Page 1

B

Elizabeth Diskin

8 – engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

8

Enter 8 Learner’s Book inneholder et rikt utvalg av elevvennlige tekster i ulike sjangre og vanskegrad. All grammatikk- og språklæring skjer i nær tilknytning til tekstene, og verket har gjennomgående fokus på grunnleggende ferdigheter. Det er laget en egen flertrinnsbok for språkinnlæring; Enter Basic Skills 8–10.

LEARNER’S BOOK

• Winsvold • Kasbo

Enter består av • Learner’s Book • Teacher’s Book • Basic Skills 8–10 • Read and Write, aktivitetshefte • CD-er

Diskin

Enter 8 Learner’s Book kjennetegnes av • differensierte arbeidsoppgaver med innbakt lesestrategi • innlæring av språkkunnskap og grammatikk nært knyttet til tekstene • vektlegging av grunnleggende ferdigheter • tydelig fokus på vurdering for læring • tett samspill med Basic Skills

LEARNER’S BOOK

For digitale komponenter se www.gyldendal.no/enter

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

Kirsti Grana Winsvold Knut Kasbo


Get to Know Enter 2

Heroes

Listen to people speaking about different topics.

?

TOPIC WORDS

What do you think a hero is? Make a list of people you consider to be heroes. Why do you think that they are heroes?

hero heroic

? Begin to reflect upon the topics in the chapter.

brave courage extraordinary abilities

Learning objectives Define different types of heroes List heroes in real life and literature Use adjectives to describe heroes n List some differences between British and American English n Find and use verbs in the present simple n n

to protect unique

yy

n

What you will learn in the chapter.

Words to learn and to use when you work with the chapter.

37

Activity before reading the text.

Warm-up

You have just started secondary school. What are you looking forward to this year? Talk to a classmate.

Activities

I’m Looking Forward to …

1

a Who is looking forward to learning about animals, plants and how things work? b Who is looking forward to playing football?

I’m looking forward to a new school and making new friends. I can’t wait until football starts and my first dance of the year! But I’m sad about leaving my old school, because I liked it very much.

c Who is looking forward to the first dance? d Who is looking forward to meeting his friends and new teachers?

Gina, 13

secondary school – ungdomsskolen I’m looking forward to – jeg gleder meg til

e Why is Danny not looking forward to all the tests?

I’m looking forward to meeting my new teachers and new classmates, and to seeing my friends again. I have not seen some of them all summer! I also can’t wait to play new sports and learn to speak French. I’m not looking forward to the hours of homework we have each week.

2

especially – særlig science – naturfag

b Write down five things you are looking forward to in your life.

I’m looking forward to going to a new school, but I’m not looking forward to all the tests. I worry that my grades will not be very good. I like reading books, especially fantasy books like Eragon.

maths – matematikk

c Talk to a classmate and share what you are looking forward to in your life.

Danny, 13

I’m looking forward to science. It’s really fun, and I like to learn about animals, plants and how things work. I’m not looking forward to maths because I think it will be a lot more difficult than last year. Even then, I sometimes got tired of doing my homework.

3

• Common nouns: a school, a teacher, an hour, a friendship • Proper nouns: Gina, Matt, London, Scotland Proper nouns begin with a capital letter.

2

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

BS 121 Look at this page in the Basic Skills book to find more information about the topic.

c Present your classmate to the rest of the class. d Make a poster about your classmate. Include some pictures.

Nouns are the names of things, people, places and ideas. Nouns can be divided into two groups:

Difficult words are translated to make reading easier.

BS 121

b Interview a classmate using these questions. Write down the answers.

Nouns

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Poster. Get to know your classmate.

a Make a list of questions you would like to ask a classmate. You can ask about family, favourite activities, favourite subjects, hopes and dreams, and so on. Start questions with words like what, when, who, how, why.

Alexandra, 13

8

Speaking. I’m looking forward to is a useful expression. a How would you translate I’m looking forward to into Norwegian?

Matt, 14

tests – prøver grades – karakterer

Activities after reading the text.

Reading to understand.

e What is good about your poster? Write three sentences. 4

Nouns. Find and write down the nouns from the text. Sort them into common nouns and proper nouns. BS 10

BS 10

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

9

Language rules and examples. Find more information and activities in the Basic Skills book.


Sum up 44 Vocabulary. a Sort the words under these two headings: The body and Inventions. muscle, dynamite, ambulance, chin, first-aid, equipment, emergency, engine, nurse, computer, project, to develop, drawings, software, scientist, television, science, inventions, inventor, statistics, pie chart, amazing, medicine b Which words fit both categories? c Write sentences that explain why these words belong in both categories. d Find more words that would fit into the categories. 45 Learning strategies. Find a text in this chapter that you think was: Adjective

Text

Reasons

interesting

d Do these sources give you identical information? List differences. e Summarize your findings in your own top ten list. 47 Imperative of verbs. When giving instructions you need verbs in the imperative form. BS 43 a Write these verbs in the imperative form. Example: goes – go goes, began, brought, built, caught, came, dug, drew, drunk, driven, eaten, felt

51 Speaking. Choose an invention. Find out more about it and about the person who invented it. Summarize your findings in a mini-talk for a science class. BS 139 52 Speaking. Work in groups and make a TV science programme for children. Present different inventions.

b Write instructions using some of these verbs in the imperative form. Example: Eat your lunch. 48 Adjectives. One adjective in each line is different from the others. Find this adjective and decide what the three remaining have in common.

A

Learning objectives

c What was good about your text? Write two sentences. 54 Writing. Write an e-mail to a scientist inviting him or her to a school conference about the future. Be polite and keep your language formal. BS 108

A bit

b creative, inventive, disappointed, clever

… describe symptoms and illnesses.

c tall, sore, dizzy, tired

… write e-mails and letters using formal language.

unrealistic

d cold, pale, warm, feverish

… use several phrases to talk about graphs.

educational

e painful, swollen, beautiful, itchy

… use new words related to scientific topics.

Quite well

Very well

… make a list of reliable Internet sources.

49 Vocabulary. Build new words. From the word invent you can make new words like inventor, invention, inventive, reinvent just by adding some letters. BS 72

b Sort the new words into categories like verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs.

b Give reasons why you trust these sources.

… explain how some inventions work.

detailed

a Make new words from these words: science, create, act, develop, touch, present, permit.

a List sources you used for information.

… list different inventions.

exciting

b List words you used to search for this information.

53 Writing. Write a factual text for the National Geographic magazine where you compare two scientists who have played an important role in the last century. Discuss their importance. BS 101

I am able to …

a small, big, large, hard

a List five sources that give you a top ten list of inventions.

198

c Which of these sources would you trust? Give reasons for your answer.

50 Speaking. Choose one gadget that you use often. Imagine that an alien has just landed in your garden. It speaks English, but it does not understand what this gadget is for. Have a conversation with the alien, where you explain exactly how to use it. Act it out with another classmate.

uninteresting

46 Digital skills. What are the world’s top ten inventions? Search the Internet and answer these questions. BS 172

… give and follow instructions. … identify and use verbs in the imperative form.

B

What have you worked well with in English lately?

What do you need to work on?

+ …………………………………………………

? ………………………………………………… How will you work on this?

+ …………………………………………………

? …………………………………………………

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Chapter 6 • Science

199

I am able to. Reflect upon what you have learnt in the chapter.

B

Elizabeth Diskin Kirsti Grana Winsvold

BASIC SKILLS 8–10

Knut Kasbo

Basic Skills er en grammatikk- og språkbok du kan bruke sammen med Learner’s Book gjennom alle tre årene på ungdomsskolen. I Basic Skills finner du mer informasjon og oppgaver om temaene du jobber med i Learner’s Book. Du finner henvisninger til Basic Skills i Learner’s Book. Henvisningene ser slik ut: BS 121 . Basic Skills er inndelt i disse kapitlene: • Listening • Language • Numbers • Writing • Digital Skills • Reading • Speaking

Kasbo

s dis di berio il inci officias dolore dollatis uidusam, ipsape restinus idit ati sitae et plant et ma nimillibus eossimos nestia andam id maio volore desecabor sincian lesequam, omniminim fuga. Atio dolupta ue quissimi, omnis earuntiur, simendictia rnam qui dolore num eum que inctota eribus, odit volor amus.

Move on

• Winsvold •

e ius, et quo qui velest, samentem sequi ptatium alit, quam eosandior mi, cuptia t pedition perchic totatin cilignam, nobis n non et facerna temquissit doluptaquae viduciis sollaces dolorit iosam, invent.

Sum up. Activities that help you sum up what you have learnt in the chapter.

Diskin

onsenis aut quundus si quas aut pra num mqui doleni aspisciisti blant.

Chapter activities

BASIC SKILLS 8–10

uptae non nulpa se solor aut labo. Et qui ienim que andam eum velige ala detto minim expererumqui re eseque voluptae

Move on. Work more in depth with these activities.

Engelsk for ungdomstrinnet

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

3


Contents 1 A Fresh Start! I’m Looking Forward to ...

factual text

First Day

drawing, poster

10

I Wasn’t Asleep ...

novel extract

12

The Math Test

novel extract

16

I Don’t Want to Sit Next to Alex!

novel extract

20

Wonderful World

song lyrics

22

School Uniforms?

factual text

24

The Smartest Kids in Class?

diary

28

Young Shakespeare

novel extract

30

A School Beyond Your Imagination

factual text

32

Chapter Activities

8

34

2 Heroes What Makes a Hero?

factual text

38

Summer and August

novel extract

42

The Firefighters

factual text

48

Superheroes

factual text

52

Who Was Robin Hood?

novel extract, poem

56

The Race for the South Pole

factual text

60

Chapter Activities

66

3 Britain Q&A

factual text, map

70

Multicultural Britain

factual text

74

The British

poem

80

Visiting Britain

collage

82

Goal!

map, haiku poem

86

English Like a Lady

play

88

British Food

factual text

92

Fashion in Britain

factual text

96

Treasure Island

novel extract

Chapter Activities

4

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

100 106


4 Action A Cheerleader’s Blog

blog

110

Sports Equipment

collage

112

The Karate Kid

screenplay

114

On Your Marks!

game

124

From Snurfer to Snowboard

factual text

126

The Trial

novel extract

128

Is This Really a Sport?

factual text

134

The Avalanche

novel extract

136

Chapter Activities

140

5 Disasters Oh, No! What a Disaster!

diary

144

Record-Breaking Natural Disasters

factual text

148

Hurricane Katrina

novel extract

152

The Penalty

novel extract

158

The Unsinkable Ship

eyewitness account

162

Chapter Activities

168

6 Science Body Science

drawing, dialogue

172

First Aid

poster

176

The Lady with the Lamp

factual text

178

Numbers in Pictures

graphs

182

An Amazing Invention

factual text

184

The Computer War

factual text

186

Inventive Teenagers

factual text

188

Time Changes Everything

novel extract

192

Chapter Activities

198

7 India Q&A

factual text

202

Only English? The Poor Fool!

novel extract

206

Snapshots of India

factual text

210

Mahatma Gandhi

graphic novel

214

The Story of Ganesha

myth

222

Guess What!

factual text

226

What Do Indian Teenagers Read?

newspaper article

228

The Jungle Book

novel extract

230

Chapter Activities

234 Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

5


1

A Fresh Start!


?

TOPIC WORDS

Look at the school in the picture. Does it look like your school? Discuss.

interesting to learn to teach smart classmate

Learning objectives n

classroom

n

curious

n

lesson

n n

Use words and phrases you need in English lessons Present yourself and introduce others Describe everyday life at school Work with numbers in English Find and sort nouns, verbs and adjectives

subject

7


Warm-up have just started • You secondary school. What are you looking forward to this year? Talk to a classmate.

I’m Looking Forward to … I’m looking forward to a new school and making new friends. I can’t wait until football starts and my first dance of the year! But I’m sad about leaving my old school, because I liked it very much.

Gina, 13

secondary school – ungdomsskolen I’m looking forward to – jeg gleder meg til

I’m looking forward to meeting my new teachers and new classmates, and to seeing my friends again. I have not seen some of them all summer! I also can’t wait to play new sports and learn to speak French. I’m not looking forward to the hours of homework we have each week.

Matt, 14

tests – prøver grades – karakterer especially – særlig science – naturfag maths – matematikk

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Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

I’m looking forward to going to a new school, but I’m not looking forward to all the tests. I worry that my grades will not be very good. I like reading books, especially fantasy books like Eragon.

Danny, 13


Activities 1 Reading to understand. a Who is looking forward to learning about animals, plants and how things work? b Who is looking forward to playing football? c Who is looking forward to the first dance? d Who is looking forward to meeting his friends and new teachers? e Why is Danny not looking forward to all the tests? 2 Speaking. I’m looking forward to is a useful expression. a How would you translate I’m looking forward to into Norwegian? b Write down five things you are looking forward to in your life. c Talk to a classmate and share what you are looking forward to in your life.

I’m looking forward to science. It’s really fun, and I like to learn about animals, plants and how things work. I’m not looking forward to maths because I think it will be a lot more difficult than last year. Even then, I sometimes got tired of doing my homework. Alexandra, 13

BS 121

a Make a list of questions you would like to ask a classmate. You can ask about family, favourite activities, favourite subjects, hopes and dreams, and so on. Start questions with words like what, when, who, how, why. b Interview a classmate using these questions. Write down the answers. c Present your classmate to the rest of the class.

Nouns Nouns are the names of things, people, places and ideas. Nouns can be divided into two groups: • Common nouns: a school, a teacher, an hour, a friendship • Proper nouns: Gina, Matt, London, Scotland Proper nouns begin with a capital letter.

3 Poster. Get to know your classmate.

d Make a poster about your classmate. Include some pictures. e What is good about your poster? Write three sentences. 4 Nouns. Find and write down the nouns from the text. Sort them into common nouns and proper nouns. BS 10

BS 10

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

9


Warm-up did you bring on • What your first day of school?

First Day New haircut (too much hair gel)

Make a list.

Lipstick smudge (from mum)

New lunchbox (healthy lunch and a tear-stained note from mum)

New T-shirt (price tag not removed) New backpack, very full (not the one he wanted)

Laptop computer (school work only, right?)

smudge – flekk

New jeans (already dirty …)

New mobile phone (confiscated in first lesson of the day)

lunchbox – matboks tear-stained – tårevåt price tag – prislapp removed – fjernet backpack – ryggsekk confiscated – konfiskert sneakers – joggesko classroom rules – klasseregler pay attention – følg med hand in – lever clean up – rydde opp

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Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

New sneakers (one size too big, to grow into)


Activities 5 Reading to understand.

Classroom rules Class 8E

Here are some sentences about the boy. Explain how you know that they are true.

1. Try your best.

d Some of his clothes are new.

2. Arrive on time. 3. Be prepared. 4. Pay attention in class. 5. Turn off your mobile phone. 6. Raise your hand if you want to speak. 7. Walk, do not run. 8. Hand in your homework on time. 9. Ask the teacher if you need help. 10. Help clean up. 11. Be a friend – share and help.

a He does not have candy in his lunchbox. b His mother wears make-up. c He probably likes gaming. e His mother should have bought another backpack. 6 Poster. What are the rules for English lessons in your class? BS 121 a Make a poster for the wall. b Sort the rules in a list from the most important to the least important, as you see them. 7 Speaking. These are useful classroom phrases: May I go to the toilet, please? May I borrow a pencil, please? Excuse me, I wonder if you could help me with this. a Talk to a classmate and find other useful classroom phrases. b Why is it important to remember to say please and excuse me? 8 Speaking. You are going to introduce yourself to someone in your class. a Write a list of key words about yourself, your family, your favourite hobbies, sports, books, music, food, school subjects, colours, animals and film stars. b Introduce yourself to a classmate. Start sentences like this: I am … My hobbies are … I like … 9 Vocabulary. Unscramble these words. Example: OHLSCO = School RHEETAC – OWRMKHEO – OOSBK – NRFDEI – XCHOUNBL

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

11


Warm-up Cake is the main • Jake character in this story. He says: “I wasn’t asleep, I was just resting my eyelids!” What do you think this story is about?

I Wasn’t Asleep … Extract from Jake Cake – The Werewolf Teacher by Michael Broad

he trouble started when I fell asleep in Mrs Beady’s maths class which, to begin with, wasn’t completely my fault because maths is really boring and if it was more interesting I probably would’ve stayed awake. I was having a very nice dream about not being in a maths class when Mrs Beady prodded me with her special ‘prodding’ ruler, and I nearly fell off my chair.

eyelids – øyelokk fault – feil probably – sannsynligvis stayed awake – holdt meg våken prodded – her: pirket borti ruler – linjal

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Enter 8 • Learner’s Book


rhyme – her: regle giggling – fnise makes fun of – gjør narr av cute – søtt embarrassing – flaut was looming over – hang over didn’t crack a smile – trakk ikke på smilebåndet cross – sur stay behind – sitte igjen had the cheek to – var frekk nok til

“Are we keeping you awake, Mr Cake?” she said, and sang it like a rhyme, which was even worse because the rest of the class started giggling. Everyone always makes fun of my name. They call me Carrot Cake, Jaffa Cake, Cup Cake and just about any other kind of cake you can think of. My mum even calls me her Angel Cake! She thinks it’s cute, but it’s just really embarrassing. Mrs Beady was looming over me and I didn’t know what to say because everyone was watching, so I said, “I wasn’t asleep, I was just resting my eyelids!” Which is something my dad says when he falls asleep in front of the TV. The other kids started laughing, but Mrs Beady didn’t even crack a smile. I don’t think she has a very good sense of humour, which is probably because she is a maths teacher. I know if I was a maths teacher, I wouldn’t smile either. Mrs Beady was cross and made me stay behind after school to write ‘I must not fall asleep in class when I could be learning lots of wonderful things’ one hundred times! And when I started writing ‘I must not fall asleep in class when I could be learning lots of wonderful things’ Mrs Beady had the cheek to FALL ASLEEP at her desk!

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

13


I’m not the fastest writer in the whole wide world, so by the time I finished it was already getting dark outside and my teacher was snoring like a tractor. I crept up to her desk and prodded Mrs Beady with her special ‘prodding’ ruler. She snuffled awake and nearly fell off her chair, which is only fair because that’s how I felt when she prodded me. “Finished!” I said cheerily before she could realize what had happened. Mrs Beady ignored the pages I was waving and started looking around in panic. “What time is it?” she gasped. I said it was 5 p.m., and that 5 p.m. is very late for a kid to still be at school, especially in winter when it gets dark so early. I also said I’d definitely learned my lesson and would never ever fall asleep in class again. was snoring – snorket crept – listet snuffled awake – snøftet og våknet cheerily – muntert ignored – overså gasped – gispet 5 p.m. – kl 17.00 learned my lesson – fått meg en lærepenge

14

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Verbs A verb is a word that shows an action or a state of being. to learn, to teach, to sing

BS 30


Activities 10 Reading to understand. a Why did Jake fall asleep?

14 Time. Write the correct time for the clocks. For example: 9:45 – It is a quarter to ten. BS 160

b What did Mrs Beady prod Jake with? c Why do you think all the students giggled when Mrs Beady asked Jake: “Are we keeping you awake, Mr Cake?” d What does Jake’s mum call him? e What was Jake’s punishment for sleeping in class? f Who fell asleep at the end of the story? g When was Jake finished with his punishment? h Do you think the jokes about Jake’s name are just friendly teasing, or is it closer to bullying? Explain. 11 Speaking. Imagine what Jake says to his parents when he comes home late from school that day. a Work in pairs and write a dialogue between Jake and his parents. b Act out the dialogue. c What is good about your dialogue? 12 Speaking. Look at the drawings. Choose one of them and describe it to your classmate. 13 Time. This sentence is from the story: “What time is it?” she gasped. I said it was 5 p.m., and that 5 p.m. is very late for a kid to still be at school, especially in winter when it gets dark so early.

15 Learning strategies. There are many words in the margin in this text. You can learn new words by reading, watching TV or movies, singing along to songs, playing computer games, speaking or listening. a What do you think is the best way to learn new words? Give a reason for your answer. b Choose five words from this text that you want to learn. c Make up a game or a strategy for learning the words. 16 Verbs and nouns. Find the verbs and nouns in each sentence. BS 30,10 a Mrs Beady prodded me with her special prodding ruler. b I nearly fell off my chair. c The rest of the class started giggling.

BS 160

d Everyone always makes fun of my name.

a When do you use a.m. and p.m.?

e The other kids started laughing.

b Which is correct?

f My teacher was snoring like a tractor.

• • • •

Eat breakfast: 8 a.m or 8 p.m.? Eat lunch: 11 a.m. or 11 p.m.? Go to football practice: 5 a.m. or 5 p.m.? Go to the cinema: 9 a.m. or 9 p.m.?

g I crept up to her desk. h What time is it?

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

15


Warm-up is going to have • Laura her first math test. She is nervous. Why do you think she is nervous?

The Math Test Laura was about to have a math test, but her mind was on something else. She and her friends had a secret club called Pig City. To make sure none of the members told anyone about the club, they told each other an embarrassing secret. Laura’s embarrassing secret was a love letter, a Declaration of Love. Just before the test began, Laura received a shocking note. Extract from Sixth Grade Secrets by Louis Sachar

Mr Doyle told everyone to take out a pencil and paper for the math test. The class groaned. He handed a pile of tests to Linzy and asked her to please pass them out. Laura opened her desk. She spotted the folded piece of paper with her name on it and smiled. She loved notes. She made sure Mr Doyle wasn’t watching, then quickly unfolded it. Her smile disappeared. Hey, Laura, I know all about your secret club, Pig City. If you don’t kiss me I will tell the whole school. (…) Your humble servant, Gabriel

embarrassing – pinlig declaration – erklæring groaned – stønnet a pile of tests – en bunke med prøver pass them out – dele dem ut spotted – fikk øye på folded – brettet unfolded – brettet ut disappeared – forsvant humble servant – ydmyke tjener

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Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Decla

f o n o rati

e v o L


She read it three times, then glanced at Gabriel. He was looking at her and grinning from ear to ear. He touched his fist to his nose. She looked away. Linzy laid the math test on her desk. Laura tried to stay calm. She knew Gabriel might still be watching her, so she didn’t want to appear to be upset. She had to act like she was in control. She saw her pencil had been broken. She wondered if Gabriel did that, too. Since the test had already started, she couldn’t ask to borrow another pencil from anyone. She used the broken one; one half for writing and one half for erasing. (…) How does he know about Pig City? He can’t. It’s impossible! She fumed. Except she knew it wasn’t impossible, because he had written the note. (…) No matter what, she decided, there was no way she would kiss him! She hated him. (…) But then if I don’t kiss him, he’ll tell everyone, and

glanced – kikket grinning – gliste fist – knyttneve stay calm – beholde roen upset – opprørt erasing – viske ut impossible – umulig fumed – raste

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

17


value – verdi insurance – forsikring amusing – morsom inexperienced – uerfaren excited her – gjorde henne spent

then Allison and Tiffany will show my Declaration of Love to Mr Doyle, anyway. Pig City will be ruined, too. She shook her head. I can’t do that to Allison or Tiffany (…) I have to kiss Gabriel. I have no choice. Except even if I kiss him, how do I know he still won’t tell everybody about Pig City? He might tell everybody I kissed him, too. Question 3. 3x + 15 = 39. What is the value for x? What if I tell him I’ll kiss him only if he’ll give insurance? She laughed. “Do you find the test amusing, Laura?” asked Mr. Doyle. She looked up. (…) “I was just thinking,” she said. “That’s good, Laura,” said Mr Doyle. “You should think when you are taking a test. It sometimes helps.” She returned to the test. She subtracted 15 from 39 and multiplied by 3. X=72. She had never kissed a boy before. She thought it was something she probably should do before next year. She didn’t want to go to junior high inexperienced. The thought of kissing Gabriel excited her a little bit. It also made her a little sick to her stomach.

Did you know?

!

• Math and maths are shortened versions of the word mathematics.

• In American English you say math. • In British English you say maths. • Mum and mom are shortened versions of the word mother.

• In American English you use mom. • In British English you use mum.

18

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book


Activities 17 Reading to understand.

21 Numbers. Look at the four shapes.

BS 171

a What did the class do when Mr Doyle handed out the tests? b Who sent Laura a note? c Why was Laura upset by the note? d Did Laura find the math test amusing? e What were Laura’s two choices? Did she decide what she was going to do? f What do you think she should do? Why? g How do you think Laura did on the math test? h 3x + 15 = 39. What is the value for x? 18 Speaking. Explain these expressions from the text in English: the class groaned, a pile of tests, pass them out, a folded piece of paper 19 Numbers. Do these maths problems and read them aloud to somebody. BS 159 a 6 + 3 = ? b 15 – 5 = ?

c 5 x 5 = ?

d 20 –: 4 = ? e 9 + 10 = ?

f 3 x 3 = ?

g 32 –: 8 = ? h 52 – 6 = ?

i 7 x 5 = ?

Examples: Addition: 2 + 2 = 4 → 2 plus 2 equals 4 Subtraction: 6 – 2 = 4 → 6 minus 2 equals 4 Multiplication: 2 x 2 = 4 → 2 times 2 equals 4 Division: 8 –: 2 = 4 → 8 divided by 2 equals 4 20 Numbers. Mrs Fiddle and Mr Doyle are two of the teachers at the school. Use the information below to find out how old they are and how many pupils are in their classes.

• The number of pupils in Mr Doyle’s class is the same as his age. • Mrs Fiddle’s age is double the number of pupils in her class. • Mrs Fiddle has one pupil less than Mr Doyle. • Mr Doyle will be 30 in four years.

Triangle

Square

Rectangle

Circle

a Can you find any of these shapes in your classroom? Look around and write the names of the objects you find and the name of the shape. Examples: window = rectangle, lamp = circle b What are the shapes called in Norwegian? 22 Verbs.

BS 30

a Skim the text and find a suitable verb for each open space. • I … all about your secret club, Pig City. • If you … not kiss me I will … the whole school. • How … he know about Pig City? • It … impossible! • I … to … Gabriel. • I … no choice. • What … the value for x? • It sometimes … b Which tense of the verb is used in these sentences? c When do you use this verb tense? 23 Verbs.

BS 30

a Find the verbs in the sentences below.

• Laura learns a lot about secrets, but not so much about math. • Mr Doyle teaches math in Laura’s class. b Explain the different meaning of the verbs in these two sentences.

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

19


Warm-up of the words used • Some in this text are rather negative, for example to groan, reluctantly and panic. Scan the text.

negative words • Find more or phrases. you find any positive • Can ones as well?

I Don’t Want to Sit Next to Alex! Alex Fuentes is a gang member from the other side of town. He is an arrogant, bad boy and he knows it. Brittany Ellis is very unsure about starting her senior year of high school. Her plan is to stay close to her boyfriend Colin. Everything changes when Alex and Brittany are placed next to each other in chemistry class. Extract from Perfect Chemistry by Simone Elkeles

arrogant – overlegen ponytail – hestehale late twenties – i slutten av tjueåra perpetual – her: evige stern – strenge expression – uttrykk chemistry – kjemi on the edge – på kanten a folder – en mappe I appreciate – jeg setter pris på doesn’t miss a beat – her: lar seg ikke vippe av pinnen reluctantly – motvillig their assigned seats – sine tildelte plasser unenthusiastically – lite entusiastisk stool – krakk to avoid – å unngå intimidated – skremt regards – betrakter bandana – hodetørkle reputation – rykte precedes you – her: kommer deg i forkjøpet

20

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Mrs Peterson closes the door to the classroom with a bang and all eyes move from the back of the room where Alex and his friends are sitting, to the front where Mrs Peterson is standing. She has light brown hair pulled back into a tight ponytail. The woman is probably in her late twenties, but her glasses and perpetual stern expression make her look way older. (…) “Good afternoon and welcome to senior chemistry.” She sits on the edge of her desk and opens a folder. “I appreciate you picking your own seats, but I make the seating arrangements … alphabetically.”


I groan along with the rest of the class, but Mrs Peterson doesn’t miss a beat. She stands in front of the first lab table and says “Colin Adams, take the first seat. Your partner is Darlene Boehm.” (…) Down the list Mrs Peterson goes, students reluctantly moving to their assigned seats. “Brittany Ellis,” Mrs Peterson says, pointing to the table behind Colin. I unenthusiastically sit on the stool at my assigned place. “Alejandro Fuentes,” Mrs Peterson says, pointing to the stool next to me. Oh my God. Alex … my chemistry partner? For my entire senior year! No way, no how, SO not okay. I give Colin a “help me” look as I try to avoid a panic attack. I definitely should have stayed at home. In bed. Under the covers. Forget not being intimidated. “Call me Alex.” Mrs Peterson looks up from her class list and regards Alex above the glasses on her nose. “Alex Fuentes,” she says, before changing his name on her list. “Mr Fuentes, take off that bandana. I have a zero-tolerance policy in my class. No gang-related accessories are allowed to enter this room. Unfortunately, Alex, your reputation precedes you.”

Activities 24 Reading to understand. a How old is Mrs Peterson? b Why does Mrs Peterson look older than she is? c Who is the I-person in this story? d What is a “help me” look? Explain in writing or through miming. e Explain these words and phrases in English: unsure, ponytail, stay close, no way, seating arrangements, to miss a beat, panic attack f What do you think is Alex’s first impression of Brittany? g Why do you think the book is called Perfect Chemistry? 25 Reading. Why doesn’t Brittany want to sit next to Alex? a Find as many reasons as you can. b Do you think Alex wants to sit next to Brittany? Give reasons for your answer. 26 Vocabulary. In the text you find the word unsure. BS 72 a If you take away un, sure remains. What does un do to the word? b Do you know any other words starting with un? Write down as many as you can. 27 Adjectives. Explain what an adjective is to a classmate. BS 16 28 Adjectives. There are two adjectives in the following sentence: “He is an arrogant, bad boy and he knows it.” BS 16 a Find the two adjectives. b Replace the adjectives with new ones. What changes?

Adjectives Adjectives are used to describe nouns. Colin is tall. She has light brown hair.

BS 16

c Describe your school building, classrooms and outdoor areas using as many adjectives as you can. Start with: “My school building is …”

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

21


Warm-up a list of all the school • Make subjects that you know in English.

Wonderful World Lyrics by Lou Adler, Herb Albert and Sam Cooke

Don’t know much about history Don’t know much biology Don’t know much about a science book Don’t know much about the French I took But I do know that I love you And I know that if you love me too What a wonderful world this would be Don’t know much about geography Don’t know much trigonometry Don’t know much about algebra Don’t know what a slide rule is for But I do know that one and one is two And if this one could be with you What a wonderful world this would be slide rule – regnestav, en spesiell type linjal claim – påstå

Now I don’t claim to be an “A” student But I’m trying to be For maybe by being an “A” student baby I can win your love for me


Activities 29 Reading to understand. a What is an “A” student”?

d learn about Christianity, Hinduism and other religions.

b List all the subjects in the song.

e draw and paint.

c Which of the subjects do you have at school?

f take part in physical exercise and play basketball.

d Which of your school subjects are not in the song?

g learn how to write a story.

e The person who sings this song talks a lot about school, but what is he really trying to say?

33 Vocabulary. Make your own timetable in English. 34 Capital letters. These are common English school subjects: English, chemistry, art, PE, science, geography, Spanish, French, history, religious education, mathematics, German, music, woodwork BS 56

30 Listening. Listen to the conversation between a teacher and a pupil. List the subjects they talk about. Which subjects does the pupil like and why? BS 150

a Translate the subjects into Norwegian.

31 Writing. Finish these sentences.

b Try to work out the rules for when a school subject has a capital letter and when it does not.

a My favourite subjects are …, because … b The subjects I do not like that much are … , because …

c Write down the days of the week, the months of the year and the seasons of the year. When do you use a capital letter?

32 Vocabulary. Name the subject where you a work with maps and learn about different countries.

d What is the rule for capital letters in Norwegian?

b play instruments and sing.

e How does the rule in d differ from English?

c work with addition and subtraction.

Lesson

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

1

08:20–09:20

PE

Biology

Music

English

History

2

09:30–10:30

Religious education

Biology

French

English

Geography

3

10:40–11:40

Geography

Art

PE

Maths

Maths

Lunch break

11:40–12:15

4

12:15–13:15

English

English

English

History

Art

5

13:25–14:25

French

Maths

Religious education

PE

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

23


Warm-up a look around you • Take in class. What is the most common colour for a sweatshirt, T-shirt or jumper? How many pupils are wearing exactly the same clothes?

School Uniforms? Most pupils in the UK wear some kind of uniform to school. For some pupils, the uniform is simply black or grey trousers, a short-sleeved shirt and a sweatshirt with the school name and logo on it. Other schools have strict rules for uniforms. Some pupils have to wear ties or even hats. The first school uniforms When school was only for wealthy people, uniforms were not necessary. The only schools that had uniforms then were schools for the poor, who were clothed in long, blue coats. When free education was introduced for all in 1870, some schools began using school uniforms to show social status. This means it was easy to see which background the pupils came from.

short-sleeved – kortermet strict rules – strenge regler ties – slips wealthy – rik necessary – nødvendig poor – fattig curious – nysgjerrig

24

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

An experiment There is no tradition for school uniforms in Norway. Even so, the topic is open for discussion, and some pupils even want to try it out for themselves. A class of curious 8th graders in Heggedal wanted to try out what it was like to wear the same clothes every day and to wear the same as everyone else in class. They agreed to wear school uniforms for a whole week without telling the rest of the school.


Pupils from Eton College in their strict school uniform.

jewellery – smykker carried out – utførte survey – spørreundersøkelse wardrobes – garderobe in order to – for å kunne surnames – etternavn experiences – erfaringer advantages – fordeler disadvantages – ulemper opinions – meninger to take part in – å delta i everyday life – hverdagslivet

26

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

The class discussed which type of clothes and colours they should wear, and whether jewellery, make-up or wearing caps should be allowed or not. Afterwards they carried out a survey to find out which clothes and colours most pupils already had in their wardrobes. The class decided that the boys should wear blue jeans, a white jumper or shirt and a cap. They could wear a tie if they wanted to. The girls should wear blue jeans or a blue skirt, and a white jumper or blouse.

Different opinions In order to get the feeling of being in a British school, they decided to call their teachers Sir or Miss or address them by their surnames, Mr Petersen and Miss Haug. At the end of the week, they discussed their experiences. They discussed how it felt to wear the uniforms, the reactions of the other pupils in school, and the advantages and disadvantages of wearing school uniforms. As you might guess, the pupils had different opinions on the topic.


Activities 35 Reading to understand. a Why did they start using school uniforms in Britain? b Why did the pupils in Heggedal want to try out school uniforms? c How did they feel about wearing their uniforms? d Explain in English what a survey is.

In my opinion, wearing school uniforms for a week was a different and exciting experience. It was interesting to take part in the everyday life of the pupils who have to wear their school uniforms all the time. Ingrid, 14

I thought it was a lot of fun, because I have always dreamed of wearing a school uniform! However, I am glad I can wear what I want to school. I think that I would get tired of wearing the same set of clothes every single day. Alexandra, 14

Did you know?

!

• Eton College pupils probably have one of the most unusual uniforms.

• 98 % of secondary school pupils in the UK wear uniforms (2014).

36 Speaking. What would you like to wear as your school uniform? Describe the outfit to a classmate. 37 Speaking. Plan a debate in class with arguments for and against school uniforms. BS 136 a Make lists of arguments for and against wearing uniforms. b Compare your lists with those of a classmate. Add more arguments to each side. c Use the arguments from your lists during the debate. 38 Vocabulary. Find words in the text that mean the same as hat, trousers, jumper, have little money, rings and necklaces. 39 Writing. These are words from the text: privilege, poor, wealthy, jewellery, strict rules a Write an explanation of each word in English that would help your classmate to understand the word. b Find synonyms for these words. Synonyms are words that mean the same or nearly the same. BS 74 40 Spelling. These words are often misspelled: very, three, clothes and necessary Choose two words you often misspell. Make up a strategy to help you spell them correctly. Example: Necessary. One coffee and two sugars.

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

27


Warm-up a diary, what • Ifsortyouofkept things would you write about? Talk to a classmate.

The Smartest Kids in Class? Extract from Diary of a Wimpy Kid by Jeff Kinney

September – Monday

I guess Mom was pretty proud of herself for making me write in that journal last year, because now she went and bought me another one.

But remember how I said that if some jerk caught

me carrying a book with “diary” on the cover they

were gonna get the wrong idea? Well, that’s exactly

what happened today, my brother Rodrick found out.

Now that Rodrick

knows I have another journal, I better

diary – dagbok journal – dagbok jerk – dust disaster – katastrofe Pre-Algebra – en type mattetime to copy off – å skrive av a pinch – her: en knipe to bail me out – å redde meg ut av situasjonen last names – etternavn get called on – blir bedt om å svare prove – bevise

28

Enter 8 • Textbook

remember to keep this

one locked up. Rodrick actually got a hold of

my LAST journal a few

weeks back, and it was a disaster. But don’t

even get me started on THAT story.


Activities September – Tuesday

My first class was Pre-Al gebra, and the teacher put me rig ht next to Alex Aru da, the smartest kid in the whole schoo l. Alex is SUPER

easy to copy off of, becaus e he always finishes his tes t ear ly and puts his paper down on the flo or next to him. So if I ever get in

a pinch, it’s nice to know I can count on Alex to bail me out. Kid s whose las t names sta rt with the first few letters of the alp habet get called on the most by the teacher, and that’s why they end up being the smartest . Some people think that’s not

true, but if you want to com e down to my schoo l, I can pro ve it. I can only think of ON E kid who broke the las t-name rule,

41 Reading to understand. a Why does the I-person keep a diary? b Who is Rodrick? c Who is the smartest kid in the whole school? d Why does the “I-person” like to sit next to Alex? e Why do you think the writer is afraid that someone might see his diary? 42 Diary. This is how you can tell if a text is a diary: BS 102

• The writer uses words like I and me a lot. • The names of the days are often headlines for the entries.

• You often find a summary of things that have happened.

• There are often some secrets. • There are some complaints about other people, family members, teachers or classmates.

• The language is informal. a Which of these points are true for this diary? Write down, explain and give examples.

and that’s Peter Uteger. Pet er was the smartest kid in the cla ss all the way

43 Writing. Continue the diary and write a diary entry for September – Friday. BS 102

the fifth

44 Adjectives. One adjective is used several times in the text. BS 16

up until

grade.

b What did you like about this diary?

a Find the adjective. b Find synonyms for this adjective. c Kind and pretty are two adjectives. Both can be used to describe a person. In what way would you say that they describe different things? d Describe three of your classmates in a positive way. Use as many adjectives as possible.

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

29


Warm-up do you think school • What was like in the old days?

Young Shakespeare Young William Shakespeare loved to write plays. One day, as the class learned to write their names, he whispered the story of a play to his classmates. Extract from William Shakespeare by Rosie Dickins

“William, stop talking and sharpen your quill pen,” scolded his teacher. “You’ll have to work harder at grammar school. If you don’t, they’ll beat you with a birch rod!” But not even the threat of beatings could stop William from daydreaming about plays. Before long, he had made up his mind to be an actor, too. Unfortunately, as he soon discovered, grammar school left no time for acting. There was too much hard work. Lessons started at six in the morning and didn’t finish until five at night. There was even school on Saturdays, and on Sundays they had to go to church with their families. The boys (the school only took boys) had to learn ancient Greek and Latin, and study ancient Greek and Latin texts until they could recite them by heart. They studied ancient history, ancient plays and ancient rhetoric – the art of arguing and making speeches. plays – skuespill whispered – visket quill pen – fjærpenn scolded – kjeftet grammar school – en type ungdomsskole birch rod – spanskrør threat – trussel beatings – juling actor – skuespiller discovered – oppdaget ancient – gammel recite them by heart – si dem høyt utenat rhetoric – læren om talekunst arguing – diskutere

30

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book


By the time he was 14, William knew a lot about ancient times. Then, one day, he came home to find his father looking worried. “I’m afraid you’re going to have to leave school and get a job,” his father said sadly. “And I don’t mean acting!” he added hastily, before William could open his mouth. “I mean a paying job. I’m having business trouble, and we need the money.” “What did you have in mind?” asked William, trying not to look disappointed. “Maybe with all that schooling you could work as a teacher,” said his father. “And I could use some help making gloves, too.” William sighed. “Still, at least I’ll finally have some spare time”, he thought to himself. “Maybe I could do some acting then. I could even write my own plays …”

to leave school – å slutte på skolen disappointed – skuffet gloves – hansker sighed – sukket

Activities 45 Reading to understand. a Why did the teacher yell at William? b What did William’s father do for a living? c What did the pupils study in rhetoric?

47 Speaking. Look at the picture. a Find differences between going to Shakespeare’s school and your own school. Make a Venn diagram.

d What did William plan to do in his spare time? e Skim the text. Make a list of tools, objects, and school subjects that are not common in schools or classrooms today. f What would you do if you didn’t go to school? 46 Digital skills. William Shakespeare became a great writer of plays and poems. BS 172 a Find the titles of some of his works. b Find at least two different sources for this information. List your sources.

b Discuss the differences with a classmate. 48 Writing. What do you think happens next? Add a paragraph or two to the story. 49 Verbs. Look at the picture.

BS 30

a Write five verbs describing what is happening in the picture. b Imagine that you are William Shakespeare. What do you usually do at school? Example: I usually write with a quill pen. c Explain the difference between the verbs to teach and to learn.

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

31


Warm-up your school is a • Imagine school for the magical arts. What type of subjects do you think you would have?

beyond your imagination – som overgår din fantasi witchcraft – heksekunst wizardry – trolldom boarding school – internatskole

A School Beyond Your Imagination Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry is a British boarding school. It is located in the mountains near a lake. The precise location is not known because the school is kept hidden by powerful spells. At Hogwarts the pupils learn how to become wizards or witches. These are some of the subjects they learn.

the precise location – det nøyaktige stedet spells – trylleformler to mix – å blande ingredients – ingredienser

Harry and Ron from JK Rowling’s Harry Potter books in a divination lesson.

Potions is described as the art of creating mixtures with magical effects. You have to mix the correct ingredients at the right temperature and for the right amount of time.


Herbology is the study of magical plants and how to take care of them. Divination is the art of seeing into the future. Various methods are described, including tea leaves, crystal balls and dream interpretation.

the future – framtiden dream interpretation – drømmetydning creatures – skapninger beasts – monstre, uhyrer, dyr

Care of Magical Creatures is the class which teaches pupils how to care for magical beasts. Classes are held outside the castle because of all the dangerous animals.

broomsticks – sopelimer

Flying is the class that teaches the use of broomsticks made for flying. The subject is the only one that gives you physical exercise.

disappear – forsvinne

physical exercise – fysisk trening Transfiguration – kunsten å forvandle Defence Against the Dark Arts – forsvar mot svarte kunster

Transfiguration is the art of changing the form of an object. The pupils learn how to give a human rabbit’s ears and make a thing disappear. Defence Against the Dark Arts is the class that teaches pupils techniques to defend themselves against evil wizards and creatures.

Activities 50 Reading to understand. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences. a Hogwarts is a French boarding school that teaches magical arts. b The location of the school can never be uncovered because powerful spells hide it. c Herbology is the art of seeing into the future. d Care of Magical Creatures classes are held outdoors because that is where they must keep all the dangerous animals. e Divination is the art of creating mixtures with magical effects. f Transfiguration is taking care of animals. g The boys in the picture are studying Care of Magical Creatures.

51 Writing. Which subject do you find most interesting at Hogwarts? Write a few sentences, giving reasons for your choice. 52 Writing. Create a new subject. Write a description of what the pupils will learn and any equipment that is needed. 53 Description. Invent your own magical plant. a Draw a picture of your plant. b Write a short description of what you can do with this plant, how amazing or dangerous it  is, and how to take care of it. c Show your plant to a classmate. Describe the plant and its uses.

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

33


Chapter Activities Sum up 54 Vocabulary. What have you learned? a Write a list of phrases you use in your English lesson when asking and answering questions. b Write as many classroom rules as you can remember. c Explain the difference between to teach and to learn. 55 Learning strategies. Think about the texts and activities you have worked with. a Which texts in this chapter did you enjoy the most? Why? b Which activities did you enjoy working with? Why? 56 Learning strategies. Make your own learning goals for this school year. Begin your sentences like this:

• • • •

59 Numbers. Make one maths problem with addition, one with subtraction, one with multiplication and one with division. a Ask a classmate to solve your tasks. b Practise reading the maths problems aloud. BS 159

60 Writing. Write a paragraph or two about what you often do at school. Write in the present tense. Example of a start: I always start school at half past eight, and I am often a bit tired during the first lesson. BS 80 61 Word classes. Make a table and sort the words under the right heading: BS 7

My goals for this school year are …

Verb

Noun

Adjective

I want to become better at …

have

school

smart

I want to learn more about … I learn new words best when I …

57 Word classes. Do you remember what the word classes are called in English? BS 7 a Write down all the word classes you know. Check Basic Skills if you do not remember what they are called in English. b Find and write down some examples of words from each word class and make lists. c Make eight sentences using only words from your lists.

34

58 Speaking. Make your own timetable. You can use both real and fictional subjects. Switch timetables with a classmate and discuss which one you like the best.

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

broomstick, Edward, hard, work, Hogwarts, timetable, fast, teach, church, know, job, copy, pretty, lesson, classroom, nice, bad, sit, grades, test, books, desk, magic, walk, diary, word, try, interesting, learn, curious, smart, subject 62 Language. Find examples of the following in this chapter: BS 6 • a noun • a verb • an adjective • a simple sentence • a complex sentence with difficult words • a sentence with a comma • a sentence with a question mark


Move on 63 Speaking. Make a role play of an English lesson. 64 Poster. The School of My Dreams. If you could decide, what would your school be like? Make a poster in groups. Include drawings of your school, descriptions of subjects, surroundings, activities, dream teachers and so on. Use your imagination. Present your poster in class. BS 121

65 Diary. You have just started a new school year, maybe at a new school. Write a couple of sentences every day for a week or two about what you experienced at school and how your day was. BS 102 You may start your sentences like this:

• • • •

Today I learned about… The lesson I liked the most was… In the break I … All in all, my day was …

66 Writing. Write the beginning of a story about your first day at school. Example of a start: My first day at the new school was not at all as I had expected. I arrived just in time, a few minutes before the bell rang, but then something happened … BS 86 67 Speaking. Louis Sachar has written the book Sixth Grade Secrets that you read an extract from on page 16. Find out more about him and other books he has written. Summarise your findings in a mini-talk which will encourage your classmates to read more books by Louis Sachar. BS 139 68 Writing. Pretend that you travel back in time and that you suddenly are sitting in a classroom in the 16th century. The children are wearing old-fashioned clothes, and they have stricter classroom rules and different activities. Write a story – what happens? BS 86

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… list words and phrases I have used in English lessons. … present myself and introduce others. … describe everyday life at school. … do maths problems in English. … find nouns, verbs and adjectives in a sentence.

B • Pick three tasks that you are satisfied with.

• Choose one of these tasks and write a paragraph which describes what was good about your work.

Chapter 1 • A Fresh Start!

35


2

Heroes


?

TOPIC WORDS

What do you think a hero is? Make a list of people you consider to be heroes. Why do you think that they are heroes?

hero heroic brave courage extraordinary abilities

n

to protect

n

unique

yy

Learning objectives n n n

Define different types of heroes List heroes in real life and literature Use adjectives to describe heroes List some differences between British and American English Find and use verbs in the present simple

37


Warm-up at the pictures. • Look Who do you think looks like a hero? Why?

What Makes a Hero? The three people you will get to know in the following texts have many of the same qualities. They are brave, they have courage and they have done something extraordinary. Are they heroes?

Chelsea Jones Chelsea with her Teen Hero Award.

Radio 1, a British radio station, wanted to show that ordinary teenagers in Britain do many good things. They started the Teen Hero Awards. These awards are given to teenagers who “are brave, inspirational, selfless or have helped their family, friends, or community”. They started out as ordinary teenagers just like you, but had to cope with extraordinary situations.

qualities – egenskaper courage – mot extraordinary – utenom det vanlige ordinary – vanlig awards – priser inspirational – inspirerende selfless – uselvisk behaviour – oppførsel turn her life around – endre livet sitt a volunteer – en frivillig local community – lokalsamfunn achieve – oppnå

38

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

In 2012, Chelsea Jones (15) from Bradford, was given one of the awards. She was suggested by a police officer who got to know Chelsea because her behaviour got her into trouble with the police. However, Chelsea decided to turn her life around. She began working as a volunteer in her local community, and has become an important resource for the people there. Once a week she works with a group of girls younger than she is. She helps them to keep out of trouble. Chelsea says that she wants to teach them that “no matter what your background is, you can always achieve something and do something good in your life”. One of the other community workers told Radio 1 that the community needs people like Chelsea for inspiration. Other children can look up to her and say “I can do that”.


Rosa Parks Rosa Parks (1913–2005) was an ordinary African-American woman from Montgomery, Alabama, who made a difference to the lives of many Americans. In the USA in the 1950s, African-Americans did not have the same rights as white Americans. For example, they could only sit in certain seats on the bus. One day, Rosa Parks was asked to give up her seat to a white person. She was fed up with being pushed around by whites, and refused to move. The bus driver stopped the bus and called the police. Rosa was arrested, and later fined $10. She also lost her job as a result. The people in Montgomery were very angry about the way that Rosa Parks was treated. They decided to stop taking the bus. This was the beginning of a bus boycott that lasted for a whole year. Eventually the law was changed so that segregation on public transport was illegal. AfricanAmericans could sit wherever they liked on the bus. After the bus boycott, Rosa Parks continued working for civil rights.

made a difference – utgjorde en forskjell certain – her: noen to give up her seat – å gi fra seg plassen fed up – lei refused – nektet fined – bøtelagt treated – behandlet bus boycott – nekte å ta bussen (som en måte å protestere mot myndighetene) eventually – til slutt segregation – det å holde ulike menneskegrupper atskilt public transport – offentlig transport illegal – ulovlig civil rights – borgerrettigheter

Rosa Parks’ mug shot.

Rosa Parks’ finger prints are taken.

Chapter 2 • Heroes

39


The front cover of the first Captain America comic book.

Captain America

comic book – tegneserie the Second World War – den andre verdenskrigen

40

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

The first comic book about Captain America came out in 1941. The Second World War had begun in Europe nearly two years before, and the American people needed a national hero. On the cover of the first comic, there was a picture of Captain America hitting Adolf Hitler in the face. The comic book became very popular. It even sold more copies than the famous news magazine Time.


Captain America’s real name is Steve Rogers. The first comic book told the story of how Steve tried to join the army. The army did not want him because he was too small and weak, but some scientists had been working on a secret serum. They asked Steve if they could inject him with it. Steve agreed. The secret serum made him the fastest and strongest human alive. When Steve puts on his stars-and-stripes outfit, he becomes the heroic Captain America. He uses his abilities to fight and kill America’s enemies.

to join – her: å verve seg til army – hæren scientists – vitenskapsmenn secret serum – hemmelig serum inject – sette sprøyte outfit – antrekk abilities – evner

Activities 1 Reading to understand. Find someone who:

5 Speaking. There are three heroes on these pages.

a Turned her life around and is now an inspiration for others.

a Which other heroes would you choose if you were going to write a book about heroes?

b Wanted to join the army.

b Explain why you chose these people.

c Was arrested for refusing to stand up. d Is a fictional character. 2 Speaking. Are all of these three people heroes? Why, or why not? Explain to a classmate. 3 Speaking. Choose Chelsea, Rosa Parks or Captain America.

6 Writing. What makes a hero? Write a paragraph about this. Start like this: In my opinion, a hero is someone who … BS 80 7 A or an. Here are two sentences from the text: Rosa Parks was asked to give up her seat to a white person. Rosa Parks was an ordinary African- American woman. BS 8

a Write some keywords about the person you chose.

a In the first sentence a is used, while in the second sentence an is used. Explain why.

b Tell a classmate about this person.

b Write the rule for when to use a or an.

c Tell your classmate why you chose this person.

c Put a or an in front of each of these words: hero, superhero, idol, celebrity, dog, opinion, hour, union, champion, award

4 Speaking. Two of the characters meet each other. Act out the situation. BS 135

d How would you translate a and an into Norwegian?

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Warm-up are some keywords • Here from the story: different, to stare, friends, strangelooking kid, lunch. What do you think the story is about?

deformed – misdannet whatever – uansett hva probably worse – sannsynligvis verre stare – stirre

Summer and August August Pullman is different, different because his face is deformed. He describes himself in this way: “My name is August. I won’t describe what I look like. Whatever you’re thinking, it’s probably worse.” Until now, August has been taught at home by his mother. Now his parents ask him to begin middle school. On his first day he thinks everyone will stare at him, and they do. At lunch he is sitting by himself, until Summer comes to sit with him, and from that day on they are friends. This is how Summer and August describe their first meeting. Extract from Wonder by R. J. Palatio

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Lunchtime from Summer’s point of view

point of view – synsvinkel

Some kids have actually come out and asked me why I hang out with “the freak” so much. These kids don’t even know him well. If they knew him, they wouldn’t call him that. “Because he’s a nice kid!” I always answer. “And don’t call him that.” “You’re a saint, Summer,” Ximena Chin said to me the other day. “I wouldn’t do what you’re doing.” “It’s not a big deal,” I answered her truthfully. “Did Mr Tushman ask you to be friends with him?” Charlotte Cody asked. “No. I’m friends with him because I want to be friends with him,” I answered. Who knew that my sitting with August Pullman at lunch would be such a big deal? People acted like it was the strangest thing in the world. It’s weird how kids can be.

actually – faktisk freak – raring saint – helgen, veldig snill person weird – rart felt sorry for – syntes synd på brand new – helt ny whispering – hvisking had nicknamed him – hadde gitt ham kallenavnet imagine – forestill deg a biggie – en stor sak something major – noe stort

I sat with him the first day because I felt sorry for him. That’s all. Here he was, this strange-looking kid in a brand new school. No one was talking to him. Everyone was staring at him. All the girls at my table were whispering about him. He wasn’t the only new kid at Beecher Prep, but he was the only one everyone was talking about. Julian had nicknamed him the Zombie Kid and that’s what everyone was calling him. “Did you see the Zombie Kid yet?” Stuff like that gets around fast. And August knew it. It’s hard enough being the new kid when you have a normal face. Imagine having his face? So I just went over and sat with him. Not a biggie. I wish people would stop trying to turn it into something major. He’s just a kid. The weirdest-looking kid I’ve ever seen, yes. But just a kid.

Lunchtime from August’s point of view Via had warned me about lunch in middle school, so I guess I should have known it would be hard. I just hadn’t expected it to be this hard. Basically, all the kids from all the fifth-grade classes poured into the cafeteria at the same time, talking loudly and bumping into one another while they ran to different tables. One of the lunchroom teachers said something about no seat-saving allowed, but I didn’t know what she meant and maybe no one else did, either, because just about everybody was saving seats for their friends. I tried to sit down at one table, but the kid in the next chair said, “Oh, sorry, but someone else is sitting here.”

Via – Augusts søster, forkortelse for Olivia basically – i utgangspunktet poured into – strømmet inn seat-saving – her: holde av plasser allowed – tillatt

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Why do you think seatsaving was not allowed?

stampeding – storme inn trays – brett graham crackers – en type kjeks concentrated on – konsentrerte seg om were nudging – dyttet borti bouncing over – sprette over surgery – operasjon cleft palate – ganespalte jaw-alignment – kjevejustering crumbs – smuler saltine cracker – salt kjeks apologize – be om unnskyldning tortoise – skilpadde prehistoric – førhistorisk swamp thing – sumpmonster lunch tray – matbrett

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So I moved to an empty table and just waited for everyone to finish stampeding and the lunchroom teacher to tell us what to do next. As she started telling us the cafeteria rules, I looked around to see where Jack Will was sitting, but I didn’t see him on my side of the room. Kids were still coming in as the teachers started calling the first few tables to get their trays and stand on line at the counter. Julian, Henry and Miles were sitting at a table toward the back of the room. Mom had packed me a cheese sandwich, graham crackers, and a juice box, so I didn’t need to stand on line when my table was called. Instead, I just concentrated on opening the aluminium-foil wrapping of my sandwich. I could tell I was being stared at without even looking up. I knew that people were nudging each other, watching me out of the corners of their eyes. I thought I was used to those kinds of stares by now, but I guess I wasn’t. There was one table of girls that I knew were whispering about me because they were talking behind their hands. Their eyes and whispers kept bouncing over to me. I hate the way I eat. I know how weird it looks. I had a surgery to fix my cleft palate when I was a baby, and then a second cleft surgery when I was four, but I still have a hole in the roof of my mouth. And even though I had jaw-alignment surgery a few years ago, I still have to chew food in the front of my mouth. I didn’t even realize how this looked until I was at a birthday party once, and one of the kids told the mom of the birthday boy he didn’t want to sit next to me because I was too messy with all the food crumbs shooting out of my mouth. I know the kid wasn’t trying to be mean, but he got in big trouble later, and his mom called my mom that night to apologize. When I got home from the party, I went to the bathroom mirror and started chewing a saltine cracker to see what I looked like when I was chewing. The kid was right. I eat like a tortoise, if you’ve seen a tortoise eating. Like some prehistoric swamp thing.


“Hey, is this seat taken?” I looked up, and a girl I never saw before was standing across from my table with a lunch tray full of food. She had long wavy brown hair, and wore a brown T-shirt with a purple peace sign on it. “Uh, no,” I said. She put her lunch tray on the table, plopped her backpack on the floor, and sat down across from me. She started to eat the mac and cheese on her plate. “Ugh,” she said after swallowing the first bite. “I should have brought a sandwich like you did.” “Yeah,” I said, nodding. “My name is Summer, by the way. What’s yours?” “August.” “Cool,” she said. “Summer!” Another girl came over to the table carrying a tray. “Why  are you sitting here? Come back to the table.” “It was too crowded,” Summer answered her. “Come and sit here. There’s more room.” The other girl looked confused for a second. I realized she had been one of the girls I had caught looking at me just a few minutes earlier: hand cupped over her mouth, whispering. I guess Summer had been one of the girls at that table, too. “Never mind,” said the girl, leaving. Summer looked at me, shrugged-smiled, and took another bite of her mac and cheese. “Hey, our names kind of match,” she said as she chewed. I guess she could tell I didn’t know what she meant. “Summer? August?” she said, smiling, her eyes open wide, as she waited for me to get it. “Oh, yeah,” I said after a second. “We can make this the ‘summer only’ lunch table,” she said. “Only kids with summer names can sit here. Let’s see. Is there anyone here named June or July?” “There’s a Maya,” I said. “Technically, May is spring,” Summer answered, “but if she wanted to sit here we could make an exception.” She said it as if she’d actually thought the whole thing through. “There’s Julian. That’s like the name Julia, which comes from July.” I didn’t say anything.

wavy – bølgete peace sign – fredssymbol plopped – kastet fra seg mac and cheese – makaroni og ost confused – forvirret cupped over – dekket over shrugged-smiled – trakk på skuldrene og smilte exception – unntak

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“There’s a kid named Reid in my English class,” I said. “Yeah, I know Reid, but how is Reid a summer name?” she asked. “I don’t know.” I shrugged. “I just picture, like, a reed of grass being a summer thing.” “Yeah, okay.” She nodded, pulling out her notebook. “And Ms Petosa could sit here, too. That kind of sounds like the word petal, which I think of  as a summer thing, too.” “I have her for homeroom,” I said. “I have her for math,” she answered, making a face. She started writing the list of names on the second-to-last page of her notebook. “So, who else?” she said.

reed of grass – gresstrå

By the end of lunch, we had come up with a whole list of names of kids and teachers who could sit at our table if they wanted. Most of the names weren’t actually summer names, but they were names that had some kind of connection to summer. I even found a way of making Jack Will’s name work by pointing out that you could turn his name into a sentence about summer, like “Jack will go to the beach,” which Summer agreed worked fine. “But if someone doesn’t have a summer name, and wants to sit with us,” she said seriously, “we’ll still let them if they’re nice, ok?” “Okay,” I nodded. “Even if it’s a winter name.” “Cool beans,” she answered, giving me a thumbs up.

petal – kronblad homeroom – klassens time connection – tilknytning cool beans – her: supert thumbs up – tommel opp

Present Simple In the present simple you must add s to the verb when the subject is he, she or it. He thinks everyone will stare at him. I you

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he think

she it

we thinks

you

think

they BS 30


Activities 8 Reading to understand. a What do the other children call August? b What does Summer think of August? c Why did August sit at an empty table? d What did August have for lunch? e Why does August hate the way he eats?

13 Listening. Listen to Jack, another of August’s friends, talking about their friendship. BS 150 a Jack gives four reasons for being friends with August. List them. b What does August do to protect Jack? 14 Adjectives.

BS 16

f Why does Summer think their names match?

a Find ten adjectives from the text.

g What is the name they give to their lunch table?

b Sort the adjectives into categories: words that describe August, words that describe Summer and words that describe other things.

h Who is allowed to sit at their table? i Why do you think Summer sat down with August? j Why do you think Summer continues to sit with August? 9 Speaking. Work with a classmate and make a role play about Summer and August meeting for the first time. 10 Speaking. August and Summer invent the “summer only” table. Have you got any classmates who could sit at the “summer only” table? Explain your reasons for including them. 11 Writing. Write a summary of this story. 12 Formal and informal language. Match the informal language from the text with the more formal version. Example: teens – teenagers BS 84

Informal

Formal

kids

important

won`t

spend time with

stuff like that

will not

a biggie

children

hang out with

information

c Compare the lists with your classmate. d Write a description of August or Summer using these adjectives. Maybe you can add some adjectives of your own? e What is good about your description? Write two or three sentences. 15 Verbs. August describes himself in this way: “My name is August. I won’t describe what I look like. Whatever you’re thinking, it’s probably worse.” The two words underlined in this text are verbs in the present simple. BS 30 a Explain why describes ends in s but look does not. b Write these sentences using the correct form of the verb in the present simple. Summer ____(to like) to spend time with August. He _____ (to make) her laugh and they often ______(to hang out) together after school. c Is is a form of the verb to be. This verb is irregular. Write out the verb in full in the present simple. For example: I am, you … d Translate to be into Norwegian. What is the present tense of the verb in Norwegian? Why do you think Norwegian pupils find it difficult to work with verbs in English?

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Warm-up

Why do you think many children dream of being a firefighter or a police officer?

firefighters – brannmenn

The Firefighters Firefighters need to be strong and fit. They have to carry a helmet, a fire suit, a mask, an oxygen tank and tools such as axes, ropes and flashlights. This equipment weighs more than 25 kilograms. Can you imagine how heavy this is?

fit – her: i god form

The plane crash

tools – verktøy

On September 11th, 2001, firefighters in New York ran up the stairs in one of the tallest buildings in the city. They were wearing heavy equipment. Three hundred meters above them the building was burning. An airplane had crashed into it.

axes – økser flashlights – lommelykter equipment – utstyr

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Terrorists strike September 11th, 2001 started as usual. People in New York were on their way to work in the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center. But not far away, ten terrorists had hijacked two planes. They flew the planes directly into the towers, at around the 90th floor. Almost everyone below this point managed to get out of the buildings. Those above were not as fortunate. While the workers tried to get out, firefighters and policemen went inside the burning buildings to help people who were trapped. Firefighters were also ordered to make sure that all of the floors were completely emptied.

strike – slår til hijacked – kapret below – nedenfor above – ovenfor fortunate – heldig trapped – fanget emptied – tømt cables – kabler elevators – heiser

Inside the Twin Towers When the two airplanes hit the towers, the cables holding the elevators broke, and they fell all the way down to the ground floor. The firefighters had to use the stairs. This was a difficult task because people were partly blocking the way. One of the firefighters tells his story:

were partly blocking – blokkerte delvis collapsing – som raste sammen drop our equipment – legge fra oss utstyret

We walked up the stairs together. There were a lot of people walking down and we had to push past them on our way up. It was hard work. When we got to the 35th floor, we stopped for a short rest and talked about what to do next. Suddenly we heard a loud noise and felt the floor shake. I found out later that it was the other tower collapsing. We were frightened but carried on upwards. A few minutes later we got the message to drop our equipment and get out of the building as fast as we could.

The Twin Towers being hit by the airplanes.

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Firefighters walking through the debris, putting out smaller fires as the last dust settles.

Communication problems This firefighter was one of the lucky ones. There were problems with radio communications between the commanders and the firefighter teams and many firefighters never got the order to evacuate. The New York Police Department had helicopters at the scene, but there was almost no communication between them and the firefighters. The result was disastrous. Nearly all the police officers managed to get out alive, but 341 heroic firefighters died as the buildings collapsed.

Did you know?

!

• There were about 17,400 people at work in the Twin Towers that day. debris – vrakrester

• The Twin Towers had 110 floors and 198 elevators.

commanders – ledere

• 2,823 people were killed in the Twin Towers and on the planes

evacuate – evakuere disastrous – katastrofalt

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that crashed into them.


Activities 16 Reading to understand. a What caused the fires in the Twin Towers? b What happened to the elevators? c Why was it so difficult for the firefighters to help people to get out of the buildings? d How many floors did the firefighter climb before the other tower collapsed? e Why didn’t some of the firefighters get the order to evacuate?

21 Writing. Read the firefighter’s story on page 49. Imagine you were a firefighter working in the Twin Towers on the 11th of September. Write your own eyewitness account. BS 116 22 American and British English. This text is written in American English. If the text were written in British English, some words would be spelled differently. For example center would be written centre. a Use the information in the frame and sort these words into British and American English. BS 66

f How many firefighters died that day? g What happened to the people who were on the floors above the 90th floor when the airplanes hit the towers?

center, colour, humor, metre, cancelled, jewelry, armor, licence, neighbour, fibre, theater, fuelled, traveled, offence

h Do you think that being a firefighter is a difficult job? Why, or why not?

b Find more examples of words that are spelled differently.

17 Writing. Write a summary of the text about the New York firefighters. Question words to help you: who, what, when, where, how and why. 18 Writing. What kind of qualities do you need to be a firefighter? a Make a list. b Do you think you have what it takes to be a firefighter? Use your list of qualities and write a paragraph. BS 80 19 Description. Choose one of the pictures. Describe what you see. Include colours, actions, faces, expressions and other details. BS 90

British and American English British and American English are two varieties of the same language. There are differences in spelling and vocabulary. Some differences in spelling:

20 Speaking. You are a news reporter in New York. Make a report that will be broadcast on the television news that evening. Perform the report live for the rest of the class.

Spelling

British

American

re/er

centre

center

our/or

favourite

favorite

double consonant

travelled

traveled

ence/ense

defence

defense BS 66

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Warm-up many superheroes • How can you name? Make a list.

Superheroes “Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No! It’s Superman!” There are many exciting heroes in both real life and literature, but perhaps the most exciting are the superheroes. You can read about superheroes in comic books. The first superheroes Comic book superheroes first appeared in the late 1930s. The first superhero was Superman in 1938. He was soon followed by Batman in 1939 and Wonder Woman and Captain America in 1941. Later came the Avengers, Spider-Man, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four … the list goes on and on. Each of the superheroes is unique, but they do have a few things in common.

Background Comic books tell the story of how the superhero became a superhero. Some superheroes are born with superpowers. Superman was born on Krypton and sent to Earth by his father. The X-men were also born with their superpowers. In other stories, a person is physically weak or finds making friends difficult, before an unexpected event gives them superpowers. This happened to both Spider-Man and Captain America. Others experience something that makes them want to develop their skills or technology so they can get their revenge, such as Batman and Iron Man.

exciting – spennende comic book – tegneserie appeared – dukket opp unique – spesielle in common – felles physically weak – fysisk svak unexpected event – uventet hendelse experience – oppleve to develop – å utvikle revenge – hevn Spider-Man in action.

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Costumes Most superheroes are easy to recognise because they wear a costume. Superman wears a blue and red costume with a large S on the front. He is one of the ten most recognised people on the planet. Captain America and Wonder Woman’s costumes are red, white and blue like the American flag. Sometimes the superheroes’ costumes include a mask to protect their secret identity.

Secret identity

recognise – gjenkjenne costume – kostyme, drakt protect – beskytte secret identity – hemmelig identitet enemies – fiender average – her: vanlig picked on – mobbet powers – krefter abilities – ferdigheter webs – (edderkopp)nett shield – skjold skills – ferdigheter/ teknikker

Who would guess that rich businessman Bruce Wayne is really Batman, or that shy journalist Clark Kent spends most of his time flying around saving people as Superman? Superheroes often have a secret identity to protect themselves, their family and their friends from their enemies. In everyday life superheroes can be very average, even the kind of person that gets picked on by others.

Powers and abilities What would a superhero be without powers and abilities? Superman can fly and see through metal, and Spider-Man can climb up buildings and swing from roof to roof using his webs. Violet Incredible can make a shield to protect herself and her family. There are two types of superheroes; those with superpowers, such as Spider-Man and Superman, and those who have no power, but use technology and fighting skills, such as Batman, Captain America and Iron Man.

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Enemies Superheroes are there to help everyone who is in need, but they often have an enemy who tries to defeat them. Superman’s enemy is Lex Luthor. Luthor is a very clever and very rich scientist who is jealous of Superman’s popularity. The Green Goblin is Spider-Man’s enemy. He is the secret identity of Norman Osborne, the father of Peter Parker’s friend Harry. One of the most famous superhero enemies is the Joker, Batman’s enemy. He dresses like a clown and is a ruthless criminal.

in need – i nød defeat – bekjempe scientist – vitenskapsmann jealous – misunnelig, sjalu ruthless – hensynsløs

Activities 23 Reading to understand. Who would say the following? a I am a journalist. b I can climb up buildings. c I can make a protective shield. d My outfit is the same colour as the American flag. e I was the first superhero. 24 Writing. Write a text about a superhero that you know about. You should include information about costume, powers and abilities, enemies, secret identity and background story. Illustrate your text with a picture or a drawing of the superhero. 25 Speaking. Peter Parker became Spider-Man when he was accidently bitten by a radioactive spider. Make a comic strip that retells his story, or work with some classmates to make a roleplay about Spider-Man. 26 Writing. Imagine that you have just been rescued by a superhero. How do you feel? Write a diary entry or the script of a telephone call to your friend. BS 102

27 Writing. You are a superhero! a Choose your superpower, costume, secret identity, name, enemy and so on, and then write your story. You can present it as a comic strip or a text. b Let your classmate read your text and tell you what was good about it. 28 Listening. Listen to the news broadcast about a near-disaster in Maintown. BS 150 a Write down keywords to answer: what, when, where, who, why and how b Use your keywords to retell the story. c What can you learn from listening to English? 29 Reading strategies. Scanning is to search for specific information in a text. Look only for the word or number that you need. Ignore all the other words. Ignore the content of the text. BS 127

a Scan the text to find a name of a superhero. b Scan the text to find the name of Superman’s enemy. c Scan the text to find out what happened in 1938.

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Warm-up do you know about • What Robin Hood? Make a list. to a classmate about • Talk what you have written on your list. Can you add any new things from your classmate’s list?

ballads – lengre dikt som forteller en historie travelling storytellers – reisende fortellere bloodthirsty – blodtørstig

Who was Robin Hood? You have probably heard of Robin Hood. Perhaps you have seen cartoons or films, or read books, where Robin is the hero. But did Robin Hood really exist? There are some old documents about a man called Robin Hood, but most of our information comes from ballads and stories told by travelling storytellers. The first ballads about Robin Hood were written in the 1300s and they tell the story of a bloodthirsty man. This Robin Hood seemed happy to be an outlaw and was quite different from the romantic hero in films. He cut off his enemies’ heads and killed those who stood in his way. Later ballads show a kinder man who wanted to get rid of the corrupt Sheriff of Nottingham. This man led his band of men with a firm but gentle hand. There are many stories about the heroic Robin Hood, mostly based on the old ballads, and people are still writing new versions, as film scripts, comics and books. On the next pages you can read about the day when Robin Hood and Little John first met.

outlaw – fredløs quite – ganske corrupt – korrupt firm but gentle – bestemt, men mild film scripts – filmmanus gest – fortelling

This version of the Gest of Robyn Hood is from the early 1500s.

Lythe and listin, gentilmen, That be of frebore blode; I shall you tel of a gode yeman, His name was Robyn Hode. – A Gest of Robyn Hode

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Robin Hood meets Little John One summer day Robin set out to explore the area between the forest and Nottingham. He followed the highway and had to cross a river using a footbridge made of logs. Adapted from Robin Hood by J. Walker McSpadden

Robin jumped up onto the end of the bridge. He had only just started walking when he saw a tall stranger on the other side. Robin began to walk more quickly so he could cross first, and the stranger did the same. They met in the middle and stood looking at each other. “Get off the bridge!” shouted Robin. The stranger smiled. “No,” he replied. “Get off the bridge!” repeated Robin. “Or I will make you get off!” “You and whose army?” laughed the stranger, who was much taller than Robin. “Just me, and that is more than enough for you!” Robin shouted. “Oh yes,” roared the stranger. “Why don’t you come on over and make me get off!” “I will. As soon as I have cut myself a staff like the one that you are holding,” replied Robin. He jumped down from the bridge and put down his bow and arrows. He cut himself a long staff from a tree growing by the river. Now Robin jumped back onto the bridge and walked towards the stranger, who began to walk towards Robin. They met in the middle of the bridge. “I would rather settle this using my bow and arrow but since you have a staff, let’s see how long you can stay standing. Are you ready? One, two … ” said Robin. “Three!” shouted the stranger and swung his staff in Robin’s direction. Robin moved quickly out of the way, regained his balance and then aimed a blow at the other man. The two of them fought for quite a while. Robin moved quickly so that the stranger did not manage to hit him, while the stranger was strong and stood his ground on the bridge. Neither of them managed to make the other move aside. After about half an hour the stranger’s face was red and he was breathing heavily. He stepped forward and swung his staff

Robin raises his staff to knock the stranger off the bridge.

explore – utforske logs – tømmerstokker stranger – fremmed roared – brølte staff – lang pinne brukt som våpen bow and arrows – pil og bue settle – her: ordne regained – gjenvant aimed – siktet blow – slag stood his ground – vek ikke

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Sherwood Forest where Robin Hood lived with his Merry Men.

dodged out of the way – dukket unna gasped – gispet squarely – her: rett på to grab hold of – å gripe tak i reeds – siv rustling – rasling tickled – kilte patted – klappet quits – skuls impression – inntrykk

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hard to finish the fight. Robin dodged out of the way, and managed to hit the other man in the ribs. The stranger almost fell and gasped: “My goodness, you can hit hard!” At the same time he tried to hit Robin with his staff. This time he was lucky. The staff took Robin by surprise and caught him squarely on the head. Robin saw stars in front of him before he fell off the bridge and into the stream. He tried to grab hold of some reeds so that he could pull himself onto the river bank. At first the stranger laughed at Robin, but then he held out his staff to help Robin out of the water. Robin lay gasping on the river bank. Then he sat up and rubbed himself on his head. “Ouch! You hit me so hard I can hear bees buzzing in my ears!” Then he picked up his horn and blew on it three times. Almost straight away there was a rustling in the trees and twenty men all dressed in green came out of the woods. “What has happened?” cried Will Scarlett. “Why are you so wet?” “Well, this man would not let me pass him on the bridge,” replied Robin. “So I tickled him a little with my staff and he patted me on the head with his.” “Then we must give him a taste of his own medicine,” shouted Will. “Get hold of him!” “No, no!” said Robin. “It was a fair fight, and he won. Are we quits now?” he continued, turning to look at the stranger. “That we are,” said the stranger. “Indeed, I like the way you fight. What’s your name?” “Most people call me Robin Hood, the outlaw.” “Oh dear, then I should not have beaten you just now. I was on my way to find you and join your merry men. But I suppose I have made a bad impression on you now?” “Not at all,” declared Robin. “I am glad we bumped into each other.”


The two men laughed together and shook hands. With that handshake they began a friendship that would last all their lives. “But you have not told us what your name is,” said Robin. “Where I come from, they call me John Little,” the stranger replied.

replied – svarte

Activities 30 Reading to understand. a Why did Robin and the stranger start fighting? b What kind of weapon did they use? c How long did they fight before someone fell off the bridge? d Why did Robin fall into the water? e What did Robin do when he was pulled out of the water? f What did Robin’s men want to do with the stranger? g What did Robin discover at the end of the story? h When Robin told his men what happened he said: “Well, this man would not let me pass him on the bridge, so I tickled him a little with my staff and he patted me on the head with his.” What really happened? Write this using your own words. i Why do you think people are still interested in the old stories about Robin Hood? 31 Description. Choose a character from Robin Hood. It may be a character from the text or another Robin Hood character that you know. BS 90

a Make a list of adjectives that describe your character. For example: Brave, handsome …

b Write a short description of the character using the adjectives. c Ask your classmate to tell you what was good about your description. 32 Poster. Make a “wanted” poster. Imagine you are the Sheriff of Nottingham and offer a reward for the capture of Robin Hood. BS 121

33 Speaking. In Robin Hood’s time, most people did not have books, but heard stories from travelling storytellers. Imagine that you are a storyteller. Retell the story of how Robin Hood met Little John to a classmate. 34 Adjectives. All heroes need someone to fight against. Robin’s enemy is the Sheriff of Nottingham. Here are some adjectives that describe the sheriff: cruel, ruthless, arrogant, corrupt, wicked, powerful BS 16 a Check that you know what all of the words mean. Use a dictionary. b Use as many of the adjectives as you can to write a paragraph about the sheriff. c Antonyms are words that have the opposite meaning. Find antonyms for the adjectives above. For example, kind is the opposite of cruel.

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Warm-up at the pictures. • Look What do they tell you

The Race for the South Pole

about this topic?

the sub-headings • Read in the text. Guess what the text will be about.

In December 1911, Roald Amundsen was celebrated as a hero. He had won the race to become the first man to reach the South Pole. Robert Scott arrived at the Pole one month later, only to find a tent and the Norwegian flag. The last unexplored continent By the end of the 1800s, Antarctica was the last unexplored continent on earth. Many countries began to plan expeditions, but in the end only two countries, Britain and Norway, took part in the race to claim the South Pole.

Secret plans South Pole – Sydpolen celebrated – feiret Antarctica – Antarktis unexplored – uutforsket expeditions – ekspedisjoner to claim the South Pole – å hevde at en eier Sydpolen secretly planning – planla i hemmelighet a famous explorer – en berømt oppdagelsesreisende to set foot on – å sette foten på

In Britain, Captain Robert Scott wanted to become the first man to reach the South Pole. However, another man, the Norwegian Roald Amundsen, was secretly planning his own expedition to claim the South Pole. Amundsen was already a famous explorer. His dream as a boy had been to be the first man to set foot on the North Pole. Two Americans made it before him and Amundsen turned his attention to the South Pole. He refused to share his ideas in case someone tried to stop his plans.

An unexpected message Therefore, Scott was shocked when he got a telegram from Amundsen. The telegram informed him simply that Amundsen was travelling to the South Pole on his ship Fram.

refused – nektet unexpected message – uventet melding extension – omfang civilization – sivilisasjon no great importance – ikke så viktig bound for – på vei til a mark of courtesy – høflighetstegn alter – forandre

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I knew I should be able to inform Captain Scott of the extension of my plans before he left civilization, and therefore a few months sooner or later could be of no great importance. Scott’s plan and equipment were so widely different from my own that I regarded the telegram that I sent him later, with the information that we were bound for the Antarctic regions, rather as a mark of courtesy than as a communication which might cause him to alter his programme in the slightest degree.

Roald Amundsen’s diary


The proud Norwegians at the South Pole.

Preparations Both the British and the Norwegian teams spent the first months of the expedition making preparations and laying supply depots along the route to the pole. On these trips some of Scott’s motor sledges broke down and his horses suffered in the extreme cold. In Antarctica the air temperatures can drop below –73 °C. The horses were not suited to the ice and the low temperatures. Amundsen used dogs, and so he managed to place his supply depots closer to the South Pole than Scott did. On 20th October 1911 the Amundsen team, five men and over 50 dogs, finally left for the Pole. preparations – forberedelser supply depots – matlager

The race

motor sledges – motorsleder, snøskuter

On 1st November, Scott and his team began their journey to the Pole as well. The race had begun at last. Amundsen was afraid that Scott would win the race because he was using motor sledges. However, the sledges soon broke down in the extreme cold. Scott’s horses also weakened. Finally, they were shot, and the men ate the meat. Some of the horses were left along the route as food for their return. Research shows that Amundsen carried more nutritious food than Scott. This is probably one of the reasons why

suffered – led were not suited – passet ikke weakened – ble svakere research – etterforskning nutritious – næringsrik

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Scott and his men were too late.

Scott failed. After a while, Scott ordered his dogs to return to base camp. This meant that the men had to pull the heavy sledges themselves. Scott felt this was a more noble way of reaching the South Pole.

Why did Amundsen think that Scott would win the race?

Norwegian victory On 14th December, the Norwegians reached the South Pole, and Amundsen wrote in his diary:

So we arrived and were able to plant our flag at the geographical South Pole. God be thanked! Now Amundsen had to hurry back to Europe with the news. He was not sure how close Scott and his men were behind him. He need not have worried. On 17th January 1912, 33 days after Amundsen, Scott’s party finally reached the South Pole. They found the Norwegian flag, as well as a tent with some equipment that Amundsen had left behind. Amundsen had even left a note for Scott to deliver to the King of Norway in case the Norwegian team did not return alive.

failed – mislyktes to return – å dra tilbake to pull – å trekke noble – edel left behind – etterlot seg deliver – levere

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disappointed – skuffede

The last days of the British expedition

starving – utsultede

The disappointed and starving British men left the Pole quickly and started their journey back to base camp. On 17th February Officer Evans stumbled behind the group and died. One month later, on his 32nd birthday, Captain Oates walked out of the tent saying: “I’m just going outside and may be some time … ” Scott wrote in his diary that it was the act of a brave man and an English gentleman. A few days later the three remaining men were lying in their tent waiting to die.

stumbled – snublet remaining – gjenværende it seems a pity – det er leit admired – beundret bravery – tapperhet courage – mot advantage – fordel

We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker, of course, and the end cannot be far. It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more.

Robert Scott’s diary

For Scott, the race for the Pole was over.

The Norwegian heroes Amundsen and his men returned safely to civilization and were celebrated as heroes. All of Scott’s expedition died during the trip back towards the coast. Both Amundsen and Scott reached the South Pole, but Amundsen was first and he returned alive. Even so, in Britain, people admired the way Scott faced his death. Scott was celebrated for his bravery and courage.

Did you know?

!

• Britain, Japan, Sweden, Norway, France, Germany and Belgium were all planning expeditions to Antarctica in the early years of the 20th century.

• Even Amundsen’s men knew little about his plans before they were close to the Antarctic.

• Since Amundsen used trained dogs, he managed to place his supply depots closer to the South Pole than Scott did.

• Amundsen knew of Scott’s motor sledges and feared they would give him an advantage so Scott would win the race.

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Activities 35 Reading to understand. a What kind of equipment did Amundsen use to reach the South Pole? Make a list.

37 Speaking. Copy the Venn diagram on Amundsen and Scott.

b What kind of equipment did Scott use to reach the South Pole? Make a list. c Why didn’t Amundsen tell Scott about his plans? d How do you think Scott reacted when he received Amundsen’s telegram? e Why do you think both Amundsen and Scott kept a diary? f Why do you think Scott failed to reach the South Pole before Amundsen? Find reasons in the text to support your answer. g What did Amundsen leave behind at the South Pole? h How did Officer Evans and Captain Oates die? i Do you think both Amundsen and Scott are heroes? Give reasons for your answer. 36 Vocabulary. Make a copy of this table. a Sort the words into four categories. Place

Equipment

People and animals

Feelings and descriptions

Norway

tent

king

brave

captain, motor sledges, horses, dogs, noble, brave, officer, tent, base camp, supply depot, king, Norwegian flag, Antarctica, Britain, Norway, explorer, telegram, disappointed, meat, gentleman, sledges, extreme cold b Now make sentences using one word from each category. For example: The brave King of Norway put up his tent in the woods.

Amundsen

In common

Scott

a Find suitable words to fill in. b Discuss similarities and differences with a classmate. 38 Writing. Imagine you are a newspaper reporter when the first information about Amundsen reaching the Pole comes in. What would you choose for your headline? 39 Vocabulary. Explain these words in English: to claim, to stumble, equipment, nutritious food, unexpected, supply depot, extreme cold. 40 Writing. Amundsen and Scott are just two of the explorers who have travelled to the South Pole. a Do some research in the library or on the Internet and find out about another explorer. b Write an informative paragraph about that person. c List your sources. 41 Diary. Write Robert Scott’s diary entries from the last days of his life. Keep in mind that it was freezing cold and he knew he was going to die. BS 102

42 Speaking. Imagine that Amundsen and Scott meet just before the expedition. They discuss and argue about who has the best plans for equipment and food. Work with a classmate and act out the discussion. BS 134

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Chapter Activities Sum up 43 Verbs. Skim through this chapter and find examples of verbs that are in the present simple. a Explain to a classmate how you know that these verbs are in the present simple. b Give examples of when you use the present simple. 44 Speaking. Choose one of the heroes you have read about in the chapter. Think about what you know about this hero. a Write a list of keywords. b Tell a classmate about the hero. 45 Adjectives. In this chapter you can find many words to describe a hero. Most of these are adjectives that describe looks or special abilities. BS 16 a Find as many adjectives as possible, at least ten. Write a list. Read the words to a classmate. b Write a new sentence for five of the adjectives on your list. c Find antonyms for the adjectives you have found. For example, tall is the antonym of short. 46 Vocabulary. Match the words with the correct explanation.

American firefighter, airplane, helicopter, national hero, strange-looking kid, outlaw, expedition, rich businessman, English teacher, unusual costume, protective shield 48 Speaking. These words and phrases describe personal qualities: heroic, tolerant, a good listener, service minded, good at teamwork, reliable, able to handle stressful situations, brave, extraordinary, legendary, not easily distracted, noble, unique a Which of these personal qualities do you think are most important if you are a hero. List them from most to least important. b Compare your list with that of a classmate. 49 British and American English. These are varieties of the same language. However, there are some words that are different. BS 66 a What are the British English words for elevator and airplane? b Match the words that mean the same: American English

British English

pants

cinema

Explanation

pharmacy

handbag

telling the truth

movie theater

sweets

different from everyone and everything else

sidewalk

crisps

french fries

toilet

unselfishness

very special, unusual or strange

purse

torch

honesty

the physical or mental skills you need to do something

potato chips

pavement

putting someone else before yourself

candy

chips

restroom

trousers

flashlight

chemist

Word unique courage

extraordinary abilities

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47 A or an. Put a or an in front of these words and phrases. BS 8

bravery

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Move on 50 Writing. The school magazine has asked you to write about someone that you think is a hero. Who would you choose? Explain why you chose that person. 51 Diary. Choose one of the heroes mentioned in this chapter. Imagine this person writing a diary. What would he or she write about? Write two paragraphs in this person’s diary. BS 102

52 Writing. Write the beginning of a story where you are the superhero. Examples of super powers you can give yourself are: super strength, invisibility, the ability to fly and mental powers. BS 86 53 Writing. There are many heroes in literature and legend. Write a text about a hero from literature. Here are some examples:

King Arthur, Hercules, Harry Potter, Alk and Ilke (from Phenomena), Ronia the Robber’s Daughter, the Pevensies (from the Chronicles of Narnia), Frodo (from The Lord of the Rings), Lyra (from The Golden Compass). 54 Speaking. Many popular films are based on books. Captain America first appeared in comic books, but he has also starred in two films: The Avengers and Captain America. Have you seen any films based on books? Did you enjoy them? Why or why not? 55 Speaking. Everyday heroes.

BS 140

a Make a list of jobs where people are everyday heroes. b Make a search plan and find out more about one of these jobs. c Make a presentation.

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… define different types of heroes. … make a list of heroes from literature and film. … explain what an everyday hero is and give examples. … identify adjectives in a text. … describe a hero using many different adjectives. … give examples of words that are different in American and British English. … use verbs in the present simple correctly.

B What have you worked well with in English lately?

What do you need to work on?

+ …………………………………………………

? …………………………………………………

+ …………………………………………………

How will you work on this? ? …………………………………………………

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3

Britain


?

TOPIC WORDS

What do you know about Britain? What would you like to know? Make lists headed “I know” and “I would like to know”.

Britain British multicultural society culture capital

Learning objectives

to rule

n

typical

n

to visit

n n n

Place major cities on a map of Great Britain Explain why Britain is a multicultural society Describe typical British food and drink Identify and use verbs in the past simple Improve pronunciation of difficult sounds

69


Warm-up through the • Read questions. Do you know any answers already?

Q& A Britain is not a large country in size, but it has a long and exciting history. This small country has influenced the world through language, music, politics and in many other areas. What do you need to know about Britain? Here are some questions people often ask about Britain and, of course, some simple answers.

?

What is the difference between Great Britain and the United Kingdom? Great Britain is made up of England, Wales and Scotland. It is actually an island, not a country. The United Kingdom includes both Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The official name of the entire country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. People usually call the country the UK or just Britain. So when people talk about Britain they are actually talking about the United Kingdom.

?

What is the capital of Britain? London is the capital of England and also of the United Kingdom. The other countries in Britain have their own capital too. The capital of Wales is Cardiff, the capital of Scotland is Edinburgh and the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.

? Q & A – questions and answers influenced – påvirket capital – hovedstad

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What do you call someone from Britain? People from Britain are British and you can call them Brits. People from Scotland are Scottish, those from Wales are Welsh and those from England are English. So while all the English are British, not all the British are English.


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

SCOTLAND

Edinburgh

NORTHERN Belfast

IRELAND

ENGLAND WALES Cardiff

London


?

What do you have to keep in mind if you visit Britain? Be polite. In Britain it is important to say “please” and “thank you”. If you bump into someone, always say “sorry”. When you would like some help, begin with “excuse me”. And remember that you should never push in front of someone in a queue.

Cross of St. George (England)

+

?

Which sports are popular in Britain? Football is the most popular spectator sport, but rugby, swimming, cricket, tennis and snooker are also popular.

Cross of St. Andrew (Scotland)

+

?

English is spoken in many countries because Britain had colonies all over the world. The build-up of the British Empire began in the 1500s during the reign of Elizabeth I, and at its height it was the largest empire in history. By the 1920s Britain partly or completely controlled about a fifth of the world’s population. English was the common language of communication. Many of the countries which were colonies still have English as their official language.

Cross of St. Patrick (Ireland)

=

Union Jack (United Kingdom)

Why do so many people in countries all over the world speak English?

?

Are there different ways of speaking English in Britain? Yes. There are many different varieties of English in Britain. For example, people from the North of England sound very different from people from the South and West. In addition, people in Wales and Scotland have their own language. In Wales many people speak Welsh (dwi’n siarad Cymraeg = I speak Welsh) and in Scotland some people speak Gaelic (falo Gaélico = I speak Gaelic).

polite – høflig spectator – tilskuer snooker – biljard colonies – kolonier empire – rike reign – regjeringstid population – befolkning varieties – varianter parliament – storting/parlament prime minister – statsminister elected – valgt

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?

How is Britain ruled? Britain is a democracy. There is a parliament and a prime minister who are both elected by the people. Britain is also a monarchy, which means they have a king or a queen.


?

Britain today is called a multicultural society. Why? People from many different countries have moved to and settled in Britain, bringing with them traditions from their own culture. Many of them came because their country used to be part of the British Empire.

Activities 1 Reading to understand. a Which countries make up Great Britain?

3 Reading. Work with a classmate and practise reading through Q & A.

b What is the capital of Scotland?

a Read through at least three times.

c Where do Welsh people come from?

b Now test each other – how many answers can you remember?

d What should you never do in Britain? e Is football Britain’s most popular sport? f When did Britain control about one fifth of the world’s population? g Why is Britain a multicultural society? h Are all British people English? Why, or why not? 2 Question words. Look through the Q & A text. a Write down all the question words that you can find. BS 28 b Which other question words are there? Write them down. c The answers to e and h in activity 1 begin with yes and no. How do these questions differ from the other questions? d Which question words do you think will give you the most informative answers? Explain your answer.

4 Writing. What do you think foreigners would like to know about Norway? Write ten questions and answers like the ones in the Q & A text. Vary the question words that you use. BS 28 5 Reading strategies. Close reading is to read a text slowly, focusing on every detail in the text. BS 128 a Read one of the answers in this text closely. Retell what you remember to a classmate. b Use Basic Skills to find more reading strategies. List the strategies from the one you like best to the one you like least. Work with a classmate and compare your lists. Explain your choices. c When do you think the reading strategy close reading might be useful?

e What are the question words in Norwegian? Are there any similarities between the English and the Norwegian question words?

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Warm-up from all over the • People world live in Britain. Which countries do you think most come from? Compare your answer with a classmate.

Multicultural Britain Maria is working on a task for her English class. The task is to write a short text explaining why Britain is a multicultural society. Maria has read a little on the Internet, but she thinks that the topic is difficult. She decides to ask her history teacher for help. Maria: Hello, Mr Swan, could you help me with my English homework, please? I need to know why Britain is a multicultural society. I looked up multi­cultural on the Internet and found out that it means that there are many people from other countries living in Britain. But I don’t understand why. Mr Swan: Well, Maria, to answer that we need to look at some events from history. Have you heard of the British Empire? Maria: Yes, but I’m not sure exactly what it is. Mr Swan: Well, it’s a bit complicated, but basically, between 1600 and 1900 Britain built up the largest empire that has ever existed. Explorers discovered new countries such as North America and Australia, which became part of Britain. Also, the industrial revolution, which began in the late 1700s, meant Britain needed raw materials for its factories, especially the textile factories. Maria: What are raw materials?

multicultural – multikulturelle empire – rike complicated – komplisert basically – i bunn og grunn existed – eksistert raw materials – råvarer textile factories – tekstilfabrikker wool – ull spun – spunnet knit – strikke weave – veve resources – ressurser reign – regjeringstid

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Mr Swan: They are the things that we need to make other things. For example, wool from sheep is spun into a material that we can use to knit jumpers or weave into textiles. Maria: Oh, I see. So Britain didn’t have enough raw materials? Mr Swan: That’s right. Countries such as India, South Africa and Kenya had important resources and became colonies. Britain invaded and took control over these countries and they became part of the British Empire. By the time Victoria became queen in 1836, Britain had colonies all over the world, for example in the Caribbean, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India. During her reign more countries in Africa and Asia became part of the empire. So, Victoria was Queen and Empress of a fifth of the world’s population. People used to say “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”


Maria: What does that mean? Mr Swan: It means that Britain ruled over so many countries that it was always daytime somewhere in the Empire.

Travelling home on a busy double decker London bus.

Maria: Ah, I see! Mr Swan: Good. Now, where was I? Oh yes, Victoria was queen of a fifth of the world’s population. Of course, that’s not the end of the story. Britain no longer has an empire.

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balance of power – maktbalanse

Maria: What happened?

independent – selvstendige

Mr Swan: Well Maria, that’s much too complicated to explain in a few sentences. After the Second World War, things were difficult for Britain because it had spent a lot of money on the war and because the balance of power in the world had shifted to the USA and the Soviet Union. Many of the colonies were also unhappy with the situation, so the Empire gradually began to collapse. Maria: What do you mean? Mr Swan: I mean that the colonies began to leave the Empire, to become independent. Maria: Oh, I see. Which country left first? Mr Swan: Well, actually, several countries left before the world wars, but after the Second World War, the first country was India. In 1947 India and Pakistan became independent countries.

The population in England and Wales: by ethnic group, 2009

White 87.9 % = native British

Other 12.1 %

Source: Experimental Population Estimates by Ethnic Group for local authority districts and higher administrative areas for England and Wales for 2009, Office for National Statistics

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Maria: But I still don’t understand what this has to do with people in Britain today. Mr Swan: After the war Britain needed workers to get the country back on its feet. They needed to build houses and other buildings. People came from Ireland and Europe, but this wasn’t enough, so people from former colonies were also asked to move.

Why do you think the colonies wanted to become independent?

former colonies – tidligere kolonier immigrants – innvandrere

Maria: Ok, now I understand better. So, do most immigrants come from former colonies?

pie chart – sektordiagram

Mr Swan: Well here’s a pie chart with information about where people living in England and Wales are from. What does the chart tell us? Maria: 2.6 % of the population are Indian, 1.8 % are Pakistani and 1.5 % are Black African. They’re all colonies aren’t they? Oh, and Black Caribbean, that’s 1.1 %. So altogether 7 % of the population are from former colonies.

Pakistani Indian 1.8 %

2.6 %

Bangladeshi 0.7 % 0.7 %

Mixed

1.8 %

1.1 %

0.8 % Any other ethnic group

0.8 % 0.2 %

Other Asian

Black Carribbean

1.5 % Black African

Chinese Other Black

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nowadays – nå for tiden

Mr Swan: Don’t forget Bangladeshi and other Asian. And that white includes people from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada for example. But actually, nowadays the second biggest group of immigrants are from Poland. This is because people from EU contries can work in Britain now. If we look at which country people were born in, the top five are India, Poland, Pakistan, Republic of Ireland and Germany. Maria: Wow, Britain really is a multicultural society!

A map showing the British Empire in 1886.

Past simple The past simple is used to talk about something that happened in the past and which is no longer happening. Explorers discovered new countries. To make the past simple of regular verbs: add -ed Call + ed = called Discover + ed = discovered Many verbs are irregular, for example build – built, catch – caught, speak – spoke. Use the list in Basic Skills to check. BS

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36


Activities 6 Reading to understand. a Name two countries which were part of the British Empire.

10 Speaking. Give examples of how Maria responds when she a understands what the teacher explains.

b What percentage of the world’s population lived in the Empire?

b doesn’t understand what the teacher explains.

c When did India become independent?

c wants some more information.

d Why did Britain start to lose power in the twentieth century? e What percentage of Britain’s population is non-white?

11 Numbers. Do you think a pie chart is the best way of illustrating that Britain is a multicultural society? Find other ways of presenting this information.

f Which group of immigrants in Britain is the largest?

12 Verbs. Skim read through the text.

g Why do you think this group is the largest? h Which European countries do many immigrants come from? i Why do you think that so many people all over the world speak English? j What is a multicultural society? Explain using your own words. 7 Reading. Read the text closely and include the information you find about British history in a time line from the 17th century until today. 8 Digital skills. Choose a country that has been part of the British Empire. BS 172 a Use the Internet to find information about this country. Choose a suitable way to present the information. b List your sources. Are your sources reliable? Give reasons for your answer.

BS 36

a Find at least five regular and five irregular verbs in the past simple. b Use these verbs to make ten new sentences. c How good are you at writing verbs in the past simple? Assess yourself on a scale from 1 to 6, where 6 is the best. 13 Verbs. Find the verbs and rewrite these sentences in the past simple. a She decides to ask her history teacher for help. b It means that Britain rules over many countries. c Many immigrants come from former colonies. d The second biggest group of immigrants are from Poland.

9 Writing. Imagine you have just moved to Britain. Write a diary entry about your first visit to the local supermarket. Write about some of the people that you met. BS 102

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Warm-up you were to write a • Ifpoem about the British, what would you write? Talk to a classmate.

The British Poem by Benjamin Zephaniah, 2000

Take some Picts, Celts and Silures And let them settle, Then overrun them with Roman conquerors. Remove the Romans after approximately 400 years Add lots of Norman French to some Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Vikings, then stir vigorously. Mix some hot Chileans, cool Jamaicans, Dominicans, Trinidadians and Bajans with some Ethiopians, Chinese, Vietnamese and Sudanese. Then take a blend of Somalians, Sri Lankans, Nigerians And Pakistanis, Combine with some Guyanese And turn up the heat.

Benjamin Zephaniah settle – slå seg ned overrun – bre utover conquerors – erobrere approximately – omtrent stir vigorously – rør kraftig blend – blanding combine with – kombiner med turn up the heat – skru opp varmen sprinkle – strø melting pot – smeltedigel simmer – putre/småkoke unity – samhold justice – rettferdighet unpleasant – ubehagelig unequal – ulik equality – likhet

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Sprinkle some fresh Indians, Malaysians, Bosnians, Iraqis and Bangladeshis together with some Afghans, Spanish, Turkish, Kurdish, Japanese And Palestinians Then add to the melting pot. Leave the ingredients to simmer. As they mix and blend allow their languages to flourish Binding them together with English. Allow time to be cool. Add some unity, understanding, and respect for the future, Serve with justice And enjoy. Note: All the ingredients are equally important. Treating one ingredient better than another will leave a bitter unpleasant taste. Warning: An unequal spread of justice will damage the people and cause pain. Give justice and equality to all.


Activities 14 Reading to understand a How many different nationalities are mentioned in the poem? b Choose five of the nationalities. Which countries do these people come from? c Why are there people of so many different nationalities in Britain? d The poem is written like a recipe. Skim through and find at least five words or phrases that you would find in a recipe. e Why do you think Benjamin Zephaniah chose to write the poem as a recipe? f What do you think Benjamin Zephaniah means in the Note at the end of the poem? 15 Speaking. Listen to the poem. a Practise reading it aloud. b Which words do you think are difficult to say? Write a list.

16 Speaking. Explain what you think the poem is about to a classmate. 17 Digital skills. Pick one of the nationalities mentioned in the poem. BS 172 a Find information about their country on the Internet. Take notes while you are reading. b Now tell a classmate about the country, using your notes to help you. 18 Vocabulary. One word in each list does not fit. Find the word and give reasons why. a hot, add, heat, cool b Vikings, Spanish, Chinese, French c understanding, respect, future, justice d take, let, turn, with 19 Writing. Write a recipe poem about Norway. Borrow useful phrases from the poem The British.

c Compare your list with your classmate’s list.

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Warm-up of the places on • Which these pages do you recognise? Do you know other places in Britain that are not pictured?

Visiting Britain 2

1

3

4 5

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7 6

8

9

10

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83


Did you know?

!

• Stonehenge is older than the pyramids in Egypt.

• There are more than 900 other stone circles like Stonehenge in Britain.

• We do not know for sure why Stonehenge was built.

• The people who built Stonehenge knew about maths because the circle is built to line up with the midwinter and midsummer sunset.

!

Did you know? • Portmeirion looks like an Italian village but it is actually located in Wales.

• It was built by Clough Williams-Ellis between 1925 and 1975.

• It is one of the top ten tourist attractions in Wales.

• It has been used as a location for films, TV shows and music videos.

line up – her: passe med sunset – solnedgang village – landsby located in – ligger i location – sted

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Portmeirion

Stonehenge


Activities 20 Listening. Name the picture in which you can see the following: BS 150 a The largest volume of water in Great Britain b A Roman construction c Lava columns cooled as hexagons d A rainforest e An amusement park f A place where you can get a great view over London g The place where the England football team play their home matches 21 Writing. Some of the photographs show places that are not mentioned in activity 20. a List these places. b Choose one of the places. Use the Internet to find information and write the script for a listening task about that place. 22 Writing. Choose one of the places in the pictures. Imagine that you are visiting that place. Write a postcard to a friend. 23 Writing. Choose one of the pictures.

BS 90

a Write a short description of what you can see. Use plenty of adjectives in your description. b Read your description to a classmate. Ask your classmate to guess which picture you have described. c What do you think is good about your description? d Ask a classmate to tell you what is good about your description.

24 Speaking. You are a tour guide and have a class of ten-year-old pupils coming to visit. Choose a place that you would like to talk about, and make an interesting and exciting talk. You may need to find some extra information from books or on the Internet. 25 Speaking. Imagine that you are visiting one of the places on these pages. While you are there, your friend calls you and asks what you are doing. Have a phone conversation with a classmate about what you can see and do there. 26 Poster. Make a poster of a place or a sight in Britain which will hang on the wall of a travel agency. BS 121 a Include these elements on your poster: a headline, list of facts, a drawing or a picture, a map showing where to find this place b What is good about your poster? Write two or three sentences. 27 Speaking. Work with a classmate and act out a conversation in a tourist information office in Britain. You may use sentences like these: Excuse me, what are the most popular places to visit around here? What should I see if I only have a few days in Britain? Can you please tell me… 28 Digital Skills. Place the famous sights in the pictures on a map of Britain.

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Warm-up many British football • How teams do you know? Make a list.

Goal! You can learn a lot about the geography of Great Britain through football. Most towns and cities have at least one football team, and nearly all of their names include the name of the place they come from.

England! England is buzzin’ With all the football matches I hope we win them Haiku poem by Becky Ginn

1

2

3

4 5 6 7

9

8 10

15

11 14

13

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Activities 29 Digitals skills. Match the teams with the numbers on the map: Liverpool, Manchester United, Nottingham Forest, Bristol City, Leicester City, Exeter City, Southampton, Newcastle United, Arsenal, Watford, Norwich City, Birmingham City, Celtic FC, Cardiff City, Aberdeen. 30 Digital skills. No team has London as part of their name but there are many teams that come from this city. Search the Internet and answer these questions. a Which of the following teams do not come from London? Chelsea, Rangers, Queens Park Rangers, Aston Villa, Leyton Orient, Wolves, Arsenal, Hearts, West Ham, Fulham, Everton, Millwall, Queen of the South, Crystal Palace b Where do the other teams come from? 31 Numbers. James is an Everton fan. He enjoys going to matches, but as he also plays football himself, he cannot attend all the matches. This season he will be able to attend 12 matches. BS 159

a A season ticket costs £149. A ticket for a match costs £18. Is it worth buying a season ticket? Show your working and then explain to a classmate how you calculated the answer. b How many matches does James need to attend to make the season ticket a good buy? c Is working with maths in English different from working with maths in Norwegian? Discuss this with a classmate. 32 Writing. Write your own Haiku poem about Britain.

33 Vocabulary. Pitch, goal, player, goalkeeper, score, save, penalty, free kick, overtime, referee, linesman, throw in, dribble, pass, kick off a Check that you know what all of these words mean. Use a dictionary. b Make a crossword using as many football words as you can. You can add words that are not in the list as well. Example: Answer = goalkeeper. Your clue could be “The player who stops the other team from getting the ball in the net.” c Ask a classmate to solve your crossword. 34 Listening. In the match between Manchester City and Arsenal, the score is 1–1. With one minute left Arsenal has been awarded a penalty. Listen to what happens and answer the questions. BS 150 a Why have the Manchester City players crowded around the referee? b What will happen if an Arsenal player scores from the penalty? c What happens when the Arsenal player takes the penalty? d What happens after the penalty? e What is the result of the match? f Which listening strategies did you use in order to find the answers to the questions? 35 Speaking. You have been to a match between Manchester City and Arsenal. Decide whether you are a City fan or an Arsenal fan. a Act out a situation where you call a friend and tell him or her what happened at the match. b Discuss with your classmate what was good about your role play.

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Warm-up are people from • Cockneys the East End of London. They pronounce some letters in an unusual way. For example, the “a” in “day” is pronounced more like “die”. Try saying A-BC-D to rhyme with “die”.

English Like a Lady Professor Higgins is an expert on phonetics. He makes a bet with his friend, Colonel Pickering, that he can teach Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower girl, how to speak and behave like a lady. This is Eliza’s first lesson. Extract from Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw

Higgins: Say your alphabet. Eliza: I know my alphabet. Do you think I know nothing? I don’t need to be taught like a child.

Professor Higgins, Eliza and Colonel Pickering.

pronounce – uttaler phonetics – læren om hvordan ord uttales makes a bet – vedder

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Higgins: Say your alphabet. Pickering: Say it, Miss Doolittle. You will understand presently. Do what he tells you; and let him teach you in his own way. Eliza: Oh well, if you put it like that – Ahyee, Bayee, Cayee, Dayee – Higgins: (with a roar of a wounded lion) Stop. Listen to this, Pickering. This is what we pay for as elementary education. This unfortunate animal has been locked up for nine years in school at our expense to teach her to speak and read the language of Shakespeare and Milton. And the result is Ahyee, Bayee, Cayee, Dayee. (To Eliza) Say A, B, C, D.

presently – snart his own way – på sin egen måte elementary education – grunnskole unfortunate – uheldig at our expense – på vår regning

Eliza (almost in tears): But I’m sayin' it. Ahyee, Bayee, Cayee … Higgins: Stop. Say a cup of tea.

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squeezes – presser splendid – kjempeflott at the first shot – på første forsøk duchess – hertuginne genteel-like – elegant, dannet promise – lover

Eliza: A cappata-ee. Higgins: Put your tongue forward until it squeezes against the top of your lower teeth. Now say cup. Eliza: C-c-c- I can’t. C-Cup. Pickering: Good. Splendid, Miss Doolittle. Higgins: By Jupiter, she’s done it at the first shot. Pickering, we shall make a duchess of her. (To Eliza) Now do you think you could possibly say tea? Not Ta-yee, mind; if you ever say Ba-yee, Ca-yee, Da-yee again you shall be dragged round the room three times by the hair of your head. (fortissimo) T, T, T, T. Eliza (weeping): I can’t hear no difference ‘cept that it sounds more genteel-like, when you say it. Higgins: Well, if you can hear that difference, what the devil are you crying for? Pickering, give her a chocolate. Pickering: No, no. Never mind crying a little, Miss Doolittle, you are doing very well; and the lessons won’t hurt. I promise you I won’t let him drag you round the room by your hair.

Eliza

Did you know?

Professor Higgins

Colonel Pickering

!

Cockneys speak a dialect and normally don’t pronounce the letter h at the beginning of words. A cockney would say “im and er” instead of “him and her”. Try to say this sentence like a real Cockney: “In Hampshire, Hereford and Hertford hurricanes hardly ever happen.”

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Activities 36 Reading to understand. a What is the first thing that Eliza has to do? b How long does Higgins think Eliza went to school for? c What does Higgins threaten to do if Eliza cannot say A-B-C-D correctly? d Why does Higgins ask Pickering to give Eliza a chocolate?

39 Speaking. Read the play in groups of three. Divide the roles between you and try to perform like actors. Practise and perform the play in class. 40 Writing. This text is from a play called Pygmalion.

e Why do you think Eliza cries?

a How can you see that this is a play? Make a list of points.

f Do you think Eliza will change as a person when she changes the way she speaks? Why, or why not?

b What do you think is good about this play? Write a few sentences.

37 Speaking. Eliza eventually learns to speak like a lady and Professor Higgins wins his bet. Imagine Eliza’s future. Do you think there will be  times and places when it will be better for her to speak like a cockney and times when it would be better to speak like Professor Higgins? Write down your ideas and then discuss with a classmate. 38 Listening. Practise pronouncing the alphabet in English. a Listen to the alphabet and practise pronouncing it. b Write down the words that are spelled out for you. c Spell out these words: tongue, teeth, cup, room, well, very, this d Find a difficult word from the text. Spell it out and ask a classmate to write it down. Check their spelling. e What are the differences between the English and the Norwegian alphabet?

41 Writing. Write Eliza’s diary entry for the day of her first lesson with Professor Higgins. BS 102 42 Speaking. Practise these tongue twisters: BS 62

a Three free throws b If two witches were watching two watches, which witch would watch which watch? c Your eyes are blue as ice. d Don’t you dare tear the fabric there. e Woollen vests for wailing wolves.

Pronunciation When you speak English it is important to pronounce words so that other people understand you. You should therefore practise sounds that are difficult for you. Be aware of these sounds: /v/ in viking /θ/ in think /ð/ in the /s/ in ice /z / in eyes

BS 62

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Warm-up a list of food and • Make drink that you associate with Britain. associate – forbinder med average – gjennomsnitt billion – milliarder tea breaks – tepauser sorted out – løst

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British Food A cup of tea People in Britain drink a lot of tea. They drink an average of five cups a day, which is about 60 billion cups a year. Most people drink their tea with milk and about a third use sugar in their tea as well. Tea breaks at work are a tradition that has been around for about 200 years. In fact, many workers say that they learn more about what is going on at work over a cup of tea than they do in any other way. Whatever the problem, it can be sorted out “over a nice cup of tea”.


Fish and chips Perhaps one of the most famous types of food found in Britain is fish and chips. There are chip shops or “chippies” in most towns and cities, and eating fish and chips has been a popular end of the week treat for Brits for decades. Potions of fish and chips were wrapped in newspaper to keep costs down until 1980, when the authorities decided that there had to be a layer of paper between the food and the newspaper. Rising costs and competition from other types of fast foods mean that there are fewer chip shops in Britain now, but fish and chips is still a popular meal. Remember to order mushy peas with your fish and chips, and shake on salt and vinegar.

treat – godbit decades – tiår the authorities – myndighetene rising costs – økende priser mushy peas – ertestuing vinegar – eddik boasts of – skryter av national dish – nasjonalrett ironically – ironisk nok developed – utviklet

Indian food London boasts of some of the world’s best Indian food. In fact, Chicken Tikka Masala has become Britain’s national dish. 23 million portions are sold in restaurants every year. Ironically, this is a dish that is unknown in India or Pakistan. It was developed by a chef in Britain and is more suited to British tastes.

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lid

Utensils whisk

chopping board

saucepan rolling pin

frying pan

Scones

utensils – kjøkkenredskaper whipped cream – pisket krem fetch – hent ingredients – ingredienser recipe – oppskrift flour – mel baking powder – bakepulver pinch of salt – klype salt heat the oven – varm ovnen grease a baking sheet – smør et bakebrett rub – smuldre dough – deig brush – pensle beaten egg – pisket egg

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Scone is a Scottish word, but you find scones all over Britain. They are usually served with a cup of tea and are eaten with butter, jam and whipped cream. Eat scones on the day you make them – they taste best when they are fresh. Before baking: Fetch all the ingredients and utensils you need to bake scones. Read the recipe carefully before you start baking. For about 12 scones Ingredients • 225 g flour • 1 teaspoon baking powder • a pinch of salt • 55 g butter • 25 g sugar • 150 ml milk • 1 egg, beaten, to glaze

Preparation method 1 Heat the oven to 220 °C. 2 Lightly grease a baking sheet with butter. 3 Mix together the flour, baking powder and salt, and rub in the butter. 4 Stir in the sugar and then the milk to make a soft dough. 5 Roll out the dough until it is 2 cm thick. Cut the dough into squares. 6 Brush the tops of the scones with the beaten egg. 7 Bake for 12–15 minutes until well risen and golden. 8 Cool and serve with butter, jam and maybe some whipped cream.


baking sheet pie dish teaspoon

tablespoon cake tin

Activities 43 Reading to understand. Are these statements true or false? Rewrite the false statements so that they are true.

46 Vocabulary. British and American English have some differences in vocabulary. BS 66

a British people usually drink their tea with milk.

a Find out what chips, crisps and fries are in British and American English.

b Potions of fish and chips are still served wrapped in newspaper.

b Which variety of English is most similar to Norwegian?

c You should add salt and pepper to your chips.

c Do you know any other English words that are used for food in Norwegian?

d Chicken Tikka Masala is very popular in India. e Scones are usually eaten with butter and jam. f Scones are made from flour, butter, sugar, milk and egg. 44 Vocabulary. Sort the words from the scone recipe into these categories.

47 Speaking. Look at the pictures of kitchen utensils. a How does a teaspoon differ from a tablespoon? b How does a baking sheet differ from a chopping board? c How does a cake tin differ from a pie dish?

Ingredients

Instruction verbs

Measurements

Utensils

d How does a frying pan differ from a saucepan?

flour

mix

220 °C

teaspoon

e How does a whisk differ from a rolling pin?

45 Vocabulary. Here are some useful words for reading an English recipe: dip, stuff, cool, season, grate, slice, peel, rinse, simmer.

48 Numbers. You are going to make 24 scones. Rewrite the recipe with double the ingredients.

a Sort the words into alphabetical order. b Translate the words into Norwegian. Use a dictionary for the words you do not know. c Create and write your own recipe, using some of the words above. Think of an amusing name for your dish.

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Warm-up the texts about fashion. • Skim Find the vegetarian, the tailor and the person who wore black.

Fashion in Britain Britain and fashion go hand in hand. British designers are famous for their quirky creativity, and there are many fashion icons who appear in magazines and in advertising campaigns. Even the royal family make the headlines with their style.

quirky – original fashion icons – moteforbilder in public – offentlig, blant andre mennesker to impress – å imponere more magnificently – flottere to outshine – å ta oppmerksomheten fra maids – tjenestepiker

History of fashion in England Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603) Queen Elizabeth I loved fashion. In private she wore simple clothes, but when she was in public, she dressed to impress people. The Queen always dressed more magnificently than everyone else, and no one was allowed to outshine the Queen. Her maids often wore white clothes, while the Queen had beautiful, colourful dresses.

Magnificently dressed Elizabeth I.


Queen Victoria (1819–1901)

wedding dresses – brudekjoler

Victoria was just 18 years old when she became the Queen of England, and she married Albert when she was 21. Some people say she started the fashion of using white wedding dresses. She chose a white dress although the tradition at the time was for the bride to wear dresses of different colours. Victoria’s everyday clothes had high-buttoned collars, layers of fabric and long sleeves. She wore her hair up and in a fairly simple, yet elegant style. After her husband died, she wore black for the rest of her life.

high-buttoned collars – høye krager med knapper layers of fabric – lag på lag med stoff long sleeves – lange ermer fairly simple – ganske enkel dropped out – sluttet tailor – skredder suits – dresser

Fashion in modern Britain

theatre costumes – teaterkostymer

Alexander McQueen (1969–2010) When he was 16, Alexander McQueen dropped out of school and started working as a tailor, making suits for men. Later, he started making theatre costumes. These costumes inspired the clothes he designed for the rest of his life. He designed clothes for many famous people such as Prince Charles, the former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, and the pop star Lady Gaga.

Stylish Kate, wife of Prince William, in her wedding dress designed by Sarah Burton, creative director for Alexander McQueen.

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Stella McCartney (1971–)

animal-friendly materials – dyrevennlige stoffer vegetarian – vegetarianer leather – skinn

Stella McCartney works with animal-friendly materials. As a vegetarian, she does not use any leather or fur in her clothes. Her style is elegant and feminine, but also simple and comfortable. Stella designs unique and expensive clothes for those who can afford them, but she also designs for less expensive chain stores. She even designed the clothes for the British athletes in the 2012 Olympic Games.

fur – pels

High street fashion

comfortable – behagelig

Most people in Britain do not buy designer clothes. They buy their clothes in chain stores, either on shopping streets in town centres or in large shopping centres. The most famous shopping street in Britain is Oxford Street in London. It is over 2 km long and has about 300 shops.

chain stores – kjedebutikker athletes – idrettsutøvere high street – storgate


Some of Britain’s largest and most famous shops, for example Selfridges, Marks and Spencer and John Lewis, are in Oxford Street. There are also many chain stores where you can buy clothes. If you love shopping and are visiting London then you should make a trip to Oxford Street. In December the whole street is lit up by hundreds of Christmas lights.

Activities 49 Reading to understand. Find someone who a does not use leather and fur. b dressed simply at home. c designed clothes for Prince Charles. d started the fashion for white wedding dresses. 50 Writing. Choose two of the fashion icons on these pages. Compare them using a Venn diagram.

53 Speaking. Who is your fashion icon?

BS 139

a Make a mini-talk summarising the most important and interesting information about that person. b Ask your classmates to tell you what was good about your mini-talk. 54 Drawing. Be a designer. You are asked to design the next summer collection for a famous chain store. a Make sketches and drawings. b Write a short description. c Present in class.

51 Digital skills. Choose another British designer. BS 172

a Find information on the Internet and take notes. b Write a paragraph about this person. c List your sources. d Why did you choose this person? Give reasons. 52 Speaking. You and a friend are in London, and you are planning a visit to Oxford Street. Talk about which shops you would like to visit and what you would like to buy.

55 Verbs. The text about Stella McCartney contains several verbs: works, does, is, designs, designed. BS 30 a Which of these verbs are in the present simple? b Why is most of the text written in the present simple? c One sentence contains a verb in the past simple. Which verb is this? Why is this sentence written in the past simple? d How can you see the difference between a verb in the present and the past simple?

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Warm-up kind of treasure do • What you think is hidden on Treasure Island? Make a list of treasures that you think pirates would hide.

Treasure Island Characters: Jim Hawkins: a cabin boy who wants to hunt for treasure at sea. He is the person telling the story. Captain Smolett: the captain of the Hispaniola, the ship that Jim is on. Long John Silver: the ship’s cook. Secretly a cruel pirate. Dr Livesey: a doctor who is on the ship with Jim. Captain Flint: a dead pirate captain who buried treasure on the island. He made a map showing where the treasure is buried.

treasure – skatt island – øy cabin boy – matros

Ben Gunn: a pirate left on Treasure Island many years ago by Captain Flint. The pirates: some of the sailors decide to join Long John Silver and become pirates.

cruel – grusom notorious – beryktede to double-cross – å lure crew – mannskap gloomy – dystert forbidding – ugjestmildt wooded – dekket av skog rocky peaks – fjelltopper anchored – ankret inlet – bukt restless – urolige gave leave – ga lov til go ashore – gå i land raised their spirits – bedret humøret break their shins over treasure – snuble over skatten was in charge of – hadde ansvar for to catch the words – å få med meg det som ble sagt bullying – her: tvang

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Jim Hawkins found a treasure map belonging to the notorious pirate Captain Flint. Jim set sail on the Hispaniola with Captain Smollett to find the treasure. The ship’s cook, Long John Silver, planned to double-cross them. Read Jim's story of what happened when he and the crew arrived on Treasure Island. Adapted from Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson

Treasure Island looked like a gloomy, forbidding place. The lower parts were wooded, with rocky peaks above the trees. Even in the sunshine, with birds singing above, I hated the thought of it. We were anchored in an inlet where the trees came down to the water. The air was hot and still, and the men were restless. Captain Smollett gave leave for the men to go ashore, which raised their spirits. I believe the silly fellows thought they would break their shins over treasure as soon as they landed. Long John Silver was in charge of the two boats taking the thirteen men ashore. I knew I should not be needed on board so I decided to go ashore too. I ran up the beach into the woods, glad to be free and alone. I sat quietly hidden in the bushes. Hearing voices, I moved nearer to catch the words. I could see and hear Long John Silver bullying a sailor to join him and the


Long John Silver’s pirates get ready to fight Captain Smollett and his men.

plunge his dagger – stikke dolken sin

pirates. The sailor angrily refused. Silver’s answer was to plunge his dagger into the man and leave him lying dead in the forest. I felt faint. When I pulled myself together, Silver was wiping his knife on a tuft of grass. I feared for my life if I should be found, and ran and ran, not caring where. I stopped at the foot of a stony hill. My eye was caught by a movement on the hillside. I could not tell if it was a man or an animal. Here was a new danger I felt I could not face, and I began to run towards the shore. But the creature was faster than me and he came closer. I could now see that it was a man, but so wild and strange that I was afraid. As he neared me he threw himself on the ground, and held up his hands as if begging for mercy. My courage returned and I spoke to him. “Who are you?” I asked. “I’m poor Ben Gunn, I am,” he answered. “It’s three years since I spoke to  anyone.” I had never seen such a ragged creature. He was dressed in a patchwork of odd clothes and goat skins, and his blue eyes looked startling in a face burned black by the sun.

felt faint – holdt på å besvime pulled myself together – tok meg sammen tuft of grass – gresstust I feared for my life – jeg fryktet for livet mitt movement – bevegelse danger – fare begging for mercy – be om nåde ragged creature – fillete skapning patchwork of odd clothes – lappeteppe av merkelige klær goat skins – geiteskin

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The notorious pirate, Long John Silver.

Why do you think Ben Gunn said he was rich?

squeaky voice – pipete stemme seamen – sjømenn filled with terror – fylt av skrekk

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Babbling in a high, squeaky voice, he told me he was rich. Sometimes he spoke sense, and sometimes his words had no meaning. I felt he might be crazy after being alone for so long. He said that he’d been on Captain Flint’s pirate ship and that three years before he had come back with some seamen to look for Flint’s treasure. When they could not find it the sailors went off, leaving him alone on the island. When he’d seen our ship he’d thought that Flint had returned. I told him Flint was dead, but that some of Flint’s old shipmates were among our crew. When I spoke of Silver, his face filled with terror. I told him we should have to fight the pirates, and he promised to help us if we would take him back home with us.


Our talk was interrupted by gunfire, and we ran towards the sound. Among the trees we came upon a high wooden fence that ran around a cleared space in the forest. I saw the Union Jack flying from a log house in the clearing. I knew that my friends must have left the ship and were defending themselves in the log house. The battle with the pirates had begun! The Hispaniola lay in the inlet with the Jolly Roger at her mast. On the beach a group of drunken sailors lolled in the sand. I parted from Ben Gunn and climbed the stockade to join my friends in the log house. They were delighted to see me, for they had feared for my safety. Dr Livesey told me what had happened after I left the ship. The captain had decided that the time had come to fight the pirates. From Flint’s treasure chart he knew about the log house. Dr Livesey and one of our men had rowed ashore to find it. There was a freshwater spring by the house, and the high fence made it a good place to defend. They had then returned to the Hispaniola to collect the rest of the faithful crew. They had loaded a small boat with food and ammunition and made a dash for the shore. Captain Smollett, Dr Livesey and the loyal sailors were now on the island, in the log cabin. They were fighting against Long John Silver’s pirates. There was a small group of pirates still on board the ship. When they saw what was happening, they had opened fire on the little boat, and it had sunk in shallow water. The squire’s party had waded ashore, but lost half the stores and gunpowder. The doctor was sure the pirates would soon give up the fight. He said they would get ill from too much rum, and with disease from their swampy campsite. I told my friends what happened to me, and of my meeting with Ben Gunn. Dr Livesey wanted to know all about him, for we clearly needed help. The leaders of our party were at their wits’ end. We had little food, and the pirates could soon starve us out. I was worn out at the end of a hard day, and soon fell asleep.

Did you know?

!

Robert Louis Stevenson (1850–1894) is one of Britain’s most well-known authors. His most famous books are Treasure Island, Kidnapped and The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.

fence – gjerde Union Jack – det britiske flagget log house – tømmerhus Jolly Roger – piratflagg lolled – lå henslengt stockade – palisade, pæleverk chart – kart rowed ashore – rodde i land freshwater spring – ferskvannkilde faithful – trofaste ammunition – ammunisjon (kuler, patroner) made a dash – løp opened fire – åpnet ild shallow water – grunt vann waded ashore – vadet i land the stores – lageret swampy – myrete campsite – leirplass at their wits’ end – oppgitt starve us out – sulte oss ut worn out – utslitt well-known – kjente

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Activities 56 Reading to understand. a What was the weather like? b Who was in charge of the two boats? c What happened to the sailor who refused to join the pirates? d Why did Jim run away? e How long had Ben Gunn been on the island? f What are the “Union Jack” and the “Jolly Roger”?

60 Writing. Write your own pirate story. You can decide whether you are going to be the hero of the story, a dangerous pirate, the captain of a ship or someone else. Make sure to use paragraphs and to give the story a title. BS 86 61 Vocabulary. Many of the words in the margin are phrases rather than words. For example “was in charge”. a Pick five phrases from the margin.

g What did the pirates do when they saw the small boat?

b Write a definition in English for each of the phrases.

h Why did the doctor think the pirates would soon give up?

c Explain what your phrases mean to a classmate.

i Do you think the doctor was right? Why, or why not? 57 Question words. Write more “reading to understand” questions. Use these question words: why, when, who, how and what. BS 28 58 Speaking. Dr Livesey wanted to know all about Ben Gunn. a Scan through the story and find all the information about Ben Gunn. b Work with a classmate. One of you is Jim and the other is Dr Livesey. Have the conversation where Jim talks about Ben Gunn and Dr Livesey asks questions. Remember to vary the question words that you use.
 59 Drawing. Design the book cover for Treasure Island. Remember that there is a front cover, which should have a picture of something you have read about in the story, and a back cover, which should have a blurb, a short text about the content of the book.

62 Descriptions. Read through the story.

BS 90

a Find words and sentences that describe Long John Silver. b Find words and sentences that describe Ben Gunn, the ragged creature that Jim met. c Jim is not described in detail in the text. Can you read between the lines? What do you know about Jim, just from reading the text? Write a description. d Give examples of words and phrases that make a description interesting to read. 63 Pronunciation. Find five words in the story that may be difficult to pronounce. BS 62 a Listen to the way the words are pronounced using an online dictionary. b Practise saying the words aloud. c Teach a classmate how to pronounce the words.

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Chapter Activities Sum up 64 Questions. How many questions can you answer without looking? a What are the names of the countries in Britain? b What are the capitals of the countries in Britain?

a Use a map or the Internet to find each country.

c Place five cities on a map of Britain.

b Find and write down the capital of each country.

d Jim Hawkins is visiting an island. What is the story called?

c In which of the countries is English the first language?

e Which country left the Empire in 1947? f Describe two items of food and drink that are typically British. g Why is Britain a multicultural society? h What is the name of London’s most famous shopping street? 65 Writing. Look back at your list of “I would like to know” from the first page of the chapter. a Did you find out what you wanted to know? b Is there something from your list you did not learn in the chapter? Find this information on the Internet. 66 Writing. How many famous people from British history can you think of? a Write a list.

69 Word classes. These words are all from the chapter: long, small, city, football, speak, polite, big, powerful, win, chime, solve, thick, simple, black, believe, odd a Sort the words into verbs, nouns and adjectives. b Add two more words to each word class. 70 Verbs. Read the first two paragraphs of Treasure Island. BS 36 a Find all the verbs in the past simple. b Sort them into regular and irregular verbs. 71 Question words. You are going to interview a well-known person from Britain. Choose that person and then write ten questions that you would like to ask them.

b Compare your list with a classmate’s list. Have you got the same names?

72 Question words. Make a quiz about Britain using a variety of questions words.

c Now list the five you think are the most important people in British history, and give your reasons why.

73 Pronunciation. Practise pronouncing v, w and z. Now try these tongue twisters: BS 62

67 Speaking. Explain these words in English to a classmate, without using the word: Britain, British, multicultural society, capital, to rule.

106

68 Digital skills. Here are some of the countries that have belonged to the British Empire: Canada, Australia, Malta, India, New Zealand, Nigeria, Egypt. BS 172

Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Whose verse is worse, Wendy’s verse or William’s verse? Vikings wearing vests and wellies visit Wales. Close your eyes. The ice is very close.


Move on 74 Writing. The BBC is going to make a TV programme about the most important person in British history. Write a formal e-mail and argue for the person who you think should be featured in the programme. Give reasons. BS 108

75 Writing. You are a filmmaker who needs money to make a new film about an event in British history. Write a short description of your film for a businessman who might pay for the film to be made. 76 Writing. Write the introduction to a history book for children. You are going to write about a king or queen in British history. 77 Writing. You are visiting a city in Britain. Write a postcard to a friend telling them where you are and what you are experiencing.

78 Writing. Choose a place or a tourist attraction in Britain. Find some information and write a song or a poem about the place you have chosen. 79 Speaking. You want to travel to Britain in the holidays and would like your friend to go with you. Act out a telephone conversation where you try to convince him or her to join you. You could suggest visiting some of the places you have learned about in the chapter. 80 Speaking. Make a mini-talk about a famous British person. BS 139 81 Digital skills. Use the Internet to find out what is happening in the news in Britain. BS 172 a Choose one story, take notes and then tell a classmate about it. b Tell your classmate where you found the information.

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… place at least five cities on a map of Britain. … explain why Britain is a multicultural society. … list and describe typical British food and drink. … identify regular and irregular verbs in the past simple. … explain how to form the past simple of regular verbs. … use verbs in the past simple in a text. … pronounce /v/, /w/, /s/ and /z/ more precisely.

B • Pick three tasks that you have worked well with.

• Choose one of these tasks and write a paragraph which describes what was good about your work.

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4

Action


?

TOPIC WORDS

Look at the picture and the topic words. What do you think you will read about in this chapter? Make a list.

challenge to participate to practise athlete

Learning objectives

competition

n

to compete

n

activities equipment

n n n

Describe and compare different sports and games Write instructions for sports and equipment Write a blog post Explain how to make the plural of nouns Improve sentences using adverbs

109


Warm-up sport would you • Inlikewhich to become a world champion? Why?

A Cheerleader’s Blog Maddie Gardner became interested in cheerleading when she was four. At the age of six, Maddie joined a team, and her love for cheer­ leading became a passion. In 2010, her team won the World Cheer­ leading Championship. She wrote on her blog about the exciting moment when the winner of the competition was announced.

World Champions! April 29, 2010 Breathe Maddie, inhale, exhale, come-on … “OK” I told myself. “Should I think positive thoughts, or will my optimism jinx me? Maybe I should just focus on calming myself down, no that won’t work. I can spend my whole life calming down; this is the moment to be excited, apprehensive, and nervous.” I wanted to feel how it was to be a world champion.

world champion – verdensmester passion – lidenskap World Championship – verdensmesterskap exciting – spennende announced – utropt inhale, exhale – pust inn, pust ut jinx – bringe ulykke calming myself down – roe meg ned apprehensive – urolig announcer – kommentator the beat of my heart – hjerteslagene mine thump – slag clinched – knep squeezed – klemte syllable – stavelse bullet – kule

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Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

The announcer began. “In 10th place … ” Again I thought to myself, “Alright, we can do this.” “In 5th place … ” “I can do this; I can make it through awards.” “In 3rd place … ” “OK, you can stop now, I’m good, and I don’t want to know. I have changed my mind, sir, don’t tell me what happens. I just want to stay right here, don’t go any farther. Please?” “In 2nd place … ” Large tears rolled down my cheeks. The beat of my heart pushed me off the floor with every thump. I clinched my eyes tighter, and squeezed Jessica’s hand harder. All it took was the first sound, of the first syllable, of the first word. I knew we had done it. I shot forward like a bullet out of a pistol. I had made it. I couldn’t breathe again. I couldn’t move. My heart stopped. I just stayed there and took it in. The world was mine, it was ours. We were the 2010 Large Senior All Girl World Champions.

Maddie


Activities 1 Reading to understand. In her blog post, Maddie tells us how excited she was when the winner was announced. a How did she try to control her excitement? b Find words and phrases in the text that describe her excitement. c Compare with a classmate. 2 Blog. Maddie has invited comments on her blog. BS 104 a What is typical about the text type blog? Discuss with a classmate. b Write a comment to post on Maddie’s blog. 3 Blog. You have just won a competition in your favourite sport. Write a blog post about how it felt. Use Maddie’s blog post as an example. BS 104

4 Digital skills. Flyer and base are names of different positions on a cheerleading team. Write an informative paragraph explaining the different positions. Use the Internet to find information BS 172

Nouns Nouns are the names of things, people, places and ideas. Singular means one person or thing. a girl, a champion Plural means more than one person or thing. three girls, 75 champions

a Unscramble the words. Example: TARHE = HEART b Which word class do these words belong to? c Put the indefinite article a or an in front of the words. d What is the plural form of these words? e How do you usually make the plural of nouns in English?

To make the plural of nouns: add -s. girl – girls Watch out! There are exceptions to the rule.

5 Nouns. These words are all from the text, but the letters are put in the wrong order: TOMMNE, AEMT, MOCTTIOINEP, NOANNCERU, POICHAMN, GOLB BS 10

f How do you make the plural of nouns in Norwegian? BS 10

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Warm-up of these pieces of • Which sports equipment have you seen before?

Sports Equipment Different sports and activities use different equipment. For example, football is impossible to play without a ball, and it might hurt if you forget your shin guards.

Football boots

Football shin guards Climbing harness

Handball Cross-country skis and poles

Bridle

Diving mask

Hula hoop Skateboard

Frisbee

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Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Golf club


Activities 6 Vocabulary. Write the correct sport or activity for each piece of equipment. 7 Descriptions. Write a description of an item of the equipment without using the word. Ask your classmates to guess which one you are describing. Ski gloves

8 Instructions. Write a set of instructions for how one of these items of sports equipment is used for someone who has never seen it before.

Running tights

Saddle

9 Vocabulary. Look at the pictures for one minute. Close the book. Write a list of the items of equipment you remember. How many items can you remember? 10 Vocabulary. Sort the items of sports equipment into the following categories: Summer sports All year sports Winter sports

11 Mini-talk. What is your favourite sport?

BS 139

a Talk to a classmate about your sport. Show some of the equipment you need to play this sport.

Hockey skates

b Tell each other what was good about your mini-talks. 12 Adverbs. Adverbs can tell you the way a sport is being played. BS 20

Adverbs An adverb tells us more about a verb or an adjective.

a Mix and match sports equipment and adverbs from the lists, and write sentences like this: I kick the ball carefully.

Adverbs of manner tell us how something is done. I kick the ball carefully.

Equipment: handball, basketball, football, frisbee, hockey stick, cricket bat, bowling, volleyball, golf club

Many adverbs are made from adjectives. To make adverbs from adjectives: add -ly. slow – slowly careful – carefully

Adverbs: slowly, happily, gently, easily, angrily, nervously, enthusiastically, silently, carefully

Watch out! There are exceptions to the rule. BS

c Write sentences about action and sports where you include these adverbs.

20

b Make adverbs from these adjectives: beautiful, cold, bad, quick, nice, lazy, brave, clever.

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Warm-up do you know • What about karate?

The Karate Kid

Make a mind map.

bullied – mobbet

The Karate Kid is a film about challenges, sports, growing up and falling in love. Dre and his mother move from Detroit in the USA to Beijing in China, where Dre discovers that it is difficult to make friends. He is bullied by some of the popular boys at school who are members of a kung fu club. Dre gets to know Mr Han, the maintenance man in his apartment building. Mr Han is also a kung fu expert. One day he takes Dre to the kung fu club to put an end to the bullying.

maintenance man – vaktmester apartment – leilighet bullying – mobbing screenplay – filmmanus

Extract from the original screenplay of the film The Karate Kid (2010) Director: Harald Zwart Writer: Christopher Murphey (screenplay)


EXITING FIGHTING DRAGON SCHOOL OF KUNG FU – A MOMENT LATER DRE I don’t speak Chinese, but that did not go well. MR HAN There is good news and bad news. DRE Good news? From in there?! MR HAN They have promised to leave you alone. DRE That’s what he just said? You’re kidding... that’s great! That’s awesome! (realizing) Wait. What’s the bad news? MR HAN They will leave you alone... while you prepare. DRE Prepare for what? MR HAN Open Martial Arts Competition. You will fight them one–on–one. DRE What? What happened to making peace? Talking to your enemy? That stuff about a true Sifu... MR HAN ...this man is not a true Sifu. DRE This is great. Just great. Cheng beats me up in private, now he gets to do it in front of a crowd.

exiting – på vei ut av realizing – blir klar over prepare – gjør seg klar Martial Arts – kampsport Sifu – kinesisk for ’dyktig person’ crowd – tilskuere

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MR HAN Life presents new challenge. Must learn to defend yourself. DRE Against them?! With that dude teaching ’em? That’s impossible. I can never be that good. MR HAN Learn true ways of kung fu, nothing impossible. DRE Yeah? How do I do that? MR HAN More good news. (beat) I will teach you.

defend – forsvare impossible – umulig beat – her: pause excited – spent expecting – forventer cont’d – continued (betyr at dialogen fortsetter) freaked – skremt are starting from scratch – begynner på bar bakke practicing – trent whips off – her: utfører moves – her: teknikk punches – slag ridiculous – latterlig strong measure of agility – stor grad av smidighet roundhouse – en type karatespark

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Dre is excited and looks forward to learning kung fu. However, the first training session is not quite what he is expecting. DRE (CONT’D) So...I know I was a little freaked yesterday, about this competition and all. But then I started thinking, it’s not like we’re starting from scratch, right? I mean I have been practicing. And Dre whips off a series of karate moves. Kicks. Punches. It’s comical, ridiculous stuff; but it does show a strong measure of agility. DRE (CONT’D) See? I got speed. Hiyah. Hiyah. I got kicks. (kicks a roundhouse) Kicks with the left, kicks with the right. I got power.


He throws a series of rapid punches, increasingly fired up; all the while slowly moving closer to the car. DRE (CONT’D) Watch these punches...pow, pow! Down low, up top. Right, then left!.. Han hasn’t moved. He just stares at the kid, who finally... DRE (CONT’D) ...then I finish ’em off with... A ROUND–HOUSE KICK. That connects with the Scirocco. And leaves a dent.

rapid punches – raske slag

DRE (CONT’D) Oops. Sorry about that.

increasingly fired up – stadig ivrigere

Dre looks at Han, waiting for a rebuke. But instead gets...

Scirocco – en biltype

connects – her: treffer dent – bulk rebuke – irettesettelse, kjeft


MR HAN Pick up your jacket.

Page 118: Harald Zwart directs Jaden Smith.

(A beat) Is he serious? Dre shrugs, picks up his jacket and tosses it on a chair. He looks back at Han, then realizes that wasn’t enough. Dre picks it up and looks for a coat rack. He hangs it up. MR HAN Now... take down and put on again. DRE What do you mean, put it back... But Han’s look stops him short. He exhales; takes it down, then puts it back on. MR HAN Take it off. Hang up. DRE (a beat before...) But you just... MR HAN Take it off. Hang up. DRE Listen. I’m sorry I threw my jacket on the floor, alright? And I’m sorry about the car. Dre takes off his jacket and hangs it again. He turns to Mr Han, who walks over, takes Dre’s jacket off the rack and holds it for a beat... ...and drops it at Dre’s feet. Then walks back to his work. DRE Lemme guess. Pick up. Put on. No reply. Dre picks it up and puts it on.

shrugs – trekker på skuldrene tosses – kaster coat rack – klesstativ exhales – puster ut lemme – let me (slang) reply – svar

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119


MR HAN Now, take off. Hang up. DRE (under his breath) Yeah, I’ll take off. (to Han) Are we gonna do this all day? Silence. Dre takes it off. Hangs it up. MR HAN Again. Dre pulls it off the rack and puts it on. He glances at the Scirocco. DRE So how come you got an ’83 Scirocco in your living room? MR HAN No street parking. (beat) Take off your jacket. Han glances at Dre. He sighs and takes off his jacket again.

glances – kikker sighs – sukker routine – øvelse slightly – litt, noe INT – interior (beskrivelse av innendørs omgivelser) applies – påfører

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Enter 8 • Learner’s Book

Dre soon learns to do what Mr Han asks him to do without asking too many questions. Each time he visits Mr Han for training, he has to do the same action with the jacket over and over again. Then one day, Mr Han asks him to change the routine slightly. INT. MR HAN’S HOUSE – DAY Mr Han carefully applies paint to the car. A few seconds later... Dre enters.


nods – nikker

He takes off his jacket and hangs it on the rack. He waits a beat, then takes it off and puts it back on. Then puts it on the rack... MR HAN Master Dre.

required – trengs no clue – ingen anelse performs – utfører motions – bevegelser

The first time he’s called him that. Dre turns and walks over, unsure of what’s about to happen next. MR HAN Put on your jacket. Dre nods and begins to turn... MR HAN ... no. No jacket required. Dre is certain he has no clue what Han wants. Nevertheless, he performs the hand motions of putting on and taking off. MR HAN Again. Faster. He goes faster.

Dre faces a competitor from the Fighting Dragon School of Kung Fu.


MR HAN Faster. Faster. And Mr Han steps forward, suddenly rifling RAPID–FIRE punches toward Dre’s chest. Instinct takes over and Dre’s motion blocks each blow. MR HAN Backwards. Han presses the attack. Dre backpedals as he blocks. MR HAN Forward. Same thing. Forward. MR HAN Pick up jacket.

rifling rapid-fire punches – raske slag chest – bryst blocks – blokkerer, stopper slagene blow – slag presses the attack – fortsetter angrepet backpedals – går tilbake imaginary – liksom avoiding – unngår wicked – her: kraftfullt connected – her: truffet pops up – hopper opp throws a blow – får inn et slag catches – fanger utterly astonished – fullstendig forbauset releases – slipper treat – her: behandler

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Dre leans down to pick up his imaginary jacket, avoiding a wicked leg kick that would have connected had he not moved. He pops up. MR HAN Pick up jacket again. Dre drops down again, missing the roundhouse by Han’s other leg. He stands up again. MR HAN Now... punch. Dre throws a blow that Mr Han catches with his open hand. Dre stares at it, then at his Sifu; utterly astonished. Han slowly releases it... MR HAN Kung fu lives in everything we do, Master Dre. It lives in how we put on our jacket. It lives in how we take that jacket off. It lives in how we treat people. Everything is kung fu.


Activities 13 Reading to understand. a Who is Mr Han?

19 Descriptions. Look at the pictures. Write a description of

b Why do you think Dre finds it difficult to make friends in Beijing?

a Dre

c Why do you think Mr Han wants Dre to prepare for the Open Martial Arts Competition?

c the sport kung fu

d From what you have read, how would you describe Dre? e What is this film really about? What do you think is the message? f If you were offered a role in the film The Karate Kid, which of the characters would you like to play? Explain why. 14 Speaking. Act out the story with a classmate. Practise pronunciation and read the stage directions carefully so you know how to act. 15 Screenplay. How do you know that this is a screenplay? Write a list of characteristics. Discuss in class. 16 Writing. Write an ending to the story. What happens to Dre? Include instructions for the actors so they know what to say and do. 17 Speaking. Compare different sports with a classmate. a How does kung fu differ from boxing? b How does ice hockey differ from figure skating? c How does handball differ from football?

b Mr Han

20 Film poster. a Design your own film poster for The Karate Kid. b Look at each other’s posters. What is good about the posters?

BS 121

21 Blog. What does Dre write on his blog after the competition? His old friends in Detroit are reading his blog. Write a blog post. BS 104 22 Vocabulary. Here are some words from the text: prepare, competition, fight, crowd, challenge, defend, teach, learn a Explain the words in English. b Find synonyms for the words. c Which of the words are nouns? d Which of the words can be both verbs and nouns? 23 Adverbs. Adverbs can tell you how things are being said or done, for example Mr Han carefully applies paint to the car. BS 20 a Find lines in the screenplay where you could use these adverbs: respectfully, coldly, happily, rapidly, impatiently, quickly, eagerly, boldly, sadly, silently, gracefully b Do you agree with the choice of adverbs? Find more adverbs of your own choice.

18 Vocabulary. Here are some themes that could fit this story: friendship, poverty, love, life, relationships, danger, sports, athletes, obstacles, spare time, hobbies, fear, courage, bravery, passion a Which of the themes do you think fits this story best? Choose your favourites. b Discuss in groups.

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12

11

10

Think of an action verb related to sports. Your partner has to guess which verb.

Think of a female sports athlete. Your partner has to guess who it is.

Do five star jumps and move forward one square.

13 Choose one of the sports mentioned in this chapter. Your partner has to guess which sport.

You need:

On Your Marks! 3-4 players One chip for each player. A stopwatch. Two minutes per task.

You need:

14

• 3-4 players

Think of a male sports athlete. Your partner has to guess who it is.

• A stopwatch • One token for each player

15

Star jump

Choose a person you have read about in this chapter. Your partner has to guess who it is.

16 Do five star jumps and move forward one square.

17 Think of one of the countries mentioned in this chapter. Your partner has to find out which country.

124

18 Think of a winter sport. Your partner has to guess which sport.


9

8

Miss a turn.

Think of a winter sport. Your partner has to guess which sport.

7 Choose one of the sports mentioned in this chapter. Your partner has to guess which sport.

6

RULES Each player moves the chip one step forward when it is their turn. Rules Read the task. Choose another player solve this task with you. This player will be • Move the token oneto step forward when it is your turn. your partner for one task. Your partner • Read the asks task. you questions to find the correct answer. You can only answer yesanother or no. player to solve this • Choose If your partner guesses correctly, you move 2 steps along the track. task with you. This player will be your partner for this task. Your partner moves 1 step. You two minutes to solve eachtotask. • have Your partner asks you questions find the correct answer. You can only If you do not solve the task together, do not move. answer yes or no. The youngest player starts the game. • If4:your partner guesses sport. correctly, Task Think of a summer Your partner has to guess which you move two steps forward. Your sport. partner moves one step. Task 3: Mime a piece of sports equipment. Your partner will guess • You have two minutes to solve each what it is. task. Miss a turn. • If you do not solve the task together, do not move.

Miss a turn.

5 Think of a summer sport. Your partner has to guess which sport.

4 Think of a piece of sports equipment. Your partner has to guess which piece.

• The youngest player starts the game.

3

• The player who reaches the finish line first wins the game.

START

Mime a piece of sports equipment. Your partner has to guess what it is.

2 1 Mime a sport. Your partner has to guess which sport.

Spell the name of a sport backwards. Your partner has to say the name of the sport.

125


Warm-up word snurfer is a • The combination of two words in English. Which two words do you think these are?

fairly – ganske rope attached – tau bundet fast steer – styre founders – grunnleggere brands – merker improve – forbedre secure bindings – sikre bindinger steel edges – stålkanter rebels – opprørere not allowed – ikke tillatt forbidden – forbudt were permitted – fikk lov hit the slopes – kjøre i bakkene

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From Snurfer to Snowboard Snowboarding is a popular activity in many parts of the world. The sport is fairly new, compared with for example slalom and cross-country skiing. The first snowboard was created by an American who experimented with his daughter’s skis to make her a toy.


The snurfer In 1960 Sherman Poppen made a very successful toy for his daughter. He fixed two skis together and added a rope attached to the front. That way his daughter had something to steer with. His wife combined the two words snow and surfer and called it the snurfer. About one million snurfers were sold in North America between 1966 and 1976.

The snowboard Tom Sims and Jake Burton Carpenter, founders of two of the leading snowboard brands today, were inspired by the snurfer and wanted to improve it. They added secure bindings and steel edges, and changed the materials. They started making the snowboards we know and use today. For many years snowboarders were seen as rebels and troublemakers, and were not allowed in skiing resorts in the USA. Snow­ boarding was forbidden in Norway as well. Finally, in 1985 snowboarders were permitted to hit the slopes. In 1998 snow­boarding was accepted as an Olympic event.

Activities 24 Reading to understand. Match the sentences. 1 After 1985

a by an American father.

2 Before 1998

b snowboarding is legal.

3 The snurfer was made

c improved the snurfer.

4 T om Sims and Jake Burton Carpenter

d s nowboarding was allowed in North America.

5 Today

e snowboarding was not an Olympic sport.

25 Vocabulary. Describe your favourite winter activity without using the name for it. Let your classmates guess what it is. 26 Instructions. Write a paragraph with instructions for snowboarding for someone who has never seen snow and knows nothing about winter sports. BS 80 27 Adjectives and adverbs. This text has few adjectives. We woke up in the cabin at seven. It was morning, and the sun was shining. Cam, Chris and I got ready to hit the slopes. The cabin was situated on the top of the mountain. We had to walk 100 metres before we could start snowboarding. The ski lifts had not started to run, and we had the hills to ourselves on the first run. The snowboard park had half pipes and rails. Cam and I learned how to do a 360 on the big jump, while Chris focused on the rails. BS 16,20 a Find all the nouns in the text. b Put a suitable adjective in front of some of the nouns. c Find these verbs in the text: shining, walk, learned, focused. d Fill in an adverb after each of these verbs. Remember that many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective: quick – quickly. e Write your own snowboarding story with as many adjectives and adverbs as possible.

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Warm-up this text you will find • Insome typical football words: player, match, opponent, defender, wing, the box, goalkeeper, kick-off, tackles, pitch. What do they mean?

The Trial Jamie Johnson loves playing football. He has just started at a new school, Kingfield, and wants to show everyone that he is a good player. In the team trials Jamie played very badly, but he has a new chance in a match for the B team. Extract from The Kick Off by Dan Freedman

trial – uttakskamp team trials – laguttak

Mr Hitchcock pushed his glasses up to the bridge of his nose and blew his whistle. They were off. Right from the start, Kingfield immediately got on top. And soon Jamie got his first chance to have a run at the St Anthony’s right back. Jamie controlled the ball and stopped it dead. He stood upright for a second and looked at his opponent, who had come to close him down. Then Jamie did the cheekiest thing. He knocked the ball straight through the right-back’s legs and ran past him. Now it was just a test of pace over the first five yards. No one was going to catch Jamie over five yards. He scorched down the wing. He could hear the defender grunting like an animal in pain as he tried to keep up. Jamie didn’t need to look up. In Alex Marcusfield, the Bs had the biggest goal-hanger in the whole of Kingfield. Jamie knew he’d be in the box. He curled in a cross and watched as his ball bent perfectly towards Alex, who was standing practically on the goal-line. He couldn’t miss. A small but purposeful jerk of Alex Marcusfield’s head and the ball was in the net.

bridge of his nose – neseryggen have a run at – utfordre opponent – motstander cheekiest – frekkeste pace – fart scorched – her: spurtet curled in – skrudde inn jerk of the head – vridning på hodet

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UNDER 14S B TEAM MATCH KINGFIELD 1 Marcusfield 7

ST ANTHONY’S 0


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ecstatic – over seg av glede left fist clenched – venstre neve knyttet he could skin – kunne ta/forsere complacency – ubegrunnet selvsikkerhet

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Alex ran straight over to Jamie. He was ecstatic at having scored so early. Jamie had his left fist clenched. What a start! He’d already done more in the first ten minutes of this game than he’d done in the whole of last term’s trial. “What a goal!” shouted Marcusfield. Jamie gave him a high-five. “Just get in the positions, Alex,” he said. “I’ll find you every time.” Jamie was sure that if he got the ball, that second goal wouldn’t be far away. He already knew he could skin this number two. But not everyone was as focused as Jamie. As the game went on, Kingfield’s confidence started to turn into complacency. Up front, Alex Marcusfield was being his usual greedy self, constantly ignoring Jamie – who was in loads of space – to take on impossible shots


from impossible positions. Meanwhile, at the back, the defenders were trying flamboyant flicks when they should have been keeping things nice and simple. Kingfield paid the inevitable price when their goalkeeper and centrehalf both went for the same ball and ended up bumping into each other. The St Anthony’s forward couldn’t believe his luck and just slotted the ball into the empty net.

UNDER 14S B TEAM MATCH KINGFIELD 1 Marcusfield 7

ST ANTHONY’S 1 Humphries 22

It was an embarrassing goal to concede. All Kingfield’s – and Jamie’s – good work had been undone by one stupid mistake. Jamie could feel his cheeks burning with frustration. His teeth were beginning to grind together. He strode over to take the centre with Alex Marcusfield. Marcusfield called Jamie closer. “Tap it to me quickly and I’ll have a shot from here,” he whispered. “No – you’ve had enough shots, Alex,” Jamie replied. He was ten times the player that Alex Marcusfield could ever be. “You pass it to me.” Like a dog that had been told off, Marcusfield bowed his head and obeyed his orders, touching the centre towards Jamie. Then something very special happened. If anyone had been watching the game at this point, they would have seen a small, pale, thin Number Eleven – with strawberry blond hair – burn a hole right through the heart of the St Anthony’s team. And this was straight from the kick-off! Slaloming in and out of desperate tackles, Jamie’s feet wove a spell as they sped forward. Soon, he’d single-handedly beaten practically all the defenders St Anthony’s had on the pitch. Now he was through, one-on-one with the goalkeeper. Marcusfield was desperately calling for the ball but Jamie couldn’t hear him. Or at least he wasn’t listening.

flamboyant flicks – ekstravagante/fancy pasninger inevitable – uunngåelig slotted the ball – skøyt ballen to concede – her: å slippe inn to grind together – å gnisse mot hverandre desperate tackles – desperate taklinger wove a spell – utførte mirakler desperately – desperat

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How do you think Jamie feels at this point?

venomous – giftig bought the dummy – gikk på finten sprawled – liggende

Jamie looked at the keeper and drew his foot back for a venomous strike. Then, at the very last minute, just as his boot was about to swipe through the ball, he checked and stopped dead. The goalkeeper had gone for it though. He’d bought the dummy and dived. For a second Jamie felt like the only player on the pitch. There he was, all alone, in front of an empty goal with the ball at his feet and the goalkeeper left sprawled on the ground. There was nothing left to do but pass it into the net.

UNDER 14S B TEAM MATCH KINGFIELD 2 Marcusfield 7 Johnsen 24

ST ANTHONY’S 1 Humphries 22

It was 2 –1 to Kingfield, thanks to the best goal Jamie had ever scored.

Did you know? • The Kick Off is the first of seven books about football player Jamie Johnson. They follow Jamie as he moves from the school’s B team, through the local club, until he plays for England in the World Cup.

• The author, Dan Freedman, says of the books: ”I wanted to write the kind of books that I would have loved to have read when I was younger. That meant lots of drama, fast-paced action and, of course lots of football.”

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!


Activities 28 Reading to understand. Match the expressions from the text with the correct definition.

b Underline two sentences in your text that you think are good. Explain why you underlined these sentences.

1 new chance

a making a noise like a hurt creature

2 goal hanger

b shouted at

3 the inevitable price

c another opportunity

4 stopped it dead

d plenty of room

5 told off

e running in a curved line

a Write a blog post.

6 slaloming in and out

f m  ade the ball stop completely

b Ask a classmate to write a comment on your blog post.

7 loads of space

g the consequence

8 grunting like an animal in pain

h someone who stands near to the goal

29 Writing. Search the text for words and phrases about playing football. a Write down all the words and phrases you find. b Make a quiz using these words and phrases. 30 Speaking. You are a football commentator on TV. Perform the commentary for one of the goals in the text. Use expressions from the text. 31 Speaking. What do you think happens in the second half of the match? Talk to a classmate. 32 Writing. In this text Jamie is anxious because he wants to show everyone that he is a good football player. a Write a paragraph about a time when you were so excited that you also became anxious. Perhaps before an important match, going to a concert with a favourite musician or the school ball. BS 80

33 Reading strategies. Skim the text and find words that mean almost the same as opportunity, kicked, error, shoe. BS 127 34 Blog. What does Jamie write on his blog after the football match? BS 104

35 Verbs. These verbs are from the text: pushed, blew, controlled, did, scorched, tried, ran, shouted, knew, strode, whispered, bowed, felt BS 36 a Sort them into regular and irregular verbs, and write two lists. b Write the infinitive of the verb next to the form in the past tense. c Which verbs are most different in the infinitive and past tense? d Write five new sentences using verbs from the list. Write in the past tense. 36 Adverbs. Adverbs describe action, for example to run quickly. BS 20 a Find more adverbs that may add action to this text. Use a dictionary to find adverbs. b Include your adverbs in some sentences from the text. c Read your sentences to a classmate. d Discuss how adverbs add action to a sentence.

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Warm-up sport is the • Which strangest sport you know of? Discuss in class.

Is This Really a Sport? The Eton Wall Game The Eton Wall Game is a mix between football and rugby. It has been played at the traditional boarding school Eton for more than 300 years. The point of the game is to move a small ball along a wall and across a 110-metre-long field, and throw it at a tree or a wooden door. It is very difficult to score goals in this game. Nobody has scored a goal since 1909.

Quidditch

boarding school – internatskole field – her: bane brooms – sopelimer hoops – ringer

The famous sport from the Harry Potter books is played by fans in many places around the world. It all started when some students at a college in the USA played the game for real. A quidditch team has seven players. There is no flying involved, but the players hold brooms between their legs and throw balls through round hoops. The sport is now played at over 400 colleges.

shin – legg participants – deltakere

Shin kicking

safety precaution – sikkerhetstiltak

Shin kicking involves two participants who kick each other in the shin until one of them falls down. As a safety precaution against bloody shins, players are allowed to put as much hay down their trousers as possible.

hay – høy

The Eton Wall Game Quidditch

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Kabaddi Kabaddi is an Indian team sport. There are two teams and each team occupies half of a small field. The two teams take turns to send a player to the opponents’ half of the field. This player has to hold his breath while he tries to tag or tackle players on the opposite team by touching them. If he has to draw breath before returning to his own half of the field, he is out. Tagged players are also out. The teams are given a point when they tag a player from the opposite team or if a player on the opposite team is out. They play two halves of twenty minutes each with a five-minute break in between. At the end of the game the team with the most points wins.

take turns – bytter på opponents’ – motstandernes hold his breath – holde pusten tag – berøre opposite – motsatt draw breath – trekke pusten

Activities 37 Reading to understand. Which of the sports is this? a You play this sport for forty minutes.

39 Listening. Listen to the descriptions of the rules of some sports. Listen for the general meaning. Write the name of each sport. BS 150

b In this sport you pretend to fly.

40 Description. Invent your own sport.

c This is a very old sport. d This sport was invented by JK Rowling. e In this sport good lungs are useful. f You are the hero of the century if you score a goal in this sport. g Instead of shin guards you use dried grass. 38 Vocabulary. How is a game different from a sport? a Which of these are, in your opinion, not sports: football, golf, chess, tag, cricket, hide and seek, musical chairs, surfing, boxing, karate, snowboarding, quidditch, cheerleading. b What is a sport? Write a list of criteria. c Compare your lists in class. d Which of the sports mentioned in this chapter are, according to your criteria, “real” sports?

a Write a description of your sport. What type of equipment is needed? How is the sport played and what are the rules? b Instruct your classmates how to play the sport. 41 Speaking. Which of the sports on these pages is your favourite? a Give reasons for your choice. b Discuss with a classmate. 42 Nouns. Find the nouns in the first paragraph. BS 10

a Write them in the singular and plural form. Example: game – games b Use your list of nouns to explain the sport to a classmate. c On a scale from 1 to 6, with 6 as the best: • How good are you at spotting nouns in a text? • How good are you at writing nouns in the plural form?

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Warm-up this story you will find • Inthese words: mountain, frozen, avalanche, rescue, shelter, survived. What do you think happens in this story?

The Avalanche A wall of snow rushes down the mountain. It leaves Sophia trapped in a frozen world with three friends. The storm is coming in fast. The cold is creeping in on them – and unbelievable things are happening. Extract from Yellow Eyes by Andy Coombs

avalanche – snøskred creeping – kryper unbelievable – utrolig sucking in – innsuging blowing out – utblåsning coughed – hostet glowing – lyste thumb – tommel loosen – løsne gradually – gradvis dug – gravde tore – rev clawed – klorte gasped – gispet cracked – knust, sprukket entire side – hele siden ripped – revet

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There was a wind in Sophia’s ears. A sucking in and a blowing out. She opened her eyes. She was under snow. It was dark. Her mind remembered. The avalanche. The mountain moving. She opened her mouth, and snow fell in. She coughed. The wind was her breathing. And it wasn’t dark. Not totally. Above her the snow was glowing. It must be the sun. Sophia tried to move her arms and legs. She couldn’t. The snow was too heavy. Slowly she worked the thumb on her right hand and then the fingers – trying to loosen the snow. Gradually she felt the space open. She pulled and pushed until her arm could move. She used it to free the other arm and then dug and tore and clawed at the snow around her, until at last her face was breathing air with no snow falling into her mouth. She gasped. Sophia pulled herself up and out of the snow. She checked herself. Nothing was broken. She looked down the mountain. The whole landscape was changed. Trees and rocks were lying broken and cracked. The entire side of the mountain had been ripped through. She was on a different planet. Then she heard a voice. “Is anyone there?” She ran to the voice. “Keep talking. I can hear you.” “I am trapped under the snow.” She found the voice and dug. It was Leon. “Are you OK?” she asked as she pulled him up. “Yeah. I think so.” His voice was quiet. A call from behind them. “Hey! Are you alright?” Sophia turned and saw two of the other students, Alana and Wilgot, walking towards them, feet sinking into the snow. “Yes! We’re fine. Have you seen anyone else?” “No, no one.” Alana shook her head.


Why did Wilgot say that they were lucky?

movement – bevegelse survived – overlevde backwards – bakover swept away – feid bort frowned – rynket pannen shook – ristet covering – dekket shelter – ly guide – veiviser rescue – redning nodded – nikket collect – samle broken pieces – brukne deler

! Did you know? • Each year avalanches kill more than 150 people worldwide.

• An avalanche can reach a speed of 130 kilometres per hour within five seconds.

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The four stood together and looked down the mountain. There was no other movement. “We were lucky to be higher up,” said Wilgot. “It was only the start of the avalanche that hit us. The others … I don’t think they could have survived.” “What about Frau Meier? She was with us.” “I don’t know,” said Leon with his head in his hands. “I got down. She pushed me down. She was saying something to me. I just remember a rock … it hit her hard. She fell backwards. I saw her swept away. It was like something from a movie. I don’t think she could have made it.” “So it’s just us.” Alana frowned. Sophia shook her head. “But we have to check.” So they looked. They walked down a hundred metres or so calling. Shouting. But there was nobody else. And then the snow started again. The winds blew in. “I think a storm’s coming,” Wilgot said, looking up at the clouds covering the midday sun. “We have to find shelter. Without the guide we don’t know where we are going. We’ll just have to wait for rescue.” Sophia nodded. “We passed a hole in the rocks earlier. Maybe we can shelter in there.” On the way Wilgot started to collect some broken pieces of wood. “We’ll need to start a fire,” he said, “to keep warm. All of you should carry what you can.”


Activities 43 Reading to understand. a Why was Sophia under the snow? b How did Sophia manage to get free from the snow? c How many people survived, as far as we know? d What happened to Frau Meier? e What do Sophia and her friends plan to do? f How do you think you would feel if you were Sophia or Wilgot? What would you do? 44 Speaking. Express your thoughts in a group conversation. What are your reactions to the story? Useful words and sentences: sorry for, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, pity, hate, like, dislike, fear, doubt, it makes me sad, happy, angry, surprised, curious 45 Speaking. Retell the story by using the words in the margins. 46 Speaking. Read the story and act it out in groups. Roles: Sophia, Leon, Wilgot and Alana. Keep in mind that you are afraid and cold and have just experienced an avalanche. 47 Word order. Place the words in the correct order to make a sentence. a was heavy snow too the b the she open felt space gradually c a on planet was she different d a she then voice heard e movement there other was no f it like was movie from a something g can in shelter we there maybe

48 Blog. What does Sophia write in her blog when she comes home? BS 104 a Write a blog post. b Ask a classmate to write a comment on your blog post. 49 Writing. What was in the newspaper the day after the avalanche? Write a short text. 50 Listening. Read the story about Sophia together with a classmate. Take turns reading half the story each. a Write a list of keywords while you listen. b Use your keywords to write a summary together. 51 Verbs. Here are some of the things Sophia did after the avalanche: BS 30 pushed, pulled, coughed, dug, tore, clawed, gasped, checked herself, shook her head, nodded a Choose from the list of verbs and act out a few of them. Let your classmates guess which verb it is. b These verbs are in the past. Rewrite them in the present. Write sentences like this: Sophia pushes … 52 Adverbs. These adverbs might have been included in this story: BS 20 nervously, desperately, rapidly, unhappily, anxiously, bravely, angrily, scarily, quietly, frighteningly, loudly, slowly, sadly, noisily a Where would you put them? Write sentences, including the adverbs. b How do you think the sentences are improved by adding adverbs?

h can you what all carry should you of

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Chapter Activities Sum Up 53 Questions. Here are some answers. Write one question for each answer. a Maddie Gardner was interested in cheerleading from the age of four. b A rope was attached to the front to steer with. c It is called quidditch. d Leon saw what happened to Frau Meier. 54 Learning strategies. Express your opinions on the texts you have read. Finish these sentences.

56 Vocabulary. Which of these factors do you think are necessary to succeed in sports? health, strength, music, friends, patience, strict rules, fair play, encouragement, parents, good looks, money, healthy food a Make a word cloud where the most important words are larger than the less important ones. b Compare and discuss with your classmate. 57 Nouns. These are the topic words for this chapter:

a The text I enjoyed the most was …, because …

challenge, to participate, to practise, athlete, competition, to compete, activities, equipment

b The person I liked reading about was …, because …

a Pick the nouns from this list.

c The story that made the biggest impression on me was …, because … d The sport that I liked reading about was …, because … e One person I would call a hero was …, because … f The text I did not like reading was …, because … 55 Text types. Find a text in this chapter that is a a blog post b screenplay c factual text d part of a novel What do you notice about how the different texts look and how they are written?

BS 10

b What is a noun? Explain to a classmate. c Put the correct indefinite article a or an in front of each noun. d Write the nouns in the plural form. e Here are some nouns that do not follow the regular rule for making plurals: foot, tooth, mouse, knife, fish, sheep, bread, advice, happiness, child, fox, man, woman, water, police Write them in the plural form. f Which word class do the other words belong to? Can you make them into nouns as well? 58 Language. Which verbs do you know about sports and action? To run, to jump, to practise …

• Skim the chapter and find as many verbs as possible that describe action and sports. Make a list.

• Add suitable adverbs for the verbs. Example: Run quickly.

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BS 20


Move on 59 Speaking. What if only the best football players were allowed to play in a school tournament?

62 Writing. Write a blog post about someone who succeeded in a sport or a competition. BS 104

a List arguments for and against. b Discuss in groups. Try to agree upon a mutual understanding, a common school rule.

63 Writing. Recommend a sport you know well to someone who has not tried it before. a Make a list of tips and instructions you would give.

60 Speaking. Make a mini-talk or an oral presentation about your favourite sports idol.

b Write the instructions.

BS 139,140

c Test the instructions on a classmate. Were they easy to understand? Rewrite your instructions if necessary.

61 Speaking. You are hired as a sports commentator for a radio station.

• Write a list of useful sentences you might need.

• Comment on the action in a high-pitched tone and rather quickly, with a lot of tension, like a real commentator.

64 Writing. Write a factual text about what it takes to become good at sports. Vary your sentences and adverbs. BS 101

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… describe different sports and games and how they are played. … list different sports equipment. … explain how a game differs from a sport. … instruct someone how to play a sport. … write a blog post. … explain how to make nouns in the plural form. … add adverbs to describe action in a text.

B What have you worked well with in English lately?

What do you need to work on?

+ …………………………………………………

? …………………………………………………

+ …………………………………………………

How will you work on this? ? …………………………………………………

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5

Disasters


? What does the word disaster mean to you?

TOPIC WORDS catastrophe

Learning objectives n n

natural disaster n

disastrous eyewitness

n n

List examples of disasters Explain the difference between natural and everyday disasters Write a short factual text about a natural disaster Compare and contrast using adjectives Explain when to use contractions

hurricane everyday disaster embarrassing emergency

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Warm-up kinds of events are • What everyday disasters?

Oh, No! What a Disaster! Sometimes the news seems to be full of major disasters such as hurricanes or floods. However, life is full of everyday disasters as well. For example, an enormous spot on your nose on the day of taking the school photo, a bad hair day, or scoring an own goal in a football match. This is the story of a disastrous afternoon in the life of Georgia Nicholson, the main character in Angus, Thongs and Full-frontal Snogging. Extract from Angus, Thongs and Full-frontal Snogging by Louise Rennison

Thursday, August 27th

events – hendelser major disasters – store katastrofer hurricanes – orkaner floods – flom thongs – en liten, smal truse snogging – klining concealer – dekkstift dye – farge forehead – panne radical – her: grundig plucking – napping tweezers – pinsett to rummage – å lete gjennom tie drawer – slipsskuff

11:00 a.m. I’ve started worrying about what to wear for the first day back at school. It’s only eleven days away now. I wonder how much “natural” make-up I can get away with? Concealer is OK – I wonder about mascara. Maybe I should just dye my eyelashes? I hate my eyebrows. I say eyebrows but in fact it’s just the one eyebrow right along my forehead. I may have to do some radical plucking if I can find mum’s tweezers. She hides things from me now because she says that I never replace anything. I’ll have to rummage around in her bedroom. 2:00 p.m. Found the tweezers eventually. Why Mum would think I wouldn’t find them in Dad’s tie drawer I really don’t know … God it’s painful plucking. I’ll have to have a little lie down. The pain is awful, it’s made my eyes water like mad. 2:30 p.m. I can’t bear this. I’ve only taken about five hairs out, and my eyes are swollen to twice their normal size.

are swollen – har hovna opp cracked it – løste det razor – barberhøvel

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4:00 p.m. Cracked it. I’ll use Dad’s razor.


4:05 p.m. Sharper than I thought. It’s taken off a lot of hair just on one stroke. I’ll have to even up the other one now. 6:00 p.m. Mum nearly dropped Libby when she saw me. Her exact words were, “what in the name of God have you done to yourself, you stupid girl?” God I hate parents! Me stupid?? They’re so stupid. She wishes I was still Libby’s age so she could dress me in ridiculous hats with earflaps and ducks on. God, God, God!!! 7:00 p.m. When Dad came in I could hear them talking about me. “Mumble, mumble … she looks like … mumble, mumble,” from Mum, then I heard Dad, “She WHAT??? Well … mumble … mumble … grumble … ” Stamp, stamp, bang, bang on the door. “Georgia, what have you done now?” I shouted from under the blankets – he couldn’t get in because I had put a chest of drawers in front of the door – “At least I’m a real woman!!!”

even up – jevne ut dropped – mistet earflaps – øreklaffer blankets – tepper chest of drawers – kommode

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! Did you know? Louise Rennison has written a whole series of books about Georgia Nicolson and her friends. The first three have also been made into a film called Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging.

crude – grov grow back – vokse ut igjen thick – her: dum Klingon – romvesen fra Star Trek dim – dum

He said through the door, “What in the name of arse is that supposed to mean?” Honestly, he can be so crude. 10:00 p.m. Maybe they’ll grow back overnight. How long does it take for eyebrows to grow?

Friday, August 28th 11:00 a.m. Eyebrows haven’t grown back. 11:15 a.m. Jas phoned and wanted to go shopping – there’s some new make-up range that looks so natural you can’t tell you have got any on. I said, “Do they do eyebrows?” She said, “Why? What do you mean? Do you mean false eyelashes?” I said, “No, I mean eyebrows. You know, the hairy bits above your eyes.” Honestly, friends can be thick. “Of course they don’t do eyebrows. Everyone’s got eyebrows, why would you need a spare pair?” I said, “I haven’t got any anymore. I shaved them off by mistake.” She said, “I’m coming round now, don’t do anything until I get there.” Noon When I open the door, Jas looks at me like I’m a Klingon. “You look like a Klingon,” she says. She really is a dim friend. It’s more like having a dog than a friend, actually. 6:00 p.m. Jas has gone. Her idea of help was to draw some eyebrows on with eyeliner pencil. Obviously, I have to stay in forever now.

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Activities 1 Reading to understand. a What is Georgia wondering about on Thursday, August 27th at 11 a.m.?

5 Writing. The text you have read is from Georgia’s diary. BS 102 a How can you see that the text is from a diary? Make a list.

b Why does she need the tweezers?

b What do you think happens when Georgia begins at school? Imagine that you are Georgia and write her diary entries for the first day of school. Use the text as a model.

c Where does she find them? d Why does she start to use a razor instead? e What happens when she uses the razor? f What does Jas suggest that Georgia should do? g Which two words in the text are synonyms for stupid? h In your opinion what kind of relationship does Georgia have with her parents?

6 Speaking. Work together with two or three classmates. Make a role play about Georgia’s disaster or an everyday disaster of your own. 7 Contractions. Choose six contractions from the text. BS 58

2 Vocabulary. Read the words. • • • •

a Write them in both their contracted and their extended form. Example: I’ve – I have

eyebrow, eyelash, hat, hair razor, concealer, mascara, eyeliner pencil hurricane, spot, famine, flood actually, painful, awful, stupid

b Why do you think there are so many contractions in this text?

a Find the word in each line that does not fit in. Explain your answer.

c Give examples of other texts where you think you would find many contractions.

b What can you learn from doing an activity like this? 3 Vocabulary. Georgia uses a lot of expressions that teenagers commonly use. Here are some expressions from the text: to rummage around, a little lie down, cracked it, to be thick. a Explain what the words and expressions mean.

Contractions Contractions are shorter versions of words. They are often used in spoken English and in informal texts.

b Use the words and expressions to write new sentences. Write a new sentence for each expression. 4 Writing. What would be a disaster for you? Write your diary entry or a blog entry for the day of the disaster. BS 102,104

Contractions

Extended form

I’ve

I have

He’s

He is

Can’t

Cannot BS 58

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Warm-up blizzards and • Hurricanes, earthquakes are all types of natural disasters. How many more can you list?

hurricanes – orkaner blizzards – snøstormer earthquakes – jordskjelv storm surge – stormflo flooded – oversvømte sewage – kloakk destroyed – ødelagt billion – milliard damage – skade hailstones – hagl hailstorm – haglstorm

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Record-Breaking Natural Disasters

The most damaging US hurricane What: A tropical storm named Katrina When: 2005 Where: New Orleans Facts: The hurricane and the storm surge that followed flooded 80 % of New Orleans. The floodwater soon became very dirty and undrinkable due to sewage and dead bodies. Over 100,000 homes were destroyed, and 1,836 people died as a result. In total, the hurricane caused 100 billion dollars’ worth of damage.


The deadliest blizzard What:

A blizzard, a winter storm with heavy snow and strong winds When: 1972. It lasted for five days. Where: Iran Facts: In South Iran, eight metres of snow fell in five days. About three metres of snow fell in the rest of Iran. About 4,000 people died because of the snow, cold temperatures and strong winds. Struggling through heavy snow and wind during a blizzard in Nova Scotia, Canada.

The most destructive hailstones What: World record hailstorm When: 1984 Where: Munich, Germany Facts: Hailstones as large as tennis balls fell in the area. They damaged 200,000 cars at a factory and caused over one billion dollars worth of damage. No lives were lost during or after the hailstorm.

A car covered with hailstones in Bogota, Colombia.

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volcanic eruption – vulkanutbrudd on record – her: som er registrert dust and ash – støv og aske atmosphere – atmosfære

Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, erupts in 2010.

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The loudest volcanic eruption What: Biggest and loudest volcanic eruption on record When: 1815 Where: Mount Tambora, Indonesia Facts: The volcano erupted in April. The explosion was so loud it was heard 2,000 kilometres away. The volcano sent a cloud of dust and ash into the atmosphere. This caused lower temperatures around the world. As a result, 1816 was called “the year without summer.” Over 75,000 people died as a result of the eruption.


Activities 8 Reading to understand. Find the disaster which: a caused the least number of deaths b destroyed the most property c happened most recently d happened farthest away from Norway e was caused by very cold weather 9 Speaking. Which of the disasters you have read about do you think is the worst? Write down your answer. Give at least three reasons for your choice. Discuss with a classmate. 10 Vocabulary. If there is a difficult word in a text it may help to break the word into parts. In the text about the most damaging hurricane you can find the word undrinkable. BS 72 a The stem is the part of the word that carries meaning. The stem here is drink. What does this word mean? b The prefix comes at the beginning of the word and can change the meaning. The prefix here is un. How does it change the meaning? c The suffix comes at the end of the word and can change the word class. The suffix here is able. To which word class does undrinkable belong? d Explain in English what the word undrinkable means. e Find the stem, prefix and suffix for incompletely. f Find other words that are put together like this. 11 Listening. Listen to the description of a natural disaster. Take notes while you are listening and make a fact box like the ones on these pages.

12 Digital skills. Use the Internet to find another natural disaster. Make a fact box in the same style as the fact boxes on these pages. Display the fact boxes in the classroom. BS 172 13 Adjectives. Biggest, deadliest, loudest, most damaging are adjectives in the superlative form. BS 18

a Which adjectives do the four superlatives come from? b How do you make the superlative form of an adjective? c Explain the superlative form to a classmate. d Write example sentences using the superlatives of large, dangerous, quiet and cheap. e How do you make the superlative form of an adjective in Norwegian? Is this similar to the English form?

Using adjectives to compare To make the comparative form with short adjectives: add -er Hailstones can be larger than snowflakes. To make the comparative form with longer adjectives: more + adjective Hurricane Katrina was more damaging than Hurricane Grace. To make the superlative form with short adjectives: add -est The blizzard in Iran in 1972 is the deadliest blizzard in history. To make the superlative form with longer adjectives: most + adjective The German hailstorm is the most destructive in history.

BS 17

BS 150

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Warm-up would you bring • What if you had to leave your home in a hurry? Make a list of ten things you would put in your bag.

Hurricane Katrina Saint Louis Armstrong Beach is a boy with a rather unusual name. Saint is his first name, Beach is his family name and his middle name comes from the famous musician Louis Armstrong. His parents usually call him Saint. Saint plays the clarinet, lives in New Orleans and loves the neighbourhood dog, Shadow. The story takes place when Hurricane Katrina is heading for the city where Saint lives. Extract from Saint Louis Armstrong Beach by Brenda Woods

One hand was on the front doorknob and my clarinet was in the other when Pops asked, “Where you headin’?” “To Moon Walk, maybe the Quarter. I almost have enough to buy the new clarinet.” “Not today, Saint.” “How come?” “Storm supposed to hit the Florida coast.” “This ain’t Florida.” “Might change course is what I’m hearin’. Most big storms seem to have minds of their own.” (…)

neighbourhood – nabolag heading for – på vei mot doorknob – dørhåndtak Pops – pappa (slang) straggly – spredt dashed upstairs – spurtet opp evacuation list – evakueringsliste cuff links – mansjettknapper tie clip – slipsnål

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“Can I at least go outside?” “Yep.” I opened the door and scanned the sky. Except for a single straggly cloud, it was clear and bright blue. Meteorologists can be wrong, I thought. But just in case, I dashed upstairs to find my list. Saint Louis Armstrong Beach’s Evacuation List 1 My clarinet 2 My money 3 My computer 4 The 18K gold engraved cuff links and tie clip King Daddy Saint left me. 5 My video games 6 Shadow 7 Extra boxer shorts


(…) Pops flicked off the TV. “Get dressed!” he ordered. “Okay,” I replied, and flew upstairs. “And hurry!” (…) As Saint and his family were busy packing, the dog, Shadow, sensed that there was something wrong and ran away. That was when Saint decided to run away as well. To him it was more important to find Shadow than to evacuate with his family. He finally found Shadow in the backyard of a house belonging to an old lady, Miz Moran.

flicked off – skrudde av backyard – bakgård

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“The guv’ment is telling y’all to leave and you come here lookin’ for a dog.” “I only came back for Shadow, Miz Moran. What about you?” “What ‘bout me? Told you I’m not goin’ nowhere. I’m old … ” “You should still leave.” Miz Moran glanced away. “If the Lord calls me, I’m ready to meet him. Plus I got everything I need right up there.” She pointed up. “In heaven?” “No, you goofball, in my attic. It’s where I hid when my daughter came for me. Got an emergency kit up there. If this Katrina gets ugly and the floodin’ goes high like they claimin’, I’ll be just fine. Yessir, I will.” “You sure?” “Lemme tell you something, Mister Saint. I’m prepared for the very worst. My emergency kit got everything: a flashlight, lantern, a box of flare sticks, a few of them solar blankets, plenty of water, canned and freezedried food” “Wow,” I interrupted. “You’re even a better planner than me. Sounds like you really do have everything you need.” She grinned and continued, “Even got one a them inflatable boats with two oars, a battery-operated fan, baby wipes to wash up, toilet paper, plastic bags to hold my waste … ”

How can you tell that Miz Moran speaks a dialect?

glanced – kastet et raskt blikk goofball – tøysekopp attic – loft emergency kit – nødutstyrspakke floodin’ – flom

(…)

claimin’ – påstår lemme (let me) – la meg (slang)

Saint, Shadow and Miz Moran were trapped in the attic while the water was rising in the rooms below. They had supplies for a few days, but Miz Moran had not planned to have guests in her refuge, and they were slowly running out of food, water and medicine.

flashlight – lommelykt lantern – lykt flare sticks – nødbluss solar blankets – nødtepper plenty – i massevis

The water was too high to wade through, the lifeboat was useless, and Miz Moran was out of medicine. I stared at my palm and tears got into my eyes. Miz Moran stared into my eyes and made the sign of the cross. “We have to get that window open,” I told her. “Oh, my God,” Miz Moran whispered, and put her hand to her mouth. For as far as we could see, water was everywhere. Fallen trees were on their sides. Roofs and huge parts of houses were gone. Cars were turned belly-up. Garbage and debris floated.

canned – hermetisert

(…)

refuge – tilfluktssted

freeze-dried – frysetørket inflatable boats – oppblåsbare båter oars – årer fan – vifte baby wipes – våtservietter hold my waste – til å ha avføringen i garbage and debris – søppel og vrakrester

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one y’all (one of you all) – en av dere (slang) was lowered down – ble firt ned squiggly – her: slapp passed out – besvimte insulin – medisin for de med diabetes

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In a flash, a helicopter was directly overhead. Then, just like you see on TV, this guy was lowered down on a rope thing. We backed inside so he’d have somewhere to land. The rescue guy glanced up. “We only have room for one more person. Have to come back for one y’all!” “Take the boy!” Miz Moran shouted over the noise. That was when she went squiggly like cooked spaghetti and passed out on the floor. “She has diabetes and she ran out of insulin! You have to take her to a hospital right away or she’s gonna die!” I screamed. “You okay here for a while?” he asked. I nodded. “Yeah.” “They’ll be back,” I told Shadow, “I hope.”


Activities 14 Reading to understand. a What is the name of the hurricane that hit New Orleans? b Why did Saint go to Miz Moran’s house? c Why do you think Miz Moran stayed in her house? d What was different outside the house when they looked out after the hurricane? e Why do you think Saint made the men in the helicopter take Miz Moran instead of him? 15 Vocabulary. Combine the phrases that have the same meaning. emergency kit

a religious gesture

to run out of insulin

go in another direction

directly overhead

a box with things you might need if you are in trouble

belly up

have no medicine left

the sign of the cross

upside down

to change course

straight above you

16 Writing. Write your own evacuation list. a Look at Saint’s and Miz Moran’s lists. Choose at least five things from these lists that you think it is a good idea to bring in an emergency. b Compare your list with a classmate’s. c Agree upon the three most important things to bring in an emergency. 17 Writing. You are the rescue guy in the helicopter. Write your eyewitness account about what happened when you came to rescue Saint and Miz Moran. BS 116

18 Speaking. The local radio station has heard about Saint and Miz Moran’s evacuation. They send out a reporter to interview them. a Work with two of your classmates. One is the reporter, one is Saint and one is Miz Moran. Make the news report. b Show your report to another group. c Agree upon what was good about your news report. 19 Language. Miz Moran speaks a dialect that might be difficult to read and understand. It is written just the way she says it. For example: goin’, lemme. BS 84 a Scan the text. Find more examples of words and phrases that are typical dialect. Make a list. b Rewrite the words and phrases in more formal written English. c Why do you think the author has chosen to write what Miz Moran says in dialect? d Why does the author use apostrophes in words like ‘bout and goin’? 20 Contractions. There are many contractions in the text, for example I’m. BS 58 a Skim through the text and find five contractions. b Where does the author use contractions? Why? 21 Vocabulary. There is a lot of dialogue in this story and the author uses many different verbs to describe how the words are spoken. For example I screamed. BS 96 a Skim through the story and find at least four different verbs that describe speech. b Write your own dialogue using the verbs that you have found.

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Warm-up this story Jamie • Inexperiences his worst nightmare. What do you think happens?

The Penalty It was the day of the A team football trials and Jamie Johnson wanted to show the coach and the other boys that he deserved a place on the team. At first things did not go well. Then suddenly, Jamie had the ball and was in front of an open goal. He aimed, but another player ran from behind and knocked him over. The referee blew for a penalty. Extract from The Kick Off by Dan Freedman

football trials – prøvekamp referee – dommer penalty – her: straffespark up against – opp mot steal all the glory – ta all hederen

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Jamie looked around. Everyone else was just staring back at him. None of the others on his team had made a move to take the penalty. It had to be him. Jamie knew it wasn’t just the keeper he was up against now. It was every other player on the pitch. No one wanted him to score – not even his own teammates. Why would they? It was their trial too and they all wanted to get into the A team just as badly as he did. Why would they want him to steal all the glory in the last minute?


Jamie reached down and placed the ball on the spot. At first a bump in the ground made the ball roll off the spot. So Jamie picked the ball back up and stamped down hard on the spot to try and flatten it out. He could feel his heart thudding as he put the ball back down. “Good luck, muppet,” said Dillon, standing right between Jamie and the goal. He was so close that Jamie could see the little droplets of spit coming out of his stinking mouth as he spoke. “Make sure you don’t MISS,” he hissed. Jamie fended Dillon’s heavy frame out of the way. He needed to concentrate. But it was hard. He wanted to be decisive but he was aware of the doubts sprouting up everywhere in his mind. Thousands of questions were all closing in on him at once: Power or placement? To the side? It might go wide. Straight down the middle? The keeper will save it. Mr Marsden raised the whistle to his mouth. The burst of noise was the signal for Jamie to step forward. “I can’t miss, I can’t miss,” he said to himself as he walked towards the spot, head bowed. And then everything went completely blank.

stamped down – tråkket ned thudding – dunke muppet – tulling droplets – små dråper spit – spytt stinking – stinkende fended – her: dyttet frame – her: kropp decisive – besluttsom sprouting up – dukket opp power or placement – kraft eller plassering burst of noise – her: lyden miss – bomme

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Do you think Jamie will score?

disconnected – usammenhengende divot – gresstust pitch – fotballbane flung – slang rocketed – skøyt i været somersaults – salto meanwhile – imens

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Jamie saw his feet run up to the ball but somehow he felt unable to control them. His mind and body were disconnected from each other. He was taking the penalty but he had no idea what he was actually going to do with it. Then something very unlucky happened. As Jamie moved to strike the ball with his left foot, his right foot went over a divot in the pitch, twisting his ankle right over. It threw Jamie off balance completely. He started to fall over. He should have stopped, got himself together and taken another run-up. But he didn’t. He still tried to take the penalty. As he was falling to the ground, he flung his foot towards the ball so desperately, so violently, that his left boot actually flew off his foot. It shot right up into the air. Jamie yelled out in horror. His boot rocketed skywards, doing somersaults as it went. Meanwhile, the ball that should have been flying into the back of the net was rolling slowly and painfully along the ground towards the goalkeeper’s waiting hands. Jamie could not believe it. This was his worst nightmare. He started to hear something behind him. It was laughter. He turned around and saw that all the players on both sides were laughing. At him.


Activities 22 Reading to understand. Put these events in the correct order. Then use the sentences to retell the story. • Jamie couldn’t control his feet. • Everybody laughed at Jamie. • Dillon told Jamie not to miss. • Jamie slipped and twisted his ankle. • The keeper caught the ball. • Mr Marsden blew the whistle.

27 Writing. Write a short article for the school newspaper about what happened in the trials. Begin like this: Today was an important day for all football-crazy year-8 boys: the trials for the under-fourteen A team. And what a dramatic finish … BS 110 28 Writing. Jamie experienced an everyday disaster. a Compare a natural disaster to an everyday disaster using a Venn diagram.

• The ball rolled off the penalty spot. • Jamie’s boot flew off. 23 Speaking. What happens next? Imagine what happens when the boys go into the changing room after the match. Compare your idea with a classmate. Were your ideas similar? 24 Speaking. You are the commentator for the school radio station. a Make a list of sentences about what happens. For example: Jamie placed the ball on the spot. b Use the sentences to make a commentary for the trials. c Perform for a classmate. 25 Speaking. Work in pairs. One is Jamie and the other is his best friend who did not see the trial. Jamie tells his friend all about it. His friend has a lot of questions for Jamie. 26 Writing. Missing the penalty was Jamie’s worst nightmare. What is your worst nightmare? This can be something that has happened or something that you think would be embarrassing. Write a story. BS 86

b Explain the difference between the two types of disasters. Write a paragraph. 29 Speaking. Read the questions, reflect and express your opinion to a classmate. a Did Jamie learn anything during the course of the story? Explain. b Do you think this story contains a message for the reader? Explain. c If you could talk to any of the characters in this story, what would you say? Explain in detail. 30 Adjectives. This sentence is from the text: It was Jamie’s worst nightmare. BS 16 a Worst is the superlative form of the adjective. Write the base form and the comparative of the adjective. b Find three more adjectives in the text. Write them in the base, comparative and superlative form. c Write one sentence with each of the superlative forms.

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Warm-up at the pictures. • Look Write down things you know about the Titanic. Work with a classmate and share your facts.

set sail – begynte reisen crew – mannskap experience – opplevelse

The Unsinkable Ship The Titanic was known as the ship that could not sink. The modern and luxurious ship set sail from Southampton to New York on April 10th, 1912. On board were 2,200 passengers and crew. Among them were over 100 children. Passengers on the Titanic could choose between first, second and third class. For children travelling on the boat it was an exciting experience whatever the class. However, on the night of April 15th, the Titanic hit an iceberg and sank.


Now read the eyewitness accounts of four children who survived that night. William Carter, age 11. First class. William was on the ship together with his parents, his sister and his dog. His family was very rich – his father had brought a car onboard the ship with him – and the family sailed first class. This is William’s account of the ship: “When I saw the inside of the ship, I thought I was in a dream because I have never seen anything so elegant. When I walked into our first-class rooms, I thought I was the richest person in the world.” When the ship hit the iceberg, William went up on deck together with his mother and sister. The two women got into a lifeboat, but then the

eyewitness accounts – øyenvitnefortellinger

The ship goes down. The lucky ones are in the lifeboats. Photo from the film Titanic (1997).

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A boy selling newspapers the day after the disaster.

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steward tried to stop William. He said there was not enough room for any more boys. William’s mother quickly put a ladies’ hat on her son’s head, and he was let onto the boat.

What do you think William was thinking as he entered the lifeboat?

Madeleine Violet Mellinger, age 13. Second class. Madeleine was on board the Titanic with her mother and was very impressed by the ship. “When I went inside, I couldn’t believe my eyes! It was so beautiful. Everything was so new. They called it the floating palace.” The night the Titanic sank Madeleine was awoken by strange noises, and she and her mother went up to the top deck. As they were in second class, they were not allowed to go straight onto a lifeboat. Madeleine thought that this was very strange. She recalls: “I was frustrated. I didn’t understand why we couldn’t just get a lifeboat. I didn’t think it should depend on your class.” Madeleine and her mother went to the other side of the ship and were lucky enough to find a place on a lifeboat. While she was in the boat, Madeleine saw that there was not enough room for everyone: “As I looked out at all the people still waiting to get into the lifeboats, I felt so terribly bad for them. I wish we could’ve piled each and every one of them onto a lifeboat and saved them all. It was scary to think that the lifeboats were almost all full, but there were still a great many people left on the ship. Mother said I should face away from the ship. She didn’t want me to see it go down. I didn’t want to see it either. I wished that none of this was true. I wished that it was just some awful joke they were playing on us and none of it was actually happening. But I knew it was true. It was just awful. The Titanic was going to sink any moment. I couldn’t even bear to look at the ship. I was so lucky that I got into a lifeboat.” steward – lugartjener

Eva Hart, age 7. Second class. On the night the ship sank, Eva’s father wrapped her in a blanket and took her up to the boat deck. He put her in a lifeboat with her mother and told her to be a good girl. That was the last time Eva saw him. “I saw that ship sink. I didn’t close my eyes. I never slept at all. I saw it, I heard it and nobody could possibly forget it. The worst thing was the screaming,” she said in an interview in 1993. “And then the silence that followed. It seemed as if once everybody had gone down, drowned, finished, the whole world was standing still. There was nothing, just this terrible deathly silence in the dark night with the stars overhead.” When dawn came, the people in the lifeboats were picked up by another ship, the Carpathia. Eva remembers that the children were lifted

let onto the boat – sluppet ombord impressed – imponert floating palace – flytende palass recalls – husker piled – stablet face away – snu seg bort fra to sink – å synke couldn’t even bear – orket ikke engang drowned – druknet terrible – fryktelige

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People’s belongings are still at the bottom of the ocean.

mail sacks – postsekker swung – svingte seamen – matroser were permitted – fikk lov til (å gå) to grasp – å gripe jerked – rykket patted him – klappet ham

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onto the ship in mail sacks. “Because the children couldn’t climb up the rope ladders, we were each put in a mail sack and lifted aboard as it swung terrifyingly about over the ocean.” Frank Goldsmith, age 9. Third class. Like most of the passengers in third class, Frank’s father was on his way to America to look for work. When the ship struck the iceberg, Frank and his parents went to where a lifeboat was being loaded. With them was Alfred Rush, the son of a family friend. There were seamen standing around the boat, who allowed only women and children through. Frank recalls: “Mother and I were permitted through the gateway and the crewman in charge reached out to grasp the arm of Alfred Rush … but Alfred jerked his arm out of the sailor’s hand and with his head held high, said “No! I’m staying here with the men.” At age 16, he died a hero.” Frank remembers that his father reached down, patted him on the shoulder and said “So long Frankie, I’ll see you later.” He didn’t, and he may have known he wouldn’t. Frank was one of the lucky ones. Of the 80 children in third class, only 25 survived. Only one child from first class died, while no children from second class died.


Activities 31 Reading to understand. a When did the Titanic leave Southampton? b How many people were on board? c How many classes were there for passengers? d Who did William Carter travel with? e What did Madeleine think was very strange? f How were children taken on board the Carpathia? g Why was Frank travelling to America? h Why do you think so many children died in third class compared to first and second class? 32 Writing. Look at the pictures on these pages. Imagine you are a passenger on the Titanic. a Write a letter to a friend back home. Use the date April 10th, 1912 in your letter. b Underline three sentences that you think are well written in your letter. What is good about the sentences? 33 Digital skills. The Titanic had three classes. Search for pictures and more information about these three classes on the Internet. BS 172 a Compare and contrast the conditions on first, second and third class using a Venn diagram like this:

34 Writing. You barely survived the Titanic disaster. Write an eyewitness account. Choose to be one of these: BS 116 • Elizabeth Smith, age 13, first class • David Carson, age 15, second class • Henry James, age 10, third class 35 Questions. You live in the USA and are working on a project interviewing survivors of the disaster. BS 28 a What would you like to ask them? Make a list of at least five questions. Start the questions with what, where, when, how or why. b Work with a classmate, who is the survivor. Ask the questions you have written. 36 Writing. Look at the advertising board in the picture on page 164. From the information you now have, make a short text for the newspaper about the Titanic disaster. The text is to be published two days after the disaster. 37 Listening. Listen to the eyewitness account. BS 150

a Take notes while you are listening. b Rewrite the main events using your own words. 38 Contractions. Skim through the text and find the contractions. Example: I’m BS 58 a Which parts of the text contain contractions? b Why are there contractions in these parts of the text?

b Compare the differences between the classes using adjectives. Write an informative paragraph. BS 80

39 Vocabulary. Find other ways of saying this in English: a he was let onto the boat b she was very impressed by the ship c she recalls d she faced away from the ship

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Chapter Activities Sum up 40 Reading strategies. Skim the texts in this chapter. Write the title of the text or texts where you can read about: a a whistle

d a hurricane

b a razor

e an iceberg

c an emergency kit

f a blizzard

41 Vocabulary. a Sort the words from the least to the most dangerous: • hailstorm, hurricane, famine, flood, avalanche, blizzard, earthquake, volcanic eruption, storm • disaster, incident, catastrophe, tragedy, accident b Compare your lists with your classmate’s. c What can you learn from sorting words, as you have done in this activity? 42 Writing. Natural or everyday disaster? Do you know the difference? a List three natural disasters. b List three everyday disasters. c Explain the difference between an everyday disaster and a natural disaster. 43 Speaking. You have read about several disasters in this chapter. Which disaster do you think is the most disastrous?

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44 Adjectives.

BS 16

a Explain what the comparative and superlative forms of the adjective are. b Write sentences using the comparative or superlative form of these adjectives: great, powerful, small, frightened, happy, embarrassing, disastrous 45 Contractions.

BS 58

a Write the contracted form for each pair of words: they would, he will, they had, we were not, she is, I did not b Write the extended form of these contractions: they’ll, she won’t, he’s, it isn’t, I’m, I’d c Contractions are mostly used in spoken English. When can you use them in written English? 46 Pronunciation. One of the topic words for this chapter is catastrophe. The word is spelled almost the same in Norwegian, but it is pronounced differently. In English the second syllable is stressed: ca’tastrophe. In Norwegian the third syllable is stressed: kata’strofe. When you learn a new word you should always check the pronunciation, especially if the word is very similar to Norwegian. BS 62

a Spend a few minutes preparing an explanation.

a Use a printed dictionary or an online dictionary to practise pronunciation of the following words: catastrophe, geography, nation, rectangle, Viking.

b Find someone who has chosen a different disaster. Convince them that the disaster you have chosen is the most disastrous.

b Now find some other words which are similar in Norwegian and English, but which are pronounced differently.

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Move on 47 Speaking. Imagine you are the news reporter in an area where there has been a terrible storm. Make a TV broadcast where you report on what has happened and interview one or two eyewitnesses. Use words like: catastrophe, disaster, eyewitness, emergency. 48 Speaking. Choose one of the situations below and make a short play about it. Perform the play with some of your classmates. a You are a teacher. One of your pupils comes to ask you for advice about an everyday problem. b You are a sports coach. One of your players has scored an own goal and is upset. c You are a teenager. The fire alarm is ringing and you are stuck in the music room with a group of friends.

49 Writing. Continue the eyewitness account. I sat quite still, looking out at the scene before me. I could not believe what had just happened. BS 116

50 Writing. You and some friends are experiencing a natural disaster and are hiding in a shelter. Choose the setting, type of disaster and type of shelter. Write a story. BS 86 51 Writing. You are on board a ship in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Your father wakes you up to tell you something terrible has happened. Write your story. BS 86 52 Writing. My everyday disaster.

BS 104

a Write a blog post from a day when you experienced an everyday disaster. b Ask a classmate to write a comment on your blog post.

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… list some of the biggest natural disasters ever recorded. … give examples of everyday disasters. … explain the difference between an everyday disaster and a natural disaster. … write a short factual text about a natural disaster. … explain how to form the comparative and superlative of adjectives. … use the comparative and superlative form of adjectives. … explain when I can use contractions.

B • Pick three tasks that you are satisfied with.

• Choose one of these tasks and write a paragraph which describes what was good about your work.

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6

Science


?

TOPIC WORDS

What has science done for you? Choose five inventions which you think are the most important in your own life. Discuss your choices with a classmate.

scientist invention to develop project to instruct to explain illness

Learning objectives n n n n n n

Explain how some inventions work Describe illnesses and symptoms Read graphs and statistics Identify reliable Internet sources Write e-mails and letters using formal language Identify and use verbs in the imperative form

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Warm-up parts of the body • Which do you already know?

Body Science

forehead eyelash

eyebrow

eye nose nostril

cheek

teeth mouth

ear

lip

earlobe

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chin


head

neck elbow arm

finger ankle

chest stomach

shoulder

wrist

back hand thumb hips bottom

skin

calf

foot toe

thigh

shin leg

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“An apple a day …” headache – hodepine throat – hals some advice – noen råd symptoms – symptomer, sykdomstegn cough – hoste dizzy – svimmel fever – feber flu – influensa prescription – resept cough mixture – hostesaft tablespoon – spiseskje

! Did you know? • The strongest muscle in your body is the tongue and the hardest bone is the jawbone.

• The funny bone is not a bone; it is actually a nerve in your elbow. It got its name because of the funny feeling you get when you hit it. In Norwegian we call this enkemannsstøt or kjerringstøt.

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An apple a day keeps the doctor away. This means that if you eat healthily, you will stay healthy. But sometimes everybody becomes ill and may need a visit to the doctor. The doctor will ask what your symptoms are. Doctor: Good morning. How can I help you? Patient: I’ve got a headache and my throat is sore. Doctor: How long have you felt this way? Patient: About two days. Doctor: I’ll give you some advice. Stay warm and drink a lot of tea with honey and lemon. Patient: I’ll do that. Doctor: Do you have any other symptoms? Patient: I cough a little and I feel dizzy. Doctor: If you have a fever too, you may have the flu. I’ll give you a prescription for a cough mixture. Take one tablespoon every evening. Patient: Thank you, doctor.


Activities 1 Reading to understand. True or false? Correct the false sentences. a The funny bone is a very soft bone. b Your thumb is on your hand. c Your chin is next to your mouth. d Your shin is a part of your leg. e The collarbone is the hardest bone in your body. f The strongest muscle is the nostril. g You can get a funny feeling when you hit your elbow. h Cheek and chin are two words for the same thing. 2 Vocabulary. Here are the names of some common illnesses and symptoms: cold, cough, measles, chicken pox, sore throat, tummy bug, ear infection, sprained ankle, broken leg, feel tired, diarrhoea, feel sick, tummy ache, feel dizzy, itchy eyes, runny nose, ache all over, back pain, fever, headache, flu, swollen, painful a Translate the illnesses and symptoms into Norwegian. b Sort the words into two categories: symptoms and illnesses. Which could be both? Make a Venn diagram.

3 Speaking. Make a role play of a visit to the doctor. a Explain your symptoms. Let the doctor tell you which illness you might have. For example:

Doctor: If you have a fever, too, you may have the flu. Useful adjectives: tired, swollen, thin, yellow, red, black, pale, dark, dizzy, dangerous, painful. Useful verbs: to bleed, to hurt, to ache, to itch, to cough. b Switch roles and make another role play. c What was good about your role plays? Make a list. 4 Vocabulary. Idioms are expressions that often have a meaning that cannot be translated directly into other languages. a What do you think these idioms mean? Explain in English. 1 to come down with something 2 to get a black eye 3 in good shape 4 just what the doctor ordered 5 as fit as a fiddle 6 sick and tired 7 to sleep like a log b How would you translate these idioms into Norwegian? c Act out a short dialogue between two people in the doctor’s waiting room where you use some of these idioms. 5 Pronunciation. Shin, skin and chin are three very different parts of the body. The words are also pronounced differently. Can you spot which is which? BS 62

Patient: I feel tired and dizzy and I cough a lot.

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Warm-up you know what to • Do do if someone needs first aid?

First Aid 1 STOP! YOU CAN HELP Knowing a little first aid could help keep someone alive until an ambulance arrives. 2 STAY SAFE AND KEEP CALM Make sure you stay safe. Keep off the road. If you need to stop any cars, signal to them from the pavement. 3 CHECK AIRWAYS • Never move an injured person. • Check for a response. • Shout for help. • Gently lift the person’s chin with two fingers. • Check if the person is breathing by listening and feeling for breath on your cheek. See if the chest is moving up and down. • If the person is not breathing normally, you will need to start giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and chest compressions.

first aid – førstehjelp keep calm – hold deg rolig keep off – hold deg unna pavement – fortau airways – luftveiene injured – skadet response – reaksjon mouth to mouth – munn til munn resuscitation – lungeredning chest compressions – hjertekompresjoner clean cloth – rent tøystykke wound – sår emergency call – nødanrop

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4 STOP BLEEDING • Bleeding can cause shock, so it’s important to stop the bleeding if you can. • Use a piece of clean cloth, and press it on the wound. 5 EMERGENCY CALL Call the emergency number and say: • where you are. • what has happened. • how many people are hurt. • whether the injured person is breathing or bleeding.


Activities 6 Reading to understand. These sentences are false. Rewrite them so that they become true. a If you need help, stand in the middle of the road and try to stop cars. b It is never safe to go near an injured person. c Run for help before you check the injured person. 7 Speaking. Act out a bicycle accident. Give first aid. Follow the instructions in the text. 8 Poster. Make a First Aid poster for accidents that may happen in a classroom. For example, glue in the eye, scissor cut, paper cut, stepping on a drawing pin. The poster must be readable from two metres, have clear and informative headlines, short sentences, imperative of verbs, instructions, visual elements, important information only and be without spelling mistakes. BS 121 9 Speaking. You were late for school today because of an accident. What do you tell your teacher and classmates when you enter the classroom? Talk to a classmate.

10 Listening. Listen to the eyewitness account. Write a summary of what you hear. BS 150 11 Imperative of verbs. Read the First Aid instructions. BS 43 a Make a list of the verbs in the imperative form. b Find more verbs that are often used in the imperative form. c Work with a classmate. Give each other instructions, using verbs in the imperative form.

12 Imperative of verbs. Design a web page for a First Aid organization. List instructions for what to do in an emergency situation. Use verbs in the imperative form like Hurry up! Take care!

Imperative of verbs When you give instructions or command other people to act, you use the imperative form of the verb. Check for a response. Keep calm.

BS 43

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Warm-up Nightingale lived • Florence in the mid-1800s and wanted to become a nurse. Her parents did not like the idea. Why, do you think?

The Lady with the Lamp If you are ill or have hurt yourself you can go to the doctor or a hospital where they will take good care of you. This was not always the case. In the 1800s hospitals were dirty, and many patients died. This changed when “the Lady with the Lamp” started working as a nurse. A love for nursing

nurse – sykepleier patients –pasienter wealthy – rik educated – utdannet to nurse – å pleie unwell – syke the ill – de syke considered – regnet som respectable – respektabel

Florence Nightingale was born in Florence, Italy in 1820, to English parents. Her family was wealthy, and once the family returned to England, Florence was educated at home. Florence loved to nurse her family and friends when they were unwell, and as she grew older, she began to visit the poor and the ill.

No work for a lady When Florence began to show an interest in nursing, her parents were not happy. At that time nursing was not considered a respectable job for an educated lady. Florence’s parents wanted her to get married. However, Florence did not give up, and her parents gave in and let her train as a nurse in Germany when she was 31 years old. When she returned to England, she worked as an unpaid manager of a hospital for women.

gave in – ga seg unpaid manager – ulønnet sjef

Rats and fleas

rats and fleas – rotter og lopper

In 1854 a war broke out in Turkey. Many soldiers were wounded or became ill. Florence travelled to Turkey to help the nurses there. She found terrible conditions in the hospitals. The men slept on the floor without blankets, there were rats and fleas everywhere and the hospitals did not have enough food and equipment. As a result, many patients died, not from their injuries, but because they got infectious diseases like cholera, typhus and dysentery.

wounded – såret conditions – forhold, tilstander blankets – sengetepper equipment – utstyr injuries – skader infectious diseases – smittsomme sykdommer set to work – satte i gang med arbeidet laundry – her: vaskerom comfort – trøste

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Cook and clean Florence set to work. She organised a large kitchen to cook meals, and a laundry to wash clothes. She also made sure that the hospital was clean. Florence cared for the soldiers and took the time to stop and comfort


The lady with the lamp visiting wounded soldiers at night.


Florence became popular with the patients. Can you think why?

them. She walked through the hospital corridors every night carrying a gas light. This is why she got the nickname “the Lady with the Lamp”.

Notes on Nursing Florence returned to London a heroine. However, she found that hospitals in England were also badly run and overcrowded. Florence presented her ideas on cleanliness and sanitation in a book called Notes on Nursing, which is still relevant today. Florence died in 1910 at the age of 90. She is remembered today as the founder of modern nursing.

Improving hospitals Florence Nightingale was very interested in mathematics as well as nursing. She collected large amounts of information about public health and hospitals, especially about deaths in hospital. Her statistics helped to reduce the number of deaths and changed the way many hospitals were run. She believed that statistics were most effective if they were presented graphically, and she made the polar area diagram popular. This type of graph is similar to the pie chart. % 70 60 50 40

nickname – kallenavn badly run – dårlig styrt

30 20

overcrowded – overfylt cleanliness and sanitation – renslighet founder – grunnlegger

10 0

1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864

public health – folkehelse graphically – grafisk, billedlig similar to – lik pie chart – kakediagram

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This line graph shows the decline in death rate as a result of Florence Nightingale’s work in the hospital in Turkey.


Activities 13 Reading to understand. a Why didn’t Florence’s parents want her to become a nurse? b Where did Florence first train as a nurse? c Where was her first job? What was unusual about it? d What did most of the men in the hospital in Turkey die of? Why? e Why was she given the nickname “the Lady with the Lamp”? f Why do you think that Florence returned home a heroine? g What did Florence do when she returned home from Turkey? h How old was Florence in 1854? i Why do you think Notes on Nursing is still relevant today? j What surprised you the most when reading the text? Explain. 14 Listening. Listen to your classmate reading the text about Florence Nightingale. Take turns reading and listening. While you listen carefully, draw a quick sketch of BS 150 a the hospital conditions in Turkey b Florence Nightingale 15 Numbers. Study the line graph on page 180. What does this graph tell you about the death rate? Write a few sentences about the facts presented in the graph. BS 170 16 Writing. Imagine that you are Florence Nightingale and you have just arrived in Turkey. Write a letter to your parents describing the hospital conditions.

17 Speaking. Florence’s parents did not want her to become a nurse. Act out a or b with a classmate. a Act out the conversation between Florence and her parents. b Act out you trying to persuade your parents to let you do something they don’t want you to do. 18 Instructions. These instructions for washing hands are listed in the wrong order.

• • • • • • •

Turn off the tap with a towel or your sleeve. Rinse your hands. Wet your hands. Towel or air-dry your hands. Lather, rub and count to 15. Turn on the water. Use liquid soap.

a Put the instructions in the correct order. b Make an illustrated poster for the classroom wall with these instructions. BS 121 c What is good about your poster? Discuss with a classmate. 19 Imperative of verbs. Which instructions would you give to improve hygiene at school or at home? BS 43 a Write a list of hygiene rules. Use these verbs in the imperative form: wash, use, dry, clean, rinse, leave, stay, come, take, cough, sneeze, wait, turn For example: Wash your hands before every meal. b Make instructions in the negative form. Use do not + infinitive. For example: Do not shout.

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Warm-up at least five maths • Find words on these pages.

graphs – grafer charts – diagrammer collect – samle record – gjengi height – høyde

Numbers in Pictures Graphs and charts are effective ways of presenting statistical information. It is useful to be able to draw them, but you should also be able to read and describe graphs. The pupils in class 8A learned about statistics in maths. Each pupil had to collect information about their classmates and then record the information in a graph. They also had to describe what the graph showed. Sebastian decided to find out how tall his classmates were. Here is Sebastian’s bar graph and his paragraph describing it.

Height of pupils in 8A

12

Number of pupils

10 8 6 4 2 0

150–154 155–159 160–164 165–169 170–174 175–179 Height in cm

This is a graph showing the height of pupils in 8A. It shows us that most pupils are between 160 and 164 cm tall. There are ten pupils who are this height. Five pupils are less than 160 cm and only one pupil is taller than 175 cm. No pupils are shorter than 150 cm or taller than 179 cm. Sebastian, 13

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Rachel collected information about which second foreign language her class­mates had chosen. She decided to present the information as a pie chart.

foreign language – fremmedspråk pie chart – sektordiagram

Second foreign language in 8A English in depth 15 %

Spanish 35 %

22 % French 28 %

German

My pie chart shows that Spanish is the most popular second foreign language. 35 % of pupils in 8A chose to learn Spanish. German is a little more popular than French, while only 15 % of 8A chose to study English in depth. Rachel, 13

Activities 20 Reading to understand. The information from Sebastian’s bar graph can also be presented in a frequency table, like this: Height range

Number of pupils

21 Numbers. Reading and understanding graphs. a Make two questions about the bar graph and two about the pie chart. For example: Which language is the most popular? b Ask a classmate to answer your questions.

155–159

3

160–164 6 175–179

Use the information from the graph to complete the table.

22 Numbers. Collect information about something over a period of time, for example the weather, temperature, how much water you drink. Make graphs and present your findings to the class. 23 Numbers. Find a graph in another textbook, for example your social science book. Write a paragraph about the graph. BS 168

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Warm-up your opinion, which • Ininventions would fit the title of this text?

An Amazing Invention Did you know that the computer was actually invented 200 years ago by Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace? Sadly, the inventors did not have enough time or money to finish it.

invention – oppfinnelse inventors – oppfinnere engine – motor supposed to – ment å calculate – beregne

Charles Babbage (1791–1871)

Ada Lovelace (1815–1852)

The first computer Charles Babbage invented the first computer, which he named the Difference Engine. The Difference Engine was supposed to calculate mathematical problems. Sadly, along the way people lost interest in the project. Babbage ran out of money, and he never finished building the machine. However, his writings and drawings for the machine were saved.

software – programvare succeeded – lyktes

Software

programmable – programmerbar

Babbage did not give up even though he did not finish the Difference Engine. He started working on a new invention. He wanted to build a machine that could calculate almost anything, and he came up with the idea for a computer with actual software. This time though, he did not do all the work himself. He got help from Ada Lovelace who was a mathematical genius. She helped Babbage with the difficult task of making programs for the machine.

science – vitenskap materials – materialer techniques – teknikker available – tilgjengelig proves – beviser

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The Analytical Engine They called the machine the Analytical Engine. It would have been a truly amazing invention if they had succeeded. Unfortunately, they did not finish their project because they lacked time and money. The first programmable computer was not made until 1936, by Konrad Zuse.

A working computer Babbage’s work has not been forgotten. In 1991, the Science Museum in London successfully built a working computer using Babbage’s drawings and writings. The machine was built using materials and techniques available in Babbage’s time. This shows us that the machine would have worked 200 years ago. It also proves that Babbage really invented the computer. The Difference Engine

Activities 24 Reading to understand. Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. a up did give not Babbage b invented first Charles the Babbage computer c money of lots received he d London computer Museum the Science a in built e Lovelace from got he Ada help f did finish they their project not g Ada Babbage made Lovelace for software 25 Vocabulary. Find the following phrases in the text and rewrite the sentences using other words: along the way, materials and techniques, 200 years ago, mathematical genius, truly amazing. 26 Digital skills. Find out more about Ada Lovelace. BS 172 a Search the Internet for information. b List some sources that you used. c Which source do you trust the most? Why? d Write a Did you know? paragraph which summarizes the information you found about Ada Lovelace. Start like this: Did you know that Ada Lovelace was …? 27 Formal letter. You are Ada Lovelace or Charles Babbage. Write a formal letter to a rich person. Describe a machine you have invented or built in a way that will convince them that you need money for your project. Your language should be formal and polite. Begin your letter like this: Dear Sir End your letter like this: Yours faithfully, Ada Lovelace/Charles Babbage BS 108

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Warm-up many computers • How do you have at home? many people in your • How family have a mobile phone?

up the total number • Add of phones and computers in the whole class.

The Computer War Computers are everywhere. You find small computers in mobile phones, cars, planes, boats, digital watches and televisions. However, you do not have to go far back in time to find that it has not always been that way. Microsoft and Apple In the 1970s two big computer companies, Microsoft and Apple were started. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne and Steve Wozniak founded Apple. The computer war was on. While Microsoft made computer programs, Apple made both computers and programs. Microsoft and Apple worked hard to make computers and programs that everyone would want to have and use in their homes. They both wanted people to use computers every day. This was not done overnight. In the 1980s, the first personal computers were very big, slow, expensive and only for those who needed them for scientific work.

Personal computers Twenty years after the founding of the two companies, they started to make computers that looked more like the ones we use today. The machines became smaller, faster and cheaper. Personal computers, or PCs, had become something more than expensive and complex typewriters, and people started to buy them. companies – bedrifter

Changes

founded – grunnla

Playing games, writing school reports, going online to find information, sending e-mails and chatting were some of the things you could suddenly do with your personal computer. Both Apple and Microsoft had invented amazing machines that people needed. This changed everyday life for many people.

not done overnight – ikke gjort over natten scientific – vitenskapelig complex – avanserte typewriters – skrivemaskiner everyday life – hverdagen

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Did you know?

!

• Computer programs are called software.

• Computer parts are called hardware.

• To compute is the same as to calculate.

Activities 28 Reading to understand. True or false? a Apple is a fruit company. c It was easy to make a computer that people would use every day. d The first personal computers were used by scientists. e The first personal computer looked just like the ones we use today. f PC is short for personal computer. g Microsoft and Apple changed people’s everyday lives. h The computer war was a competition between two companies that wanted to make the most amazing machine. i Bill Gates and Steve Jobs worked for the same company. j There are small computers in mobile phones. 29 Speaking. Work with a classmate. a List everything you need a computer for in your everyday life. Compare your lists. b What do you think the next important computer invention will be? Discuss with a classmate. c Explain how to use a computer to a 90-yearold who has never used one before. Act it out. 30 Digital skills. Search the Internet for information about the number of computers worldwide in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and today. BS 172

a Present your findings graphically. b What can you read from your graphs? c List the sources you used to find information. d Which of the web sources can you trust? Why? e List some characteristics of a reliable web source. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are having an informal meeting on the stairs.

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Warm-up invention would you • Which like to have invented?

Inventive Teenagers Inventors are not necessarily old men in white coats. All the inventions on these pages were made by teenagers, just like you. They all had good ideas which they managed to turn into inventions that are used every day.

Snowmobile Who: Joseph-Armand Bombardier (1907–1964) Age: 17 Where: Valcourt, Canada What: the snowmobile

inventive – oppfinnsomme inventors – oppfinnere necessarily – nødvendigvis coats – frakker managed – klarte snowmobile – snøskuter sledge – slede wooden propeller – trepropell recreational vehicles – fritidskjøretøy television image – TV-bilde transmitted – overført dollar sign – dollartegn $ ear muffs – ørevarmere wool – ull scarves – skjerf itch – klø beaver – bever velvet – fløyel wire – ståltråd to sew – å sy

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In 1922, Joseph began working on a sledge with a motor and a wooden propeller. The idea was to travel on difficult surfaces such as snow and ice. He later developed this into a snowmobile and started a company that makes recreational vehicles.


Television Who: Philo Farnsworth (1906–1971) Age: 14 Where: Beaver County, Utah, USA What: the television Philo had the idea for a television when he was just 14. Six years later he started Crocker Research Laboratories and in 1927 the first television image was transmitted – it was a dollar sign.

Ear muffs Who: Chester Greenwood (1858–1937) Age: 15 Where: Farmington, Maine, USA What: ear muffs Chester was out ice skating, and his ears were cold. Wool from scarves made his ears itch, so he designed ear muffs using beaver skin, velvet and wire, and asked his grandmother to sew them together.

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Trampoline Who: George Nissen (1914–2010) Age: 16 when he began working on the idea, 20 when he and the gymnastics coach made the first prototype. Where: Blairstown, Iowa USA What: the trampoline George was a keen gymnast who often visited the circus and watched how trapeze artists used the safety net. He thought this could be developed for use in gymnastics training.

Popsicle gymnastics coach – turntrener prototype – første modell keen – ivrig trapeze artists – sirkusartister safety net – sikkerhetsnett popsicle – pinne-is soda, pop – brus mixing stick – rørepinnen onto – her: fast på icicle – istapp dots – prikker

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Who: Frank Epperson (1905–1983) Age: 11 Where: San Francisco, California, USA What: the popsicle (ice lolly) Frank was trying to make his own soda or pop. One night he left the drink outside with the mixing stick still in the cup. The drink froze onto the stick. Much later Frank called his invention the Epsicle (Epperson and icicle), later changing this to popsicle.


Braille Who: Louis Braille (1809–1852) Age: 15 Where: near Paris, France What: Braille, a system of writing for blind people. Braille is based on six dots. Louis was blind himself and wanted to be able to read.

Activities 31 Reading to understand. Skim the factual texts and find the inventor who: a invented something by accident b was unable to read books c wanted a way to move around quickly during the winter

34 Writing. Imagine that you and your classmates are inventors. Write more fact boxes just like the ones on these pages. Choose real inventions or make up new ones. 35 Vocabulary. Which invention would you use in these situations?

d found wool very itchy

a to play music

e developed a product that many teenagers now have in their garden or yard

b to check the weather forecast for tomorrow

f was from Europe

d to pay in a shop

32 Listening. Listen to the text about inventive teenagers. Listen for transparent words. That means words that sound almost the same in English and Norwegian. BS 150 a Write a list of these words while you listen. b Compare your list with a classmate’s. c Why do you think it is a good idea to listen for transparent words? 33 Speaking. You are one of these inventive teenagers. Present your new invention to your friends for the first time. a Tell them how you came up with the idea. b Explain how the invention works.

c to be updated on the latest news e to travel to another country f to cook dinner g to wash your clothes h to get up early in the morning 36 Verbs. Your younger sister asks you why she cannot find words like was, began and left in the dictionary. BS 30 a Which form of the verb is listed in the dictionary? b What do you answer? Write the dialogue you have with your sister. c What are you good at when it comes to verbs? What do you need to improve?

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Warm-up will find all these • You words in the story: glass case, fossils, ammonites, dinosaurs, reptilian feet, charts, pictures, shells and bones of creatures, evolution. What kind of place do you think Maria and Martin are going to visit?

Time Changes Everything Maria Foster is spending her summer holiday on the coast of England. While walking around the area, she becomes fascinated by the number of fossils in the stones along the coast. She makes friends with Martin, who shares her interest in the fossils of the long-dead creatures that they find. Extract from A Stitch in Time by Penelope Lively

Mrs Foster looked apprehensively at Martin. She did not much like boys. Maria always felt that one of the few things she had done right in her life was to be a girl. “I thought I’d go to the museum,” said Martin.

creatures – dyr apprehensively – forsiktig brightened – lyste opp destructive - ødeleggende energetic – energisk lengthily – i lengde patiently – med tålmodighet outboard motor – påhengsmotor at intervals – her: av og til trotted – her: trippet dutifully – pliktoppfyllende glass case – glassmonter

Mrs Foster brightened. She had obviously expected something much more destructive or energetic. “What a good idea. Maria hasn’t been there either.” They walked slowly back to the town. Martin explained to Mrs Foster, lengthily and patiently, how an outboard motor works. Mrs Foster said, “Yes,” and, “I see,” at intervals. Maria, happy, trotted two steps behind. It seemed to be quite all right for her to say nothing. At the entrance to the museum Martin said to her, “Actually, your mum didn’t follow all that,” and she said wisely, “No, I don’t think she did.” Inside the museum, Mrs Foster said: “I’m afraid it looks a bit dull.” She began to move dutifully from glass case to glass case, spending the same length of time at each. Maria had seen her use the same system on picture exhibitions.

exhibitions – utstillinger ammonites – en type blekksprutfossil chunks of rock – steiner

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The cases were full of fossils. Fossils of a much greater variety and perfection that any one could imagine finding for oneself. Ammonites as big as door-knockers; chunks of rock through which swam the bony


tracery of complete fish; the vertebrae of dinosaurs; the imprint of reptilian feet on a slab of clay... And the labels describing each item battered the reader with immensities of time – forty million years ago, a hundred and eighty million, four hundred million. Here were creatures younger by hundreds of millions of years than others. And here were charts that explained, with helpful drawings of rampant dinosaurs, fish of the most weird and impractical design, and all the smaller fry by way of shells and starfish and things that creep or crawl, which creatures had lasted for how long. Ammonites, Maria noted with surprise, were a relatively late invention, sharing a swampy and tropical universe with diplodocus and pterodactyl.

bony tracery – beinstruktur vertebrae – ryggvirvel imprint – avtrykk slab of clay – leireblokk labels – skilt battered with immensities of time – her: tæret av tidens tann rampant – voldsomme impractical – upraktisk

And all these creatures, she saw, studying charts and pictures, have stepped out of the rock of which the place is made, the bones of it, those blue cliffs with which England ends.

fry – yngel, nylig klekket fisk diplodocus and pterodactyl – dinosaurer

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pored over – så grundig på

“Blue lias,” said Maria.

scowling in concentration – rynket pannen i konsentrasjon

“What?”

heaves and boils – syder og koker flung up – presset opp procession – her: linje unambitious – lite ambisiøse lumbering – å bevege seg tungt og klumsete caption – overskrift eventually – endelig indicated – viste til arms akimbo – med hendene på hoftene sudden illumination – en plutselig klarhet accepted blithely – tok noe for å være sant appealing – tiltrekkende occasionally – nå og da amiable – vennlig

Why do you think Maria suddenly comes to think of Noah’s Ark?

“It’s called blue lias, the rock here.” And she said it again, to herself, because she liked the sound of it. Blue lias... And the brown rock on top of it is called upper greensand, and all these different kinds of rock are different ages, like the fossils, old and older and very old indeed. They lie, sleeping, as it were, under fields and towns, full of the shells and bones of creatures that once were here. “Good, isn’t it?” said Martin. He pored over the cases, scowling in concentration. Everything changes. The earth’s surface heaves and boils: seas become land, continents are swallowed up by water, mountains are flung up. And through all this marches an endless procession of life-forms, from the unambitious shell-like creatures of this case, to the lumbering dinosaur of that picture. (Why, Maria wondered, reading the caption, should it matter so much that its brain was only the size of a kitten’s?... Kittens manage, after all.) One thing gives way to another, and eventually all ends up, as the chart indicated at the bottom, on a note of undisguised triumph, with naked but bearded man, standing arms akimbo on what appeared to be Dover cliffs. “Noah’s Ark isn’t true at all,” said Maria, with sudden illumination. “Course not,” said Martin. “It’s a load of rubbish.” “Then people should say so,” said Maria crossly. She felt cheated. All your life you accepted blithely one account of things, and then you found yourself presented with something entirely different (and much more appealing). It needed thinking about. They were moving together from case to case now. Occasionally Martin would give her an amiable poke to attract her attention... “Look at that... Hey, come here...” “It’s as though,” said Maria, “somebody was messing about with it all. Trying to see what would work and throwing away the things that didn’t.” “No it isn’t. It’s evolution. We did it at school. Things change themselves – or bits of themselves – so that they fit in with where they’re living.

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They grow longer legs or stop having tails or learn to eat something different. And the things that don’t just die out.” “I see,” said Maria reflectively. Mrs Foster had reached the exit now, having completed her tour. They could see her, from the gallery on which they now were, sitting down to wait for them, opening her newspaper. A large chart entitled The Descent of Man demonstrated this in the form of a tree from whose branches burst forth one creature after another, flourishes of Alice-in-Wonderland invention whose basic wrongness

Do you agree with Martin’s explanation of the word ‘evolution’?

reflectively – reflekterende entitled – med tittelen branches – greiner burst forth – sprang ut flourishes – blomstrer wrongness – feilaktighet

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became apparent as their particular branch came to an abrupt end with some bizarre and extinct animal. At the top of the tree, having scrambled triumphantly up through mammals and apes, stood naked and hairy man again. “It’s like snakes and ladders,” said Maria. “Throw a six and you stand on your hind legs.” Martin gave her a look of guarded approval. “Except that they didn’t know they were doing it. Each bit took millions of years.” “We must be too. Changing.” “I’ll grow two more arms. Better for climbing trees. And a tail.” How would you like to change? And what for?

“That’s going backwards again. I want eyes at the back as well as at the front.” “Two mouths. So you could eat first and second course both at once.” “Legs that expanded, like a music-stand. So you could run faster when you  need to.” They began to giggle. Mrs Foster, down below, looked up in surprise.

apparent – tydelig abrupt end – plutselig stopp bizarre – merkelige extinct – utdødd scrambled – klatret mammals – pattedyr snakes and ladders – stigespillet hind legs – bakbenene guarded approval – forsiktig/ skjult anerkjennelse first course – hovedrett expanded – her: ble lengre music-stand – notestativ giggle – fnise peculiar – merkelig muted – her: kjedelige disconcertingly – overraskende

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“We are, though,” said Maria. “Seriously, I mean, changing all the time. Growing up. Getting taller and growing new teeth.” “That’s different.” “More peculiar,” said Maria, ”because you know it’s happening.” But Martin had lost interest. He was examining the postcards at the exit. They each bought two rather muted postcards of fossils. (“Wouldn’t you rather have a nice view?” said Mrs Foster. “Or one of the beach?”), and then set off on the climb up through the town back to the house. It seemed a very much shorter walk than it had ever done before. Disconcertingly soon they were outside the drive gates and Martin was saying, “Well, ‘bye then...” and, more politely, “thank you for having me.” Lying in bed that night, waiting for sleep, Maria floated back in her mind to the night before. Same bed, same window, same curtains. But between them twenty-four hours of time during which things had happened.


Nothing in particular (except that I had a nice time with Martin at that museum) but time none the less, which changes everything. Even, she thought, me. I’m not the same as I was last night. Not absolutely exactly the same. I look the same – except that I suppose I’m just a very tiny bit bigger, because I must have grown – but I’m not the same, not quite the same, because I’ve seen things and done things and thought things I hadn’t this time yesterday.

nothing in particular – ikke noe spesielt except – bortsett fra suppose – antar

Activities 37 Reading to understand. Explain these words and expressions from the story in your own words. a fossil

e shell

b ammonite

f bones of creatures

c dinosaur

g evolution

41 Adjectives. Compare these words and put them in the correct order using the adjective. Example: Nouns: second, hour, minute. Adjective: long Answer: An hour is the longest, but a minute is longer than a second. BS 16

d reptilian feet 38 Vocabulary. In this story you find different adverbs: apprehensively, obviously, slowly, lengthily, patiently, wisely, dutifully, politely, reflectively. BS 20 a Scan the text to find the sentences with these adverbs. b Do you think the adverbs are necessary in the sentences? Why? Why not? c Match the adverbs to the character you think they are connected to in the story. Maria, Martin or Mrs Foster. 39 Writing. Maria and Martin want their science teacher to arrange a visit to this museum for the whole class. Write a formal e-mail to try to persuade the teacher. BS 108 40 Speaking. Maria and Martin talk about how they want their bodies to change, two more arms, eyes at the back and so on. What would you want, and what for? Talk to a classmate.

Nouns

Adjective

a continent, rock, earth

big

b year, month, day

short

c sun, lava, boiling water

warm

d light, sound, wind

fast

e millions, billions, hundreds

small

42 Digital skills. Use the Internet to find sources about dinosaurs for a science project. BS 172 a Identify an Internet source you cannot trust. Explain what makes this source unreliable. b Identify an Internet source you can trust. Explain what makes this source reliable. 43 Writing. You have recently discovered a fossil that no scientist has ever seen. a Draw a quick sketch of the fossil. b Write a label for the museum describing the fossil.

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Chapter activities Sum up 44 Vocabulary. a Sort the words under these two headings: The body and Inventions.

muscle, dynamite, ambulance, chin, first-aid, equipment, emergency, engine, nurse, computer, project, to develop, drawings, software, scientist, television, science, inventor, statistics, pie chart, amazing, medicine

b Which words fit both categories? c Write sentences that explain why these words belong in both categories. d Find more words that would fit into the categories. 45 Learning strategies. Find a text in this chapter that you think was: Adjective

Text

Reasons

interesting uninteresting

c Which of these sources would you trust? Give reasons for your answer. d Do these sources give you identical information? List differences. e Summarize your findings in your own top ten list. 47 Imperative of verbs. When giving instructions you use verbs in the imperative form. BS 43 a Write these verbs in the imperative form. Example: goes – go goes, began, brought, built, caught, came, dug, drew, drunk, driven, eaten, felt b Write instructions using some of these verbs in the imperative form. Example: Eat your lunch. 48 Adjectives. One adjective in each line is different from the others. Find this adjective and decide what the three remaining have in common.

exciting

a small, big, large, hard

detailed

b creative, inventive, disappointed, clever

unrealistic

c tall, sore, dizzy, tired

educational

d cold, pale, warm, feverish

46 Digital skills. What are the world’s top ten inventions? Search the Internet and answer these questions. BS 172 a List five sources that give you a top ten list of inventions. b List words you used to search for this information.

e painful, swollen, beautiful, itchy 49 Vocabulary. Build new words. From the word invent you can make new words like inventor, invention, inventive, reinvent just by adding some letters. BS 72 a Make new words from these words: science, create, act, develop, touch, present, permit. b Sort the new words into categories like verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs.

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Move on 50 Speaking. Choose one gadget that you use often. Imagine that an alien has just landed in your garden. It speaks English, but it does not  understand what this gadget is for. Have a conversation with the alien, where you explain exactly how to use it. Act it out with another classmate. 51 Speaking. Choose an invention. Find out more about it and about the person who invented it. Summarize your findings in a mini-talk for a science class. BS 139 52 Speaking. Work in groups and make a TV science programme for children. Present different inventions.

53 Writing. Write a factual text for the National Geographic magazine where you compare two scientists who have played an important role in the last century. Discuss their importance. BS 101 a List sources you used for information. b Give reasons why you trust these sources. c What was good about your text? Write two sentences. 54 Writing. Write an e-mail to a scientist inviting him or her to a school conference about the future. Be polite and keep your language formal. BS 108

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… list different inventions. … explain how some inventions work. … describe symptoms and illnesses. … write e-mails and letters using formal language. … use several phrases to talk about graphs. … use new words related to scientific topics. … identefy reliable Internet sources. … give and follow instructions. … identify and use verbs in the imperative form.

B What have you worked well with in English lately?

What do you need to work on?

+ …………………………………………………

? …………………………………………………

+ …………………………………………………

How will you work on this? ? …………………………………………………

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7

India


?

TOPIC WORDS

Look at the picture. What does it tell you about India?

independence population hinduism languages curry to travel colony

Learning objectives n n n n n

Write and present facts about Indian history and culture Explain the link between India and Britain Identify keywords in a text Write a variety of questions Use verbs in the present simple correctly

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Warm-up do you know • What about India? Make a mind-map.

Q& A India is a large country with a long history and many different traditions. It has a wide variety of landscapes, from the mountains of Kashmir to the beaches of Goa. The country is famous for its spicy food, colourful clothing, different religions and beautiful buildings. The economy in India is growing, but there are still many poor people, especially in the countryside. Here are some questions people often ask about India, with answers, of course.

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What is the capital of India? The capital is New Delhi. There are also several other well-known cities such as Kolkata, Bangalore and Mumbai. Mumbai is the largest city in India.

Q & A –­ questions and answers

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How many people live in India? There are more than a billion people living in India. This is the second largest population in the world.

countryside – landsbygda several – flere well-known – kjente billion – milliard population – folketall, befolkning colony – koloni valuable – verdifulle cotton – bomull spices – krydder ginger – ingefær tasty – smakfull the Jewel in the Crown – juvelen i kronen independent – uavhengig

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What is the link between India and Britain? India was once a part of the British Empire. Around 1700, Britain wanted to own the country as a colony because India had a lot of valuable resources. Goods like cotton, spices and tea were shipped to Britain. Cotton was used to make soft and lovely underwear and other pieces of clothing. Spices, such as curry and ginger, made European food more interesting and tasty, and the tea from India turned Britain into a tea-loving nation. India was called “the Jewel in the Crown”. In 1947 India left the Empire and became an independent country.


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Which languages are spoken in India? India has 30 languages that are each spoken by more than one million people, and in total over 1,600 languages and dialects are spoken. The English language arrived in India as a result of British colonisation, and is still often used as a common language. After gaining their independence in 1947, many Indians wanted to get rid of everything British. However, they did not manage to agree upon which Indian language to use as an official language. In 1963 they made both standard Hindi and English official languages.

colonisation – kolonisering common language – fellesspråk gaining – fikk independence – uavhengighet get rid of – bli kvitt agree upon – bli enige om

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are practised – utøves

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Which religions are practised in India? Religion is an important part of the Indian culture. Most Indians are Hindus. Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism are other religions that are practised. Islam is the second largest religion in India.

Hinduism 80.5 %

Other 0.7 % Jainism 0.4 % Buddhism 0.8 % Sikhism 1.9 % Christianity 2.3 %

Islam 13.4 %

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?

How do you greet someone when you visit India?

greet – hilse på

When Indian people greet each other, they place their hands together and say “namaste”. This means “I bow my head to you.” Older people are treated with great respect in India. When greeting an elder, some Indians may touch the elder’s feet as a sign of respect.

Activities 1 Reading to understand. a What is the capital city of India? b Which are the three largest religions in India? c Which valuable resources were shipped from India to Britain? d How many official languages are spoken in India? e What does “namaste” mean?

3 Speaking. Explain some differences between India and your own country based on the facts from the texts. 4 Reading. Work with a classmate and practise reading through the Q & A three times. Now test each other – how many answers can you remember? 5 Question words. Look through the Q & A text.

f What percentage of the world’s population lives in India? g Which of the answers did you find most interesting? Why? 2 Compare. Compare the four cities mentioned in the text with Oslo. a Copy the table. Use different sources to find the information you need to fill in the table.

BS 28

a Write down all the question words that you can find. Do any of the question words have anything in common? b Use the question words to make questions for an interview with an Indian teenager. c How would you translate the English question words into Norwegian? Are there any similarities?

b What interesting information did you find? New Delhi

Kolkata

Bangalore

Mumbai

Oslo

Population Geography Climate Famous tourist spots

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Warm-up you know of any • Do traditions from other cultures that have surprised you? Explain why?

Only English? The Poor Fool! People in India often speak many languages. They speak one language at home, one in the village and probably English or another language at school. This is a story about Lin from Australia who travelled in India. On his journey he meets a young Indian named Prabaker, and they become good friends. Read what happens when Prabaker meets an older friend and they talk about Lin. Extract from Shantaram by Gregory David Roberts

the poor fool – stakkaren village – landsby journey – reise replied – svarte

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“What’s he doing here?” “He’s visiting my family.” “Where’s he from?” “New Zealand,” Prabaker replied. “New Zealand?” “Yes. New Zealand. In Europe.” “Plenty of money in New Zealand?” “Yes, yes. Plenty. They’re all rich, white people there.” “Does he speak Marathi?” “No.” “Hindi?” “No. Only English.” “Only English?” “Yes.” “Why?” “They don’t speak Hindi in his country.” “They don’t speak Hindi there?” “No.” “No Marathi? No Hindi?” “No. Only English.” “Holy Father! The poor fool.” “Yes.”


“How old is he?” “Thirty.” “He looks older.” “They all do. All the Europeans look older and angrier than they really are. It’s a white thing.” “Is he married?” “No.” “Not married? Thirty, and not married? What’s wrong with him?” “He’s European. A lot of them get married only when they’re old.” “That’s crazy.” “Yes.” “What job does he do?” “He’s a teacher.” “A teacher is good.”

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native place – opprinnelige hjemsted serious – alvorlig properly – her: godt buffalo milk – bøffelmelk

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“Yes.” “Does he have a mother and a father?” “Yes.” “Where are they?” “In his native place. New Zealand.” “Why isn’t he with them?” “He’s travelling. He’s looking at the whole world.” “Why?” “Europeans do that. They work for a while, and then they travel around, lonely, for a while, with no family, until they get old, and then they get married, and become very serious.” “That’s crazy.” “Yes.” “He must be lonely, without his mummy and his daddy, and with no wife and children.” “Yes. But the Europeans don’t mind. They get a lot of practice being lonely.” “He has a big strong body.” “Yes.”


“A very strong body.” “Yes.” “Make sure you feed him properly, and give him plenty of milk.” “Yes.” “Buffalo milk.” “Yes, yes.”

Activities 6 Reading to understand. a Which mistake does Prabakar make in geography? b How many languages are mentioned in the text? c Why do Prabaker and his friend think Lin is crazy? d What advice does the friend give Prabaker on how to feed Lin? e What impression do Prabaker and his friend have of Europeans? f Do you think what Prabaker and his friend say about Europeans is true? Explain your answer. 7 Speaking. Act out this dialogue. Imagine you are in India. 8 Speaking. Do you know any typically Norwegian traditions? What type of impression do you think an Indian would have of Norwegian culture based on these traditions? 9 Verbs. Find the verbs that are used in sentences together with these words. Explain why the different forms of the verbs are used. BS 31 a They

c Europeans

b He

d It

Concord In the present simple the subject and the verb agree. This is called concord. When the subject is he, she or it: add -s to the verb. Prabaker meets an older friend. (He meets)

BS 31

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Warm-up would you like to see • What or do if you travelled to India? Talk to a classmate.

snapshots – øyeblikksbilder saris – tradisjonelle indiske klesplagg for kvinner sacred – hellig crowded – fullpakkede flavoured – smaksatt cinnamon – kanel garlic – hvitløk cumin – spisskummen (et krydder)

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Snapshots of India When you think of India, you might think of a huge country, people in colourful saris, spicy food, sacred cows in the streets and crowded trains. Here you will read and learn a few things that are said to be typically Indian. Spicy food Many people in India are vegetarians, which means that they don’t eat meat. This is partly because Hindus believe that the cow is a sacred animal. Much of the food in India is flavoured with spices, such as cinnamon, garlic and cumin. Most meals include rice, vegetables, bread and yoghurt.


Cricket Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and it is a sport loved by the entire population. The game is a bat-and-ball game played with 11 players on each team. India has become very successful in the sport and won the Cricket World Cup in 1983 and 2011.

Bollywood Bollywood is the nickname for the Mumbai film industry. Bollywood’s real name is Hindi Cinema, and the films are made in the Hindi language. However, a blend of Hindi and English, nicknamed Hinglish, is creeping into the films. Bollywood produces a large number of films, many of them musicals. Although most films are only seen in India, it is becoming more common to see them in the western part of the world.

entire – hele bat – her: balltre is creeping – smyger seg

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spectacular – flott

Taj Mahal

mausoleum – bygning som huser grav

The Taj Mahal is a spectacular building in Agra. It looks like a beautiful palace but it is actually a mausoleum, a tomb where a princess called Mumtaz is buried along with her husband Prince Shah. Their story is both romantic and sad. Prince Shah fell in love with Mumtaz when she was 15 and he was 14. They married five years later, and Mumtaz was with Shah wherever he went, even to war. When Mumtaz died, Shah was so heartbroken that he built her the most beautiful grave the world had ever seen.

tomb – gravkammer well-educated – velutdannede engineering talent – talent innen ingeniørvitenskap ability – evne, ferdighet

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Technology in Bangalore You have probably heard about Silicon Valley in California, the high tech industry’s powerful centre in the USA. However, you find well-known companies like Apple, Microsoft, Samsung, Google and Cisco in Bangalore, India, as well. For many years this city has been growing as an international technological centre. The presence of well-educated people, engineering talent and the ability to “think outside the box” are some of the reasons for the success of Bangalore.

Activities 10 Reading to understand. a Why don’t Hindus eat beef? b Which of these ingredients do not belong in this list: cinnamon, garlic, vegetables and cumin. Give a reason for your answer. c What is India’s national sport? d What is Bollywood? e What kind of language is Hinglish? f What kind of industry can you find in Bangalore? g Which of the texts do you find most interesting? Why? 11 Digital skills. Find out more about cricket and Bollywood on the Internet. Write two paragraphs.

12 Speaking. You are an enthusiastic tourist guide in India. Choose ten keywords from the text to talk about India. BS 135 13 Keywords. Keywords summarize the content of a text. You can use keywords later to retell the text or produce your own text. a Skim the text and write three keywords for each paragraph. b Write a short text based on the keywords. c Show your text to a classmate. Are your texts similar to each other? 14 Verbs. Choose one of the paragraphs.

BS 30

a Copy the text, but leave a space open for every verb. Example: Many people in India ___ vegetarians. b Switch text with a classmate and fill in suitable verbs in each other’s texts.

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Warm-up can you protest about • How something without using violence? Talk to a classmate.

non-violent – ikkevoldelig protests – protester boycotting goods – stoppe å kjøpe varer

Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi (1869–1948) was one of the world’s most famous leaders and many people think of him as the father of India. He is remembered for helping India to become independent from Britain. Gandhi only used non-violent methods to protest, for example boycotting goods, peaceful marches and hunger strikes. One of Gandhi’s most famous protests was the Dandi March in 1930. He walked 386 km to protest that the British made important goods such as salt very expensive. Thousands of people stood by the road as Gandhi walked past and many people also joined him. You can read more about the Dandi March in the graphic novel below. Extract from Gandhi: A Manga Biography by Kazuki Ebine

marches – marsjer hunger strikes – sultestreiker graphic novel – grafisk roman

! Did you know? • Mahatma Gandhi was an inspiration and role model for Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King, Jr.

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forbid – forbyr impose – pålegger consumption – forbruk depart – drar

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nevertheless – likevel exorbitant – skyhøy salary – lønn earn – tjene hold a position – ha en stilling (jobb) encourage – oppfordrer courage – mot involvement – involvering

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is increasing – øker

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This panel has no text. What would be a suitable text?

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Who are these people?

coast – kyst defeat – bekjempe viceroy – visekonge

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mayors – ordførere duties – pliktene governors – guvernører stirred up – hisset opp

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Activities 15 Reading to understand. Are these statements true or false? Rewrite the false statements so that they are true.

20 Speaking. Make a presentation. Choose one of these tasks. BS 140

a Mahatma means great soul.

You are

Audience

Task

b The march started on April 12th.

1 Gandhi

5,000 marching people

Give a speech. Encourage your people not to give up marching.

2 Gandhi

British authorities in India

Persuade the British to give up salt tax.

3 A child who wants to join the Dandi march.

Your parents

Convince your parents that you should go.

c The government taxed salt. d Less than five thousand people joined the march. e Police officers marched together with Gandhi. f Gandhi was a wizard. 16 Speaking. Why do you think the people followed Gandhi on his march? Discuss with a classmate. 17 Speaking. Retell the story of the Dandi March using your own words. Use these keywords: salt, taxes, 5000, march. 18 Digital skills. Find more information about the Dandi March. Choose one of these tasks: BS 172 a Write a short summary to be printed in a children’s book. b You have been asked to teach a group of 10-year-olds about Gandhi and the Dandi March. Make a short presentation. c You are a journalist following the march to Dandi Beach. Write a short article about what happens. d You are one of the people who marched with Gandhi. Tell your family what happened during the march and when you arrived at Dandi Beach. 19 Vocabulary. Find these expressions in the text and explain what they mean:

21 Verbs. These are some verbs from the graphic novel written in the infinitive: to forbid, to impose, to depart, to have, to hold, to invite, to join, to reach, to get BS 30 a Find the verbs in the text. In which tense are they written? b Why are they written in this tense? 22 Verbs. This text is written in the present simple. Gandhi is a very famous Indian. He is leader of the  Indian nationalist movement, which wants the British to leave India. Gandhi is against using violence. BS 30 a Look at the verbs which are underlined. Why are they written in this form? b Rewrite this text in the past simple. c Does the meaning change when you change from present to past tense? If so, what changes?

a Why on earth? b He must be onto something. c Old age may have caught up with him.

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Warm-up have a god for • Hindus almost every situation. Can you think of a situation when you would need a god to help you?

The Story of Ganesha Ganesha is an elephant-headed god in Hinduism. Ganesha is worshipped for good luck and Hindus often pray to him before an important event, such as the first day of school. They offer him sweet puddings because they know he likes sweet things. This is the story of the popular god and how he got his elephant head.

Son of a goddess Ganesha’s mother was the goddess Parvati, and his father was the god Shiva. One day, not long before Ganesha was born, his father Shiva went on a journey, leaving Parvati at home. Shiva was away for many years, and during that time Ganesha grew from a baby to a young man.

The stranger One morning Ganesha was outside when he saw a stranger with long hair, wearing animal skin and with snakes wriggling about him. The stranger wanted to come into the house. He looked frightening and dangerous. Ganesha stood in front of him and tried to stop him because he wanted to protect his mother. What Ganesha didn’t know was that this stranger was his father Shiva, and Shiva didn’t know that the boy was his son, Ganesha.

The big mistake

worshipped – tilbedt pray – ber journey – reise wriggling – buktende frightening – skremmende

Shiva was known as a quick-tempered god, and he didn’t like anyone standing in his way. So he took his sword and cut off Ganesha’s head. At that moment Parvati came out of the house, only to see her husband with his sword in his hand and her son lying headless on the ground. “What have you done, what have you done?” she cried. “You have killed our son.’” Shiva was truly sorry and promised to make things right again, by replacing Ganesha’s head with the head of the first living creature he saw. However, Parvati did not want another mother to lose her child. She made Shiva promise that he would not take the head of an animal whose mother would mourn it.

protect – beskytte quick-tempered – bråsint

The elephant

replacing – erstatte

Shiva searched for such an animal for many days. Finally he saw a baby elephant standing next to its dead mother. Shiva took the baby elephant’s

creature – skapning mourn – sørge over

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A large statue of Ganesha carried along during a festival in Mumbai.


head and replaced Ganesha’s head with it. This is the reason why Ganesha has the body of a man and the head of an elephant. He has a rather chubby body too, because he is very fond of eating sweet things. When people want help from Ganesha they often offer him sweet puddings as they know how much he likes them.

Ganesha with Shiva and Parvati.

chubby – lubben

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Activities 23 Reading to understand. a Why do students offer Ganesha sweet puddings? Try to find two reasons. b Who is Shiva? c Why did Shiva cut off Ganesha’s head? d Did Shiva kill Ganesha? Explain your answer. e What did Shiva promise his wife Parvati? f What makes this text a legend? Give examples. g What do you think is the moral or message in this legend? 24 Descriptions. Make a drawing of Ganesha and include a written description of him as well. Use details about him from the text, or find pictures of Ganesha on the Internet to help you. 25 Descriptions. Use your imagination. a Draw your own special god. b Describe your drawing to a classmate. Then ask your classmate to draw what you describe. c Compare the drawings. Are they similar? 26 Poster. The Hindus have many gods. Find out more about one of them. Make a poster for the classroom wall using only keywords. BS 121 27 Writing. Identify ten keywords from the text about Ganesha. Use these keywords to write a summary of the story. 28 Speaking. Act out the story of Ganesha. 29 Speaking. Find other legends and stories of Hindu gods. Choose one and write keywords from the story. Retell the legend in groups in class.

30 Speaking. Work in groups. Imagine you are an Indian family. You are expecting a visitor from Norway who has never been to India before. Introduce your visitor to your family and your country. Working in groups, create a situation for this family using the questions below. a Where in India do you live? Find it on the map. What do you know about the place? b How do you live? What kind of house, flat, etc. do you live in? Are you rich or poor? c How old are the members of your family? d What are your names? First name and family name. e What kind of jobs and education do your parents have? f What do the family do in their spare time? Hobbies/interests? g Describe your religion and traditions. h What do you think your visitor should see, do and experience during the stay? Include famous places, buildings, animals and activities. 31 Verbs. The paragraph under the subheading The stranger is written in the past tense. BS 30 a Rewrite it in the present tense. Start like this: One morning Ganesha is … b Read your text to two classmates. Your classmates act what you read. c Ask your classmates to check the verbs in your text. d Which paragraph did you like the most, the one written in the past or the present tense? Give arguments for your answers.

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Warm-up the text to find • Scan these numbers:

Guess What!

50 %, 90, 5,000, 1985. What do they refer to?

1 The number of babies born in India each year is higher than the entire population of Norway, Sweden and Denmark put together. 2 About 50 % of the people in India are under 25 years old. 3 The famous board game chess was developed in India. 4 India is one of the largest exporters of computer software products. It exports software to over 90 countries. 5 Yoga was developed in India about 5,000 years ago. 6 The number system that we use was invented in India. They invented the digit zero. 7 There were no plastic bags in India before 1985. 8 The longest station name on the Indian Railways is Venkatanarasimharajuvariapeta. 9 India is home to about 200 million cows. 10 The only country in the world that has a Bill of Rights for cows, is India. 11 India produces more movies than any other country, and Bollywood is one of the largest film industries in the world. developed – utviklet exporters – eksportører digit – tall Bill of Rights for cows – lovverk for kuers rettigheter

12 India produces more tea than any other country in the world. 13 India used sugar before any other country. 14 Four major religions started in India: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.


Activities 32 Reading to understand. 1 Chess is a: tent, religion, game 2 India produces a lot of: coffee, computer programs, marble 3 This animal is treated as holy in India: the elephant, the tiger, the cow 4 At a railway station you can find: temples, boats, trains 5 About 50 % of the people in India are: ill, over 25 years old, teachers 6 This is the digit zero: 0, 10, 100 7 Hinduism is a: place, temple, religion 8 The population of India is: decreasing, increasing, hard-working 9 In Bollywood they make: films, cinemas, industry 33 Compare. Read the Guess What! list. a List your top five favourite facts. b Compare with a classmate and try to agree upon a top three list. 34 Writing. India has a Bill of Rights for cows. What do you think you might read in this Bill of Rights? Use your imagination and write the Bill. 35 Numbers. Skim the list to find mathematical information. BS 159 a Make five maths problems based on the information in the list. b Ask your classmate to solve the tasks. 36 Question words. If the list of Guess What! facts were answers to questions, what would the questions be? Write one question for each sentence. Example: Which game is invented in India?

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Warm-up

What kind of books do you like to read? Talk to a classmate.

What Do Indian Teenagers Read?

By Rohan Gupta, New Delhi, 20th August 2013

Indian teenagers love reading about characters like Harry Potter, Artemis Fowl and Bella Swan from the Twilight series, but they are not so keen on characters created by Indian authors.

seem to agree. She is a huge fan of the authors JK Rowling, Paulo Coelho and Dan Brown. Last year, she collected more than 1,700 signatures to have the film version of the book The Twilight Saga: New Moon released in India. Mishra succeeded and the film was shown in Indian cinemas.

Indian literature

Fantasy favourites According to Crossroads bookstore’s manager, Manesh Balakrishnan, the most popular teen books are series that are also popular in the west, such as Harry Potter, House of Night, Percy Jackson and Princess Diaries. “Fantasy literature is really popular

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right now,” says Balakrishnan. “But Diary of a Wimpy Kid has also got many fans.” He believes this is because publishers in the USA and Britain are good at marketing books, and there are often popular films made based on the books. Fifteenyear-old Mishra from Kolkata would

So what do Indian authors have to offer Indian teens? Sonja Chandra­ chud has written The Pearls of Wisdom – A Hilarious Hauntings Adventure. It’s full of vampires, djinns, witches and wizards. No wonder Sonja is known as the Desi JK Rowling. Teens can also try out Samit Basu’s historical Terror on the Titanic or Salman Rushdie’s Luka and the Fire of Life. If you are looking for issues that are relevant to teens today, you can try Subhandra Sengupta’s Foxy Four Mystery. The first book in this series looks at drugs, while another deals with religious tolerance. Another option is The Magic Store of Nu-Cham Vy by Shreekumar Varma.


keen on – begeistret for

Satisfied customer There’s no shortage of good literature written by Indian authors. As Balakrishnan says, “Indian authors are just as good as those from the West. They just need to be promoted like Western authors.” Fifteen-year old Indian Ankit agrees. He has read many books by Western authors but

according to – ifølge

recently read One Night @ the Call Centre by the Indian author Chetan Bhagat. “It’s really good, and I like the fact that it is set in India,” says Anjit. Let’s hope that more Indian teens discover the exciting Indian literature that’s waiting for them in the bookstore.

publishers – forlag marketing – markedsføring signatures – underskrifter djinns – ånd, fra islamsk litteratur Desi – person av indisk opprinnelse, bor ofte i utlandet issues – tema shortage – mangel to be promoted – her: å markedsføres recently – nylig

Activities 37 Reading to understand. a Name two books that are popular in India. b Name two authors that Indian teens read. c Why did Mishra collect signatures? d Why is Sonja Chandrachud known as the Desi JK Rowling? e Why do you think Indian teens read more English and American literature than Indian? f The article mentions some different book titles. Write down the author of each book. One Night @ the Call Centre, The Twilight Saga, Harry Potter, Luka and the Fire of Life, The Pearls of Wisdom 38 Newspaper article. This text is a newspaper article from an Indian newspaper. BS 110 a Find elements in the text that are typical for this text type. Make a list. b Read the beginning of sentences. Find words and phrases that you think fit this text type. c Is this a good example of a newspaper article? Why? Why not?

39 Writing. What do Norwegian teens read?

BS 110

a Write a list of all the English books you have read. b Do a survey in class, asking your classmates which book they are reading right now. Which book is the most popular? c Write a newspaper article about Norwegian teens’ reading habits. Use this article from India as an example. 40 Listening. Listen to the conversation between two pupils discussing the books they have read. BS 150

a Write down keywords as you listen. b Work with a classmate and use your keywords to make your own version of the dialogue. c Act out your version of the dialogue. 41 Digital skills. Use the Internet to find out about one of the Indian books mentioned in the article. Use this information to persuade your classmate to read the book. BS 172

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Warm-up you remember • Do Mowgli, Shere Khan, Baloo, Kaa, Bagheera and the other characters from The Jungle Book? Explain who they are.

The Jungle Book Rudyard Kipling was born in Bombay in India in 1865. He wrote poems, stories and novels, and is most famous for The Jungle Book and other stories for children. The Jungle Book is the story of Mowgli, the boy who was brought up by wolves in the Indian jungle. In this story you can read what happens when Mowgli was first discovered by the wolves. Adapted from The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling

novels – romaner wolves – ulver rustled – raslet leapt – sprang shot straight up – spratt rett opp a man cub – en menneskevalp branch – grein jaws – kjever scratched – skrapte among – blant the cubs – valpene bald – hårløs taking his meal – forsyner seg boast – skryte

“Something is coming,” said Mother Wolf, twitching one ear. “Get ready.” The bushes rustled a little, and Father Wolf leapt. When he saw what he was jumping at, he tried desperately to stop himself in mid-air. The result was that he shot straight up four or five feet, and landed almost where he had left the ground. “Man!” he snapped. “A man cub. Look!” Directly in front of him, holding on to a low branch, stood a naked brown baby who could just walk. He looked up into Father Wolf’s face and laughed. “Is that a man cub?” said Mother Wolf. “I have never seen one. Bring it here.” A wolf is used to moving his own cubs from place to place with his mouth, and can even move an egg without breaking it. Father Wolf’s jaws closed tightly on the child’s back, but not even a tooth scratched the baby’s skin. He laid the child down among the cubs. “How little! How naked, and – how bald!” said Mother Wolf softly. The baby was pushing his way between the cubs to get close to the food. “Ahai! He is taking his meal with the others. And so this is a man’s cub. Now, was there ever a wolf that could boast of a man cub among her flock?” “I have heard now and again of such a thing, but I have never seen it,” said Father Wolf. “He is altogether without hair, and I could kill him with a touch of my foot. But see, he looks up and is not afraid.”

altogether without – helt uten thrust into – dyttet inn i entrance – inngang

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The moonlight was suddenly blocked out of the cave. The great tiger Shere Khan’s huge head and shoulders were thrust into the entrance.


His friend Tabaqui stood behind him, squeaking: “My lord, my lord, it went in there!” “Shere Khan does us great honor,” said Father Wolf, but his eyes were very angry. “What does Shere Khan need?” “I want the man cub. We saw it went this way,” said Shere Khan. “Its parents have run off. Give it to me.” Father Wolf knew that Shere Khan had jumped a woodcutter’s campfire earlier that same day, and that he was furious from the pain of his burned paws. But still, he knew that the mouth of the cave was too narrow for a tiger to enter. “The Wolves are a free people,” said Father Wolf. “They take orders from the Head of the Pack, and not from any striped cattle-killer. The man cub is ours to kill, if we choose.” “What is this silly talk about choosing? Who are you to refuse me what I want? I’m the great Shere Khan!”

Why do you think Father Wolf is polite to Shere Khan?

squeaking – pep honour – ære woodcutter’s campfire – skogsarbeiders bål furious – rasende paws – poter narrow – smal the Head of the Pack – flokklederen cattle – storfe refuse – nekte

Mowgli and his friends meet in the Indian jungle. A Disney cartoon.

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An older version of Mowgli after he has killed Shere Khan.

roar – brøl blazing eyes – illsinte øyne beast – udyr

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The tiger’s roar filled the cave with thunder. Mother Wolf shook herself clear of the cubs and sprang forward, her eyes, like two green moons in the darkness, facing the blazing eyes of Shere Khan. “And this is I, Raksha, who answers. The man cub is mine and he shall not be killed. He shall live to run and hunt with the wolf pack. And in the end he will hunt you, you hunter of little cubs! Now go away, you burned beast of the jungle, or I will make you regret it! Go!”


Activities 42 Reading to understand. a How did Mother Wolf know that something was coming? b Why did Father Wolf jump? c How did Mother Wolf feel about having a human baby among her own cubs? d How did the wolves describe Mowgli? e How old do you think Mowgli was when he met the wolves? Give reasons for your answer. f Why do you think Father Wolf chose not to kill Mowgli? g Who is Tabaqui? h What did Shere Khan want?

45 Writing. What happens to Mowgli? Continue the story.

BS 87

46 Role-play. Work in groups. Act out the situation when Mowgli meets the wolves. 47 Compare. Study the two illustrations to this story. a What is similar, and what is different about the way the characters are drawn? b Which do you prefer, and why? c Discuss with a classmate. 48 Nouns. Here is a list of some animals: tiger, wolf, buffalo, shark, goose, sheep, deer, fish, salmon, trout, ox, calf BS 10

i Why didn’t Shere Khan get what he wanted?

a Write these animal names in the plural.

j Why do you think this old story is still popular among children?

b Sort them into regular and irregular.

43 Vocabulary. Find the words from the text. Some letters are missing. Example: E_ES – EYES a W_N_ER_UL b C_B c B_A_CH d N_K_D e SU_D_N_Y f B_TW_E_ 44 Writing. Imagine you are the little boy Mowgli. BS 80

c What is the plural of wolf, salmon and goose in Norwegian? Can you find any of the same patterns? 49 Vocabulary. Rewrite these sentences using a more modern language style: He is altogether without hair, and I could kill him with a touch of my foot. The man cub is mine and he shall not be killed. He shall live to run and hunt with the wolf pack. 50 Keywords. Pick out ten keywords from the text that you think sum up this story. Compare your keywords with a classmate’s. Do you have the same keywords? Agree upon ten keywords.

a Write a paragraph about what you see, hear and smell all alone in the woods. b Write a paragraph about your first meeting with the wolves.

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Chapter Activities Sum up 51 Reading to understand.Write the title of the text where you can read about the following: Example: The capital of India – Q & A a wolves b a quick-tempered god

55 Questions.

c buffalo milk e delicious spices f popular literature

52 Learning strategies. Search through this chapter for headlines and subheadings. a Write down all the headlines and subheadings you can find in this chapter. b Use the headlines as a list of keywords. Give a summary of the chapter using your list of keywords. c Ask a classmate to tell you what was good about your summary. BS 30

a Why do you need a verb in every sentence? Using your own words, write down what the function of a verb is. Read your answer to a classmate. b Skim some texts in this chapter. Find examples of verbs in the present simple. What is the rule for using verbs in the present simple? 54 Verbs. Here are words from two word classes: find, love, was, fine, trouble, squeak, look, shook, cold, read, fun, use, nice, sad, trade BS 30 a Find and sort the verbs in one list and the other words in another list. b How did you identify which words were verbs?

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BS 28

a Make questions about India using these question words and verbs. Example: Where can I go to eat some nice Indian food?

d the national sport

53 Verbs. Check your skills.

c Write sentences in the present simple combining the verbs with these nouns: cow, language, India, population, curry, people, religions. Example: The cow troubles the traffic.

Question words: why, who, when, where, how. Verbs: to go, to do, to eat, to swim, to travel, to see, to visit, to play

b You are on holiday in India. Ask a tourist guide these questions. Act out the conversation with a classmate. 56 Quiz. Make a quiz from the chapter. Make ten or more questions and answers. Remember that the answers must be found in the texts or pictures in this chapter. 57 Writing. Write an informative paragraph where you explain the link between India and Britain. BS 80

58 Poster. Make a poster for the classroom wall where you present one of the places or people from this chapter. Your poster must have pictures, text, the correct form of any verbs, visual elements, important information only, be readable from two metres away, have clear and informative headlines and be without spelling mistakes. BS 121 59 Writing. Draw a famous tourist spot in India, and write a description for a travel magazine to make the readers want to travel there. Use verbs in the present tense.


Move on 60 Comic strip. Choose a Hindu god and make a cartoon strip. 61 Drawing. Draw a map of India. Include cities, mountains, rivers and famous places. 62 Timeline. Find out more about the history of India. Make a timeline for the classroom wall. Find interesting facts from Indian history in books or on the Internet. 63 Writing. a Make a Venn diagram comparing Britain and India.

Britain In common India

b Write a paragraph comparing the two countries BS 80

64 Writing. Write an e-mail to an Indian teenager about what you like to read. Give him one or more tips on what you think he should read. 65 Speaking. A friend has just come home from a long and exciting in holiday in India. Your friend has travelled around the country and seen big cities, exotic animals, famous places and the world’s highest mountains in the Himalayas. a Prepare questions that you would like to ask your friend. b Work with a classmate. Take turns asking questions and giving answers. 66 Writing. Choose one of the pictures from this chapter. Write a description of the picture. What do you like about this picture? Give reasons.

I am able to … A

Learning objectives

A bit

Quite well

Very well

… present facts about Indian history and culture. … explain the link between India and Britain. … explain why English is an official language in India. … identify keywords in a text. … use keywords to write a summary. … write a variety of questions. … use verbs in the present simple correctly.

B • Pick three tasks that you have worked well with in this chapter.

• Choose one of these tasks and write a paragraph which describes what was good about your work.

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© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2015 1. utgave, 1. opplag Denne boka er en del av læreverket Enter 8–10 for ungdomstrinnet. Læreverket dekker målene for engelsk etter læreplanen av 2013. Printed in Norway by 07 Media - 07.no, 2015 ISBN 978-82-05-45278-7 Redaktør: Kristine Uldal Bilderedaktør: Anette Badendyck Design/Layout: Marit Jørgensen/07 Media – 07.no Omslagsdesign: Marit Jørgensen og Kristine Steen/07 Media – 07.no Omslagsillustrasjon, omslagsbilde: Travel21 Impact/Heritage Images/TopFoto/ NTB scanpix Illustratør(er): Erik Ødegaard, Andreas Brekke og Irene Marienborg Det må ikke kopieres fra denne boka i strid med åndsverkloven eller avtaler om kopiering inngått med KOPINOR, interesseorgan for rettighetshavere til åndsverk. Kopiering i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatningsansvar og inndragning, og kan straffes med bøter eller fengsel. Alle henvendelser om forlagets utgivelser kan rettes til: Gyldendal Undervisning Grunnskoleredaksjonen Postboks 6860 St. Olavs plass 0130 Oslo E-post: undervisning@gyldendal.no www.gyldendal.no/undervisning Alle Gyldendals bøker er produsert i miljøsertifiserte trykkerier. Se www.gyldendal.no/miljo


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Enter 8 Learner's Book  

Enter er Gyldendals nye engelskverk for ungdomstrinnet. Verket inneholder temaer og tekster som treffer rett i elevhjertet og gjør engelskfa...

Enter 8 Learner's Book  

Enter er Gyldendals nye engelskverk for ungdomstrinnet. Verket inneholder temaer og tekster som treffer rett i elevhjertet og gjør engelskfa...