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Elizabeth Diskin

9 LEARNER’S BOOK

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

Kirsti Grana Winsvold


Elizabeth Diskin

9 LEARNER’S BOOK

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

Kirsti Grana Winsvold


Get to Know Enter TOPIC WORDS recipe

Listen to people speaking about different topics.

? Discuss what the title of this chapter means.

waste

? Begin to reflect upon the topics in the chapter.

healthy edible nutritious

Learning objectives n

vegetables food habits dish consumption

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n

n n n

Food for Thought

Discuss the way people live and what they eat Write informative paragraphs and instructional texts Organise texts using linking words Define and use uncountable nouns Use charts and graphs to talk about food habits

What you will learn in this chapter.

Words to learn and to use when you work with the chapter.

7

Activity before reading the text.

Warm-up

How many words about the supernatural do you know? Close the book and make a list.

Activities

Supernatural Vocabulary 1

Supernatural

b A being that closes doors and makes strange noises

Extrasensory perception (ESP) From an online dictionary

c A glowing shape that hovers over a field

Sensory perception is seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. Anything outside these senses is extrasensory. This means that people with ESP claim that they sense things the rest of us cannot. See also the sixth sense.

2

Vocabulary. In this text you will find both phenomenon and phenomena. Use the text and an online dictionary to find out what the difference is. Write a short explanation.

3

Writing. The blue words in the text are hyperlinks. Write definitions for at least four of these words, using the text as a model. You can use an online dictionary to help you.

4

Speaking. You are on holiday in Scotland and visit Loch Ness. You meet a local who tells you about the Loch Ness Monster.

Poltergeists Poltergeists are types of spirits that are said to make their presence known physically. Believers say that poltergeists make noises such as tapping and banging sounds, move objects around or may even touch people.

Ghosts

literally – bokstavelig extrasensory perception – oversanselig oppfatning claim – påstår rumoured that – ryktene har det til at conclusive proof – overbevisende bevis sightings – iakttagelser the Abominable Snowman – den avskyelige snømannen werewolves – varulver evidence – bevis blurry – uskarpe traumatic – traumatisk messengers – budbringere presence – nærvær unpleasant – ubehagelig

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There are different ways to define ghosts, but they are said to be the spirit of a person who is no longer alive. Some people believe that ghosts are the spirits of people who are trapped between this world and the next, maybe because they experienced a traumatic death. Mediums believe that they can contact these spirits. Other ghosts are thought to be messengers.

b Work with a classmate and act out the conversation.

Cryptozoology is the study of creatures rumoured to exist but for which proof is missing. There are many reported sightings of creatures such as the Abominable Snowman, the Loch Ness Monster, the Kraken, and werewolves, and the study of these creatures is taken seriously by cryptozoologists. There is very little evidence that these creatures exist, although some people have taken blurry photographs of them.

Spectre is often used as a synonym for ghost. However, it actually means the idea that something unpleasant may happen in the future.

Unidentified flying object An unidentified flying object, or UFO, is an object or light that moves in a way that makes it difficult for science to explain what it is. Many people associate the term with extraterrestrial beings, but UFOs are literally a supernatural phenomenon, anything that cannot be explained by logic or science.

Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Difficult words are translated to make reading easier.

2

a Find information about the Loch Ness Monster.

Cryptozoology

Spectre

Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Activities after reading the text.

Reading to understand. Which phenomena do these explanations refer to? a The study of vampires

Supernatural means beyond the natural and is used about phenomena that cannot be explained by science.

5

Prepositions. Draw a picture of a spooky room with lots of strange objects in it. BS 52

Look at this page in the Basic Skills book to find more information about the topic. BS 52

a Describe where the objects are using prepositions of place.

Prepositions of place Prepositions of place are words that tell us where something is.

b Ask a classmate questions about the picture, such as: What is between the …? What can you see under the …? c How many prepositions of place can you list?

The haunted house is beyond the enchanted forest. Ghosts can walk through walls. BS 52

Chapter 2 • Beyond

41

Language rules and examples. Find more information and activities in the Basic Skills book.


70 Speaking. Make a persuasive presentation. Choose one of these tasks. BS 145

62 Language. This recipe does not contain amounts and quantifiers. Add a suitable word in each space. BS 13 the, a couple of, a few, a small amount of, a little, a handful of

63 Vocabulary. Use this chapter, the Internet or other sources to complete these tasks. a Name four different kinds of vegetables you might want to use in a tasty soup. b Name four vegetables that are often eaten raw. c The word kiwi can have three different meanings. What are they? d Imagine a friend who has never tasted lemon. Describe it to him or her. e Which kitchen utensils do you need for making bacon and eggs for breakfast? f Name at least five utensils that would be useful for baking biscuits. g If your dishwasher breaks down, where can you wash your plates and cups? 64 Writing. Write an informative paragraph about food habits in Norway. BS 80

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a You are: The director of a fruit company Your audience: Teachers Your task: Give a speech about healthy eating in the future.

65 Vocabulary. Sum up words and phrases related to the topic food.

b You are: A doctor Your audience: Parents Your task: Encourage parents to give children more vegetables.

a Make a list of words you knew from before. b Make a list of words and expressions you have learnt by working with the material in this chapter.

c You are: A pupil Your audience: Local politicians Your task: Convince the politicians that pupils should have free lunch at school every day.

c Compare your lists in class. 66 Numbers. Create a soup recipe with your favourite ingredients. Write the recipe and draw an illustration.

71 Writing. Healthy eating is expensive. In some places a bottle of water is more expensive than a bottle of soda. Write an argumentative text discussing why this is the case. BS 112 72 Writing. The amount of food waste has increased over the last century. Write a factual text for the school paper where you include graphs and charts that illustrate this development. BS 166 73 Writing. What do people eat around the world? Choose a country. Write a factual text to inform others about it. Choose your own text type. BS 101

74 Speaking. Find arguments for and against providing warm lunch for pupils. Hold a debate in class. BS 136

67 Digital skills. Take pictures that illustrate the topic food. In groups decide which picture best illustrates the topic and present the picture in class. 68 Pronunciation. Find an online dictionary to find out how these words are pronounced in English. BS 62

I am able to … A

vegetables, recipe, edible, healthy, tomatoes, potatoes, courgette, salmon, artichoke, utensil, spatula, consumption.

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… discuss the way people live and what they eat … write informative paragraphs … write instructional texts

69 Verbs. Present simple.

BS 30

… organize texts using linking words

a Write a paragraph about your favourite food in the present simple. b Take out all the verbs and put them, in the infinitive form, in a table underneath the text. c Ask a classmate to fill in the correct form of the verb in your text. d Correct the text and explain any mistakes to your classmate.

… use uncountable nouns … explain how to use a quantifier with uncountable nouns … use charts and graphs to talk about food habits

B

Assessment 3–2–1 3 things I have learned by working with the material in this chapter. 2 things that are difficult to understand. 1 thing I want to learn more about or improve.

Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

37

I am able to. Reflect upon what you have learnt in the chapter.

B

Elizabeth Diskin Kirsti Grana Winsvold

BASIC SKILLS 8–10

Knut Kasbo

Basic Skills is a grammar and language book you can use together with Learner’s Book all three years of lower secondary school. In Basic Skills you will find more information about the topics you work with in Learner’s Book, in addition to activities. There are references to Basic Skills in Learner’s Book. The references look like this: BS 121 .

Kasbo

s dis di berio il inci officias dolore dollatis uidusam, ipsape restinus idit ati sitae et plant et ma nimillibus eossimos nestia andam id maio volore desecabor sincian lesequam, omniminim fuga. Atio dolupta ue quissimi, omnis earuntiur, simendictia rnam qui dolore num eum que inctota eribus, odit volor amus.

Move on

Sum up

First break _____ eggs into a bowl and add _____ milk. Beat together and then add _____ salt and pepper. Melt _____ butter in a pan. Pour _____ mixture from the bowl into the pan and stir gently. Just before the mixture sets, add _____ chopped chives and _____ grated cheese. Serve on a plate with _____ salad.

• Winsvold •

e ius, et quo qui velest, samentem sequi ptatium alit, quam eosandior mi, cuptia t pedition perchic totatin cilignam, nobis n non et facerna temquissit doluptaquae viduciis sollaces dolorit iosam, invent.

Sum up. Activities that help you sum up what you have learnt in the chapter.

Diskin

onsenis aut quundus si quas aut pra num mqui doleni aspisciisti blant.

Chapter Activities

BASIC SKILLS 8–10

uptae non nulpa se solor aut labo. Et qui ienim que andam eum velige ala detto minim expererumqui re eseque voluptae

Move on. Work more in depth with these activities.

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

Basic Skills contains these chapters: • Language • Listening • Writing • Numbers • Reading • Digital Skills • Speaking

Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

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Contents 1 Food for Thought

6 Food Habits

factual text

Meat Consumption

tables and graphs

12

One Grain of Rice

folktale

14

Cool Down Your Drink

instruction

20

Manners Matter

quiz

22

The Carrot

novel extract

24

Future Foods

article

28

The Restaurant at the End of the Universe

novel extract

32

Chapter Activities

36

2 Beyond

38 Supernatural Vocabulary

dictionary

40

The Sixth Sense

film review

42

Do Ghosts Exist?

science lesson

46

Skellig

novel extract

50

Crop Circles: Mystery or Hoax?

article

56

A Witch’s Brew

extract from a play

60

Miss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children

novel extract

64

Chapter Activities

72

3 Opportunities

74 Boys and Girls Together

poem

76

How to Become …

e-mail

80

Personality Quiz

quiz

84

Job Vacancies

job adverts

86

The Nurse

novel extract

90

Teenage Boss

budget

94

Running from Poverty

article

96

Is This Really a Job?

factual text

100

Pipes, Taps and Ballcocks

novel extract

102

Skill Builder

game

108

Chapter Activities

4

Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

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110


4 Who­dunnit?

112 Crime Sells

article

114

CSI – Crime Scene Investigation

evidence board

118

The Death of a Tramp

short story

122

Sherlock

graphic novel

126

Cruel Criminals

factual text

136

The Hitchhiker

short story extract

140

Blood Fever

novel extract

146

Chapter Activities

150

5 Australia & New Zealand

152

Visiting Australia and New Zealand

collage

154

Q&A

factual text, map

158

We Say Sorry

speech

164

Guess What!

factual text

168

An Australian Teenager

interview

170

I Didn’t Climb Uluru

blog

174

New Zealand Teenagers

article

176

The Spirit of Barrumbi

novel extract

180

How the Kiwi Lost Its Wings

myth

190

I am Māori

poem

194

Chapter Activities

198

6 Get Involved!

200 Our Generation

poem

202

My Generation Does Give a Damn

article

204

Wildlife Under Threat

statistics and facts

208

Reduce – Reuse – Recycle

collage

214

The Carbon Diaries

novel extract

216

Cleaning Up the Beach

article

222

Saving the Planet and Stuff

novel extract

226

Chapter Activities

230

Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

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1

Food for Thought


TOPIC WORDS recipe

? Discuss what the title of this chapter means.

waste healthy edible nutritious vegetables food habits

Learning objectives n

n

dish

n

consumption

n

n

Discuss the way people live and what they eat Write informative paragraphs and instructional texts Organise texts using linking words Define and use uncountable nouns Use charts and graphs to talk about food habits

7


Warm-up do you think an • What average Norwegian eats every day? Write a list of food and drink.

Food Habits Photographer Peter Menzel wanted to show what people eat in different parts of the world. He asked people to tell him what they eat and drink for one day. Here are some of the young people he met.

Coco, the green teen Name: Coco Simone Finken Age: 16 Country: Canada Breakfast: French bread, strawberries, soy milk Lunch: veggie wrap, feta cheese, green bell pepper, lettuce, butter, apples, carrots Dinner: peas, cheese and rice Throughout the day: zucchini bread with chocolate chips, apples, soy milk, vegetable juice, chai tea, tap water The Finken family grows some of their own vegetables in their front garden, because they are trying to leave a small ecological footprint on the earth. Coco’s mornings generally start with a glass of soy milk and a nutritious fresh fruit smoothie. Then she takes her bicycle and leaves for school. The family doesn’t own a car, so a bike is the best way to get around town.

food habits – matvaner veggie wrap – vegetar-wrap bell pepper – paprika lettuce – salathode throughout the day – i løpet av dagen zucchini – squash

Cao, the acrobat Name: Cao Xiaoli Age: 16 Country: China Breakfast: cake, yoghurt, kiwi, apple Lunch: pork ribs, rice flour, noodles, cucumber, hard-boiled egg, green onion, rice Throughout the day: green tea, boiled water

tap water – springvann front yard – hagen ecological footprint – økologisk fotavtrykk pork ribs – ribbe rice flour – rismel practises – trener

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Cao lives in a room with nine other girls. She started her career as an acrobat when she was a child. She practises five hours a day and performs seven days a week. What she likes best about being an acrobat is the crowd’s reaction when she does something dangerous. If she has a day off, her mother sometimes takes her to a pizza restaurant. Cao doesn’t eat dinner, because most evenings she has to perform in a show.


Shashi, the call centre operator Name: Shashi Chandra Kanth Age: 23 Country: India Breakfast: eggs, onion, tomato, green chilies, bread, whole milk, B-protein powder Lunch: spicy curry, chicken kebab, rice Dinner: chow mein Throughout the day: chocolate bars, fruit drinks, tomato chips, chocolate caramel pieces, coffee, oranges, tap water

spicy – krydret proper – skikkelig prefers – foretrekker honour – ære

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Shashi works night shifts in a high-tech office park in Bangalore. He eats chocolate to stay awake on the shift. “My mother wants me to bring a proper Indian lunch from home,” he says. However, he prefers to eat fast food with his friends. When he moved to Bangalore to go to school, his mother moved with him. “At home, it’s a completely different lifestyle,” Shashi says. He is Hindu, but not vegetarian, although his mother doesn’t eat meat two days a week to honour Hindu gods. “On Mondays it’s for Shiva, on Fridays it’s for Durga,” he says. “But I eat meat every day.”


Activities 1 Reading to understand. Spot the person who a works when most people sleep. b avoids pork ribs. c eats less fruit for breakfast than the others. d wants to save the environment. e has a mother with different eating habits. f avoids tap water. 2 Writing. Which of these people’s food would you like to eat for a week? Write a paragraph. Give reasons why. 3 Writing. Create a character of your own age. Imagine what he or she eats and drinks. Write a list. a Draw a sketch of the character and one day’s worth of food. b Write an informative paragraph about the character, similar to the ones on these pages. BS 80

c Present your character in class. 4 Vocabulary. Skim the text to find words for food and drink. a Sort all the different food and drink you find on these pages into these categories: meat, vegetables, fruit, hot drinks, cold drinks, sweets. b Make up categories for food and drink you find difficult to place. 5 Speaking. Work with a classmate and compare and contrast two of the pictures on these pages. a What do the pictures tell you about cultures and food habits around the world? b Which of these lifestyles would produce most waste?

6 Digital skills. Photographer Peter Menzel has his own website where many of his pictures are available. a Find more of his pictures from other countries on the Internet. b Choose one picture and present it in class. Give reasons for choosing this particular picture. 7 Digital skills. The Finken family is trying to leave a small ecological footprint on earth. a What is an ecological footprint? Use the Internet to find out. b Present your findings in class. c List your sources and explain why you trust these sources. BS 174 8 Uncountable nouns. Fill in these sentences using some or any. BS 26 a Have you got _______ orange juice? b Alice ate _______ chocolate with her coffee. c Is there _______ sugar in this cake? d No, but there is _______ fruit juice to make it sweet. e We need to add _______ salt to this sauce – it’s tasteless.

Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns are a small group of nouns which cannot be counted. For example: advice, money and rice. They do not have a plural. Use a quantifier in front of them. Let me give you some advice. Do you have any money left? Rani asked for a grain of rice.

BS 13

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

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Warm-up much meat do you • How eat each week? How would you present this information visually?

Meat Consumption Over the years, scientists have gathered a lot of information about food habits around the world. Data is often presented in different kinds of graphs and tables in order to help the reader understand the information.

Annual meat consumption per person Country

= roughly 10 pounds of meat

Australia

China Great Britain India United States

Source: Menzel. What I Eat, 2010

Meat consumption per person, in pounds

meat consumption – kjøttforbruk scientists – forskere gathered – samlet annual – årlig roughly 10 pounds – cirka 4,5 kg worldwide – over hele verden

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Less than 15 15–25 25–39 39–52 52–64 64–77 77–90 90–107 107–126 No data

Source: Worldwide Annual Meat Consumption per capita 2011, FAO, 2014


Life expectancy and meat consumption Country

Life expectancy, female

Life expectancy, male

Annual meat consumption per person in pounds

Australia

84 years

79 years

247

China

75 years

71 years

115

Great Britain

81 years

76 years

175

India

67 years

65 years

11

United States

80 years

75 years

275

Source: Menzel. What I Eat, 2010

life expectancy – forventet levealder female – kvinne male – mann

Activities 9 Reading to understand. a Which countries have the highest consumption of meat? b What do you think countries with high meat consumption have in common? c What do you think countries with low meat consumption have in common? d Which would you choose to explain food traditions in India, the map or one of the tables? Explain why. e Explain how the tables and the map show much of the same information about meat consumption. f Did you find one of the tables or the map easiest to understand? Why?

10 Speaking. Compare eating habits in two of the countries referred to in the graphs. Give a mini-talk in class where you compare and contrast these countries. Use tables and graphs to illustrate your points. BS 168 11 Listening. Listen to the pupil reading the graphs and reflect upon what he discovers. You should listen for specific information given in numbers about the countries. BS 151 12 Digital skills. Use the Internet to find information about meat consumption and life expectancy in Norway. BS 174 a Identify an Internet source you can trust. Explain what makes this source reliable. b Compare Norway to an English-speaking country of your choice. c Present your findings in a graph or a table for the classroom wall.

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

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Warm-up the story. Who are • Skim the main characters in this story?

One Grain of Rice A mathematical folktale by Demi

Long ago in India, there lived a raja who believed that he was wise and fair, as a raja should be. The people in his province were rice farmers. The raja decreed that everyone must give nearly all of their rice to him.

one grain of rice – ett riskorn raja – hersker province – område decreed – bestemte

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book


“I will store the rice safely,” the raja promised the people,” so that in time of famine, everyone will have rice to eat, and no one will go hungry.” Each year, the raja’s rice collectors gathered nearly all of the people’s rice and carried it away to the royal storehouses. For many years, the rice grew well. The people gave nearly all of their rice to the raja, and the storehouses were always full. But the people were left with only just enough rice to get by.

famine – hungersnød gathered – samlet inn royal storehouses – kongelige lagrene to get by – å klare seg

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

15


Then one year the rice grew badly, and there was famine and hunger. The people had no rice to give to the raja, and they had no rice to eat. The raja’s ministers implored him, “Your Highness, let us open the royal storehouses and give the rice to the people, as you promised.” “No!” cried the raja. “How do I know how long the famine may last? I must have the rice for myself. Promise or no promise, a raja must not go hungry!” Time went on, and the people grew more and more hungry. But the raja would not give out the rice.

hunger – sult implored – tryglet Your Highness – Deres Kongelige Høyhet feast – festmåltid, høytid court – hoff baskets – kurver trickle of rice – stråle av ris clever – smart halt – stopp replied – svarte good deed – gode gjerning reward – belønne deserve – fortjener exclaimed – utbrøt allow – tillate plentifully – rikelig thus – så, deretter modest – beskjeden

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

One day, the raja ordered a feast for himself and his court – as, it seemed to him, a raja should now and then even when there is famine. A servant led an elephant from a royal storehouse to the palace, carrying two full baskets of rice. A village girl named Rani saw that a trickle of rice was falling from one of the baskets. Quickly she jumped up and walked along beside the elephant, catching the falling rice in her skirt. She was clever, and she began to make a plan. At the palace, a guard cried, “Halt, thief! Where are you going with that rice?” “I am not a thief,” Rani replied. “This rice fell from one of the baskets, and  I am returning it now to the raja.” When the raja heard about Rani’s good deed, he asked his ministers to bring her before him. “I wish to reward you for returning what belongs to me,” the raja said to Rani. “Ask me for anything and you shall have it.” “Your Highness,” said Rani, “I do not deserve any reward at all. But if you wish, you may give me one grain of rice.” “Only one grain of rice?” exclaimed the raja. “Surely you will allow me to reward you more plentifully, as a raja should.” “Very well,” said Rani. “If it pleases Your Highness, you may reward me in this way. Today, you will give me a single grain of rice. Then, each day for thirty days you will give me double the rice you gave me the day before. Thus, tomorrow you will give me two grains of rice, the next day four grains of rice, and so on for thirty days.” “This seems still to be a modest reward,” said the raja. “But you shall have it.” And Rani was presented with a single grain of rice. The next day, Rani was presented with two grains of rice. And the following day, Rani was presented with four grains of rice.


On the ninth day, Rani was presented with two hundred and fifty-six grains of rice. She had received in all five hundred and eleven grains of rice, only enough for a small handful. “This girl is honest, but not very clever,” thought the raja. “She would have gained more rice by keeping what fell into her skirt!” On the twelfth day, Rani received two thousand and forty-eight grains of rice, about four handfuls. On the thirteenth day, she received four thousand and ninety-six grains of rice, enough to fill a bowl. On the sixteenth day, Rani was presented with a bag containing thirtytwo thousand, seven hundred and sixty-eight grains of rice. All together she had enough rice for two full bags. “This doubling adds up to more rice than I expected!” thought the raja. “But surely her reward won’t amount to much more.” On the twentieth day, Rani was presented with sixteen more bags filled with rice. On the twenty-first day, she received one million, forty-eight thousand, five hundred and seventy-six grains of rice, enough to fill a basket. On the twenty-fourth day, Rani was presented with eight million, three hundred and eighty-eight thousand, six hundred and eight grains of rice – enough to fill eight baskets, which were carried to her by eight royal deer. On the twenty-seventh day, thirty-two Brahma bulls were needed to deliver sixty-four baskets of rice.

honest – ærlig gained – fått Do you think the raja is right? deer – rådyr Brahma bulls – indiske okser deliver – levere troubled – bekymret contents – innholdet one billion – én milliard wise and fair – klok og rettferdig

The raja was deeply troubled. “One grain of rice has grown very great indeed,” he thought. “But I shall fulfill the reward to the end, as a raja should.” On the twenty-ninth day, Rani was presented with the contents of two royal storehouses. On the thirtieth and final day, two hundred and fifty-six elephants crossed the province, carrying the contents of the last four royal storehouses – five hundred and thirty-six million, eight hundred and seventy thousand, nine hundred and twelve grains of rice. All together, Rani had received more than one billion grains of rice. The raja had no more rice to give. “And what will you do with this rice,” said the raja with a sigh, “now that I have none?” “I shall give it to all the hungry people,” said Rani. “And I shall leave a basket of rice for you, too, if you promise from now on to take only as much rice as you need.” “I promise,” said the raja. And for the rest of his days, the raja was truly wise and fair, as a raja should be.

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

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Activities 13 Reading to understand a What was the raja’s reason for collecting nearly all of the people’s rice? b What reason did the raja give for keeping the rice when there was a famine? c What do you think of the reason the raja gave for having a feast?

two hundred and fifty-six – 256 twentieth – 20 th Practise saying them aloud. Your classmate will write the numbers you say. BS 157

d The raja mentions three things a raja should do. What are they?

17 Numbers. What is the rule for ordinal numbers in English? Complete the list: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th … 10th, 11th, … 20th, … 25th. BS 157

e How many grains of rice did Rani get on the tenth day? Write the number in both letters and numerals.

18 Nouns.

f Find examples and sentences from the story that show that this is a folktale. g What would you say is the moral or message in this folktale? Write a paragraph. 14 Writing. This is how you can tell if a text is a folktale:

• The story teaches a moral or lesson. • There are few characters. • The wise hero or heroine fights against a powerful person.

• Events are repeated. • The ending is almost always happy. Write your own mathematical folktale inspired by One Grain of Rice. Choose one of these titles:

• One drop of water • One tiny blueberry • One clever ant 15 Speaking. a Act out the story as a play together with two classmates. Roles: Rani, the raja and a narrator. You may improvise and add dialogue. b Agree upon what was good about your play.

18

16 Numbers. Write all the numbers you can find in the text in numerals. For example:

Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

BS 13

rice, bowl, bread, famine, hunger, basket, deer, water, bull, rain, elephant a Sort the nouns into two groups: countable or uncountable nouns. b Write the countable nouns in the singular and plural form. c Use each of the nouns in the singular or plural form or with a quantifier to complete these sentences. Example: Pass me some bread, please.

• I am hungry, I want _______. • Is there _______ left? • Yes, there is _______ in the fridge. • I had a _______ for dinner. • Pour _______ into the jug. • In the rainy season _______. • When there is _______ all the people are starving.

• _____ was falling from one of the baskets. • If you wish, you may give me _______. • _______ delivered baskets of rice. • _______ are very shy animals. • The raja had different animals such as _______.


19 Vocabulary. Explain these words in English: famine, farmer, royal, promise, servant, feast, a trickle of rice, thief, reward, honest 20 Vocabulary. Many pupils overuse the verb to get. In the story, several expressions are used instead of to get, for example in these sentences: Rani was presented with a single grain of rice. Rani received two thousand and forty eight grains of rice. a Look up the verb to get in a dictionary or on the Internet. What different meanings does this verb have? b Find a verb to replace get in these sentences, or rewrite the sentences.

• Get a job.

21 Pronunciation. Do you know how to pronounce the two sounds /v/ and /w/?

BS 65

a Practise pronouncing these words with a classmate. very well, wise, reward, province, away, village, wish, deserve, bowl, vegetables, waste

• You get hungry if you don’t have rice. • Get my basket for me. • How did you get in? • You have to get going. • Rani has got brown eyes.

b Write a poem about Rani where you include as many of these words as possible. c Read your poem aloud. d Explain how to pronounce the sounds /v/ and /w/ in English to a classmate.

• I have got to see you. • Do you get me? • Get away!

22 Numbers. Each day Rani received twice as much rice as the day before. Show how quickly one grain of rice grows into so much more. a Use a computer to visualize how the amount of rice increases. b Explain to a classmate how quickly the amount of rice increases. c How can you find out how many grains of rice Rani received altogether?

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

19


Warm-up can you tell that • How this text is from an instruction manual?

Cool Down Your Drink Here is a very quick way to cool down your drink. You can use this method for any canned or bottled drink. All you need is a can of lemonade at room temperature, a thermometer, a bowl, water, ice cubes and salt. At room temperature, the drink is about 22 °C.

! Did you know? 22 °C = 22 degrees Celsius

BS 162

Start by putting a bit of water in a bowl and top it up with ice.

Next, sprinkle over a couple of tablespoons of salt. Give it a good mix. Then go ahead and put your can into the bowl. Basically, adding salt causes the ice to melt faster, but to do this, it needs to draw heat energy from wherever possible. In this case out of our can. This causes the drink to cool down rapidly.

Then, after a minute, give the ice in the bowl a good stir.

Finally, after a couple of minutes take the can out. You can see that the temperature has dramatically dropped all the way down to 5 °C. That’s a total drop of 19 °C in just two minutes. This is a perfect temperature to serve ice-cold lemonade.

canned or bottled drink – drikk på boks eller flaske room temperature – romtemperatur ice cubes – isbiter top it up – fyll opp sprinkle – strø melt – smelte heat energy – varmeenergi wherever possible – der det er mulig rapidly – raskt stir – røre dropped – sunket

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book


Activities 23 Reading to understand. Correct these sentences so that they become true. a Put the salt in the can of lemonade. b The salt melts because of the heat. c Rapidly means in a strange way. d After two minutes the temperature in the can is 19 °C. e Room temperature is perfect for a can of lemonade. 24 Speaking. Read the instruction manual to a classmate. Your classmate will act upon your instructions.

28 Adverbs. Instruct your classmate. Choose adverbs to use with the expressions below. Your classmate acts according to your instructions. angrily, bravely, calmly, cheerfully, clumsily, enthusiastically, gracefully, impatiently, nervously, proudly, rapidly, romantically Example: Read the recipe rapidly. Dish up a meal … Hand round some vegetables … Heat up some soup … Put out the rubbish … 29 Vocabulary.

25 Vocabulary. In this instruction manual you can find these linking words: start, next, then, finally. Here are some more linking words for the same purpose: first, later, eventually, at last, meanwhile, in the end, afterwards. BS 82 a Why are these words important in a text like this? b Organize the linking words in three groups: for the beginning of a text, in the middle and at the end of a text. c Rewrite the instructions using some of the other linking words. 26 Writing. Write your own instruction manuals. Include linking words and illustrations.

• How to boil an egg • How to boil potatoes • How to make a healthy packed lunch • How to become a chef 27 Listening. Listen to pupils talking about what they learn in food science at school. BS 151

apple, beef, strawberry, lemon, bread, egg, tea, spoon, cutlery, hamburger, carrot, orange, onion, lamb chops, knife, pineapple, juice, lemonade, fork, veal, cabbage, pear, steak, liver, soup a Sort these words under the right heading: fruit, meat, vegetables, utensils, drink. b Some words do not belong in any of the categories. Make up categories for these words. c Write all the words in the plural form or add a quantifier when necessary. BS 10 30 Digital skills. Find out more about these food items: jelly, whipped cream, custard, sponge cake, trifle a Explain what they are, in English, to a classmate. b Write instructions for how to make one of the dishes. Use linking words like first, then, while, when, after. BS 82

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

21


Warm-up table manners that • List are common in Norway.

Manners Matter Do you know how to be a perfect guest? Take the quiz to find out. 1 When drinking a it is rude to drink noisily or slurp. b you can drink noisily when you have a hot drink. c it is not rude to drink noisily. 2 When you would like more green beans, you a reach across the table to get the beans. b say “I want more green beans”. c say “Could you please pass the green beans”. 3 If your host offers you a second helping, you a reply “Yes, please” or “No, thank you”. b reply “Yes” or “No”. c begin to clear the table. 4 When the food is very hot, you a wait until it is cooler. b complain. c help it to get cooler by blowing on it. 5 At the end of the meal, you put your knife a on one side of your plate and your fork on the other side. b on your lap. c parallel with your fork. They both point to the centre of the plate.

manners – manerer, oppførsel matter – er av betydning

6 When you have finished eating, you a check your mobile phone for new messages. b wait for everyone to finish before leaving the table. c leave the table immediately.

host – vert a second helping – en porsjon til immediately – med en gang

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

If you have this combination of answers, you are considered a polite guest: a, c, a, a, c, b

complain – klager


Activities 31 Reading to understand. a Find words in the text that have almost the same meaning as: straight away, impolite, loudly, warm, middle. b Find words that have almost the opposite meaning as: stretch, polite, silently, praise, later.

36 Nouns. Some nouns are uncountable. Use one of these quantifiers in each sentence. BS 13 all, less, more, more of, any, a lot of, most, some, enough, lots of, no, a little a Pass me _______ milk, please. b Is there _______ bread left?

32 Speaking. You are hired as an expert on table manners to instruct a class of year nine pupils. Prepare a lecture to give them. 33 Speaking. You and your classmate are at a nice restaurant in Sydney. Practise table manners and act out the situation. 34 Speaking. Discuss why all cultures have table manners and other rules for living together. 35 Nouns. Do you know how to make the plural of nouns? BS 10 a Write these nouns in the plural: fork, knife, food, tea, toast. b What is the rule for nouns that end with -x, for example box? c What is the rule for nouns that end with consonant + y, for example berry? d What is the rule for nouns that end with -f or -fe, for example knife? e What is the rule for some nouns that end with -o, for example potato? f What is special about these nouns: sheep, salmon, deer? g What is special about these nouns: child, goose, tooth?

c I have eaten _______ chocolate. d Let me give you _______ advice. e Before you start, let me give you _______ information. f In his tool box he has _______ equipment. g I am not that hungry, I just want _______ bread. 37 Verbs. Your elderly aunt does not have nice table manners. Write a long text message to a friend where you explain how she behaves at meals. Make sure to use verbs in the present simple correctly. Example: Auntie Jean eats like a pig! She talks with her mouth full and … 38 Numbers. You had better cut the pizza into four pieces, because I’m not hungry enough to eat six pieces. Explain what this person does not understand.

Did you know?

!

In Norway it is considered polite to say Thank you for the food. This is a typical Norwegian expression and not common in other countries. In Britain you may say What a delicious meal!

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

23


Warm-up story takes place • This during World War II. Scan these pages to find evidence that proves this.

orphanage – barnehjem riot – opprør, spetakkel nun – nonne navigation – navigering, å finne veien crooked teeth – skeive tenner pinch – stjele fogged up – doggete edge – kant

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

The Carrot Extract from Once by Morris Gleitzman

Once I was living in an orphanage in the mountains and I shouldn’t have been and I almost caused a riot. It was because of the carrot. You know how when a nun serves you very hot soup from a big metal pot and she makes you lean in close so she doesn’t drip and the steam from the pot makes your glasses go all misty and you can’t wipe them because you’re holding your dinner bowl and the fog doesn’t clear even when you pray to God, Jesus, the Virgin Mary, the Pope and Adolf Hitler? That’s happening to me. Somehow I find my way towards my table. I use my ears for navigation. Dodie who always sits next to me is a loud slurper because of his crooked teeth. I hold my bowl above my head so other kids can’t pinch my soup while I’m fogged up and I use Dodie’s slurping noises to guide me in. I feel for the edge of the table and put my bowl down and wipe my glasses. That’s when I see the carrot.


It’s floating in my soup, huge among the flecks of cabbage and the tiny blobs of pork fat and the few lonely lentils and the bits of grey plaster from the kitchen ceiling. A whole carrot. I can’t believe it. Three years and eight months I’ve been in this orphanage and I haven’t had a whole carrot in my dinner bowl once. Neither has anyone else. Even the nuns don’t get whole carrots, and they get bigger servings than us kids because they need the extra energy for being holy. We can’t grow vegetables up here in the mountains. Not even if we pray a lot. It’s because of the frosts. So if a whole carrot turns up in this place, first it gets admired, then it gets chopped into enough pieces so that sixty-two kids, eleven nuns and one priest can all have a bit. I stare at the carrot. At this moment I’m probably the only kid in Poland with a whole carrot in his dinner bowl. For a few seconds I think it’s a miracle. Except it can’t be because miracles only happened in ancient times and this is 1942. Then I realise what the carrot means and I have to sit down quick before my legs give way. I can’t believe it. At last. Thank you God, Jesus, Mary, the Pope and Adolf Hitler, I’ve waited so long for this. It’s a sign. This carrot is a sign from Mum and Dad. They’ve sent my favourite vegetable to let me know their problems are finally over. To let me know that after three long years and eight long months things are finally improving for Jewish booksellers. To let me know they’re coming to take me home. Yes. Dizzy with excitement, I stick my fingers into the soup and grab the carrot. Luckily the other kids are concentrating on their own dinners, spooning their soup up hungrily and peering into their bowls in case there’s a speck of meat there, or a speck of rat poo. I have to move fast. If the others see my carrot there’ll be a jealousy riot. This is an orphanage. Everyone here is meant to have dead parents. If the other kids find out mine aren’t dead, they’ll get really upset and the nuns here could be in trouble with the Catholic head office in Warsaw for breaking the rules.

What does he mean by ancient times?

floating –flyter flecks of cabbage – prikker av kål tiny blobs – små flekker lonely lentils – enslige linser plaster – murpuss chopped – hakket except – unntatt ancient times – eldgamle tider realise – innser sign – tegn improving – bedrer seg dizzy with excitement – svimmel av glede speck of meat – kjøttbit jealousy – misunnelse

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

25


Do you think Mother Minka was making a joke?

“Felix Saint Stanislaus.” I almost drop the carrot. It’s Mother Minka’s voice, booming at me from the high table. Everyone looks up. “Don’t fiddle with your food, Felix,” says Mother Minka. “If you’ve found an insect in your bowl, just eat it and be grateful.” The other kids are all staring at me. Some are grinning. Others are frowning and wondering what’s going on. I try not to look like a kid who’s just slipped a carrot into his pocket. I’m so happy I don’t care that my fingers are stinging from the hot soup. Mum and Dad are coming at last. They must be down in the village. They must have sent the carrot up here with Father Ludwik to surprise me. When everyone has gone back to eating, I give Mother Minka a grateful smile. It was good of her to make a joke to draw attention away from my carrot. There were two reasons Mum and Dad chose this orphanage, because it was the closest and because of Mother Minka’s goodness. When they were bringing me here, they told me how in all the years Mother Minka was a customer of their bookshop, back before things got difficult for Jewish booksellers, she never once criticised a single book. Mother Minka doesn’t see my smile, she’s too busy glaring at the Saint Kazimierz table, so I give Sister Elwira a grateful smile too. Sister Elwira doesn’t notice either because she’s too busy serving the last few kids and being sympathetic to a girl who’s crying about the amount of ceiling plaster in her soup. They’re so kind, these nuns. I’ll miss them when Mum and Dad take me home and I stop being Catholic and go back to being Jewish. “Don’t you want that?” says a voice next to me. Dodie is staring at my bowl. His is empty. He’s sucking his teeth and I can see he’s hoping my soup is up for grabs.

grateful – takknemlig grinning – gliser frowning – rynker pannen stinging – svir draw attention away – trekke oppmerksomheten bort customer – kunde up for grabs – bare å ta

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Did you know?

!

Morris Gleitzman grew up in England and went to live in Australia when he was sixteen years old. Now he is one of the bestselling children’s authors in Australia. He lives in Melbourne. You can find more information about him on his website.


Activities 39 Reading to understand. Complete these sentences with words from the story. a A nun serves Felix very hot … b Dodie is a loud … c Felix sees a whole … in his dinner bowl. d They can’t grow … up in the mountains. e The kids peer into their bowls in case there is a speck of … there. f Mother Minka thinks Felix has found an … in his bowl.

43 Verbs. Fill in the verbs in the present simple. BS 30

a The steam from the pot _____ your glasses go all misty. (to make) b The fog _____ not clear. (to do) c Because of his teeth, Dodie _____ a slurper. (to be) d Dodie’s slurping noises _____ Felix to the table. (to guide) e The boy who slurps ___ a friend of Felix. (to be) f Felix _____ his glasses. (to wipe)

40 Analysis. Talk to a classmate about these details from the text. a Why do you think Felix is staying in a Catholic orphanage when he is a Jew? b What do you learn about food shortages during World War II from reading this story? c Why was Felix delighted to find a whole carrot in his soup? d Give reasons why Felix put the carrot into his pocket instead of eating it. e Do you think Felix’ parents are alive? Give reasons why or why not. 41 Writing. Write a short summary of this story using these linking words to start the sentences: first, then, next, later, suddenly, finally. Start your summary with this sentence: First, a nun serves Felix very hot soup. Then, … BS 82 42 Punctuation. One of the first paragraphs is written as one long sentence. BS 56 a Find this paragraph. b Read the paragraph aloud. Where do you need to pause when you read? c Rewrite the paragraph adding punctuation marks such as commas and full stops.

g No one _____ carrots in their soup. (to get) h Even the nuns _____ not get carrots. (to do) i The nuns are holy, so they _____ extra energy. (to need) j Bread and butter ____ their daily food. (to be) k The quality of the food _____ poor. (to be) l Neither of Felix’ parents ___ with him. (to be) 44 Verbs. Most of this story is written in the present simple. BS 30 a Why do you think the first two sentences are in the past simple? b Rewrite these sentences into the present simple. c How does this change the beginning of the story? d Rewrite the last two paragraphs in the past simple. 45 Digital skills. Find out more about food during World War II. Make a search plan and use different sources of information to find out more about these topics. BS 174

• Food shortages • Rationing

• Food replacements • New recipes

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

27


Warm-up do you think • What you will eat for dinner in 20 years? Make a mind-map.

Future Foods Rising food prices, a growing population and environ­mental concerns are the reasons why food experts say that in the future we will have to rethink what we eat. So what might we be serving up in 20 years time?

SEA VEGETABLES rising – stigende population – befolkning environmental concerns – miljømessige utfordringer rethink – tenke nytt, revurdere algae – alger seaweed – tang, sjøgress lack of – mangel på replace – erstatte does not keep well – har kort holdbarhet source of protein – proteinkilde raise – dyrke, oppdrette cattle – storfe consume – forbruker carbon footprint – karbonfotavtrykk edible – spiselige diet – kost, diett caterpillars – larver, kålorm locusts – grasshopper wasps – veps delicacy – delikatesse iron – jern minced beef – kjøttdeig

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Algae and seaweed can feed humans and animals and can be grown in the ocean. That is a big bonus where there is a lack of fresh water. The great thing about seaweed is that it grows very quickly; it is the fastest growing plant on earth. Therefore, seaweed farms could easily be very successful. Sea­ weed is eaten fresh or dried and can replace salt in different kinds of food.

There are about 10,000 types of sea­ weed in the world and the flavour can vary a lot. However, only a tiny part of edible sea vegetables is used in food, mostly in Japan. Seaweed can be used in sushi, salads, main courses and as snacks. Fresh seaweed does not keep well, so it is best to buy it dried.


INSECTS Insects are a great source of protein. They also cost less to raise than cattle, consume less water and do not have much of a carbon footprint. There are about 1,400 species of insect that are edible. Large parts of the world’s population already eat insects as a regular part of their diet. Caterpillars and locusts are popular in Africa. Wasps are a delicacy in Japan. Food source

Protein (g)

Iron (mg)

Caterpillar (100 g)

28.2

35.5

Grasshopper (100 g)

20.6

5

Minced beef (100 g)

27.4

3.5

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

29


crackers – kjeks

Wasp crackers

bamboo worms – bambusmark

Wasp crackers are popular in Japan. They have real wasps baked right into them.

recipe – oppskrift chirp – kvitre utensils – utstyr flour – mel baking soda – natron crickets – sirisser, gresshopper preparation – forberedelse

Bamboo worms Bamboo worms are popular in Thailand. They are an insect larvae snack. They are high in protein and fibre and low in fat.

Scorpions Scorpions on a stick are popular in China. Most people say they are crunchy, with­ out much of a taste.

okies

Recipe – Chocolate “chirp” co

nts and utensils you need. Before cooking, fetch all the ingredie start. Read the recipe carefully before you Ingredients 2 ¼ cups plain flour 1 tsp baking soda 1 tsp salt 1 cup unsalted butter, softened 1½ cups brown sugar 1 tsp vanilla 2 eggs 12 oz chocolate chips 1 cup chopped mixed nuts (optional) ½ cup dry-roasted crickets

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Preparation method Preheat the oven to 375 °F. Mix together the butter, the sugar and the vanilla, beating until the mixture is smooth and creamy. Beat in the eggs and then slowly add the flour, salt and baking soda. Stir in the nuts, insects and chocolate chips. Place rounded teaspoonfuls of the mixture onto a greased baking sheet and bake in the oven for 8–10 minutes.


Activities 46 Reading to understand. Complete these sentences using information from the text. a We have to rethink what we eat because … b You do not need to add salt to a seaweed salad because … c Using insects as food helps to save the planet because … d Caterpillars are more nutritious than minced beef because … e Seaweed farmers can earn a lot of money because … f You should buy dried seaweed instead of fresh because … 47 Speaking. You are giving a speech at a conference about Future Foods. Your task is to convince the audience to eat differently. a Use facts and arguments from the text when you plan your speech. b Give the speech in class.

BS 117

c What was good about your speech? 48 Vocabulary. In this text you can find the word rethink. Words that begin with re- often mean to do something again. Explain these words in English. BS 72 rethink, rephrase, react, rearrange, recycle, remove, reuse, reduce

49 Vocabulary. Linking words help paragraphs to flow smoothly. BS 82

50 Writing. Create a soup or a salad for the future. The recipe is to be published in a new cookery book. 51 Digital skills. What will we eat in the future? Find two reliable Internet sources and answer these questions. BS 174 a Give examples of future foods. b Find reasons why we have to rethink what we eat. c Find names of experts or organisations that give reliable information on these topics. d What makes these sources reliable? 52 Speaking. You are giving a presentation about food traditions and future trends at a food conference for students. Choose one of these topics: slow food, fair trade, vegetarian food, kosher food, halal food. Explain:

• what kinds of food can be eaten and what should be avoided.

• reasons why people keep to this diet. • advantages and disadvantages of this diet. 53 Writing. People around the world are starving. In the US, one in six people struggles with hunger. How can future foods solve this problem? Write an article. BS 110 54 Numbers. This recipe uses American measurements. a Find out how many ml there are in a cup. b Find out how to convert ounces to grams.

a Find the linking words in the text about sea vegetables.

c Convert the recipe into metric measurements.

b Rewrite the paragraph about insects but include linking words such as for example, in addition, although, however. You may need to change some of the other sentences.

d Convert 375 °F to Celsius.

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

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Warm-up you eat an animal • Would that was talking to you? Discuss in groups.

The Restaurant at the End of the Universe Arthur Dent, Ford Prefect, Trillian and Zaphod Beeblebrox are visiting Milliways, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe. Usually at a restaurant, customers read a menu to choose what they would like to eat. This restaurant is different, however. A cow walks over to the table and talks to the customers, giving them tips about what parts of his body they could choose to eat. Extract from The Restaurant at the End of the Universe by Douglas Adams

“Good evening,” it lowed and sat back heavily on its haunches, “I am the main Dish of the Day. May I interest you in parts of my body?” It harrumphed and gurgled a bit, wriggled its hind quarters into a more comfortable position and gazed peacefully at them.

lowed – rautet haunches – bakende harrumphed – harket gurgled – gurglet wriggled – vrikket hind quarters – bakparten gazed – stirret

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Its gaze was met by looks of startled bewilderment from Arthur and Trillian, a resigned shrug from Ford Prefect and naked hunger from Zaphod Beeblebrox. “Something off the shoulder perhaps?” suggested the animal, “Braised in a white wine sauce?” “Er, your shoulder?” said Arthur in a horrified whisper. “But naturally my shoulder, sir,” mooed the animal contentedly, “nobody else’s is mine to offer.” Zaphod leapt to his feet and started prodding and feeling the animal’s shoulder appreciatively. “Or the rump is very good,” murmured the animal. “I’ve been exercising it and eating plenty of grain, so there’s a lot of good meat there.” It gave a mellow grunt, gurgled again and started to chew the cud. It swallowed the cud again. “Or a casserole of me perhaps?” it added. “You mean this animal actually wants us to eat it?” whispered Trillian to Ford. “Me?” said Ford, with a glazed look in his eyes, “I don’t mean anything.” “That’s absolutely horrible,” exclaimed Arthur, “the most revolting thing I’ve ever heard.”

startled – forskrekket bewilderment – forvirring resigned shrug – resignert skuldertrekk braised – grytestekt contentedly – tilfreds leapt – hoppet prodding – stikke appreciatively – anerkjennende rump – rumpe, bak murmured – mumlet mellow grunt – mildt grynt chew the cud – tygge drøv casserole – gryterett revolting – motbydelig

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

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Why do you think Arthur says that it is heartless?

transferring – flyttet raged – raste death throes – dødskamp tender – mør emphatically – ettertrykkelig rolling his eyes – himlet med øynene disapprovingly – her: for å vise uenighet tangled – kompliserte breed – fø opp capable – i stand til rare – lettstekt staggered to its feet – stablet seg på føttene wink – blunk humane – human waddled – vraltet

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

“What’s the problem Earthman?” said Zaphod, now transferring his attention to the animal’s enormous rump. “I just don’t want to eat an animal that’s standing here inviting me to,” said Arthur, “it’s heartless.” “Better than eating an animal that doesn’t want to be eaten,” said Zaphod. “That’s not the point,” Arthur protested. Then he thought about it for a moment. “Alright,” he said, “maybe it is the point. I don’t care, I’m not going to think about it now. I’ll just … er … “ The Universe raged about him in its death throes. “I think I’ll just have a green salad,” he muttered. “May I urge you to consider my liver?” asked the animal, “it must be very rich and tender by now, I’ve been force-feeding myself for months.” “A green salad,” said Arthur emphatically. “A green salad?” said the animal, rolling his eyes disapprovingly at Arthur. “Are you going to tell me,” said Arthur, “that I shouldn’t have green salad?” “Well,” said the animal, “I know many vegetables that are very clear on that point. Which is why it was eventually decided to cut through the whole tangled problem and breed an animal that actually wanted to be eaten and was capable of saying so clearly and distinctly. And here I am.” It managed a very slight bow. “Glass of water please,” said Arthur. “Look,” said Zaphod, “we want to eat, we don’t want to make a meal of the issues. Four rare steaks please, and hurry. We haven’t eaten in five hundred and seventy-six thousand million years.” The animal staggered to its feet. It gave a mellow gurgle. “A very wise choice, sir, if I may say so. Very good,” it said, “I’ll just nip off and shoot myself.” He turned and gave a friendly wink to Arthur. “Don’t worry, sir,” he said, “I’ll be very humane.” It waddled unhurriedly off into the kitchen. A matter of minutes later the waiter arrived with four huge steaming steaks.


Activities 55 Reading to understand.

59 Verbs. Fill in the correct form of the verb. BS 26

a Why does the cow argue that it should be eaten?

Example: Each guest receives a warm welcome.

b Why did they breed an animal that wanted to be eaten?

a Every country _____ its own traditions. (to have)

c Why do you think the author has written about the topic in a humoristic way?

b Everyone _____ Norwegian here. (to speak)

d Find as many words related to food as possible in this story. Sort the words into categories of your own choice. 56 Writing. Imagine what is on the menu at this restaurant. Write the menu with different dishes for starters, main courses and desserts. 57 Speaking. A visit to the restaurant at the end of the universe. a Work with a classmate and agree upon a menu with different dishes. b Decide who will be the waiter and who will be the guest and act out the visit to the restaurant. c Write a restaurant review in groups. Think about food quality, quality of service, value for money, cleanliness, things you would change and so on. d Swap the review with another group. What is good about the review? What could be improved? 58 Writing. Write a story about one of the following: a a cabbage that wants to be eaten b a cucumber that does not want to be eaten c a wasp that wants to be eaten

c Each of these pictures _____ of the Tower of London. (to be) d Each and every one of you _____ to work harder. (to need) e The teachers each _____ their own computer. (to have) 60 Vocabulary. There are a lot of English idioms related to food. Explain what these idioms mean and give an example for when to use each of them. a Not my cup of tea b I am fed up with it c That’s a piece of cake d Cool as a cucumber e She’s full of beans f To make a meal of something 61 Nouns.

BS 13

sheep, grass, beetle, water, wool, mess, pan, crisps, napkin a Divide these nouns into countable and uncountable nouns. b What is the difference between countable and uncountable nouns? Explain to a classmate. c Explain how and when to use some, any, every and no with these nouns.

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

35


Chapter Activities Sum up 62 Language. This recipe does not contain amounts and quantifiers. Add a suitable word in each space. BS 13 the, a couple of, a few, a small amount of, a little, a handful of First break _____ eggs into a bowl and add _____ milk. Beat together and then add _____ salt and pepper. Melt _____ butter in a pan. Pour _____ mixture from the bowl into the pan and stir gently. Just before the mixture sets, add _____ chopped chives and _____ grated cheese. Serve on a plate with _____ salad. 63 Vocabulary. Use this chapter, the Internet or other sources to complete these tasks. a Name four different kinds of vegetables you might want to use in a tasty soup. b Name four vegetables that are often eaten raw. c The word kiwi can have three different meanings. What are they? d Imagine a friend who has never tasted lemon. Describe it to him or her. e Which kitchen utensils do you need for making bacon and eggs for breakfast? f Name at least five utensils that would be useful for baking biscuits. g If your dishwasher breaks down, where can you wash your plates and cups? 64 Writing. Write an informative paragraph about food habits in Norway. BS 80

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

65 Vocabulary. Sum up words and phrases related to the topic food. a Make a list of words you knew from before. b Make a list of words and expressions you have learnt by working with the material in this chapter. c Compare your lists in class. 66 Numbers. Create a soup recipe with your favourite ingredients. Write the recipe and draw an illustration. 67 Digital skills. Take pictures that illustrate the topic food. In groups decide which picture best illustrates the topic and present the picture in class. 68 Pronunciation. Find an online dictionary to find out how these words are pronounced in English. BS 62 vegetables, recipe, edible, healthy, tomatoes, potatoes, courgette, salmon, artichoke, utensil, spatula, consumption 69 Verbs. Present simple.

BS 30

a Write a paragraph about your favourite food in the present simple. b Take out all the verbs and put them, in the infinitive form, in a table underneath the text. c Ask a classmate to fill in the correct form of the verb in your text. d Correct the text and explain any mistakes to your classmate.


Move on 70 Speaking. Make a persuasive presentation. Choose one of these tasks. BS 145 a You are: The director of a fruit company Your audience: Teachers Your task: Give a speech about healthy eating in the future. b You are: A doctor Your audience: Parents Your task: Encourage parents to give children more vegetables. c You are: A pupil Your audience: Local politicians Your task: Convince the politicians that pupils should have free lunch at school every day.

71 Writing. Healthy eating is expensive. In some places a bottle of water is more expensive than a bottle of soda. Write an argumentative text discussing why this is the case. BS 112 72 Writing. The amount of food waste has increased over the last century. Write a factual text for the school paper where you include graphs and charts that illustrate this development. BS 166 73 Writing. What do people eat around the world? Choose a country. Write a factual text to inform others about it. Choose your own text type. BS 101

74 Speaking. Find arguments for and against providing warm lunch for pupils. Hold a debate in class. BS 136

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… discuss the way people live and what they eat … write informative paragraphs … write instructional texts … organize texts using linking words … use uncountable nouns … explain how to use a quantifier with uncountable nouns … use charts and graphs to talk about food habits

B Assessment 3–2–1 3 things I have learned by working with the material in this chapter. 2 things that are difficult to understand. 1 thing I want to learn more about or improve.

Chapter 1 • Food for Thought

37


2

Beyond


TOPIC WORDS senses sceptical

? Beyond can have several meanings. In which situations would you use the word beyond?

spectre to haunt spooky atmosphere

Learning objectives n

phenomena

n

supernatural

n n n n

Write a creative text Discuss a topic using arguments for and against Be persuasive in writing and speaking Use prepositions of place correctly Add adverbs to create atmosphere Use the present and past continuous

39


Warm-up many words • How about the supernatural do you know? Close the book and make a list.

Supernatural Vocabulary Supernatural Supernatural means beyond the natural and is used about phenomena that cannot be explained by science.

Extrasensory perception (ESP) From an online dictionary

Sensory perception is seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. Anything outside these senses is extrasensory. This means that people with ESP claim that they sense things the rest of us cannot. See also the sixth sense.

Poltergeists Poltergeists are types of spirits that are said to make their presence known physically. Believers say that poltergeists make noises such as tapping and banging sounds, move objects around or may even touch people.

Ghosts

literally – bokstavelig extrasensory perception – oversanselig oppfatning claim – påstår rumoured that – ryktene har det til at conclusive proof – overbevisende bevis sightings – iakttagelser the Abominable Snowman – den avskyelige snømannen werewolves – varulver evidence – bevis blurry – uskarpe traumatic – traumatisk messengers – budbringere presence – nærvær unpleasant – ubehagelig

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

There are different ways to define ghosts, but they are said to be the spirit of a person who is no longer alive. Some people believe that ghosts are the spirits of people who are trapped between this world and the next, maybe because they experienced a traumatic death. Mediums believe that they can contact these spirits. Other ghosts are thought to be messengers.

Cryptozoology Cryptozoology is the study of creatures rumoured to exist but for which proof is missing. There are many reported sightings of creatures such as the Abominable Snowman, the Loch Ness Monster, the Kraken, and werewolves, and the study of these creatures is taken seriously by cryptozoologists. There is very little evidence that these creatures exist, although some people have taken blurry photographs of them.

Spectre Spectre is often used as a synonym for ghost. However, it actually means the idea that something unpleasant may happen in the future.

Unidentified flying object An unidentified flying object, or UFO, is an object or light that moves in a way that makes it difficult for science to explain what it is. Many people associate the term with extraterrestrial beings, but UFOs are literally a supernatural phenomenon, anything that cannot be explained by logic or science.


Activities 1 Reading to understand. Which phenomena do these explanations refer to? a The study of vampires b A being that closes doors and makes strange noises c A glowing shape that hovers over a field 2 Vocabulary. In this text you will find both phenomenon and phenomena. Use the text and an online dictionary to find out what the difference is. Write a short explanation. 3 Writing. The blue words in the text are hyperlinks. Write definitions for at least four of these words, using the text as a model. You can use an online dictionary to help you. 4 Speaking. You are on holiday in Scotland and visit Loch Ness. You meet a local who tells you about the Loch Ness Monster. a Find information about the Loch Ness Monster. b Work with a classmate and act out the conversation. 5 Prepositions. Draw a picture of a spooky room with lots of strange objects in it. BS 52 a Describe where the objects are using prepositions of place.

Prepositions of place Prepositions of place are words that tell us where something is.

b Ask a classmate questions about the picture, such as: What is between the …? What can you see under the …? c How many prepositions of place can you list?

The haunted house is beyond the enchanted forest. Ghosts can walk through walls. BS 52

Chapter 2 • Beyond

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Warm-up are the five senses? • What What do you think a sixth

The Sixth Sense A film review by Jeremy Khan

sense is?

If you want to watch a film with plenty of spooky scenes to keep you on the edge of your seat and a twist that will leave you gasping, then look no further. M. Night Shyamalan’s study of the paranormal, The Sixth Sense, is the film for you.

Title: The Sixth Sense Director: M. Night Shyamalan Writer: M. Night Shyamalan Stars: Bruce Willis, Toni Collette, Haley Joel Osment Year of release: 1999 Type of film: drama, thriller Certificate: 15

Quiet, sensitive Cole worries his mother because he seems troubled and is not making friends. What she doesn’t know is that Cole has a secret that he cannot, or dare not, share with anyone. Dr Malcolm Crowe, a child psychologist who is himself suffering from depression following an incident with a former patient, takes on the job of helping Cole. Crowe realises that he needs to build up a relationship with the boy, by talking to him and gradually earning his trust. Eventually Cole is able to tell Crowe what the problem is: he sees ghosts. “I see dead people. They want me to do things for them.”

will leave you gasping – vil få deg til å gispe is suffering from depression – lider av depresjon incident – hendelse stillness – stillhet headliner – hovedattraksjon

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Director M. Night Shyamalan builds up the tension in the film beautifully, using stillness and silence to create a spooky atmosphere and show how trust slowly develops between Crowe and Cole. Then, just when the audience thinks that they understand what is happening, comes one of the best twists in cinema history. The film works largely because the two main characters communicate and understand each other so well. Although Bruce Willis is the headliner in the film, the real star is 11-year-old Haley Joel Osment. He plays Cole with


a disturbing intensity, and Willis forgets his usual action man character, playing psychologist Crowe with sensitivity and reserve. Good acting from the supporting cast and expert filming, added to the surprising story, make for a film experience that will leave you wondering how long you have to wait before you watch the film again.

Continuous Present continuous: Use the present continuous to talk about something that is happening right now. I am reading this chapter about the supernatural at the moment. Past continuous: Use the past continuous to talk about

• •

something that took place over a period of time in the past something that was unfinished when something else happened

I was sleeping deeply when the alarm clock rang. u

disturbing intensity – urovekkende intensitet

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To make the continuous: Present or past simple of the verb to be + the -ing form of the main verb.

BS 34, 38


Activities 6 Reading to understand. Get to know the text type film review. a How does the lead grab the reader’s attention? Give examples. b What is good about the way the main character is described? c Give examples of adjectives and adverbs that create an atmosphere. d What makes the last sentence well-written? e What would you like to copy if you were to write your own film review? f Does this film review make you want to see the film? Why, or why not? 7 Writing. Choose a film that you have seen recently. a Write your own film review. Remember not to reveal too much of the plot. b Ask a classmate to read your review. Does he or she want to see the film now? c If not, how can you adjust your review to make your classmate interested in the film? 8 Speaking. This film’s certificate is 15, which in Norway means that you have to be 15 to see the film alone, but that you can see it from the age of twelve with an adult. a Why do you think this film has a 15 certificate? b Find examples of other films with a 15 certificate. What reasons are given for this? c Discuss film certificates with a group of classmates. Do you think it is necessary to rate films in this way?

9 Speaking. Work in groups of three. One is the director of the film The Sixth Sense who wants to persuade a film studio to finance the film. Two pupils represent the film studio. a Act out the conversation.

BS 136

b Was this task challenging? Why, or why not? 10 Present continuous. In this sentence the present continuous is used: Cole is not making friends. a Explain why this tense is used here. b Many Norwegians tend to overuse the present continuous. Why do you think this is so? 11 Verbs. Choose the correct form of the verb for each sentence. Jim reads a ghost story every week. (to read) I didn't answer the phone because I was watching The Sixth Sense. (to watch) a She ______ a lot of TV series about the supernatural. (to watch) b At the moment I ______ a letter. (to write) c I didn’t hear a sound. At that hour I ______ (to sleep) d Josh fell asleep when he ______ in bed. (to read) e The ghost hunter ______ a sound that sounded like footsteps. (to record) f Julia and Alice ______ in Oxford (to live) but right now they ______ their aunt in Edinburgh. (to visit)

Chapter 2 • Beyond

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Warm-up do you think people • Why are so fascinated with the idea of ghosts?

physicist – fysiker actually – egentlig sightings – iakttagelser lain in bed – ligget i sengen random – tilfeldig coincidence – sammentreff twilight – skumring is struggling – kjemper dust – støv

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Do Ghosts Exist? Dr Philip Rogers, a physicist at the local university, is visiting St. Mary’s secondary school. The year nine pupils have invited him to their physics lesson to explain the science behind ghosts. Dr Rogers: Good morning everyone. Thank you for inviting me to talk to you today. Before I start, let’s see what kind of audience I’m talking to. How many of you believe in ghosts? Twenty hands! That’s about half of you – interesting! My job today is as a scientist, to show you that many of the things that are reported as ghosts can actually be explained by science. Remember that your brain is a wonderful thing that takes information from everything that you sense, everything that you touch, see, hear, feel and smell, and makes sense of it for you. It is actually your brain’s ability to work with this information which can explain some ghostly sightings. For example, how many of you have lain in bed looking out of the window at clouds and seen different shapes and figures? I thought so! That’s your brain at work, looking for something familiar in random shapes. It’s no coincidence that many ghostly sightings happen in the twilight or at night, when it’s more difficult to see things clearly and to see the colour of things. People often report that they saw something ghostly, but they saw it only briefly and out of the corner of their eye. When you look at something out of the corner of your eye, you do not see it clearly because from this angle your eye can see light and movement but not colour. Your brain processes this information. This means that it tries to make sense of this information for you, and will try to find a pattern to give you. It may even use an image you have seen before if it is struggling to process the information. So you think you’ve seen a ghost, but when you look at it directly, the ghost disappears. Except it doesn’t, it was never there at all. What about photographs though? If you search on the Internet you’ll find plenty of examples of ghostly photographs. Many of these can be fairly easily explained. For example, insects or dust on the camera lens will cause a ghostly shape that the photographer didn’t see when they took the photo. Some people have even interpreted the strap from their camera as being evidence of ghosts when it hangs in front of the lens! In the old days when I started taking photographs (I was born in 1970 but to you that’s the old days!), before the arrival of digital cameras, sometimes


wind on – spole fram superimposed – plassert over haunted houses – spøkelseshus odd behaviour – uvanlig adferd

the film did not wind on properly and one ghostly image was super­ imposed on the photograph that was developed. Science can also explain a haunted laboratory belonging to scientist Vic Tandy. Both Tandy and his workers experienced feelings of nervous­ness and the presence of something. Tandy even saw a quick image of something, as did his cleaning lady. The most disturbing was the fact that Tandy had a fencing sword which vibrated when he held it in his hand. Tandy discovered that there were high levels of low frequency sound­waves in the laboratory, which could be traced to a fan that had been recently installed. The fan was adjusted and all the symptoms of haunting disappeared. Have I convinced you? It’s true that science hasn’t proved for certain that ghosts do not exist, but I believe that all of the phenomena that

leaky heater – utett varmeovn hallucinations – hallusinasjon, synsbedrag nervousness – nervøsitet presence – nærvær fencing sword – fektesverd vibrated – vibrerte low frequency sound wave – lavfrekvent lydbølge fan – vifte adjusted – justerte convinced – overbeviste

Chapter 2 • Beyond

47


convection – konveksjon sleep paralysis – søvnlammelse

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

people want to believe are ghosts or spirits, can actually be explained by science. Do you have any questions? Daniel: Yes. Lots of people report a drop in temperature when there is a spirit about. How can you explain that? Dr Rogers: Physics again actually. Often there is a window or a chimney that is responsible. In other situations it’s convection. Objects that are warmer than others send their heat to the surroundings and this warm air rises. When it cools, it sinks and there you have your cold spot. Jack: I read about someone who woke up and saw a ghost of a soldier in their room. They were really scared and tried to reach over to put the light on but they were paralysed. They just couldn’t move. Dr Rogers: Ah. That sounds like sleep paralysis. This happens when people are disturbed in their sleep cycle. Their muscles are paralysed, which scientists think is to stop them acting out their dreams. This is a very interesting area of science that we don’t know enough about yet, but it can explain some ghostly sightings. Emily: My gran saw my grandad after he had died. She saw him in the garden and he smiled at her. She said she felt very peaceful and that he seemed to be saying goodbye. Dr Rogers: I think that’s another example of your mind playing tricks on you. Many people are very upset about losing someone and want very much to see them again, so their mind tricks them. Sam: But what about buildings where lots of different people have seen spectres? Like Hampton Court and the Tower of London? Surely science can’t explain that as everyone’s mind playing tricks? Lucy: Before you answer Sam, what’s a spectre? Dr Rogers: Right. Let’s clear up the word spectre first. Spectre is often used in literature to mean a ghost, and this is what Sam means. Actually, the word spectre means that something unpleasant might happen in the future. Now, to the question of ghosts in buildings. I believe that we can explain the fact that lots of people claim to see ghosts in old buildings. Of course, it may be that there are some mysteries that science cannot explain just yet, like your example here, but I really believe that there is a scientific explanation for everything if we look hard enough. But perhaps it’s OK that science hasn’t solved everything and that people keep being interested – after all, there’s nothing like a creepy ghost story! Thanks again for inviting me to talk to you today – good luck with your project on ghosts and ghost stories, and I hope that some of you have been inspired to become scientists too!


Activities 12 Reading to understand. Decide whether these sentences are true or false according to Dr Rogers. Rewrite the false sentences. a Most ghosts are seen at night. b You can see colour clearly out of the corner of your eye. c Sometimes ghosts appear on photos because there are two pictures on top of one another. d When the temperature drops in a room, a ghost has just entered.

15 Listening. Listen to Alex describing a supernatural experience. BS 152 a Take notes while you listen. b Use your notes to retell the story to a classmate. c Do you think there is a scientific explanation for this experience? 16 Writing. Write an article for a magazine called “Mysteries and the Unexplained.” Choose one of these titles for your article: BS 110

e People who see ghosts in their room at night are dreaming.

• Ghost seen in …

f Science can explain everything.

• Rembrandt paintings came alive.

13 Writing. Write two paragraphs to persuade people who believe in ghosts that ghosts do not exist. Use some of these techniques:

• Find information in this chapter to help you to persuade them.

• Paranormal activity at … • Man saved by angels. 17 Writing. Write a description of today’s weather so that it will fit a ghost story. Use adjectives and adverbs to create a spooky atmosphere. BS 90

• Use the word you in order to include the readers.

• Use words like scientists and experts to lend weight to your ideas.

• Link ideas using therefore, however, moreover, as a matter of fact. 14 Speaking. You are a ghost who has listened to this talk. You haunt the class to persuade them that ghosts actually do exist and that Dr Rogers is wrong.

• Tell your story in a “ghostly manner”. • Give examples and evidence that you exist. • Explain why you think some people do not believe in ghosts.

18 Verbs. Copy this paragraph, choosing the correct verb tenses. BS 36, 38 It was a dark and cloudy night and the moon shone/was shining brightly in the sky. Samantha walked/was walking quickly along the lane on her way to football practice when she noticed/ was noticing a group of people by the entrance to the park. They looked/were looking and pointing at something in the distance. Samantha walked/was walking over and asked/ was asking one of them what they looked/were looking at. “Something really weird is going on,” he explained/was explaining. “We ran/were running past the entrance here when we heard/ were hearing a funny grunting sound and a ghostly laugh. We shone/were shining a torch into the park and two huge wild eyes stared/ were staring back at us.”

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Warm-up teenager described the • Abook Skellig using these words: extraordinary, mysterious, atmospheric. What do you think the book is about?

Skellig Soon after Michael and his family move into a new house, he discovers an old man in the garage, a man who seems to be waiting to die. Michael and his new friend, Mina, try to help the man, who is called Skellig, by giving him food, drink and aspirin to take away the pain of his arthritis. They have to move Skellig to a hiding place as Michael’s dad is going to knock down the garage. When they get there, they see that he is actually quite young, and are intrigued by some lumps they can feel on his shoulder blades. Extract from Skellig by David Almond

extraordinary – ekstraordinært atmospheric – stemningsfull aspirin – smertestillende arthritis – leddgikt are intrigued by – blir nysgjerrige på ceilings – tak wallpapered walls – tapetserte vegger pierced the cracks – trengte gjennom sprekkene blankets – tepper cod liver oil – tran beams of light – lysstråler rips – flenger, rifter unfurl – folde seg ut crooked – bøyd

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We took him into a bedroom with high white ceilings and pale wallpapered walls. We rested him against the wall. Thin beams of light pierced the cracks in the boards on the windows and shone on to his pale, dry face. I hurried back down for the parcels. We unrolled the blankets we had brought. We laid them out with a pillow on the floor. We put down a little plastic dish for his aspirins and cod liver oil. I put an opened bottle of beer beside it. There was a cheese sandwich and half a bar of chocolate. “All for you,” Mina whispered. “Let us help you,” I said. He shook his head. He turned over, onto all fours, started to crawl the short distance to the blankets. We saw his tears dropping through the beams of light, splashing on to the floor. He knelt by the blankets, panting. Mina went to him, knelt facing him. “I’ll make you more comfortable,” she whispered. She unfastened the buttons on his jacket. She began to pull his jacket down over his shoulders. “No,” he squeaked. “Trust me, “ she whispered. He didn’t move. She slid the sleeves down over his arms, took the jacket right off him. We saw what both of us had dreamed we might see. Beneath his jacket were wings that grew out through rips in his shirt. When they were released, the wings began to unfurl from his shoulder blades. They were twisted and uneven, they were covered in cracked and crooked feathers. They clicked and trembled as they opened. They were wider than his shoulders, higher than his head. Skellig hung his head


Where do you think Skellig's home is? whimpered with pain – klynket av smerte brow – panne squeaked – jamret to quiver – å skjelve Whisper – navn på en katt purring – maler palms – håndflater sinews – sener tiptoed – gikk på tærne shutters – vinduslemmer chinks – små sprekker

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towards the floor. His tears continued to fall. He whimpered with pain. Mina reached out to him, stroked his brow. She reached further and touched the feathers with her fingertips. “You’re beautiful, “ she whispered. “Let me sleep,” squeaked Skellig. “Let me go home.” He lay face down and his wings continued to quiver into shape above him. We drew the blankets up beneath them, felt his feathers against the skin on the backs of our hands. Soon Skellig’s breathing settled and he slept. Whisper rested against him, purring. We stared at each other. My hand trembled as I reached out towards Skellig’s wings. I touched them with my fingertips. I rested my palms on them. I felt the feathers, and beneath them the bones and sinews and muscles that supported them. I felt the crackle of Skellig’s breathing. I tiptoed to the shutters and stared out through the narrow chinks. “What are you doing?” she whispered. “Making sure the world’s really there,” I said.


A few days later Mina and Michael went back to the house, but Skellig had moved from the place where they left him. They looked all over the house and did not find him until, finally, they went right up to the attic. We climbed the final flight of stairs towards the final doorway. Gently, fearfully, we turned the handle and slowly pushed open the door. Moonlight came through the arched window. Skellig sat before its frame, bowed forward. We saw the black silhouette of his pale face, of his bowed shoulders, of his wings folded upon his shoulders. At the base of his wings was the silhouette of his shredded shirt. He must have heard us as we stepped through the door, as we crouched together against the wall, but he didn’t turn. We didn’t speak. We didn’t dare approach him. As we watched, an owl appeared, dropping on silent wings from the moonlit sky to the moonlit window. It perched on the frame. It bowed forward, opened its beak, laid something on the windowsill and flew out again. Skellig bent his head to where the bird had been. He pressed his lips to the windowsill. Then the owl, or the other owl, came again to the window, perched, opened its beak, flew off again. Skellig bent forward. He chewed. “They’re feeding him,” whispered Mina. And it was true. Each time the owls left, Skellig lifted what they had left him, he chewed and he swallowed. At last he turned to us. We saw nothing of his eyes, his pale cheeks; just his black silhouette against the glistening night. Mina and I held hands. Still we didn’t dare go to him. “Come to me,” he whispered. We didn’t move. “Come to me.” Mina tugged me, led me to him. We met him in the middle of the room. He stood erect. He seemed stronger than he’d ever been. He took my hand and Mina’s hand and we stood there, the three of us, linked in the moonlight on the old bare floorboards. He squeezed my hand as if to reassure me. When he smiled at me I caught the stench of his breath, the stench of things the owls had given him to eat. I gagged. His breath was the breath of an animal that lives off the meat of other living things: a dog, a fox, a blackbird, an owl. He squeezed me again and smiled again. He stepped sideways and we turned together, kept slowly turning, as if we were carefully, nervously, beginning to dance. The moonlight shone on our faces in turn. Each face spun from shadow to light, from shadow to light, and each time the faces of Mina and Skellig came into the light they were more silvery, more

What are the owls doing?

attic – loft flight of stairs – trappeavsats frame – ramme silhouette – omriss shredded – revet i strimler perched – satte seg på beak – nebb windowsill – vinduskarm glistening – glitrende floorboards – gulvplanker to reassure me – for å berolige meg stench – stank gagged – brekte meg blackbird – svarttrost nervously – engstelig

Chapter 2 • Beyond

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What happens to Mina and Michael?

expressionless – uttrykksløs penetrating – gjennomtrengende thundered – dundret delicate – skjør

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expressionless. Their eyes were darker, more empty, more penetrating. For a moment I wanted to pull away from them, to break the circle, but Skellig’s hand tightened on mine. “Don’t stop, Michael,” he whispered. His eyes and Mina’s eyes stared far into me. “No, Michael,” said Mina. “Don’t stop.” I didn’t stop. I found that I was smiling, that Skellig and Mina were smiling too. My heart raced and thundered and then it settled to a steady rolling rhythm. I felt Skellig’s and Mina’s hearts beating along with my own. I felt their breath in rhythm with mine. It was like we had moved into each other, as if we had become one thing. Our heads were dark, then were as huge and moonlit as the night. I couldn’t feel the bare floorboards with my feet. All I knew were the hands in mine, the faces turning through the light and the dark, and for a moment I saw ghostly wings at Mina’s back, I felt the feathers and delicate bones rising from my own shoulders, and I was lifted from the floor with Skellig and Mina. We turned circles together through the empty air of that empty room high in an old house in Crow Road.


Activities 19 Reading to understand. The writer uses the senses to describe what is going on. Give examples.

25 Adverbs. The writer uses adverbs like fearfully to create a spooky atmosphere in the story. BS 20

a What does Michael hear, feel and smell?

a Find adverbs in the text and write a list.

b Why do you think the writer use senses in this story?

b Use the adverbs to write a spooky paragraph that would fit the story about Skellig.

20 Speaking. Who or what do you think Skellig is? Discuss with a classmate. 21 Descriptions. What does Skellig look like? Scan the text to find information about him and then write a paragraph in which you describe him using your own words. You could also draw a picture of what you imagine Skellig looks like. BS 90

22 Writing. Michael is the narrator in this story. How different would the story be if Skellig told it? Rewrite this part of the story from Skellig’s point of view. 23 Speaking. Find elements in the story that are supernatural. Talk to a classmate about whether you believe that these elements are really supernatural or whether they can be explained. BS 136

24 Vocabulary. Scan the text to find words to describe how people speak. Example: he shouted a Write a definition for each of the words. b Give a classmate a list of the words and read out the definitions. Your classmate has to match the word with the correct definition. c Read part of the text in different ways, for example shouting or whispering, and ask a classmate to guess which of the words you are using.

26 Speaking. You are a radio reporter who has heard the story of Mina, Michael and Skellig. a Plan your report using these words: supernatural, sceptical, spectre, ghost, angel, haunt, spooky, atmosphere, paranormal, eyewitness, phenomena b Perform your report live in class, or record it. c Ask a classmate to tell you what was good about your report. 27 Writing. Skellig is the title of this text. a What other titles would fit this text? Suggest five new titles. b Discuss the titles with your classmates. Agree upon the best title. 28 Prepositions. Choose one of the prepositions below for each of the gaps in the text. BS 52 on, up, in front of, at, into, under, around, between, behind, inside Michael and Mina met ____ the old house. They went ____ the house and carefully closed the door ____ them. They went quietly ____ the stairs and ____ the room where they had left Skellig. He was not ____ the floor, in the space ____ the bed and the window or ____ the blankets. They carried on up to the attic. They found Skellig standing ____ the window. They went to him and he put his arms ____ them.

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Warm-up do you think this • What text will be about? Write freely for three minutes without stopping.

Crop Circles: Mystery or Hoax? By Jamila Dey, 21st March 2015

Imagine that you live on a farm and wake up to find that the crops in your fields have been flattened into circles and geometrical patterns during the night. Or that you are taking an evening walk in the countryside when a tiny whirlwind appears and hovers over a field, causing the grass to bend and lie down. This is what happened to the eyewitnesses in this article about crop circles.

Teenage prank

crop circles – kornsirkler hoax – spøk crop – avling

In May 2003, Martin Fowler, a farmer from Hambledon in Surrey, was surprised to find one of his fields of wheat pressed down into a series of circles and geometrical patterns. The patterns were large and had flattened about a third of the wheat in the field. “Looks like somebody had a busy time last night,” laughed Martin when we spoke to him over the phone. When we asked him how he thought the patterns had appeared he replied that he suspected local teenagers were responsible. “They went to a lot of trouble as the patterns are very regular and planned out. I think they got into the field from the path that runs along the side of the field and went up one of the tractor tracks so that we can’t see where they entered the field,” he explained. Asked whether he thought anything supernatural or extraterrestrial was to blame, he just chuckled and replied that nothing could be further from his mind.

flattened – flattrykt

Supernatural phenomena

whirlwind – virvelvind

Not everyone is so sure that the appearance of crop circles has such a simple explanation. In the same year, Sandy Reid, an expert on foxes, was walking alongside a field of barley in Tayside in Scotland, when he heard a rustling in the field. Thinking it was a deer, he stopped and listened. However, he soon saw that there was a wind which was making circles over the barley and causing it to flatten into a large circle, about 18 metres in diameter. Although Mr Reid was quite close to the wind,

hovers – svever wheat – hvete suspected – mistenkte barley – bygg rustling – rasling deer – hjort

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he did not feel it himself. He later returned to the site with a friend, and they found another large circle close by.

clockwise – med klokka anticlockwise – mot klokka plasma vortices – plasmavirvler

Geometrical shapes There are hundreds of eyewitness accounts like this about the appearance of simple circles or more complex geometrical shapes in fields. The first reports are from the 1500s and crop circles are mentioned from time to time until the 1980s and 90s when they began to attract more attention. So what are they? Basically, crop circles are shapes in fields caused by thebending of the plants. The plants lie either clockwise or anticlockwise and the patterns vary in both size and complexity. People who are interested in crop circles, cereologists as they call themselves, explain this phenomenon as the work of aliens or energy fields, plasma vortices, created by the earth itself. The circles could be the result of landing craft

Crop circle at Hackpen Hill, July 2013


or messages from outer space, for example. Much research has taken place into the idea of small currents of circling winds and to energy given out by the earth. People report feeling a tingling sensation near crop circles, and levels of electromagnetic radiation are higher in the circles. Some cereologists have also reported that plants in crop circles show damage like that from microwave radiation.

A grand hoax Researchers examine a crop circle near Salisbury, UK

However, not everyone is convinced. Joe Nickell, member of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, says that crop circles tick all the boxes for a grand hoax. The shapes appear at a time when crops are young and very difficult to break. In addition, they are usually limited to a small geographical area, southern England, and occur only at night, when it is hard to detect how they are made. Also, there was a massive increase in the 1990s when the phenomenon began to gain media attention, and the patterns have become increasingly complicated, suggesting that the hoaxers are becoming better at their job. Two hoaxers, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley actually came forward and admitted to making a number of crop circles. Even cereologist Colin Andrews admits that 80 % are probably hoaxes. But that leaves 20 % which science can’t explain. This does not mean that they cannot be explained, just that we don’t yet know how to. Aliens, energy from the earth, mysterious winds that come from nowhere, people playing an elaborate prank? What do you think?

landing craft – landingsfartøy tingling sensation – kriblende følelse electromagnetic radiation – elektromagnetisk stråling sceptical – skeptisk a grand hoax – en stor spøk an elaborate prank – en gjennomtenkt skøyerstrek

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Did you know?

!

• The name cereologist comes from Ceres, Roman goddess of agriculture.

• In 1987 one elaborate crop circle read “WEARENOTALONE”. Sceptics believe that if aliens were really behind this they would have written “YOUARENOTALONE”.


Activities 29 Reading to understand. a Find examples that the article you have read has

32 Speaking. Discuss this article in groups using these sentences. a This article is about …

• a good introduction

b The purpose of this article is to …

• varied vocabulary

c I would say this article is suitable for people who …

• interesting examples b Rewrite the introduction to make it look as if the writer is very sceptical of crop circles. c Find a sentence that gives neutral information about this topic. Rewrite it so that it expresses your own opinion on the topic. d Rewrite one of the paragraphs in this article in informal, spoken language. 30 Reading strategies. Which reading strategy would you use in order to find out: a the names of eyewitnesses? b what cereologists do? c what to say if you were asked to give a summary of this text? BS 127 31 Vocabulary. Take a look at these keywords from the text: patterns, flattened, whirlwind, cereologist, sceptic, hoax, wheat, crop, supernatural, extraterrestrial, barley, science a Group the words that you think belong together.

d I enjoyed … e I did not understand … 33 Pronunciation. Use an online dictionary. a Check the pronunciation of these words and practise pronouncing them.

• sceptic

• hoax

• cereology

• whirlwind

b Which of the words was most challenging for you to say? Explain what was challenging to a classmate. 34 Speaking. You are a keen cereologist and at a conference with scientists who are sceptical of your profession. Explain why you believe that your field of research is important. A classmate can be the sceptical scientist. Take turns being the scientist and the cereologist. 35 Speaking. Draw your own crop circle. Sit back to back. Describe your crop circle and your classmate will draw what you explain. BS 171 36 Verbs. Look at the paragraph about Sandy Reid. BS 36, 38

b Write a headline for each group of words.

a Find and list all the verbs.

c Use each group of words to give a short summary of the text.

b Sort the verbs into past simple and past continuous.

d Listen to your classmate’s summary and tell them what was good about it.

c Explain why the verbs in the past continuous have this form in the text.

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Warm-up ‘tis and thou are • Thrice, old-fashioned words that you will meet in this text. Which words would we use today?

A Witch’s Brew Extract from Macbeth by William Shakespeare

Act 4, Scene 1 A cavern. In the middle, a boiling cauldron. Thunder. Enter the three WITCHES. First Witch Thrice the brinded cat hath mew’d. Second Witch Thrice and once the hedge-pig whined. Third Witch Harpier cries ‘Tis time, ‘tis time.

thrice – tre ganger brinded – stripete hedge-pig – pinnsvin Harpier – Harpy, mytologisk figur cauldron – heksegryte entrails – innvoller swelter’d – svettet venom – gift toil – slit fillet – skive, filet fenny snake – en type slange newt – salamander adder – hoggorm blind-worm – stålorm lizard – firfisle owlet – ugle broth – suppe

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First Witch Round about the cauldron go; In the poison’d entrails throw. Toad, that under cold stone Days and nights has thirty-one Swelter’d venom sleeping got, Boil thou first i’ the charmed pot. All Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn, and cauldron bubble. Second Witch Fillet of a fenny snake, In the cauldron boil and bake; Eye of newt and toe of frog, Wool of bat and tongue of dog, Adder’s fork and blind-worm’s sting, Lizard’s leg and owlet’s wing, For a charm of powerful trouble, Like a hell-broth boil and bubble.


All Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. Third Witch Scale of dragon, tooth of wolf, Witches’ mummy, maw and gulf Of the ravin’d salt-sea shark, Root of hemlock digg’d i’ the dark, Liver of blaspheming Jew, Gall of goat, and slips of yew Silver’d in the moon’s eclipse, Nose of Turk and Tartar’s lips, Finger of birth-strangled babe Ditch-deliver’d by a drab, Make the gruel thick and slab: Add thereto a tiger’s chaudron, For the ingredients of our cauldron. All Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. scale of dragon – drageskjell mummy – mumie maw – svelg gulf – her: mage

Second Witch Cool it with a baboon’s blood, Then the charm is firm and good.

ravin’d – sulten, grådig hemlock – giftkjeks (plante) blaspheming – som spotter Gud gall – galle slips – stiklinger yew – barlind Tartar – person fra Tarta ditch – grøft drab – her: prostituert gruel – velling slab – her: seig chaudron – innvoller baboon – bavian

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Did you know?

!

During the late Middle Ages people developed a set of beliefs about witches. They thought that witches had supernatural powers and were able to fly around on broomsticks, dance with the devil and cast spells on other people.


Activities 37 Reading to understand. The witches are making a potion and the text is a recipe for this. a Make a list of all the ingredients that are mentioned. Sort into categories. Give the categories a suitable name. b What does the potion look and smell like when it is ready? Write a description for a witches’ cookery magazine. Use as many adjectives as you can. c What does the potion taste like? Which words would you use to describe the taste? d Find words in the text that rhyme. e What kind of atmosphere is the writer trying to create? f How does the writer create this atmosphere? Find examples in the text. g Find a phrase in the text that you like and say why you think it is effective. 38 Writing. Invent your own potion. Write the recipe and explain what the potion will do to you if you drink it. 39 Listening. Listen to the recording of the text. Choose about six lines and listen to these lines several times. Check that you can pronounce all of the words correctly and then perform for a classmate. 40 Speaking. Act out the play. Remember that witches are often portrayed as old women with scratchy voices. Rehearse and then record the play, with sound effects.

42 Reading. How much of the text are you able to learn by heart? Have a competition in class. 43 Vocabulary. Shakespeare wrote this in the 1590s. Language has changed since then. How would you say the following today? a Thrice the brinded cat hath mew’d. b Boil thou first i’ the charmed pot. c Add thereto a tiger’s chaudron. 44 Writing. Turn this extract from Shakespeare’s play into another text type. For example a diary, an eyewitness account, or a newspaper article. 45 Prepositions. In a preposition poem each line begins with a preposition. For example a poem about witches can begin like this: Beyond the creepy woods, behind the haunted house, beside the flickering fire a Write a preposition poem. Remember to use adjectives and adverbs. b Make a creative design for your poem, for example write it in the shape of a cauldron. c Read your poem to a classmate and ask them what was good about your poem. 46 Genitive. You use an apostrophe + s or the preposition of to show that something belongs to someone. Find examples of both forms in this text.

41 Speaking. Read this text as a rap.

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Warm-up at the photographs • Look on these pages. What do you think the story will be about?

Miss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children

Jacob grew up listening to his grandfather’s stories about the orphanage where he had lived as a boy. He told Jacob that the house was enchanted and protected by a wise old bird. He also told him about the children who lived in the orphanage and showed him photographs, which, as he grew older, Jacob realised must be fake. Before he died, Jacob’s grandfather managed to say a few words: “Find the bird. In the loop. On the other side of the old man’s grave. September third, 1940.”

orphanage – barnehjem enchanted – forhekset protected – beskyttet fake – forfalsket cramped – trang cairn – varde

Jacob’s family agreed to let him travel to the island where his grandfather grew up. On the island, Jacob found the old orphanage, but it was in ruins. As he explored the house he saw some of the children he had seen in his grandfather’s photographs. He tried to talk to a girl but she ran off. Jacob chased after her, eventually running into a tunnel underneath a cairn.


Extract from Miss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children by Ransom Riggs

I unfolded myself from the cramped cairn tunnel and stepped outside only to be blinded by light. Shielding my eyes, I squinted through split fingers at a world I hardly recognised. It was the same bog and the same path and the same everything as before, but for the first time since my arrival it was bathed in cheery yellow sunlight, the sky a candy blue, no trace of the twisting fog that, for me, had come to define this part of the island. It was warm, too, more like the dog days of summer than the breezy beginnings of it. God, the weather changes fast around here, I thought. Jacob was noticed by some men from the local pub who saw that he was wearing strange clothes and was different from them. They chased after him. He ran to hide in an alley. Something grabbed me by the hair. Before I’d even had a chance to cry out, a hand whipped around from behind and pressed something sharp to my throat. “Scream and I’ll cut you,” came a voice. Keeping the blade to my neck, my assailant pushed me against the outhouse wall and stepped around to face me. To my great surprise, it wasn’t one of the men from the pub. It was the girl. She wore a simple white dress and a hard expression, her face strikingly pretty even though she appeared to be giving serious thought to gouging out my windpipe.

squinted – myste bog – myr dog days of summer – sommerens siste dager alley – smug assailant – overfallsmann gouging out – her: skjære over windpipe – luftrør

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Why did the girl ask "what are you" instead of "who are you"?

scowl – skulende blikk

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“What are you?” she hissed. “An – uh – I’m an American,” I stammered, not quite sure what she was asking. “I’m Jacob.” She pressed the knife harder against my throat, her hand shaking. She was scared – which meant she was dangerous. “What were you doing in the house?” she demanded. “Why are you chasing me?” “I just wanted to talk to you! Don’t kill me!” She fixed me with a scowl. “Talk to me about what?” “About the house – about the people who lived there.” “Who sent you here?”


“My grandfather. His name was Abraham Portman.” Her mouth fell open. “That’s a lie!” she cried, her eyes flashing. “You think I don’t know what you are? I wasn’t born yesterday! Open your eyes – let me see your eyes!” “I am! They are!” I opened my eyes as wide as I could. She stood on tiptoes and stared into them, then stamped her foot and shouted, “No, your real eyes! Those fakes don’t fool me any more than your ridiculous lie about Abe!” “It’s not a lie – and these are my eyes!” She was pushing so hard against my windpipe that it was difficult to breathe. I was glad the knife was dull or she surely would’ve cut me. “Look, I’m not whatever it is you think I am,” I croaked. “I can prove it!” Her hand relaxed a little. “Then prove it, or I’ll water the grass with your blood!” “I have something right here.” I reached into my jacket. She leapt back and shouted at me to stop, raising her blade so that it hung quivering in the air just between my eyes. “It’s only a letter! Calm down!” She lowered the blade back to my throat and I slowly drew Miss Peregrine’s letter and photo from my jacket, holding it for her to see. “The letter’s part of the reason I came here. My grandfather gave it to me. It’s from The Bird. That’s what you call your headmistress, isn’t it?” “This doesn’t prove anything!” she said, though she’d hardly glanced at it. “And how do you know so bloody much about us?” “I told you, my grandfather –“ She slapped the letter out of my hands. “I don’t want to hear another word of that rubbish!” Apparently, I’d touched a nerve. She went quiet for a moment, face pinched with frustration, as if she were deciding how best to dispose of my body once she’d followed through her threats. Before she could decide, though, shouts erupted from the other end of the alley. We turned to see the men from the pub running toward us, armed with wooden clubs and farm implements.

croaked – snakket med hes stemme pinched with frustration – sammentrukket av frustrasjon to dispose of – å kvitte seg med implements – redskap

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Jacob and the girl ran off and hid in an old cottage. Jacob noticed that the cottage was very old-fashioned.

Which historical events took place in 1940?

bangs – pannelugg the seam – bretten numbness – nummenhet literal minded – her: uttrykte seg direkte traded in metaphor – her: snakket i gåter bog boy – mumifisert lik av en gutt funnet i en myr pulsing – pulserende cooking range – komfyr was pacing – gikk fram og tilbake animated conversation – livlig samtale wight – gjenferd, vette have been snooping – har snoket

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“What year is it?” The girl told me to shut up. “I’m serious,” I whispered. She regarded me strangely for a moment. “I don’t know what you’re playing at, but go have a look for yourself,” she said, pushing me toward the calendar. The top half was a black-and-white photograph of a tropical scene, fullbodied girls with enormous bangs and vintage-looking swimsuits smiling on a beach. Printed above the seam was “September 1940.” The first and second days of the month had been crossed out. A detached numbness spread over me. I considered all the strange things I’d seen that morning: the bizarre and sudden change in the weather; the island I thought I’d known, now populated by strangers; how the style of everything around me looked old but the things themselves were new. It could all be explained by the calendar on the wall. September 3, 1940. But how? And then one of the last things my grandfather said came to me. On the other side of the old man’s grave. It was something I’d never been able to figure out. There was a time I’d wondered if he’d meant ghosts – that since all the children he’d known here were dead, I’d have to go to the other side of the grave to find them – but that was too poetic. My grandfather was literal minded, not a man who traded in metaphor or suggestion. He’d given me straightforward directions that he simply hadn’t had time to explain. “The Old Man,” I realized, was what the locals called the bog boy, and his grave was the cairn. And earlier today I had gone inside it and come out someplace else: September third, 1940. All this occurred to me in the time it took for the room to turn upside down and my knees to go out from under me, and for everything to fade into pulsing, velvety black. *** I awoke on the floor with my hands tied to the cooking range. The girl was pacing nervously and appeared to be having an animated conversation with herself. I kept my eyes most of the way shut and listened. “He must be a wight,” she was saying. “Why else would he have been snooping around the old house like a burglar?”


“I haven’t the slightest idea,” someone else said, “but neither, it seems, does he.” So she wasn’t talking to herself, after all – though from where I was lying, I couldn’t see the young man who’d spoken. “You say he didn’t even realize he was in a loop?” “See for yourself,” she said, gesturing toward me. “Can you imagine any relative of Abe's being so perfectly clueless?" “Can you imagine a wight?” said the young man. I turned my head slightly, scanning the room, but still I didn’t see him. “I can imagine a wight faking it,” the girl replied. The dog, awake now, trotted over and began to lick my face. I squeezed my eyes shut and tried to ignore it, but the tongue bath he gave me was so slobbery and gross that I finally had to sit up just to rescue myself. “Well, look who’s up!” the girl said. She clapped her hands, giving me a sarcastic round of applause. That was quite the performance you gave earlier. I particularly enjoyed the fainting. I’m sure the theatre lost a fine actor when you chose to devote yourself instead to murder and cannibalism.” I opened my mouth to protest my innocence – and stopped when I noticed a cup floating toward me. “Have some water,” the young man said. “Can’t have you dying before we get you back to the headmistress, now can we?” His voice seemed to come from the empty air. I reached for the cup, and as my pinky brushed an unseen hand, I nearly dropped it. “He’s clumsy,” the young man said. “You’re invisible,” I replied dumbly. “Indeed. Millard Nullings, at your service.” “Don’t tell him your name!” the girl cried.

loop – tidssløyfe gesturing – gjorde tegn slobbery – siklende pinky – lillefinger

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What do you think Millard had written in his notebook?

fumbling attempt – klosset forsøk flipped the pages – bladde fort gjennom sidene knuckle-draggers – slang: bøller brick bats – slang: del av murstein brukt som våpen

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“And this is Emma,” he continued. “She’s a bit paranoid, as I’m sure you’ve gathered.” Emma glared at him – or at the space I imagined him to occupy – but said nothing. The cup shook in my hand. I began another fumbling attempt to explain myself but was interrupted by angry voices from outside the window. “Quiet!” Emma hissed. Millard’s footsteps moved to the window, and the blinds parted an inch. “What’s happening?” asked Emma. “They’re searching the houses,” he replied. “We can’t stay here much longer.” “Well, we can’t very well go out there!” “I think perhaps we can,” he said. “Just to be certain, though, let me consult my book.” The blinds fell closed again and I saw a small leatherbound notebook rise from a table and crack open in midair. Millard hummed as he flipped the pages. A minute later he snapped the book shut. “As I suspected!” he said. “We have only to wait a minute or so and then we can walk straight out the front door.” “Are you mad?” Emma said. “We’ll have every one of those knuckledraggers on us with brick bats!” “Not if we’re less interesting than what’s about to happen,” he replied. “I assure you, this is the best opportunity we’ll have for hours.” I was untied from the range and led to the door, where we crouched, waiting. Then came a noise from outside even louder than the men’s shouting: engines. Dozens, by the sound of it. “Oh! Millard, that’s brilliant!” cried Emma. He sniffed. “And you said my studies were a waste of time.” Emma put her hand on the doorknob and then turned to me. “Take my arm. Don’t run. Act like nothing’s the matter.” She put away her knife but assured me that if I tried to escape I’d see it again – just before she killed me with it. “How do I know you won’t anyway?” She thought for a moment. “You don’t.” And then she pushed open the door.


Activities 47 Reading to understand. a Why is Jacob confused and surprised when he first steps out of the tunnel? b Why does Jacob think the girl is particularly dangerous? c What does the girl mean by “I wasn’t born yesterday”? d What does she mean when she says “I’ll water the grass with your blood”? e What evidence does Jacob have that he is telling the truth? f Why do you think Jacob faints? g What is unusual about Millard? h Which disturbance was Millard waiting for? i What do you think is the source of the engine noise? 48 Analysis. Look at the description of the weather in the paragraph starting "I unfolded myself …". Which words and phrases does the author use to paint a positive and pleasant picture of the weather? 49 Descriptions. How can you tell that the girl is angry? a Find words and phrases in the text.

50 Speaking. Discuss what you think has happened to Jacob. a What clues are there in the text to support what you think? b What do you think will happen next? 51 Vocabulary. To express an idea well, a writer should use an exact verb. Find verbs in the text that mean the same as: BS 96 a to see

c to answer

b to say

d to ask

52 Adverbs. Find all the adverbs in this text.

BS 20

a Sort them into two groups: the ones that you use a lot when you speak and write, and the ones that you seldom use. b Give reasons why it is a good idea to use adverbs in a sentence. c Choose three adverbs that you like. d Write a paragraph about the girl using these adverbs. 53 Prepositions. Use the photographs to write sentences in which you use prepositions of place. For example: The girl is hovering above the ground. BS 52

b Use some of these words and phrases to write a paragraph about a person who is very angry.

54 Verbs. Explain why the continuous is used in these sentences. BS 34, 38

c Read through your paragraph and write two sentences explaining why you think it expresses anger well.

b What were you doing at the house?

a Why are you chasing me? c She was pushing so hard against my windpipe that it was difficult to breathe. d The girl was pacing nervously.

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Chapter Activities Sum up 55 Writing. You are an expert on the supernatural. You have received an e-mail with these questions from a teenager. Write answers to the questions. a Why do some people believe in the supernatural? b What should I do if I experience something I cannot explain? 56 Vocabulary. Have a conversation with a class­ mate about the supernatural during which you explain the words below in English. For example, “I am really interested in books about the supernatural. You know, books that are about things that cannot be explained by science.” the sixth sense, sceptical, spectre, haunt, atmosphere, spooky

57 Prepositions. Make an information gap exercise. BS 52 a Draw a map of a shopping street with buildings on both sides of the road. Write in the names of the different shops/ cafes/buildings. b Give a classmate a copy of your map without the names. c Your classmate asks you questions to find out where different places are. When you answer, use prepositions such as between, opposite and next to.

58 Adverbs and adjectives. Add adverbs and adjectives to the following paragraph to create a spooky atmosphere and then continue the story. BS 16, 20 Tom and Alex went hiking one day. It was quite sunny when they started but after a while it got cloudy. The boys walked along a path by a field until they reached some woods. As they were walking Tom saw a face peering through the trees. He stared at it and the thing stared back for some time. Then the thing moved. Tom froze and Alex bumped into him. The thing came out from behind the tree and stood in the path looking at the two boys who still could not move. 59 Verbs. Choose the correct form of the verb in each sentence and explain your choice. BS 34, 38

a Julia walked/was walking along the road when she heard a scream. b Ghosts generally appear/are appearing at night. c The moon shone/was shining on the night that I saw a UFO. d Teenagers often enjoy/are enjoying a good ghost story. 60 Speaking. Work with a classmate. One believes in the supernatural while the other believes that science can explain everything. a Write a list of arguments that you can use to support your belief. b Try to persuade your classmate that your arguments are more convincing than theirs.

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Move on 61 Writing. Write a supernatural story. Remember to spice up your story using adjectives and adverbs to create a spooky atmosphere and creepy characters. Add extra adjectives and adverbs in your final draft, for example bloodcurdling, terrifying, spookily, unearthly. BS 96

62 Writing. Write a long text message about a supernatural being that you meet one evening on the way home from visiting a friend. 63 Writing. Write an article for your school newspaper in which you argue that supernatural beings and events exist or do not exist. BS 110

64 Speaking. You are a member of a crypto­ zoology society and are giving a presentation at a scientific conference to inform the audience about your discovery of a new creature. Invent the creature and make a presentation in which you describe the creature and its habits, and convince your audience that it exists. BS 140

65 Speaking. Work with a classmate. One is a sceptical policeman and the other is the eyewitness to the sighting of a supernatural creature or paranormal event. a Prepare your arguments. b Act out the conversation.

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… write a creative text … have a discussion using arguments for and against … persuade people in a conversation … persuade in a written text … use prepositions of place correctly … add adverbs to create a spooky atmosphere … use the present and past continuous … explain when to use the continuous form of the verb

B Three minute reflection

Write continuously for three minutes:

This is what I have learned working with the material in this chapter.

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3

Opportunities


TOPIC WORDS qualifications application

? What did your grandparents do for a living? What are your plans for the future? Discuss the differences between then and now.

occupation qualities skills careers advisor advice experience

Learning objectives n n n

n

n n

Identify formal and informal language Write texts using formal language Compare different jobs and occupations Express plans for the future using different expressions Identify and use modal auxiliary verbs Identify and use pronouns

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Warm-up the poems on • Scan these pages. How many occupations can you find?

Boys and Girls Together Boys don’t want to be princes. Boys want to be shepherds who slay dragons, maybe someone gives you half a kingdom and a princess, but that’s just what comes of being a shepherd boy and slaying a dragon. Or a giant. And you don’t really even have to be a shepherd. Just not a prince. In stories, even princes don’t want to be princes, disguising themselves as beggars or as shepherd boys, leaving the kingdom for another kingdom, princehood only of use once the ogre’s dead, the tasks are done, and the reluctant king, her father, needing to be convinced.

slay – slår i hjel shepherd – gjeter disguising – kler seg ut ogre – troll, kjempe reluctant – motvillige convinced – overbevist prefer – foretrekke sheep-moors – beitemarker territory – område advances – her: tilnærmelser soot and cinders – sot og aske donkey – esel aid – støtte, hjelpe pumpkin patch – gresskaråker gleam – stråler finery – stas, pynt wicked – onde woodcutters – tømmerhoggere ancient – eldgamle crones – kjerringer cunning – slu moors – marker

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Boys do not dream of princesses who will come for them. Boys would prefer not to be princes, and many boys would happily kiss the village girls, out on the sheep-moors, of an evening, over the princess, if she didn’t come with the territory. Princesses sometimes disguise themselves as well, to escape the kings’ advances, make themselves ugly, soot and cinders and donkey girls, with only their dead mothers’ ghosts to aid them, a voice from a dried tree or from a pumpkin patch. And then they undisguise, when their time is upon them, gleam and shine in all their finery. Being princesses. Girls are secretly princesses. None of them know that one day, in their turn, Boys and girls will find themselves become bad kings or wicked stepmothers, aged woodcutters, ancient shepherds, mad crones and wise-women, to stand in shadows, see with cunning eyes: The girl, still waiting calmly for her prince. The boy, lost in the night, out on the moors. Poem by Neil Gaiman


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poets – diktere

Who’s Who

Work Day

I used to think nurses Were women, I used to think police Were men, I used to think poets Were boring, Until I became one of them.

Sitting at my desk. Time is ticking slowly by. Can I go home yet? Haiku by Leann McCarty

Poem by Benjamin Zephaniah

Pronouns Pronouns are used instead of a noun or a noun phrase. Possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their (before a noun) She is not waiting for her prince. mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs (stand alone)

The kingdom is hers.

Reflexive pronouns myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Princes sometimes disguise themselves. BS 22–24

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Activities 1 Reading to understand. a Find all jobs or titles that are mentioned in the three poems. b Rank the jobs and titles from the most common to the least common occupation.

5 Pronouns. Fill in the gaps with a pronoun. Example: I have a job. The job is mine. a The kingdom belongs to the king. The kingdom is _____. b Susan is very clever. You can ask _____ for help.

c Read Boys and Girls Together. Make a list of all the words that remind you of fairy tales. Why do you think the author uses these words?

c Jim and I work together. Jim is a colleague of _____.

d What kind of jobs do you think the author of Work Day might have?

e In the future, I see _____ as a famous actor.

e Give the author of Work Day some advice on what she can do to make her job more interesting. 2 Speaking. The bad king and the wicked stepmother from the poem on p. 76 meet. They talk about what they dreamed about when they were young. Act it out. 3 Digital skills. The poems Boys and Girls Together and Who’s Who deal with stereotypes. a Find out what the word stereotypes means using an online dictionary. Listen to its pronunciation and practise pronouncing the word.

d Her aunt is strict. _____ used to be a teacher. f If you want to succeed, it is important to believe in _____. 6 Speaking. Discuss these topics in groups and express your opinion. BS 136 a Do girls and boys have different dreams about the future? b Some occupations attract more boys than girls, while others are chosen more often by girls than boys. How can we encourage girls and boys to choose differently? Is this important? Why, or why not? 7 Numbers. Make a survey in class.

BS 168

a Make a list of ten occupations.

b Find websites that analyse the poems. Write a few keywords about each poem.

b Ask your classmates to choose the occupation they find most interesting.

c Give three reasons why you trust the websites you used for information. BS 173

c Present your findings in a bar chart.

4 Pronouns. Read the poems.

BS 22–24

a Find all the pronouns in the poems.

d Tell a classmate what your chart shows. 8 Writing. Write a poem about your dreams for the future.

b Sort the pronouns into these groups: Personal

Possessive

Reflexive

9 Apostrophes. Explain the difference between these pairs of words: BS 58 the kings’ food – the king’s food the mothers’ joy – the mother’s joy

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Warm-up five occupations • List that you think are

How to Become …

interesting. Compare your lists in class.

From: Jonathan Pearce Date: 10 November 2015 To: Steve Motson Subject: Football commentator

Football commentator

Dear Mr Motson, Ever since I watched my first football match on TV, I knew I wanted to become a football commentator. Listening to you has always been a great inspiration. Next week I am going to work on a school project called “My Career”. I know that it takes a lot of hard work to become a really good commentator, but what else does it take? I would be truly happy if you could give me some advice. Yours sincerely, Jonathan Pearce Year 9 Greendale Secondary School –----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

From: Steve Motson Date: 18 November 2015 To: Jonathan Pearce Subject: RE: Football commentator Dear Jonathan, I am happy to know that I have inspired your choice of career. And there is no question that the job requires dedication, talent and a lot of hard work. Let me give you some advice. career – karriere it takes – det krever some advice – noen råd yours sincerely – vennlig hilsen requires dedication – krever innsats

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Do your homework. You ought to watch many football matches and read everything about the different teams and players. You also have to know the history of the game, if you are going to understand the modern game.


Stay impartial. Don’t go cheering when one team scores, then the viewers will not trust you anymore. You must remain objective. Get some experience. You could start as a sports journalist, like many football commentators did. That is a good way of getting some experience. I would advise you to contact a local radio or a local newspaper. You have to be willing to work for nothing in the beginning, because that might be what it takes to succeed.

stay impartial – hold deg upartisk viewers – tilskuerne remain objective – forbli objektiv experience – erfaring work for nothing – jobbe gratis succeed – lykkes

Good luck! Steve Motson Football commentator BBC stevemotson@bbc.co.uk

From: Hannah Willard Date: 13 November 2015 To: Michael Dinsmore Subject: Career in architecture

Architect

Dear Mr Dinsmore, I am interested in becoming an architect, and I found your name in an article in the newspaper recently. I would like to learn more about what it is like to be an architect. Can you tell me a little about your profession? What do you like best about your work? How do you become an architect? I would be happy to receive any advice you have. Thank you for your time. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Hannah Willard Year 9 Greendale Secondary School

recently – nylig

–----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

receive – motta profession – yrke

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From: Michael Dinsmore Date: 16 November 2015 To: Hannah Willard Subject: RE: Career in architecture Dear Hannah, I am happy to hear that you would like to become an architect. You have chosen an interesting profession. Architecture is unusual because you combine both arts and science. On the one hand, you have to be creative to think of new and interesting designs. On the other hand, you need to be good at maths and science so that you can translate your creative ideas into buildings that are safe and practical. In addition, you have to be able to express your ideas clearly so that other people can understand them. An architect’s main task is to plan buildings so that they are interesting to look at, safe and easy to use. Architects plan buildings like houses, apartments, schools, office buildings and hospitals. My favourite part of being an architect is seeing the idea that I had in my mind become an actual building. That never stops being exciting. I hope this e-mail was of some help. Please let me know if you have any other questions. You are also welcome to shadow me at work if you want to. Good luck, Hannah. Michael Dinsmore Senior architect Dinsmore and Jefferson Architects michael@dinsmoreandjefferson.co.uk

Formal language with modals Some modal auxiliary verbs are used in formal language, for example when you write an e-mail to someone you do not know. If something is certain: must, will, ought to You ought to study English. To suggest something: may, might, could customer – kunde constructed – bygget shadow me at work – følge meg en arbeidsdag

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I might be able to help you tomorrow. To make a request: would, could I would be happy to receive an answer.

BS 44


Activities 10 Reading to understand. Find words in these e-mails that mean almost the same as:

• job • skills • tips • mix

• occupation • practice

11 Writing. You want to know more about different occupations. BS 108 a Write a formal e-mail to one of these people asking for advice

• John Witherton, nurse • David Spice, firefighter • Bob Forbes, musician b Ask a classmate to reply to your e-mail. 12 Writing. Writing a formal e-mail.

BS 108

a Write a list of advice for someone who has never written a formal e-mail before. b Do you think Jonathan and Hannah have written successful e-mails? Explain your answer. c Give examples of sentences that are well written. Give reasons for your choices. d Give examples of sentences that they need to improve. Rewrite the sentences. e Compare your examples with a classmate’s examples. 13 Writing. Write a formal e-mail giving advice on how to become BS 108 programmer

• a bus driver • a shop assistant

15 Formal language. Some e-mails are written in formal language. BS 84 a Find examples of words and phrases which make these e-mails more formal than an e-mail to a friend. b Why are there formal words and phrases in these e-mails? c In what kind of texts would you use formal language?

• Lindsey Moore, lawyer

• a computer

14 Language. In the e-mails you find the phrases some advice and any advice. Explain why you cannot say an advice in English. BS 13

d In what kind of texts would you use informal language? e Are there any differences in formal and informal language in Norwegian? 16 Formal language. Rewrite this informal e-mail so that the language becomes more formal. BS 84

Hi Scott, So, you’re learning Spanish? I’m impressed! Why don’t you try and find someone to practise speaking with? It’s the best way to learn. You should try to read some books in Spanish as well. I’ve got loads of Spanish books and stuff. Chris 17 Formal language. Use a suitable modal auxiliary verb to complete these sentences. BS 44 Example: May I borrow a book?

• a trapeze artist

a I’m really cold. I ______ put on a jacket.

• a lifeguard

b Excuse me, ______ you help me with this computer?

• a racing car driver

c We have a test on Friday. We _______ practise. d Excuse me, _______ I use the toilet?

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Warm-up five adjectives • Write that best describe you as a person and five adjectives to describe your classmate. Then compare your choices.

Personality Quiz Do you enjoy working with other people, or do you prefer to work on your own? Most of us like a combination of the two. This informal personality test might give you an idea of what kind of work is suitable for you. Answer yes or no to each of these statements:

personality – personlighet prefer – foretrekker aware of – oppmerksom på suitable – passende statements – utsagn express myself – uttrykke meg comfortable in – trives i seldom – sjelden interrupted – avbrutt calm – rolig lectures – forelesninger

1 Working with a classmate is better than working in groups. 2 I like to express myself in writing. 3 All in all I am comfortable in my own company. 4 Some of my classmates are more interested in fame or status than me. 5 Talking to strangers is difficult for me. 6 People say that I am a good listener. 7 I seldom take chances. 8 I like doing my homework without being interrupted. 9 My classmates describe me as calm and quiet. 10 I do not like showing my work before it is finished. 11 I hate conflicts. 12 I am good at doing schoolwork on my own. 13 Usually I think before I speak. 14 Most of the time I find it easy to concentrate. 15 I like lectures better than group work. 16 I am able to keep a secret.


How many times did you answer yes?

probably – antakelig

More than ten times: You are probably independent and enjoy working alone. Here are some occupations that would give you time and space to work individually: animal care, archivist, financial analyst, mathematician, astronomer, electrician, lawyer, truck driver, graphic designer, bus driver, author, mechanic, chemist, photographer, baker.

independent – selvstendig

Less than ten times: You probably enjoy working with other people. If this is the case, one of these jobs could be a good choice: sales representative, psychologist, hairstylist, financial advisor, nurse, teacher, actor, paramedic.

financial advisor – økonomisk rådgiver

archivist – arkivar financial analyst– finansanalytiker lawyer – advokat sales representative – selger, salgskonsulent

paramedic – ambulansesjåfør

Activities 18 Reading to understand. Make two mind maps. a Find words that describe an independent person who likes working on their own. b Find words that describe an outgoing person who likes working with other people. 19 Writing. Take a look at the occupations in the lists above.

• Do any of these jobs interest you? • Write a paragraph to explain why or why not.

22 Speaking. Read the list of statements. a Rephrase the statements into questions. b Act out a conversation between a careers advisor and a pupil. BS 135 23 Speaking. Complete these sentences about yourself. Then, talk to a classmate about yourself using these sentences. Example: I have a tendency to speak before I think because I am so impatient. a I’m very committed to ___ because ___.

20 Speaking. You are a careers advisor who is going to give a lecture to year 8 pupils on what kind of occupations society will need in the future.

• Give reasons why society needs people who like working individually and why society needs people who like working with other people.

• Give the lecture to a group. 21 Writing. Rewrite the statements on page 84 so that all of them describe you. For example: I like to …, I am …

b I really can’t stand ___ because ___. c I usually keep my distance from ___ because ___. d I’m easily upset by ___ because ___. e It always amazes me that ___ because ___. f I really admire people who ___ because ___. g I feel most at ease with people who___ because___.

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Warm-up this text you will find • Inthese words: full-time, part-time, available, application, responsible, shifts. Explain why you need to know these words if you want to find a suitable job.

Job Vacancies Looking for a job? There are many full-time and part-time jobs for teenagers. Don’t hesitate! Find a suitable job now.

Patient care assistant

job vacancies – ledige stillinger full-time and part-time jobs – heltids- og deltidsjobber don’t hesitate – ikke nøl patient care assistant – pleieassistent immediate opening – stilling ledig umiddelbart available – tilgjengelig wage – lønn negotiable – kan forhandles om address – henvend deg application – søknad hiring – ansetter responsible – ansvarlig current events – aktuelle nyheter involves – går ut på stocking products – lagre varer benefits – fordeler

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We have an immediate re opening for a patient ca tient, assistant. You must be pa work service-minded, able to nth at least two shifts per mo ends. ek we and be available on Wage: negotiable old Minimum age: 14 years n who We are seeking a perso our will assist us in caring for ting patients. You will be assis nts and nurses in guiding patie ut the their families througho hospital. cation Please address your appli spital. to Mr Allen, Highland Ho

Food runner

Sea Foods is now hiring food runners. You will be responsible for serving food and drinks to guests. The food runner must also clear away unwanted dishes, glasses and waste from the tables. Wage: negotiable Minimum age: 15 years old Send your application today! Please address your application to Ms Sophia Jackson, Sea Foods.


Teen news reporter

a teen We have an immediate opening for work news reporter. You must be able to two shifts per week. Wage: $ 9.00 per hour Minimum age: 14 years old Teen News Company is looking for two rent teenagers interested in news and cur t events. You will work on an Interne er television news show aimed at oth script teens. The job involves writing the er and presenting it live. If you are und al rov the age of 18 we will need the app in of your parents before you can beg working for us. Apply now! Please address your application to y. Ms Cora Ramon, Teen News Compan

Sales assistant

As a sales assistant in Gap you will be responsible for: • helping customers • answering customers’ questions • stocking products Successful candidates will be friendly and customer service oriented. Job benefits: • great working environment • employee discount on goods Minimum age: 14 years old Apply now. Please address your application to Mr Ripley, Gap.

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Susan Wilkins 11 Left Street, Seattle, WA 98104 Teen News Company PO Box 3448 Seattle, WA 98104 December 3, 2016 Dear Ms Ramon: orter Application for a job as a news rep news reporter at Teen a as job I am writing to apply for the n News Company on News Company. I have watched Tee interesting channel. the Internet lately, and find it a very irs for some time, and I have been interested in current affa nt situations. I am enjoy finding out more about differe y to talk to people. In outgoing, inquisitive and find it eas ously and am not afraid addition, I take everything I do seri of hard work. student council has My experience as a member of the tion skills and to take helped to improve my communica useful qualities as responsibility, which I believe will be a news reporter. and I am available for I look forward to hearing from you an interview any day after school. Sincerely yours, Susan Wilkins

to apply – å søke lately – i det siste

qualities – egenskaper

current affairs – aktuelle saker

available – tilgjengelig

outgoing – utadvendt

résumé (Am.) – CV på norsk og britisk engelsk

inquisitive – nysgjerrig in addition – i tillegg experience – erfaring

social science – samfunnsfag

student council – elevråd

science – naturfag

responsibility – ansvar

references – referanser

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Résumé Name: Susan Wilkins Address: 11 Left Street, Seattle, WA 98104 Telephone: (206) 386 4636 E-mail: susan.w@hotmail.com Education Seattle Junior High School, Seattle 2013–present Subject Grade Math C Social science A Science C English B Foreign language, Spanish B P.E. C Work experience School photographer, 2013–2016 Member of the school student cou ncil, 2015–2016 Hobbies and interests Writing, photography, soccer References Miss Norma Brown, English teache r, phone: (206) 978 3243 Mr. Stephen Clark, soccer coach, phone: (206) 523 9970


Activities 24 Reading to understand. Which jobs are suitable for you if you a can work on Saturdays. b are more than 15 years old. c like working with other people. d keep up to date with the latest news. e enjoy helping people. f like to tidy and keep everything in order. 25 Writing. Which of these jobs would you apply for? Write a few keywords for tasks a–c. a Why would you like to have this job? b What have you done in the past that will help you do this job well? c What strengths and skills do you have to help you do this job well? d Write an application and a CV (résumé). Use the keywords from a, b and c. e What makes a good application? Write a list with a classmate. f Ask a classmate to read what you have written and comment on what was good about your application. 26 Writing. Write an advertisement for one of these jobs.

27 Speaking. Your company needs two new workers. Your classmates are interested in the jobs. Act out an interview with some of the applicants. 28 Language. Find a job advertisement for teenagers in Norwegian. a Translate the advertisement into English. b What can you learn from translating texts? 29 Language. Find examples of the following in the texts on these pages: a formal language b linking words c phrases that express the future d pronouns e modal auxiliary verbs f polite phrases 30 Listening. Listen to the phone call between Susan Wilkins and Cora Ramon, the director of Teen News Company. Evaluate the way Susan a introduces herself b asks about the job vacancy c talks about her qualifications d finishes the conversation

• The school youth club needs assistant leaders.

• The school cafeteria needs catering assistants.

• The library needs extra help at weekends. • Football coach for a year 7 team. Put the advert on the classroom wall so that your classmates can apply for the jobs.

31 American and British English. These words are British. Find the American equivalents in the text. BS 66 CV, secondary school, maths, 3rd December, football 32 Vocabulary. Unscramble these words. SITELBAU, BALLEAIVA, TIONCALIAPP

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Warm-up qualities do good • What nurses need to have?

The Nurse Isaac, Augustus and Hazel have one thing in common: they have all suffered from cancer. In the support group for teenagers, they learn how to deal with a serious disease like this. Hazel is worried about Isaac because, at the moment, he is going through surgery. In hospital, Isaac worries why his girlfriend, Monica, hasn’t visited him yet. Extract from The Fault in Our Stars by John Green

On Wednesday during American Poetry for Dummies 101, I got a text from Augustus: Isaac out of surgery. It went well. He’s officially NEC. NEC meant “no evidence of cancer”. A second text came a few seconds later. I mean, he’s blind. So that’s unfortunate.

have suffered from cancer – har hatt kreft support group – samtalegruppe serious disease – alvorlig sykdom surgery – operasjon no evidence – ingen tegn på unfortunate – beklagelig, dumt consented – gikk med på even though – selv om compensate – erstatte sighted person – seende person I realize (Am.) – det skjønner jeg

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That afternoon, Mom consented to loan me the car so I could drive down to Memorial to check in on Isaac. I found my way to his room on the fifth floor, knocking even though the door was open, and a woman’s voice said, “Come in.” It was a nurse who was doing something to the bandages on Isaac’s eyes. “Hey, Isaac,” I said. And he said, “Mon?” “Oh, no. Sorry. No, it’s, um, Hazel. Um, Support Group Hazel? Night-of-the-broken-trophies Hazel?” “Oh,” he said. “Yeah, people keep saying my other senses will improve to compensate, but CLEARLY NOT YET. Hi, Support Group Hazel. Come over here so I can examine your face with my hands and see deeper into your soul than a sighted person ever could.” “He’s kidding,” the nurse said. “Yes,” I said. “I realize.” I took a few steps toward the bed. I pulled a chair up and sat down, took his hand. “Hey,” I said. “Hey,” he said back. Then nothing for a while. “How you feeling?” I asked.


Augustus, Isaac and Hazel in a scene from the film version of The Fault in Our Stars.

“Okay,” he said. “I don’t know.” “You don’t know what?” I asked. I looked at his hand because I didn’t want to look at his face blindfolded by bandages. Isaac bit his nails, and I could see some blood on the corners of a couple of his cuticles. “She hasn’t even visited,” he said. “I mean, we were together fourteen months. Fourteen months is a long time. God, that hurts.” Isaac let go of my hand to fumble for his pain pump, which you hit to give yourself a wave of narcotics. The nurse, having finished the bandage change, stepped back. “It’s only been a day, Isaac,” she said, vaguely condescending. “You’ve gotta give yourself time to heal. And fourteen months isn’t that long, not in the scheme of things. You’re just getting started, buddy. You’ll see.” The nurse left. “Is she gone?” I nodded, then realized he couldn’t see me nod. “Yeah,” I said. “I’ll see? Really? Did she seriously say that?”

blindfolded – bind for øynene cuticles – neglebånd fumble – famle pain pump – smertestillende pumpe narcotics – smertestillende medisin, narkotika vaguely condescending – litt nedlatende to heal – bli frisk in the scheme of things – i det store og det hele

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pun your disability – lager vitser av din uførhet condescending voice – nedlatende stemme cloying – sukkersøtt I allowed – jeg var enig

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“Qualities of a good nurse: Go,” I said. “1. Doesn’t pun on your disability,” Isaac said. “2. Gets blood in the first try,” I said. “Seriously, that is huge. I mean is this my freaking arm or a dartboard? 3. No condescending voice.” “How are you doing, sweetie?” I asked, cloying. “I’m going to stick you with a needle now. There might be a little ouchie.” “Is my wittle fuffywump sickywicky?” he answered. And then after a second, “Most of them are good, actually. I just want the hell out of this place.” “This place as in the hospital?” “That, too,” he said. His mouth tightened. I could see the pain. “Honestly, I think a hell of a lot more about Monica than my eye. Is that crazy? That’s crazy.” “It’s a little crazy,” I allowed. “But I believe in true love, you know? I don’t believe that everybody gets to keep their eyes or not get sick or whatever, but everybody should have true love, and it should last at least as long as your life does.” “Yeah,” I said. “I just wish the whole thing hadn’t happened sometimes. The whole cancer thing.” His speech was slowing down. The medicine working. “I’m sorry,” I said.


Activities 33 Reading to understand. Examine these sentences from the story. a Isaac out of surgery. It went well. He’s officially NEC.

• Translate this text into Norwegian. • How can you tell this is a text message? b Come over here so I can examine your face with my hands and see deeper into your soul than a sighted person ever could.

• Translate the sentence into Norwegian. • Why does Isaac say this? c “I’ll see? Really? Did she seriously say that?”

35 Vocabulary. These expressions are from the text. Explain in English.

• check in on

• I realize

• fumble for

• pun on

• being patient

• being a patient

36 Vocabulary. Scan the text and find examples of

• informal language • spontaneous speech • contractions

• childish expressions

37 Formal language. Rewrite these phrases into formal English. BS 84

• Translate the sentences into Norwegian.

• you’ve gotta

• What does Isaac mean?

• You’re just getting started, buddy.

d “How are you doing, sweetie?” I asked, cloying. “I’m going to stick you with a needle now. There might be a little ouchie.”

• Translate the sentences into Norwegian. • What is special about the way Hazel says this? e What did you discover when you translated the sentences? Write a paragraph. 34 Language. These sentences from the story are incomplete. a Rewrite them so they become grammatically correct.

• Then nothing for a while. • How you feeling? • The medicine working. • And then after a second. • The whole cancer thing. b Why do you think the author writes incomplete sentences?

• my freaking arm 38 Adverbs. Add an adverb to each of the underlined verbs to show the reader how things are being said. BS 97 sadly, unconvincingly, sarcastically, gently, quietly, cheerfully, anxiously, bravely, unhappily, seriously, coldly, cautiously For example: No way, I said desperately. “He’s kidding,” the nurse said. “Yes,” I said. “I realize.” I took a few steps toward the bed. I pulled a chair up and sat down, took his hand. “Hey,” I said. “Hey,” he said back. Then nothing for a while. “How you feeling?” I asked. “Okay,” he said. “I don’t know.” “You don’t know what?” I asked. I looked at his hand because I didn’t want to look at his face blindfolded by bandages. Isaac bit his nails, and I could see some blood on the corners of a couple of his cuticles. “She hasn’t even visited,” he said.

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Warm-up much money do you • How think you spend every month? Make an estimate.

Teenage Boss With money in your pocket, you may be tempted to spend it all at the first opportunity. However, you might want to think ahead and plan your spending in order to save up for things you want to buy. Some teenagers set up a budget every month in order to have money for clothing, entertainment or savings.

My monthly budget: Charlie INCOME

Estimate your income

Wages from babysitting

$100

Allowance from my parents

$20

Birthday money (every year, about $80)

$7

TOTAL INCOME:

$127

EXPENSES

Estimate your expenses

Cell phone

$10

Snacks

$10

tempted – fristet

Clothes

$20

spend it – bruke det opp

Shopping

$20

Entertainment

$40

Other expenses

$15

Savings

$5

income – inntekt

Giving to the needy

$5

estimate – beregn

TOTAL EXPENSES:

$125

What’s left

$127 – $125

opportunity – mulighet spending – utgifter budget – budsjett entertainment – underholdning savings – sparing

wages – lønn, månedslønn allowance – lommepenger expenses – utgifter needy – fattige

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$2


Activities 39 Reading to understand. Explain these words to someone who has never heard them before. budget, salary, expenses, allowance 40 Vocabulary. Odd one out. Explain which word is different from the others in the group and why.

• income salary allowance expenses • earn money save spend • own you they my • budget estimate month income 41 Speaking. You are asked to give advice about money to a group of ten year olds. Choose one of these titles and prepare what to say. Include examples and visuals to make the topic interesting.

• Saving money now means opportunities in the future.

• There is never enough money to buy everything you want.

• Sometimes you have to wait before you can have something you really want.

• Keeping track of your money gives you power. • Spend less than you earn. 42 Antonyms. Match the words that have the opposite meaning. BS 75 income

fact

estimate

debt

savings

sell

spend

expenses

buy

save

43 Numbers. Make your own monthly budget. a Estimate your income and expenses. b Present your budget. 44 Numbers. An expert on budgeting suggests that teenagers should save 20 percent of their income, give away 10 percent to needy people and live on 70 percent. a How much money can you spend every month if you receive an allowance of $15? b Do you agree with this expert? Why or why not? c Find a classmate who disagrees with you, and discuss the matter. 45 Modal verbs. Give advice by finishing these sentences with suitable modal verbs and other words. BS 44 Example: Each month you should save $5. a Every day you _______ think about ________. b Once a week you _______ plan _______. c At the end of year 10 you _______ decide _______. 46 Numbers. Check out the exchange rate on the Internet. BS 161 a Convert Charlie’s budget into Norwegian kroner (NOK). b Is this a realistic budget for a teenager in Norway? Explain your answer.

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Warm-up the subheadings • Read in this article. Look at the pictures. What do you know about the city of Iten so far?

Running from Poverty By Katie Reed, Kenya, 3rd February 2016

“We are fighting poverty,” Joseph, 15, says after an hour-long run one morning. He comes from the city of Iten in Kenya, which is known as the city of runners. “We’re just running for the money. Nothing else.” poverty – fattigdom paths – stier in spite of – på tross av

The city of athletes

Jogging at sunrise

stinging – stikkende

Iten is a city in the mountains of Kenya where about 25 % of the 4000 inhabitants are athletes. The successful athletes compete internationally and return to Iten to build houses with the money they have earned. Youths in Iten watch their role models train around them daily and are inspired to follow them.

At five in the morning, the sky is still black and full of stars, but runners are already racing along Iten’s main road in the dark. By the time the sun rises, there are hundreds of people running in groups of thirty or more, up and down the red dirt paths. If you don’t have a group, you can just join up with a team that passes by, that is if you can keep up with them.

rare – sjelden competing – konkurrere sunrise – soloppgang keep up with – holde følge med inhabitants – innbyggere escape the hardship – flykte fra vanskelighetene

Joseph is one of the people who run on the roads and paths of Iten. They run in spite of the rain, the cold morning temperatures or the stinging midday sun in the hope of having the rare chance of competing internatio­ nally. “They are motivated now,” says a local coach. “It has become a job. It is work. They train hard, you see yourself, how they wake up early and run. They know they have to run a marathon in under 2:10 to even have a chance.”

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Gravel and floods Interestingly, Iten does not have the top facilities that are common throughout the United States and Europe. Athletes have to run on a gravel track that floods quickly when heavy rain sets in. They often come from poor families and have never had the chance to travel abroad or hire the best coaches. It is common to see schoolchildren run­ning barefoot. Some people even say that running bare­foot helps develop a more natural and injury free running technique.

Run to be rich “I like to run, but to be honest, I run because I want to be rich one day from running so that I can build a big home,” says Isaac Koech, 13. He was the winner of a two-kilometer race, sponsored by the London Marathon, which was held for schoolchildren in Iten. He won the race even though he had no shoes. Isaac is not alone in achieving success through running. The local St Patrick’s High School has sixteen trees planted in its schoolyard. One tree for every pupil

in achieving – i å oppnå facilities – fasiliteter, utstyr gravel track – grusbane abroad – utenlands

29.07.2014. The daughters of Iten dominated the Women’s 10,000 metre race in the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.

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injury free – skadefri altitude training – høydetrening sea level – havnivå distance runners – langdistanseløpere lung capacity – lungekapasitet benefits – nyter godt av back and forth – fram og tilbake average income – gjennomsnittslønn

from the school who has won a world championship or an Olympic medal.

Altitude training “Iten is a very nice place to train; the altitude is high,” says Wilson Kipsang, a very successful marathon runner by way of explanation. “The town is 2,400 metres above sea level, and there are many high-class athletes who train there and perform very well internationally.” This altitude helps distance runners build lung capacity. In addition, the mild climate allows running all year around,

and the relatively flat terrain is good training for road races like the London Marathon.

A career In Iten, running is seen as a way out of poverty. Kenya’s young athletes have discovered running as a way to escape the hardship of life as a farmer. The whole society benefits from the successful runners. Conse­quently, this is what moti­ vates a lot of young children and the reason why they choose running as their future career.

Did you know? • In 2013, 149 men ran faster than 2:10. Eighty of them were Kenyan.

• Wilson Kipsang (Kiprotich), Hellen Kimutai

Hellen ran because she had to Hellen Kimutai grew up in a one-room hut and began her athletic career running six kilometres barefoot back and forth to school every day. She ran because she had to. Now she runs because it is her job. After many years of running, she won the Rome City Marathon in 2012 and the prize of $42,000. In Iten the average income is about $2,000 a year.

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from Kenya, ran the London Marathon in 2014 in 2:04:29. He is the first marathon runner to break 2:05 five times.

• Mary Keitany, from Kenya, has won the London Marathon twice.


Activities 47 Reading to understand. a Why do so many people in Iten run? b Why are there sixteen trees in the schoolyard of St Patrick’s High School? c Describe the living conditions in Iten. d Describe the running facilities in Iten. e What do you think are the most important reasons why Iten has managed to produce so many successful runners? f What do you think are the major differences between the way you live and the way teenagers in Iten live? 48 Analysis. Researchers are trying to find out why Iten turns out so many successful runners. One reason is that the ancestors of the people of Iten were nomads who survived by leading herds of cattle from place to place. Read closely through the text and find other reasons. BS 128 49 Digital skills. Find two sources about an athlete from Iten. Explain why you trust these sources. Write an article about this athlete. Keep your language formal. BS 173 50 Pronouns. Complete the sentences using a suitable pronoun: you, she, it, he, nothing, they, its, yourself, their, her, we. BS 22–24 a ____ are fighting poverty.

51 Speaking. You are sent to Iten as a teen news reporter. You meet Joseph. Make a TV news report about his plans for the future. Act it out. 52 Writing. Write an article about children who work for a living. Keep your language formal. The topic sentence for each paragraph is given here. Title: Child Labour BS 80

• Millions of children aged five to fourteen work for a living.

• Not all work is bad for children. • Some types of labour are not acceptable for children and should not be tolerated.

• Children should have the chance to just be children.

• What can you do? 53 Writing. You meet a teenager from Iten who gives you advice on how to plan for the future. Write what this teenager says using these modal verbs: you ought to, should, could, may, might, can. BS 44 54 Antonyms. Match the words that have the opposite meaning. BS 75 poverty

rare

sunrise

weak

early

capture

successful

wealth

b ____ comes from the city of Iten.

escape

late

c ____ else matters.

winner

sunset

d ____ run despite the rain.

team

unsuccessful

e ____ is work.

altitude

loser

flat

individual

strong

sea level

common

leave

return

hilly

f ____ watch ____ role models train. g ____ runs because it is ____ job. h The runners help ____ parents and siblings.

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Warm-up is the strangest • What job you have heard of? Discuss in groups.

Is This Really a Job? Snake milker What does a snake milker do? A snake milker removes the venom from venomous snakes so it can be used by hospitals to make antivenom. This is done by gripping the snake behind the head in such a way as to expose its fangs. The snake bites on a container that collects the venom. If a venomous snake bites you, the only thing that can save your life is antivenom.

venom – gift antivenom – motgift expose – få fram fangs – gifttann a container – en beholder collects – samler opp react – reagere have a steady hand – er stø på hånden patient – tålmodig careful – forsiktig excitement – spenning

odour tester – lukt-tester armpit – armhule unpleasant – ubehagelig degree in chemistry – utdanning i kjemi scents – dufter females – kvinner sense of smell – luktesans opportunities – muligheter

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Qualifications: You have a degree in biology and are not afraid of snakes. You are able to concentrate and to react quickly. In addition you have a steady hand, are patient and careful, and you love excitement and danger. Interesting fact: This job saves lives, although it is one of the most dangerous occupations you may have. Venomous snake bites kill at least 100,000 people every year. Career opportunities: There is a real need for snake venom milkers. However, you might need to work in another country where there are more venomous snakes than there are in Norway, for example in Australia or in the USA.


Activities 55 Reading to understand. Explain these words from the text in your own words.

Odour tester What does an odour tester do? An odour tester tries odours for different products, such as food, deodorants or make-up. For example, an odour tester smells a person’s armpit to see whether the deodorant covers the unpleasant smell of sweat. Qualifications: You need a degree in chemistry. You also need the ability to identify different scents, pay close attention to details, follow directions and make critical observations.

odour, make-up, armpit, unpleasant, sweat, critical observations, qualifications, opportunities, venom, container

56 Writing. Rewrite this text so that a 10-year-old pupil is able to understand it. Include pictures or drawings. Simplify the language and make it less formal. 57 Writing. Write an application for a job as either an odour tester or a snake milker. 58 Speaking. Which of these two jobs is more important? Discuss with a classmate. 59 Speaking. Act it out with a classmate.

Interesting fact: Women usually have a better sense of smell than men.

• Demonstrate and explain what you do as

Career opportunities: There will always be work for an odour tester, because new products need to be tested all the time.

• You want a job as an odour tester or a snake

a snake milker or an odour tester for someone who is interested in the job. milker. Your classmate is hiring. Convince your classmate that you are the right person for this job. 60 Listening. Listen to the interview with a deepsea diver. Write keywords that fit each of these headlines as you listen: What does a deep-sea diver do? Qualifications. Interesting facts. Career opportunities. BS 151 61 Writing. Write a short factual description in formal language about an unusual occupation. Find information on the Internet. Example occupations: furniture tester, golf ball diver, dice inspector, water slide tester, pet food tester, jellyfish scientist, iceberg mover, road kill remover, personal shopper, computer game tester

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Warm-up are some keywords • Here from the story: pipes, drains, toilet, leaks. What do you think the story is about?

Pipes, Taps and Ballcocks Extract from Gangsta Granny by David Walliams

pipes – rør taps – kraner ballcocks – flottør Plumbing Weekly – Rørleggerbladet scouring – finkjemmet shelves – hyllene publication – utgivelse plumbers – rørleggere beguiled – fortapt cisterns – sisterner boilers – varmtvannstanker tanks – beholdere drains – avløp crammed full – tettpakket disgusted – opprørt ecstatic – vilt begeistret fix a leak – reparere en lekkasje watch in awe – se på i ærefrykt disappointment – skuffelse stashed – gjemte unna

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“I can’t find Plumbing Weekly, Raj,” said Ben. It was the next Friday, and the boy had been scouring the magazine shelves of the local newsagent’s shop. He couldn’t find his favourite publication anywhere. The magazine was aimed at professional plumbers, and Ben was beguiled by pages and pages of pipes, taps, cisterns, ballcocks, boilers, tanks and drains. Plumbing Weekly was the only thing he enjoyed reading – mainly because it was crammed full of pictures and diagrams. Ever since he had been old enough to hold things, Ben had loved plumbing. When other children were playing with ducks in the bath, Ben had asked his parents for bits of pipe, and made complicated water channelling systems. If a tap broke in the house, he fixed it. If a toilet was blocked, Ben wasn’t disgusted, he was ecstatic! Ben’s parents didn’t approve of him wanting to be a plumber, though. They wanted him to be rich and famous, and to their knowledge there had never been a rich and famous plumber. Ben was as good with his hands as he was rubbish at reading, and was absolutely fascinated when a plumber came round to fix a leak. He would watch in awe, as a junior doctor might watch a great surgeon at work in an operating theatre. But he always felt like a disappointment to his mum and dad. They desperately wanted him to fulfil the ambition they had never managed: to become a professional ballroom dancer. Ben’s mum and dad had discovered their love of ballroom dancing too late to become champions themselves. And, to be honest, they seemed to prefer sitting on their bums watching it on TV to actually taking part. As such, Ben tried to keep his passion private. To avoid hurting his mum and dad’s feelings, he stashed his copies of Plumbing Weekly under his bed. And he had made an arrangement with Raj, so that every week the newsagent would keep the plumbing magazine aside for him. Now, though he couldn’t find it anywhere.


Ben had searched for the magazine behind Kerrang and Heat and even looked underneath The Lady (not an actual lady, I mean the magazine called The Lady), all to no avail. Raj’s store was madly messy, but people came from miles away to shop there as he always brought a smile to their faces. Raj was halfway up a stepladder, putting up Christmas decorations. Well, I say ‘Christmas decorations’ – he was actually putting up a banner that read ‘Happy Birthday’, though he had Tippexed out the word ‘Birthday’ and replaced it in scratchy biro with ‘Christmas’. Raj carefully stepped down of the ladder to help Ben with his search. “Your Plumbing Weekly … mmm … Let me think, have you looked beside the toffee bonbons?” said Raj. “Yes,” replied Ben.

Where do you think the newsagent has put the magazine?

biro – penn all to no avail – alt til ingen nytte stepladder – stige


penny chews – karamell som koster én penny Cornettos – kroneis lumbered – labbet mist – tåke shrouded – innhyllet

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“And it’s not underneath the colouring books?” “No.” “And you have checked behind the penny chews?” “Yes.” “Well, this is very mysterious. I know I ordered one in for you, young Ben. Mmm, very mysterious … ” Raj was speaking extremely slowly, in that way people do when they are thinking. “I am so sorry, Ben, I know you love it, but I don’t have a clue where it is. I do have a special offer on Cornettos.” “It’s November, Raj, it’s freezing outside!” said Ben. “Who would want to eat a Cornetto now?” “Everyone when they hear my special offer! Wait until you hear this: buy twenty-three Cornettos, get one free!” “Why on earth would I want to buy twenty-four Cornettos?!” said Ben with a laugh. “Erm, well, I don’t now, you could maybe eat twelve, and put the other twelve in your pocket to enjoy later.” “That’s a lot of Cornettos, Raj. Why are you so keen to get rid of them?” “They go out of date tomorrow,” said Raj, as he lumbered over to the freezer cabinet, slid open the glass top and pulled out a cardboard box of Cornettos. A freezing cold mist immediately shrouded the shop. “Look! Best Before 15th of November.” Ben studied the box. “It says Best Before 15th of November 1996.”


“Well,” said Raj. “Even more reason to put them on special offer. OK, Ben, this is my final offer. Buy one box of Cornettos, I will give you ten boxes absolutely free!” “Really Raj, no thanks,” said Ben. He peered into the freezer cabinet to see what else might be lurking in there. It had never been defrosted and Ben wouldn’t have been surprised to find a perfectly preserved woolly mammoth from the Ice Age inside. “Hang on,” he said, as he moved a few frost encrusted ice-lollies out of the way. “It’s in here! Plumbing Weekly!” “Ah yes, I remember now,” said Raj. “I put it in there to keep it fresh for you.” “Fresh?” said Ben. “Well, young man, the magazine comes out on a Tuesday, but it’s Friday today. So I put it in the freezer to keep it fresh for you, Ben. I didn’t want it to go off.” Ben wasn’t sure how any magazine could ever go off, but he thanked the newsagent anyway. “That’s very kind of you, Raj. And I’ll have a packet of Rolos, please.” “I can offer you seventy-three packets of Rolos for the prize of seventytwo!” exclaimed the newsagent with a smile that was meant to entice. “No thanks, Raj.” “One thousand packets of Rolos for the price of nine hundred and ninety-eight?” “No thanks,” said Ben. “Are you mad, Ben? That’s a wonderful offer. All right, all right, you drive a hard bargain, Ben. One million and seven packets of Rolos, for the price of a million and four. That’s three packets of Rolos absolutely free!” “I’ll just take one packet and the magazine, thank you.” “Of course, young sir!” “I can’t wait to get stuck into Plumbing Weekly later. I have to go and spend the whole night with my boring old granny again.” It had been a week since Ben’s last visit, and the dreaded Friday had rolled around once more. His parents were going to see a ‘chick flick’, according to his mum. Romance and kissing and all that goo. Yuckety yuck yuck.

How do you smile if you mean to entice? peered – stirret lurking – lure defrosted – avrimet preserved – bevart frost encrusted – dekket med rim go off – eksplodere Rolos – en type sjokolade exclaimed – utbrøt entice – lokke bargain – handel get stuck into – komme i gang med goo – kliss

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“Tut tut tut,” said Raj, shaking his head as he counted out Ben’s change. Ben instantly felt ashamed. He had never seen the newsagent do this before. Like all the other local kids, Ben regarded Raj as ‘one of us’ not ‘one of them’. He was so full of life and laughter, Raj seemed a world away from parents and teachers and all the grown-ups who felt they could tell you off because they were bigger than you. “Just because your granny is old, young Ben,” said Raj “doesn’t mean that she is boring. I am getting on a bit myself. And whenever I have met your granny I have found her to be a very interesting lady.” “But – ” “Don’t be too hard on her, Ben,” pleaded Raj. “We will all be old one day. Even you. And I’m sure your granny will have a secret or two. Old people always do …”

Did you know?

instantly – øyeblikkelig ashamed – skamfull

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In Norway you can study to become a plumber if you choose vocational studies instead of general studies at upper secondary school.

!


Activities 62 Reading to understand. a Why did Ben enjoy reading Plumbing Weekly? b Find a word that describes how Raj walked. c Find three words in the story that tell us about Raj’s personality. d Find a word in the first paragraph that is similar in meaning to searching very carefully.

66 Writing. Imagine that you suddenly find out what occupation you would like to have. Write a story about yourself finding out what to become in the future, with yourself as the main character in the story. BS 101 67 Modal verbs. Identify the modal verbs in these sentences. BS 44 a He couldn’t find his favourite publication.

e Find a phrase in the text that shows that Raj had been a newsagent for a long time.

b He would watch in awe, as a junior doctor might watch a great surgeon at work.

f There are six occupations mentioned in the story. Can you find them all?

c The newsagent would keep the plumbing magazine aside for him.

63 Vocabulary. Find pictures to help you explain these words. a How do pipes differ from taps? b How do cisterns differ from drains? c How do tanks differ from boilers? 64 Speaking. Society needs plumbers, carpenters, electricians and other trades. In some areas of the country, few teenagers choose to study vocational subjects. Your job is to convince them to choose vocational studies at upper secondary school. Write a speech for a careers fair. BS 117 65 Speaking. Instruct your classmates how to

• mend a broken zip • mend a bike chain • change bike tyres • replace a light bulb • braid someone’s hair • fix a leak

d Who would want to eat a Cornetto now? e You could maybe eat twelve. f I will give you ten boxes absolutely free! g He peered into the freezer cabinet to see what else might be lurking in there. 68 Numbers. Raj gives Ben many special offers. Work out each of the offers. Rank them from the best to the worst bargain. Explain your decisions.

• Buy twenty-three Cornettos, get one free. • Buy one box of Cornettos, get ten boxes free. • Buy seventy-three packets of Rolos for the price of seventy-two.

• Buy one thousand packets of Rolos for the price of nine hundred and ninety-eight.

• Buy one million and seven packets of Rolos, for the price of a million and four. 69 Writing. Raj is sure that Ben’s granny has a secret. What is her secret? Write a letter from granny to Ben in which she reveals her secret.

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Skill Builder You need: three to four players | a dice | two tokens for each player

Rules • Each player should place one token

Your task is to name something in the category where you landed on the game board, beginning with the letter where you landed on the letter board.

If you cannot name something, that is the end of your turn. Play passes to the next player.

You may not use a word more than once in any one game.

One pupil should make a list of all the words named during the game.

The first person to reach FINISH on the game board is the winner.

on START on the game board and the other token on A on the letter board.

Throw the dice and move your token along the game board accordingly.

If you land on a stop sign, play passes to the next player. Miss a turn.

If you land on a square with a task, move your other token one space on the letter board. Note! You do not need the dice for the letter board. Simply move one space forward when it is your turn.

Game board 17 A job suitable for teenagers

18

19 A quality you like in people

20 An occupation

16 A word that describes your personality

15 A word that describes appearance

14

13 A quality needed when working individually

3 A quality you like in people

4 An item of clothing suitable for work

1 START

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2 A word that describes appearance


Letter board U

P O

S

W

N

Y

R

F T

L

E

K

A

M

C

H

G

B

J

I

D

21

22 Something you are good at

23 A word that describes your personality

12 A quality you like in people

11 Something you are good at

10

9 A quality needed when working with people

6 A person you admire

71 A word for how people some­ times feel

8 A word that describes how people move

5

24 FINISH

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Chapter Activities Sum up 70 Reading to understand. These are different jobs people have. What are the jobs called? There may be several answers. a I repair cavities in other people’s teeth.

73 Modal verbs. Write questions that suit the answers using modal verbs. BS 44 a No, you cannot. And that is final!

b I come round to fix a leak.

b Yes, of course. The pharmacy is just around the corner.

c I make brick houses and brick walls.

c Of course you may! Let’s go.

d Some call me an animal doctor.

d Oh yes, please! I can’t lift this on my own.

e You need me if the lights stop working.

e I don’t think I will. I won’t be back till 10.

f I decide whether a person is guilty of a crime or not.

f No I dare not. I’m afraid of heights. g Yes, she has been here many times before.

g I care for the elderly and the sick in hospitals. h I plan buildings like houses and schools. 71 Speaking. Act out, draw or mime a job. Your classmates have to guess which job it is. 72 Speaking. Work in groups. acrobat, ambassador, army general, astronaut, diver, firefighter, judge, lifeguard, miner, football player, police officer, surgeon a Rank the jobs from the most to the least stressful jobs. b Rank the jobs from the most to the least dangerous jobs. c Compare with another group. Give reasons for your choices. d Discuss which of these jobs are most important for society. Make a list of the ten most important jobs a society needs.

74 Writing. Work with a classmate. Compare two jobs using a Venn diagram. Write a paragraph together in which you compare these two jobs. Use words like similar, both, alike, in contrast, even though, although, different. 75 Pronouns Fill in the missing pronouns. Choose from this list: her, his, their, my, our, its. BS 22 a Ben learned plumbing and Mr Cheng was ____ instructor. b Laura and ____ team won ____ first gold medal. c Wilson said: “____ team mates helped me.” d Byron and Joseph said, “We wanted to support ____ friend, Mary.” e The avalanche was on ___ way down the hill. f When the flood was over, people struggled for ____ lives. Underline the noun that the pronoun refers to in each sentence.

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Move on 76 Writing. One job – three text types.

79 Speaking. Read this list of adjectives:

• Write an application for a summer job of

quiet, reliable, cheerful, brave, selfish, generous, neat, clumsy, boastful, sensible, easy-going, ruthless, hesitant, greedy, patient, modest, possessive, witty, lazy

your choice. Include a CV.

• Write the reply to your application. • Write a text message to a friend telling him or her about the job you have applied for.

a Which of these adjectives would you use about yourself in a job interview? Which would you avoid using?

77 Writing. Imagine you have the job of your dreams. Write a page for a website that provides careers advice for teenagers. Explain in detail what you do and describe a day at work. Also, describe the qualities and skills you need in this job. 78 Writing. Make a pamphlet about a job to persuade teenagers to choose this as their future occupation. Include facts, benefits and prospects.

b Plan and act out a job interview with a classmate using as many of the suitable adjectives as possible. 80 Speaking. Which occupations will be needed in the future? Give a lecture called “future jobs” for teenagers who are unsure what they want to study. Give reasons why you think these jobs will be important.

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… identify formal and informal language in texts … write different texts using formal language … compare different jobs and occupations …. begin and maintain conversations about my plans for the future … express my plans for the future using different expressions … identify and use modal verbs such as might, could, may, ought to. … identify and use pronouns such as my, your, our, their.

B Assessment 3–2–1 3 things I have learned working with the material in this chapter. 2 things that are difficult to understand. 1 thing I want to learn more about or improve.

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4

Who­dunnit?


TOPIC WORDS evidence suspect

? If this chapter was a book ‌ Sell it in 60 seconds! Pretend to be a publisher and persuade others to buy the book.

innocent guilty victim to solve

Learning objectives

to investigate

n

crime scene

n n n n

n

Recognise the characteristics of a short story Write from different points of view Create colourful characters Formulate sentences using indirect speech Recognise and use relative pronouns correctly Explain when to use there is and it is

113


Warm-up you enjoy reading • Do about crime or watching crime series on TV? Why, or why not?

Crime Sells Crime sells. For adults and teenagers. Some of TV’s most popular series are about crime and detectives, and many of the most popular teen novels have mysteries or crime as the theme. So what is it about crime that attracts teenagers?


Readers involved It seems that the answer to that question is simply that crime novels and series generally have exciting plots that keep the reader or viewer hooked. According to journalist Simon Brett, crime novels are fun because the reader becomes involved in solving the mystery along with the detective. Mathilde (15) agrees, “Solving a mystery is interesting. You see the evidence, you try to put the pieces together and you think you know what has happened. Sometimes you’re right, but mostly you’re not.”

Exciting plots The plot is very important in crime novels. Traditional crime novels, such as Agatha Christie’s, generally follow a set pattern that often starts with a murder. The reader is given clues at regular intervals to keep their interest, and the pace hots up until the detective reveals the identity of the murderer. In the final

chapter the murderer is sent to trial, convicted and everyone feels safe again.

Identify with the hero So is teen crime different from adult crime? “Yes,” says Tanya Byrne, author of Heart-shaped Bruise. Teenagers are not interested in the same things as adults. For teen crime fiction to be really successful, the novel needs a hero that the readers can identify with. Teenagers similar to themselves. As Malin (16) puts it: “You feel like the main character is doing the things that you would do yourself in the same situation. Always coming up with a new idea without sitting down to plan, just being spontaneous. Eventually, one spontaneous idea will probably be the solution.” This means the main character and crime solver has to be a teenager too, and not an adult detective. While crime written for adults often focuses on how the famous detective solves the mystery, teenagers in crime novels solve

plot – handling hooked on – hektet på solving – løser set pattern – bestemt mønster pace – hastighet hots up – blir livligere convicted – straffedømt spontaneous – spontan

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set about – begynner setbacks – tilbakeslag unravelling – løse opp, oppklare retrace – følge spor

things themselves rather than waiting around for an adult or detective to do the job. Donald Sobol’s Encyclopedia Brown and Charlie Higson’s teenage James Bond don’t go to the police and then stand back; they set about solving the mystery themselves. They are usually successful as well, although they meet many setbacks along the way.

Not just about crime All in all, it is clear that crime sells well to young people. Young adult authors continue to write stories with plots that teenagers can get involved in and create smart young detectives that teenagers can identify with. These detectives not only solve crimes, they also learn a lot about themselves along the way.

Did you know?

!

The word clue comes from clew, which means a ball of string. That is why we talk about unravelling clues. According to Greek mytho­ logy, Theseus escaped from the Minotaur’s labyrinth by unravelling a ball of wool (clewe in Middle English) so he could retrace his steps. Later the word clew came to mean something that will lead you to a solution.

Indirect speech In indirect speech you report what the person has said without using the exact words. Direct speech: “Yes,” says Tanya Byrne. “Teenagers are just as demanding as adults.” Indirect speech: Tanya Byrne says that teenagers are just as demanding as adults. Direct speech: “I have loads of homework,” Maria said. Indirect speech: Maria said that she had loads of homework. BS 60

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Activities 1 Reading to understand.

BS 127

Skim the text and answer the questions. a What kind of TV series are the most popular? b What does it take for teen crime to be really successful? Scan the text to find answers to the following questions. c What are the names of the teenagers mentioned in this article? d What kind of literature did Agatha Christie write? Read the text closely to find answers to the following questions. e Why is crime fiction so popular? f How are teen crime novels different from adult crime novels? 2 Speaking. Which crime series do you watch on TV? Talk to a classmate about why you enjoy these series. If you do not watch crime series, find someone who does and see whether they can persuade you to try watching it. 3 Vocabulary. Match the words from the text with a suitable explanation. detective

to find the answer to a problem

plot

not guilty of a crime

clue

a person who tries to solve crimes

murderer

a secret plan

solve

a piece of information that may help to solve a crime

guilty

a person who kills someone

murder

the act of killing someone

innocent

responsible for breaking a law

4 Pronunciation. Be a sound detective. If you are unsure how to pronounce a word, you can use phonetic symbols (lydskrift). Each sound has its own symbol. What are the following words and how do you pronounce them? BS 62 a /ˈvɪktɪm/

d /ˈdʒʊəri/

b /ˈməːdərə/

e /kraɪm/

c /ˈɪnəsənt/

f /səluːʃən/

5 Listening. How do you listen in the following situations? BS 151 a You hear someone whisper next door. b You hear footsteps in the middle of the night. c Your teacher takes the register in class. d You hear an alarm in the distance. e You hear a news report about a crime committed in your neighbourhood. 6 Vocabulary. Rank the crimes from the least to the most dangerous or damaging, in your opinion. Be prepared to explain why you chose this order. burglary, threats, violence, kidnapping, robbery, murder, shoplifting, theft 7 Indirect speech. Find the two quotes from teenagers in this article. Rewrite them as indirect speech. BS 60 8 Direct speech. Change these sentences into direct speech: a She said she was telling the truth. b Mathilde said that solving a mystery was fun. c Jonathan asked me whether I watched crime series. d The journalist told me that he was writing an article about crime novels.

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Warm-up kinds of clues • What do detectives look for at a crime scene? Make a list.

break-in – innbrudd abandoned – forlatt crowbar – brekkjern laid off – permittert

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CSI – Crime Scene Investigation


There has been a break-in and the police have been called in to investigate the crime. This is their evidence board.

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119


Crime scene investigator This is Julia Holby. She is a crime scene investigator in the police department. Her job is to help the police find out who has committed a crime and who is innocent. Julia has been called to investigate a robbery at two shops. She has visited the scene, collected evidence and talked to some eyewitnesses.

Crime scene report

DATE: 21/8/2016

Raymond’s Jewellers

REF: JH437

I arrived at Redmond’s Jewellers at 09:10, 15 minutes after the policemen. Detective constable Ward instructed me to investigate the scene. The first thing I noticed was that a window was broken. There was broken glass on the floor by the display cabinet. Several pieces had drops of blood on them, so I took a piece as evidence (Evidence bag RH437/1)

It is, there is, there are There is and there are are used to show that something exists. When you can say “det finnes”, use there is or there are. Use it is for expressions with time, the weather, distances and opinions. Use there is with a noun in the singular There is a photograph of the van on the board. police department – politiet collected – samlet display cabinet – monter

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Use there are with a noun in the plural. There are many witnesses.

BS 28


Activities 9 Reading to understand. You are the detective and are going to solve the crime here. Use the evidence to reconstruct the crime and catch the criminal. a Write a short description of the events. b Sort through and organise all the evidence. c What has happened? Formulate a theory with a classmate. 10 Listening. Listen to the crime scene investigator talking about her job. Take notes while you are listening and use your notes to write a job description for a crime scene investigator. 11 Speaking. You are a news reporter, and are reporting on this crime. a Make a report that will be broadcast on the television news that evening. b Perform the report live for a group of classmates. c Ask the group what was good about your report. 12 Writing. Detectives and CSI agents have to file a police report. a Complete Julia’s report on page 120. Include the date, place, your name, the names of the victims, a list of witnesses, a description of the crime scene, a list of evidence material, statements from the witnesses, a list of suspects and your conclusion. b The chief constable is not sure about your conclusion. Convince him that your solution is correct. 13 Writing. Write the newspaper article that appears in the newspaper the day after the crime or when the detective has solved the case.

14 Speaking. Being a crime scene investigator is portrayed as quite glamorous on TV. Do you think it really is? Explain your answer giving examples of what you think may be glamorous and what could be less glamorous. 15 Vocabulary. Some nouns are always in the plural, for example police. Write the sentences in full using the correct words. BS 13 a The police _____ called in to investigate a crime. (am, is, are) b _____ are often helped by a crime scene investigator. (it, they, he, she) c Sometimes, the police _____ the criminal. (finds, find) d Everyone is happy to see that the police _____ outside. (am, is, are) e The police _____ using tracker dogs in the hunt. (am, is, are) 16 Vocabulary. One word in each list does not fit. Find the word and give reasons why.

• fingerprints, torch, camera, police tape • theft, stealing, speeding, shoplifting • break-in, burglary, robbery, murder • CSI, nurse, police inspector, forensic scientist • solve, detect, guilty, investigate 17 Language. It is, there is, there are. This is the transcript of a telephone conversation. Find the mistakes. Rewrite the text with the correct words. There is 6 p.m. and I have just arrived at the crime scene. It is broken glass everywhere and there is a lot of papers all over the floor. There are a piece of fabric attached to the broken window. The owner says that it is nothing missing but I don’t understand how she knows. There are complete chaos here. BS 28

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Warm-up story these words • Inarethiscentral to the plot: coffee, clothes, river. What do you think the story is about?

tramp – landstryker fishing lodge – fiskehytte wretched – elendig rickety – falleferdig slurped down – slurpet i seg envy you – misunner deg

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The Death of a Tramp A short story by Herbert Harris

As he had expected, George Fletcher ran into the tramp down by the river. It was true what everyone at the fishing lodge said – the tramp was his double. The same build, everything. Only the clothes were different, of course. The tramp’s face was almost the same face he had been staring at in the mirror for over forty years. Fletcher was thinking about the wretched life he had led since he married Ethel. Ten years with Ethel had marked him. He hated her. So as often as he could, he went away on these fishing trips. He was dreaming of a new life, a life without Ethel. When he saw the tramp, he got this idea. The river was deep and the bridge over it was old and rickety. The tramp was lying there, on his back, close to the bridge. Fletcher sat down a few yards away from the tramp. He took out a thermos from his rucksack and poured himself some coffee. He looked around and realized the tramp was watching him. “Would you like a coffee?” he asked. The tramp sat down beside him. “That’s very kind of you,” he said. “Thanks.” Fletcher watched him drinking. “I don’t feel sorry for you,” he said. “I’ve come here to get away from my wife and that, my old friend, is a short moment of happiness for me. But you – you’ve got all the freedom in the world. No family, no relatives, no one to worry about. The tramp looked at him. “You’re right,” he said. “You’re a lucky dog,” continued Fletcher. “Drink your coffee before it gets cold.” He watched as the tramp slurped down the coffee. “Yeah, I really envy you.” “No money either,” said the tramp. “Nor have I,” said Fletcher. “My wife takes it all. But soon she’ll have to work to earn a living. It’ll be hard for her – I hope.” As Fletcher kept talking, the tramp fell asleep. The pills he had put in the coffee had worked quickly. The tramp was breathing heavily.


Fletcher took his clothes off and then undressed the tramp. Soon they had changed clothes. The tramp had become George Fletcher, and George had become the tramp. He took out the only money there was in his wallet – a pound note – and put it in his own pocket. Then he put the wallet back in his jacket, the jacket the tramp was now wearing.

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Carefully he dragged the tramp over to the wooden bridge. He stamped hard in the middle of it and then dropped the tramp through the hole and saw his body sink into the deep water. Fletcher put his fishing gear and his rucksack on the bridge, beside the hole and returned to the river bank. He looked around. No one had seen him. Then he disappeared quickly down the path that led into the forest. Fletcher walked for hours through the peaceful landscape, enjoying his new freedom. There was a smile on his lips when he thought about how Ethel would identify the dead body. She would recognize his clothes and his belongings. She wouldn’t take a very close look at his face. He was looking forward to reading the news of his own death. ANGLER DROWNED would be the headline. Suddenly it occurred to Fletcher that he had no name. What might the tramp’s name have been? He began searching the pockets of the torn clothes, and soon he found a thumbed cutting from yesterday’s paper. HAVE YOU EVER SEEN THIS MAN? the headline read. And below it a photograph. Fletcher stared at it. It could have been a picture of himself. Slowly he read the text, “The police are using tracker dogs in the hunt for William Chapman who escaped from Broadmead on Monday. Chapman was declared insane after strangling two women … ” Fletcher suddenly heard a dog barking close by. Trembling all over he started to run.

Who, which, that Who, which and that are relative pronouns. In Norwegian you would use the word “som”.

• Use who to talk about people. Fletcher is the man who killed the tramp. fishing gear – fiskeutstyr angler – sportsfisker a thumbed cutting – et slitt utklipp insane – sinnsyk trembling all over – skjelvende i hele seg

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• Use which to talk about things and animals. The clothes which the tramp wore, were old and ragged.

• Use that to talk about things, animals and people when the information following is necessary to the sentence. The dog that barked was close by.

BS 25


Activities 18 Reading to understand. Use the short story to find words and sentences that:

23 Writing. Inspired by this short story, write another text type. For example

a describe George Fletcher’s life.

• a police report about the missing man

b describe George Fletcher’s feelings about his wife.

• a news report with the title ANGLER

c explain why the last sentence is “Trembling all over he started to run”.

• an interview with Ethel

19 Analysis. Find examples of these characteristics of a short story in this text. a few characters b a limited period of time c few details about people and places d clues to help the reader guess what happens next e a twist in the plot 20 Analysis. Read this short story closely and find examples of these ways of spicing up a story. a The author uses adverbs to describe how things are being done. BS 97 b The author surprises the reader.

BS 98

c The story is told using a third-person narrator. BS 94 21 Pronunciation. Practise the difference between /t/, /θ/and /ð/. BS 64 death, tramp, think, then, without, ticket, theme, tell, Ethel, there, clothes, thief, theory, trembling, thirsty 22 Speaking. What are your reactions to the short story? Have a conversation in groups using words like sorry for, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, pity, dislike, fear, doubt, curious, surprised.

DROWNED

• a poem 24 Writing. How do you think the author worked in order to create a character like Fletcher? Write the author’s first draft describing Fletcher. 25 Language. Who, which, that. Choose the correct word in each of these sentences. Explain why you chose the word that you did. a The man who/which/that looked like Fletcher was by the river. b Fletcher, who/which/that hated his wife, wanted to take over the tramp’s life. c Children who/which/that listen to fairy tales have a vivid imagination. d Bears and wolves who/which/that can talk often appear in fairy tales. 26 Language. It is, there is. Explain why the underlined words are used correctly in these sentences. a It was true. b He took out the only money there was in his wallet. c There was a smile on his lips. d It was a warm and sunny morning when Fletcher met the tramp. 27 Indirect speech. Rewrite the conversation between the tramp and Fletcher as indirect speech. BS 60

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Warm-up what you know • From about Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson, do these drawings resemble either of them?

Sherlock Sherlock Holmes is probably the world’s most famous detective. He was created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and, along with his friend, Dr John Watson, he appeared in 56 short stories and four novels between 1887 and 1927. Although the stories were written more than a hundred years ago, Sherlock is just as popular today largely due to films and TV series. In fact Sherlock Holmes is the most filmed fictional character. He has been in almost 300 films and been portrayed by 75 different actors. Sherlock Holmes lived at 221b Baker Street. There is a museum to Sherlock Holmes in Baker Street, but although its official address is 221b, it is actually number 239. Next time you are in London why not visit the Sherlock Holmes museum?


It seems that Holmes is busy at work again.

With the exception of the occasional article in the daily press, I had little knowledge of my dear old friend.

Why shouldn‘t I visit him?

Let’s see if I can still surprise him.

Oh…Mrs Hudson, you haven’t aged a day!

But you are getting fat. What do you want?

26

occasional – sporadiske

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I missed your charm. And Holmes?

He is upstairs, up to no good as usual, but I’m telling you, I can’t take this any longer!

As if the bullet riddled wall wasn’t enough! The decorator came today. He was here for a while and then he told me that the ceiling is soaked through with some filthy chemicals that the paint won’t stick to!

It’s all those experiments of his!

If he carries on like this, he‘ll have to find somewhere else to live! I promise you!

Holmes, how are you my old fr...

Holmes?

up to no good – ikke ha gode hensikter bullet-riddled – gjennomhullet av kuler filthy – møkkete 27

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hmmm...

28

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What the devil, he’s slipped out through the back again…

Well, well, well, my dear Watson.

Holmes! And I thought that I would surprise you. What on earth are you doing?

I read in a study that hiding in a raised position is 80% more effective than hiding at eye level.

slipped out – stukket ut 29

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Briefly put, few people look up.

Get down.

And there’s the rub. To do that I need a screwdriver which, as you may have noticed…

Aha, so your pockets are not sealed when upside down. I can see that this is an excellent concealment strategy.

It was a test of attention. Your attention. Not of my skills. So, will you pass me that screwdriver or not?

30

I guess we both failed? Am I correct? Watson, I can see that you are enjoying this, but I am expecting a client any moment…

A certain study by Doctor Priznitz suggests that when blood rushes to the head, the brain is better supplied with oxygen and your thinking improves for a while.

there’s the rub – der har vi problemet screwdriver – skrutrekker concealment – gjemmested

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Can you feel any improvement?

Tell me, what have I been up to since we last saw each other?

I will help you down once I verify this theory.

Watson…

Excellent Watson!

So,Make on a mistake another and you’ll note: Irene be whipped. Adler.

You have just used five negatives in one sentence!

Let’s make it a little more entertaining.

Watson!!!

Watson…

Alright, alright, as you wish! You’ve begun to visit the Although I understand that Reform Club, where you this case attractive you hadfind dinner of the prominent tonight,because you ordered figure who is implicated, I can tomato soup, your assure you that it is a trivial wife is out of town It is nothing worthy formatter. a while and ofuntidy your attention. you have an maid...or have you dismissed her yet? However, I am currently investigating another case which is of a particularly dark and sinister nature. I plan to solve it tomorrow night and confront my opponent directly on their own turf. Would you like to join me tomorrow? Three o’clock at Charing Cross?

I’ll be delighted!

How do you know? So you did. Your medical practice is not a great success, but is doing nicely. You visit your patients in their homes and you visited one today. As a matter of fact, you have just been to see one…

Besides, your wife will not be returning anytime soon. She went to a spa, did she not?

verify – bekrefte deduction – logisk slutning

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This brings me to the question: How did you know so much when I arrived? I really think that you have been spying on me!

Of course.

Are you spying on me?!

31

Elementary, my dear Watson.

All these years and you still haven’t learned anything from my methods of deduction?

47


I don’t deduce anything from my appearance that would suggest that my wife is at a spa or that I dismissed the maid!

Well, first things first…

You have started visiting the Reform Club. I could see that from the club pin that you forgot to remove from your waistcoat. You haven’t visited the club for more than eighty days; otherwise you would be a participant in the grandiose popular wager with Phileas Fogg, in which case you would be in the club now and not here. You love tomato soup, evidence of which is visible on the napkin, which you absentmindedly put into your waistcoat. You dined at the club or else you would not have the pin or the dirty napkin.

deduce – trekke slutninger

And my wife and maid?

I have noticed your shoes are visibly scarred from the shoe brush. As a former soldier, you would not do this yourself and you would hardly tolerate it from your staff. It can be DEDUCED THAT IN YOUR HOME you have or recently had, a frightening case of a shoe wrecker, the likes of which London has never seen before. Your wife has been away from home for quite some time. You have had to do your own ironing. Look at your trousers. She would not let you out of the house with those double creases. I know her that much. And as I am aware your wife is an orphan, she could not be visiting her parents in the country.

48

dismissed – sa opp waistcoat – vest wager – gjette­ konkurranse napkin – serviett absentmindedly – uoppmerksomt double creases – doble folder orphan – foreldreløst barn

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Of course! It’s very simple! I could figure that out myself.

If she were ill, you would be at her side and not here. Where else could a lady go? A holiday or a spa.

And how did you know I have been seeing a patient?

I knew it!

I spy on you!

Indeed, you could be on your way from the theatre with that medical bag.

Extract from Sherlock Holmes: A Scandal in Bohemia by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Peter Kopl 49

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Activities 28 Reading to understand. Decide whether these sentences are true or false. Rewrite the false sentences so that they become true. a Dr Watson has visited Sherlock Holmes recently. b Mrs Hudson is happy being the landlady for Mr Holmes. c The screwdriver has fallen out of Holmes’s pocket. d Watson has eaten tomato soup recently. e Watson is good at ironing. f Holmes has been spying on Watson. 29 Analysis. Look at the panels in the story. a Find features of a comic strip: a close-up, a speech bubble, a thought bubble and narrative voice. b What is cool about the way Sherlock Holmes is portrayed as a character in this comic strip? Give examples. 30 Pronunciation. Find five words in the text that you think are difficult to pronounce. BS 62

32 Speaking. Perform the scenes from the graphic novel as a play. Continue the action – what do you think happens next? 33 Vocabulary. a Match the expressions from the text with their explanation. 1 you haven’t aged a day

a this is a good way of hiding

2 this is an excellent concealment strategy

b I could work that out myself

3 what I have been up to

c you do not look any older

4 I could figure that out for myself

d what I have been doing

b Translate the four expressions into Norwegian literally. Do any of them make sense in Norwegian? c Find two or three idiomatic expressions in Norwegian that do not work in English. For example: tatt på fersken.

a Listen to the way the words are pronounced using an online dictionary.

34 Language. Who, which, that. Complete these sentences:

b Practise saying the words aloud. Then teach a classmate how to pronounce them.

a Sherlock Holmes is the detective ____ was created by Arthur Conan Doyle.

31 Writing. The language in this graphic novel is quite advanced. a Why do you think graphic novels can use advanced language and still be accessible to teenagers?

b The person ____ drew the pictures for the text is very creative. c Words ____ contain the letter j can be tricky to pronounce. d Any evidence ____ is collected by the police can be used to convict criminals.

b Rewrite the dialogue on page 133 in the language of a teenager.

e The car ____ the criminals used was white.

c Comment on how easy or challenging this activity was. Give reasons for your answer.

f Watson, ____ is a good friend of Holmes, helps to detect criminals.

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Warm-up is the difference • What between a crime and a criminal? And a murder and a murderer?

Cruel Criminals Mary Ann Cotton Mary Ann Cotton was probably Britain’s first serial killer. She was tried and hanged for killing her stepson, seven-year-old Charles Edward Cotton, but she is thought to have killed 21 people in total, including her husbands and children, stepchildren and lover. Mary Ann killed her victims using arsenic, which is a poison. It was fairly easy to get hold of arsenic and the symptoms were the same as stomach problems so the deaths did not cause any suspicion. It was only after the death of Charles Edward that the newspapers and doctors became suspicious. Journalists looking for a story began to investigate and found information about dead husbands, missing children and that all people connected to her had died of symptoms like those of arsenic poisoning. The police investigated, tested some remains of Charles Edward using very new forensic technology and Mary Ann was arrested and hanged.

Lizzie Borden Mary Ann Cotton

tried – stilt for retten arsenic – arsenikk poison – gift suspicion – mistanke forensic – rettsmedisinsk arrested – arrestert convincing evidence – tungtveiende bevis acquitted – frifunnet resort to – ty til hatchet – håndøks alerted – varslet barn – låve

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Lizzie Borden took an axe, And gave her mother forty whacks; When she saw what she had done, She gave her father forty-one.

No one has ever been convicted of the murder of Andrew and Abby Borden on 4th August 1892. Although Andrew’s daughter Lizzie was arrested for the murder and tried in court, there was no convincing evidence and Lizzie was acquitted in June 1893. Lizzie and her sister Emma, both in their thirties, lived with their father and stepmother in Falls River, Massachusetts. By all accounts it was not a happy home, and the sisters were not fond of their stepmother. But were things so bad that Lizzie would resort to murder? It was Lizzie herself who found her father lying dead on the sofa with several serious wounds to the head caused by a hatchet. She alerted the maid. Shortly afterwards Lizzie’s stepmother was discovered upstairs. When the police arrived, Lizzie informed them that she had been outside in the barn and discovered her father when she returned to the house. She also said she believed that her stepmother was out on an errand.


! Did you know? • Lizzie Borden has been on The Simpsons? She was in the jury at a trial of Homer Simpson’s soul.

Andrew and Abby Borden were not killed with an axe as the poem suggests, but with a hatchet. They also received far fewer blows when they were killed. Andrew received ten or eleven, while Abby received nineteen.

The trial of Lizzie Borden

The police were suspicious of Lizzie from the start but they did not arrest her until a week later. During that week Lizzie burned a dress which she said was stained with paint. This, plus the discovery of a broken hatchet in the cellar, and the fact that Lizzie had tried to buy poison a week earlier, allowed detectives to point the finger at her. However, the members of the jury were not convinced and Lizzie was set free. She returned to Falls River, bought a large house and lived there until her death in 1927.

trial – rettssak stained – flekket to point the finger – å legge skylden på soul – sjel

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Jack the Ripper stabbed – knivstukket murder squad – drapsavdeling shawl – sjal descendents – etterkommere

There is no picture of Jack the Ripper on these pages, quite simply because nobody knows who he was. In the space of 40 days in 1888, five women were murdered in Whitechapel, London. They were all stabbed. The police tried to solve the crime but in those days they had very few forensic tools available and mainly collected information by talking to people. The murderer was never found and he seems to have stopped murdering women at the end of 1888. Over the years many theories about his identity have been developed and there have been numerous books and films imspired by the story of Jack the Ripper. Recently, forensic scientists have started to investigate the murders again, and various theories about who Jack was have come to light. Trevor Marriot, a former murder squad detective from Britain, has spent eleven years researching and has concluded that Jack the Ripper never existed. He believes that Jack was created by journalist Thomas Bull, and that the crimes are mostly unrelated. Russell Edwards claims that Polish immigrant Aaron Kosminski was the killer. He used forensic evidence from a shawl belonging to one of the victims which he matched to descendents of both the victim and to Kosminski. A third possible candidate is Charles Allen Lechmere, a man who drove meat around the East End. He was observed at the first official Ripper crime scene, and all the crimes were committed on the route that he drove meat. Recent news­ paper articles suggest that two Ripper experts believe Lech­ mere was the Ripper. Whoever Jack was, it is clear that he still inspires newspaper headlines well over 100 years after his crimes.


Activities 35 Reading to understand. Find the person who: a tried to buy poison b stabbed their victims c was found out using forensic science d got rid of some possible evidence e was known as the Whitechapel Monster f was punished for his or her crimes 36 Speaking. Did Lizzie Borden kill her parents? Discuss the evidence for and against with a classmate and decide. Find another pair of classmates who disagree with you. Convince them that you are correct. 37 Speaking. You are a tour guide and an expert on Jack the Ripper. A class of ten-year-old pupils is coming to visit. Give an interesting and exciting talk. You may need to find some extra information from books or on the Internet. What do you think makes your talk interesting and exciting? 38 Digital skills. Find out more about one of these criminals. BS 174 a Search the Internet for information. b List some sources that you used. c Which source do you trust the most? Why? d Write a Did you know? paragraph which summarises the information you found. Start like this: Did you know that … 39 Speaking. Work with a classmate. One of you is Mary Ann Cotton and the other a policeman. Mary Ann is suspected of murdering her stepson and it is the detective’s job to make her confess to her crime. Have the conversation.

40 Writing. Create your own criminal. He or she must have a secret, a bad habit and a trade mark. Use adjectives to make your character exciting to read about. Write a paragraph. BS 88

41 Writing. Use the information about one of these people to write a different text type suitable for one of these purposes. For example, a song to get sympathy.

• to convince others that he or she is innocent • to explain • to plead guilty • to get sympathy from someone • to give a lecture • to entertain 42 Language. It is, there is. These sentences use it is, there is and there are incorrectly. Correct the sentences and explain why they were wrong. BS 28 a There is many articles about Jack the Ripper. b It is a drawing in the illustrated police news. c There is 7 o’clock. d It is a picture of Mary Ann Cotton on page 136.

Did you know?

!

Jack the Ripper is taken very seriously. An FBI investigator has created a criminal profile of him, and “Jack the Ripper Tours” in London is a thriving business for tourism.

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Warm-up are about to read • You a short story. What is typical for this text type? Make a list. Find examples of these features while reading.

hitchhiker – haiker towering – her: der han raget uncomfortable – ubekvem hard shoulder – veiskulder spikes – pigger insane – sinnssyk

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The Hitchhiker Extract from a short story by Anthony Horowitz

It was typical of my dad to want to stop and offer the man a lift and just as typical of my mum to want to drive on. In the back seat, I said, “Don’t stop, Dad.” But it was already too late. Just fifteen seconds had passed since we saw the hitchhiker and already we were slowing down. I’d told him not to stop. But I’d no sooner said it than we did. The rain was coming down harder now and it was very dark so I couldn’t see very much of the man. He seemed quite large, towering over the car. He had long hair, hanging down over his eyes. My father pressed the button that lowered the window. “Where are you going?” he asked. “Ipswich.” Ipswich was about twenty miles away. My mother didn’t say anything. I could tell she was uncomfortable. “You were heading there on foot?” my father asked. “My car’s broken down.” “Well – we’re heading that way. We can give you a lift.” “John …” My mother spoke my father’s name quietly but already it was too late. The damage was done. “Thanks,” the man said. He opened the back door. I suppose I’d better explain. The A12 is a long, dark, anonymous road that often goes through empty countryside with no buildings in sight. It was like that where we were now. There were no street lights. Pulled in on the hard shoulder, we must have been practically invisible to the other traffic rushing past. It was the one place in the world where you’d have to be crazy to pick up a stranger. Because, you see, everyone knows about Fairfields. It’s a big, ugly building not far from Woodbridge, surrounded by a wall that’s fifteen metres high with spikes along the top and metal gates that open electrically. The name is quite new. It used to be called the East Suffolk Maximum Security Prison for the Criminally Insane. And right now we were only about ten miles away from it. That’s the point I’m trying to make. When you’re ten miles away from a lunatic asylum, you don’t stop in the dark to pick up someone you’ve


never met. You have to say to yourself that maybe, just maybe, there could have been a break-out that night. Maybe one of the loonies has cut the throat of the guard at the gate and slipped out into the night. And so it doesn’t matter if it’s raining. It doesn’t even matter if the local nuclear power station at Sizewell has just blown up and it’s coming down radioactive slush. You just don’t stop. The back door slammed shut. The man eased himself into the back seat, rain water glistening on his jacket. The car drove forward again. I looked at him, trying to make out his features in the half light. He had a long face with a square chin and small, narrow eyes. His skin was pale, as if he hadn’t been outdoors in a while. His hair was somewhere between brown and grey, hanging down in clumps. His clothes looked old and second-hand. A sports jacket and baggy corduroys. The sort of clothes a gardener might wear. His fingers were unusually long. One hand was resting on his thigh and his fingers reached all the way to his knee. “Have you been out for the day?” he asked.

loonies – galning (slang) radioactive slush – radioaktivt slaps glistening – glitrende clumps – klumper corduroys – kordfløyelsbukser


Why do you think the man hesitated?

annoyed – irritert determined – bestemt

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“Yes.” My father knew he had annoyed my mother and he was determined to be cheerful and chatty, to show that he wasn’t ashamed of what he’d done. “We’ve been in Southwold. It’s a beautiful place.” “Oh yes.” He glanced at me and I saw that he had a scar running over his eye. It began on his forehead and ended on his cheek and it seemed to have pushed the eye a little to one side. It wasn’t quite level with the other one. “Do you know Southwold?” my father asked. “No.” “So where have you come from today?” The man thought for a moment. “I broke down near Lowestoft,” he said and somehow I knew he was lying. For a start, Lowestoft was a long way away, right on the border with Norfolk. If he’d broken down there, how could he have managed to get all the way to Southwold? And why bother? It would have been easier to jump on a train and go straight to Ipswich. I opened my mouth to say something but the man looked at me again, more sharply this time. Maybe I was imagining it but he could have been warning me. Don’t say anything. Don’t ask any difficult questions.


“What’s your name?” my mother asked. I don’t know why she wanted to know. “Rellik,” he said. “Ian Rellik.” He smiled slowly. “This your son in the back?” “Yes. That’s Jacob. He’s fifteen today.” “His birthday?” The man uncurled his hand and held it out to me. “Happy birthday, Jacob.” “Thank you.” I took the hand. It was like holding a dead fish. At the same time I glanced down and saw that his sleeve had pulled back exposing his wrist. There was something glistening on his skin and it wasn’t rain water. It was dark red, trickling down all the way to the edge of his hand, rising over the fleshy part of his thumb. Blood! Whose blood? His own? He pulled his hand away, hiding it behind him. He knew I had seen it. Maybe he wanted me to. We drove on. A cloud must have burst because it was really lashing down. You could hear the rain thumping on the car roof and the windscreen wipers were having to work hard to sweep it aside. I couldn’t believe we’d been walking on the beach only a few hours before. “Lucky we got in,” my mother said, reading my mind. “It’s bad,” my father said. “It’s hell,” the man muttered. Hell. It was a strange choice of word. He shifted in his seat. “What do you do?” he asked. “I’m a dentist.” “Really? I haven’t seen a dentist … not for a long time.” He ran his tongue over his teeth. The tongue was pink and wet. The teeth were yellow and uneven. I guessed he hadn’t cleaned them in a while. “You should go twice a year,” my father said. “You’re right. I should.” There was a rumble of thunder and at that exact moment the man turned to me and mouthed two words. He didn’t say them. He just mouthed them, making sure my parents couldn’t see. “You’re dead.” I stared at him, completely shaken. At first I thought I must have misunderstood him. Maybe he had said something else and the words had got lost in the thunderclap. But then he nodded slowly, telling me that I wasn’t wrong. That’s what he’d said. And that’s what he meant. I felt every bone in my body turn to jelly. That thing about the asylum. When we’d stopped and picked up the hitchhiker, I hadn’t really believed that he was a madman who’d just escaped. Often you get scared by things but you can still tell yourself that it’s just your imagination, that you’re

What do you do if you ‘mouth’ words?

expose – avsløre, vise it was lashing down – det pøsregnet

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being stupid. And after all, there are lots of stories about escaped lunatics and none of them are ever true. But now I wasn’t so sure. Had I imagined it? Had he said something else? You’re dead. I thought back, picturing the movement of his lips. He’d said it all right. We were doing about forty miles per hour, punching through the rain. I turned away, trying to ignore the man on the seat beside me. Mr Rellik. There was something strange about that name and without really thinking I found myself writing it on the window, using the tip of my finger. What is strange about his name?

RELLIK The letters, formed out of the condensation inside the car, hung there for a moment. Then the two ‘l’s in the middle began to run. It reminded me of blood. The name sounded Hungarian or something. It made me think of someone in Dracula. “Where do you want us to drop you?” my mother asked. “Anywhere,” Mr Rellik said. “Where do you live in Ipswich?” There was a pause. “Blade Street,” he said. “Blade Street? I don’t think I know it.” “It’s near the centre.” My mother knew every street in Ipswich. She lived there for ten years before she married my father. But she had never heard of Blade Street. And why had the hitchhiker paused before he answered her question? Had he been making it up? The thunder rolled over us a second time. “I’m going to kill you,” Mr Rellik said. But he said it so quietly that only I heard and this time I knew for certain. He was mad. He had escaped from Fairfields. We had picked him up in the middle of nowhere and he was going to kill us all. I leant forward, trying to catch my parents’ eyes. And that was when I happened to look into the driver’s mirror. That was when I saw the word that I had written on the window just a few moments before. RELLIK But reflected in the mirror it said something else. KILLER

condensation – kondens

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Activities 43 Reading to understand. a Why did Jacob think it was a bad idea to pick up the hitchhiker? b What was the first thing that made Jacob suspicious? c Which other things made Jacob think that the hitchhiker was dangerous? d Do you think that Jacob’s mother began to be suspicious when Rellik said he lived on Blade Street? Explain your answer. e Do you think Rellik is dangerous or is Jacob imagining things? Explain your answer. 44 Analysis. a Which typical characteristics of a short story are in this text? b What makes Rellik a colourful character? c Scan through the text to find examples of how the author creates a scary atmosphere. 45 Speaking. Continue the story. Work in groups and discuss what you think happens next. 46 Analysis. Sometimes there is a difference between what the characters say and what they think. Here are some sentences from the short story. Imagine what the characters are actually thinking. Write a few sentences. a Mother: “John … ” b Mr Rellik: “I broke down near Lowestoft” c Jacob: “Thank you” 47 Speaking. Make an audiobook of this short story. Use different voices for different characters.

48 Writing. How does point of view change a story? a Rewrite this story from Rellik’s point of view. b Write a few sentences about how this changes the story for the reader. 49 Verbs. In this extract from the text some of the verbs are in the past continuous. A cloud must have burst because it was really lashing down. You could hear the rain thumping on the car roof and the windscreen wipers were having to work hard to sweep it aside. a Find and write down all the verbs in the past continuous. b Explain why the past continuous is used here instead of the past simple. 50 Indirect speech. Rewrite part of the dialogue as indirect speech. Begin with Do you know Southwold? and end with somehow I knew he was lying. BS 60 51 Language. Who, which, that. Complete the sentences. BS 25 a The man _______ the family picked up was very wet from the rain. b The hitchhiker, _______ said his name was Rellik, was rather creepy. c Jacob’s father, _______ was driving, decided to pick up Rellik. d They picked up the man _______ was hitchhiking. e The man _______ they picked up lied to them. f Ipswich, _______ is a town, is on the coast.

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Warm-up do you think • What James Bond was like as a teenager? Discuss with a classmate.

Blood Fever Young James Bond is on a school trip to the island of Sardinia. After a while he goes to stay with a relative, Victor, who lives with an artist friend, Poliponi. Victor has two servants, Isabella and Mauro. James discovers that Ugo Carnifex, a local count, is up to no good and begins to investigate what he is doing. Carnifex does not like this and sends some of his men, including one named Horst, to visit James at Victor’s home. Extract from Blood Fever by Charlie Higson

relative – slektning chaotic – kaotisk blur – uskarphet hurtling – susende strangulated – kvalt high-pitched whine – skarp jamring battered – slo to fend off – å forsvare seg mot jerked – rykket amid – midt i

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Everything happened very quickly, too quickly for James to be scared. There was a chaotic, noisy blur of hurtling bodies, crashing furniture and yelling voices. Horst screamed and ran around the kitchen like a headless chicken, shouting about bandits in a strangulated high-pitched whine. Isabella was braver. She threw a saucepan of boiling tomato sauce over one of the men, who yelled and tore at his clothing. But two of his friends grabbed her before she could do any more damage. James picked up a chair and battered one of the men off Isabella, and out of the corner of his eye saw Horst fleeing out of the back door. Mauro, meanwhile, had picked up a big kitchen knife and was attempting to fend off the fourth attacker. He cut him badly across the forearm but two more men appeared. One of them hit Mauro with a wooden club, knocking him to the floor. James ran to his side and swung his chair at the man with all his strength, smashing it across his back and shattering splintered wood around the kitchen. He helped Mauro up and they tried to make a run for it out of the back door, but the next thing James knew someone had pushed a gun in his face. He caught a brief glimpse of a masked face and a red tattoo of the letter M on the back of the man’s hand. James jerked his head out of the way, then there was a terrific bang and a blinding white light in his eyes, and after that blackness and silence. James awoke in the middle of the night, lying on the kitchen floor amid a wreckage of broken plates and furniture, with a terrible ringing in his ears.


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What is this sticky red stuff??

relief – lettelse gore – gørr, størknet blod revive – få liv i conscious – bevisst was violently sick – kastet opp voldsomt bound and gagged – bundet og kneblet halting – her: nølende

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He ran his fingers over his face. His first thought was relief that he hadn’t been shot. There was a huge, painful lump on the back of his head, however. When he fell he must have struck the floor and knocked himself out. The men had probably left him for dead. He struggled to his feet and saw Mauro. It looked like he hadn’t been so lucky. He was lying beneath the table in a pool of sticky red stuff. “No,” James gasped and went over to him. Mauro’s face was streaked with red gore. Fighting back tears, James wiped the hateful stuff away with his hand. He smelt tomatoes. He licked his hand. It tasted sweet. It wasn’t blood at all; it was Isabella’s tomato sauce. He laughed and went to the sink to fetch some cold water. When he got there he saw his reflection in the window. He too was covered in dried sauce. But as he cleaned himself he realized with a shock that the stuff that was dripping down out of his hairline actually was blood. There was no time to worry about that now. He had to revive Mauro and try to find out what had happened. He splashed some water over him and as he cleaned his face he saw an ugly purple bruise across his forehead where he must have been struck with the club. At last Mauro’s eyes opened, but as soon as he was conscious he was violently sick. James left him in the kitchen to clean himself up and went to see what damage had been done and try to find some clues as to what the men might have been after. He soon found out. The whole villa had been stripped bare. All the paintings were gone. Everything. All of Poliponi’s work, all of Victor’s work and all the other art that he had collected over the years. The only thing they’d left behind was the stuffed giraffe. James knew how devastated Victor would be. There was no sign of Horst anywhere, but he discovered Isabella in one of the bedrooms, bound and gagged, but still alive. Mauro, who by now was feeling more human, helped him to untie Isabella, and in their halting, broken way they planned what to do next.


Activities 52 Reading to understand a What does the expression “like a headless chicken” mean, literally and metaphorically? b What happened to Mauro, Isabella and James? Use details from the text and write the answer using your own words. c Why do you think James had a terrible ringing in his ears when he woke up? d What did Mauro do when he woke up? e What had Carnifex’s men taken? f What do you think happens next? 53 Writing. Rewrite this story from Mauro’s or Isabella’s point of view. 54 Drawing. Design the book cover for this novel. Remember that there is a front cover, which should have a picture of something you have read about, and a back cover, which should have a blurb (a short description about the content of the book). 55 Listening. Read the story about James together with a classmate. Take turns reading half the story each. a Write a list of keywords while you listen. b Use your keywords to write a summary together. c What can you learn from doing an activity like this?

56 Vocabulary. Find other ways of saying these phrases in English. a to fend off b to make a run for it c left him for dead d The whole villa had been stripped bare. 57 Speaking. The local radio station has heard about what happened to James and his friends. They send a reporter to interview eyewitnesses. a Act it out with a group of classmates. Record your roleplay. b Ask another group to listen to your report. c Agree upon what was good about your news report. 58 Language. What is the difference between of and off in both meaning and pronunciation? Choose the correct word in each of these sentences and read them aloud with the correct pronunciation. BS 70 a He saw her out of/off the corner of his eye. b James tried to fend of/off the men. c She had a large pan of/off tomato sauce. d Mauro pulled of/off his messy shirt. e The football player kicked the ball of/off the pitch. f Have you ever heard of/off James Bond? 59 Language. Who, which, that.

BS 25

a Find examples of who, which and that in the text or in this chapter and write down the sentences. b Explain why who, which and that are used in these sentences.

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Chapter Activities Sum up 60 Learning strategies. Find a text in this chapter that you think was: Title of text

Reasons

a Choose the correct alternative:

• It is/there is five o’clock.

scary

• It is/there is a long way to Manchester.

exciting

• It is/there is a large box on the top shelf.

educational

• There is/there are many synonyms for

unrealistic surprising

61 Vocabulary. Some words are missing in these sentences. Copy the text and fill in with suitable words. a A policeman’s job is to _______ and _______ crime.

the word shout. b Use these example sentences to write the rules for use of it is, there is and there are. c Design some activities with it is/there is and ask a classmate to try them. 66 Language. Choose who, which or that in the following sentences.

b If a person is _______ this means he/she has not committed a crime.

a Mary Cotton is the woman _______ killed her son.

c _______ are people who have committed a crime.

b The weapon _______ the criminal used was never found.

d In a _______ the court decides whether the accused is guilty or not.

c Police do not know _______ Jack the Ripper was.

e A person who may have committed a crime is a _______.

d Lizzie Borden, _______ lived in Falls River, died in 1927.

62 Vocabulary. How many words can you make out of these stems: crime, detect, accuse. 63 Writing. Compare the two short stories in this chapter using a Venn diagram. What do they have in common and what is different? Write a paragraph summarising their differences. 64 Direct and indirect speech. Explain the difference between direct and indirect speech.

150

65 Language. It is, there is, there are.

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e Fingerprints _______ are found at the scene of a crime can be used as evidence. f The story about Sherlock Holmes is the first graphic novel _______ I have ever read. g Blood Fever, _______ is a novel about Young James Bond, was written by Charlie Higson.


Move on 67 Writing. Choose one of these opening sentences and write a short story about a crime or a mystery.

• I have put it behind me. • No one came to get them. • She closed her eyes and let go. • No one has ever told the truth about what happened.

• I am haunted by nightmares. • Finally, he was there. • It was already dark when we heard it. 68 Writing. Choose one of the texts in this chapter and rewrite it from a different point of view. For example, rewrite Sherlock from Sherlock Holmes’ point of view.

69 Writing. Choose one of the crimes mentioned in this chapter. a Write about this crime using three different text types. b Read each other’s texts. Tell each other which text you liked the most and why. 70 Speaking. You have witnessed a crime, for example a robbery. Imagine that you are telling the police what happened. You can work in pairs: one detective and one witness. 71 Speaking. Choose one of the crimes in the chapter and organise a trial. You need a judge, two lawyers (prosecution and defence), witnesses, family and a criminal. Each student chooses a role and makes a role card. Practise what to say, and then hold the trial. 72 Speaking. Give a speech with the topic “Why crime shows are so popular.”

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… recognise the characteristics of a short story … write texts from different points of view … create colourful characters … rewrite dialogue as indirect speech … explain when to use who, which and that … use it is and there is, there are correctly

B Three minute reflection

Write continuously for three minutes:

This is what I have learned working with the material in this chapter.

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5

Australia & New Zealand


TOPIC WORDS way of life identity

? What do you know about Australia and New Zealand? What would you like to know? Make lists headed “I know” and “I would like to know”.

respect indigenous people Aboriginal

Learning objectives

Māori

n

sacred

n

discrimination

n

n

n

Explain why people in Australia and New Zealand speak English Compare the way of life in Australia, New Zealand and Norway Describe the situation for indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand Explain the difference between a positive and negative way of talking about a person or a group of people Identify the present perfect and use it correctly in sentences

153


Warm-up of the places • Which on these pages do you recognise? Do you know any other places in Australia or New Zealand that are not pictured?

Visiting Australia and New Zealand 1

Australia

New Zealand

2

3

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4

5

6

7

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AORAKI At 12,218 feet, Aoraki, or Mount Cook, is New Zealand’s highest mountain. Legend says that a boy named Aoraki and his three brothers were at sea when their canoe overturned on a reef. When the brothers climbed on top of their canoe, freezing wind turned them to stone. The canoe became the South Island and Aoraki and his brothers became the peaks of the mountains. Aoraki is where famous New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary trained before he made his historic trek up Mount Everest.

overturned – kantret reef – korallrev trek – vandretur, fottur throughout – i løpet av located – ligger sacred – hellig

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ULURU The world’s largest rock, Uluru, changes its colour throughout the day, from orange to blue to red. It is located in a desert region of Australia known as the Red Center. Uluru is the aboriginal name; it is also called Ayers Rock. Australia’s indigenous people believe this giant stone hill is a sacred place for spirits that created the world.


Activities 1 Listening. Listen to the information about each of the pictures on pages 154–155. BS 150 a Take notes while you are listening. b Use your notes to write an information box for each picture. c You are going to read the information box for the web page aloud. Practise reading the information box and then record it. d Listen to a classmate’s recording and give feedback on pronunciation and word choice. 2 Writing. Choose one of the places in the pictures. Imagine that you have visited that place. Write an e-mail to a friend comparing how the people in this place live with how you live in Norway. 3 Speaking. You are a tour guide and have a class of year 6 pupils coming to visit. Choose a place that you would like to talk about, and prepare an interesting and exciting talk. You may need to find some extra information on the Internet. BS 134

4 Writing. Make a pamphlet about a place of interest in Australia or New Zealand for a travel agency in Norway. a Include these elements in your pamphlet: a list of facts, drawings or pictures, maps, informative descriptions and recommendations from tourists. b What is good about your pamphlet? Write a few sentences that describe your work. 5 Digital skills. Find an outline of a map of Australia and New Zealand on the Internet. Paste a copy of the map into a document. Make an illustrated map using pictures of famous sights.

6 Vocabulary. Study the pictures on pages 154–156. a In which picture can you see the following? horizon, stream, beach, forest, slope, cliff, meadow, countryside, outback, villages, alley, rock, desert, coastline, vegetation, valley, peak, hill b Sort these words into groups according to which picture you think they describe: windswept, breathtaking, snow-capped, rugged, dense, grassy, towering, wooded, barren, spectacular, sandy, ice-cool, remote, rain-soaked, sun-drenched, dusky, hidden, ancient, overgrown, rocky, isolated, picturesque, dramatic, abandoned, shimmering c Choose a picture and use suitable words to write a description of it. d Ask a classmate to guess which picture you have described. e What do you think is good about your description? 7 Speaking. Imagine that you are visiting one of the places on these pages. While you are there, your classmate calls you and asks what you are doing. Have a phone conversation about what you can see and do there. BS 135 8 Verbs. Find all the verbs in the text box about Aoraki. Sort them into present simple and past simple. Explain why two different tenses are used in this text box. BS 30

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Warm-up will find these words • You in the text: explorer, settler, indigenous people, discrimination, identity. Explain what they mean.

Q&A Australia and New Zealand are similar in many ways although there are also several differences between them. Australia is a huge country in which you can find mountains, deserts, rainforests, coral reefs and endless plains. New Zealand is smaller, and is made up of two main islands, North Island and South Island. South Island is rather like Norway, with mountains, glaciers and fjords. North Island is different, though, with rolling plains and an active volcano.

?

What do you call someone from Australia or New Zealand? Officially, people from Australia are Australians and people from New Zealand are New Zealanders. However, many people also use the slang terms Aussies and Kiwis. Aussie is short for Australian, while the name Kiwi comes from the flightless bird, which is the national symbol of New Zealand.

indigenous people – urbefolkning huge – stort coral reefs – korallrev plains – sletter glaciers – isbreer flightless – flyveudyktig explorer – oppdagelsesreisende penal colony – straffekoloni committed – begått established – etablert settlers – nybyggere independent – selvstendig remained – forble head of state – statsoverhode

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?

Why do people in Australia speak English? Basically, this is because the country was part of the British Empire. On 29 April 1770, the British explorer James Cook landed his ship on the Australian coast. A few years later the first penal colony was established in New South Wales. A penal colony is like a prison. The prisons in Britain were full, so many people who had not committed very serious crimes were sent to Australia. Later, many people chose to move to Australia and the first colony of free settlers was established in the 1830s. People continued to move to Australia, helped by the discovery of gold in 1851. In 1901, Australia became an independent nation, although it remained in the Common­ wealth and still has the British monarch as the head of state.


?

Why do people in New Zealand speak English? James Cook also claimed New Zealand for Britain. He arrived in 1769. In 1840 the Māori chiefs were invited to sign the Treaty of Waitangi, giving control of the country to Britain and making New Zealand a British colony. In the 1870s many people from Britain emigrated to and settled in New Zealand and began farming the land. Sheep farming was particularly successful and the export of meat and wool became important. Today, New Zealand is independent from Britain in almost every way, but the British monarch is still the country’s official head of state.

claimed – gjorde krav på chief – høvding treaty – avtale emigrated – flyttet til

Darwin

at

Cairns

G re

IND IAN OCE AN

Ba

rri

AUSTRALIA

er

Re ef

Uluru

Alice Springs

Brisbane Burning Mountain Perth

Adelaide Canberra Lake Hillier

S O UTH ERN OC EAN

Melbourne

TASMAN IA

SOUT H PAC I F I C OC EA N

Sydney TA S MA N SE A

Nor t h Matamata Is land Auckland Rorotua Lake Taupo

NEW ZEALAND Aoraki Queenstown

Wellington Christchurch

S ou t h Is land

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accent – aksent

?

pronunciation – uttalen

Almost. People in Australia and New Zealand speak with a different accent from people in Britain. The accents in the two countries sound quite similar to each other, but there are differences. To decide whether you are listening to an Australian or a New Zealander, listen to the pronunciation of the letter “i” in fish and chips. An Australian likes eating “feesh and cheeps”, while a New Zealander prefers “fush and chups”.

prefers – foretrekker monarchies – kongedømmer democracies – demokratier

? Wellington, New Zealand's capital city

Is the English spoken here the same as in Britain?

How are the countries ruled? Both Australia and New Zealand are monarchies. This means that the British king or queen is the head of state but does not have any political power. Both countries are democracies and hold elections to decide who will run the country.


?

Were Europeans the first people in Australia and New Zealand? Not at all. The Aboriginal Australians have lived in Australia for at least 50,000 years, and the Māori came to New Zealand in the 13th century. The Aboriginal Australians were mainly hunters, gatherers and farmers of the land. When the Europeans first arrived in Australia, there were about 700,000 Aboriginal Australians living along the coast. They were organized in tribes, each with their own identity, traditions and culture. The Māori came from Polynesia in canoes, or waka. They called New Zealand Aotearoa, or Land of the Long White Cloud. The Māori settled on the coast and ate food that they hunted, gathered and farmed. They lived in groups, usually peacefully, and developed a strong identity and a tradition of story telling and art, mainly wood carving.

?

What do Aboriginal people mean when they talk about the Dreaming? According to Aboriginal belief, all life as it is today can be traced back to the Great Spirit Ancestors of the Dreaming. This is the beginning of knowledge from which all the great stories and Aboriginal laws have their origin. For survival, these laws and stories must be respected even today. The Dreaming is never-ending; it links the past and the present, the people and the land.

hunters – jegere gatherers – samlere tribes – stammer wood carving – treskjæring according to – ifølge belief – tro

?

ancestors – forfedre

How did things change in Australia after the Europeans arrived?

knowledge – kunnskap

The Europeans drove the Aboriginal people off their land, and many died during conflict or of European diseases. The Aboriginal Australians were generally treated badly and discriminated against by the Euro­ peans. In fact, many Aboriginal children were removed from their families, to be brought up in missions and trained for a life working for Europeans. It is estimated that over 25,000 children were taken from their families between 1905 and 1969. Many of them never saw their parents again. They are referred to as The Stolen Generation and this is a dark chapter in Australian history. Today Aboriginal Australians make up less than 3 % of the population of Australia.

survival – overlevelse

origin – opprinnelse laws – lover links – binder sammen diseases – sykdommer removed – fjernet brought up – oppdratt missions – misjonsstasjoner estimated – anslått referred to – her: kalt make up – utgjør

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?

How large is the Māori population in New Zealand? It is thought that there were up to 100,000 Māori in New Zealand before the Europeans arrived. Today, there are more than half a million Māori in New Zealand, making up about 15 % of the total population of the country. The population soon decreased because of conflict and disease, although the Māori were not affected as much as the Aboriginal Australians.

?

What is the situation for the indigenous people today? Indigenous people in both countries face challenges today such as poverty, poor education, health problems, crime and discrimination. This effects how long people actually live. According to a United Nations Report published in 2010, an Aboriginal child can expect to die 20 years earlier than an Australian child of European background. In New Zealand the gap is 11 years. In Australia, a few Aboriginal tribes still live in isolated areas and practise some of their traditional ways of life. However, most Aboriginal people today live in cities like other Australians. In New Zealand, although the Māori face the same challenges as the Aboriginal Australians, they take a more active part in society in areas such as media, politics and sports.

Present perfect Use the present perfect to talk about something that began in the past but is still going on or ended recently. The Aboriginal Australians have lived in Australia for at least 50,000 years. u

To make the present perfect: I you

population – befolkning decreased – minket poverty – fattigdom

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he have lived

she it

we has lived

you

have lived

they BS 40


Activities 9 Reading to understand. Complete these sentences using information from the text and the map. a The capital cities in Australia and New Zealand are …

12 Present perfect. Fill in the correct form of the verb in these sentences. BS 40 Example: The children have eaten dinner. (to eat) a Norwegian pupils in year 9 _________ English for 9 years. (to study)

b New Zealand was first discovered by … c The indigenous people of Australia and New Zealand are called … d Nicknames for people from Australia and New Zealand are … e The Dreaming is … f People in Australia and New Zealand speak English because … 10 Reading. Work with a classmate and practise reading through Q and A. a Read through the text at least three times.

b Norway _________ an independent country since 1905. (to be) c I _________ English all my life. (to speak) d _________ you _________ the Herald Sun this week? (to read) e Australians _________ Anzac day since 1915. (to celebrate) f The British monarch ________ New Zealand several times. (to visit) 13 Present perfect. The Māori have lived in New Zealand for at least 700 years. BS 40

b Now test each other – how many answers can you remember?

a Why has the present perfect been used in this sentence?

c Find words and phrases that describe the Māori and Aboriginal people. Are these words positively or negatively loaded?

b Rewrite the sentence using the past simple. How does this change the meaning of the sentence?

11 Compare. Compare Australia and New Zealand with Norway. a Copy the table. Use Enter 9 and other sources to find the information to fill in the table. b What interesting information did you find? Aus Population Indigenous people Geography Climate Famous tourist spots Languages

NZ

Nor

14 Speaking. Work in pairs. Take turns saying the following words aloud. Check pronunciation in an online dictionary. Aboriginal Australians, Māori, indigenous people, believe, identity, invaded, similar, population, gatherers, continent, victim, violation, ancestor, discrimination 15 Vocabulary. These linking words are used in the text: however, in fact, but, and, according to, basically, later, in order to, in addition. Which are used to introduce a new idea? To connect two ideas? To make a contrast or to give another opinion? Sort the linking words into groups. BS 82

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Warm-up the text. Find words • Skim and phrases that indicate that this is a speech.

We Say Sorry On 13 February 2008, Kevin Rudd, the Australian Prime Minister, gave a speech in which he apologised to the indigenous peoples of Australia for the way they had been treated. The speech was held in the Australian Parliament. The apology was a historic step in righting the wrongs of the past. Speech by the Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd

[…] Today we honour the Indigenous peoples of this land, the oldest continuing cultures in human history.

indigenous peoples – urbefolkning treated – behandlet apology – unnskyldning honour – hedrer continuing – sammenhengende mistreatment – dårlig behandling in particular – særlig blemished – skjemmende confidence – tiltro, tillit apologise – be om unnskyldning successive – skiftende inflicted – påført

We reflect on their past mistreatment. We reflect in particular on the mistreatment of those who were Stolen Generations – this blemished chapter in our nation’s history. The time has now come for the nation to turn a new page in Australia’s history by righting the wrongs of the past and so moving forward with confidence to the future. We apologise for the laws and policies of successive Parliaments and governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these our fellow Australians. We apologise especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, their communities and their country.

profound grief – dyp sorg suffering – lidelse loss – tap fellow Australians – medaustraliere removal – bortføring

For the pain, suffering and hurt of these Stolen Generations, their descendants and for their families left behind, we say sorry. To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up of families and communities, we say sorry.

descendants – etterkommere indignity – ydmykelse degradation – fornedrelse

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And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud people and a proud culture, we say sorry.


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request – ber om received – mottatt offered – tilbudt healing – helbredelse take heart – finne trøst (i), fatte mot resolve – beslutte acknowledge – erkjenne, vedgå embraces – omfavner injustices – uretten harness – utnytter determination – besluttsomhet gap – kløft, avstand life expectancy – forventet levealder achievement – prestasjon opportunity – mulighet solutions – løsninger enduring – langvarige approaches – framgangsmåter

We the Parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology be received in the spirit in which it is offered as part of the healing of the nation. For the future we take heart; resolving that this new page in the history of our great continent can now be written. We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying claim to a future that embraces all Australians. A future where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the past must never, never happen again. A future where we harness the determination of all Australians, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us in life expectancy, educational achievement and economic opportunity.

failed – mislyktes mutual respect – gjensidig respekt resolve – beslutning responsibility – ansvar

A future where we embrace the possibility of new solutions to enduring problems where old approaches have failed. A future based on mutual respect, mutual resolve and mutual responsibility.

origins – bakgrunn equal – likeverdige, like stake – interesse shaping – å forme

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A future where all Australians, whatever their origins, are truly equal partners, with equal opportunities and with an equal stake in shaping the next chapter in the history of this great country, Australia.


Activities 16 Reading to understand. a Find words and phrases that explain what the Prime Minister is sorry for. b Find words and phrases that describe the Aboriginal people. Are these words positively or negatively loaded? c What does the Prime Minister want to achieve with this speech? d This speech is one of the most important speeches in the history of Australia. Why do you think this is?

20 Vocabulary. Are these adjectives positively or negatively loaded? old, blemished, proud, equal, mutual, quiet, reliable, cheerful, brave, selfish, generous, neat, clumsy, boastful, sensible, naughty, easy-going, ruthless, kind, hesitant, greedy, patient, modest, possessive, witty, lazy, jealous, touchy, absent-minded a Put the adjectives in the Venn diagram where you think they belong.

e Who are “we” in this speech? 17 Speech. We say sorry is a formal speech.

BS 117

a Find examples of these elements: repetition, formal language, examples, present tense, personal pronouns. Explain what effect they have on the speech. b Every speech has a topic, an audience and a purpose. Identify all three for this speech. c This is an example of a successful speech. Why do you think this is so? 18 Speaking. You are the spokesperson of an Aboriginal tribe. What is your reaction to the Prime Minister’s speech? Write your own speech for an audience of Australians of all cultures. BS 117 19 Vocabulary. Find words in the speech that mean almost the same as: a first people

e boldness

b wrongdoing

f say sorry

c stained

g sadness

d making things right again

h discrimination

positive both negative b Match some of the adjectives above to a suitable description.

• slow in acting or speaking • willing to give money or help freely • showing a selfish desire • thinks of one’s own advantage • easily offended or upset • relaxed and not easily worried • keeps things tidy and in order • cares about others • not willing to work

Loaded language Choose words and expressions carefully when you talk to or about people. Avoid words that are negatively loaded. Positively loaded language: Sally is very hard-working. Negatively loaded language: Sally is a real nerd.

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Warm-up is the weirdest piece • What of information that you

Guess What!

know?

Kangaroos and emus cannot walk backwards.

Wombat poo is square.

New Zealand has more species of penguin than any other country.

The first commercial bungee jump took place in 1988 in New Zealand. People jumped from the Kawarau Bridge in Queenstown.

The biggest property in Australia is a cattle ranch called Anna Creek. It is 34,000 km2, which is bigger than Belgium.

Before the Māori and Europeans arrived, the only native land mammals in New Zealand were bats. All other land mammals were brought there by humans.

At Burning Mountain in New South Wales there is an underground coal seam that has been burning for 5,500 years.

The longest fence in the world is in Australia. It is called the Dingo fence and is 5,530 km long, which is twice as long as the Great Wall of China. There is another long fence called the rabbit-proof fence which is 3,256 km long.

The first police force in Australia was established in 1789 and was made up of the best-behaved convicts.

The Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, which means Land of the Long White Cloud. The Aboriginal Australians were not aware that there were any other countries so they saw no need to have a name for Australia. The name Australia comes from the Latin word australis, which means southern.

poo – bæsj species – arter property – eiendom cattle ranch – kvegfarm mammals – pattedyr coal seam – kulleie, lag med kull i fjellet fence – gjerde best-behaved – mest veloppdragne aware – klar over


Activities 21 Reading to understand. a Choose six facts from the list. b The facts are the answers to questions. Write the questions. c Work in groups of four. Ask each other your questions. Who can give the most answers? 22 Present perfect. Use these verbs to write ten sentences in the present perfect about Australia and New Zealand: to live, to know, to exist, to come, to be, to use, to respect, to arrive, to build, to discriminate BS 40 23 Digital skills. Evaluating sources about Australia and New Zealand. BS 173 a Write “When did the first inhabitants come to Australia?” in a search engine. b Find three different digital sources that give facts about when the first people arrived in Australia. Do the sources give an exact date? Do they agree? Write two or three sentences about your findings. c Which source is the most reliable? Write two or three sentences explaining your answer. 24 Drawing. Draw a quick sketch of the first Australian police force. 25 Writing. Write a myth that explains one of the facts. For example, the story of why emus cannot walk backwards or why wombat poo is square. 26 Speaking. Which of these facts do you think is the most interesting? Persuade a classmate that your fact is the most interesting.

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Warm-up do you think an • How Australian teenager’s way of life differs from your own?

suburb – forstad mandatory – obligatoriske PDHPE (Personal Develop­ment, Health and Physical Education) – et skolefag electives – valgfag Japanese – japansk multiple alphabets – flere alfabeter touch football – en slags fotball (hvor berøring telles) netball – nettball (populær idrett i England, Australia og NZ) not familiar with – kjenner ikke til

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

An Australian Teenager Grace Waddington (15) lives in a suburb of Sydney and is a typical Australian teenager. The only difference is that her dad lives in Norway. That is how Elizabeth, an English teacher in Norway, made contact with Grace and arranged to talk to her over Skype. Elizabeth’s pupils prepared questions for her to ask Grace so that they could find out more about what life is like for teenagers in Australia. – Hello! – Hello, Grace! – Hi! – Hi! How are you? – I’m good, thank you. How are you? – I’m fine, thanks. What kind of suburb is it that you live in? – So, I live in West Ryde, and it takes about half an hour to get into the city on a train, and maybe about an hour to drive into the city. – Could you tell me a little bit about your school: what kind of school you go to, what subjects you have, and if you’ve got any favourites? – I go to a private all-girls school, and we do a variety of mandatory subjects, like English, maths, science, religion, PDHPE, geography, history … And then we also get to choose two electives, in both year nine and ten, and my electives are Japanese – and design and technology. – Do you learn Japanese? – Yeah. – Is that difficult? – It is really difficult, because we have to learn multiple alphabets, and it’s very different from English. – What about after school? Do you have any hobbies? Or do you have time for hobbies – do you have a lot of homework? – I do get a lot of homework, but after school I have guitar lessons once a week. I also play touch football, and when it’s the right season, I play netball – in winter. – And netball is a sport that Norwegian students are not familiar with. Could you describe a little bit how you play?


– Netball is very similar to basketball, except that when you catch the ball, you aren’t allowed to run, you have to stop. And you’re not allowed to move your feet. – Okay, and you play it outside, right? – Yes. – Yes. What are teenagers in Australia particularly interested in, do you think? – Hanging out with friends and having a nice time with their friends on the weekend. We go to the movies or to the shops, or just out for lunch. – Where would you go for a normal summer holiday? – These summer holidays, I’m going to New Zealand. And last summer holidays, I went to Paris and London, for two weeks. So it’s kind of very varied, I guess. And I also went to Fiji last year, which was amazing, and really, really nice. So … – So, Fiji, that sounds very exotic for Norwegian students. How long does it take to fly to Fiji from Australia?

except that – bortsett fra at


the Anzac (the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) – Australia og New Zealands forsvar

– It took about four hours to get there. – Okay. And you’re going to New Zealand now. Have you been there before? – No, I’ve never been there. – What do you learn about New Zealand in school, in Australia? – World War I and the Anzacs: We learned about how Australians and New Zealanders both took part in the war. That … that’s all, really. – You mentioned Anzacs now, and I know that in Australia you celebrate Anzac Day. How do you celebrate that? – We usually, my family, we go into the city, and we go see the Anzac March in the city centre. But all Australians celebrate it differently. Because it’s in the middle of summer, a lot of people go to the beach, which is nice. – So, it’s a holiday. Nobody’s at work on that day. – Yeah, well, it’s during the school holidays, and I’m pretty sure it’s a public holiday as well. – Okay. What do you think is the best thing about being an Australian? – Just a nice lifestyle, I think. – I’ll ask you one last question, then: If somebody was going to visit Australia, where would you recommend them to go? – I always like going to the Blue Mountains. There’s the most amazing views when you get to the top of the mountain. And it’s really nice going to all the little towns along the way. Yeah. – Thank you very much. Okay. Bye! – Bye!


Activities 27 Reading to understand. These sentences are false. Rewrite them so that they are correct. a A suburb is a large shopping centre connected to a city.

31 Compare. Compare the way Grace lives in Australia to your life in Norway using a Venn diagram. Discuss the similarities and differences in class.

b There are many clever boys at Grace’s school. c Mandatory subjects are the same as elective studies. d Netball is very similar to football. e Anzac Day is only celebrated at home. f Australia did not take part in World War I. 28 Present perfect. Fill in the blanks with verbs in the present perfect. BS 40 Example: Elizabeth has interviewed Grace. (to interview) a Grace ____ to Fiji. (to be) b She ____ Japanese. (to learn) c Many Norwegian pupils ____ never ____ netball. (to play) d Grace ____ never ____ to New Zealand. (to be) e Grace and her family ____ the Anzac march. (to see) 29 Speaking. What would you have liked to ask Grace about? Write down five questions. Your classmate will pretend to be Grace. Act out your conversation. 30 Writing. Write an e-mail in which you invite Grace to come to Norway. Tell her about your way of life and what you would do if she came to Norway.

32 Listening. Listen to Grace talking about what she learns at school and her plans for the future. Take notes while you are listening and then use your notes to talk to a classmate about what Grace says. BS 151 33 Speaking. This interview is an example of spontaneous speech. BS 135 a Scan the text to find examples of typical features of spontaneous speech. Make a list. b Compare your list with a classmate’s. c Read the interview in pairs trying to make your language sound as spontaneous as possible. 34 Vocabulary. Grace studies PDHPE. Find out more about this subject. 35 Vocabulary. ANZAC = The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. What do these acronyms stand for?

• EU

• FIFA

• NATO

• WWF

• UN

• UNESCO

36 Speaking. You are a travel guide. Plan a tour of Australia and New Zealand for a group of people who are interested in either mountain climbing, history, food, religion and culture, language or geography.

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Warm-up you know of any places • Do that are considered sacred? What kind of places are they?

I Didn’t Climb Uluru When my mum went to Australia in 1992 she climbed Uluru. Her group’s guide informed them that it was OK. According to him the Aboriginal Australians didn’t mind people climbing Uluru, they were just worried people would harm themselves climbing it. I didn’t climb Uluru today because Uluru is a sacred mountain. The Aboriginal people believe that Uluru was formed during the Dreaming. Their ancestors walked here and many of the caves and formations have special meanings for them. Some of these caves are still used for rituals. Uluru is so much more than a famous tourist spot. The Aboriginal people ask you to respect their sacred site and not to climb it. So please don’t climb Uluru. I hope you understand why. Malin, 12 October 2015

according to – ifølge harm – skade sacred – hellig ancestors – forfedre caves – grotter ownership – eierskap disrespect – mangel på respekt entry fee – inngangspenger besides – dessuten good manners – folkeskikk issue – sak realise – innse

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Activities Leave a comment: “I respect the Aboriginal ownership of the land and wish them no disrespect, but without the choice to climb the Rock it just isn’t worth the trip all the way to the centre of Australia.” Christina Simson, 14 October 2015 “Anyone with the tiniest knowledge about Aboriginal people would know that it is not in their nature, nor their culture, to come out with a direct 'no climbing!' Respect!” Naomi Soong, 14 October 2015 “I paid the entry fee, so I have the right to climb the rock. Besides that everyone else was climbing it, too.” Liam Lee Morton, 15 October 2015 “I’m not sure that this is a question of one side being right and the other wrong, just one of good manners. Surely the issue is clear enough if we apply the 'do as you would be done by'-rule.” Lachlan Kelly,

37 Reading to understand. a What is the purpose of this blog? b Read the comments on the blog. Which arguments do you find most convincing? Why? c Both the blog and the comments are statements written in a personal way. Find examples in the text to show this. d Explain the difference between a positive and negative way of talking about a group of people. Can you find examples of both in the comments? 38 Writing. Many teenagers comment on blogs or other types of social media. a Give a classmate advice about how to write a good comment. BS 172 b Write your own comment on this blog. 39 Speaking. Would you climb Uluru? a Write a list of arguments for and against climbing Uluru. b Discuss the topic with a classmate. Take turns being for and against climbing.

17 October 2015 “The Aboriginal people should realise that other cultures find climbing mountains very important and it is also an important part of tourism today.” Kyle A. Walker, 19 October 2015

40 Writing. You are an Aboriginal Australian. Explain why you don’t want tourists to climb Uluru. Give examples of what they can do instead. 41 Digital skills. Should you climb Uluru? a Find two web pages that differ in opinion.

“That’s a really important sacred thing that you are climbing … You shouldn’t climb. Maybe that makes you a bit sad. But anyway that’s what we have to say.” Kunmanara,

b Discuss which of these websites you can trust and give reasons why. BS 173 c Find words that are positively and negatively loaded on the websites.

traditional owner, 20 November 2015

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Warm-up ethnic groups are • These mentioned in this article: Pākehā, Māori, Samoan, Chinese. What do you know about each of them?

startling – oppsiktsvekkende insightful – oppklarende highlighted – understreket

New Zealand Teenagers By Michelle Duff, 21 September 2013

Teenagers have spoken out about how they feel about their ethnicity, in a new study published in the New Zealand Journal of Psychology – with results that are both startling and insightful. The study highlighted the importance of parents speaking to kids about their racial identity, and teachers confronting the topic, researcher Dr Melinda Webber said.

confronting – tar opp researcher – forsker encounter – møte buffer it – stå imot, takle involved – omfattet multi-ethnic – multikulturelle Pākehā – fra New Zealand med europeisk avstamning Samoan – fra Samoa-øyene

Ethnicity “We need to talk to kids about what ethnicity is, what racism is, how they are going to encounter it in their lives and buffer it. These kids are discriminated against every day.” The Auckland University study involved 695 year 9 teenagers from five multi-ethnic Auckland schools. Students were asked to anonymously describe what they liked or disliked about being Māori, Pākehā, Chinese or Samoan.


Proud to be Kiwi Pākehā teens felt proud to be Kiwi, and acknowledged the privileges of being part of the dominant culture: “I get treated better by the authorities”, and “not being considered different … blending in”, two people wrote. But they disliked the stereotype of their group as “racist” and felt bad about the “terrible things” their ancestors had done to the Māori. Other negative aspects included being perceived as weak, and that Pākehā “can’t be very gangster”, and if they do like hip-hop they get called “wiggers – white n”.

Cool being Māori Māori teens were proud of their indigenous culture, language and kapa haka, showing a sense of pride. “It’s just cool being a Māori.” But their culture also made them a target for racism, and they thought it was unfair they were “mocked” and thought of as lazy, stupid and getting preferential treatment. acknowledged – anerkjente

Discrimination

privileges – fordeler

Dr Webber said all groups reported experiencing, engaging in, or witnessing racism. While Pākehā in multicultural schools experienced racism, this stopped at the school gates. For other young teens, it continued outside – and it was the discrimination by adults that hurt the most, she said. One Māori respondent had said: “When we go to the shops after school, I’m the only one who gets asked to leave my bags at the door”. “As the adults, we are the ones who do the most damage to our kids,” Dr Webber said.

dominant – dominerende authorities – myndighetene blending in – ikke skille seg ut stereotype – stereotyp ancestors – forfedrene aspects – sider perceived – oppfattet indigenous culture – urbefolkningskultur kapa haka – maorienes dans

Stereotypes do exist

pride – stolthet

When Monica Caballes got into one of the top classes at Tawa College, no one was surprised. “They were like ‘Oh yeah, of course you are, you’re Asian’,” Monica, 14, said yesterday, rolling her eyes. Her classmate Nevada Ross, 13, starts to laugh. “Yeah it’s the opposite for me,” he says. “People are like ‘I’m surprised you’re in that class – isn’t that where all the smart kids are?’ “ Monica is of Filipino descent; Nevada is Māori. They say stereotypes about Asians being clever and Māori slacking off definitely exist.

target – mål mocked – ertet preferential treatment – fordeler, spesialbehandling engaging in – ha deltatt i witnessing – vært vitne til continued – fortsatte respondent – svarperson damage – skade slacking off – slapper av

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NZ European – som Pakeha, fra New Zealand med europeisk avstamning Tokelauan – fra øya Tokelau pros and cons – fordeler og ulemper majority – majoritet, flertall targeted – mål reputation – rykte teased – ertet guilty – skyldfølelse tangata whenua – “people of the land” (maori) violent – voldelig Pasifika festival – stillehavsøyenes festival emphasis – vekt, trykk values – verdier expectations – forventninger delicious – nydelig heritage – arv achievement – prestasjon strict – strenge

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

Just a New Zealander Their friends Jenna Gotlieb, 14, NZ European, and Mika Apineru, 13, Tokelauan, agree there are pros and cons to every ethnicity. But they don’t really think about their racial identity, and have never spoken about it in classes at school. “I don’t have a culture,” Jenna said. “I mean, I’m just a New Zealander.” She guessed it was good being part of the majority but couldn’t really think of any other positives, so Monica helped. “It’s so much easier for them to fit in, just socially it’s easier,” she said. “The thing is no matter how much your friends are cool with it or whatever, you’re always going to know there’s something different.” Some students at school did stick to friends who were only their ethnicity, but mostly everyone was cool, Nevada said. ‘There’s always going to be that group of kids who look down on another culture.”


Activities For and against BEING PĀKEHĀ Pros: Part of majority group, feel normal and blend in, not stereotyped and targeted for racism, like being a New Zealander. Cons: Unfair reputation of being racist, teased for being white, guilty about past, frustration with being boring.

42 Reading to understand.

BEING MĀORI Pros: Feel proud about being tangata whenua, have own language, oral traditions and kapa haka. Cons: Mocked and negatively stereotyped, people think you are dumb and will drop out of school, media shows Māori as violent or criminal.

43 Writing. Write an article about different groups of people living in Norway. Use the article about New Zealand as a model text for your own writing. BS 110

BEING SAMOAN Pros: Culture is celebrated at events like Pasifika festival, there is a strong emphasis on family and values, have own language. Cons: Expectations to act like “gangsters,” or be dumb and “fresh off the boat.” Strict culture and always have to hang out with family. BEING CHINESE Pros: Have very different culture, delicious food, a rich heritage, and focus on education and achievement. Cons: Stereotyped as “brainy” and onedimensional, being “dissed” about driving and eating cats and dogs. Strict parents.

a Take notes from the article and use them to write a short summary of the text. Begin with: “Teenagers in New Zealand are proud to be Kiwi. However, … ” b Ask a classmate what was good about your summary.

44 Speaking. Work in groups of four. Imagine that you are the four pupils in the article, Pākehā, Māori, Samoan and Chinese. a Discuss how you feel when you are negatively stereotyped. b Come up with good ideas for how to avoid stereotypes. 45 Vocabulary. Give examples of positively loaded words or sentences and negatively loaded words or sentences in the article. 46 Present perfect. Rewrite these sentences in the present perfect. BS 40 a Tim never visits New Zealand. b I meet people from different cultures. c Dr Webber asks students about their culture. 47 Vocabulary. This journalist wants you to help her vary her language. a But is used at the beginning of sentences. Suggest other ways of starting these sentences. BS 82 b The verb said is overused in this text. Suggest other verbs to replace it. BS 96

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Warm-up you ever sneaked • Have away in the morning to do something dangerous or forbidden? If so, what did you do? If not, what would you like to have done?

The Spirit of Barrumbi Barrumbi is a community where white and Aboriginal Australians live side by side and the Aboriginal traditions are followed and respected. Sean grew up there and knows the Aboriginal laws and traditions. Now he is on holiday back in Barrumbi and the wise, old aboriginal men expect him to take part in an aboriginal ceremony even though he and his family are white. Extract from The Spirit of Barrumbi by Leonie Norrington

waste – kaste bort realized – innså death adder – dødsorm humid – fuktig mates – partnere giving birth – føde tangling mess – floke heaps – hauger silver thermal blanket – varmeteppe dried food – tørrmat needle – nål prepared – forberedt escarpment – skråning

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At first Sean didn’t want to come to Barrumbi, to waste his holidays camping with his family. He wanted to go hunting, fishing and collecting snakes by himself or with his friends. Then one night he saw Barrumbi on a map, and realized it was only a couple of hours’ walk from Death Adder Ridge – home to a large colony of Northern death adders. Death Adder Ridge! He remembered Mavis warning him about it when he was little. "Don’t you go that place. Spirit there," she said, her eyes dark and serious. "No one comes back from that place. Even that clever old man don’t go there." When Sean was little, he believed her. But not anymore. The only reason he hasn’t been to Death Adder Ridge before is that it’s two days’ walk from home. Now he’s here at Barrumbi and it’s morning and he can’t believe his luck. Today, this day now, he’s going to Death Adder Ridge. All he has to do is to get out of camp without anyone seeing, and in a couple of hours he’ll be at Death Adder Ridge. This time of year, when it’s hot and humid, death adders are active – coming out to find mates, giving birth to a tangling mess of live babies. There’ll be heaps of them out there. He’ll definitely get a death adder today! While he waits, Sean checks his first-aid equipment in his mind. Snake bandages, silver thermal blanket, water, dried food, compass, knife, needle. The bush isn’t dangerous if you are prepared. Sean walks along the high escarpment, stepping from rock to rock.


Behind him the sky is blue, blue as blue, and empty. It’s late Dry season time. The world is still, waiting for the rain. Sean wants to work with snakes when he grows up. He found a clutch of snake eggs once, and took some home. Within half an hour of hatching, the baby snakes could strike and kill little frogs. He wrote this down in his notebook. Of all the animals in the world, Sean loves snakes best. He loves their smooth skin, the quick flicker of their tongues, the dark stillness of their eyes. He loves the feel of their muscles as they move across his hands. He has pythons and freshwater snakes in a terrarium in his bedroom, the bedroom he shares with his little brothers Dale and Jimmy. He feeds the snakes mice and small frogs, and watches silent strike, the swift coils wrapping and tightening; the deliberate way the snake positions itself and swallows its prey whole, sliding its lips over the body, dislocating its jaw.

Dry season – tørketid clutch – kull hatching – klekking flicker – blafring terrarium – terrarium (for dyr, slik som akvarium er for fisk) swift coils – raske kveiler deliberate – veloverveid swallows – svelger prey – bytte dislocating – få ut av ledd

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Sean walks along the ridge, looking for the ravine where the adders live. It is very difficult to find, and also difficult to climb down into the ravine. He finally climbs down using a tree to help him. Sean walks along the ravine and looks at the wall of rocks above him.

The author uses foreshadowing: Why do you think fresh blood is mentioned here?

Imagine being squashed under that! He looks up at the huge square blocks, some the size of a truck, the stress lines clear around them. There are yellow and black stains where the water has already found its way into the cracks, eroding, loosening. One block has recently fallen, leaving split tree trunks still fresh, the sap dried into rivers of red crystals thick and soft underneath. That’s what the old people used to attach stone spearheads to the shafts, Sean thinks, picking the red gum from the bark. The colour’s rich, like fresh blood. The wise old aboriginal men are the only people who are allowed to enter the sacred Death Adder Ridge. The old men have gathered for a ceremony, praying for rain to put an end to the Dry season.

ravine – juv squashed – klemt eroding – huler ut recently – nylig split tree trunks – sprukne trestammer sap – sevje spearheads – spydspisser shafts – skaft cave – hule gorge – juv, gjel intruder – inntrenger ceremony man – seremonimester lawman – lovens mann annoyed – irritert floodplains – elvesletter woodland – skogsterreng no one’s allowed – ingen har lov ashamed – skamfulle prickling – stikker offence – skade

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Enter 9 • Learner’s Book

High in a cave at the top of the gorge the old men sit. They sense the intruder. One old man moves away from the tiny fire to peer out the opening. He stands there for a while, then looks back at the others. What? another old man asks, lifting his head slightly and turning his hand over. He’s the most important ceremony man, a lawman. "Might be someone." "Whatkind?" the lawman asks, annoyed. He has come a long way, he and his wife. They’ve walked and walked, over the floodplains, through the woodland, up into the escarpment, to get here to help these people with their ceremony. "No one’s allowed to come this place," he says in language. "Who owns him?" "For Lucy. Born here now. Daughter for that old man. Long time station time." "Should he know not to come to this place?" the lawman asks again in language. The other old men nod, ashamed. They look at each other, fear prickling inside them. Calling for help from spirits is dangerous – everything must be done carefully, exactly – one small mistake can cause great offence, even death. There are times when a person can go near sacred places and be forgiven, someone sick, or mad, or someone who doesn’t know – if they’re


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Why is the ceremony man angry?

tickle – kile narrow – smale creek – bekk gravel – grus steep slope – bratt skråning shrubs – busker soil – jord logs – stokker confident – sikker scalp – hodebunn nostrils – nesebor descending – synker nedover impact –støt, treff bounces – spretter crackles – spraker, knitrer crouches down – krøker seg sammen raging – rase flash flood – plutselig flom cliff – fjellskrent patch – flekk

What is a flash flood? Why do you think there will be a flash flood? In what way can a flash flood be dangerous?

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respectful. The spirit might trip them up, tickle them while they’re climbing the wall and make them fall, or just give them a cold feeling. But this boy. This boy knows. He’s old enough to do ceremony. He should have done his first ceremony. The old men walk back to the fire in silence. What will happen? They look at the ceremony man. He looks at the fire, his eyes narrow with anger. Sean climbs farther down, closer to the creek, where the fallen rocks have turned to gravel. It’s a steep slope with small shrubs and loose sandy soil. He takes off his backpack and starts to look, carefully turning over large stones, one by one. At this time of day the baby death adders will be hiding beneath rocks or logs where they’re safe from the birds that would drop from the sky and snatch them up. The sun beats down on his back and sweat fills his eyes, but he’s happy, really happy, confident that today he’ll be the owner of a little death adder. Sean’s back is bent. Sweat drips into his eyes. He pulls off his hat to wipe his face. His blond hair is dark with sweat, sticking to his scalp. Then a wind whips past him. He lifts his face to accept its coolness. The smell of rain fills his nostrils with pleasure. The sweat on his skin dries, cooling him. Rain, he thinks, standing and straightening, looking around him. Dark clouds are descending into the ravine. Raindrops start to fall, hitting the soft gravel slopes around him, making holes in the soil as the impact bounces the dirt up into the air. It’s going to rain! CRACK! Lightning crackles across the sky – electricity lifts his hair. "Shit!" He crouches down. Gonna get hit by lightning. He’s out in the open on the loose gravel slope. Run back to the rainforest? It would be safer there among the trees. No – too far. He’s come too far – never make it back in time. What about under the overhang? He looks up. The rocks above him are dripping, water seeping through the cracks, washing the soil from between them. They will fall. It’s too dangerous up there. He looks down. That tiny creek will be raging in no time – flash flood – get washed away. Got to go up and along. Perhaps there’s a cave. Yes! There’s a tall cliff further down, a dark patch in the rock wall. Is it a cave? Please make it a cave.


CRACK! Lightning cuts across the sky again and rain buckets down. Huge raindrops sting Sean’s back, smacking into the earth, splatting mud up his legs, into his boots. Can’t see! He holds his hands above his eyes. He grabs his backpack, puts it on and starts climbing up, toward the cliff and hopefully the cave. It starts to rain heavily and soon the creek is a raging river, the mud on the slopes is slippery and Sean finds it difficult to keep from sliding into the creek. Sean climbs and climbs, keeping his eyes closed against the mud and rain. At first the deep rumbling sound doesn’t register in his brain. But then he feels it. Feels the ground shaking beneath his hands. rain buckets down – regn bøtter ned

Crash! Rumble! It’s rocks falling! Even with his watery vision he can see the black mass coming down the slope. Quick! Roll! Roll! He lifts his hands above his head and rolls over and over, keeping his body vertical and rolling across the vibrating ground till he smacks into a deep-bedded rock. He crawls around it quickly, tucking his head into his legs, and the dark mass rumbles past, sending ripples through the sodden earth. Safe. But the water slides around the rock now, digging the dirt from under him. His exhausted hands grab at the rock, but its smooth wet surface lets him go. He’s floating, down, down, floating on a river of mud. Then sharp rocks scrape against his toes, take skin off his shins, scratch hard along his stomach, bump into his chin. His fingers clutch at the edge as he goes over. Hanging. He’s hanging over a cliff. Water pours onto his face, filling his mouth, his eyes with mud. He can’t breathe, his fingers weaken, slipping. Every ounce of energy in his body is in the ends of his fingers. Then something smashes down on them. Pain screeches through his body like an electric shock. A dark shape bounces over him. "Ahhhh!" He’s falling. He lands on his feet, on a little ledge. On his hands and knees, crawling. His body’s shaking so much his arms keep collapsing. A recess. Snuggled in against the wall, he hugs himself to hold his body still. His fingers are bleeding, swollen thick and blue where they were crushed against rock.

sting – stikker smacking – dasker splatting – spruter mud – gjørme rumbling sound – rumlende lyd beneath – under deep-bedded rock – stein som sitter fast tucking – gjemmer ripples – bølger sodden – gjennomvåt exhausted – utmattede surface – overflate shins – skinneleggene clutch – griper every ounce – hvert grann screeches – lyner ledge – hylle recess – nisje snuggled – sammenkrøpet

How does the author create suspense?

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One fingernail stands straight up; underneath, the flesh is puffed up, red raw, bloody. It’s stinging, throbbing in the air. Get bandages, cover up, stop infection.

Why do you think panicking kills people?

wriggles out – vrir seg ut soaking – gjennomvåte jittering – rister unwraps – pakker ut wincing – rykker til (i smerte) iodine – jod

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He wriggles out of the soaking backpack, shoulders jittering, insides shaking, fingers screaming with pain. "Get that first aid blanket on. You’re in shock," he says to himself. "You need to get warm." He unwraps the tiny square of silver, using teeth and feet, wincing each time he moves his fingers. It opens out to a thin sheet and he pulls it crackling around his shoulders. "You’ll be right," he says aloud. "You’ve got everything you need in your backpack. The water won’t come up this high. Just get warm, put some iodine on those fingers so they don’t get infected and you’ll be right. Panicking is what kills people."


His fingers, yellow with iodine, are wrapped in the snake bandage. Still the rain pours down, but it can’t get him now. The wind blows clouds of fine droplets onto his face. Against the rock he is safe and protected, warm. He pulls the first-aid blanket closer around himself, then he closes his eyes and leans back against the wall. Suddenly he wakes with a jolt – the smash of rock on his fingernails – the burst of pain rushing through his body – his fingers crushed and bloodied – slipping, slipping! Then he feels the rock beneath him. "It’s ok. You’re safe." He stretches his hands out on the rock wall, holding onto its heat, trying to stay awake. The rain falls, no wind, no thunder, just a heavy screen of grey water falling, falling from the sky. Hungry. Need something sweet. Dried banana in the backpack. Hands gloved in bandages, clumsy, slowly find the food. Groans escape against his will from his mouth and he feels ashamed. Finally the sweet softness

droplets – små dråper jolt – rykk gloved – inntyllet i clumsy – klumsete groans – klynk

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between his teeth warms and quietens his jittery belly and his fingers can rest. Have to ration the food. This rain looks like it’s setting in. Could be here for days.

jittery – urolige gust of rain – regnkast jarring – skjelver lunges – kaster seg topples – velter crinkly – skrukkete illegal – ulovlig shame – skam guilt – skyldfølelse dread – redsel fear – frykt greenant – en type maur fiercely – sint

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Another fine gust of rain floats over him, leaving his face wet and cold. Should find a better place to hole up. He slips his backpack over one leg and, centimetre by centimetre, his broken hands jarring, he crawls painfully around the ledge, dragging the backpack behind him. There’s a small recess. Might be a cave. Smoke! A fire! The old men. Sean quickly jumps back behind the wall so they won’t see him – so quick his foot kicks the backpack to the edge. He lunges forward to grab it before it topples over. But he’s too late. It falls as if in slow motion, bouncing once, is still for a moment on the dirt, then the water running down the slope gathers it up and carries it rolling down to the creek. "No!" Sean yells. He hears his voice echo through the ravine and remembers the old men in the cave. They look at him, then turn back to the fire. Sean knows them. They’re his teachers, his fathers. They’re sitting in a tight circle, their backs a solid wall – they don’t move to give him space. Sean crawls backwards around the corner, back to his place against the wall, pulling his crinkly blanket around him. He’s been caught. Caught in this illegal place. A hot flush of shame, guilt and dread spreads through his body. Then fear. What will they do? This is bad. Really bad. They might kill me. As soon as the rain stops I’ve got to get away. They are going to be really pissed off. A greenant bites the inside of his leg. "Bastard!" Sean says, squashing it fiercely through his pants.


Activities 48 Reading to understand. a What do you know about Sean? b Who are the old men? c Explain in three sentences what happened to Sean. d How had Sean planned to survive in the outback? e Why do you think Sean chose to enter Barrumbi even though he should have known better? f How do you think the story ends? 49 Vocabulary. These adjectives are from the text: tight, crinkly, broken, heavy, smooth, sharp, weak, old, sacred, confident, clever, humid a Translate the words into Norwegian. b Find synonyms and antonyms. c Sort the words into positively or negatively loaded words. 50 Vocabulary. Join the pairs of sentences using one of the following linking words: BS 82 because, even though, although, as, however, despite, since a Sean knows them. They’re his teachers. b Sean visits Death Adder Ridge. He knows that he should not. c The family is on holiday in Barrumbi. They used to live there. 51 Speaking. What did the old men say to each other when they discovered Sean in the sacred place? Act it out with some of your classmates.

52 Verbs.

BS 40

a Find verbs on page 188 that mean almost the same as: shout – hop – stare – recall – slide b Write sentences using these verbs in the present perfect. 53 Word order. Read these sentences. Find at least two more ways of writing the same sentences so that they still make sense. Example: He has pythons and freshwater snakes in a terrarium in his bedroom, the bedroom he shares with his little brothers Dale and Jimmy. In the bedroom he shares with his brothers Dale and Jimmy, he has pythons and freshwater snakes in a terrarium. a Sean crawls backwards around the corner, back to his place against the wall, pulling his crinkly blanket around him. b At this time of day the baby death adders will be hiding beneath rocks or logs where they’re safe from the birds that would drop from the sky and snatch them up. c Then sharp rocks scrape against his toes, take skin off his shins, scratch hard along his stomach, bump into his chin. 54 Writing. Sean both keeps a diary and publishes his experiences in a blog. BS 104 a What does Sean write in his blog when he comes home? Write one or two blog posts. b What does he write in his diary that he doesn’t write in his blog? Write one or two diary entries. c Why does he write different things in these two text types?

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Warm-up are the • What characteristics of a myth?

How the Kiwi Lost Its Wings A New Zealand Māori myth

One day, Tānemahuta was walking through the forest. He looked up at his children reaching for the sky and he noticed that they were starting to sicken, as bugs were eating them. He talked to his brother, Tānehokahoka, who called all of his children, the birds of the air, together. Tānemahuta spoke to them.

Tānemahuta (king of the forest) – en gud i maorienes mytologi sicken – bli syke bugs – insekter Tānehokahoka (king of the sky) – en gud i maorienes mytologi forest roof – trekronene Tūī – fugl fra New Zealand filtering – sive forest floor – bakken

“Something is eating my children, the trees. I need one of you to come down from the forest roof and live on the floor, so that my children can be saved, and your home can be saved. Who will come?” All was quiet, and not a bird spoke. Tānehokahoka turned to Tūī. “E Tūī, will you come down from the forest roof?” Tūī looked up at the trees and saw the sun filtering through the leaves. Tūī looked down at the forest floor and saw the cold, dark earth and shuddered.

shuddered – grøsset kāo – nei (på maori)

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“Kāo, Tānehokahoka, for it is too dark and I am afraid of the dark.”


Tānehokahoka turned to Pūkeko. “Pūkeko, will you come down from the forest roof?” Pūkeko looked down at the forest floor and saw the cold, damp earth and shuddered. “Kāo, Tānehokahoka, for it is too damp and I do not want to get my feet wet.” All was quiet, and not a bird spoke. Tānehokahoka turned to Pīpīwharauroa. “Pīpīwharauroa, will you come down from the forest roof?” Pīpīwharauroa looked up at the trees and saw the sun filtering through the leaves. Pīpīwharauroa looked around and saw his family.

Pūkeko – fugl fra New Zealand damp – fuktig

“Kāo, Tānehokahoka, for I am busy at the moment building my nest.” All was quiet, and not a bird spoke. And great was the sadness in the heart of Tānehokahoka for he knew, that if one of his children did not come

Pīpīwharauroa (the shining cuckoo) – fugl fra New Zealand (gjøk) nest – rede

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down from the forest roof, not only would his brother lose his children, but the birds would have no home. Tānehokahoka turned to Kiwi. “E Kiwi, will you come down from the forest roof?” Kiwi looked up at the trees and saw the sun filtering through the leaves. Kiwi looked around and saw his family. Kiwi looked at the cold damp earth. Looking around once more, he turned to Tānehokahoka and said, “I will.” Great was the joy in the hearts of Tānehokahoka and Tānemahuta , for this little bird was giving them hope. But Tānemahuta felt that he should warn Kiwi of what would happen. “E Kiwi, do you realise that if you do this, you will have to grow thick, strong legs so that you can rip apart the logs on the ground and you will lose your beautiful coloured feathers and wings so that you will never be able to return to the forest roof. You will never see the light of day again.” All was quiet, and not a bird spoke. “E Kiwi, will you come down from the forest roof?”

Kiwi – kivi, fugl fra New Zealand som ikke kan fly warn – advare realise – forstå rip apart – rive i stykker

Kiwi took one last look at the sun filtering through the trees and said a silent goodbye. Kiwi took one last look at the other birds, their wings and their coloured feathers and said a silent goodbye. Looking around once more, he turned to Tānehokahoka and said, “I will.” Then Tānehokahoka turned to the other birds and said,

logs – stokkene silent – stille throat – hals coward – feiging

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“E Tūī, because you were too scared to come down from the forest roof, from now on you will wear the two white feathers at your throat as the mark of a coward.


Pūkeko, because you did not want to get your feet wet, you will live forever in the swamp.

swamp – sump sacrifice – offer

Pīpīwharauroa, because you were too busy building your nest, from now on you will never build another nest again, but lay your eggs in other birds’ nests. But you Kiwi, because of your great sacrifice, you will become the most wellknown and most loved bird of them all.”

Activities 55 Reading to understand. a Who are Tānemahuta ‘s children? b Why does Tānemahuta want one of the birds to live on the forest floor? c What excuses do the first three birds give? d What happened to the birds as a result? e How can you tell that this is a myth? Write a list of examples. f What is the message in this story? Use evidence from the myth to explain your answer, and write a paragraph. 56 Verbs. The story about the kiwi is written in the past simple. BS 36 a Why is the past simple used in this story? b Identify at least six verbs in the past simple and divide them into regular and irregular. c What is the rule for making the past simple of regular verbs? 57 Writing. Write the story from Kiwi’s point of view. Choose between writing in the same style as the myth, or writing an up-to-date version.

58 Vocabulary. A lot of people mix up the words loose and lose. Read these examples and explain the difference between the words. BS 70

• This knot is too loose. • The birds would lose their home. 59 Digital skills. Is the information given in the myth accurate? For example, does the Pūkeko live in a swamp? Find pictures and information about the four birds mentioned in the myth. 60 Speaking. Choose another myth. Practise telling the story a few times and then tell the story to a classmate. 61 Writing. Identify ten keywords from the myth. Use these keywords to write a summary. 62 Speaking. Rewrite the myth as a play. Include stage directions. Act out the story of how the kiwi lost its wings.

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Warm-up the first poem, the poet • Indescribes herself as a voyager, warrior, slave, native, worker, soldier, entertainer and victim. Why do you think she uses these words?

I am Māori Brown as mānuka honey Rich as the forest floor. I have been a voyager Crossing oceans by the stars My destiny – tangata whenua. I have been a warrior Defending tīpuna land By means of utu and mana Taiaha in my hand.

mānuka honey – honning fra New Zealand voyager – reisende destiny – skjebne tribal chiefs – stammehøvdinger conquered – erobret miscegenised – “raseblandet” missionised – misjonert literized – gjort lesekyndig cling – klamre dwellings – boliger real-estate men – eiendomsmeglere shun – skyr state housing – kommunale boliger patronage – beskyttelse moulding me – formet meg til profit – fortjeneste ornaments – pynt, ornamenter jade – jade (smykkestein) victim – offer ensnare – fange

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I have been a slave For tribal chiefs who conquered Yet Mahuta still stands. I have been miscegenised Missionised, literized God Almightyised Yet I cling to my haka today. I have lived in dwellings That the real-estate men shun Tāku Kāinga now is prison State housing and city slum. I have been a native Deserving of patronage In the education system Moulding me a brown Pākehā.

I have been a worker Digging roadsides, felling trees Farming land and earning pay In city factories. I have been a soldier Fighting wars in Greece The Middle East and Italy Singapore and Vietnam. I have been an entertainer For the tourist trade Bring profit for New Zealand With waiata, harakeke And ornaments of jade. I have been a victim Of colonialism’s gun I’ve tried to be a Māori Perhaps the Pākehā has won Yet … I am Māori Let not alcohol and drugs Ensnare me like the fish net Of Māui round the sun Poem by Marilyn Gardiner


Māori wordlist tangata whenua – people of the land utu – payment mana – influence, control tīpuna – ancestor taiaha – weapon Mahuta – third Māori king

haka – dance Tāku Kāinga – my home waiata – song harakeke – flax (plant) Pākehā – person of European origin Māui – a god


Spiritual Song of the Aborigine

eagle – ørn

I am a child of the Dreamtime People Part of this land, like the gnarled gumtree I am the river, softly singing Chanting our songs on my way to the sea My spirit is the dust-devils Mirages, that dance on the plain I’m the snow, the wind and the falling rain I’m part of the rocks and the red desert earth Red as the blood that flows in my veins I am eagle, crow and snake that glides Through the rainforest that clings to the mountainside I awakened here when the earth was new There was emu, wombat, kangaroo No other man of a different hue I am this land And this land is me I am Australia.

crow – kråke

Poem by Hyllus Noel Maris

gnarled gumtree – knudrete gummitre chanting – synge monotont mirages – luftspeiling veins – blodårer

hue – farge

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Activities 63 Reading to understand. a In the Māori poem, the poet describes herself as a voyager, warrior, slave, native, worker, soldier, entertainer and victim. How do these words sum up the history of the Māori people? Write one sentence for each word, including facts from history.

66 Vocabulary. a Make a list of words in the poems that are typical for this part of the world. For example, Māori words. b Choose some words that could have been used in a similar poem about the indigenous people of Norway, the Sami.

b What is the purpose of the poem? c Both poems use the personal pronoun I. Who is the first-person narrator in each case? Why do you think the poets chose this form of narration? BS 94 d In the Aboriginal poem, the poet ends by saying that she is the land. What can you find in the poem that leads up to this conclusion? e Are the poems positively or negatively loaded? Explain your answer. f What is your personal response to these poems? g Compare and contrast the two poems. 64 Analysis. Poets often use comparisons to paint a picture in the mind of the reader. These are called similes and are introduced by “as” or “like”. Example: Brown as mānuka honey.

67 Digital skills. In the Aboriginal poem the Dreamtime, also called the Dreaming, is mentioned. Find sources on the Internet that give you an introduction to what this is. BS 174 a Explain the Dreaming to a classmate. b Tell him or her which sources you used and why you trust them. 68 Writing. Write a poem that expresses who you are. a Start your poem I am a … then add words like: sister, son, musician, sports star, sailor, storyteller, artist, reader, computer nut, listener, speaker, 15 year-old … b Expand your idea with another phrase like: … child of a wise man, … captain of the team, … too young to vote, … part of this land

a Find other similes in I am Māori and Spiritual Song.

c Write another verse starting I am a … Then add words like voyager, discoverer, traveller, explorer, reader, warrior, fighter, tiger.

b Explain why these similes paint a colourful picture in the reader’s mind.

d Add positively loaded adjectives to your poem like brave, fearless, wise, skillful, bold, helpful.

c Are the similes positively or negatively loaded?

e Add similes like as honey, as the forest floor, as nature, as a ship.

65 Speaking. Give a speech about why indigenous people should be given more respect. BS 117

f Explain what you are not, using negatively loaded adjectives like lazy, scared, bored, negative, worried. g End your poem in the same way as the authors, using your own words. For example: I am …, Let not … ensnare me like …

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Chapter Activities Sum up 69 Reading to understand. Write the title of a text in this chapter where you can read about the following: a a sacred rock

d The Dreaming

b Captain James Cook

e snakes

c a small bird

f Māori

70 Writing. Compare Aboriginal people and the Māori. a Make a Venn diagram. b Write a paragraph comparing the two groups using positively loaded words. 71 Present perfect. These sentences are in the present perfect. BS 40

• Uluru has become a natural icon of Australia. • Aboriginal Australians have always interacted with the landscape.

• Since 1985 many Australians have worked together to manage the National Parks.

• More than 250,000 people have visited Uluru this year.

• The Aboriginal law, Tjukurpa, has never changed.

73 Speaking. Act out a conversation between a tourist and a tourist guide in Australia or New Zealand. Ask and answer questions about what to see and where to go. 74 Digital skills. Find a website about the Aboriginal Australians or the Māori written in language that is understandable for a year ten pupil. BS 173 a Which search words did you use to help you find language at this level? b Explain why this language is of the right level of English and why you can trust this web page. c Find examples of words that are positively or negatively loaded. 75 Analysis. When you think about indigenous peoples’ rights, explain what makes you feel: • angry

• confused

• supportive

• hopeful

76 Writing. Draw a famous tourist spot in Australia or New Zealand, and write a positively loaded description for a travel magazine to make the readers want to travel there.

a Find all the verbs in the sentences. b Why is the present perfect used? 72 Speaking. Choose about eight to ten pictures from the history of Australia or New Zealand. Cut them out and arrange them in a timeline to tell a story about the history of one of these countries and its connection to Britain.

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77 Learning strategies. Search through this chapter for titles and sub-headings. a Write down the most important headings. b Use the headings as a list of keywords. Give a summary of the chapter using your list of keywords. c Ask a classmate to tell you what was good about your summary.


Move on 78 Speaking. Make a presentation. Choose one of these tasks. BS 140 a You are the Queen of England.

Your audience: Māori and Aboriginal people

Your task: to give a speech and say sorry for sending convicts and criminals to Australia in 1778.

b You are a 14 year-old Aboriginal Australian.

Your audience: a group of school children from Norway visiting your country.

Your task: to inform and teach them about living conditions for young Aboriginal Australians.

c You are a BBC TV-reporter.

Your audience: several thousand viewers around the world.

Your task: to report on the living conditions of indigenous Māori and the Aboriginal Australians.

79 Writing. Write an informative paragraph in which you explain the link between Britain and Australia and New Zealand. BS 80 80 Writing. Make a pamphlet for the school library about Australia or New Zealand. Your pamphlet must have eye-catching pictures, interesting text and informative headings. Proofread your pamphlet carefully to correct any mistakes. 81 Writing. Write an e-mail to a teenager in Australia or New Zealand. Explain what you have learned about their country and ask questions about what you would still like to know. 82 Writing. Write a statement giving your opinion on indigenous peoples’ rights.

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… explain why people in Australia and New Zealand speak English. … compare the way of life in Australia, New Zealand and Norway. … describe the situation for indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand. … explain the difference between a positive and negative way of talking about a person or a group of people. … use the present perfect correctly in sentences.

B Review your learning.

• How might you have learnt the same things about Australia and New Zealand, but in a different way? • What tips have you received from your classmates on how you can improve your English?

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6

Get Involved!


TOPIC WORDS environment pollution

? Look at the picture and the topic words. What are the connections to the heading “Get Involved!”?

climate change to protect extinct endangered to involve threatened sustainable development

Learning objectives n n n

n n

n

Express your opinion about an issue Use persuasive language in writing Describe statistics about the environment Use verbs correctly with noun phrases Expand your vocabulary using prefixes and suffixes Evaluate digital sources of information

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Warm-up do you think your • What generation will be remembered for?

! Did you know? Jordan Nichols from North Carolina wrote this poem when he was in the 8th grade. His brother tweeted: “Read this … My 14-yearold brother wrote this … Crazyyyy”. The poem was retweeted 100,000 times in 24 hours.

Our Generation Our generation will be known for nothing. Never will anybody say, We were the peak of mankind. That is wrong, the truth is Our generation was a failure. Thinking that We actually succeeded Is a waste. And we know Living only for money and power Is the way to go. Being loving, respectful, and kind Is a dumb thing to do. Forgetting about that time, Will not be easy, but we will try. Changing our world for the better Is something we never did. Giving up Was how we handled our problems. Working hard Was a joke. We knew that People thought we couldn’t come back That might be true, Unless we turn things around (Now, read the poem from bottom to top.) Poem by Jordan Nichols

tweeted – her: delte på Twitter peak – topp mankind – menneskeheten failure – svikt succeeded – lyktes turn things around – endre ting

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Activities 1 Reading to understand. a What did you think when you read the poem the first time?

7 Synonyms and antonyms. This poem contains adjectives, for example dumb. BS 74 a Find at least four adjectives in the poem.

b How did your view change when you read it upwards?

b Find a synonym and antonym for each of the adjectives.

c Is the poem optimistic or pessimistic? Explain your answer.

c Write a sentence for each synonym and antonym.

d After reading the poem, have you changed your mind about what your generation will be remembered for? e Do you think that this poem fits the title of this chapter? Explain your answer. f The last phrase, “Unless we turn things around”, has both a literal and a metaphorical meaning. Explain. 2 Writing. Write a short poem that can be read both ways. Use words and ideas from the poem on this page. 3 Speaking. Perform this poem as a rap. 4 Writing. Retweet the poem on this page with a short message or write a new tweet about the poem. 5 Speaking. Practise reading the poem both ways. a Change the tone of your voice to show the different meaning the poem has when read the two different ways. b Perform in class or in groups. 6 Vocabulary. Which words or phrases does the author use to encourage the reader to get involved in changing our world. Make a list.

8 Verbs. Find the noun phrases. Decide whether the verbs should be singular or plural. BS 31 a Our generation ______ (is/are) amazing. b The books about the environment ______ (is/are) on my desk. c The boy who cleans up the beaches around here ______ (is/are) a friend of mine. d Being loving, respectful and kind ______ (is/are) the way to go. e None of my friends ______ (was/were) there. f Pupils in Norwegian schools usually ______ (start/starts) school at 8.30 a.m. g The price of oil, gas and electricity ______ (has/have) risen recently. h Ten tonnes of rubbish ______ (float/floats) about in the Pacific Ocean. i The boy who wrote this poem, and probably several other poems, ______ (live/lives) in North Carolina.

Verbs – concord with noun phrases In the present simple, the subject tells you whether you need to add s or not. Sometimes the subject is a noun phrase rather than a single word. Living for money and power is the way to go. BS 31

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Warm-up is an interview with • This a boy. Skim through the pages for 15 seconds. What can you find out about him from the pictures and the first paragraph?

! Did you know? Xiuhtezcatl is an Aztec name and is pronounced shu – tez – caht, /ʃuːtezkaːt/.

spokesperson – talsperson self-defined – selvdefinert eco (prefix) – øko, miljø (eks. eco-friendly – miljøvennlig) lectures – holder foredrag for addressed – henvendt seg til responsibility – ansvar were supporting – støttet

My Generation Does Give a Damn By Lilah Raptopoulos, 11 June 2015

Xiuhtezcatl Roske-Martinez is 14, but has a confidence beyond his years. He carries on his back an organisation that his mother, Tamara, founded almost ten years before his birth, created to inspire young people to defend the environment.

Roske-Martinez is its spokesperson, its youth director, and a self-defined eco hip hop artist, activist and change-agent. He raps. He lectures children younger and older than him at schools around the United States. He talks to state politicians. And he has addressed world leaders in the United Nations. – How old were you when you got started? – Well, when I was six years old, I gave my first public speech about climate change in front of about 300 people. I talked about how we have to take responsibility as individuals. I remember saying, “When I was younger,” – yes, I was six – “I wanted to go to all the factories with my brother and shut them down. And when I turned six, I found out that it was us that were supporting the factories. We’re the ones fuelling the destruction of our environment with our money.” Then, when I was nine, I discovered the Boulder parks department was going to start spraying two new unhealthy chemicals in public parks. So about 50 of us brought it to City Council – and it was a bunch of kids going in and telling these adults how to do their jobs. They listened. They gave $50,000 to rewrite the Pest Management programme for our city, and banned the use of those chemicals in public parks in Boulder. That was huge. We were so fired up after that.

fuelling – fyre opp under destruction – ødeleggelse spraying – sprøyte fired up – ivrige city council – bystyret

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– When a city council comes face to face with you at six, or even at 14, are they shocked? How is the response to you different than it is to an adult?


– People listen to me more, because I stand out. They see a young person addressing issues that adults are afraid to talk about. There’s a lot of cowardice in adults speaking up about issues that matter to them. – Tackling climate change can feel like an impossible task to a lot of children. How do you get people to give a damn? – Stressing urgency is one of the most important things you can do. We are the generation that will suffer the most. A lot of kids know this is a crisis. But especially in first world countries, there’s a disconnect between the problem and the impact it’s going to have on us. We’ve got to bridge that. Also, young people are not empowered these days at all. Look at the message we teach almost every child on the planet: you have no voice now, and what you say is basically irrelevant until you graduate from college and get some diplomas. We learn that we’re not going to be able to influence our society until we pass certain milestones. (…)

Xiuhtezcatl gives a speech at the Social Good Summit in 2015.

addressing – som tar opp, gjør noe med cowardice – feighet issues – temaer stressing urgency – understreke at det haster suffer – lide disconnect – brudd to bridge – å forene not empowered – har liten innflytelse graduate – avlegger eksamen diplomas – vitnemål to influence – å påvirke milestones – milepæler

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finite – begrenset dough – slang: penger fracking – måte å utvinne olje fra stein incredible – utrolig livelihood – levebrød immature – umodent brainwashing – hjernevasking overprotective– overbeskyttende was freaking out – klikket negotiators – forhandlere movement – bevegelse passionate about – glødende opptatt av engage – engasjere

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We need to shift that thinking and show the world that this generation, we are the leaders. I also want kids to know that it’s not too late. Even though it may seem like it, it’s not. – How do you respond to people who defend the need for natural gas as a fuel source? – People say we need oil, coal and natural gas, but if you look at the future of energy, we should not be looking down a hole at a bunch of dead things. The future of energy comes from the sky, natural sources, things that will last forever. Fossil fuels are finite! We’re going to run out of them, soon. It’s just a matter of when at this point. The only thing in our way are multi million dollar industries that don’t want to put aside their dough for the greater good of the planet.


– You mention in your video that you’ve got threats. Can you talk more about that? – Yeah, pretty scary stuff. So I gave this presentation to about 200 kids at a middle school in Evergreen, Colorado about fracking. And the kids there were super into it. It was incredible. So afterwards, a lot of the kids went home, excited, and told their parents about it. And it turns out that some of the parents worked for the natural gas industry. So those parents were pretty pissed off that we were talking to their kids about why fracking is one of the most dangerous things happening in our backyards. It’s how they made their liveli­hood. What happened next was pretty immature. They went onto our YouTube channel and said that we were communists brainwashing their children, that we forced them to watch our presentation and sing lyrics of our songs. It was total bull. It was intense. There were some crazy threats. I’d say my mom’s pretty overprotective about this stuff. She was kind of freaking out a little bit. – How can people get involved? – You can check out earthguardians.org and get involved, but I’m not here to tell people what to do. That’s not my job. So check out what we have done, but realise that there is a movement going on filled with hundreds of thousands of young people. Look to things that you’re passionate about and that excite you. Engage with those things: music, sports, art, whatever. Use those things to make a change. Because right now, a passionate, empowered, inspired, educated young person is the fossil fuel industry’s greatest threat.

Activities 9 Reading to understand. Explain these words and expressions in your own words: a change-agent, United Nations, climate change, fossil fuels, chemicals, cowardice, urgency, get involved 10 Speaking. Write and record the speech that Xiuhtezcatl held when he was six. BS 117 11 Pronunciation. Write these words with phonetic symbols: BS 62 speak, generation, climate, netiquette 12 Listening. Find one of Xiuhtezcatl’s speeches on the Internet. Listen to the speech. a Note down words and phrases that he uses about the environment. b How does he persuade in his speech? 13 Digital skills. People threatened Xiuhtezcatl. a Which rules of netiquette do you think they broke? Write a list. BS 172 b Why do you think this happened? 14 Verbs. Add the correct form of the verb in the present simple. BS 31 a World leaders in the United Nations _______ to Xiuhtezcatl. (to listen) b Xiuhtezcatl’s organization, the Earth Guardians, _______ conservation. (to promote) c Multimillion dollar companies in the oil industry _______ to earn money. (to want) d Parents working in the oil and gas industry _______ Xiuhtezcatl’s ideas. (to dislike) e Passionate young people who are interested in saving the planet _______ (to get involved)

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Wildlife Under Threat

Warm-up you know the names • Do of any animals that are

Extinction is nothing new. About 95 % of all the plants and animals that have ever existed are extinct now. Today, nearly 23,000 species of plants and animals are threatened with extinction. One of the main reasons is loss of habitat, but pollution, exploitation and climate change also threaten many species.

extinct or under threat? Talk to a classmate.

Threatened species Mammals 1,199 threatened species

Birds 1,373 threatened species

Amphibians 1,957 threatened species

Insects 993 threatened species

26% of known species

13% of known species

41% of known species

Scientists do not know the total number of insect species

Total 5,522 threatened mammals, birds, amphibians and insects

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Source: IUCN Red List


extinction – utryddelse

Main threats

habitat – naturlig miljø species – art

Exploitation or treating animals badly 37 % What is the purpose of presenting data in this way?

Habitat changes such as cutting down trees 31 %

Habitat loss through, for example, building houses 13 % Climate change 7 %

Invasive species (animals that move into an area and take over) 5 % Pollution 4 % Disease 2 %

Figures have been rounded Source: WWF Living Planet Report 2014

White rhinos are threatened due to hunting.

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Leatherback turtle Atlantic leatherback turtle: vulnerable Pacific leatherback turtle: critically endangered The leatherback turtle is the largest species of sea turtle. It does not have the same type of shell as other turtles, but has a softer shell that looks rather like leather. It grows to up to 2 metres long and can weigh up to 900 kg.

Lifestyle and habitat vulnerable – sårbar critically endangered – kritisk truet migrates – vandrer breeds – formerer seg hatch – klekker jellyfish – manet

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The leatherback turtle is found in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The leatherback turtle migrates between places where it eats and breeds. The female lays about 80 eggs, which she buries in the sand on beaches. When

the eggs hatch, the young turtles crawl down the beach to the sea. The turtle lives mostly on jellyfish.

Why is it threatened? People collect the eggs to eat, many turtles are caught in fishing nets and drown, and the turtles eat plastic bags because they think they are jellyfish. In addition, turtles are losing habitat, because people are building on the coast. This is a problem for young turtles that have to crawl down the beach to the sea when they hatch.


Tiger Tigers in general: endangered South China, Sumatran: critically endangered The tiger is the largest member of the cat family. They are well known for their beautiful striped fur, but this is one reason why the tiger is one of the most threatened species on the planet. There are only about 3200 tigers living in the wild anywhere in the world. They mostly live on wildlife reserves where they are protected There are nine sub-species of tiger, and three of them are already extinct.

Lifestyle and habitat Tigers are loners. They live and hunt alone in a territory, only meeting to

breed. The female has a litter of two– three cubs about every two years. About half of the cubs die when they are young, but, if they become adults, tigers can live into their 20s in the wild.

Why is it threatened? People love the tiger’s beautiful striped fur and their body parts are used in traditional Asian medicine. In addition, tigers need a large territory and a lot of their natural habitat has been destroyed by logging, road building and development in general.

wildlife reserves – naturreservat sub-species – underart loners – enstøinger litter – kull med unger cubs – dyreunger value – verdi territory – landområde logging – tømmerhogst

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Monarch butterfly Monarch butterfly: threatened The monarch butterfly is a beautiful orange and black butterfly that is found in North America. Its colourful wings make it easy to recognise, but actually the colours are a warning to other animals that the butterfly tastes nasty and is poisonous.

leaves. Most of the butterflies live only for a few weeks, and four generations of butterflies are born each summer. It is only the fourth generation that survives and which migrates for the winter.

Why is it threatened? Lifestyle and habitat recognise – gjenkjenner poisonous – giftig milkweed – silkeurt larvae – larver caterpillar – sommerfugllarve

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The monarch butterfly migrates from the north of the USA to Mexico or southern California in the winter. The female lays eggs on milkweed plants. When the eggs hatch, the larvae and later caterpillars feed on the milkweed

Habitat loss is the major threat. In order to build roads and buildings, people are cutting down the trees in which the butterflies spend the winter. Climate change will also affect them, as they may be forced to move further north as temperatures rise.


Activities 15 Reading to understand. a Find the animal which:

18 Listening. Listen to the information about the rhinoceros.

• lives in the Americas

a Take notes while you listen.

• eats jellyfish

b Use your notes to make a fact sheet about the rhinoceros.

• is used in Asian medicine • does not migrate • lives for the shortest amount of time b What do you think the biggest threat to the three species is? Explain your answer. 16 Numbers. Use the information from the graphs on pages 208–209. a Complete these sentences.

• In total, _____ species are threatened. • The percentage of amphibians that are threatened is _____.

• The two biggest threats to plants and animals are _____.

• The groups of species that scientists know least about are _____.

• In my opinion, the chart on page _____ is the easiest to understand because _____. b Are birds or mammals most at risk? Explain your answer. c Is this method of presenting data effective? Why, or why not? d Were you surprised by any of the facts presented in the graphs? 17 Writing. Write a factual text about a threatened animal using the same structure as the texts on these pages. Use these subheadings:

• Name of the animal • Lifestyle and habitat • Why is it threatened?

19 Digital skills. You work for a magazine and want to write an article with graphs and pictures showing which animals in Norway are threatened. a Find information and statistics about this from at least two sources. b Use CARS to check your sources.

BS 173

c Write a paragraph describing the statistics you have found. 20 Writing. You work for a wildlife organisation. Write a text in which you persuade young people to get involved in your organisation. BS 114

21 Speaking. Choose a different endangered species. a Make a short speech in which you explain why this species should be protected. b After everyone has made their speech, vote for the five species that need most protection. c Present the results of the vote graphically. 22 Numbers. Choose one of the graphs on these pages and describe what it shows to a classmate. BS 166 23 Digital skills. Find two online sources about a threatened species. Try to find one that you are certain that you can trust and one that you are uncertain about. Present both sources and explain why you can trust one and not the other. BS 173

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Warm-up: do you recycle at • What home? What do you reuse? What could you reduce?

REDUCE REUSE RECYCLE If everyone in the world had the same lifestyle as people in Norway, we would need at least three planets. As we only have one planet, we need to use our resources more wisely.

A cushion made from recycled catalogues.

A chair made from old bottles. A chandelier made of old bicycle parts.

A lot of rubbish can be recycled.

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A reusable bag.

Adidas shoe made from recycled ocean plastic.


Activities 24 Reading to understand. Explain what the words reduce, reuse and recycle mean using examples from this page. 25 Speaking. How many of the suggestions on this page have you and your family tried? In your opinion, is it more important to reduce, reuse or recycle?

A floor mat made from old fabric.

26 Poster. The student council wants to reduce waste at school. Design a poster to inspire pupils to reduce, reuse or recycle. 27 Speaking. You want to start composting food waste but your parents are not interested. a Make a list of reasons why composting is a good idea.

A lightbulb vase.

b Make a list of reasons why you think they are against it. c Convince them that composting will save them money and help the environment. 28 Draw. Try your skills at redesign. Design an item which is made out of rubbish. Draw the design and make a set of instructions for making the item.

Vocabulary building Words can be divided into three parts:

prefix

stem

suffix

reusable

29 Writing. Many products have a lot of packaging. Write an e-mail to the local supermarket persuading them to cut packaging. 30 Vocabulary. Reduce, reuse, recycle all begin with the prefix re.

The prefix can change the meaning of the word: re + use = use again The suffix can change the word class: use = verb usage = noun usable = adjective

BS 72

a What does this prefix mean? b Find other words that start with re that are related to cutting down on how many resources we use. c Add suffixes to make new words from reduce and recycle. Which word classes have you made?

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Warm-up had to cut down on • Ifyouryoupersonal energy use, what would you give up? Make a list and compare with a classmate.

The Carbon Diaries Laura Brown is a typical teenager who plays bass in her band “The Dirty Angels” and writes a diary. She lives in Britain with her parents and her sister, Kim. The British government has decided that each family has to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 60 % to reduce climate change. This means that Laura and her family will have to change their lifestyle dramatically. Extract from The Carbon Diaries by Saci Lloyd

Sat., Jan. 3

global warming – global oppvarming carbon dioxide – karbondioksid emissions – utslipp online form – digitalt skjema CO2 allowance – tillatt mengde CO2 shipped – fraktet fossil fuel – fossilt brennstoff free-trading – frihandel riots – opptøyer pathetic amount – latterlig sum access – tilgang HD – handheld device (f.eks. mobil) heating – oppvarming deionizer – vannrenser PDA – personal digital assistent (f.eks. nettbrett) kettle – vannkoker

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Dad sat us all down again tonight and took us thru a disgusting govern­ ment online form to work out what our family CO2 allowance actually is. It’s heavy. Basically, we’ve got a carbon allowance of 200 Carbon Points per month to spend on travel, heat, and food. All other stuff like clothes and technology and books have already got the Carbon Points built into the price, so say you wanna buy a PC, but it’s been shipped over from China and built using dirty fossil fuel, then you’re gonna pay a lot more for it in Euros – cos you’re paying for all the energy that’s gone into making it. At first they set up a free-trading system so that if you were rich you could just buy up carbon in cash and live how you wanted – but after the riots last September the gov backed down and changed the rules so that no one’s allowed to buy more than 50 extra points a month. And the worst thing is, on top of all this, me and Kim have to give up loads of our points for the family energy allowance, which leaves us some pathetic amount for travel, school, going out … The car’s gonna be cut way back, all of us get access to the PC, TV, HD, stereo for only 2 hours a day; heating is down to 16 °C in the living room and 1 hour a day for the rest of the house; showers max 5 minutes, baths only on weekends. We’ve got to choose – hair dryer, toaster, microwave, smartphone, deionizer (Mum), kettle, lights, PDA, e-pod, fridge or freezer, and on and on. Flights are a real no-no and shopping, travelling and going out not much better. It’s all kind of a choice. I sat there and thought about my band, the dirty angels. We’ve just got back together after a break for musical differences after Claire got heavily into hard-core Straight Edge. She was so militant. You couldn’t even


unwrap a Snickers around her without a lecture on skinny cocoa-bean farmers. Anyway, she blew it by getting back with her snotty boyfriend and eating a bacon sandwich – all on the same day – and so we’re together again and sounding sooooo good right now. It’s my dream. And all the time everyone was saying stuff like, “Well, I’m not selling the car, I worked hard for it,” and, “I just want to go on my gap year and get away from your selfish messed-up generation,” and “I insist that one of the daily TV hours is spent watching a current-affairs programme.”

unwrap – pakke opp lecture – forelesning

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Mon., Jan. 5

ration – tildeling, rasjon fade away – blir gradvis borte

Carbon cards came today … They’ve got these little blocks down one side going from green to red, and as you use up your year’s ration, they fade away one by one till you’re down to the last red and then you’re all alone, sobbing in the dark. Kim won’t unwrap her card, she says if she touches it then that’s all her youth gone. I felt pretty shaky unwrapping mine, not that I really have a youth in my family. My sister’s got it.

sobbing – hulkende is in denial – nekter å forholde seg til det

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Laura and her family try to get used to the new way of living with rations. It’s not easy, especially for her mum and her sister Kim, who is in denial.


Sat., Feb. 21 The Carbon Department engineers came to our street and hooked up all our Smart Meters to the national grid today. When it came to our turn, I made the man a cup of tea and asked him how it worked. “S’easy, darlin’.” He tapped the meter screen. “You got yer two hundred carbon ration points for the month, yeah?” I nodded. “Well, this little meter is so you can check on yer progress. Makes sure you ain’t overspendin’. Want to give it a spin?” “What, now?” “Yeah, I’m all done.” He pointed to a slot at the top. “What it is, yer just swipe your carbon card thru this section, ‘ere … ” I took out my card and swiped it across the slot. The machine lit up and chattered and grockled to itself for a few seconds before spitting out a paper printout. I reached for it with shaky hands. “There yer go,” said the electrician smiling. “No bother.”

 hat is the Smart Meter W for?

hooked up – knyttet national grid – innenlandsnett tapped – dunket progress – framskritt to give it a spin – å prøve det slot – sprekk chattered – skravlet grockled – et ord som beskriver lyd, men er et fantasiord


“What happens if you go over?” “Well, that’s the thing. Basically, the meter takes over and manages your energy use – it’ll even start shuttin’ things off in the ‘ouse if you’re really bad.”

Why does Mum turn pale?

super-tense – veldig anstrengt slo-mo – forkortelse for slow motion swiped – dro whirred – summet clip-clopped – gikk med en lyd som høres ut som en hest Nicky boy – Lauras far blotchy – flekket pigging gym – teite treningsstudioet

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Super-tense dinner with Mum and Dad. Dad finally finished eating, put his knife and fork down, and then turned oh so casually in his chair towards the meter. “Ah, of course, our new toy, shall we give it a go?” He glanced at Mum’s carbon card on the sideboard. “Is this yours here, darling? Do you mind?” Mum turned dead pale. “Mind? Why would I mind?” And then everything went into slo-mo as Dad picked up her card, stepped across to the meter, and swiped the card thru the slot. There was a moment’s silence, then the machine whirred, the earth turned – and a slip of white printout slid into Dad’s waiting fingers. He stared at the paper in silence for a few moments, frowning.” “This can’t be right. You can’t have gone over by 50 points!” Mum clip-clopped across the room and snatched it off him.

“Oh, it’s all some mistake. Look, press the Further Details button on the meter …” Dad bent over the machine, pressed a yellow button, and a few seconds later it spat out a longer piece of printout. Mum reached for it, but Nicky boy was there first. As he read it, his face went all blotchy. He switched to his super-dangerous quiet voice. “The gym? Hours and hours at the pigging gym?”


Activities 31 Reading to understand. a What is the Smart Meter for? b How many carbon points will Laura’s family have in total? c How do the carbon points affect the price of clothes and other items? d What do you think Laura means by “not that I really have a youth in my family. My sister’s got it.”? e What do you think a super-dangerous quiet voice sounds like? f Which members of Laura’s family do you think said the following? Explain why you think this.

• “Well, I’m not selling the car, I worked hard for it.”

• “I just want to go on my gap year and get away from your selfish messed-up generation.”

• “I insist that one of the daily TV hours is spent watching a current-affairs programme.” 32 Speaking. Work with a classmate. a Explain how the carbon point system works. b Your classmate is unsure that carbon points are a good idea. Convince him or her. 33 Language. Laura’s diary contains a lot of slang and abbreviations. BS 84 a How are these words written in more formal English? thru, cos, slo-mo, gov, yer b Why does Laura use so many slang words in her diary?

34 Vocabulary building. Choose the right prefix. What happens to the meaning of the word when the prefix is added? BS 72 ir-, em-, dis-, un-, im-, re___ covered

___ possible

___ agree

___ healthy

___ powered

___ wrap

___ connect

___ relevant

___ use

35 Vocabulary building. We can add the suffixes -ful and -ly to the end of some words to make adjectives or adverbs. BS 73 Example: care ➝ careful (adjective) ➝ carefully (adverb) a Add -ful and/or -ly to each word. pain, help, exact, silent, quick, sudden, forget, thought b Sort the words into adjectives and adverbs after adding the suffixes. 36 Writing. Tell the story from another point of view: Laura’s mother, her father or her sister. a Write this character’s story. b Explain why you chose this character. c Write a few sentences describing what is good about your text. 37 Apostrophes. These words are all from Laura’s diary: shuttin’, ‘ouse, ain’t, s’easy, they’ve, family’s, ‘ere. Why are there apostrophes in these words? BS 58

38 Writing. What happens next? How does Laura persuade her mum to stick to the system? Continue her diary for one or two days. 39 Speaking. Work with one or two classmates. Act out the conversation Laura and her family have over dinner.

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Warm-up kind of waste do • What you think is found in the oceans? Make a list and compare with a classmate.

Cleaning Up the Beach By Matthew Scott, 20th August 2015

Every year a huge amount of waste ends up in the world’s oceans and causes problems for the animals living there. This is why many volunteers all over the world take part in International Coastal Clean-up.

cause – forårsaker volunteers – frivillige marine waste – marint avfall packaging – emballasje accumulates – samler seg surface – overflaten mistake – her: forveksler survey – undersøkelse increasing – økende microplastic – mikroplast microbeads – mikroperler cosmetics – skjønnhetsprodukter entering – her: havner i

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Waste in the ocean

Microplastic

About 80 % of all marine waste is plastic from bottles and packaging. This rubbish runs into rivers when it rains and then flows into the sea. Most of the rubbish sinks to the bottom of the ocean but some stays on the surface and collects in large areas like the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The rest ends up on beaches. Rubbish causes problems for the animals living in the oceans. Some animals mistake rubbish for food. For example turtles live on jellyfish and think that plastic bags are a type of food. The plastic can block their stomachs so that they starve or it may poison the turtles. A survey by the University of Queensland showed that 50 % of green turtles eat rubbish and the figure is increasing. As six species of sea turtle are already threatened with extinction, this is a big problem.

It is not just the waste we can see that causes problems for ocean wildlife. Microbeads are tiny plastic beads used in cosmetics. These microbeads are so small that filters do not catch them and they flow straight out into the ocean where animals eat them. They are passed on through the food chain, and since humans are at the top of the food chain, we may be eating microbeads in our food.

Action With millions and millions of tonnes of waste entering the ocean every year, it is clear that we need to do something to protect the animals living there. One organisation that does this is Ocean Con­ servancy, an organisation that started in the USA. Since 1986 the organisation has


organised International Coastal Cleanup. The event grows every year and now people get involved on over 6000 beaches in more than 100 countries. So why is it so important to clean up our oceans? Ocean Conservancy is clear about this. On their website you can read: “The ocean sustains us with the basic elements of life – it produces half of the oxygen in the air we breathe, and it is an essential part of the water cycle,

helping to provide the water we drink.” By cleaning up rubbish you are protec­ ting the ocean environment and the animals that live there.

Volunteers in San Diego cleaning up the beach.

Individual action What can each and every one of us do about the rubbish in the oceans? Perhaps the most important thing is that you can think about how much packaging is included with the products you buy, and where you throw away any rubbish you

sustains – forsyner essential – vesentlig to provide – å sørge for, skaffe

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have. Less packaging and fewer products are a step on the way to more sustainable development. You can also take part in ocean clean-up day. If rubbish is picked up from the beach it will not flow out into the ocean and cause problems for animals that eat it or become trapped in it.

Norway

trapped – fanget appreciate – setter pris på opportunity – mulighet desire – ønske accomplish – få til noe on behalf of – på vegne av remote – avsidesliggende contribution – bidrag

In Norway, people have cleared up the beaches on a Saturday at the beginning of May since 2011. This activity is known as “Strandryddedagen” and it is more popular every year. On May 9th 2015, a group of more than 50 volunteers picked up rubbish on the beaches of Hove, Arendal. They picked up about 250 kilos of rubbish, including plastic bottles, plastic bags, cups, clothes and old fishing lines and nets. “The event attracted a number of people who want to do something positive for the environment,” said Nishi Asdal, one of the

organisers. “We appreciate the volunteers’ time and energy in helping to clean up our beaches.” Coastal Clean-up Day is about much more than picking up rubbish. Peter Harris, Managing Director of GRID-Arendal, said, “This is a great opportunity to join people around the world in their respect for our oceans, rivers, seas and lakes. It gives our community an occasion to show our desire for clean water and healthy marine life. It also allows families, friends and neighbours to come together to accomplish something important on behalf of our environment.”

Remote beaches It’s not only beaches in towns and cities that are affected by rubbish. Each year volunteers spend a week clearing up the remote southwest coast of Tasmania. Rubbish is transported by the ocean and carried far up the beach by strong waves. In 2015, volunteers collected cans, plastic bottles and microplastics, as well as fishing lines and nets. Sadly, the volunteers see that the problem is getting worse, not better, but they carry on getting involved and making their contribution to cleaning up the ocean.

Get Involved Cleaning up the oceans can seem like an impossible task, but if everybody reduces the amount of rubbish they produce, and keeps rubbish off the beaches, one day there may no longer be a need for ocean clean-up day.

Beach clean-up in Arendal.

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Activities 40 Reading to understand. Are these sentences true or false? Rewrite the false sentences so that they are true. a Marine waste is rubbish found in water. b The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is famous for its beauty. c Jellyfish eat plastic bags. d Green turtles eat more and more rubbish. e People are paid to join the Coastal Clean-up Day in Arendal. f Lots of people live on the southwest coast of Tasmania. 41 Writing. You are going to arrange a beach or town clean-up. Write a short article for the local newspaper asking people to take part. Include information about when the event is, where to meet up, any equipment that is needed and why people should get involved. 42 Digital skills. Choose an environmental issue that interests you. For example, sustainable development, climate change or water pollution. BS 173 a Make a search plan. b Choose two or three websites that are about your topic. c Use the CARS checklist in Basic Skills to assess the websites you have chosen.

44 Vocabulary. How many synonyms for waste can you find in the text? 45 Vocabulary. a Find more than one antonym for each of these words: clean, increase, major, grows, essential b How did the use of prefixes help you to find the antonyms? BS 72 46 Language. Find examples of the following in the text: a title, subheading, introduction, conclusion b personal opinion, explanation, question, quotation, persuasive language, objective information, subjective information 47 Verbs. Identify the main verb and verb tense in these sentences. Explain why this form of the verb has been used. BS 31 a It is not just the visible waste that causes problems for ocean wildlife. b Each year volunteers spend a week cleaning up the beach. c About 70 % of the rubbish sinks to the bottom of the ocean. 48 Vocabulary. Some words are easily confused. Choose the right alternative. BS 70

d Take notes from websites that you have found to be trustworthy.

a Rubbish in the ocean has an affect/effect on the animals living there.

e Use the notes to write an article about the issue you have chosen.

b There is to/too/two much rubbish entering the ocean.

43 Speaking. You are going to take part in a beach clean-up, but your friend is not at all interested. Persuade him or her to come along using argu­ ments or information from this article. BS 136

c A lot of/off the rubbish in the ocean is made of/off plastic.

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Warm-up does the planet • Why need saving? Make slogans to hang up in the classroom.

Saving the Planet and Stuff Michael Racine, 16, has got a summer job working for an environmental magazine called The Earth’s Wife. He is staying with Walt and Nora who run the magazine and recycle or reuse just about everything. At first Michael is rather sceptical as he was not very interested in environmental issues, but as time goes on, he finds himself becoming more and more interested in Walt and Nora’s alternative way of living. Extract from Saving the Planet and Stuff by Gail Gauthier

“You got any laundry you want done?” “I’ll do it. Where’s your laundry room anyway?” “Laundry room?” Walt laughed. “Well, then, where do you keep your washing machine?” “My washing machine?” “Come on! You don’t have a washing machine?” Michael asked. “Why would I? That’s what Laundromats are for.” “You must not have a dryer, either, then.” “We have a solar dryer.” “Then why don’t you have a solar washing machine?”

sceptical – skeptisk issues – temaer weird – rart way of living – livsstil laundry – klesvask laundromat – vaskeri clothesline – klessnor briefs – truser Boy Scout camp – speiderleir foul – skitten

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Walt grinned at him. “A ‘solar dryer’ is a clothesline. Now, I only go to the Laundromat once a week, so if you have anything you want washed, it has to be done now or you’ll be waiting seven days. You can come do it yourself if you’re worried about me touching your Spider-Man briefs. And be warned – I don’t clean out pockets. I don’t want to hear any complaints about your treasures being ruined if you’re too lazy to do it yourself.” Michael thought one of his parents had been to a Laundromat a few times, but only to clean his sleeping bag after Boy Scout camp, and then only when it was so foul, they didn’t want to put it in their own washer. My mother would have a fit if she knew I was washing my underwear in the same machine strangers had washed theirs in. It can’t possibly be healthy. But he collected what dirty clothes he could find on the floor


of his room and crammed them into a couple of the plastic shopping bags conveniently lying under the little table against the wall. “What’s all this?” Michael asked when he found Walt loading the car with newspapers, magazines, bottles, and cans carefully arranged in separate containers. “We’re going to the transfer station, too. We’ll get it all done with one trip.” “Do you go to the transfer station every week?” Michael asked, noticing how full the back of the station wagon was. “Actually, it’s been almost four months this time.” He held up a white kitchen trash bag that was a third full. “Four months and this is all the nonrecyclable garbage we’ve generated. It’s a record.” “That stuff doesn’t look much different from what’s up in my bedroom,” Michael said, nodding at the back of the car. “How do you decide what goes to the transfer station and what ends up in the bedroom?” “That’s easy. These things are good for nothing.” And how does that make them different from the things in my room? Michael wondered. By the time they were ready to leave, the back of the station wagon was full of containers for the transfer station, the backseat was full of baskets of

crammed – stappet conveniently – beleilig containers – beholdere transfer station – gjenvinningsstasjon nonrecyclable – ikke resirkulerbar generated – produsert

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Why do you think Michael is embarrassed to be seen?

less congested – mindre overfylt loitering – slentrende to haul – å frakte backhoe – en type gravemaskin utility shed – skur shoot the breeze – småprate provoked – her: utløste obscenities – grove ord satisfaction – tilfredshet copy of O – utgave av bladet O columns – spalter

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dirty clothes for the Laundromat, and Michael was feeling much as he had the first time he left the house on Walt’s bike – embarrassed to be seen. “Doesn’t the town pay to have all this picked up at each house?” he asked as they turned away from the main street and drove up past a church on a hill toward a less congested area. He slipped down a little in his seat as they passed three girls loitering on a sidewalk. “Oh, sure. But how can I be certain those guys will put everything where it’s supposed to be at the transfer station? How do I know they won’t just throw the plastics in with the cans? Not that we buy much plastic, but what I mean is, those folks who are paid to haul trash never care about it the way you do yourself.” “The ones who haul my trash probably care more.” Walt, it appeared, had friends at the transfer station. His buddies climbed down off the backhoe and came tearing out of a utility shed to shoot the breeze while looking over what he had brought them. The one partially filled trash bag of real garbage provoked an excited series of obscenities that seemed to provide him with a lot of satisfaction. “There are some people out in the Midwest who claim they can go all year without using more than two thirty-gallon trash bags, but I think Nora and I could beat them,” Walt said enthusiastically as they were driving away. “Only because you’ve filled up one of your bedrooms and your cellar with garbage. If you threw that stuff away like you ought to, you’d be creating as much trash as everyone else,” Michael added. “And don’t think I haven’t noticed that you keep sneaking more things up to the bedroom when I’m not looking. I know that copy of O I found this morning wasn’t there when I moved in. I bought it, remember?” “The things in your room can all be used again,” Walt insisted. “They’re valuable.” “Magazines, Walt?” “There are people who make art out of magazines.” “Who?” “Hey, one man’s trash is another man’s treasure.” “Well, if that’s true, there’s no way of deciding what’s valuable and what’s not, is there?” Michael demanded. "Wow kid. You're getting philosophical on me". Michael sat back and smiled. “Maybe Nora could write an essay about that for one of her ‘The Earth’s Wife in the Twenty-First Century’ columns.” “Oh, I’m sure she could,” Walt agreed as they pulled into a parking space.


Activities 49 Reading to understand. Comment on what you think Michael and Walt mean by the following statements: a “The ones who haul my trash probably care more.”

54 Vocabulary. This story is written using American English. What are the British English equivalents? BS 66 American English

b “That’s easy. These things are good for nothing.”

sidewalk

c “We have a solar dryer.”

cellar

British English

garbage parking space

50 Analysis. Reflect and explain what you think. a Did the main character learn anything during the course of the story? Explain. b Do you think this story contains a message for the reader? Explain. c If you could talk to any of the characters in this story, what would you say? Explain.

station wagon

55 Poster. You have been hired to make a campaign poster with the title One man’s trash is another man’s treasure. The poster will be hung in all the lower secondary schools in your neighbourhood. 56 Verbs. Write these sentences. Find the subject and underline it. Choose the correct form of the verb. BS 31

51 Vocabulary. Michael uses the word “nonrecyclable”. BS 72 a Find the stem of the word. b There are two prefixes. How do they change the meaning of the word?

a These pictures of the Himalayas ____ (is/are) the best that have been published this year.

c What is the suffix? Which function does the suffix have?

b The latest Putsj magazine with the articles about climate change ____ (is/are) worth reading.

d Write a dictionary definition of the word nonrecyclable.

c Children who ski and skate ____ (get/gets) plenty of fresh air.

52 Digital skills. How much rubbish does an average person in Norway produce each day? a Present your findings creatively.

d The increase in temperature ____ (worry/worries) many climate scientists. e Most trees in Britain ____ (lose/loses) their leaves in the autumn.

b Which sources did you use? c Explain why you trust these sources.

BS 173

53 Speaking. How do you decide what is trash and what is valuable? Discuss with a classmate and come up with a few criteria. Present in class.

57 Vocabulary. Find words in the text that are synonyms for: a smile widely

d crowded

b awful

e pull

c stuffed

f swear words

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Chapter Activities Sum Up 58 Reading. Find the text in which you can read about: a an endangered species b microplastics

c carbon cards d fossil fuel companies

59 Vocabulary. Use prefixes and suffixes to make as many different words as you can from the words environment, honest, true, protect, involve and use. Example: nature can become natural, unnatural, naturally, unnaturally. BS 72 60 Verbs. For each sentence, explain why the verb is in this form. BS 31 a Michael P. Racine III, known to his friends as MP3, works for ‘The Earth’s Wife’ magazine. b Polar bears living in the Arctic are likely to be affected by climate change. c The indigenous people of Australia and New Zealand speak a variety of languages. d Working as a volunteer for an environmental organisation is an interesting summer job. 61 Speaking. In groups, list the ways in which human activities impact upon the environment. Decide which of these activities will have the most impact on your life. 62 Descriptions. Write a paragraph about a clean beach and a heap of rubbish using some of these adjectives: gorgeous, charming, pleasant, glorious, attractive, delightful, grotesque, beastly, hideous, disgusting, grim, ghastly, dreadful

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63 Speaking. Here are some issues: cleaning up the beach, recycling garbage, protecting animals, reducing carbon emissions, cutting down on what you throw away a Rank these issues from the most to the least important, in your opinion. b Agree upon a common list with a classmate. 64 Digital skills. Evaluate an Internet source about climate changes using these questions. BS 173 a Does the information on the site agree with other sources? b How recently has the site been updated? c Is the source objective? d Is there a way to contact the author or the organisation? 65 Vocabulary. Use these words to complete the sentences: climate change, protect, habitat, extinct, environment, threatened, sustainable development. a When a species dies out it is _______. b Many species are threatened by loss of _______. c Everything around us is our _______. d Animals such as the panda, tiger and rhinoceros are _______. e _______ may kill plants and animals. f _______ is when a country can improve the economy without damaging the environment. g Many young people get involved to _______ our environment.


Move on 66 Speaking. Choose an environmental issue and plan a short lecture for a group of year 8 pupils. Include:

• background information

69 Writing. You have organised a beach clean-up and want to persuade friends and neighbours to join in. Write an informal article for the local authority’s website page telling people why they need to get involved.

• effects on the environment • possible solutions • words and phrases they need to learn in order to understand this topic 67 Speaking. Work in groups. Choose an environ­ mental issue, such as endangered species or climate change. Organise a debate. BS 136 68 Speaking. Choose an environmental issue in which you are interested. Write and give a speech in which you inform the audience why this issue is important and what can be done to improve things. BS 117

70 Writing. You work for a wildlife organisation. Write an article about an environmental issue to be printed in a teen magazine. Use these linking words: even though, also, therefore. 71 Writing. A project to cut down a large area of forest to make way for farmland and houses will affect many animals, some of which are threatened. Write a letter to the government, persuading them to change their minds about the project. BS 114

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… discuss facts about the environment. … express my opinion about an issue. … write a short persuasive text. … describe statistics about the environment. … use verbs correctly with noun phrases. … use prefixes and suffixes to make new words. … evaluate online sources of information using the CARS checklist.

B Three minute reflection

Write continuously for three minutes:

This is what I have learned working with the material in this chapter.

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© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2016 1. utgave, 1. opplag Denne boka er en del av læreverket Enter 8–10 for ungdomstrinnet. Læreverket dekker målene for engelsk etter læreplanene av 2013. Printed in Norway by 07 Media – 07.no, 2016 ISBN 978–82–05- 48117-6 Redaktør: Kristine Uldal Bilderedaktør: Sissel Falck Design/layout: Marit Jørgensen / 07 Media – 07.no Omslagsdesign: Marit Jørgensen og Kristine Steen / 07 Media – 07.no Omslagsfoto: Greg Wood/AFP/NTB scanpix Forfatterne har mottatt støtte fra Det faglitterære fond. Det må ikke kopieres fra denne boka i strid med åndsverkloven eller avtaler om kopiering inngått med KOPINOR, interesseorgan for rettighetshavere til åndsverk. Kopiering i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning, og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Alle henvendelser om forlagets utgivelser kan rettes til: Gyldendal Undervisning Grunnskoleredaksjonen Postboks 6860 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo E-post: undervisning@gyldendal.no www.gyldendal.no/undervisning Alle Gyldendals bøker er produsert i miljøsertifiserte trykkerier. Se www.gyldendal.no/miljo


Acknowledgements Illustrations Illustrators: Nemolom Illustrasjon: page 32, 50-54, 77, 118-119, 141, 142, 147, 181, 183, 186. Svovel, Tora Marie Norberg: page 20, 22, 24, 25, 78, 217, 218-219, 227. Kart&grafikk, Gerd Eng Kielland: page 12 bottom, 159, 208, 209.

Photos: Page 6-10: © Peter Menzel/www.menzelphoto.com, s. 14-19: ©1997 by Demi, s. 28: iStock/ Getty Images, s. 29: © Peter Menzel/www.menzelphoto.com, s. 30: ø. REUTERS/Toshi Maeda/ NTB scanpix, n. Juan Carlos Ulate/REUTERS/NTB scanpix, s. 38: Rolau/Plainpicture/NTB scanpix, s. 41: Science Photo Library/NTB scanpix, s. 43: THE SIXTH SENSE, US poster art, 1999. ©Buena Vista/courtesy Everett Collection, s. 44: THE SIXTH SENSE, Haley Joel Osment, Bruce Willis, 1999. (c) Buena Vista Pictures/ Courtesy: Everett Collection, s. 47: FPG/Hulton Archive/ Getty Images, s. 57: Eva-Marie Brekkestø, s. 58: Derek Hudson/Getty Images, s. 61: Ann Ronan Pictures/Heritage/NTB scanpix, s. 64: Colourbox.com, s. 65-69: © Ransom Riggs (2011) Miss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children, Quirk Books/Rachel Piscock, s. 74: Imageselect, s. 80: Ben Radford/Allsport/Getty Images, s.81: iStock/Getty Images, s.84: iStock/Getty Images, s.86: Colourbox.com, s.88: Chris Schmidt/Getty Images, s. 91: Imageselect, s. 92: H. Armstrong Roberts/ClassicStock/Getty Images, s. 94: iStock/Getty Images, s. 97: Clive Rose/Getty Images, s. 98: eidon Frustaci/Demotix/Corbis/NTB scanpix, s. 100: iStock/Getty Images, s. 101: J.P. Amet/Getty Images, s. 103-106: © Tony Ross, 2011, s. 112: Imageselect, s. 114: © Mike Kemp/ In Pictures/Corbis/NTB scanpix, s. 115: Imageselect, s.116: Plainpicture/NTB scanpix, s. 120: Imageselect, s. 123: Mary Evans Pictures/NTB scanpix, s. 126: AGE/NTB scanpix, s. 127- 134: ©Petr Kopl, s. 137: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images, 138: Science Photo Library/ NTB scanpix, s. 152: Mike Riley/Getty Images, s. 154: 1. Imageselect, 2. clintscholz/Getty Images, 3. Alex Livesey/FIFA via Getty Images, s. 155: 4.,5. og 6. iStock/Getty Images, 7 Imageselect, s.156: ø. Shutterstock/NTB scanpix, n. Ray Massey/Getty Images, s. 160: Danita Delimont/Getty Images, s. 165: Delly Carr/AP/NTB scanpix, s. 166: Torsten Blackwood/AFP/ NTB scanpix, s. 168-169: stort bilde: Shutterstock/NTB scanpix, lite bilde: Imageselect, s. 171, 172: privat, 172: bakgrunnsbildet: Shutterstock/NTB scanpix, s. 174: Momatiuk Eastcott/ Corbis/NTB scanpix, s.176: KEVIN STENT/Fairfax NZ, s. 178: Lasting Images/Getty Images, s. 190: Imageselect, s. 191: Neil Farrin/JAI/Corbis/NTB scanpix, s. 192: Imageselect, s. 195: ø. Martin Hunter/Getty Images, n. Lighthousebay/Getty Images, s. 196: ø. Auscape/UIG/Getty Images, n. iStock/Getty Images, s. 200: Klaus Vedfelt/Getty Images, s. 202: mediaphotos/Getty Images, s. 205: Mark Sagliocco/Stringer/Getty Images, s. 209, s. 210: Imageselect, s. 211: Colourbox.com, s. 212: iStock/Getty Images, s. 214-215: Shutterstock/NTB scanpix (stol, vase, matte), Rex/NTB scanpix (pute), REUTERS/Michaela Rehle/NTB scanpix (sko), Wenn.com/NTB scanpix, (lampe), Owen Franken/Corbis / NTB scanpix (søppelkasse), s.218 ø. og s. 220: Saci Lloyd©2008 The Carbon Diaries.Hodder Children’s Books, s. 223: Imageselect, s. 224: Rob Barnes/GRID, Arendal.


Texts p 24 Morris Gleitzman (2005) Once. Penguin Group p 32 Douglas Adams © 1988 The Restaurant at the End of the Universe. Reprinted by kind permission of the Estate of Douglas Adams. Pan Books p 50 Extract from Skellig by Davis Almond, first published in the UK 2008 by Hodder Children’s Books, an imprint of Hachette Children’s Group, Carmelite House, 50 Victoria Embankment, London EC4Y 0DZ p 64 Ransom Riggs (2011) Miss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children. Quirk Books/Rachel Pidcock p 76 “Boys and Girls Together” © 2000 Neil Gaiman. First published in Black Heart, Ivory Bones p 78 Benjamin Zephaniah: Who’s Who. Bloodaxe Books p 78 Leann McCarty: Work Day p 90 John Green © 2012 The Fault in Our Stars. Penguin Books p 102 Davis Williams © 2011 Gangsta Granny. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd p 122 Herbert Harris: The Death of a Tramp, printed in John Creasey Mystery Magazine, 1958 p 126 A Scandal in Bohemia © 2013, 2014 Petr Kopl p 140 Anthony Horowitz © 2000 More Horowitz Horror. Orchard Books p 146 Charlie Higson (2006) Blood Fever. Ian Fleming Publications Ltd. v/Curtis Brown p 164 The Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd, 2008, Apology to Australia’s Indigenous Peoples. Source: Licensed from the Commonwealth of Australia under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence. Material obtained from the Commonwealth of Australia website is attributed to the Commonwealth of Australia. © Commonwealth of Australia 2015 p 176 Michelle Duff: New Zealand Teenagers, 21 September 2013 in The Dominion Post p 180 Leonie Norrington © 2003 The Spirit of Barrumbi. Omnibus Book from Scholastic Australia p 194 Marilyn Gardiner: I Am Māori p 196 Hyllus Noel Maris: Spiritual Song of the Aborigine © by owner. Provided at no charge for educational purposes.


p 202 Jordan Nichols (2014) Our generation. The San Francisco Globe p 204 Lilah Raptopoulos: My Generation Does Give a Damn, 11 June 2015 in Guardian Newspapers p 216 Saci Lloyd Š 2008 The Carbon Diaries. Hodder Children’s Books p 226 Gail Gauthier (2003) Saving the Planet and Stuff. Originally published by G.P. Putmans Sons Gyldendal Norsk Forlag is grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given their permission for the use of copyright material. As it has proved impossible to identify all the material used, the publishers would welcome information from the copyright owners.

Enter 9 Learner's Book  

Enter er Gyldendals nye læreverk i engelsk for ungdomstrinnet. Enter inneholder temaer og tekster som treffer rett i elevhjertet og gjør eng...

Enter 9 Learner's Book  

Enter er Gyldendals nye læreverk i engelsk for ungdomstrinnet. Enter inneholder temaer og tekster som treffer rett i elevhjertet og gjør eng...