I had broken. I felt my way to the hearth and picked up the pieces. I tried vainly to put them together. Then my eyes filled with tears; for I realized what I had done, and for the first time I felt regret and sorrow.

spout – tut rapidly – raskt attention – oppmerksomhet motions – bevegelser revealed – avslørt awakened – vekket quiver –   dirre hearth – ildsted vainly – forgjeves regret – anger sorrow – sorg

I learned a great many new words that day. I do not remember what they all were; but I do know that mother, father, sister, teacher were among them. It would have been difficult to find a happier child, and for the first time I longed for a new day to come. Helen Keller

15 Work with your learning partner. Take turns spelling short words using the sign language alphabet on this page. Can your partner find out which word you have spelt? Use your hands and form letters.

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Before you read

Which clapping songs do you know? Are they in Norwegian or English, or maybe both?

Caribbean Rhymes and Songs Here are two traditional songs and rhymes from the Caribbean. Four White Horses is a folk song and a hand-clapping game. It is about four white horses travelling on a river in a boat. It is going to rain the next day, so the horses have to come back where it is safe, in the shallow bay. Mosquito One, Mosquito Two is a nursery rhyme in a Caribbean English dialect.

Four White Horses Four white horses, on the river, Hey, hey, hey, up tomorrow, Up tomorrow is a rainy day. Come on up to the shallow bay, Shallow bay is a ripe banana, Up tomorrow is a rainy day. (Trad.)

Mosquito One, Mosquito Two Mosquito one, Mosquito two, Mosquito jump In de ole man shoe;

folk song – folkevise nursery rhyme – barneregle Caribbean –   karibisk shallow bay – bukt med grunt vann ripe – moden de – dialekt for the ole – dialekt for old fass – dialekt for fast

146 5 Why English?

De shoe too hot He jump in de pot De pot too cole He jump in de hole

16 Work with your learning partner. Make your own hand-clapping movements. Practise together. How about showing your classmates?

De hole too deep He jump in de jeep De jeep too fass He jump in de grass Ah ole man pass An kick him in he a*s. (Trad.)

My Workbook page 110


Luv Song Benjamin Zephaniah describes himself as a poet, writer, lyricist, musician and naughty boy. He was born and raised in Birmingham, which he calls the “Jamaican capital of Europe”. Zephaniah writes the way he speaks and says that his poetry is strongly influenced by the music and poetry of Jamaica.

Benjamin Zephaniah Born 1958 British

17 Some of the words in the poem are written the way Zephaniah pronounces them. Can you find these words? How would you spell them in Standard English?

hedgehog –  pinnsvin weeds – ugress tabby cat – stripete katt hibernate – gå i hi Benjamin Zephaniah

stand on edge – få håret til å reise seg på hodet

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Before you read

Roald Dahl 1916–1990 BritishNorwegian

How long do you think an anteater’s tongue is? 20, 40 or 60 cm long?

The Ant-Eater In The Ant-Eater, Roald Dahl makes fun of a spoiled, ignorant boy who makes his wealthy father buy an ant-eater. The poor animal is not given any food and is starving. Then the boy’s aunt comes to visit. But wait, did I say “ant”? Some wealthy folks from U.S.A, Who lived near San Francisco Bay, Possessed an only child called Roy, A plump and unattractive boy – Half-baked, half-witted and half-boiled, But worst of all, most dreadfully spoiled. Whatever Roy desired each day, His father bought him right away – Toy motorcars, electric trains, The latest model aeroplanes, A colour television-set, A saxophone, a clarinet, Expensive teddy-bears that talked, And animals that walked and squawked. That house contained sufficient toys To thrill a half a million boys.

(As well as this, young Roy would choose, Two pairs a week of brand-new shoes.) And now he stood there shouting, “What “On earth is there I haven’t got? “How hard to think of something new! “The choices are extremely few!” Then added, as he scratched his ear, “Hold it! I’ve got a good idea! “I think the next thing I must get “Should be a most peculiar pet – “The kind that no one else has got – “A giant ANT-EATER! Why not?” As soon as father heard the news, He quickly wrote to all the zoos.

ant-eater – maursluker spoiled – bortskjemt ignorant –   uvitende starving – sultne desired – ønsket seg sufficient – tilstrekkelig

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My Workbook pages 111–112


“Dear Sirs,” he said, “My dear keepers, “Do any of you have ant-eaters?” They answered by return of mail. “Our ant-eaters are not for sale.” Undaunted, Roy’s fond parent hurled More messages across the world. He said, “I’ll pay you through the nose “If you can get me one of those.” At last he found an Indian gent (He lived near Delhi, in a tent), Who said that he would sacrifice His pet for an enormous price (The price demanded, if you please, Was fifty thousand gold rupees). The ant-eater arrived half-dead. It looked at Roy and softly said, “I’m famished. Do you think you could “Please give me just a little food? “A crust of bread, a bit of meat? “I haven’t had anything to eat “In all the time I was at sea, “For nobody looked after me,” Roy shouted, “No! No bread or meat! “Go find some ants! They’re what you eat!” The starving creature crawled away.

It searched the garden night and day, It hunted every inch of ground, But not one single ant it found, “Please give me food!” the creature cried. “Go find an ant!” the boy replied. By chance, upon that very day, Roy’s father’s sister came to stay – A foul old hag of eighty-three Whose name, it seems, was Dorothy. She said to Roy, “Come let us sit “Out in the sun and talk a bit,” Roy said, “I don’t believe you’ve met “My new and most unusual pet?” He pointed down among the stones Where something lay, all skin and bones. “Ant-eater!” he yelled. “Don’t lie there yawning! “This is my ant! Come say good-morning!” (Some people in the USA Have trouble with the words they say. However hard they try, they can’t Pronounce simple words like AUNT.

undaunted – som ikke lar seg stoppe, uanfektet hurled – slengte gent – herre sacrifice – ofre famished – veldig sulten a foul old hag – en fæl gammel kjerring yawning – gjespende pronounce – uttale

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Instead of AUNT, they call it ANT, Instead of CAN’T, they call it KANT.) Roy yelled, “Come here, you so and so! “My ant would like to say hello!” Slowly, the creature raised its head. “D’you mean that that’s an ant?” it said. “Of course!” cried Roy. “Ant Dorothy! “This ant is over eighty-three.” The creature smiled. Its tummy rumbled. It licked its starving lips and mumbled, “A giant ant! By gosh, a winner! “At last I’ll get a decent dinner! “No matter if it’s eighty-three.

“If that’s an ant, then it’s for me!” Then, taking very careful aim, It pounced upon the startled dame. It grabbed her firmly by the hair And ate her up right then and there, Murmuring as it chewed the feet, “The largest ant I’ll ever eat.” Meanwhile, our hero Roy had sped In terror to the potting-shed. And tried to make himself obscure Behind a pile of horse-manure. But ant-eater came sneaking in (Already it was much less thin) And said to Roy, “You little squirt, “I think I’ll have you for dessert.” Roald Dahl

rumbled – rumlet mumbled – mumlet decent – skikkelig pounced – hoppet på startled – forskrekket murmuring – knurrende had sped – hadde flyktet in terror – i redsel potting-shed –   uthus obscure – usynlig horse-manure – hestemøkk squirt – tass

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18 What is the main idea of the poem? Discuss your thoughts with your learning partner. 19 Why do Roy and the ant-eater misunderstand each other? 20 Have you ever misunderstood someone because you spoke different languages? What happened?

My Workbook pages 111–112


Tongue Twister 3 and Jokes

/hju:/ huge, humans, humour

Pupil 1: Can you name two things English-speaking people never eat before breakfast? Pupil 2: Hm … No, I give up. Pupil 1: Lunch and dinner.

Pupil 1: Why is the number six always so scared? Pupil 2: Because seven eight nine!

Huge Humans

Hugh hugs huge humans.

Pupil 1: It can be really difficult to spell in English. How do I, for instance, spell mousetrap? Pupil 2: Easy! C-A-T!

21 Make your own tongue twister! Choose a letter.  ind an adjective, a noun, a verb and a noun F all beginning with the same letter or sound. Can you do it?

humans – mennesker mousetrap – musefelle

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A Look at the picture and discuss what you can see. B What were the first English words you learnt? How old were you when you said your first English words? How did you learn them? Discuss your experiences with your learning partner. Use the phrases The fact is … and What do you think? C Why is it a good idea to learn about each other’s countries and cultures? Discuss in pairs. Use the phrases I agree. and I don’t agree, because …

A Work in pairs and make a role play showing how you meet and greet each other. Use exactly the same words every time, but change the tone of your voice and your body language. What happens?

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A Write a short factual text where you present Norway to teenagers from another country. Which facts do you think are important? What do you want other teenagers to learn about Norway? B Choose a country you want to learn more about. Make a Venn diagram where you compare Norway and the country you have chosen. What is the same? What is different?

A What different languages do the pupils at your school speak? Interview your classmates and other pupils and make a bar chart showing the different languages. B Work in groups and make a poster displaying examples of English words and expressions you have found in Norwegian texts. Search through newspapers, magazines and use the Internet. You can also take pictures of signposts, shop names and T-shirts.

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One World

cross borders

spices aware of strengthen

treat mainly

mankind

influence

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Afterwards, …

Fortunately, …

Unfortunately, …

I kapitlet vil du lære • om påvirkning fra andre lands kulturer og tradisjoner • å bruke this, that, these og those • å bruke futurum med will

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Before you read

How are we influenced by other countries’ cultures and traditions? Tell your learning partner.

Global Trends Have you ever thought about how countries influence each other? How can traditions from one country become popular on the other side of the world? Here are some examples of traditions that have crossed borders.

Parkour

influence – påvirke rooftop – hustak crossed borders – krysset landegrenser ocean – hav the founder – grunnleggeren increased –   økt wind conditions – vindforhold

Parkour is also known as free running. Doing parkour means that you run, jump, balance or climb to get from one point to another. You use your own body weight to move quickly around buildings, over walls or from rooftop to rooftop. David Belle from France is known as the founder of the parkour. Today, parkour is practised all over the world, often in cities and by young people.

Surfing Riding the perfect wave is every surfer’s dream. Originally, surfing started in Hawaii. Wind conditions and ocean temperatures make Hawaii, California and Australia very popular among surfers. The sport has also increased in popularity in other parts of the world, for instance in the north of Norway. However, you do need a wet suit to keep warm in the cold water!

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My Workbook pages 118–119


Cocoa Beans The cocoa tree descends from South America and grows in hot tropical areas. When the Maya Indians first started using the popular beans, the cocoa tree grew wild. The Maya people used the beans as money and trade items, as the beans had great value. One slave was worth 100 cocoa beans. When the Spanish explored and conquered South America, they also brought the cocoa beans back to Europe. Today, the popular trees are grown on several continents. West Africa delivers half of the world’s cocoa crop. Unfortunately, most of the profit does not go to the farmers. Therefore, fair trade production groups are established in the cocoa industry in order to take care of the farmers’ interest, but there are different opinions whether this production benefits the farmers or not.

Sushi and Chopsticks Even though sushi is looked upon as a traditional Japanese dish, it originates from Southeast Asia. The fish used to be salted and wrapped in rice, but over the years, sushi slowly changed to the way it is prepared today. In recent years, sushi has spread to other continents like Europe and America. In fact, you will find sushi restaurants all over the world. The tradition of using chopsticks has also been adopted as a part of the influence from Asia. When eating sushi, chopsticks are usually used.

1 What makes parkour and surfing popular sports? Give three reasons for each sport. Did your learning partner give the same reasons? 2 Search the Internet to find other fair trade products that are sold on the Norwegian market. What parts of the world do they come from?

profit – utbytte crop – avling established – etablert originates from – stammer fra descends – stammer fra conquered – erobret fair trade – rettferdig handel whether – om benefits – kommer til gode

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Jeans Jeans have been popular for hundreds of years. When the Jewish businessman, Levi Strauss, emigrated from Europe to the USA, he brought his denim fabric with him. His trousers became popular among factory workers and miners in California. Even cowboys and ranchers wore jeans. The strong fabric made them excellent work clothes. They called the trousers waist overalls. The dark colour was perfect camouflage for dirt. A local tailor liked the solid fabric, but wanted to make the trousers even stronger. He suggested using rivets to strengthen the pockets and belt loops. Fortunately, Strauss and the tailor patented the idea. This was the beginning of a huge jeans industry. Today, more than one billion pairs of jeans are sold worldwide every year.

The Shapka

fabric – stoff waist – midje

A Shapka is a big, furry hat with earflaps. Because of the terrible conditions in the winter war of 1939, many soldiers froze to death. The Russian military realised they had to keep their soldiers warm and shapkas were the answer. It has since become very popular with the younger generations as well as with children. It keeps your head really nice and warm on cold days.

strengthen – styrke furry hat – pelslue

3 Why did trousers made of denim fabric become popular in the USA?

miners – gruvearbeidere

4 Imagine that you and your learning partner are Levi and the tailor. Make a dialogue about how they invented jeans.

rivets – nagler belt loops – beltehemper patented – tok patent på

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5 Find out how many pupils in your class have tried sushi. And how many of your classmates are wearing jeans today?

My Workbook pages 118–119


Explore Grammar THIS, THAT, THESE or THOSE 6L  ook at the sentences. Can you spot the difference?

This is not mine!

That is mine!

These are too tight!

Let’s try those instead!

This, that, these og those er pekeord vi bruker når vi skal fortelle om noe. De kalles demonstrative pronomen. This (entall) og these (flertall) bruker vi når vi skal peke ut noe som er nær oss. That (entall) og those (flertall) bruker vi når vi skal peke ut noe som er lengre unna.

My Workbook pages 120–121

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Before you read

?

Did you know

Penicillin has saved at least 200 million lives since 1942 when it was first used as a medicine.

Find the words bacteria, deadly, lungs and immune system. What do you think these words are in Norwegian?

Influence from Europe

Saving the World Before the discovery of penicillin, a simple cut in your finger or toe could turn out to be really dangerous. The discovery was a huge breakthrough in medicine. Penicillin is a type of antibiotic and has been very important to the world. Bacteria are tiny organisms that are all around us. They are so tiny that there are thousands of them on the head of a pin. They are in the air we breathe, in the food we eat and inside our bodies. There are many different types of bacteria, some are friendly and useful, others are dangerous and deadly. About 200 different types of bacteria live in your mouth and many more live on your skin.

Sometimes the dangerous ones attack your body. They can cause a small red lump or spot on your face. Or more seriously, they can attack your lungs or your brain. Bacteria can infect many different parts of the body. Fortunately, our immune system can protect us from these dangerous bacteria. For example, when bacteria enter a small cut on our skin, white cells in our blood will kill them. We can help fight bacteria by cleaning our cuts.

deadly – livstruende attack – angripe lump –   kul spot –   kvise discovery – oppdagelse breakthrough – gjennombrudd organisms –   organismer pin – knappenål infect – gi betennelse cut – kutt, sårskade

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Three million people died from bacterial infections during the First World War.

My Workbook pages 122–123


Sometimes bacterial infections are very dangerous. Did you know that in the First World War (1914–1918) over ten million people were killed? But they were not all killed by bullets and bombs. About three million died from bacterial infections. Even having a baby in those days was dangerous. The fact is, many young, healthy women died from bacterial infections after childbirth. Doctors and scientists around the world were all trying to find out how to treat these infections, and they found some medicines that helped. Then, in the early 1920’s something dramatic happened. The first antibiotic was discovered.

Alexander Fleming working in his laboratory.

A doctor called Alexander Fleming, working at St Mary’s Hospital in London, was studying bacteria. In his laboratory he was growing one of the most dangerous types (called Staphylococci) in little saucers filled with a sort of jelly. These saucers were called Petri dishes. Bacteria like living in the jelly and grow into little clumps called colonies. One day, Dr Fleming left the Petri dishes on a window ledge and forgot about them.

childbirth – fødsel treat – behandle hospital – sykehus laboratory – laboratorium jelly – gelé bacterial infections – bakterielle infeksjoner bullets – kuler

7 During the First World War, how many people where killed? 8 How many people died from infections?

staphylococci – stafylokokker saucers – skåler Petri dishes – petriskåler clumps – klynger colonies – kolonier ledge – hylle, karm

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While you read

What is mould, and where have you seen it before?

A few days later, he went to pick up the dishes and noticed that a mould, like the green stuff that grows on old bread, was growing among the bacterial colonies. But there was something else happening, too, something very special. Where the mould was growing there were no bacterial colonies! Fleming realised that there was some sort of chemical in the mould that killed bacteria. He called it penicillin. Other well-known doctors and scientists from many countries joined in this research. By the 1940’s, they had learnt how to make penicillin in large quantities. They also found similar chemicals that were effective against bacteria. They were named antibiotics and they revolutionised the treatment of infections.

Clumps of bacteria growing in a Petri dish.

mould – mugg chemicals – kjemikalier quantities –   mengder revolutionised – revolusjonerte

The number of people who died from infections fell dramatically all over the world after this. Mothers did not fear having babies. Children survived illnesses that before were deadly. Injured soldiers did not die from wound infections and old people survived pneumonia. Afterwards, Alexander Fleming won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discovery. Unfortunately, in recent years, antibiotic resistance has become a large problem. It has spread fast because of the misuse of antibiotics in humans and in animals. As a result, serious illnesses like tuberculosis are now becoming harder to treat again. A lot of research is being done, and the World Health Organisation (WHO) now advises the safe and controlled use of antibiotics to try to limit the problem.

treatment – behandling wound – sår pneumonia – lungebetennelse antibiotic resistence – antibiotikaresistens

9 Why was the discovery of antibiotics so important in medicine?

misuse – misbruk limit – begrense

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My Workbook pages 122–123


Explore Grammar 10 W  hat will you wear tomorrow?

I WILL Simple Future Enkel futurum

I will wear my shorts tomorrow.

But … it will snow tomorrow! hovedverb

Vi bruker verbet will sammen med et hovedverb når vi snakker om noe vi skal eller noe som sannsynligvis vil skje. Når vi snakker eller skriver uformelt, er det vanlig å trekke sammen pronomenet + will og will + not. I will = I’ll

I will not = I won’t

You will = You’ll

You will not = You won’t

He will = He’ll

She will not = She won’t

We will = We’ll

We will not = We won’t

They will = They’ll

They will not = They won’t

Shall 11 Find the contractions of the words you will and you will not.

Vi bruker som regel will der vi på norsk bruker skal. Det engelske ordet shall må ikke forveksles med skal. Shall brukes som oftest når man foreslår noe, og helst bare med pronomenene I og we. Shall I open the window?

My Workbook page 124

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Before you read

How do you communicate with your friends?

Influence from America

Connecting the World Close your eyes and try to imagine life before the Internet. You probably can’t! Children these days, and in our part of the world, have grown up online. The arrival of the Internet in 1991 turned the world upside down and is now the most popular way of communicating in a lot of countries. This has brought the world closer together. The Internet can be used in nearly everything we do, from ordering a pizza to communicating with friends. We are only one click away from news updates all over the world. But it was not always like this.

upside down – opp ned updates – oppdateringer instant – øyeblikkelig landline –   fasttelefon

So, what was our world like before the Internet was invented? Communicating with friends was usually done face to face or by phone or post. Most people had a landline, which meant that if they were not at home, you had to leave a message on their answering machine (if they had one) and wait for them to phone back, or try again later. This could take some time! Today we have instant communication on our phones, like SMS, snaps and emails.

The weather report on the daily news.

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Communicating with friends before the arrival of the mobile phone.

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checking the weather

finding information

chatting with friends watching a film reading the news

ordering pizza

Travelling was more complicated. A road trip meant getting out an atlas and spending time finding the best route. Travelling by plane meant queuing up at, or phoning, the local travel agency to book a flight. Now thanks to GPS and online travel agencies, getting to your destination is only a few clicks away. Waiting for the morning newspaper to arrive and watching the evening news were essential for those who wanted to know what was going on in the world. If you missed the evening weather report you could have a few problems the following day! Today, a simple click takes you to media channels all over the world with the latest news and weather updates. The list goes on: shopping and banking online mean that families can organise their daily needs from home. School projects used to involve a trip to the local library or searching the bookcases at home for information, now this is all available online. Our lives have become so much easier! Or have they? 12 N  ame three things that have become easier since the arrival of the Internet.

complicated – komplisert route – rute essential – veldig viktig queuing up –   stille seg i kø travel agency – reisebyrå daily needs – daglige behov available – tilgjengelig

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Before you read

?

Did you know

As a teenager, Jobs’ dream was to become a Buddhist monk. He even visited India for inspiration.

How many words related to technology can you find in the text? Make a list.

Steve Jobs One man who has helped connecting the world, is creative genius Steve Jobs. This is a story of how one man changed the world of technology. Jobs was born in 1955 in San Francisco, California. He was adopted by Clara and Paul Jobs immediately. When he was a child, one of his favourite hobbies was working on electronics with his father in the garage. They would pick radios apart and try to fix them again. In his early twenties he started hanging out with Steve Wozniak, a technological genius. Wozniak had always wanted to build his own personal computer. The two of them got together and started building computers in Jobs’s garage. At this time computers were huge hi-tech systems that could only be used by technical experts. Jobs wanted to make computers smaller, more user friendly and affordable for people in genereal. “Never trust a computer you can’t lift” Steve Jobs once said. In 1976 they started Apple Computers and called their first computer Apple 1. The company quickly grew. Twenty years later, he was still making popular new products. His next major breakthrough was the Apple iPod in 2001 and iTunes software in 2003. This allowed people to access a library of millions of songs and download music directly. Later, in 2007, the iPhone was invented. This was the world’s first smartphone. It was a huge success and totally changed the world of mobile phones. Jobs became a celebrity and many thought of him as one of the great innovators of the 2000s. Unfortunately, he died of cancer in 2011.

Steve Jobs, the technological genius.

hi-tech – høyteknologi user friendly – brukervennlig affordable – som folk har råd til access – ha tilgang til innovators – nyskapere, som tenker kreativt og skaper noe nytt

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13 Scan the text and tell your learning partner about three products that Steve Jobs helped invent. 14 Scan the text and find five adjectives. 15 What do you think the next invention in the world of technology will be? Think about your mobile. What would make it even better? Tell your learning partner.

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Before you read

Explain the words Internet, mail, message and movie trailer in English.

When Sarah Surfs the Internet When Sarah surfs the Internet she starts by checking mail. She answers all her messages from friends in great detail.

Kenn Nesbitt Born 1962 American

She plays a game, or maybe two, and watches a cartoon, then chats with kids in places like Rwanda and Rangoon. She reads about her favorite bands. She buys an MP3. She downloads movie trailers and she looks for stuff for free. She reads about celebrities and dreams of wealth and fame, then watches music videos and plays another game. If you should say, “Your time is up. I need to use the Net,” she always whines, “I haven’t got my homework finished yet!” Kenn Nesbitt

messages – meldinger

16 Does this sound familiar? In what way? Discuss with your learning partner.

cartoon – tegneserie celebrities – kjendiser your time is up – tiden din er ute wealth – rikdom whines – sutrer familiar – kjent

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Before you read

Can you find the name of five different spices in English? Look it up on the Internet with your learning partner. Influence from Asia

Spicing up the World Did you know that no other country in the world produces as many different spices as India? The spice trade started as early as 3000 B.C. Later, explorers like Vasco da Gama and Christopher Colombus wanted to reach India to find valuable spices. Jaffar is visiting his family in India for the first time. He is excited. Today, he is going to the local market with his cousins, Deepa and Daud. A rickshaw is taking them.

spices – krydder valuable – verdifullt excited – spent illness – sykdom trade – handel rickshaw – sykkeltaxi cinnamon –   kanel could afford – hadde råd til impress – imponere

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Deepa: Grandma wants us to buy pepper, cinnamon and some spices for the curry she is going to make tonight. Let’s have a look over there! Jaffar: This place really is something! In England, we buy everything at the supermarket. Deepa: So I’ve heard. I’d love to go to England some time. Daud: Look, there’s the pepper! Jaffar: Actually, we had a school project about explorers and spices last year. Deepa: Really? Jaffar: Yeah. We learnt about Vasco da Gama. He left from Europe and sailed around South Africa to India. It was really dangerous, but he wanted to get cheap spices, like pepper and cinnamon. Daud: And, of course, silk and porcelain. Jaffar: Yes! Pepper and other spices were very expensive in Europe. Only rich people could afford them. If they really wanted to impress people, they put some extra pepper in the food. Deepa (laughs): T  hat’s quite a funny way of impressing people, isn’t it? Jaffar: They even used pepper as medicine! In fact, they believed pepper would heal illness. It was a real luxury product, as valuable as silver, actually. Deepa: Y  ou must do really well at school, Jaffar!

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Colourful spices at the market.

Cinnamon is often used in sweet dishes. It comes in sticks, powder or dried. What kinds of dishes do you use cinnamon in? Saffron adds a beautiful yellow colour to the food. It is the most expensive spice in the world. The upper band of the Indian National flag has a deep saffron colour. Turmeric is also called the poor man’s saffron. It is a lot cheaper than saffron and adds the same beautiful yellow colour. Curry is a mix of different spices. It is the most used spice mix in the world, and an important part of Indian cuisine. This spice mix is used in the popular dish chicken tikka masala. Fennel leaves can be used in salads, soups or meat dishes. The seeds are often used for cookies and cakes.

dish – rett expensive – dyrt adds – her: gir

17 What do you know about pepper? Write three facts. 18 Vasco da Gama travelled the seaway from Europe to India around South Africa. Why was the trip so dangerous? Use the Internet and find more information about his trip.

cheaper –  billigere saffron – safran turmeric –   gurkemeie cuisine –   kjøkken, kokekunst fennel – fenikkel

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Before you read

Give yourself one minute to make a list of all the different musical instruments you know of. Influence from Africa

examples of – eksempler på

Jazzing up the World

a blend of – en blanding av songwriter – låtskriver

African music has had an enormous influence on the music we listen to every day. On American plantations from the 17th century, African slaves sang as they worked on the fields. Here are some examples of music with African-American roots.

plantations – plantasjer field – åker trumpeter – trompetist composer – komponist

Blues has roots in African American history in the 19th century. John Lee Hooker is one of the superstars of the blues.

Jazz was born in New Orleans at the beginning of the 20th century. Louis Armstrong was a well-known trumpeter, composer, singer and actor.

Rock

Soul started in the 1950’s and is a blend of gospel music, jazz and rhythm and blues. Soul music is still popular today, and Beyoncé is a modern soul singer and songwriter.

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started in the 1950’s, influenced by gospel and blues. Elvis Presley is called the king of rock ’n’ roll.

Hip Hop began in the Bronx, New York, in the late 1970’s. Rapping, beatboxing, breakdance and graffiti all come from the same tradition and now influence culture all over the world.

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Before you read

Do you know any reggae songs? Tell your learning partner.

Reggae Rhythms Reggae music originates from the Caribbean. Although this is far away from Africa, a large number of the population here are descendants of West African slaves. Reggae music started in Jamaica in the 1960’s and is still very popular all over the world, thanks to famous artists like Bob Marley.

One Love One love, one heart. Let’s get together and feel all right. Hear the children crying – one love. Hear the children crying – one heart. Sayin’, “Give thanks and praise to the Lord and I will feel all right.” Sayin’, “Let’s get together and feel all right.”

Bob Marley 1945–1981 Jamaican

19 What do you think this song is about? Find out with your learning partner.

Let them all pass all their dirty remarks – one love. There is one question I’d really love to ask – one heart. Is there a place for the hopeless sinner who has hurt all mankind just to save his own? Believe me. One love, one heart. Let’s get together and feel all right. As it was in the beginning – one love. So shall it be in the end – one heart. Alright, “Give thanks and praise to the Lord and I will feel all right.” “Let’s get together and feel all right.” Sayin’ “One love, one heart. Let’s get together and feel all right.” I’m plea’ing to mankind – one love. Oh, Lord – one heart. Let’s get together and feel all right.

far away from – langt fra remarks – kommentarer mankind –   menneskeheten, alle mennesker på jord the Lord – Herren sinner –   synder

Bob Marley

plea’ing (pleading) – trygler

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Before you read

How many of your classmates turn off their lights for Earth Hour? Influence from Oceania

Earth Hour Once a year in March, people across the world celebrate Earth Hour. This is a global movement which started in Sydney, Australia, in 2007. The goal is to make people more aware of climate change. But what is Earth Hour exactly? Earth Hour is organised by the World Wide Fund (WWF). It encourages people all over the world to turn off their lights for one hour between 8:30 pm and 9:30 pm local time. The visual effect is quite dramatic. However, turning lights off for one hour every year is not in itself enough to protect our planet. The idea is that it symbolises the world’s commitment towards saving our planet.

aware of –  bevisst, klar over encourages – oppfordrer turn off –   skru av visual effect – synlig virkning commitment – engasjement

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People come together in candle light during Earth Hour.

My Workbook pages 130–131


Since the first Earth Hour in 2007, the movement has spread to more than 7,000 cities and towns worldwide. It has made people aware of the impact they can have on protecting the planet if everyone works together. The Earth Hour movement is much more than just one hour of lights-out a year. Thousands of people have joined the movement and work together with governments, businesses and communities to fight climate change. Forests have already been planted to fight deforestation, laws have been passed to protect sea life and plastic has been banned in some areas. The movement shows how people like you and me can make a difference. It has inspired people to become more aware of the problems facing our planet. There is still a long way to go. We all have our different cultures and languages, but if the world stands together, we have the power to make a change. Even the smallest actions count.

Celebrating Earth Hour in Manila.

worldwide – verden rundt communities – samfunn

20 What can you do to fight climate change? Tell your learning partner. 21 What do you know about Earth Hour? Write five sentences.

laws – lover make a difference – gjøre en forskjell banned –   forbudt deforestation – avskoging passed – her: vedtatt

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Before you read

Find the words that mean urbefolkning, folkemusikk and moderne rytmer. Tradition and modern life in the North of Europe

One People, Four Countries The Sami, also knows as Lapps, are one of the indigenous peoples of Northern Europe. They live in the northern parts of four different countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Their capital city is Karasjok in Norway. They have their own languages and traditions even though they now have a modern way of life.

The Joik

Many musicians are influenced by the Sami joik.

The joik is a traditional Sami way of singing. In fact, it is one of the oldest song traditions in Europe. When singing a joik, you sing to a person, an animal or a place and not about someone or something. There are different types of joiks. The traditional joik is also part of the Sami religion. Young people often sing a new and modern type of joik, a mix of traditional song and modern rhythms. Every year, there is a song contest in Kautokeino called the Sami Grand Prix. Those who take part usually come from Norway, Sweden and Finland.

The Language There are nine different Sami languages. Some of them are very different from each other.

northern parts –  nordlige deler usually – vanligvis take part – deltar nowadays – nå for tiden indigenous people – urbefolkning way of life – livsstil main language – hovedspråk

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Nowadays, not all Sami people speak a Sami language. One hundred years ago, Sami children were not allowed to use their language at school in Norway. Today, about a thousand Norwegian children speak Sami in school as their main language. Others learn Sami as a second language. In the North of Norway, you may find road signs in both Sami and Norwegian.

My Workbook page 132


Reindeer racing is exciting and challenging.

The Reindeer Reindeer herding used to be very important in the Sami culture. It is still a way of living for many Sami people. Children are involved from they are young. Traditionally, this has been the Sami people’s way of making a living along with farming, fishing and hunting. The reindeer graze outside all year. Every spring and autumn they are moved to different areas to make sure they get enough food.

?

Did you know Reindeer’s eyes change colour from gold in the summer to blue in the winter. Do you know why?

The reindeer move around freely over large areas. Every reindeer in the North of Norway has an owner. Special marks are branded on the reindeers’ ears so they can easily be identified. Every family has their own mark. Once a year, there is a reindeer racing championship in the streets of Tromsø in Norway. Those taking part wear skis and are pulled by a specially trained reindeer. The track is 210 metres long, and the fastest reindeer and racer win the game. It is rude to ask a Sami person how many reindeer he or she has. This is like asking someone how much money they have in their bank account! 22 T  ell your learning partner two new things you learnt from reading this text. 23 Imagine you have an Australian friend. You are now travelling together in the North of Norway. What do you want to show him or her? Write a few sentences.

making a living – tjene til livets opphold graze – beiter freely – fritt bank account – bankkonto reindeer herding – reindrift marks – merker branded –   merket territory – område reindeer racing – kappkjøring med reinsdyr

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Before you read

Look at the picture and skim the text. Which fairy tale creature does the Stallo remind you of?

How the Stallo Was Tricked Many Sami folk tales are about a giant creature called the Stallo. He likes to eat humans, but is both clumsy and stupid. Therefore, humans often trick him. In this fairy tale, we hear about a very unhappy man who has lost his children to the Stallo. Once upon a time there was a man called Patto. His children had suddenly disappeared and he was very unhappy. Patto suspected that Stallo had stolen them. Patto was really sad and searched the country miles around without being able to find them. At long last, a little boy came with news. He told Patto that he had seen the Stallo hide behind a well, watching the children play. The Stallo had made a trap for them. When Patto’s youngest daughter had ran down the path, she had fallen into the well, and Stallo had taken her. When Patto heard this, he was frightened. Had Stallo taken his other children as well?

trick – lurer path – sti suspected – mistenkte clumsy – klossete at long last – langt om lenge well – brønn

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My Workbook page 133


Patto was filled with rage. He wanted revenge. The next day he went to the well and made it look like he had fallen into the trap, too. He made sure to keep his head above the water. Not long after, he heard Stallo pushing his way through the underground to check his trap. Stallo was very pleased with what he found and tossed Patto happily over his shoulder. Stallo carried Patto to the cave. “I wonder what this old man will taste like”, Stallo laughed loudly. He planned to roast Patto over the fire. At the cave, Stallo’s three hungry sons were satisfied with their father’s last catch. When Stallo was not looking, Patto stole his axe and hid it in his clothes. The three sons were too stupid to understand what happened. Stallo hung Patto over the fire the way he had planned. Afterwards, while Patto was roasting over the fire, Stallo went to finish some woodwork. He left his three sons to watch Patto. Soon, Stallo called for his sons to help him find the axe. They couldn’t find it and Stallo was furious. He yelled at them and left his woodwork to find the axe himself. Then Patto slipped off the hook and quickly hid behind the door. He waited until Stallo was very close. Then he popped out and cut Stallo’s head off in one hit. The three sons got very frightened. They thought the head had fallen off by itself. They ran the fastest they could to hide at their mother’s place. “His head just rolled off. It must have been magic”, they told their mum. She had found out years ago how stupid they were and said nothing. made sure – passet på loudly – høyt one hit – ett slag fell off – falt av rage – raseri pleased – fornøyd

24 Describe Stallo. What is he like? 25 What do you think happened to Patto’s children? 26 Retell the fairy tale in English to a pupil in the 5th grade.

tossed – kastet satisfied – fornøyd roast – steke woodwork – trearbeid

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Before you read

What is an island? Explain in English to your learning partner.

No Man Is an Island John Donne 1572–1631 British

“No man is an island entire of itself”

Four hundred years ago, a man called John Donne lived in London. He was both a priest, a lawyer and a poet. He is one of the most important poets in England. This poem is well-known and has influenced people and artists for hundreds of years.

No man is an island entire of itself. Every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. […]

We all need each other. No one is alone.

We are all human beings, living on the same planet.

lawyer – advokat entire – hel of itself – for seg selv human beings – mennesker

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My Workbook page 134


When somebody dies, it does something to me, because I am a part of mankind. Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls. It tolls for thee. John Donne

The church bells used to ring in the old days when a person died.

It is not important who dies. Because we are all connected, a part of us dies, too.

“because I am involved in mankind”

27 “ No man is an island entire of itself”. How do you explain “No man is an island”? 28 T  ry to explain in Norwegian the meaning of the last part of the poem.

diminishes me – gjør meg mindre involved in – er del av whom – hvem (gammel engelsk) tolls – ringer thee – deg (gammel engelsk)

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Before you read

What do the words respect and disrespect mean? Discuss your thoughts with your learning partner.

Greetings Around the World Around the world, there are many different ways of saying hello. Body language is often more important than using the correct words. Read about these different ways of greeting people.

Kissing on the Cheek In many countries around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East it is normal to say hello to someone by kissing them on the cheek. You can easily get unfriendly looks if you do not. There are different ways of doing this greeting. In some cultures, lips should not actually come in contact with the cheeks.

Feet Kissing In India, young people show respect to elders by kissing their feet. They do this greeting mainly to elder family members, but also to religious leaders. When someone touches an elder’s feet, the elder is expected to touch the person’s head back. Earlier, this was done first thing in the morning and before they went to bed at night. Today, it is only expected on special occasions, like at a wedding.

disrespect – respektløshet greeting – hilsen cheek –   kinn mainly – for det meste elders – eldre occasions – anledninger

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My Workbook page 135


Fist Bumping Fist bumping started as a greeting in the US. It probably evolved from the handshake and the high-five. Some say this greeting started among boxers. This way, they could greet each other with their gloves on. Others believe it started as a way of avoiding germs being spread when shaking hands. Today, it is an accepted informal greeting in many cultures. Even former president Obama has been caught doing a fist bump. Do you think Obama can do this greeting when meeting a queen?

Touching Noses Touching each other’s face with one’s nose or hand is a way of showing respect in many cultures. The Maoris have a beautiful nosetouching way of greeting. In Greenland, they touch the other’s cheek with their nose and upper lip while breathing in. In the Philippines, you show elders respect by taking the older person’s hand, placing it on your own forehead.

Showing Your Tongue Children are told never to stick their tongues out at someone, because it is considered disrespectful. In Tibet, however, showing your tongue is a common polite greeting when meeting new people. This way of greeting has a fascinating history. A Tibetan King in the 9th century was known for being awfully cruel. His tongue was black. Since the Buddhists believe in reincarnation, they think that the gruesome king will be reborn one day. When sticking your tongue out, you show that you are not the reborn king. 29 Discuss with your learning partner. What are respectful greetings in your culture? Is there anything that is seen as disrespectful? 30 Retell the story of King Lang Darma to someone at home.

handshake – håndtrykk avoid – unngå upper –   øverste forehead – panne considered – bli sett på som/ansett fist bumping – knyttnevehilsen germs – bakterier former – tidligere ruled – styrte reborn –   gjenfødt evolved – utviklet seg

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A Work with a learning partner. Take turns and ask questions about the picture. B Look through the chapter again. Tell your learning partner two interesting influences you have read about. Explain what makes them interesting.

A Work in groups. Choose a continent or a country and find examples of music, important inventions and food traditions from the continent or country. Make an exhibition. B Make a poster showing different situations you will be in tomorrow. Make five different examples. Use a tablet, a computer or paper. Add pictures or drawings. Use I will … or We will …

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A Make one list of good things bacteria do to our body and one list of bad things. Compare your lists with your learning partner’s. Write a factual text about bacteria. B What Internet websites do you visit the most? Choose one you spend some time on and explain why you visit this website and why you like it.

A Many people write messages to communicate. Write a chat between you and a friend. Talk about what you did last weekend. What kinds of words will you use? B Work with a learning partner and act out the different ways of greetings that are described in the text on page 180–181.

My Workbook pages 136–137


My Workbook page x–x

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7

I’m OK!

genes

breath thoughts

concentrate

worries delicious

relax

species

184


If I were you, I would …

I’m excited about … I’m worried about …

I kapitlet vil du lære • • • •

fakta om kroppen om refleksive pronomen å gi uttrykk for egne meninger å lage manus til rollespill eller film

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Before you read

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Did you know You take over 23,000 breaths every day!

breath – pust

Close your eyes and focus on your body. Tell your learning partner two things that your body is doing right now.

Our Magical Bodies The human body is a truly wonderful machine. Stop and think about everything your body does and you will realise how amazing it is. All the time your body is doing a million different things, like digesting lunch, growing new hair and carrying oxygen from your head to your toes. On top of that, each body is different. Our genes decide our body size and shape. Even if everyone ate the same things and did the same amount of exercise, we would never look the same. Here are some interesting facts about our bodies.

1

Your heart beats over 100,000 times a day.

2

The human brain is around three times larger than the brains of other animals that are our size.

3

The longest bone in your body is called the femur, and it connects the pelvis to the knee.

4

The smallest bone in your body is in your ear, only 2.8 millimetres long.

5

The strongest muscles in your body are the ones you use to chew. They are called the masseters.

6

Humans are the only species known to blush.

7

Each person has a unique tongue print!

8

Your nose and ears never stop growing.

9

There are over 600 muscles in the human body.

chew – tygge digesting – fordøyer genes –   gener species –   art femur – lårben pelvis – bekken masseters – kjevemuskler blush – rødme print – avtrykk

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10 Your brain is about 85 % water.

My Workbook page 140


Inside and Out

brain heart lungs head eyes ears nose tongue neck shoulders arm wrist elbow stomach intestines chest back spine bottom thigh knee

1 Have a look at your own body. How many body parts can you name in English?

calf ankle

wrist – håndledd thigh – lår calf – legg intestines – innvoller spine – ryggrad bottom – bak, rumpe

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Before you read

Look at the picture. Can you find other names for head and legs?

In Other Words There are many different words we can use to talk about our bodies. Look at the picture, do you recognise any of them? nut (head) peepers (eyes) lugholes (ears) gob (mouth) choppers (teeth) ticker (heart) tummy, belly (stomach) bum, butt (bottom) pins (legs) tootsies (toes)

2 Describe two of your body parts to your learning partner using the words in the picture above. My choppers are white.

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My Workbook page 141


Body Expressions

My new boots cost me an arm and a leg!

I couldn’t believe my ears when you told me you did a back flip!

3 With your learning partner, pick out one or two expressions and make new sentences with them. I was only pulling your leg!

What is the capital of Denmark? Ahhhh … ummm … It’s on the tip of my tongue!

Body Talk twist someone’s arm

force someone to do something

get cold feet suddenly become too frightened to do something you already planned to do put your foot in it say something by accident that makes somebody feel embarrassed or angry be all ears be eager and ready to listen to somebody

My Workbook pages 142–143

tip – spiss twist – vri by accident – ved et uhell embarrassed – flau eager – ivrig

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Explore Grammar Myself – Yourself Reflexive Pronouns Refleksive pronomen 4 Look at the pictures. Who are the teenagers taking pictures of?

He is taking a picture of himself.

They are taking a picture of themselves.

Vi bruker refleksive pronomen når subjektet og objektet er samme person. Subjekt

Refleksivt pronomen

I

myself

I like myself.

you

yourself

You impressed yourself!

he, she, it

himself, herself, itself

She hurt herself.

we

ourselves

We are enjoying ourselves.

you

yourselves

You surprised yourselves!

they

themselves

They did it themselves.

I like myself!

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My Workbook page 144


Tongue Twister 3 and Jokes

/ʌ/ sun, run, fun, love

After many years, a prisoner is finally released. He runs around yelling, “I’m free, I’m free!” A little kid walks up to him and says, “So what? I’m four!” Skeleton 1: Hey, why aren’t you going to this year’s school dance? Skeleton 2: Because I’ve got no body to go with.

– How do skeletons keep in touch? – By using the telebone.

Bears Love Honey Bears love honey, Scrooge loves money.

5 Search the Internet with your learning partner. Find more jokes. Practise together and act them out to your class.

honey – honning keep in touch – holde kontakten

My Workbook page 145

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Before you read

Do you have any treats that you like eating on special occasions? Tell your learning partner.

Caramel Popcorn

Eating healthily and getting enough exercise are important for our mental and physical health. However, life is short and a little treat now and then is good for you, too! Caramel popcorn is simply delicious. Just try it!

eating healthily – spise sunt treat – utskeielse, kos, godbit delicious –   herlig corn kernels – maiskorn vanilla extract – vaniljeessens baking soda – bakepulver / natron

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Ingredients: 1/2 cup unpopped corn kernels 1 tbsp vegetable oil 3/4 cup unsalted butter 1 cup brown sugar 1 tsp vanilla extract 1/2 tsp salt 1/4 tsp baking soda Equipment: two saucepans mixing bowl two baking sheets spatula

10–12 cups popped tbsp = tablespoon tsp = teaspoon

saucepan

baking sheets

spatula mixing bowl

My Workbook page 146


Step by Step

Preheat the oven to 120° C.

Make the popcorn: Heat up the oil in a saucepan and add the corn kernels. Put a lid over and let the corn pop. Shake the pan occasionally. Empty the popped corn into a mixing bowl.

Make the caramel sauce: Ask a grown-up to assist you while making the sauce. Melt the butter in a saucepan. Add the sugar. Bring the mixture to a boil. Boil for 3–4 minutes while stirring. Keep stirring until you have a thick sauce. Take the saucepan off the heat and add the vanilla, salt and baking soda.

Slowly pour the sauce over the popcorn in the mixing bowl until they are all coated. Spread the caramel popcorn onto a baking sheet and bake in the middle of the oven for 1 hour. Stir every 15 minutes to break up any clumps. Let it cool before eating and enjoy! Be careful so that you don’t burn yourself!

If you want to try this at home, make sure you have an adult with you when using the oven!

assist – hjelpe add – tilsett lid – lokk occasionally – av og til keep stirring – fortsett å røre boil – kok coated – dekket clumps – klumper

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Mr X. Plore’s Speaking Tip Make a Film Work in groups of three. Use your mobiles or a tablet and make a short one-minute film about each other. Take turns filming, interviewing and answering questions. Be prepared!

You need a mobile or a tablet paper and a pen a script with questions a quiet place

Who is the film about?

1 Before you begin filming, you need to decide how to start the film so that the audience knows who the film is about. 2 You must prepare a script with 5–6 questions. Interview each other about your future hopes and dreams.

Speak slowly and clearly when you interview.

What are you looking forward to? I am looking forward to … What do you hope is going to happen in the future? I hope … What would like to be when you grow up? I would like to be … What are you excited about? I am excited about … What are you thinking about …? I think … Is there any advice you would like to give to your classmates? If I were you, I would … 3 Practise interviewing and answering a couple of times before you start filming. Remember, practise makes perfect! 6 Share your films with your classmates. After you have seen each film, remember to give each other positive response. I really liked …

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My Workbook page 147


Before you read

Are there any negative sides to digital technology? Discuss with your learning partner.

Today’s Digital World Digital technology has changed our society. However, we are facing some challenges, especially when it comes to social media and gaming.

Living Through Social Media Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat can be great ways to stay in touch. However, perfect photos create a fake reality. As a result, many become unhappy with their own lives or bodies.

Cyberbullying Bullying has always been a problem. With new technology, negative and mean comments can spread easily. Rumours or photos can be posted and shared for everyone to see. And it is easier to send a nasty message to someone than saying it face to face. We call it cyberbullying, and it can be very harmful.

On-Screen Violence Nowadays, we see more violence than before on TV and in films. Many play video games with killing and shooting. Research shows that playing these games sometimes lead to a lack of empathy.

Summing Up Digital technology has improved our lives, but is not problem-free. For future safety and fun online, we must remember the online safety rules that we learn at home and at school. With this in mind, we can continue to enjoy all the positive sides of our world wide web.

challenges – utfordringer cyberbullying – nettmobbing rumours – rykter nasty – slem lead to – føre til

7 Give your learning partner some advice on how to stay safe online. If I were you, I would …

fake reality – falsk virkelighet harmful – skadelig violence – vold might – kan lack of – mangel på

My Workbook page 148

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Before you read

How do negative comments make you feel? How do positive comments make you feel? Discuss with your learning partner.

Failure Is Not an Option … Kate Maryon Born 1963 British

Liberty Parfitt comes from a wealthy family. However, she is determined there is more to life than just getting good exam results and earning lots of money. Unfortunately, her workaholic father does not agree. My dad is so obsessed with success that every time I’m home from school, for a weekend or for the holidays, he just can’t resist reminding me of the Parfitt family motto. “Remember, Liberty,” he booms, while he’s checking over my school work or reading my report, “that failure is not an option for a Parfitt.” And what annoys me most is that he always says it as if I’ve never even heard it before. He always says it as if it’s never been drummed into my head a thousand million times. He always says it as if I don’t already know that I am the biggest failure the Parfitt family has ever had the disappointment of knowing. And what makes things worse is that as hard as I try not to let his stupid motto bother me, it does. I just can’t help it and every time he says it something deep inside me shrivels up and hides.

comments – kommentarer workacholic – arbeidsnarkoman obsessed with – besatt av booms – smeller til med failure – nederlag option – alternativ disappointment – skuffelse shrivels up – krøller seg sammen

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My Workbook page 149


“Music, Liberty! You’re unbelievable! I made it perfectly clear to you when you were small how I felt about you pursuing an interest in music and the same remains today. It was music that ruined your mother’s life and I won’t have it ruin yours. So, I want you to listen to me good and listen to me hard. You will do as you’re told and follow a sensible career, one that won’t let you down or get you into trouble. You’re twelve years old soon and it’s about time you put your head down and pulled your socks up. I don’t pay a fortune in fees for you to be at one of the best schools in the country so that you can mess about. I’m paying for you to get ahead in life and make something of yourself. I want to see an improvement, Liberty, and I want to see it fast. Do I make myself clear?” “Yes, Daddy,” I said, because I know there’s never any point in arguing with him. He never listens to anything I have to say. If I’d only known then the truth about my dad and his own glittering success. If I’d known the truth about what actually happened to my mum and the real fact that success has nothing to do with good marks or money, I might have found the courage to stand up to him and speak up. I might have found the words to say that I would win prizes, and lots of them, and that he could be proud of me and send me little parcels of love to land like glitter on my smile. And that I wouldn’t be a failure and disappointment to the Parfitt family, if only he’d just let me be who I am and follow my heart. But I didn’t know any of that then. Kate Maryon pursue –   følge, virkeliggjøre remains – gjelder fortsatt sensible – fornuftig

8 What does Mr Parfitt mean when he says “failure is not an option for a Parfitt”? 9 Mr Parfitt says: “it’s about time you put your head down and pulled your socks up.” What do you think he really means? 10 What kind of advice would you give to Mr Parfitt? If I were you, I would …

career – karriere pay a fortune – betale en formue fees – regninger, avgifter improvement – forbedring arguing – å krangle courage – mot

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Before you read

What do you think about when you lie in bed at night? Give yourself five minutes to write down your thoughts. I am worried about … I am excited about …

Whatif Shel Silverstein 1930–1999 American

worries – bekymringer dumb –   dum get sick – blir syk pranced – spankulerte get beat up –   får juling poison –   gift

nobody –  ingen straight – rette everything – alt flunk –   stryker på

Everyone has secret worries and fears from time to time. This poem has become very popular. Pupils all around the world now read and discuss Silverstein’s poem at school. Last night, while I lay thinking here, some Whatifs crawled inside my ear and pranced and partied all night long and sang their same old Whatif song:

Whatif I’m dumb in school? Whatif they’ve closed the swimming pool? Whatif I get beat up? Whatif there’s poison in my cup? Whatif I start to cry? Whatif I get sick and die?

Whatif I flunk that test? Whatif green hair grows on my chest? Whatif nobody likes me? Whatif a bolt of lightning strikes me? Whatif I don’t grow taller? Whatif my head starts getting smaller? Whatif the fish won’t bite? Whatif the wind tears up my kite? Whatif they start a war? Whatif my parents get divorced? Whatif the bus is late? Whatif my teeth don’t grow in straight? Whatif I tear my pants? Whatif I never learn to dance? Everything seems well, and then the nighttime Whatifs strike again! Shel Silverstein

strikes – treffer, slår ned seems – virker som om

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My Workbook page 150


Relax Lie down with your back on the floor and close your eyes. Breathe in through your nose and breathe out slowly through your mouth. Relax and breathe in, relax and breathe out. Keep your eyes closed and let your body feel warm and heavy as it rests against the floor. Notice how your toes begin to feel warm and relaxed. Let that feeling move through each foot and up to your ankles. Continue up through each calf. Relax your knees and thighs. Your legs now feel warm and relaxed. Relax and breathe in, relax and breathe out. Now move on to your fingers. Notice how your fingers begin to feel warm and relaxed. Let that feeling move through each hand, through your wrists and up to your elbows. Relax your arms and shoulders and notice how your arms and legs now feel warm and relaxed. Relax and breathe in, relax and breathe out. Focus on your back and notice how your spine feels heavy on the floor. Feel the warmth move up through your body. Feel how it flows through your back and up through your chest. Relax and breathe in, relax and breathe out. Finally, move on to your neck and head and notice how they, too, feel warm and relaxed. Feel the warmth spread through your face, through your forehead, cheeks and chin. Keep your eyes closed and feel how your whole body now feels warm and relaxed. Relax and breathe in, relax and breathe out.

11 What would you say to the person in the poem on page 198? 12 Describe what you do when you need to relax.

relax – slapp av continue – fortsett thighs – lår chin – hake refresh –   oppfrisk rests – hviler

My Workbook page 151

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Before you read

What do you do when you need to boost your energy? What do you do to calm down? Share your ideas with your learning partner. I usually … I sometimes …

Stretch Your Body! Many people, both young and old, lead busy and hectic lives. What about you? Do you spend long days at school followed by hours of homework and different activities in the afternoon? To keep up with it all, several schools now have yoga on their timetable. A couple of minutes of stretching may be just what your body and mind need. Yoga is an ancient Indian form of exercise. It teaches you how to breathe and relax. At the same time, the different exercises build your muscle strength and improve your balance. Many young people who practise yoga also say that it boosts their energy and helps them focus and concentrate. Why not give it a go!

The Tree

calm down – roe ned

Stand up straight on both feet. Slowly pull your right foot up along the inside of your left leg. Place the sole of your right foot against your left thigh, just above your left knee. Your right knee should be pointing sideways, your toes pointing down towards the floor. Press your arms together in front of your chest and hold for 5–8 breaths. Repeat on the other side.

The tree – vrksasana.

a couple of – et par concentrate – konsentrere seg chest – bryst repeat – gjenta boost – øke stretching – tøying mind – sinn ancient –   veldig gammel breathe – pust the sole of your foot – fotsålen din

200 7 I’m OK!

My Workbook pages 152–153


The Triangle Stand up straight on both feet. Breathe out and move your feet apart. Lift your arms towards the ceiling and stretch your body upwards. Bend your body to the right, but keep your knees straight. Keep your left arm straight up while you place your right hand on your right ankle. Keep your stomach, your face looking upwards. Hold for several seconds before you slowly stand up again. Repeat to the other side.

The triangle – trikonasana

The Downward-Facing Dog Stand on all four with your arms and legs apart. Spread your fingers and press your palms onto the floor. Straighten your knees and lift your bottom so that you make an up-side-down V-shape. Carefully press your heels to the ground. Relax your neck, breathe slowly and look down between your legs.

The downward-facing dog – adho mukha svanasana.

The Upward-Facing Dog Lie down with your face towards the floor. Stretch your legs with the tops of your feet on the floor. Place your hands by your waist and spread your fingers. Slowly straighten your arms and pull your shoulder blades together. Press your chest forward and look straight ahead or up. Take three to six deep breaths. Gently lower your body and lie down.

The upward-facing dog – urdhva mukha svanasana

straight – rett upwards – oppover bend –   bøy

13 Pretend you are a sculptor making a statue. Work in pairs and take turns giving each other instructions. Stand on one foot and … Put your right hand …

apart – fra hverandre on all four – på alle fire palm – håndflate heels – hæler shoulder blade – skulderblad

7 I’m OK!

201


Before you read

What are you looking forward to? Share your thoughts and ideas with your learning partner. I am looking forward to …

Time to Think You started primary school seven years ago. Before long, you will be moving on to face new challenges in secondary school. But before you do, pause for a minute to consider everything you have achieved! What are the most important things you have learnt? What have you enjoyed? Are there things you would have done differently? What do you have to do to become the person you want to be?

No one is you and that is your power. Dave Grohl

14 Discuss the quotes with your learning partner. What do they really mean? 15 What kind of advice would you give to your learning partner before he or she starts secondary school? If I were you, I would …

Be true to who you are. Anonymous before long – om ikke lenge face new challenges – møte nye utfordringer consider – tenke gjennom achieved – oppnådd enjoyed – likt differently – annerledes, forskjellig meaningful – betydningsfull

202 7 I’m OK!

My Workbook pages 154–155


7 Steps to Happiness Think less, feel more Frown less, smile more Talk less, listen more Judge less, accept more Watch less, do more Complain less, appreciate more Fear less, love more Doe Zantamata

Don’t be mean, be meaningful.

A true friend accepts who you are and helps you become who you can be. Anonymous

Kid President less – mindre frown – rynke på nesa accept – aksepter appreciate – sette pris på

7 I’m OK!

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A Look at the picture and tell your learning partner three things you remember from this chapter. What have you learnt that you did not know before?

A Write a short recount of your day so far. Compare your text to your learning partner’s. Have you had the same experience? First, I … then I …

B What is cyberbullying? How do negative comments make you feel? How is it important to behave on the Internet? Discuss with your learning partner.

B Write a list of all the body parts you can remember. Challenge yourself to find the names of at least 20 body parts.

C What are the benefits of exercise and eating healthy food? Discuss in groups.

A Work together and make a poster or a book on your iPad where you as a class present your hopes and dreams for the future. Use I am excited about …, I am worried about … and I am looking forward to …

A Make a Whatif poem together. Let each pupil anonymously write a sentence beginning with Whatif … on a strip of paper. Glue all the sentences on a poster. B Make a class survey on Internet use. Choose your own questions and present your result to your classmates.

B Search the Internet for more yoga poses you can try out. Practise the poses, then show them to your classmates.

204 7 I’m OK!

My Workbook pages 156–157


My Workbook page x–x

7 I’m OK!

205


Explore Language Contents NOUNS

ASKING QUESTIONS

Regelrette og uregelrette substantiv. . . 207

Spørsmål med do og have. . . . . . . . . . . 218

Utellelige substantiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Spørreord. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Genitiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

DETERMINERS Ubestemt og bestemt artikkel. . . . . . . 210

ADJECTIVES Adjektiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Gradbøying av adjektiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Some eller any, eiendsomsord og pekeord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

Ordenstall og de fire regneartene . . . . 222

PRONOUNS

ADVERBS

Personlige pronomen, it is / there is / there are. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Adverb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Refleksive pronomen, ordet “som” . . . 213

PREPOSITIONS

VERBS

Tidspreposisjoner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Verb i presens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Enkel presens og presens samtidsform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Stedspreposisjoner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

PHONETICS Lydskrift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Regelrette og uregelrette verb i preteritum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

WHAT TIME IS IT?

Oversikt over verbtidene. . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Klokka. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

IRREGULAR VERBS Uregelrette verb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

206 Explore Language


Nouns Substantiv

one alien

three aliens

Substantiv er ord for ting, personer, dyr eller steder. De fleste substantiv på engelsk får -s på slutten i flertall, altså når vi snakker om mer enn én eller ett. one alien

three aliens

one house

two houses

one idea

many ideas

Substantiv som ender på -s, -x, -ch, -sh eller -o Substantiv som ender på -s, -x, -ch, -sh eller -o, får vanligvis -es i flertall. one bus

eight buses

one box

many boxes

one peach

two peaches

one bush

lots of bushes

one volcano

two volcanoes

Irregular Nouns Uregelrette substantiv Noen substantiv er uregelrette. De får ingen eller en annen endelse i flertall, og noen endrer vokal. one child – two children

one mouse – two mice

one man – two men

one sheep – five sheep

one woman – two women

one fish – hundreds of fish

one foot – two feet

one knife – three knives

one tooth – two teeth

one leaf – many leaves

Explore Language

207


Nouns Uncountable Nouns Utellelige substantiv Noen substantiv viser til noe vi ikke kan telle, slik som for eksempel milk eller rain. Disse ordene kaller vi utellelige substantiv. De fleste av dem stĂĽr i entall, men vi kan ikke sette a eller an foran dem. Typisk for utellelige substantiv er at de viser til en mengde av noe, for eksempel et glass, en teskje eller en kilo av noe. chocolate

water

snow

butter

bread

weather

jam

money

rain

Noen utellelige substantiv brukes bare i flertall, for eksempel: trousers

clothes

people

1 Look at the picture and read the speech bubbles carefully. Which words can you spot in front of the uncountable nouns?

208 Nouns

scissors


The Genitive Genitiv

Jane has a kangaroo.

It is Jane’s kangaroo.

apostrof =

Genitivsformen brukes når noen eier noe. Når vi skriver, legger vi til apostrof + s når substantivet står i entall: The dog’s tail is bushy. Sarah’s coat is green. That is John’s bike. Når substantivet står i flertall eller slutter på -s, -x, legger vi bare til en apostrof: The dogs’ tails are bushy. the fox’ tail the boss’ daughter På egennavn som slutter på -s eller -x, legger vi til apostrof + s Dennis’s story Max’s family St. James’s Square Når substantivet er en gjenstand, bruker vi preposisjonen of: the bottom of the page the top of the mountain the back of the house

Nouns

209


Determiners The Articles A, AN and THE Ubestemt og bestemt artikkel Den ubestemte artikkelen på engelsk heter a og an. Det er det samme som en, ei eller et på norsk, men på engelsk skilles det ikke mellom hankjønn, hunkjønn og intetkjønn. På engelsk bruker vi a foran ord som begynner med konsonantlyd, og an foran ord som begynner med vokallyd. Konsonantlyd

Vokallyd

a dog

an elephant

a banana

an apple

a discussion

an interview

a pizza

an enormous pizza

a delicious ice cream

an ice cream

The brukes foran substantivet når vi snakker om en eller flere bestemte ting på engelsk. På norsk bruker vi ikke bestemt artikkel foran substantivet. Hva gjør vi i stedet? a book

= en bok

the book = boka

an apple = et eple

the apple = eplet

a box

the box

= en eske

= esken

2G  ive yourself a challenge! What can you see around you? Make a list of twenty nouns. Remember to use a or an in front of the noun. Right, I can see a …

210 Determiners


SOME or ANY? Både some og any brukes om noe eller noen. Vi bruker some i fortellende setninger og i spørsmål eller tilbud når vi forventer et positivt svar. Vi bruker any i nektende setninger og i åpne spørsmål. – Can I have some milk, please? – No, I’m sorry, we haven’t got any.

Determiners and Possessive Pronouns Eiendomsord Eiendomsord forteller hvem som eier noe. Det finnes to typer eiendomsord på engelsk: de som står foran et substantiv, og de som står alene. Foran et substantiv

This is my book. This is your book.

This is his book. This is her book. This is its book.

This is our book. This is your book. This is their book.

Alene

The book is mine. The book is yours.

The book is his. The book is hers.

It is ours. The book is yours. The book is theirs.

THIS, THAT, THESE or THOSE This, that, these og those er pekeord vi bruker når vi skal fortelle om noe. De kalles demonstrative pronomen. This (entall) og these (flertall) bruker vi når vi skal peke ut noe som er nær oss. That (entall) og those (flertall) bruker vi når vi skal peke ut noe som er lengre unna. This is my cat. Look over there – that’s yours! These right here are my boots. Those are yours!

3W  hen do we use this, these, that and those? Make your own sentences with these words.

Determiners

211


Pronouns Personal Pronouns Personlige pronomen Pronomen er ord vi kan bruke i stedet for substantiv: for eksempel he i stedet for the boy eller she i stedet for my mother. I You He She It

like dogs. like pigs. likes spiders. likes mice. likes worms.

We like cats. You like snakes. They like horses.

THERE IS, THERE ARE or IT IS? There is, there are og it is betyr på norsk det er. På engelsk er det forskjellige regler for når vi bruker there is, there are og it is. Det er viktig at vi lærer oss å bruke de riktige formene.

THERE IS or THERE ARE? There is og there are bruker vi når vi forteller om noe som finnes eller eksisterer og når vi nevner noe for første gang i en samtale eller en tekst. Vi bruker there is når det er én av noe og there are når det er flere. There are fourteen boys and thirteen girls in our class. There is only one teacher.

IT IS It is bruker vi når vi snakker om tid, dato, avstand, årstider, vær, og når vi viser til noe som er sagt eller skrevet tidligere. It is raining today. It is half past seven. In Australia, there is a huge rock. It is called Uluru.

212 Pronouns

It is nice to meet you. It is fun to go skiing.


Myself – Yourself Reflexive Pronouns Refleksive pronomen Vi bruker refleksive pronomen når objektet og subjektet er samme person. Subjekt

Refleksivt pronomen

I

myself

I like myself.

you

yourself

You impressed yourself!

he, she, it

himself, herself, itself

She hurt herself.

we

ourselves

We enjoyed ourselves.

you

yourselves

You surprised yourselves!

they

themselves

They did it themselves.

WHO, WHICH or THAT? På engelsk har vi tre ord for som. Vi bruker who når som peker tilbake på en person, og which når som peker tilbake på dyr og ting. Vi kan bruke that i stedet for who og which når som-setningen er nødvendig for at vi skal skjønne hvem eller hva vi snakker om.

I know a man who comes from Australia.

He has a house which is by the beach

I also know the man that comes from Australia. I have seen the house that is by the beach.

Pronouns

213


Verbs Verb er ord som forteller hva noen gjør eller hva som skjer.

Verbs in the Present Tense Verb i presens 4 Look carefully! Do you remember when we add an -s to the verb?

LIKE or LIKES? I like PE. You like PE.

He likes PE. She likes PE. It likes PE.

We like PE. You like PE. They like PE.

Når vi forteller om hva han, hun, den eller det gjør, må verbet ha -s eller -es i presens.

AM or ARE or IS? På engelsk finnes det tre forskjellige måter å si er på i presens: I am happy.

You are happy.

He is happy. She is happy. It is happy.

We are happy. You are happy. They are happy.

Når vi snakker, eller når vi skriver uformelle tekster, bruker vi ofte sammentrukne former: I’m, you’re, he’s, she’s, it’s, we’re, you’re og they’re.

HAVE or HAS? På engelsk finnes det to forskjellige måter å si har på i presens: have eller has. I have a lunch box. You have a lunch box.

214 Verbs

He has a lunch box. She has a lunch box. It has a lunch box.

We have lunch boxes. You have lunch boxes. They have lunch boxes.


DO or DOES? I do the dishes. You do the dishes.

He does the dishes, She does the dishes, It does the dishes,

We do the dishes. You do the dishes. They do the dishes.

Simple Present and Present Continuous Enkel presens og presens samtidsform

Når vi forteller om en vane, eller noe vi pleier å gjøre, bruker vi enkel presens, I play. Når vi forteller om det noen gjør akkurat nå, bruker vi samtidsformen, I am playing.

I play handball every Tuesday and Thursday.

I am playing handball now.

Simple Present Enkel presens

Present Continuous Presens samtidsform

I watch comedies every Saturday.

I am watching a comedy now.

You usually read every evening.

You are reading an exciting book now.

He gets up at 7 o’clock every morning.

He is getting up now.

She does her homework every day.

She is doing her homework now.

It (the dog) barks all the time.

It is barking at the moment.

We play tennis twice a week.

We are playing tennis right now.

You visit your aunt every weekend.

You are visiting your aunt as we speak.

They often make pizza together.

They are making pizza together now.

Verbs

215


Verbs Regular Verbs in the Past Tense Regelrette verb i preteritum

De fleste engelske verbene er regelrette. Da legger vi til -ed når det står i preteritum eller presens perfektum. Infinitiv

Presens

Preteritum

Presens perfektum

play

play/plays

played

have/has played

cycle

cycle/cycles

cycled

have/has cycled

visit

visit/visits

visited

have/has visited

jump

jump/jumps

jumped

have/has jumped

Irregular Verbs in the Past Tense Uregelrette verb i preteritum

Noen verb får ikke -ed i preteritum. Vi sier at de er uregelrette. Infinitiv

Presens

Preteritum

Presens perfektum

be

am/are/is

was/were

have/has been

have

have/has

had

have/has had

do

do/does

did

have/has done

go

go/goes

went

have/has gone

give

give/gives

gave

have/has given

take

take/takes

took

have/has taken

come

come/comes

came

have/has come

På side 229–231 finner du en oversikt over hvordan vi bøyer de vanligste uregelrette verbene.

216 Verbs


Verbs in Different Tenses Verb i ulike tider Verbets tid viser oss når noe skjer. Det viser oss om handlingen skjer nå, eller om den har skjedd. Dette kalles å bøye verb.

Infinitiv It is important to play with your dog every day!

5W  hat did you do yesterday? Think of five things you did. Yesterday, I played football, I walked, I ate … 6W  hat are you going to do tomorrow? I am going to …

Enkel presens I play with my dog every day.

Presens samtidsform I am playing with my dog right now.

Preteritum Yesterday, I played with my dog.

Enkel futurum I am going to play with my dog tomorrow instead.

Verbs

217


Asking Questions Questions and answers with DO and HAVE 7 We can use do and does to make questions. Look at the pictures. When do we use do and when do we use does?

Do I ever tidy up?

No, I don’t!

Do you ever tidy up?

No, you don’t!

Does he ever tidy up?

No, he doesn’t!

Does she ever tidy up?

No, she doesn’t!

Does it ever tidy up?

No, it doesn’t!

Do we ever tidy up?

No, we don’t!

Do you ever tidy up?

No, you don’t!

Do they ever tidy up?

No, they don’t!

Have I got a dog?

No, I haven’t.

Have you got a dog?

No, you haven’t.

Has he got a dog?

No, he hasn’t.

Has she got a dog?

No, she hasn’t.

Has it got a dog?

No, it hasn’t.

Have we got a dog?

No, we haven’t.

Have you got a dog?

No, you haven’t.

Have they got a dog?

No, they haven’t.

8 Think of four questions you would like to ask a new friend. Use Have … and Do …

218 Asking Questions


Question Words Why

Who When

Where

What

Which

How

More Ways to Ask Questions På engelsk kan du stille ja eller nei-spørsmål på forskjellige måter. Legg merke til hvordan vi svarer på de ulike spørsmålene.

Is there a ghost under my bed?

Yes, there is.

No, there isn’t.

Are there three ghosts under my bed?

Yes, there are.

No, there aren’t.

Did you walk the dog after school?

Yes, I did.

No, I didn’t.

Can you see the zombie behind the curtain?

Yes, I can.

No, I can’t.

Are you afraid of monsters?

Yes, I am.

No, I’m not.

Asking Questions

219


Adjectives Adjektiv er ord som beskriver substantiv: personer, dyr, ting og steder.

a hippo

a big, brown and happy hippo

Using Adjectives to Compare Gradbøying av adjektiv Adjektiv kan brukes til å sammenlikne. Da gradbøyer vi adjektivene. Adjektiv har tre ulike former: positiv, komparativ og superlativ.

The cat is small.

Positiv

The bird is smaller than the cat. Komparativ

The ladybird is the smallest of the three. Superlativ

9H  ow would you describe yourself? What do you look like? How are you feeling today? Use adjectives to describe yourself.

220 Adjectives


Adjektiv som slutter på -y For adjektiv som slutter med -y, erstattes y med i foran -er og -est.

happy

happier

the happiest

Lange adjektiv Vi gradbøyer adjektiv på to eller flere stavelser med more og most.

dangerous

more dangerous

the most dangerous

beautiful intelligent famous popular careful

more beautiful more intelligent more famous more popular more careful

the most beautiful the most intelligent the most famous the most popular the most careful

Uregelrette adjektiv Noen få adjektiv får en annen form når du sammenlikner. good bad

better worse

the best the worst

Adjectives

221


Explore Language Ordinal Numbers Ordenstall What date is it today?

When is your birthday?

It’s the twenty-second of September.

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth

11 th 12 th 13 th 14 th 15 th 16 th 17 th 18 th 19 th 20 th

It’s the sixteenth of July. When is yours?

eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth

21st 22nd 23rd 24 th 25 th 26 th 27 th 28 th 29 th 30 th 31st

twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth twenty-fifth twenty-sixth twenty-seventh twenty-eighth twenty-ninth thirtieth thirty-first

Plus and Minus

+ x

– :

plus, add times, multiplied by

=

equals

10 W  hat is 120 multiplied by 4? What is 88 divided by 11?

222 Explore Language

minus, take away divided by


Adverbs Adverb Måtesadverb forteller noe mer om verbet, altså hvordan noen gjør noe. De fleste måtesadverb er laget av et adjektiv + –ly på engelsk.

The music is loud.

They are happy.

He plays the music loudly.

They lived happily ever after.

Tidsadverb eller adverbs of time forteller når eller hvor ofte noe skjer, for eksempel never, sometimes, weekly, tomorrow, soon og before.

Stedsadverb eller adverbs of place forteller hvor noe skjer, for eksempel outside, inside, nearby, everywhere, here og there.

Explore Language

223


Prepositions Prepositions of Place Preposisjoner er småord som ikke kan stå alene. De står sammen med et substantiv og forteller oss hvor noe er, eller hvor noe skal. ON TOP OF IN FRONT OF

BEHIND

BETWEEN NEXT TO

224 Prepositions


Prepositions of Time Preposisjoner kan også fortelle oss om tid og om når noe skjer. De vanligste tidspreposisjonene er at, in og on. at

brukes om klokkeslett

The train leaves at 10 o’clock.

in

brukes om … måneder … årstider … år … tider på dagen … svar på når

I am flying to the moon in August. We are driving to Legoland in the summer. Skateboards were invented in the 1970s. The spaceship leaves in the morning. I’m going to Denmark in three weeks.

brukes om … dager … merkedager … datoer

The ship leaves on Saturday. We are going there on New Year’s Eve. Our trip to the moon starts on the 22nd of May.

on

Noen adjektiv bruker vi sammen med preposisjoner. Det er faste uttrykk det er lurt å lære seg. Se i kapittel 2, side 45.

Prepositions

225


Phonetics Noen engelske bokstaver og bokstavkombinasjoner har lyder det kan være vanskelig å uttale. Det er lyder vi må øve oss på. Husker du disse?

/v/ vet, visit, Vicky

/w/ wet, what, when /ʤ/ giant, gentle, generous strange, danger, magic joke, jam, July /ʃ/ shirt, shop, short, shoulder, fish, dish, wash /ʧ/ chair, chocolate, chicken lunch, kitchen, teacher

Long, short, thick and thin. These are the sizes that dogs come in!

/ʒ/ unusual, television, usually /θ/ t hick, thin, thank you mouth, everything, seventh /ð/ t his, that, these, those other, together, mother

Charlie chews Sheila’s shoes.

226 Phonetics

Gentle giants jump in June.


/f/ fast, funny, four phone, photo, Philip laugh, enough, tough /s/, sing, princess, six /z/ busy, boys, noise /kw/ queen, quiz, quarter, aquarium, acquire /u:/ through, blue, two, kangaroo, zoo, boots /j/ yes, your, year uniform, use, useful

Busy girls and boys make lots and lots of noise.

/hju:/ huge, humans /ʌ/ sun, run, fun, love, honey, money

11 A  re you up for a challenge? Choose a sound and make your own tongue twister. Start off slowly. Then try saying it faster and faster.

“Quack!” said the quaint queen quietly.

Phonetics

227


What Time Is It? o’clock to

past It is …

It is … … five to

… five past

… ten to

… ten past … a quarter past

… a quarter to

… twenty past

… twenty to

… twenty-five past

… twenty-five to

half past Yesterday, today was tomorrow. Tomorrow, today will be yesterday.

AM or PM? Vi kan også bruke am og pm for å angi klokkeslett. Vi bruker am etter klokkeslettet for å angi et tidspunkt mellom midnatt og kl 12.00 på dagen. Vi bruker pm etter klokkeslettet for å angi et tidspunkt etter kl 12.00 på dagen og fram til midnatt.

228 What time is it?

Mr X. Plore’s Smart Tip A comes before P in the alphabet, therefore am before pm.


Irregular Verbs Uregelrette verb Infinitive be beat become begin bend bet bite blow break bring build buy catch choose come cost cut

Past tense was/were beat became began bent bet bit blew broke brought built bought caught chose came cost cut

Perfect participle been beaten become begun bent bet bitten blown broken brought built bought caught chosen come cost cut

dig do draw dream

dug did drew dreamt/ dreamed drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew

dug done drawn dreamt/ dreamed drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown

drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly

være slå bli begynne bøye vedde bite blåse brekke bringe bygge kjøpe fange, gripe velge komme koste kutte, skjære, klippe grave gjøre tegne drømme drikke kjøre spise falle mate føle (seg) kjempe, slåss finne fly

Irregular Verbs

229


Infinitive forget freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lead learn leave lend let lie lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise

230 Irregular Verbs

Past tense forgot froze got gave went grew hung/ hanged (US) had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew led learnt/learned left lent let lay lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose

Perfect participle forgotten frozen got/gotten (US) given gone grown hung/ hanged (US) had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known led learnt/learned left lent let lain lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen

glemme fryse (til is) få, komme, bli gi gå, reise vokse, dyrke henge ha, få, spise høre gjemme (seg) treffe, slå holde skade, såre holde, beholde kjenne, vite lede lære forlate låne (ut) la, tillate ligge tape, miste gjøre, lage mene, bety møte betale legge, sette lese ri, kjøre ringe reise seg, stå opp


Infinitive run say see sell send set shake shoot show shut sing sit sleep smell speak spell spend spit stand steal swim take teach tell think

Past tense ran said saw sold sent set shook shot showed shut sang sat slept smelt spoke spelt/spelled spent spat stood stole swam took taught told thought

Perfect participle run said seen sold sent set shaken shot shown shut sung sat slept smelt spoken spelt/spelled spent spat stood stolen swum taken taught told thought

throw understand wake wear

threw understood woke wore

thrown understood woken worn

win write

won wrote

won written

løpe si se selge sende sette riste skyte vise lukke, stenge synge sitte sove lukte snakke stave tilbringe spytte stå, tåle stjele svømme ta lære fra seg fortelle, si tenke, tro, synes, mene kaste forstå vekke, våkne bære, ha på seg vinne skrive

Irregular Verbs

231


Wordlist A

Aboriginal –  aborigin, innfødt above all – mer enn noe annet absolutely – helt accept – aksepter access – ha tilgang til accomplice – medskyldig accurately – presist achieve – oppnå actually – faktisk add – tilsette, gi adder –  slange adjusted – justerte advantages – fordeler adventure – eventyr advertisements –  reklame afford – ha råd til affordable –  som folk har råd til after light-out – etter at lysene er slått av age limit –  aldersgrense ahead of –  foran aim –  mål alley – bakgate almost – nesten although –  selv om among – blant ancient –  veldig gammel annoyed – irritert anonymous – anonym anteater – maursluker antibiotic resistence – antibiotikaresistens any more – mer, lenger apart –  adskilt, fra hverandre apologise – be om unnskyldning apostle – apostel apparently – tydeligvis, visstnok appearance – utseende apply – gjelder appreciate – sette pris på arch – bue area – område argue – krangle artist – kunstner as – da, idet as well as – i tillegg til ashamed – skamfull

232 Wordlist

assailant –  angriper [subst.] assault –  angrep assist – hjelpe at first sight – ved første blikk at long last – langt om lenge at the moment – for øyeblikket athletic talent –  idrettstalent attach to – feste til attack – angripe attempt – forsøk attention – oppmerksomhet audience – publikum audio – lydopptak Aussie – slang for australier autobiography – selvbiografi available – tilgjengelig aviation – luftfart avoid – unngå awaken – vekke award [subst.] – pris award [verb] – tildele, belønne med aware of – bevisst, klar over awkward – pinlig

B

back and forth – fram og tilbake bacterial infection – bakteriell infeksjon baking soda – bakepulver/natron ball gown – ballkjole bangle – armbånd bank account – bankkonto ban –  forby barbecue –  grille bare their teeth – flekke tennene sine barren – øde base on –  basere på battalion – bataljon, gruppe av soldater be warned! – pass dere, vær forsiktig! beat – slå get beat up –  få juling before long – om ikke lenge belt loop – beltehempe bend –  bøy benefit –  komme til gode besides –  i tillegg til beware – pass dere for biff – slå med hånda, daske billabong –  sideelv

billboard – reklameskilt billion – milliard bleat – breke blend – blanding a blend of – en blanding av blindfolded – med bind for øynene blood pressure –  blodtrykk blush – rødme blushy – rødmende, flau bobble-hat – topplue body language – kroppsspråk bog – myr boil – kok boom – smelle til med boost – øke boot – sparke boring – kjedelig bother – gidde it doesn’t bother me –  det bryr meg ikke bottom – bak, rumpe bounce – sprett brand – merke brandish – fekte med breakthrough –  gjennombrudd breath – pust [subst.] breathe – pust [verb] breed – forplante seg bridesmaid – brudepike bright – intelligent, begavet bring up – oppdra broadcast – sending brotherhood – samhold, brorskap bulge – bule bullet – kule bunny – kanin button – knapp by accident – ved et uhell by the way – forresten

C

calf – legg calm down – roe ned calmer – roligere canvas and brush – lerret og pensel capital city – hovedstad caption – bildetekst career – karriere careful – forsiktig


Caribbean –  karibisk cartoon – tegneserie cartoon character – tegneseriefigur catch – fange cause problems –  føre til problemer celebrity – kjendis cello case – cellokasse centipede – tusenbein certainly – helt sikkert challenge – utfordring challenging – utfordrende championship game – mesterskapsfinale charity –  veldedighet charity match – veldedighetskamp cheap –  billig cheek –  kinn cheers! – skål! chemical – kjemikalie chemistry – kjemi chest protector –  brystbeskyttelse chew – tygge child labour –  barnearbeid childbirth –  fødsel Childcare Agency – barnevernet chill –  avkjøle chin – hake cinnamon –  kanel civil rights – borgerrettigheter claim back –  kreve tilbake claim – gjøre krav på climate change – klimaendringer closely – nøye clump – klump, klynge clumsy –  klossete coal – kull coast – kyst coat hanger – kleshenger coat – dekke cockroache – kakerlakk collect – samle, fange colony – koloni come across – komme over, finne comment on – kommentere comment – kommentar commercial – reklame commitment – engasjement communicate – kommunisere community – lokalsamfunn, samfunn company – selskap, bedrift competition – konkurranse competitor – konkurrent

completely –  helt complicated – komplisert composer – komponist computer game – dataspill concentrate – konsentrere seg concurrently – samtidig conquered – erobret consider – anse, ser på som, tenke gjennom consist of – bestå av content of their character –  hvem de er og hva de står for continent – kontinent, landområde omgitt av vann continue – fortsette convict – straffange convinced – overbevist coral reef – korallrev corn kernels – maiskorn country – land couple – par a couple of –  et par courage – mot court – rettssal cover – dekke cranky – gretten create – skape creation – kunstverk cricket – en type gresshoppe critical voice – kritisk stemme crooked – skjeve crop – avling cross borders –  krysse landegrenser cross the ball – sparke langt, «crosse» ballen cross-country skier –  langrennsløper cross-dressing –  kle seg som det motsatte kjønn crouch – ligge sammenkrøpet crumble – gå i oppløsning cuisine – kjøkken, kokekunst curtain – gardin cut –  kutt, sårskade cyberbullying – nettmobbing

D

daily needs – daglige behov deadly – livstruende deaf – døve deathly still – dødsstille debut – debut, første gang decent – skikkelig decide – bestemme

declare – erklære deep-furrowed –  dypt furet, med dype rynker defeat – nederlag defenceless – forsvarsløs defender – forsvarsspiller deforestation –  avskoging deformed – deformert, misdannet degrees – grader delicious – herlig demanding – krevende descendant – etterkommer descend – stamme fra desert – ørken desire – ønske seg despite – til tross for determined – fast bestemt, urokkelig develop – utvikle devilish – djevelsk dew – dugg differently – annerledes, forskjellig digest – fordøye dim – dunkel diminish me – gjør meg mindre disability – funksjonshemning disappear – forsvinner disappointment – skuffelse discovery – oppdagelse disease – sykdom disgrace – skam dish – rett display – vise disrespect – respektløshet diverse – mangfoldig dixie cup – pappkrus do a lot of research –  forske mye på dodge – smette unna doing the laundry – vaske tøy donor – giver dormitory – sovesal doze off – døse av, sove dozen – dusin draw into – dra inn i dream of becoming – drømme om å bli dressed as – kledd som dribble – drible, sikle drive off – fordrive fra duck under – dukke under dumb – dum during – under (reisen) duty – plikt

Wordlist

233


E

eager –  ivrig eating healthily – spise sunt edge of the water – vannkant education – utdanning effort – anstrengelse either –  heller elastic –  strikk elder – eldre elected – valgt embarrassed – flau encourage – oppmuntre, oppfordre energetic – energisk enjoy – like entertain – underholde entertainment – underholdning entire – hel equal rights – like rettigheter equally – like equipment –  utstyr erected – satt opp, reist esky – kjølebag especially – spesielt essential –  veldig viktig establish – etablere, starte even further – enda lengre even though – selv om even when –  selv da eventually – til slutt, omsider ever – noen gang ever since – helt siden everything –  alt everywhere – overalt evolve – utvikle seg exactly – akkurat example of – eksempel på exchange student – utvekslingsstudent excited – spent exercise – trene exhausted – utslitt expect –  forvente expel – utvise expensive – dyr experience – oppleve expression – uttrykk extraordinary – spesiell, ekstraordinær, utrolig eyesight – syn

F

fabric – stoff face a choice – stå overfor et valg face new challenges –  møte nye

234 Wordlist

utfordringer face to face –  ansikt til ansikt fact – faktum the fact is –  faktum er failure – nederlag fair trade – rettferdig handel fake reality –  falsk virkelighet fall in love – bli forelsket fall off – falle av familiar – kjent famished – veldig sulten far from – langt fra fascinated by – fascinert, veldig opptatt av fascinating – fascinerende, spennende feeling – følelse fee – regning, avgift female – kvinnelig femur – lårben fence – gjerde fennel – fenikkel field –  bane, åker field player – utespiller fierce – vill, rasende, voldsom finally – til slutt Finnish – finsk first language –  morsmål First World War – første verdenskrig fist bumping – knyttnevehilsen fleet – flåte, flere skip flicked – flakket, hevet float – flyte floor – etasje flunk – stryke på folk song – folkevise follow – følge fool – lure footballer – fotballspiller footprint – fotavtrykk footsteps – fottrinn for instance – for eksempel for show – skuespill force – tvinge forehead – panne forever – for alltid former – tidligere fortune – formue forward – angrepsspiller foul – fæl founded – grunnlagt founder – grunnlegger freaky – underlige, skumle freely – fritt

fright – skrekk frock – kjole from rags to riches –  fra fattig til rik frown – rynke frustrated – frustrert frustrating – frustrerende furious – rasende furry cap – pelslue further – lengre, videre fuss – oppstyr

G

gaze at – stirre på generously – generøst gene – gen gent – herre germ – bakterie gesture – gest get sick – bli syk ghost – gjenferd glance across – kaste et blikk over glance at – kikke på glimpse – glimt global citizen – verdensborger gloom – halvmørke go their own way – gå sine egne veier goal – mål goal post – målstang government – regjering grab – gripe grateful – takknemlig graze – beite greedy – grådig greeting – hilsen grooves – riller grow up – vokse opp gushed – rant

H

hag – kjerring hair scrunchie –  hårstrikk handshake – håndtrykk harbour – havn hard labour – hardt arbeid harmful – skadelig harsh – hard hatchway – luke haven’t got a clue – har ikke peiling head – heade health –  helse healthy –  sunn heap – haug hearth – ildsted hedgehog – pinnsvin


heel – hæl helpless – hjelpeløs hesitate – nøle hexagon –  sekskant hibernate – gå i hi hide – gjemme meg high school –  videregående skole (US) hilarious – veldig morsom hitch up – dra opp hi-tech – høyteknologi home ground – hjemmebane honey – honning honour –  ære horror – skrekk horse-manure – hestemøkk hospital – sykehus however – likevel hum –  nynne human [ subst.] – menneske human [ adj.] – menneskelig human rights – menneskerettigheter hunting – jakt hurl – slenge

I

I guess – tenker jeg I must admit –  jeg må innrømme ignorant – uvitende illness – sykdom illuminate – lyse opp impress – imponere impressive – imponerende improve – forbedre improvement – forbedring in doubt –  i tvil in fact – faktisk in order to – for å in terror – i redsel inch – dytte incisor – fortann include –  ta med increase – øke incredibly – utrolig independent –  uavhengig index finger –  pekefinger indigenous people – urbefolkning infect – gi betennelse influence – påvirke influential –  innflytelsesrik injured – skadet innovator – nyskaper, som tenker kreativt og skaper noe nytt inspiring –  inspirerende

instant – øyeblikkelig instead – i stedet for insult – fornærmelse international – internasjonal intestines – innvoller intimidating – truende into hiding – i dekning involved in – er del av is required –  trengs, behøves

J

jelly – gelé jellyfish – manet jersey – genser joey –  kenguru-unge Jr – junior, den yngre judge – dømme jugded – dømt, bedømt juicy – saftig

K

keen – ivrig keen on – interessert i, ivrig på keep in touch – holde kontakten keep to – holde seg til kick – sparke knock off course – slå ut av balanse

L

laboratory – laboratorium lack of –  mangel på lamé –  en type stoff med metalltråder landline – fasttelefon landscape – landskap language – språk law –  lov lawyer –  advokat lay eggs –  legge egg lead to – føre til lean out – lene seg ut leap – sprang ledge – hylle, karm less – mindre lid – lokk lie –  ligge life saving club – livredningsklubb life sentence – livstidsdom lifeguard – livredder lift – heis lift up – løfte opp lightish – ganske lyst limit – begrense literally – bokstavelig talt living proof – levende bevis lizard – øgle

lobster – hummer locker – skap log –  trestamme longing –  lengsel, ønske look after – passe på loom over – ruve over lord – herre loudly – høyt lump – kul lung cancer – lungekreft lunge for – kaste seg mot

M

made it – klarte det made sure – passet på make a living out of – gjøre det til sin jobb magnificent – praktfull mahogany –  mørkebrun main focus – det viktigste main language – hovedspråk mainly – for det meste make a change – gjøre en forandring make a living – tjene til livets opphold manage – klare mankind – menneskeheten, alle mennesker på jord mark – merke marsupial – pungdyr masseter – kjevemuskel match – fyrstikk, kamp meal – måltid mean something – bety noe meaning – betydning meaningful – betydningsfull meat – kjøtt memory – minne message – melding mid-leap – midt i et hopp might – kan mime – mime mind – sinn miner – gruvearbeider miserable – elendig miserable ways – ynkelig væremåte Miss – frøken, lærer misty – tåkete misunderstand – misforstå misuse – misbruk moonbeam – månestråle mother tongue – morsmål motion – bevegelse mould – mugg mousetrap – musefelle

Wordlist

235


mouth guard – tannbeskyttelse movement – bevegelse MP (Member of Parliament) – stortingsrepresentant multicultural influence – påvirkning fra andre kulturer mumble – mumle murmur – knurre musician –  musiker

N

Nan – bestemor nasty – slem native – innfødt, som hører til et sted navigator – sjøfarer newpaper – avis nickname –  kale for no one – ingen no wonder – ikke rart nobody – ingen nod – nikke nope – niks northern part –  nordlig del northwards – nordover notice – legge merke til nowadays – nå for tiden nurse – sykepleier nursery rhyme – barneregle nursing – sykepleie

O

obscure – usynlig observation deck – utkikkspost obsessed with – besatt av occasionally – av og til occasion – anledning ocean – hav of itself –  for seg selv official – offisielt on all four – på alle fire one another –  hverandre one hit –  ett slag onward – framover operate – styre opponent – motstander opportunity – mulighet opposite – overfor option – alternativ ordinary – vanlig organism – organisme originally – opprinnelig originate from – stamme fra orphanage – barnehjem outback – øde villmark

236 Wordlist

outfit –  antrekk outsider – en som står på utsiden outstanding – enestående over the line – over linja, har nådd målet overcrowded –  overfylt overly vivid – altfor levende overweight – overvektig owner – eier oxygen tank – oksygentank Oz – slanguttrykk for Australia

P

Pacific, the – Stillehavet pad –  pute pain –  smerte pale – blek panel –  side paralysed – lam participate – delta patent – ta patent på path – sti patient – pasient patka –  hodeplagg brukt av unge sikher patrolling – patruljere pavement –  fortau pay a fortune – betale en formue PE (physical education) – kroppsøving peace – fred peculiar – merkelig pelvis – bekken penalty area – straffefelt pentagon – femkant permanent –  permanent, som varer personal journal –  dagbok Petri dish – petriskål physically – fysisk physics –  fysikk piece – stykke, kunstverk pin – knappenål pitch – bane plantation – plantasje plaque –  metallplate play it wide –  spille ballen ut (til vingen) player –  spiller pleased – fornøyd plow into – krasje inn i pneumonia –  lungebetennelse pocket – lomme poetry – poesi, fine dikt poison –  gift poison –  forgifte polite – høflig polka dot –  prikkete

pollution –  forurensing population – befolkning positively – til og med, sannelig potting-shed – uthus pouch – pung, pose pounce – hoppe på power – styrte, løpe så fort man kan practically – nesten prance – spankulere prawn – reke predator – rovdyr preoccupied – opptatt present – presentere pretend – late som prevent – forhindre prey on – jakte på print – avtrykk prisoner – fange privy hole – utedo profit – utbytte project – prosjekt pronounce – uttale protester –  demonstrant prove – bevise public – offentlighet/folk publish – gi ut punish – straffe purely terrifying –  rett og slett skremmende pursue – følge, virkeliggjøre

Q

quantity – mengde quest – oppdrag queuing up – stille seg i kø quit – slutte med quit – slutte med quite – ganske quiver – dirre, riste, skjelve

R

rabbit-proof – kaninsikker race – kappløp rage – raseri raise – oppdra ranked – rangert rapidly – raskt rarely – sjelden rate – like eller ikke like, anmelde rather – heller rattling – klirrende reach out for – strekke seg etter realise [UK] – innser, skjønner realize [US] – innser, skjønner


reason – grunn reborn – gjenfødt receive – motta recognise – kjenne igjen reef – rev referee –  dommer refresh –  oppfriske refuse – nekte regret –  anger regretful –  angrende regular – vanlig regular-sized – normalt store regulation dress –  uniform reindeer herding –  reindrift reindeer racing – kappkjøring med reinsdyr relax – slappe av remain – fortsatt gjelde remark – kommentar remove – fjerne repeat – gjenta resist – stå imot responsible – ansvarlig rest – hvile result – resultat resume – fortsette, starte igjen retire –  gå av med pensjon retired –  pensjonert reunited – gjenforent revealed – avslørt revived – fornyet revolutionise – revolusjonere rickshaw – sykkeltaxi rip current – kjempesterk strøm ripe –  moden rivet –  nagle roaring – brøl roast – steke roll – rulle rooftop – hustak root – rot rope – tau route – rute rubber –  gummi rude –  frekt ruled – styrte ruler – hersker rumble – rumle rumour –  rykte rush of happiness – lykkerus

S

sacrifice – ofre

saffron – safran sag –  henge saucer – skål scallop – kamskjell scent – duft, lukt scramble up – krabbe opp scream – skrike secondary school – ungdomsskole seem –  virke som om segregation – å skille menneskegrupper fra hverandre i det samme samfunnet selfish – egoistisk sensible – fornuftig sentence – straff serenity prayer – sinnsrobønn set up a cross – lage en pasning settle – bosette seg, slå seg ned settle down – roe seg settlement – bosetting several – flere severely – hardt shadowy – skyggefulle shallow bay – bukt med grunt vann share – dele shipwreck – forlis shoulder blade – skulderblad shrivels up – krøller seg sammen sideways – sidelengs sigh – sukke sighted – seende, som kan se sign – tegn Sikh – sikh silence – stillhet silent – stille [adj.] silently – stille [adv.] since – siden, fordi sink – synke sinner – synder skill – ferdighet skip – hoppe over slimy –  slimete slip out of – gli ut av smash –  smadre, knuse sneakers [am] – joggesko sociable – sosial social worker – sosialarbeider society –  samfunn software – programvare soldier – soldat sole – såle the sole of your foot –  fotsålen din songwriter – låtskriver sorrow – sorg

spark – gnist speak out – si meningen sin speaker – taler species – art speech –  tale speed – flykte spice – krydder spill onto – strømme ut spine – ryggrad spirit – ånd spoiled – bortskjemt spot –  kvise spout – tut spread – spre seg squad – tropp squid – en type blekksprut squint –  myse squirt – tass stand on edge – få håret til å reise seg på hodet staphylococci – stafylokokker stare at – stirre på staring contest – stirrekonkurranse startled – forskrekket starving – sulten step on – tråkke på stick –  pinne stir – røre stockyard – innhegning til dyr store – lagre straight – rett straight away – med en gang strained – spente strengthen – styrke stretching – tøying strike – treffe, slå ned struggle with – kjempe med stuff like that – sånne ting stunning –  vakker subscriber – abonnent, følger sufficient – tilstrekkelig suitable – passende suitcase – koffert support group – støttegruppe suppose – anta, tro he isn’t supposed to –  han skal ikke I suppose –  jeg antar surf and turf – blanding av sjømat og kjøtt surface – overflate surrounded by – omgitt av survive – overleve suspect – mistenke

Wordlist

237


swallow – svelge swallow up – skylle vekk swamp –  sump sweep away – skylle vekk swiftly – raskt

T

tabby cat – stripete katt take care of –  ta vare på take part – delta take-out – audition teach – undervise teenager – tenåring, ungdom terribly – fryktelig territory – område than ever – enn noen gang før that particular –  akkurat den thee –  deg (gammel engelsk) theme park –  fornøyelsespark these days –  nå for tiden thigh – lår thorn –  torn thorny – tornete thought –  tanke threatened – truet threatening – truende threat – trussel throughout – gjennom thrust – dytte thumbs up –  tommel opp tide – tidevann time –  tid your time is up –  tiden din er ute tingling – kriblende tip – spiss tip-toe – gå på tærne toll – ringe tool – verktøy toss – kaste tough – vanskelig, tøff township – tettsted, bydel track my runs –  følge hakk i hæl tracker – en som følger spor trade [ subst.] – handel trade [ verb] – handle trainers [UK] – joggesko travel agency –  reisebyrå treat [verb] – behandle treat [subst.] – utskeilse, kos, godbit treatment – behandling trick [verb] – lurer trick [subst.] – triks triumphantly – triumferende

238 Wordlist

trumpeter – trompetist tumble – slå kollbøtte turmeric – gurkemeie turn around – snu turn off – skru av twist – vri

U

UN – United Nations (FN) uncomfortable –  ubehagelig undaunted – som ikke lar seg stoppe, uanfektet understand – forstå unemployed – arbeidsledig unfair – urettferdig unique –  unik, spesiell unsafe – utrygg, farlig up –  opp to be up to something –  å holde på med noe update – oppdatering upper – øverste upset –  forstyrre, gjøre opprørt upside down – opp ned upwards – oppover used to – vant med user friendly – brukervennlig usually – vanligvis

V

vainly – forgjeves valley – dal valuable – verdifull vanilla extract – vaniljeessens variety – variasjon a variety of –  mange forskjellige various –  forskjellige vegetation – vegetasjon, natur venomous –  giftig (om slanger) vent – ventil viciously – illsint, farlig village –  landsby violence – vold virtual – virtuell visual effect – synlig virkning vote – stemme

W

waist – midje war – krig warning sign – varselskilt wattle – akasie (tresort) wave –  bølge way –  måte way of life – livsstil

wealth – rikdom wealthy – rik, velstående weeds – ugress weird – rar well – brønn well-house – brønnhus well-known – kjent whatever – uansett hva wherever – overalt hvor whether – om whine – sutre whisper – hviske whistle – fløyte white-knuckle experience – skrekkopplevelse whom – hvem (gammel engelsk) widow – enke wielding swords – svinge sverd wig – parykk wildlife – dyreliv wind conditions – vindforhold winger – midtbanespiller wipe away – tørke vekk witching hour – heksetimen withdrew – trakk vekk women’s rights activist – kvinnerettighetsforkjemper woodwork – trearbeid work of art – kunstverk workacholic – arbeidsnarkoman working-class – fra arbeiderklassen World Heritage Site – UNESCOs verdensarvliste worldwide – verden rundt worries – bekymringer worthless – verdiløs wound – sår wrinkly – rynkete wrist – håndledd wrongness – alt som er upassende og feil

Y

yawning – gjespende yell – skrike yelp – hyl, klynk young – unger


Kilder s. 22 –23 Burgess, Mervin, retold by Karen Holmes: Billy Elliot. Pearson Education Limited. Text copyright © Pearson Education 2008. s. 29 King jr., Martin Luther: I have a dream. © 1963 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. © renewed 1991 Coretta Scott King. Reprinted by arrangement with The Heirs to the Estate of Martin Luther King Jr., c/o Writers House as agent for the proprietor New York, NY. s. 54 Carter, James: What Can You Do With a Football? from Journey To The Centre Of My Brain © 2012, published by Macmillan. s. 55 Nesbitt, Kenn: “Don’t Ever Ask a Centipede”. Originally published in the book The Tighy-Whitey Spider by Kenn Nesbit, ©2010. Used with permission from Sourcebooks, Inc., all rights reserved. s.62–65 Dahl, Roald: The BFG © Jonathan Cape ltd & Penguin Books Ltd. s. 68–69 Rundell, Katherine: Rooftoppers. Published by Faber and Faber Ltd. s. 70–71 Palacio, R.J.: “Ordinary” from WONDER by R. J. Palacio, copyright © 2012 by R.J. Palacio. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved. s. 72–74 Collins, Suzanne: Gregor the Overlander. Copyright © 2004 by Suzanne Collins. Reprinted by permission of Scholastic Inc. s. 78–79 Dickens, Charles: A Christmas Carol (1843) s. 80–81 Palmer, Tom: Over the Line. Extract from Over the Line. Copyright © 2014 Tom Palmer. Published by permission of Barrington Stoke Ltd. s. 82–83 Palmer, Tom: Over the Line, playscript. Extract from Over the Line. Copyright © 2014 Tom Palmer. Published by permission of Barrington Stoke Ltd. s. 84–85 Green, John: The Fault in our Stars. Copyright © 2012 by John Green. Used by permission of Dutton Children’s Books, an imprint of Penguin Young Readers Group, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved. s. 86–89 Walliams, David: The Boy in the Dress. Text © David Walliams 2008. Extract from The Boy in the Dress, published by HarperCollins Children’s Books, 2008 s. 106–107 French, Jackie: Tom Appleby – Convict Boy. Reprinted by permission from HarperCollins Publishers. s. 115 Slater, R.E.: A Crocodile Sat Crying s. 143 Silverstein, Shel: “Deaf Donald” from A LIGHT IN THE ATTIC by Shel Silverstein. © 1981, renewed 2002 Evil Eye, LLC. By permission of Edite Kroll Literary Agency Inc. s. 145 Keller, Helen: Freedom At Last, extract from The Story of My Life s. 147 Zephaniah, Benjamin: Luv Song. Copyright © Benjamin Zephaniah, 2009 s. 148–150 Dahl, Roald: The Ant-Eater. From Dirty Beasts © Jonathan Cape ltd & Penguin Books Ltd. s. 167 Nesbitt, Kenn: “When Sarah Surfs the Internet” © 2007 by Kenn Nesbitt. Reprinted from «Revenge of the Lunch Ladies» with the permission of Meadowbrook Press. s. 171 Marley, Bob: One Love. Tekst og musik: Bob Marley. Copyright © 1977 Fifty-Six Hope Road Music Limited. Blue Mountain Music Limited. All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. Trykt med tilladelse af Edition Wilhelm Hansen AS, København. s. 178–179 Donne, John: No Man Is an Island. From Devotions upon Emergent Occasions (1624) s. 198 Silverstein, Shel: “Whatif” from A LIGHT IN THE ATTIC by Shel Silverstein. © 1981, renewed 2002 Evil Eye, LLC. By permission of Edite Kroll Literary Agency Inc. s. 196–197 Maryon, Kate: Glitter. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd © 2011 Kate Maryon. s. 203 Zantamata, Doe: 7 Steps to Happiness. http://www.happinessinyourlife.com/Poster-and-Prints.html

Bilder Omslagsillustrasjon: Irene Marienborg Illustrasjoner: Ketil Selnes: Mr. X. Plore, og side 12, 24, 25, 30-33, 46-47, 50-51, 66-67, 75, 78-79, 98-99, 115-117, 121-123, 128-129, 132, 134, 151, 159, 163, 190-191, 206-228 Ole Fredrik Hvidsten: side 39, 55, 59, 68, 72-74, 76-77, 90, 100-101, 104-107, 111 (detalj), 125, 140-141, 153, 176, 183, 187-189, 193, 205, Irene Marienborg: side 14-15, 40-41, 60-61, 92-93, 126-127, 154-155, 184-185 Monia Nilsen: 228 ø. Foto: Side 6-7: iStock / Getty Images, s.13: Faber and Faber Ltd (Rooftoppers), © carredesignstudio.com (Over the Line), s.16: ø. Rob Verhorst / Getty Images, n. Gabriel Rossi / Staff / Getty Images, s. 17: ø. Everett Collection, n. Ullstein Bilde / Getty Images, s. 18: The Granger Collection / NTB scanpix, n. Photodisc /GNF, s. 19: t.v. The Estate of David Gahr / Getty Images, t.h. Wally McNamee / Getty Images, s. 20: Derek Storm / Splash News / NTB scanpix, s. 21: Giancarlo BOTTI / Getty Images, s. 22: ø. rune hellestad / Getty Images, n. Everett Collection, s. 23: Mary Evans Picture / NTB scanpix, s. 26:  Veronique de Viguerie / Getty Images, s. 27: Cornelius Poppe / NTB scanpix, s. 28:  Louise Gubb / Getty Images, s. 29: AP Photo / NTB scanpix, s. 32 og 33: Colourbox, s. 34: Deborah Feingold /Getty Images, s. 35: Camilla Glende, s.36-37: Andres Amador, s. 42: t.v. Joern Pollex / Stringer / Getty Images, t.h. Imageselect, s. 43: ø.  Jeff J Mitchell / Staff / Getty Images, t.v. Imageselect, t.h. Carnaval de Québec giant football, s.44: Antonio Calanni / AP Photo / NTB scanpix, s. 45: t.v. Martin Shields, t.h. Bob Thomas / Getty Images, s. 48: iStock / Getty Images, s. 49: Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, s. 50: Clint Hughes - The FA / Getty Images, s. 53: Colourbox, s. 54:James Carter, s.55: ©Amanda Jayne, s.56: Gallo Images / Stringer / Getty Images, s. 57: Bob Daemmrich / Polaris / NTB scanpix, s. 62: t.v. GNF, t.h. ©Quentin Blake, s.63 og 65: Backgrid / NTB scanpix, s. 64: ©Quentin Blake, 68: © David Azia, 70: marg ©Russell Gordon s. 70-71: Book Cover, copyright © 2012 by Alfred A. Knopf Children’s Books, s. 72: Victoria Will / AP Photo / NTB scanpix, s. 78: Mary Evans Picture / NTB scanpix, : s. 80: Tom Palmer, s. 80-83: Ollie Cuthbertson, s. 84: t.v. Richard Drew / AP Photo / NTB scanpix, t.h. ©Fox 2000 Pictures. All rights reserved / Courtesy Everett Collection, s. 86: t.v. Simon Emmett, t.h. og s. 89: Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.  © 2008, Quentin Blake, s. 94: Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, s. 95: ø. Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, n. iStock / Getty Images, s. 96: 1. davidf / Getty Images, 2. iStock / Getty Images, 3. Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, 4. Australian Scenics / Getty Images, 5. Courtesy of the State Library of Queensland, 6. Dan Chung / REUTERS / NTB scanpix, 7. Stephen Frink / Getty Images, 8. Picturepoint, 9. Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, 10. Auscape / Getty Images, s. 102: ø. Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, n.t.v. Guy Vanderelst / Getty Images, n.t.h. iStock / Getty Images, s. 103: t.v. Juzant / Getty Images, t.h. Wolfgang Kaehler / Getty Images, s.106: ©   Kelly Sturgiss, s. 108: I marg iStock /Getty Images, t.h. John Carnemolla / Getty Images, s. 109: t.v. Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, t.h. Auscape / Getty Images, s. 110: Imageselect, s. 112: ø. Danita Delimont / Getty Images, n. Michael Nolan / Getty Images, s.113: ø. Picturepoint, n. Tier Und Naturfotografie J und C Sohns / Getty Images, s. 118: ø. iStock / Getty Images, n. t. v.  Josie Elias / Getty Images, t.h. iStock / Getty Images, s. 119: ø. Picturepoint, m.  Tier Und Naturfotografie J und C Sohns / Getty Images, n. Imageselect, s. 120: Imageselect, s. 130: ø. Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, m. Jupiterimages / Getty Images, n. 81a/Photolibrary / Getty Images, s. 131: ø. Eye Ubiquitous / Getty Images, n. : Photodisc / Getty Images, s. 136: t.v. Compassionate Eye Foundation/ Martin Barraud / Getty Images, t.h. Compassionate Eye Foundation/Robert Daly/OJO Images / Getty Images, s.138 og 139: Colourbox, s. 142: ø. t. v. Lars Elton / Aftenposten / NTB scanpix, ø.t.h. iStock Getty Images, n. t. v. Sara Johannessen / VG / NTB scanpix, n.t.h. pixtal / NTB scanpix, s. 143: Shel Silverstein, t.h. Gems / Getty Images, s. 144: The Granger Collection / NTB scanpix, s. 147: Bloodaxe Books, s. 148 – 150: © Quentin Blake, s.156: ø. iStock / Getty Images, n. Tim Jones / AP photo / NTB scanpix, s. 157: ø.  renacal1 / Getty Images, n. Fotolia, s.158: ø. Jeffrey Kaphan / Getty Images, n. iStock / Getty Images, s. 160: Imageselect, s. 161: Zuma Press / NTB scanpix, s. 162: Lewis J Houghton / Science Photo Library / NTB scanpix, s. 164: t.v.  United News/Popperfoto / Getty Images, t.h.  Richard Beattie / Getty Images, s. 165: PeopleImages / Getty Images, s. 166: Herbert Knosowski / AP Photo / NTB scanpix, s. 167: Jupiterimages / Getty Images, s. 168:  Peter Adams / Getty Images, s. 169: ø.  pjrimages / Getty Images, øvrige Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, s. 170: Tim Mosenfelder / Getty Images ( John Lee Hooker),  New York Daily News Archive / Getty Images ( Louis Armstrong) Larry Busacca / Staff / Gettty Images ( Beyoncé ), Topfoto / NTB scanpix (Elvis), iStock / Getty Images ( Hip Hop), Colourbox (noter), s. 171: ø. Topfoto /NTB scanpix, n. Imageselect, s. 172: ø. Fairfax Media / Getty Images, n. Juan Karita / AP / NTB scanpix, s. 173:  NurPhoto / Getty Images, s. 174: t.v. gjengitt med tillatelse fra Marja Helena Mortensson. Foto: Knut Utler, t.h. Trym Ivar Bergsmo / Samfoto / NTB scanpix, s. 175: Alice Johansen, s. 178 marg Topfoto /NTB scanpix, 178-179: iStock / Getty Images, s. 180: ø. Picturepoint, n. Antara Foto / Reuters / NTB scanpix, s. 181: ø.  Bloomberg / Getty Images, m.  EyesWideOpen / Getty Images, n. Leisa Tyler / Getty Images, s. 192: ø. Picturepoint, n. Shutterstock /NTB scanpix, s. 194: Hero Images / Getty Images, s. 195: Picturepoint, s. 196 – 197: Maskot / Getty Images, s. 198: Gems / Getty Images, s.199:  ALEAIMAGE / Getty Images, s. 200: marg og n. Shutterstock / NTB scanpix, m. og s. 201: iStock / Getty Images, s. 202 – 203: Kent Mathews / Getty Images

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© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2017 1. utgave, 1. opplag Denne boka er en del av læreverket Explore 1–7. Læreverket dekker målene for engelsk etter læreplanene av 2013. Ellen M. Tudor Edwards og Tone Omland har mottatt støtte fra Norsk faglitterær forfatter- og oversetterforening.

Printed in Norway by 07 Media – 07.no, 2017 ISBN 978–82–05–48051–3 Redaktør:Camilla Glende Bilderedaktør: Sissel Falck Design: 07 Media – 07.no, Mette Tønsberg Sats og layout: 07 Media – 07.no, Mette Tønsberg Omslagsdesign: Bardus Design Logo: Aud Gloppen Gyldendal Norsk Forlag is grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given their permission for the use of copyrighted material in this book. Unfortunately, there are some proprietors we have not been able to establish contact with, and any legitimate claims will be settled as if permission were granted in advance. Det må ikke kopieres fra denne boka i strid med åndsverkloven eller avtaler om kopiering inngått med KOPINOR, interesseorgan for rettighetshavere til åndsverk. Kopiering i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning, og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Alle henvendelser om forlagets utgivelser kan rettes til: Gyldendal Undervisning Grunnskoleredaksjonen Postboks 6860 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo E-post: undervisning@gyldendal.no www.gyldendal.no/undervisning Alle Gyldendals bøker er produsert i miljøsertifiserte trykkerier. Se www.gyldendal.no/miljo


7 Engelsk for barnetrinnet

EXPLORE 7 er bygd opp med systematisk progresjon og gjennomtenkt ordinnlæring. Elevene lærer ord og setningsmønstre ved bruk av ulike læringsstrategier. Slik kan de forstå og bruke språket til å kommunisere egne tanker og meninger. Grammatikken introduseres i tekstene i en naturlig sammenheng. Læreverket er i tråd med revidert læreplan i engelsk fra 2013. EXPLORE møter elevene med • rikt utvalg av differensierte og utforskende oppgaver og aktiviteter • vekt på muntlig språkbruk gjennom å lytte, snakke, synge og dramatisere • utvikling av skriftlig kompetanse, blant annet ved bruk av modelltekster og skriverammer • systematisk progresjon i utviklingen av grunnleggende ferdigheter EXPLORE gir læreren • støtte og inspirasjon gjennom praktisk og intuitiv Teacher’s Book • rikt lydmateriell og spennende muligheter for konkretisering med Smart Tavle • hjelp til å vurdere og differensiere • effektivt samspill mellom My Textbook, My Workbook, Smartbok, Smart Tavle og nettsted EXPLORE for 7. klasse består av • My Textbook • My Workbook • Teacher’s Book • Smart Tavle, Smartbok og CD Se gyldendal.no/explore for digitale komponenter.

Explore 7 My Textbook  

Explore er Gyldendals engelskverk for barnetrinnet. I Explore for 7. trinn er kapitlene temabaserte. Vi fortsetter med tydelige lese- og skr...

Explore 7 My Textbook  

Explore er Gyldendals engelskverk for barnetrinnet. I Explore for 7. trinn er kapitlene temabaserte. Vi fortsetter med tydelige lese- og skr...