E1, engelsk SF

Page 1

Arne Birkeland Kristine Ohrem Bakke Hanna Oltedal Ian Underwood

Med E1 får du

rin

g

• Tematiske introduksjonsartikler av Emma Clare Gabrielsen Kristin Bech Øivind Bratberg Henrik Syse • Et bredt utvalg engasjerende tekster fra hele den engelskspråklige verden • Hjelp til metodisk bearbeiding av ulike teksttyper • Trening i å vurdere og anvende kilder i egen kommunikasjon

de

• Steg-for-steg kurs med modelltekster

vu r

SF Vg1

ENGELSK

www.skolestudio.no

9 788205 521704

Birkeland • Ohrem Bakke Oltedal • Underwood

E1 er en del av Skolestudio, et digitalt læringsmiljø for den videregående skole.

n

til

ENGELSK

• bruke egnede strategier i språklæring, tekst­skaping og kommunikasjon • bruke egnede digitale ressurser og andre hjelpe­midler i språklæring, tekstskaping og samhandling • bruke mønstre for uttale i kommunikasjon • lytte til, forstå og bruke akademisk språk i arbeid med egne muntlige og skriftlige tekster • uttrykke seg nyansert og presist med flyt og sammenheng, idiomatiske uttrykk og varierte setningsstrukturer tilpasset formål, mottaker og situasjon • gjøre rede for andres argumentasjon og bruke og følge opp andres innspill i samtaler og diskusjoner om ulike emner • bruke kunnskap om sammenhenger mellom engelsk og andre språk eleven kjenner til i egen språklæring • bruke kunnskap om grammatikk og tekststruktur i arbeid med egne muntlige og skriftlige tekster • lese, diskutere og reflektere over innhold og virkemidler i ulike typer tekster, inkludert selvvalgte tekster • lese, analysere og tolke engelskspråklig skjønnlitteratur • lese og sammenligne ulike sakprosatekster om samme emne fra forskjellige kilder og kritisk vurdere hvor pålitelige kildene er • bruke ulike kilder på en kritisk, hensiktsmessig og etterrettelig måte • skrive ulike typer formelle og uformelle tekster, inkludert sammensatte, med struktur og sammenheng som beskriver, diskuterer, begrunner og reflekterer tilpasset formål, mottaker og situasjon • vurdere og bearbeide egne tekster ut fra faglige kriterier og kunnskap om språk • beskrive sentrale trekk ved framveksten av engelsk som verdensspråk • utforske og reflektere over mangfold og samfunnsforhold i den engelskspråklige verden ut fra historiske sammenhenger • diskutere og reflektere over form, innhold og virkemidler i engelskspråklige kulturelle uttrykksformer fra ulike medier, inkludert musikk, film og spill

E1 er laget til fagfornyelsen for fellesfaget Engelsk på vg1, studieforberedende utdanningsprogram.

Ku

MÅL FOR OPPLÆRINGEN ER AT ELEVEN SKAL KUNNE

SF•Vg1

COURSE

TITLE

PAGE

1

Reading strategies

264

2

Expanding your vocabulary

268

3

Improving your listening skills

272

4

Being polite

274

5

Recognising formality

276

6

Structuring a sentence

280

7

Structuring a paragraph

284

8

Structuring a text

288

9

Planning your text

292

10

Choosing sources

294

11

Referring to sources

296

12

Revising your text

298

13

Improving your pronunciation

302

14

Giving presentations

306

15

Holding discussions

308

16

Analysing poems and songs

312

17

Approaching literature and films

316


Using E1

er in

The first four chapters cover topics that you are expected to be able to communicate about: 1 Who Are You? 2 English Everywhere 3 Culture and Diversity 4 Citizenship

All texts are followed by practice tasks 3 . First, we ask you to practice your receptive skills by reading, watching and listening. Then, we show you, concretely, how each text serves as a model of good communication by way of examining its content, structure and language.

1

2 Introductory article

What can labs in North Carolina tell you about yourself?

Who Do You Think You Are? I used to think emotions made you weak. I would pride myself in “not feeling” anything – fear, anxiety, loneliness, all the difficult, negative ones. Being jealous in relationships? Never a problem. Being sad, feeling rejected? Not me! My entire identity was based on being fearand emotionless. I would casually drop stone-cold quotes from one of my favourite alcoholic authors, describing his tendency to “tower above” feelings (he called them “preoccupations”) such as love. Like a boss, I thought. Like a true boss.

Finally, in the Over-to-You tasks we ask you to practice your productive skills by emulating the models. Here you are also urged to make use of the courses in Chapter 5. Each chapter ends by focusing on preparing for the exam 4 . Here you will see typical exam tasks and practice using the material you have worked with to answer these.

1 Who Are You?

By Emma Claire Gabrielsen

Anyway, life happened, good and bad things happened, and eventually I acknowledged that actually I, too, am sappy, sentimental, and emotional; that expressing feelings and daring to be vulnerable are qualities that make you stronger; and, finally, that it’s not weak to be human. I’m even a proud crier now (ish). This revelation (i.e. “growing up”?) has made me think about the stories we tell ourselves and others about who we are. How do those narratives shape us? What is it about us that makes us who we are? Identity talk can quickly get somewhat existential, but it’s one of our hottest contemporary topics all the same. Identity politics, personality tests, DNA ancestry tests … many of us (including yours truly) are frantically spitting into small containers, sending them off to labs somewhere in North Carolina in a quest to “learn the truth about who we really are”. But why? “Identity has always been important to us,” Einar Duenger Bøhn recently told me (Gabrielsen, 2019). He is a philosophy professor at the University of Agder and has researched identity his whole career. To illustrate this, Einar referred to ancient Greek literature, where it was crucial to be an Athenian.

I once read a book called In Full Color: Finding My Place in a Black and White World, in which the author, Rachel Dolezal, observes that hardly a minute passes after we’re born before we’re assigned a name, sex, gender, race. Our identities are based on the testimony of others, she states. “As we grow, more boxes are added to the forms we’re constantly filling out: religion, sexual orientation, age, language. Many of us come to understand these boxes hold very little meaning compared to the way we actually feel about ourselves” (Dolezal, 2017, pp. 192–193).

Closure “I want closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “Please. I have to see you. Please. Please.” “No.” “One last time.” “No.” “Real quick. Ten minutes. Five minutes. One minute.” “Annette, we have nothing to talk about. You know I love you. But I’m at this point –” “I know, I know! I can’t hear all this again! Please! I just need closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “I just need closure. I know I can get closure. Ten minutes. Please!” “Okay. When?” “Let’s meet at the bench by the river. Right now. Where we had our first kiss.” “Now? The bench by … At eleven at night? Come on, Annette. Can you … can you just come over?” “Come over?” “I mean, just, it’s late, and if it’s so important for this to be right now –” “That’s not what this is about!” “No, I didn’t mean–” “I need closure, David. I just need closure.”

What is Rachel Dolezal’s main observation?

Kristin Fridtun, for instance – a Norwegian author and philologist I once interviewed for an article about gender identity – talked about not feeling at home in either of the two boxes, the conventional gender categories. “People look at me and think that I’m a man, but I have a ‘classic woman’s body’,” Kristin told me. “It’s not so easy for anyone to know – I would have had to walk around naked, which I don’t. I can sense how confused people get when they can’t place me in a box. If I greet them and tell them my name is Kristin, I can see their brains start spinning” (Gabrielsen & Glans, 2015). Do you often think about who you want to be perceived as? Today, we have more platforms than ever to express and curate ourselves on. Our social media, for instance, is often one of the purest representations of how we want the world to see us. But we all know the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves. Years ago, I randomly started following a girl on Instagram called Amalia Ulman. She was an up-and-coming artist from Argentina in her twenties who posted typical quirky art stuff (you know – gallery openings, ironic memes, snapshots of a piece of bread). Then her feed gradually changed. Nails, clothes, inspirational quotes, and selfies. Basic influencerstuff. Eventually, the posts got more racy and narcissistic; she started showing more skin, was sexually aggressive. Suddenly she was “Single Taken ✓ Busy Getting Money”. Had she become an escort or something? By the time she had reached nearly

closure a sense of finality two-blinks-and-you’dmiss-it here: very quick curtsey girl’s or woman’s formal greeting mean (adj) unkind neat tidy attainable achievable

Who Are You?

9

3

34

5

5

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

“It’s all okay! I’m saying it’s all okay! All the times you made me feel like your backup choice when it would have been so simple to just tell me I looked beautiful; all the times you made me feel like the girl you were just killing time with while you waited to find your true love, even though you knew I loved you; or the times you made me feel like your stupid little sister, or your employee –” “Annette –” “No, I forgive all of it. You don’t have to admit it or even accept it. I choose to let it go. I don’t want to carry it around in my heart anymore.” “Okay … Well, Annette –” He paused, then rushed to make up for whatever the pause had cost him. “Annette, just because I’m accepting this doesn’t mean I’m conceding anything you say is true–” “You don’t have to,” she smiled. “It’s all in the past. It’s all over.” “Okay, well, that’s good. Some of what you’re saying is unnecessary and implies, I think, an excessive level of … I mean, I understand, as a thought exercise, for the sake of–” “Now I want to kiss you.” “Annette … ” “A goodbye kiss. Just one. For closure.” Annette took a step toward him. Closure, so close. “Annette … I want to … But I don’t think … God, you look beautiful, trust me, it’s not … But this is, I’m kind of seeing someone, and –” “One kiss! You don’t even have to kiss back. I just need to kiss you goodbye. For closure. One last time. Okay?” “Okay.” “Open your mouth and close your eyes,” said Annette, coyly. “I thought you said I didn’t have to kiss back,” said David, coyly. “Well, then you can keep your mouth closed, if you want,” said Annette, coyly. David half opened his mouth and closed his eyes. Annette kissed him. While she held the kiss she pictured everything she could remember from the relationship, in chronological order, from the first email to the last text message, and every kiss and laugh and fight in between. When she had pictured absolutely everything she could bring herself to remember, which was everything, she visualized herself literally kissing the block letters of the word GOODBYE.

[ chapter 1 ]

eventually in the end employee ansatt/tilsett concede admit imply suggest indirectly excessive here: extreme coyly in a manner pretending to be shy visualize (v) picture

Who Are You?

35

PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM

PRACTICE CONTENT 1 What is the excuse Annette uses when she suggests to David that they should meet “at the bench by the river”? 2 What, exactly, is it that Annette forgives David for? 3 What do the eight masked men do to David? 4 How does the application Closure work? 5 Why does the eighth man congratulate Annette? STRUCTURE 6 Almost the entire first half of “Closure” is written in the form of a dialogue between Annette and David. After a definite turning point, the rest of the story is told from the perspective of a third-person narrator. What incident causes the turning point? LANGUAGE 7 The message that is sent from David’s phone is written in a highly informal style. Identify symbols, words, phrases, and sentences that you would not find in an academic, or a formally written, text. See course 5: Recognising formality for guidance.

OVER TO YOU 8 Create a podcast Imagine that you work in a team of three or four news reporters. After David has been reported missing, you and your colleagues are contacted by people who know him well, and everything they tell you seems to point in one direction: He is the victim of an act of revenge.

Identity, or Who Are You?, may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can:

9 Analyse and discuss “Closure” a Cooperate in pairs and write down key words to i., ii., iii., iv., and v. below. See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

i. Give a brief summary of the plot. ii. Describe the setting, i.e., the time, duration, and place of the short story. iii. Characterise the protagonist: • What do you learn about Annette through direct description? • Use the S.T.E.A.L. method to find out what we learn about Annette through indirect description:

To reach a broad audience, your editor wants you and your team to make a ten-minute podcast. Here is the assignment that she gives you: • Decide on a main idea or argument. • Structure the podcast with a clear beginning, middle, and end. • Include, for instance, a timeline of events, interviews with neighbours, family, friends, and colleagues, or comments from the police. Use, for instance, the free app Anchor (anchor.fm) to record, cut and mix your podcast. For inspiration: Listen to one of the episodes of the true-crime podcast series Serial Killers.

til

38

Task 2 – Long answer Choose either a or b below. Give your text a suitable title. a Based on the material you have studied in this chapter, create a text where you discuss the concept of identity. Use Bob Dylan’s statement below as your starting point:

T

Thoughts and feelings

What do the character’s private thoughts and feelings tell us about him/her?

E

Effect on others

Which conclusions can we draw from the effects the character has on other people?

Model answer

A Actions

What do the character’s actions and behaviour reveal about him/ her?

L

What can we learn about the character through the way he/she dresses and carries him-/herself?

By using several informal language features, Emma Clare Gabrielsen makes her text appear both personal and sincere. Contractions (“it’s”, “I’m”, “we’re”, “don’t”, “aren’t”, “I’d”, and “I’ll”), incomplete sentences (“But why?”, “Nails.”, and “Duh!”), and informal expressions (“stuff like that”, “their brains start spinning”) all add to the general effect. She also uses the personal pronouns “I”, “me”, “my”, and “mine” to highlight her personal experiences. In addition, she creates a sense of common understanding between herself and her reader through the extensive use of the personal pronouns “we”, “us”, “our”, and “ourselves”.

Looks

See course 7: Recognising formality for guidance.

EXAMPLE

[ chapter 1 ]

An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

Task

In her text “Who do you think you are?”, Emma Clare Gabrielsen uses both formal and informal language features. Several of these are commented on in the model answer below. What other features can you find in Gabrielsen’s text?

What does the character say, how does he/she speak and what does this reveal about him/her?

iv. From which point of view is the story told? Why do you think the author chose this particular point of view? What would be different if the story had been told from another point of view? (See also STRUCTURE on the opposite page.) v. Suggest one or two possible themes of the short story. Give reasons for your views.

• Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Task 1 – Short answer

S Speech

Bob Dylan, in biographical film I’m Not There (2007)

b Reflect on how video games and/or films that you are familiar with have raised your awareness about your own identity.

Who Are You?

39

66

Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it: • •

diskuter og reflekter over form, innhold og virkemidler i engelskspråklige kulturelle uttrykksformer fra ulike medier, inkludert musikk, film og spill

Suggested thesis statements/questions: EXAMPLE

I can change during the course of a day. I wake and I’m one person, when I go to sleep, I know for certain I’m somebody else. I don’t know who I am most of the time.

Requirements for the presentation

Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aim:

• •

I support Yuval Noah Harari’s claim that we all should worry about the power of algorithms. I disagree with what Jordan Peterson says about gender roles. What are the most important themes in the video game “What Remains of Edith Finch?” How are these themes highlighted? How do the cinematic devices or techniques, like visual cues and music, used in “What Remains of Edith Finch?” and/or Crazy Rich Asians enhance the themes?

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation •

• • •

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

In her text, Gabrielsen also uses several formal language features. We find both advanced vocabulary (“assign”, “preoccupation”, “perceive”, “philologist”, “curate”, “conveniently”, and “presumably”) and formal expressions, like “the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves” and “conventional gender categories”. Formal language features like this make her arguments convincing to her reader.

See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

Ku n

David met Annette by the river. “Wow. You look really amazing.” “Thank you,” said Annette with a two-blinks-and-you’d-miss-it half curtsey at once feminine and mean. For the first time in her life, Annette looked exactly the way she wanted to look. Her hair was mostly neat, mostly down; she wore a simple dress that was the exact medium shade of red of all the shades of red in the world. It wasn’t even that hard to look this way, she noted as she caught a last look at herself in the mirror on her way out; it just took some effort and thought and luck–a reasonable but attainable amount more of each than usual. A good lesson to learn for the future, she thought; a future that could begin tonight, right after she got closure. “I want to say something.” “Okay.” “Everything is okay.” She smiled. He smiled back. “Everything in the past,” continued Annette, “is in the past. The cheating– the cheating you admit to, and the cheating you still can’t bring yourself to admit to –” “Wait, Annette –”

“And the lies about the cheating–the stories you made up that you eventually felt more loyal to than you did to the relationship –” “Annette –”

4 1 Who Are You?

b Discuss i. – v. in class. Take active part and base your discussion entries on your notes.

5 Courses The 17 courses that together make up Chapter 5 focus on essential English language skills. By studying them closely you will improve your ability to communicate in English. The courses will serve you well in everyday life, on the exam, in further studies and in working life. Each course consists of concrete step-by-step instructions, model answers and practice tasks. We suggest you use them actively as references when working with Over-to-You tasks, writing essays or giving oral presentations.

1 Who Are You?

GENRE: SHORT STORY

“Just to come from Athens was a matter of life or death,” he said. But today it’s different. Identity is no longer only something we inherit; our identity is something we to a greater extent can choose. “Today we identify as something more than just a mother, a father or an Athenian. It’s more about who we feel we are as a person,” he said.

[ chapter 1 ]

8

vu

This article also introduces you to the wide range of relevant authentic material 2 that follows, marked by grey colour. These texts go in depth and allow you to explore the topic

from various angles. Hopefully, by reading a selection of these you will discover links and achieve a deeper understanding of the topic.

rd

These chapters all start with an introductory article 1 , written especially for you by a Norwegian expert. Use it to gain an overview of the topic, useful terminology and as a model for writing and using sources.

g

This textbook consists of five chapters. Together they make sure you work with all the competence aims in the curriculum.

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

67

5

Step 1

Kursdel

15 Holding discussions Being able to voice your opinion is a necessity. Our democracy depends upon it and most of us do it daily. In a school or study context, partaking in discussions requires theoretical knowledge, specific terminology, and both analytical and interpretative skills. Whether you are in a casual discussion about football, or in a formal assessment, the following three steps will make sure you are well prepared.

Step 2

Step 1

Step 3

Make sure you are in the know. To be part of a discussion, you need in-depth knowledge of the topic at hand. Consequently, we advise that you: • Read up, so that you can retell arguments • Identify core issues or the main conflict • Find examples to illustrate your points • Discuss, interpret, and evaluate the arguments in relation to the main conflict

Step 3

Listen and respond to other’s viewpoints. Sharing thoughts and arguments from several sources will contribute to a better understanding for all. It will give you new perspectives or even provide new solutions. • Make sure you meet opposing arguments with respect and curiosity. Demonstrating this skill means being aware of your body language, not only your words. • Practise using phrases to demonstrate listening and responding. EXAMPLE

Agreeing and adding I agree with Paul …, and I would add what another expert says … In addition, …

Skolestudio provides additional resources.

Disagreeing and arguing I disagree with Paul, because … At the same time, one could argue … Others see this differently, because … On the contrary, I believe … There is considerable disagreement between experts …

Discuss: Explain and exemplify: EXAMPLE

Claim: EXAMPLE

The situation for African Americans in the USA changed during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s.

Step 4

Step 2

For instance, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and Senator John Lewis conducted peaceful demonstrations like the one in Selma, in 1965, which was violently stopped by the local authorities.

EXAMPLE

One could argue that the fight did not end in the 1960s. Colin Kaepernick exercised the same nonviolent protest as King advocated when he knelt during the national anthem in 2016. The aftermath also illustrated …

Express yourself clearly. Precise terminology is necessary to express yourself clearly and be an active participant in the conversation. • Learn specific words and terms linked to your topic. • Practise using phrases for presenting your view. EXAMPLE

Introducing topics Firstly, … Furthermore, … Data from Pew Research Center show … On the one hand, … On the other hand, … Critics have argued that …

Step 5

Palace of Westminster, March 2020. Prime Minister Boris Johnson faces the Opposition in The House of Commons.

300

2

Using E1

[ chapter 5 ]

Courses

301

3


Using E1

1

1 Who Are You?

2

Introductory article

3 Culture and Diversity

What can labs in North Carolina tell you about yourself?

from various angles. Hopefully, by reading a selection of these you will discover links and achieve a deeper understanding of the topic. All texts are followed by practice tasks 3 . First, we ask you to practice your receptive skills by reading, watching and listening. Then, we show you, concretely, how each text serves as a model of good communication by way of examining its content, structure and language.

I used to think emotions made you weak. I would pride myself in “not feeling” anything – fear, anxiety, loneliness, all the difficult, negative ones. Being jealous in relationships? Never a problem. Being sad, feeling rejected? Not me! My entire identity was based on being fearand emotionless. I would casually drop stone-cold quotes from one of my favourite alcoholic authors, describing his tendency to “tower above” feelings (he called them “preoccupations”) such as love. Like a boss, I thought. Like a true boss.

Finally, in the Over-to-You tasks we ask you to practice your productive skills by emulating the models. Here you are also urged to make use of the courses in Chapter 5. Each chapter ends by focusing on preparing for the exam 4 . Here you will see typical exam tasks and practice using the material you have worked with to answer these.

What is Rachel Dolezal’s main observation?

Kristin Fridtun, for instance – a Norwegian author and philologist I once interviewed for an article about gender identity – talked about not feeling at home in either of the two boxes, the conventional gender categories. “People look at me and think that I’m a man, but I have a ‘classic woman’s body’,” Kristin told me. “It’s not so easy for anyone to know – I would have had to walk around naked, which I don’t. I can sense how confused people get when they can’t place me in a box. If I greet them and tell them my name is Kristin, I can see their brains start spinning” (Gabrielsen & Glans, 2015).

Anyway, life happened, good and bad things happened, and eventually I acknowledged that actually I, too, am sappy, sentimental, and emotional; that expressing feelings and daring to be vulnerable are qualities that make you stronger; and, finally, that it’s not weak to be human. I’m even a proud crier now (ish). This revelation (i.e. “growing up”?) has made me think about the stories we tell ourselves and others about who we are. How do those narratives shape us? What is it about us that makes us who we are?

Do you often think about who you want to be perceived as? Today, we have more platforms than ever to express and curate ourselves on. Our social media, for instance, is often one of the purest representations of how we want the world to see us. But we all know the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves.

Identity talk can quickly get somewhat existential, but it’s one of our hottest contemporary topics all the same. Identity politics, personality tests, DNA ancestry tests … many of us (including yours truly) are frantically spitting into small containers, sending them off to labs somewhere in North Carolina in a quest to “learn the truth about who we really are”. But why?

Years ago, I randomly started following a girl on Instagram called Amalia Ulman. She was an up-and-coming artist from Argentina in her twenties who posted typical quirky art stuff (you know – gallery openings, ironic memes, snapshots of a piece of bread). Then her feed gradually changed. Nails, clothes, inspirational quotes, and selfies. Basic influencerstuff. Eventually, the posts got more racy and narcissistic; she started showing more skin, was sexually aggressive. Suddenly she was “Single Taken ✓ Busy Getting Money”. Had she become an escort or something? By the time she had reached nearly

“Identity has always been important to us,” Einar Duenger Bøhn recently told me (Gabrielsen, 2019). He is a philosophy professor at the University of Agder and has researched identity his whole career. To illustrate this, Einar referred to ancient Greek literature, where it was crucial to be an Athenian. [ chapter 1 ]

8

“I want closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “Please. I have to see you. Please. Please.” “No.” “One last time.” “No.” “Real quick. Ten minutes. Five minutes. One minute.” “Annette, we have nothing to talk about. You know I love you. But I’m at this point –” “I know, I know! I can’t hear all this again! Please! I just need closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “I just need closure. I know I can get closure. Ten minutes. Please!” “Okay. When?” “Let’s meet at the bench by the river. Right now. Where we had our first kiss.” “Now? The bench by … At eleven at night? Come on, Annette. Can you … can you just come over?” “Come over?” “I mean, just, it’s late, and if it’s so important for this to be right now –” “That’s not what this is about!” “No, I didn’t mean–” “I need closure, David. I just need closure.”

closure a sense of finality two-blinks-and-you’dmiss-it here: very quick curtsey girl’s or woman’s formal greeting mean (adj) unkind neat tidy attainable achievable

9

Who Are You?

3

34

“And the lies about the cheating–the stories you made up that you eventually felt more loyal to than you did to the relationship –” “Annette –”

5

5

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

“It’s all okay! I’m saying it’s all okay! All the times you made me feel like your backup choice when it would have been so simple to just tell me I looked beautiful; all the times you made me feel like the girl you were just killing time with while you waited to find your true love, even though you knew I loved you; or the times you made me feel like your stupid little sister, or your employee –” “Annette –” “No, I forgive all of it. You don’t have to admit it or even accept it. I choose to let it go. I don’t want to carry it around in my heart anymore.” “Okay … Well, Annette –” He paused, then rushed to make up for whatever the pause had cost him. “Annette, just because I’m accepting this doesn’t mean I’m conceding anything you say is true–” “You don’t have to,” she smiled. “It’s all in the past. It’s all over.” “Okay, well, that’s good. Some of what you’re saying is unnecessary and implies, I think, an excessive level of … I mean, I understand, as a thought exercise, for the sake of–” “Now I want to kiss you.” “Annette … ” “A goodbye kiss. Just one. For closure.” Annette took a step toward him. Closure, so close. “Annette … I want to … But I don’t think … God, you look beautiful, trust me, it’s not … But this is, I’m kind of seeing someone, and –” “One kiss! You don’t even have to kiss back. I just need to kiss you goodbye. For closure. One last time. Okay?” “Okay.” “Open your mouth and close your eyes,” said Annette, coyly. “I thought you said I didn’t have to kiss back,” said David, coyly. “Well, then you can keep your mouth closed, if you want,” said Annette, coyly. David half opened his mouth and closed his eyes. Annette kissed him. While she held the kiss she pictured everything she could remember from the relationship, in chronological order, from the first email to the last text message, and every kiss and laugh and fight in between. When she had pictured absolutely everything she could bring herself to remember, which was everything, she visualized herself literally kissing the block letters of the word GOODBYE.

[ chapter 1 ]

eventually in the end employee ansatt/tilsett concede admit imply suggest indirectly excessive here: extreme coyly in a manner pretending to be shy visualize (v) picture

Who Are You?

35

4

1 Who Are You?

PRACTICE CONTENT 1 What is the excuse Annette uses when she suggests to David that they should meet “at the bench by the river”? 2 What, exactly, is it that Annette forgives David for? 3 What do the eight masked men do to David? 4 How does the application Closure work? 5 Why does the eighth man congratulate Annette? STRUCTURE 6 Almost the entire first half of “Closure” is written in the form of a dialogue between Annette and David. After a definite turning point, the rest of the story is told from the perspective of a third-person narrator. What incident causes the turning point? LANGUAGE 7 The message that is sent from David’s phone is written in a highly informal style. Identify symbols, words, phrases, and sentences that you would not find in an academic, or a formally written, text. See course 5: Recognising formality for guidance.

OVER TO YOU 8 Create a podcast Imagine that you work in a team of three or four news reporters. After David has been reported missing, you and your colleagues are contacted by people who know him well, and everything they tell you seems to point in one direction: He is the victim of an act of revenge. To reach a broad audience, your editor wants you and your team to make a ten-minute podcast. Here is the assignment that she gives you: • Decide on a main idea or argument. • Structure the podcast with a clear beginning, middle, and end. • Include, for instance, a timeline of events, interviews with neighbours, family, friends, and colleagues, or comments from the police. Use, for instance, the free app Anchor (anchor.fm) to record, cut and mix your podcast. For inspiration: Listen to one of the episodes of the true-crime podcast series Serial Killers.

9 Analyse and discuss “Closure”

PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

Identity, or Who Are You?, may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can:

a Cooperate in pairs and write down key words to i., ii., iii., iv., and v. below. See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

i. Give a brief summary of the plot. ii. Describe the setting, i.e., the time, duration, and place of the short story. iii. Characterise the protagonist: • What do you learn about Annette through direct description? • Use the S.T.E.A.L. method to find out what we learn about Annette through indirect description:

Thoughts and feelings

What do the character’s private thoughts and feelings tell us about him/her?

Effect on others

Which conclusions can we draw from the effects the character has on other people?

Model answer

A Actions

What do the character’s actions and behaviour reveal about him/ her?

L

What can we learn about the character through the way he/she dresses and carries him-/herself?

By using several informal language features, Emma Clare Gabrielsen makes her text appear both personal and sincere. Contractions (“it’s”, “I’m”, “we’re”, “don’t”, “aren’t”, “I’d”, and “I’ll”), incomplete sentences (“But why?”, “Nails.”, and “Duh!”), and informal expressions (“stuff like that”, “their brains start spinning”) all add to the general effect. She also uses the personal pronouns “I”, “me”, “my”, and “mine” to highlight her personal experiences. In addition, she creates a sense of common understanding between herself and her reader through the extensive use of the personal pronouns “we”, “us”, “our”, and “ourselves”.

See course 7: Recognising formality for guidance.

EXAMPLE

til

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

39

Bob Dylan, in biographical film I’m Not There (2007)

b Reflect on how video games and/or films that you are familiar with have raised your awareness about your own identity.

66

Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it: • •

diskuter og reflekter over form, innhold og virkemidler i engelskspråklige kulturelle uttrykksformer fra ulike medier, inkludert musikk, film og spill

Suggested thesis statements/questions: EXAMPLE

I can change during the course of a day. I wake and I’m one person, when I go to sleep, I know for certain I’m somebody else. I don’t know who I am most of the time.

Requirements for the presentation

Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aim:

• •

I support Yuval Noah Harari’s claim that we all should worry about the power of algorithms. I disagree with what Jordan Peterson says about gender roles. What are the most important themes in the video game “What Remains of Edith Finch?” How are these themes highlighted? How do the cinematic devices or techniques, like visual cues and music, used in “What Remains of Edith Finch?” and/or Crazy Rich Asians enhance the themes?

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation •

• • •

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

In her text, Gabrielsen also uses several formal language features. We find both advanced vocabulary (“assign”, “preoccupation”, “perceive”, “philologist”, “curate”, “conveniently”, and “presumably”) and formal expressions, like “the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves” and “conventional gender categories”. Formal language features like this make her arguments convincing to her reader.

See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

Ku n

Choose either a or b below. Give your text a suitable title. a Based on the material you have studied in this chapter, create a text where you discuss the concept of identity. Use Bob Dylan’s statement below as your starting point:

T

b Discuss i. – v. in class. Take active part and base your discussion entries on your notes.

38

Task 2 – Long answer

E

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

Task

In her text “Who do you think you are?”, Emma Clare Gabrielsen uses both formal and informal language features. Several of these are commented on in the model answer below. What other features can you find in Gabrielsen’s text?

What does the character say, how does he/she speak and what does this reveal about him/her?

Looks

• Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Task 1 – Short answer

S Speech

iv. From which point of view is the story told? Why do you think the author chose this particular point of view? What would be different if the story had been told from another point of view? (See also STRUCTURE on the opposite page.) v. Suggest one or two possible themes of the short story. Give reasons for your views.

5 Courses The 17 courses that together make up Chapter 5 focus on essential English language skills. By studying them closely you will improve your ability to communicate in English. The courses will serve you well in everyday life, on the exam, in further studies and in working life. Each course consists of concrete step-by-step instructions, model answers and practice tasks. We suggest you use them actively as references when working with Over-to-You tasks, writing essays or giving oral presentations.

David met Annette by the river. “Wow. You look really amazing.” “Thank you,” said Annette with a two-blinks-and-you’d-miss-it half curtsey at once feminine and mean. For the first time in her life, Annette looked exactly the way she wanted to look. Her hair was mostly neat, mostly down; she wore a simple dress that was the exact medium shade of red of all the shades of red in the world. It wasn’t even that hard to look this way, she noted as she caught a last look at herself in the mirror on her way out; it just took some effort and thought and luck–a reasonable but attainable amount more of each than usual. A good lesson to learn for the future, she thought; a future that could begin tonight, right after she got closure. “I want to say something.” “Okay.” “Everything is okay.” She smiled. He smiled back. “Everything in the past,” continued Annette, “is in the past. The cheating– the cheating you admit to, and the cheating you still can’t bring yourself to admit to –” “Wait, Annette –”

vu

This article also introduces you to the wide range of relevant authentic material 2 that follows, marked by grey colour. These texts go in depth and allow you to explore the topic

I once read a book called In Full Color: Finding My Place in a Black and White World, in which the author, Rachel Dolezal, observes that hardly a minute passes after we’re born before we’re assigned a name, sex, gender, race. Our identities are based on the testimony of others, she states. “As we grow, more boxes are added to the forms we’re constantly filling out: religion, sexual orientation, age, language. Many of us come to understand these boxes hold very little meaning compared to the way we actually feel about ourselves” (Dolezal, 2017, pp. 192–193).

1 Who Are You?

GENRE: SHORT STORY

Closure

“Just to come from Athens was a matter of life or death,” he said. But today it’s different. Identity is no longer only something we inherit; our identity is something we to a greater extent can choose. “Today we identify as something more than just a mother, a father or an Athenian. It’s more about who we feel we are as a person,” he said.

By Emma Claire Gabrielsen

4 Citizenship These chapters all start with an introductory article 1 , written especially for you by a Norwegian expert. Use it to gain an overview of the topic, useful terminology and as a model for writing and using sources.

Who Do You Think You Are?

rd

2 English Everywhere

1 Who Are You?

er in

The first four chapters cover topics that you are expected to be able to communicate about:

g

This textbook consists of five chapters. Together they make sure you work with all the competence aims in the curriculum.

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

67

5

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

Kursdel

15 Holding discussions

Being able to voice your opinion is a necessity. Our democracy depends upon it and most of us do it daily. In a school or study context, partaking in discussions requires theoretical knowledge, specific terminology, and both analytical and interpretative skills. Whether you are in a casual discussion about football, or in a formal assessment, the following three steps will make sure you are well prepared.

Step 1

Listen and respond to other’s viewpoints. Sharing thoughts and arguments from several sources will contribute to a better understanding for all. It will give you new perspectives or even provide new solutions. • Make sure you meet opposing arguments with respect and curiosity. Demonstrating this skill means being aware of your body language, not only your words. • Practise using phrases to demonstrate listening and responding. EXAMPLE

Agreeing and adding I agree with Paul …, and I would add what another expert says … In addition, …

Skolestudio provides additional resources.

Disagreeing and arguing I disagree with Paul, because … At the same time, one could argue … Others see this differently, because … On the contrary, I believe … There is considerable disagreement between experts …

Discuss:

Explain and exemplify: EXAMPLE

Claim:

EXAMPLE

Step 4

Make sure you are in the know. To be part of a discussion, you need in-depth knowledge of the topic at hand. Consequently, we advise that you: • Read up, so that you can retell arguments • Identify core issues or the main conflict • Find examples to illustrate your points • Discuss, interpret, and evaluate the arguments in relation to the main conflict

Step 3

The situation for African Americans in the USA changed during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s.

Step 2

For instance, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and Senator John Lewis conducted peaceful demonstrations like the one in Selma, in 1965, which was violently stopped by the local authorities.

EXAMPLE

One could argue that the fight did not end in the 1960s. Colin Kaepernick exercised the same nonviolent protest as King advocated when he knelt during the national anthem in 2016. The aftermath also illustrated …

Express yourself clearly. Precise terminology is necessary to express yourself clearly and be an active participant in the conversation. • Learn specific words and terms linked to your topic. • Practise using phrases for presenting your view. EXAMPLE

Introducing topics Firstly, … Furthermore, … Data from Pew Research Center show … On the one hand, … On the other hand, … Critics have argued that …

Step 5

Palace of Westminster, March 2020. Prime Minister Boris Johnson faces the Opposition in The House of Commons.

300

2

Using E1

[ chapter 5 ]

Courses

301

3


Contents 1 Who Are You?

4 Citizenship

TITLE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

PAGE

Personal essay

1

210

1

Who Do You Think You Are? Emma Clare Gabrielsen

Personal essay

1

6

2

Chatter

Board game

1

14

2

The Power of the #

Speech

2

216

3

Public Shaming David Brooks

Opinion piece

3

220

4

Same Love Macklemore

Song lyrics

2

226

3

Know Thyself

Personality test

4

What Remains of Edith Finch

Video game

5

Are You Man Enough? Jordan Peterson

Opinion piece

6

Closure B.J. Novak

7

Amy

8

Texting Carol Ann Duffy

9

The Power of Algorithms Yuval Noah Harari In Defence of Decency Sophia Ankel

11

Crazy Rich Asians

12

Preparing for the Exam

16

20

2

26

Short story

2

32

Documentary film and song lyrics

2

40

Poetry

1

46

Argumentative essay

3

50

Opinion piece

3

56

Feature film: Romantic comedy

1

62

66

rd

TITLE

g

1

2

er in

10

2 English Everywhere

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

PAGE

5

Coming Out Ocean Vuong

Novel extract

2

232

6

Money Talks

News article

1

236

7

Crime and Punishment

Infographics

1

240 246

8

Rural and Urban Americans

News analysis

3

9

What on Earth is a Global Citizen?

Blog post

2

10

Preparing for the Exam

252 260

5 Courses 1

TITLE Reading strategies

PAGE 264

2

Expanding your vocabulary

268 272

Improving your listening skills

English as a World Language Kristin Bech

Five-paragraph essay

1

68

4

Being polite

274

2

Multilingualism

Novel snippet

2

74

5

Recognising formality

276

3

Shakespeare

Play

2

80

6

Structuring a sentence

280

4

More Time Linton Kwesi Johnson

Poem

1

86

7

Structuring a paragraph

284

5

Hunt for the Wilderpeople

Feature film

2

90

8

Structuring a text

288

6

Born a Crime Trevor Noah

Autobiography extract

2

94

9

Planning your text

292

7

We Should All be Feminists Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Essay

3

104

10

Choosing sources

294

8

Hurricane Season Maxine Beneba Clarke

Short story

3

112

11

Referring to sources

296

9

Snakes and Ladders

Board Game

1

122

12

Revising your text

298

13

Improving your pronunciation

302

14

Giving presentations

306 308

vu

3

1

Preparing for the Exam

til

10

124

3 Culture and Diversity TITLE

1

Culture and Diversity Øivind Bratberg

TEXT TYPE Five-paragraph essay

LEVEL

PAGE

2

126

Trivia Race

Board game

1

134

3

Meeting the Enemy Deeyah Khan

Documentary film

2

136

4

Thug Life

Feature film

2

140

Ku n

2

5

The Mindless Menace of Violence Robert F. Kennedy

Speech

3

146

6

The End of Something Ernest Hemingway

Short story

2

154

7

Watchmen

TV Series

2

162

8

Fact File US

Infographics

1

166

Fact File UK

Infographics

1

170

For and Against Fox Hunting

Opinion piece

3

174

11

Educating Greater Manchester

TV Series

2

182

12

This is London Ben Judah

Non-fiction extract

2

188

9

10

4

TITLE You Are a Citizen Henrik Syse

1

13

Kiss Elizabeth Baines

Short story

2

194

14

Lesley Dave

Rap

3

202

15

Preparing for the Exam

Contents

15

Holding discussions

16

Analysing poems and songs

312

17

Approaching literature and films

316

208

5


Contents 1 Who Are You? TITLE

4 Citizenship TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

PAGE

TEXT TYPE

LEVEL

PAGE

Personal essay

1

210

Who Do You Think You Are? Emma Clare Gabrielsen

Personal essay

1

6

2

Chatter

Board game

1

14

2

The Power of the #

Speech

2

216

3

Public Shaming David Brooks

Opinion piece

3

220

4

Same Love Macklemore

Song lyrics

2

226

Personality test

1

16

Video game

2

20

5

Are You Man Enough? Jordan Peterson

Opinion piece

2

26

6

Closure B.J. Novak

Short story

2

32

7

Amy

Documentary film and song lyrics

2

40

8

Texting Carol Ann Duffy

Poetry

1

46

9

The Power of Algorithms Yuval Noah Harari

Argumentative essay

3

50

10

In Defence of Decency Sophia Ankel

Opinion piece

3

56

11

Crazy Rich Asians

Feature film: Romantic comedy

1

12

Preparing for the Exam

62 66

7

Crime and Punishment

8

Rural and Urban Americans

9

What on Earth is a Global Citizen?

10

Novel extract

Preparing for the Exam

TITLE Reading strategies

2

Expanding your vocabulary

232

1

236

Infographics

1

240

News analysis

3

246

Blog post

2

252

260

5 Courses 1

2

News article

PAGE 264 268

3

Improving your listening skills

1

English as a World Language Kristin Bech

Five-paragraph essay

1

68

4

Being polite

2

Multilingualism

Novel snippet

2

74

5

Recognising formality

3

Shakespeare

Play

2

80

6

Structuring a sentence

4

More Time Linton Kwesi Johnson

Poem

1

86

7

Structuring a paragraph

284

5

Hunt for the Wilderpeople

Feature film

2

90

8

Structuring a text

288

6

Born a Crime Trevor Noah

Autobiography extract

2

94

9

Planning your text

292

7

We Should All be Feminists Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Essay

3

104

10

Choosing sources

294

8

Hurricane Season Maxine Beneba Clarke

Short story

3

112

11

Referring to sources

296

9

Snakes and Ladders

Board Game

1

122

12

Revising your text

298

13

Improving your pronunciation

302

14

Giving presentations

306 308

TITLE 1

Culture and Diversity Øivind Bratberg

TEXT TYPE Five-paragraph essay

LEVEL

PAGE

2

126

2

Trivia Race

Board game

1

134

3

Meeting the Enemy Deeyah Khan

Documentary film

2

136

4

Thug Life

Feature film

2

140

5

The Mindless Menace of Violence Robert F. Kennedy

Speech

3

146

6

The End of Something Ernest Hemingway

Short story

2

154

7

Watchmen

TV Series

2

162

8

Fact File US

Infographics

1

166

Fact File UK

Infographics

1

170

For and Against Fox Hunting

Opinion piece

3

174

11

Educating Greater Manchester

TV Series

2

182

12

This is London Ben Judah

Non-fiction extract

2

188

9 10

13

Kiss Elizabeth Baines

Short story

2

194

14

Lesley Dave

Rap

3

202

15

Preparing for the Exam

Contents

til

3 Culture and Diversity

272 274 276 280

15

Holding discussions

16

Analysing poems and songs

312

17

Approaching literature and films

316

Ku n

124

vu

TEXT TYPE

Preparing for the Exam

PAGE

Coming Out Ocean Vuong Money Talks

TITLE

10

LEVEL

5 6

er in

Know Thyself What Remains of Edith Finch

rd

3 4

g

1

2 English Everywhere

4

TITLE You Are a Citizen Henrik Syse

1

208

5


g er in rd vu til

Ku n

1 Who Are You?

6

[ chapter 1 ]

CHAPTER FOCUS Are you the same person all day? How do you change depending on who you are with?

Public health and life management skills • Express your feelings, experiences, and opinions in English • Gain linguistic and cultural competency to develop a positive self-image and identity Who Are You?

7


g er in rd vu til 6

[ chapter 1 ]

Ku n

1 Who Are You?

Are you the same person all day? How do you change depending on who you are with?

CHAPTER FOCUS Public health and life management skills • Express your feelings, experiences, and opinions in English • Gain linguistic and cultural competency to develop a positive self-image and identity Who Are You?

7


Introductory article

1 Who Are You?

g

Who Do You Think You Are?

er in

What can labs in North Carolina tell you about yourself?

By Emma Claire Gabrielsen

vu

rd

I used to think emotions made you weak. I would pride myself in “not feeling” anything – fear, anxiety, loneliness, all the difficult, negative ones. Being jealous in relationships? Never a problem. Being sad, feeling rejected? Not me! My entire identity was based on being fearand emotionless. I would casually drop stone-cold quotes from one of my favourite alcoholic authors, describing his tendency to “tower above” feelings (he called them “preoccupations”) such as love. Like a boss, I thought. Like a true boss.

Ku n

til

Anyway, life happened, good and bad things happened, and eventually I acknowledged that actually I, too, am sappy, sentimental, and emotional; that expressing feelings and daring to be vulnerable are qualities that make you stronger; and, finally, that it’s not weak to be human. I’m even a proud crier now (ish). This revelation (i.e. “growing up”?) has made me think about the stories we tell ourselves and others about who we are. How do those narratives shape us? What is it about us that makes us who we are?

8

[ chapter 1 ]

Identity talk can quickly get somewhat existential, but it’s one of our hottest contemporary topics all the same. Identity politics, personality tests, DNA ancestry tests … many of us (including yours truly) are frantically spitting into small containers, sending them off to labs somewhere in North Carolina in a quest to “learn the truth about who we really are”. But why? “Identity has always been important to us,” Einar Duenger Bøhn recently told me (Gabrielsen, 2019). He is a philosophy professor at the University of Agder and has researched identity his whole career. To illustrate this, Einar referred to ancient Greek literature, where it was crucial to be an Athenian.

“Just to come from Athens was a matter of life or death,” he said. But today it’s different. Identity is no longer only something we inherit; our identity is something we to a greater extent can choose. “Today we identify as something more than just a mother, a father or an Athenian. It’s more about who we feel we are as a person,” he said. I once read a book called In Full Color: Finding My Place in a Black and White World, in which the author, Rachel Dolezal, observes that hardly a minute passes after we’re born before we’re assigned a name, sex, gender, race. Our identities are based on the testimony of others, she states. “As we grow, more boxes are added to the forms we’re constantly filling out: religion, sexual orientation, age, language. Many of us come to understand these boxes hold very little meaning compared to the way we actually feel about ourselves” (Dolezal, 2017, pp. 192–193).

What is Rachel Dolezal’s main observation?

Kristin Fridtun, for instance – a Norwegian author and philologist I once interviewed for an article about gender identity – talked about not feeling at home in either of the two boxes, the conventional gender categories. “People look at me and think that I’m a man, but I have a ‘classic woman’s body’,” Kristin told me. “It’s not so easy for anyone to know – I would have had to walk around naked, which I don’t. I can sense how confused people get when they can’t place me in a box. If I greet them and tell them my name is Kristin, I can see their brains start spinning” (Gabrielsen & Glans, 2015). Do you often think about who you want to be perceived as? Today, we have more platforms than ever to express and curate ourselves on. Our social media, for instance, is often one of the purest representations of how we want the world to see us. But we all know the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves. Years ago, I randomly started following a girl on Instagram called Amalia Ulman. She was an up-and-coming artist from Argentina in her twenties who posted typical quirky art stuff (you know – gallery openings, ironic memes, snapshots of a piece of bread). Then her feed gradually changed. Nails, clothes, inspirational quotes, and selfies. Basic influencerstuff. Eventually, the posts got more racy and narcissistic; she started showing more skin, was sexually aggressive. Suddenly she was “Single Taken ✓ Busy Getting Money”. Had she become an escort or something? By the time she had reached nearly Who Are You?

9


Introductory article

Anyway, life happened, good and bad things happened, and eventually I acknowledged that actually I, too, am sappy, sentimental, and emotional; that expressing feelings and daring to be vulnerable are qualities that make you stronger; and, finally, that it’s not weak to be human. I’m even a proud crier now (ish). This revelation (i.e. “growing up”?) has made me think about the stories we tell ourselves and others about who we are. How do those narratives shape us? What is it about us that makes us who we are? Identity talk can quickly get somewhat existential, but it’s one of our hottest contemporary topics all the same. Identity politics, personality tests, DNA ancestry tests … many of us (including yours truly) are frantically spitting into small containers, sending them off to labs somewhere in North Carolina in a quest to “learn the truth about who we really are”. But why? “Identity has always been important to us,” Einar Duenger Bøhn recently told me (Gabrielsen, 2019). He is a philosophy professor at the University of Agder and has researched identity his whole career. To illustrate this, Einar referred to ancient Greek literature, where it was crucial to be an Athenian. 8

[ chapter 1 ]

g

er in

Kristin Fridtun, for instance – a Norwegian author and philologist I once interviewed for an article about gender identity – talked about not feeling at home in either of the two boxes, the conventional gender categories.

rd

I used to think emotions made you weak. I would pride myself in “not feeling” anything – fear, anxiety, loneliness, all the difficult, negative ones. Being jealous in relationships? Never a problem. Being sad, feeling rejected? Not me! My entire identity was based on being fearand emotionless. I would casually drop stone-cold quotes from one of my favourite alcoholic authors, describing his tendency to “tower above” feelings (he called them “preoccupations”) such as love. Like a boss, I thought. Like a true boss.

What is Rachel Dolezal’s main observation?

“People look at me and think that I’m a man, but I have a ‘classic woman’s body’,” Kristin told me. “It’s not so easy for anyone to know – I would have had to walk around naked, which I don’t. I can sense how confused people get when they can’t place me in a box. If I greet them and tell them my name is Kristin, I can see their brains start spinning” (Gabrielsen & Glans, 2015).

vu

By Emma Claire Gabrielsen

I once read a book called In Full Color: Finding My Place in a Black and White World, in which the author, Rachel Dolezal, observes that hardly a minute passes after we’re born before we’re assigned a name, sex, gender, race. Our identities are based on the testimony of others, she states. “As we grow, more boxes are added to the forms we’re constantly filling out: religion, sexual orientation, age, language. Many of us come to understand these boxes hold very little meaning compared to the way we actually feel about ourselves” (Dolezal, 2017, pp. 192–193).

til

Who Do You Think You Are?

“Just to come from Athens was a matter of life or death,” he said. But today it’s different. Identity is no longer only something we inherit; our identity is something we to a greater extent can choose. “Today we identify as something more than just a mother, a father or an Athenian. It’s more about who we feel we are as a person,” he said.

Do you often think about who you want to be perceived as? Today, we have more platforms than ever to express and curate ourselves on. Our social media, for instance, is often one of the purest representations of how we want the world to see us. But we all know the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves.

Ku n

What can labs in North Carolina tell you about yourself?

1 Who Are You?

Years ago, I randomly started following a girl on Instagram called Amalia Ulman. She was an up-and-coming artist from Argentina in her twenties who posted typical quirky art stuff (you know – gallery openings, ironic memes, snapshots of a piece of bread). Then her feed gradually changed. Nails, clothes, inspirational quotes, and selfies. Basic influencerstuff. Eventually, the posts got more racy and narcissistic; she started showing more skin, was sexually aggressive. Suddenly she was “Single Taken ✓ Busy Getting Money”. Had she become an escort or something? By the time she had reached nearly Who Are You?

9


1 Who Are You? How did Amalia Ulman present herself on Instagram?

90,000 followers, Amalia documented the process of getting a boob job. After a while, she started to seem deranged, posting eight pictures in a row, videos of her crying. I remember showing her feed to a friend and saying: “I think this artist chick is having a full-blown, real-time identity crisis meltdown on Instagram.”

er in

g

Then came the revelation that it was all a performance piece. Fake news. Carefully scripted, researched for months. With a beginning, a climax and an ending. Duh! “Is this the first Instagram masterpiece?” newspaper reporters wondered (Sooke, 2016), and Amalia Ulman, who has exhibited her artwork in galleries since she was 16, was dubbed “The First Great Instagram Artist” (Langmuir, 2016).

Ku n

til

The lines between our “analogue” and online selves will always be blurred. Sometimes, our different selves aren’t that apparent to the naked eye of others – like the parents of Mats, a dedicated gamer who died when he was 25. His parents “mourned what they thought had been a lonely and isolated life for their disabled son,” says the beautifully written longform article first published on NRK.no, then translated into English on BBC.com (Schaubert, 2019). Mats was in a wheelchair because of a rare muscle disorder and spent most of his days in front of the computer playing World of Warcraft, and, so his parents thought, alone.

But after his death, they discovered that people all over Europe had lit candles in his memory. Online, in the gaming world, Mats had been Lord Ibelin – an extension of himself that represented different sides of his personality. In a blog post called “Love” he wrote about his first meeting with one of his closest gamer friends, Lisette from the Netherlands. They became friends when she was 15 and he was 16. Thirteen years later, she was at

10

[ chapter 1 ]

Who is Lisette from the Netherlands?

While I was writing this essay on identity, I asked a wise (slightly older) friend of mine what he wished he had known at 16. “That you gradually become more and more yourself,” he answered, “and that most of us feel like we’re the only ones that don’t have a clue.” I wished someone had told me that when I was younger, too. Maybe I’d have worried less about who I was in the eyes of everybody else. Come to think of it, I still kind of worry. More than I’d like to admit. But to look on the bright side: presumably the importance of stuff like that will fade when I get older. Or else, I just have to come to terms with that merely being yet another part of who I am. I’ll try to own it, anyhow. Like a true emotional boss. Sources Dolezal, R. (2017). In Full Color: Finding My Place in a Black and White World. Dallas: Ben Bella Books. Gabrielsen, E. C. (2019, February 7). Aktivister mener at vi selv bør kunne velge alder og etnisitet. Retrieved from dn.no/magasinet/reportasje/rachel-dolezal/identitet/emile-ratelband/ aktivister-mener-at-vi-selv-bor-kunne-velge-alder-og-etnisitet/2–1–539602 Gabrielsen, E. C. & Glans, M. (2015, September 3). Transformasjonen. Retrieved from dn.no/d2/ livsstil/forbundet-for-transpersoner-i-norge/orange-is-the-new-black/kristin-fridtun/ transformasjonen/1–1–5 449 580 Langmuir, M. (2016, September 16). AMALIA ULMAN IS THE FIRST GREAT INSTAGRAM ARTIST. Retrieved from elle.com/culture/art-design/a38 857/amalia-ulman-instagram-artist/ Schaubert, V. (2019, February 15). My disabled son’s amazing gaming life in the World of Warcraft. Retrieved from bbc.com/news/disability-47 064 773 Sooke. A. (2016, January 18). Is this the first Instagram masterpiece? Retrieved from telegraph.co. uk/photography/what-to-see/is-this-the-first-instagram-masterpiece/ Steen, M. (2013, August 1). Love [Blog post]. Retrieved from musingslif.blogspot.com/2013/08/ love.html

Useful terminology acknowledge deranged assign extension blurred frantically

casually full-blown contemporary narcissistic conveniently perceive

conventional quest deceptive vulnerable emotional identity

AUTHOR

vu

rd

A lot has happened since the early days of masterpiece performances on social media. Influencer marketing has exploded. We’re all potentially a “personal brand”. Some of us, like Kylie Jenner (well, not exactly “us”) – who was nine or ten years old when they started filming the reality show “Keeping Up with the Kardashians” – has literally grown up on camera to become a brand. I’ve always wondered how that affects the way your identity develops. How do you figure out who you are when your every move is being watched by the world?

his funeral in Norway. “In this other world a girl wouldn’t see a wheelchair or anything different,” he wrote. “They would get my soul, heart, and mind, conveniently placed in a handsome, strong body. Luckily, pretty much every character in this virtual world looks great.” Online, his handicap didn’t matter. “My chains are broken and I can be whoever I want to be” (Steen, 2013).

Emma Clare Gabrielsen (b. 1991) is a Norwegian-British journalist who has written for publications such as Natt & Dag, Klassekampen, Dagbladet and D2. After hosting the first two seasons of the NRK1 documentary series Innafor (2016–18), she was nominated for a Gullruten award, Den store journalistprisen, and the European Journalist of the Year award. She is currently (2020) working as a feature journalist for Dagens Næringsliv.

Who Are You?

11


1 Who Are You?

But after his death, they discovered that people all over Europe had lit candles in his memory. Online, in the gaming world, Mats had been Lord Ibelin – an extension of himself that represented different sides of his personality. In a blog post called “Love” he wrote about his first meeting with one of his closest gamer friends, Lisette from the Netherlands. They became friends when she was 15 and he was 16. Thirteen years later, she was at 10

[ chapter 1 ]

g

Come to think of it, I still kind of worry. More than I’d like to admit. But to look on the bright side: presumably the importance of stuff like that will fade when I get older. Or else, I just have to come to terms with that merely being yet another part of who I am. I’ll try to own it, anyhow. Like a true emotional boss. Sources Dolezal, R. (2017). In Full Color: Finding My Place in a Black and White World. Dallas: Ben Bella Books. Gabrielsen, E. C. (2019, February 7). Aktivister mener at vi selv bør kunne velge alder og etnisitet. Retrieved from dn.no/magasinet/reportasje/rachel-dolezal/identitet/emile-ratelband/ aktivister-mener-at-vi-selv-bor-kunne-velge-alder-og-etnisitet/2–1–539602 Gabrielsen, E. C. & Glans, M. (2015, September 3). Transformasjonen. Retrieved from dn.no/d2/ livsstil/forbundet-for-transpersoner-i-norge/orange-is-the-new-black/kristin-fridtun/ transformasjonen/1–1–5 449 580 Langmuir, M. (2016, September 16). AMALIA ULMAN IS THE FIRST GREAT INSTAGRAM ARTIST. Retrieved from elle.com/culture/art-design/a38 857/amalia-ulman-instagram-artist/ Schaubert, V. (2019, February 15). My disabled son’s amazing gaming life in the World of Warcraft. Retrieved from bbc.com/news/disability-47 064 773 Sooke. A. (2016, January 18). Is this the first Instagram masterpiece? Retrieved from telegraph.co. uk/photography/what-to-see/is-this-the-first-instagram-masterpiece/ Steen, M. (2013, August 1). Love [Blog post]. Retrieved from musingslif.blogspot.com/2013/08/ love.html

Useful terminology acknowledge deranged assign extension blurred frantically

casually full-blown contemporary narcissistic conveniently perceive

conventional quest deceptive vulnerable emotional identity

AUTHOR

The lines between our “analogue” and online selves will always be blurred. Sometimes, our different selves aren’t that apparent to the naked eye of others – like the parents of Mats, a dedicated gamer who died when he was 25. His parents “mourned what they thought had been a lonely and isolated life for their disabled son,” says the beautifully written longform article first published on NRK.no, then translated into English on BBC.com (Schaubert, 2019). Mats was in a wheelchair because of a rare muscle disorder and spent most of his days in front of the computer playing World of Warcraft, and, so his parents thought, alone.

er in

A lot has happened since the early days of masterpiece performances on social media. Influencer marketing has exploded. We’re all potentially a “personal brand”. Some of us, like Kylie Jenner (well, not exactly “us”) – who was nine or ten years old when they started filming the reality show “Keeping Up with the Kardashians” – has literally grown up on camera to become a brand. I’ve always wondered how that affects the way your identity develops. How do you figure out who you are when your every move is being watched by the world?

Who is Lisette from the Netherlands?

rd

“Is this the first Instagram masterpiece?” newspaper reporters wondered (Sooke, 2016), and Amalia Ulman, who has exhibited her artwork in galleries since she was 16, was dubbed “The First Great Instagram Artist” (Langmuir, 2016).

While I was writing this essay on identity, I asked a wise (slightly older) friend of mine what he wished he had known at 16. “That you gradually become more and more yourself,” he answered, “and that most of us feel like we’re the only ones that don’t have a clue.” I wished someone had told me that when I was younger, too. Maybe I’d have worried less about who I was in the eyes of everybody else.

vu

Then came the revelation that it was all a performance piece. Fake news. Carefully scripted, researched for months. With a beginning, a climax and an ending. Duh!

his funeral in Norway. “In this other world a girl wouldn’t see a wheelchair or anything different,” he wrote. “They would get my soul, heart, and mind, conveniently placed in a handsome, strong body. Luckily, pretty much every character in this virtual world looks great.” Online, his handicap didn’t matter. “My chains are broken and I can be whoever I want to be” (Steen, 2013).

til

90,000 followers, Amalia documented the process of getting a boob job. After a while, she started to seem deranged, posting eight pictures in a row, videos of her crying. I remember showing her feed to a friend and saying: “I think this artist chick is having a full-blown, real-time identity crisis meltdown on Instagram.”

Ku n

How did Amalia Ulman present herself on Instagram?

Emma Clare Gabrielsen (b. 1991) is a Norwegian-British journalist who has written for publications such as Natt & Dag, Klassekampen, Dagbladet and D2. After hosting the first two seasons of the NRK1 documentary series Innafor (2016–18), she was nominated for a Gullruten award, Den store journalistprisen, and the European Journalist of the Year award. She is currently (2020) working as a feature journalist for Dagens Næringsliv.

Who Are You?

11


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

3 Who is Amalia Ulman? 4 What point does Gabrielsen make about Kylie Jenner? 5 Who is Lord Ibelin? STRUCTURE

to tower above a matter of life or death up-and-coming full-blown carefully scripted your every move the lines are blurred apparent to the naked eye to come to terms with

OVER TO YOU 9 Discuss in class a Amalia Ulman Re-read what the text says about Amalia Ulman and find additional online information about her. Discuss her Instagram posts in class. Some questions to help you get started: • Do you find her posts interesting? • Do you believe that she has an overall message? • Does she impress or shock you, or leave you indifferent? • Will you recommend her Instagram account to others? Why?/To whom?/Why not?

10 Write a short text a Miquela Sousa Find online information about Instagrammer Miquela Sousa (lilmiquela), and write a text of two or three paragraphs about her and her Instagram posts. Some questions to help you get started: • Is she an interesting character? Why/why not? • Do you think that she has an overall message? • Why do you think she has about 2 million followers on Instagram?

b Your new self Do you sometimes wish that you could create your own online identity? Write a text of two or three paragraphs where you outline the main features of your new self. c

Love or hate Choose an Instagram account that you feel strongly about. Write a paragraph where you state in a topic sentence the feelings it evokes in you. Continue by illustrating and exemplifying why you feel that way and sum up with a concluding remark. See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for guidance.

rd

6 A model text Having a model text is useful in the writing process. You need an example of what a good text looks like. The text, “Who Do You Think You Are?”, can be read as a model text as it exemplifies the key features of an essay.

a b c d e f g h i

g

2 What does Einar Duenger Bøhn say about identity in ancient Greek literature?

8 Idiomatic expressions Using other words, explain the following idiomatic expressions used by Gabrielsen in her text. Then create sentences where you use them.

er in

CONTENT 1 What did Gabrielsen use to base her entire identity on?

vu

a Using the table in Step1 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction that draw in the reader, orientate and set the destination. You may find it helpful to compare the labelled model text at the end of the course. b Gabrielsen’s text consists of no fewer than 17 short paragraphs, some of which are only two lines long. In your view:

See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance. Does this text fulfil the criteria of an academic essay?

• What is his message? Do you agree with it?

til

b Mats Steen Find Mats Steen’s blog post “Love” (see “Sources”) and read it carefully. Discuss his text in class. Some questions to help you get started: • Does Mats’s blog post move you emotionally? If yes, how?

Ku n

c

• Where does the introduction end? • What is Gabrielsen’s thesis statement? Is it possible to join some of the paragraphs of the main body of the text into longer paragraphs? • Where does the conclusion begin?

• Who else should read his blog post? Why? See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

LANGUAGE 7 Vocabulary Choose one word from Useful terminology and, without saying which one, explain it using other words to one of your classmates. When he or she has found out which word it is, change roles and continue until you have finished. Screenshots from influencer and author Sophie Elise’s Instagram account, @sophieelise.

12

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

13


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

STRUCTURE 6 A model text Having a model text is useful in the writing process. You need an example of what a good text looks like. The text, “Who Do You Think You Are?”, can be read as a model text as it exemplifies the key features of an essay. a Using the table in Step1 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction that draw in the reader, orientate and set the destination. You may find it helpful to compare the labelled model text at the end of the course. b Gabrielsen’s text consists of no fewer than 17 short paragraphs, some of which are only two lines long. In your view:

c

OVER TO YOU 9 Discuss in class a Amalia Ulman Re-read what the text says about Amalia Ulman and find additional online information about her. Discuss her Instagram posts in class. Some questions to help you get started: • Do you find her posts interesting? • Do you believe that she has an overall message? • Does she impress or shock you, or leave you indifferent? • Will you recommend her Instagram account to others? Why?/To whom?/Why not?

• Where does the introduction end? • What is Gabrielsen’s thesis statement? Is it possible to join some of the paragraphs of the main body of the text into longer paragraphs? • Where does the conclusion begin?

b Mats Steen Find Mats Steen’s blog post “Love” (see “Sources”) and read it carefully. Discuss his text in class. Some questions to help you get started: • Does Mats’s blog post move you emotionally? If yes, how?

See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance. Does this text fulfil the criteria of an academic essay?

• What is his message? Do you agree with it?

LANGUAGE 7 Vocabulary Choose one word from Useful terminology and, without saying which one, explain it using other words to one of your classmates. When he or she has found out which word it is, change roles and continue until you have finished.

• Who else should read his blog post? Why? See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

g

Love or hate Choose an Instagram account that you feel strongly about. Write a paragraph where you state in a topic sentence the feelings it evokes in you. Continue by illustrating and exemplifying why you feel that way and sum up with a concluding remark.

er in

5 Who is Lord Ibelin?

c

See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for guidance.

rd

4 What point does Gabrielsen make about Kylie Jenner?

to tower above a matter of life or death up-and-coming full-blown carefully scripted your every move the lines are blurred apparent to the naked eye to come to terms with

b Your new self Do you sometimes wish that you could create your own online identity? Write a text of two or three paragraphs where you outline the main features of your new self.

vu

3 Who is Amalia Ulman?

a b c d e f g h i

10 Write a short text a Miquela Sousa Find online information about Instagrammer Miquela Sousa (lilmiquela), and write a text of two or three paragraphs about her and her Instagram posts. Some questions to help you get started: • Is she an interesting character? Why/why not? • Do you think that she has an overall message? • Why do you think she has about 2 million followers on Instagram?

til

2 What does Einar Duenger Bøhn say about identity in ancient Greek literature?

8 Idiomatic expressions Using other words, explain the following idiomatic expressions used by Gabrielsen in her text. Then create sentences where you use them.

Ku n

CONTENT 1 What did Gabrielsen use to base her entire identity on?

Screenshots from influencer and author Sophie Elise’s Instagram account, @sophieelise.

12

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

13


ENGLISH ONLY!

GENRE: BOARD GAME

er in

vu

Ku n

til

A film you just saw

A country you would like to visit

14

[ chapter 1 ]

Your perfect day off

What you save first if your house is on fire

rd

Your role models

How your closest friends describe you

g

CHATTER – This is a simple board game for small talk and getting to know one another. All you need is a die, some small objects to move around the board and two or three fellow players. Have fun!

START

1 Who Are You?

Anyone who speaks Norwegian must return to START.

Three annoying things teachers do

A language you would like to learn

The five people, living or dead, you would like to invite to dinner

The best TV series – ever

A good teacher must…

Your typical morning

The first thing you notice about people

Yourself in twenty years from now The title of the film of your life

FINISH

What makes you work hard

Who Are You?

15


Three annoying things teachers do

The best TV series – ever

A good teacher must…

Your typical morning

til

The first thing you notice about people

The five people, living or dead, you would like to invite to dinner

g

Your perfect day off

What you save first if your house is on fire

A language you would like to learn

A film you just saw

How your closest friends describe you

er in

CHATTER – This is a simple board game for small talk and getting to know one another. All you need is a die, some small objects to move around the board and two or three fellow players. Have fun! Your role models

1 Who Are You?

Anyone who speaks Norwegian must return to START.

rd

START

ENGLISH ONLY!

vu

GENRE: BOARD GAME

Yourself in twenty years from now

A country you would like to visit

14

[ chapter 1 ]

FINISH

Ku n

The title of the film of your life

What makes you work hard

Who Are You?

15


1 Who Are You? AIMS

The Myers-Briggs Personality Types The Logician

The Commander

The Debater

INTJ

INTP

ENTJ

ENTP

Innovative, independent, strategic, logical, reserved, insightful. Driven by their own original ideas to achieve improvements.

Intellectual, logical, precise, reserved, flexible, imaginative. Original thinkers who enjoy speculation and creative problem solving.

Strategic, logical, efficient, outgoing, ambitious, independent. Effective organizers of people and long-range planners.

Inventive, enthusiastic, strategic, enterprising, inquisitive, versatile. Enjoy new ideas and challenges, value inspiration.

The Advocate

The Mediator

The Protagonist

The Campaigner

INFJ

INFP

ENFJ

ENFP

Idealistic, organized, insightful, dependable, compassionate, gentle. Seek harmony and cooperation, enjoy intellectual stimulation.

Sensitive, creative, idealistic, perceptive, caring, loyal. Value inner harmony and personal growth, focus on dreams and possibilities.

Caring, enthusiastic, idealistic, organized, diplomatic, responsible. Skilled communicators who value connection with people.

Enthusiastic, creative, spontaneous, optimistic, supportive, playful. Value inspiration, enjoy starting new projects, see potential in others.

ISTJ

The Consul

ISFJ

ESTJ

ESFJ

Warm, considerate, gentle, responsible, pragmatic, thorough. Devoted caretakers who enjoy being helpful to others.

Efficient, outgoing, analytical, systematic, dependable, realistic. Like to run the show and get things done in an orderly fashion.

Friendly, outgoing, reliable, conscientious, organized, practical. Seek to be helpful and please others, enjoy being active and productive.

The Virtuoso

The Adventurer

The Entrepreneur

The Entertainer

ISTP

ISFP

ESTP

ESFP

Action-oriented, logical, analytical, spontaneous, reserved, independent. Enjoy adventure, skilled at understanding how mechanical things work.

Gentle, sensitive, nurturing, helpful, flexible, realistic. Seek to create a personal environment that is both beautiful and practical.

Outgoing, realistic, action-oriented, curious, versatile, spontaneous. Pragmatic, problemsolvers and skilful negotiators.

Playful, enthusiastic, friendly, spontaneous, tactful, flexible. Have strong common sense, enjoy helping people in tangible ways.

[ chapter 1 ]

E T E S T!

Know Thyself CONTEXT

Ku n

E

The Executive

TH

TAK

The Defender

til

Responsible, sincere, analytical, reserved, realistic, systematic. Hardworking and trustworthy with sound practical judgement.

16

er in

rd

vu

The Logistician

In small groups, choose ten questions from the “This or That Questions” list on conversation­ startersworld.com. Discuss the alternatives.

g

The Architect

FIRST

• Complete the renowned Myers-Briggs personality test • Present and reflect on the results of the test

Who are you? Who are your classmates? How different are you? How can you contribute to a collaborative learning environment where everyone thrives? Be knowing yourself you will better interact with those around you. Therefore, we challenge you to take the renowned Myers-Briggs personality test. It builds on the simple idea that your personality can be identified by a combination of four letters. According to theory, sixteen different four-letter combinations are possible. In their turn, these combinations are used to identify the sixteen unique personality types that you find on the opposite page.

I can change during the course of a day. I wake and I’m one person. When I go to sleep, I know for certain I’m somebody else. I don’t know who I am most of the time. Bob Dylan (b. 1941), in biographical film I’m Not There (2007)

Who Are You?

17


1 Who Are You? AIMS

The Myers-Briggs Personality Types

INTP

ENTJ

ENTP

Innovative, independent, strategic, logical, reserved, insightful. Driven by their own original ideas to achieve improvements.

Intellectual, logical, precise, reserved, flexible, imaginative. Original thinkers who enjoy speculation and creative problem solving.

Strategic, logical, efficient, outgoing, ambitious, independent. Effective organizers of people and long-range planners.

Inventive, enthusiastic, strategic, enterprising, inquisitive, versatile. Enjoy new ideas and challenges, value inspiration.

The Advocate

The Mediator

The Protagonist

The Campaigner

INFJ

INFP

ENFJ

ENFP

Idealistic, organized, insightful, dependable, compassionate, gentle. Seek harmony and cooperation, enjoy intellectual stimulation.

Sensitive, creative, idealistic, perceptive, caring, loyal. Value inner harmony and personal growth, focus on dreams and possibilities.

Caring, enthusiastic, idealistic, organized, diplomatic, responsible. Skilled communicators who value connection with people.

Enthusiastic, creative, spontaneous, optimistic, supportive, playful. Value inspiration, enjoy starting new projects, see potential in others.

g

INTJ

ISTJ

ISFJ

ESTJ

ESFJ

Responsible, sincere, analytical, reserved, realistic, systematic. Hardworking and trustworthy with sound practical judgement.

Warm, considerate, gentle, responsible, pragmatic, thorough. Devoted caretakers who enjoy being helpful to others.

Efficient, outgoing, analytical, systematic, dependable, realistic. Like to run the show and get things done in an orderly fashion.

Friendly, outgoing, reliable, conscientious, organized, practical. Seek to be helpful and please others, enjoy being active and productive.

The Virtuoso

The Adventurer

The Entrepreneur

The Entertainer

ISTP

ISFP

ESTP

ESFP

Action-oriented, logical, analytical, spontaneous, reserved, independent. Enjoy adventure, skilled at understanding how mechanical things work.

Gentle, sensitive, nurturing, helpful, flexible, realistic. Seek to create a personal environment that is both beautiful and practical.

Outgoing, realistic, action-oriented, curious, versatile, spontaneous. Pragmatic, problemsolvers and skilful negotiators.

Playful, enthusiastic, friendly, spontaneous, tactful, flexible. Have strong common sense, enjoy helping people in tangible ways.

[ chapter 1 ]

E T E S T!

TAK

The Consul

TH

til

The Executive

Know Thyself Who are you? Who are your classmates? How different are you? How can you contribute to a collaborative learning environment where everyone thrives? Be knowing yourself you will better interact with those around you. Therefore, we challenge you to take the renowned Myers-Briggs personality test. It builds on the simple idea that your personality can be identified by a combination of four letters. According to theory, sixteen different four-letter combinations are possible. In their turn, these combinations are used to identify the sixteen unique personality types that you find on the opposite page.

Ku n

The Defender

CONTEXT

16

The Logistician

In small groups, choose ten questions from the “This or That Questions” list on conversation­ startersworld.com. Discuss the alternatives.

er in

The Debater

rd

The Commander

E

The Logician

vu

The Architect

FIRST

• Complete the renowned Myers-Briggs personality test • Present and reflect on the results of the test

I can change during the course of a day. I wake and I’m one person. When I go to sleep, I know for certain I’m somebody else. I don’t know who I am most of the time. Bob Dylan (b. 1941), in biographical film I’m Not There (2007)

Who Are You?

17


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE d On a lighter note, do you think that these sports capture the essence of the Myers-Briggs personality types? Explain.

OVER TO YOU The personality test challenge a Study the questions and the tables below to find out what the letters E, I, S, N, T, F, J and P represent.

• could be described as reserved and private • prefer a slower pace • like to think things through inside your head • would rather observe than be the center of attention then you prefer I Introversion

then you prefer E Extraversion

til

• base your decisions on personal values and how your actions affect others • value harmony, forgiveness • like to please others and point out the best in people • could be described as warm, empathetic

Ku n then you prefer T Thinking

then you prefer S Sensing

• prefer to have matters settled • think rules and deadlines should be respected • prefer to have detailed, step-bystep instructions • make plans, want to know what you’re getting into

then you prefer F Feeling

b Go to 16personalities.com, ► “Take the test”, and spend some 15 minutes answering 60 simple questions to find out how the Myers-Briggs test defines your personality.

• imagine the possibilities of how things could be • notice the big picture, see how everything connects • enjoy ideas and concepts for their own sake • like to describe things in a figurative, poetic way

WHAT’S YOUR MBTI TYPE SPORTS? Table tennis

then you prefer J Judging

Triathlon

Road cycling

Organised, supportive, appreciates the benefits of synchronicity

Performs tasks from memory with accuracy, grace and great posture!

Swimming

Shooting

Lawn bowls

Deep perspective, masterful technique, calm and determined

Badminton

then you prefer N Intuition Adaptable, flexible, efficient

• prefer to leave your options open • see rules and deadlines as flexible • like to improvise and make things up as you go • are spontaneous, enjoy surprises and new situations

Squash

Enjoys the here-andnow, likes having their own space

Hockey

Spontaneous, quick reactions

Rugby sevens

Long range vision, calm, strives for alignment and congruence

Rhythmic gymnastics

Flexible, enjoys working with others and being at the centre of the action

Athletics

Enjoys analysing and using logic for precise moves

Judo

Creative, imaginative, enjoys improvisation

Netball

Uses resourcefulness to achieve superior position

Boxing

then you prefer P Perceiving Ordered, logical, decisive and forceful in implementing plans

Source: Jake Beech, commons.wikimedia.org

c

Diving

Focused concentration, serious contender

4 How do you prefer to live your outer life? If you

vu

3 How do you prefer to make decisions? If you • make decisions in an impersonal way, using logical reasoning • value justice and fairness • enjoy finding the flaws in an argument • could be described as reasonable, level-headed

• focus on the reality of how things are • pay attention to concrete facts and details • prefer ideas that have practical applications • like to describe things in a specific, literal way

g

• could be described as talkative and outgoing • like to be in a fast-paced environment • tend to work out ideas with others and think out loud • enjoy being the center of attention

2 How do you prefer to take in information? If you

er in

Are you outwardly or inwardly focused? If you

rd

1

Give a presentation of your results to someone you trust. Identify

Harmonious, accurate, wants contribution to be appreciated

Enjoys teamwork, highly attuned to those around them, responsive, agile

Decisive, identifies inefficiencies, forceful in presenting ideas

Copyright 2014, 2018 The Myers-Briggs Company and The Myers-Briggs Company Limited. The MBTI logo is a trademark or registered trademark of The Myers & Briggs Foundation in the United States and other countries. ®

• the qualities that you believe describe you correctly • a quality that you disagree with Supply examples. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

18

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

19


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE d On a lighter note, do you think that these sports capture the essence of the Myers-Briggs personality types? Explain.

OVER TO YOU The personality test challenge a Study the questions and the tables below to find out what the letters E, I, S, N, T, F, J and P represent.

then you prefer S Sensing

3 How do you prefer to make decisions? If you • make decisions in an impersonal way, using logical reasoning • value justice and fairness • enjoy finding the flaws in an argument • could be described as reasonable, level-headed

• base your decisions on personal values and how your actions affect others • value harmony, forgiveness • like to please others and point out the best in people • could be described as warm, empathetic

then you prefer T Thinking

then you prefer F Feeling

Table tennis

Focused concentration, serious contender

then you prefer J Judging

• prefer to leave your options open • see rules and deadlines as flexible • like to improvise and make things up as you go • are spontaneous, enjoy surprises and new situations

then you prefer P Perceiving

c

Give a presentation of your results to someone you trust. Identify • the qualities that you believe describe you correctly • a quality that you disagree with

Road cycling

Performs tasks from memory with accuracy, grace and great posture!

Triathlon

Swimming

Adaptable, flexible, efficient

4 How do you prefer to live your outer life? If you • prefer to have matters settled • think rules and deadlines should be respected • prefer to have detailed, step-bystep instructions • make plans, want to know what you’re getting into

Diving

then you prefer N Intuition

Source: Jake Beech, commons.wikimedia.org

b Go to 16personalities.com, ► “Take the test”, and spend some 15 minutes answering 60 simple questions to find out how the Myers-Briggs test defines your personality.

WHAT’S YOUR MBTI TYPE SPORTS?

Squash

Shooting

Organised, supportive, appreciates the benefits of synchronicity

Lawn bowls

Enjoys the here-andnow, likes having their own space

Hockey

Spontaneous, quick reactions

Rugby sevens

Ordered, logical, decisive and forceful in implementing plans

g

then you prefer I Introversion

• imagine the possibilities of how things could be • notice the big picture, see how everything connects • enjoy ideas and concepts for their own sake • like to describe things in a figurative, poetic way

er in

• focus on the reality of how things are • pay attention to concrete facts and details • prefer ideas that have practical applications • like to describe things in a specific, literal way

Deep perspective, masterful technique, calm and determined

Badminton

rd

then you prefer E Extraversion

• could be described as reserved and private • prefer a slower pace • like to think things through inside your head • would rather observe than be the center of attention

vu

• could be described as talkative and outgoing • like to be in a fast-paced environment • tend to work out ideas with others and think out loud • enjoy being the center of attention

2 How do you prefer to take in information? If you

Long range vision, calm, strives for alignment and congruence

Rhythmic gymnastics

til

Are you outwardly or inwardly focused? If you

Ku n

1

Flexible, enjoys working with others and being at the centre of the action

Athletics

Harmonious, accurate, wants contribution to be appreciated

Enjoys analysing and using logic for precise moves

Judo

Creative, imaginative, enjoys improvisation

Netball

Uses resourcefulness to achieve superior position

Boxing

Enjoys teamwork, highly attuned to those around them, responsive, agile

Decisive, identifies inefficiencies, forceful in presenting ideas

Copyright 2014, 2018 The Myers-Briggs Company and The Myers-Briggs Company Limited. The MBTI logo is a trademark or registered trademark of The Myers & Briggs Foundation in the United States and other countries.

®

Supply examples. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

18

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

19


1 Who Are You? AIMS

Ku n 20

[ chapter 1 ]

Identities are formed like storylines. When we ask ourselves who we are, we have to look into our memories, into the past – to “formative” experiences we had as children or later in life. We may need to look further back than this, into our family tree, and try to understand ourselves through relations we never even met, because we share that connection. What Remains of Edith Finch is an adventure game developed by Giant Sparrow that is all about exploring this sense of identity through family roots. The gameplay consists in exploring the large and ramshackle house and grounds of the Finch family, where Edith – the young protagonist – has memories of the events that shaped her identity. As the player guides her through the house that she left behind 6 years ago, Edith uncovers the mysteries of all the deaths in her family – each of them a trauma.

FIRST What makes video games stand out as a medium for storytelling? What are their main strengths and weaknesses for crafting narratives, compared to books or films? Discuss with a partner.

PL A Y

What Remains of Edith Finch CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Experience video games as a storytelling medium • Explore the themes of identity, family and death • Evaluate a video game

TH

E G A M E!

Turns out, my mom was really good at keeping secrets. Now it was time to find out what my mom had been afraid of.

Who Are You?

21


1 Who Are You? AIMS

FIRST What makes video games stand out as a medium for storytelling? What are their main strengths and weaknesses for crafting narratives, compared to books or films? Discuss with a partner.

er in

g

• Experience video games as a storytelling medium • Explore the themes of identity, family and death • Evaluate a video game

Identities are formed like storylines. When we ask ourselves who we are, we have to look into our memories, into the past – to “formative” experiences we had as children or later in life. We may need to look further back than this, into our family tree, and try to understand ourselves through relations we never even met, because we share that connection.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

What Remains of Edith Finch is an adventure game developed by Giant Sparrow that is all about exploring this sense of identity through family roots. The gameplay consists in exploring the large and ramshackle house and grounds of the Finch family, where Edith – the young protagonist – has memories of the events that shaped her identity. As the player guides her through the house that she left behind 6 years ago, Edith uncovers the mysteries of all the deaths in her family – each of them a trauma.

20

[ chapter 1 ]

PL A Y

vu

rd

What Remains of Edith Finch

TH

E G A M E!

Turns out, my mom was really good at keeping secrets. Now it was time to find out what my mom had been afraid of.

Who Are You?

21


GENRE: VIDEO GAME A lot of this isn’t going to make sense to you and I’m sorry about that. I’m just going to start at the beginning, with the house.

5

g

CONTEXT

Interacting with certain objects triggers a series of memories belonging to Edith’s family members. You then get to play these out. It puts you in the midst of past events – playing as an unhappy little girl who, while locked in her room, imagines she is a cat, leaping from tree to tree in search of food, or as a young boy as he flies a kite in a deadly storm. The controls are intuitive and never too demanding, which makes the game highly accessible, whatever your previous experience with games may be.

er in

As you play, take notes about Edith, Molly, Odin, Calvin, Barbara, Walter, Sam, Gregory, Gus, Milton, Lewis, Edie, and Dawn. Use the template on Skolestudio to keep a record of their traits and what happens to them. Note that some plot points are much clearer than others. There is some ambiguity in the story, so the player has to make educated guesses and interpret what little is said about certain matters.

rd

Ku n

til

vu

TAKE NOTE! If you should become stuck you will find video walkthroughs on YouTube.

It may help to take screenshots of any interesting objects and pieces of dialogue – especially of anything you think may shed light on a character. After your initial playthrough, which takes around 2 hours, you have the option of replaying individual episodes from the story in any order, as many times as you wish.

10

15

20

25

30

I lived here until I was eleven but I wasn’t allowed inside half the rooms. My brother Milton disappeared when I was 4. It was like the house just swallowed him up. I hadn’t been back since my brother Lewis’ funeral. In her will my mother left me a key but didn’t tell me what it unlocked. Maybe she thought I’d know. Or she thought that the mystery would be enough to bring me back. No one had driven this way in a long time. But I saw a few hoofprints. The woods around the house have always been uncomfortably silent. As if they’re about to say something but never do. The house was exactly like I remembered it. The way I’d been dreaming about it. But now I had questions about my family that only the house knew the answers to. The truth is, even after I inherited the house I never thought I’d come back to it.

[ chapter 1 ]

My grandpa Sam spent 7 years sharing a room with his dead brother, Calvin.

As a child, the house made me uncomfortable in a way I couldn’t put into words. Now, as a 17-year-old, I knew exactly what those words were. I was afraid of the house. Crawling through the doggie door used to be a lot easier when I was eleven. The power had been turned off the night we left. For the first time in years … I felt like I was home. But instead of a family, there were just memories of one. Like how after Lewis started working at the cannery we all got sick of eating salmon. Except our cat, Molly. Or how only one restaurant would deliver to our house. So we had Chinese a lot. The table was still a wreck from the night we left. It was like a bomb had gone off, killing everyone but sparing the furniture. My mom was the only one of us who could imagine great-grandma Edie living in a nursing home.

35

Nothing in the house looked abnormal, there was just too much of it. Like a smile with too many teeth. Even the fireplace had a story. Edie told me the bricks came from the original house, after it sank.

40

My mom wasn’t much of an optimist, but she never stopped believing that my brother Milton was alive. A lot of things got left behind in the whirlwind of that last night. Edie told me once that every Finch who ever lived is buried somewhere in the library. After Milton disappeared, Mom sealed up all the bedrooms. Then Edie retaliated and drilled peepholes. Dallas, I. (2017, April 25). What Remains of Edith Finch. Annapurna Interactive: CA, United States.

22

1 Who Are You?

inherited arvet/arva cannery factory where food is put into tin cans sparing leaving unharmed retaliated fought back peepholes kikkhull/kikhol

Who Are You?

23


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: VIDEO GAME

If you should become stuck you will find video walkthroughs on YouTube.

15

20

25

The house was exactly like I remembered it. The way I’d been dreaming about it. But now I had questions about my family that only the house knew the answers to. The truth is, even after I inherited the house I never thought I’d come back to it.

[ chapter 1 ]

g

Crawling through the doggie door used to be a lot easier when I was eleven. The power had been turned off the night we left. For the first time in years … I felt like I was home. But instead of a family, there were just memories of one. Like how after Lewis started working at the cannery we all got sick of eating salmon. Except our cat, Molly. Or how only one restaurant would deliver to our house. So we had Chinese a lot. The table was still a wreck from the night we left. It was like a bomb had gone off, killing everyone but sparing the furniture. My mom was the only one of us who could imagine great-grandma Edie living in a nursing home.

35

Nothing in the house looked abnormal, there was just too much of it. Like a smile with too many teeth. Even the fireplace had a story. Edie told me the bricks came from the original house, after it sank.

40

My mom wasn’t much of an optimist, but she never stopped believing that my brother Milton was alive. A lot of things got left behind in the whirlwind of that last night. Edie told me once that every Finch who ever lived is buried somewhere in the library. After Milton disappeared, Mom sealed up all the bedrooms. Then Edie retaliated and drilled peepholes. Dallas, I. (2017, April 25). What Remains of Edith Finch. Annapurna Interactive: CA, United States.

22

My grandpa Sam spent 7 years sharing a room with his dead brother, Calvin.

As a child, the house made me uncomfortable in a way I couldn’t put into words. Now, as a 17-year-old, I knew exactly what those words were. I was afraid of the house.

Ku n

30

No one had driven this way in a long time. But I saw a few hoofprints. The woods around the house have always been uncomfortably silent. As if they’re about to say something but never do.

er in

10

rd

TAKE NOTE!

It may help to take screenshots of any interesting objects and pieces of dialogue – especially of anything you think may shed light on a character. After your initial playthrough, which takes around 2 hours, you have the option of replaying individual episodes from the story in any order, as many times as you wish.

5

I lived here until I was eleven but I wasn’t allowed inside half the rooms. My brother Milton disappeared when I was 4. It was like the house just swallowed him up. I hadn’t been back since my brother Lewis’ funeral. In her will my mother left me a key but didn’t tell me what it unlocked. Maybe she thought I’d know. Or she thought that the mystery would be enough to bring me back.

vu

As you play, take notes about Edith, Molly, Odin, Calvin, Barbara, Walter, Sam, Gregory, Gus, Milton, Lewis, Edie, and Dawn. Use the template on Skolestudio to keep a record of their traits and what happens to them. Note that some plot points are much clearer than others. There is some ambiguity in the story, so the player has to make educated guesses and interpret what little is said about certain matters.

A lot of this isn’t going to make sense to you and I’m sorry about that. I’m just going to start at the beginning, with the house.

til

CONTEXT

Interacting with certain objects triggers a series of memories belonging to Edith’s family members. You then get to play these out. It puts you in the midst of past events – playing as an unhappy little girl who, while locked in her room, imagines she is a cat, leaping from tree to tree in search of food, or as a young boy as he flies a kite in a deadly storm. The controls are intuitive and never too demanding, which makes the game highly accessible, whatever your previous experience with games may be.

inherited arvet/arva cannery factory where food is put into tin cans sparing leaving unharmed retaliated fought back peepholes kikkhull/kikhol

Who Are You?

23


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

2 Answer these questions after playing Calvin’s story.

3 Answer these questions after playing Barbara’s story.

til

b Why is the secret of how to enter the basement in the comic book, when Edith herself does not know? c What major stumbling block does Barbara face in her career, and how do her boyfriend and friends try to help her? d Piecing together the evidence, what do you believe really happened that night? Explain your answer.

a What can be learned about Lewis by examining the items in his room? Be specific about what you find and what each item suggests. b Why does Lewis choose to end his own life? c In your view, does Lewis’s story put video games and those who consider gaming part of their identity in a bad light? Explain your answer.

24

[ chapter 1 ]

13 In the following task you get to play the teacher. Spot the grammatical errors in the sentences below. a The woods around the house was completely still. b The table was still a wreak from the night before. c My mother was the only one which could have helped us. d Every one of my cousins have been here. e You know exact what I mean, and you should respect my meaning.

8 How does the game weave narrative and interaction together? Consider the ways visual cues, music, and Edith’s narration are used to advance the story. 9 Some of the objects in the house are remnants of a bygone age, so as to hint at particular decades or periods. What periods are these and what specific objects are they linked to?

OVER TO YOU 14 Be a podcaster Record a podcast in which you discuss what you liked and disliked about the game. This may be done individually or in a group. Here are some suggested talking points.

10 With the help of the family tree on the pause screen, create a linear timeline on which you place all the major events of the game: the deaths and disappearances of the various family members. 11 Revisit the introduction to the game, stopping at the discovery of Molly’s room, either by replaying the sequence or by reading the text on page 23. a How do the developers create suspense in the introduction? b What events from later in the game are foreshadowed here? c How does the experience of reading the text on the page compare to having it delivered through the game?

11 Write a game review Assess the game and write a positive or negative review. Avoid reading online reviews of the game beforehand, in case you accidentally plagiarise words or content from them. Introduce the game, make clear statements that you can support and illustrate in full body paragraphs, and come to a conclusion. Score the game with a number from 1 to 10. See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance. 12 Make an Edith Finch bibliography + The shelves throughout the house contain book titles by real authors, and many of these belong to the genres of fantasy and horror. Using APA style – or the style your teacher recommends – put together a bibliography of some of the titles, perhaps organised by genre, including at least author, title, and year of publication. See course 11: Referring to sources for guidance. For an in-depth project, create an annotated bibliography, where you write a short summary of what each book is about and how it could connect to the themes of the game.

• What were your first impressions? • How well did you relate to Edith and the other characters? • Whose story had the biggest effect on you? • How satisfied were you by the ending? • How do you feel about the term “walking simulator” for these sorts of games? See course 15 : Holding discussions for guidance. Check out a couple of Apple’s most popular podcasts in the Video Games category for inspiration.

TIDBIT

Ku n

4 Answer these questions after playing Lewis’s story.

See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

7 How do the aesthetic choices in the bedroom environments – including music, colours, and design – inform you about the identity of each character?

vu

a What purpose or effect do you think the developers had in mind when they embedded Barbara’s story in a comic book?

a What features of the text are typical of informal rather than formal language? b What similes and other figures of speech does Edith use to describe the house and its contents?

STRUCTURE 6 Consider the house and the rest of the game environment. How does the setting add to the tone and atmosphere of the game?

rd

a What can you learn about the brothers Calvin and Sam from an examination of the contents of their shared bedroom? b What is ironic and especially sad about the circumstances of Calvin’s death? c How was Sam affected by his brother’s death? (NB: you may learn a little more about this by playing through Sam’s own story, later in the game.)

a Why did Edie build a cemetery before beginning on the house? b What can we learn about Edie from her room, the cemetery, and the memorials in every family member’s room? c Edie wants to give Edith a book in which she has written everyone’s story. Discuss why this is so important to her, and why Dawn doesn’t want Edith to read these.

LANGUAGE 12 Answer these questions by reviewing the text on page 23.

g

a Who are Edith’s two brothers and what has become of them? b What feeling can Edith now put into words that she previously could not? c Why do so few of the doors inside the house open?

5 Answer these questions after completing the game once.

er in

CONTENT 1 Answer these questions after reading the extract on the previous page.

What Remains of Edith Finch has won several prestigious awards, including “Best Narrative” at both the 2017 Game Awards and the 2018 Game Developers Choice Awards, “Best Game” at the 14th British Academy (the BAFTAs, the prize to the right) Games Awards and “Best Gameplay”, at the 2018 Games for Change Awards.

Who Are You?

25


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

3 Answer these questions after playing Barbara’s story. a What purpose or effect do you think the developers had in mind when they embedded Barbara’s story in a comic book? b Why is the secret of how to enter the basement in the comic book, when Edith herself does not know? c What major stumbling block does Barbara face in her career, and how do her boyfriend and friends try to help her? d Piecing together the evidence, what do you believe really happened that night? Explain your answer. 4 Answer these questions after playing Lewis’s story.

24

[ chapter 1 ]

a The woods around the house was completely still. b The table was still a wreak from the night before. c My mother was the only one which could have helped us. d Every one of my cousins have been here. e You know exact what I mean, and you should respect my meaning.

STRUCTURE 6 Consider the house and the rest of the game environment. How does the setting add to the tone and atmosphere of the game? 7 How do the aesthetic choices in the bedroom environments – including music, colours, and design – inform you about the identity of each character? 8 How does the game weave narrative and interaction together? Consider the ways visual cues, music, and Edith’s narration are used to advance the story. 9 Some of the objects in the house are remnants of a bygone age, so as to hint at particular decades or periods. What periods are these and what specific objects are they linked to?

OVER TO YOU 14 Be a podcaster Record a podcast in which you discuss what you liked and disliked about the game. This may be done individually or in a group. Here are some suggested talking points.

a How do the developers create suspense in the introduction? b What events from later in the game are foreshadowed here? c How does the experience of reading the text on the page compare to having it delivered through the game?

g

See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

12 Make an Edith Finch bibliography + The shelves throughout the house contain book titles by real authors, and many of these belong to the genres of fantasy and horror. Using APA style – or the style your teacher recommends – put together a bibliography of some of the titles, perhaps organised by genre, including at least author, title, and year of publication. See course 11: Referring to sources for guidance. For an in-depth project, create an annotated bibliography, where you write a short summary of what each book is about and how it could connect to the themes of the game.

• What were your first impressions? • How well did you relate to Edith and the other characters? • Whose story had the biggest effect on you? • How satisfied were you by the ending? • How do you feel about the term “walking simulator” for these sorts of games?

10 With the help of the family tree on the pause screen, create a linear timeline on which you place all the major events of the game: the deaths and disappearances of the various family members. 11 Revisit the introduction to the game, stopping at the discovery of Molly’s room, either by replaying the sequence or by reading the text on page 23.

er in

13 In the following task you get to play the teacher. Spot the grammatical errors in the sentences below.

See course 15 : Holding discussions for guidance. Check out a couple of Apple’s most popular podcasts in the Video Games category for inspiration.

TIDBIT

a What can be learned about Lewis by examining the items in his room? Be specific about what you find and what each item suggests. b Why does Lewis choose to end his own life? c In your view, does Lewis’s story put video games and those who consider gaming part of their identity in a bad light? Explain your answer.

See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

Introduce the game, make clear statements that you can support and illustrate in full body paragraphs, and come to a conclusion. Score the game with a number from 1 to 10.

rd

a What can you learn about the brothers Calvin and Sam from an examination of the contents of their shared bedroom? b What is ironic and especially sad about the circumstances of Calvin’s death? c How was Sam affected by his brother’s death? (NB: you may learn a little more about this by playing through Sam’s own story, later in the game.)

a What features of the text are typical of informal rather than formal language? b What similes and other figures of speech does Edith use to describe the house and its contents?

11 Write a game review Assess the game and write a positive or negative review. Avoid reading online reviews of the game beforehand, in case you accidentally plagiarise words or content from them.

vu

2 Answer these questions after playing Calvin’s story.

a Why did Edie build a cemetery before beginning on the house? b What can we learn about Edie from her room, the cemetery, and the memorials in every family member’s room? c Edie wants to give Edith a book in which she has written everyone’s story. Discuss why this is so important to her, and why Dawn doesn’t want Edith to read these.

LANGUAGE 12 Answer these questions by reviewing the text on page 23.

til

a Who are Edith’s two brothers and what has become of them? b What feeling can Edith now put into words that she previously could not? c Why do so few of the doors inside the house open?

5 Answer these questions after completing the game once.

Ku n

CONTENT 1 Answer these questions after reading the extract on the previous page.

What Remains of Edith Finch has won several prestigious awards, including “Best Narrative” at both the 2017 Game Awards and the 2018 Game Developers Choice Awards, “Best Game” at the 14th British Academy (the BAFTAs, the prize to the right) Games Awards and “Best Gameplay”, at the 2018 Games for Change Awards.

Who Are You?

25


1 Who Are You? AIMS • Become familiar with common arguments used to promote masculinity

til

Ku n 26

[ chapter 1 ]

Are You Man Enough? CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Analyse commercials • Discuss the complex concept of gender

FIRST The advertisement “The Insult that Made a Man out of Mac” on the previous page, features legendary bodybuilder and all-American role model Charles Atlas. It was printed in different versions in American comic books and magazines between 1929 and 1997. What does it say about ideal qualities in a man? What does it say about gender roles?

Part of our identity relates to gender. However, whether you are female, male, or transgender, it is not always a straightforward matter to know what that actually means. What is expected of you? What does your gender mean for the role you should play in your family, among friends, or in society? Jordan Peterson (b. 1962), Professor of Psychology at the University of Toronto, holds strong views on the issue of gender roles. In his international bestseller book 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos (2018) he says, for instance: “If they’re healthy, women don’t want boys. They want men. They want someone to contend with; someone to grapple with. If they’re tough, they want someone tougher. If they’re smart, they want someone smarter. They desire someone who brings to the table something they can’t already provide.” “Men have to toughen up. Men demand it, and women want it. Some women don’t like losing their baby boys, so they keep them forever. Some women don’t like men, and would rather have a submissive mate, even if he is useless.” Peterson appeals to a worldwide audience. As of 2020, he has 1.4 million followers on Twitter and 2.6 million subscribers on his YouTube channel.

Who Are You?

27


1 Who Are You? AIMS • Become familiar with common arguments used to promote masculinity

The advertisement “The Insult that Made a Man out of Mac” on the previous page, features legendary bodybuilder and all-American role model Charles Atlas. It was printed in different versions in American comic books and magazines between 1929 and 1997.

er in

g

• Analyse commercials • Discuss the complex concept of gender

FIRST

Part of our identity relates to gender. However, whether you are female, male, or transgender, it is not always a straightforward matter to know what that actually means. What is expected of you? What does your gender mean for the role you should play in your family, among friends, or in society?

til

CONTEXT

vu

rd

Are You Man Enough?

What does it say about ideal qualities in a man? What does it say about gender roles?

Jordan Peterson (b. 1962), Professor of Psychology at the University of Toronto, holds strong views on the issue of gender roles. In his international bestseller book 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos (2018) he says, for instance:

Ku n

“If they’re healthy, women don’t want boys. They want men. They want someone to contend with; someone to grapple with. If they’re tough, they want someone tougher. If they’re smart, they want someone smarter. They desire someone who brings to the table something they can’t already provide.” “Men have to toughen up. Men demand it, and women want it. Some women don’t like losing their baby boys, so they keep them forever. Some women don’t like men, and would rather have a submissive mate, even if he is useless.” Peterson appeals to a worldwide audience. As of 2020, he has 1.4 million followers on Twitter and 2.6 million subscribers on his YouTube channel.

26

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

27


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

What Jordan Peterson Did for Me By Rob Henderson Mr. Henderson is a Ph.D. student at the University of Cambridge. April 22, 2019

Ku n

til

respond answer infamy ill fame in the wake of following notion idea notoriety bad reputation revoke cancel outrage anger denounce criticize admission entry fluke coincidence foolhardy reckless, careless subsequent following graduate school university marital relating to marriage particular specific vigilance here: attention compelling convincing rehash here: repeat body here: group charitable here: well-meaning foster promote aftermath after-effect rescindment here: cancellation petition request disembodied bodiless uphold here: stand by blistering intense

vu

rd

er in

g

5

28

[ chapter 1 ]

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

Henderson, R. (April 22, 2019). What Jordan Peterson Did for Me. The New York Times. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2019/04/22/opinion/jordan-peterson-cambridge.html 30

35

TIDBIT

When people learn that I study psychology, they often ask, “What do you think of Jordan Peterson?” It’s a tough question to respond to. Dr. Peterson, a professor at the University of Toronto, rose to infamy in the wake of his protests against a Canadian human rights law he believed could result in jail time if he did not use a person’s preferred pronouns. His star rose further as a result of his popular YouTube videos in which he rejects notions of political correctness and rails against what he calls left-wing bullying. As a result, he isn’t always a popular figure. Last month, his notoriety grew still further, because the University of Cambridge, where I am studying for a Ph.D., revoked his invitation to be a research fellow at the Divinity School this fall. News of the invitation had been greeted with outrage. The Cambridge students’ union viewed his invitation as political. They and others believe him to be an enemy of inclusion. The reaction from many students and faculty led the university to withdraw his offer, which Dr. Peterson denounced as a “serious error of judgment.” […] I’m the first in my family to go to college. The first in both of my families, actually: my adoptive family and my birth family. I’ve never met my birth parents. My mom was a drug addict and my dad abandoned us. As I thought about graduate school, I was insecure about my chances. I thought my admission to college was a fluke. I thought going for a Ph.D. was foolhardy. I seriously believed that I was pushing my luck. I thought, and still think, that college is for people smarter than me. […] I had a problem, I went online for answers, and I found Jordan Peterson. It’s clear I’m not the only one doing this. My experience listening to his video and my subsequent decision to apply for graduate school is an example of Dr. Peterson’s influence on his millions of listeners. I learned about Dr. Peterson because he says graduate school is painful but worth it. His other fans learned about him because he says other aspects of life are painful but worth it: taking care of oneself during periods of depression, for instance, or working through marital challenges. One fan has even said Dr. Peterson’s advice saved his life. Young people, including me, find Dr. Peterson appealing in part because at this stage in our lives, at this particular time in history, it’s easy to find ourselves questioning what exactly all this is for. […] I want to make clear that I recognize that Dr. Peterson has many critics and that some believe his views on some subjects, including women, are offensive. I should also say I don’t agree, and I think these arguments

5

misrepresent his point of view; I also find his arguments in favor of maintaining vigilance against restrictions on individual freedom compelling. But I don’t want to rehash or defend Dr. Peterson’s views here — he’s more than capable of doing that himself. I want to explain what happens to people like me when a place like Cambridge says Dr. Peterson isn’t welcome. My heart dropped into my stomach when I learned that Dr. Peterson’s offer from the Divinity School had been revoked. Doing so sends the message that there’s something wrong with people who value his message — that there’s something wrong with me. I also recognize that this mirrors the protesters’ claims that his invitation makes them feel unwelcome. But I still find myself in a strange position: The Cambridge University students’ union says Dr. Peterson’s views are not representative of the student body. Yet the very reason I am a part of the student body is because of Dr. Peterson. There may not be a clear solution to this. But if a solution exists at all, it will be found through charitable dialogue and free expression, of the sort that universities are supposed to foster. In the aftermath of the rescindment, some students drafted a petition urging the Divinity School to reconsider its decision. I gladly signed. Beyond this, the campus has been relatively silent. Three years ago, a disembodied voice on a YouTube video told me why I should apply for graduate school. Today, Cambridge says that the person behind that voice does not uphold the principles of the university and that there is no place here for those who do not. I’ve felt out of place for most of my life, in places more blistering than Cambridge. Fortunately, I know where to turn to find some encouraging words. When you sign up as a Facebook user, you can choose your gender identity from a list of nearly 60 options. Among them, you find agender, bigender, cisgender, genderqueer, neutrois, pangender, transmasculine/ transfeminine, and two-spirit.

40

Hunter Schafer (Jules) and Zendaya (Rue) got a lot of attention as characters in the HBO TV Series (2019), one of the first series to cast and portray transgender teens.

Who Are You?

29


1 Who Are You?

28

[ chapter 1 ]

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

er in

10

rd

5

30

35

40

til

Henderson, R. (April 22, 2019). What Jordan Peterson Did for Me. The New York Times. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2019/04/22/opinion/jordan-peterson-cambridge.html

TIDBIT

respond answer infamy ill fame in the wake of following notion idea notoriety bad reputation revoke cancel outrage anger denounce criticize admission entry fluke coincidence foolhardy reckless, careless subsequent following graduate school university marital relating to marriage particular specific vigilance here: attention compelling convincing rehash here: repeat body here: group charitable here: well-meaning foster promote aftermath after-effect rescindment here: cancellation petition request disembodied bodiless uphold here: stand by blistering intense

When people learn that I study psychology, they often ask, “What do you think of Jordan Peterson?” It’s a tough question to respond to. Dr. Peterson, a professor at the University of Toronto, rose to infamy in the wake of his protests against a Canadian human rights law he believed could result in jail time if he did not use a person’s preferred pronouns. His star rose further as a result of his popular YouTube videos in which he rejects notions of political correctness and rails against what he calls left-wing bullying. As a result, he isn’t always a popular figure. Last month, his notoriety grew still further, because the University of Cambridge, where I am studying for a Ph.D., revoked his invitation to be a research fellow at the Divinity School this fall. News of the invitation had been greeted with outrage. The Cambridge students’ union viewed his invitation as political. They and others believe him to be an enemy of inclusion. The reaction from many students and faculty led the university to withdraw his offer, which Dr. Peterson denounced as a “serious error of judgment.” […] I’m the first in my family to go to college. The first in both of my families, actually: my adoptive family and my birth family. I’ve never met my birth parents. My mom was a drug addict and my dad abandoned us. As I thought about graduate school, I was insecure about my chances. I thought my admission to college was a fluke. I thought going for a Ph.D. was foolhardy. I seriously believed that I was pushing my luck. I thought, and still think, that college is for people smarter than me. […] I had a problem, I went online for answers, and I found Jordan Peterson. It’s clear I’m not the only one doing this. My experience listening to his video and my subsequent decision to apply for graduate school is an example of Dr. Peterson’s influence on his millions of listeners. I learned about Dr. Peterson because he says graduate school is painful but worth it. His other fans learned about him because he says other aspects of life are painful but worth it: taking care of oneself during periods of depression, for instance, or working through marital challenges. One fan has even said Dr. Peterson’s advice saved his life. Young people, including me, find Dr. Peterson appealing in part because at this stage in our lives, at this particular time in history, it’s easy to find ourselves questioning what exactly all this is for. […] I want to make clear that I recognize that Dr. Peterson has many critics and that some believe his views on some subjects, including women, are offensive. I should also say I don’t agree, and I think these arguments

5

Ku n

By Rob Henderson Mr. Henderson is a Ph.D. student at the University of Cambridge. April 22, 2019

misrepresent his point of view; I also find his arguments in favor of maintaining vigilance against restrictions on individual freedom compelling. But I don’t want to rehash or defend Dr. Peterson’s views here — he’s more than capable of doing that himself. I want to explain what happens to people like me when a place like Cambridge says Dr. Peterson isn’t welcome. My heart dropped into my stomach when I learned that Dr. Peterson’s offer from the Divinity School had been revoked. Doing so sends the message that there’s something wrong with people who value his message — that there’s something wrong with me. I also recognize that this mirrors the protesters’ claims that his invitation makes them feel unwelcome. But I still find myself in a strange position: The Cambridge University students’ union says Dr. Peterson’s views are not representative of the student body. Yet the very reason I am a part of the student body is because of Dr. Peterson. There may not be a clear solution to this. But if a solution exists at all, it will be found through charitable dialogue and free expression, of the sort that universities are supposed to foster. In the aftermath of the rescindment, some students drafted a petition urging the Divinity School to reconsider its decision. I gladly signed. Beyond this, the campus has been relatively silent. Three years ago, a disembodied voice on a YouTube video told me why I should apply for graduate school. Today, Cambridge says that the person behind that voice does not uphold the principles of the university and that there is no place here for those who do not. I’ve felt out of place for most of my life, in places more blistering than Cambridge. Fortunately, I know where to turn to find some encouraging words.

vu

What Jordan Peterson Did for Me

g

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

When you sign up as a Facebook user, you can choose your gender identity from a list of nearly 60 options. Among them, you find agender, bigender, cisgender, genderqueer, neutrois, pangender, transmasculine/ transfeminine, and two-spirit.

Hunter Schafer (Jules) and Zendaya (Rue) got a lot of attention as characters in the HBO TV Series (2019), one of the first series to cast and portray transgender teens.

Who Are You?

29


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

3 According to Peterson, graduate school is a waste of time. T/F 4 Universities are supposed to foster dialogue. T/F 5 Cambridge University does not offer encouraging words. T/F STRUCTURE 6 a In your opinion, what is Rob Henderson’s main viewpoint?

rd

b What arguments does he use to explain and exemplify that viewpoint?

g

2 Cambridge University is delighted to welcome Jordan Peterson. T/F

Jordan Peterson’s 12 Rules for Life 1 Stand up straight with your shoulders back 2 Treat yourself like someone you are responsible for helping 3 Make friends with people who want the best for you 4 Compare yourself to who you were yesterday, not to who someone else is today 5 Do not let your children do anything that makes you dislike them 6 Set your house in perfect order before you criticize the world 7 Pursue what is meaningful (not what is expedient) 8 Tell the truth – or, at least, don’t lie 9 Assume that the person you are listening to might know something you don’t 10 Be precise in your speech 11 Do not bother children when they are skateboarding 12 Pet a cat when you encounter one on the street

er in

CONTENT Decide whether each statement is true or false. 1 Jordan Peterson only holds politically correct views. T/F

vu

LANGUAGE 7 Using other words, explain the following idiomatic expressions used in the text. Then, create sentences where you use them. a his star rose b I was pushing my luck c my heart dropped into my stomach

til

OVER TO YOU 8 Discuss Peterson’s 12 Rules

a Individually: Write down keywords about the following questions: • Which rules will you follow? • Which rules would you replace? With what?

Ku n

b In groups: Take turns and present which life lessons you will follow – and which ones you have reservations about. Explain and exemplify your viewpoints and base your contributions on your notes. Respect what others might say that contradicts your view.

30

[ chapter 1 ]

9 Discuss gender stereotypes In 2019, the Committee of Advertising Practice Ltd. (CAP) in Britain introduced the general rule that advertisements “must not include gender stereotypes that are likely to cause harm, or serious or widespread offence”.

10 Analyse advertisements Analyse the advertisements on the previous page, using the questions in the box below. Present your findings in writing or orally. Take active part in the discussion and base your entries on your notes. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance. Analysing advertisements Identify and comment on: Sender: Who created the advertisement? What do you know about the advertiser/ company, and their products, already? 2 Audience: Who is/are their target group(s)? 3 Purpose: What techniques are used to convince you? 1

Consider AIDA, a well-known acronym and tool used for creating commercials or advertisements, when analysing.

A

Attention

Stop-effect What catches your eye? Describe what you see/hear and its effect on you.

I

Interest

Intrigue you What makes you study the ad more closely?

D

Desire

Spur a need What makes you want to buy the product, donate money – feel the need? Are values communicated? How?

a In class, watch the commercials listed below. Pay special attention to what they say about gender roles. Take notes as you watch. • “World of Tanks Superbowl” (2018) (00:15) • “Toyota Fortuner #MFM” (2018) (01:06) • “Gillette The Best a Man Can Be” (2019) (00:27) • “Nike – Dream Crazier” (2019) (01:30) b Hold a classroom discussion around the following question: Which commercial(s) follow(s) the CAP rule – which one(s) break(s) it? See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

A

Action

Convince you Does the ad lead to some action on your part?

Singer Sam Smith: “When I saw the word non-binary, genderqueer, and I read into it, and I heard these people speaking, I was like, ‘Fuck, that is me.’ ” (Vanity Fair, March 2019.)

11 Discuss gender identity In 2014, Australian model, actress, and television presenter Ruby Rose Langenheim (b. 1986) produced and released a short film about herself that she called Break Free Ruby Rose (05:18). a Go online and watch Break Free Ruby Rose at least twice. As you watch the film, write down your reactions to what you see. b Discuss in small groups: • What do you think Ruby Rose’s message is? What makes you say that? • Does she play on stereotypes? If yes: How? Take active part in the discussion and base your entries on your notes. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

Who Are You?

31


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

STRUCTURE 6 a In your opinion, what is Rob Henderson’s main viewpoint? b What arguments does he use to explain and exemplify that viewpoint? LANGUAGE 7 Using other words, explain the following idiomatic expressions used in the text. Then, create sentences where you use them. a his star rose b I was pushing my luck c my heart dropped into my stomach OVER TO YOU 8 Discuss Peterson’s 12 Rules a Individually: Write down keywords about the following questions: • Which rules will you follow? • Which rules would you replace? With what? b In groups: Take turns and present which life lessons you will follow – and which ones you have reservations about. Explain and exemplify your viewpoints and base your contributions on your notes. Respect what others might say that contradicts your view.

30

[ chapter 1 ]

9 Discuss gender stereotypes In 2019, the Committee of Advertising Practice Ltd. (CAP) in Britain introduced the general rule that advertisements “must not include gender stereotypes that are likely to cause harm, or serious or widespread offence”. a In class, watch the commercials listed below. Pay special attention to what they say about gender roles. Take notes as you watch. • “World of Tanks Superbowl” (2018) (00:15) • “Toyota Fortuner #MFM” (2018) (01:06) • “Gillette The Best a Man Can Be” (2019) (00:27) • “Nike – Dream Crazier” (2019) (01:30) b Hold a classroom discussion around the following question: Which commercial(s) follow(s) the CAP rule – which one(s) break(s) it? See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

Sender: Who created the advertisement? What do you know about the advertiser/ company, and their products, already? 2 Audience: Who is/are their target group(s)? 3 Purpose: What techniques are used to convince you? 1

Consider AIDA, a well-known acronym and tool used for creating commercials or advertisements, when analysing.

A

Attention

Stop-effect What catches your eye? Describe what you see/hear and its effect on you.

I

Interest

Intrigue you What makes you study the ad more closely?

D

Desire

Spur a need What makes you want to buy the product, donate money – feel the need? Are values communicated? How?

A

Action

g er in

5 Cambridge University does not offer encouraging words. T/F

Analysing advertisements Identify and comment on:

rd

4 Universities are supposed to foster dialogue. T/F

See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

Singer Sam Smith: “When I saw the word non-binary, genderqueer, and I read into it, and I heard these people speaking, I was like, ‘Fuck, that is me.’ ” (Vanity Fair, March 2019.)

vu

3 According to Peterson, graduate school is a waste of time. T/F

Take active part in the discussion and base your entries on your notes.

til

2 Cambridge University is delighted to welcome Jordan Peterson. T/F

Jordan Peterson’s 12 Rules for Life 1 Stand up straight with your shoulders back 2 Treat yourself like someone you are responsible for helping 3 Make friends with people who want the best for you 4 Compare yourself to who you were yesterday, not to who someone else is today 5 Do not let your children do anything that makes you dislike them 6 Set your house in perfect order before you criticize the world 7 Pursue what is meaningful (not what is expedient) 8 Tell the truth – or, at least, don’t lie 9 Assume that the person you are listening to might know something you don’t 10 Be precise in your speech 11 Do not bother children when they are skateboarding 12 Pet a cat when you encounter one on the street

10 Analyse advertisements Analyse the advertisements on the previous page, using the questions in the box below. Present your findings in writing or orally.

Convince you Does the ad lead to some action on your part?

Ku n

CONTENT Decide whether each statement is true or false. 1 Jordan Peterson only holds politically correct views. T/F

11 Discuss gender identity In 2014, Australian model, actress, and television presenter Ruby Rose Langenheim (b. 1986) produced and released a short film about herself that she called Break Free Ruby Rose (05:18). a Go online and watch Break Free Ruby Rose at least twice. As you watch the film, write down your reactions to what you see. b Discuss in small groups: • What do you think Ruby Rose’s message is? What makes you say that? • Does she play on stereotypes? If yes: How? Take active part in the discussion and base your entries on your notes. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

Who Are You?

31


1 Who Are You? AIMS • Analyse a short story • Cooperate to create a podcast

FIRST Heartache really hurts. Fortunately, there is always sympathy to be found. Here is a short list of well-meant advice that people often give:

g

• Give yourself time. Remember, the future will surprise you • Enjoy the company of friends and family • ABC: Always Be Cool

Ku n 32

[ chapter 1 ]

Closure CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

Is the list helpful? Are there other ways of dealing with heartache?

Your true self, your beliefs and convictions, even your idea of love, may be strongly challenged if you stay too long with someone that is not good for you. In B.J. Novak’s short story “Closure”, we meet Annette and David, who have come to the end of a long and destructive relationship. David has treated Annette badly in the past, and when they meet for one last time, she is ready for revenge. Many of B.J. Novak’s stories are inspired by modern pop culture and his writing style is best described as humorous and sarcastic. “Closure” certainly contains some funny passages, but you will also find that it has some disturbing undertones. Brace yourself for an unexpected ending!

Edvard Munch: The Kiss (1921)

Who Are You?

33


1 Who Are You? AIMS

FIRST

• Analyse a short story • Cooperate to create a podcast

Heartache really hurts. Fortunately, there is always sympathy to be found. Here is a short list of well-meant advice that people often give:

g

• Give yourself time. Remember, the future will surprise you • Enjoy the company of friends and family • ABC: Always Be Cool

vu

rd

er in

Is the list helpful? Are there other ways of dealing with heartache?

Your true self, your beliefs and convictions, even your idea of love, may be strongly challenged if you stay too long with someone that is not good for you. In B.J. Novak’s short story “Closure”, we meet Annette and David, who have come to the end of a long and destructive relationship. David has treated Annette badly in the past, and when they meet for one last time, she is ready for revenge.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

Closure

Many of B.J. Novak’s stories are inspired by modern pop culture and his writing style is best described as humorous and sarcastic. “Closure” certainly contains some funny passages, but you will also find that it has some disturbing undertones. Brace yourself for an unexpected ending!

32

[ chapter 1 ]

Edvard Munch: The Kiss (1921)

Who Are You?

33


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: SHORT STORY

Closure

5

5

vu

rd

er in

g

“I want closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “Please. I have to see you. Please. Please.” “No.” “One last time.” “No.” “Real quick. Ten minutes. Five minutes. One minute.” “Annette, we have nothing to talk about. You know I love you. But I’m at this point –” “I know, I know! I can’t hear all this again! Please! I just need closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “I just need closure. I know I can get closure. Ten minutes. Please!” “Okay. When?” “Let’s meet at the bench by the river. Right now. Where we had our first kiss.” “Now? The bench by … At eleven at night? Come on, Annette. Can you … can you just come over?” “Come over?” “I mean, just, it’s late, and if it’s so important for this to be right now –” “That’s not what this is about!” “No, I didn’t mean–” “I need closure, David. I just need closure.”

“And the lies about the cheating–the stories you made up that you eventually felt more loyal to than you did to the relationship –” “Annette –”

Ku n

til

David met Annette by the river. “Wow. You look really amazing.” “Thank you,” said Annette with a two-blinks-and-you’d-miss-it half curtsey at once feminine and mean. For the first time in her life, Annette looked exactly the way she wanted to look. Her hair was mostly neat, mostly down; she wore a simple dress that was the exact medium shade of red of all the shades of red in the world. It wasn’t even that hard to look this way, she noted as she caught a last look at herself in the mirror on her way out; it just took some effort and thought and luck–a reasonable but attainable amount more of each than usual. A good lesson to learn for the future, she thought; a future that could begin tonight, right after she got closure. “I want to say something.” “Okay.” “Everything is okay.” She smiled. He smiled back. “Everything in the past,” continued Annette, “is in the past. The cheating– the cheating you admit to, and the cheating you still can’t bring yourself to admit to –” “Wait, Annette –”

closure a sense of finality two-blinks-and-you’dmiss-it here: very quick curtsey girl’s or woman’s formal greeting mean (adj) unkind neat tidy attainable achievable

34

[ chapter 1 ]

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

“It’s all okay! I’m saying it’s all okay! All the times you made me feel like your backup choice when it would have been so simple to just tell me I looked beautiful; all the times you made me feel like the girl you were just killing time with while you waited to find your true love, even though you knew I loved you; or the times you made me feel like your stupid little sister, or your employee –” “Annette –” “No, I forgive all of it. You don’t have to admit it or even accept it. I choose to let it go. I don’t want to carry it around in my heart anymore.” “Okay … Well, Annette –” He paused, then rushed to make up for whatever the pause had cost him. “Annette, just because I’m accepting this doesn’t mean I’m conceding anything you say is true–” “You don’t have to,” she smiled. “It’s all in the past. It’s all over.” “Okay, well, that’s good. Some of what you’re saying is unnecessary and implies, I think, an excessive level of … I mean, I understand, as a thought exercise, for the sake of–” “Now I want to kiss you.” “Annette … ” “A goodbye kiss. Just one. For closure.” Annette took a step toward him. Closure, so close. “Annette … I want to … But I don’t think … God, you look beautiful, trust me, it’s not … But this is, I’m kind of seeing someone, and –” “One kiss! You don’t even have to kiss back. I just need to kiss you goodbye. For closure. One last time. Okay?” “Okay.” “Open your mouth and close your eyes,” said Annette, coyly. “I thought you said I didn’t have to kiss back,” said David, coyly. “Well, then you can keep your mouth closed, if you want,” said Annette, coyly. David half opened his mouth and closed his eyes. Annette kissed him. While she held the kiss she pictured everything she could remember from the relationship, in chronological order, from the first email to the last text message, and every kiss and laugh and fight in between. When she had pictured absolutely everything she could bring herself to remember, which was everything, she visualized herself literally kissing the block letters of the word GOODBYE.

eventually in the end employee ansatt/tilsett concede admit imply suggest indirectly excessive here: extreme coyly in a manner pretending to be shy visualize (v) picture

Who Are You?

35


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: SHORT STORY

Closure

closure a sense of finality two-blinks-and-you’dmiss-it here: very quick curtsey girl’s or woman’s formal greeting mean (adj) unkind neat tidy attainable achievable

34

[ chapter 1 ]

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

40

g

15

er in

10

rd

10

“It’s all okay! I’m saying it’s all okay! All the times you made me feel like your backup choice when it would have been so simple to just tell me I looked beautiful; all the times you made me feel like the girl you were just killing time with while you waited to find your true love, even though you knew I loved you; or the times you made me feel like your stupid little sister, or your employee –” “Annette –” “No, I forgive all of it. You don’t have to admit it or even accept it. I choose to let it go. I don’t want to carry it around in my heart anymore.” “Okay … Well, Annette –” He paused, then rushed to make up for whatever the pause had cost him. “Annette, just because I’m accepting this doesn’t mean I’m conceding anything you say is true–” “You don’t have to,” she smiled. “It’s all in the past. It’s all over.” “Okay, well, that’s good. Some of what you’re saying is unnecessary and implies, I think, an excessive level of … I mean, I understand, as a thought exercise, for the sake of–” “Now I want to kiss you.” “Annette … ” “A goodbye kiss. Just one. For closure.” Annette took a step toward him. Closure, so close. “Annette … I want to … But I don’t think … God, you look beautiful, trust me, it’s not … But this is, I’m kind of seeing someone, and –” “One kiss! You don’t even have to kiss back. I just need to kiss you goodbye. For closure. One last time. Okay?” “Okay.” “Open your mouth and close your eyes,” said Annette, coyly. “I thought you said I didn’t have to kiss back,” said David, coyly. “Well, then you can keep your mouth closed, if you want,” said Annette, coyly. David half opened his mouth and closed his eyes. Annette kissed him.

vu

5

til

David met Annette by the river. “Wow. You look really amazing.” “Thank you,” said Annette with a two-blinks-and-you’d-miss-it half curtsey at once feminine and mean. For the first time in her life, Annette looked exactly the way she wanted to look. Her hair was mostly neat, mostly down; she wore a simple dress that was the exact medium shade of red of all the shades of red in the world. It wasn’t even that hard to look this way, she noted as she caught a last look at herself in the mirror on her way out; it just took some effort and thought and luck–a reasonable but attainable amount more of each than usual. A good lesson to learn for the future, she thought; a future that could begin tonight, right after she got closure. “I want to say something.” “Okay.” “Everything is okay.” She smiled. He smiled back. “Everything in the past,” continued Annette, “is in the past. The cheating– the cheating you admit to, and the cheating you still can’t bring yourself to admit to –” “Wait, Annette –”

5

Ku n

“I want closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “Please. I have to see you. Please. Please.” “No.” “One last time.” “No.” “Real quick. Ten minutes. Five minutes. One minute.” “Annette, we have nothing to talk about. You know I love you. But I’m at this point –” “I know, I know! I can’t hear all this again! Please! I just need closure.” “There’s no such thing as closure.” “I just need closure. I know I can get closure. Ten minutes. Please!” “Okay. When?” “Let’s meet at the bench by the river. Right now. Where we had our first kiss.” “Now? The bench by … At eleven at night? Come on, Annette. Can you … can you just come over?” “Come over?” “I mean, just, it’s late, and if it’s so important for this to be right now –” “That’s not what this is about!” “No, I didn’t mean–” “I need closure, David. I just need closure.”

“And the lies about the cheating–the stories you made up that you eventually felt more loyal to than you did to the relationship –” “Annette –”

35

40

While she held the kiss she pictured everything she could remember from the relationship, in chronological order, from the first email to the last text message, and every kiss and laugh and fight in between. When she had pictured absolutely everything she could bring herself to remember, which was everything, she visualized herself literally kissing the block letters of the word GOODBYE.

eventually in the end employee ansatt/tilsett concede admit imply suggest indirectly excessive here: extreme coyly in a manner pretending to be shy visualize (v) picture

Who Are You?

35


1 Who Are You? As the E started to fade in her mind, and her real lips stayed on his real mouth, she held out her left hand and snapped her thumb and index finger together – the softer and more difficult version of the snap–and eight men masked in black descended swiftly toward her ex-boyfriend, quiet enough for all their footsteps to be flattened by the squish of her kiss.

vu

rd

er in

g

5

til

To everyone I love (and a few who just got on this list off my spam folder, haha!): I’m writing because I needed you to know that after a lot of soulsearching I’ve decided I need to “drop out” for a while (as it were). A lot of you know that I was having a lot of anxiety about things, esp. with my most recent relationship(s), and I decided I need to kind of take some time off and really just *think* and *be myself* for a while with no distractions and no influence – just for a while!! – from the people who have made me, well … me. I’ll be getting some much needed rest & solitude. Maybe I’ll finally take that motorcycle trip across Central America that I’m always talking about–although I guess first I’ll have to get a motorcycle license (and learn how to change a tire!). Ha. Also, my plan is to watch all five seasons of The Wire while I’m away, so when I am back, at least I’ll finally have something to talk to you all about! Anyway, I love you all so, so much, and thank you for respecting this need of mine right now. And, again, do not worry about me just because I’m out of contact. This really is the best thing that could happen to me. Have fun, I love you all and miss you already. Love you and thanks for understanding this. Sent from my Phone–forgiive tha . typoooes&&1*&

Ku n

fade become weaker descend move downwards swiftly quickly squish (n) smask liquid væske unconscious knocked out preset adjust a device in advance of its use hinge (n) hengsel miscellaneous various debris trash, rubbish accumulate here: build up opaque not transparent solitude loneliness The Wire American crime drama TV series (2002–2008) Typoooe i.e. typo: short for typographical error, misspelling since-deleted now deleted

36

[ chapter 1 ]

10

15

10

15

Annette approached the eighth man, pulled fifty one-hundred-dollar bills from her purse; handed them to him in a roll; and then impulsively kissed him on the side of the mask, making him blush, or so she imagined. 20

20

25

25

30

30

“Congratulations,” said the eighth man. “The first person to truly achieve closure.” “Am I really the first?” “Well, if you weren’t, I guess I couldn’t tell you, could I?” The eight men walked away and got back in their surprisingly domestic-looking minivan and drove off, leaving Annette, heart racing, all alone. There was a beaded line of sweat across her forehead, which she wiped off, and her lipstick was smeared a bit, which she corrected; now she looked close to perfect, which, she had always suspected, was actually a little hotter than perfect. She walked alone to her favorite bar, ordered her favorite drink, and stirred it as she waited for the rest of her life to approach.

AUTHOR

The first man injected David’s neck with a clear liquid that knocked him unconscious. A second man pulled David’s phone out of his front pocket, right where Annette had told him it would be. Two men wheeled out a cement box from behind a parked truck and removed two sacks of beach sand, and then a fifth masked man joined them to lift the unconscious body into the box, then split open the sacks of sand and fill the rest of the box to the top. A sixth man fastened a cement lid to the top of the box on a preset row of hinges and then, together with the third and fourth men, carried the box to the edge of the river and tilted it in, while the seventh man swept up all the miscellaneous bits of debris that had accumulated into an opaque plastic bag. The second man, still holding the phone of the man in the box, showed what he had been typing into the phone to the eighth masked man, who had been simply watching everything as it unfolded and nodding, and who now nodded more as he read:

5

The eighth man showed the phone to Annette, who nodded, and then handed the phone back to the second man, who pressed a button that sent the email to every contact in the phone. Then the second man plugged a new program into the phone. It was an application called Closure, and according to the people on the since-deleted message board who had recommended this team, it was what meant the difference between being the best at this and being only one of the best. The program, using data that Annette had provided to them in advance, was said to be able to infiltrate every record-keeping website and database that had ever recorded the existence of her ex-boyfriend and erase all written and photographic evidence of him that was labeled by any of the four most common spellings of his full name. The program was guaranteed to work in under ten minutes. It finished in six and a half, and when it was done, the second man threw the phone into the river, where it, too, died instantly and anonymously. That was it.

Since graduating from Harvard University in 2001, B.J. Novak (b. 1979) has worked as a stand-up comedian and a TV scriptwriter and actor. He is best known as one of the writers and executive producers of the sitcom The Office (2005–2013). So far in his career (2020), he has also published three books: The Book With No Pictures (2014), One More Thing: Stories and Other Stories (2014), and The Alphabet Book With No Pictures (2017).

Novak, B. J. (2014). Closure. In One More Thing: Stories and Other Stories. New York: Alfred Knopf.

35

40

provide supply infiltrate here: access unlawfully erase delete instantly immediately domestic here: relating to home and family beaded line here: line of small drops smear spread unevenly stir (v) røre

Who Are You?

37


36

[ chapter 1 ]

10

15

er in

10

15

20

25

25

30

30

“Congratulations,” said the eighth man. “The first person to truly achieve closure.” “Am I really the first?” “Well, if you weren’t, I guess I couldn’t tell you, could I?” The eight men walked away and got back in their surprisingly domestic-looking minivan and drove off, leaving Annette, heart racing, all alone. There was a beaded line of sweat across her forehead, which she wiped off, and her lipstick was smeared a bit, which she corrected; now she looked close to perfect, which, she had always suspected, was actually a little hotter than perfect. She walked alone to her favorite bar, ordered her favorite drink, and stirred it as she waited for the rest of her life to approach.

vu

20

rd

Annette approached the eighth man, pulled fifty one-hundred-dollar bills from her purse; handed them to him in a roll; and then impulsively kissed him on the side of the mask, making him blush, or so she imagined.

til

fade become weaker descend move downwards swiftly quickly squish (n) smask liquid væske unconscious knocked out preset adjust a device in advance of its use hinge (n) hengsel miscellaneous various debris trash, rubbish accumulate here: build up opaque not transparent solitude loneliness The Wire American crime drama TV series (2002–2008) Typoooe i.e. typo: short for typographical error, misspelling since-deleted now deleted

To everyone I love (and a few who just got on this list off my spam folder, haha!): I’m writing because I needed you to know that after a lot of soulsearching I’ve decided I need to “drop out” for a while (as it were). A lot of you know that I was having a lot of anxiety about things, esp. with my most recent relationship(s), and I decided I need to kind of take some time off and really just *think* and *be myself* for a while with no distractions and no influence – just for a while!! – from the people who have made me, well … me. I’ll be getting some much needed rest & solitude. Maybe I’ll finally take that motorcycle trip across Central America that I’m always talking about–although I guess first I’ll have to get a motorcycle license (and learn how to change a tire!). Ha. Also, my plan is to watch all five seasons of The Wire while I’m away, so when I am back, at least I’ll finally have something to talk to you all about! Anyway, I love you all so, so much, and thank you for respecting this need of mine right now. And, again, do not worry about me just because I’m out of contact. This really is the best thing that could happen to me. Have fun, I love you all and miss you already. Love you and thanks for understanding this. Sent from my Phone–forgiive tha . typoooes&&1*&

5

AUTHOR

The first man injected David’s neck with a clear liquid that knocked him unconscious. A second man pulled David’s phone out of his front pocket, right where Annette had told him it would be. Two men wheeled out a cement box from behind a parked truck and removed two sacks of beach sand, and then a fifth masked man joined them to lift the unconscious body into the box, then split open the sacks of sand and fill the rest of the box to the top. A sixth man fastened a cement lid to the top of the box on a preset row of hinges and then, together with the third and fourth men, carried the box to the edge of the river and tilted it in, while the seventh man swept up all the miscellaneous bits of debris that had accumulated into an opaque plastic bag. The second man, still holding the phone of the man in the box, showed what he had been typing into the phone to the eighth masked man, who had been simply watching everything as it unfolded and nodding, and who now nodded more as he read:

5

The eighth man showed the phone to Annette, who nodded, and then handed the phone back to the second man, who pressed a button that sent the email to every contact in the phone. Then the second man plugged a new program into the phone. It was an application called Closure, and according to the people on the since-deleted message board who had recommended this team, it was what meant the difference between being the best at this and being only one of the best. The program, using data that Annette had provided to them in advance, was said to be able to infiltrate every record-keeping website and database that had ever recorded the existence of her ex-boyfriend and erase all written and photographic evidence of him that was labeled by any of the four most common spellings of his full name. The program was guaranteed to work in under ten minutes. It finished in six and a half, and when it was done, the second man threw the phone into the river, where it, too, died instantly and anonymously. That was it.

Since graduating from Harvard University in 2001, B.J. Novak (b. 1979) has worked as a stand-up comedian and a TV scriptwriter and actor. He is best known as one of the writers and executive producers of the sitcom The Office (2005–2013). So far in his career (2020), he has also published three books: The Book With No Pictures (2014), One More Thing: Stories and Other Stories (2014), and The Alphabet Book With No Pictures (2017).

Novak, B. J. (2014). Closure. In One More Thing: Stories and Other Stories. New York: Alfred Knopf.

35

40

Ku n

As the E started to fade in her mind, and her real lips stayed on his real mouth, she held out her left hand and snapped her thumb and index finger together – the softer and more difficult version of the snap–and eight men masked in black descended swiftly toward her ex-boyfriend, quiet enough for all their footsteps to be flattened by the squish of her kiss.

g

1 Who Are You?

provide supply infiltrate here: access unlawfully erase delete instantly immediately domestic here: relating to home and family beaded line here: line of small drops smear spread unevenly stir (v) røre

Who Are You?

37


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE CONTENT 1 What is the excuse Annette uses when she suggests to David that they should meet “at the bench by the river”?

g

2 What, exactly, is it that Annette forgives David for?

OVER TO YOU 8 Create a podcast Imagine that you work in a team of three or four news reporters. After David has been reported missing, you and your colleagues are contacted by people who know him well, and everything they tell you seems to point in one direction: He is the victim of an act of revenge.

4 How does the application Closure work? 5 Why does the eighth man congratulate Annette?

• Decide on a main idea or argument. • Structure the podcast with a clear beginning, middle, and end. • Include, for instance, a timeline of events, interviews with neighbours, family, friends, and colleagues, or comments from the police.

Use, for instance, the free app Anchor (anchor.fm) to record, cut and mix your podcast. For inspiration: Listen to one of the episodes of the true-crime podcast series Serial Killers.

rd

STRUCTURE 6 Almost the entire first half of “Closure” is written in the form of a dialogue between Annette and David. After a definite turning point, the rest of the story is told from the perspective of a third-person narrator. What incident causes the turning point?

To reach a broad audience, your editor wants you and your team to make a ten-minute podcast. Here is the assignment that she gives you:

er in

3 What do the eight masked men do to David?

Ku n

til

vu

LANGUAGE 7 The message that is sent from David’s phone is written in a highly informal style. Identify symbols, words, phrases, and sentences that you would not find in an academic, or a formally written, text. See course 5: Recognising formality for guidance.

38

[ chapter 1 ]

9 Analyse and discuss “Closure” a Cooperate in pairs and write down key words to i., ii., iii., iv., and v. below. See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance. i. Give a brief summary of the plot. ii. Describe the setting, i.e., the time, duration, and place of the short story. iii. Characterise the protagonist: • What do you learn about Annette through direct description? • Use the S.T.E.A.L. method to find out what we learn about Annette through indirect description:

S Speech

What does the character say, how does he/she speak and what does this reveal about him/her?

T

Thoughts and feelings

What do the character’s private thoughts and feelings tell us about him/her?

E

Effect on others

Which conclusions can we draw from the effects the character has on other people?

A Actions

What do the character’s actions and behaviour reveal about him/ her?

L

What can we learn about the character through the way he/she dresses and carries him-/herself?

Looks

iv. From which point of view is the story told? Why do you think the author chose this particular point of view? What would be different if the story had been told from another point of view? (See also STRUCTURE on the opposite page.) v. Suggest one or two possible themes of the short story. Give reasons for your views. b Discuss i. – v. in class. Take active part and base your discussion entries on your notes. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

Who Are You?

39


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

5 Why does the eighth man congratulate Annette? STRUCTURE 6 Almost the entire first half of “Closure” is written in the form of a dialogue between Annette and David. After a definite turning point, the rest of the story is told from the perspective of a third-person narrator. What incident causes the turning point? LANGUAGE 7 The message that is sent from David’s phone is written in a highly informal style. Identify symbols, words, phrases, and sentences that you would not find in an academic, or a formally written, text. See course 5: Recognising formality for guidance.

To reach a broad audience, your editor wants you and your team to make a ten-minute podcast. Here is the assignment that she gives you: • Decide on a main idea or argument. • Structure the podcast with a clear beginning, middle, and end. • Include, for instance, a timeline of events, interviews with neighbours, family, friends, and colleagues, or comments from the police. Use, for instance, the free app Anchor (anchor.fm) to record, cut and mix your podcast. For inspiration: Listen to one of the episodes of the true-crime podcast series Serial Killers.

i. Give a brief summary of the plot. ii. Describe the setting, i.e., the time, duration, and place of the short story. iii. Characterise the protagonist: • What do you learn about Annette through direct description? • Use the S.T.E.A.L. method to find out what we learn about Annette through indirect description:

S Speech

What does the character say, how does he/she speak and what does this reveal about him/her?

T

Thoughts and feelings

What do the character’s private thoughts and feelings tell us about him/her?

E

Effect on others

Which conclusions can we draw from the effects the character has on other people?

A Actions

L

g

4 How does the application Closure work?

a Cooperate in pairs and write down key words to i., ii., iii., iv., and v. below. See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

er in

3 What do the eight masked men do to David?

9 Analyse and discuss “Closure”

rd

2 What, exactly, is it that Annette forgives David for?

OVER TO YOU 8 Create a podcast Imagine that you work in a team of three or four news reporters. After David has been reported missing, you and your colleagues are contacted by people who know him well, and everything they tell you seems to point in one direction: He is the victim of an act of revenge.

What do the character’s actions and behaviour reveal about him/ her?

vu

CONTENT 1 What is the excuse Annette uses when she suggests to David that they should meet “at the bench by the river”?

Looks

What can we learn about the character through the way he/she dresses and carries him-/herself?

til

iv. From which point of view is the story told? Why do you think the author chose this particular point of view? What would be different if the story had been told from another point of view? (See also STRUCTURE on the opposite page.) v. Suggest one or two possible themes of the short story. Give reasons for your views.

Ku n

b Discuss i. – v. in class. Take active part and base your discussion entries on your notes. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

38

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

39


GENRE: DOCUMENTARY FILM

AIMS

FIRST What do you already know about Amy Winehouse before watching the film?

Ku n 40

[ chapter 1 ]

Growing up means continuously trying to figure out who we want to be and how we want to lead our lives. For some of us, this process seems rather undramatic, whilst for others it is full of highs and lows. They may even engage in self-destructive behavior. Now, imagine, at the same time, that the whole world is watching your every move.

WA TC

Amy CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Watch and respond to a critically acclaimed documentary • Research and discuss mental health issues and dependencies • Analyse a song lyric

1 Who Are You?

HT

H E F I L M!

The documentary Amy (2015) chronicles the life of Amy Winehouse from childhood to her death in 2011 and tells the story of her battle with addiction. The film was directed by the London-born Asif Kapadia and has received several awards, most notably an Academy Award and a BAFTA (short for British Academy of Film and Television Arts). It also became the most watched British documentary in UK cinemas. Nevertheless, the film has faced criticism, especially from Amy Winehouse’s father, Mitch Winehouse.

Amy Winehouse was born on September 14th 1983 and died on July 23rd 2011.

Who Are You?

41


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: DOCUMENTARY FILM

AIMS

FIRST What do you already know about Amy Winehouse before watching the film?

vu

rd

er in

g

• Watch and respond to a critically acclaimed documentary • Research and discuss mental health issues and dependencies • Analyse a song lyric

WA TC

Growing up means continuously trying to figure out who we want to be and how we want to lead our lives. For some of us, this process seems rather undramatic, whilst for others it is full of highs and lows. They may even engage in self-destructive behavior. Now, imagine, at the same time, that the whole world is watching your every move.

HT

H E F I L M!

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

Amy

The documentary Amy (2015) chronicles the life of Amy Winehouse from childhood to her death in 2011 and tells the story of her battle with addiction. The film was directed by the London-born Asif Kapadia and has received several awards, most notably an Academy Award and a BAFTA (short for British Academy of Film and Television Arts). It also became the most watched British documentary in UK cinemas. Nevertheless, the film has faced criticism, especially from Amy Winehouse’s father, Mitch Winehouse.

40

[ chapter 1 ]

Amy Winehouse was born on September 14th 1983 and died on July 23rd 2011.

Who Are You?

41


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

Where did Amy Winehouse come from and what ethnic group did she belong to?

2 After the release of her first album, Frank (2007), did she expect or hope for fame? Why/why not? 3 What made her particularly interesting for the media industry? 4 What were the early signs of her suffering from bulimia, according to her record company and her mother?

6 “Rehab” was the first single off her Back to Black album. How did she initially feel about it?

Blake Fielder The record company Camden The media Amy Winehouse Tabloid newspapers Music producers The lovers Her friends

8 At what point did Blake Fielder return to her life? How do you think his presence, fame, and success would influence her?

til

STRUCTURE 9 Study the overview of storytelling techniques in documentaries. Which of these are present in Amy?

A documentary, in contrast to a feature film, is non-fictional and aims to portray reality. Its purpose is to inform the audience. Some common story-telling techniques used in documentaries are:

Ku n

drug addiction vested interest music scene attention personal problem interests timetables downward spiral reactions

OVER TO YOU 11 Hold a discussion

a Form groups of four and go through the statements beneath. All members must state their opinion and support it with explanations and concrete examples. You may begin your sentences with

vu

7 What did “Rehab” do for her career?

Blake Fielder’s drug addiction

rd

5 Why was it considered a curious choice when she hired her promoter, Raye Cosbert, to also be her manager?

EXAMPLE

g

1

LANGUAGE 10 Make possessive forms to make new sentences from these two lists:

er in

CONTENT After watching the first hour of the film, review your answers of these questions:

• Direct narration (we see the narrator who tells the story) • Voiceover narration (we hear the narrator’s voice while watching) • Interviews • Following the story of one character • Archival footage (clips from the past)

b Go back to the statement “Smoking marijuana is harmless.” Prepare for a group or class discussion by going online to find information on the following related issues: • vaping • legislation • political views • statistics of marijuana use • effects and side effects Make use of the information as you join in the discussion. For guidance, see course 15: Holding discussions. 12 Research and present a health issue Periodically, Amy Winehouse suffered from alcoholism, bulimia, depression, and drug addiction. In groups of four, divide these health issues among you. Once you have researched your designated issue, share and compare: • symptoms and characteristics • number of people who suffer from the illness in the UK, the US, and Norway • possible long-term effects See course 14: Giving presentations.

13 Listen and understand the “Opioid Crisis” Amy Winehouse struggled with an addiction to heroin and cocaine, which are illegal drugs. In the US, a rising number of people are becoming addicted to prescription drugs, which are legal and prescribed by doctors. The situation is so severe that it has been called the “opioid crisis”. One of the drugs at the centre of this crisis is Oxycontin. Listen to the first 9 minutes and 40 seconds of the podcast “The Family That Profited from the Opioid Crisis” from The New York Times series The Daily. As you listen, try to find out: • What was the protest in the Guggenheim Museum about? • What is Oxycontin? • Who produces it? • How many people have died due to the use of prescription painkillers since the 1990s? • Why are lawsuits now being raised against members of the Sackler family? • What strategies did the drug company use to boost the sale of Oxycontin? Take notes while you listen and prepare to share your answers and reflections on this issue. For guidance, see course 3: Improving your listening skills.

“I agree, because …,” “I agree somewhat, because … ”, or “I disagree, because … ” • Amy Winehouse would not have written her best music without bouts of depression. • The paparazzi were largely to blame for Amy Winehouse spiralling out of control. • Smoking marijuana is harmless, and had she stuck to only this, she would have been fine. • Mitch Winehouse and Blake Civil Fielder used Amy to gain fame and money. • Amy’s mother’s inability to say no to her as a child resulted in her extreme behaviour as an adult. • Amy’s substance abuse was more harshly criticised because she was a female artist.

USA, San Francisco, California, 2018. Drug users injected heroin out in the open, right on the street, in plain sight of passersby. Photographed by James Nachtwey and published as the special report “The Opioid Diaries” in Time Magazine.

42

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

43


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

4 What were the early signs of her suffering from bulimia, according to her record company and her mother?

drug addiction vested interest music scene attention personal problem interests timetables downward spiral reactions

5 Why was it considered a curious choice when she hired her promoter, Raye Cosbert, to also be her manager? 6 “Rehab” was the first single off her Back to Black album. How did she initially feel about it? 7 What did “Rehab” do for her career? 8 At what point did Blake Fielder return to her life? How do you think his presence, fame, and success would influence her? STRUCTURE 9 Study the overview of storytelling techniques in documentaries. Which of these are present in Amy?

A documentary, in contrast to a feature film, is non-fictional and aims to portray reality. Its purpose is to inform the audience. Some common story-telling techniques used in documentaries are: • Direct narration (we see the narrator who tells the story) • Voiceover narration (we hear the narrator’s voice while watching) • Interviews • Following the story of one character • Archival footage (clips from the past)

OVER TO YOU 11 Hold a discussion a Form groups of four and go through the statements beneath. All members must state their opinion and support it with explanations and concrete examples. You may begin your sentences with “I agree, because …,” “I agree somewhat, because … ”, or “I disagree, because … ” • Amy Winehouse would not have written her best music without bouts of depression. • The paparazzi were largely to blame for Amy Winehouse spiralling out of control. • Smoking marijuana is harmless, and had she stuck to only this, she would have been fine. • Mitch Winehouse and Blake Civil Fielder used Amy to gain fame and money. • Amy’s mother’s inability to say no to her as a child resulted in her extreme behaviour as an adult. • Amy’s substance abuse was more harshly criticised because she was a female artist.

Make use of the information as you join in the discussion. For guidance, see course 15: Holding discussions. 12 Research and present a health issue Periodically, Amy Winehouse suffered from alcoholism, bulimia, depression, and drug addiction. In groups of four, divide these health issues among you. Once you have researched your designated issue, share and compare:

g

Blake Fielder The record company Camden The media Amy Winehouse Tabloid newspapers Music producers The lovers Her friends

er in

3 What made her particularly interesting for the media industry?

Blake Fielder’s drug addiction

• What was the protest in the Guggenheim Museum about? • What is Oxycontin? • Who produces it? • How many people have died due to the use of prescription painkillers since the 1990s? • Why are lawsuits now being raised against members of the Sackler family? • What strategies did the drug company use to boost the sale of Oxycontin?

rd

2 After the release of her first album, Frank (2007), did she expect or hope for fame? Why/why not?

EXAMPLE

13 Listen and understand the “Opioid Crisis” Amy Winehouse struggled with an addiction to heroin and cocaine, which are illegal drugs. In the US, a rising number of people are becoming addicted to prescription drugs, which are legal and prescribed by doctors. The situation is so severe that it has been called the “opioid crisis”. One of the drugs at the centre of this crisis is Oxycontin. Listen to the first 9 minutes and 40 seconds of the podcast “The Family That Profited from the Opioid Crisis” from The New York Times series The Daily. As you listen, try to find out:

• symptoms and characteristics • number of people who suffer from the illness in the UK, the US, and Norway • possible long-term effects

Take notes while you listen and prepare to share your answers and reflections on this issue. For guidance, see course 3: Improving your listening skills.

vu

Where did Amy Winehouse come from and what ethnic group did she belong to?

b Go back to the statement “Smoking marijuana is harmless.” Prepare for a group or class discussion by going online to find information on the following related issues: • vaping • legislation • political views • statistics of marijuana use • effects and side effects

See course 14: Giving presentations.

til

1

LANGUAGE 10 Make possessive forms to make new sentences from these two lists:

Ku n

CONTENT After watching the first hour of the film, review your answers of these questions:

USA, San Francisco, California, 2018. Drug users injected heroin out in the open, right on the street, in plain sight of passersby. Photographed by James Nachtwey and published as the special report “The Opioid Diaries” in Time Magazine.

42

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

43


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: SONG LYRICS

LI

er in rd

• the rhyme schemes • literary devices such as:

g

get accustomed to at our height meet your match get attached you owe nothing to me I have no capacity have it all hit a wall inevitable withdrawal play myself no emotional debts

– alliteration – metaphors

vu

• the theme • the mood • whether the music complements or contrasts with the lyrics

All I can ever be to you Is a darkness that we knew And this regret I’ve got accustomed to Once it was so right When we were at our height Waiting for you in the hotel at night I knew I hadn’t met my match But every moment we could snatch I don’t know why I got so attached It’s my responsibility And you don’t owe nothing to me But to walk away I have no capacity Chorus: He walks away The sun goes down He takes the day, but I’m grown And in your way, in this blue shade My tears dry on their own.

I don’t understand Why do I stress the man When there’s so many bigger things at hand We could a never had it all We had to hit a wall So this is inevitable withdrawal Even if I stop wanting you A perspective pushes through I’ll be some next man’s other woman soon I can not play myself again I should just be my own best friend Not fuck myself in the head with stupid men […] I wish I could say no regrets And no emotional debts Cause as we kiss goodbye the sun sets So we are history The shadow covers me The sky above ablaze that only lovers see.

Winehouse, A. (2005). Tears Dry on Their Own. [Recorded by Amy Winehouse.] On Back to Black [cd]. Miami: Island Records (2005). Lyrics retrieved from https://genius.com/Amy-winehouse-tears-dry-on-their-own-lyrics

Ku n

til

As you can see, song lyrics share many characteristics with poems. For guidance, see course 16: Analysing poems and songs.

N TO M U S !

• the meaning of the following expressions: – – – – – – – – – – –

E ST

IC

Tears Dry on Their Own

14 Analyse a song lyric “Tears Dry on Their Own” (2006) is one of Amy Winehouse’s most popular songs. Read the lyrics on the next page carefully, listen to the song, and write a song analysis. Explain and comment on the following:

44

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

45


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: SONG LYRICS

– alliteration – metaphors • the theme • the mood • whether the music complements or contrasts with the lyrics As you can see, song lyrics share many characteristics with poems. For guidance, see course 16: Analysing poems and songs.

LI Chorus: He walks away The sun goes down He takes the day, but I’m grown And in your way, in this blue shade My tears dry on their own.

g

I don’t understand Why do I stress the man When there’s so many bigger things at hand We could a never had it all We had to hit a wall So this is inevitable withdrawal Even if I stop wanting you A perspective pushes through I’ll be some next man’s other woman soon I can not play myself again I should just be my own best friend Not fuck myself in the head with stupid men […] I wish I could say no regrets And no emotional debts Cause as we kiss goodbye the sun sets So we are history The shadow covers me The sky above ablaze that only lovers see.

er in

• the rhyme schemes • literary devices such as:

All I can ever be to you Is a darkness that we knew And this regret I’ve got accustomed to Once it was so right When we were at our height Waiting for you in the hotel at night I knew I hadn’t met my match But every moment we could snatch I don’t know why I got so attached It’s my responsibility And you don’t owe nothing to me But to walk away I have no capacity

rd

get accustomed to at our height meet your match get attached you owe nothing to me I have no capacity have it all hit a wall inevitable withdrawal play myself no emotional debts

N TO M U S

vu

– – – – – – – – – – –

E ST

!

• the meaning of the following expressions:

Tears Dry on Their Own

IC

14 Analyse a song lyric “Tears Dry on Their Own” (2006) is one of Amy Winehouse’s most popular songs. Read the lyrics on the next page carefully, listen to the song, and write a song analysis. Explain and comment on the following:

Ku n

til

Winehouse, A. (2005). Tears Dry on Their Own. [Recorded by Amy Winehouse.] On Back to Black [cd]. Miami: Island Records (2005). Lyrics retrieved from https://genius.com/Amy-winehouse-tears-dry-on-their-own-lyrics

44

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

45


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: POEM

AIMS

FIRST

Texting

Ku n 46

[ chapter 1 ]

I tend the mobile now like an injured bird. We text, text, text our significant words. I re-read your first, your second, your third, look for your small xx, feeling absurd. The codes we send arrive with a broken chord. I try to picture your hands, their image is blurred. Nothing my thumbs press will ever be heard. Duffy, C.A. (2006). Text. In Rapture. London: Pan Macmillan.

CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

Use the adverbs often, occasionally, and rarely or never.

Text

AUTHOR

er in

• Calling • Sending a text • Using social media

g

• Reflect on how you form your digital identity and live your digital life • Understand how technology changes communication • Analyse a poem

For each of the three groups family, close friends and acquaintances, list how often you contact them by:

Carol Ann Duffy is a Scottish poet, born in Glasgow in 1955. From 2009 to 2019 she held the honorary position of Poet Laureate – a position now filled by Simon Armitage. The Poet Laureate may be asked to write poems for the nation on special occasions.

An ever-greater proportion of how we communicate happens via our smartphones. Even though the technology allows us to talk as though face-to-face, this is not how most of us choose to communicate. We often prefer to send text and picture messages. According to Forbes (2011), the reason we text rather than call is that “it puts some extra space between us and our recipients”. We might be less concerned about disturbing someone with a text than with a call. It can also give us more courage to reveal our feelings and say what we really mean. Another reason is that texts “allow us to capture people’s voices in the situations they’re in, right when they’re in them”. If you text someone your thoughts while something is taking place, it is likely that more of the moment is captured and communicated than if you had just waited to talk about it later.

text (v) send a text message (SMS) tend look after, care for mobile mobile phone, cell phone significant meaningful, important xx (two kisses) similar to writing absurd silly, foolish

Who Are You?

47


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: POEM

• Calling • Sending a text • Using social media Use the adverbs often, occasionally, and rarely or never.

• Reflect on how you form your digital identity and live your digital life • Understand how technology changes communication • Analyse a poem

Texting

Text I tend the mobile now like an injured bird. We text, text, text our significant words.

g

For each of the three groups family, close friends and acquaintances, list how often you contact them by:

AIMS

I re-read your first, your second, your third, look for your small xx, feeling absurd.

I try to picture your hands, their image is blurred.

vu

Nothing my thumbs press will ever be heard.

rd

The codes we send arrive with a broken chord.

CONTEXT

An ever-greater proportion of how we communicate happens via our smartphones. Even though the technology allows us to talk as though face-to-face, this is not how most of us choose to communicate. We often prefer to send text and picture messages.

Ku n

According to Forbes (2011), the reason we text rather than call is that “it puts some extra space between us and our recipients”. We might be less concerned about disturbing someone with a text than with a call. It can also give us more courage to reveal our feelings and say what we really mean. Another reason is that texts “allow us to capture people’s voices in the situations they’re in, right when they’re in them”. If you text someone your thoughts while something is taking place, it is likely that more of the moment is captured and communicated than if you had just waited to talk about it later.

46

[ chapter 1 ]

Carol Ann Duffy is a Scottish poet, born in Glasgow in 1955. From 2009 to 2019 she held the honorary position of Poet Laureate – a position now filled by Simon Armitage. The Poet Laureate may be asked to write poems for the nation on special occasions.

til

Duffy, C.A. (2006). Text. In Rapture. London: Pan Macmillan.

AUTHOR

er in

FIRST

text (v) send a text message (SMS) tend look after, care for mobile mobile phone, cell phone significant meaningful, important xx (two kisses) similar to writing absurd silly, foolish

Who Are You?

47


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

3 What is the effect of the repetition of “text” in the third line of the poem? 4 Why does the speaker of the poem feel “absurd”? (Hint: If the speaker is preoccupied with these kisses – see the glossary – they will not have been sent from a family member or a mere friend.) 5 In the 2018 documentary Swiped: Hooking Up in the Digital Age, a teenage boy recalls:

TAKE NOTE! The Norwegian terms strofe and verselinje translate to stanza and line. Verse in English is a “false friend”: although it looks like vers, and the two words are clearly related, its meaning is the same as stanza or strofe: a group of lines. Today, we tend to use stanza when referring to a group of lines in poetry and verse when referring to a group of lines in a song.

rd

7 A poem often has at least one shift in mood or tone, which may be marked by a break in the expected pattern – e.g., the rhyming scheme. Find a place where this occurs and describe how the mood or tone changes.

vu

LANGUAGE 8 All but one of the words in the poem are just one or two syllables long. What is the one word that breaks this pattern and where does it occur?

til

9 What language features of the poem give it a natural rhythm and make it easy to read.

Ku n

“I do remember when you used to call people on the phone. Like, if you had a crush on someone, I think it was like seventh grade, eighth grade, just shoot the shit over the phone. And then you’d like hang up and you feel that warm kind of fuzzy feeling. That probably doesn’t happen anymore. I think if you called someone these days, you’d probably get labelled a psychopath.”

With a partner, discuss whether you agree with the statement. Can you remember a time when it was easier or more socially acceptable to call someone rather than send a text?

48

[ chapter 1 ]

12 Write an essay where you argue a case

g

2 What could Duffy/the speaker mean by comparing the way she is holding her mobile phone to someone cradling an injured bird?

STRUCTURE 6 Describe the poem in terms of the number of stanzas and lines per stanza.

er in

CONTENT 1 Paraphrase the poem, line by line, in plain English.

Some people worry that the vocabulary of emoji and memes is replacing a rich vocabulary of words. A journalist at the Spectator asks: “How do you question, how do you articulate, how do you rage, howl, rebel, kick-back, all the things a curious teenager should be doing, if you have no words in your arsenal? If your entire ‘vocabulary’ is restricted to the emoji palette on your smartphone?” (2018). Write a five-paragraph essay, following the advice in course 5: Structuring a text, in which you respond to the above viewpoint. Use the title “Emoji are not making teenagers less articulate” or make up your own. Remember that your argument is made up of one main point per body paragraph, followed by supporting sentences that explain and illustrate your thoughts.

13 Know your digital habits Research smartphone habits in your classroom using Apple’s Screen Time on iPhone and Google’s Digital Wellbeing on Android. Here is a list of suggested questions to add to a questionnaire. • What is your average number of daily minutes of screen time? • What were your first, second, and third most used apps over the past 7 days? • What was your most used app category over the past 7 days (e.g., social networking, reading and reference, or productivity)? • What was your average number of pick-ups per day over the past 7 days? (NB: this is how many times on average you checked your phone per day.) • What was your average number of notifications received per day over the past 7 days? • Which app sent the most notifications to you per day over the past 7 days? Publish the results as a presentation. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

OVER TO YOU 10 Write a text story Text or chat stories are stories – often humorous – told through text message conversations between two or more participants and shared via social media. Cooperate with a partner to write and share your own text story by using one of the mobile phone apps made for this purpose. 11 Analyse the poem Use the advice given in course 17: Approaching literature and film to write an analysis of Text by Carol Ann Duffy.

The poem is a form of texting … It’s a perfecting of a feeling in language – it’s a way of saying more with less, just as texting is. Carol Ann Duffy

Who Are You?

49


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

5 In the 2018 documentary Swiped: Hooking Up in the Digital Age, a teenage boy recalls: 7 A poem often has at least one shift in mood or tone, which may be marked by a break in the expected pattern – e.g., the rhyming scheme. Find a place where this occurs and describe how the mood or tone changes. LANGUAGE 8 All but one of the words in the poem are just one or two syllables long. What is the one word that breaks this pattern and where does it occur? 9 What language features of the poem give it a natural rhythm and make it easy to read.

“I do remember when you used to call people on the phone. Like, if you had a crush on someone, I think it was like seventh grade, eighth grade, just shoot the shit over the phone. And then you’d like hang up and you feel that warm kind of fuzzy feeling. That probably doesn’t happen anymore. I think if you called someone these days, you’d probably get labelled a psychopath.”

With a partner, discuss whether you agree with the statement. Can you remember a time when it was easier or more socially acceptable to call someone rather than send a text?

48

[ chapter 1 ]

OVER TO YOU 10 Write a text story Text or chat stories are stories – often humorous – told through text message conversations between two or more participants and shared via social media. Cooperate with a partner to write and share your own text story by using one of the mobile phone apps made for this purpose. 11 Analyse the poem Use the advice given in course 17: Approaching literature and film to write an analysis of Text by Carol Ann Duffy.

g

• What is your average number of daily minutes of screen time? • What were your first, second, and third most used apps over the past 7 days? • What was your most used app category over the past 7 days (e.g., social networking, reading and reference, or productivity)? • What was your average number of pick-ups per day over the past 7 days? (NB: this is how many times on average you checked your phone per day.) • What was your average number of notifications received per day over the past 7 days? • Which app sent the most notifications to you per day over the past 7 days?

Some people worry that the vocabulary of emoji and memes is replacing a rich vocabulary of words. A journalist at the Spectator asks: “How do you question, how do you articulate, how do you rage, howl, rebel, kick-back, all the things a curious teenager should be doing, if you have no words in your arsenal? If your entire ‘vocabulary’ is restricted to the emoji palette on your smartphone?” (2018).

er in

The Norwegian terms strofe and verselinje translate to stanza and line. Verse in English is a “false friend”: although it looks like vers, and the two words are clearly related, its meaning is the same as stanza or strofe: a group of lines. Today, we tend to use stanza when referring to a group of lines in poetry and verse when referring to a group of lines in a song.

rd

4 Why does the speaker of the poem feel “absurd”? (Hint: If the speaker is preoccupied with these kisses – see the glossary – they will not have been sent from a family member or a mere friend.)

TAKE NOTE!

Write a five-paragraph essay, following the advice in course 5: Structuring a text, in which you respond to the above viewpoint. Use the title “Emoji are not making teenagers less articulate” or make up your own. Remember that your argument is made up of one main point per body paragraph, followed by supporting sentences that explain and illustrate your thoughts.

Publish the results as a presentation. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

vu

3 What is the effect of the repetition of “text” in the third line of the poem?

13 Know your digital habits Research smartphone habits in your classroom using Apple’s Screen Time on iPhone and Google’s Digital Wellbeing on Android. Here is a list of suggested questions to add to a questionnaire.

12 Write an essay where you argue a case

til

2 What could Duffy/the speaker mean by comparing the way she is holding her mobile phone to someone cradling an injured bird?

STRUCTURE 6 Describe the poem in terms of the number of stanzas and lines per stanza.

Ku n

CONTENT 1 Paraphrase the poem, line by line, in plain English.

The poem is a form of texting … It’s a perfecting of a feeling in language – it’s a way of saying more with less, just as texting is. Carol Ann Duffy

Who Are You?

49


1 Who Are You? AIMS • Understand some of the challenges and threats that algorithms pose • Improve your paragraph-writing skills

g er in rd vu til

Ku n [ chapter 1 ]

Watch the music video Algorithm by the English rock band Muse on YouTube (04:39). How does the video make you feel? What do you see or hear that makes you say that?

The Power of Algorithms CONTEXT

50

FIRST

Who do you become if you no longer can make decisions about your own life? What happens to your identity when algorithms constantly manipulate your actions? These may be troubling questions, but they should be asked. According to Yuval Noah Harari, algorithms represent a real threat to who we are as individuals, and in his text “Change is the only constant” he paints a dark picture of the future. In his own words: “If […] you want to retain some control of your personal existence and of the future of life, you have to run faster than the algorithms.” To be able to follow Harari’s arguments, you first need to understand what an algorithm is. Simply put, an algorithm is a set of instructions for solving or completing a given task. In a sense, even a cake recipe can be regarded as an algorithm. In everyday language, however, we usually think of algorithms as instructions programmed into computers. They do everything from opening compressed files to scheduling traffic lights to suggesting which Netflix series you should watch next. For better or worse, they underlie all modern technology.

Who Are You?

51


1 Who Are You? AIMS • Understand some of the challenges and threats that algorithms pose • Improve your paragraph-writing skills

FIRST Watch the music video Algorithm by the English rock band Muse on YouTube (04:39).

er in

g

How does the video make you feel? What do you see or hear that makes you say that?

CONTEXT

vu

rd

The Power of Algorithms

Who do you become if you no longer can make decisions about your own life? What happens to your identity when algorithms constantly manipulate your actions?

Ku n

til

These may be troubling questions, but they should be asked. According to Yuval Noah Harari, algorithms represent a real threat to who we are as individuals, and in his text “Change is the only constant” he paints a dark picture of the future. In his own words: “If […] you want to retain some control of your personal existence and of the future of life, you have to run faster than the algorithms.” To be able to follow Harari’s arguments, you first need to understand what an algorithm is. Simply put, an algorithm is a set of instructions for solving or completing a given task. In a sense, even a cake recipe can be regarded as an algorithm. In everyday language, however, we usually think of algorithms as instructions programmed into computers. They do everything from opening compressed files to scheduling traffic lights to suggesting which Netflix series you should watch next. For better or worse, they underlie all modern technology.

50

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

51


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY (EXCERPT)

Change is the only constant

5

5

vu

rd

[The] best advice I could give a 15-year-old stuck in an outdated school somewhere in Mexico, India or Alabama is: don’t rely on the adults too much. Most of them mean well, but they just don’t understand the world. In the past, it was a relatively safe bet to follow the adults, because they knew the world quite well, and the world changed slowly. But the 21st century is going to be different. Due to the growing pace of change, you can never be certain whether what the adults are telling you is timeless wisdom or outdated bias. So on what can you rely instead? Technology? That’s an even riskier gamble. Technology can help you a lot, but if technology gains too much power over your life, you might become a hostage to its agenda. Thousands of years ago, humans invented agriculture, but this technology enriched just a tiny elite, while enslaving the majority of humans. Most people found themselves working from sunrise till sunset plucking weeds, carrying water buckets and harvesting corn under a blazing sun. It can happen to you too.

Ku n

til

flourish grow or develop in a healthy way maze labyrinth previously before the present time eternal lasting forever pace here: the speed at which something happens bias tendency to prefer one person or thing to another hostage gissel agriculture farming enrich here: make someone wealthy or wealthier enslave make someone a slave weed a wild plant growing where it is not wanted blazing very hot increasingly more and more zombie here: a will-less and speechless human roam move about aimlessly glue (v) here: metaphorically fasten as if with glue Sesame Street American children’s television series (Sesam Stasjon is a Norwegian remake) Inside Out American computer-animated comedy-drama (2015) Riley Anderson a major character in the film Inside Out prey here: victim external coming from the outside

er in

g

A baby born today will be thirty-something in 2050. If all goes well, that baby will still be around in 2100, and might even be an active citizen of the 22nd century. What should we teach that baby that will help him or her survive and flourish in the world of 2050 or of the 22nd century? What kind of skills will he or she need in order to get a job, understand what is happening around them and navigate the maze of life? Unfortunately, since nobody knows how the world will look in 2050 – not to mention 2100 – we don’t know the answer to these questions. Of course, humans have never been able to predict the future with accuracy. But today it is more difficult than ever before, because once technology enables us to engineer bodies, brains and minds, we can no longer be certain about anything – including things that previously seemed fixed and eternal.(…)

was never trustworthy, because it always reflected state propaganda, ideological brainwashing and commercial advertisement, not to mention biochemical bugs.

52

[ chapter 1 ]

Technology isn’t bad. If you know what you want in life, technology can help you get it. But if you don’t know what you want in life, it will be all too easy for technology to shape your aims for you and take control of your life. Especially as technology gets better at understanding humans, you might increasingly find yourself serving it, instead of it serving you. Have you seen those zombies who roam the streets with their faces glued to their smartphones? Do you think they control the technology, or does the technology control them? Should you rely on yourself, then? That sounds great on Sesame Street or in an old-fashioned Disney film, but in real life it doesn’t work so well. Even Disney is coming to realise it. Just like Inside Out’s Riley Anderson, most people hardly know themselves, and when they try to “listen to themselves” they easily become prey to external manipulations. The voice we hear inside our heads

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

As biotechnology and machine learning improve, it will become easier to manipulate people’s deepest emotions and desires, and it will become more dangerous than ever to just follow your heart. When Coca-Cola, Amazon, Baidu or the government knows how to pull the strings of your heart and press the buttons of your brain, could you still tell the difference between your self and their marketing experts? To succeed in such a daunting task, you will need to work very hard on getting to know your operating system better. To know what you are, and what you want from life. This is, of course, the oldest advice in the book: know thyself. For thousands of years, philosophers and prophets have urged people to know themselves. But this advice was never more urgent than in the 21st century, because unlike in the days of Laozi or Socrates, now you have serious competition. Coca-Cola, Amazon, Baidu and the government are all racing to hack you. Not your smartphone, not your computer, and not your bank account – they are in a race to hack you, and your organic operating system. You might have heard that we are living in the era of hacking computers, but that’s hardly half the truth. In fact, we are living in the era of hacking humans. The algorithms are watching you right now. They are watching where you go, what you buy, who you meet. Soon they will monitor all your steps, all your breaths, all your heartbeats. They are relying on Big Data and machine learning to get to know you better and better. And once these algorithms know you better than you know yourself, they could control and manipulate you, and you won’t be able to do much about it. You will live in the matrix, or in The Truman Show. In the end, it’s a simple empirical matter: if the algorithms indeed understand what’s happening within you better than you understand it, authority will shift to them. Of course, you might be perfectly happy ceding all authority to the algorithms and trusting them to decide things for you and for the rest of the world. If so, just relax and enjoy the ride. You don’t need to do anything about it. The algorithms will take care of everything. If, however, you want to retain some control of your personal existence and of the future of life, you have to run faster than the algorithms, faster than Amazon and the government, and get to know yourself before they do. To run fast, don’t take much luggage with you. Leave all your illusions behind. They are very heavy. Harari, Y. N. (2018). 21 Lessons for the 21st Century (pp. 259; 266–268). London: Jonathan Cape.

trustworthy deserving of trust ideological based on a system of ideas biochemical bug a microorganism that creates a harmful chemical process in a living being Baidu Chinese internet search engine company daunting here: inspiring fear thyself yourself urge (v) strongly encourage someone to do something urgent needing attention very soon Laozi Chinese philosopher (601 BC – year of death unknown) Socrates Greek philosopher (c. 470–399 BC) monitor (v) keep under systematic review matrix here: the environment in which something develops The Truman Show American satirical science fiction film (1998) empirical verifiable by observation or experience cede give up retain keep possession of

Who Are You?

53


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY (EXCERPT)

Change is the only constant

52

[ chapter 1 ]

Technology isn’t bad. If you know what you want in life, technology can help you get it. But if you don’t know what you want in life, it will be all too easy for technology to shape your aims for you and take control of your life. Especially as technology gets better at understanding humans, you might increasingly find yourself serving it, instead of it serving you. Have you seen those zombies who roam the streets with their faces glued to their smartphones? Do you think they control the technology, or does the technology control them? Should you rely on yourself, then? That sounds great on Sesame Street or in an old-fashioned Disney film, but in real life it doesn’t work so well. Even Disney is coming to realise it. Just like Inside Out’s Riley Anderson, most people hardly know themselves, and when they try to “listen to themselves” they easily become prey to external manipulations. The voice we hear inside our heads

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

40

35

40

g

er in

10

To succeed in such a daunting task, you will need to work very hard on getting to know your operating system better. To know what you are, and what you want from life. This is, of course, the oldest advice in the book: know thyself. For thousands of years, philosophers and prophets have urged people to know themselves. But this advice was never more urgent than in the 21st century, because unlike in the days of Laozi or Socrates, now you have serious competition. Coca-Cola, Amazon, Baidu and the government are all racing to hack you. Not your smartphone, not your computer, and not your bank account – they are in a race to hack you, and your organic operating system. You might have heard that we are living in the era of hacking computers, but that’s hardly half the truth. In fact, we are living in the era of hacking humans.

rd

10

As biotechnology and machine learning improve, it will become easier to manipulate people’s deepest emotions and desires, and it will become more dangerous than ever to just follow your heart. When Coca-Cola, Amazon, Baidu or the government knows how to pull the strings of your heart and press the buttons of your brain, could you still tell the difference between your self and their marketing experts?

vu

So on what can you rely instead? Technology? That’s an even riskier gamble. Technology can help you a lot, but if technology gains too much power over your life, you might become a hostage to its agenda. Thousands of years ago, humans invented agriculture, but this technology enriched just a tiny elite, while enslaving the majority of humans. Most people found themselves working from sunrise till sunset plucking weeds, carrying water buckets and harvesting corn under a blazing sun. It can happen to you too.

5

The algorithms are watching you right now. They are watching where you go, what you buy, who you meet. Soon they will monitor all your steps, all your breaths, all your heartbeats. They are relying on Big Data and machine learning to get to know you better and better. And once these algorithms know you better than you know yourself, they could control and manipulate you, and you won’t be able to do much about it. You will live in the matrix, or in The Truman Show. In the end, it’s a simple empirical matter: if the algorithms indeed understand what’s happening within you better than you understand it, authority will shift to them.

til

flourish grow or develop in a healthy way maze labyrinth previously before the present time eternal lasting forever pace here: the speed at which something happens bias tendency to prefer one person or thing to another hostage gissel agriculture farming enrich here: make someone wealthy or wealthier enslave make someone a slave weed a wild plant growing where it is not wanted blazing very hot increasingly more and more zombie here: a will-less and speechless human roam move about aimlessly glue (v) here: metaphorically fasten as if with glue Sesame Street American children’s television series (Sesam Stasjon is a Norwegian remake) Inside Out American computer-animated comedy-drama (2015) Riley Anderson a major character in the film Inside Out prey here: victim external coming from the outside

[The] best advice I could give a 15-year-old stuck in an outdated school somewhere in Mexico, India or Alabama is: don’t rely on the adults too much. Most of them mean well, but they just don’t understand the world. In the past, it was a relatively safe bet to follow the adults, because they knew the world quite well, and the world changed slowly. But the 21st century is going to be different. Due to the growing pace of change, you can never be certain whether what the adults are telling you is timeless wisdom or outdated bias.

5

Ku n

A baby born today will be thirty-something in 2050. If all goes well, that baby will still be around in 2100, and might even be an active citizen of the 22nd century. What should we teach that baby that will help him or her survive and flourish in the world of 2050 or of the 22nd century? What kind of skills will he or she need in order to get a job, understand what is happening around them and navigate the maze of life? Unfortunately, since nobody knows how the world will look in 2050 – not to mention 2100 – we don’t know the answer to these questions. Of course, humans have never been able to predict the future with accuracy. But today it is more difficult than ever before, because once technology enables us to engineer bodies, brains and minds, we can no longer be certain about anything – including things that previously seemed fixed and eternal.(…)

was never trustworthy, because it always reflected state propaganda, ideological brainwashing and commercial advertisement, not to mention biochemical bugs.

Of course, you might be perfectly happy ceding all authority to the algorithms and trusting them to decide things for you and for the rest of the world. If so, just relax and enjoy the ride. You don’t need to do anything about it. The algorithms will take care of everything. If, however, you want to retain some control of your personal existence and of the future of life, you have to run faster than the algorithms, faster than Amazon and the government, and get to know yourself before they do. To run fast, don’t take much luggage with you. Leave all your illusions behind. They are very heavy. Harari, Y. N. (2018). 21 Lessons for the 21st Century (pp. 259; 266–268). London: Jonathan Cape.

trustworthy deserving of trust ideological based on a system of ideas biochemical bug a microorganism that creates a harmful chemical process in a living being Baidu Chinese internet search engine company daunting here: inspiring fear thyself yourself urge (v) strongly encourage someone to do something urgent needing attention very soon Laozi Chinese philosopher (601 BC – year of death unknown) Socrates Greek philosopher (c. 470–399 BC) monitor (v) keep under systematic review matrix here: the environment in which something develops The Truman Show American satirical science fiction film (1998) empirical verifiable by observation or experience cede give up retain keep possession of

Who Are You?

53


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE CONTENT 1 According to Harari, why is it more difficult to predict the future today than ever before?

LANGUAGE 7 Write five sentences where you include a total of 5–10 words from the vocabulary list.

2 What is Harari’s best advice to a 15-year-old?

8 Using your own words, rewrite the following sentences from the text:

5 Why should you “leave all illusions behind”? STRUCTURE 6 Harari’s text consists of 10 paragraphs, each of which is introduced by a carefully phrased topic sentence.

Ku n

AUTHOR

til

vu

rd

a Identify the topic sentences. b In your judgement, does Harari follow up all the topic sentences with explanations and relevant examples and/or comments? Justify your answer. See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

g

4 What will happen if the algorithms understand what is happening within you better than you understand it yourself?

• “Due to the growing pace of change, you can never be certain whether what the adults are telling you is timeless wisdom or outdated bias.” • “Technology can help you a lot, but if technology gains too much power over your life, you might become a hostage to its agenda.” • “Of course, you might be perfectly happy ceding all authority to the algorithms and trusting them to decide things for you and for the rest of the world.”

er in

3 What will happen as biotechnology and machine learning improve?

54

[ chapter 1 ]

Israeli Yuval Noah Harari (b. 1976) is a history professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the author of three international bestselling books: Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind (2014), Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (2016), and 21 Lessons for the 21st Century (2018). Some of his views are controversial. For instance, in a 2017 interview with the British newspaper The Observer he claimed that “Homo sapiens as we know them will disappear in a century or so”. Harari does not own a smartphone. Here is how he justifies his choice: • “I’m trying to conserve my time and attention. It can be such a distraction. I wouldn’t have the time to write books if I had a smartphone.” • “Attention is maybe the most important resource at present, and smartphones are designed to take over your attention.”

OVER TO YOU 9 Write a short text Choose a or b below. See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for guidance. a Write 1 or 2 paragraphs where you suggest an answer to one of the following: • “What should we teach that baby that will help him or her survive and flourish in the world of 2050 or of the 22nd century?” • “Have you seen those zombies who roam the streets with their faces glued to their smartphones? Do you think they control the technology, or does the technology control them?”

b Go online and find out what nomophobia, phoneliness or technological hangover means. Write 1 or 2 paragraphs where you explain the concept that you have chosen. Comment also on why you think some people go through phases in their lives where they experience this condition.

Who Are You?

55


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE CONTENT 1 According to Harari, why is it more difficult to predict the future today than ever before?

LANGUAGE 7 Write five sentences where you include a total of 5–10 words from the vocabulary list.

2 What is Harari’s best advice to a 15-year-old?

8 Using your own words, rewrite the following sentences from the text:

5 Why should you “leave all illusions behind”? STRUCTURE 6 Harari’s text consists of 10 paragraphs, each of which is introduced by a carefully phrased topic sentence.

g

4 What will happen if the algorithms understand what is happening within you better than you understand it yourself?

• “Due to the growing pace of change, you can never be certain whether what the adults are telling you is timeless wisdom or outdated bias.” • “Technology can help you a lot, but if technology gains too much power over your life, you might become a hostage to its agenda.” • “Of course, you might be perfectly happy ceding all authority to the algorithms and trusting them to decide things for you and for the rest of the world.”

er in

3 What will happen as biotechnology and machine learning improve?

vu

rd

a Identify the topic sentences. b In your judgement, does Harari follow up all the topic sentences with explanations and relevant examples and/or comments? Justify your answer. See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

Harari does not own a smartphone. Here is how he justifies his choice: • “I’m trying to conserve my time and attention. It can be such a distraction. I wouldn’t have the time to write books if I had a smartphone.” • “Attention is maybe the most important resource at present, and smartphones are designed to take over your attention.”

54

[ chapter 1 ]

til

a Write 1 or 2 paragraphs where you suggest an answer to one of the following: • “What should we teach that baby that will help him or her survive and flourish in the world of 2050 or of the 22nd century?” • “Have you seen those zombies who roam the streets with their faces glued to their smartphones? Do you think they control the technology, or does the technology control them?”

Ku n

AUTHOR

Israeli Yuval Noah Harari (b. 1976) is a history professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the author of three international bestselling books: Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind (2014), Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (2016), and 21 Lessons for the 21st Century (2018). Some of his views are controversial. For instance, in a 2017 interview with the British newspaper The Observer he claimed that “Homo sapiens as we know them will disappear in a century or so”.

OVER TO YOU 9 Write a short text Choose a or b below. See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for guidance. b Go online and find out what nomophobia, phoneliness or technological hangover means. Write 1 or 2 paragraphs where you explain the concept that you have chosen. Comment also on why you think some people go through phases in their lives where they experience this condition.

Who Are You?

55


1 Who Are You? AIMS

FIRST Why should you always ask for permission when sharing pictures of friends and family on the internet?

til

Ku n 56

[ chapter 1 ]

In Defence of Decency CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Understand the dangers of sharing personal, intimate images • Assess sources • Cooperate to give an oral presentation

In 2015, London-based journalist Sophia Ankel (b. 1996) lived through the nightmare of her life when nude pictures of her were published online. Three years later, she wrote the opinion piece that you are about to read. In many ways, she describes how she lost ownership of her own identity. Ankel also puts her story in the context of the international #MeToo movement, which gained enormous traction after American actress Alyssa Milano posted the following Tweet in the autumn of 2017:

Roy Lichtenstein: Crying Girl (1963)

If you’ve been sexually harassed or assaulted write ‘me too’ as a reply to this tweet. Suggested by a friend: “If all the women who have been sexually harassed or assaulted wrote ‘Me too’ as a status, we might give people a sense of the magnitude of the problem.” In Ankel’s own words: “I will join the fight, proudly wearing my own story on my sleeve for the very first time.”

Who Are You?

57


1 Who Are You? AIMS

FIRST Why should you always ask for permission when sharing pictures of friends and family on the internet?

er in

g

• Understand the dangers of sharing personal, intimate images • Assess sources • Cooperate to give an oral presentation

In 2015, London-based journalist Sophia Ankel (b. 1996) lived through the nightmare of her life when nude pictures of her were published online. Three years later, she wrote the opinion piece that you are about to read. In many ways, she describes how she lost ownership of her own identity.

til

CONTEXT

vu

rd

In Defence of Decency

Ku n

Ankel also puts her story in the context of the international #MeToo movement, which gained enormous traction after American actress Alyssa Milano posted the following Tweet in the autumn of 2017:

Roy Lichtenstein: Crying Girl (1963)

If you’ve been sexually harassed or assaulted write ‘me too’ as a reply to this tweet. Suggested by a friend: “If all the women who have been sexually harassed or assaulted wrote ‘Me too’ as a status, we might give people a sense of the magnitude of the problem.”

In Ankel’s own words: “I will join the fight, proudly wearing my own story on my sleeve for the very first time.”

56

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

57


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

5

5

er in

g

Three years ago, nude pictures of me made the rounds online. There were two and they had been taken in my bathroom several months earlier. One showed my stomach and my bare chest and the other was a long mirror shot of me topless, with my face on full display. I was even smiling – a gesture made for the eyes of my then long-distance boyfriend, to whom I had sent them via Facebook.

TIDBIT

What I learned when naked pictures of me were leaked online

rd

When you’re a teenager, it’s common to hear stories about other girls discovering their naked pictures on porn sites or in the possession of easily aroused adolescent boys. But you never think it could happen to you. After all, you’re just one out of millions. Surely the chances of something leaking are very small?

It is hard to describe my feelings in the moment I found out that boys were showing my pictures around my old school. I felt exposed and – a feeling I’ll never forget – disgusted with myself. In the days that followed, I remember feeling so helpless that I could not function. My older sister had to take care of me, reminding me to eat and holding me when I randomly burst into panicked tears. It felt like a break-up, but instead of a broken heart, there was only shattered self-worth.

Ku n

til

This magazine was sold at Tate Modern in London in 2018 to raise awareness about revenge porn and media representation of it. Steph Wilson’s photo series explored censorship through the use of emojis.

vu

So, as time went on and our feelings grew stronger, I warmed up to the idea of sending him some sexy shots. After a long morning preparing (How does my hair look? Which is the best angle?), I finally pressed “send” and, with that, lost all ownership and dignity of something deeply private and personal to me – my own body.

on display put somewhere for people to see adolescent teenage dignity being worthy of honour and respect expose make visible randomly without method or conscious decision shattered very upset smother put out close-knit tightly connected

58

[ chapter 1 ]

As I received the news, my boyfriend, who still says he never shared the pictures, told me he was desperately attempting to track down the source of the leak. There was a long chain of finger-pointing that eventually led nowhere. He was trying to smother a fire that was spreading viciously and quickly. I was no longer in school when the pictures leaked, as I had graduated two years earlier. However, my younger sister was, and many of the boys who were distributing the pictures were her friends. It was a close-knit community, the school I grew up in and often returned to – a place that until then had been full of only fond memories.

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

30

35

40

25

30

35

40

Sophia Ankel does not claim that she is the victim of an evil act. However, her case shares many similarities with what is commonly known as revenge porn: • Revenge porn is the act of publishing a private sexual image of someone without her or his consent. It is illegal and punishable by law. • 1 out of 10 ex-partners has threatened to post naked images of his/her ex online. 60 % of them carry out the threat. • 80–90 % of revenge porn victims are women. • 93 % of victims suffer significant emotional distress. • 49 % of victims are harassed or stalked online by someone who saw the material. • 3,000 pornography websites feature a “revenge porn” genre. Sources: End Revenge Porn (US), the Cyber Civil Rights Initiative (US), the Revenge Porn Helpline (UK), McAffee and The Economist

More than half of UK teenagers have seen their friends share intimate images of someone they know, according to a survey by Childnet International. Four in 10 say they have witnessed peers setting up groups on social media to share sexual gossip or images. Stories of online bullying, body shaming and teen suicides are reported on a regular basis. But behind every headline is a real girl. In the months that followed, I continued to blame myself. I was told to get over it, that it could have been worse. That it wasn’t as bad as being on a porn site. I was scolded by a friend for sending the pictures in the first place. Returning home, I refused to go back to school for my annual visit. I avoided reunions and parties. I also approached my own friends with care, wondering if they had heard something through the grapevine. Even when my younger sister finished school last summer, I had to force myself to attend her graduation. The large gathering of boys made me incredibly nervous and I found myself avoiding eye contact with every guy in the room. I kept asking the same question in my head: did you see my pictures too? The debate about sexual harassment, demonstrated by the #MeToo movement, has started a positive discussion. But where does online sexual harassment fit into this picture? It is now so embedded into our everyday digital lives that it has become normalised and, quite frankly, overlooked. In her book Hate Crimes in Cyberspace, Danielle Keats Citron writes about how victims are blamed for having poor online judgment, and some are accused of letting pictures leak merely for attention. Many men and boys, who would never dream of doing any of the acts Harvey Weinstein has been accused of, still think it acceptable to share naked pictures of strangers, as if the internet is exempt from social norms.

peer here: person of same age and status scold angrily criticise annual once a year through the grapevine from gossip embed fix firmly Danielle Keats Citron professor of law at Boston University

Who Are You?

59


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

10

15

15

20

20

g

10

25

This magazine was sold at Tate Modern in London in 2018 to raise awareness about revenge porn and media representation of it. Steph Wilson’s photo series explored censorship through the use of emojis.

on display put somewhere for people to see adolescent teenage dignity being worthy of honour and respect expose make visible randomly without method or conscious decision shattered very upset smother put out close-knit tightly connected

58

[ chapter 1 ]

It is hard to describe my feelings in the moment I found out that boys were showing my pictures around my old school. I felt exposed and – a feeling I’ll never forget – disgusted with myself. In the days that followed, I remember feeling so helpless that I could not function. My older sister had to take care of me, reminding me to eat and holding me when I randomly burst into panicked tears. It felt like a break-up, but instead of a broken heart, there was only shattered self-worth. As I received the news, my boyfriend, who still says he never shared the pictures, told me he was desperately attempting to track down the source of the leak. There was a long chain of finger-pointing that eventually led nowhere. He was trying to smother a fire that was spreading viciously and quickly. I was no longer in school when the pictures leaked, as I had graduated two years earlier. However, my younger sister was, and many of the boys who were distributing the pictures were her friends. It was a close-knit community, the school I grew up in and often returned to – a place that until then had been full of only fond memories.

30

35

40

25

30

er in

Sources: End Revenge Porn (US), the Cyber Civil Rights Initiative (US), the Revenge Porn Helpline (UK), McAffee and The Economist

rd

More than half of UK teenagers have seen their friends share intimate images of someone they know, according to a survey by Childnet International. Four in 10 say they have witnessed peers setting up groups on social media to share sexual gossip or images. Stories of online bullying, body shaming and teen suicides are reported on a regular basis. But behind every headline is a real girl. In the months that followed, I continued to blame myself. I was told to get over it, that it could have been worse. That it wasn’t as bad as being on a porn site. I was scolded by a friend for sending the pictures in the first place. Returning home, I refused to go back to school for my annual visit. I avoided reunions and parties. I also approached my own friends with care, wondering if they had heard something through the grapevine.

vu

So, as time went on and our feelings grew stronger, I warmed up to the idea of sending him some sexy shots. After a long morning preparing (How does my hair look? Which is the best angle?), I finally pressed “send” and, with that, lost all ownership and dignity of something deeply private and personal to me – my own body.

5

• Revenge porn is the act of publishing a private sexual image of someone without her or his consent. It is illegal and punishable by law. • 1 out of 10 ex-partners has threatened to post naked images of his/her ex online. 60 % of them carry out the threat. • 80–90 % of revenge porn victims are women. • 93 % of victims suffer significant emotional distress. • 49 % of victims are harassed or stalked online by someone who saw the material. • 3,000 pornography websites feature a “revenge porn” genre.

Even when my younger sister finished school last summer, I had to force myself to attend her graduation. The large gathering of boys made me incredibly nervous and I found myself avoiding eye contact with every guy in the room. I kept asking the same question in my head: did you see my pictures too?

til

When you’re a teenager, it’s common to hear stories about other girls discovering their naked pictures on porn sites or in the possession of easily aroused adolescent boys. But you never think it could happen to you. After all, you’re just one out of millions. Surely the chances of something leaking are very small?

5

Sophia Ankel does not claim that she is the victim of an evil act. However, her case shares many similarities with what is commonly known as revenge porn:

The debate about sexual harassment, demonstrated by the #MeToo movement, has started a positive discussion. But where does online sexual harassment fit into this picture? It is now so embedded into our everyday digital lives that it has become normalised and, quite frankly, overlooked.

Ku n

Three years ago, nude pictures of me made the rounds online. There were two and they had been taken in my bathroom several months earlier. One showed my stomach and my bare chest and the other was a long mirror shot of me topless, with my face on full display. I was even smiling – a gesture made for the eyes of my then long-distance boyfriend, to whom I had sent them via Facebook.

TIDBIT

What I learned when naked pictures of me were leaked online

35

40

In her book Hate Crimes in Cyberspace, Danielle Keats Citron writes about how victims are blamed for having poor online judgment, and some are accused of letting pictures leak merely for attention. Many men and boys, who would never dream of doing any of the acts Harvey Weinstein has been accused of, still think it acceptable to share naked pictures of strangers, as if the internet is exempt from social norms.

peer here: person of same age and status scold angrily criticise annual once a year through the grapevine from gossip embed fix firmly Danielle Keats Citron professor of law at Boston University

Who Are You?

59


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE CONTENT 1 Why did Sophia Ankel send “sexy shots” to her boyfriend?

er in

g

2 Why did she feel disgusted with herself?

frantically in a panic-stricken way abrupt halt sudden stop abuse (v) treat with cruelty and violence customise modify linger remain longer than expected cyber-void here: the internet wear something on my sleeve display something openly

60

[ chapter 1 ]

The next fight for the women’s rights movement must be to afford online sexual harassment the same importance as offline abuse. With the pace at which technology is advancing, including developments such as customised virtual reality pornography or AI-generated face-swap porn, this need is only becoming more urgent. We cannot simply walk away and turn off our computers. I have come to terms with what happened, and most importantly, have stopped blaming myself. But one thought that still worries me three years on is whether my pictures linger in the dark cyber-void. I guess this is something I will just have to learn to live with. But for now, I will join the fight, proudly wearing my own story on my sleeve for the very first time. Ankel, S. (2018, March 22). What I learned when naked pictures of me were leaked online. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/22/naked-photosleaked-online-abuse-sexual-harassment

4 What point does Danielle Keats Citron make in her book Hate Crimes in Cyberspace?

a Cyberbullying and online shaming Prepare and give an oral presentation about cyberbullying and online shaming. Focus on • what cyberbullying and online shaming is • examples of cyberbullying and online shaming • what one can do to protect oneself against cyberbullying and online shaming

5 What thought still worries Sophia Ankel? STRUCTURE 6 Despite the fact that Sophia Ankel’s text consists of 13 paragraphs, it is still structured according to most of the main principles of the five-paragraph essay. For instance, she presents the point that she wants to discuss, her thesis statement, in the introduction.

rd vu

Ku n

til

Although horrible in its own right, my story isn’t the only one. After regaining my energy, I spent every night online frantically trying to track down the original leak. My investigation came to an abrupt halt one evening when I was told that my nudes were originally on a larger online document that had been shared with even more boys. On it were more than 40 images of other girls at my school, collected throughout the years. Some featured young girls in their underwear, a few were completely naked.

3 How common is sharing intimate pictures?

OVER TO YOU 8 Cooperate and give an oral presentation In groups of 4 or 5, work with either a, b, or c below.

a In your opinion, what is Sophia Ankel’s thesis statement/thesis question? b What are the main arguments that she uses to support this? c Does she refer to her thesis statement in the conclusion? If your answer is yes: How does she do that? 25

Use only reliable sources. In addition to your own research, you may find these resources helpful: dubestemmer.no/en/cyberbullying-0 and linkfluence.com/blog/online-publicshaming. Add your own comments to what you find. See course 10: Choosing sources and course 14: Giving presentations for guidance. b The #MeToo movement Prepare and give an oral presentation about the #MeToo movement. Focus on • how the movement started in 2006 • who some of the victims of sexual abuse and harassment are • some results the movement has achieved

See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance. LANGUAGE 7 Rewrite the following sentences in your own words:

30

35

40

a “As I received the news, my boyfriend, who still says he never shared the pictures, told me he was desperately attempting to track down the source of the leak.” b “I also approached my own friends with care, wondering if they had heard something through the grapevine.” c “The next fight for the women’s rights movement must be to afford online sexual harassment the same importance as offline abuse.” d “But one thought that still worries me three years on is whether my pictures linger in the dark cyber-void.”

Use only reliable sources. See course 10: Choosing sources and course 14: Giving presentations for guidance c

Some high-profile cases Powerful men like Bill Clinton, Bill Cosby, Jeffrey Epstein, R. Kelly, Kevin Spacey, Donald J. Trump, and Harvey Weinstein have all been accused of sexual misconduct. In small groups, focus on one of them and find out more about the case against him. Look into • his role in society at the time when the allegations were made • who some of his alleged victims are • what he was/is accused of Use only reliable sources. See course 10: Choosing sources and course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

Who Are You?

61


1 Who Are You? PRACTICE

3 How common is sharing intimate pictures? 4 What point does Danielle Keats Citron make in her book Hate Crimes in Cyberspace? 5 What thought still worries Sophia Ankel?

• what cyberbullying and online shaming is • examples of cyberbullying and online shaming • what one can do to protect oneself against cyberbullying and online shaming

Use only reliable sources. In addition to your own research, you may find these resources helpful: dubestemmer.no/en/cyberbullying-0 and linkfluence.com/blog/online-publicshaming. Add your own comments to what you find. See course 10: Choosing sources and course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

rd

STRUCTURE 6 Despite the fact that Sophia Ankel’s text consists of 13 paragraphs, it is still structured according to most of the main principles of the five-paragraph essay. For instance, she presents the point that she wants to discuss, her thesis statement, in the introduction.

a Cyberbullying and online shaming Prepare and give an oral presentation about cyberbullying and online shaming. Focus on

g

2 Why did she feel disgusted with herself?

OVER TO YOU 8 Cooperate and give an oral presentation In groups of 4 or 5, work with either a, b, or c below.

er in

CONTENT 1 Why did Sophia Ankel send “sexy shots” to her boyfriend?

frantically in a panic-stricken way abrupt halt sudden stop abuse (v) treat with cruelty and violence customise modify linger remain longer than expected cyber-void here: the internet wear something on my sleeve display something openly

60

[ chapter 1 ]

I have come to terms with what happened, and most importantly, have stopped blaming myself. But one thought that still worries me three years on is whether my pictures linger in the dark cyber-void. I guess this is something I will just have to learn to live with. But for now, I will join the fight, proudly wearing my own story on my sleeve for the very first time. Ankel, S. (2018, March 22). What I learned when naked pictures of me were leaked online. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/22/naked-photosleaked-online-abuse-sexual-harassment

See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

35

40

til

LANGUAGE 7 Rewrite the following sentences in your own words: 30

The next fight for the women’s rights movement must be to afford online sexual harassment the same importance as offline abuse. With the pace at which technology is advancing, including developments such as customised virtual reality pornography or AI-generated face-swap porn, this need is only becoming more urgent. We cannot simply walk away and turn off our computers.

b The #MeToo movement Prepare and give an oral presentation about the #MeToo movement. Focus on

vu

25

a “As I received the news, my boyfriend, who still says he never shared the pictures, told me he was desperately attempting to track down the source of the leak.” b “I also approached my own friends with care, wondering if they had heard something through the grapevine.” c “The next fight for the women’s rights movement must be to afford online sexual harassment the same importance as offline abuse.” d “But one thought that still worries me three years on is whether my pictures linger in the dark cyber-void.”

Ku n

Although horrible in its own right, my story isn’t the only one. After regaining my energy, I spent every night online frantically trying to track down the original leak. My investigation came to an abrupt halt one evening when I was told that my nudes were originally on a larger online document that had been shared with even more boys. On it were more than 40 images of other girls at my school, collected throughout the years. Some featured young girls in their underwear, a few were completely naked.

a In your opinion, what is Sophia Ankel’s thesis statement/thesis question? b What are the main arguments that she uses to support this? c Does she refer to her thesis statement in the conclusion? If your answer is yes: How does she do that?

• how the movement started in 2006 • who some of the victims of sexual abuse and harassment are • some results the movement has achieved

Use only reliable sources. See course 10: Choosing sources and course 14: Giving presentations for guidance c

Some high-profile cases Powerful men like Bill Clinton, Bill Cosby, Jeffrey Epstein, R. Kelly, Kevin Spacey, Donald J. Trump, and Harvey Weinstein have all been accused of sexual misconduct. In small groups, focus on one of them and find out more about the case against him. Look into • his role in society at the time when the allegations were made • who some of his alleged victims are • what he was/is accused of Use only reliable sources. See course 10: Choosing sources and course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

Who Are You?

61


1 Who Are You? AIMS • Gain new perspectives on how people’s lifestyles and individual circumstances contribute to form our identities

Discuss in class: Who is Cinderella of the traditional fairy tale? Why does her story appeal to us so much?

Ku n 62

[ chapter 1 ]

The film Crazy Rich Asians (2018) is an adaptation of the 2013 novel by Singaporean author Kevin Kwan. The protagonist, ABC (American-born Chinese) professor of economy Rachel Chu, is invited to Singapore to meet the family of her boyfriend Nick Young. All her life, Rachel has been encouraged to “pursue her passion”, which is a truly American idea. Nick’s mother, Eleanor, on the other hand, stands for a completely different approach to life: “[Here in Singapore], parents are obsessed with shaping the life of their children,” she says. Rachel is thrown into a world of unfamiliar values, of multimillion-dollar estates, mega yachts, fast cars, and poolside parties. However, neither the values nor the money of her “crazy rich” in-law family can make Rachel change in any way. She remains true to her New York self.

WA TC

Crazy Rich Asians CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Practise film analysis • Write a film review

FIRST

HT

H E F I L M!

Who Are You?

63


1 Who Are You? AIMS • Gain new perspectives on how people’s lifestyles and individual circumstances contribute to form our identities

Discuss in class: Who is Cinderella of the traditional fairy tale? Why does her story appeal to us so much?

rd

er in

g

• Practise film analysis • Write a film review

FIRST

WA TC

The film Crazy Rich Asians (2018) is an adaptation of the 2013 novel by Singaporean author Kevin Kwan. The protagonist, ABC (American-born Chinese) professor of economy Rachel Chu, is invited to Singapore to meet the family of her boyfriend Nick Young. All her life, Rachel has been encouraged to “pursue her passion”, which is a truly American idea. Nick’s mother, Eleanor, on the other hand, stands for a completely different approach to life: “[Here in Singapore], parents are obsessed with shaping the life of their children,” she says. Rachel is thrown into a world of unfamiliar values, of multimillion-dollar estates, mega yachts, fast cars, and poolside parties. However, neither the values nor the money of her “crazy rich” in-law family can make Rachel change in any way. She remains true to her New York self.

HT

H E F I L M!

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

vu

Crazy Rich Asians

62

[ chapter 1 ]

Who Are You?

63


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: ROMANTIC COMEDY

PRACTICE CONTENT AND STRUCTURE 1 Film analysis Answer the questions in a – e below. a Cinematic devices

vu

rd

er in

g

• Visual elements: What do the settings, costumes, and props tell you about the different characters? • Cinematography: Is the camera used in certain ways to create special effects? If yes: How? • Sound: What sound effects, like music and voice overs, are used? Why are they used? • Editing: Are the transitions within the individual scenes fast or slow? What are the effects?

til

Ku n

I realize that the majority of those who see the movie are simply interested in escapism and wish-fulfillment. For those viewers, although the fantasy may not be the most original or best executed, it works well enough to satisfy the craving. (James Berardinelli, in ReelViews.)

(A. O. Scott in the New York Times.)

Crazy Rich Asians is a marvel of sorts, because it makes it possible even for militantly non-rom-com people like me to let down our guard and enjoy a little illusion of love. (Peter Martin in Dallas Film Now.)

64

[ chapter 1 ]

• What are the most important settings in the film? • Are the settings themselves important, or could the film have been set outside Asia? c

Plot • In your opinion, what are the five key moments in the film? • What is the climax, or turning point? • Does the film end as you expected – or not? Did it tie up loose ends, or leave some things unresolved?

d Characters

Here are some snippets of what critics have said about the film:

[Crazy Rich Asians is a] celebration of luxury and money, with hints of class conflict that have more to do with aspiration than envy or anger, set in an Asia miraculously free of history or politics.

b Setting

While there are many funny moments, Crazy Rich Asians is more interested in its central romance than in delivering wall-to-wall laughs. Even so, the romance, while engaging, is fairly predictable. Chu’s movie adds little that is new to the rom com genre. However, hidden depths lie beneath the surface of this blinged-up love story.

• In your opinion, is the film mainly about Rachel or Nick – or both? • Who are the antagonists? • Do all the main characters in the film have clear individual features? Are some of them stereotypes? e Theme and message • In your opinion, what are the three most important themes in the film? What makes you say that? • Does the film deal with big issues that concern us all, or small ones that only affect individual lives? • Who do you think the film was made for, and why? Who else should watch it? See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

LANGUAGE 2 With the help of a dictionary, define these words and expressions from the film in your own words: custodian

perk (n)

fertility

Jamba Juice card

vibe

grounded (adj)

Tupperware meal

dashing (adj)

convert (v)

self-anointed coronation

vomity

millennial (n)

groomsmen

bachelorette party

human douche nozzle

ditto

snoshy

nepotism

lingo

sociopath

OVER TO YOU 3 Write your own film review Write a 5-paragraph review of Crazy Rich Asians based on the following points: • First paragraph: Introduction Include basic information about the film: its name and year of production, and the names of the director, screenwriter(s), and major actors. Round off with a general claim about how you view the quality of the film. • Second paragraph: Plot summary Be brief and avoid specific details, especially about the ending, that would spoil the viewing for others. • Third paragraph: Your general impression Describe how the film looks and sounds, how it makes you feel, and how it compares to other films of the same genre or by the same director. What stands out? • Fourth paragraph: Analysis Comment on how different cinematic devices are used. (See course 17: Approaching literature and film.) How are themes like wealth, class, love, etc. highlighted? • Fifth paragraph: Conclusion Remind your reader of your general impressions. Do you recommend the film or not? See also course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

(Jane Douglas-Jones in 500 Days of Film.)

Who Are You?

65


1 Who Are You?

GENRE: ROMANTIC COMEDY

PRACTICE LANGUAGE 2 With the help of a dictionary, define these words and expressions from the film in your own words:

• Visual elements: What do the settings, costumes, and props tell you about the different characters? • Cinematography: Is the camera used in certain ways to create special effects? If yes: How? • Sound: What sound effects, like music and voice overs, are used? Why are they used? • Editing: Are the transitions within the individual scenes fast or slow? What are the effects? b Setting

c

Plot

d Characters

(James Berardinelli, in ReelViews.)

(A. O. Scott in the New York Times.)

Crazy Rich Asians is a marvel of sorts, because it makes it possible even for militantly non-rom-com people like me to let down our guard and enjoy a little illusion of love. (Peter Martin in Dallas Film Now.)

64

[ chapter 1 ]

While there are many funny moments, Crazy Rich Asians is more interested in its central romance than in delivering wall-to-wall laughs. Even so, the romance, while engaging, is fairly predictable. Chu’s movie adds little that is new to the rom com genre. However, hidden depths lie beneath the surface of this blinged-up love story.

til

I realize that the majority of those who see the movie are simply interested in escapism and wish-fulfillment. For those viewers, although the fantasy may not be the most original or best executed, it works well enough to satisfy the craving.

• In your opinion, is the film mainly about Rachel or Nick – or both? • Who are the antagonists? • Do all the main characters in the film have clear individual features? Are some of them stereotypes?

e Theme and message

Ku n

[Crazy Rich Asians is a] celebration of luxury and money, with hints of class conflict that have more to do with aspiration than envy or anger, set in an Asia miraculously free of history or politics.

fertility

Jamba Juice card

vibe

grounded (adj)

Tupperware meal convert (v)

dashing (adj)

self-anointed coronation

vomity

millennial (n)

groomsmen

bachelorette party

human douche nozzle

ditto

snoshy

nepotism

lingo

sociopath

OVER TO YOU 3 Write your own film review Write a 5-paragraph review of Crazy Rich Asians based on the following points:

• First paragraph: Introduction Include basic information about the film: its name and year of production, and the names of the director, screenwriter(s), and major actors. Round off with a general claim about how you view the quality of the film. • Second paragraph: Plot summary Be brief and avoid specific details, especially about the ending, that would spoil the viewing for others. • Third paragraph: Your general impression Describe how the film looks and sounds, how it makes you feel, and how it compares to other films of the same genre or by the same director. What stands out? • Fourth paragraph: Analysis Comment on how different cinematic devices are used. (See course 17: Approaching literature and film.) How are themes like wealth, class, love, etc. highlighted? • Fifth paragraph: Conclusion Remind your reader of your general impressions. Do you recommend the film or not?

vu

• In your opinion, what are the five key moments in the film? • What is the climax, or turning point? • Does the film end as you expected – or not? Did it tie up loose ends, or leave some things unresolved?

Here are some snippets of what critics have said about the film:

perk (n)

rd

• What are the most important settings in the film? • Are the settings themselves important, or could the film have been set outside Asia?

custodian

g

a Cinematic devices

er in

CONTENT AND STRUCTURE 1 Film analysis Answer the questions in a – e below.

• In your opinion, what are the three most important themes in the film? What makes you say that? • Does the film deal with big issues that concern us all, or small ones that only affect individual lives? • Who do you think the film was made for, and why? Who else should watch it?

See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

See also course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

(Jane Douglas-Jones in 500 Days of Film.)

Who Are You?

65


PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM

Identity, or Who Are You?, may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can: • Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Task

Task 2 – Long answer

Task 1 – Short answer In her text “Who do you think you are?”, Emma Clare Gabrielsen uses both formal and informal language features. Several of these are commented on in the model answer below. What other features can you find in Gabrielsen’s text? See course 7: Recognising formality for guidance.

Choose either a or b below. Give your text a suitable title. a Based on the material you have studied in this chapter, create a text where you discuss the concept of identity. Use Bob Dylan’s statement below as your starting point:

rd

Model answer

er in

g

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

EXAMPLE

I can change during the course of a day. I wake and I’m one person, when I go to sleep, I know for certain I’m somebody else. I don’t know who I am most of the time.

til

vu

By using several informal language features, Emma Clare Gabrielsen makes her text appear both personal and sincere. Contractions (“it’s”, “I’m”, “we’re”, “don’t”, “aren’t”, “I’d”, and “I’ll”), incomplete sentences (“But why?”, “Nails.”, and “Duh!”), and informal expressions (“stuff like that”, “their brains start spinning”) all add to the general effect. She also uses the personal pronouns “I”, “me”, “my”, and “mine” to highlight her personal experiences. In addition, she creates a sense of common understanding between herself and her reader through the extensive use of the personal pronouns “we”, “us”, “our”, and “ourselves”.

Ku n

In her text, Gabrielsen also uses several formal language features. We find both advanced vocabulary (“assign”, “preoccupation”, “perceive”, “philologist”, “curate”, “conveniently”, and “presumably”) and formal expressions, like “the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves” and “conventional gender categories”. Formal language features like this make her arguments convincing to her reader.

66

[ chapter 1 ]

An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

Bob Dylan, in biographical film I’m Not There (2007)

b Reflect on how video games and/or films that you are familiar with have raised your awareness about your own identity.

Requirements for the presentation Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it:

Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aim:

• •

diskuter og reflekter over form, innhold og virkemidler i engelskspråklige kulturelle uttrykksformer fra ulike medier, inkludert musikk, film og spill

Suggested thesis statements/questions: EXAMPLE

• •

I support Yuval Noah Harari’s claim that we all should worry about the power of algorithms. I disagree with what Jordan Peterson says about gender roles. What are the most important themes in the video game “What Remains of Edith Finch?” How are these themes highlighted? How do the cinematic devices or techniques, like visual cues and music, used in “What Remains of Edith Finch?” and/or Crazy Rich Asians enhance the themes?

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation •

• • •

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

Who Are You?

67


PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM

Choose either a or b below. Give your text a suitable title. a Based on the material you have studied in this chapter, create a text where you discuss the concept of identity. Use Bob Dylan’s statement below as your starting point:

EXAMPLE

By using several informal language features, Emma Clare Gabrielsen makes her text appear both personal and sincere. Contractions (“it’s”, “I’m”, “we’re”, “don’t”, “aren’t”, “I’d”, and “I’ll”), incomplete sentences (“But why?”, “Nails.”, and “Duh!”), and informal expressions (“stuff like that”, “their brains start spinning”) all add to the general effect. She also uses the personal pronouns “I”, “me”, “my”, and “mine” to highlight her personal experiences. In addition, she creates a sense of common understanding between herself and her reader through the extensive use of the personal pronouns “we”, “us”, “our”, and “ourselves”. In her text, Gabrielsen also uses several formal language features. We find both advanced vocabulary (“assign”, “preoccupation”, “perceive”, “philologist”, “curate”, “conveniently”, and “presumably”) and formal expressions, like “the potentially deceptive nature of our online selves” and “conventional gender categories”. Formal language features like this make her arguments convincing to her reader.

[ chapter 1 ]

• •

Suggested thesis statements/questions:

Bob Dylan, in biographical film I’m Not There (2007)

b Reflect on how video games and/or films that you are familiar with have raised your awareness about your own identity.

• •

• •

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation

EXAMPLE

I can change during the course of a day. I wake and I’m one person, when I go to sleep, I know for certain I’m somebody else. I don’t know who I am most of the time.

diskuter og reflekter over form, innhold og virkemidler i engelskspråklige kulturelle uttrykksformer fra ulike medier, inkludert musikk, film og spill

I support Yuval Noah Harari’s claim that we all should worry about the power of algorithms. I disagree with what Jordan Peterson says about gender roles. What are the most important themes in the video game “What Remains of Edith Finch?” How are these themes highlighted? How do the cinematic devices or techniques, like visual cues and music, used in “What Remains of Edith Finch?” and/or Crazy Rich Asians enhance the themes?

til

Model answer

Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aim:

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

rd

In her text “Who do you think you are?”, Emma Clare Gabrielsen uses both formal and informal language features. Several of these are commented on in the model answer below. What other features can you find in Gabrielsen’s text?

Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it:

• •

vu

Task 2 – Long answer

Requirements for the presentation

er in

Task

Task 1 – Short answer

See course 7: Recognising formality for guidance.

66

• Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Ku n

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

g

Identity, or Who Are You?, may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can:

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

Who Are You?

67


g er in rd vu til

Ku n 68

2  English Everywhere

[ chapter 2 ]

CHAPTER FOCUS This is Morten Mørland’s interpretation of English Everywhere. What could be his message?

• Apply knowledge of the relationships between English and other languages you know in your language learning • Describe central features of the development of English as a world language English Everywhere

69


g er in rd vu [ chapter 2 ]

Ku n

til 68

2  English Everywhere

This is Morten Mørland’s interpretation of English Everywhere. What could be his message?

CHAPTER FOCUS • Apply knowledge of the relationships between English and other languages you know in your language learning • Describe central features of the development of English as a world language English Everywhere

69


2 English Everywhere

er in

g

English as a World Language By Kristin Bech

There are about seven thousand languages in the world. The largest language by number of speakers is Mandarin Chinese. The secondlargest language is Spanish, and English is in third place. So why is it English that is the “global language”, the lingua franca of communication? Why is English the main language of important international organisations such as NATO, the UN, and the EU? Why do you study English as a second rather than a foreign language? To understand how English has come to have this status, we have to consider the three Cs: colonisation, capitalism, and culture.

vu

rd

How many people spoke English at the beginning of the 16th century?

Colonisation

Ku n

til

In the year 1500, English was spoken by a few million people on the British Isles, primarily in England. Because English kings and queens wanted to expand their power, English first spread to the areas where Celtic languages were spoken – Ireland, Scotland, and Wales – where these languages lead an uncertain existence today. Nevertheless, English was still an island language. The modest beginnings of English as a world language happened in 1584, when Queen Elizabeth I gave Sir Walter Raleigh permission to colonise any “remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian prince, nor inhabited by Christian people” (the Avalon Project, paragraph 1). However, a successful colony was not established until Jamestown in 1607. In the early years, eighty percent of the colonisers died of

70

[ chapter 2 ]

disease and starvation, since they arrived with practically no clue how to survive in the new world; it was not until John Rolfe started to grow tobacco that the colony was able to thrive. It would take a while before the American colonies became independent of the mother country and the USA developed into a global power, but in the meantime, Britain was busy taking as much of the world as possible. Colonies were established in Australia, used to dispose of petty criminals for whom there was no room in overcrowded British prisons, and New Zealand, in South Africa and on large parts of the African continent, on the Indian subcontinent, and elsewhere in Asia. This was the British Empire. Through government and education systems in the new colonies, English spread and took on new flavours as speakers of other languages had to learn English (Bauer, 2002). Where would English be today without words like juggernaut, moose, pyjamas, safari, and zombie? The speed with which the British Empire expanded was quite astonishing. It was the project of a self-confident nation, and the reason for the self-confidence was economic prosperity. This brings us to the next C: capitalism.

What made English colonists finally thrive in America?

Capitalism In the 17th century, improvements in farming techniques led to more and better food, which in turn led to a population increase. This meant that the urban workforce became big enough to drive the Industrial Revolution. Britain was a leading force in this change from hand to machine production, and its wealth and power were what made it possible for it to colonise large parts of the world. At the end of the 19th century, however, it was surpassed by the USA. American inventions in transportation, communication, and technology – steamships, railways, the telephone, newspapers – meant that knowledge could be spread more easily, and the primary language was English (Crystal, 2003). This was also when Norwegian politicians decided to replace Latin with English in Norwegian schools, a bold decision at the time. Two world wars in the 20th century slowed things down for a while, and Britain emerged from World War II with massive debts and a lost empire. The USA, on the other hand, consolidated its status as an economic superpower, and American capitalists channelled some of their wealth into educational and cultural institutions, further strengthening the English language. People like the steel magnate Andrew Carnegie and the railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt founded universities that are well respected today. The oil baron John D Rockefeller was a generous philanthropist in areas such as public education, medical science, and the arts. Although English had spread throughout the world because of the British Empire, it was the USA that ensured its position as a global language.

Which American inventions contributed to spreading knowledge?

English Everywhere

71


Colonisation In the year 1500, English was spoken by a few million people on the British Isles, primarily in England. Because English kings and queens wanted to expand their power, English first spread to the areas where Celtic languages were spoken – Ireland, Scotland, and Wales – where these languages lead an uncertain existence today. Nevertheless, English was still an island language. The modest beginnings of English as a world language happened in 1584, when Queen Elizabeth I gave Sir Walter Raleigh permission to colonise any “remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian prince, nor inhabited by Christian people” (the Avalon Project, paragraph 1). However, a successful colony was not established until Jamestown in 1607. In the early years, eighty percent of the colonisers died of 70

[ chapter 2 ]

er in

rd

There are about seven thousand languages in the world. The largest language by number of speakers is Mandarin Chinese. The secondlargest language is Spanish, and English is in third place. So why is it English that is the “global language”, the lingua franca of communication? Why is English the main language of important international organisations such as NATO, the UN, and the EU? Why do you study English as a second rather than a foreign language? To understand how English has come to have this status, we have to consider the three Cs: colonisation, capitalism, and culture.

Capitalism

In the 17th century, improvements in farming techniques led to more and better food, which in turn led to a population increase. This meant that the urban workforce became big enough to drive the Industrial Revolution. Britain was a leading force in this change from hand to machine production, and its wealth and power were what made it possible for it to colonise large parts of the world. At the end of the 19th century, however, it was surpassed by the USA. American inventions in transportation, communication, and technology – steamships, railways, the telephone, newspapers – meant that knowledge could be spread more easily, and the primary language was English (Crystal, 2003). This was also when Norwegian politicians decided to replace Latin with English in Norwegian schools, a bold decision at the time. Two world wars in the 20th century slowed things down for a while, and Britain emerged from World War II with massive debts and a lost empire. The USA, on the other hand, consolidated its status as an economic superpower, and American capitalists channelled some of their wealth into educational and cultural institutions, further strengthening the English language. People like the steel magnate Andrew Carnegie and the railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt founded universities that are well respected today. The oil baron John D Rockefeller was a generous philanthropist in areas such as public education, medical science, and the arts. Although English had spread throughout the world because of the British Empire, it was the USA that ensured its position as a global language.

vu

How many people spoke English at the beginning of the 16th century?

What made English colonists finally thrive in America?

til

By Kristin Bech

Ku n

English as a World Language

disease and starvation, since they arrived with practically no clue how to survive in the new world; it was not until John Rolfe started to grow tobacco that the colony was able to thrive. It would take a while before the American colonies became independent of the mother country and the USA developed into a global power, but in the meantime, Britain was busy taking as much of the world as possible. Colonies were established in Australia, used to dispose of petty criminals for whom there was no room in overcrowded British prisons, and New Zealand, in South Africa and on large parts of the African continent, on the Indian subcontinent, and elsewhere in Asia. This was the British Empire. Through government and education systems in the new colonies, English spread and took on new flavours as speakers of other languages had to learn English (Bauer, 2002). Where would English be today without words like juggernaut, moose, pyjamas, safari, and zombie? The speed with which the British Empire expanded was quite astonishing. It was the project of a self-confident nation, and the reason for the self-confidence was economic prosperity. This brings us to the next C: capitalism.

g

2 English Everywhere

Which American inventions contributed to spreading knowledge?

English Everywhere

71


2 English Everywhere

Culture

g

er in

rd

vu

til

Ku n 72

[ chapter 2 ]

official language multilingual creole/pidgin the Commonwealth

prosperity consolidate dethrone a leading force

4 Where did the wealth of Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, and Carnegie come from? 5 Why is it unlikely that Mandarin Chinese will become the new world language? STRUCTURE 6 A model text Having a model text is useful in the writing process. You need an example of what a good text looks like. The text “English as a World Language” can be read as a model text, as it exemplifies the key features of an academic essay. a Using the table in Step 1 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of Bech’s introduction that draw in the reader, orientate and set the destination. b Using the table in Step 3 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction that summarise by combining the main points from the discussion and presenting a final perspective. You may find it helpful to compare this text with the labelled model text at the end of the course. c Look at the paragraph structure and identify: • Topic sentences of each body paragraph • The main idea of each paragraph • Hooks or transitions between paragraphs d Identify the parts of the conclusion that bring together all the ideas presented in the text and identify the parts that refer to the introduction. e Identify the source references in the text and after the text. f Compare the text with the text “Who Do You Think You Are?”, p. 8. How do these texts differ in style and structure? What is the effect of this?

grow, become larger come, set foot do away with make it, not die do well, have success

8 Bech mentions that English took on new flavours as it came into contact with other languages. Find out the origins of the following words: juggernaut, moose, pyjamas, safari, zombie OVER TO YOU 9 Presentation of Kachru’s Circles The Indian linguist Braj Kachru (1932–2016) presented a model of concentric circles, i.e. they have the same centre, to illustrate English as a world language. Create a presentation in which you: • explain Kachru’s circles • explain relevant terms • present a country which belongs in the inner circle • compare it to a country which belongs in the outer circle • compare these two to a third country which belongs in the expanding circle • justify why they belong in their respective circles • reflect on what Kachru’s circle tells us about the future of English as a world language For guidance, see course 10: Giving presentations.

EX

D PAN

OU

I N G CI R CL

T E R C I R CL E

Ee .g

e

ussia and V a, R iet hin na .C Singapore &

Useful terminology lingua franca the new world philanthropist first/second/foreign language

3 When did the US overtake Britain in terms of industrial production?

a b c d e

. .g

Sources The Avalon Project. Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. (n.d.). Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh: 1584. Retrieved from https://avalon.law.yale.edu/16th_century/raleigh.asp Bauer, L. (2002). An Introduction to International Varieties of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Bech, K. (2016). Fra englisc til English: et språk blir til. Oslo: Pax Forlag. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2 What did the British use their colony Australia for at first?

LANGUAGE 7 Find verbs in the paragraph on colonisation that have the same meaning as:

INNER CIRCLE e.g. UK & US

ia

AUTHOR

Kristin Bech (b. 1968) is Professor of English Language at the University of Oslo. She specialises in the history of English, and is the author of the book Fra englisc til English: et språk blir til (2016, Pax Forlag).

Will English remain a world language? One would need a reliable crystal ball to answer that question, but a safe guess would be that it will remain so for a long time still. After all, there are not many competitors. China will take over as the foremost economic superpower, but Chinese is too difficult to have potential as a world language. Spanish is widely used, but Spanish-speaking countries do not have enough economic power to dethrone English, for as we have seen, status is linked to power. English is now so established as a lingua franca that the EU chooses to keep it as one of their official languages even after Brexit. We simply cannot do without it.

CONTENT 1 Which are the two most spoken languages in the world?

m

History books normally devote considerable space to war and economics. But the third C, culture, is also an extremely important factor when it comes to the status of English as a world language. The first commercial radio broadcast took place in Pittsburgh in 1920, and two years later there were six hundred radio stations in the USA. Britain followed suit, but with the BBC holding a monopoly. The silent film was replaced by the sound film, which was invented in the USA. The pop music we listen to is very often in English, and both Britain and the USA continue to produce great artists. Norwegian artists also often choose to sing in English, for better or for worse. And then there is the internet – “the eighth continent”. As with so many other things, it originated in the USA, and when the World Wide Web was invented in 1991, the world was changed forever. The primary vehicle of change was, as usual, English (Bech, 2016). We are surrounded by English in our everyday lives, and many voice concern that Norwegian will eventually be replaced by English. There is no need to worry just yet. Norwegian is a robust language, but it may change, as all languages change, including English, which is a very different language today than it was a thousand years ago.

d In

What language lost out to English in Norwegian schools at the end of the 19th century?

PRACTICE

English Everywhere

73


2 English Everywhere

Culture

72

[ chapter 2 ]

prosperity consolidate dethrone a leading force

STRUCTURE

g

juggernaut, moose, pyjamas, safari, zombie

OVER TO YOU 9 Presentation of Kachru’s Circles The Indian linguist Braj Kachru (1932–2016) presented a model of concentric circles, i.e. they have the same centre, to illustrate English as a world language. Create a presentation in which you:

rd

6 A model text Having a model text is useful in the writing process. You need an example of what a good text looks like. The text “English as a World Language” can be read as a model text, as it exemplifies the key features of an academic essay.

8 Bech mentions that English took on new flavours as it came into contact with other languages. Find out the origins of the following words:

er in

5 Why is it unlikely that Mandarin Chinese will become the new world language?

• explain Kachru’s circles • explain relevant terms • present a country which belongs in the inner circle • compare it to a country which belongs in the outer circle • compare these two to a third country which belongs in the expanding circle • justify why they belong in their respective circles • reflect on what Kachru’s circle tells us about the future of English as a world language

til

vu

a Using the table in Step 1 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of Bech’s introduction that draw in the reader, orientate and set the destination. b Using the table in Step 3 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction that summarise by combining the main points from the discussion and presenting a final perspective. You may find it helpful to compare this text with the labelled model text at the end of the course. c Look at the paragraph structure and identify: • Topic sentences of each body paragraph • The main idea of each paragraph • Hooks or transitions between paragraphs

Ku n

official language multilingual creole/pidgin the Commonwealth

4 Where did the wealth of Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, and Carnegie come from?

grow, become larger come, set foot do away with make it, not die do well, have success

d Identify the parts of the conclusion that bring together all the ideas presented in the text and identify the parts that refer to the introduction. e Identify the source references in the text and after the text. f Compare the text with the text “Who Do You Think You Are?”, p. 8. How do these texts differ in style and structure? What is the effect of this?

For guidance, see course 10: Giving presentations.

EX

D PAN

OU

I N G CI R CL

T E R C I R CL E

Ee .g

e

ussia and V a, R iet hin na .C Singapore &

Useful terminology lingua franca the new world philanthropist first/second/foreign language

3 When did the US overtake Britain in terms of industrial production?

a b c d e

. .g

Sources The Avalon Project. Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. (n.d.). Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh: 1584. Retrieved from https://avalon.law.yale.edu/16th_century/raleigh.asp Bauer, L. (2002). An Introduction to International Varieties of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Bech, K. (2016). Fra englisc til English: et språk blir til. Oslo: Pax Forlag. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2 What did the British use their colony Australia for at first?

LANGUAGE 7 Find verbs in the paragraph on colonisation that have the same meaning as:

INNER CIRCLE e.g. UK & US

ia

Will English remain a world language? One would need a reliable crystal ball to answer that question, but a safe guess would be that it will remain so for a long time still. After all, there are not many competitors. China will take over as the foremost economic superpower, but Chinese is too difficult to have potential as a world language. Spanish is widely used, but Spanish-speaking countries do not have enough economic power to dethrone English, for as we have seen, status is linked to power. English is now so established as a lingua franca that the EU chooses to keep it as one of their official languages even after Brexit. We simply cannot do without it.

CONTENT 1 Which are the two most spoken languages in the world?

m

AUTHOR

Kristin Bech (b. 1968) is Professor of English Language at the University of Oslo. She specialises in the history of English, and is the author of the book Fra englisc til English: et språk blir til (2016, Pax Forlag).

History books normally devote considerable space to war and economics. But the third C, culture, is also an extremely important factor when it comes to the status of English as a world language. The first commercial radio broadcast took place in Pittsburgh in 1920, and two years later there were six hundred radio stations in the USA. Britain followed suit, but with the BBC holding a monopoly. The silent film was replaced by the sound film, which was invented in the USA. The pop music we listen to is very often in English, and both Britain and the USA continue to produce great artists. Norwegian artists also often choose to sing in English, for better or for worse. And then there is the internet – “the eighth continent”. As with so many other things, it originated in the USA, and when the World Wide Web was invented in 1991, the world was changed forever. The primary vehicle of change was, as usual, English (Bech, 2016). We are surrounded by English in our everyday lives, and many voice concern that Norwegian will eventually be replaced by English. There is no need to worry just yet. Norwegian is a robust language, but it may change, as all languages change, including English, which is a very different language today than it was a thousand years ago.

d In

What language lost out to English in Norwegian schools at the end of the 19th century?

PRACTICE

English Everywhere

73


2 English Everywhere AIMS • Analyse the similarities and differences between English and other languages that you know

Can you name any similarities between these languages in terms of vocabulary, grammar, or politeness?

til

Ku n [ chapter 2 ]

Whatever your plans are, whether you wish to become an opera singer, businessperson or sports professional, you will need to speak several languages. Just think of the football manager Pep Guardiola who has at various points in his career needed to communicate in Catalan, Spanish, German, and English. Even if you are not set on an international career, you probably already speak at least three languages: Norwegian, English, and a first or third language in addition. Thus, we all qualify as multilingual. Research indicates that this is advantageous when learning a new language. This is because of direct spillovers from one language to another in the form of similar vocabulary and sentence structure, but also because of our experience with language-learning strategies. Naturally, the more similar two languages are, the easier it will be to learn one once you already know the other. On the following pages, you will see the same text in German, French, and Spanish. Spanish and French both share ties to English via Latin, whilst German and English are both labelled as Germanic languages. Now we challenge you to find out how much you can understand of the three languages by reading a well-known novel extract in each of them.

TIDBIT

74

Multilingual CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Use your multilingual capacity to interpret and translate texts • Reflect on what being multilingual means to you

FIRST What languages do you speak?

In European academia the term plurilingual is used to describe individuals who speak more than two languages. Here we use the term multilingual as it is more commonly used worldwide. Some claim multilingual refers to societies where more than two languages are spoken. As long as you state what you mean, you can use either of them.

English Everywhere

75


2 English Everywhere AIMS • Analyse the similarities and differences between English and other languages that you know

Can you name any similarities between these languages in terms of vocabulary, grammar, or politeness?

rd

er in

g

• Use your multilingual capacity to interpret and translate texts • Reflect on what being multilingual means to you

FIRST What languages do you speak?

Ku n 74

[ chapter 2 ]

TIDBIT

Whatever your plans are, whether you wish to become an opera singer, businessperson or sports professional, you will need to speak several languages. Just think of the football manager Pep Guardiola who has at various points in his career needed to communicate in Catalan, Spanish, German, and English. Even if you are not set on an international career, you probably already speak at least three languages: Norwegian, English, and a first or third language in addition. Thus, we all qualify as multilingual. Research indicates that this is advantageous when learning a new language. This is because of direct spillovers from one language to another in the form of similar vocabulary and sentence structure, but also because of our experience with language-learning strategies. Naturally, the more similar two languages are, the easier it will be to learn one once you already know the other. On the following pages, you will see the same text in German, French, and Spanish. Spanish and French both share ties to English via Latin, whilst German and English are both labelled as Germanic languages. Now we challenge you to find out how much you can understand of the three languages by reading a well-known novel extract in each of them.

til

CONTEXT

vu

Multilingual

In European academia the term plurilingual is used to describe individuals who speak more than two languages. Here we use the term multilingual as it is more commonly used worldwide. Some claim multilingual refers to societies where more than two languages are spoken. As long as you state what you mean, you can use either of them.

English Everywhere

75


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: NOVEL EXTRACT

5

5

er in

g

Un véritable géant se tenait dans l’encadrement. Son visage était presque entièrement caché par une longue crinière de cheveux emmêlés et par une grande barbe broussailleuse, mais on voyait distinctement ses yeux qui brillaient comme deux scarabées noirs au milieu de ce foisonnement. Le géant se glissa à l’intérieur de la masure en inclinant la tête pour ne pas se cogner contre le plafond. Il se pencha, ramassa la porte et la remit sans difficulté sur ses gonds. Au-dehors, le vacarme de la tempête s’était un peu atténué. Il se retourna et les regarda : – Si vous aviez une tasse de thé, ce ne serait pas de refus, dit le géant. Le voyage n’a pas été facile. Il s’avança vers le canapé où Dudley était resté assis, pétrifié de terreur. – Bouge-toi un peu, gros tas, dit-il. Dudley poussa un petit cri et courut se réfugier derrière sa mère, tout aussi terrifiée, qui se cachait elle-même derrière l’oncle Vernon. – Et voilà Harry! dit le géant.

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

vu

rd

Rowling, J.K. (1998). Harry Potter à L’école des Sorciers (J. F. Ménard, Trans.). Paris: Gallimard Jeunesse.

Ku n

til

In der Türöffnung stand ein Riese von Mann. Sein Gesicht war fast gänzlich von einer langen, zottigen Haarmähne und einem wilden, struppigen Bart verdeckt, doch man konnte seine Augen erkennen, die unter all dem Haar schimmerten wie schwarze Käfer. Dieser Riese zwängte sich in die Hütte, den Rücken gebeugt, so dass sein Kopf die Decke nur streifte. Er bückte sich, stellte die Tür aufrecht und setzte sie mit leichter Hand wieder in den Rahmen ein. Der Lärm des Sturms draußen ließ etwas nach. Er wandte sich um und blickte sie an. “Könnte ‘ne Tasse Tee vertragen. War keine leichte Reise … « Er schritt hinüber zum Sofa, auf dem der vor Angst versteinerte Dudley saß. “Beweg dich, Klops”, sagte der Fremde. Dudley quiekte und rannte hinter den Rücken seiner Mutter, die sich voller Angst hinter Onkel Vernon zusammenkauerte. “Und hier ist Harry!”, sagte der Riese.

76

[ chapter 2 ]

Rowling, J. K. (1998). Harry Potter und der Stein der Weisen (K. Fritz, Trans.). Hamburg: Carlsen Verlag GmbH.

Un hombre gigantesco apareció en el umbral. Su rostro estaba prácticamente oculto por una larga maraña de pelo y una barba desaliñada, pero podían verse sus ojos, que brillaban como escarabajos negros bajo aquella pelambrera. El gigante se escurrió hacia el interior de la cabaña agachándose para que su cabeza sólo rozara el techo. Se agachó, cogió la puerta y, sin esfuerzo, volvió a ponerla en su lugar. El ruido de la tormenta se apagó un poco. Se volvió para mirarlos. – Podríamos prepararnos una taza de té, ¿verdad? No ha sido un viaje fácil … Se desparramó en el sofá donde Dudley estaba petrificado de miedo. – Levántate, bola de grasa –dijo el desconocido. Dudley chilló y corrió a esconderse detrás de su madre, que estaba agazapada, aterrorizada, detrás de tío Vernon. – ¡Ah! ¡Aquí está Harry! –dijo el gigante.

The books in the fantasy series about Harry Potter, written by J.K. Rowling, are among the most translated novels of all time. The actors who starred in the film adaptations also instantly shot to fame, here represented by the protagonist Harry, played by Daniel Radcliffe.

Rowling, J.K. (1998). Harry Potter y la piedra filosofal (A. D. Rawson, Trans.). Barcelona: Salamandra.

English Everywhere

77


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: NOVEL EXTRACT

5

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

g

5

er in

Un véritable géant se tenait dans l’encadrement. Son visage était presque entièrement caché par une longue crinière de cheveux emmêlés et par une grande barbe broussailleuse, mais on voyait distinctement ses yeux qui brillaient comme deux scarabées noirs au milieu de ce foisonnement. Le géant se glissa à l’intérieur de la masure en inclinant la tête pour ne pas se cogner contre le plafond. Il se pencha, ramassa la porte et la remit sans difficulté sur ses gonds. Au-dehors, le vacarme de la tempête s’était un peu atténué. Il se retourna et les regarda : – Si vous aviez une tasse de thé, ce ne serait pas de refus, dit le géant. Le voyage n’a pas été facile. Il s’avança vers le canapé où Dudley était resté assis, pétrifié de terreur. – Bouge-toi un peu, gros tas, dit-il. Dudley poussa un petit cri et courut se réfugier derrière sa mère, tout aussi terrifiée, qui se cachait elle-même derrière l’oncle Vernon. – Et voilà Harry! dit le géant.

Rowling, J. K. (1998). Harry Potter und der Stein der Weisen (K. Fritz, Trans.). Hamburg: Carlsen Verlag GmbH.

76

[ chapter 2 ]

35

vu

til

Un hombre gigantesco apareció en el umbral. Su rostro estaba prácticamente oculto por una larga maraña de pelo y una barba desaliñada, pero podían verse sus ojos, que brillaban como escarabajos negros bajo aquella pelambrera. El gigante se escurrió hacia el interior de la cabaña agachándose para que su cabeza sólo rozara el techo. Se agachó, cogió la puerta y, sin esfuerzo, volvió a ponerla en su lugar. El ruido de la tormenta se apagó un poco. Se volvió para mirarlos. – Podríamos prepararnos una taza de té, ¿verdad? No ha sido un viaje fácil … Se desparramó en el sofá donde Dudley estaba petrificado de miedo. – Levántate, bola de grasa –dijo el desconocido. Dudley chilló y corrió a esconderse detrás de su madre, que estaba agazapada, aterrorizada, detrás de tío Vernon. – ¡Ah! ¡Aquí está Harry! –dijo el gigante.

The books in the fantasy series about Harry Potter, written by J.K. Rowling, are among the most translated novels of all time. The actors who starred in the film adaptations also instantly shot to fame, here represented by the protagonist Harry, played by Daniel Radcliffe.

Ku n

In der Türöffnung stand ein Riese von Mann. Sein Gesicht war fast gänzlich von einer langen, zottigen Haarmähne und einem wilden, struppigen Bart verdeckt, doch man konnte seine Augen erkennen, die unter all dem Haar schimmerten wie schwarze Käfer. Dieser Riese zwängte sich in die Hütte, den Rücken gebeugt, so dass sein Kopf die Decke nur streifte. Er bückte sich, stellte die Tür aufrecht und setzte sie mit leichter Hand wieder in den Rahmen ein. Der Lärm des Sturms draußen ließ etwas nach. Er wandte sich um und blickte sie an. “Könnte ‘ne Tasse Tee vertragen. War keine leichte Reise … « Er schritt hinüber zum Sofa, auf dem der vor Angst versteinerte Dudley saß. “Beweg dich, Klops”, sagte der Fremde. Dudley quiekte und rannte hinter den Rücken seiner Mutter, die sich voller Angst hinter Onkel Vernon zusammenkauerte. “Und hier ist Harry!”, sagte der Riese.

rd

Rowling, J.K. (1998). Harry Potter à L’école des Sorciers (J. F. Ménard, Trans.). Paris: Gallimard Jeunesse.

35

Rowling, J.K. (1998). Harry Potter y la piedra filosofal (A. D. Rawson, Trans.). Barcelona: Salamandra.

English Everywhere

77


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE

3 Which of the three languages – French, German, or Spanish – has the fewest direct ties to English? STRUCTURE 4 Study the structure of the extracts and identify the lines of dialogue in all three languages. Can you guess who says what? LANGUAGE 5 Pick one of the extracts, probably in the language that you are currently learning as a foreign language, and

French or Latin origins

ask begin brotherly buy forbid sheep

commence inquire fraternal mutton prohibit purchase

7 Study the table below and keep in mind what you know about

• word order • word classes (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, relative pronouns, and conjunctions)

rd

• find all words or nouns that are similar to English or Norwegian • translate the whole text into English • compare your version with that of a classmate who has picked the same language • compare your version with the original English version on Skolestudio • reflect on what you found easy and difficult when reading and translating

Germanic origins

g

2 Name two reasons why being multilingual is helpful when learning a new language.

6 English words of French or Latin origin are often considered more advanced than those of Germanic origin. In the following table you see a list of words. Pair the words that have the same meaning:

er in

CONTENT 1 What four languages does Pep Guardiola speak?

a Identify the following word classes in all five languages:

til

vu

• adjectives • adverbials of time • conjunctions • nouns • pronouns • relative pronouns • verbs b What strikes you about the word order – what is similar and different between the languages? c Translate these sentences into another language you may know. Does the word order remain the same?

I 1996 var J. K. Rowling en fattig alenemor som ikke hadde noen anelse om at hun snart kom til å bli en bestselgende forfatter.

English

In 1996, J. K. Rowling was a poor single mother who had no idea that she would soon become a bestselling author.

French

En 1996, J. K. Rowling était une mère célibataire pauvre qui ne se doutait pas qu’elle allait bientôt devenir une auteure à succès.

Spanish

En 1996, J.K. Rowling era una madre soltera y pobre que no sospechaba que pronto se convertiría en una escritora de éxito.

German

Im Jahre 1996 war J. K. Rowling eine mittellose alleinerziehende Mutter, die keine Ahnung hatte, dass sie bald eine Bestsellerautorin werden würde.

8 Create a timeline Watch the first two-and-a-half minutes of “The History of the English Language in 10 Minutes” on YouTube. Using the information from the film, create a timeline from 410 to 1453 which shows when and how other languages influenced English. In your timeline you should include information on • The following peoples and/or languages: – – – –

Anglo-Saxons Christians and Latin Vikings Norman French

• Examples of English words that entered English at these times 9 Cooperate to create a poster about politeness Norwegians are renowned for being less polite than, for instance, the British. Nevertheless, there are several unwritten rules for how to behave in Norway. In groups, decide on 3–5 rules of conduct that English-speaking visitors should know about. Next, make a poster in which you explain and illustrate these rules. Study the comic below and course 4: Being polite for inspiration.

12 Write a blogpost on being multilingual You have now read about the benefits of being multilingual and practised interpreting several languages. Perhaps you think that:

being multilingual makes it easier to learn new languages

schools should focus more on helping us use our existing languages when learning new ones

Write a blogpost in which you • state your opinion on being multilingual • give examples from your own experience with languages • give your blogpost a suitable title • include an illustration or a photo

it is confusing to learn several languages at the same time

For more on writing texts, see course 8: Structuring a text.

Ku n

Norwegian

OVER TO YOU

Source: The Social Guidebook to Norway

78

[ chapter 2 ]

English Everywhere

79


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE

• find all words or nouns that are similar to English or Norwegian • translate the whole text into English • compare your version with that of a classmate who has picked the same language • compare your version with the original English version on Skolestudio • reflect on what you found easy and difficult when reading and translating

commence inquire fraternal mutton prohibit purchase

7 Study the table below and keep in mind what you know about • word order • word classes (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, relative pronouns, and conjunctions) a Identify the following word classes in all five languages: • adjectives • adverbials of time • conjunctions • nouns • pronouns • relative pronouns • verbs b What strikes you about the word order – what is similar and different between the languages? c Translate these sentences into another language you may know. Does the word order remain the same?

Norwegian

I 1996 var J. K. Rowling en fattig alenemor som ikke hadde noen anelse om at hun snart kom til å bli en bestselgende forfatter.

English

In 1996, J. K. Rowling was a poor single mother who had no idea that she would soon become a bestselling author.

French

En 1996, J. K. Rowling était une mère célibataire pauvre qui ne se doutait pas qu’elle allait bientôt devenir une auteure à succès.

Spanish

En 1996, J.K. Rowling era una madre soltera y pobre que no sospechaba que pronto se convertiría en una escritora de éxito.

German

Im Jahre 1996 war J. K. Rowling eine mittellose alleinerziehende Mutter, die keine Ahnung hatte, dass sie bald eine Bestsellerautorin werden würde.

• The following peoples and/or languages: – – – –

Anglo-Saxons Christians and Latin Vikings Norman French

• Examples of English words that entered English at these times 9 Cooperate to create a poster about politeness Norwegians are renowned for being less polite than, for instance, the British. Nevertheless, there are several unwritten rules for how to behave in Norway. In groups, decide on 3–5 rules of conduct that English-speaking visitors should know about. Next, make a poster in which you explain and illustrate these rules. Study the comic below and course 4: Being polite for inspiration.

being multilingual makes it easier to learn new languages

g

ask begin brotherly buy forbid sheep

schools should focus more on helping us use our existing languages when learning new ones

er in

LANGUAGE 5 Pick one of the extracts, probably in the language that you are currently learning as a foreign language, and

French or Latin origins

Write a blogpost in which you

• state your opinion on being multilingual • give examples from your own experience with languages • give your blogpost a suitable title • include an illustration or a photo

it is confusing to learn several languages at the same time

rd

STRUCTURE 4 Study the structure of the extracts and identify the lines of dialogue in all three languages. Can you guess who says what?

Germanic origins

8 Create a timeline Watch the first two-and-a-half minutes of “The History of the English Language in 10 Minutes” on YouTube. Using the information from the film, create a timeline from 410 to 1453 which shows when and how other languages influenced English. In your timeline you should include information on

12 Write a blogpost on being multilingual You have now read about the benefits of being multilingual and practised interpreting several languages. Perhaps you think that:

vu

3 Which of the three languages – French, German, or Spanish – has the fewest direct ties to English?

OVER TO YOU

For more on writing texts, see course 8: Structuring a text.

til

2 Name two reasons why being multilingual is helpful when learning a new language.

6 English words of French or Latin origin are often considered more advanced than those of Germanic origin. In the following table you see a list of words. Pair the words that have the same meaning:

Ku n

CONTENT 1 What four languages does Pep Guardiola speak?

Source: The Social Guidebook to Norway

78

[ chapter 2 ]

English Everywhere

79


2 English Everywhere AIMS

rd vu til

Ku n 80

[ chapter 2 ]

FIRST Choose three Shakespearean expressions from the opposite page and explain them with other words.

Shakespeare CONTEXT

er in

g

• Understand Shakespeare’s influence on the English language • Interact with an extract from a play • Research conspiracy theories and assess sources

Culture is central to the growth of English as a world language, and the process began centuries before the advent of popular music and films from Hollywood. William Shakespeare (1564–1616) was an English playwright and poet whose name is recognised all over the world. His works are central parts of the Western literary canon, which means that they are established as important texts. Yet, Shakespeare is not something you read just because it is the done thing or because your English teacher tells you to. There are better reasons. Firstly, many of his words and expressions are still used today. Have you ever felt green with envy, or not even slept one wink? These terms were coined by Shakespeare, though the underlying feelings surely go further back in time. Secondly, Shakespeare’s plays are both universal and ambiguous, leaving themselves open to personal interpretations. Professor Emma Stone at Oxford University suggested the verb “to Shakespeare”, which she defines as the activity of asking questions, rejecting certainties, and leaving endings wide open. The universal appeal brings us to a third reason for you to read Shakespeare: the fact that his works are continually being staged in theatres around the world. Look at the programme of any major theatre and you will surely discover current adaptations of his plays. Finally, if none of these piques your interest, the numerous conspiracy theories surrounding Shakespeare might do the trick. Was he gay or straight? Did he in fact write his plays? Now we challenge you to read an extract from his early comedy A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Long considered a child-friendly play and often staged in school productions, it challenges our romantic conventions. Professor Stone, however, argues that the play is at times sexually explicit. So, perhaps it is not so child friendly after all. Make up your own mind by studying this scene from the beginning of the play in groups of five, with one designated role each.

English Everywhere

81


2 English Everywhere AIMS FIRST

Culture is central to the growth of English as a world language, and the process began centuries before the advent of popular music and films from Hollywood. William Shakespeare (1564–1616) was an English playwright and poet whose name is recognised all over the world. His works are central parts of the Western literary canon, which means that they are established as important texts. Yet, Shakespeare is not something you read just because it is the done thing or because your English teacher tells you to. There are better reasons. Firstly, many of his words and expressions are still used today. Have you ever felt green with envy, or not even slept one wink? These terms were coined by Shakespeare, though the underlying feelings surely go further back in time. Secondly, Shakespeare’s plays are both universal and ambiguous, leaving themselves open to personal interpretations. Professor Emma Stone at Oxford University suggested the verb “to Shakespeare”, which she defines as the activity of asking questions, rejecting certainties, and leaving endings wide open. The universal appeal brings us to a third reason for you to read Shakespeare: the fact that his works are continually being staged in theatres around the world. Look at the programme of any major theatre and you will surely discover current adaptations of his plays. Finally, if none of these piques your interest, the numerous conspiracy theories surrounding Shakespeare might do the trick. Was he gay or straight? Did he in fact write his plays?

Ku n

til

vu

rd

CONTEXT

er in

Shakespeare

Choose three Shakespearean expressions from the opposite page and explain them with other words.

g

• Understand Shakespeare’s influence on the English language • Interact with an extract from a play • Research conspiracy theories and assess sources

Now we challenge you to read an extract from his early comedy A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Long considered a child-friendly play and often staged in school productions, it challenges our romantic conventions. Professor Stone, however, argues that the play is at times sexually explicit. So, perhaps it is not so child friendly after all. Make up your own mind by studying this scene from the beginning of the play in groups of five, with one designated role each.

80

[ chapter 2 ]

English Everywhere

81


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: PLAY Characters: Theseus, Duke of Athens Egeus, father of Hermia Hermia, daughter of Egeus and in love with Lysander Lysander, loved by Hermia Demetrius, suitor to Hermia

HERMIA: I would my father look’d but with my eyes.

EGEUS: Happy be Theseus, our renowned duke!

THESEUS: Rather your eyes must with his judgment look.

er in

EGEUS: Full of vexation come I, with complaint Against my child, my daughter Hermia. Stand forth, Demetrius. My noble lord, This man hath my consent to marry her. Stand forth, Lysander: and my gracious duke, This man hath bewitch’d the bosom of my child; Thou, thou, Lysander, thou hast given her rhymes, And interchanged love-tokens with my child: Thou hast by moonlight at her window sung, With feigning voice verses of feigning love, And stolen the impression of her fantasy With bracelets of thy hair, rings, gawds, conceits, Knacks, trifles, nosegays, sweetmeats, messengers Of strong prevailment in unharden’d youth: With cunning hast thou filch’d my daughter’s heart, Turn’d her obedience, which is due to me, To stubborn harshness: and, my gracious duke, Be it so she; will not here before your grace Consent to marry with Demetrius, I beg the ancient privilege of Athens, As she is mine, I may dispose of her: Which shall be either to this gentleman Or to her death, according to our law Immediately provided in that case.

[ chapter 2 ]

5

10

10

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

THESEUS: What say you, Hermia? be advised fair maid: To you your father should be as a god; One that composed your beauties, yea, and one To whom you are but as a form in wax By him imprinted and within his power To leave the figure or disfigure it. Demetrius is a worthy gentleman.

35

35

HERMIA: So is Lysander.

40

40

rd

15

vu

Ku n 82

5

g

THESEUS: Thanks, good Egeus: what’s the news with thee?

til

renowned well-known or respected vexation strong irritation bewitch’d the bosom cast a spell on the heart interchanged exchanged token souvenir or memento feigning pretending bracelet jewellery worn on the wrist gauds flashy trinket, juggel conceits clever gifts knacks knick-knacks or juggel trifles a small thing of very little value nosegays small bouquets of flowers sweetmeats sweetened delicacy such as a cake prevailment widespread use unhardened still soft cunning trickery or skill in deceiving filch steal stubborn sta ancient privilege right giving fathers power over their children’s lives dispose do what he will with be advised be warned composed generated or was the source of yea yes or indeed wax voks imprinted stamped or marked disfigure deform or destroy wanting lacking

A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act 1, Scene 1

HERMIA: I do entreat your grace to pardon me. I know not by what power I am made bold, Nor how it may concern my modesty, In such a presence here to plead my thoughts; But I beseech your grace that I may know The worst that may befall me in this case, If I refuse to wed Demetrius. THESEUS: Either to die the death or to abjure For ever the society of men. Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires; Know of your youth, examine well your blood, Whether, if you yield not to your father’s choice,

entreat plead with or beg pardon forgive bold daring modesty shyness presence in public plead beg or ask beseech beg or implore befall happen to wed marry abjure avoid yield give in or surrender endure bear or survive livery of a nun clothes of a nun for aye forever cloister monastery where nuns live mew’d shut up or confined barren childless chanting messende/ messande faint hymns barely audible religious songs

THESEUS: In himself he is; But in this kind, wanting your father’s voice, The other must be held the worthier. Ekow Quartey as Lysander and Faith Omole as Hermia in the play A Midsummer Night’s Dream at the Globe Theatre in London.

English Everywhere

83


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: PLAY

82

[ chapter 2 ]

EGEUS: Happy be Theseus, our renowned duke!

THESEUS: Rather your eyes must with his judgment look.

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

THESEUS: What say you, Hermia? be advised fair maid: To you your father should be as a god; One that composed your beauties, yea, and one To whom you are but as a form in wax By him imprinted and within his power To leave the figure or disfigure it. Demetrius is a worthy gentleman.

35

HERMIA: So is Lysander.

40

HERMIA: I do entreat your grace to pardon me. I know not by what power I am made bold, Nor how it may concern my modesty, In such a presence here to plead my thoughts; But I beseech your grace that I may know The worst that may befall me in this case, If I refuse to wed Demetrius. THESEUS: Either to die the death or to abjure For ever the society of men. Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires; Know of your youth, examine well your blood, Whether, if you yield not to your father’s choice,

er in

5

rd

EGEUS: Full of vexation come I, with complaint Against my child, my daughter Hermia. Stand forth, Demetrius. My noble lord, This man hath my consent to marry her. Stand forth, Lysander: and my gracious duke, This man hath bewitch’d the bosom of my child; Thou, thou, Lysander, thou hast given her rhymes, And interchanged love-tokens with my child: Thou hast by moonlight at her window sung, With feigning voice verses of feigning love, And stolen the impression of her fantasy With bracelets of thy hair, rings, gawds, conceits, Knacks, trifles, nosegays, sweetmeats, messengers Of strong prevailment in unharden’d youth: With cunning hast thou filch’d my daughter’s heart, Turn’d her obedience, which is due to me, To stubborn harshness: and, my gracious duke, Be it so she; will not here before your grace Consent to marry with Demetrius, I beg the ancient privilege of Athens, As she is mine, I may dispose of her: Which shall be either to this gentleman Or to her death, according to our law Immediately provided in that case.

5

vu

THESEUS: Thanks, good Egeus: what’s the news with thee?

entreat plead with or beg pardon forgive bold daring modesty shyness presence in public plead beg or ask beseech beg or implore befall happen to wed marry abjure avoid yield give in or surrender endure bear or survive livery of a nun clothes of a nun for aye forever cloister monastery where nuns live mew’d shut up or confined barren childless chanting messende/ messande faint hymns barely audible religious songs

g

HERMIA: I would my father look’d but with my eyes.

til

renowned well-known or respected vexation strong irritation bewitch’d the bosom cast a spell on the heart interchanged exchanged token souvenir or memento feigning pretending bracelet jewellery worn on the wrist gauds flashy trinket, juggel conceits clever gifts knacks knick-knacks or juggel trifles a small thing of very little value nosegays small bouquets of flowers sweetmeats sweetened delicacy such as a cake prevailment widespread use unhardened still soft cunning trickery or skill in deceiving filch steal stubborn sta ancient privilege right giving fathers power over their children’s lives dispose do what he will with be advised be warned composed generated or was the source of yea yes or indeed wax voks imprinted stamped or marked disfigure deform or destroy wanting lacking

A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act 1, Scene 1

Ku n

Characters: Theseus, Duke of Athens Egeus, father of Hermia Hermia, daughter of Egeus and in love with Lysander Lysander, loved by Hermia Demetrius, suitor to Hermia

35

40

THESEUS: In himself he is; But in this kind, wanting your father’s voice, The other must be held the worthier. Ekow Quartey as Lysander and Faith Omole as Hermia in the play A Midsummer Night’s Dream at the Globe Theatre in London.

English Everywhere

83


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE CONTENT 1 How old was William Shakespeare when he died?

g

5

er in

You can endure the livery of a nun, For aye to be in shady cloister mew’d, To live a barren sister all your life, Chanting faint hymns to the cold fruitless moon. Thrice-blessed they that master so their blood, To undergo such maiden pilgrimage; But earthlier happy is the rose distill’d, Than that which withering on the virgin thorn Grows, lives and dies in single blessedness.

10

HERMIA: So will I grow, so live, so die, my lord, Ere I will my virgin patent up Unto his lordship, whose unwished yoke My soul consents not to give sovereignty.

rd

vu

DEMETRIUS: Relent, sweet Hermia: and, Lysander, yield Thy crazed title to my certain right.

Ku n 84

[ chapter 2 ]

3 In the play, what does Egeus go to talk to Theseus about? 4 Why does Hermia not want to marry Demetrius? 5 What alternative to death does Theseus offer Hermia? 6 What arguments does Lysander use to be allowed to marry Hermia?

15

20

25

STRUCTURE 7 As in all Shakespeare’s plays, there is little or no information given, except the actual spoken lines. As readers, we must interpret how the characters feel, from what they say. Can you find signs of excitement, desperation, or anger in Egeus’ first speech? 8 Shakespeare’s plays include a mix of dialogue and monologue. One famous monologue is the “To be or not to be” section from Hamlet. Is there more dialogue or monologue in this extract? What examples of monologue can you find?

LYSANDER: You have her father’s love, Demetrius; Let me have Hermia’s: do you marry him.

til

thrice three times undergo experience or go through maiden pilgrimage firstjourneys through life distill’d with the perfume extracted (referring to sex) withering process of drying up blessedness holy or sacred state ere before patent privilege or right unwished yoke undesired burden consent agree sovereignty power or control sealing day day of his marriage betwixt between fellowship companionship disobedience misbehaviour Diana the goddess of virginity austerity abstinence or self-discipline relent give up scornful disrespectful render give estate unto give to derived descended or from a certain family background possess’d rich fortunes riches or properties as fairly ranked as good with vantage more favourably or even better boasts brags or claims prosecute exercise

THESEUS: Take time to pause; and, by the next new moon-The sealing-day betwixt my love and me, For everlasting bond of fellowship-Upon that day either prepare to die For disobedience to your father’s will, Or else to wed Demetrius, as he would; Or on Diana’s altar to protest For aye austerity and single life.

2 What genre of drama is A Midsummer Night’s Dream?

30

35

Shakespeare, W. (2016). A Midsummer Night’s Dream. B. Mowat & P. Werstine (Eds.). (Original work written 1595/96.) Retrieved from https://www.folgerdigitaltexts.org/html/MND.html

a have b you c stolen

d forever e before

11 Professor Emma Stone labelled this play as sexually explicit. What references can you find to sexuality? 12 Return to the poster of Shakespearian expressions. Identify 5 of them that you are unfamiliar with. Write them down, then compare your expressions with a partner. If neither of you can explain the expressions fully, go online to research their meanings. 13 As you have seen in the extract, Shakespeare’s characters do not all respect or speak well of each other. Go online and explore the Shakespearian insult generator. Note down your favourite insult and explain why. Share your opinions in class. OVER TO YOU 14 Modernise and act out Rewrite the extract into modern English, assign the roles, and act out your updated versions. The style of your language may be as modern and informal as you wish but make sure it is suitable for your audience and purpose. See course 5: Recognising formality. 15 Research and evaluate conspiracy theories Shakespeare is one of the most widely researched literary authors of all time.

EGEUS: Scornful Lysander! true, he hath my love, And what is mine my love shall render him. And she is mine, and all my right of her I do estate unto Demetrius.

LYSANDER: I am, my lord, as well derived as he, As well possess’d; my love is more than his; My fortunes every way as fairly rank’d, If not with vantage, as Demetrius’; And, which is more than all these boasts can be, I am beloved of beauteous Hermia: Why should not I then prosecute my right?

LANGUAGE 10 Many of the words in Shakespeare’s texts seem old-fashioned to us today. See if you can find the Shakespearian versions of these words in the text:

40

9 The text titled Context could be divided into short paragraphs. a Identify the thesis statement. b Identify the topic sentences. c Comment on how the topic sentences use linking terms. For more on linking terms, see course 8: Structuring a text.

• Search online for conspiracies surrounding Shakespeare and choose one that you wish to research further. • Make a list of the online sources that you use. • Prepare to present your chosen conspiracy and an assessment of the trustworthiness of the sources you have used. See course 10: Choosing sources.

English Everywhere

85


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE

5

2 What genre of drama is A Midsummer Night’s Dream? 3 In the play, what does Egeus go to talk to Theseus about? 4 Why does Hermia not want to marry Demetrius?

10

HERMIA: So will I grow, so live, so die, my lord, Ere I will my virgin patent up Unto his lordship, whose unwished yoke My soul consents not to give sovereignty.

5 What alternative to death does Theseus offer Hermia? 6 What arguments does Lysander use to be allowed to marry Hermia?

15

84

[ chapter 2 ]

LYSANDER: You have her father’s love, Demetrius; Let me have Hermia’s: do you marry him. 30

EGEUS: Scornful Lysander! true, he hath my love, And what is mine my love shall render him. And she is mine, and all my right of her I do estate unto Demetrius. 35

LYSANDER: I am, my lord, as well derived as he, As well possess’d; my love is more than his; My fortunes every way as fairly rank’d, If not with vantage, as Demetrius’; And, which is more than all these boasts can be, I am beloved of beauteous Hermia: Why should not I then prosecute my right? Shakespeare, W. (2016). A Midsummer Night’s Dream. B. Mowat & P. Werstine (Eds.). (Original work written 1595/96.) Retrieved from https://www.folgerdigitaltexts.org/html/MND.html

40

a have b you c stolen

d forever e before

11 Professor Emma Stone labelled this play as sexually explicit. What references can you find to sexuality? 12 Return to the poster of Shakespearian expressions. Identify 5 of them that you are unfamiliar with. Write them down, then compare your expressions with a partner. If neither of you can explain the expressions fully, go online to research their meanings.

rd

13 As you have seen in the extract, Shakespeare’s characters do not all respect or speak well of each other. Go online and explore the Shakespearian insult generator. Note down your favourite insult and explain why. Share your opinions in class.

vu

25

8 Shakespeare’s plays include a mix of dialogue and monologue. One famous monologue is the “To be or not to be” section from Hamlet. Is there more dialogue or monologue in this extract? What examples of monologue can you find?

til

DEMETRIUS: Relent, sweet Hermia: and, Lysander, yield Thy crazed title to my certain right.

20

STRUCTURE 7 As in all Shakespeare’s plays, there is little or no information given, except the actual spoken lines. As readers, we must interpret how the characters feel, from what they say. Can you find signs of excitement, desperation, or anger in Egeus’ first speech?

Ku n

thrice three times undergo experience or go through maiden pilgrimage firstjourneys through life distill’d with the perfume extracted (referring to sex) withering process of drying up blessedness holy or sacred state ere before patent privilege or right unwished yoke undesired burden consent agree sovereignty power or control sealing day day of his marriage betwixt between fellowship companionship disobedience misbehaviour Diana the goddess of virginity austerity abstinence or self-discipline relent give up scornful disrespectful render give estate unto give to derived descended or from a certain family background possess’d rich fortunes riches or properties as fairly ranked as good with vantage more favourably or even better boasts brags or claims prosecute exercise

THESEUS: Take time to pause; and, by the next new moon-The sealing-day betwixt my love and me, For everlasting bond of fellowship-Upon that day either prepare to die For disobedience to your father’s will, Or else to wed Demetrius, as he would; Or on Diana’s altar to protest For aye austerity and single life.

LANGUAGE 10 Many of the words in Shakespeare’s texts seem old-fashioned to us today. See if you can find the Shakespearian versions of these words in the text:

g

CONTENT 1 How old was William Shakespeare when he died?

er in

You can endure the livery of a nun, For aye to be in shady cloister mew’d, To live a barren sister all your life, Chanting faint hymns to the cold fruitless moon. Thrice-blessed they that master so their blood, To undergo such maiden pilgrimage; But earthlier happy is the rose distill’d, Than that which withering on the virgin thorn Grows, lives and dies in single blessedness.

9 The text titled Context could be divided into short paragraphs. a Identify the thesis statement. b Identify the topic sentences. c Comment on how the topic sentences use linking terms. For more on linking terms, see course 8: Structuring a text.

OVER TO YOU 14 Modernise and act out Rewrite the extract into modern English, assign the roles, and act out your updated versions. The style of your language may be as modern and informal as you wish but make sure it is suitable for your audience and purpose. See course 5: Recognising formality. 15 Research and evaluate conspiracy theories Shakespeare is one of the most widely researched literary authors of all time. • Search online for conspiracies surrounding Shakespeare and choose one that you wish to research further. • Make a list of the online sources that you use. • Prepare to present your chosen conspiracy and an assessment of the trustworthiness of the sources you have used. See course 10: Choosing sources.

English Everywhere

85


2 English Everywhere AIMS FIRST

• Read and listen to authentic Jamaican English • Analyse and compare song lyrics

If you had more time, which three things would you spend more time on?

rd vu til

Ku n

LI

!

[ chapter 2 ]

N TO M U S

More Time CONTEXT

86

E ST

IC

er in

g

Which three things would you like to spend less time on?

Two reasons why the English language spread to the rest of the world are colonisation and capitalism. As a former British colony, Jamaica supplied the British Empire with sugar cane produced on large plantations. Thus, its natural resources and manpower were important to the British capitalist economy. In his poetry, Linton Kwesi Johnson (b. 1952) often describes some of the downsides to colonisation and capitalism. Johnson was born in Jamaica and emigrated to the United Kingdom at the age of 11. He has lived most of his life in Brixton, a rather run-down neighbourhood in South London where many people of Caribbean origin live. He joined the British Black Panthers while still at school and has spoken up against racial discrimination throughout his career. Often concerning the plight of black people in Britain, another striking trait of his poetry is his use of Jamaican English, which he spells exactly as it is pronounced. He has called this style of writing an “act of rebellion” against the English language. Certainly, this written representation of Jamaican English is one of the trademarks of his poetry, and it is evident in his 1998 poem and reggae track “More Time”.

History: English has been spoken in Jamaica since England captured it from Spain in the second half of the 17th century. In 1962, Jamaica gained full independence, but it has remained part of the Commonwealth. Status: English is the official language of Jamaica and is spoken alongside Jamaican Creole, which is based on the structures of English, but also features loan words from mostly West-African languages. Jamaican words in the English language: Caribbean, dancehall, ganja, hurricane, irie, Rastafarian, reggae, rock steady, rude-boy, ska, spliff

English Everywhere

87


2 English Everywhere AIMS FIRST

• Read and listen to authentic Jamaican English • Analyse and compare song lyrics

If you had more time, which three things would you spend more time on?

er in

g

Which three things would you like to spend less time on?

rd

!

LI

N TO M U S

IC

E ST

til

Two reasons why the English language spread to the rest of the world are colonisation and capitalism. As a former British colony, Jamaica supplied the British Empire with sugar cane produced on large plantations. Thus, its natural resources and manpower were important to the British capitalist economy. In his poetry, Linton Kwesi Johnson (b. 1952) often describes some of the downsides to colonisation and capitalism. Johnson was born in Jamaica and emigrated to the United Kingdom at the age of 11. He has lived most of his life in Brixton, a rather run-down neighbourhood in South London where many people of Caribbean origin live. He joined the British Black Panthers while still at school and has spoken up against racial discrimination throughout his career. Often concerning the plight of black people in Britain, another striking trait of his poetry is his use of Jamaican English, which he spells exactly as it is pronounced. He has called this style of writing an “act of rebellion” against the English language. Certainly, this written representation of Jamaican English is one of the trademarks of his poetry, and it is evident in his 1998 poem and reggae track “More Time”.

Ku n

CONTEXT

vu

More Time

86

[ chapter 2 ]

History: English has been spoken in Jamaica since England captured it from Spain in the second half of the 17th century. In 1962, Jamaica gained full independence, but it has remained part of the Commonwealth. Status: English is the official language of Jamaica and is spoken alongside Jamaican Creole, which is based on the structures of English, but also features loan words from mostly West-African languages. Jamaican words in the English language: Caribbean, dancehall, ganja, hurricane, irie, Rastafarian, reggae, rock steady, rude-boy, ska, spliff

English Everywhere

87


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: POETRY/ SONG LYRIC

PRACTICE

More Time

more time fi leasure more time fi pleasure more time fi edificaeshun more time fi reckreashan more time fi contemplate more time fi ruminate more time fi relate more time wi need more time gi wi more time

vu

rd

Linton Kwesi Johnson

a full time dem abalish unemployment an revalueshanize laybah deployment a full time dem banish owevahtime mek evrybady get a wok dis time

Ku n

til

plantation large farms, previously manned by slaves derived from received or taken from plight hardships or challenges rebellion uprising or resistance centri period of a hundred years (century) armed wid equipped or prepared with (armed with) lookin-up seeming positive (looking up) prasperity being successful (prosperity) mentality state of mind decent satisfactory leasure free time (leisure) pleasure enjoyment reckreashan relaxation and fun (recreation) contemplate think about or ponder ruminate think about repeatedly, revisit a thought abalish put an end to (abolish) unemployment being out of work laybah deployment use of staff or workers (labour deployment) banish get rid of or drive away

5

er in

wi want di shatah workin day gi wi di shatah workin week langah holiday wi need decent pay

CONTENT 1 Where has Johnson lived most of his life?

g

wi mawchin out di ole towards di new centri arm wid di new teknalagy wi gettin more an more producktivity some seh tings lookin-up fi prasperity but if evrywan goin get a share dis time ole mentality mus get lef behine

88

[ chapter 2 ]

wi need a highah quality a livity wi need it now an fi evrybady wi need di shatah workin year gi wi di shatah workin life more time fi di huzban more time fi di wife more time fi di children more time fi wi fren dem more time fi meditate more time fi create more time fi livin more time fi life more time wi need more time gi wi more time

10

2 What motivated him to use phonetic spelling, i.e. spell everything as it is pronounced, in his poems? 3 According to the first stanza, why does prosperity seem likely? 4 What four improvements does he start by demanding? 5 After the first chorus he specifies that two things need to come to an end. What are they?

15

6 Who does he want these improvements for? STRUCTURE 7 Johnson makes use of repetition in this poem by repeating certain verbs. Read the poem closely and:

20

• note down all the verbs in the order that they appear in the poem • mark the verbs that are repeated How does the structuring of the verbs in this song serve to intensify the message?

25

8 Can you identify a rhyme scheme in the poem? Does this structure make the poem easier to recite to a beat? Give it a try. See course 17; Approaching literature and film for guidance.

30

LANGUAGE 9 Study the list of words below. What do they mean and in what contexts have you heard them used? 35

40

Caribbean, dancehall, ganja, hurricane, irie, Rastafarian, reggae, rock steady, rude-boy, ska, spliff 10 Johnson uses several advanced words in this poem. Pick five of them that you are unfamiliar with, find their meanings, and write five sentences of your own, using these new words. 11 Rewrite the first chorus into Standard English.

12 Most singular nouns become plural nouns by adding an s at the end, e.g.: a girl – many girls. Some nouns, however, are irregular, i.e. they change in different ways, such as: a knife – many knives. In addition, certain words in English do not have a separate plural form and are thus labelled uncountable – information, furniture, and advice are examples of this. In order to indicate a quantity, you need to add, for instance: a piece of, a bit of, some, much, a lot of. Here are some nouns from the poem: century, education, holiday, leisure, life, pay, pleasure, prosperity, recreation, relation, technology, time, unemployment, wife Place them in the table as shown here:

Singular form

Plural form

century education

centuries

Uncountable some/a lot of education

OVER TO YOU 13 Compare two song lyrics Bob Marley (1945–1981) is the most celebrated and well-known Jamaican singer-songwriter of all time. When they met each other, Marley commented that he liked Johnson’s work, but asked him why he was so militant. Do you agree that there are signs of militancy in “More Time”? “Sun is Shining” (1970), “Redemption Song” (1980) and “No Woman No Cry” (1975) are three of Marley’s biggest hits. Choose one of these three songs and compare Marley’s use of language to Johnson’s in “More Time”. Use your comparison to write a text where you include: • examples of militancy in “More Time” • similarities between “More Time” and your chosen Marley song • differences between “More Time” and your chosen Marley song Choose a suitable title. See course 8: Structuring a text and course 16: Analysing poems and songs.

Johnson, L. K. (2006). More Time. In Selected Poems (pp. 84–85). London: Penguin Books.

English Everywhere

89


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: POETRY/ SONG LYRIC

PRACTICE

88

[ chapter 2 ]

a full time dem abalish unemployment an revalueshanize laybah deployment a full time dem banish owevahtime mek evrybady get a wok dis time wi need a highah quality a livity wi need it now an fi evrybady wi need di shatah workin year gi wi di shatah workin life more time fi di huzban more time fi di wife more time fi di children more time fi wi fren dem more time fi meditate more time fi create more time fi livin more time fi life more time wi need more time gi wi more time

10

4 What four improvements does he start by demanding? 5 After the first chorus he specifies that two things need to come to an end. What are they?

15

6 Who does he want these improvements for? STRUCTURE 7 Johnson makes use of repetition in this poem by repeating certain verbs. Read the poem closely and:

20

• note down all the verbs in the order that they appear in the poem • mark the verbs that are repeated

How does the structuring of the verbs in this song serve to intensify the message? 25

8 Can you identify a rhyme scheme in the poem? Does this structure make the poem easier to recite to a beat? Give it a try. See course 17; Approaching literature and film for guidance.

30

LANGUAGE 9 Study the list of words below. What do they mean and in what contexts have you heard them used? 35

40

g

3 According to the first stanza, why does prosperity seem likely?

In addition, certain words in English do not have a separate plural form and are thus labelled uncountable – information, furniture, and advice are examples of this. In order to indicate a quantity, you need to add, for instance: a piece of, a bit of, some, much, a lot of. Here are some nouns from the poem:

century, education, holiday, leisure, life, pay, pleasure, prosperity, recreation, relation, technology, time, unemployment, wife Place them in the table as shown here:

Singular form

Plural form

century education

centuries

rd

plantation large farms, previously manned by slaves derived from received or taken from plight hardships or challenges rebellion uprising or resistance centri period of a hundred years (century) armed wid equipped or prepared with (armed with) lookin-up seeming positive (looking up) prasperity being successful (prosperity) mentality state of mind decent satisfactory leasure free time (leisure) pleasure enjoyment reckreashan relaxation and fun (recreation) contemplate think about or ponder ruminate think about repeatedly, revisit a thought abalish put an end to (abolish) unemployment being out of work laybah deployment use of staff or workers (labour deployment) banish get rid of or drive away

2 What motivated him to use phonetic spelling, i.e. spell everything as it is pronounced, in his poems?

12 Most singular nouns become plural nouns by adding an s at the end, e.g.: a girl – many girls. Some nouns, however, are irregular, i.e. they change in different ways, such as: a knife – many knives.

Uncountable

some/a lot of education

vu

Linton Kwesi Johnson

more time fi leasure more time fi pleasure more time fi edificaeshun more time fi reckreashan more time fi contemplate more time fi ruminate more time fi relate more time wi need more time gi wi more time

5

til

wi want di shatah workin day gi wi di shatah workin week langah holiday wi need decent pay

CONTENT 1 Where has Johnson lived most of his life?

Ku n

wi mawchin out di ole towards di new centri arm wid di new teknalagy wi gettin more an more producktivity some seh tings lookin-up fi prasperity but if evrywan goin get a share dis time ole mentality mus get lef behine

er in

More Time

Caribbean, dancehall, ganja, hurricane, irie, Rastafarian, reggae, rock steady, rude-boy, ska, spliff

10 Johnson uses several advanced words in this poem. Pick five of them that you are unfamiliar with, find their meanings, and write five sentences of your own, using these new words. 11 Rewrite the first chorus into Standard English.

OVER TO YOU 13 Compare two song lyrics Bob Marley (1945–1981) is the most celebrated and well-known Jamaican singer-songwriter of all time. When they met each other, Marley commented that he liked Johnson’s work, but asked him why he was so militant. Do you agree that there are signs of militancy in “More Time”? “Sun is Shining” (1970), “Redemption Song” (1980) and “No Woman No Cry” (1975) are three of Marley’s biggest hits. Choose one of these three songs and compare Marley’s use of language to Johnson’s in “More Time”. Use your comparison to write a text where you include: • examples of militancy in “More Time” • similarities between “More Time” and your chosen Marley song • differences between “More Time” and your chosen Marley song Choose a suitable title. See course 8: Structuring a text and course 16: Analysing poems and songs.

Johnson, L. K. (2006). More Time. In Selected Poems (pp. 84–85). London: Penguin Books.

English Everywhere

89


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: FEATURE FILM

AIMS • Discuss characterisation in a critically acclaimed film • Compare child protective services • Listen to a podcast about progress and happiness in New Zealand

vu

rd

er in

g

Caucasian, fugitive, juvie, juvenile delinquent, manslaughter, Maori, skux life

WA TC

til

Ku n [ chapter 2 ]

Hunt for the Wilderpeople CONTEXT

90

HT

H E F I L M!

FIRST Before watching the film, explain what the following terms mean:

Owing to colonisation, the English language spread as far as the south-east of New Zealand. The majority of New Zealanders descend from British settlers, and many identify strongly with British culture and the English language. Nevertheless, New Zealand is culturally and linguistically distinct. In recent years, many film directors have been drawn to its dramatic landscape, and New Zealand has thus become a popular location for major international films. The Hunt for the Wilderpeople (2016) tells the story of the foster child Ricky Baker. He has spent the first 13 years of his life in the child welfare system and ends up on a remote farm with Bella and Hec, his new and rather eccentric foster parents. A sad loss makes Ricky run away and a wild manhunt follows. The film was shot in various locations on New Zealand’s North Island and features stunning scenery as a backdrop to a comedy adventure about growing up and being on the run. The film is based on the novel Wild Pork and Watercress (1986) by Barry Crump, but has been heavily adapted by director Taika Waititi (1975–). Despite being produced on a modest budget and filming for only 5 weeks, Empire Magazine voted it film of the year in 2016.

History: English has been spoken in New Zealand ever since Captain James Cook explored the islands in 1769. New Zealand became a formal British colony in 1840 and gained independence in 1907. Status: Today, English is the main language in New Zealand and is spoken by almost the entire population, either as a first or second language. In addition, Maori has status as an official language and is spoken by approximately 3.7% of the population. New Zealand words in the English language: bach, dairy, gumboots, togs, kiwi, boondocks, egg

English Everywhere

91


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: FEATURE FILM

AIMS • Discuss characterisation in a critically acclaimed film • Compare child protective services • Listen to a podcast about progress and happiness in New Zealand

FIRST Before watching the film, explain what the following terms mean:

er in

g

Caucasian, fugitive, juvie, juvenile delinquent, manslaughter, Maori, skux life

Owing to colonisation, the English language spread as far as the south-east of New Zealand. The majority of New Zealanders descend from British settlers, and many identify strongly with British culture and the English language. Nevertheless, New Zealand is culturally and linguistically distinct. In recent years, many film directors have been drawn to its dramatic landscape, and New Zealand has thus become a popular location for major international films.

90

[ chapter 2 ]

HT

H E F I L M!

The Hunt for the Wilderpeople (2016) tells the story of the foster child Ricky Baker. He has spent the first 13 years of his life in the child welfare system and ends up on a remote farm with Bella and Hec, his new and rather eccentric foster parents. A sad loss makes Ricky run away and a wild manhunt follows. The film was shot in various locations on New Zealand’s North Island and features stunning scenery as a backdrop to a comedy adventure about growing up and being on the run. The film is based on the novel Wild Pork and Watercress (1986) by Barry Crump, but has been heavily adapted by director Taika Waititi (1975–). Despite being produced on a modest budget and filming for only 5 weeks, Empire Magazine voted it film of the year in 2016.

Ku n

WA TC

til

CONTEXT

vu

rd

Hunt for the Wilderpeople

History: English has been spoken in New Zealand ever since Captain James Cook explored the islands in 1769. New Zealand became a formal British colony in 1840 and gained independence in 1907. Status: Today, English is the main language in New Zealand and is spoken by almost the entire population, either as a first or second language. In addition, Maori has status as an official language and is spoken by approximately 3.7% of the population. New Zealand words in the English language: bach, dairy, gumboots, togs, kiwi, boondocks, egg

English Everywhere

91


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE

3 What technique has Ricky learnt to express his feelings? 4 What does Ricky name his dog?

LANGUAGE 10 These words and expressions are typical of New Zealand English. First, guess what they mean. Then, go online to check your answers.

g

2 How does Ricky react to his new home during his first 24 hours there?

STRUCTURE 9 The film is structured in a way that is more typical of a literary genre. Which one? What is the effect of this structure?

a bach, dairy, gumboots, togs, kiwi, snarlers b Godzone, dry horrors, cup cake, cow-cocky, the cake tin, Shaky City

5 Why does he choose this name? 6 The hot-water bottle takes on a symbolic meaning. What does it represent? 7 What does Ricky envision for his future?

OVER TO YOU 11 Characterisation

Ricky, Hec, Bella, and Paula are the four main characters in this film. Take notes and discuss:

rd

8 What does the name “Wilderpeople” signify?

Ricky

Hec

vu

What do we get to know about the character through what he or she says and does?

er in

CONTENT 1 What does Paula from child protective services say about Ricky when she presents him to Bella?

Bella

Paula

Does the character show any development, i.e. is he/she a dynamic or a static character? Explain.

til

What does this character have in common with, and how does he/she relate to, the other characters?

Ku n

What is his/her function in the story of the film?

For more on characterisation, see course 17: Approaching literature and film.

TIDBIT

92

[ chapter 2 ]

The director Taika Waititi (b. 1975) is of Maori and Jewish descent. He often plays roles in his films. Here, he plays the comic role of a minister. In 2020 Waititi won an Oscar for the film Jojo Rabbit.

12 A comparative study of child protective services Go online to research and answer the following questions about Norway and New Zealand: • How many children live in foster care? • How large a percentage of children is this? • Can you find guidelines for when a child should be placed in alternative care? Make sure you use two sources that corroborate your findings. See course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

13 Listen to a podcast and talk about it + Find a podcast from the BBC Inquiry from the 27th of June 2019, Part 1 (up to 07:30). This episode is called “Can a government make you happy?” Listen for specific information about the following questions and key words: • • • • •

PM Jacinda Ardern prisons and rehabilitation GDP vs happiness the Easterlin Paradox the Genuine Progress Index

Take notes on relevant information on the points above. First, form groups and bring your notes. Then, retell what you heard in the podcast about the above points. Discuss what you think about the approach taken in New Zealand. Is it relevant to someone like Heck in Hunt for the Wilderpeople? See course 3: Improving your listening skills for guidance.

English Everywhere

93


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE

3 What technique has Ricky learnt to express his feelings? 4 What does Ricky name his dog?

LANGUAGE 10 These words and expressions are typical of New Zealand English. First, guess what they mean. Then, go online to check your answers. a bach, dairy, gumboots, togs, kiwi, snarlers b Godzone, dry horrors, cup cake, cow-cocky, the cake tin, Shaky City

5 Why does he choose this name? 6 The hot-water bottle takes on a symbolic meaning. What does it represent? 7 What does Ricky envision for his future?

OVER TO YOU 11 Characterisation

Does the character show any development, i.e. is he/she a dynamic or a static character? Explain. What does this character have in common with, and how does he/she relate to, the other characters? What is his/her function in the story of the film?

For more on characterisation, see course 17: Approaching literature and film.

TIDBIT

The director Taika Waititi (b. 1975) is of Maori and Jewish descent. He often plays roles in his films. Here, he plays the comic role of a minister. In 2020 Waititi won an Oscar for the film Jojo Rabbit.

[ chapter 2 ]

Paula

vu

What do we get to know about the character through what he or she says and does?

Bella

12 A comparative study of child protective services Go online to research and answer the following questions about Norway and New Zealand:

til

Hec

• How many children live in foster care? • How large a percentage of children is this? • Can you find guidelines for when a child should be placed in alternative care?

Make sure you use two sources that corroborate your findings. See course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

Ku n

Ricky

rd

Ricky, Hec, Bella, and Paula are the four main characters in this film. Take notes and discuss:

8 What does the name “Wilderpeople” signify?

92

g

2 How does Ricky react to his new home during his first 24 hours there?

STRUCTURE 9 The film is structured in a way that is more typical of a literary genre. Which one? What is the effect of this structure?

er in

CONTENT 1 What does Paula from child protective services say about Ricky when she presents him to Bella?

13 Listen to a podcast and talk about it + Find a podcast from the BBC Inquiry from the 27th of June 2019, Part 1 (up to 07:30). This episode is called “Can a government make you happy?” Listen for specific information about the following questions and key words: • • • • •

PM Jacinda Ardern prisons and rehabilitation GDP vs happiness the Easterlin Paradox the Genuine Progress Index

Take notes on relevant information on the points above. First, form groups and bring your notes. Then, retell what you heard in the podcast about the above points. Discuss what you think about the approach taken in New Zealand. Is it relevant to someone like Heck in Hunt for the Wilderpeople? See course 3: Improving your listening skills for guidance.

English Everywhere

93


2 English Everywhere AIMS • Explore the South African variety of English • Discuss and write a paragraph on social issues • Research and present South African history

g

hat does Born a • W Crime tell us about him?

Ku n

til

vu

rd

er in

• L isten to Noah’s pronunciation. Is it different from British and American English?

[ chapter 2 ]

Born a Crime CONTEXT

94

FIRST Watch the 8-minute clip of Trevor Noah performing on “Live at the Apollo”.

The English language spread to South Africa because of colonisation. However, unlike in New Zealand, South Africans who have British ancestors make up only a minority of the population. This helps explain why English is spoken mainly as a second or third language there. South African English is distinct in both pronunciation and vocabulary, with many words borrowed from Afrikaans, spoken by the Dutch settlers, and the various African languages. Trevor Noah, the famous host of The Daily Show, still speaks English with a South African accent. Noah grew up as a mixed-race child in Johannesburg, and he now combines his career as a standup comedian with hosting The Daily Show. He writes about his childhood experiences in his autobiography Born a Crime (2016). This title refers to the fact that his mere existence was against the law, as whites and blacks were not allowed to interact and certainly not to procreate – i.e., have children. In the following extracts, Noah describes scenes from his childhood and reflects on how he was viewed by others and how he viewed himself.

History: South Africa formally became a British colony in 1815 and gained independence in 1910. The English language soon became the language of power ahead of Afrikaans and the various African languages spoken by the indigenous population. Status: Today, English is one of 11 official languages in South Africa and approximately 10% of the population speak it as a first language. South African words in the English language: aardvark, apartheid, braai, howzit, sarmie, shackland, skedonk, ubuntu

English Everywhere

95


2 English Everywhere AIMS FIRST

• Explore the South African variety of English • Discuss and write a paragraph on social issues • Research and present South African history

Watch the 8-minute clip of Trevor Noah performing on “Live at the Apollo”.

g

hat does Born a • W Crime tell us about him?

rd

er in

• L isten to Noah’s pronunciation. Is it different from British and American English?

til

The English language spread to South Africa because of colonisation. However, unlike in New Zealand, South Africans who have British ancestors make up only a minority of the population. This helps explain why English is spoken mainly as a second or third language there. South African English is distinct in both pronunciation and vocabulary, with many words borrowed from Afrikaans, spoken by the Dutch settlers, and the various African languages.

Ku n

CONTEXT

vu

Born a Crime

Trevor Noah, the famous host of The Daily Show, still speaks English with a South African accent. Noah grew up as a mixed-race child in Johannesburg, and he now combines his career as a standup comedian with hosting The Daily Show. He writes about his childhood experiences in his autobiography Born a Crime (2016). This title refers to the fact that his mere existence was against the law, as whites and blacks were not allowed to interact and certainly not to procreate – i.e., have children. In the following extracts, Noah describes scenes from his childhood and reflects on how he was viewed by others and how he viewed himself.

94

[ chapter 2 ]

History: South Africa formally became a British colony in 1815 and gained independence in 1910. The English language soon became the language of power ahead of Afrikaans and the various African languages spoken by the indigenous population. Status: Today, English is one of 11 official languages in South Africa and approximately 10% of the population speak it as a first language. South African words in the English language: aardvark, apartheid, braai, howzit, sarmie, shackland, skedonk, ubuntu

English Everywhere

95


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Part One

5

5

Ku n

til

vu

rd

er in

g

One afternoon I was playing with my cousins. I was a doctor and they were my patients. I was operating on my cousin Bulelwa’s ear with a set of matches when I accidentally perforated her eardrum. All hell broke loose. My grandmother came running in from the kitchen. “Kwenzeka ntoni?!” “What’s happening?!” There was blood coming out of my cousin’s head. We were all crying. My grandmother patched up Bulelwa’s ear and made sure to stop the bleeding. But we kept crying. Because clearly we’d done something we were not supposed to do, and we knew we were going to be punished. My grandmother finished up with Bulelwa’s ear and whipped out a belt and she beat the shit out of Bulelwa. Then she beat the shit out of Mlungisi, too. She didn’t touch me. Later that night my mother came home from work. She found my cousin with a bandage over her ear and my gran crying at the kitchen table. “What’s going on?” My mom said. “Oh, Nombuyiselo,” she said. “Trevor is so naughty. He’s the naughtiest child I’ve ever come across in my life.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can’t hit him.” “Why not?” “Because I don’t know how to hit a white child,” she said. “A black child, I understand. A black child, you hit them and they stay black. Trevor, when you hit him he turns blue and green and yellow and red. I’ve never seen those colors before. I’m scared I’m going to break him. I don’t want to kill a white person. I’m so afraid. I’m not going to touch him.” And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My grandfather did, too, only he was even more extreme. He called me “Mastah.” In the car, he insisted on driving me as if he were my chauffeur. “Mastah must always sit in the backseat.” I never challenged him on it. What was I going to say? “I believe your perception of race is flawed, Grandfather.” No. I was five. I sat in the back. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. […] I was having a great time. My own family basically did what the American justice system does: I was given more lenient treatment than the black kids. Misbehavior that my cousins would have been punished for, I was given a warning and let off. And I was way naughtier than either of my cousins. […] I was trouble. My mom was the only force I truly feared. She believed if you spare the rod, you spoil the child. But everyone else said, “No, he’s different,” and they gave me a pass. Growing up the way I did, I learned how easy it is for white people to get comfortable with a system that awards them all the perks. I knew my cousins were getting beaten for things that I’d done, but I wasn’t interested in changing my grandmother’s perspective, because that would mean I’d get beaten, too. Why would I do that? […] I had a choice. I could champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies. I went with the cookies.

perforate puncture eardrum trommehinne patch up bandage mastah master perception outlook or view flawed incorrect perk advantage lenient mild rod pisk champion fight for justice fairness

96

[ chapter 2 ]

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

At that point I didn’t think of the special treatment as having to do with color. I thought of it as having to do with Trevor. It wasn’t, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is white.” It was, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is Trevor.” Trevor can’t go outside. Trevor can’t walk without supervision. It’s because I’m me; that’s why this is happening. I had no other points of reference. There were no other mixed kids around so that I could say, “Oh, this happens to us.” Nearly one million people lived in Soweto. Ninety-nine point nine percent of them were black – and then there was me. I was famous in my neighborhood just because of the color of my skin. I was so unique people would give directions using me as a landmark. “The house on Makhalima Street. At the corner you’ll see a light-skinned boy. Take a right there.” Whenever the kids in the street saw me they’d yell, “Indoda yomlungu!” “The white man!” Some of them would run away. Others would call out to their parents to come look. Others would run up and try to touch me to see if I was real. […] What I didn’t understand at the time was that the other kids genuinely had no clue what a white person was. Black kids in the township didn’t leave the township. Few people had televisions. They’d seen the white police roll through, but they’d never dealt with a white person face-to-face, ever. I’d go to funerals and I’d walk in and the bereaved would look up and see me and they’d stop crying. They’d start whispering. Then they’d wave and say, “Oh!” like they were more shocked by me walking in than by the death of their loved ones. I think people felt like the dead person was more important because a white person had come to the funeral. […]

supervision overvåking genuinely truthfully bereaved mourning

English Everywhere

97


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Part One

96

[ chapter 2 ]

5

10

10

15

15

20

20

30

30

35

40

rd

vu

25

At that point I didn’t think of the special treatment as having to do with color. I thought of it as having to do with Trevor. It wasn’t, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is white.” It was, “Trevor doesn’t get beaten because Trevor is Trevor.” Trevor can’t go outside. Trevor can’t walk without supervision. It’s because I’m me; that’s why this is happening. I had no other points of reference. There were no other mixed kids around so that I could say, “Oh, this happens to us.” Nearly one million people lived in Soweto. Ninety-nine point nine percent of them were black – and then there was me. I was famous in my neighborhood just because of the color of my skin. I was so unique people would give directions using me as a landmark. “The house on Makhalima Street. At the corner you’ll see a light-skinned boy. Take a right there.” Whenever the kids in the street saw me they’d yell, “Indoda yomlungu!” “The white man!” Some of them would run away. Others would call out to their parents to come look. Others would run up and try to touch me to see if I was real. […] What I didn’t understand at the time was that the other kids genuinely had no clue what a white person was. Black kids in the township didn’t leave the township. Few people had televisions. They’d seen the white police roll through, but they’d never dealt with a white person face-to-face, ever. I’d go to funerals and I’d walk in and the bereaved would look up and see me and they’d stop crying. They’d start whispering. Then they’d wave and say, “Oh!” like they were more shocked by me walking in than by the death of their loved ones. I think people felt like the dead person was more important because a white person had come to the funeral. […]

til

25

er in

g

5

Ku n

perforate puncture eardrum trommehinne patch up bandage mastah master perception outlook or view flawed incorrect perk advantage lenient mild rod pisk champion fight for justice fairness

One afternoon I was playing with my cousins. I was a doctor and they were my patients. I was operating on my cousin Bulelwa’s ear with a set of matches when I accidentally perforated her eardrum. All hell broke loose. My grandmother came running in from the kitchen. “Kwenzeka ntoni?!” “What’s happening?!” There was blood coming out of my cousin’s head. We were all crying. My grandmother patched up Bulelwa’s ear and made sure to stop the bleeding. But we kept crying. Because clearly we’d done something we were not supposed to do, and we knew we were going to be punished. My grandmother finished up with Bulelwa’s ear and whipped out a belt and she beat the shit out of Bulelwa. Then she beat the shit out of Mlungisi, too. She didn’t touch me. Later that night my mother came home from work. She found my cousin with a bandage over her ear and my gran crying at the kitchen table. “What’s going on?” My mom said. “Oh, Nombuyiselo,” she said. “Trevor is so naughty. He’s the naughtiest child I’ve ever come across in my life.” “Then you should hit him.” “I can’t hit him.” “Why not?” “Because I don’t know how to hit a white child,” she said. “A black child, I understand. A black child, you hit them and they stay black. Trevor, when you hit him he turns blue and green and yellow and red. I’ve never seen those colors before. I’m scared I’m going to break him. I don’t want to kill a white person. I’m so afraid. I’m not going to touch him.” And she never did. My grandmother treated me like I was white. My grandfather did, too, only he was even more extreme. He called me “Mastah.” In the car, he insisted on driving me as if he were my chauffeur. “Mastah must always sit in the backseat.” I never challenged him on it. What was I going to say? “I believe your perception of race is flawed, Grandfather.” No. I was five. I sat in the back. There were so many perks to being “white” in a black family. […] I was having a great time. My own family basically did what the American justice system does: I was given more lenient treatment than the black kids. Misbehavior that my cousins would have been punished for, I was given a warning and let off. And I was way naughtier than either of my cousins. […] I was trouble. My mom was the only force I truly feared. She believed if you spare the rod, you spoil the child. But everyone else said, “No, he’s different,” and they gave me a pass. Growing up the way I did, I learned how easy it is for white people to get comfortable with a system that awards them all the perks. I knew my cousins were getting beaten for things that I’d done, but I wasn’t interested in changing my grandmother’s perspective, because that would mean I’d get beaten, too. Why would I do that? […] I had a choice. I could champion racial justice in our home, or I could enjoy granny’s cookies. I went with the cookies.

35

40

supervision overvåking genuinely truthfully bereaved mourning

English Everywhere

97


2 English Everywhere

80.8% 22.7% 16%

Mixed white-black

8.8%

Asian, other

2.5%

White

7.9%

Total number of inhabitants:

Approximately 57 million

er in

Black Zulu Xhosa

As a kid I understood that people were different colors, but in my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate. Dad was the white chocolate, mom was the dark chocolate, and I was the milk chocolate. But we were all just chocolate. I didn’t know any of it had anything to do with “race.” I didn’t know what race was. My mother never referred to my dad as white or to me as mixed. So when the other kids in Soweto called me “white”, even though I was light brown, I just thought they had their colors mixed up. […] I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language. Soweto was a melting pot: families from different tribes and homelands. Most kids in the township spoke only their home language, but I learned several languages because I grew up in a house where there was no option but to learn them. My mom made sure English was the first language I spoke. If you’re black in South Africa, speaking English is the one thing that can give you a leg up. English is the language of money. […] If you’re looking for a job, English is the difference between getting the job or staying unemployed. If you’re standing in the dock, English is the difference between getting off with a fine or going to prison. After English, Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. When my mother was angry she’d fall back on her home language. As a naughty child, I was well versed in Xhosa threats. […] Outside of that, my mother picked up different languages here and there. She learned Zulu because it’s similar to Xhosa. She spoke German because of my father. She spoke Afrikaans because it is useful to know the language of your oppressor. Sotho she learned in the streets. Living with my mom, I saw how she used language to cross boundaries, handle situations, navigate the world. We were in a shop once, and the shopkeeper, right in front of us, turned to his security guard and said, in Afrikaans, “Volg daai swartes, netnou steel hulle iets.” “Follow those blacks in case they steal something.” My mother turned around and said, in beautiful, fluent Afrikaans, “Hoekom volg jy nie daai swartes sodat jy hulle kan help kry waarna hulle soek nie?” “Why don’t you follow these blacks so you can help them find what they’re looking for?” “Ag, jammer!” he said, apologizing in Afrikaans. Then – and this was the funny thing – he didn’t apologize for being racist; he merely apologized for aiming his racism at us. “Oh, I’m so sorry,” he said. “I thought you were like the other blacks. You know how they love to steal.” I learned to use language like my mother did. […] It became a tool that served me my whole life. One day as a young man I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys was walking behind me, closing in on me, and I could hear them talking to one another [in Zulu] about how they were going to mug me. […] “Let’s get this white guy. You go to his left, and I’ll come up behind him.” I didn’t know what to do. I couldn’t run, so I just

Ku n

til

vu

rd

Sources: britannica.com and sa-venues.com

bridge (v) connect gap (n) divide melting pot smeltedigel township neighbourhood similar to a ghetto oppressor undertrykker boundary border or limit merely only, just mug (v) rob, assault

98

[ chapter 2 ]

5

g

Ethnicity in South Africa

10

15

20

25

30

35

35

40

40

spun around real quick and said, [in their language] […] “Yo, guys, why don’t we just mug someone together? I’m ready. Let’s do it.” They looked shocked for a moment, and then they started laughing. “Oh, sorry, dude. We thought you were something else. We weren’t trying to take anything from you. We were trying to steal from white people. Have a good day, man.” They were ready to do me violent harm, until they felt we were part of the same tribe, and then we were cool. That made […] me realize that language, even more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn’t change, but I could change your perception of my color. If you spoke to me in Zulu, I replied to you in Zulu. If you spoke to me in Tswana, I replied to you in Tswana. Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

Transkei, South Africa, 1985. Three policemen who attempted to drive through a crowd of mourners were forcibly dragged from their car. One managed to escape but the other two were killed, one by “necklacing”.

English Everywhere

99


2 English Everywhere

2.5%

White

7.9%

Total number of inhabitants:

Approximately 57 million

Sources: britannica.com and sa-venues.com

bridge (v) connect gap (n) divide melting pot smeltedigel township neighbourhood similar to a ghetto oppressor undertrykker boundary border or limit merely only, just mug (v) rob, assault

98

[ chapter 2 ]

g

Asian, other

5

er in

8.8%

10

15

rd

Mixed white-black

20

vu

80.8% 22.7% 16%

25

til

Black Zulu Xhosa

As a kid I understood that people were different colors, but in my head white and black and brown were like types of chocolate. Dad was the white chocolate, mom was the dark chocolate, and I was the milk chocolate. But we were all just chocolate. I didn’t know any of it had anything to do with “race.” I didn’t know what race was. My mother never referred to my dad as white or to me as mixed. So when the other kids in Soweto called me “white”, even though I was light brown, I just thought they had their colors mixed up. […] I soon learned that the quickest way to bridge the race gap was through language. Soweto was a melting pot: families from different tribes and homelands. Most kids in the township spoke only their home language, but I learned several languages because I grew up in a house where there was no option but to learn them. My mom made sure English was the first language I spoke. If you’re black in South Africa, speaking English is the one thing that can give you a leg up. English is the language of money. […] If you’re looking for a job, English is the difference between getting the job or staying unemployed. If you’re standing in the dock, English is the difference between getting off with a fine or going to prison. After English, Xhosa was what we spoke around the house. When my mother was angry she’d fall back on her home language. As a naughty child, I was well versed in Xhosa threats. […] Outside of that, my mother picked up different languages here and there. She learned Zulu because it’s similar to Xhosa. She spoke German because of my father. She spoke Afrikaans because it is useful to know the language of your oppressor. Sotho she learned in the streets. Living with my mom, I saw how she used language to cross boundaries, handle situations, navigate the world. We were in a shop once, and the shopkeeper, right in front of us, turned to his security guard and said, in Afrikaans, “Volg daai swartes, netnou steel hulle iets.” “Follow those blacks in case they steal something.” My mother turned around and said, in beautiful, fluent Afrikaans, “Hoekom volg jy nie daai swartes sodat jy hulle kan help kry waarna hulle soek nie?” “Why don’t you follow these blacks so you can help them find what they’re looking for?” “Ag, jammer!” he said, apologizing in Afrikaans. Then – and this was the funny thing – he didn’t apologize for being racist; he merely apologized for aiming his racism at us. “Oh, I’m so sorry,” he said. “I thought you were like the other blacks. You know how they love to steal.” I learned to use language like my mother did. […] It became a tool that served me my whole life. One day as a young man I was walking down the street, and a group of Zulu guys was walking behind me, closing in on me, and I could hear them talking to one another [in Zulu] about how they were going to mug me. […] “Let’s get this white guy. You go to his left, and I’ll come up behind him.” I didn’t know what to do. I couldn’t run, so I just

30

35

40

spun around real quick and said, [in their language] […] “Yo, guys, why don’t we just mug someone together? I’m ready. Let’s do it.” They looked shocked for a moment, and then they started laughing. “Oh, sorry, dude. We thought you were something else. We weren’t trying to take anything from you. We were trying to steal from white people. Have a good day, man.” They were ready to do me violent harm, until they felt we were part of the same tribe, and then we were cool. That made […] me realize that language, even more than color, defines who you are to people. I became a chameleon. My color didn’t change, but I could change your perception of my color. If you spoke to me in Zulu, I replied to you in Zulu. If you spoke to me in Tswana, I replied to you in Tswana. Maybe I didn’t look like you, but if I spoke like you, I was you.

Ku n

Ethnicity in South Africa

35

40

Transkei, South Africa, 1985. Three policemen who attempted to drive through a crowd of mourners were forcibly dragged from their car. One managed to escape but the other two were killed, one by “necklacing”.

English Everywhere

99


2 English Everywhere

Part Two

5

5

til

vu

rd

er in

g

As apartheid was coming to an end, South Africa’s elite private schools started accepting children of all colors. My mother’s company offered bursaries, scholarships, for underprivileged families, and she managed to get me into Maryvale College, an expensive private Catholic school. Classes taught by nuns. Mass on Fridays. The whole bit. I started preschool there when I was three, primary school when I was five. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black kids, white kids, Indian kids, colored kids. Most of the white kids were pretty well off. Every child of color pretty much wasn’t. But because of scholarships we all sat at the same table. We wore the same maroon blazers, the same gray slacks and skirts. We had the same books. We had the same teachers. There was no racial separation. […]. Kids still got teased and bullied, but it was over usual kid stuff: being fat or being skinny, being tall or being short, being smart or being dumb. I don’t remember anybody being teased about their race. I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like. […] I had crushes on white girls. I had crushes on black girls. Nobody asked me what I was. I was Trevor. It was a wonderful experience to have, but the downside was that it sheltered me from reality. […] But the real world doesn’t go away. Racism exists. People are getting hurt, and just because it’s not happening to you doesn’t mean it’s not happening. And at some point, you have to choose. Black or white. […] At the end of grade six I left Maryvale to go to H. A. Jack Primary, a government school. I had to take an aptitude test before I started, and, based on the results of the test, the school counselor told me, “You’re going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” I showed up for the first day of school and went to my classroom. Of the thirty or so kids in my class, almost all of them were white. There was one Indian kid, maybe one or two black kids, and me. Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. It was an ocean of black, like someone had opened a tap and all the black had come pouring out. I was like, Where were they all hiding? The white kids I’d met that morning, they went in one direction, the black kids went in another direction, and I was left standing in the middle, totally confused. […] I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time. In the townships you don’t see segregation, because everyone is black. […]. Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together, occupying the same space yet choosing not to associate with each other in any way. In an instant I could see, I could feel, how the boundaries were drawn. Groups moved in color patterns across the yard, up the stairs, down the hall. It was insane. […] I stood there awkwardly by myself in this no-man’s-land in the middle of the playground. Luckily, I was rescued by the Indian kid from my class, a guy named Theesan. […]. He ran over to introduce himself. “Hello, fellow anomaly!

Ku n

bursary stipend scholarship stipend mass Catholic service well off wealthy maroon brownish red slacks trousers tease (v) pick on bully (v) harass, intimidate crush (n) infatuation shelter protect aptitude test competence test counselor school adviser recess break (friminutt) tap (n) kran segregation division based on race anomaly the odd one out

100

[ chapter 2 ]

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

You’re in my class. Who are you? What’s your story?” We started talking and hit it off. […] Through our conversation it came up that I spoke several African languages, and Theesan thought a colored kid speaking black languages was the most amazing trick. He brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them, “and he’ll show you he understands you.” One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied to him in Zulu. Everyone cheered. Another kid said something in Xhosa, and I replied to him in Xhosa. Everyone cheered. For the rest of recess Theesan took me around to different black kids on the playground. “Show them your trick. Do your language thing.” The black kids were fascinated. In South Africa back then, it wasn’t common to find a white person or a colored person who spoke African languages. […] “How come you speak our languages?” they asked. “Because I’m black,” I said, “like you.” “You’re not black.” “Yes, I am.” “No, you’re not. Have you not seen yourself?” They were confused at first. Because of my color, they thought I was a colored person, but speaking the same languages meant that I belonged to their tribe. It just took them a moment to figure it out. It took me a moment, too. At some point I turned to one of them and said, “Hey, how come I don’t see you guys in any of my classes?” It turned out they were in the B classes, which also happened to be the black classes. That same afternoon, I went back to the A classes, and by the end of the day I realized that they weren’t for me. Suddenly, I knew who my people were, and I wanted to be with them. I went to see the school counselor. “I’d like to switch over,” I told her. “I’d like to go to the B classes.” She was confused. “Oh, no” she said. “I don’t think you want to do that.” “Why not?”

Johannesburg, July 19, 2018. An aerial view of the poor black squatter camp Kya Sands, home to South Africans and many African immigrants. Across the road is Bloubusrand, a middle class area with larger houses and swimming pools. South Africa has one of the highest income differences in the world and the country is struggling with a high unemployment rate and low growth rate.

English Everywhere

101


2 English Everywhere

Part Two

100

[ chapter 2 ]

5

10

10

15

15

25

30

30

35

40

rd

25

vu

20

You’re in my class. Who are you? What’s your story?” We started talking and hit it off. […] Through our conversation it came up that I spoke several African languages, and Theesan thought a colored kid speaking black languages was the most amazing trick. He brought me over to a group of black kids. “Say something,” he told them, “and he’ll show you he understands you.” One kid said something in Zulu, and I replied to him in Zulu. Everyone cheered. Another kid said something in Xhosa, and I replied to him in Xhosa. Everyone cheered. For the rest of recess Theesan took me around to different black kids on the playground. “Show them your trick. Do your language thing.” The black kids were fascinated. In South Africa back then, it wasn’t common to find a white person or a colored person who spoke African languages. […] “How come you speak our languages?” they asked. “Because I’m black,” I said, “like you.” “You’re not black.” “Yes, I am.” “No, you’re not. Have you not seen yourself?” They were confused at first. Because of my color, they thought I was a colored person, but speaking the same languages meant that I belonged to their tribe. It just took them a moment to figure it out. It took me a moment, too. At some point I turned to one of them and said, “Hey, how come I don’t see you guys in any of my classes?” It turned out they were in the B classes, which also happened to be the black classes. That same afternoon, I went back to the A classes, and by the end of the day I realized that they weren’t for me. Suddenly, I knew who my people were, and I wanted to be with them. I went to see the school counselor. “I’d like to switch over,” I told her. “I’d like to go to the B classes.” She was confused. “Oh, no” she said. “I don’t think you want to do that.” “Why not?”

Johannesburg, July 19, 2018. An aerial view of the poor black squatter camp Kya Sands, home to South Africans and many African immigrants. Across the road is Bloubusrand, a middle class area with larger houses and swimming pools. South Africa has one of the highest income differences in the world and the country is struggling with a high unemployment rate and low growth rate.

til

20

er in

g

5

Ku n

bursary stipend scholarship stipend mass Catholic service well off wealthy maroon brownish red slacks trousers tease (v) pick on bully (v) harass, intimidate crush (n) infatuation shelter protect aptitude test competence test counselor school adviser recess break (friminutt) tap (n) kran segregation division based on race anomaly the odd one out

As apartheid was coming to an end, South Africa’s elite private schools started accepting children of all colors. My mother’s company offered bursaries, scholarships, for underprivileged families, and she managed to get me into Maryvale College, an expensive private Catholic school. Classes taught by nuns. Mass on Fridays. The whole bit. I started preschool there when I was three, primary school when I was five. In my class we had all kinds of kids. Black kids, white kids, Indian kids, colored kids. Most of the white kids were pretty well off. Every child of color pretty much wasn’t. But because of scholarships we all sat at the same table. We wore the same maroon blazers, the same gray slacks and skirts. We had the same books. We had the same teachers. There was no racial separation. […]. Kids still got teased and bullied, but it was over usual kid stuff: being fat or being skinny, being tall or being short, being smart or being dumb. I don’t remember anybody being teased about their race. I didn’t learn to put limits on what I was supposed to like or not like. […] I had crushes on white girls. I had crushes on black girls. Nobody asked me what I was. I was Trevor. It was a wonderful experience to have, but the downside was that it sheltered me from reality. […] But the real world doesn’t go away. Racism exists. People are getting hurt, and just because it’s not happening to you doesn’t mean it’s not happening. And at some point, you have to choose. Black or white. […] At the end of grade six I left Maryvale to go to H. A. Jack Primary, a government school. I had to take an aptitude test before I started, and, based on the results of the test, the school counselor told me, “You’re going to be in the smart classes, the A classes.” I showed up for the first day of school and went to my classroom. Of the thirty or so kids in my class, almost all of them were white. There was one Indian kid, maybe one or two black kids, and me. Then recess came. We went out on the playground, and black kids were everywhere. It was an ocean of black, like someone had opened a tap and all the black had come pouring out. I was like, Where were they all hiding? The white kids I’d met that morning, they went in one direction, the black kids went in another direction, and I was left standing in the middle, totally confused. […] I was eleven years old, and it was like I was seeing my country for the first time. In the townships you don’t see segregation, because everyone is black. […]. Before that day, I had never seen people being together and yet not together, occupying the same space yet choosing not to associate with each other in any way. In an instant I could see, I could feel, how the boundaries were drawn. Groups moved in color patterns across the yard, up the stairs, down the hall. It was insane. […] I stood there awkwardly by myself in this no-man’s-land in the middle of the playground. Luckily, I was rescued by the Indian kid from my class, a guy named Theesan. […]. He ran over to introduce himself. “Hello, fellow anomaly!

35

40

English Everywhere

101


2 English Everywhere

er in

rd

vu

til

Noah, T. (2016). Born a Crime (pp. 51-59). New York: Spiegel & Grau.

Ku n

stern serious or strict impact (v) affect

102

[ chapter 2 ]

PRACTICE CONTENT 1 How did Noah’s grandparents treat him when he was a child? 5

g

AUTHOR Trevor Noah (b. 1984) is a South African comedian, actor and writer. After starting his career in his native South Africa, he moved to the USA where he appeared on several late-night talk shows. In 2015, he became the host of the satirical news program The Daily Show. Noah has won an Emmy award and, in 2018, Time magazine named him as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. His memoir, Born a Crime (2016), has also won him much praise.

“Because those kids are … you know.” “No, I don’t know. What do you mean?” “Look,” she said, “you’re a smart kid. You don’t want to be in that class.” “But aren’t the classes the same? English is English. Math is math.” “Yeah, but that class is … those kids are gonna hold you back. You want to be in the smart class.” “But surely there must be some smart kids in the B class.” “No, there aren’t.” “But all my friends are there.” “You don’t want to be friends with those kids.” “Yes, I do.” We went back and forth. Finally she gave me a stern warning. “You do realize the effect this will have on your future? You do understand what you’re giving up? This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” “I’ll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I decided I’d rather be held back with people I liked than move ahead with people I didn’t know. Being at H. A. Jack made me realize I was black. Before that recess I’d never had to choose, but when I was forced to choose, I chose black. The world saw me as colored, but I didn’t spend my life looking at myself. I spent my life looking at other people. I saw myself as the people around me, and the people around me were black. My cousins are black, my mom is black, my gran is black. I grew up black. Because I had a white father, because I’d been in white Sunday school, I got along with the white kids, but I didn’t belong with the white kids. I wasn’t a part of their tribe. But the black kids embraced me. “Come along,” they said. “You’re rolling with us.” With the black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was.

10

2 What did Noah think about the treatment he got as a child? 3 How did he learn so many languages, and in which way did he use them to establish relationships with people he met? 4 When and how did Noah first realize that there was racial segregation in his country? 5 What did he decide to do when he met the kids in the B class? Why?

15

6 What did the school counsellor advise him to do, and how did she explain her views? 7 How did Noah feel when he had picked a side? Why?

20

25

30

35

STRUCTURE 8 Study the final paragraph of this extract. What makes this a typical concluding paragraph? LANGUAGE 9 Explain these idiomatic expressions from the text in your own words: a to give someone a leg-up b to stand in the dock c to be well versed d to mug someone e to have a crush f to pick a side g to hit it off h to roll with someone OVER TO YOU 10 Hold a discussion

b What is your opinion of the way Trevor’s grandparents treated him? Can you understand their behaviour? c How does speaking languages open up doors for Trevor? Is this true for all people? Share your thoughts and give examples. d Trevor says that “language, even more than color, defines who you are to people”. From your own experience, is this true? Explain. e What do you think are the most important themes in this text? Here are some suggestions. Discuss them and give reasons for your choice. childhood, identity, racism, friendship, family, poverty, apartheid, education, language, multi-culturalism, prejudice, tolerance, ambitions, ethnicities See course 15: Holding discussions for advice. 11 Write a paragraph Pick one of the discussion tasks from the previous task and write a paragraph where you discuss this question. See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for guidance. 12 History of South Africa In groups, research and create presentations on South African history lasting approximately 5 minutes. Decide on a focus, assign responsibilities for research, and plan your presentations. Suggested topics: • The colonial history of South Africa up until 1910 • A timeline of apartheid • Define apartheid and compare its laws with segregation laws in the US • Nelson Mandela • South African English See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

In groups, go through the questions below. Allow each person to comment before you move on to the next question. 40

Panoramic view over Cape Town and Table Mountain from top of Lion’s Head Mountain.

a If you were in Trevor Noah’s position, would you choose the A or the B class? Give reasons for your choice and explain what you think is most important when choosing a school.

English Everywhere

103


2 English Everywhere

Noah, T. (2016). Born a Crime (pp. 51-59). New York: Spiegel & Grau.

10

2 What did Noah think about the treatment he got as a child? 3 How did he learn so many languages, and in which way did he use them to establish relationships with people he met? 4 When and how did Noah first realize that there was racial segregation in his country? 5 What did he decide to do when he met the kids in the B class? Why?

15

6 What did the school counsellor advise him to do, and how did she explain her views?

25

30

35

See course 15: Holding discussions for advice.

STRUCTURE 8 Study the final paragraph of this extract. What makes this a typical concluding paragraph?

11 Write a paragraph Pick one of the discussion tasks from the previous task and write a paragraph where you discuss this question. See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for guidance.

vu

20

childhood, identity, racism, friendship, family, poverty, apartheid, education, language, multi-culturalism, prejudice, tolerance, ambitions, ethnicities

rd

7 How did Noah feel when he had picked a side? Why?

g

5

b What is your opinion of the way Trevor’s grandparents treated him? Can you understand their behaviour? c How does speaking languages open up doors for Trevor? Is this true for all people? Share your thoughts and give examples. d Trevor says that “language, even more than color, defines who you are to people”. From your own experience, is this true? Explain. e What do you think are the most important themes in this text? Here are some suggestions. Discuss them and give reasons for your choice.

er in

CONTENT 1 How did Noah’s grandparents treat him when he was a child?

LANGUAGE 9 Explain these idiomatic expressions from the text in your own words: a to give someone a leg-up b to stand in the dock c to be well versed d to mug someone e to have a crush f to pick a side g to hit it off h to roll with someone

til

stern serious or strict impact (v) affect

PRACTICE

Ku n

AUTHOR Trevor Noah (b. 1984) is a South African comedian, actor and writer. After starting his career in his native South Africa, he moved to the USA where he appeared on several late-night talk shows. In 2015, he became the host of the satirical news program The Daily Show. Noah has won an Emmy award and, in 2018, Time magazine named him as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. His memoir, Born a Crime (2016), has also won him much praise.

“Because those kids are … you know.” “No, I don’t know. What do you mean?” “Look,” she said, “you’re a smart kid. You don’t want to be in that class.” “But aren’t the classes the same? English is English. Math is math.” “Yeah, but that class is … those kids are gonna hold you back. You want to be in the smart class.” “But surely there must be some smart kids in the B class.” “No, there aren’t.” “But all my friends are there.” “You don’t want to be friends with those kids.” “Yes, I do.” We went back and forth. Finally she gave me a stern warning. “You do realize the effect this will have on your future? You do understand what you’re giving up? This will impact the opportunities you’ll have open to you for the rest of your life.” “I’ll take that chance.” I moved to the B classes with the black kids. I decided I’d rather be held back with people I liked than move ahead with people I didn’t know. Being at H. A. Jack made me realize I was black. Before that recess I’d never had to choose, but when I was forced to choose, I chose black. The world saw me as colored, but I didn’t spend my life looking at myself. I spent my life looking at other people. I saw myself as the people around me, and the people around me were black. My cousins are black, my mom is black, my gran is black. I grew up black. Because I had a white father, because I’d been in white Sunday school, I got along with the white kids, but I didn’t belong with the white kids. I wasn’t a part of their tribe. But the black kids embraced me. “Come along,” they said. “You’re rolling with us.” With the black kids, I wasn’t constantly trying to be. With the black kids, I just was.

OVER TO YOU 10 Hold a discussion

12 History of South Africa In groups, research and create presentations on South African history lasting approximately 5 minutes. Decide on a focus, assign responsibilities for research, and plan your presentations. Suggested topics: • The colonial history of South Africa up until 1910 • A timeline of apartheid • Define apartheid and compare its laws with segregation laws in the US • Nelson Mandela • South African English See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

In groups, go through the questions below. Allow each person to comment before you move on to the next question.

40

102

[ chapter 2 ]

Panoramic view over Cape Town and Table Mountain from top of Lion’s Head Mountain.

a If you were in Trevor Noah’s position, would you choose the A or the B class? Give reasons for your choice and explain what you think is most important when choosing a school.

English Everywhere

103


2 English Everywhere AIMS • Explore English-speaking Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa

til

Ku n 104

[ chapter 2 ]

We Should All Be Feminists CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Discuss and write about issues of gender and feminism

FIRST Should we all be feminists? Why or why not?

In Nigeria, the 7th most populous country in the world, English is spoken partly because the country was a former British colony, but arguably also because of capitalism. Speaking English is good for international business, so many Nigerians learn English in the hope of improving their careers and opportunities. Still, few speak it as their first language. This is also the case for Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, who has studied and worked in the US and taken an active interest in the issues of gender roles and feminism, both in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world. Feminism is a concept you have most likely heard of, but within your classroom there are probably different attitudes and opinions about what it is. Historically, feminism has been tied to the fight for women’s rights. At the beginning of the 20th century, suffragettes fought for the right to vote, whilst the feminists of the 1960s and 1970s stood on the barricades demanding the right to have an abortion, to gain equal access to positions of power, and to receive equal pay. Today, some people feel that gender equality has been achieved in most places in the English-speaking world. Others disagree. They argue that true gender equality still does not exist. Adichie belongs to this camp and explains her views in a TED Talk, which she later adapted and published as an essay.

History: English has been spoken and taught in parts of Nigeria since the 18th century. In 1861, Lagos became an official British colony, with the area under British control expanding to include the whole of Nigeria in 1914. Independence was gained in 1960, and Nigeria is still a part of the Commonwealth. Status: English is one of several official languages, and is typically acquired as a second, third, or fourth language. In addition to Standard English, Pidgin English is also widely spoken. Nigerian expressions in the English language: to have long legs, to throw water, to smell pepper, to shine your eyes

English Everywhere

105


2 English Everywhere AIMS • Explore English-speaking Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa

er in

g

• Discuss and write about issues of gender and feminism

FIRST Should we all be feminists? Why or why not?

rd

We Should All Be Feminists

vu

til

CONTEXT

In Nigeria, the 7th most populous country in the world, English is spoken partly because the country was a former British colony, but arguably also because of capitalism. Speaking English is good for international business, so many Nigerians learn English in the hope of improving their careers and opportunities. Still, few speak it as their first language. This is also the case for Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, who has studied and worked in the US and taken an active interest in the issues of gender roles and feminism, both in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world.

Ku n

Feminism is a concept you have most likely heard of, but within your classroom there are probably different attitudes and opinions about what it is. Historically, feminism has been tied to the fight for women’s rights. At the beginning of the 20th century, suffragettes fought for the right to vote, whilst the feminists of the 1960s and 1970s stood on the barricades demanding the right to have an abortion, to gain equal access to positions of power, and to receive equal pay. Today, some people feel that gender equality has been achieved in most places in the English-speaking world. Others disagree. They argue that true gender equality still does not exist. Adichie belongs to this camp and explains her views in a TED Talk, which she later adapted and published as an essay.

104

[ chapter 2 ]

History: English has been spoken and taught in parts of Nigeria since the 18th century. In 1861, Lagos became an official British colony, with the area under British control expanding to include the whole of Nigeria in 1914. Independence was gained in 1960, and Nigeria is still a part of the Commonwealth. Status: English is one of several official languages, and is typically acquired as a second, third, or fourth language. In addition to Standard English, Pidgin English is also widely spoken. Nigerian expressions in the English language: to have long legs, to throw water, to smell pepper, to shine your eyes

English Everywhere

105


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: ESSAY

We Should All be Feminists (extract)

THE THE GLOBAL GLOBAL GENDER GENDER GAP GAP REPORT, REPORT, 2020 2020

Women´s Women´sPolitical PoliticalEmpowerment Empowerment 5

Global Global (153 (153 countries) countries) parliament parliament (lower (lower house house seats) seats)

Global Global (153 (153 countries) countries) ministries ministries

Share Share of of countries countries who who EVER EVER had had a a female female head head of of state state in the in the past past 5050 years years

Ku n

til

vu

rd

er in

g

Okoloma was one of my greatest childhood friends. He lived on my street and looked after me like a big brother: if I liked a boy, I would ask Okoloma’s opinion. Okoloma was funny and intelligent and wore cowboy boots that were pointy at the tips. In December 2005, in a plane crash in southern Nigeria, Okoloma died. It is still hard for me to put into words how I felt. Okoloma was a person I could argue with, laugh with and truly talk to. He was also the first person to call me a feminist. I was about fourteen. We were in his house, arguing, both of us bristling with halfbaked knowledge from the books we had read. I don’t remember what this particular argument was about. But I remember that as I argued and argued, Okoloma looked at me and said, ‘You know, you’re a feminist.’ It was not a compliment. I could tell from his tone – the same tone with which a person would say, ‘You’re a supporter of terrorism.’ I did not know exactly what this word feminist meant. And I did not want Okoloma to know that I didn’t know. So I brushed it aside and continued to argue. The first thing I planned to do when I got home was look up the word in the dictionary. Now fast-forward to some years later. In 2003, I wrote a novel called Purple Hibiscus, about a man who, among other things, beats his wife, and whose story doesn’t end too well. While I was promoting the novel in Nigeria, a journalist, a nice, well-meaning man, told me he wanted to advise me. (Nigerians, as you might know, are very quick to give unsolicited advice.) He told me that people were saying my novel was feminist, and his advice to me – he was shaking his head sadly as he spoke – was that I should never call myself a feminist, since feminists are women who are unhappy because they cannot find husbands. So I decided to call myself a Happy Feminist. Then an academic, a Nigerian woman, told me that feminism was not our culture, that feminism was un-African, and I was only calling myself a feminist because I had been influenced by Western books. (Which amused me, because much of my early reading was decidedly unfeminist: I must have read every single Mills & Boon romance published before I was sixteen. And each time I try to read those books called ‘classic feminist texts’, I get bored, and I struggle to finish them.) Anyway, since feminism was un-African, I decided I would now call myself a Happy African Feminist. Then a dear friend told me that calling myself a feminist meant that I hated men. So I decided I would now be a Happy African Feminist Who Does Not Hate Men. At some point I was a Happy African Feminist Who Does Not Hate Men And Who Likes To Wear Lip Gloss And High Heels For Herself And Not For Men.

bristling excited half-baked not completely thought through decidedly definitely Mills & Boon romance romance novels with traditional gender roles

106

[ chapter 2 ]

10

25% 25%

Share Share of of congress congress women women

21% 21%

Percentage Percentage of of countries countries where where a a woman woman took took head head of of state state office office at at least least once once in the in the past past 5050 years years

Source: Source: Inter-parliamentary Inter-parliamentary union, union, Women Women in Politics, in Politics, appointment appointment as ofasJanuary of January 1st, 1st, 20192019

Source:World Source:World Economic Economic Forum, Forum, The The Global Global Gender Gender GapGap Index, Index, 20202020

15

Source: Source: Inter-parliamentary Inter-parliamentary union, union, Women Women in Politics, in Politics, situation situation as ofasSeptember of September 1st, 1st, 20192019

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

47% 47%

Share Share of of women-ministers women-ministers

Of course much of this was tongue-in-cheek, but what it shows is how that word feminist is so heavy with baggage, negative baggage: you hate men, you hate bras, you hate African culture, you think women should always be in charge, you don’t wear make-up, you don’t shave, you’re always angry, you don’t have a sense of humour, you don’t use deodorant. Men and women are different. We have different hormones and different sexual organs and different biological abilities – women can have babies, men cannot. Men have more testosterone and are, in general, physically stronger than women. There are slightly more women than men in the world – 52 per cent of the world’s population is female but most of the positions of power and prestige are occupied by men. The late Kenyan Nobel peace laureate Wangari Maathai put it simply and well when she said, ‘The higher you go, the fewer women there are.’ Not long ago, I wrote an article about being young and female in Lagos. And an acquaintance told me that it was an angry article, and I should not have made it so angry. But I was unapologetic. Of course it was angry. Gender as it functions today is a grave injustice. I am angry. We should all be angry. Anger has a long history of bringing about positive change. But I am also hopeful, because I believe deeply in the ability of human beings to remake themselves for the better. Gender matters everywhere in the world. And I would like today to ask that we should begin to dream about and plan for a different world. A fairer world. A world of happier men and happier women who are truer to themselves. And this is how to start: we must raise our daughters differently. We must also raise our sons differently.

tongue-in-cheek humorous or ironic late here: deceased or dead Nobel peace laureate recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize acquaintance someone you know, but not a close friend unapologetic not sorry grave injustice very unfair situations

English Everywhere

107


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: ESSAY

We Should All be Feminists (extract)

106

[ chapter 2 ]

Women´s Women´sPolitical PoliticalEmpowerment Empowerment 5

Global Global (153 (153 countries) countries) parliament parliament (lower (lower house house seats) seats)

Share Share of of countries countries who who EVER EVER had had a a female female head head of of state state in the in the past past 5050 years years

er in

g

Global Global (153 (153 countries) countries) ministries ministries

10

25% 25%

21% 21%

Share Share of of congress congress women women 15

Source: Source: Inter-parliamentary Inter-parliamentary union, union, Women Women in Politics, in Politics, appointment appointment as ofasJanuary of January 1st, 1st, 20192019

Source:World Source:World Economic Economic Forum, Forum, The The Global Global Gender Gender GapGap Index, Index, 20202020

25

30

30

Of course much of this was tongue-in-cheek, but what it shows is how that word feminist is so heavy with baggage, negative baggage: you hate men, you hate bras, you hate African culture, you think women should always be in charge, you don’t wear make-up, you don’t shave, you’re always angry, you don’t have a sense of humour, you don’t use deodorant. Men and women are different. We have different hormones and different sexual organs and different biological abilities – women can have babies, men cannot. Men have more testosterone and are, in general, physically stronger than women. There are slightly more women than men in the world – 52 per cent of the world’s population is female but most of the positions of power and prestige are occupied by men. The late Kenyan Nobel peace laureate Wangari Maathai put it simply and well when she said, ‘The higher you go, the fewer women there are.’ Not long ago, I wrote an article about being young and female in Lagos. And an acquaintance told me that it was an angry article, and I should not have made it so angry. But I was unapologetic. Of course it was angry. Gender as it functions today is a grave injustice. I am angry. We should all be angry. Anger has a long history of bringing about positive change. But I am also hopeful, because I believe deeply in the ability of human beings to remake themselves for the better. Gender matters everywhere in the world. And I would like today to ask that we should begin to dream about and plan for a different world. A fairer world. A world of happier men and happier women who are truer to themselves. And this is how to start: we must raise our daughters differently. We must also raise our sons differently.

vu

25

40

Percentage Percentage of of countries countries where where a a woman woman took took head head of of state state office office at at least least once once in the in the past past 5050 years years

til

20

35

47% 47%

Share Share of of women-ministers women-ministers

rd

Source: Source: Inter-parliamentary Inter-parliamentary union, union, Women Women in Politics, in Politics, situation situation as ofasSeptember of September 1st, 1st, 20192019

Ku n

bristling excited half-baked not completely thought through decidedly definitely Mills & Boon romance romance novels with traditional gender roles

Okoloma was one of my greatest childhood friends. He lived on my street and looked after me like a big brother: if I liked a boy, I would ask Okoloma’s opinion. Okoloma was funny and intelligent and wore cowboy boots that were pointy at the tips. In December 2005, in a plane crash in southern Nigeria, Okoloma died. It is still hard for me to put into words how I felt. Okoloma was a person I could argue with, laugh with and truly talk to. He was also the first person to call me a feminist. I was about fourteen. We were in his house, arguing, both of us bristling with halfbaked knowledge from the books we had read. I don’t remember what this particular argument was about. But I remember that as I argued and argued, Okoloma looked at me and said, ‘You know, you’re a feminist.’ It was not a compliment. I could tell from his tone – the same tone with which a person would say, ‘You’re a supporter of terrorism.’ I did not know exactly what this word feminist meant. And I did not want Okoloma to know that I didn’t know. So I brushed it aside and continued to argue. The first thing I planned to do when I got home was look up the word in the dictionary. Now fast-forward to some years later. In 2003, I wrote a novel called Purple Hibiscus, about a man who, among other things, beats his wife, and whose story doesn’t end too well. While I was promoting the novel in Nigeria, a journalist, a nice, well-meaning man, told me he wanted to advise me. (Nigerians, as you might know, are very quick to give unsolicited advice.) He told me that people were saying my novel was feminist, and his advice to me – he was shaking his head sadly as he spoke – was that I should never call myself a feminist, since feminists are women who are unhappy because they cannot find husbands. So I decided to call myself a Happy Feminist. Then an academic, a Nigerian woman, told me that feminism was not our culture, that feminism was un-African, and I was only calling myself a feminist because I had been influenced by Western books. (Which amused me, because much of my early reading was decidedly unfeminist: I must have read every single Mills & Boon romance published before I was sixteen. And each time I try to read those books called ‘classic feminist texts’, I get bored, and I struggle to finish them.) Anyway, since feminism was un-African, I decided I would now call myself a Happy African Feminist. Then a dear friend told me that calling myself a feminist meant that I hated men. So I decided I would now be a Happy African Feminist Who Does Not Hate Men. At some point I was a Happy African Feminist Who Does Not Hate Men And Who Likes To Wear Lip Gloss And High Heels For Herself And Not For Men.

THE THE GLOBAL GLOBAL GENDER GENDER GAP GAP REPORT, REPORT, 2020 2020

35

40

tongue-in-cheek humorous or ironic late here: deceased or dead Nobel peace laureate recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize acquaintance someone you know, but not a close friend unapologetic not sorry grave injustice very unfair situations

English Everywhere

107


2 English Everywhere

10

Ku n

til

vu

rd

15

raise bring up do a disservice harm or treat unfairly stifle suppress or restrain narrow limited or restricted vulnerability being easily hurt gender sex mask (v) hide or camouflage fragile easily breakable compelled forced

108

[ chapter 2 ]

We do a great disservice to boys in how we raise them. We stifle the humanity of boys. We define masculinity in a very narrow way. Masculinity is a hard, small cage, and we put boys inside this cage. We teach boys to be afraid of fear, of weakness, of vulnerability. We teach them to mask their true selves, because they have to be, in Nigerian-speak, a hard man. But by far the worst thing we do to males – by making them feel they have to be hard – is that we leave them with very fragile egos. The harder a man feels compelled to be, the weaker his ego is.

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

Gender is not an easy conversation to have. It makes people uncomfortable, sometimes even irritable. Both men and women are resistant to talk about gender, or are quick to dismiss the problems of gender. Because thinking of changing the status quo is always uncomfortable. Some people ask, ‘Why the word feminist? Why not just say you are a believer in human rights, or something like that?’ Because that would be dishonest. It would be a way of denying that the problem was specifically about being a female human. Some men feel threatened by the idea of feminism. This comes, I think, from the insecurity triggered by how boys are brought up, how their sense of self-worth is diminished if they are not ‘naturally’ in charge as men. ***

AUTHOR

er in

g

5

And then we do a much greater disservice to girls, because we raise them to cater to the fragile egos of males. We teach girls to shrink themselves, to make themselves smaller. We say to girls, ‘You can have ambition, but not too much. You should aim to be successful but not too successful, otherwise you will threaten the man. If you are the breadwinner in your relationship with a man, pretend that you are not, especially in public, otherwise you will emasculate him.’ But what if we question the premise itself? Why should a woman’s success be a threat to a man? What if we decide to simply dispose of that word – and I don’t know if there is an English word I dislike more than this – emasculation. We teach girls that they cannot be sexual beings in the way boys are. If we have sons, we don’t mind knowing about their girlfriends. But our daughters’ boyfriends? God forbid. (But we of course expect them to bring home the perfect man for marriage when the time is right.) We police girls. We praise girls for virginity but we don’t praise boys for virginity (and it makes me wonder how exactly this is supposed to work out, since the loss of virginity is a process that usually involves two people of opposite genders). Recently a young woman was gang-raped in a university in Nigeria, and the response of many young Nigerians, both male and female, was something like this: ‘Yes, rape is wrong, but what is a girl doing in a room with four boys?’ Let us, if we can, forget the horrible inhumanity of that response. These Nigerians have been raised to think of women as inherently guilty. And they have been raised to expect so little of men that the idea of men as savage beings with no self-control is somehow acceptable. We teach girls shame. Close your legs. Cover yourself. We make them feel as though by being born female, they are already guilty of something. And so girls grow up to be women who cannot say they have desire. Who silence themselves. Who cannot say what they truly think. Who have turned pretence into an art form.

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (b. 1977) is an acclaimed Nigerian author of three novels, a collection of short stories, and a large body of non-fiction. In addition, she has held several TED Talks.

cater to help or indulge shrink minimise or make smaller breadwinner the person who makes the money emasculate make less masculine premise assumption dispose of do away with or get rid off police (v) control or set strict boundaries praise compliment or congratulate inhumanity cruelty or lack of compassion inherently naturally or automatically savage (adj) wild or brutal pretence pretending or acting resistant rather unwilling quick to dismiss label something as irrelevant status quo the current situation deny benekte / nekte for self-worth sense of one’s own value as a human or self-esteem

English Everywhere

109


108

[ chapter 2 ]

25

30

30

35

40

er in

Gender is not an easy conversation to have. It makes people uncomfortable, sometimes even irritable. Both men and women are resistant to talk about gender, or are quick to dismiss the problems of gender. Because thinking of changing the status quo is always uncomfortable. Some people ask, ‘Why the word feminist? Why not just say you are a believer in human rights, or something like that?’ Because that would be dishonest. It would be a way of denying that the problem was specifically about being a female human. Some men feel threatened by the idea of feminism. This comes, I think, from the insecurity triggered by how boys are brought up, how their sense of self-worth is diminished if they are not ‘naturally’ in charge as men.

Ku n

raise bring up do a disservice harm or treat unfairly stifle suppress or restrain narrow limited or restricted vulnerability being easily hurt gender sex mask (v) hide or camouflage fragile easily breakable compelled forced

We do a great disservice to boys in how we raise them. We stifle the humanity of boys. We define masculinity in a very narrow way. Masculinity is a hard, small cage, and we put boys inside this cage. We teach boys to be afraid of fear, of weakness, of vulnerability. We teach them to mask their true selves, because they have to be, in Nigerian-speak, a hard man. But by far the worst thing we do to males – by making them feel they have to be hard – is that we leave them with very fragile egos. The harder a man feels compelled to be, the weaker his ego is.

25

rd

20

35

40

***

AUTHOR

15

vu

10

til

5

And then we do a much greater disservice to girls, because we raise them to cater to the fragile egos of males. We teach girls to shrink themselves, to make themselves smaller. We say to girls, ‘You can have ambition, but not too much. You should aim to be successful but not too successful, otherwise you will threaten the man. If you are the breadwinner in your relationship with a man, pretend that you are not, especially in public, otherwise you will emasculate him.’ But what if we question the premise itself? Why should a woman’s success be a threat to a man? What if we decide to simply dispose of that word – and I don’t know if there is an English word I dislike more than this – emasculation. We teach girls that they cannot be sexual beings in the way boys are. If we have sons, we don’t mind knowing about their girlfriends. But our daughters’ boyfriends? God forbid. (But we of course expect them to bring home the perfect man for marriage when the time is right.) We police girls. We praise girls for virginity but we don’t praise boys for virginity (and it makes me wonder how exactly this is supposed to work out, since the loss of virginity is a process that usually involves two people of opposite genders). Recently a young woman was gang-raped in a university in Nigeria, and the response of many young Nigerians, both male and female, was something like this: ‘Yes, rape is wrong, but what is a girl doing in a room with four boys?’ Let us, if we can, forget the horrible inhumanity of that response. These Nigerians have been raised to think of women as inherently guilty. And they have been raised to expect so little of men that the idea of men as savage beings with no self-control is somehow acceptable. We teach girls shame. Close your legs. Cover yourself. We make them feel as though by being born female, they are already guilty of something. And so girls grow up to be women who cannot say they have desire. Who silence themselves. Who cannot say what they truly think. Who have turned pretence into an art form.

g

2 English Everywhere

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (b. 1977) is an acclaimed Nigerian author of three novels, a collection of short stories, and a large body of non-fiction. In addition, she has held several TED Talks.

cater to help or indulge shrink minimise or make smaller breadwinner the person who makes the money emasculate make less masculine premise assumption dispose of do away with or get rid off police (v) control or set strict boundaries praise compliment or congratulate inhumanity cruelty or lack of compassion inherently naturally or automatically savage (adj) wild or brutal pretence pretending or acting resistant rather unwilling quick to dismiss label something as irrelevant status quo the current situation deny benekte / nekte for self-worth sense of one’s own value as a human or self-esteem

English Everywhere

109


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE CONTENT 1 At what age was Adichie first labelled a feminist? 5

Ku n

til

vu

rd

er in

g

Other men might respond by saying, ‘Okay, this is interesting, but I don’t think like that. I don’t even think about gender.’ Maybe not. And that is part of the problem. That many men do not actively think about gender or notice gender. Because gender can be uncomfortable, there are easy ways to close this conversation. Some people will bring up evolutionary biology and apes, how female apes bow to male apes – that sort of thing. But the point is this: we are not apes. Apes also live in trees and eat earthworms. We do not. Some people will say, ‘Well, poor men also have a hard time.’ And they do. But that is not what this conversation is about. Gender and class are different. Poor men still have the privileges of being men, even if they do not have the privileges of being wealthy. I learned a lot about systems of oppression and how they can be blind to one another by talking to black men. I was once talking about gender and a man said to me, ‘Why does it have to be you as a woman? Why not you as a human being?’ This type of question is a way of silencing a person’s specific experiences. Of course I am a human being, but there are particular things that happen to me in the world because I am a woman. This same man, by the way, would often talk about his experience as a black man. (To which I should probably have responded, ‘Why not your experiences as a man or as a human being? Why a black man?’). So, no, this conversation is about gender. I think very often of my friend Okoloma. […] And he was right, that day, many years ago, when he called me a feminist. I am a feminist. And when, all those years ago, I looked the word up in the dictionary, it said: Feminist: a person who believes in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes. My great-grandmother, from stories I’ve heard, was a feminist. She ran away from the house of the man she did not want to marry and married the man of her choice. She refused, protested, spoke up whenever she felt she was being deprived of land and access because she was female. She did not know that word feminist. But it doesn’t mean she wasn’t one. More of us should reclaim that word. The best feminist I know is my brother Kene, who is also a kind, good-looking and very masculine young man. My own definition of a feminist is a man or a woman who says, ‘Yes, there’s a problem with gender as it is today and we must fix it, we must do better.’ All of us, women and men, must do better.

in charge in control or calling the shots respond answer notice pay attention to evolutionary biology science of how organisms have evolved and developed over time oppression undertrykkelse/ undertrykking silencing making someone be quiet or shut up deprived of forced to be without

110

[ chapter 2 ]

Adichie, C. N. (2014). We Should All Be Feminists. London: Harper Collins.

10

2 Why does a Nigerian journalist advise her not to call herself a feminist? 3 Who stated: “The higher you go, the fewer women there are”? 4 What is Adichie’s least favourite word in the English language? 5 Make a list of how girls and boys are raised, according to Adichie:

Boys are raised to:

Girls are raised to:

15

Comment on the problems that might result from being raised in these ways.

20

STRUCTURE 6 Adichie states early on in her essay: “The first thing I planned to do when I got home was look up the word in the dictionary.” Where in the text does the definition of feminist actually appear? What is the effect of mentioning it there?

25

LANGUAGE 7 Suggest interpretations of the following Nigerian expressions:

30

35

40

a to have long legs b to throw water

c to smell pepper d to shine your eyes

8 Adichie writes: “he wanted to advise me. (Nigerians, as you might know, are very quick to give unsolicited advice)”. This is an example of words that are easily confused because they look similar, but that are usually pronounced differently, spelled differently, and serve different functions in a sentence. Advice is a noun, whilst advise is a verb. Identify the correct noun or verb in the following sentences: a b c d

She was a breathe/breath of fresh air. Anyway, it won’t affect/effect my opinion. He clearly decided to wreak/wreck the party. You’ve managed to peak/pique my interest.

OVER TO YOU 9 Explore Nigeria Go online and find the answer to the following questions: • • • • •

How large is Nigeria? How many inhabitants does it have? How many of its inhabitants speak English? Who is its current president? Apart from Adichie, what other famous Nigerians can you find?

In pairs, create a poster, an oral presentation, a short text or blog post. Make sure that your sources are updated and trustworthy. See course 10: Choosing sources for guidance. 10 Hold a discussion on gender roles Below is a list of statements. In pairs, practise stating your opinion and giving reasons why you feel this way. Start by stating: “I agree/I agree somewhat/I disagree, because …” • It is important for boys and men to be tough. • A feminist should not spend time, money, and energy on her looks. • There are enough women in positions of power. • Angry women are unattractive, whilst angry men seem powerful. • It is unproblematic if the woman is the main breadwinner. • We expect higher morals of girls than of boys. • Inequality between social and ethnic classes is a bigger problem than inequality between genders. • Men cannot be true feminists. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance. 16 Write a text on gender roles + Study Adichie’s text closely and choose a or b. Write a text of 1–2 pages. a Adichie writes about the position of women in Nigeria and is also familiar with their situation in the US. Does what she writes apply to women in Norway? Comment on similarities and differences between Norway, the United States, and Nigeria. b Compare Adichie’s view of gender roles with that of Jordan Peterson in “Are You Man Enough?”. Decide who you agree with and explain why. See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

English Everywhere

111


2 English Everywhere

110

[ chapter 2 ]

Adichie, C. N. (2014). We Should All Be Feminists. London: Harper Collins.

PRACTICE

2 Why does a Nigerian journalist advise her not to call herself a feminist? 3 Who stated: “The higher you go, the fewer women there are”?

10

4 What is Adichie’s least favourite word in the English language? 5 Make a list of how girls and boys are raised, according to Adichie:

Boys are raised to:

Girls are raised to:

15

STRUCTURE 6 Adichie states early on in her essay: “The first thing I planned to do when I got home was look up the word in the dictionary.” Where in the text does the definition of feminist actually appear? What is the effect of mentioning it there?

25

LANGUAGE 7 Suggest interpretations of the following Nigerian expressions:

35

40

a to have long legs b to throw water

c to smell pepper d to shine your eyes

til

30

In pairs, create a poster, an oral presentation, a short text or blog post. Make sure that your sources are updated and trustworthy. See course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

10 Hold a discussion on gender roles Below is a list of statements. In pairs, practise stating your opinion and giving reasons why you feel this way. Start by stating: “I agree/I agree somewhat/I disagree, because …” • It is important for boys and men to be tough. • A feminist should not spend time, money, and energy on her looks. • There are enough women in positions of power. • Angry women are unattractive, whilst angry men seem powerful. • It is unproblematic if the woman is the main breadwinner. • We expect higher morals of girls than of boys. • Inequality between social and ethnic classes is a bigger problem than inequality between genders. • Men cannot be true feminists.

vu

20

How large is Nigeria? How many inhabitants does it have? How many of its inhabitants speak English? Who is its current president? Apart from Adichie, what other famous Nigerians can you find?

rd

Comment on the problems that might result from being raised in these ways.

• • • • •

g

5

OVER TO YOU 9 Explore Nigeria Go online and find the answer to the following questions:

er in

CONTENT 1 At what age was Adichie first labelled a feminist?

8 Adichie writes: “he wanted to advise me. (Nigerians, as you might know, are very quick to give unsolicited advice)”. This is an example of words that are easily confused because they look similar, but that are usually pronounced differently, spelled differently, and serve different functions in a sentence. Advice is a noun, whilst advise is a verb. Identify the correct noun or verb in the following sentences:

Ku n

in charge in control or calling the shots respond answer notice pay attention to evolutionary biology science of how organisms have evolved and developed over time oppression undertrykkelse/ undertrykking silencing making someone be quiet or shut up deprived of forced to be without

Other men might respond by saying, ‘Okay, this is interesting, but I don’t think like that. I don’t even think about gender.’ Maybe not. And that is part of the problem. That many men do not actively think about gender or notice gender. Because gender can be uncomfortable, there are easy ways to close this conversation. Some people will bring up evolutionary biology and apes, how female apes bow to male apes – that sort of thing. But the point is this: we are not apes. Apes also live in trees and eat earthworms. We do not. Some people will say, ‘Well, poor men also have a hard time.’ And they do. But that is not what this conversation is about. Gender and class are different. Poor men still have the privileges of being men, even if they do not have the privileges of being wealthy. I learned a lot about systems of oppression and how they can be blind to one another by talking to black men. I was once talking about gender and a man said to me, ‘Why does it have to be you as a woman? Why not you as a human being?’ This type of question is a way of silencing a person’s specific experiences. Of course I am a human being, but there are particular things that happen to me in the world because I am a woman. This same man, by the way, would often talk about his experience as a black man. (To which I should probably have responded, ‘Why not your experiences as a man or as a human being? Why a black man?’). So, no, this conversation is about gender. I think very often of my friend Okoloma. […] And he was right, that day, many years ago, when he called me a feminist. I am a feminist. And when, all those years ago, I looked the word up in the dictionary, it said: Feminist: a person who believes in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes. My great-grandmother, from stories I’ve heard, was a feminist. She ran away from the house of the man she did not want to marry and married the man of her choice. She refused, protested, spoke up whenever she felt she was being deprived of land and access because she was female. She did not know that word feminist. But it doesn’t mean she wasn’t one. More of us should reclaim that word. The best feminist I know is my brother Kene, who is also a kind, good-looking and very masculine young man. My own definition of a feminist is a man or a woman who says, ‘Yes, there’s a problem with gender as it is today and we must fix it, we must do better.’ All of us, women and men, must do better.

a b c d

She was a breathe/breath of fresh air. Anyway, it won’t affect/effect my opinion. He clearly decided to wreak/wreck the party. You’ve managed to peak/pique my interest.

See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance. 16 Write a text on gender roles + Study Adichie’s text closely and choose a or b. Write a text of 1–2 pages. a Adichie writes about the position of women in Nigeria and is also familiar with their situation in the US. Does what she writes apply to women in Norway? Comment on similarities and differences between Norway, the United States, and Nigeria. b Compare Adichie’s view of gender roles with that of Jordan Peterson in “Are You Man Enough?”. Decide who you agree with and explain why. See course 8: Structuring a text for guidance.

English Everywhere

111


2 English Everywhere AIMS • Explore the immigrant experience • Analyse a short story • Research and present immigration in Australia

Ku n

til

vu

rd

er in

g

Then, go online and find McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. What are your first reactions and thoughts?

[ chapter 2 ]

Hurricane Season CONTEXT

112

FIRST What continent and what country is at the centre of the world? Explain your view.

English is spoken in Australia because of colonisation. The majority of the population have ancestors from the British Isles and speak English as their first language. Ever since British settlers arrived in Australia, the relationship to the indigenous minorities has been problematic. It is a fact that the native population, the Aborigines, were oppressed and discriminated against by the new settlers. Today, Australia has a tougher stance on accepting immigrants and refugees than New Zealand, and anti-immigrant sentiment is often more pronounced. This issue is central to the author Maxine Beneba Clarke. In her poem “Marley” she writes: “You’re not free (/) cause you’re born down under” and “A brown boy standing proud at five (/) is nothing short of a miracle” (2016). Clarke lives with her children in Footscray, Melbourne, which is a multicultural neighbourhood and the setting of her short story “Hurricane Season”.

History: English has been spoken in Australia since the 1770s, when New South Wales was claimed as a British colony. Australia became independent in 1896 but remains a member of the Commonwealth. Status: English is the national language and is spoken as a first language by more than 70% of the population. Australian words in the English language: Speedo, dingo, kangaroo, koala, pom, kylie, billabong, plonk

English Everywhere

113


2 English Everywhere AIMS FIRST

• Explore the immigrant experience • Analyse a short story • Research and present immigration in Australia

What continent and what country is at the centre of the world? Explain your view.

rd

er in

g

Then, go online and find McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. What are your first reactions and thoughts?

English is spoken in Australia because of colonisation. The majority of the population have ancestors from the British Isles and speak English as their first language. Ever since British settlers arrived in Australia, the relationship to the indigenous minorities has been problematic. It is a fact that the native population, the Aborigines, were oppressed and discriminated against by the new settlers. Today, Australia has a tougher stance on accepting immigrants and refugees than New Zealand, and anti-immigrant sentiment is often more pronounced. This issue is central to the author Maxine Beneba Clarke. In her poem “Marley” she writes: “You’re not free (/) cause you’re born down under” and “A brown boy standing proud at five (/) is nothing short of a miracle” (2016). Clarke lives with her children in Footscray, Melbourne, which is a multicultural neighbourhood and the setting of her short story “Hurricane Season”.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

vu

Hurricane Season

112

[ chapter 2 ]

History: English has been spoken in Australia since the 1770s, when New South Wales was claimed as a British colony. Australia became independent in 1896 but remains a member of the Commonwealth. Status: English is the national language and is spoken as a first language by more than 70% of the population. Australian words in the English language: Speedo, dingo, kangaroo, koala, pom, kylie, billabong, plonk

English Everywhere

113


2 English Everywhere

GENRE: SHORT STORY

Hurricane Season

5

5

Ku n

til

vu

rd

er in

g

Nico tucks his long dreads into his navy cap. The Melbourne summer heat itches his scalp. Getting too old for locks. Too old for a lot of things, really. Say forty’s the new thirty, but Nico’s tired: mind, body and bones. He tears the top off a hot chocolate sachet. Tumbles the fine brown powder into the mug. Tosses the crumpled packet into the plastic bin under the table. Nico lifts the lever on the large silver urn, careful not to burn his knuckles again. Think they could afford an upgrade. Same urn’s been in the meals room since the day he started driving. Nearly ten years. Been that long. That long. Taxi depot’s almost empty. Nico’s late this morning, because the dream came at him again. Dominica. Weeks now, he’s been dreaming of home. When Nico woke an hour ago, he could feel the weather in the room with him, could smell the wet earth. Super-photosynthesis. Breadfruit and banana, fermenting wild on the branch. Luscious rot. Bounty. Decay. That foreboding something’sabout-to-happen stillness he remembers so clearly from before the ground swallowed his Gracie. The ominous gathering of hurricane breath. Nico scans the meals room. Old timers: hunched over drinks, or staring out windows. Slow-to-starts. World wearies. All swore they’d only be in the taxi game for a few years, like Nico did. Till they got their qualifications sorted to do whatever they used to do at home, or whatever they wanted to do here in Australia. Academics’ minds. Carpenters’ hands. Teachers’ hearts. Their light blue cabbie shirts have faded to off-white now. Threadbare collars browned from decade-long wear no bleach can brighten. Nico wraps his long brown fingers around the mug. Drink’s making him sweat even more. Pulls out a vinyl-covered chair. Rocks precariously back on its pock-rusted metal legs. Cocoa. Mama Dominica. Home. Blushing khaki pods hanging unripe from roadside trees, the giant rough-skinned, teardrop shape of them. Their slow-darkening to raisin brown.

114

[ chapter 2 ]

The smell of the hot chocolate is Nico, Gracie and Elias: bumping along towards town in the red open-air truck. Gracie’s clutching Elias tight on her lap. Her hair’s cornrowed down, in that zig-zag way she liked to do. The three of them, rambling down towards the spice factory in Elms Hills where Gracie worked, on Nico’s day off from studying. Nico and Elias, perched on a wooden chair in the factory corner, watching Gracie dance the bean. One-two. Two-two. Her bare mahogany legs wrapped to the knees in plastic as she stands on the pre-fermenting racks. Dancing-dancing the cocoa. Swaying this way, swaying that. Laughing-laughing as she works. And Lord, the smell. Ginger-cinnamon. Nutmeg. Home. Nico takes another scalding gulp. Got to get out on the road soon. His mate Ahmed’s sitting near the window: shoulders slouched, grey beard almost touching the table. “Ye okay, man?” Nico stops by him, on his way to the car.

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

Ahmed glances up, eyes so moist they look loose in their sockets, hands clasped. “Little Brother.” Ahmed’s called Nico that since the moment they met. Ten years ago now. Twenty-nine he was, but Nico had still felt like a kid. He’d just arrived here with Elias: Gracie already gone, and him still wrecked with grieving. Black and righteous as Nico true-believed God was, he still couldn’t figure why His Almighty would conjure a hurricane to send Gracie’s way. Driving was something Nico could fast-do to pay his rent on arrival. He’d been grateful for the job, but the Little Brother that Ahmed had whispered during his first shift had felt like a fist-bump in the darkness, an arm slung round his shoulder. “I pick up a fare out to Belgrave last night.” Fifteen years in Australia, and Ahmed’s accent still sings Somalia. Same way Nico and Elias have somehow never picked up the local twang. “Belgrave. Cha! In de country. Past de Dandenongs? Good fare, ole man.” Ahmed grunts. Stares down at the table. “Decent bloke. Suit. Tie and everything.” “Nice work, if it come te ye.” Nico discreetly glances at his watch. “Did the runner.” “No way. Ye chase him down?”Ahmed’s hands are shaking slightly. “I call the police on him.” “Ahmed ….” “The man rob me! I got a right to call.” Ahmed rubs his palms together, as if his anger can be contained by the friction. “Policemen come. Two of them. White. Chewing their gum.” “Dem get ye money?” Nico already knows the answer. “Say I’m trespassing. Told me get moving. Way they look at me, Little Brother. Down and up. You know how the way I mean,” Ahmed’s voice is all shake and anger. “Motherfucker!” “Watch that mouth, Little Brother.” Ahmed’s rebuke is like a friendly clip to the back of Nico’s head. Like Nico used to do, back when Elias was small; deft at peeling back the stumps of Gracie’s still-growing sugarcane, chewing off the tops before they’d ripened. “Brother. You regret coming to here? Australia?” Nico braces against his friend’s question. Anchors. “We never going to be like them. And they never going to like us.” Ahmed is looking so deep into Nico’s eyes that the pull feels inevitable. “Sometimes. But den mi think of Elias, ye know. Young an cocky, like all-a dem brown boys. But dem is dis place. Dem kids: yours an mine. Australia dem home. An dem kids wid opportunity. Striving te make sometin of demselves. Is hard, my friend. But is dem why we come. We doing okay Ahmed. Doing good.” Nico rests his hand on his friend’s shoulder, leaning as much as comforting. “Yeah.”

tuck push locks here: short for dreadlocks sachet a packet containing one portion mug a cup crumpled crushed lever spake urn here: hot water dispenser taxi depot centre where taxi drivers meet for breaks Dominica short for the Dominican Republic breadfruit popular fruit in Southeast Asia and the Pacific fermenting ripening luscious pleasingly sweet and rich in flavour or smell bounty prize or abundance decay deterioration foreboding feeling that something bad will happen ominous illevarslende/ illevarslande hunched bent world wearies people wearied and tired by the world carpenter snekker/snikkar cabbie slang for cab driver threadbare worn until it is transparent decade ten years precariously dangerously pock-rusted with small holes of rust clutching holding on tightly to cornrowed plaited into braids rambling walking through the countryside mahogany exotic wood which is dark in colour ginger-cinnamon ingefær-kanel nutmeg muskatnøtt scalding so hot it burns slouched slumped or crouching sockets øyegrop/augegrop grieving feeling great sadness and loss righteous fair conjure invoke or cast a spell fare here: ride or trip twang accent Dandenongs mountains east of Melbourne decent respectable do the runner run away from the bill

English Everywhere

115


2 English Everywhere

The smell of the hot chocolate is Nico, Gracie and Elias: bumping along towards town in the red open-air truck. Gracie’s clutching Elias tight on her lap. Her hair’s cornrowed down, in that zig-zag way she liked to do. The three of them, rambling down towards the spice factory in Elms Hills where Gracie worked, on Nico’s day off from studying. Nico and Elias, perched on a wooden chair in the factory corner, watching Gracie dance the bean. One-two. Two-two. Her bare mahogany legs wrapped to the knees in plastic as she stands on the pre-fermenting racks. Dancing-dancing the cocoa. Swaying this way, swaying that. Laughing-laughing as she works. And Lord, the smell. Ginger-cinnamon. Nutmeg. Home. Nico takes another scalding gulp. Got to get out on the road soon. His mate Ahmed’s sitting near the window: shoulders slouched, grey beard almost touching the table. “Ye okay, man?” Nico stops by him, on his way to the car.

114

[ chapter 2 ]

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

40

35

40

tuck push locks here: short for dreadlocks sachet a packet containing one portion mug a cup crumpled crushed lever spake urn here: hot water dispenser taxi depot centre where taxi drivers meet for breaks Dominica short for the Dominican Republic breadfruit popular fruit in Southeast Asia and the Pacific fermenting ripening luscious pleasingly sweet and rich in flavour or smell bounty prize or abundance decay deterioration foreboding feeling that something bad will happen ominous illevarslende/ illevarslande hunched bent world wearies people wearied and tired by the world carpenter snekker/snikkar cabbie slang for cab driver threadbare worn until it is transparent decade ten years precariously dangerously pock-rusted with small holes of rust clutching holding on tightly to cornrowed plaited into braids rambling walking through the countryside mahogany exotic wood which is dark in colour ginger-cinnamon ingefær-kanel nutmeg muskatnøtt scalding so hot it burns slouched slumped or crouching sockets øyegrop/augegrop grieving feeling great sadness and loss righteous fair conjure invoke or cast a spell fare here: ride or trip twang accent Dandenongs mountains east of Melbourne decent respectable do the runner run away from the bill

er in

10

rd

5

vu

5

Ku n

Nico tucks his long dreads into his navy cap. The Melbourne summer heat itches his scalp. Getting too old for locks. Too old for a lot of things, really. Say forty’s the new thirty, but Nico’s tired: mind, body and bones. He tears the top off a hot chocolate sachet. Tumbles the fine brown powder into the mug. Tosses the crumpled packet into the plastic bin under the table. Nico lifts the lever on the large silver urn, careful not to burn his knuckles again. Think they could afford an upgrade. Same urn’s been in the meals room since the day he started driving. Nearly ten years. Been that long. That long. Taxi depot’s almost empty. Nico’s late this morning, because the dream came at him again. Dominica. Weeks now, he’s been dreaming of home. When Nico woke an hour ago, he could feel the weather in the room with him, could smell the wet earth. Super-photosynthesis. Breadfruit and banana, fermenting wild on the branch. Luscious rot. Bounty. Decay. That foreboding something’sabout-to-happen stillness he remembers so clearly from before the ground swallowed his Gracie. The ominous gathering of hurricane breath. Nico scans the meals room. Old timers: hunched over drinks, or staring out windows. Slow-to-starts. World wearies. All swore they’d only be in the taxi game for a few years, like Nico did. Till they got their qualifications sorted to do whatever they used to do at home, or whatever they wanted to do here in Australia. Academics’ minds. Carpenters’ hands. Teachers’ hearts. Their light blue cabbie shirts have faded to off-white now. Threadbare collars browned from decade-long wear no bleach can brighten. Nico wraps his long brown fingers around the mug. Drink’s making him sweat even more. Pulls out a vinyl-covered chair. Rocks precariously back on its pock-rusted metal legs. Cocoa. Mama Dominica. Home. Blushing khaki pods hanging unripe from roadside trees, the giant rough-skinned, teardrop shape of them. Their slow-darkening to raisin brown.

Ahmed glances up, eyes so moist they look loose in their sockets, hands clasped. “Little Brother.” Ahmed’s called Nico that since the moment they met. Ten years ago now. Twenty-nine he was, but Nico had still felt like a kid. He’d just arrived here with Elias: Gracie already gone, and him still wrecked with grieving. Black and righteous as Nico true-believed God was, he still couldn’t figure why His Almighty would conjure a hurricane to send Gracie’s way. Driving was something Nico could fast-do to pay his rent on arrival. He’d been grateful for the job, but the Little Brother that Ahmed had whispered during his first shift had felt like a fist-bump in the darkness, an arm slung round his shoulder. “I pick up a fare out to Belgrave last night.” Fifteen years in Australia, and Ahmed’s accent still sings Somalia. Same way Nico and Elias have somehow never picked up the local twang. “Belgrave. Cha! In de country. Past de Dandenongs? Good fare, ole man.” Ahmed grunts. Stares down at the table. “Decent bloke. Suit. Tie and everything.” “Nice work, if it come te ye.” Nico discreetly glances at his watch. “Did the runner.” “No way. Ye chase him down?”Ahmed’s hands are shaking slightly. “I call the police on him.” “Ahmed ….” “The man rob me! I got a right to call.” Ahmed rubs his palms together, as if his anger can be contained by the friction. “Policemen come. Two of them. White. Chewing their gum.” “Dem get ye money?” Nico already knows the answer. “Say I’m trespassing. Told me get moving. Way they look at me, Little Brother. Down and up. You know how the way I mean,” Ahmed’s voice is all shake and anger. “Motherfucker!” “Watch that mouth, Little Brother.” Ahmed’s rebuke is like a friendly clip to the back of Nico’s head. Like Nico used to do, back when Elias was small; deft at peeling back the stumps of Gracie’s still-growing sugarcane, chewing off the tops before they’d ripened. “Brother. You regret coming to here? Australia?” Nico braces against his friend’s question. Anchors. “We never going to be like them. And they never going to like us.” Ahmed is looking so deep into Nico’s eyes that the pull feels inevitable. “Sometimes. But den mi think of Elias, ye know. Young an cocky, like all-a dem brown boys. But dem is dis place. Dem kids: yours an mine. Australia dem home. An dem kids wid opportunity. Striving te make sometin of demselves. Is hard, my friend. But is dem why we come. We doing okay Ahmed. Doing good.” Nico rests his hand on his friend’s shoulder, leaning as much as comforting. “Yeah.”

til

Hurricane Season

g

GENRE: SHORT STORY

English Everywhere

115


2 English Everywhere

5

vu

rd

Nico starts his taxi shift down near the station. Habit so ingrained it’s bloodritual. This time of a Saturday morning Footscray wakes. Stretches. Launches itself bang into the weekend. The smell of the fruit markets: plantain, okra, cantaloupe. The sour rot of fish guts, washing into street drains. Kids not that much older than Elias, rolling home clutching hangover pork-buns. Shiny BBQ duck hanging in the windows: whole glazed birds, beaks, eyes and all. Ethiopian coffee houses colourful with morning clientele, kitchens already herbing the air with Doro and Misr Wat on the boil. The Sudanese men in the paved street mall are dressed a day early in Sunday best. Are always dressed in Sunday best. Scrubbed up king-fine. For home. For work. For the bottle. For church. Gliding aubergine-tall, history hovering in their walks. Nico steers slowly into Paisley Street. The rank is empty of other cabs. But there’s a woman, waiting. Neat bobbed haircut. Modest grey pencil skirt. Cream work blouse. Hot pink shoes clutched in hand, ridiculously heeled. She climbs in: bare feet blackened by concrete-wanderings. Something lacy’s poking out of her small black handbag. Knickers, maybe. Unsteady on her feet. Furry bunnyears headband. Nico can’t quite pin a story to her. She looks familiar, somehow.

Ku n

til

contain stop or held in place trespassing intruding on someone else’s territory rebuke criticism clip here: strike, hit deft good or skilful brace here: prepare for something difficult inevitable impossible to avoid striving trying or working hard surge move quickly natty smart or neat ingrained deep-rooted launch itself throw itself or jump plantain cooking bananas okra vegetable often found in West-African cuisine beak nebb herbing scenting or giving the smell of Doro and Misr Wat Ethiopian dishes street mall shopping street hovering staying or floating in one place rank here: the place where taxis stop to wait for customers modest proper or simple lacy blondete / med blonder knickers underwear pin a story to someone explain or understand who someone is darting moving quickly deadlocked locked by the driver so the passenger cannot open it bridal shower pre-wedding party where the bride is given gifts

er in

g

Nico feels relief surge through Ahmed’s body. Nico’s not sure if it’s true, or if he just wants it to be true. Been hard to raise Eli alone. Spare the rod, spoil the child, they say back home. Nico hasn’t the hard heart or hands for that kind of fathering. Gracie would have known what to do with the boy at every turn. But he’s raised the boy straight, Elias. Shoelaces always half untied. Natty afro hidden under dark hoodie. But chin raised. Proud. Like Nico was at seventeen. Not a bad thing. Straight As last term. Kid left the report on Nico’s bedside table three weeks ago, when school let out. Praise don’t come easy to Nico, so he never mentioned it, but it had filled his heart up. Took Elias to the pub for steak that night.

116

[ chapter 2 ]

He sets the taxi meter, glances in the rear-view mirror as she lists the address. Been accused of looking too long before. Sometimes he can smell their fear–women riding alone. Specially at night. Eyes darting to check if the door’s been deadlocked. Pretending to be on the phone. The woman’s gaze meets Nico’s. She laughs at his expression. Tucks liquorice-black hair behind her ear. Smooths her crinkled blouse. “Bridal shower. Mine. Last night, after work. Could have done without it, to be honest. More for my sister than me.” Nico laughs too. The shake of his shoulders feels good. “Can’t lie. Was wondering what-all was goin on.” He brakes carefully at the intersection of Barkly Street and Geelong Road. “You from Dominica?” Woman’s staring back at him in the mirror now.

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

English Everywhere

117


2 English Everywhere

116

[ chapter 2 ]

He sets the taxi meter, glances in the rear-view mirror as she lists the address. Been accused of looking too long before. Sometimes he can smell their fear–women riding alone. Specially at night. Eyes darting to check if the door’s been deadlocked. Pretending to be on the phone. The woman’s gaze meets Nico’s. She laughs at his expression. Tucks liquorice-black hair behind her ear. Smooths her crinkled blouse. “Bridal shower. Mine. Last night, after work. Could have done without it, to be honest. More for my sister than me.” Nico laughs too. The shake of his shoulders feels good. “Can’t lie. Was wondering what-all was goin on.” He brakes carefully at the intersection of Barkly Street and Geelong Road. “You from Dominica?” Woman’s staring back at him in the mirror now.

g er in

10

rd

15

25

30

35

40

vu

20

til

contain stop or held in place trespassing intruding on someone else’s territory rebuke criticism clip here: strike, hit deft good or skilful brace here: prepare for something difficult inevitable impossible to avoid striving trying or working hard surge move quickly natty smart or neat ingrained deep-rooted launch itself throw itself or jump plantain cooking bananas okra vegetable often found in West-African cuisine beak nebb herbing scenting or giving the smell of Doro and Misr Wat Ethiopian dishes street mall shopping street hovering staying or floating in one place rank here: the place where taxis stop to wait for customers modest proper or simple lacy blondete / med blonder knickers underwear pin a story to someone explain or understand who someone is darting moving quickly deadlocked locked by the driver so the passenger cannot open it bridal shower pre-wedding party where the bride is given gifts

Nico starts his taxi shift down near the station. Habit so ingrained it’s bloodritual. This time of a Saturday morning Footscray wakes. Stretches. Launches itself bang into the weekend. The smell of the fruit markets: plantain, okra, cantaloupe. The sour rot of fish guts, washing into street drains. Kids not that much older than Elias, rolling home clutching hangover pork-buns. Shiny BBQ duck hanging in the windows: whole glazed birds, beaks, eyes and all. Ethiopian coffee houses colourful with morning clientele, kitchens already herbing the air with Doro and Misr Wat on the boil. The Sudanese men in the paved street mall are dressed a day early in Sunday best. Are always dressed in Sunday best. Scrubbed up king-fine. For home. For work. For the bottle. For church. Gliding aubergine-tall, history hovering in their walks. Nico steers slowly into Paisley Street. The rank is empty of other cabs. But there’s a woman, waiting. Neat bobbed haircut. Modest grey pencil skirt. Cream work blouse. Hot pink shoes clutched in hand, ridiculously heeled. She climbs in: bare feet blackened by concrete-wanderings. Something lacy’s poking out of her small black handbag. Knickers, maybe. Unsteady on her feet. Furry bunnyears headband. Nico can’t quite pin a story to her. She looks familiar, somehow.

5

Ku n

Nico feels relief surge through Ahmed’s body. Nico’s not sure if it’s true, or if he just wants it to be true. Been hard to raise Eli alone. Spare the rod, spoil the child, they say back home. Nico hasn’t the hard heart or hands for that kind of fathering. Gracie would have known what to do with the boy at every turn. But he’s raised the boy straight, Elias. Shoelaces always half untied. Natty afro hidden under dark hoodie. But chin raised. Proud. Like Nico was at seventeen. Not a bad thing. Straight As last term. Kid left the report on Nico’s bedside table three weeks ago, when school let out. Praise don’t come easy to Nico, so he never mentioned it, but it had filled his heart up. Took Elias to the pub for steak that night.

English Everywhere

117


2 English Everywhere “Matter of fact, yes.” Nico can’t keep the surprise from his voice. “You de firs passenger get dat right bang on. Most de time dem say Jamaica.” Nico’s curious. “How ye know?” “I went there once. Hiker’s trip. Breathtaking. The green. Bags of sugarcane by the side of the road. Rum and coconut by the side of the road.” Nico laughs, louder this time. “Dem boys jus flag down de tourist, crack de coconut open in front-a dem an pour in a shot-a rum. Cheeky. Nobody on God’s own earth can refuse dat!” Her smile is tipsy-wide as the taxi barrels past the new Bunnings hardware store. Nico squints against the vicious morning light. The woman stares out the window. “I teach. At the high school. Footscray City. Had a kid from Dominica. Came here when he was young, but that accent was still there. Good kid, but …” She sighs. “Must be hard. Coming here.” “What ye mean?” Nico can feel the heat, bouncing up off the black tar, reaching in at him through the open taxi window. He pushes the button to wind the window up. Presses the air-con on. “I don’t know,” the woman rubs her eyes. “This kid. Smart. Everything seemed good. Just stopped coming to school.” Her speech is still a little slurred. “Sometimes I think there’s something missing in these boys. Who can say what it does to a person? Home is your heart, and all that. And this country is … hostile. You would know …” Her eyes suddenly meet his, in the rear-view mirror. “God! I knew I recognised you from somewhere. Mr Dawson? You’re Eli’s Dad?” Nico wants to give the teacher a piece of his mind, let his thoughts rip. But the taste of wet earth is weighting his tongue. Something missing in these boys. You would know. Eli’s neon shoelaces, undone and dragging. Afro hidden under hoodie. Chin raised. Proud. Like Nico. A good boy. Straight As, just three weeks ago. Nico held the report with his own hands. Nico takes several deep breaths in. “Sorry. I didn’t mean to … I’m just … I’m gonna be quiet now, okay?” She pulls a ridiculously lacy bra from her purse, waggles it around, laughing. “Fricken hen’s night.” The white lines on the road dance in front of Nico’s eyes. First they sway this way, then they sway that. Laughing-laughing as he drives. Humidity rising. Black volcano grit flicking up in his eyes. Nico can hear Gracie screaming. “Get inside! What ye staring at, Elias? Hurricane ain’t no pretty picture. Stare right into its eye like dat, it gwan come up an eat ye alive. Come! Come!” Elias. Seven years old. Running. Hiding behind her bright, smelling-of-nutmeg skirts. “Are you okay? Sir! Pull over! Pull over!” Nico’s hands are shaky on the wheel. “I can’t. I can’t breathe.” “What?!” “I can’t …”

er in

rd

vu til

Ku n AUTHOR

118

Maxine Beneba Clarke (b. 1979) is an Australian writer and poet of Afro-Caribbean descent. She has published several collections of poetry and short stories, an autobiography, and several picture books.

[ chapter 2 ]

5

5

g

hiker someone who walks in the mountains flag down stop tipsy a little drunk barrel past rush quickly by squint myse vicious cruel or violent tar asphalt slurred snøvlende/snøvlande hostile unfriendly fricken freaking humidity dampness grit particles flicking hitting hurricane orkan

10

10

The taxi is slowly swerving into the next lane. The woman frantically unbuckles her seatbelt. Squeezes her body through the gap. Climbs clumsily into the front passenger seat. Leans over and grabs the wheel. “You okay?” She steers the car wonkily into the side street. Pulls hard on the handbrake. “Should I call an ambulance. I don’t … What happened?” The pull inside Nico’s chest feels like a landslide. Like Morne aux Diables volcano, dropping away to uncertain ground. He can feel the weather in the taxi car with him, can smell the wet earth, that foreboding stillness he remembers so clearly from before the ground swallowed his Gracie. The gathering of hurricane breath.

swerve change direction suddenly frantically desperately and in a hurry clumsily awkwardly wonkily unsteadily landslide ras Morne aux Diables volcano an active volcano in the Dominican Republic

Black and righteous as Nico true-believes God is, he still can’t figure why His Mighty would conjure this trouble his way. 15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

Clarke, M. B. (2018, 10 August). Hurricane Season. Retrieved from http://digital.thebigissue. org. au/?iid=159 162&startpage=page0 000 045#folio=1

English Everywhere

119


2 English Everywhere

AUTHOR 118

Maxine Beneba Clarke (b. 1979) is an Australian writer and poet of Afro-Caribbean descent. She has published several collections of poetry and short stories, an autobiography, and several picture books.

[ chapter 2 ]

10

10

g

5

swerve change direction suddenly frantically desperately and in a hurry clumsily awkwardly wonkily unsteadily landslide ras Morne aux Diables volcano an active volcano in the Dominican Republic

er in

5

The taxi is slowly swerving into the next lane. The woman frantically unbuckles her seatbelt. Squeezes her body through the gap. Climbs clumsily into the front passenger seat. Leans over and grabs the wheel. “You okay?” She steers the car wonkily into the side street. Pulls hard on the handbrake. “Should I call an ambulance. I don’t … What happened?” The pull inside Nico’s chest feels like a landslide. Like Morne aux Diables volcano, dropping away to uncertain ground. He can feel the weather in the taxi car with him, can smell the wet earth, that foreboding stillness he remembers so clearly from before the ground swallowed his Gracie. The gathering of hurricane breath. Black and righteous as Nico true-believes God is, he still can’t figure why His Mighty would conjure this trouble his way.

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

40

Clarke, M. B. (2018, 10 August). Hurricane Season. Retrieved from http://digital.thebigissue. org. au/?iid=159 162&startpage=page0 000 045#folio=1

rd

15

vu

15

til

“Matter of fact, yes.” Nico can’t keep the surprise from his voice. “You de firs passenger get dat right bang on. Most de time dem say Jamaica.” Nico’s curious. “How ye know?” “I went there once. Hiker’s trip. Breathtaking. The green. Bags of sugarcane by the side of the road. Rum and coconut by the side of the road.” Nico laughs, louder this time. “Dem boys jus flag down de tourist, crack de coconut open in front-a dem an pour in a shot-a rum. Cheeky. Nobody on God’s own earth can refuse dat!” Her smile is tipsy-wide as the taxi barrels past the new Bunnings hardware store. Nico squints against the vicious morning light. The woman stares out the window. “I teach. At the high school. Footscray City. Had a kid from Dominica. Came here when he was young, but that accent was still there. Good kid, but …” She sighs. “Must be hard. Coming here.” “What ye mean?” Nico can feel the heat, bouncing up off the black tar, reaching in at him through the open taxi window. He pushes the button to wind the window up. Presses the air-con on. “I don’t know,” the woman rubs her eyes. “This kid. Smart. Everything seemed good. Just stopped coming to school.” Her speech is still a little slurred. “Sometimes I think there’s something missing in these boys. Who can say what it does to a person? Home is your heart, and all that. And this country is … hostile. You would know …” Her eyes suddenly meet his, in the rear-view mirror. “God! I knew I recognised you from somewhere. Mr Dawson? You’re Eli’s Dad?” Nico wants to give the teacher a piece of his mind, let his thoughts rip. But the taste of wet earth is weighting his tongue. Something missing in these boys. You would know. Eli’s neon shoelaces, undone and dragging. Afro hidden under hoodie. Chin raised. Proud. Like Nico. A good boy. Straight As, just three weeks ago. Nico held the report with his own hands. Nico takes several deep breaths in. “Sorry. I didn’t mean to … I’m just … I’m gonna be quiet now, okay?” She pulls a ridiculously lacy bra from her purse, waggles it around, laughing. “Fricken hen’s night.” The white lines on the road dance in front of Nico’s eyes. First they sway this way, then they sway that. Laughing-laughing as he drives. Humidity rising. Black volcano grit flicking up in his eyes. Nico can hear Gracie screaming. “Get inside! What ye staring at, Elias? Hurricane ain’t no pretty picture. Stare right into its eye like dat, it gwan come up an eat ye alive. Come! Come!” Elias. Seven years old. Running. Hiding behind her bright, smelling-of-nutmeg skirts. “Are you okay? Sir! Pull over! Pull over!” Nico’s hands are shaky on the wheel. “I can’t. I can’t breathe.” “What?!” “I can’t …”

Ku n

hiker someone who walks in the mountains flag down stop tipsy a little drunk barrel past rush quickly by squint myse vicious cruel or violent tar asphalt slurred snøvlende/snøvlande hostile unfriendly fricken freaking humidity dampness grit particles flicking hitting hurricane orkan

35

40

English Everywhere

119


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE

3 What was surprising about Ahmed’s cab fare on the previous night? 4 What Dominican saying about raising children has Nico been guilty of? 5 How does Nico react to seeing his son’s report card? 6 What did Nico’s cab customer do on the previous night? 7 Why does Nico find his customer familiar?

a Choose one of these four characters: Nico, Ahmed, Elias, or his teacher. Take notes about what you learn about your chosen character in the text.

• Team up with classmates who have focused on the same character. • Go through your notes and cooperate to prepare a thorough description of your character. • Form new groups with one Nico expert, one Ahmed expert, one Elias expert and one expert on the teacher. • Take turns presenting your characters in these new groups.

rd

STRUCTURE 8 The final sentence of the short story is almost identical to a sentence from earlier in the story.

OVER TO YOU 13 Analyse literary characters

er in

2 Where do Nico and his son come from?

g

12 Nico is from the Dominican Republic. Compare his language with that of Linton Kwesi Johnson, in his poem “More Time”. What similarities do you find between these two forms of Caribbean English?

CONTENT 1 How old is Nico?

• Where is the similar sentence? • What is the effect of ending the story with this repetition?

For more on analysing literary characters, see the S.T.E.A.L. model on page 39.

vu

9 Clarke makes use of flashbacks in her story, but also foreshadowing. Find examples of both and comment on their effects.

“Governor Davey’s Proclamation” is an illustrated proclamation issued in Tasmania by the British government in 1828. It set out values for equality and peaceful relations between indigenous people and settlers. The proclamation was intended to explain martial law during the period referred to as the Black War. The scenes depict Aborigines, British military and settlers.

See course 17: Approaching literature and films for guidance.

Now,

til

LANGUAGE 10 Study these words: speedo, dingo, kangaroo, koala, pom, kylie, billabong, plonk.

Ku n

• explain the words that are familiar • make a guess of what the remaining words mean • go online and check your answers

11 Using other words, explain the following idiomatic expressions used in Beneba-Clarke’s short story. Then create sentences where you use them. a b c d e f g h

120

to have a tough stance on something, to pin a story to someone to give someone a piece of your mind at every turn down under old timers shoulders slouched darting eyes

[ chapter 2 ]

b Write a complete analysis of “Hurricane season”.

14 Create a timeline of Australian immigration Australian history is closely tied to the issue of immigration. In groups, research events, terms, and people. Some ideas are presented below. As you gather your findings, structure them into a timeline of immigration to Australia. A timeline should be chronological, informative, interesting, and engaging to look at. Make sure to include illustrations. Prepare to present your timeline. • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aborigines Asian immigration boat “turnbacks” European immigration James Cook John Howard penal colony population growth reffos the Second World War skilled migration White Australia

See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

English Everywhere

121


2 English Everywhere PRACTICE

6 What did Nico’s cab customer do on the previous night?

STRUCTURE 8 The final sentence of the short story is almost identical to a sentence from earlier in the story.

9 Clarke makes use of flashbacks in her story, but also foreshadowing. Find examples of both and comment on their effects. See course 17: Approaching literature and films for guidance. LANGUAGE 10 Study these words: speedo, dingo, kangaroo, koala, pom, kylie, billabong, plonk. Now, • explain the words that are familiar • make a guess of what the remaining words mean • go online and check your answers 11 Using other words, explain the following idiomatic expressions used in Beneba-Clarke’s short story. Then create sentences where you use them. a b c d e f g h

120

to have a tough stance on something, to pin a story to someone to give someone a piece of your mind at every turn down under old timers shoulders slouched darting eyes

[ chapter 2 ]

g

• Team up with classmates who have focused on the same character. • Go through your notes and cooperate to prepare a thorough description of your character. • Form new groups with one Nico expert, one Ahmed expert, one Elias expert and one expert on the teacher. • Take turns presenting your characters in these new groups.

7 Why does Nico find his customer familiar?

• Where is the similar sentence? • What is the effect of ending the story with this repetition?

er in

5 How does Nico react to seeing his son’s report card?

a Choose one of these four characters: Nico, Ahmed, Elias, or his teacher. Take notes about what you learn about your chosen character in the text.

For more on analysing literary characters, see the S.T.E.A.L. model on page 39. b Write a complete analysis of “Hurricane season”. 14 Create a timeline of Australian immigration Australian history is closely tied to the issue of immigration. In groups, research events, terms, and people. Some ideas are presented below. As you gather your findings, structure them into a timeline of immigration to Australia. A timeline should be chronological, informative, interesting, and engaging to look at. Make sure to include illustrations. Prepare to present your timeline. • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aborigines Asian immigration boat “turnbacks” European immigration James Cook John Howard penal colony population growth reffos the Second World War skilled migration White Australia

rd

4 What Dominican saying about raising children has Nico been guilty of?

OVER TO YOU 13 Analyse literary characters

vu

3 What was surprising about Ahmed’s cab fare on the previous night?

“Governor Davey’s Proclamation” is an illustrated proclamation issued in Tasmania by the British government in 1828. It set out values for equality and peaceful relations between indigenous people and settlers. The proclamation was intended to explain martial law during the period referred to as the Black War. The scenes depict Aborigines, British military and settlers.

til

2 Where do Nico and his son come from?

12 Nico is from the Dominican Republic. Compare his language with that of Linton Kwesi Johnson, in his poem “More Time”. What similarities do you find between these two forms of Caribbean English?

Ku n

CONTENT 1 How old is Nico?

See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

English Everywhere

121


SNAKES and LADDERS

37

38

Name a city in the English-speaking world that shares its first letter with your name

ame!

24

vu

Good job!

13

This game is in fact Indian in origin and bore the name “Moksha Patam”. 122

[ chapter 2 ]

What is the largest city in New Zealand? a. Christchurch b. Wellington c. Auckland

What captain and explorer discovered Australia and New Zealand at the end of the 18th century?

What three words starting with the letter c were central to the status of English today?

Where does Trevor Noah come from?

27

Bob Marley was a famous reggae musician from: a. South Africa b. Jamaica c. Nigeria

40

41

42

FINISH 33

28

32

Name a celebrity from the Englishspeaking world who shares a first letter with you

Who wrote the essay “We Should All Be Feminists”?

29

Which two languages have more first language speakers than English?

21

14

15

16

10

9

8

7

4

5

6

11

1

2

Fill in the dots: “The Sun never.… on the British Empire”

Dungaree, shampoo and veranda are common words in English. Where do they come from? a. Hindi (India) b. Swahili (Kenya) c. Maori (New Zealand)

Which country has the lowest number of inhabitants? a. New Zealand b. Ireland c. Jamaica

Which of these words is Norse in origin? a. Briefcase b. Bag c. Purse

Create an alliterative combination of adjective and noun, beginning with the same letter as your first name (example: Zara: zesty zoo)

3

Who was the British monarch in 1584?

A person who comes from Nigeria is a… a. Nigeric b. Nigerian c. Niger

When did the French influence on the English language begin in full? a. 1066 b. 1148 c. 1351

17

What is the capital of Jamaica?

30

22

Approximately how many people speak English as a first language? a. 400 million b. 900 million c. 1.2 billion

20

31

23

12

START

39

34

er in 26

Aaaaw – what a sh

til

Ku n

WORDS OF ENCOURAGEMENT: Well done! Aaaaw – what a shame! Good job! There you go! That’s great! Oh, well – it’s only a game!

35

25

rd

INSTRUCTIONS 1) Form groups of four. 2) Find a die and something to use as your player (bottle top, eraser, ball of paper, earring) and place them all on the START space. 3) The youngest person begins by throwing the die. 4) Move your player the number of spaces shown on the die. If you land on a ladder you can move to the top. If you land on a snake you slide to the bottom. Read and answer the question. The rest of the group judges if your answer is correct. If necessary, the key is available on Skolestudio. 5) If your answer is incorrect, the group moves you back three spaces. If you speak Norwegian at any point return to START. 6) The first person to land on FINISH wins.

What multilingual has managed Bayern München, Manchester City and Barcelona? a. Pep Guardiola b. José Mourinho c. Jürgen Klopp

g

36

Brixton is a neighbourhood in: a. London b. New York c. Melbourne

One of these words means “giant” in German. Which? a. Geante b. Kämpfe c. Cow

Someone who comes from Pakistan is a… a. Pakistani b. Pakistanian c. Pakian

What are the main characters in “Hunt for the Wilderpeople” called?

19

Create an alliterative combination of verb and adverb, beginning with the same first letter as your first name (example: Walter: walked wickedly)

18

What model is used to explain English as a world language? a. Clinton’s squares b. Raj’s triangles c. Kachru’s circles

English Everywhere

123


WORDS OF ENCOURAGEMENT: Well done! Aaaaw – what a shame! Good job! There you go! That’s great! Oh, well – it’s only a game!

This game is in fact Indian in origin and bore the name “Moksha Patam”. 122

[ chapter 2 ]

25

26

ame!

Aaaaw – what a sh

13

Good job!

What is the largest city in New Zealand? a. Christchurch b. Wellington c. Auckland

Where does Trevor Noah come from?

What three words starting with the letter c were central to the status of English today?

27

Bob Marley was a famous reggae musician from: a. South Africa b. Jamaica c. Nigeria

33

28

22

21

14

15

16

Approximately how many people speak English as a first language? a. 400 million b. 900 million c. 1.2 billion

41

11

32

Name a celebrity from the Englishspeaking world who shares a first letter with you

Fill in the dots: “The Sun never.… on the British Empire”

Dungaree, shampoo and veranda are common words in English. Where do they come from? a. Hindi (India) b. Swahili (Kenya) c. Maori (New Zealand)

1

2

Which country has the lowest number of inhabitants? a. New Zealand b. Ireland c. Jamaica

Which of these words is Norse in origin? a. Briefcase b. Bag c. Purse

10

Create an alliterative combination of adjective and noun, beginning with the same letter as your first name (example: Zara: zesty zoo)

3

42

FINISH

23

12

START

34

40

Who wrote the essay “We Should All Be Feminists”?

29

A person who comes from Nigeria is a… a. Nigeric b. Nigerian c. Niger

Who was the British monarch in 1584?

31

Which two languages have more first language speakers than English?

20

One of these words means “giant” in German. Which? a. Geante b. Kämpfe c. Cow

17

Someone who comes from Pakistan is a… a. Pakistani b. Pakistanian c. Pakian

19

Create an alliterative combination of verb and adverb, beginning with the same first letter as your first name (example: Walter: walked wickedly)

18

9

8

7

4

5

6

When did the French influence on the English language begin in full? a. 1066 b. 1148 c. 1351

What is the capital of Jamaica?

30

vu

24

What captain and explorer discovered Australia and New Zealand at the end of the 18th century?

g

35

What multilingual has managed Bayern München, Manchester City and Barcelona? a. Pep Guardiola b. José Mourinho c. Jürgen Klopp

39

er in

36

Brixton is a neighbourhood in: a. London b. New York c. Melbourne

rd

38

til

INSTRUCTIONS 1) Form groups of four. 2) Find a die and something to use as your player (bottle top, eraser, ball of paper, earring) and place them all on the START space. 3) The youngest person begins by throwing the die. 4) Move your player the number of spaces shown on the die. If you land on a ladder you can move to the top. If you land on a snake you slide to the bottom. Read and answer the question. The rest of the group judges if your answer is correct. If necessary, the key is available on Skolestudio. 5) If your answer is incorrect, the group moves you back three spaces. If you speak Norwegian at any point return to START. 6) The first person to land on FINISH wins.

Name a city in the English-speaking world that shares its first letter with your name

Ku n

SNAKES and LADDERS

37

What are the main characters in “Hunt for the Wilderpeople” called?

What model is used to explain English as a world language? a. Clinton’s squares b. Raj’s triangles c. Kachru’s circles

English Everywhere

123


PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM

English Everywhere may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can: • Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Task Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aims:

g

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

er in Model answer – Introduction

Task 1 – Short answer

Draws in the reader with a provocative statement

The course Recognising formality will be helpful.

Orientates by stating what is already known

vu

Choose either a or b below.

2a Create a text from the perspective of a young person living in an English-speaking country outside of the UK/US. Make sure that your text: • is titled: “Being an Outsider” • has a clear conflict and turning point

til

For advice on literary techniques, see Approaching literature and film.

Ku n

2b You have now watched a film and read several texts that deal with the challenges faced by adolescents because of their gender, family issues, or ethnic background. Choose at least two of the characters in the film and/or texts you have read in this chapter and: • present the challenges they face growing up • discuss how well they deal with these challenges • refer to specific examples • give your text a suitable title

For more on writing texts, see Structuring a text. Make sure you remember how to write a proper introduction.

124

[ chapter 2 ]

EXAMPLE

Orientates by bringing up similarities

Sets the destination by posing two questions

beskrive sentrale trekk ved framveksten av engelsk som verdensspråk bruke kunnskap om sammenhenger mellom engelsk og andre språk eleven kjenner til i egen språklæring

Suggested thesis statements/questions:

“Apparently he’s a bit of a handful. A real bad egg” (Waititi, T., et. al (2016). The Hunt for the Wilderpeople). This is how Ricky Baker is introduced to his new foster family and this quote clearly shows how negatively he is viewed. Facing negative stereotypes because of family background, ethnicity or even clothing is something many adolescents have to deal with on a daily basis. This is also the case for Eli Dawson, a character in Maxine Beneba Clarke’s short story “Hurricane Season”. Though Ricky and Eli on the surface are both bright boys who dress similarly, on a deeper level they also struggle with the loss of their mothers, deal with uncommunicative father figures and share a desire to escape. How similar are their challenges really, and to what extent are they able to overcome them?

EXAMPLE

• •

rd

Your principal has shown interest in changing the number of lessons for English and foreign languages at your school. Based on the text “Multilingual” on pages 74–79 and on your own opinions, write an email to your principal where you try to persuade him or her to either increase or decrease the number of language lessons. Make sure to write your email in an appropriate style.

Task 2 – Long answer

• •

Why has English become a global language? Colonialism is the main reason for the spread of English as a global language English will soon be overtaken as the global language There are both similarities and differences between English and my mother tongue

Requirements for the presentation Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it: • • • •

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation •

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

• • •

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

English Everywhere

125


PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM

English Everywhere may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can: • Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Task

Model answer – Introduction

2a Create a text from the perspective of a young person living in an English-speaking country outside of the UK/US. Make sure that your text:

Orientates by stating what is already known

• is titled: “Being an Outsider” • has a clear conflict and turning point For advice on literary techniques, see Approaching literature and film. 2b You have now watched a film and read several texts that deal with the challenges faced by adolescents because of their gender, family issues, or ethnic background. Choose at least two of the characters in the film and/or texts you have read in this chapter and: • present the challenges they face growing up • discuss how well they deal with these challenges • refer to specific examples • give your text a suitable title For more on writing texts, see Structuring a text. Make sure you remember how to write a proper introduction.

124

[ chapter 2 ]

Orientates by bringing up similarities

Sets the destination by posing two questions

Suggested thesis statements/questions: EXAMPLE

• •

Why has English become a global language? Colonialism is the main reason for the spread of English as a global language English will soon be overtaken as the global language There are both similarities and differences between English and my mother tongue

rd

Task 2 – Long answer

“Apparently he’s a bit of a handful. A real bad egg” (Waititi, T., et. al (2016). The Hunt for the Wilderpeople). This is how Ricky Baker is introduced to his new foster family and this quote clearly shows how negatively he is viewed. Facing negative stereotypes because of family background, ethnicity or even clothing is something many adolescents have to deal with on a daily basis. This is also the case for Eli Dawson, a character in Maxine Beneba Clarke’s short story “Hurricane Season”. Though Ricky and Eli on the surface are both bright boys who dress similarly, on a deeper level they also struggle with the loss of their mothers, deal with uncommunicative father figures and share a desire to escape. How similar are their challenges really, and to what extent are they able to overcome them?

beskrive sentrale trekk ved framveksten av engelsk som verdensspråk bruke kunnskap om sammenhenger mellom engelsk og andre språk eleven kjenner til i egen språklæring

• •

vu

Draws in the reader with a provocative statement

The course Recognising formality will be helpful.

Choose either a or b below.

EXAMPLE

Requirements for the presentation Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it:

til

Your principal has shown interest in changing the number of lessons for English and foreign languages at your school. Based on the text “Multilingual” on pages 74–79 and on your own opinions, write an email to your principal where you try to persuade him or her to either increase or decrease the number of language lessons. Make sure to write your email in an appropriate style.

Ku n

Task 1 – Short answer

g

Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aims:

er in

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

• • • •

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation •

• • •

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

English Everywhere

125


g er in rd vu til

Ku n 126

3  Culture and Diversity

[ chapter 3 ]

What do you consider typically American or British?

CHAPTER FOCUS • Explore and reflect on culture and diversity in the US and UK from a historic perspective

Is there some truth to these stereotypes or are they inaccurate and harmful? Culture and Diversity

127


g er in rd vu [ chapter 3 ]

Ku n

til 126

3  Culture and Diversity

What do you consider typically American or British?

CHAPTER FOCUS • Explore and reflect on culture and diversity in the US and UK from a historic perspective

Is there some truth to these stereotypes or are they inaccurate and harmful? Culture and Diversity

127


Introductory article

3 Culture and Diversity

By Øivind Bratberg

There is no such thing as American culture, one might argue – or British culture, for that matter. In a globalised world, identifying with a culture is a matter of choice. People, ideas, and habits cross borders, and it becomes increasingly difficult to point out what belongs to any particular nation. This is perhaps particularly true in the United States and Britain. Both countries have a long history of attracting people from around the world, and traditionally little attention has been devoted to shaping their “people” into a fixed entity in any way. If you walk down the streets of London or New York, might you not find that it reflects global culture rather than anything distinctly British or American?

Ku n

til

vu

rd

What has taken over political debate in the United States and the United Kingdom?

er in

g

Politics and Cultural Diversity

128

[ chapter 3 ]

However, in an era of increasing communication across borders, one could also argue that culture and identity are as important as ever before. One might even contend that they are what current political debates in the United States and Britain are all about. Competing views on what American or British culture amounts to (and how they should relate to the wider world) have moved centre-stage. Turn your attention to the presidency of Donald Trump or to the hefty debate in Britain over leaving the European Union. You will find that the question of what kind of country (or even civilisation) the USA or Britain should be is never far from the surface.

The issue of defining oneself on the basis of identity is also triggered by immigration. In the United States, almost 14 per cent of the present population (an estimated 44 million people) were born in a different country. This is an increase from barely 5 per cent in 1970 and, interestingly, it almost matches the share of foreign-born citizens during the late 1890s, the heyday of migration to the United States. Today, among first-generation immigrants, Mexico tops the list of origin countries by some margin, followed by China, India, and the Philippines (Radford, 2019). The present flow of immigration adds to what is already a very diverse country. It affects, among other things, the position of the dominant white majority, the core of which is sometimes referred to as WASP – White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. A key development is the increase in Spanish-speaking citizens with roots in Latin American countries. Almost one in five Americans fall in this category today. Diversity also means a large number of people with mixed ethnicity. Consider Meghan Markle, whose father is white and mother is African American… and who is now the Duchess of Sussex, married to Prince Harry on the opposite side of the Atlantic.

What does the acronym WASP stand for? How has EU membership affected immigration in the UK?

The story of multicultural Britain is different from that of the United States in many ways. Immigration from the British Empire began to make an impact during the 1950s, driven by people from former colonies in South Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. The last couple of decades, however, have seen a different kind of immigration rise on the political agenda. Through its membership in the EU, Britain has become a destination of travel for Europeans looking for work, especially following the accession of new member states from Eastern Europe in 2004. The steep increase in immigration proved to be a controversial issue. Foreigners from Europe may not represent a very different culture from the British. However, if they can travel back and forth merely looking for work, they are not really pushed to integrate properly into the local community where they live. European migration provided an important part of the backdrop for the referendum held in June 2016 over Britain’s EU membership. Regaining control over national borders became a salient slogan among those who wanted to leave the EU (Clarke et al., 2017).

Culture and Diversity

129


3 Culture and Diversity

However, in an era of increasing communication across borders, one could also argue that culture and identity are as important as ever before. One might even contend that they are what current political debates in the United States and Britain are all about. Competing views on what American or British culture amounts to (and how they should relate to the wider world) have moved centre-stage. Turn your attention to the presidency of Donald Trump or to the hefty debate in Britain over leaving the European Union. You will find that the question of what kind of country (or even civilisation) the USA or Britain should be is never far from the surface.

128

[ chapter 3 ]

er in

How has EU membership affected immigration in the UK?

rd

There is no such thing as American culture, one might argue – or British culture, for that matter. In a globalised world, identifying with a culture is a matter of choice. People, ideas, and habits cross borders, and it becomes increasingly difficult to point out what belongs to any particular nation. This is perhaps particularly true in the United States and Britain. Both countries have a long history of attracting people from around the world, and traditionally little attention has been devoted to shaping their “people” into a fixed entity in any way. If you walk down the streets of London or New York, might you not find that it reflects global culture rather than anything distinctly British or American?

The story of multicultural Britain is different from that of the United States in many ways. Immigration from the British Empire began to make an impact during the 1950s, driven by people from former colonies in South Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. The last couple of decades, however, have seen a different kind of immigration rise on the political agenda. Through its membership in the EU, Britain has become a destination of travel for Europeans looking for work, especially following the accession of new member states from Eastern Europe in 2004.

vu

What has taken over political debate in the United States and the United Kingdom?

What does the acronym WASP stand for?

til

By Øivind Bratberg

The present flow of immigration adds to what is already a very diverse country. It affects, among other things, the position of the dominant white majority, the core of which is sometimes referred to as WASP – White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. A key development is the increase in Spanish-speaking citizens with roots in Latin American countries. Almost one in five Americans fall in this category today. Diversity also means a large number of people with mixed ethnicity. Consider Meghan Markle, whose father is white and mother is African American… and who is now the Duchess of Sussex, married to Prince Harry on the opposite side of the Atlantic.

The steep increase in immigration proved to be a controversial issue. Foreigners from Europe may not represent a very different culture from the British. However, if they can travel back and forth merely looking for work, they are not really pushed to integrate properly into the local community where they live.

Ku n

Politics and Cultural Diversity

The issue of defining oneself on the basis of identity is also triggered by immigration. In the United States, almost 14 per cent of the present population (an estimated 44 million people) were born in a different country. This is an increase from barely 5 per cent in 1970 and, interestingly, it almost matches the share of foreign-born citizens during the late 1890s, the heyday of migration to the United States. Today, among first-generation immigrants, Mexico tops the list of origin countries by some margin, followed by China, India, and the Philippines (Radford, 2019).

g

Introductory article

European migration provided an important part of the backdrop for the referendum held in June 2016 over Britain’s EU membership. Regaining control over national borders became a salient slogan among those who wanted to leave the EU (Clarke et al., 2017).

Culture and Diversity

129


3 Culture and Diversity

er in

g

Meanwhile, the more traditional forms of immigration from across the world continue to put their mark on British society as well, and particularly in the largest cities. In 2016, Sadiq Khan was elected Mayor of London. The son of two Pakistani immigrants and growing up in South London, Khan is a striking example of how the early phase of multicultural Britain has moved on to a new era.

Ku n

til

Migration and globalisation create winners and losers. Winners include those who benefit in economic terms, but also those who are generally happy to accept a world that is more open and diverse. On the losing side you will find people who have seen wages decline and decent jobs disappear, but also those who distrust the diversity of views and lifestyles that follows from globalisation (Goodheart, 2017). While some may be happy to see diversity without a clearly defined national culture, others are concerned that their national culture is diluted, resulting in a form of segregation where different groups live apart and do not adhere to the same “rules of the game”.

What downsides are created by migration and globalisation?

130

[ chapter 3 ]

In 2016, two surprising political outcomes managed to shake the political foundations of Britain and the United States. In Britain, a majority of 52 per cent voted to withdraw Britain from the EU. In the US, a few months later, Donald Trump won the presidential election. One should be cautious so as not to simplify the picture. But some patterns emerge that are worth noting. The vote for Trump and the vote for Brexit both reflect the underlying conflicts described above. Are you in favour of open borders as well as cultural and technological change, or would you rather promote a clearly defined national community –

In a globalised world, food, music and fashion from all over the world cross borders and are seen as a menu of choices available to all. This development is countered, however, by a desire to focus on tradition, stability, and the cultural elements of any particular nation. Both the 2016 votes illustrate this increased focus on culture in the sense of protecting the already established trademarks of each nation. Arguably, Trump and Brexit respond to a psychological need to distinguish between “us” and “them”. In both Britain and the United States, then, current political conflicts are intimately related to culture and identity. Can the opposing ideals of globalism and nationalism be reconciled? If so, what shared set of ideas should guide us towards whatever we wish to be as a nation? These discussions are likely to occupy us for years and decades to come. Sources Clarke, H. D., Goodwin, M. & Whiteley, P. (2017). Brexit: Why Britain Voted to Leave the European Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Goodheart, D. (2017). The Road to Somewhere: The New Tribes Shaping British Politics. London: Penguin. McGuiness, F., & Harari, D. (2019). Income inequality in the UK. House of Commons Library. Retrieved from https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/cbp-7484. Radford, J. (2017). Key findings about U.S. immigrants. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/03/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/. Reinicke, C. (2018). US income inequality continues to grow. CNBC. Retrieved from https://www. cnbc.com/2018/07/19/income-inequality-continues-to-grow-in-the-united-states.html.

Useful terminology activism conservatism/liberalism controversy demographics economics ethos, pathos, and logos extremism global/regional benefits/harms hatred humane/inhumane immigration and integration inclusive/exclusive

law-abiding/criminal polarisation poverty private/state schools racism Republicans/Democrats resentments right-wing/left-wing segregation terrorism urban-rural divide violence working, middle, and upper class

What explains the two 2016 election results?

AUTHOR

vu

rd

Immigration and multicultural society are contested topics in the United States as well as in Britain. Another thorny subject that characterises both countries is social inequality. During the 1980s, there was a steep rise in inequality, and in the decades since it is particularly the very highest earners that have pulled off from the rest (Reinicke, 2018; McGuiness & Harari, 2019). This has occurred alongside globalisation, understood as increasing communication, trade, and migration across national borders. The development is tied to ethnic diversity too, seeing some minorities statistically worse off in the allocation of wealth.

to make your country great again? It was a version of the latter view that was expressed through the election of Trump and the majority in favour of Brexit.

Øivind Bratberg (b. 1980) teaches political science at the University of Oslo. He has a particular interest in Britain and has written several books and articles about current affairs and political history in the UK. He contributes regularly to various media outlets on British politics and, in recent years, on Britain’s process of exiting the European Union.

Culture and Diversity

131


3 Culture and Diversity

What downsides are created by migration and globalisation?

130

[ chapter 3 ]

In 2016, two surprising political outcomes managed to shake the political foundations of Britain and the United States. In Britain, a majority of 52 per cent voted to withdraw Britain from the EU. In the US, a few months later, Donald Trump won the presidential election. One should be cautious so as not to simplify the picture. But some patterns emerge that are worth noting. The vote for Trump and the vote for Brexit both reflect the underlying conflicts described above. Are you in favour of open borders as well as cultural and technological change, or would you rather promote a clearly defined national community –

g

er in

Both the 2016 votes illustrate this increased focus on culture in the sense of protecting the already established trademarks of each nation. Arguably, Trump and Brexit respond to a psychological need to distinguish between “us” and “them”. In both Britain and the United States, then, current political conflicts are intimately related to culture and identity. Can the opposing ideals of globalism and nationalism be reconciled? If so, what shared set of ideas should guide us towards whatever we wish to be as a nation? These discussions are likely to occupy us for years and decades to come.

rd

What explains the two 2016 election results?

vu

Sources Clarke, H. D., Goodwin, M. & Whiteley, P. (2017). Brexit: Why Britain Voted to Leave the European Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Goodheart, D. (2017). The Road to Somewhere: The New Tribes Shaping British Politics. London: Penguin. McGuiness, F., & Harari, D. (2019). Income inequality in the UK. House of Commons Library. Retrieved from https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/cbp-7484. Radford, J. (2017). Key findings about U.S. immigrants. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/03/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/. Reinicke, C. (2018). US income inequality continues to grow. CNBC. Retrieved from https://www. cnbc.com/2018/07/19/income-inequality-continues-to-grow-in-the-united-states.html.

Useful terminology activism conservatism/liberalism controversy demographics economics ethos, pathos, and logos extremism global/regional benefits/harms hatred humane/inhumane immigration and integration inclusive/exclusive

law-abiding/criminal polarisation poverty private/state schools racism Republicans/Democrats resentments right-wing/left-wing segregation terrorism urban-rural divide violence working, middle, and upper class

AUTHOR

Migration and globalisation create winners and losers. Winners include those who benefit in economic terms, but also those who are generally happy to accept a world that is more open and diverse. On the losing side you will find people who have seen wages decline and decent jobs disappear, but also those who distrust the diversity of views and lifestyles that follows from globalisation (Goodheart, 2017). While some may be happy to see diversity without a clearly defined national culture, others are concerned that their national culture is diluted, resulting in a form of segregation where different groups live apart and do not adhere to the same “rules of the game”.

In a globalised world, food, music and fashion from all over the world cross borders and are seen as a menu of choices available to all. This development is countered, however, by a desire to focus on tradition, stability, and the cultural elements of any particular nation.

til

Immigration and multicultural society are contested topics in the United States as well as in Britain. Another thorny subject that characterises both countries is social inequality. During the 1980s, there was a steep rise in inequality, and in the decades since it is particularly the very highest earners that have pulled off from the rest (Reinicke, 2018; McGuiness & Harari, 2019). This has occurred alongside globalisation, understood as increasing communication, trade, and migration across national borders. The development is tied to ethnic diversity too, seeing some minorities statistically worse off in the allocation of wealth.

to make your country great again? It was a version of the latter view that was expressed through the election of Trump and the majority in favour of Brexit.

Ku n

Meanwhile, the more traditional forms of immigration from across the world continue to put their mark on British society as well, and particularly in the largest cities. In 2016, Sadiq Khan was elected Mayor of London. The son of two Pakistani immigrants and growing up in South London, Khan is a striking example of how the early phase of multicultural Britain has moved on to a new era.

Øivind Bratberg (b. 1980) teaches political science at the University of Oslo. He has a particular interest in Britain and has written several books and articles about current affairs and political history in the UK. He contributes regularly to various media outlets on British politics and, in recent years, on Britain’s process of exiting the European Union.

Culture and Diversity

131


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

g

LANGUAGE 3 a What is the purpose of using the pronoun one in the second paragraph and oneself in the third paragraph? b What would be the effect of replacing one with you and oneself with yourself? 4 With the help of a dictionary, write short definitions in your own words of the following terms from the article.

Visit the source of the US statistics referred to in Bratberg’s article, “Key findings about U.S. immigrants”, from Pew Research Center. Choose one or more of the main findings in the article from Pew. Then try to find similar data for the UK from other sources. For each source that you find, apply the CORE model recommended in course 10: Choosing sources to evaluate the reliability of the source. Using the highest quality sources, produce a short report or presentation that compares the situation for immigrants in the USA and UK.

heyday (n.)

accession (n.)

decline (n.)

occupy (v.)

OVER TO YOU 5 Social inequality Danny Dorling, a professor of geography at the University of Oxford, is very concerned about the effects of growing inequality. He is particularly concerned about its effect on the environment.

20 metropolitan areas with the largest number of immigrants in 2017

vu

STRUCTURE 2 A model text The text “Cultural diversity and the new politics of conflict” can be read as a model text, as it exemplifies the key features of an academic essay.

6 Immigrants in the UK and US

contend (v.) Protestant (n.) allocation (n.) adhere (v.)

rd

a It is difficult to say what bits of culture belong to any nation. T/F b The question is rarely asked of what sort of country the US or UK should be. T/F c The proportion of foreign-born citizens in the US has risen by 9% since 1970. T/F d 20% of American citizens are Spanish-speaking with Latin American roots. T/F e Few Eastern Europeans have entered the UK looking for work since 2004. T/F f Sadiq Khan grew up in south London. T/F g Wealth inequality has increased alongside globalisation. T/F h Everyone is satisfied to see diversity without a well-defined national culture. T/F i Trump’s election and Brexit were statements for openness and change. T/F j Voters have an emotional need to draw a line between themselves and others. T/F

e Identify the source references in the text and after the text. Again, you may find it helpful to compare this with the labelled model text at the end of the course.

er in

CONTENT 1 Decide whether each statement is true or false.

Ku n

til

a Using the table in step 1 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction above that draw in the reader, orientate, and set the destination. You may find it helpful to compare this with the labelled model text at the end of the course. b Using the table in step 3 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction above that summarise by combining the main points from the discussion and presenting a final perspective. Again, you may find it helpful to compare this with the labelled model text at the end of the course. c Look at the paragraph structure and identify: • the topic sentences of each body paragraph • the main idea of each paragraph • the hooks or transitions between paragraphs d Identify the parts of the conclusion that bring together all the ideas presented in the text. Does the conclusion connect back to the text? Does the conclusion avoid adding new information? Does the concluding paragraph provide the reader with a sense of closure on the topic?

132

[ chapter 3 ]

Follow the link on Skolestudio to watch Dorling explain how “the super-rich are damaging the environment”. Before you start watching, refer to course 3: Improving your listening skills. Follow the first two steps in the course, using the questions below. To better train your listening skills, try to avoid reading the onscreen text. • Why do the richest people have a bad effect on the environment? • Which economist does Dorling mention? • What is the biggest threat we are facing? • What does Dorling see as a way to reduce this threat? • Why do the poor spend more than they can afford in unequal countries? • What can be said about pollution levels in more equal countries? • What is now happening in countries besides the UK and USA? • What will almost certainly happen to inequality in the future?

6M 3M 1M 500K

Seattle

San Francisco

Boston

Detroit Detr Chicago

Sacramento

New York City

Philadelphia

Washington, D.C. San Jose

Las Vegas Riverside

Los Angeles

Phoenix San Diego

Atlanta

Dallas Ft. Worth

Orlando Houston Miami

Source: Pew Research Center analysis of 2017 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS). PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Culture and Diversity

133


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

a Using the table in step 1 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction above that draw in the reader, orientate, and set the destination. You may find it helpful to compare this with the labelled model text at the end of the course. b Using the table in step 3 of course 8: Structuring a text, identify the parts of the introduction above that summarise by combining the main points from the discussion and presenting a final perspective. Again, you may find it helpful to compare this with the labelled model text at the end of the course. c Look at the paragraph structure and identify: • the topic sentences of each body paragraph • the main idea of each paragraph • the hooks or transitions between paragraphs d Identify the parts of the conclusion that bring together all the ideas presented in the text. Does the conclusion connect back to the text? Does the conclusion avoid adding new information? Does the concluding paragraph provide the reader with a sense of closure on the topic?

132

[ chapter 3 ]

Using the highest quality sources, produce a short report or presentation that compares the situation for immigrants in the USA and UK.

4 With the help of a dictionary, write short definitions in your own words of the following terms from the article. contend (v.) Protestant (n.) allocation (n.) adhere (v.) accession (n.)

decline (n.)

occupy (v.)

OVER TO YOU 5 Social inequality Danny Dorling, a professor of geography at the University of Oxford, is very concerned about the effects of growing inequality. He is particularly concerned about its effect on the environment. Follow the link on Skolestudio to watch Dorling explain how “the super-rich are damaging the environment”. Before you start watching, refer to course 3: Improving your listening skills. Follow the first two steps in the course, using the questions below. To better train your listening skills, try to avoid reading the onscreen text. • Why do the richest people have a bad effect on the environment? • Which economist does Dorling mention? • What is the biggest threat we are facing? • What does Dorling see as a way to reduce this threat? • Why do the poor spend more than they can afford in unequal countries? • What can be said about pollution levels in more equal countries? • What is now happening in countries besides the UK and USA? • What will almost certainly happen to inequality in the future?

rd

heyday (n.)

er in

Choose one or more of the main findings in the article from Pew. Then try to find similar data for the UK from other sources. For each source that you find, apply the CORE model recommended in course 10: Choosing sources to evaluate the reliability of the source.

LANGUAGE 3 a What is the purpose of using the pronoun one in the second paragraph and oneself in the third paragraph? b What would be the effect of replacing one with you and oneself with yourself?

g

Visit the source of the US statistics referred to in Bratberg’s article, “Key findings about U.S. immigrants”, from Pew Research Center.

20 metropolitan areas with the largest number of immigrants in 2017

vu

STRUCTURE 2 A model text The text “Cultural diversity and the new politics of conflict” can be read as a model text, as it exemplifies the key features of an academic essay.

6 Immigrants in the UK and US

6M 3M 1M 500K

Seattle

San Francisco

til

a It is difficult to say what bits of culture belong to any nation. T/F b The question is rarely asked of what sort of country the US or UK should be. T/F c The proportion of foreign-born citizens in the US has risen by 9% since 1970. T/F d 20% of American citizens are Spanish-speaking with Latin American roots. T/F e Few Eastern Europeans have entered the UK looking for work since 2004. T/F f Sadiq Khan grew up in south London. T/F g Wealth inequality has increased alongside globalisation. T/F h Everyone is satisfied to see diversity without a well-defined national culture. T/F i Trump’s election and Brexit were statements for openness and change. T/F j Voters have an emotional need to draw a line between themselves and others. T/F

e Identify the source references in the text and after the text. Again, you may find it helpful to compare this with the labelled model text at the end of the course.

Sacramento

San Jose

Chicago

Boston

Detroit Detr

New York City

Philadelphia

Washington, D.C.

Las Vegas

Riverside

Los Angeles

Ku n

CONTENT 1 Decide whether each statement is true or false.

San Diego

Phoenix

Atlanta

Dallas Ft. Worth

Orlando Houston Miami

Source: Pew Research Center analysis of 2017 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS).

PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Culture and Diversity

133


g er in rd vu til

Ku n HOW TO PLAY

Use Quizlet on your mobile phones to ask each other questions about history, geography, entertainment and sport as you throw the die and move around the board. Visit Skolestudio for the instructions and rules of the game! 134

[ chapter 3 ]

ALL YOU NEED IS 2-6 players A six-sided die A mobile phone Pen, paper and scissors Culture and Diversity

135


g er in rd vu til Use Quizlet on your mobile phones to ask each other questions about history, geography, entertainment and sport as you throw the die and move around the board. Visit Skolestudio for the instructions and rules of the game! 134

[ chapter 3 ]

Ku n

HOW TO PLAY

ALL YOU NEED IS 2-6 players A six-sided die A mobile phone Pen, paper and scissors Culture and Diversity

135


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: DOCUMENTARY FILM

AIMS • Gain insight into extremist groups • Reflect on the relationship between culture, identity and history

Ku n

til [ chapter 3 ]

Meeting the Enemy

WA TC

vu

rd

er in

g

Deeyah Khan introduces herself as a “woman of colour, and a daughter of immigrants, a Muslim, a feminist and a left-liberal”. Are you familiar with these terms?

CONTEXT

136

FIRST ould you be bold W enough to meet a violent enemy face to face and challenge him or her?

HT

H E F I L M!

Norwegian-born Deeyah Khan knows first-hand what challenges can arise around culture and diversity, from the ”psychological need to distinguish between ’us’ and ’them’ that Øivind Bratberg describes at the start of this chapter. She has been on the receiving end of abuse from racists and religious extremists alike. At one point her mother said they could not protect her any more, and Khan moved to Great Britain. As an adult, Khan has received awards, good press, and praise for her investigative journalism. She has, however, also been met with hate mail and threats. In her work she attempts to find out where the hatred and the wish to join racist and extremist movements come from. In the documentary White Right: Meeting the Enemy she travelled to the United States and visited neo-Nazis and KKK rallies. The documentary (55 min.) won her an Emmy.

Culture and Diversity

137


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: DOCUMENTARY FILM

AIMS • Gain insight into extremist groups • Reflect on the relationship between culture, identity and history

FIRST ould you be bold W enough to meet a violent enemy face to face and challenge him or her?

HT

H E F I L M!

Norwegian-born Deeyah Khan knows first-hand what challenges can arise around culture and diversity, from the ”psychological need to distinguish between ’us’ and ’them’ that Øivind Bratberg describes at the start of this chapter. She has been on the receiving end of abuse from racists and religious extremists alike. At one point her mother said they could not protect her any more, and Khan moved to Great Britain. As an adult, Khan has received awards, good press, and praise for her investigative journalism. She has, however, also been met with hate mail and threats. In her work she attempts to find out where the hatred and the wish to join racist and extremist movements come from. In the documentary White Right: Meeting the Enemy she travelled to the United States and visited neo-Nazis and KKK rallies. The documentary (55 min.) won her an Emmy.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

vu

Meeting the Enemy

WA TC

rd

er in

g

Deeyah Khan introduces herself as a “woman of colour, and a daughter of immigrants, a Muslim, a feminist and a left-liberal”. Are you familiar with these terms?

136

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

137


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

3 The neo-Nazis liked one thing in particular about Donald Trump. What was it? 4 Why is 88 an important symbol to the neo-Nazis? 5 Who in the film used to play in a neo-Nazi band? 6 Extremism and racism are on the rise in Europe and the USA, Khan states. Do you remember any news or incidents that indicate that she may be right?

11 Describe the settings of Khan’s interviews during the documentary. LANGUAGE 12 Consider the statements made by the neo-Nazis in the documentary. What kind of language do they make use of?

13 What happens to the interviewees when Khan uses their language back at them, or reads them the hate mail she has received?

rd

7 Khan interviews members of both the white working class and the white elite. Do you observe any differences between these two groups in terms of motivation, reasons, or goals?

10 During the rally Khan uses a handheld camera. What is the effect?

g

2 Jeff Schoep, the neo-Nazi, compared his fight to someone else’s. Whose?

STRUCTURE 9 How would you describe the opening scene? What would you say Khan achieves with this narrative technique?

er in

CONTENT 1 What did Khan wish to accomplish with White Right: Meeting the Enemy?

OVER TO YOU 14 Character development Jeff Schoep and Brian Culpepper both develop during the film. Write one paragraph on each character and their development. See course 5: Structuring a paragraph to help you plan, structure, and present your material.

vu

8 Arno Michaelis says his band spurred violence. What does he do now to redeem his past?

a Write a short summary of her message, as you see it. b Khan delivers an oral text, and hence makes use of oral skills. Comment on her use of the following devices and the function of each of them. • Body language (gesticulation, facial expressions, movements, posture) • Volume (loud, soft, inaudible) • Language and pronunciation (clear diction, vocabulary/register) • Her overall delivery (engaged, invested, bored, indifferent) See course 14: Giving presentations and the assessment grid for oral skills in Skolestudio.

c

Try to take Deeyah Khan’s father’s perspective. How would he tell this story? Write a text where you tell his side of things. Choose a genre of your own liking – a letter to the editor, a page in his diary, an email to a close friend, a blog entry on his own site, or an op-ed. Reflect on how your choice of genre influences your choice of language style. See course 5: Recognising formality.

16 My Country Talks My Country Talks is an international initiative where people of different viewpoints meet and discuss current issues in their country. Take one of the hot-button topics in science, social studies, or another subject and plan a contribution to a debate with a partner or your class. Look to https://www.mycountrytalks.org/ for inspiration. See course 15: Holding discussions to guide you.

Arno Michaelis was deeply involved in the white power movement. Since 2004, he has been speaking out publicly against racism and hatred.

Ku n

til

Khan speaks to anti-racists at a rally

15 “What we don’t know about Europe’s Muslim kids” Go online and watch the TED Talk by Deeyah Khan. (Runtime: 20 minutes).

138

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

139


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

4 Why is 88 an important symbol to the neo-Nazis? 5 Who in the film used to play in a neo-Nazi band? 6 Extremism and racism are on the rise in Europe and the USA, Khan states. Do you remember any news or incidents that indicate that she may be right? 7 Khan interviews members of both the white working class and the white elite. Do you observe any differences between these two groups in terms of motivation, reasons, or goals? 8 Arno Michaelis says his band spurred violence. What does he do now to redeem his past?

LANGUAGE 12 Consider the statements made by the neo-Nazis in the documentary. What kind of language do they make use of? 13 What happens to the interviewees when Khan uses their language back at them, or reads them the hate mail she has received? OVER TO YOU 14 Character development Jeff Schoep and Brian Culpepper both develop during the film. Write one paragraph on each character and their development. See course 5: Structuring a paragraph to help you plan, structure, and present your material.

• Body language (gesticulation, facial expressions, movements, posture) • Volume (loud, soft, inaudible) • Language and pronunciation (clear diction, vocabulary/register) • Her overall delivery (engaged, invested, bored, indifferent) See course 14: Giving presentations and the assessment grid for oral skills in Skolestudio.

g

b Khan delivers an oral text, and hence makes use of oral skills. Comment on her use of the following devices and the function of each of them.

Try to take Deeyah Khan’s father’s perspective. How would he tell this story? Write a text where you tell his side of things. Choose a genre of your own liking – a letter to the editor, a page in his diary, an email to a close friend, a blog entry on his own site, or an op-ed. Reflect on how your choice of genre influences your choice of language style. See course 5: Recognising formality.

16 My Country Talks My Country Talks is an international initiative where people of different viewpoints meet and discuss current issues in their country. Take one of the hot-button topics in science, social studies, or another subject and plan a contribution to a debate with a partner or your class. Look to https://www.mycountrytalks.org/ for inspiration. See course 15: Holding discussions to guide you.

Arno Michaelis was deeply involved in the white power movement. Since 2004, he has been speaking out publicly against racism and hatred.

Ku n

til

Khan speaks to anti-racists at a rally

11 Describe the settings of Khan’s interviews during the documentary.

a Write a short summary of her message, as you see it.

c

er in

3 The neo-Nazis liked one thing in particular about Donald Trump. What was it?

10 During the rally Khan uses a handheld camera. What is the effect?

15 “What we don’t know about Europe’s Muslim kids” Go online and watch the TED Talk by Deeyah Khan. (Runtime: 20 minutes).

rd

2 Jeff Schoep, the neo-Nazi, compared his fight to someone else’s. Whose?

STRUCTURE 9 How would you describe the opening scene? What would you say Khan achieves with this narrative technique?

vu

CONTENT 1 What did Khan wish to accomplish with White Right: Meeting the Enemy?

138

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

139


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST Listen to 2Pac’s song “The Rose That Grew From Concrete” ft. Nikki Giovanni on YouTube. Discuss 2Pac’s message with a classmate.

Ku n 140

[ chapter 3 ]

WA TC

Thug Life CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Explore black political activism in the USA • Practise film analysis • Present a topic related to the film

HT

H E F I L M!

The film The Hate U Give (2018) tells the story of 16-year-old Starr Carter, who finds herself between two cultures: the poor, mostly black, neighbourhood of Garden Heights where she lives and the rich, mostly white, Williamson Prep School that she attends. She struggles with her identity and does not feel completely at home in either community. The story takes a dramatic turn when Starr’s best friend is killed by a white police officer and she turns to angry activism. The film is based on the novel The Hate U Give (2017), written by Angie Thomas (b. 1988). Readers all over the world were intrigued by Starr and her conflicts and the novel became an instant YA (Young Adult) bestseller. Thomas says that it was inspired by the so-called Black Lives Matter movement and their campaign against violence and racism towards black people in the United States.

Culture and Diversity

141


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST

• Explore black political activism in the USA • Practise film analysis • Present a topic related to the film

HT

H E F I L M!

The film The Hate U Give (2018) tells the story of 16-year-old Starr Carter, who finds herself between two cultures: the poor, mostly black, neighbourhood of Garden Heights where she lives and the rich, mostly white, Williamson Prep School that she attends. She struggles with her identity and does not feel completely at home in either community. The story takes a dramatic turn when Starr’s best friend is killed by a white police officer and she turns to angry activism.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

Thug Life

WA TC

vu

rd

er in

g

Listen to 2Pac’s song “The Rose That Grew From Concrete” ft. Nikki Giovanni on YouTube. Discuss 2Pac’s message with a classmate.

The film is based on the novel The Hate U Give (2017), written by Angie Thomas (b. 1988). Readers all over the world were intrigued by Starr and her conflicts and the novel became an instant YA (Young Adult) bestseller. Thomas says that it was inspired by the so-called Black Lives Matter movement and their campaign against violence and racism towards black people in the United States.

140

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

141


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: FEATURE FILM

PRACTICE TIDBIT

CONTENT AND STRUCTURE Film analysis

vu

rd

er in

g

1

til

THUG LIFE is acronym for The Hate You Give Little Infants Fucks Everybody. Meaning, what you feed us as seeds, grows, and blows up in your face. That’s THUG LIFE. 2Pac (Tupac Amaru Shakur; 1971–1996)

Ku n

Angie Thomas attributes the title of her novel The Hate U Give to American rapper 2Pac. He died in 1996 at the early age of 25 after a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada. In the wake of his death, several stories about 2Pac have emerged that have added to his status as a rap icon and legend. In 2006, for instance, The Sydney Morning Herald reported that members of the hip hop group Outlaw Immortalz “mixed some of his cremated ashes with marijuana and smoked them”. The story is still frequently told in the rap community but it has not been confirmed by the group members themselves. It is almost certainly an urban legend.

142

[ chapter 3 ]

Take notes while you watch the first 15 minutes of the film. Then, answer these questions: a How would you describe the different settings? b Who are the main characters? c What do the settings, costumes, and props tell you about the different characters?

2 Watch the first 15 minutes one more time. Keep taking notes and then answer the following: a How is the camera used? • Are there close-ups and long shots? • Is the camera moving, handheld, or standing still? • Are special effects like zooming and slow motion used? • What are the effects of how the camera is used? b What sounds effects, like music and voiceover, are used? Why are they used? c Are the transitions within the individual scenes fast or slow? What are the effects? d What seems to be the main conflict? e How do you think the plot will develop?

Rapper Tupac Amaru Shakur, better known as 2Pac in the middle, with Notorius B.I.G to the left and Redman to the right.

3 Next, watch the rest of the film and focus on this: a Setting • Are there other settings in the film? Which setting is most important? • Are the settings themselves important, or could the film have been set someplace else? b Plot

Steady, if not convincing, claims have also been made that 2Pac faked his own death. In September 2018, readers of the British newspaper the Sun were told that he was still alive living in Cuba. Their single source was a person who insisted that he had smuggled him there. This contradicts other reports at the time saying that 2Pac was living in Malaysia. In recent years, he has also supposedly been observed in a taxi in Somalia, in a prison in Los Angeles, and in a recording studio where he is making new music soon to be released. Such stories may have a certain entertainment value, but they all ignore the publicly recorded fact that he is, actually, dead.

• In your opinion, what are the five key moments in the film? • What is the climax, or turning point? • Does the film end as you expected – or not? Did it tie up loose ends, or leave some things unresolved?

c

Characters • Does Starr Carter, the protagonist, change through the course of the film? If yes, how? • Who are the other main characters? Match names and identity:

Chris

Leader of the King Lords gang

Hailey

Starr’s younger brother

Iesha

Starr’s childhood best friend

Kenya

Starr’s mother

Khalil

Starr’s older half-brother

King

Starr’s white boyfriend

Lisa

Starr’s friend form prep school

Maverick

Seven and Kenya’s mother

Sekani

Starr’s friend from Garden Heights

Seven

Starr’s father

• Who are the antagonists? • Do all the main characters in the film have clear individual features? Are some of them stereotypes? Explain your answer. d Point of view • Through whose eyes do we see the film? e Theme and message • In your opinion, what are the three most important themes in the film? What makes you say that? • Does the film deal with big issues that concern us all, or small ones that only affect individual lives? Explain. • Has the film made you look at racial conflicts in the Unites States in new ways? If so, how? • Who do you think this film was made for, and why? Who else should watch it? See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

Culture and Diversity

143


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: FEATURE FILM

PRACTICE

Take notes while you watch the first 15 minutes of the film. Then, answer these questions: a How would you describe the different settings? b Who are the main characters? c What do the settings, costumes, and props tell you about the different characters?

2 Watch the first 15 minutes one more time. Keep taking notes and then answer the following: a How is the camera used?

• Does Starr Carter, the protagonist, change through the course of the film? If yes, how? • Who are the other main characters? Match names and identity:

Chris

Leader of the King Lords gang

Hailey

Starr’s younger brother

Iesha

Starr’s childhood best friend

Kenya

Starr’s mother

Khalil

Starr’s older half-brother

King

Starr’s white boyfriend

Lisa

Starr’s friend form prep school

Maverick

Seven and Kenya’s mother

Sekani

Starr’s friend from Garden Heights

Seven

Starr’s father

rd

• Are there close-ups and long shots? • Is the camera moving, handheld, or standing still? • Are special effects like zooming and slow motion used? • What are the effects of how the camera is used?

Characters

g

1

c

er in

TIDBIT

CONTENT AND STRUCTURE Film analysis

2Pac (Tupac Amaru Shakur; 1971–1996)

3 Next, watch the rest of the film and focus on this: a Setting

• Are there other settings in the film? Which setting is most important? • Are the settings themselves important, or could the film have been set someplace else?

til

THUG LIFE is acronym for The Hate You Give Little Infants Fucks Everybody. Meaning, what you feed us as seeds, grows, and blows up in your face. That’s THUG LIFE.

Rapper Tupac Amaru Shakur, better known as 2Pac in the middle, with Notorius B.I.G to the left and Redman to the right.

b Plot

In the wake of his death, several stories about 2Pac have emerged that have added to his status as a rap icon and legend. In 2006, for instance, The Sydney Morning Herald reported that members of the hip hop group Outlaw Immortalz “mixed some of his cremated ashes with marijuana and smoked them”. The story is still frequently told in the rap community but it has not been confirmed by the group members themselves. It is almost certainly an urban legend.

142

[ chapter 3 ]

Steady, if not convincing, claims have also been made that 2Pac faked his own death. In September 2018, readers of the British newspaper the Sun were told that he was still alive living in Cuba. Their single source was a person who insisted that he had smuggled him there. This contradicts other reports at the time saying that 2Pac was living in Malaysia. In recent years, he has also supposedly been observed in a taxi in Somalia, in a prison in Los Angeles, and in a recording studio where he is making new music soon to be released. Such stories may have a certain entertainment value, but they all ignore the publicly recorded fact that he is, actually, dead.

• In your opinion, what are the five key moments in the film? • What is the climax, or turning point? • Does the film end as you expected – or not? Did it tie up loose ends, or leave some things unresolved?

Ku n

Angie Thomas attributes the title of her novel The Hate U Give to American rapper 2Pac. He died in 1996 at the early age of 25 after a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada.

• Who are the antagonists? • Do all the main characters in the film have clear individual features? Are some of them stereotypes? Explain your answer.

vu

b What sounds effects, like music and voiceover, are used? Why are they used? c Are the transitions within the individual scenes fast or slow? What are the effects? d What seems to be the main conflict? e How do you think the plot will develop?

d Point of view • Through whose eyes do we see the film?

e Theme and message • In your opinion, what are the three most important themes in the film? What makes you say that? • Does the film deal with big issues that concern us all, or small ones that only affect individual lives? Explain. • Has the film made you look at racial conflicts in the Unites States in new ways? If so, how? • Who do you think this film was made for, and why? Who else should watch it? See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

Culture and Diversity

143


rd

er in

g

3 Culture and Diversity

White nationalist James Alex Fields Jr. drives his car into a group of peaceful protesters in Charlottesville, Virginia, killing one, injuring 28 in August 2017.

grand jury crusty domestic designate hustle (n) eligible

predominantly disperse oppress assemble homie manifest (v)

til

immaculate conception college-bound hoedom heathen custody recreational

a In pairs: Find the song’s lyrics on genius.com. Keep them in front of you as you watch the music video on youtube.com. Answer the following questions based on what you read and watch:

vu

LANGUAGE 4 With the help of a good dictionary, define these words and expressions from the film in your own words:

Ku n

OVER TO YOU 5 Explore Kendrick Lamar’s song “Humble” (2017) Kendrick Lamar (b. 1987) is unquestionably one of the world’s most influential rap artists, and almost all his work is related to the complexities of black identity. Both Lamar’s lyrics and music videos are packed with intricate imagery and cultural references, which often make them difficult to understand completely. However, the song “Humble” offers an accessible view into his universe.

• Look up Jeremiah 13:18 in an online Bible. Why is this passage relevant to the song? Do you find other references to the Bible/ religion? • What is Lamar’s opinion about Photoshop? Do you agree with him? Explain. • There are only black people present in the video, and most of them are dressed in all black, too. Why, do you think, is Lamar the only one who sometimes wears white? • Why do you think Lamar places himself in a ladies’ hairdressing salon? • In the song, Lamar mentions Grey Poupon, which is a mustard brand. In the 1980s, Grey Poupon made a commercial called “Son of Rolls” that many rappers still refer to. Find the commercial online (0:32) and compare it to the scene in “Humble” where Lamar sits in his car (2:07–2:15). In your opinion, what point is Lamar trying to make here? • In one single sentence, can you suggest what Lamar’s message is?

“When the armoured officers rushed at me, I had no fear. I wasn’t afraid.” Ieshia Evans protesting against police brutality in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, July 2016.

6 Cooperate and explore topics related to the film Below, we have listed six different topics that are thematically linked to the film The Hate U Give. • In groups, choose one topic that you want to explore. • Consider your audience and purpose. • Using only reliable sources, collect relevant information about your topic. (The bullet points are only meant as suggestions. You are free to choose your own approach.) • Prepare an end product that is clearly divided into three parts: an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. The introduction should also contain a well-defined thesis statement. • Your end product may take the form of a video recording, a podcast, a blog page, a fiveparagraph essay, or an oral group presentation. The following courses should be helpful: 8: Structuring a text, 10: Choosing sources, 11: Referring to sources, 13: Improving your pronunciation, and 14: Giving presentations.

2Pac and rap culture

The Black Panther Party

• What is rap music/ culture? • 2Pac’s life and music • His death and legacy • Other important rap artists

• Origin • Activities • Prominent members • Legacy

Gang culture in the USA

Black Lives Matter Movement

History Types of gangs Their activities Notable gangs

• Origin/Ferguson/ Michael Brown • Tactics • Notable events • Criticism

Police brutality in the USA

Black history timeline

• • • •

• Important events • Important people

• • • •

Causes Incidents/victims “I can’t breathe” Public reactions

b Discuss your answers in class. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

144

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

145


grand jury crusty domestic designate hustle (n) eligible

predominantly disperse oppress assemble homie manifest (v)

OVER TO YOU 5 Explore Kendrick Lamar’s song “Humble” (2017) Kendrick Lamar (b. 1987) is unquestionably one of the world’s most influential rap artists, and almost all his work is related to the complexities of black identity. Both Lamar’s lyrics and music videos are packed with intricate imagery and cultural references, which often make them difficult to understand completely. However, the song “Humble” offers an accessible view into his universe.

• Look up Jeremiah 13:18 in an online Bible. Why is this passage relevant to the song? Do you find other references to the Bible/ religion? • What is Lamar’s opinion about Photoshop? Do you agree with him? Explain. • There are only black people present in the video, and most of them are dressed in all black, too. Why, do you think, is Lamar the only one who sometimes wears white? • Why do you think Lamar places himself in a ladies’ hairdressing salon? • In the song, Lamar mentions Grey Poupon, which is a mustard brand. In the 1980s, Grey Poupon made a commercial called “Son of Rolls” that many rappers still refer to. Find the commercial online (0:32) and compare it to the scene in “Humble” where Lamar sits in his car (2:07–2:15). In your opinion, what point is Lamar trying to make here? • In one single sentence, can you suggest what Lamar’s message is?

6 Cooperate and explore topics related to the film Below, we have listed six different topics that are thematically linked to the film The Hate U Give.

vu

immaculate conception college-bound hoedom heathen custody recreational

a In pairs: Find the song’s lyrics on genius.com. Keep them in front of you as you watch the music video on youtube.com. Answer the following questions based on what you read and watch:

• In groups, choose one topic that you want to explore. • Consider your audience and purpose. • Using only reliable sources, collect relevant information about your topic. (The bullet points are only meant as suggestions. You are free to choose your own approach.) • Prepare an end product that is clearly divided into three parts: an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. The introduction should also contain a well-defined thesis statement. • Your end product may take the form of a video recording, a podcast, a blog page, a fiveparagraph essay, or an oral group presentation.

til

LANGUAGE 4 With the help of a good dictionary, define these words and expressions from the film in your own words:

“When the armoured officers rushed at me, I had no fear. I wasn’t afraid.” Ieshia Evans protesting against police brutality in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, July 2016.

Ku n

White nationalist James Alex Fields Jr. drives his car into a group of peaceful protesters in Charlottesville, Virginia, killing one, injuring 28 in August 2017.

rd

er in

g

3 Culture and Diversity

The following courses should be helpful: 8: Structuring a text, 10: Choosing sources, 11: Referring to sources, 13: Improving your pronunciation, and 14: Giving presentations.

2Pac and rap culture

The Black Panther Party

• What is rap music/ culture? • 2Pac’s life and music • His death and legacy • Other important rap artists

• Origin • Activities • Prominent members • Legacy

Gang culture in the USA

Black Lives Matter Movement

History Types of gangs Their activities Notable gangs

• Origin/Ferguson/ Michael Brown • Tactics • Notable events • Criticism

Police brutality in the USA

Black history timeline

• • • •

• Important events • Important people

• • • •

Causes Incidents/victims “I can’t breathe” Public reactions

b Discuss your answers in class. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

144

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

145


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS

Ku n [ chapter 3 ]

The assassinations of John F Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr were culturally defining events of 20th century America. Robert F Kennedy, a politician known for his rhetorical skills, was moved to give a speech the day after King was assassinated, just 5 years after his older brother had met the same fate. RFK was born into one of America’s most famous political families – the Kennedys. His father was a politician, his older brother the president of the USA, and he himself ran for office when his brother was assassinated. His family has been stricken with accidents and assassinations – and history books speak of “the Kennedy curse”. Long before RFK’s time, in the 4th century BC, Aristotle taught the power of the spoken word and the art of persuasion. When we talk about oratory being essential for politicians, it is still some of Aristotle’s theories on rhetoric we refer to.

TIDBIT

146

FIRST When do you choose to listen to somebody? Try to remember a context where you felt someone really got their message across. What did they do in order to manage that?

The Mindless Menace of Violence CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Identify linguistic features and literary devices in famous speeches • Write a rhetorical analysis

Immortal speeches often contain immortal phrases. The most famous quote of JFK, RFK’s older brother, is “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”

Culture and Diversity

147


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST When do you choose to listen to somebody? Try to remember a context where you felt someone really got their message across. What did they do in order to manage that?

er in

g

• Identify linguistic features and literary devices in famous speeches • Write a rhetorical analysis

vu

rd

The Mindless Menace of Violence

til

RFK was born into one of America’s most famous political families – the Kennedys. His father was a politician, his older brother the president of the USA, and he himself ran for office when his brother was assassinated. His family has been stricken with accidents and assassinations – and history books speak of “the Kennedy curse”.

Long before RFK’s time, in the 4th century BC, Aristotle taught the power of the spoken word and the art of persuasion. When we talk about oratory being essential for politicians, it is still some of Aristotle’s theories on rhetoric we refer to.

146

[ chapter 3 ]

TIDBIT

Ku n

CONTEXT

The assassinations of John F Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr were culturally defining events of 20th century America. Robert F Kennedy, a politician known for his rhetorical skills, was moved to give a speech the day after King was assassinated, just 5 years after his older brother had met the same fate.

Immortal speeches often contain immortal phrases. The most famous quote of JFK, RFK’s older brother, is “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.”

Culture and Diversity

147


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: SPEECH

Robert F Kennedy, Cleveland City Club, April 5, 1968 This is a time of shame and sorrow. It is not a day for politics. I have saved this one opportunity to speak briefly to you about this mindless menace of violence in America which again stains our land and every one of our lives.

5

er in

g

It is not the concern of any one race. The victims of the violence are black and white, rich and poor, young and old, famous and unknown. They are, most important of all, human beings whom other human beings loved and needed. No one – no matter where he lives or what he does – can be certain who will suffer from some senseless act of bloodshed. And yet it goes on and on.

5

10

10

Why? What has violence ever accomplished? What has it ever created? No martyr’s cause has ever been stilled by his assassin’s bullet.

15

15

20

20

rd

No wrongs have ever been righted by riots and civil disorders. A sniper is only a coward, not a hero; and an uncontrolled, uncontrollable mob is only the voice of madness, not the voice of the people.

vu

Whenever any American’s life is taken by another American unnecessarily – whether it is done in the name of the law or in the defiance of law, by one man or a gang, in cold blood or in passion, in an attack of violence or in response to violence – whenever we tear at the fabric of life which another man has painfully and clumsily woven for himself and his children, the whole nation is degraded.

25

25

30

30

til

“Among free men,” said Abraham Lincoln, “there can be no successful appeal from the ballot to the bullet; and those who take such appeal are sure to lose their cause and pay the costs.”

Ku n

mindless without thought menace threat stain (v) skitne til bloodshed the taking of life martyr someone who is killed for their beliefs assassin someone who murders sniper a person who shoots from a hiding place defiance resistance degraded reduced in quality ballot vote sanity reasonable behaviour acquire get hold of swagger (n) arrogance bluster (n) rage wielders handlers, rulers inciting encouraging scapegoats others to blame repression domination

148

[ chapter 3 ]

Yet we seemingly tolerate a rising level of violence that ignores our common humanity and our claims to civilization alike. We calmly accept newspaper reports of civilian slaughter in far off lands. We glorify killing on movie and television screens and call it entertainment. We make it easy for men of all shades of sanity to acquire weapons and ammunition they desire.

35

Too often we honor swagger and bluster and the wielders of force; too often we excuse those who are willing to build their own lives on the shattered dreams of others. Some Americans who preach nonviolence abroad fail to practice it here at home. Some who accuse others of inciting riots have by their own conduct invited them. Some looks for scapegoats, others look for conspiracies, but this much is clear; violence breeds violence, repression brings retaliation, and only a cleaning of our whole society can remove this sickness from our soul.

35

For there is another kind of violence, slower but just as deadly, destructive as the shot or the bomb in the night. This is the violence of institutions; indifference and inaction and slow decay. This is the violence that afflicts the poor, that poisons relations between men because their skin has different colors. This is a slow destruction of a child by hunger, and schools without books and homes without heat in the winter. This is the breaking of a man’s spirit by denying him the chance to stand as a father and as a man among other men. And this too afflicts us all. I have not come here to propose a set of specific remedies nor is there a single set. For a broad and adequate outline we know what must be done. When you teach a man to hate and fear his brother, when you teach that he is a lesser man because of his color or his beliefs or the policies he pursues, when you teach that those who differ from you threaten your freedom or your job or your family, then you also learn to confront others not as fellow citizens but as enemies – to be met not with cooperation but with conquest, to be subjugated and mastered. We learn, at the last, to look at our brothers as aliens, men with whom we share a city, but not a community, men bound to us in common dwelling, but not in common effort. We learn to share only a common fear – only a common desire to retreat from each other – only a common impulse to meet disagreement with force. For all this there are no final answers. Yet we know what we must do. It is to achieve true justice among our fellow citizens. The question is now what programs we should seek to enact. The question is whether we can find in our own midst and in our own hearts that leadership of human purpose that will recognize the terrible truths of our existence.

Language features: Specific language used to strike the reader in intended ways. For example, formal or informal language and choice of vocabulary.

Literary devices: Devices that often occur in fiction and poetry may also find their way into non-fiction, such as articles. For example symbols, comparisons, metaphors, and repetition.

We must admit the vanity of our false distinctions among men and learn to find our own advancement in the search for the advancement of all. We must admit in ourselves that our own children’s future cannot be built on the misfortunes of others. We must recognize that this short life can neither be ennobled or enriched by hatred or revenge. Our lives on this planet are too short and the work to be done too great to let this spirit flourish any longer in our land. Of course we cannot vanish it with a program, nor with a resolution.

40

40

But we can perhaps remember – even if only for a time – that those who live with us are our brothers, that they share with us the same short movement of life, that they seek – as we do – nothing but the chance to live out their lives in purpose and happiness, winning what satisfaction and fulfillment they can.

decay (v) decline afflicts causes problems remedies treatments subjugated conquered dwelling living enact pass a law, ratify ennobled improved

Culture and Diversity

149


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: SPEECH

10

Why? What has violence ever accomplished? What has it ever created? No martyr’s cause has ever been stilled by his assassin’s bullet. 15

15

20

20

No wrongs have ever been righted by riots and civil disorders. A sniper is only a coward, not a hero; and an uncontrolled, uncontrollable mob is only the voice of madness, not the voice of the people. Whenever any American’s life is taken by another American unnecessarily – whether it is done in the name of the law or in the defiance of law, by one man or a gang, in cold blood or in passion, in an attack of violence or in response to violence – whenever we tear at the fabric of life which another man has painfully and clumsily woven for himself and his children, the whole nation is degraded.

25

25

30

30

mindless without thought menace threat stain (v) skitne til bloodshed the taking of life martyr someone who is killed for their beliefs assassin someone who murders sniper a person who shoots from a hiding place defiance resistance degraded reduced in quality ballot vote sanity reasonable behaviour acquire get hold of swagger (n) arrogance bluster (n) rage wielders handlers, rulers inciting encouraging scapegoats others to blame repression domination

148

[ chapter 3 ]

Yet we seemingly tolerate a rising level of violence that ignores our common humanity and our claims to civilization alike. We calmly accept newspaper reports of civilian slaughter in far off lands. We glorify killing on movie and television screens and call it entertainment. We make it easy for men of all shades of sanity to acquire weapons and ammunition they desire.

35

Too often we honor swagger and bluster and the wielders of force; too often we excuse those who are willing to build their own lives on the shattered dreams of others. Some Americans who preach nonviolence abroad fail to practice it here at home. Some who accuse others of inciting riots have by their own conduct invited them. Some looks for scapegoats, others look for conspiracies, but this much is clear; violence breeds violence, repression brings retaliation, and only a cleaning of our whole society can remove this sickness from our soul.

We learn, at the last, to look at our brothers as aliens, men with whom we share a city, but not a community, men bound to us in common dwelling, but not in common effort. We learn to share only a common fear – only a common desire to retreat from each other – only a common impulse to meet disagreement with force. For all this there are no final answers. Yet we know what we must do. It is to achieve true justice among our fellow citizens. The question is now what programs we should seek to enact. The question is whether we can find in our own midst and in our own hearts that leadership of human purpose that will recognize the terrible truths of our existence.

35

g Language features: Specific language used to strike the reader in intended ways. For example, formal or informal language and choice of vocabulary.

Literary devices: Devices that often occur in fiction and poetry may also find their way into non-fiction, such as articles. For example symbols, comparisons, metaphors, and repetition.

We must admit the vanity of our false distinctions among men and learn to find our own advancement in the search for the advancement of all. We must admit in ourselves that our own children’s future cannot be built on the misfortunes of others. We must recognize that this short life can neither be ennobled or enriched by hatred or revenge.

Ku n

“Among free men,” said Abraham Lincoln, “there can be no successful appeal from the ballot to the bullet; and those who take such appeal are sure to lose their cause and pay the costs.”

This is the breaking of a man’s spirit by denying him the chance to stand as a father and as a man among other men. And this too afflicts us all. I have not come here to propose a set of specific remedies nor is there a single set. For a broad and adequate outline we know what must be done. When you teach a man to hate and fear his brother, when you teach that he is a lesser man because of his color or his beliefs or the policies he pursues, when you teach that those who differ from you threaten your freedom or your job or your family, then you also learn to confront others not as fellow citizens but as enemies – to be met not with cooperation but with conquest, to be subjugated and mastered.

er in

10

5

rd

It is not the concern of any one race. The victims of the violence are black and white, rich and poor, young and old, famous and unknown. They are, most important of all, human beings whom other human beings loved and needed. No one – no matter where he lives or what he does – can be certain who will suffer from some senseless act of bloodshed. And yet it goes on and on.

5

vu

This is a time of shame and sorrow. It is not a day for politics. I have saved this one opportunity to speak briefly to you about this mindless menace of violence in America which again stains our land and every one of our lives.

For there is another kind of violence, slower but just as deadly, destructive as the shot or the bomb in the night. This is the violence of institutions; indifference and inaction and slow decay. This is the violence that afflicts the poor, that poisons relations between men because their skin has different colors. This is a slow destruction of a child by hunger, and schools without books and homes without heat in the winter.

til

Robert F Kennedy, Cleveland City Club, April 5, 1968

Our lives on this planet are too short and the work to be done too great to let this spirit flourish any longer in our land. Of course we cannot vanish it with a program, nor with a resolution.

40

40

But we can perhaps remember – even if only for a time – that those who live with us are our brothers, that they share with us the same short movement of life, that they seek – as we do – nothing but the chance to live out their lives in purpose and happiness, winning what satisfaction and fulfillment they can.

decay (v) decline afflicts causes problems remedies treatments subjugated conquered dwelling living enact pass a law, ratify ennobled improved

Culture and Diversity

149


3 Culture and Diversity Surely this bond of common faith, this bond of common goal, can begin to teach us something. Surely we can learn, at least, to look at those around us as fellow men and surely we can begin to work a little harder to bind up the wounds among us and to become in our hearts brothers and countrymen once again.

Below: In March 2018 an activist group placed 7000 pairs of shoes on the lawn of the US Capitol, representing the children killed by gun violence since the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012.

PRACTICE

2 A former American president is quoted in this speech. Who?

5 What solutions does RFK present?

6 Does RFK believe his wishes for America could come true through resolutions and politics? Explain your view.

rd

CONTENT 1 What had happened in the USA the day before RFK gave this speech?

er in

g

Kennedy, R. F. (1968, April 5). Remarks to the Cleveland City Club. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved from https://www.jfklibrary.org/

3 What do we, according to RFK, call “killing on movie and television screens”?

STRUCTURE 7 The speech has a clear structure. Divide the text into at least three different parts and describe their focal points.

Ku n

til

vu

4 RFK makes some observations about American society. Mention at least three.

150

[ chapter 3 ]

5

8 Identify the linking words RFK makes use of to create smooth transitions between his paragraphs.

LANGUAGE 9 Study the speech closely and identify some language features and literary devices used. Write down your examples and comment on their function.

How to comment on the use of ethos, logos, and pathos in your analysis 1 Ethos

10 RFK makes use of contrasts in his speech. List the ones you can identify. What does he accomplish by using them? 11 Using rhetorical appeals in persuasive texts increases the speaker’s or writer’s chances of convincing the audience. Identify how Kennedy’s speech appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos. OVER TO YOU 12 Investigate a hot-button topic a Robert F Kennedy worked for the interests of minority groups in the USA and made it part of his political agenda to fight for equality. Some claim his speech is just as relevant today as it was in 1968. Go online and find at least two reliable sources for how minority groups are doing in the USA today. Could RFK’s message still be relevant? See course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

1

2 Logos

3 Pathos

Ethos – how does the sender appear (credible/knowledgeable/professional)? For example: “During my time in South Africa, I observed…” Examples of sentence starters: • The author’s ethos is strengthened because of ... • The writer uses stylistic devices to build up his ethos, for example ... • The text has high/low ethos because ...

2 Logos – is the reasoning clear and logical? For example: “It would be wise to strengthen swimming lessons for minority groups, as statistics show that youngsters from these groups are overrepresented in drowning accidents.”

b In the 1960s Martin Luther King Jr led the Civil Rights Movement. What movement would you engage in today?

Examples of sentence starters:

Find a cause that interests you and write a speech where you build your arguments using ethos, logos and pathos. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

• The arguments … build an appeal to logos

13 Current issues Violence, unfortunately, is a recurring issue in America. Robert F Kennedy spoke of it, Obama addressed it – and currently school shootings and gun laws are frequently debated. Jacinda Ardern gave her speech after a terrorist attack, and so did King Harald. Make a podcast where you debate one or two current issues linked to violence in all or one of the countries Norway, New Zealand and the USA. Examples of current issues are: gun laws, prison sentences, racial profiling, terror attacks, politics, and security measures taken to prevent acts of violence. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

• The sender uses the logos appeal to convince ...

• Through factual arguments, the text gains a distinct logos function ... 3 Pathos – how does the text address our feelings? For example: “Owing to this system, young children are separated from their parents and locked away without even knowing the language spoken.” Examples of sentence starters: • The sender uses various means to create pathos, for example ... • The text appeals to pathos because ... • The use of emotionally charged words and phrases creates a sympathetic image and appeals to pathos.

Culture and Diversity

151


3 Culture and Diversity

CONTENT 1 What had happened in the USA the day before RFK gave this speech? 2 A former American president is quoted in this speech. Who? 3 What do we, according to RFK, call “killing on movie and television screens”?

6 Does RFK believe his wishes for America could come true through resolutions and politics? Explain your view. STRUCTURE 7 The speech has a clear structure. Divide the text into at least three different parts and describe their focal points. 8 Identify the linking words RFK makes use of to create smooth transitions between his paragraphs.

11 Using rhetorical appeals in persuasive texts increases the speaker’s or writer’s chances of convincing the audience. Identify how Kennedy’s speech appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos.

a Robert F Kennedy worked for the interests of minority groups in the USA and made it part of his political agenda to fight for equality. Some claim his speech is just as relevant today as it was in 1968.

Go online and find at least two reliable sources for how minority groups are doing in the USA today. Could RFK’s message still be relevant? See course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

Ethos – how does the sender appear (credible/knowledgeable/professional)? For example: “During my time in South Africa, I observed…” Examples of sentence starters:

• The writer uses stylistic devices to build up his ethos, for example ... • The text has high/low ethos because ...

2 Logos – is the reasoning clear and logical? For example: “It would be wise to strengthen swimming lessons for minority groups, as statistics show that youngsters from these groups are overrepresented in drowning accidents.”

b In the 1960s Martin Luther King Jr led the Civil Rights Movement. What movement would you engage in today?

Examples of sentence starters:

Find a cause that interests you and write a speech where you build your arguments using ethos, logos and pathos. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

• The arguments … build an appeal to logos

Ku n [ chapter 3 ]

3 Pathos

• The author’s ethos is strengthened because of ...

OVER TO YOU 12 Investigate a hot-button topic

13 Current issues Violence, unfortunately, is a recurring issue in America. Robert F Kennedy spoke of it, Obama addressed it – and currently school shootings and gun laws are frequently debated. Jacinda Ardern gave her speech after a terrorist attack, and so did King Harald. Make a podcast where you debate one or two current issues linked to violence in all or one of the countries Norway, New Zealand and the USA. Examples of current issues are: gun laws, prison sentences, racial profiling, terror attacks, politics, and security measures taken to prevent acts of violence. See course 15: Holding discussions for guidance.

150

1

2 Logos

g

10 RFK makes use of contrasts in his speech. List the ones you can identify. What does he accomplish by using them?

til

4 RFK makes some observations about American society. Mention at least three.

5 What solutions does RFK present?

1 Ethos

er in

PRACTICE

How to comment on the use of ethos, logos, and pathos in your analysis

rd

Kennedy, R. F. (1968, April 5). Remarks to the Cleveland City Club. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved from https://www.jfklibrary.org/

5

LANGUAGE 9 Study the speech closely and identify some language features and literary devices used. Write down your examples and comment on their function.

vu

Below: In March 2018 an activist group placed 7000 pairs of shoes on the lawn of the US Capitol, representing the children killed by gun violence since the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012.

Surely this bond of common faith, this bond of common goal, can begin to teach us something. Surely we can learn, at least, to look at those around us as fellow men and surely we can begin to work a little harder to bind up the wounds among us and to become in our hearts brothers and countrymen once again.

• The sender uses the logos appeal to convince ...

• Through factual arguments, the text gains a distinct logos function ... 3 Pathos – how does the text address our feelings? For example: “Owing to this system, young children are separated from their parents and locked away without even knowing the language spoken.” Examples of sentence starters: • The sender uses various means to create pathos, for example ... • The text appeals to pathos because ... • The use of emotionally charged words and phrases creates a sympathetic image and appeals to pathos.

Culture and Diversity

151


3 Culture and Diversity

14 Compare and contrast a Compare and contrast the message in RFK’s speech with the messages in two of the three extracts of well-known speeches below.

EXAMPLE

g

a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners – an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters,” a story that many Americans can identify with, but never before seen in a president. This personal approach appeals to the listeners’ emotions – a pathos appeal – and makes them invested in the speech.

rd

Barack Obama makes use of the personal pronoun “I” in his speech. Speaking from a personal point of view makes him less formal, but it also evens out the hierarchy between a presidential candidate and the ordinary man. “I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas,” Obama says – and addresses one of the issues around him as a future president. He continues: “I am married to

A message is the main opinion or statement voiced in the text.

er in

b Use the text extracts or the full speeches and write a rhetorical analysis of three of the examples you find. See course 7: Structuring a paragraph. You will find the full speeches and a writing frame on Skolestudio.

Ku n

til

vu

“ (…) I chose to run for the presidency at this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together – unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction – towards a better future for of children and our grandchildren. This belief comes from my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people. But it also comes from my own American story. I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in Patton’s Army during World War II and a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I’ve gone to some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world’s poorest nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners – an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins, of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible. It’s a story that hasn’t made me the most conventional candidate. But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is more than the sum of its parts – that out of many, we are truly one. (…) ”

152

[ chapter 3 ]

Obama, B. (2008, March 18). A More Perfect Union. National Constitution Center. Retrieved from https://constitutioncenter.org/amoreperfectunion/

“ (…) What words adequately express the pain and suffering of 50 men, women and children lost, and so many injured? What words capture the anguish of our Muslim community being the target of hatred and violence? What words express the grief of a city that has already known so much pain? I thought there were none. And then I came here and was met with this simple greeting. As-salaam Alaikum. Peace be upon you. They were simple words, repeated by community leaders who witnessed the loss of their friends and loved ones. Simple words, whispered by the injured from their hospital beds. Simple words, spoken by the bereaved and everyone I met who has been affected by this attack. As-salaam Alaikum. Peace be upon you. They were words spoken by a community who, in the face of hate and violence, had every right to express anger but instead opened their doors for all of us to grieve with them. And so we say to those who have lost the most, we may not have always had the words. We may have left flowers, performed the haka, sung songs or simply embraced. But even when we had no words, we still heard yours, and they have left us humbled and they have left us united. (…) ” Ardern, J. (2019, March 19). Speech at Christchurch Memorial. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www. theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/29/jacindaarderns-speech-at-christchurch-memorial-fulltranscript

“ (…) So what is Norway? […] But above all, Norway is its people. Norwegians come from North Norway, Central Norway, Southern Norway – and all of the other regions. Norwegians have immigrated from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Poland, from Sweden, Somalia and Syria. My grandparents came here from Denmark and England 110 years ago. It is not always easy to say where we are from, what nationality we are. Home is where our heart is – and that cannot always be confined within national borders. Norwegians are young and old, tall and short, ablebodied and wheelchair users. More and more people are over 100 years old. Norwegians are rich, poor and inbetween. Norwegians like football and handball, mountain climbing and sailing – while others prefer lounging on the sofa. Some are self-confident, while others struggle to believe they are good enough as they are. Norwegians work in shops, in hospitals, on offshore platforms. Norwegians work to keep us safe and secure, to keep our country free of pollution and to find new solutions for a green future. Norwegians farm the land and catch fish. Norwegians do research and teach. Norwegians are enthusiastic young people – and wise old people. Norwegians are single, divorced, families with children, and old married couples. Norwegians are girls who love girls, boys who love boys, and girls and boys who love each other. Norwegians believe in God, Allah, the Universe and nothing. Norwegians like Grieg and Kygo, the Hellbillies and Kari Bremnes. In other words: Norway is you. Norway is us. (…) His Majesty, King Harald of Norway (2016, September 1). Garden Party Welcoming Speech. The Royal House of Norway. Retrieved from https:// www. royalcourt. no/tale.html?tid=137662&sek=28409&scope=27248

Culture and Diversity

153


3 Culture and Diversity

14 Compare and contrast a Compare and contrast the message in RFK’s speech with the messages in two of the three extracts of well-known speeches below.

“ (…) I chose to run for the presidency at this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together – unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction – towards a better future for of children and our grandchildren. This belief comes from my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people. But it also comes from my own American story. I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in Patton’s Army during World War II and a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I’ve gone to some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world’s poorest nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners – an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins, of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible. It’s a story that hasn’t made me the most conventional candidate. But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is more than the sum of its parts – that out of many, we are truly one. (…) ” Obama, B. (2008, March 18). A More Perfect Union. National Constitution Center. Retrieved from https://constitutioncenter.org/amoreperfectunion/

152

[ chapter 3 ]

er in

rd

a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners – an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters,” a story that many Americans can identify with, but never before seen in a president. This personal approach appeals to the listeners’ emotions – a pathos appeal – and makes them invested in the speech.

“ (…) So what is Norway? […] But above all, Norway is its people. Norwegians come from North Norway, Central Norway, Southern Norway – and all of the other regions. Norwegians have immigrated from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Poland, from Sweden, Somalia and Syria. My grandparents came here from Denmark and England 110 years ago. It is not always easy to say where we are from, what nationality we are. Home is where our heart is – and that cannot always be confined within national borders. Norwegians are young and old, tall and short, ablebodied and wheelchair users. More and more people are over 100 years old. Norwegians are rich, poor and inbetween. Norwegians like football and handball, mountain climbing and sailing – while others prefer lounging on the sofa. Some are self-confident, while others struggle to believe they are good enough as they are. Norwegians work in shops, in hospitals, on offshore platforms. Norwegians work to keep us safe and secure, to keep our country free of pollution and to find new solutions for a green future. Norwegians farm the land and catch fish. Norwegians do research and teach. Norwegians are enthusiastic young people – and wise old people. Norwegians are single, divorced, families with children, and old married couples. Norwegians are girls who love girls, boys who love boys, and girls and boys who love each other. Norwegians believe in God, Allah, the Universe and nothing. Norwegians like Grieg and Kygo, the Hellbillies and Kari Bremnes. In other words: Norway is you. Norway is us. (…)

vu

Barack Obama makes use of the personal pronoun “I” in his speech. Speaking from a personal point of view makes him less formal, but it also evens out the hierarchy between a presidential candidate and the ordinary man. “I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas,” Obama says – and addresses one of the issues around him as a future president. He continues: “I am married to

“ (…) What words adequately express the pain and suffering of 50 men, women and children lost, and so many injured? What words capture the anguish of our Muslim community being the target of hatred and violence? What words express the grief of a city that has already known so much pain? I thought there were none. And then I came here and was met with this simple greeting. As-salaam Alaikum. Peace be upon you. They were simple words, repeated by community leaders who witnessed the loss of their friends and loved ones. Simple words, whispered by the injured from their hospital beds. Simple words, spoken by the bereaved and everyone I met who has been affected by this attack. As-salaam Alaikum. Peace be upon you. They were words spoken by a community who, in the face of hate and violence, had every right to express anger but instead opened their doors for all of us to grieve with them. And so we say to those who have lost the most, we may not have always had the words. We may have left flowers, performed the haka, sung songs or simply embraced. But even when we had no words, we still heard yours, and they have left us humbled and they have left us united. (…) ”

til

EXAMPLE

g

A message is the main opinion or statement voiced in the text.

Ku n

b Use the text extracts or the full speeches and write a rhetorical analysis of three of the examples you find. See course 7: Structuring a paragraph. You will find the full speeches and a writing frame on Skolestudio.

Ardern, J. (2019, March 19). Speech at Christchurch Memorial. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www. theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/29/jacindaarderns-speech-at-christchurch-memorial-fulltranscript

His Majesty, King Harald of Norway (2016, September 1). Garden Party Welcoming Speech. The Royal House of Norway. Retrieved from https:// www. royalcourt. no/tale.html?tid=137662&sek=28409&scope=27248

Culture and Diversity

153


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS

til

Ku n 154

[ chapter 3 ]

FIRST Watch the BuzzFeed video “People Share Their Best Break-Up Advice” (04:03) on YouTube by following the link on Skolestudio. Discuss in class what the different people say. Is their advice good and useful?

The End of Something CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Collaborate on analyzing a classic short story • Write a paragraph on strategies for breaking up • Create a digital presentation about a rust-belt city

The short story you are about to read communicates some of the shock and emptiness that cultural change can bring, just as the end of a relationship often does. Following the First World War, the United States suffered a brief depression in 1920-21. Most parts of the country then experienced a resurgence, during what are known as the Roaring Twenties, when the modern world of motor cars, telephones and movies arrived, along with a more liberal culture and set of values. Some traditional industries, however, continued to decline through the 1920s, into the Great Depression of the 1930s. In other words, the modern revolution had its casualties. Part of Donald Trump’s appeal during the 2016 election was that he promised voters that he would bring back American coal and steel, by placing high tariffs on cheaper imports from abroad. During the 1980s, some of the same parts of the US that had suffered decline before, but then recovered, entered a new period of deindustrialisation. The once great industries of steel manufacture and coal mining had been left behind by the modern world. The Rust Belt is the name given to the affected regions of the Midwest and Great Lakes, including Michigan, where the story is set.

Peder Mønsted: A rowing boat with fishing gear (1889)

Culture and Diversity

155


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST Watch the BuzzFeed video “People Share Their Best Break-Up Advice” (04:03) on YouTube by following the link on Skolestudio. Discuss in class what the different people say. Is their advice good and useful?

er in

g

• Collaborate on analyzing a classic short story • Write a paragraph on strategies for breaking up • Create a digital presentation about a rust-belt city

The short story you are about to read communicates some of the shock and emptiness that cultural change can bring, just as the end of a relationship often does. Following the First World War, the United States suffered a brief depression in 1920-21. Most parts of the country then experienced a resurgence, during what are known as the Roaring Twenties, when the modern world of motor cars, telephones and movies arrived, along with a more liberal culture and set of values. Some traditional industries, however, continued to decline through the 1920s, into the Great Depression of the 1930s. In other words, the modern revolution had its casualties.

Ku n

til

CONTEXT

vu

rd

The End of Something

Part of Donald Trump’s appeal during the 2016 election was that he promised voters that he would bring back American coal and steel, by placing high tariffs on cheaper imports from abroad. During the 1980s, some of the same parts of the US that had suffered decline before, but then recovered, entered a new period of deindustrialisation. The once great industries of steel manufacture and coal mining had been left behind by the modern world. The Rust Belt is the name given to the affected regions of the Midwest and Great Lakes, including Michigan, where the story is set.

154

[ chapter 3 ]

Peder Mønsted: A rowing boat with fishing gear (1889)

Culture and Diversity

155


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: SHORT STORY

The End of Something

5

5

vu

rd

er in

g

In the old days Hortons Bay was a lumbering town. No one who lived in it was out of sound of the big saws in the mill by the lake. Then one year there were no more logs to make lumber. The lumber schooners came into the bay and were loaded with the cut of the mill that stood stacked in the yard. All the piles of lumber were carried away. The big mill building had all its machinery that was removable taken out and hoisted on board one of the schooners by the men who had worked in the mill. The schooner moved out of the bay toward the open lake, carrying the two great saws, the travelling carriage that hurled the logs against the revolving, circular saws and all the rollers, wheels, belts and iron piled on a hull-deep load of lumber. Its open hold covered with canvas and lashed tight, the sails of the schooner filled and it moved out into the open lake, carrying with it everything that had made the mill a mill and Hortons Bay a town. The one-story bunk houses, the eating-house, the company store, the mill offices, and the big mill itself stood deserted in the acres of sawdust that covered the swampy meadow by the shore of the bay. Ten years later there was nothing of the mill left except the broken white limestone of its foundations showing through the swampy second growth as Nick and Marjorie rowed along the shore. They were trolling along the edge of the channel-bank where the bottom dropped off suddenly from sandy shallows to twelve feet of dark water. They were trolling on their way to the point to set night lines for rainbow trout. “There’s our old ruin, Nick,” Marjorie said. Nick, rowing, looked at the white stone in the green trees. “There it is,” he said. “Can you remember when it was a mill?” Marjorie asked. “I can just remember,” Nick said. “It seems more like a castle,” Marjorie said. Nick said nothing. They rowed on out of sight of the mill, following the shore line. Then Nick cut across the bay. “They aren’t striking,” he said. “No,” Marjorie said. She was intent on the rod all the time they trolled, even when she talked. She loved to fish. She loved to fish with Nick. Close beside the boat a big trout broke the surface of the water. Nick pulled hard on one oar so the boat would turn and the bait, spinning far behind, would pass where the trout was feeding. As the trout’s back came up out of the water the minnows jumped wildly. They sprinkled the surface like a handful of shot thrown into the water. Another trout broke water, feeding on the other side of the boat. “They’re feeding,” Marjorie said. “But they won’t strike,” Nick said.

Ku n

til

lumbering timber-producing schooners sailing ships cut of the mill timber produced at the mill hoisted lifted with ropes and pulleys revolving turning hull-deep high as the depth of the ship’s hull bunk houses basic housing for workers to sleep in limestone kalkstein second growth regrowth following the first harvest trolling fishing by dragging a line behind a boat, å dorge channel-bank edge of the channel into the lake rainbow trout regnbueørret striking catching on the line minnows small fish shot hagl (fired from a shotgun)

156

[ chapter 3 ]

10

10

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

He rowed the boat around to troll past both the feeding fish, then headed it for the point. Marjorie did not reel in until the boat touched the shore. They pulled the boat up the beach and Nick lifted out a pail of live perch. The perch swam in the water in the pail. Nick caught three of them with his hands and cut their heads off and skinned them while Marjorie chased with her hands in the bucket, finally caught a perch, cut its head off and skinned it. Nick looked at her fish. “You don’t want to take the ventral fin out,” he said. “It’ll be all right for bait but it’s better with the ventral fin in.” He hooked each of the skinned perch through the tail. There were two hooks attached to a leader on each rod. Then Marjorie rowed the boat out over the channel-bank, holding the line in her teeth, and looking toward Nick, who stood on the shore holding the rod and letting the line run out from the reel. “That’s about right,” he called. “Should I let it drop?” Marjorie called back, holding the line in her hand. “Sure. Let it go.” Marjorie dropped the line overboard and watched the baits go down through the water. She came in with the boat and ran the second line out the same way. Each time Nick set a heavy slab of driftwood across the butt of the rod to hold it solid and propped it up at an angle with a small slab. He reeled in the slack line so the line ran taut out to where the bait rested on the sandy floor of the channel and set the click on the reel. When a trout, feeding on the bottom, took the bait it would run with it, taking line out of the reel in a rush and making the reel sing with the click on. Marjorie rowed up the point a little way so she would not disturb the line. She pulled hard on the oars and the boat went way up the beach. Little waves came in with it. Marjorie stepped out of the boat and Nick pulled the boat high up the beach. “What’s the matter, Nick?” Marjorie asked. “I don’t know,” Nick said, getting wood for a fire. They made a fire with driftwood. Marjorie went to the boat and brought a blanket. The evening breeze blew the smoke toward the point, so Marjorie spread the blanket out between the fire and the lake. Marjorie sat on the blanket with her back to the fire and waited for Nick. He came over and sat down beside her on the blanket. In back of them was the close second-growth timber of the point and in front was the bay with the mouth of Hortons Creek. It was not quite dark. The fire-light went as far as the water. They could both see the two steel rods at an angle over the dark water. The fire glinted on the reels. Marjorie unpacked the basket of supper. “I don’t feel like eating,” said Nick. “Come on and eat, Nick.” “All right.”

point narrow piece of land that juts into the lake pail bucket perch gulabbor ventral fin fin on the underside of a fish, bukfinne leader thread that holds a fish hook on a line taut tight, stram set the click adjusted the resistance

Culture and Diversity

157


156

[ chapter 3 ]

10

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

40

er in

10

rd

5

vu

5

Ku n

lumbering timber-producing schooners sailing ships cut of the mill timber produced at the mill hoisted lifted with ropes and pulleys revolving turning hull-deep high as the depth of the ship’s hull bunk houses basic housing for workers to sleep in limestone kalkstein second growth regrowth following the first harvest trolling fishing by dragging a line behind a boat, å dorge channel-bank edge of the channel into the lake rainbow trout regnbueørret striking catching on the line minnows small fish shot hagl (fired from a shotgun)

In the old days Hortons Bay was a lumbering town. No one who lived in it was out of sound of the big saws in the mill by the lake. Then one year there were no more logs to make lumber. The lumber schooners came into the bay and were loaded with the cut of the mill that stood stacked in the yard. All the piles of lumber were carried away. The big mill building had all its machinery that was removable taken out and hoisted on board one of the schooners by the men who had worked in the mill. The schooner moved out of the bay toward the open lake, carrying the two great saws, the travelling carriage that hurled the logs against the revolving, circular saws and all the rollers, wheels, belts and iron piled on a hull-deep load of lumber. Its open hold covered with canvas and lashed tight, the sails of the schooner filled and it moved out into the open lake, carrying with it everything that had made the mill a mill and Hortons Bay a town. The one-story bunk houses, the eating-house, the company store, the mill offices, and the big mill itself stood deserted in the acres of sawdust that covered the swampy meadow by the shore of the bay. Ten years later there was nothing of the mill left except the broken white limestone of its foundations showing through the swampy second growth as Nick and Marjorie rowed along the shore. They were trolling along the edge of the channel-bank where the bottom dropped off suddenly from sandy shallows to twelve feet of dark water. They were trolling on their way to the point to set night lines for rainbow trout. “There’s our old ruin, Nick,” Marjorie said. Nick, rowing, looked at the white stone in the green trees. “There it is,” he said. “Can you remember when it was a mill?” Marjorie asked. “I can just remember,” Nick said. “It seems more like a castle,” Marjorie said. Nick said nothing. They rowed on out of sight of the mill, following the shore line. Then Nick cut across the bay. “They aren’t striking,” he said. “No,” Marjorie said. She was intent on the rod all the time they trolled, even when she talked. She loved to fish. She loved to fish with Nick. Close beside the boat a big trout broke the surface of the water. Nick pulled hard on one oar so the boat would turn and the bait, spinning far behind, would pass where the trout was feeding. As the trout’s back came up out of the water the minnows jumped wildly. They sprinkled the surface like a handful of shot thrown into the water. Another trout broke water, feeding on the other side of the boat. “They’re feeding,” Marjorie said. “But they won’t strike,” Nick said.

He rowed the boat around to troll past both the feeding fish, then headed it for the point. Marjorie did not reel in until the boat touched the shore. They pulled the boat up the beach and Nick lifted out a pail of live perch. The perch swam in the water in the pail. Nick caught three of them with his hands and cut their heads off and skinned them while Marjorie chased with her hands in the bucket, finally caught a perch, cut its head off and skinned it. Nick looked at her fish. “You don’t want to take the ventral fin out,” he said. “It’ll be all right for bait but it’s better with the ventral fin in.” He hooked each of the skinned perch through the tail. There were two hooks attached to a leader on each rod. Then Marjorie rowed the boat out over the channel-bank, holding the line in her teeth, and looking toward Nick, who stood on the shore holding the rod and letting the line run out from the reel. “That’s about right,” he called. “Should I let it drop?” Marjorie called back, holding the line in her hand. “Sure. Let it go.” Marjorie dropped the line overboard and watched the baits go down through the water. She came in with the boat and ran the second line out the same way. Each time Nick set a heavy slab of driftwood across the butt of the rod to hold it solid and propped it up at an angle with a small slab. He reeled in the slack line so the line ran taut out to where the bait rested on the sandy floor of the channel and set the click on the reel. When a trout, feeding on the bottom, took the bait it would run with it, taking line out of the reel in a rush and making the reel sing with the click on. Marjorie rowed up the point a little way so she would not disturb the line. She pulled hard on the oars and the boat went way up the beach. Little waves came in with it. Marjorie stepped out of the boat and Nick pulled the boat high up the beach. “What’s the matter, Nick?” Marjorie asked. “I don’t know,” Nick said, getting wood for a fire. They made a fire with driftwood. Marjorie went to the boat and brought a blanket. The evening breeze blew the smoke toward the point, so Marjorie spread the blanket out between the fire and the lake. Marjorie sat on the blanket with her back to the fire and waited for Nick. He came over and sat down beside her on the blanket. In back of them was the close second-growth timber of the point and in front was the bay with the mouth of Hortons Creek. It was not quite dark. The fire-light went as far as the water. They could both see the two steel rods at an angle over the dark water. The fire glinted on the reels. Marjorie unpacked the basket of supper. “I don’t feel like eating,” said Nick. “Come on and eat, Nick.” “All right.”

til

The End of Something

35

40

g

3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: SHORT STORY

point narrow piece of land that juts into the lake pail bucket perch gulabbor ventral fin fin on the underside of a fish, bukfinne leader thread that holds a fish hook on a line taut tight, stram set the click adjusted the resistance

Culture and Diversity

157


3 Culture and Diversity

5

vu

Ku n

til

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) is a canonised American author. His writing shows inspiration from his background in journalism, service in multiple wars and interest in sport and nature. He is also known for having married four times. Many of his short stories feature couples breaking up or discussing their life choices. The stories also include a lot of dialogue, which leaves them open to interpretation, as is the case in “The End of Something”. In 1954, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

158

[ chapter 3 ]

10

10

15

15

Hemingway, E. (1925). The End of Something. In In Our Time. New York: Boni & Liveright.

20

TIDBIT

They ate without talking, and watched the two rods and the fire-light in the water. “There’s going to be a moon tonight,” said Nick. He looked across the bay to the hills that were beginning to sharpen against the sky. Beyond the hills he knew the moon was coming up. “I know it,” Marjorie said happily. “You know everything,” Nick said. “Oh, Nick, please cut it out! Please, please don’t be that way!” “I can’t help it,” Nick said. “You do. You know everything. That’s the trouble. You know you do.” Marjorie did not say anything. “I’ve taught you everything. You know you do. What don’t you know, anyway?” “Oh, shut up,” Marjorie said. “There comes the moon.” They sat on the blanket without touching each other and watched the moon rise. “You don’t have to talk silly,” Marjorie said. “What’s really the matter?” “I don’t know.” “Of course you know.” “No I don’t.” “Go on and say it.” Nick looked on at the moon, coming up over the hills. “It isn’t fun any more.”

rd

AUTHOR

er in

g

5

“You don’t need to,” she said. She was afloat in the boat on the water with the moonlight on it. Nick went back and lay down with his face in the blanket by the fire. He could hear Marjorie rowing on the water. He lay there for a long time. He lay there while he heard Bill come into the clearing walking around through the woods. He felt Bill coming up to the fire. Bill didn’t touch him, either. “Did she go all right?” Bill said. “Yes,” Nick said, lying, his face on the blanket. “Have a scene?” “No, there wasn’t any scene.” “How do you feel?” “Oh, go away, Bill! Go away for a while.” Bill selected a sandwich from the lunch basket and walked over to have a look at the rods.

Horton Bay

25

30

35

He was afraid to look at Marjorie. Then he looked at her. She sat there with her back toward him. He looked at her back. “It isn’t fun any more. Not any of it.” She didn’t say anything. He went on. “I feel as though everything was gone to hell inside of me. I don’t know, Marge. I don’t know what to say.” He looked on at her back. “Isn’t love any fun?” Marjorie said. “No,” Nick said. Marjorie stood up. Nick sat there, his head in his hands. “I’m going to take the boat,” Marjorie called to him. “You can walk back around the point.” “All right,” Nick said. “I’ll push the boat off for you.”

40

Horton Bay – not Hortons, as it is called in the story – is a real community, with a population not much greater than 500. It belongs to the mostly rural 1st Congressional District of Michigan. It had a Democratic representative in Congress from 1933-2011. Since 2011, it has had two Republican representatives, which may reflect the emerging rural-urban cultural divide explored in Rural and Urban Americans, in chapter 4.

Culture and Diversity

159


[ chapter 3 ]

10

15

15

rd

Hemingway, E. (1925). The End of Something. In In Our Time. New York: Boni & Liveright.

20

30

40

vu

Horton Bay

til

25

35

He was afraid to look at Marjorie. Then he looked at her. She sat there with her back toward him. He looked at her back. “It isn’t fun any more. Not any of it.” She didn’t say anything. He went on. “I feel as though everything was gone to hell inside of me. I don’t know, Marge. I don’t know what to say.” He looked on at her back. “Isn’t love any fun?” Marjorie said. “No,” Nick said. Marjorie stood up. Nick sat there, his head in his hands. “I’m going to take the boat,” Marjorie called to him. “You can walk back around the point.” “All right,” Nick said. “I’ll push the boat off for you.”

er in

10

TIDBIT

158

5

Ku n

AUTHOR Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) is a canonised American author. His writing shows inspiration from his background in journalism, service in multiple wars and interest in sport and nature. He is also known for having married four times. Many of his short stories feature couples breaking up or discussing their life choices. The stories also include a lot of dialogue, which leaves them open to interpretation, as is the case in “The End of Something”. In 1954, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

They ate without talking, and watched the two rods and the fire-light in the water. “There’s going to be a moon tonight,” said Nick. He looked across the bay to the hills that were beginning to sharpen against the sky. Beyond the hills he knew the moon was coming up. “I know it,” Marjorie said happily. “You know everything,” Nick said. “Oh, Nick, please cut it out! Please, please don’t be that way!” “I can’t help it,” Nick said. “You do. You know everything. That’s the trouble. You know you do.” Marjorie did not say anything. “I’ve taught you everything. You know you do. What don’t you know, anyway?” “Oh, shut up,” Marjorie said. “There comes the moon.” They sat on the blanket without touching each other and watched the moon rise. “You don’t have to talk silly,” Marjorie said. “What’s really the matter?” “I don’t know.” “Of course you know.” “No I don’t.” “Go on and say it.” Nick looked on at the moon, coming up over the hills. “It isn’t fun any more.”

5

“You don’t need to,” she said. She was afloat in the boat on the water with the moonlight on it. Nick went back and lay down with his face in the blanket by the fire. He could hear Marjorie rowing on the water. He lay there for a long time. He lay there while he heard Bill come into the clearing walking around through the woods. He felt Bill coming up to the fire. Bill didn’t touch him, either. “Did she go all right?” Bill said. “Yes,” Nick said, lying, his face on the blanket. “Have a scene?” “No, there wasn’t any scene.” “How do you feel?” “Oh, go away, Bill! Go away for a while.” Bill selected a sandwich from the lunch basket and walked over to have a look at the rods.

g

3 Culture and Diversity

Horton Bay – not Hortons, as it is called in the story – is a real community, with a population not much greater than 500. It belongs to the mostly rural 1st Congressional District of Michigan. It had a Democratic representative in Congress from 1933-2011. Since 2011, it has had two Republican representatives, which may reflect the emerging rural-urban cultural divide explored in Rural and Urban Americans, in chapter 4.

Culture and Diversity

159


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

3 What does Nick mean when he says to Marjorie, “It isn’t fun anymore”. 4 How does Marjorie react when she understands that Nick wants to end their relationship? 5 Who is Bill and why is he significant to the story?

OVER TO YOU 12 Analyse the story in collaboration Form groups and plan an analysis of this short story and a brief comparison with “Closure” from chapter 1. Divide the work amongst you, collaborating in a shared document. Present your analysis either orally or in writing. For guidance, see course 17: Approaching literature and film.

14 Create a digital presentation of a rust-belt city The run-down town in this story, Hortons Bay, is located in the state of Michigan, which belongs to the Rust Belt. Detroit is the most populous city of Michigan and has undergone great changes from the early 1900s into the present day. Create a digital presentation on the development of the city, then and now. Your presentation could include:

Pictures Maps Industry Statistics on the population, such as: – Employment – Wealth – Ethnicity • Relevant music For guidance, see course 14: Giving presentations.

• • • •

Detroit, Michigan, 27 March, 1924: The photo shows workers at the Ford Automobile Plant at Highland Park, the biggest in the world at the time, leaving their shift.

rd

STRUCTURE 6 The lack of physical touch between Marjorie and Nick is mentioned as they watch the moonrise. The idea is repeated at the end of the story, when Bill arrives. What is the purpose and the effect of this repetition?

g

2 How does the description of the setting in the first two paragraphs reflect what happens to Nick and Marjorie towards the end of the story?

11 What literary devices are involved in the following examples? • the big mill itself stood deserted in the acres of sawdust that covered the swampy meadow by the shore of the bay • They sprinkled the surface like a handful of shot thrown into the water • the hills that were beginning to sharpen against the sky • She was afloat in the boat on the water with the moonlight on it

er in

CONTENT 1 What does the title “The End of Something” refer to? More than one answer is possible.

13 Write a paragraph on breaking up This is the second short story in this book on the theme of breaking up. The first one is “Closure” in chapter 1. On the basis of these two stories, the BuzzFeed clip you have watched, and your own ideas and experiences, create a list of strategies or tips for breaking up with someone. Create a mind map to structure your ideas and find out which strategy you have the most to say about. Then write a paragraph where you explain, support or argue in favour of this strategy. For guidance, see course 9: Planning your text and course 7: Structuring a paragraph.

vu

7 How does Hemingway use the structure of the dialogue to enhance the sense of tension within Nick and between him and Marjorie.

til

LANGUAGE 8 Which terms for fish and fishing can you find in the story? Find at least 10, and specify whether each is a noun or a verb. 9 Hemingway is known for writing short and simple sentences with a straightforward and everyday vocabulary. Find an example of 4 or more sentences like this that are used in a row.

TIDBIT

Ku n

10 Comment on the way Hemingway uses sound in the story and the effect it has. (Hint: scan for the words sound, sing and hear to find examples.)

160

Ernest Hemingway’s journalistic writing style is well known and has inspired many authors. One of his best is the the iceberg-theory. The iceberg is a metaphor, illustrating precisely how little of the full story Hemingway gives away. You need to interpret all that is hidden under the surface yourself!

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

161


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

STRUCTURE 6 The lack of physical touch between Marjorie and Nick is mentioned as they watch the moonrise. The idea is repeated at the end of the story, when Bill arrives. What is the purpose and the effect of this repetition? 7 How does Hemingway use the structure of the dialogue to enhance the sense of tension within Nick and between him and Marjorie. LANGUAGE 8 Which terms for fish and fishing can you find in the story? Find at least 10, and specify whether each is a noun or a verb. 9 Hemingway is known for writing short and simple sentences with a straightforward and everyday vocabulary. Find an example of 4 or more sentences like this that are used in a row.

13 Write a paragraph on breaking up This is the second short story in this book on the theme of breaking up. The first one is “Closure” in chapter 1. On the basis of these two stories, the BuzzFeed clip you have watched, and your own ideas and experiences, create a list of strategies or tips for breaking up with someone. Create a mind map to structure your ideas and find out which strategy you have the most to say about. Then write a paragraph where you explain, support or argue in favour of this strategy. For guidance, see course 9: Planning your text and course 7: Structuring a paragraph.

10 Comment on the way Hemingway uses sound in the story and the effect it has. (Hint: scan for the words sound, sing and hear to find examples.)

TIDBIT 160

Ernest Hemingway’s journalistic writing style is well known and has inspired many authors. One of his best is the the iceberg-theory. The iceberg is a metaphor, illustrating precisely how little of the full story Hemingway gives away. You need to interpret all that is hidden under the surface yourself!

[ chapter 3 ]

g

er in

5 Who is Bill and why is he significant to the story?

OVER TO YOU 12 Analyse the story in collaboration Form groups and plan an analysis of this short story and a brief comparison with “Closure” from chapter 1. Divide the work amongst you, collaborating in a shared document. Present your analysis either orally or in writing. For guidance, see course 17: Approaching literature and film.

Detroit, Michigan, 27 March, 1924: The photo shows workers at the Ford Automobile Plant at Highland Park, the biggest in the world at the time, leaving their shift.

rd

4 How does Marjorie react when she understands that Nick wants to end their relationship?

Pictures Maps Industry Statistics on the population, such as: – Employment – Wealth – Ethnicity • Relevant music For guidance, see course 14: Giving presentations.

• • • •

vu

3 What does Nick mean when he says to Marjorie, “It isn’t fun anymore”.

14 Create a digital presentation of a rust-belt city The run-down town in this story, Hortons Bay, is located in the state of Michigan, which belongs to the Rust Belt. Detroit is the most populous city of Michigan and has undergone great changes from the early 1900s into the present day. Create a digital presentation on the development of the city, then and now. Your presentation could include:

til

2 How does the description of the setting in the first two paragraphs reflect what happens to Nick and Marjorie towards the end of the story?

11 What literary devices are involved in the following examples? • the big mill itself stood deserted in the acres of sawdust that covered the swampy meadow by the shore of the bay • They sprinkled the surface like a handful of shot thrown into the water • the hills that were beginning to sharpen against the sky • She was afloat in the boat on the water with the moonlight on it

Ku n

CONTENT 1 What does the title “The End of Something” refer to? More than one answer is possible.

Culture and Diversity

161


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS

til

Ku n [ chapter 3 ]

A fan cosplays as Rorschach from Watchmen at the Denver Pop Culture Con at Colorado Convention Center on June 02, 2019 in Denver, Colorado

Watchmen, which is set in a fictional present day, has echoes of many real-world issues, especially ones relating to race and diversity. The series creator Damon Lindelof has said that he was inspired by author Ta-Nehisi Coates, from whose writing he learned about the Tulsa massacre of 1921. This event – also known as the Black Wall Street Massacre – is the setting for the opening flashback scene of the series. The series Watchmen is a sequel to the 1980s comic book series of the same name, which is the only graphic fiction to appear on Time Magazine’s list of the 100 best novels since 1923.

A

On Skolestudio you will find a printable worksheet with questions to answer as you watch the episode.

Watchmen: Episode 1 CONTEXT

162

Photo shows the aftermath of the white mobs that attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma

FIRST In Watchmen, it is not only criminals and vigilante heroes that wear masks. Ordinary police officers wear them, too. Discuss with a partner: Why might we not want the police or other authorities to wear masks?

N

O E P I S D E!

WATCH

vu

rd

er in

g

• Explore the historical dimensions of racial injustice in the US • Consider ethical questions about law enforcement and violence • Practise analysing an episode of a TV drama series that addresses social issues

“You and me, Topher, we don’t do lollipops and rainbows. ‘Cos we know those are pretty colors that just hide what the world really is. Black and white.” Angela Abar

Culture and Diversity

163


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST In Watchmen, it is not only criminals and vigilante heroes that wear masks. Ordinary police officers wear them, too. Discuss with a partner: Why might we not want the police or other authorities to wear masks?

er in

g

• Explore the historical dimensions of racial injustice in the US • Consider ethical questions about law enforcement and violence • Practise analysing an episode of a TV drama series that addresses social issues

til

Watchmen: Episode 1

162

[ chapter 3 ]

Ku n

CONTEXT

A fan cosplays as Rorschach from Watchmen at the Denver Pop Culture Con at Colorado Convention Center on June 02, 2019 in Denver, Colorado

Watchmen, which is set in a fictional present day, has echoes of many real-world issues, especially ones relating to race and diversity. The series creator Damon Lindelof has said that he was inspired by author Ta-Nehisi Coates, from whose writing he learned about the Tulsa massacre of 1921. This event – also known as the Black Wall Street Massacre – is the setting for the opening flashback scene of the series. The series Watchmen is a sequel to the 1980s comic book series of the same name, which is the only graphic fiction to appear on Time Magazine’s list of the 100 best novels since 1923.

N

O E P I S D E!

WATCH

vu

Photo shows the aftermath of the white mobs that attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma

A

rd

On Skolestudio you will find a printable worksheet with questions to answer as you watch the episode.

“You and me, Topher, we don’t do lollipops and rainbows. ‘Cos we know those are pretty colors that just hide what the world really is. Black and white.” Angela Abar

Culture and Diversity

163


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: TV SERIES

PRACTICE CONTENT 1 The episode raises questions about the rights and wrongs of law enforcement. For each issue below, explain how it features in the episode and – if you are aware of any – name some real-life cases.

g er in rd vu

til

Ku n [ chapter 3 ]

STRUCTURE 2 During the outdoor scenes of the Tulsa massacre at the beginning of the episode, the colour of the film appears to have been digitally altered. How and to what effect? 3 How is music used in the episode to create atmosphere? Find two examples to compare and contrast. LANGUAGE 4 What examples of these varieties of English accents do you hear in the episode? a African-American English b Southern American English

Regina King attends the Premiere Of HBO’s Watchmen at The Cinerama Dome on October 14, 2019 in Los Angeles, California

TIDBIT

164

• the ability of the police to defend themselves against armed criminals • the use of excessive violence by the police to bring in a suspect • the use of torture against terrorism suspects to extract information and confessions

The Tulsa race riot of 1921 followed an incident in which a 19-year-old black shoeshiner named Dick Rowland was accused of raping a white woman in broad daylight. A group of white men gathered around the court house, as several black men came to Rowland’s defence, believing he would be lynched. The city and county government failed to take action when a scuffle between a white man and a black man turned into the mob’s complete destruction of the black neighbourhood of Greenwood – Tulsa’s “Black Wall Street” – including over 1,200 homes, churches, schools, a hospital and a library. Meanwhile, the Oklahoma National Guard arrested nearly all the black residents. Officials had deputized some of the white men involved in the violence and had supplied them with weapons and ammunition. Hence, the incident has been described by Ta-Nehesi Coates and others as one of many state-sponsored crimes against black people, for which reparations should be paid.

TIDBIT

CHARACTER LIST Angela Abar aka Sister Night (“Night”): Tulsa police detective and protagonist Judd Crawford: chief of police in Tulsa Wade Tillman aka Looking Glass (“LG”): police detective who wears a reflective mask Red Scare (“Red”): police detective who dresses all in red Will Reeves: young boy who lives through the Tulsa massacre of 1921 Cal Abar: Angela’s husband Topher Abar: Angela’s adopted son Charlie Sutton: black police officer who is shot in his car after stopping a suspect Master: as-yet unnamed – appears to be the master of a grand country estate Mr. Philips: male servant of the Master Ms. Crookshanks: female servant of the Master Jane Crawford: Judd’s wife

OVER TO YOU 5 Role models Bass Reeves – “the Black Marshall of Oklahoma” – was a real person, although the silent movie at the beginning of the episode is fictional. We are asked to imagine the difference it might have made in 1921 for a young African American, Will, to have such a heroic role model to look up to. Write a text or create a presentation about some of the best African American role models there have been for children from the 1980s to the present day. See courses 8: Structuring a text and 14: Giving presentations for guidance. 6 Analyse the full series or the graphic novel Both the series Watchmen and the graphic novel are well suited for an extended analysis – perhaps as an alternative to a novel study. While watching the series or reading the graphic novel, note down any questions or ideas that occur to you. It is important to decide on a focus, as you cannot write about everything: for example, the different sides of a particular character, a key theme, or the use of certain cinematic techniques or literary devices. See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

In “The Case for Reparations” – an article that appeared in The Atlantic in 2014 – TaNehisi Coates started a public debate on whether African Americans should be paid financial compensation for the generational harm that has been done through slavery and other forms of racial injustice. In Watchmen, these reparations have been paid out under the name of “Redfordations”.

Culture and Diversity

165


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: TV SERIES

[ chapter 3 ]

STRUCTURE 2 During the outdoor scenes of the Tulsa massacre at the beginning of the episode, the colour of the film appears to have been digitally altered. How and to what effect?

Write a text or create a presentation about some of the best African American role models there have been for children from the 1980s to the present day. See courses 8: Structuring a text and 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

6 Analyse the full series or the graphic novel Both the series Watchmen and the graphic novel are well suited for an extended analysis – perhaps as an alternative to a novel study.

rd

3 How is music used in the episode to create atmosphere? Find two examples to compare and contrast.

g

• the ability of the police to defend themselves against armed criminals • the use of excessive violence by the police to bring in a suspect • the use of torture against terrorism suspects to extract information and confessions

OVER TO YOU 5 Role models Bass Reeves – “the Black Marshall of Oklahoma” – was a real person, although the silent movie at the beginning of the episode is fictional. We are asked to imagine the difference it might have made in 1921 for a young African American, Will, to have such a heroic role model to look up to.

er in

CONTENT 1 The episode raises questions about the rights and wrongs of law enforcement. For each issue below, explain how it features in the episode and – if you are aware of any – name some real-life cases.

Regina King attends the Premiere Of HBO’s Watchmen at The Cinerama Dome on October 14, 2019 in Los Angeles, California

See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

til

a African-American English b Southern American English

In “The Case for Reparations” – an article that appeared in The Atlantic in 2014 – TaNehisi Coates started a public debate on whether African Americans should be paid financial compensation for the generational harm that has been done through slavery and other forms of racial injustice. In Watchmen, these reparations have been paid out under the name of “Redfordations”.

Ku n

The Tulsa race riot of 1921 followed an incident in which a 19-year-old black shoeshiner named Dick Rowland was accused of raping a white woman in broad daylight. A group of white men gathered around the court house, as several black men came to Rowland’s defence, believing he would be lynched. The city and county government failed to take action when a scuffle between a white man and a black man turned into the mob’s complete destruction of the black neighbourhood of Greenwood – Tulsa’s “Black Wall Street” – including over 1,200 homes, churches, schools, a hospital and a library. Meanwhile, the Oklahoma National Guard arrested nearly all the black residents. Officials had deputized some of the white men involved in the violence and had supplied them with weapons and ammunition. Hence, the incident has been described by Ta-Nehesi Coates and others as one of many state-sponsored crimes against black people, for which reparations should be paid.

While watching the series or reading the graphic novel, note down any questions or ideas that occur to you. It is important to decide on a focus, as you cannot write about everything: for example, the different sides of a particular character, a key theme, or the use of certain cinematic techniques or literary devices.

vu

LANGUAGE 4 What examples of these varieties of English accents do you hear in the episode?

TIDBIT

164

PRACTICE

TIDBIT

CHARACTER LIST Angela Abar aka Sister Night (“Night”): Tulsa police detective and protagonist Judd Crawford: chief of police in Tulsa Wade Tillman aka Looking Glass (“LG”): police detective who wears a reflective mask Red Scare (“Red”): police detective who dresses all in red Will Reeves: young boy who lives through the Tulsa massacre of 1921 Cal Abar: Angela’s husband Topher Abar: Angela’s adopted son Charlie Sutton: black police officer who is shot in his car after stopping a suspect Master: as-yet unnamed – appears to be the master of a grand country estate Mr. Philips: male servant of the Master Ms. Crookshanks: female servant of the Master Jane Crawford: Judd’s wife

Culture and Diversity

165


Fact File

The United States 327,000,000 $ 47,216 km²

Average life

square kilometer

expectancy National

76

white

78

13.4 % 5.9 %

mixed

2.7 %

native

Average infant mortality Deaths per 1,000 live births National

Washington Mississippi

1.5 %

8.6

Home to companies Microsoft, Boeing, Amazon and Starbucks Pop. 745 k

Chicago, IL

Second most-visited city in the US Pop. 2.7 m

Cities

a half hour half an hour

have gotten

New York, NY

Major cultural centre of the US Pop. 8.4 m

have got

I’m good I’m well

9.4 times more

issues problems

than bottom

20 %

oftentimes often

Living situation

period

for under-18s 31%

Single parent or no parent

full stop

Los Angeles, CA

Famous for its Hollywood movie industry Pop. 4.0 m

Philadelphia, PA

Founded as the capital of Pennsylvania Colony Pop. 1.6 m

price hike price rise

season

5.8 3.9

Seattle, WA

earns

Asian

Ku n

84

20 %

76.5 %

til

Hawaii 79

black

Inequality index Top

vu

71

35

Ethnicity

81

Mississippi

People per

g

in total

er in

Σ

Average income

rd

Population

69% Two parents

Phoenix, AZ

Heart of the so-called Valley of the Sun Pop. 1.6 m

Houston, TX

Home to NASA’s Johnson Space Centre Pop. 2.3 m

series

wait on wait for


Fact File

The United States

square kilometer

expectancy National

76

Ethnicity

81

20 %

13.4 %

Asian

5.9 %

Hawaii

mixed

2.7 %

79

native

1.5 %

78

84

Average infant mortality Deaths per 1,000 live births National Washington Mississippi

8.6

New York, NY

Chicago, IL

Major cultural centre of the US Pop. 8.4 m

Second most-visited city in the US Pop. 2.7 m

Single parent or no parent

9.4 times more than bottom

20 %

Living situation

for under-18s

Los Angeles, CA

Famous for its Hollywood movie industry Pop. 4.0 m

69% Two parents

have got

I’m good I’m well

31%

5.8 3.9

have gotten

earns

black

71

Inequality index Top

76.5 %

white Mississippi

35

half an hour

g

Average life

People per

Home to companies Microsoft, Boeing, Amazon and Starbucks Pop. 745 k

rd

km²

Cities

Seattle, WA

a half hour

er in

327,000,000 $ 47,216

vu

in total

til

Σ

Average income

Ku n

Population

Phoenix, AZ

Heart of the so-called Valley of the Sun Pop. 1.6 m

issues problems

oftentimes often

period full stop

Philadelphia, PA

Founded as the capital of Pennsylvania Colony Pop. 1.6 m

price hike price rise

season

Houston, TX

Home to NASA’s Johnson Space Centre Pop. 2.3 m

series

wait on wait for


Branches of government

Iconic

g

er in

Executive

Women leaders

President and his administration

Suffrage

1917-1977

1815-1902

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

rd

Lucy Stone

1900

1850

1913-2005

Fannie Lou Hamer Rosa Parks

1950

2000

til

Ku n

56%

13.6%

None

In previous month

Baseball

Alcohol and young people

Legal age

21

Football

21*

to consume alcohol

*with some exceptions in some states for minors under adult supervision

Soccer

Event Discovery by Europeans: Juan Ponce de Leon lands in Florida

Golden Gate Bridge

Washington National Cathedral

Basketball

to buy alcohol

Short history of the US

1513

6-8 units or more in one session

Civil Rights

1818-1893

Timeline

26.9%

In previous year

Supreme Court

Popular sports

Alcohol consumption 70.1%

vu

The Empire State Building

House of Representatives and the Senate

Judicial

buildings

The White House

Legislative

1607

First British settlements: Colony of Virginia founded

1776

Independence from Britain: Declaration of Independence starts war with Britain

1830

Westward expansion: Indian Removal Act is passed, leading to Trail of Tears

1863

End of slavery: Abraham Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation

Driving

Age

Learner’s permit

14-16*

Drive a car on full license

16-18*

*varies by state

Volleyball

Lacrosse


Branches of government

70.1%

26.9%

In previous year

Supreme Court

6-8 units or more in one session

Executive

Women leaders

56%

President and his administration

Suffrage

13.6%

None

In previous month

Baseball

Civil Rights

1818-1893

Lucy Stone

1917-1977

Fannie Lou Hamer

1815-1902

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

1913-2005

Rosa Parks

Alcohol and young people

Legal age

21

1950

2000

*with some exceptions in some states for minors under adult supervision

Short history of the US Timeline 1513

Event Discovery by Europeans: Juan Ponce de Leon lands in Florida

Golden Gate Bridge

Washington National Cathedral

1607

First British settlements: Colony of Virginia founded

1776

Independence from Britain: Declaration of Independence starts war with Britain

1830

Westward expansion: Indian Removal Act is passed, leading to Trail of Tears

1863

End of slavery: Abraham Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation

Driving

Age

Learner’s permit

14-16*

Drive a car on full license

16-18*

*varies by state

Football

21*

to consume alcohol

til

1900

Ku n

1850

vu

to buy alcohol

The Empire State Building

Basketball

er in

rd

The White House

House of Representatives and the Senate

Judicial

buildings

Popular sports

Alcohol consumption

g

Iconic

Legislative

Soccer

Volleyball

Lacrosse


The United Kingdom

67,000,000 £ 33,500 km²

Average life

square kilometer

expectancy National

79

83

80

3.3 %

mixed

2.2 %

other

Average infant mortality Deaths per 1,000 live births National

high-level occupations low-level occupations

1%

3 5

Cities

parts

brilliant great

Glasgow

Most populous city in Scotland Pop. 600 k

chat up flirt

5.4 times more than bottom

cheers

Leeds

Most populous city in North of England Pop. 750 k

thanks

20 %

cuppa cup of tea

Sheffield

Families

Known for its steel industry Pop. 550 k

knackered tired

with dependent children

24% Single-parent

4

For parents with

Scotland’s capital city Pop. 450 k

bits

earns

black

Ku n

86

20 %

7.5 %

til

Kensington & Chelsea

Asian

Inequality index Top

86 %

vu

Blackpool, Lancashire

83

276

Ethnicity white

75

People per

Edinburgh

g

in total

rd

Σ

Average income

er in

Population

Fact File

Birmingham

loo

Second most populous city Pop. 1 m

bathroom

ring

Married, civil partner or cohabiting

76%

Greater London

Consisting of 33 boroughs covering 1,500 km² Pop. 8.8 m

Liverpool

Historically involved in Atlantic slave trade Pop. 450 k

call

wonky unstable


The United Kingdom Average life

square kilometer

expectancy National

79

People per

Ethnicity

83

Blackpool, Lancashire 80

Kensington & Chelsea 83

86

Inequality index

black

3.3 %

mixed

2.2 %

other

1%

5.4 times more

Most populous city in North of England Pop. 750 k

than bottom

20 %

Sheffield

Families

low-level occupations

Single-parent

4

For parents with high-level occupations

24%

3 5

Married, civil partner or cohabiting

Known for its steel industry Pop. 550 k

76%

Consisting of 33 boroughs covering 1,500 km² Pop. 8.8 m

cheers thanks

cuppa cup of tea

tired

loo

Second most populous city Pop. 1 m

Greater London

flirt

knackered

Birmingham

Ku n

National

chat up

Leeds

with dependent children

Deaths per 1,000 live births

Glasgow

earns

7.5 %

Average infant mortality

great

Most populous city in Scotland Pop. 600 k

20 %

Asian

parts

brilliant

Top

86 %

white

75

276

Scotland’s capital city Pop. 450 k

er in

km²

Cities

Edinburgh

bits

g

67,000,000 £ 33,500

rd

in total

vu

Σ

Average income

til

Population

Fact File

bathroom

ring

Liverpool

Historically involved in Atlantic slave trade Pop. 450 k

call

wonky unstable


Branches of government

Iconic

Legislative House of Commons and House of Lords

Judicial

16%

Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

g

London buildings

er in

Executive

Women leaders 1837-1901

Victoria

1979-1990

Margaret Thatcher

Elizabeth II

2016-2019

Theresa May

vu

1952-present

Prime ministers

rd

Monarchs

“Big Ben”

1900

1850

2000

1950

til

City Hall

Government Ministers

Popular sports

Alcohol consumption 6-8+ units in one session last week

10%

Football

57%

Golf

On 5+ days last week

20%

Never

At least once last week

Alcohol and young people

Legal age

to buy alcohol

18

to drink in a pub

18

to drink in a restaurant accompanied by an adult

16

Ku n Tower Bridge

“The Gherkin”

1542

Wales joins England

1707

Scotland joins

1801

Ireland joins

1920

Northern Ireland joins (rest of Ireland leaves)

Tennis

Badminton

Short history of the Union

Timeline

Rugby

Country Kingdom of England

Great Britain United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Driving

Age

Practice driving a car

17

Drive a car on full license

17

Cricket

Netball


House of Commons and House of Lords

Judicial

16%

6-8+ units in one session last week

London buildings Executive

City Hall

Never

Prime ministers 1979-1990

Margaret Thatcher

Elizabeth II

2016-2019

Theresa May

1900

2000

1950

Short history of the Union Timeline Tower Bridge

“The Gherkin”

1542

Wales joins England

1707

Scotland joins

1801

Ireland joins

1920

Alcohol and young people

Victoria

1850

Northern Ireland joins (rest of Ireland leaves)

At least once last week

Legal age

Country Kingdom of England

Great Britain United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Football

Golf

Rugby

18

to buy alcohol

vu

1952-present

57%

to drink in a pub

18

to drink in a restaurant accompanied by an adult

16

til

1837-1901

Ku n

“Big Ben”

On 5+ days last week

20%

Government Ministers

Monarchs

10%

g

Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

Women leaders

Popular sports

Alcohol consumption

rd

Iconic

Legislative

er in

Branches of government

Driving

Age

Practice driving a car

17

Drive a car on full license

17

Tennis

Badminton

Cricket

Netball


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS

til

Ku n Otis Ferry, the son of Roxy Music singer Bryan Ferry, is a prominent figure in the fox hunting world. He is a pro-hunt activist and Joint Master of the South Shropshire Hunt, who famously disrupted a debate on fox hunting in Parliament in 2004.

For and Against Fox Hunting CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Learn to discuss a controversial issue • Understand how fox hunting relates to class, culture and history in the UK • Investigate environmental and animal rights issues

FIRST Are you involved in any kind of hunting yourself, or do you know someone that hunts? Perhaps you consider it cruel and unnecessary or, on the contrary, perfectly humane and vital to keeping the countryside in order. Do you see a major difference between fox hunting in Britain and the types of hunting that are allowed in Norway?

It would be hard to think of an activity that divides between cultures and classes more sharply than fox hunting. The noble origins of fox hunting, which date back to the Middle Ages, are still clearly visible in the sport as it is today – or, rather, as it was before it was effectively banned by the Hunting Act (2004), which makes most forms of hunting with dogs illegal. Those who are still in favour of fox hunting – and there are many who wish to see it brought back – emphasise its noble and almost war-like quality. They tend to see it as no crueller on the fox – perhaps even less cruel – than all the practical alternatives for pest control. Cruelty, of course, is the main reason many are opposed to fox hunting. Some suspect that there is another motive for keeping it down: that it is enjoyed by just a small, exclusive set of rural middle-class and upper-class people. In the two argumentative texts that follow, you will find models of how to argue for or against a position. Whichever writer you find most persuasive, see if you can incorporate their best strategies into your own writing.

MRS. ALLONBY: Horrid word ‘health.’ LORD ILLINGWORTH: Silliest word in our language, and one knows so well the popular idea of health. The English country gentleman galloping after a fox – the unspeakable in full pursuit of the uneatable. Oscar Wilde (1893). A Woman of No Importance.

Culture and Diversity

175


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST Are you involved in any kind of hunting yourself, or do you know someone that hunts? Perhaps you consider it cruel and unnecessary or, on the contrary, perfectly humane and vital to keeping the countryside in order. Do you see a major difference between fox hunting in Britain and the types of hunting that are allowed in Norway?

er in

g

• Learn to discuss a controversial issue • Understand how fox hunting relates to class, culture and history in the UK • Investigate environmental and animal rights issues

It would be hard to think of an activity that divides between cultures and classes more sharply than fox hunting.

til

The noble origins of fox hunting, which date back to the Middle Ages, are still clearly visible in the sport as it is today – or, rather, as it was before it was effectively banned by the Hunting Act (2004), which makes most forms of hunting with dogs illegal. Those who are still in favour of fox hunting – and there are many who wish to see it brought back – emphasise its noble and almost war-like quality. They tend to see it as no crueller on the fox – perhaps even less cruel – than all the practical alternatives for pest control.

Ku n

CONTEXT

vu

rd

For and Against Fox Hunting

Cruelty, of course, is the main reason many are opposed to fox hunting. Some suspect that there is another motive for keeping it down: that it is enjoyed by just a small, exclusive set of rural middle-class and upper-class people. In the two argumentative texts that follow, you will find models of how to argue for or against a position. Whichever writer you find most persuasive, see if you can incorporate their best strategies into your own writing.

Otis Ferry, the son of Roxy Music singer Bryan Ferry, is a prominent figure in the fox hunting world. He is a pro-hunt activist and Joint Master of the South Shropshire Hunt, who famously disrupted a debate on fox hunting in Parliament in 2004.

MRS. ALLONBY: Horrid word ‘health.’ LORD ILLINGWORTH: Silliest word in our language, and one knows so well the popular idea of health. The English country gentleman galloping after a fox – the unspeakable in full pursuit of the uneatable. Oscar Wilde (1893). A Woman of No Importance.

Culture and Diversity

175


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

Text A: Fox-hunting is the greatest sport on God’s green earth Boxing Day hunts are a highlight of the year for those who love the beauty of our countryside

er in

I spent Boxing Day out hunting. I came home caked in mud, legs like jelly and half-cut on a mixture of sloe gin, cherry brandy and Whisky Mac. And as usual I offered up two silent prayers of gratitude – the first for my having survived another suicidal day in the saddle; the second for my good grace in having discovered – albeit rather late in life – the greatest sport on God’s green earth.

rd

Everyone who hunts knows this. It’s why, 10 years after it was rendered supposedly illegal, the sport remains at least as popular as it ever was, whatever Tracey Crouch says. According to the latest research, some 80 per cent of hunts have either held on to their supporters or recruited new ones since the Hunting Act came into effect. As one of those new recruits, I can tell you why this is: because once you’ve tried it quite simply nothing else will do.

vu

Hunting is so brilliant because it combines so many of the things that make life worth living: the matchless beauty of our countryside; the camaraderie of shared danger; the glamour of a mobile cocktail party; the spirit of a warehouse rave; the application of hard-won skills; the escapist joy of living purely in the moment; the thrill of the chase; dressing up in fabulous costumes; rampant sex and passionate affairs (well, apparently).

Ku n

til

Boxing Day 2. juledag half-cut a little drunk good grace luck albeit though, even if rendered made Tracey Crouch Conservative politician who opposes fox hunting recruited gained matchless better than anything else camaraderie trust and friendship glamour attractive appeal mobile cocktail party alcoholic drinks enjoyed in the outdoors warehouse rave event where loud dance music is played and ecstasy is taken escapist getting away from the difficulties of everyday life rampant wild, hemningsløs / utan hemningar misconception misunderstanding despatched killed Charlie humorous way of referring to whatever fox is being hunted pest skadedyr villain skurk meets his maker dies point spot to which the fox makes a straight run hall of fame imaginary place where the best in some activity are honoured for their achievements

176

[ chapter 3 ]

5

g

By James Delingpole

5

Of all these, what I’ve come to enjoy most is the relationship you have with your horse. I don’t come from a riding background; I used to dislike horsey people. Once you’ve been out hunting, though, you get it totally. Your survival – it’s quite a dangerous sport – depends almost entirely on the wildly unpredictable, almost uncontrollably powerful beast between your legs. The bond between you during the four or five hours of a hunt is so intense it’s like becoming one united creature: no longer human and horse; more like a centaur. Then, of course, there’s the fox. It’s a complete misconception that hunting people hate foxes, let alone that they take pleasure when – only by accident, of course, these days – the fox gets despatched by the hounds. Charlie (as he’s known) may be a pest and a villain but he’s also the hero. The fox that meets his maker after a 10-mile point (not that this happens these days; we can but dream) will live forever in the hunting hall of fame. (Which is

10

10

15

15

20

20

more than can be said for the many thousands of foxes who die each year in the slower, more “natural” way of disease and starvation.) If, on occasion – whoops! – the hounds do chase a fox, things get rather exciting. When you learn to ride there are all sorts of sensible rules about safety you follow: don’t jump when it’s too muddy or hard; don’t gallop round tight bends. But following fast-moving hounds gives you licence to ignore them all.

25

25

30

30

Afterwards, it feels a bit like it must do when you’ve survived a battle. Everyone’s amazed to be in one piece; you feel an extraordinary bond with those who have shared the experience. People who were strangers an hour before now feel like your oldest, most intimate friends.

35

35

40

40

Hunting has a reputation for exclusivity. But it’s really not the case: you can do it too, if you want. Admittedly the horse hire and the kit and the “cap” don’t come cheap but what I mean is it’s not necessary to be the world’s greatest rider (I’m not) or even to be able to jump (there are always gates). The only things you do need are an appetite for speed and a steady nerve (though the booze does help) and a love of life. Perhaps you’ve left it a bit late to be ready for the hunt on New Year’s Day. But Boxing Day – why not? You’re not getting any younger … Delingpole, J. (2015, December 26). Fox-hunting is the greatest sport on God’s green earth. The Telegraph.

Bicester, UK. Well-wishers gathered to watch members of the Bicester and Whaddon Chase Hunt prepare on 26 December, 2007, two years after the hunting of foxes with dogs became illegal. The dogs can follow the scent but cannot kill the fox. Today, many still attend Boxing Day hunts across the United Kingdom.

starvation death caused by hunger gives you licence allows you in one piece uninjured most intimate closest exclusivity being exclusive don’t come cheap are expensive appetite for desire for, love of steady nerve confidence, courage booze (slang) alcohol disband break up sabotaging wrecking, stopping

Culture and Diversity

177


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

Text A: Fox-hunting is the greatest sport on God’s green earth Boxing Day hunts are a highlight of the year for those who love the beauty of our countryside

5

5

10

10

15

15

20

20

176

[ chapter 3 ]

Of all these, what I’ve come to enjoy most is the relationship you have with your horse. I don’t come from a riding background; I used to dislike horsey people. Once you’ve been out hunting, though, you get it totally. Your survival – it’s quite a dangerous sport – depends almost entirely on the wildly unpredictable, almost uncontrollably powerful beast between your legs. The bond between you during the four or five hours of a hunt is so intense it’s like becoming one united creature: no longer human and horse; more like a centaur. Then, of course, there’s the fox. It’s a complete misconception that hunting people hate foxes, let alone that they take pleasure when – only by accident, of course, these days – the fox gets despatched by the hounds. Charlie (as he’s known) may be a pest and a villain but he’s also the hero. The fox that meets his maker after a 10-mile point (not that this happens these days; we can but dream) will live forever in the hunting hall of fame. (Which is

er in rd

Hunting is so brilliant because it combines so many of the things that make life worth living: the matchless beauty of our countryside; the camaraderie of shared danger; the glamour of a mobile cocktail party; the spirit of a warehouse rave; the application of hard-won skills; the escapist joy of living purely in the moment; the thrill of the chase; dressing up in fabulous costumes; rampant sex and passionate affairs (well, apparently).

more than can be said for the many thousands of foxes who die each year in the slower, more “natural” way of disease and starvation.)

25

25

30

30

35

40

vu

Everyone who hunts knows this. It’s why, 10 years after it was rendered supposedly illegal, the sport remains at least as popular as it ever was, whatever Tracey Crouch says. According to the latest research, some 80 per cent of hunts have either held on to their supporters or recruited new ones since the Hunting Act came into effect. As one of those new recruits, I can tell you why this is: because once you’ve tried it quite simply nothing else will do.

If, on occasion – whoops! – the hounds do chase a fox, things get rather exciting. When you learn to ride there are all sorts of sensible rules about safety you follow: don’t jump when it’s too muddy or hard; don’t gallop round tight bends. But following fast-moving hounds gives you licence to ignore them all.

til

Boxing Day 2. juledag half-cut a little drunk good grace luck albeit though, even if rendered made Tracey Crouch Conservative politician who opposes fox hunting recruited gained matchless better than anything else camaraderie trust and friendship glamour attractive appeal mobile cocktail party alcoholic drinks enjoyed in the outdoors warehouse rave event where loud dance music is played and ecstasy is taken escapist getting away from the difficulties of everyday life rampant wild, hemningsløs / utan hemningar misconception misunderstanding despatched killed Charlie humorous way of referring to whatever fox is being hunted pest skadedyr villain skurk meets his maker dies point spot to which the fox makes a straight run hall of fame imaginary place where the best in some activity are honoured for their achievements

Afterwards, it feels a bit like it must do when you’ve survived a battle. Everyone’s amazed to be in one piece; you feel an extraordinary bond with those who have shared the experience. People who were strangers an hour before now feel like your oldest, most intimate friends.

Ku n

I spent Boxing Day out hunting. I came home caked in mud, legs like jelly and half-cut on a mixture of sloe gin, cherry brandy and Whisky Mac. And as usual I offered up two silent prayers of gratitude – the first for my having survived another suicidal day in the saddle; the second for my good grace in having discovered – albeit rather late in life – the greatest sport on God’s green earth.

g

By James Delingpole

35

40

Hunting has a reputation for exclusivity. But it’s really not the case: you can do it too, if you want. Admittedly the horse hire and the kit and the “cap” don’t come cheap but what I mean is it’s not necessary to be the world’s greatest rider (I’m not) or even to be able to jump (there are always gates). The only things you do need are an appetite for speed and a steady nerve (though the booze does help) and a love of life. Perhaps you’ve left it a bit late to be ready for the hunt on New Year’s Day. But Boxing Day – why not? You’re not getting any younger … Delingpole, J. (2015, December 26). Fox-hunting is the greatest sport on God’s green earth. The Telegraph.

Bicester, UK. Well-wishers gathered to watch members of the Bicester and Whaddon Chase Hunt prepare on 26 December, 2007, two years after the hunting of foxes with dogs became illegal. The dogs can follow the scent but cannot kill the fox. Today, many still attend Boxing Day hunts across the United Kingdom.

starvation death caused by hunger gives you licence allows you in one piece uninjured most intimate closest exclusivity being exclusive don’t come cheap are expensive appetite for desire for, love of steady nerve confidence, courage booze (slang) alcohol disband break up sabotaging wrecking, stopping

Culture and Diversity

177


3 Culture and Diversity

Text B: Disband the fox hunts. They’ve had enough chances to obey the law 5

By Lee Moon

g er in rd vu til

Ku n Fox hunting protest in London, 14 July, 2015. Animal rights campaigners protesting against government plans to bring back fox hunting, ahead of the vote in the House of Commons. Photo by Tolga Akmen/Lnp/REX (4902891o)

178

[ chapter 3 ]

The Hunting Act has proved useless at preventing cruelty. Only a tougher approach will succeed

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

On Boxing Day, the biggest day in the hunting calendar, there were reports of four kills by hunts, and probably many more that we don’t yet know about. We also know of two horses that died during the day’s hunts, while at least one poor hound was killed after being hit by a car in south Wales. If this is how hunts behave when the media spotlight is on them, imagine what hunt saboteurs see during the rest of the hunting season, when we are the only witnesses. Hunts flout the ban with impunity, and attempts to stop them are frequently met with violence. Why has this been allowed to happen? Why are organised gangs permitted to rampage across the countryside and openly flout the law without consequence? And what needs to be done to stop them? The bare minimum that needs to be done is that the Hunting Act must be strengthened and the loopholes closed. Hunt supporters claim that the law doesn’t work, and therefore should be scrapped. What a ridiculous idea. If the law on murder was failing to convict killers, you wouldn’t make murder legal. You would strengthen the law so that murderers were convicted. The same should happen with hunting legislation. For a start, recklessness should be made a criminal offence. Time and again hunts cry “accident” when they have killed a fox, and that’s the end of the matter. Yet we know that they have often acted in such a manner that an “accident” was almost inevitable. The reality is that the only permanent solution to this sorry mess is to force hunts to disband. We need to dismantle them and rehome the hounds. Until then, hunts across the country will continue to chase and kill wildlife. While that happens, hunt saboteurs will always be present to stop them. Moon, L. (2017, December 28). Disband the fox hunts. They’ve had enough chances to obey the law. The Guardian.

hunt saboteurs those who try to break up hunts as they take place flout break, ignore with impunity without being punished permitted allowed rampage (v) run wild scrapped withdrawn, cancelled convicted dømt recklessness carelessness criminal offence illegal act inevitable bound to happen promising lovende sorry here: disastrous dismantle take apart

Culture and Diversity

179


3 Culture and Diversity

Text B: Disband the fox hunts. They’ve had enough chances to obey the law

By Lee Moon

25

er in

Why has this been allowed to happen? Why are organised gangs permitted to rampage across the countryside and openly flout the law without consequence? And what needs to be done to stop them?

The bare minimum that needs to be done is that the Hunting Act must be strengthened and the loopholes closed. Hunt supporters claim that the law doesn’t work, and therefore should be scrapped. What a ridiculous idea. If the law on murder was failing to convict killers, you wouldn’t make murder legal. You would strengthen the law so that murderers were convicted. The same should happen with hunting legislation. For a start, recklessness should be made a criminal offence. Time and again hunts cry “accident” when they have killed a fox, and that’s the end of the matter. Yet we know that they have often acted in such a manner that an “accident” was almost inevitable.

Ku n

30

rd

20

vu

15

If this is how hunts behave when the media spotlight is on them, imagine what hunt saboteurs see during the rest of the hunting season, when we are the only witnesses. Hunts flout the ban with impunity, and attempts to stop them are frequently met with violence.

til

10

On Boxing Day, the biggest day in the hunting calendar, there were reports of four kills by hunts, and probably many more that we don’t yet know about. We also know of two horses that died during the day’s hunts, while at least one poor hound was killed after being hit by a car in south Wales.

35

40

Fox hunting protest in London, 14 July, 2015. Animal rights campaigners protesting against government plans to bring back fox hunting, ahead of the vote in the House of Commons. Photo by Tolga Akmen/Lnp/REX (4902891o)

178

[ chapter 3 ]

g

5

The Hunting Act has proved useless at preventing cruelty. Only a tougher approach will succeed

The reality is that the only permanent solution to this sorry mess is to force hunts to disband. We need to dismantle them and rehome the hounds. Until then, hunts across the country will continue to chase and kill wildlife. While that happens, hunt saboteurs will always be present to stop them. Moon, L. (2017, December 28). Disband the fox hunts. They’ve had enough chances to obey the law. The Guardian.

hunt saboteurs those who try to break up hunts as they take place flout break, ignore with impunity without being punished permitted allowed rampage (v) run wild scrapped withdrawn, cancelled convicted dømt recklessness carelessness criminal offence illegal act inevitable bound to happen promising lovende sorry here: disastrous dismantle take apart

Culture and Diversity

179


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

g

a At least four foxes, two horses, and one dog were killed during hunts on Boxing Day. T/F b When hunters break the law, they are punished for it. T/F c The law should be abandoned because it doesn’t work. T/F d It should be made illegal to fail to take safety precautions. T/F e Hunt saboteurs are close to giving up the fight. T/F 3 Look at the graph in the Tidbit below. What does it say about the following groups in relation to fox hunting? a young and old b Labour voters and Conservative (Tory) voters

rd

a Fox hunting is the best sport there is. T/F b The numbers of people taking part in fox hunting since it was made illegal have gone down. T/F c Part of what makes hunting so good is the attractive countryside, the friendship, the risk, and the drinking. T/F d Your relationship with your horse is of the greatest importance. T/F e People that hunt hate foxes. T/F f A 10-mile straight chase after a fox is a common event. T/F g You can throw caution to the wind when the dogs start running. T/F h No one is surprised not to have been injured during the hunt. T/F i Fox hunting costs little money to get into. T/F j You need to be brave to take part. T/F

2 Answer the questions about the anti-hunting article as true or false, according to the writer.

er in

CONTENT 1 Answer the questions about the pro-hunting article as true or false, according to the writer.

vu

til

Ku n

TIDBIT

90%

a Which words or phrases in each text help to create the contrasting tones? b In what way does it suit each writer’s purpose to adopt the tone that he does?

90%

70%

80%

60%

70%

50%

60% 50%

[ chapter 3 ]

OVER TO YOU 7 Write an opinionated essay Choose a controversial topic that you have a strong opinion about. Then write an opinionated essay about it, taking inspiration from the model texts above. Here are some suggestions for your thesis. • Religion does more harm than good./Man needs religion. • The meat and dairy industry is cruel and unnecessary./Meat eating is natural, normal, and necessary. • Feminism has gone too far./Feminism has not gone far enough. 8 Carry out a poll What are the attitudes to animal rights in your classroom or among all the pupils in your school? Design a questionnaire to poll as many people as possible. Your questionnaire can be printed on paper, or you could use software such as Microsoft Forms to send it out and collect the responses. Make your questions about as broad a set of animal rights issues as you wish. State the questions simply and neutrally. Here are some examples: • Should all hunting of animals for sport be made illegal? • Should all testing of products on animals be made illegal? • Should people reduce their intake of meat and dairy if they can? Use software to make a presentation giving the findings in words alongside tables and graphs. If you also collect data about gender and political viewpoints, you can compare the attitudes of the different groups in your school.

40% 40%

10%

30% 20% 10% 0%

0%

Total

Total

180

6 The pro-hunting writer uses the pronoun “I” ten times in his article, and the word “we” just once. The anti-hunting writer uses “I” just twice and “we” four times. Considering the different arguments they are making, why do you think the first writer refers to himself more often, whereas the second writer refers to his group more often?

Attitudes to Fox Hunting 2017

100%

80%

20% No, should not No, should not made legal again be made legalbeagain

Don’t know

STRUCTURE 4 What examples of linking words can you find that the writers have used to link paragraphs together? Using the guidance in course 7: Structuring a paragraph and course 8: Structuring a text, identify five examples along with their functions.

100%

Yes, should be Yes, should be 30% made legal again made legal again

Don’t know

Paraphrase each main point made by the writer of your article – roughly one for each paragraph – in either the “convincing” or “unconvincing” column. Beside each point, fill out the “because” column with your reason for finding it convincing or unconvincing. When both of you have finished, share your responses with your partner and discuss them.

LANGUAGE 5 The pro-fox hunting article has an unserious and playful tone, whereas the tone of the anti-fox hunting article is quite grave.

Attitudes to Fox Hunting 2017

A poll carried out by Ipsos Mori in 2017 shows that people in the UK are still largely opposed to making fox hunting legal again. Just 13% of the 2,000 people polled were in favour.

4 Make a table with three columns labelled “convincing”, “unconvincing”, and “because”. Work with a partner and take one of the two articles each.

15-24 y.o

15-24 y.o

65+ y.o

65+ y.o

Tory voters

Labour voters

Tory voters

Labour voters

Culture and Diversity

181


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

3 Look at the graph in the Tidbit below. What does it say about the following groups in relation to fox hunting? a young and old b Labour voters and Conservative (Tory) voters

Paraphrase each main point made by the writer of your article – roughly one for each paragraph – in either the “convincing” or “unconvincing” column. Beside each point, fill out the “because” column with your reason for finding it convincing or unconvincing. When both of you have finished, share your responses with your partner and discuss them. STRUCTURE 4 What examples of linking words can you find that the writers have used to link paragraphs together? Using the guidance in course 7: Structuring a paragraph and course 8: Structuring a text, identify five examples along with their functions.

a Which words or phrases in each text help to create the contrasting tones? b In what way does it suit each writer’s purpose to adopt the tone that he does?

Attitudes to Fox Hunting 2017 100%

til

100%

80%

90%

70%

80%

60%

70%

50%

Ku n

TIDBIT

6 The pro-hunting writer uses the pronoun “I” ten times in his article, and the word “we” just once. The anti-hunting writer uses “I” just twice and “we” four times. Considering the different arguments they are making, why do you think the first writer refers to himself more often, whereas the second writer refers to his group more often?

Attitudes to Fox Hunting 2017

90%

60% 50%

40% 40%

Yes, should be Yes, should be 30% made legal again made legal again 20% No, should not No, should not made legal again be made legalbeagain

Don’t know

Don’t know

10%

30% 20% 10% 0%

0%

Total

Total

180

[ chapter 3 ]

• Religion does more harm than good./Man needs religion. • The meat and dairy industry is cruel and unnecessary./Meat eating is natural, normal, and necessary. • Feminism has gone too far./Feminism has not gone far enough.

8 Carry out a poll What are the attitudes to animal rights in your classroom or among all the pupils in your school? Design a questionnaire to poll as many people as possible. Your questionnaire can be printed on paper, or you could use software such as Microsoft Forms to send it out and collect the responses.

vu

LANGUAGE 5 The pro-fox hunting article has an unserious and playful tone, whereas the tone of the anti-fox hunting article is quite grave.

A poll carried out by Ipsos Mori in 2017 shows that people in the UK are still largely opposed to making fox hunting legal again. Just 13% of the 2,000 people polled were in favour.

OVER TO YOU 7 Write an opinionated essay Choose a controversial topic that you have a strong opinion about. Then write an opinionated essay about it, taking inspiration from the model texts above. Here are some suggestions for your thesis.

g

a At least four foxes, two horses, and one dog were killed during hunts on Boxing Day. T/F b When hunters break the law, they are punished for it. T/F c The law should be abandoned because it doesn’t work. T/F d It should be made illegal to fail to take safety precautions. T/F e Hunt saboteurs are close to giving up the fight. T/F

4 Make a table with three columns labelled “convincing”, “unconvincing”, and “because”. Work with a partner and take one of the two articles each.

er in

a Fox hunting is the best sport there is. T/F b The numbers of people taking part in fox hunting since it was made illegal have gone down. T/F c Part of what makes hunting so good is the attractive countryside, the friendship, the risk, and the drinking. T/F d Your relationship with your horse is of the greatest importance. T/F e People that hunt hate foxes. T/F f A 10-mile straight chase after a fox is a common event. T/F g You can throw caution to the wind when the dogs start running. T/F h No one is surprised not to have been injured during the hunt. T/F i Fox hunting costs little money to get into. T/F j You need to be brave to take part. T/F

2 Answer the questions about the anti-hunting article as true or false, according to the writer.

rd

CONTENT 1 Answer the questions about the pro-hunting article as true or false, according to the writer.

15-24 y.o

15-24 y.o

65+ y.o

65+ y.o

Tory voters

Make your questions about as broad a set of animal rights issues as you wish. State the questions simply and neutrally. Here are some examples:

• Should all hunting of animals for sport be made illegal? • Should all testing of products on animals be made illegal? • Should people reduce their intake of meat and dairy if they can? Use software to make a presentation giving the findings in words alongside tables and graphs. If you also collect data about gender and political viewpoints, you can compare the attitudes of the different groups in your school.

Labour voters

Tory voters

Labour voters

Culture and Diversity

181


til

vu

rd

er in

g

3 Culture and Diversity

AIMS

Ku n

What do you know about schools in Britain and what opinions, if any, do you have about them?

Discuss your first thoughts with a partner. Then look at the information in the Tidbit below and see how much you knew already.

182

[ chapter 3 ]

• Expand your knowledge about schooling in the UK • Discuss issues of immigration, integration, and racial prejudice • Reflect on the privilege of private schooling in the UK

Educating Greater Manchester

CONTEXT

FIRST

Reality TV can help us to understand British culture a little better. Educating Greater Manchester is part of a long-running series that looks at school life in different regions of the UK. Previously, the series has visited Essex, Yorkshire, the East End of London, and Cardiff. In each case, the schools are state-funded and similar to the types of schools that most British children attend. Episode 1 of the Manchester series follows the pupils and teachers at Harrop Fold School as they struggle with difficulties and set-backs, but also as they succeed and share moments of joy. The problems they face are familiar enough: adjusting to a new place and culture, being bullied or excluded, experiencing mood swings, having difficulty with school work, and coming into conflict with friends. Despite the familiarity, we see a different mix of people and a different school culture than the one we know at first-hand.

Culture and Diversity

183


AIMS

Discuss your first thoughts with a partner. Then look at the information in the Tidbit below and see how much you knew already.

182

[ chapter 3 ]

Educating Greater Manchester

Reality TV can help us to understand British culture a little better. Educating Greater Manchester is part of a long-running series that looks at school life in different regions of the UK. Previously, the series has visited Essex, Yorkshire, the East End of London, and Cardiff. In each case, the schools are state-funded and similar to the types of schools that most British children attend.

Ku n

What do you know about schools in Britain and what opinions, if any, do you have about them?

• Expand your knowledge about schooling in the UK • Discuss issues of immigration, integration, and racial prejudice • Reflect on the privilege of private schooling in the UK

CONTEXT

FIRST

til

vu

rd

er in

g

3 Culture and Diversity

Episode 1 of the Manchester series follows the pupils and teachers at Harrop Fold School as they struggle with difficulties and set-backs, but also as they succeed and share moments of joy. The problems they face are familiar enough: adjusting to a new place and culture, being bullied or excluded, experiencing mood swings, having difficulty with school work, and coming into conflict with friends. Despite the familiarity, we see a different mix of people and a different school culture than the one we know at first-hand.

Culture and Diversity

183


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: TV SERIES

Murad and Estera

Murad: You go to Home Office. They wash your hands. They take your fingerprints. I remember this: it was orange soap.

(Murad is a year-10 Kurdish Muslim boy from Syria. Estera is a year-10 girl from Poland. Both of them have extra English language support with teaching assistant Mrs Stolte.)

5

Murad: You’re racist – you know that? (Estera gets up and leaves the room.) Yeah, get out! Go and cry! She said they all look like terrorists. She was sitting there. She was like: we all look like terrorists.

er in

g

Mrs Stolte (to interviewer): It’s just that extra support that they need. At the beginning they don’t actually have the English to explain what happened to them or why – and how they came to the UK

5

(Various pupils from different backgrounds, including Murad and Estera, sit together around a table with Mrs Stolte.)

10

10

15

15

(Mrs Stolte and Estera speak alone in another room.)

rd

Mrs Stolte: Estera – don’t say that. You don’t mean it though, do you? 20

20

vu

Rani: Syria.

Mrs Stolte (to interviewer): In Murad’s case, it took us quite a while to … until he opened up.

25

25

til

Ku n 184

[ chapter 3 ]

30

30

Mrs Stolte (to interviewer): They’ve been in the country for nearly four years now and they’ve not had asylum granted. There’s still a chance of them getting deported. And I guess that hangs over the whole family. Murad: In Manchester, they took me to Liverpool and I lived there for about 5–6 months and they took me back to Manchester. Why did they move us to Liverpool, though? I don’t get that.

Estera: I know they’re not but … Mrs Stolte: So, even, like, saying it, like, jokingly is, like, feeling offended. Estera (to interviewer): In Poland, it’s not that much emigration, and it’s like, yeah … (She smirks.) It’s different.

35

35

Interviewer: What was that like for you, then, when you first came here? Was that a bit of a shock?

Mrs Stolte: ‘Cos that’s where they handle all the cases. Murad (to interviewer): I hope I don’t get any reason or any problems to leave this country. I don’t wanna ruin this for myself. I wanna, you know, learn, be educated, have a – be something.

Estera (to interviewer): They said that when they coming, they have to go on police station, and do this fingerprints, and I was like, oh, so it’s like terrorists – “like terrorists”. I didn’t say they are terrorists. Mrs Stolte: You’re very touchy with, like, coming from Poland, and I guess they’re very touchy because a lot of people say that they’re terrorists, aren’t there?

Mrs Stolte: Was it difficult to come to the UK? What did you have to do? Murad: It was difficult for my mum.

Estera: No, they’re not terrorists, but, like, they took their fingerprints, yeah? Mrs Stolte: Yeah, because they don’t have any documentation.

Mrs Stolte: Rani – you were born in?

Jack and Rani

Mrs Stolte: Can we just talk? Murad (to interviewer): I can take jokes, but like, I mean, if you’re gonna call me terrorist, living in peace walking down the street, for being a Muslim, that doesn’t make any sense. Go and learn what the word ‘terrorist’ means and then call someone ‘terrorist’.

Mrs Stolte (to Estera): You came 2013, in year 7, and you came from Poland. (To another girl:) You’re from Afghanistan. (To yet another:) Belgium. Iranian girl: I’m Persian. But I’m born in Belgium.

Estera: That sound like they’re terrorists, and they’re just going there to kill. (She starts laughing.)

40

40

Estera: Yeah. There was a lot of different people, like Chinese and, like – not being racist – but black people. And, in Poland, it’s like only Polish people – like no any other cultures. Twofour Group (Production company). (2017, August 31). Educating Greater Manchester [Television series]. London: Channel 4.

Home Office innenriksdepartement/ innanriksdepartement emigration utvandring (although she means to say immigration – innvandring)

Culture and Diversity

185


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: TV SERIES

Murad and Estera

10

10

15

15

(Mrs Stolte and Estera speak alone in another room.)

Mrs Stolte: Estera – don’t say that. You don’t mean it though, do you? 20

20

Rani: Syria. Mrs Stolte (to interviewer): In Murad’s case, it took us quite a while to … until he opened up.

25

25

30

Mrs Stolte (to interviewer): They’ve been in the country for nearly four years now and they’ve not had asylum granted. There’s still a chance of them getting deported. And I guess that hangs over the whole family.

184

[ chapter 3 ]

Estera: I know they’re not but …

Mrs Stolte: So, even, like, saying it, like, jokingly is, like, feeling offended. Estera (to interviewer): In Poland, it’s not that much emigration, and it’s like, yeah … (She smirks.) It’s different.

35

35

Interviewer: What was that like for you, then, when you first came here? Was that a bit of a shock?

Mrs Stolte: ‘Cos that’s where they handle all the cases. Murad (to interviewer): I hope I don’t get any reason or any problems to leave this country. I don’t wanna ruin this for myself. I wanna, you know, learn, be educated, have a – be something.

30

Ku n

Murad: In Manchester, they took me to Liverpool and I lived there for about 5–6 months and they took me back to Manchester. Why did they move us to Liverpool, though? I don’t get that.

Estera (to interviewer): They said that when they coming, they have to go on police station, and do this fingerprints, and I was like, oh, so it’s like terrorists – “like terrorists”. I didn’t say they are terrorists. Mrs Stolte: You’re very touchy with, like, coming from Poland, and I guess they’re very touchy because a lot of people say that they’re terrorists, aren’t there?

Mrs Stolte: Was it difficult to come to the UK? What did you have to do? Murad: It was difficult for my mum.

Estera: No, they’re not terrorists, but, like, they took their fingerprints, yeah? Mrs Stolte: Yeah, because they don’t have any documentation.

Mrs Stolte: Rani – you were born in?

Jack and Rani

g

Murad (to interviewer): I can take jokes, but like, I mean, if you’re gonna call me terrorist, living in peace walking down the street, for being a Muslim, that doesn’t make any sense. Go and learn what the word ‘terrorist’ means and then call someone ‘terrorist’.

Mrs Stolte (to Estera): You came 2013, in year 7, and you came from Poland. (To another girl:) You’re from Afghanistan. (To yet another:) Belgium. Iranian girl: I’m Persian. But I’m born in Belgium.

Mrs Stolte: Can we just talk?

er in

Murad: You’re racist – you know that? (Estera gets up and leaves the room.) Yeah, get out! Go and cry! She said they all look like terrorists. She was sitting there. She was like: we all look like terrorists.

rd

(Various pupils from different backgrounds, including Murad and Estera, sit together around a table with Mrs Stolte.)

5

vu

Mrs Stolte (to interviewer): It’s just that extra support that they need. At the beginning they don’t actually have the English to explain what happened to them or why – and how they came to the UK

5

Estera: That sound like they’re terrorists, and they’re just going there to kill. (She starts laughing.)

til

(Murad is a year-10 Kurdish Muslim boy from Syria. Estera is a year-10 girl from Poland. Both of them have extra English language support with teaching assistant Mrs Stolte.)

Murad: You go to Home Office. They wash your hands. They take your fingerprints. I remember this: it was orange soap.

40

40

Estera: Yeah. There was a lot of different people, like Chinese and, like – not being racist – but black people. And, in Poland, it’s like only Polish people – like no any other cultures. Twofour Group (Production company). (2017, August 31). Educating Greater Manchester [Television series]. London: Channel 4.

Home Office innenriksdepartement/ innanriksdepartement emigration utvandring (although she means to say immigration – innvandring)

Culture and Diversity

185


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

g

5 What vocabulary and language features of the text extract from the series can you identify that are highly typical of speech and less typical of writing?

6 Why do you think some private schools may prefer to be referred to as “independent” rather than “private”? Tip: Think about the associations each word has for you. OVER TO YOU 7 Write a TV episode review Visit Skolestudio to find a link to a review of the first episode of the series from the UK newspaper The Telegraph. Then watch one of the subsequent episodes of the series and write your own review of that episode.

rd

a Why do you think the girl says she is “Persian”, not Iranian? b Why might she make a point of not being “from Belgium”, even though she was born there? c In your view, is it fair that families such as Murad’s should wait four years or more to find out whether they have received asylum in the UK? Explain your answer. d What do you think Murad has in mind when he says he does not want to “ruin this for himself”? e What do you think Mrs Stolte means by saying that Estera is “touchy” as she comes from Poland? f In your opinion, based on the little you can see from the episode, does Mrs Stolte deal with Estera in a good way? Explain your answer. g Why do you think Estera smiles or smirks while she explains to the interviewer what she thinks about multicultural Britain and how it compares with Poland? h Estera says she is “not being racist”. Do you accept this? Explain your answer.

e “They said that when they coming, they have to go on police station.” f “In Poland, it’s not that much emigration.”

er in

CONTENT 1 Reflect on and answer the questions.

vu

8 Make an infographic on UK schools Use the facts and figures on UK schools in the Tidbit on the facing page to create a full-page infographic, including charts and other visual representations. There are links to several examples of infographics on Skolestudio.

STRUCTURE Watch the full episode to answer these questions.

Ku n

3 What are the side stories in the episode, and how are they connected to the main story of Rani and Jack? (Hint: the idea of a theme is useful here.) See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

LANGUAGE 4 Where are the language errors in these utterances? For every one you find, show how it can be fixed by correcting or reformulating the utterance. a “You go to Home Office.” b “I hope I don’t get any reason or any problems to leave this country.” c “ … a lot of people say that they’re terrorists, aren’t there?” d “So, even, like, saying it, like, jokingly is, like, feeling offended.”

186

[ chapter 3 ]

9 Investigate the backgrounds of British PMs In an article in The Guardian entitled “The 10 Ages of Boris Johnson: a guide to his road to power”, it is explained how he rose to the position of Prime Minister through these stages: • • • • •

Blond Ambition Al becomes Boris Oxford chameleon World on speed dial The Brussels years

• • • • •

The TV personality The Sextator Mr Mayor Leave Final lap

Divide the class into small groups, with each group choosing a different British prime minister in the period from Clement Attlee, at the end of the Second World War, to Theresa May. Use the structure of the article in The Guardian as inspiration for your own research into how your chosen prime minister rose to power. Be sure to include some information about your PM’s schooling and university education. Present your work either in written form or as an oral presentation.

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson at Eton in 1979

TIDBIT

til

2 The main story or narrative in the episode is about Rani and Jack. How does it start, how does it end, and what are all the steps in between that advance that story?

10 key facts about school in the UK 1 School uniform is required in most schools. Nearly all secondary schools (years 7–11) have one. 2 A typical uniform has a dark blazer (jacket) with the school logo or crest, a white shirt, the school tie, and smart trousers or a skirt. 3 Just 6.6 % of pupils go to private schools, also called “independent schools”. The vast majority go to state-funded (free) schools. 4 The UK has over 24,000 schools educating 8.8 million pupils. 5 Half (28) of the 56 British prime ministers to date went to one or the other of just two private boys’ schools: Eton College (21) and Harrow School (7). 6 In the UK, “public school” confusingly refers to traditional private schools, like Eton and Harrow. These are also boarding schools, where pupils live and take their meals. 7 The most expensive schools cost around £42,100 per year to attend (510.000 NOK). 8 Pupils start infant school relatively early – in September following their fourth birthday. 9 Further education (videregående) is not considered a right. Pupils have to pass their year 11 GCSE exams to gain entry. 10 Pupils who take A-levels (studiespesialisering) usually take just four subjects in total and reduce that number to three for their final year.

See course 1: Reading strategies and course 9: Planning your text for guidance.

Culture and Diversity

187


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

2 The main story or narrative in the episode is about Rani and Jack. How does it start, how does it end, and what are all the steps in between that advance that story?

LANGUAGE 4 Where are the language errors in these utterances? For every one you find, show how it can be fixed by correcting or reformulating the utterance. a “You go to Home Office.” b “I hope I don’t get any reason or any problems to leave this country.” c “ … a lot of people say that they’re terrorists, aren’t there?” d “So, even, like, saying it, like, jokingly is, like, feeling offended.”

186

[ chapter 3 ]

g er in rd

OVER TO YOU 7 Write a TV episode review Visit Skolestudio to find a link to a review of the first episode of the series from the UK newspaper The Telegraph. Then watch one of the subsequent episodes of the series and write your own review of that episode. 8 Make an infographic on UK schools Use the facts and figures on UK schools in the Tidbit on the facing page to create a full-page infographic, including charts and other visual representations. There are links to several examples of infographics on Skolestudio. 9 Investigate the backgrounds of British PMs In an article in The Guardian entitled “The 10 Ages of Boris Johnson: a guide to his road to power”, it is explained how he rose to the position of Prime Minister through these stages: • • • • •

Blond Ambition Al becomes Boris Oxford chameleon World on speed dial The Brussels years

• • • • •

The TV personality The Sextator Mr Mayor Leave Final lap

Divide the class into small groups, with each group choosing a different British prime minister in the period from Clement Attlee, at the end of the Second World War, to Theresa May. Use the structure of the article in The Guardian as inspiration for your own research into how your chosen prime minister rose to power. Be sure to include some information about your PM’s schooling and university education. Present your work either in written form or as an oral presentation.

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson at Eton in 1979

TIDBIT

3 What are the side stories in the episode, and how are they connected to the main story of Rani and Jack? (Hint: the idea of a theme is useful here.) See course 17: Approaching literature and film for guidance.

6 Why do you think some private schools may prefer to be referred to as “independent” rather than “private”? Tip: Think about the associations each word has for you.

vu

STRUCTURE Watch the full episode to answer these questions.

5 What vocabulary and language features of the text extract from the series can you identify that are highly typical of speech and less typical of writing?

til

a Why do you think the girl says she is “Persian”, not Iranian? b Why might she make a point of not being “from Belgium”, even though she was born there? c In your view, is it fair that families such as Murad’s should wait four years or more to find out whether they have received asylum in the UK? Explain your answer. d What do you think Murad has in mind when he says he does not want to “ruin this for himself”? e What do you think Mrs Stolte means by saying that Estera is “touchy” as she comes from Poland? f In your opinion, based on the little you can see from the episode, does Mrs Stolte deal with Estera in a good way? Explain your answer. g Why do you think Estera smiles or smirks while she explains to the interviewer what she thinks about multicultural Britain and how it compares with Poland? h Estera says she is “not being racist”. Do you accept this? Explain your answer.

e “They said that when they coming, they have to go on police station.” f “In Poland, it’s not that much emigration.”

10 key facts about school in the UK 1 School uniform is required in most schools. Nearly all secondary schools (years 7–11) have one. 2 A typical uniform has a dark blazer (jacket) with the school logo or crest, a white shirt, the school tie, and smart trousers or a skirt. 3 Just 6.6 % of pupils go to private schools, also called “independent schools”. The vast majority go to state-funded (free) schools. 4 The UK has over 24,000 schools educating 8.8 million pupils. 5 Half (28) of the 56 British prime ministers to date went to one or the other of just two private boys’ schools: Eton College (21) and Harrow School (7). 6 In the UK, “public school” confusingly refers to traditional private schools, like Eton and Harrow. These are also boarding schools, where pupils live and take their meals. 7 The most expensive schools cost around £42,100 per year to attend (510.000 NOK). 8 Pupils start infant school relatively early – in September following their fourth birthday. 9 Further education (videregående) is not considered a right. Pupils have to pass their year 11 GCSE exams to gain entry. 10 Pupils who take A-levels (studiespesialisering) usually take just four subjects in total and reduce that number to three for their final year.

Ku n

CONTENT 1 Reflect on and answer the questions.

See course 1: Reading strategies and course 9: Planning your text for guidance.

Culture and Diversity

187


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS • Gain insight into and discuss the diverse living conditions of immigrants in London today • Identify traits of informal language and transform it into formal language

TIDBIT

er in

g

• Practice oral skills through role play

FIRST How large a percentage of Londoners do you think were born abroad?

“Eighty-nine, the life expectancy for a white woman in a Chelsea town house. Sixty-two, the life expectancy of a Moroccan man in the North Kensington estates over the Westway”.

188

[ chapter 3 ]

This is London – but probably not as you know it CONTEXT

Ku n

til

vu

rd

Source: This is London, 2016, p. 343

The British journalist Ben Judah finds his native London changed to the extent that he no longer recognizes it. This realization prompts him to study the city and its new inhabitants. He discovers that at least 55% of Londoners are not ethnically white British. Close to 40% were born abroad, whilst 5% are illegal immigrants. But rather than simply presenting the statistics of London, he travels the city from tube station to tube station, and talks to the immigrants he meets along his way. In South London, he talks to two Ghanaian pickers who “pick” left-behind objects from underground trains. In North West London, Judah encounters the Caribbean gangster and cocaine-dealer Moses X.

Culture and Diversity

189


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS • Gain insight into and discuss the diverse living conditions of immigrants in London today • Identify traits of informal language and transform it into formal language

g

• Practice oral skills through role play

FIRST How large a percentage of Londoners do you think were born abroad?

TIDBIT

er in

“Eighty-nine, the life expectancy for a white woman in a Chelsea town house. Sixty-two, the life expectancy of a Moroccan man in the North Kensington estates over the Westway”.

vu

rd

Source: This is London, 2016, p. 343

til

This is London CONTEXT

Ku n

– but probably not as you know it

188

[ chapter 3 ]

The British journalist Ben Judah finds his native London changed to the extent that he no longer recognizes it. This realization prompts him to study the city and its new inhabitants. He discovers that at least 55% of Londoners are not ethnically white British. Close to 40% were born abroad, whilst 5% are illegal immigrants. But rather than simply presenting the statistics of London, he travels the city from tube station to tube station, and talks to the immigrants he meets along his way. In South London, he talks to two Ghanaian pickers who “pick” left-behind objects from underground trains. In North West London, Judah encounters the Caribbean gangster and cocaine-dealer Moses X.

Culture and Diversity

189


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: NON-FICTION

5

rd

er in

g

5

[ chapter 3 ]

15

15

20

20

Moses X

The two pickers are Big Yaw and Baby Yaw. Big Yaw is very uneducated. He can barely even read. He hates everything about London. Nobody knows why, but he has ended up marrying a frumpy Jamaican mama in White City, and never gone back to finish the house he claims to have been building all these years in Accra, thanks to all this picking. Those are his savings, which he’s barely seen. But to anyone who will give him two minutes he will show the same grainy phone clip of the concrete walls of the unfinished Ghanaian dream home. ‘London. It’s a mistake. I’m stuck picking down here … till I die.’ Big Yaw and Baby Yaw spend all day finding things they could never afford. They will be picking a tunnel and then: a new iPad. They will be picking a train and then out of nowhere: a wide-angle lens camera. They will be picking the lift, then suddenly; a Louis Vuitton bag filled with neatly folded clothes. Big Yaw and Baby Yaw hear the stories. They know there was a Ghanaian at Bayswater who found a bag with crunchy white powder, £75,000 in cash and a French pistol inside it. They know there was one picker from Cameroon who returned two Chinese ladies their purses and they invited him out for dinner at Claridge’s. But they know, better than anyone else, everything in the Underground flickers on CCTV. This is why they are always too scared to touch whatever they find, beyond quickly handing it over to the station master.

‘When I see dem fuckers … Coming out of dem money houses, dem bankers and lawyers, from dem families that made dat cash from empire slave trade for sure … I just think, “You fucking piece of shit … You think you’re the legit one … But you bastard piece of shit cunts … You think you’re better than me. But I know … We’re all trapped in the same fucking thing … I’m the criminal, but who created me?” ‘Because this is London: and if you’re not doing drugs you’re fucking sex workers … if you’re not fucking whores you’re fucking gambling. And if you think you’re so clean you’re addicted to fucking champagne. Because this is London … Everybody wants white … And everybody wants to sell it. So who’s fucking addicted to who? “And I’m thinking as that shithead gives me a fucking tip, and smiles at me like I’m a little black boy, “You fucking cunt. I’m looking at you,” and I’m thinking, “My watch is worth more than your car. And you know what, I’m no fucking fool … ” I’m looking at that white Chelsea boy and I’m thinking, “You fucking smug cunt … I can read … ” And I know that behind every rich family in London is a drug dealer … What was the British Empire fucking based on? Drugs: sugar, slaves and fucking opium … So don’t you ever, ever … ‘Give me any of dat moralizing shit.’

vu

Big Yaw and Baby Yaw

til

Ku n 190

10

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

Source: Judah, B. (2016), This is London (pp. 100, 136-137). London: Pan Mcmillan.

AUTHOR

picker someone who picks items, in this instance left-over objects on trains barely only just frumpy dull and old-fashioned Accra capital of Ghana grainy unclear concrete betong lift heis Claridge’s a famous 5-star hotel in London CCTV short for closed-circuit television, commonly known as video surveillance legit short for legitimate, law-abiding, real cunts vulgar term for the female genitalia, a worthless person white slang for the drug: cocaine tip money given in return for a service, e.g. to a waiter fool a person who lacks sense or judgement smug pleased with oneself opium narcotic drug, which was imported from Asia in colonial times

10

Ben Judah (1988 –) is an Oxford-educated journalist and author, specializing in portraits and reportage. His first book Fragile Empire (2013) was a study of Russia and Vladimir Putin. His second This Is London (2016) was a Sunday Times Top 50 bestseller. He has also made films for Vice. com and BBC Newsnight. In 2016 he was chosen as one of Forbes Magazine’s 30 under 30 in European media.

Culture and Diversity

191


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: NON-FICTION

5

10

10

15

15

20

20

190

[ chapter 3 ]

rd

Moses X

The two pickers are Big Yaw and Baby Yaw. Big Yaw is very uneducated. He can barely even read. He hates everything about London. Nobody knows why, but he has ended up marrying a frumpy Jamaican mama in White City, and never gone back to finish the house he claims to have been building all these years in Accra, thanks to all this picking. Those are his savings, which he’s barely seen. But to anyone who will give him two minutes he will show the same grainy phone clip of the concrete walls of the unfinished Ghanaian dream home. ‘London. It’s a mistake. I’m stuck picking down here … till I die.’ Big Yaw and Baby Yaw spend all day finding things they could never afford. They will be picking a tunnel and then: a new iPad. They will be picking a train and then out of nowhere: a wide-angle lens camera. They will be picking the lift, then suddenly; a Louis Vuitton bag filled with neatly folded clothes. Big Yaw and Baby Yaw hear the stories. They know there was a Ghanaian at Bayswater who found a bag with crunchy white powder, £75,000 in cash and a French pistol inside it. They know there was one picker from Cameroon who returned two Chinese ladies their purses and they invited him out for dinner at Claridge’s. But they know, better than anyone else, everything in the Underground flickers on CCTV. This is why they are always too scared to touch whatever they find, beyond quickly handing it over to the station master.

‘When I see dem fuckers … Coming out of dem money houses, dem bankers and lawyers, from dem families that made dat cash from empire slave trade for sure … I just think, “You fucking piece of shit … You think you’re the legit one … But you bastard piece of shit cunts … You think you’re better than me. But I know … We’re all trapped in the same fucking thing … I’m the criminal, but who created me?” ‘Because this is London: and if you’re not doing drugs you’re fucking sex workers … if you’re not fucking whores you’re fucking gambling. And if you think you’re so clean you’re addicted to fucking champagne. Because this is London … Everybody wants white … And everybody wants to sell it. So who’s fucking addicted to who? “And I’m thinking as that shithead gives me a fucking tip, and smiles at me like I’m a little black boy, “You fucking cunt. I’m looking at you,” and I’m thinking, “My watch is worth more than your car. And you know what, I’m no fucking fool … ” I’m looking at that white Chelsea boy and I’m thinking, “You fucking smug cunt … I can read … ” And I know that behind every rich family in London is a drug dealer … What was the British Empire fucking based on? Drugs: sugar, slaves and fucking opium … So don’t you ever, ever … ‘Give me any of dat moralizing shit.’

35

40

30

til

30

25

Ku n

25

vu

Big Yaw and Baby Yaw

35

40

Source: Judah, B. (2016), This is London (pp. 100, 136-137). London: Pan Mcmillan.

AUTHOR

picker someone who picks items, in this instance left-over objects on trains barely only just frumpy dull and old-fashioned Accra capital of Ghana grainy unclear concrete betong lift heis Claridge’s a famous 5-star hotel in London CCTV short for closed-circuit television, commonly known as video surveillance legit short for legitimate, law-abiding, real cunts vulgar term for the female genitalia, a worthless person white slang for the drug: cocaine tip money given in return for a service, e.g. to a waiter fool a person who lacks sense or judgement smug pleased with oneself opium narcotic drug, which was imported from Asia in colonial times

er in

g

5

Ben Judah (1988 –) is an Oxford-educated journalist and author, specializing in portraits and reportage. His first book Fragile Empire (2013) was a study of Russia and Vladimir Putin. His second This Is London (2016) was a Sunday Times Top 50 bestseller. He has also made films for Vice. com and BBC Newsnight. In 2016 he was chosen as one of Forbes Magazine’s 30 under 30 in European media.

Culture and Diversity

191


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

3 Poverty is often linked with drug dealing and crime, but what does Moses X link drug dealing to? 4 What do Big Yaw, Baby Yaw and Moses X do for a living? 5 According to Moses X, what was the British Empire built on?

a Nobody back home understand/understands how hard life in London can be. b Everything about their jobs is/are depressing. c His savings from picking go/goes toward building a house in Accra. d Because everybody else has/have left, so will he. e Deprived children in the area of White City are/is in need of better schools.

g

2 Why are Big Yaw and Baby Yaw scared to touch the expensive items they find on the Tube?

LANGUAGE 7 Subject-verb agreement is one of the most frequent mistakes made by students. Find the explanation on Skolestudio and solve the following tasks:

er in

CONTENT 1 How does Big Yaw feel about London?

8 In the extracts from This is London, the following words occur:

rd

Indirect speech

Reporting what has been said by using the exact words that the speaker used

reporting what has been said, but not using exactly the same words

til

Direct speech

Ku n Example

Boris Johnson said “I’d like thousands of schools as good as the one I went to, Eton”.

Boris Johnson commented that he wishes there were more schools like Eton, the school he himself attended.

a Identify one example of direct speech and one example of indirect speech in the extract about Big Yaw and Baby Yaw. b Which of these two extracts has the most direct speech? What effect does it have on you as a reader?

192

a These words belong to two different word classes – which? b What function do they have?

11 One paragraph about life expectancy Study the Tidbit in addition to the pictures and the map. Using the information from these sources, write a paragraph beginning with the following topic sentence: There is a vast difference in life expectancy both between and within the different boroughs of London, with the borough of Kensington and Chelsea serving as a prime example of this. Your paragraph may include aspects such as: • • • •

Living conditions Housing Income Gender and/or ethnicity

See Course 5: Structuring a paragraph.

OVER TO YOU 9 Imagine and dramatize

a Spend 3 minutes individually writing a short draft of a story in which you imagine what happens next in one of the following scenes:

STRUCTURE 6 Definition

barely, concrete, frumpy, grainy, neatly, suddenly, uneducated

a Study the extract featuring Moses X and identify at least three examples of informal style, commenting briefly on what makes this informal. For further information and helpful examples, see course 7: Recognising formality. b Spend 15 minutes rewriting Moses X’s speech in a more formal style.

vu

Non-fiction is writing that is about real events and facts, in contrast to stories that have been invented, i.e. fiction. The purpose is to inform and these text types typically contain features like table of contents, photographs, captions, headings and diagrams.

10 Formal and informal style

[ chapter 3 ]

• Dinner at Claridge’s: the picker from Cameroon who returns two Chinese women their purses and is invited out for dinner. How does their dinner date go? • The Ghanaian picker who finds a bag with crunchy white powder. What is his reaction, and what happens next? b Form groups of 3–4 pupils. Read/tell each other about your short drafts and decide on one of these to dramatize. Now, invent the dialogue. Act out the scene in front of another group or the whole class, or create a short film. Make sure that your dramatizations: • Give speaking roles to all members of the group • Build towards a dramatic climax • Offer a resolution to the situation According to London’s Poverty Profile 2017, Kensington & Chelsea is amongst the five London boroughs with the greatest income inequality, alongside Haringey, Tower Hamlets, Southwark and Hammersmith & Fulham. Source: Trust for London

Culture and Diversity

193


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

8 In the extracts from This is London, the following words occur:

Non-fiction is writing that is about real events and facts, in contrast to stories that have been invented, i.e. fiction. The purpose is to inform and these text types typically contain features like table of contents, photographs, captions, headings and diagrams.

a These words belong to two different word classes – which? b What function do they have?

OVER TO YOU 9 Imagine and dramatize a Spend 3 minutes individually writing a short draft of a story in which you imagine what happens next in one of the following scenes:

STRUCTURE 6 Direct speech

Indirect speech

Definition

Reporting what has been said by using the exact words that the speaker used

reporting what has been said, but not using exactly the same words

Example

Boris Johnson said “I’d like thousands of schools as good as the one I went to, Eton”.

Boris Johnson commented that he wishes there were more schools like Eton, the school he himself attended.

a Identify one example of direct speech and one example of indirect speech in the extract about Big Yaw and Baby Yaw. b Which of these two extracts has the most direct speech? What effect does it have on you as a reader?

192

barely, concrete, frumpy, grainy, neatly, suddenly, uneducated

[ chapter 3 ]

• Dinner at Claridge’s: the picker from Cameroon who returns two Chinese women their purses and is invited out for dinner. How does their dinner date go? • The Ghanaian picker who finds a bag with crunchy white powder. What is his reaction, and what happens next? b Form groups of 3–4 pupils. Read/tell each other about your short drafts and decide on one of these to dramatize. Now, invent the dialogue. Act out the scene in front of another group or the whole class, or create a short film. Make sure that your dramatizations: • Give speaking roles to all members of the group • Build towards a dramatic climax • Offer a resolution to the situation

g

er in

5 According to Moses X, what was the British Empire built on?

11 One paragraph about life expectancy Study the Tidbit in addition to the pictures and the map. Using the information from these sources, write a paragraph beginning with the following topic sentence: There is a vast difference in life expectancy both between and within the different boroughs of London, with the borough of Kensington and Chelsea serving as a prime example of this. Your paragraph may include aspects such as: • • • •

Living conditions Housing Income Gender and/or ethnicity

See Course 5: Structuring a paragraph.

rd

4 What do Big Yaw, Baby Yaw and Moses X do for a living?

a Nobody back home understand/understands how hard life in London can be. b Everything about their jobs is/are depressing. c His savings from picking go/goes toward building a house in Accra. d Because everybody else has/have left, so will he. e Deprived children in the area of White City are/is in need of better schools.

a Study the extract featuring Moses X and identify at least three examples of informal style, commenting briefly on what makes this informal. For further information and helpful examples, see course 7: Recognising formality. b Spend 15 minutes rewriting Moses X’s speech in a more formal style.

vu

3 Poverty is often linked with drug dealing and crime, but what does Moses X link drug dealing to?

10 Formal and informal style

til

2 Why are Big Yaw and Baby Yaw scared to touch the expensive items they find on the Tube?

LANGUAGE 7 Subject-verb agreement is one of the most frequent mistakes made by students. Find the explanation on Skolestudio and solve the following tasks:

Ku n

CONTENT 1 How does Big Yaw feel about London?

According to London’s Poverty Profile 2017, Kensington & Chelsea is amongst the five London boroughs with the greatest income inequality, alongside Haringey, Tower Hamlets, Southwark and Hammersmith & Fulham. Source: Trust for London

Culture and Diversity

193


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST In the press we often read expressions like “collateral damage” or phrases like “he was just at the wrong place, at the wrong time”. These are moments where a swift decision is made, and our lives take a new turn – hopefully for the better. Think of an important event in your life. What could have happened if you had simply not been there right then?

Ku n 194

[ chapter 3 ]

Kiss CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Analyse and interpret a short story • Comment on text structure and composition in particular • Be able to read fiction as a product of its time

In a globalized world, identifying with a culture is a matter of choice, says Bratberg in his introduction to this chapter. However, which culture you grow up in and what is expected of you in that culture are not always a matter of choice. Everyone brings their own story with them. In her short story “Kiss”, Elizabeth Baines slowly unravels the lives of three characters that happen to be in London city centre at the same time. She presents them in parallel stories – building up the suspense and gradually letting us familiarise ourselves with the lives of a young radicalised Asian and two young survivors from different parts of town, and their secrets.

“The Meeting Place” (2007) by Paul Day at London’s St. Pancras train station. The bronze statue of an embracing couple is 9 metre high and weighs 20 tonne. It stands in the Eurostar terminal and was installed as the centrepiece of the refurbished station.

Culture and Diversity

195


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST In the press we often read expressions like “collateral damage” or phrases like “he was just at the wrong place, at the wrong time”. These are moments where a swift decision is made, and our lives take a new turn – hopefully for the better. Think of an important event in your life. What could have happened if you had simply not been there right then?

vu

rd

er in

g

• Analyse and interpret a short story • Comment on text structure and composition in particular • Be able to read fiction as a product of its time

In a globalized world, identifying with a culture is a matter of choice, says Bratberg in his introduction to this chapter. However, which culture you grow up in and what is expected of you in that culture are not always a matter of choice.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

Kiss

Everyone brings their own story with them. In her short story “Kiss”, Elizabeth Baines slowly unravels the lives of three characters that happen to be in London city centre at the same time. She presents them in parallel stories – building up the suspense and gradually letting us familiarise ourselves with the lives of a young radicalised Asian and two young survivors from different parts of town, and their secrets.

194

[ chapter 3 ]

“The Meeting Place” (2007) by Paul Day at London’s St. Pancras train station. The bronze statue of an embracing couple is 9 metre high and weighs 20 tonne. It stands in the Eurostar terminal and was installed as the centrepiece of the refurbished station.

Culture and Diversity

195


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: SHORT STORY

Kiss by Elizabeth Baines 5

5

vu

Ku n

til

musty-smelling muggluktende/muggluktande stale breath dårlig ånde / dårleg ande rattle shake, clank jutting bulende/bulande alight descend (from a bus or train) jostled pushed

rd

er in

g

A COUPLE STOP in a tube station entrance, and a man nearby tightens his fingers around a detonator in his hand. They lean together to kiss, the crowd flowing around them a moment you can hold like a still from a film, the young woman lifting her face, silver jacket, blond hair in a ponytail, the young man bending, dreadlocks bunched at his neck in a red band. A moment in a progression of moments, leading towards the moment their lips will meet, running on from all the moments before: the couple rising up out of the underground through the musty-smelling wind, the stale breath of old London with its shades of Bedlam and The Ripper still shifting in the tunnels with the soot-coloured mice that run between the rails, leaning together, the young man behind, the young woman leaning back, new lovers drunk on touch: while above in the glittering day, the young man with the bomb in his backpack crosses the road towards the tube station entrance, nervous, looking over his shoulder in the way he’s not supposed to, been told not to, a gleam of sweat on his faintly shadowed upper lip. And the moments before that, as the young couple sat in the rattling train, the young woman’s ankles crossed in her green sneakers, the young man’s jutting thighs hard in tight jeans, and above in the street the lad with the backpack stood ready to alight from a bus and was jostled so he fell against the metal post. And his heart turned over, but nothing happened, and in those seconds, he breathed again, though as he stepped to the pavement he was afraid that the fuse was damaged and panicked that his mission would fail.

196

[ chapter 3 ]

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

And the history before: the night the young couple met, lights strung in the trees in a south London garden, reggae blasting through open windows, his lithe frame silhouetted, hers pale against dark shrubs. A girl you could see as privileged, a man you could assume to be righteously, rightfully angry, and in the first few seconds, as they were introduced, that was just how they saw each other: he on his bristling guard, she potentially afraid and ashamed; and then, as he handed her a drink, each recognised in the other – she in the soft gleam of his eyes, he in the brave lift of her chin – the courage of a survivor. While across London, over the narrow gardens and the roofs of the terraces, over the low- and high-rise council estates, the wide ebbing river and the traffic run of Euston, the young man who would carry the backpack rang the bell to an upstairs flat. Three others bent over a table scattered with batteries and wires, the boom of a nightclub, decadent sound of the non-believers, thudding up through the floor. And the pasts further back, the stories dovetailing towards this moment. A tall house on Highgate Hill with a laurel bush in the garden, family dinner with solicitor parents in a shining kitchen extension, the girl’s younger brother and sister squabbling, her mother mildly scolding as she spooned out the pasta, then touching her husband’s shoulder as she turned with the saucepan. Father looking up at her mother and smiling, as if he had eyes for no other, as if the night before, when the others were sleeping, he hadn’t crept into the girl’s room, hadn’t hissed in her face afterwards, It’s just between you and me. Though he didn’t need to say it, how could she tell her mother, how could she tell anyone? A thing that wasn’t supposed to happen. She stared at her father acting as though it hadn’t. Perhaps it hadn’t. Perhaps she had dreamt it; perhaps she was evil, filthy-minded. Perhaps she was mad. No, she wasn’t dreaming; she had to face that when it happened again. But yes, perhaps she

lithe graceful shrubs busker/buskar righteously justly bristling tense decadent immoral thudding heavy sound dovetailing corresponding, fitting in laurel shrub with glossy leaves squabbling fighting, quarrelling scolding reprimanding hissed whispered angrily filthy-minded obsessed with sex

Culture and Diversity

197


10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

40

196

[ chapter 3 ]

er in

5

rd

5

lithe graceful shrubs busker/buskar righteously justly bristling tense decadent immoral thudding heavy sound dovetailing corresponding, fitting in laurel shrub with glossy leaves squabbling fighting, quarrelling scolding reprimanding hissed whispered angrily filthy-minded obsessed with sex

Ku n

musty-smelling muggluktende/muggluktande stale breath dårlig ånde / dårleg ande rattle shake, clank jutting bulende/bulande alight descend (from a bus or train) jostled pushed

A COUPLE STOP in a tube station entrance, and a man nearby tightens his fingers around a detonator in his hand. They lean together to kiss, the crowd flowing around them a moment you can hold like a still from a film, the young woman lifting her face, silver jacket, blond hair in a ponytail, the young man bending, dreadlocks bunched at his neck in a red band. A moment in a progression of moments, leading towards the moment their lips will meet, running on from all the moments before: the couple rising up out of the underground through the musty-smelling wind, the stale breath of old London with its shades of Bedlam and The Ripper still shifting in the tunnels with the soot-coloured mice that run between the rails, leaning together, the young man behind, the young woman leaning back, new lovers drunk on touch: while above in the glittering day, the young man with the bomb in his backpack crosses the road towards the tube station entrance, nervous, looking over his shoulder in the way he’s not supposed to, been told not to, a gleam of sweat on his faintly shadowed upper lip. And the moments before that, as the young couple sat in the rattling train, the young woman’s ankles crossed in her green sneakers, the young man’s jutting thighs hard in tight jeans, and above in the street the lad with the backpack stood ready to alight from a bus and was jostled so he fell against the metal post. And his heart turned over, but nothing happened, and in those seconds, he breathed again, though as he stepped to the pavement he was afraid that the fuse was damaged and panicked that his mission would fail.

vu

by Elizabeth Baines

And the history before: the night the young couple met, lights strung in the trees in a south London garden, reggae blasting through open windows, his lithe frame silhouetted, hers pale against dark shrubs. A girl you could see as privileged, a man you could assume to be righteously, rightfully angry, and in the first few seconds, as they were introduced, that was just how they saw each other: he on his bristling guard, she potentially afraid and ashamed; and then, as he handed her a drink, each recognised in the other – she in the soft gleam of his eyes, he in the brave lift of her chin – the courage of a survivor. While across London, over the narrow gardens and the roofs of the terraces, over the low- and high-rise council estates, the wide ebbing river and the traffic run of Euston, the young man who would carry the backpack rang the bell to an upstairs flat. Three others bent over a table scattered with batteries and wires, the boom of a nightclub, decadent sound of the non-believers, thudding up through the floor. And the pasts further back, the stories dovetailing towards this moment. A tall house on Highgate Hill with a laurel bush in the garden, family dinner with solicitor parents in a shining kitchen extension, the girl’s younger brother and sister squabbling, her mother mildly scolding as she spooned out the pasta, then touching her husband’s shoulder as she turned with the saucepan. Father looking up at her mother and smiling, as if he had eyes for no other, as if the night before, when the others were sleeping, he hadn’t crept into the girl’s room, hadn’t hissed in her face afterwards, It’s just between you and me. Though he didn’t need to say it, how could she tell her mother, how could she tell anyone? A thing that wasn’t supposed to happen. She stared at her father acting as though it hadn’t. Perhaps it hadn’t. Perhaps she had dreamt it; perhaps she was evil, filthy-minded. Perhaps she was mad. No, she wasn’t dreaming; she had to face that when it happened again. But yes, perhaps she

til

Kiss

g

3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: SHORT STORY

35

40

Culture and Diversity

197


3 Culture and Diversity

5

rd

vu til

Ku n

siblings brothers/sisters tartness sharpness dashed here: having lost confidence and hope bangles bracelets kaftan long, loose dress of Near Eastern origin notion inkling, wish vulnerable sårbar devastation severe grief tartly sharply, in a bitter tone oppression undertrykkelse/ undertrykking sly slurs cunning insults precinct specific area in a town exasperation intense irritation

198

[ chapter 3 ]

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

Baines, E, (2019). Kiss. In Best British Short Stories. N. Royle (Ed.). Salt Publishing: Cromer.

35

40

AUTHOR

er in

g

5

And then the long fight for justice, and calmness, and work for a charity helping young people with such problems, and a soft summer night in a south London garden shaking hands with a new worker, the pale young woman. And as the young man with the dreadlocks stood in court in the dock and the young woman came to in a hospital bed with a drip in her arm, the twelveyear-old boy who would eventually carry the backpack sat neatly in his uniform passing his exams, the pride of his grocer father, destined for university and the life of a doctor. But as he walked home through the winter evenings something was awry. The dark street was a gulf between squat cliffs of housing, acrid light leaking from mean squares of windows, congealed sticky rubbish, a dog slinking, guilty or sly, from a deep black alley, like the gulf between the life of his home – his anxious, conscientious parents, eager to please in this land they came to – and the life of school and the high street where the kids hung at weekends in their hi-tops, careless and entitled. He belonged in neither world. He belonged nowhere; his future, mapped out by his parents, was a mystery to him, alien. He had no real purpose of his own. Until one day after mosque, someone touched his arm and drew him aside. And there they are now, three young lives converging, and the lives of those milling around them, the young people in jeans, the men and women carrying cases with laptops and papers, parents with a child in a pushchair, which the young man with the backpack has been trained not to see as individual people with lives, only to think of the glory of martyrdom and reward in heaven. And here is the moment when his thumb touches the plunger, and if the fuse has become disconnected the crowd will keep flowing and the couple will complete their embrace and move on to wherever their relationship will take them, or the pulse will hit the fuse and the air around it will fly out faster than the speed of sound, and in the blast and the shock waves that follow, and the sucking vacuum created, those linear narratives will shatter, the fragments spin – a mother’s resentful face in the mirror, the hatred and fear in a policeman’s eyes, lights glowing in a south London garden, and the moment conceived but never fulfilled, the perfect conclusion, the kiss.

TIDBIT

was mad, perhaps there was something wrong with her, for it to keep on happening. In school she kept away from the other girls, sat in the library at lunchtime, her limbs heavy and frozen, while they went off down the road to hang around the café and gossip and call to the boys. Envious, no not envious, too removed from them for envy, trapped behind a barrier, her inability to account for herself, even to herself. But did her mother guess anyway? She would wonder that, years later. And did she blame the girl? For she reserved for the girl a strictness she never applied to her siblings, and a critical tartness of manner that made the girl feel constantly stupid and dashed. Though she didn’t like to admit it to herself, she didn’t want to think she was unloved. Fifteen years old, she sat on her mother’s bed beside her mother as she got ready to go to a function, her mother patting her own hair in the mirror, taking up her bangles and asking, Which one? The girl was flattered to be asked and chose with care, a deep blue and a turquoise to go with the colours in her mother’s kaftan, and her mother, pleased with the choice, drew them onto her wrist. An intimate moment, for which the girl was glad. And in that moment, she had the notion of telling her mother, weighed it in her mind as she’d weighed the bangles in her hands. Her mother leaned forward to adjust her mascara, and the girl watched a little crease appear at the back of her neck and was overwhelmed by a sense of her mother as vulnerable, and of the devastation that such a revelation would create. And that was when her mother, meeting her eyes in the mirror, said tartly, quite nastily, That lipstick doesn’t suit you. Then the years of anorexia, that wish to be no longer the person you see in the mirror and weighing you down, to flee her; the dropping out of university, the lack of room in your head for facts and complicated thoughts about things it was hard to make matter, the lack of point in it all. And finally, one dark night, the attempt to escape at last with a can of lager and a packet of pills. And the long road to recovery, which she was still treading that night at the party in the south London garden, but there she was, treading it, or rather, standing still against the dark bushes as the young man with the dreadlocks turned towards her, carrying his own past of oppression. The monkey noises and gestures, those grammar school boys going past in the morning as he turned out of the Bristol council estate, the sly and not-sosly slurs in the playground. He stopped going, doubled back to the empty house – his lone mother gone to her hospital cleaning job – or hung around the shopping precinct. His mother summoned to the school, the anger and sadness in her eyes. The taunts didn’t stop, and as he grew his anger grew too: he would flip and lash out, and in the end, he was expelled. The sleek police car drawing up alongside as he walked in the streetlight, a teenager with dreadlocks; once, on a two-mile walk, he was stopped several times. He had learned the necessity of controlling his temper, but he couldn’t help a gesture of exasperation, he threw up his arms, and later his mother would find him in the police station covered in bruises.

Elizabeth Baines (1947–) is a British teacher, novelist, playwright, and short story writer. This name is a pseudonym; her real name is Helen White. She has published texts under both names. Her short story “Kiss” was selected for the anthology Best British Short Stories 2019.

dock enclosed area for the defendant in court awry wrong squat (adj.) low acrid sharp congealed gooey, semi-solidified slinking moving smoothly conscientious samvittighetsfulle/samvitsfull entitled feeling deserving of special treatment alien strange, foreign converging meeting, crossing plunger avløpspumpe fuse lunte

Bedlam and the Ripper are referred to early in this story. Bedlam was initially a convent in the 1200s but became London’s most notorious psychiatric institution. Today there is a museum on its grounds, depicting its grotesque history. The hospital, full name Bethlem Royal Hospital, is still in use today. Intrigued by the Ripper? Google and find out, if you dare!

Culture and Diversity

199


[ chapter 3 ]

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

er in

15

rd

10

vu

10

til

5

35

40

Ku n

Baines, E, (2019). Kiss. In Best British Short Stories. N. Royle (Ed.). Salt Publishing: Cromer.

AUTHOR

198

5

And then the long fight for justice, and calmness, and work for a charity helping young people with such problems, and a soft summer night in a south London garden shaking hands with a new worker, the pale young woman. And as the young man with the dreadlocks stood in court in the dock and the young woman came to in a hospital bed with a drip in her arm, the twelveyear-old boy who would eventually carry the backpack sat neatly in his uniform passing his exams, the pride of his grocer father, destined for university and the life of a doctor. But as he walked home through the winter evenings something was awry. The dark street was a gulf between squat cliffs of housing, acrid light leaking from mean squares of windows, congealed sticky rubbish, a dog slinking, guilty or sly, from a deep black alley, like the gulf between the life of his home – his anxious, conscientious parents, eager to please in this land they came to – and the life of school and the high street where the kids hung at weekends in their hi-tops, careless and entitled. He belonged in neither world. He belonged nowhere; his future, mapped out by his parents, was a mystery to him, alien. He had no real purpose of his own. Until one day after mosque, someone touched his arm and drew him aside. And there they are now, three young lives converging, and the lives of those milling around them, the young people in jeans, the men and women carrying cases with laptops and papers, parents with a child in a pushchair, which the young man with the backpack has been trained not to see as individual people with lives, only to think of the glory of martyrdom and reward in heaven. And here is the moment when his thumb touches the plunger, and if the fuse has become disconnected the crowd will keep flowing and the couple will complete their embrace and move on to wherever their relationship will take them, or the pulse will hit the fuse and the air around it will fly out faster than the speed of sound, and in the blast and the shock waves that follow, and the sucking vacuum created, those linear narratives will shatter, the fragments spin – a mother’s resentful face in the mirror, the hatred and fear in a policeman’s eyes, lights glowing in a south London garden, and the moment conceived but never fulfilled, the perfect conclusion, the kiss.

TIDBIT

siblings brothers/sisters tartness sharpness dashed here: having lost confidence and hope bangles bracelets kaftan long, loose dress of Near Eastern origin notion inkling, wish vulnerable sårbar devastation severe grief tartly sharply, in a bitter tone oppression undertrykkelse/ undertrykking sly slurs cunning insults precinct specific area in a town exasperation intense irritation

was mad, perhaps there was something wrong with her, for it to keep on happening. In school she kept away from the other girls, sat in the library at lunchtime, her limbs heavy and frozen, while they went off down the road to hang around the café and gossip and call to the boys. Envious, no not envious, too removed from them for envy, trapped behind a barrier, her inability to account for herself, even to herself. But did her mother guess anyway? She would wonder that, years later. And did she blame the girl? For she reserved for the girl a strictness she never applied to her siblings, and a critical tartness of manner that made the girl feel constantly stupid and dashed. Though she didn’t like to admit it to herself, she didn’t want to think she was unloved. Fifteen years old, she sat on her mother’s bed beside her mother as she got ready to go to a function, her mother patting her own hair in the mirror, taking up her bangles and asking, Which one? The girl was flattered to be asked and chose with care, a deep blue and a turquoise to go with the colours in her mother’s kaftan, and her mother, pleased with the choice, drew them onto her wrist. An intimate moment, for which the girl was glad. And in that moment, she had the notion of telling her mother, weighed it in her mind as she’d weighed the bangles in her hands. Her mother leaned forward to adjust her mascara, and the girl watched a little crease appear at the back of her neck and was overwhelmed by a sense of her mother as vulnerable, and of the devastation that such a revelation would create. And that was when her mother, meeting her eyes in the mirror, said tartly, quite nastily, That lipstick doesn’t suit you. Then the years of anorexia, that wish to be no longer the person you see in the mirror and weighing you down, to flee her; the dropping out of university, the lack of room in your head for facts and complicated thoughts about things it was hard to make matter, the lack of point in it all. And finally, one dark night, the attempt to escape at last with a can of lager and a packet of pills. And the long road to recovery, which she was still treading that night at the party in the south London garden, but there she was, treading it, or rather, standing still against the dark bushes as the young man with the dreadlocks turned towards her, carrying his own past of oppression. The monkey noises and gestures, those grammar school boys going past in the morning as he turned out of the Bristol council estate, the sly and not-sosly slurs in the playground. He stopped going, doubled back to the empty house – his lone mother gone to her hospital cleaning job – or hung around the shopping precinct. His mother summoned to the school, the anger and sadness in her eyes. The taunts didn’t stop, and as he grew his anger grew too: he would flip and lash out, and in the end, he was expelled. The sleek police car drawing up alongside as he walked in the streetlight, a teenager with dreadlocks; once, on a two-mile walk, he was stopped several times. He had learned the necessity of controlling his temper, but he couldn’t help a gesture of exasperation, he threw up his arms, and later his mother would find him in the police station covered in bruises.

g

3 Culture and Diversity

Elizabeth Baines (1947–) is a British teacher, novelist, playwright, and short story writer. This name is a pseudonym; her real name is Helen White. She has published texts under both names. Her short story “Kiss” was selected for the anthology Best British Short Stories 2019.

dock enclosed area for the defendant in court awry wrong squat (adj.) low acrid sharp congealed gooey, semi-solidified slinking moving smoothly conscientious samvittighetsfulle/samvitsfull entitled feeling deserving of special treatment alien strange, foreign converging meeting, crossing plunger avløpspumpe fuse lunte

Bedlam and the Ripper are referred to early in this story. Bedlam was initially a convent in the 1200s but became London’s most notorious psychiatric institution. Today there is a museum on its grounds, depicting its grotesque history. The hospital, full name Bethlem Royal Hospital, is still in use today. Intrigued by the Ripper? Google and find out, if you dare!

Culture and Diversity

199


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

2 Why did the boy “eventually carry a backpack”? 3 Did the boy press the detonator? Argue for your answer.

Ku n

Conclude

200

[ chapter 3 ]

g

a Go to Skolestudio to find a list of typical literary devices found in short stories. b Analyse “Kiss” using the accompanying twocolumn grid. c Using your notes from the grid, choose one of the short story devices that you have identified and write an analytic paragraph on it. Use the model below as guidance.

Baines concludes her short story with an open ending. An open ending is a common device in short stories where the author lets the readers interpret for themselves what will happen next. In “Kiss” the question is whether the bomb will be detonated or not, and if the couple will kiss – and live on. “And here is the moment when his thumb touches the plunger, and if the fuse has become disconnected the crowd will keep flowing and the couple will complete their embrace and move on to wherever their relationship will take them, or the pulse will hit the fuse (…)”, Baines writes (2019, p. 156). The outcome and its aftermath are all up to the readers to guess. This creates ambiguity and makes the short story more complex, and intriguing, and possibly, as a result, it may have a stronger impact.

til

Explain and exemplify

7 Do you think this a conventional short story in terms of structure?

vu

EXAMPLE

Claim

6 Baines makes use of linear narratives, letting the readers follow three characters and their lives at the same time. What is the effect of this chosen form of narrative?

rd

4 What are the three narratives told here?

STRUCTURE 5 The short story commences with an in medias res opening. Why is that common in short stories, do you think? Explain.

er in

CONTENT 1 Answer the four questions with true/false. a The couple in the short story are most likely of different ethnicities. b When talking about the couple as survivors – it is not the possible terrorist attack that is referred to. c The mother in the story suffered from anorexia. d The boy with the detonator was a first-generation immigrant to the UK.

LANGUAGE 8 EXAMPLE

Baines’ descriptive style

Objective and informative style

A moment in a progression of moments, leading towards the moment their lips will meet, running on from all the moments before: the couple rising up out of the underground through the musty-smelling wind, the stale breath of old London with its shades of Bedlam and The Ripper still shifting in the tunnels with the soot-coloured mice that run between the rails, leaning together, the young man behind, the young woman leaning back, new lovers drunk on touch: while above in the glittering day, the young man with the bomb in his backpack crosses the road towards the tube station entrance, nervous, looking over his shoulder in the way he’s not supposed to, been told not to, a gleam of sweat on his faintly shadowed upper lip.

A young couple leaving the tube station somewhere in London are about to kiss as a nervous young man with a bomb in his backpack moves towards the tube entrance.

a Baines makes use of vivid descriptions in her short story. Choose two passages and rephrase them into plain and informative language. b Compare the two text versions and comment on what you gain and lose as a reader when reading Baines’s descriptive ones and your plain and informative ones. 9 Baines uses long sentences with many commas. What does she accomplish by doing so? OVER TO YOU 10 Hot seat In pairs, take on the role as the parents of the boy with the backpack. Use the information provided in the text to prepare questions and answers about their: • • • •

11 Storyboard for the sequel Present the storyboard or shooting script for a sequel to this text – or one about the character’s life. What happens next? See course 9: Planning your text for guidance. 12 Compare and contrast Choose one of the characters you have met earlier this year and one of the characters in this short story and compare their lives. Focus on: • What obstacles they meet/have met • Where they live • Their prospects for the future See course 1: Reading strategies for guidance.

immigration to the UK current life observations on British culture wishes for their son

Culture and Diversity

201


3 Culture and Diversity PRACTICE

a Go to Skolestudio to find a list of typical literary devices found in short stories. b Analyse “Kiss” using the accompanying twocolumn grid. c Using your notes from the grid, choose one of the short story devices that you have identified and write an analytic paragraph on it. Use the model below as guidance.

EXAMPLE

Claim

Explain and exemplify

A moment in a progression of moments, leading towards the moment their lips will meet, running on from all the moments before: the couple rising up out of the underground through the musty-smelling wind, the stale breath of old London with its shades of Bedlam and The Ripper still shifting in the tunnels with the soot-coloured mice that run between the rails, leaning together, the young man behind, the young woman leaning back, new lovers drunk on touch: while above in the glittering day, the young man with the bomb in his backpack crosses the road towards the tube station entrance, nervous, looking over his shoulder in the way he’s not supposed to, been told not to, a gleam of sweat on his faintly shadowed upper lip.

A young couple leaving the tube station somewhere in London are about to kiss as a nervous young man with a bomb in his backpack moves towards the tube entrance.

g

Objective and informative style

a Baines makes use of vivid descriptions in her short story. Choose two passages and rephrase them into plain and informative language. b Compare the two text versions and comment on what you gain and lose as a reader when reading Baines’s descriptive ones and your plain and informative ones.

11 Storyboard for the sequel Present the storyboard or shooting script for a sequel to this text – or one about the character’s life. What happens next?

9 Baines uses long sentences with many commas. What does she accomplish by doing so? OVER TO YOU 10 Hot seat In pairs, take on the role as the parents of the boy with the backpack. Use the information provided in the text to prepare questions and answers about their:

See course 9: Planning your text for guidance.

12 Compare and contrast Choose one of the characters you have met earlier this year and one of the characters in this short story and compare their lives. Focus on: • What obstacles they meet/have met • Where they live • Their prospects for the future See course 1: Reading strategies for guidance.

Ku n

Conclude

Baines concludes her short story with an open ending. An open ending is a common device in short stories where the author lets the readers interpret for themselves what will happen next. In “Kiss” the question is whether the bomb will be detonated or not, and if the couple will kiss – and live on. “And here is the moment when his thumb touches the plunger, and if the fuse has become disconnected the crowd will keep flowing and the couple will complete their embrace and move on to wherever their relationship will take them, or the pulse will hit the fuse (…)”, Baines writes (2019, p. 156). The outcome and its aftermath are all up to the readers to guess. This creates ambiguity and makes the short story more complex, and intriguing, and possibly, as a result, it may have a stronger impact.

Baines’ descriptive style

er in

4 What are the three narratives told here?

7 Do you think this a conventional short story in terms of structure?

EXAMPLE

rd

3 Did the boy press the detonator? Argue for your answer.

6 Baines makes use of linear narratives, letting the readers follow three characters and their lives at the same time. What is the effect of this chosen form of narrative?

LANGUAGE 8

vu

2 Why did the boy “eventually carry a backpack”?

STRUCTURE 5 The short story commences with an in medias res opening. Why is that common in short stories, do you think? Explain.

til

CONTENT 1 Answer the four questions with true/false. a The couple in the short story are most likely of different ethnicities. b When talking about the couple as survivors – it is not the possible terrorist attack that is referred to. c The mother in the story suffered from anorexia. d The boy with the detonator was a first-generation immigrant to the UK.

• • • •

200

[ chapter 3 ]

immigration to the UK current life observations on British culture wishes for their son

Culture and Diversity

201


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS • Reflect on the problem of domestic abuse • Analyse some regional language features • Practise listening to and analysing song lyrics

vu til

Ku n

LI

N TO M U S !

[ chapter 3 ]

E ST

IC

rd

er in

g

ow would you advise • H a friend if they told you someone they loved was becoming abusive?

Lesley CONTEXT

202

FIRST • H ow sure are you that you would recognise the signs if you had entered a potentially abusive relationship?

In culturally and ethnically diverse London, the victims of crime are often members of minorities, as well as other groups – not least women – whose position in society is more vulnerable. In the song “Lesley”, Londoner Dave raps about domestic abuse – violence that happens in the home, behind closed doors. In recent years, the law has been changed in the UK to cover more than just physical domestic abuse. Controlling and coercive behaviour is now a criminal offense, too. Examples of this are repeatedly putting someone down, telling them they are worthless, threatening them, and isolating them from friends and family. At the same time, the law was changed to help further protect victims of Female Genital Mutilation. The first conviction came in 2019 against a Ugandan woman from east London for mutilating her 3-year-old daughter.

Culture and Diversity

203


3 Culture and Diversity AIMS FIRST

• Reflect on the problem of domestic abuse • Analyse some regional language features • Practise listening to and analysing song lyrics

• H ow sure are you that you would recognise the signs if you had entered a potentially abusive relationship?

N TO M U S

vu

!

LI

E ST

IC

rd

er in

g

ow would you advise • H a friend if they told you someone they loved was becoming abusive?

Lesley

til

Ku n

CONTEXT

In culturally and ethnically diverse London, the victims of crime are often members of minorities, as well as other groups – not least women – whose position in society is more vulnerable. In the song “Lesley”, Londoner Dave raps about domestic abuse – violence that happens in the home, behind closed doors. In recent years, the law has been changed in the UK to cover more than just physical domestic abuse. Controlling and coercive behaviour is now a criminal offense, too. Examples of this are repeatedly putting someone down, telling them they are worthless, threatening them, and isolating them from friends and family. At the same time, the law was changed to help further protect victims of Female Genital Mutilation. The first conviction came in 2019 against a Ugandan woman from east London for mutilating her 3-year-old daughter.

202

[ chapter 3 ]

Culture and Diversity

203


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: RAP

er in

Lesley

Look They say the universe, it works in a strange way And it must be true because, we ain’t from the same background or same place But me and Lesley ended up on that same train I’m talking everyday, I used to wake up around seven or eight To catch the 906 from Norbury Station Two different worlds in the same location and One day we ended up speaking And I would talk about college, she would talk about meetings And how she’s planning on leaving How she hates what she does but she needs it I asked her what she was doing, it’s the weekend And she said, she said

vu til

Ku n 204

[ chapter 3 ]

I don’t know myself I don’t know myself no more She used to be the life of the party for true And now she going out hardly ever Her man got her in the yard forever And her friends wanna help but it’s hard to tell her Hard to let her know that her man’s possessive and aggressive And she can’t even see it, but for them it’s clear as day, she’s in a situation Her friend Hannah had a man that was manipulative So, she could see it from a mile off Turtleneck jumpers, makeup around the eye spots All the signs were there But Lesley made it seem a light affair Said it wasn’t right to share

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

Her boyfriend, he was a mystery man I didn’t know much about him, but he’s been in the can Name’s Jason, he’s a bad boy with no reasoning To be honest, I don’t know what Les’ sees in him ’Cause she’s a good girl with a sweet heart But they’ve both got demons and a deep past You know opposites attract, apparently I never heard her talk about her family ever, uh-uh He was all that she had Until they had an argument and he stopped calling her back And I don’t know if there was more to the story than that ’Cause she plays things down but according to that He went missing one day in the morning he ran She’s doing overtime, struggling affording the flat ’Til she, lost her job it fucked all of her plans Couldn’t pay the rent, borrowing and calling for cash But Hannah she was there for her, cared for her When I saw Les’ she told me

AUTHOR

Norbury district in SW London college her: videregående/ videregåande skole (yrkesfaglig)/(yrkesfagleg) for true honestly yard home possessive controlling situation her: dangerous position light affair minor issue share talk about in the can in prison no reasoning lack of clear thinking flat apartment raw serious; intense neglected uncared for exes ex-boyfriends tryna trying to back on track the way she wants it

5

g

5

rd

TIDBIT

Dave’s older brother Christopher is still serving a minimum 18-year sentence for the murder of 15-year-old school boy Sofyen Belamouadden in 2010. Sofyen had been stabbed 8 times. It required the largest murder investigation ever carried out by the London Metropolitan Police. An astounding 20 people were charged with his murder. Three were convicted for the murder, while five others were convicted for manslaughter.

I don’t know myself I don’t know myself no more Les’ saying, ”I got nothing to live for It’s been raw, but David, I ain’t never been this poor There’s no income, my boyfriend left me So how the fuck am I going to survive when this kid’s born?” I said, ”It’s a blessing as mad as it is And Les’, I never even knew you were having a kid” Bro, she’s four months pregnant, young and neglected Single but I don’t think she wants to accept it So she’s still texting ex’s trying to get this Back on track but I don’t think that she gets it It’s emotional obsession, clinical depression Life is a lesson And you ain’t got to sit and cry And Lesley, living in this gift called life There’s no better gift than the gift of life So, can you handle it? I don’t know myself I don’t know myself no more

David Orobosa Omoregie (b.1998) is a British musician. His single “Funky Friday”, featuring Fredo, became a number one hit on the UK Singles Chart. Dave’s debut album Psychodrama (2019) was met with critical acclaim and debuted at number one. It went on to win the Mercury Prize and the BRIT Award for Album of the Year. Dave made his acting debut in the third season of the Netflix series Top Boy, which was released in September 2019.

Now, before testing your receptive skills by doing the Practice tasks, listen to the whole track on your favourite streaming service. An internet search for “Lesley Dave lyrics” will take you to one of several websites where you can also read the full text.

Omoregie, D.O., Smith, F.T., Eckford, M. & Napier, J. (2019). Lesley [Recorded by Dave, featuring Ruelle]. On Psychodrama. Neighbourhood Recordings.

Culture and Diversity

205


3 Culture and Diversity

GENRE: RAP

204

[ chapter 3 ]

Look They say the universe, it works in a strange way And it must be true because, we ain’t from the same background or same place But me and Lesley ended up on that same train I’m talking everyday, I used to wake up around seven or eight To catch the 906 from Norbury Station Two different worlds in the same location and One day we ended up speaking And I would talk about college, she would talk about meetings And how she’s planning on leaving How she hates what she does but she needs it I asked her what she was doing, it’s the weekend And she said, she said

15

20

20

I don’t know myself I don’t know myself no more She used to be the life of the party for true And now she going out hardly ever Her man got her in the yard forever And her friends wanna help but it’s hard to tell her Hard to let her know that her man’s possessive and aggressive And she can’t even see it, but for them it’s clear as day, she’s in a situation Her friend Hannah had a man that was manipulative So, she could see it from a mile off Turtleneck jumpers, makeup around the eye spots All the signs were there But Lesley made it seem a light affair Said it wasn’t right to share

25

25

30

30

35

40

35

40

g David Orobosa Omoregie (b.1998) is a British musician. His single “Funky Friday”, featuring Fredo, became a number one hit on the UK Singles Chart. Dave’s debut album Psychodrama (2019) was met with critical acclaim and debuted at number one. It went on to win the Mercury Prize and the BRIT Award for Album of the Year. Dave made his acting debut in the third season of the Netflix series Top Boy, which was released in September 2019.

er in

15

Lesley

I don’t know myself I don’t know myself no more

rd

10

vu

10

Les’ saying, ”I got nothing to live for It’s been raw, but David, I ain’t never been this poor There’s no income, my boyfriend left me So how the fuck am I going to survive when this kid’s born?” I said, ”It’s a blessing as mad as it is And Les’, I never even knew you were having a kid” Bro, she’s four months pregnant, young and neglected Single but I don’t think she wants to accept it So she’s still texting ex’s trying to get this Back on track but I don’t think that she gets it It’s emotional obsession, clinical depression Life is a lesson And you ain’t got to sit and cry And Lesley, living in this gift called life There’s no better gift than the gift of life So, can you handle it?

til

5

AUTHOR

Norbury district in SW London college her: videregående/ videregåande skole (yrkesfaglig)/(yrkesfagleg) for true honestly yard home possessive controlling situation her: dangerous position light affair minor issue share talk about in the can in prison no reasoning lack of clear thinking flat apartment raw serious; intense neglected uncared for exes ex-boyfriends tryna trying to back on track the way she wants it

5

Her boyfriend, he was a mystery man I didn’t know much about him, but he’s been in the can Name’s Jason, he’s a bad boy with no reasoning To be honest, I don’t know what Les’ sees in him ’Cause she’s a good girl with a sweet heart But they’ve both got demons and a deep past You know opposites attract, apparently I never heard her talk about her family ever, uh-uh He was all that she had Until they had an argument and he stopped calling her back And I don’t know if there was more to the story than that ’Cause she plays things down but according to that He went missing one day in the morning he ran She’s doing overtime, struggling affording the flat ’Til she, lost her job it fucked all of her plans Couldn’t pay the rent, borrowing and calling for cash But Hannah she was there for her, cared for her When I saw Les’ she told me

Ku n

TIDBIT

Dave’s older brother Christopher is still serving a minimum 18-year sentence for the murder of 15-year-old school boy Sofyen Belamouadden in 2010. Sofyen had been stabbed 8 times. It required the largest murder investigation ever carried out by the London Metropolitan Police. An astounding 20 people were charged with his murder. Three were convicted for the murder, while five others were convicted for manslaughter.

I don’t know myself I don’t know myself no more

Now, before testing your receptive skills by doing the Practice tasks, listen to the whole track on your favourite streaming service. An internet search for “Lesley Dave lyrics” will take you to one of several websites where you can also read the full text.

Omoregie, D.O., Smith, F.T., Eckford, M. & Napier, J. (2019). Lesley [Recorded by Dave, featuring Ruelle]. On Psychodrama. Neighbourhood Recordings.

Culture and Diversity

205


Selected accents of the UK

3 Culture and Diversity

PRACTICE 5 What do the following words and phrases, as they are used in the song, have in common?

g h i j k l m n

for true yard in the can

raw exes drop

pumped thicker fitter

my girls feds garrison

deck rot

g

Where is Dave headed to on the 9:06 to Norbury? Why has Lesley stopped going out? Where had Jason been until recently? What did he suddenly do one day? Who is Hannah? What does Dave tell Lesley about being pregnant with Jason? How does Lesley deal with being suddenly single? What is supposed to happen in December? What doesn’t Lesley tell Hannah? What has Lesley not told Jason since he returned? What does Lesley do instead of getting a scan as scheduled? Why does Lesley think Jason might be cheating on her? What does Jason do to Lesley? Who was in the wardrobe?

OVER TO YOU 6 Dive into MLE pronunciation Dave is a speaker of a variety of English called Multicultural London English (MLE). Listen carefully to the way he pronounces the speech sounds in each of these words. In each case, the pronunciation is probably different from your own. • • • • • •

ing – in talking, speaking, meetings t, k and ck – in Look, background and eight th – in that th – in with, fathom th – in thinking, nothing, three-thirty (3:30) ll – in all, call, still

rd

a b c d e f

er in

CONTENT 1 Answer the following questions.

Referring to the course 13: Improving your pronunciation for guidance, transcribe each of the examples above using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Make this into a poster or single-slide presentation explaining some of the features of MLE.

vu

STRUCTURE 2 a How does the narrator change at the point when Lesley demands the key to the wardrobe from Jason? b Why do you suppose the songwriters made this choice?

I’m talking every day Her and Hannah had lunch I been feeling like I need to get my aura back She couldn’t believe what she see on the floor there ain’t no one else in the house ‘cause the situation embarrassing

Ku n

• • • • • •

til

LANGUAGE 3 a Identify the non-standard parts of Dave’s English in the following lines.

b Rewrite the lines in standard English. More than one change may be required.

4 Explain the pun in the line: “before I dash like Morse code”.

Pun noun: a joke that depends on a double meaning or the similar sound of different words: Why was six afraid of seven? ‘Cos seven ate nine.

206

[ chapter 3 ]

7 Research UK accents and dialects In Multicultural London English, all three of these words sound identical: • Paul • pull • pool In other accents, including standard British English, all three are pronounced differently. Working in small groups, use the map on the facing page to choose a UK accent to research. YouTube videos are a recommended resource for this. Firstly, choose a small number of common words – such as say and boat, depending on what you hear in the video – that illustrate some differences between this accent and your own pronunciation. Secondly, discover some dialect words – i.e., words mainly used just in that region of the country. Present your findings to the class. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

Scottish

Selected accents of the UK Scottish Geordie

Geordie

Northern Irish

Northern Irish

Yorkshire Yorkshire

Mancunian Mancunian

Scouse

Scouse

WelshWelsh

Norfolk Norfolk

Brummie

Brummie

London & South-Eastern

London & South-Eastern West Country

West Country EXAMPLE

West Country Accent: how, brown, cow – vowel pronounced as a different diphthong: æy rather than aʊ my, guide, life – vowel pronounced as a different diphthong: əɪ rather than aɪ farmer, barn, larder – r pronounced in all positions Dialect words: gurt – very large daps – rubber-soled shoes janner – person from Devon dimpsy – becoming dark grockle – tourist

Culture and Diversity

207


3 Culture and Diversity

Selected accents of the UK PRACTICE

l m n

STRUCTURE 2 a How does the narrator change at the point when Lesley demands the key to the wardrobe from Jason? b Why do you suppose the songwriters made this choice? LANGUAGE 3 a Identify the non-standard parts of Dave’s English in the following lines. • • • • • •

I’m talking every day Her and Hannah had lunch I been feeling like I need to get my aura back She couldn’t believe what she see on the floor there ain’t no one else in the house ‘cause the situation embarrassing

b Rewrite the lines in standard English. More than one change may be required. 4 Explain the pun in the line: “before I dash like Morse code”.

Pun noun: a joke that depends on a double meaning or the similar sound of different words: Why was six afraid of seven? ‘Cos seven ate nine.

206

[ chapter 3 ]

my girls feds garrison

deck rot

Scottish Geordie

g

pumped thicker fitter

Geordie

Northern Irish

OVER TO YOU 6 Dive into MLE pronunciation Dave is a speaker of a variety of English called Multicultural London English (MLE). Listen carefully to the way he pronounces the speech sounds in each of these words. In each case, the pronunciation is probably different from your own. • • • • • •

ing – in talking, speaking, meetings t, k and ck – in Look, background and eight th – in that th – in with, fathom th – in thinking, nothing, three-thirty (3:30) ll – in all, call, still

Referring to the course 13: Improving your pronunciation for guidance, transcribe each of the examples above using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Make this into a poster or single-slide presentation explaining some of the features of MLE. 7 Research UK accents and dialects In Multicultural London English, all three of these words sound identical: • Paul • pull • pool In other accents, including standard British English, all three are pronounced differently. Working in small groups, use the map on the facing page to choose a UK accent to research. YouTube videos are a recommended resource for this. Firstly, choose a small number of common words – such as say and boat, depending on what you hear in the video – that illustrate some differences between this accent and your own pronunciation. Secondly, discover some dialect words – i.e., words mainly used just in that region of the country. Present your findings to the class. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

er in

k

raw exes drop

Northern Irish

Yorkshire Yorkshire

Mancunian Mancunian

Scouse

rd

h i j

for true yard in the can

Scouse

WelshWelsh

Norfolk Norfolk

Brummie

Brummie

vu

g

Where is Dave headed to on the 9:06 to Norbury? Why has Lesley stopped going out? Where had Jason been until recently? What did he suddenly do one day? Who is Hannah? What does Dave tell Lesley about being pregnant with Jason? How does Lesley deal with being suddenly single? What is supposed to happen in December? What doesn’t Lesley tell Hannah? What has Lesley not told Jason since he returned? What does Lesley do instead of getting a scan as scheduled? Why does Lesley think Jason might be cheating on her? What does Jason do to Lesley? Who was in the wardrobe?

Scottish

Selected accents of the UK

til

a b c d e f

5 What do the following words and phrases, as they are used in the song, have in common?

London & South-Eastern

London & South-Eastern

West Country

West Country

Ku n

CONTENT 1 Answer the following questions.

EXAMPLE

West Country Accent: how, brown, cow – vowel pronounced as a different diphthong: æy rather than aʊ my, guide, life – vowel pronounced as a different diphthong: əɪ rather than aɪ farmer, barn, larder – r pronounced in all positions Dialect words: gurt – very large daps – rubber-soled shoes janner – person from Devon dimpsy – becoming dark grockle – tourist

Culture and Diversity

207


PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM

Culture and society may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can: • Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Task Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aim:

g

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

er in

Model answer – Body paragraph

Task 1 – Short answer “So who is fucking addicted to who?”, says Moses X, in the extract from Ben Judah’s This is London cited on page 191. Write a short text where you explain Moses X’s message and comment upon how his language reflects his life and situation.

EXAMPLE

Open with a linking phrase State a topic sentence

Task 2 – Long answer

Suggested thesis statements/questions: EXAMPLE

• •

rd

Choose either a or b below. Give your text a suitable title.

The fact is that Khan and Moses have outlooks shaped, in part, by meeting a world that does not fully accept them. For Khan, there were her “brown people”, some being conservative Muslims, disgusted to see a young woman singing and playing music. This was to act like a “whore” in their view. Then there were her white people. Some of these turned out to be racists who called her “paki”, spat in her face and demanded that she go back to “her own country”. Moses describes the world differently, although he may have met just as much racism: he found that he was looked down upon – despite his expensive watch – because he earned his money as a criminal. The result is extreme bitterness, as he sees everyone else as a worse kind of criminal than himself: whores, drug abusers, and rich men whose families earned their money from the opium trade in the time of the British Empire. Both may have good reason to be bitter, yet Khan’s message is one of reconciliation, while Moses is fixed in his view that his criminal way of life is justified by everyone else’s guilt.

Supporting sentences that exemplify, introduce a contrasting view and explore a consequence

vu

2a You have studied cultural and social conditions in the UK in your preparation material, and during your course. Create a text where you compare British society in the past to the present.

You should refer to texts from the preparation material and/or sources that you have worked with during your course. Give your text a suitable title.

til

2b Both Deeyah Khan and Moses X are immigrants in the UK, living in London. Their lives are quite different, but both have a clear message to the world.

Ku n

Create a text in which you discuss their situations and similarities/dissimilarities. You should: • explain the different lives presented • discuss the views expressed in the texts • compare the lives and messages of the characters Give your text a suitable title.

Make sure you remember how to write a good body paragraph.

208

[ chapter 3 ]

Closing sentence that summarises

utforske og reflektere over mangfold og samfunnsforhold i den engelskspråklige verden ut fra historiske sammenhenger

• •

Why the argument in favour of fox hunting is lost once and for all. How are the benefits and challenges of multicultural society explored in “Educating Greater Manchester”? Dave enhances his message in “Lesley” with the use of language features and literary devices. How does “Watchmen” make the case for inherited trauma?

Requirements for the presentation Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it: • • • •

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation •

• •

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

Culture and Diversity

209


PREPARING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM

PREPARING FOR THE ORAL EXAM

Culture and society may be a topic on the exam. The purpose of completing exam tasks is to demonstrate to the external examiner that you can: • Structure your text to make your arguments easy to follow • Use clear, varied, and accurate language

Task

2a You have studied cultural and social conditions in the UK in your preparation material, and during your course. Create a text where you compare British society in the past to the present. You should refer to texts from the preparation material and/or sources that you have worked with during your course. Give your text a suitable title.

Open with a linking phrase State a topic sentence

Supporting sentences that exemplify, introduce a contrasting view and explore a consequence

2b Both Deeyah Khan and Moses X are immigrants in the UK, living in London. Their lives are quite different, but both have a clear message to the world. Create a text in which you discuss their situations and similarities/dissimilarities. You should: • explain the different lives presented • discuss the views expressed in the texts • compare the lives and messages of the characters Give your text a suitable title. Make sure you remember how to write a good body paragraph.

208

[ chapter 3 ]

Closing sentence that summarises

Suggested thesis statements/questions: The fact is that Khan and Moses have outlooks shaped, in part, by meeting a world that does not fully accept them. For Khan, there were her “brown people”, some being conservative Muslims, disgusted to see a young woman singing and playing music. This was to act like a “whore” in their view. Then there were her white people. Some of these turned out to be racists who called her “paki”, spat in her face and demanded that she go back to “her own country”. Moses describes the world differently, although he may have met just as much racism: he found that he was looked down upon – despite his expensive watch – because he earned his money as a criminal. The result is extreme bitterness, as he sees everyone else as a worse kind of criminal than himself: whores, drug abusers, and rich men whose families earned their money from the opium trade in the time of the British Empire. Both may have good reason to be bitter, yet Khan’s message is one of reconciliation, while Moses is fixed in his view that his criminal way of life is justified by everyone else’s guilt.

EXAMPLE

• •

Why the argument in favour of fox hunting is lost once and for all. How are the benefits and challenges of multicultural society explored in “Educating Greater Manchester”? Dave enhances his message in “Lesley” with the use of language features and literary devices. How does “Watchmen” make the case for inherited trauma?

rd

Choose either a or b below. Give your text a suitable title.

EXAMPLE

utforske og reflektere over mangfold og samfunnsforhold i den engelskspråklige verden ut fra historiske sammenhenger

• •

vu

Task 2 – Long answer

Model answer – Body paragraph

Requirements for the presentation Your presentation points to elements that you wish to discuss in the conversation. It gives your teacher and the examiner insight into your pronunciation, vocabulary, and to what extent you can complete the task. Make sure it:

til

“So who is fucking addicted to who?”, says Moses X, in the extract from Ben Judah’s This is London cited on page 191. Write a short text where you explain Moses X’s message and comment upon how his language reflects his life and situation.

Ku n

Task 1 – Short answer

g

Prepare and give an oral presentation based on the following competence aim:

er in

• Interpret the task carefully to respond properly • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding by using and referring to relevant sources, i.e., the texts you have studied in this chapter

An oral exam typically consists of: 1 A presentation 2 A conversation based on the presentation

The examiner will be using the national criteria when assessing your written and oral skills. You find these on Udir.no.

• • • •

lasts no longer than 10 minutes has a clear structure: introduction, body, and conclusion includes examples from texts that you would like to talk about in the conversation is presented using a functional volume, speed, diction, and gesticulation suitable for your audience and purpose

Requirements for the conversation •

• • •

You are to talk the most – not your examiners. Elaborate on your answers by providing examples of arguments from sources you have worked on during the school year Respond to the examiner’s questions and try to follow his or her line of thought Use specific terminology linked to your topic whenever relevant Be prepared to be asked to discuss and reflect on other competence aims in the curriculum

The two courses Giving presentations and Holding discussions are useful when preparing for the oral exam.

Culture and Diversity

209


g er in rd vu til

Ku n

4 Citizenship

210

[ chapter 4 ]

What does it mean to be a citizen? What do you consider yourself a citizen of?

CHAPTER FOCUS • Reflect on how our culture forms our understanding of the world • Understand the rights and responsibilities of citizenship • Discuss how you can take an active part within a democracy Citizenship

211


g er in rd vu til 210

[ chapter 4 ]

Ku n

4 Citizenship

What does it mean to be a citizen? What do you consider yourself a citizen of?

CHAPTER FOCUS • Reflect on how our culture forms our understanding of the world • Understand the rights and responsibilities of citizenship • Discuss how you can take an active part within a democracy Citizenship

211


4 Citizenship

By Henrik Syse

vu

rd

Dear reader of this book: You are a citizen. I can assure you, whoever you are, probably a young man or woman in a Norwegian school, around 16 or maybe 17 years old: you are indeed a citizen. Most people in our world are. You may not think about your citizenship that much, but it is a fact that you have one. So, what does that mean? To be a citizen is to be a member of a state or, as we often say, a country. Most people have such membership in only one country, but some are citizens of more than one (we often call that “dual citizenship”). Most live in the country of which they are a citizen, but some do not – some, for instance, study or work or get married abroad, while still being a citizen of the country where they were born or used to live. The highly respected Cambridge Dictionary of the English language defines a citizen thus: a person who is a member of a particular country and who has rights because of being born there or because of being given rights, or a person who lives in a particular town or city (Cambridge Dictionary n.d., citizen entry). We see from this definition that citizenship has also been used about membership in smaller communities than a country, such as a city. Indeed, the word “citizen” has the word “city” as its root. Still, in our day and age, it is most common to use it about membership in a country. The country of which you are a citizen gives you both rights and duties, such as the right to vote or the right to receive health care, or the duty to pay taxes or the duty to protect your country. These rights and duties are different from country to country, but there are always at least some rights and some duties associated with being a citizen.

Ku n

til

What does dual citizenship mean?

212

[ chapter 4 ]

er in

You Are a Citizen

g

GENRE: PERSONAL ESSAY

However, we sometimes use the word citizen in a much wider sense. We are, after all, citizens of the world, too – inhabitants of a planet where we live together, and where we have duties and rights together. The idea of human rights is based on this idea: that simply by being a living human being on this planet, you are the holder of human rights. Therefore, you are a “citizen” of sorts. You do not have to be a citizen of any particular country to have basic human rights. As you reflect upon the texts in this book and what it means to be a citizen, please have both meanings in mind: membership in a country and membership in the world. *** There are two important things about citizenship that are worth reflecting on: Firstly, to be a citizen is not something isolated or lonely. No one is a citizen – of a city, of a state, or of the world – all by him- or herself. To be a citizen is always to be part of a larger community and to be in the company of the other citizens, many of whom will be very different from you, even if you share the same citizenship. A citizen, therefore, should be mature enough to tolerate and respect difference. You and your fellow citizens may, after all, have different beliefs, opinions, and looks, but you are all citizens who are bound together by your common citizenship, whether of a country or of the world. That gives you both rights and duties. We should probably think of citizenship as a property that many people share. This means that we cannot see ourselves in total isolation from the other owners. We have something very important in common, and this means that we have rights and responsibilities in common, too. Secondly, to be a citizen is to be active. Well, it does not have to be. You can be a citizen and never vote, never read the news, or never care about the community and the citizens around you. But then you do fall short of the ideal of what it means to be a citizen. In the writings of the famous Greek philosopher Plato, this very point is made quite amusingly and forcefully. An ambitious young man called Callicles holds that the good is the same as pleasure. This is what we often call a “hedonist” view of morality: the good life is simply about getting as much pleasure as possible. This is, however, not accepted by Socrates, who was Plato’s teacher and who is also the main speaker in this book, called The Gorgias.

How can we formulate the basic idea behind human rights?

Syse uses property as a metaphor for citizenship. Why?

What did Callicles and Socrates disagree on?

Citizenship

213


4 Citizenship

212

[ chapter 4 ]

er in

Syse uses property as a metaphor for citizenship. Why?

rd

vu

What does dual citizenship mean?

Dear reader of this book: You are a citizen. I can assure you, whoever you are, probably a young man or woman in a Norwegian school, around 16 or maybe 17 years old: you are indeed a citizen. Most people in our world are. You may not think about your citizenship that much, but it is a fact that you have one. So, what does that mean? To be a citizen is to be a member of a state or, as we often say, a country. Most people have such membership in only one country, but some are citizens of more than one (we often call that “dual citizenship”). Most live in the country of which they are a citizen, but some do not – some, for instance, study or work or get married abroad, while still being a citizen of the country where they were born or used to live. The highly respected Cambridge Dictionary of the English language defines a citizen thus: a person who is a member of a particular country and who has rights because of being born there or because of being given rights, or a person who lives in a particular town or city (Cambridge Dictionary n.d., citizen entry). We see from this definition that citizenship has also been used about membership in smaller communities than a country, such as a city. Indeed, the word “citizen” has the word “city” as its root. Still, in our day and age, it is most common to use it about membership in a country. The country of which you are a citizen gives you both rights and duties, such as the right to vote or the right to receive health care, or the duty to pay taxes or the duty to protect your country. These rights and duties are different from country to country, but there are always at least some rights and some duties associated with being a citizen.

What did Callicles and Socrates disagree on?

til

By Henrik Syse

How can we formulate the basic idea behind human rights?

Ku n

You Are a Citizen

However, we sometimes use the word citizen in a much wider sense. We are, after all, citizens of the world, too – inhabitants of a planet where we live together, and where we have duties and rights together. The idea of human rights is based on this idea: that simply by being a living human being on this planet, you are the holder of human rights. Therefore, you are a “citizen” of sorts. You do not have to be a citizen of any particular country to have basic human rights. As you reflect upon the texts in this book and what it means to be a citizen, please have both meanings in mind: membership in a country and membership in the world. *** There are two important things about citizenship that are worth reflecting on: Firstly, to be a citizen is not something isolated or lonely. No one is a citizen – of a city, of a state, or of the world – all by him- or herself. To be a citizen is always to be part of a larger community and to be in the company of the other citizens, many of whom will be very different from you, even if you share the same citizenship. A citizen, therefore, should be mature enough to tolerate and respect difference. You and your fellow citizens may, after all, have different beliefs, opinions, and looks, but you are all citizens who are bound together by your common citizenship, whether of a country or of the world. That gives you both rights and duties. We should probably think of citizenship as a property that many people share. This means that we cannot see ourselves in total isolation from the other owners. We have something very important in common, and this means that we have rights and responsibilities in common, too. Secondly, to be a citizen is to be active. Well, it does not have to be. You can be a citizen and never vote, never read the news, or never care about the community and the citizens around you. But then you do fall short of the ideal of what it means to be a citizen. In the writings of the famous Greek philosopher Plato, this very point is made quite amusingly and forcefully. An ambitious young man called Callicles holds that the good is the same as pleasure. This is what we often call a “hedonist” view of morality: the good life is simply about getting as much pleasure as possible. This is, however, not accepted by Socrates, who was Plato’s teacher and who is also the main speaker in this book, called The Gorgias.

g

GENRE: PERSONAL ESSAY

Citizenship

213


4 Citizenship

rd

vu

Sources Citizen. (n.d.) In Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ dictionary/ english/citizen Kennedy, J.F. (1961, January 20). Inaugural address. Retrieved from https://www.jfklibrary.org/ learn/ about-jfk/historic-speeches/inaugural-address Plato. (2009). The Gorgias (T. Griffith, Trans. & M. Schofield, Ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://www.gradesaver.com/gorgias/e-text/full-text-of-gorgias. (Original work published ca. 370 B.C.)

Ku n

til

AUTHOR

Henrik Syse (b. 1966) is Research Professor at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO). He has been a member of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which awards the Nobel Peace Prize, since 2015, serving as its Vice Chair since 2017. Syse has published widely in the fields of philosophy, politics, religion, business, and ethics and is a much-used lecturer in Norway and abroad. In 2007 he was also nominated as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum in Davos.

er in

g

Socrates asks whether someone who scratches himself – say, on the back – absolutely all the time (and presumably feels it is equally pleasant all the time) is also someone who is truly happy. The answer is clearly no. I think Plato and his teacher Socrates are trying to remind the young Callicles that happiness is about much more than just pleasure, or power, or money. It is about being active and pursuing what is good. Only by doing that does one become a noble and just human being. However, that kind of life is not always “pleasant”! Being an active citizen sometimes means taking responsibility and doing things for others and for one’s community. That may take time and be hard, and it is often much less pleasant and purely fun than, for instance, being scratched all the time. But it enriches us and makes us stronger and better, both individually and together. That is the ideal of the active citizen: not someone who just lives comfortably, but someone who does something for his or her community, and who derives pleasure and satisfaction from that. In the famous speech John F. Kennedy gave in 1961, when he was inaugurated as president of the U.S., he said: “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country” (Kennedy, 1961). Those are words that certainly speak to the idea of citizenship as an active obligation or duty. *** You are a citizen. That is a great privilege and it means that you have many important rights. But it also means that you have an obligation to seek to do what is good for your community.

214

[ chapter 4 ]

Useful terminology citizen dual citizenship state country communities membership right to vote

rights and duties human rights philosophy/philosopher moral hedonist responsibility obligation

PRACTICE CONTENT 1 What does it mean to be a citizen? 2 What do you need to be to be a holder of human rights? 3 What two aspects of citizenship are worth reflecting on, according to Syse?

b Create words that belong to the word classes below, where possible, considering roots, prefixes and suffixes. Verb

Noun

STRUCTURE A model text 6 Henrik Syse structures his text with an introduction, definition, discussion, and conclusion. Close-read the text and identify which paragraphs belong to each part. 7 To create a text that runs smoothly, Syse makes use of connectors or linking words. Identify at least three such words or phrases used at the start of a paragraph and three within paragraphs. Comment on their function. LANGUAGE 8 The title is repeated in the first sentence of the text, but the use of italics is different. Why do you think? 9 “I can assure you, (…)” states Syse, and addresses his audience directly. What does he gain or lose by using personal pronouns like these? 10 In the text we can read that city is the root of citizen. root: the form of a word after all affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are removed. It is also the smallest unit in a word that carries meaning.

Adverb

accept decision

4 What does it mean to have a “hedonist” view of morality? 5 According to Syse, what does it mean to be a noble and just citizen?

Adjective

reliable strongly success

OVER TO YOU 11 Discuss citizenship Using Syse’s essay as your model write a text where you discuss one of the following thesis questions. • What should be expected of a citizen in my town and country? • When is an active citizen active enough? • Are all differences tolerable differences? • Is there no room for hedonism in good citizenship? See courses 9: Planning a text, 8: Structuring a text, or 15: Holding discussions for further guidance. 12 A model citizen Henrik Syse presents two important aspects of citizenship worth considering. Create a multimodal text (poster, film, guide, cartoon, etc.) where you present the model citizen, in your view. Feel free to use persons and characters you have met through the year, in your syllabus, as inspiration and examples. Perhaps a model citizen would be as brave and engaged as Adichie, as visionary as Robert F. Kennedy, and as true to herself as Rachel Chu. See course 9: Planning a text for guidance.

a Identify the root and/or prefix and suffix in the following words: untie, instruction, kindness, disrespectful, unpredictable, irregularly, disobey, helpful

Citizenship

215


4 Citizenship

Useful terminology citizen dual citizenship state country communities membership right to vote

214

[ chapter 4 ]

rights and duties human rights philosophy/philosopher moral hedonist responsibility obligation

2 What do you need to be to be a holder of human rights?

b Create words that belong to the word classes below, where possible, considering roots, prefixes and suffixes. Verb

STRUCTURE A model text

decision

reliable

strongly

success

OVER TO YOU 11 Discuss citizenship Using Syse’s essay as your model write a text where you discuss one of the following thesis questions.

rd

6 Henrik Syse structures his text with an introduction, definition, discussion, and conclusion. Close-read the text and identify which paragraphs belong to each part.

Adverb

er in

5 According to Syse, what does it mean to be a noble and just citizen?

Adjective

accept

3 What two aspects of citizenship are worth reflecting on, according to Syse? 4 What does it mean to have a “hedonist” view of morality?

Noun

g

CONTENT 1 What does it mean to be a citizen?

• What should be expected of a citizen in my town and country? • When is an active citizen active enough? • Are all differences tolerable differences? • Is there no room for hedonism in good citizenship?

vu

7 To create a text that runs smoothly, Syse makes use of connectors or linking words. Identify at least three such words or phrases used at the start of a paragraph and three within paragraphs. Comment on their function.

LANGUAGE 8 The title is repeated in the first sentence of the text, but the use of italics is different. Why do you think?

til

Sources Citizen. (n.d.) In Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ dictionary/ english/citizen Kennedy, J.F. (1961, January 20). Inaugural address. Retrieved from https://www.jfklibrary.org/ learn/ about-jfk/historic-speeches/inaugural-address Plato. (2009). The Gorgias (T. Griffith, Trans. & M. Schofield, Ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://www.gradesaver.com/gorgias/e-text/full-text-of-gorgias. (Original work published ca. 370 B.C.)

PRACTICE

9 “I can assure you, (…)” states Syse, and addresses his audience directly. What does he gain or lose by using personal pronouns like these? 10 In the text we can read that city is the root of citizen.

Ku n

AUTHOR

Henrik Syse (b. 1966) is Research Professor at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO). He has been a member of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which awards the Nobel Peace Prize, since 2015, serving as its Vice Chair since 2017. Syse has published widely in the fields of philosophy, politics, religion, business, and ethics and is a much-used lecturer in Norway and abroad. In 2007 he was also nominated as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum in Davos.

Socrates asks whether someone who scratches himself – say, on the back – absolutely all the time (and presumably feels it is equally pleasant all the time) is also someone who is truly happy. The answer is clearly no. I think Plato and his teacher Socrates are trying to remind the young Callicles that happiness is about much more than just pleasure, or power, or money. It is about being active and pursuing what is good. Only by doing that does one become a noble and just human being. However, that kind of life is not always “pleasant”! Being an active citizen sometimes means taking responsibility and doing things for others and for one’s community. That may take time and be hard, and it is often much less pleasant and purely fun than, for instance, being scratched all the time. But it enriches us and makes us stronger and better, both individually and together. That is the ideal of the active citizen: not someone who just lives comfortably, but someone who does something for his or her community, and who derives pleasure and satisfaction from that. In the famous speech John F. Kennedy gave in 1961, when he was inaugurated as president of the U.S., he said: “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country” (Kennedy, 1961). Those are words that certainly speak to the idea of citizenship as an active obligation or duty. *** You are a citizen. That is a great privilege and it means that you have many important rights. But it also means that you have an obligation to seek to do what is good for your community.

root: the form of a word after all affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are removed. It is also the smallest unit in a word that carries meaning.

See courses 9: Planning a text, 8: Structuring a text, or 15: Holding discussions for further guidance.

12 A model citizen Henrik Syse presents two important aspects of citizenship worth considering. Create a multimodal text (poster, film, guide, cartoon, etc.) where you present the model citizen, in your view. Feel free to use persons and characters you have met through the year, in your syllabus, as inspiration and examples. Perhaps a model citizen would be as brave and engaged as Adichie, as visionary as Robert F. Kennedy, and as true to herself as Rachel Chu. See course 9: Planning a text for guidance.

a Identify the root and/or prefix and suffix in the following words: untie, instruction, kindness, disrespectful, unpredictable, irregularly, disobey, helpful

Citizenship

215


4 Citizenship AIMS FIRST

• Discuss democracy and provide examples of young people who use social media to make a difference

• Together, name all hashtags you can think of that have gone viral. • What would make you turn to social media to express your opinion?

rd vu til

Ku n [ chapter 4 ]

Social media platforms are much debated today. Yet, they are fantastic in terms of providing access to all types of information. They also allow us to express our opinions freely and thus promote taking an active part in society. By giving Everyman a voice social media has been named the 5th estate. You may have had a school shooting drill or terror drill at your school. One or two. Or not. Your teachers most likely have. This is a recent concept in Norway. Norwegian classrooms are safe. Even though we are a nation of hunters our weapon laws are strict both in terms of buying them and keeping them safe at home. In the USA, in February 2018, a 19-year old boy, expelled from school, entered Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, and killed 17 people. It was planned and intentional. It was not the first school shooting in the US, and it would not be the last. The difference this time was that the students at Stoneman Douglas took to social media and the streets, in order to alter the gun laws in Florida and the US. Through #neveragain they started a movement that drew media attention. Their initiative peaked with the March for Our Lives the following month, adding another # to the cause, #marchforourlives. Young people proved they had a voice. Emma Gonzalez was one of several young people who chose to give a speech in Washington during the March for Our Lives in Washington, D.C., on March 24, 2018. She is a survivor of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. What follows is a transcript of her famous speech.

TIDBIT

216

The Power of the # CONTEXT

er in

g

• Examine the power of social media and the hashtag • Become familiar with gun laws and school shootings in the USA

In a democracy the separation of power between branches of government is key. This is because it prevents abuse of power, as each branch controls the others. The three formal branches are the legislative, the judicial and the executive. The media is normally considered the 4th branch as it controls all the aforementioned.

Citizenship

217


4 Citizenship AIMS FIRST

• Discuss democracy and provide examples of young people who use social media to make a difference

• Together, name all hashtags you can think of that have gone viral. • What would make you turn to social media to express your opinion?

rd

Social media platforms are much debated today. Yet, they are fantastic in terms of providing access to all types of information. They also allow us to express our opinions freely and thus promote taking an active part in society. By giving Everyman a voice social media has been named the 5th estate.

vu

CONTEXT

er in

The Power of the #

g

• Examine the power of social media and the hashtag • Become familiar with gun laws and school shootings in the USA

til

Ku n

Emma Gonzalez was one of several young people who chose to give a speech in Washington during the March for Our Lives in Washington, D.C., on March 24, 2018. She is a survivor of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. What follows is a transcript of her famous speech.

216

[ chapter 4 ]

TIDBIT

You may have had a school shooting drill or terror drill at your school. One or two. Or not. Your teachers most likely have. This is a recent concept in Norway. Norwegian classrooms are safe. Even though we are a nation of hunters our weapon laws are strict both in terms of buying them and keeping them safe at home. In the USA, in February 2018, a 19-year old boy, expelled from school, entered Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, and killed 17 people. It was planned and intentional. It was not the first school shooting in the US, and it would not be the last. The difference this time was that the students at Stoneman Douglas took to social media and the streets, in order to alter the gun laws in Florida and the US. Through #neveragain they started a movement that drew media attention. Their initiative peaked with the March for Our Lives the following month, adding another # to the cause, #marchforourlives. Young people proved they had a voice.

In a democracy the separation of power between branches of government is key. This is because it prevents abuse of power, as each branch controls the others. The three formal branches are the legislative, the judicial and the executive. The media is normally considered the 4th branch as it controls all the aforementioned.

Citizenship

217


4 Citizenship

GENRE: SPEECH “Six minutes, and about 20 seconds. In a little over six minutes, 17 of our friends were taken from us, 15 more were injured, and everyone, absolutely everyone in the Douglas community was forever altered. Everyone who was there understands. Everyone who has been touched by the cold grip of gun violence understands. For us, long, tearful, chaotic hours in the scorching afternoon sun were spent not knowing.

CONTENT 1 Why did Emma Gonzalez give a speech in Washington? 5

er in

g

No one understood the extent of what had happened. No one could believe that there were bodies in that building waiting to be identified for over a day. No one knew that the people who were missing had stopped breathing long before any of us had even known that a code red had been called. No one could comprehend the devastating aftermath, or how far this would reach, or where this would go.

PRACTICE

[Gonzalez now falls silent until 6 minutes and 20 seconds has passed since she took the stage. The crowd is silent as well but begins to chant “Never Again” at one point.] “Since the time that I came out here, it has been six minutes and 20 seconds. The shooter has ceased shooting, and will soon abandon his rifle, blend in with the students as they escape, and walk free for an hour before arrest. Fight for your lives before it’s someone else’s job.”

218

[ chapter 4 ]

3 Gonzalez says the teachers called code red. What does that mean? 4 What untraditional means did Emma Gonzalez make use of during her speech? 5 Emma Gonzalez is part of the Never Again movement. What do they work for?

15

20

6 “For those who still can’t comprehend, because they refuse to, I’ll tell you where it went. Six feet into the ground, six feet deep”, Gonzalez says. What is the meaning of the image “six feet”? 7 Why do you think the march was called March for Our Lives? 8 What could be the meaning of her outro “Fight for your lives before it’s someone else’s job”?

25

30

STRUCTURE 9 In her speech, Gonzalez makes us of repetition. Identity the instances and comment on the function of this device. 10 Gonzales chooses to name all 17 names of the victims in the school shooting. What does she accomplish by doing so?

35

40

• • • • • • •

New brooms sweep clean Old brooms know the corners of the house A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush A stitch in time saves nine Finders keepers, losers weepers Ignorance is bliss From pillar to post

13 Identify at least two rhetorical devices Emma Gonzales makes use of in her speech. Comment also on the function of them. OVER TO YOU 14 Clicktivism, democracy, and citizenship Young people are taking to the streets, using their voices for causes they feel are important. They say: “This is what democracy looks like!” The power of the hashtags is immense, and clicktivism has become a concept. Based on your personal interests choose between investigating: • an interesting hashtag, or • an inspiring activist Some examples of the former are: #BlackLivesMatter, #StandingRock, #TimesUp, #Metoo, #IStandWithIlhan, #loveislove Some examples of the latter are: Greta Thunberg, Fahria Luul Makerow, Bana Alabed

11 During her speech, Emma Gonzalez goes silent for a longer period of time. What is the effect?

Gonzales, M. (March 24, 2018). “March for Our Lives” speech. In Cosmopolitan. Retrieved from https://www.cosmopolitan.com/politics/a19482963/emma-gonzalez-march-for-our-lives-speech transcript/

TIDBIT

Ku n

til

TIDBIT

The documentary Killer in Our Classroom: Never Again presents this story. Runtime: 48 minutes.

vu

rd

For those who still can’t comprehend, because they refuse to, I’ll tell you where it went. Right into the ground, six feet deep. Six minutes and 20 seconds with an AR-15, and my friend Carmen would never complain to me about piano practice. Aaron Feis would never call Kyra “Miss Sunshine.” Alex Schachter would never walk into school with his brother Ryan. Scott Beigel would never joke around with Cameron at camp. Helena Ramsay would never hang around after school with Max. Gina Montalto would never wave to her friend Liam at lunch. Joaquin Oliver would never play basketball with Sam or Dylan. Alaina Petty would never. Cara Loughran would never. Chris Hixon would never. Luke Hoyer would never. Martin Duque would never. Peter Wang would never. Alyssa Alhadeff would never. Jaime Guttenberg would never. Meadow Pollack would never.”

10

2 How many students were killed in the Stoneman Douglas shooting?

LANGUAGE 12 Here is a list of other proverbs in English. Translate them and find their equivalent in Norwegian:

• Go online to find information. • Present your findings in a podcast, a film, a talk, a presentation, or similar. • Focus on the reason behind your choice in addition to explaining the history of the cause and its present status. See course 14: Giving presentations and course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

American singer/actor Selena Gomez tweeted in March 2018 “Protect kids, not guns!” marking it with the march’s hashtag #MarchForOurLives. It earned her 2 million likes.

Citizenship

219


4 Citizenship

GENRE: SPEECH

TIDBIT

The documentary Killer in Our Classroom: Never Again presents this story. Runtime: 48 minutes.

[Gonzalez now falls silent until 6 minutes and 20 seconds has passed since she took the stage. The crowd is silent as well but begins to chant “Never Again” at one point.] “Since the time that I came out here, it has been six minutes and 20 seconds. The shooter has ceased shooting, and will soon abandon his rifle, blend in with the students as they escape, and walk free for an hour before arrest. Fight for your lives before it’s someone else’s job.”

10

5 Emma Gonzalez is part of the Never Again movement. What do they work for?

20

6 “For those who still can’t comprehend, because they refuse to, I’ll tell you where it went. Six feet into the ground, six feet deep”, Gonzalez says. What is the meaning of the image “six feet”? 7 Why do you think the march was called March for Our Lives?

8 What could be the meaning of her outro “Fight for your lives before it’s someone else’s job”?

25

30

STRUCTURE 9 In her speech, Gonzalez makes us of repetition. Identity the instances and comment on the function of this device. 10 Gonzales chooses to name all 17 names of the victims in the school shooting. What does she accomplish by doing so?

11 During her speech, Emma Gonzalez goes silent for a longer period of time. What is the effect?

TIDBIT

40

New brooms sweep clean Old brooms know the corners of the house A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush A stitch in time saves nine Finders keepers, losers weepers Ignorance is bliss From pillar to post

13 Identify at least two rhetorical devices Emma Gonzales makes use of in her speech. Comment also on the function of them.

OVER TO YOU 14 Clicktivism, democracy, and citizenship Young people are taking to the streets, using their voices for causes they feel are important. They say: “This is what democracy looks like!” The power of the hashtags is immense, and clicktivism has become a concept. Based on your personal interests choose between investigating:

rd

15

35

[ chapter 4 ]

4 What untraditional means did Emma Gonzalez make use of during her speech?

• • • • • • •

g

3 Gonzalez says the teachers called code red. What does that mean?

Gonzales, M. (March 24, 2018). “March for Our Lives” speech. In Cosmopolitan. Retrieved from https://www.cosmopolitan.com/politics/a19482963/emma-gonzalez-march-for-our-lives-speech transcript/

218

2 How many students were killed in the Stoneman Douglas shooting?

er in

5

LANGUAGE 12 Here is a list of other proverbs in English. Translate them and find their equivalent in Norwegian:

vu

For those who still can’t comprehend, because they refuse to, I’ll tell you where it went. Right into the ground, six feet deep. Six minutes and 20 seconds with an AR-15, and my friend Carmen would never complain to me about piano practice. Aaron Feis would never call Kyra “Miss Sunshine.” Alex Schachter would never walk into school with his brother Ryan. Scott Beigel would never joke around with Cameron at camp. Helena Ramsay would never hang around after school with Max. Gina Montalto would never wave to her friend Liam at lunch. Joaquin Oliver would never play basketball with Sam or Dylan. Alaina Petty would never. Cara Loughran would never. Chris Hixon would never. Luke Hoyer would never. Martin Duque would never. Peter Wang would never. Alyssa Alhadeff would never. Jaime Guttenberg would never. Meadow Pollack would never.”

CONTENT 1 Why did Emma Gonzalez give a speech in Washington?

til

No one understood the extent of what had happened. No one could believe that there were bodies in that building waiting to be identified for over a day. No one knew that the people who were missing had stopped breathing long before any of us had even known that a code red had been called. No one could comprehend the devastating aftermath, or how far this would reach, or where this would go.

PRACTICE

Ku n

“Six minutes, and about 20 seconds. In a little over six minutes, 17 of our friends were taken from us, 15 more were injured, and everyone, absolutely everyone in the Douglas community was forever altered. Everyone who was there understands. Everyone who has been touched by the cold grip of gun violence understands. For us, long, tearful, chaotic hours in the scorching afternoon sun were spent not knowing.

• an interesting hashtag, or • an inspiring activist Some examples of the former are: #BlackLivesMatter, #StandingRock, #TimesUp, #Metoo, #IStandWithIlhan, #loveislove Some examples of the latter are: Greta Thunberg, Fahria Luul Makerow, Bana Alabed • Go online to find information. • Present your findings in a podcast, a film, a talk, a presentation, or similar. • Focus on the reason behind your choice in addition to explaining the history of the cause and its present status. See course 14: Giving presentations and course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

American singer/actor Selena Gomez tweeted in March 2018 “Protect kids, not guns!” marking it with the march’s hashtag #MarchForOurLives. It earned her 2 million likes.

Citizenship

219


4 Citizenship AIMS • Reflect on ideas of social justice, punishment, forgiveness, and responsibility

til

Ku n 220

[ chapter 4 ]

Public Shaming CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Discuss news involving celebrities and other high-profile people • Compare different types of tribalism in the modern world

FIRST

Think of a time when you have said something hurtful, offensive or inappropriate, or when you have treated someone in a way that now seems unfair to you. Did you apologise? If so, was your apology accepted?

tribalism noun: the behaviour and attitudes that stem from strong loyalty to one’s own tribe or social group Oxford Dictionary of English

A major part of citizenship is the duty to treat others fairly and the right to be treated fairly by others – according to the laws and customs of wherever one lives. Laws and customs can change, however, as social attitudes shift and realign. This seemed to take place in October of 2017, when accusations of sexual harassment and assault came out in the media against American film producer Harvey Weinstein. It helped to spark the #MeToo movement, with its demand to believe women and speak out against sexually inappropriate behaviour. This created a new form of public shaming sometimes referred to as “call-out culture”, by which anyone accused of a social injustice ought to be called out for it on social media. Some argue this goes against the idea of innocent until proven guilty, and that it blurs the lines between criminal and simply inappropriate or clumsy behaviour. Perhaps more of us will be on our best behaviour now, for fear of being called out. But it could also create an atmosphere of intolerance, where no one is sure of the rules and there is no road to forgiveness.

Citizenship

221


4 Citizenship AIMS • Reflect on ideas of social justice, punishment, forgiveness, and responsibility

tribalism noun: the behaviour and attitudes that stem from strong loyalty to one’s own tribe or social group Oxford Dictionary of English

til

A major part of citizenship is the duty to treat others fairly and the right to be treated fairly by others – according to the laws and customs of wherever one lives. Laws and customs can change, however, as social attitudes shift and realign. This seemed to take place in October of 2017, when accusations of sexual harassment and assault came out in the media against American film producer Harvey Weinstein. It helped to spark the #MeToo movement, with its demand to believe women and speak out against sexually inappropriate behaviour. This created a new form of public shaming sometimes referred to as “call-out culture”, by which anyone accused of a social injustice ought to be called out for it on social media. Some argue this goes against the idea of innocent until proven guilty, and that it blurs the lines between criminal and simply inappropriate or clumsy behaviour. Perhaps more of us will be on our best behaviour now, for fear of being called out. But it could also create an atmosphere of intolerance, where no one is sure of the rules and there is no road to forgiveness.

Ku n

CONTEXT

vu

rd

Public Shaming

er in

g

• Discuss news involving celebrities and other high-profile people • Compare different types of tribalism in the modern world

FIRST

Think of a time when you have said something hurtful, offensive or inappropriate, or when you have treated someone in a way that now seems unfair to you. Did you apologise? If so, was your apology accepted?

220

[ chapter 4 ]

Citizenship

221


4 Citizenship

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

The Cruelty of Call-Out Culture A number of months ago, I listened to a podcast that has haunted me since – because it captures something essential about our culture warrior moment. It was from NPR’s always excellent “Invisibilia” series and it was about a woman named Emily.

His bandmates immediately dismissed her allegations. But inwardly Emily seethed. Upon returning to Richmond, she wrote a Facebook post denouncing her best friend as an abuser. “I disown everything he has done. I do not think it’s O.K. … I believe women.”

rd

The post worked. He ended up leaving the band and disappeared from the punk scene. Emily heard rumors that he’d been fired from his job, kicked out of his apartment, had moved to a new city and was not doing well. Emily never spoke with him again.

vu

Meanwhile, she was fronting her own band. But in October 2016, she, too, got called out. In high school, roughly a decade before, someone had posted a nude photo of a female student. Emily replied with an emoji making fun of the girl. This was part of a wider pattern of her high school cyberbullying. A post denouncing Emily also went viral. She, too, was the object of nationwide group hate. She was banned from the punk scene. She didn’t leave the house for what felt like months. Her friends dropped her. She was scared, traumatized and alone. She tried to vanish.

Ku n

til

“It’s entirely my life,” she told “Invisibilia” tearfully. “Like, this is everything to me. And it’s all just, like, done and over.”

222

[ chapter 4 ]

The podcast gives a glimpse of how cycles of abuse get passed down, one to another. It shows what it’s like to live amid a terrifying call-out culture, a vengeful game of moral one-upmanship in which social annihilation can come any second. I’m older, so all sorts of historical alarm bells were going off – the way students denounced and effectively murdered their elders for incorrect thought during Mao’s Cultural Revolution and in Stalin’s Russia. But the “Invisibilia” episode implicitly suggests that call-outs are how humanity moves forward. Society enforces norms by murdering the bullies who break them. When systems are broken, vigilante justice may be rough justice, but it gets the job done. Prominent anthropologist Richard Wrangham says this is the only way civilization advances that he’s witnessed. Really? Do we really think cycles of cruelty do more to advance civilization than cycles of wisdom and empathy? I’d say civilization moves forward when we embrace rule of law, not when we abandon it. I’d say we no longer gather in coliseums to watch people get eaten by lions because clergy members, philosophers and artists have made us less tolerant of cruelty, not more tolerant. The problem with the pseudo-realism of the call-out culture is that it is so naïve. Once you adopt binary thinking in which people are categorized as good or evil, once you give random people the power to destroy lives without any process, you have taken a step toward the Rwandan genocide.

When the interviewer, Hanna Rosin, showed skepticism, he revealed that he, too, was a victim. His father beat him throughout his childhood. In this small story, we see something of the maladies that shape our brutal cultural moment. You see how zealotry is often fueled by people working out their psychological wounds. You see that when denunciation is done through social media, you can destroy people without even knowing them. There’s no personal connection that allows apology and forgiveness.

David Brooks is a Canadian-born US journalist and cultural commentator who writes for the New York Times. He has published several books, his most recent being The Second Mountain: The Quest for a Moral Life (2019). The Spectator describes the book as “a guide to the Meaning of Life, somewhere between a spiritual autobiography and a manual for living”.

Even the quest for justice can turn into barbarism if it is not infused with a quality of mercy, an awareness of human frailty and a path to redemption. The crust of civilization is thinner than you think. Brooks, D. (January 14, 2019). The Cruelty of Call-Out Culture. The New York Times.

But she accepted the legitimacy of the call-out process. If she was called out it must mean she deserved to be rendered into a nonperson: “I don’t know what to think of myself other than, like, I am so sorry. And I do feel like a monster.” The guy who called out Emily is named Herbert. He told “Invisibilia” that calling her out gave him a rush of pleasure, like an orgasm. He was asked if he cared about the pain Emily endured. “No, I don’t care,” he replied. “I don’t care because it’s obviously something you deserve, and it’s something that’s been coming. … I literally do not care about what happens to you after the situation. I don’t care if she’s dead, alive, whatever.”

AUTHOR

er in

g

Emily was a member of the hard-core punk music scene in Richmond, Va. One day, when she was nearly 30, she was in a van with her best friend, who was part of a prominent band. They were heading to a gig in Florida when the venue called to cancel their appearance. A woman had accused Emily’s best friend of sending her an unwelcome sexually explicit photograph.

You also see how once you adopt a binary tribal mentality – us/them, punk/ non-punk, victim/abuser – you’ve immediately depersonalized everything. You’ve reduced complex human beings to simple good versus evil. You’ve eliminated any sense of proportion. Suddenly there’s no distinction between R. Kelly and a high school girl sending a mean emoji.

TIDBIT

captures here: communicates culture warrior (as an insult) someone who argues aggressively for their progressive views Va Virginia (US state) sexually explicit photograph picture of his penis denouncing speaking out against disown reject cyberbullying bullying that takes place online vanish disappear legitimacy correctness, appropriateness rendered made into endured (of something painful or difficult) went through, experienced maladies sicknesses zealotry extremism wounds traumas denunciation calling on others to reject someone binary black-and-white mentality way of thinking sense of proportion ability to judge the relative importance of things vengeful attempting to harm in revenge moral one-upmanship trying to gain a moral advantage over others implicitly without saying it outright vigilante someone who takes law enforcement into their own hands rough justice unjust treatment in the name of justice prominent well-known embrace fully accept abandon give up clergy members priests pseudo-realism an altered view of reality naïve showing a lack of judgement and wisdom Rwandan genocide mass rape and slaughter of Tutsi by Hutu in 1994 barbarism uncivilised cruelty mercy nåde frailty weakness in character redemption forløsning/ forsoving

Examples of celebrities who have been called out on Twitter for saying or doing things out of line with progressive ideals. • Kendall Jenner (Keeping Up with the Kardashians) for using a brown-skinned fist emoji • Pamela Anderson (Baywatch) for stating “Common sense – don’t go into a hotel room alone” – in reference to Harvey Weinstein’s victims • Mayim Bialik (The Big Bang Theory) for remarking “I dress modestly. I don’t act flirtatiously with men as a policy.” • Matt Damon (Bourne films) for saying “[T]here’s a difference between … patting someone on the butt and rape or child molestation … they shouldn’t be conflated.” • Ricky Gervais (The Office) for “deadnaming” Caitlyn Jenner in a joke: “I’ve changed. Not as much as Bruce Jenner, obviously.”

Citizenship

223


4 Citizenship

GENRE: OPINION PIECE

[ chapter 4 ]

Meanwhile, she was fronting her own band. But in October 2016, she, too, got called out. In high school, roughly a decade before, someone had posted a nude photo of a female student. Emily replied with an emoji making fun of the girl. This was part of a wider pattern of her high school cyberbullying. A post denouncing Emily also went viral. She, too, was the object of nationwide group hate. She was banned from the punk scene. She didn’t leave the house for what felt like months. Her friends dropped her. She was scared, traumatized and alone. She tried to vanish. “It’s entirely my life,” she told “Invisibilia” tearfully. “Like, this is everything to me. And it’s all just, like, done and over.”

But the “Invisibilia” episode implicitly suggests that call-outs are how humanity moves forward. Society enforces norms by murdering the bullies who break them. When systems are broken, vigilante justice may be rough justice, but it gets the job done. Prominent anthropologist Richard Wrangham says this is the only way civilization advances that he’s witnessed.

Really? Do we really think cycles of cruelty do more to advance civilization than cycles of wisdom and empathy? I’d say civilization moves forward when we embrace rule of law, not when we abandon it. I’d say we no longer gather in coliseums to watch people get eaten by lions because clergy members, philosophers and artists have made us less tolerant of cruelty, not more tolerant. The problem with the pseudo-realism of the call-out culture is that it is so naïve. Once you adopt binary thinking in which people are categorized as good or evil, once you give random people the power to destroy lives without any process, you have taken a step toward the Rwandan genocide.

Brooks, D. (January 14, 2019). The Cruelty of Call-Out Culture. The New York Times.

In this small story, we see something of the maladies that shape our brutal cultural moment. You see how zealotry is often fueled by people working out their psychological wounds. You see that when denunciation is done through social media, you can destroy people without even knowing them. There’s no personal connection that allows apology and forgiveness.

Examples of celebrities who have been called out on Twitter for saying or doing things out of line with progressive ideals.

Ku n

When the interviewer, Hanna Rosin, showed skepticism, he revealed that he, too, was a victim. His father beat him throughout his childhood.

David Brooks is a Canadian-born US journalist and cultural commentator who writes for the New York Times. He has published several books, his most recent being The Second Mountain: The Quest for a Moral Life (2019). The Spectator describes the book as “a guide to the Meaning of Life, somewhere between a spiritual autobiography and a manual for living”.

Even the quest for justice can turn into barbarism if it is not infused with a quality of mercy, an awareness of human frailty and a path to redemption. The crust of civilization is thinner than you think.

But she accepted the legitimacy of the call-out process. If she was called out it must mean she deserved to be rendered into a nonperson: “I don’t know what to think of myself other than, like, I am so sorry. And I do feel like a monster.” The guy who called out Emily is named Herbert. He told “Invisibilia” that calling her out gave him a rush of pleasure, like an orgasm. He was asked if he cared about the pain Emily endured. “No, I don’t care,” he replied. “I don’t care because it’s obviously something you deserve, and it’s something that’s been coming. … I literally do not care about what happens to you after the situation. I don’t care if she’s dead, alive, whatever.”

g

er in

The post worked. He ended up leaving the band and disappeared from the punk scene. Emily heard rumors that he’d been fired from his job, kicked out of his apartment, had moved to a new city and was not doing well. Emily never spoke with him again.

I’m older, so all sorts of historical alarm bells were going off – the way students denounced and effectively murdered their elders for incorrect thought during Mao’s Cultural Revolution and in Stalin’s Russia.

rd

His bandmates immediately dismissed her allegations. But inwardly Emily seethed. Upon returning to Richmond, she wrote a Facebook post denouncing her best friend as an abuser. “I disown everything he has done. I do not think it’s O.K. … I believe women.”

The podcast gives a glimpse of how cycles of abuse get passed down, one to another. It shows what it’s like to live amid a terrifying call-out culture, a vengeful game of moral one-upmanship in which social annihilation can come any second.

vu

Emily was a member of the hard-core punk music scene in Richmond, Va. One day, when she was nearly 30, she was in a van with her best friend, who was part of a prominent band. They were heading to a gig in Florida when the venue called to cancel their appearance. A woman had accused Emily’s best friend of sending her an unwelcome sexually explicit photograph.

til

A number of months ago, I listened to a podcast that has haunted me since – because it captures something essential about our culture warrior moment. It was from NPR’s always excellent “Invisibilia” series and it was about a woman named Emily.

You also see how once you adopt a binary tribal mentality – us/them, punk/ non-punk, victim/abuser – you’ve immediately depersonalized everything. You’ve reduced complex human beings to simple good versus evil. You’ve eliminated any sense of proportion. Suddenly there’s no distinction between R. Kelly and a high school girl sending a mean emoji.

AUTHOR

222

The Cruelty of Call-Out Culture

TIDBIT

captures here: communicates culture warrior (as an insult) someone who argues aggressively for their progressive views Va Virginia (US state) sexually explicit photograph picture of his penis denouncing speaking out against disown reject cyberbullying bullying that takes place online vanish disappear legitimacy correctness, appropriateness rendered made into endured (of something painful or difficult) went through, experienced maladies sicknesses zealotry extremism wounds traumas denunciation calling on others to reject someone binary black-and-white mentality way of thinking sense of proportion ability to judge the relative importance of things vengeful attempting to harm in revenge moral one-upmanship trying to gain a moral advantage over others implicitly without saying it outright vigilante someone who takes law enforcement into their own hands rough justice unjust treatment in the name of justice prominent well-known embrace fully accept abandon give up clergy members priests pseudo-realism an altered view of reality naïve showing a lack of judgement and wisdom Rwandan genocide mass rape and slaughter of Tutsi by Hutu in 1994 barbarism uncivilised cruelty mercy nåde frailty weakness in character redemption forløsning/ forsoving

• Kendall Jenner (Keeping Up with the Kardashians) for using a brown-skinned fist emoji • Pamela Anderson (Baywatch) for stating “Common sense – don’t go into a hotel room alone” – in reference to Harvey Weinstein’s victims • Mayim Bialik (The Big Bang Theory) for remarking “I dress modestly. I don’t act flirtatiously with men as a policy.” • Matt Damon (Bourne films) for saying “[T]here’s a difference between … patting someone on the butt and rape or child molestation … they shouldn’t be conflated.” • Ricky Gervais (The Office) for “deadnaming” Caitlyn Jenner in a joke: “I’ve changed. Not as much as Bruce Jenner, obviously.”

Citizenship

223


4 Citizenship PRACTICE

2 Reflect on and answer the questions.

til

vu

rd

a What social problems does the writer think Emily’s case reveals? b What does the writer mean by “no distinction between R. Kelly and a high school girl sending a mean emoji”? If necessary, search online to discover what R. Kelly is accused of. c What in the story does the writer see as a case of “how cycles of abuse get passed down, one to another”? d What, according to this article, are the two views of how civilization advances? e What does the writer mean by “the crust of civilization is thinner than you think”?

er in

a How did the writer learn what had happened to Emily? b What was Emily’s friend supposed to have done wrong? c How did Emily react to the accusation? d What were the consequences for her friend? e What had Emily done a decade earlier? f How does Emily feel now about being banned from the punk scene? g How does Herbert, who called her out, feel about Emily’s suffering? h What about Herbert’s background may be relevant to his calling Emily out?

g

OVER TO YOU 6 Hold a debate

CONTENT 1 Answer the questions.

STRUCTURE 3 The text is roughly structured into two parts.

Ku n

a Identify where the first part ends and the second begins. b Compare the styles of each part.

LANGUAGE 4 There are many examples of emotionally charged words in the text, which is to say that they awaken strong feelings in the reader. Early in the text you will find “haunted”, “denounce”, and “abuser”. What other emotive words can you find? 5 The writer uses various personal pronouns in the text. Use the terms “first-person” and “secondperson” as well as “singular” and “plural” to describe the pronouns he uses, where he uses them, and to what effect.

224

[ chapter 4 ]

The short story “Cat Person” by Kristen Roupenian caused a storm on social media when it was published by The New Yorker in December 2017, as Twitter users argued about the unfortunate sexual encounter that it centres around. In the story, Margot has sex with Robert, not because she wants to, but because she is afraid of hurting his feelings, and possibly she is also afraid of his reaction towards her. Choose one of the following motions to debate for and against. This may be done as a whole class or in smaller groups. If you choose the first of the two motions, the class or group will first have to listen to the short story on The New Yorker website. You can debate the second motion without listening to the story. • Margot brought the bad sexual experience on herself, and she only has herself to blame. • It is up to men not to put women in a position where they end up having sex they do not really want or will regret afterwards.

7 Make a web presentation Journalists covering wars, pandemics and injustice suffered by people play vital roles in promoting democracy and citizenship. Visit the website of photojournalist James Nachtwey, who covered the Rwandan genocide, among many other major world events. Divide the class into groups of 3–4 people and choose different events for each group. • Produce a visual web presentation of it using Microsoft Sway or similar software. • Add a small amount of text to the images to explain what they show. Share the final presentations with the class on your learning platform, so that everyone learns something about the other events, too. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

Rwanda, Nyanza, 1994. A Hutu man who did not support the genocide had been imprisoned in a concentration camp, starved and attacked with machetes. He was liberated by Tutsi rebel forces and placed in the care of the Red Cross. Photographed by James Nachtwey for Time Magazine.

8 Write a letter of apology Put yourself in the position of Herbert, who called out Emily for her bullying and felt no remorse. Imagine it later comes to light that Herbert did something offensive when he was a little younger, such as using homophobic and racial slurs among his friends. Herbert is called out for this and socially excluded, and it puts Emily’s past bad behaviour and his treatment of her in a different light for him. Write a letter to Emily as Herbert in which you apologise, explain your change of heart and try to make amends. See course 9: Planning a text, for guidance.

For help in structuring the debate, see course 15: Holding discussions.

Citizenship

225


4 Citizenship PRACTICE CONTENT 1 Answer the questions.

OVER TO YOU 6 Hold a debate

er in

g

a How did the writer learn what had happened to Emily? b What was Emily’s friend supposed to have done wrong? c How did Emily react to the accusation? d What were the consequences for her friend? e What had Emily done a decade earlier? f How does Emily feel now about being banned from the punk scene? g How does Herbert, who called her out, feel about Emily’s suffering? h What about Herbert’s background may be relevant to his calling Emily out?

a Identify where the first part ends and the second begins. b Compare the styles of each part. LANGUAGE 4 There are many examples of emotionally charged words in the text, which is to say that they awaken strong feelings in the reader. Early in the text you will find “haunted”, “denounce”, and “abuser”. What other emotive words can you find? 5 The writer uses various personal pronouns in the text. Use the terms “first-person” and “secondperson” as well as “singular” and “plural” to describe the pronouns he uses, where he uses them, and to what effect.

224

[ chapter 4 ]

In the story, Margot has sex with Robert, not because she wants to, but because she is afraid of hurting his feelings, and possibly she is also afraid of his reaction towards her. Choose one of the following motions to debate for and against. This may be done as a whole class or in smaller groups. If you choose the first of the two motions, the class or group will first have to listen to the short story on The New Yorker website. You can debate the second motion without listening to the story. • Margot brought the bad sexual experience on herself, and she only has herself to blame. • It is up to men not to put women in a position where they end up having sex they do not really want or will regret afterwards.

vu

7 Make a web presentation Journalists covering wars, pandemics and injustice suffered by people play vital roles in promoting democracy and citizenship.

Visit the website of photojournalist James Nachtwey, who covered the Rwandan genocide, among many other major world events. Divide the class into groups of 3–4 people and choose different events for each group.

til

STRUCTURE 3 The text is roughly structured into two parts.

The short story “Cat Person” by Kristen Roupenian caused a storm on social media when it was published by The New Yorker in December 2017, as Twitter users argued about the unfortunate sexual encounter that it centres around.

• Produce a visual web presentation of it using Microsoft Sway or similar software. • Add a small amount of text to the images to explain what they show.

Ku n

a What social problems does the writer think Emily’s case reveals? b What does the writer mean by “no distinction between R. Kelly and a high school girl sending a mean emoji”? If necessary, search online to discover what R. Kelly is accused of. c What in the story does the writer see as a case of “how cycles of abuse get passed down, one to another”? d What, according to this article, are the two views of how civilization advances? e What does the writer mean by “the crust of civilization is thinner than you think”?

rd

2 Reflect on and answer the questions.

Share the final presentations with the class on your learning platform, so that everyone learns something about the other events, too. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

Rwanda, Nyanza, 1994. A Hutu man who did not support the genocide had been imprisoned in a concentration camp, starved and attacked with machetes. He was liberated by Tutsi rebel forces and placed in the care of the Red Cross. Photographed by James Nachtwey for Time Magazine.

8 Write a letter of apology Put yourself in the position of Herbert, who called out Emily for her bullying and felt no remorse. Imagine it later comes to light that Herbert did something offensive when he was a little younger, such as using homophobic and racial slurs among his friends. Herbert is called out for this and socially excluded, and it puts Emily’s past bad behaviour and his treatment of her in a different light for him. Write a letter to Emily as Herbert in which you apologise, explain your change of heart and try to make amends. See course 9: Planning a text, for guidance.

For help in structuring the debate, see course 15: Holding discussions.

Citizenship

225


4 Citizenship AIMS FIRST

Where in the world do you think life as a homosexual is easiest and where is it most difficult? Explain your views.

226

[ chapter 4 ]

Parade goers stop and pose for a picture during Pride on 6 July, 2019, in London.

O

MU

SI C !

L I ST E N T

Same Love CONTEXT

Ku n

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Explore the theme and language of a song lyric • Research rights for LGBTQ people around the world • Create a text about progress in equal rights

Equal rights are something many of us, who live in liberal democracies, take for granted. However, if you happen to love someone of the same sex, this can impact your sense of freedom and safety in many societies around the world. This is also the case in parts of the United States, as hip-hop artist Macklemore shows in his hit “Same Love”. The song advocates expanding equal rights to the LGBTQ community. LGBTQ stands for: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, and queer.

Citizenship

227


4 Citizenship AIMS FIRST

Where in the world do you think life as a homosexual is easiest and where is it most difficult? Explain your views.

O

SI C !

CONTEXT

Ku n

Same Love

MU

L I ST E N T

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Explore the theme and language of a song lyric • Research rights for LGBTQ people around the world • Create a text about progress in equal rights

226

[ chapter 4 ]

Parade goers stop and pose for a picture during Pride on 6 July, 2019, in London.

Equal rights are something many of us, who live in liberal democracies, take for granted. However, if you happen to love someone of the same sex, this can impact your sense of freedom and safety in many societies around the world. This is also the case in parts of the United States, as hip-hop artist Macklemore shows in his hit “Same Love”. The song advocates expanding equal rights to the LGBTQ community. LGBTQ stands for: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, and queer.

Citizenship

227


4 Citizenship

GENRE: SONG LYRIC

Same Love by Macklemore & Ryan Lewis feat. Mary Lambert 5

5

vu

rd

er in

g

When I was in the 3rd grade, I thought that I was gay Cause I could draw, my uncle was, And I kept my room straight I told my mom, tears rushing down my face She’s like, “Ben, you’ve loved girls since before Pre-K!” Tripping, yeah, I guess she had a point, didn’t she? A bunch of stereotypes all in my head I remember doing the math, like “Yeah, I’m good at little league” A pre-conceived idea of what it all meant For those that like the same sex had the characteristics The right-wing conservatives think it’s a decision And you can be cured with some treatment and religion Man-made, rewiring of a pre-disposition, playing God, Aah, nah, here we go America the brave still fears what don’t know And “God loves all his children” is somehow forgotten But we paraphrase a book written thirty-five hundred years ago

til

Ku n 228

[ chapter 4 ]

If I was gay, I would think hip-hop hates me Have you read the YouTube comments lately? “Man, that’s gay” gets dropped on the daily We’ve become so numb to what we’re saying Our culture founded from oppression Yet we don’t have acceptance for ‘em Call each other faggots Behind the keys of a message board

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

Chorus We press play, don’t press pause: Progress, march on! With a veil over our eyes, we turn our back on the cause ‘Til the day that my uncles can be united by law Kids are walking around the hallway Plagued by a pain in their heart A world so hateful Some would rather die Than be who they are And a certificate on paper Isn’t gonna solve it all But it’s a damn good place to start No law’s gonna change us We have to change us Whatever god you believe in We come from the same one Strip away the fear, underneath, it’s all the same love About time that we raised up! Chorus: Love is patient, love is kind Love is patient (not crying on Sundays) Love is kind (not crying on Sundays) Haggerty, B., Lewis, R. (2012). Same Love. [Recorded by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis.] On The Heist. [CD]. Seattle: Independent record label. (2009-2012). Lyrics retrieved from https://genius.com/ Macklemore-and-ryan-lewis-same-love-lyrics.

pre-K before kindergarten little league ball sports for children pre-conceived made up and decided in advance pre-disposition (usually spelled predisposition) tendency paraphrase retell in other words drop here: say, comment numb insensitive founded from oppression based on injustice faggots derogatory term for homosexuals synonymous equal or similar too complexion skin tone pigment colour walk-outs leaving as a form of protest sit-ins refusing to leave as a form of protest service religious meeting at a church, for example anointed blessed veil curtain unite by law wed or marry plagued disturbed or haunted

AUTHOR

Chorus: I don’t know And I can’t change, even if I tried Even if I wanted to And I can’t change, even if I tried Even if I wanted to My love, my love, my love She keeps me warm She keeps me warm She keeps me warm She keeps me warm

10

A word rooted in hate Yet our genre still ignores it “Gay” is synonymous with the lesser It’s the same hate that’s caused wars from religion Gender to skin color, the complexion of your pigment The same fight that led people to walk-outs and sit-ins It’s human rights for everybody, there is no difference Live on! And be yourself When I was at church they taught me something else If you preach hate at the service, those words aren’t anointed That Holy Water that you soak in has been poisoned When everyone else is more comfortable remaining voiceless Rather than fighting for humans that have had their rights stolen I might not be the same but that’s not important No freedom til we’re equal Damn right I support it

Macklemore is the artist name of Benjamin Hammond Haggerty (1983–). He is an American rapper of Irish descent who made his breakthrough in 2013 with several songs that challenged the consumer society and hip-hop culture.

Citizenship

229


4 Citizenship

GENRE: SONG LYRIC

15

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

If I was gay, I would think hip-hop hates me Have you read the YouTube comments lately? “Man, that’s gay” gets dropped on the daily We’ve become so numb to what we’re saying Our culture founded from oppression Yet we don’t have acceptance for ‘em Call each other faggots Behind the keys of a message board

228

[ chapter 4 ]

40

Chorus We press play, don’t press pause: Progress, march on! With a veil over our eyes, we turn our back on the cause ‘Til the day that my uncles can be united by law Kids are walking around the hallway Plagued by a pain in their heart A world so hateful Some would rather die Than be who they are And a certificate on paper Isn’t gonna solve it all But it’s a damn good place to start No law’s gonna change us We have to change us Whatever god you believe in We come from the same one Strip away the fear, underneath, it’s all the same love About time that we raised up!

35

40

g

15

er in

10

rd

10

vu

5

pre-K before kindergarten little league ball sports for children pre-conceived made up and decided in advance pre-disposition (usually spelled predisposition) tendency paraphrase retell in other words drop here: say, comment numb insensitive founded from oppression based on injustice faggots derogatory term for homosexuals synonymous equal or similar too complexion skin tone pigment colour walk-outs leaving as a form of protest sit-ins refusing to leave as a form of protest service religious meeting at a church, for example anointed blessed veil curtain unite by law wed or marry plagued disturbed or haunted

Chorus: Love is patient, love is kind Love is patient (not crying on Sundays) Love is kind (not crying on Sundays) Haggerty, B., Lewis, R. (2012). Same Love. [Recorded by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis.] On The Heist. [CD]. Seattle: Independent record label. (2009-2012). Lyrics retrieved from https://genius.com/ Macklemore-and-ryan-lewis-same-love-lyrics.

AUTHOR

Chorus: I don’t know And I can’t change, even if I tried Even if I wanted to And I can’t change, even if I tried Even if I wanted to My love, my love, my love She keeps me warm She keeps me warm She keeps me warm She keeps me warm

5

Ku n

When I was in the 3rd grade, I thought that I was gay Cause I could draw, my uncle was, And I kept my room straight I told my mom, tears rushing down my face She’s like, “Ben, you’ve loved girls since before Pre-K!” Tripping, yeah, I guess she had a point, didn’t she? A bunch of stereotypes all in my head I remember doing the math, like “Yeah, I’m good at little league” A pre-conceived idea of what it all meant For those that like the same sex had the characteristics The right-wing conservatives think it’s a decision And you can be cured with some treatment and religion Man-made, rewiring of a pre-disposition, playing God, Aah, nah, here we go America the brave still fears what don’t know And “God loves all his children” is somehow forgotten But we paraphrase a book written thirty-five hundred years ago

A word rooted in hate Yet our genre still ignores it “Gay” is synonymous with the lesser It’s the same hate that’s caused wars from religion Gender to skin color, the complexion of your pigment The same fight that led people to walk-outs and sit-ins It’s human rights for everybody, there is no difference Live on! And be yourself When I was at church they taught me something else If you preach hate at the service, those words aren’t anointed That Holy Water that you soak in has been poisoned When everyone else is more comfortable remaining voiceless Rather than fighting for humans that have had their rights stolen I might not be the same but that’s not important No freedom til we’re equal Damn right I support it

til

Same Love by Macklemore & Ryan Lewis feat. Mary Lambert

Macklemore is the artist name of Benjamin Hammond Haggerty (1983–). He is an American rapper of Irish descent who made his breakthrough in 2013 with several songs that challenged the consumer society and hip-hop culture.

Citizenship

229


Iceland Norway

Denmark

Finland

Mol.

Turkey

Sudan

South Sudan

(E)

Egypt

Israel

Syria

Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan

Kuwait

Bahrain

(E)

Sri Lanka

India

Nepal

2

Up to 8 Years Imprisonment

30

Myanmar

10 Years to Life in Prison

Taiwan (China)

South Korea

North Korea

Hong Kong Macau

Philippines

Death Penalty

Japan

6 (E) Effective 6 (P) Possible

Australia

Timor Leste

Indonesia

Brunei (P)

Vietnam

26

Singapore

Malaysia

Cambodia

Thailand

China

Mongolia

Bhutan Bangladesh

Russian Federation

Kyrgyzstan

Maldives

Pakistan (P)

Tajikistan

Kazakhstan

(P)

Afghanistan

Uzbekistan

Turkmenistan

(E)

Iran

UAE (P)

Qatar (P) Oman

De Facto Criminalisation

Criminalisation of consensual same-sex sexual acts between adults

Mauritius

Seychelles

Somalia

Djibouti

(E)

Yemen

(E)

Saudi Arabia

Iraq

Kenya

Comoros

Ethiopia

Eritrea

Jord.

Palestine

Lebanon

Cyprus

Ukraine

Belarus

Latvia

Estonia

Lithuania

Hungary

Slovakia

Poland

Sweden

Slovenia

Romania

Serbia

Bulgaria M K NM A

B&H

Greece

Chad

Central African Republic Uganda

Tanzania

Democratic Republic of Rwanda the Congo Burundi

Malawi

Mozambique

55

Madagascar

No Prot. / No Crim.

Eswatini

Zimbabwe

Zambia

Botswana

8

Lesotho

Limited/Uneven Protection

South Africa

Namibia

Angola

Congo

Libya

Malta

Vatican

Croatia

Liecht. Austria

Czechia

Germany

Netherlands

Lux.

Belgium

Swit.

Italy

S. Marino

Monaco

Tunisia

Niger

(E)

75

Gabon

Cameroon

Nigeria

Algeria

Andorra

France

UK

Spain

Mali

Morocco

Ireland

Portugal

rd

vu

Western Sahara

(P)

Burkina Faso

Employment Protection

Equatorial Guinea

Benin

Togo Ghana

São Tomé and Príncipe

Côte d'Ivoire

Mauritania

Guinea

Senegal

55

Palau

SEXUAL ORIENTATION LAWS IN THE WORLD - 2019 Greenland

Cape Verde

Gambia Guinea Bissau

Liberia

Sierra Leone

Broad Protection

Laos

From criminalisation of consensual same-sex sexual acts between adults to protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation

Antigua and Barbuda

Puerto Rico

Dominican Republic

St. Kitts and Nevis

er in

Haiti

Bahamas

Jamaica

Cuba

Canada

United States of America

Mexico

Belize

Barbados

St. Lucia

Dominica

Uruguay

Brazil

Fr. Guy.

Trinidad and Tobago

Sur.

Paraguay

Guyana

Bolivia

Venezuela

Guatemala Honduras St. Vincent and Grenadines El Salvador Nicaragua Grenada Costa Rica Panama

Colombia

Ecuador

Peru

Chile

g

Argentina

11

Protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation Constitutional Protection

Legal barriers to the exercise of rights

til

TM

Legal recognition of families Legal barriers to the registration or operation of sexual orientation related CSOs

• make use of examples from the lyrics • compare these examples with other sources • draw conclusions about how equal society has become

Legal barriers to freedom of expression on SOGIESC issues

TIDBIT

Federated States of Micronesia

Marshall Islands

Nauru

Fiji

Tuvalu

Solomon Islands

Papua New Guinea

Vanuatu

New Zealand

Kiribati

Samoa

Tonga

Cook Islands

DECEMBER 2019

[ chapter 4 ] 230

Choose a way to present your comparison (for instance: oral presentation, sound clip, poster, photo story, etc.). Make sure to use multiple, reliable sources. For guidance, see course 10: Choosing sources. Why do you think Macklemore structures his use of personal pronouns in this way? What is the effect?

For guidance, see course 7: Structuring a paragraph and course 8: Structuring a text. A largely Catholic country, the Republic of Ireland, became historic on 22 May 2015 when its people were the first in the world to vote in favour of legalising same-sex marriage through a popular referendum.

Marriage rights Adoption rights Freedom Safety

Adoption open to same-sex couples (either jointly or via second parent adoption)

8 In the space of the song there is a change of focus from the individual to the collective. Identify the following in the song:

OVER TO YOU 11 LGBTQ people around the world Look at the map on the next page. Go online and research the situation for LGBTQ people in three countries on three different continents. Compare conditions for gay people in terms of:

STRUCTURE 7 How does the chorus differ from the verses? Comment on the effect of the chorus.

• • • •

• the parts that focus on the individual • the parts that focus on the collective • the use of personal pronouns

Marriage or other forms of legal union for same-sex couples

6 According to Macklemore, how can we improve the current situation?

12 Discuss realism in song lyrics In “Same Love”, Macklemore gives examples of stereotypes and their negative effects, but also points out that positive changes can be made. Write a text where you discuss how realistic the song lyrics are. Make sure that you

Ku n PRACTICE

The data presented in this map is based on State-Sponsored Homophobia, an ILGA report by Lucas Ramón Mendos. This map can be reproduced and printed without permission as long as ILGA is properly credited and the content is not altered. ilga.org

3 Macklemore raps about “paraphrasing a book” – which book does he mean?

10 Rap lyrics often feature slang, swearing, and other typical traits of informal language. • Identify at least five different examples of informal language in the lyrics • Reflect on the lack of swear words – why do you think Macklemore uses so few in this song?

5 What is the worst outcome of gay kids growing up in a hateful world?

keep my room straight do the math gets dropped on the daily rooted in hate turn your back on strip away the fear

2 How can homosexuality be “cured”, according to right-wing conservatives?

LANGUAGE 9 Explain the following idiomatic expressions used by Macklemore: CONTENT 1 Why did Macklemore think he was gay as a child?

• • • • • • 4 Why might gay people think that hip-hop hates them?

4 Citizenship


Norway

Denmark

Tunisia

Monaco

Italy

S. Marino

Finland

Mol.

Turkey

Sudan

(E)

Egypt

Israel

Syria

Georgia

Kuwait

Bahrain

Saudi Arabia

Iraq

Armenia Azerbaijan

Eritrea

Jord.

Palestine

Lebanon

Cyprus

Ukraine

Belarus

Latvia

Estonia

Lithuania

Hungary

Romania

Serbia

Bulgaria M K NM A

B&H

Greece

Chad

Libya

Malta

Vatican

Croatia

rd Andorra

Algeria

Niger

Slovakia

Poland

Sweden

Germany

Netherlands

Czechia

Slovenia

Liecht. Austria Swit.

Lux.

Belgium

France

UK

Spain

Morocco

Mali

(E)

Nigeria

Cameroon

Central African Republic

South Sudan

Uganda

(E)

Djibouti

(E)

Yemen

(E)

De Facto Criminalisation

2

India

Sri Lanka

Up to 8 Years Imprisonment

China

Mongolia

Bhutan Bangladesh

Myanmar

Taiwan (China)

South Korea

North Korea

Hong Kong Macau

Philippines

Death Penalty

Japan

Australia

Timor Leste

Indonesia

Brunei (P)

Vietnam

26

Singapore

Malaysia

Cambodia

Thailand

Criminalisation of consensual same-sex sexual acts between adults

Mauritius

Nepal

Russian Federation

Kyrgyzstan

Maldives

Pakistan (P)

Tajikistan

Kazakhstan

(P)

Afghanistan

Uzbekistan

Turkmenistan

(E)

Iran

UAE (P)

Qatar (P) Oman

Seychelles

Somalia

Comoros

Ethiopia

Kenya

Tanzania

Democratic Republic of Rwanda the Congo Burundi

Malawi

Mozambique

55

Madagascar

No Prot. / No Crim.

Eswatini

Zimbabwe

Zambia

Botswana

8

Lesotho

Limited/Uneven Protection

South Africa

Namibia

Angola

Congo

Gabon

75

vu

er in Iceland

Ireland

Portugal

Western Sahara

(P)

Burkina Faso

Employment Protection

Equatorial Guinea

Benin

Togo

Ghana

São Tomé and Príncipe

Côte d'Ivoire

Mauritania

Guinea

Senegal

55 30

10 Years to Life in Prison

Palau

g

SEXUAL ORIENTATION LAWS IN THE WORLD - 2019 Greenland

Cape Verde

Gambia

Guinea Bissau

Liberia

Sierra Leone

Broad Protection

Laos

From criminalisation of consensual same-sex sexual acts between adults to protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation

Antigua and Barbuda

Puerto Rico

Dominican Republic

St. Kitts and Nevis

Haiti

Bahamas

Jamaica

Cuba

Canada

United States of America

Mexico

Belize

Barbados

St. Lucia

Dominica

Uruguay

Brazil

Fr. Guy.

Trinidad and Tobago

Sur.

Paraguay

Guyana

Bolivia

Venezuela

Guatemala Honduras St. Vincent and Grenadines El Salvador Nicaragua Grenada Costa Rica Panama

Colombia

Ecuador

Peru

Chile

Argentina

11

Protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation Constitutional Protection

til

TM

Legal barriers to the exercise of rights

• make use of examples from the lyrics • compare these examples with other sources • draw conclusions about how equal society has become

6 (E) Effective 6 (P) Possible

Legal barriers to the registration or operation of sexual orientation related CSOs

12 Discuss realism in song lyrics In “Same Love”, Macklemore gives examples of stereotypes and their negative effects, but also points out that positive changes can be made. Write a text where you discuss how realistic the song lyrics are. Make sure that you

Legal barriers to freedom of expression on SOGIESC issues

TIDBIT

Federated States of Micronesia

Marshall Islands

Nauru

Fiji

Tuvalu

Solomon Islands

Papua New Guinea

Vanuatu

New Zealand

Kiribati

Samoa

Tonga

Cook Islands

DECEMBER 2019

[ chapter 4 ] 230

Choose a way to present your comparison (for instance: oral presentation, sound clip, poster, photo story, etc.). Make sure to use multiple, reliable sources. For guidance, see course 10: Choosing sources. Why do you think Macklemore structures his use of personal pronouns in this way? What is the effect?

For guidance, see course 7: Structuring a paragraph and course 8: Structuring a text. A largely Catholic country, the Republic of Ireland, became historic on 22 May 2015 when its people were the first in the world to vote in favour of legalising same-sex marriage through a popular referendum.

Marriage rights Adoption rights Freedom Safety

Adoption open to same-sex couples (either jointly or via second parent adoption)

8 In the space of the song there is a change of focus from the individual to the collective. Identify the following in the song:

• • • • • the parts that focus on the individual • the parts that focus on the collective • the use of personal pronouns

Legal recognition of families

STRUCTURE 7 How does the chorus differ from the verses? Comment on the effect of the chorus.

OVER TO YOU 11 LGBTQ people around the world Look at the map on the next page. Go online and research the situation for LGBTQ people in three countries on three different continents. Compare conditions for gay people in terms of:

Marriage or other forms of legal union for same-sex couples

6 According to Macklemore, how can we improve the current situation?

Ku n

PRACTICE

The data presented in this map is based on State-Sponsored Homophobia, an ILGA report by Lucas Ramón Mendos. This map can be reproduced and printed without permission as long as ILGA is properly credited and the content is not altered. ilga.org

3 Macklemore raps about “paraphrasing a book” – which book does he mean?

10 Rap lyrics often feature slang, swearing, and other typical traits of informal language. • Identify at least five different examples of informal language in the lyrics • Reflect on the lack of swear words – why do you think Macklemore uses so few in this song? 5 What is the worst outcome of gay kids growing up in a hateful world?

keep my room straight do the math gets dropped on the daily rooted in hate turn your back on strip away the fear

2 How can homosexuality be “cured”, according to right-wing conservatives?

LANGUAGE 9 Explain the following idiomatic expressions used by Macklemore: CONTENT 1 Why did Macklemore think he was gay as a child?

• • • • • • 4 Why might gay people think that hip-hop hates them?

4 Citizenship


4 Citizenship AIMS • Analyse literature • Be creative by dramatising, writing a short story, or creating a graphic novel

Ku n 232

[ chapter 4 ]

Keith Haring (1958–1990) is the artist behind the image above. He is known for his graffiti-like paintings. Haring was diagnosed with AIDS in 1988, in the middle of an AIDS epidemic that hit the gay community particularly hard. He later died of the illness. Keith Haring “Untitled” (1988).

Coming out CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Discuss how we can embrace diversity by allowing room for people to be different

FIRST

Imagine that you are the only child of an immigrant mother. You are 17 and about to come out as a homosexual. Suggest how to tell her. How might she react?

The act of coming out can be an important turning point in your life. The reactions you face are determined by the society you live in and not least the attitudes and the cultural and religious background of your friends and family. In the following novel extract, the 17-yearold protagonist is about to come out to his mother. He is the only child of a Vietnamese single mother living in the US. She is illiterate and works gruelling hours in a nail salon. Her son attends and excels at high school, and will be the first member of his family to go to university. Though we do not learn his real name, his mother calls him “Little Dog”. This nickname is given lovingly, as the protagonist explains that in their Vietnamese culture, to love something “is to name it after something so worthless that it might be left untouched – and alive”.

Citizenship

233


4 Citizenship AIMS • Analyse literature • Be creative by dramatising, writing a short story, or creating a graphic novel

vu

rd

er in

g

• Discuss how we can embrace diversity by allowing room for people to be different

FIRST

Imagine that you are the only child of an immigrant mother. You are 17 and about to come out as a homosexual. Suggest how to tell her. How might she react?

The act of coming out can be an important turning point in your life. The reactions you face are determined by the society you live in and not least the attitudes and the cultural and religious background of your friends and family. In the following novel extract, the 17-yearold protagonist is about to come out to his mother. He is the only child of a Vietnamese single mother living in the US. She is illiterate and works gruelling hours in a nail salon. Her son attends and excels at high school, and will be the first member of his family to go to university. Though we do not learn his real name, his mother calls him “Little Dog”. This nickname is given lovingly, as the protagonist explains that in their Vietnamese culture, to love something “is to name it after something so worthless that it might be left untouched – and alive”.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

Coming out

232

[ chapter 4 ]

Keith Haring (1958–1990) is the artist behind the image above. He is known for his graffiti-like paintings. Haring was diagnosed with AIDS in 1988, in the middle of an AIDS epidemic that hit the gay community particularly hard. He later died of the illness. Keith Haring “Untitled” (1988).

Citizenship

233


4 Citizenship

GENRE: NOVEL EXTRACT

Extract from On Earth We’re Briefly Gorgeous

“Ma –” “They’ll kill you,” you shook your head, “you know that.” “Who will kill me?”

Then I told you the truth. 5

er in

Inside the bright Dunkin’ Donuts, two cups of black coffee steamed between us. You stared out the window. Rain slashed down the road as the cars came back from church service on Main St. “People seem to like those SUV things these days.” You noted the caravan of cars at the drive-thru. “Everybody wants to sit higher and higher.” Your fingers thrummed the table.

10

“You want sugar, Ma?” I asked. “What about cream, or actually, maybe a doughnut? Oh no, you like the croissants –”

15

“They kill people for wearing dresses. It’s on the news. You don’t know people. You don’t know them.” “I won’t, Ma. I promise. Look, I never wore one before, have I? Why would I now?”

g

5

10

You stared at the two holes in my face. “You don’t have to go anywhere. It’s just you and me, Little Dog. I don’t have anyone else.” Your eyes were red. The children across the shop were singing “Old MacDonald Had a Farm,” their voices, their easy elation, piercing. “Tell me,” you sat up, a concerned look on your face, “when did this all start? I gave birth to a healthy, normal boy. I know that. When?” Vuong, Ocean. (2019). On Earth We’re Briefly Gorgeous. London: Penguin Random House UK.

rd

“Say what you have to say, Little Dog.” Your tone subdued, watery. The steam from the cup gave your face shifting expression. “I don’t like girls.”

Ku n 234

[ chapter 4 ]

PRACTICE

25

CONTENT 1 Why is the protagonist called “Little Dog”? 2 When and where does he come out to his mother?

“You don’t like girls,” you repeated, nodding absently. I could see the words moving through you, pressing you into your chair. “Then what do you like? You’re seventeen. You don’t like anything. You don’t know anything,” you said, scratching the table.

3 Why does he not want to use the Vietnamese word for homosexual? 30

“Boys,” I said, controlling my voice. But the word felt dead in my mouth. The chair creaked as you leaned forward. “Chocolate! I want chocolate!” A group of children in teal oversized T-shirts, just back, judging from their paper bags full of apples, from an applepicking trip, poured into the shop, filling it with excited shrieks.

4 What is his mother’s initial fear when she learns her son is gay? 5 What is his mother implying when saying she “gave birth to a healthy, normal boy”?

35

“I can leave, Ma,” I offered. “If you don’t want me I can go. I won’t be a problem and nobody has to know … Ma say something.” In the cup my reflection rippled under a small black tide. “Please.” “Tell me, you going to wear a dress now?”

Ocean Vuong (1988–) is a VietnameseAmerican poet and novelist. He was born in Vietnam and grew up in Hartford, Connecticut. His debut novel On Earth We’re Briefly Gorgeous (2019) is semiautobiographical.

20

You blinked a few times.

til

downpour heavy rain bond connection bleak dreary or depressing relief lettelse familiar known luminous glowing backdrop scenery dreary gloomy or lifeless caravan of cars long row of cars thrum beat subdued quiet or controlled shifting changing queer here: homosexual epithet nickname absently not consciously or actively shriek scream offer tilby ripple wave or wrinkle tide flow palm håndflate/handflate easy elation uncomplicated enthusiasm piercing intense or painful concerned worried

vu

I didn’t want to use the Vietnamese word for it – pê-đê – from the French pédé, short for pedophile. Before the French occupation, our Vietnamese did not have a name for queer bodies – because they were seen, like all bodies, fleshed and of one source – and I didn’t want to introduce this part of me using the epithet for criminals.

AUTHOR

It was a greyish Sunday. All morning the sky had threatened downpour. The kind of day, I had hoped, where the bond between two people might be decided on easily – the weather being so bleak we would see each other, you and I, with relief, a familiar face made more luminous than we had remembered in the backdrop of dreary light.

40

STRUCTURE 6 The protagonist’s coming-out story is interrupted several times in the café. What happens and what is the effect of these interruptions on the story? LANGUAGE 7 Vuong varies his language and uses many different synonyms for the verb “say”. Find as many of them in the extract as possible. For more on synonyms, see course 2: Expanding your vocabulary.

OVER TO YOU 8 Literary analysis Vuong is also a poet, and his novel has been praised for its poetic language. Write a short analysis of this extract, giving examples of at least 3–5 literary features and explaining their effect. For tips on which literary features to look for, see course 17: Approaching literature and film. 9 Be creative Choose between alternatives a, b and c. a Imagine and write a scene about what happened before the above extract from Vuong’s novel, or what happens next. b Act out the above scene. You need at least four actors: the son, the mother, the narrator, and other guests in the café. Learn your lines by heart. Perform it live in class or record a short film. c Imagine that you are an illustrator who is creating a graphic-novel version of Vuong’s novel. On a double page, create an illustrated version of this scene, including all dialogue.

Citizenship

235


4 Citizenship

GENRE: NOVEL EXTRACT

Extract from On Earth We’re Briefly Gorgeous

“Ma –” “They’ll kill you,” you shook your head, “you know that.” “Who will kill me?” 5

Inside the bright Dunkin’ Donuts, two cups of black coffee steamed between us. You stared out the window. Rain slashed down the road as the cars came back from church service on Main St. “People seem to like those SUV things these days.” You noted the caravan of cars at the drive-thru. “Everybody wants to sit higher and higher.” Your fingers thrummed the table.

10

“You want sugar, Ma?” I asked. “What about cream, or actually, maybe a doughnut? Oh no, you like the croissants –”

15

5

“They kill people for wearing dresses. It’s on the news. You don’t know people. You don’t know them.” “I won’t, Ma. I promise. Look, I never wore one before, have I? Why would I now?” You stared at the two holes in my face. “You don’t have to go anywhere. It’s just you and me, Little Dog. I don’t have anyone else.” Your eyes were red. The children across the shop were singing “Old MacDonald Had a Farm,” their voices, their easy elation, piercing. “Tell me,” you sat up, a concerned look on your face, “when did this all start? I gave birth to a healthy, normal boy. I know that. When?”

Vuong, Ocean. (2019). On Earth We’re Briefly Gorgeous. London: Penguin Random House UK.

234

[ chapter 4 ]

PRACTICE

25

CONTENT 1 Why is the protagonist called “Little Dog”?

2 When and where does he come out to his mother?

“You don’t like girls,” you repeated, nodding absently. I could see the words moving through you, pressing you into your chair. “Then what do you like? You’re seventeen. You don’t like anything. You don’t know anything,” you said, scratching the table.

3 Why does he not want to use the Vietnamese word for homosexual? 30

“Boys,” I said, controlling my voice. But the word felt dead in my mouth. The chair creaked as you leaned forward. “Chocolate! I want chocolate!” A group of children in teal oversized T-shirts, just back, judging from their paper bags full of apples, from an applepicking trip, poured into the shop, filling it with excited shrieks.

4 What is his mother’s initial fear when she learns her son is gay? 5 What is his mother implying when saying she “gave birth to a healthy, normal boy”?

35

“I can leave, Ma,” I offered. “If you don’t want me I can go. I won’t be a problem and nobody has to know … Ma say something.” In the cup my reflection rippled under a small black tide. “Please.” “Tell me, you going to wear a dress now?”

til

You blinked a few times.

40

Ku n

downpour heavy rain bond connection bleak dreary or depressing relief lettelse familiar known luminous glowing backdrop scenery dreary gloomy or lifeless caravan of cars long row of cars thrum beat subdued quiet or controlled shifting changing queer here: homosexual epithet nickname absently not consciously or actively shriek scream offer tilby ripple wave or wrinkle tide flow palm håndflate/handflate easy elation uncomplicated enthusiasm piercing intense or painful concerned worried

20

vu

I didn’t want to use the Vietnamese word for it – pê-đê – from the French pédé, short for pedophile. Before the French occupation, our Vietnamese did not have a name for queer bodies – because they were seen, like all bodies, fleshed and of one source – and I didn’t want to introduce this part of me using the epithet for criminals.

rd

“Say what you have to say, Little Dog.” Your tone subdued, watery. The steam from the cup gave your face shifting expression. “I don’t like girls.”

Ocean Vuong (1988–) is a VietnameseAmerican poet and novelist. He was born in Vietnam and grew up in Hartford, Connecticut. His debut novel On Earth We’re Briefly Gorgeous (2019) is semiautobiographical.

er in

10

AUTHOR

It was a greyish Sunday. All morning the sky had threatened downpour. The kind of day, I had hoped, where the bond between two people might be decided on easily – the weather being so bleak we would see each other, you and I, with relief, a familiar face made more luminous than we had remembered in the backdrop of dreary light.

g

Then I told you the truth.

STRUCTURE 6 The protagonist’s coming-out story is interrupted several times in the café. What happens and what is the effect of these interruptions on the story? LANGUAGE 7 Vuong varies his language and uses many different synonyms for the verb “say”. Find as many of them in the extract as possible. For more on synonyms, see course 2: Expanding your vocabulary.

OVER TO YOU 8 Literary analysis Vuong is also a poet, and his novel has been praised for its poetic language. Write a short analysis of this extract, giving examples of at least 3–5 literary features and explaining their effect. For tips on which literary features to look for, see course 17: Approaching literature and film. 9 Be creative Choose between alternatives a, b and c. a Imagine and write a scene about what happened before the above extract from Vuong’s novel, or what happens next. b Act out the above scene. You need at least four actors: the son, the mother, the narrator, and other guests in the café. Learn your lines by heart. Perform it live in class or record a short film. c Imagine that you are an illustrator who is creating a graphic-novel version of Vuong’s novel. On a double page, create an illustrated version of this scene, including all dialogue.

Citizenship

235


4 Citizenship AIMS • Reflect on the role that money plays in American and British politics and the extent to which it threatens democracy

til

Ku n

Money Talks CONTEXT

vu

rd

er in

g

• Give an oral presentation

FIRST

Watch comedian Trevor Noah present information about President Donald Trump’s private finances in the video clip “Donald Trump’s Dodgy Tax History” (07:44) at youtube.com. Discuss: Is this information relevant to voters?

Money has always played a major role in American politics. In 1895, Senator Mark Hanna of Ohio famously remarked: “There are two things that are important in politics. The first is money, and I can’t remember what the second one is.” The text you are about to read is an extract from a news article that was published just after billionaires Tom Steyer and Michael Bloomberg announced their run for US president in the 2020 election. As you will see, it highlights some of the problems that are connected to big money in politics. Even though both Steyer and Bloomberg withdrew from the presidential race only weeks after this news report was written, and they had spent a massive total of $250 million1 and $570 million2 on their respective campaigns without getting elected, many people are still afraid that money ruin fair elections. They ask themselves questions like these: What are your chances of getting elected if you do not have the money to buy ads and get noticed? What kind of democracy, and what kind of politicians, do we end up with if one needs millions and millions of dollars to get elected to public office? 1 The Wall Street Journal, 2 March 2020 2 CBS News, 4 March 2020

236

[ chapter 4 ]

“Power and Money”, by Alex Arnell (2018). A pastiche of Francis Bacon’s “screaming pope” paintings.

Citizenship

237


4 Citizenship AIMS FIRST

• Reflect on the role that money plays in American and British politics and the extent to which it threatens democracy

rd

er in

g

• Give an oral presentation

Watch comedian Trevor Noah present information about President Donald Trump’s private finances in the video clip “Donald Trump’s Dodgy Tax History” (07:44) at youtube.com. Discuss: Is this information relevant to voters?

Money has always played a major role in American politics. In 1895, Senator Mark Hanna of Ohio famously remarked: “There are two things that are important in politics. The first is money, and I can’t remember what the second one is.” The text you are about to read is an extract from a news article that was published just after billionaires Tom Steyer and Michael Bloomberg announced their run for US president in the 2020 election. As you will see, it highlights some of the problems that are connected to big money in politics. Even though both Steyer and Bloomberg withdrew from the presidential race only weeks after this news report was written, and they had spent a massive total of $250 million1 and $570 million2 on their respective campaigns without getting elected, many people are still afraid that money ruin fair elections. They ask themselves questions like these: What are your chances of getting elected if you do not have the money to buy ads and get noticed? What kind of democracy, and what kind of politicians, do we end up with if one needs millions and millions of dollars to get elected to public office?

Ku n

til

CONTEXT

vu

Money Talks

1 The Wall Street Journal, 2 March 2020 2 CBS News, 4 March 2020

236

[ chapter 4 ]

“Power and Money”, by Alex Arnell (2018). A pastiche of Francis Bacon’s “screaming pope” paintings.

Citizenship

237


4 Citizenship

GENRE: NEWS ARTICLE

PRACTICE

5

A news report aims to be a neutral text that informs readers about an event. If there are differences of opinion about what has happened, the journalist often includes more than one point of view. News reports often present the main message and the most important details in the beginning of the text. The journalist presents the 5 Ws: who, what, when, where, and why/how in the “lead” – the first paragraph(s) – before going deeper into the story.

rd

er in

g

1

10

5 15

STRUCTURE 6 Read about the genre news report in the margin on the previous page and identify the 5 Ws: What are the who, what, when, where and why/how in the text? 20

LANGUAGE 7 Make a list of words in the text that belong to the subject area politics. Write two-three sentences where you use words from the list.

vu

They entered the race late, but the two billionaires seeking the Democratic nomination are making up for lost time. Together, Tom Steyer and Mike Bloomberg have poured nearly $ 200 million into television and digital advertising alone, with the former New York mayor spending an unprecedented $ 120 million in the roughly three weeks since he joined the presidential race. That’s more than double the combined ad spending of every single nonbillionaire in the Democratic field this year.

25

“We’ve never seen spending like this in a presidential race,” said Jim McLaughlin, a Republican political strategist who worked as a consultant for Bloomberg’s mayoral bids in New York. “He has a limitless budget.”

30

til

Ku n unprecedented never done or known before mayoral bid make an effort to become mayor (borgermester/ borgarmeister) mired involved in a difficult situation single digit a number that is 9 or less stratospheric here: extremely high Pete Buttigieg 2020 Democratic presidential candidate

238

[ chapter 4 ]

At present, the two remain mired in single digits in the polls. Steyer isn’t spending at the same stratospheric levels as Bloomberg, yet with $ 83 million in ad buys so far, he’s still far outpacing everyone other than his fellow billionaire. The next highest spender on ads is Pete Buttigieg at $ 19 million. […] King, M. (2019, Dec. 25). ‘We’ve never seen spending like this’: Bloomberg, Steyer saturate airwaves. Politico. Retrieved from www.politico.com/news/2019/12/25/michael-bloomberg- tomsteyer-2020-ads-084 823

3 4

We’ve never seen spending like this

The question isn’t whether anyone else will come close to matching Bloomberg’s or Steyer’s ad spending. Rather, it’s whether all that spending is making any difference.

2

Tom Steyer and Michael Bloomberg were among the first Democratic candidates to announce their run for the US presidency. T/F Michael Bloomberg used to be mayor of New York. T/F Presidential candidates usually spend hundreds of millions of dollars on ads. T/F Steyer and Bloomberg do extremely well in polls. T/F Steyer spends more on ads than Bloomberg. T/F

TIDBIT

CONTENT Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

8 Make a list of words in the text that belong to the subject area money. Write two-three sentences where you use words from the list. OVER TO YOU 9 Explore the role of money a … in US politics Go to investopedia.com and read the article “How Much Does It Cost to Become President?” b … in British politics

35

40

Go to sciencenorway.com and read the article “Pupils from elite schools still rule”. Choose three facts from each text that strike you as particularly interesting and present them in class. Round off by sharing your personal opinion about your findings. Use a presentation tool of your own choice. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

Money apparently plays a role in British politics, too. Since the Second World War, five prime ministers (Boris Johnson, David Cameron, Alec Douglas-Home, Harold MacMillan, and Anthony Eden) have been educated at Eton College, a private all-boys boarding school for 13- to 18-year-olds. According to sciencenorway.com, “pupils attending elite boarding schools such as Eton are 94 times more likely than pupils at other schools to be part of the ruling elite when they are grown”. In 2019, the annual fee at Eton College was £42,100. Since 1945, three other prime ministers attended other private boarding schools, commonly known as public schools: Clement Attlee (Haileybury), Winston Churchill (Harrow School) and Tony Blair (Fettes College). During the same period, seven prime ministers, including Margaret Thatcher and Theresa May, were educated through the British state school system.

Citizenship

239


4 Citizenship

GENRE: NEWS ARTICLE

PRACTICE

2 10

3 4 5

Tom Steyer and Michael Bloomberg were among the first Democratic candidates to announce their run for the US presidency. T/F Michael Bloomberg used to be mayor of New York. T/F Presidential candidates usually spend hundreds of millions of dollars on ads. T/F Steyer and Bloomberg do extremely well in polls. T/F Steyer spends more on ads than Bloomberg. T/F

15

rd

STRUCTURE 6 Read about the genre news report in the margin on the previous page and identify the 5 Ws: What are the who, what, when, where and why/how in the text? 20

238

[ chapter 4 ]

25

“We’ve never seen spending like this in a presidential race,” said Jim McLaughlin, a Republican political strategist who worked as a consultant for Bloomberg’s mayoral bids in New York. “He has a limitless budget.”

30

At present, the two remain mired in single digits in the polls. Steyer isn’t spending at the same stratospheric levels as Bloomberg, yet with $ 83 million in ad buys so far, he’s still far outpacing everyone other than his fellow billionaire. The next highest spender on ads is Pete Buttigieg at $ 19 million. […] King, M. (2019, Dec. 25). ‘We’ve never seen spending like this’: Bloomberg, Steyer saturate airwaves. Politico. Retrieved from www.politico.com/news/2019/12/25/michael-bloomberg- tomsteyer-2020-ads-084 823

8 Make a list of words in the text that belong to the subject area money. Write two-three sentences where you use words from the list. OVER TO YOU 9 Explore the role of money a … in US politics

Go to investopedia.com and read the article “How Much Does It Cost to Become President?”

Ku n

unprecedented never done or known before mayoral bid make an effort to become mayor (borgermester/ borgarmeister) mired involved in a difficult situation single digit a number that is 9 or less stratospheric here: extremely high Pete Buttigieg 2020 Democratic presidential candidate

Together, Tom Steyer and Mike Bloomberg have poured nearly $ 200 million into television and digital advertising alone, with the former New York mayor spending an unprecedented $ 120 million in the roughly three weeks since he joined the presidential race. That’s more than double the combined ad spending of every single nonbillionaire in the Democratic field this year.

til

They entered the race late, but the two billionaires seeking the Democratic nomination are making up for lost time.

vu

LANGUAGE 7 Make a list of words in the text that belong to the subject area politics. Write two-three sentences where you use words from the list.

We’ve never seen spending like this

The question isn’t whether anyone else will come close to matching Bloomberg’s or Steyer’s ad spending. Rather, it’s whether all that spending is making any difference.

g

1

er in

5

A news report aims to be a neutral text that informs readers about an event. If there are differences of opinion about what has happened, the journalist often includes more than one point of view. News reports often present the main message and the most important details in the beginning of the text. The journalist presents the 5 Ws: who, what, when, where, and why/how in the “lead” – the first paragraph(s) – before going deeper into the story.

TIDBIT

CONTENT Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

b … in British politics

35

40

Go to sciencenorway.com and read the article “Pupils from elite schools still rule”. Choose three facts from each text that strike you as particularly interesting and present them in class. Round off by sharing your personal opinion about your findings. Use a presentation tool of your own choice. See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

Money apparently plays a role in British politics, too. Since the Second World War, five prime ministers (Boris Johnson, David Cameron, Alec Douglas-Home, Harold MacMillan, and Anthony Eden) have been educated at Eton College, a private all-boys boarding school for 13- to 18-year-olds. According to sciencenorway.com, “pupils attending elite boarding schools such as Eton are 94 times more likely than pupils at other schools to be part of the ruling elite when they are grown”. In 2019, the annual fee at Eton College was £42,100. Since 1945, three other prime ministers attended other private boarding schools, commonly known as public schools: Clement Attlee (Haileybury), Winston Churchill (Harrow School) and Tony Blair (Fettes College). During the same period, seven prime ministers, including Margaret Thatcher and Theresa May, were educated through the British state school system.

Citizenship

239


4 Citizenship AIMS

How many people are locked up in the United States?

• Reflect on how our culture forms our understanding of what just punishment is

The U.S. locks up more people per capita than any other nation, at the staggering rate of 698 per 100,000 residents. But to end mass incarceration, we must first consider where and why 2.3 million people are confined nationwide.

Driving Under the Influence

115,000

Status 2,200

Drug

Technical violations 8,100

118,000

75,000

Not Convicted 462,000

25,000

Public Order 151,000

Other drugs

Violent 32,000

45,000

Fraud

25,000

Public order 5,700

Drug 35,000

Convicted 149,000

127,000

Property 235,000

State Prisons 1,306,000

Theft 48,000 Car theft 9,000 Other property

Federal Prisons & Jails 221,000

Territorial Prisons 11,000

Public order 45,000

Marshals 51,000

Convicted 171,000

26,000

Immigration Detention 61,000

Immigration 11,000 Drugs 16,000 Other 24,000

Public Order 65,000

Violent 13,000 Property 10,000

rd

Other violent 44,000

Drug 81,000

Assault 137,000

Violent 712,000

PRISON

Other 1,000

Involuntary Commitment 22,000

Murder

Robbery 172,000

Rape/sexual assault

POLICY INITIATIVE

Manslaughter

179,000

Indian Country 2,500 Military 1,300

18,000

163,000

vu

Sources and data notes: See https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2019.html

til

Median annual pre-incarceration incomes for people in state prisons ages 27-42, compared to incomes of same-age non-incarcerated people, by race/ethnicity and gender (in 2014 dollars)

Women

$47,505

Ku n $31,245

$30,000

Annual income

$17,625

$19,740

$21,975

$12,735

Annual income (pre-incarceration)

Hispanic

White

$23,745

$19,650

Incarcerated

Black

$26,130

$24,255

All

Black

$15,000

$15,480

$11,820

Hispanic

$13,890

White

Compiled by the Prison Policy Initiative. For detailed data notes, see www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/income.html

240

[ chapter 4 ]

A part of being a well-functioning citizen is behaving according to the norms and laws of society. When you do not – you must pay the price. But how this is done differs from country to country. What citizens consider as just punishment varies greatly from culture to culture. When visiting Norway while making the documentary Sicko approximately a decade ago, the controversial documentarian Michael Moore visited Bastøy prison. Here, he interviewed prisoners and prison guards about their views on punishment, redemption, and the prospects of returning to ordinary life. Bastøy prison is an open prison on an island, where the incarcerated go to work, walk around freely, and serve their sentence in surroundings resembling ordinary life as much as possible. This, Moore claims, was too crazy to include in his film – it ended up in his extra material. The differences in crime rates, punishment, and prison standards are immense between Norway and the US. The two infographics to the left present statistics for incarceration, gender, and crimes in the US.

$41,250

Not incarcerated

Crime and Punishment CONTEXT

Most people in prison are poor, and the poorest are women and people of color

Men

Are we too kind towards criminals in Norway?

Property 9,900

Property 37,000

Other 1,000

Burglary

Person 17,200

er in

Drug possession

Youth 46,000

81,000

153,000

Local Jails 612,000

• Study reasons why people are imprisoned and what imprisonment is intended to accomplish

Drug 2,500 Public order Other 3,000

Drug 198,000

• Understand and comment on different visual statistics, such as graphs and diagrams

Property

146,000

g

Weapons 51,000 Other Public Order

Violent

Other 9,000

FIRST

What do you know about the differences between incarcerations in Norway, the UK, and the US?

All

PR ISON POLICY INITIATIVE

Citizenship

241


4 Citizenship AIMS

How many people are locked up in the United States?

• Reflect on how our culture forms our understanding of what just punishment is

The U.S. locks up more people per capita than any other nation, at the staggering rate of 698 per 100,000 residents. But to end mass incarceration, we must first consider where and why 2.3 million people are confined nationwide.

115,000

Drug

Technical violations 8,100

118,000

75,000

Not Convicted 462,000

25,000

Public Order 151,000

Other drugs

Status 2,200

153,000

Drug possession

45,000

Youth 46,000

81,000

Other 3,000

Person 17,200

Violent 32,000

Fraud

Public order 5,700

Drug 35,000

Convicted 149,000

Territorial Prisons 11,000

Public order 45,000

25,000

Are we too kind towards criminals in Norway?

Property 9,900

Property 37,000

Local Jails 612,000

Drug 198,000

• Study reasons why people are imprisoned and what imprisonment is intended to accomplish

Drug 2,500 Public order

g

Driving Under the Influence

• Understand and comment on different visual statistics, such as graphs and diagrams

Property

146,000

er in

Weapons 51,000 Other Public Order

Violent

Other 9,000

Other 1,000

Burglary

127,000

Theft 48,000 Car theft 9,000 Other property

Federal Prisons & Jails 221,000

Marshals 51,000

Convicted 171,000

26,000

Other violent 44,000

Immigration Detention 61,000

Immigration 11,000 Drugs 16,000 Other 24,000 Public Order 65,000 Violent 13,000 Property 10,000

Drug 81,000

Assault 137,000

Violent 712,000

PRISON

Involuntary Commitment 22,000

Other 1,000

Murder

Robbery 172,000

Rape/sexual assault

POLICY INITIATIVE

163,000

Manslaughter

179,000

Indian Country 2,500 Military 1,300

18,000

Sources and data notes: See https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2019.html

CONTEXT

Most people in prison are poor, and the poorest are women and people of color

Women

$47,505

When visiting Norway while making the documentary Sicko approximately a decade ago, the controversial documentarian Michael Moore visited Bastøy prison. Here, he interviewed prisoners and prison guards about their views on punishment, redemption, and the prospects of returning to ordinary life. Bastøy prison is an open prison on an island, where the incarcerated go to work, walk around freely, and serve their sentence in surroundings resembling ordinary life as much as possible. This, Moore claims, was too crazy to include in his film – it ended up in his extra material. The differences in crime rates, punishment, and prison standards are immense between Norway and the US. The two infographics to the left present statistics for incarceration, gender, and crimes in the US.

$31,245

$30,000

Annual income

$17,625

$19,740

$21,975

$12,735

White

$23,745

$19,650

Annual income (pre-incarceration)

Hispanic

$26,130

$24,255

Incarcerated

Black

All

Black

$15,000

$15,480

$11,820

Hispanic

$13,890

White

Compiled by the Prison Policy Initiative. For detailed data notes, see www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/income.html

240

[ chapter 4 ]

Ku n

$41,250

Not incarcerated

A part of being a well-functioning citizen is behaving according to the norms and laws of society. When you do not – you must pay the price. But how this is done differs from country to country. What citizens consider as just punishment varies greatly from culture to culture.

til

Median annual pre-incarceration incomes for people in state prisons ages 27-42, compared to incomes of same-age non-incarcerated people, by race/ethnicity and gender (in 2014 dollars)

Men

Crime and Punishment

rd

State Prisons 1,306,000

vu

Property 235,000

FIRST

What do you know about the differences between incarcerations in Norway, the UK, and the US?

All

PR ISON POLICY INITIATIVE

Citizenship

241


4 Citizenship PRACTICE CONTENT 1 According to the pie chart, how many people are confined in total?

13 Listen to a personal story Watch Eve Abrams’s Ted Talk “The human stories behind mass incarceration” (13 min.). Take notes while listening and summarise her message afterwards. Present your summary to a classmate.

10 What other graphic options than pie charts and columns do you know of? Would you have chosen a different version of any of these? Why?

See course 3: Improve your listening skills for guidance.

3 Among the incarcerated men illustrated in the columns, who earn the most? 4 What is the difference in income between white men who are and are not incarcerated? 5 According to the infographic, is there a large difference in income among incarcerated people – regardless of ethnicity? 6 What is the difference between local, state, and federal prisons referred to in the pie chart?

OVER TO YOU 11 Reliability The organisation behind the infographics provided here is Prison Policy Initiative. Investigate to what extent the information is reliable or not by using the steps in course 10: Choosing sources for guidance.

12 Explore and present crime and punishment in the US A lot of research has been done to try to explain why some people turn to crime and what incarceration does to people. Some findings related to prison conditions and activities may explain why rehabilitation seems to be a problem in the US.

rd

7 Do any of the numbers in the pie chart surprise you? Explain.

er in

g

2 Study the different crime categories. How many people are locked up due to drug-related cases?

STRUCTURE 9 The two infographics display information differently – in a pie chart and in columns. Which graph illustrates the information best, do you think? Explain why.

vu

LANGUAGE 8 Statistics and infographics have their own specific language. Below are some useful words to learn. Use some of these words to compose three sentences commenting on the infographics on the previous page. EXAMPLE

Nouns: chart graph diagram figure axis column curve category group percentage increase growth escalation cut fall reduction average/mean

Ku n

Verbs: show highlight illustrate present represent depict list predict indicate increase decrease outline flatten out

til

“Prison Policy Initiative’s figures indicate a considerable correlation between low income, low education, and incarceration.”

242

[ chapter 4 ]

Adjectives: horizontal vertical considerable sharp rapid gradual slow minor

• Compose a thesis statement or question that interests you in relation to crime and punishment in the US. Relevant questions might be: – What is the link between education level and crime? – Do prisons prepare prisoners for life after incarceration? – Are there “crimes of the rich” and “crimes of the poor”? – What geographical differences are there in terms of crime and punishment in the US? – Are there any current innovative initiatives?

• Go online to find possible answers to the question you are exploring. • Present your findings in a multimodal text, for instance a digital story, Sway or Screencast O’matic. See courses 9: Planning your text, 10: Choosing sources, and 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

14 Interpret infographics Below is a model text commenting on the number of drug-related crimes in the pie chart “How many people are locked up in the USA?” Study both infographics and the map on the following pages carefully and find another aspect that interests you. Then, comment on it using a similar structure to that of the model text.

15 Genre adaptation and argumentation a Rewrite the tweets from Alexandria OcasioCortez given here in formal language and proper paragraphs. b Search for and find counterarguments from the opposition, people who disagree with AOC, and write a similar paragraph(s). c Discuss the arguments provided in a and b with a classmate and agree on a possible conclusion. Present your line of thought to the class. See courses Recognising formality, Choosing sources and Holding discussions for guidance.

EXAMPLE

Topic sentence: claim

Supporting arguments: explain and exemplify

Concluding sentence: interpret

The pie chart visualising people imprisoned in the US also depicts the types of crimes they have been charged with. 448,000 prisoners are locked up due to drug-related crimes. These are interesting numbers as politicians often mention health care, education, vaping, and the opioid crisis – all tightly connected to drugs. Senator Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez wants to introduce new legislation on marijuana. On November 18, 2019, she stated on Twitter that “Marijuana should be legalized, and drug consumption should be decriminalized. These are matters of public health.” This illustrates that the number of drug-related crimes in the US may be different in the future. If the use of drugs is classified as legal and no longer a crime, it will alter the number of people incarcerated in the US immensely.

See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for further guidance.

Citizenship

243


4 Citizenship PRACTICE

6 What is the difference between local, state, and federal prisons referred to in the pie chart? 7 Do any of the numbers in the pie chart surprise you? Explain. LANGUAGE 8 Statistics and infographics have their own specific language. Below are some useful words to learn. Use some of these words to compose three sentences commenting on the infographics on the previous page. EXAMPLE

“Prison Policy Initiative’s figures indicate a considerable correlation between low income, low education, and incarceration.” Verbs: show highlight illustrate present represent depict list predict indicate increase decrease outline flatten out

242

Nouns: chart graph diagram figure axis column curve category group percentage increase growth escalation cut fall reduction average/mean

[ chapter 4 ]

Adjectives: horizontal vertical considerable sharp rapid gradual slow minor

OVER TO YOU 11 Reliability The organisation behind the infographics provided here is Prison Policy Initiative. Investigate to what extent the information is reliable or not by using the steps in course 10: Choosing sources for guidance. 12 Explore and present crime and punishment in the US A lot of research has been done to try to explain why some people turn to crime and what incarceration does to people. Some findings related to prison conditions and activities may explain why rehabilitation seems to be a problem in the US. • Compose a thesis statement or question that interests you in relation to crime and punishment in the US. Relevant questions might be: – What is the link between education level and crime? – Do prisons prepare prisoners for life after incarceration? – Are there “crimes of the rich” and “crimes of the poor”? – What geographical differences are there in terms of crime and punishment in the US? – Are there any current innovative initiatives? • Go online to find possible answers to the question you are exploring. • Present your findings in a multimodal text, for instance a digital story, Sway or Screencast O’matic. See courses 9: Planning your text, 10: Choosing sources, and 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

EXAMPLE

Topic sentence: claim

Supporting arguments: explain and exemplify

g

14 Interpret infographics Below is a model text commenting on the number of drug-related crimes in the pie chart “How many people are locked up in the USA?” Study both infographics and the map on the following pages carefully and find another aspect that interests you. Then, comment on it using a similar structure to that of the model text.

er in

5 According to the infographic, is there a large difference in income among incarcerated people – regardless of ethnicity?

See course 3: Improve your listening skills for guidance.

a Rewrite the tweets from Alexandria OcasioCortez given here in formal language and proper paragraphs. b Search for and find counterarguments from the opposition, people who disagree with AOC, and write a similar paragraph(s). c Discuss the arguments provided in a and b with a classmate and agree on a possible conclusion. Present your line of thought to the class.

See courses Recognising formality, Choosing sources and Holding discussions for guidance.

rd

4 What is the difference in income between white men who are and are not incarcerated?

10 What other graphic options than pie charts and columns do you know of? Would you have chosen a different version of any of these? Why?

15 Genre adaptation and argumentation

The pie chart visualising people imprisoned in the US also depicts the types of crimes they have been charged with. 448,000 prisoners are locked up due to drug-related crimes. These are interesting numbers as politicians often mention health care, education, vaping, and the opioid crisis – all tightly connected to drugs. Senator Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez wants to introduce new legislation on marijuana. On November 18, 2019, she stated on Twitter that “Marijuana should be legalized, and drug consumption should be decriminalized. These are matters of public health.” This illustrates that the number of drug-related crimes in the US may be different in the future. If the use of drugs is classified as legal and no longer a crime, it will alter the number of people incarcerated in the US immensely.

vu

3 Among the incarcerated men illustrated in the columns, who earn the most?

13 Listen to a personal story Watch Eve Abrams’s Ted Talk “The human stories behind mass incarceration” (13 min.). Take notes while listening and summarise her message afterwards. Present your summary to a classmate.

til

2 Study the different crime categories. How many people are locked up due to drug-related cases?

STRUCTURE 9 The two infographics display information differently – in a pie chart and in columns. Which graph illustrates the information best, do you think? Explain why.

Concluding sentence: interpret

Ku n

CONTENT 1 According to the pie chart, how many people are confined in total?

See course 7: Structuring a paragraph for further guidance.

Citizenship

243


4 Citizenship

177

PRACTICE

g

Prison population per 100,000 people

er in

16 Make an appeal based on a comparison with Norway Go to https://www.ssb.no/ fengsling to find precisely how many incarcerations No data there are in Norway. Using this world map and your <50 knowledge about imprisonment from social studies, prepare an appeal 50–99 where you present your view on a matter related to prison 100–149 sentences, incarceration, aftercare, or similar. 150–199

See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

200–249

250–299

vu

300–349

rd

177

350–399

400–449

<50

450–499

til

No data

500–549

100–149

550–599

150–199

600–649

Ku n

50–99

200–249

>650

250–299

300–349

13/01/2020 13:22

350–399

400–449

450–499

244

[ chapter 4 ] 500–549

An explanation of the map can be found on Skolestudio.

Citizenship

245


4 Citizenship

177

PRACTICE

g

Prison population per 100,000 people

er in

16 Make an appeal based on a comparison with Norway Go to https://www.ssb.no/ fengsling to find precisely how many incarcerations No data there are in Norway. Using this world map and your <50 knowledge about imprisonment from social studies, prepare an appeal 50–99 where you present your view on a matter related to prison 100–149 sentences, incarceration, aftercare, or similar. 150–199

See course 14: Giving presentations for guidance.

200–249

rd

177 250–299

vu

300–349

400–449

<50

450–499

50–99

500–549

100–149

550–599

150–199

600–649

200–249

>650

250–299

300–349

13/01/2020 13:22

350–399

Ku n

No data

til

350–399

400–449

450–499

244

[ chapter 4 ] 500–549

An explanation of the map can be found on Skolestudio.

Citizenship

245


4 Citizenship AIMS

Ku n 246

[ chapter 4 ]

Rural and Urban Americans CONTEXT

til

vu

rd

er in

g

• Discover the increasing urban vs rural cultural divide in the US • Reflect on problems of citizenship and democracy • Better understand the attitudes held by conservatives and liberals in the US

FIRST

When you think of the people of the American countryside, on the one hand, and those of its great metropolises, on the other, what are your main associations? • How do they look? • How do they sound? • How do they think and act? • Can they be said to share some core American qualities?

The idea of citizenship is one of belonging – usually to a country or a nation. With this comes a special relationship to others who belong there too – to one’s fellow citizens. In the United States today, this fellow feeling between Americans is under increasing strain because of the growing divide between rural and urban Americans – in the ways they think about important issues, the kinds of media they consume, and the politicians they vote for. As explained in the article below, there are now data showing that most people living in rural and urban areas believe that the other half of the country dislikes them. If this is how they believe their countrymen see them, it is not surprising when ordinary Americans get swept up in the culture war.

Citizenship

247


4 Citizenship AIMS FIRST

When you think of the people of the American countryside, on the one hand, and those of its great metropolises, on the other, what are your main associations?

rd

er in

g

• Discover the increasing urban vs rural cultural divide in the US • Reflect on problems of citizenship and democracy • Better understand the attitudes held by conservatives and liberals in the US

The idea of citizenship is one of belonging – usually to a country or a nation. With this comes a special relationship to others who belong there too – to one’s fellow citizens. In the United States today, this fellow feeling between Americans is under increasing strain because of the growing divide between rural and urban Americans – in the ways they think about important issues, the kinds of media they consume, and the politicians they vote for.

Ku n

CONTEXT

til

vu

Rural and Urban Americans

• How do they look? • How do they sound? • How do they think and act? • Can they be said to share some core American qualities?

As explained in the article below, there are now data showing that most people living in rural and urban areas believe that the other half of the country dislikes them. If this is how they believe their countrymen see them, it is not surprising when ordinary Americans get swept up in the culture war.

246

[ chapter 4 ]

Citizenship

247


4 Citizenship

GENRE: NEWS ANALYSIS

Rural and Urban Americans, Equally Convinced the Rest of the Country Dislikes Them

For all the ways Americans are divided today along urban and rural lines, the two groups are at least united in this: Majorities of both, according to a new Pew Research Center survey, believe that everyone else is looking down on them.

5

5

Rural counties

Urban counties

70%

15

10

15

60%

20

31%

vu

50%

10

62%

rd

70%

60%

er in

g

Pew has never asked this question before in a way that allows us to tell if the sentiment is becoming more common. But election results show that urban and rural Americans are increasingly at odds with each other. The new survey confirms both believe the other group doesn’t understand their problems or share their values. And political scientists warn that place-based resentments – “no one respects rural America” or “Trump is at war with cities” – can be easily exploited by politicians.

Registered voters in urban areas have become more likely to identify as Democrats or as leaning Democratic. The opposite trend has been more pronounced among rural residents, with a notable shift after 2008. Before then, rural voters were relatively evenly divided between the two parties.

40%

38%

20

50%

25

40%

25

31% 30%

til

30%

2000

2004

2008

2012

2017

2000

2004

2008

2012

2017

30

30

35

35

40

40

Since Obama’s election in 2008, rural counties have become more Republican (red), while urban counties have become overwhelmingly Democratic (blue).

Ku n

sentiment here: belief at odds with in conflict with resentments bitterness, hatred pronounced noticeable notable meaningful divergence separation came to the fore became prominent untangle separate recession economic downturn demographics features that define people into groups, such as race, religion, and class abrupt sudden

248

[ chapter 4 ]

Source: Pew Research Center

“I do have this fear that these divides have exacerbated some since the 2016 election,” said Kathy Cramer, a University of Wisconsin political scientist who consulted with Pew on the new report, which asked more than 6,000 adults to self-identify their communities as urban, rural or suburban. Urban-rural divides in politics are not new, but Ms. Cramer believes we’re witnessing something different. “We’re in a political moment where cultural divides overlap with political divides, which overlap with geography.” Pew data going back two decades show how urban and rural America have become more clearly identified with diverging politics.

That rural divergence starting in 2008 mirrors a sharp turn in support for the Republican Party among white voters with a high school diploma or less, a change that Michael Tesler, a political scientist at the University of California, Irvine, has argued is closely tied to racial attitudes that came to the fore with Mr. Obama’s election. The shift since 2008 is hard to untangle from other forces as well, said Juliana Horowitz, the lead researcher on the project at Pew. “It’s Obama’s election, but it’s also the recession and the post-recession era,” Ms. Horowitz said. “As we’ve seen these different types of communities become increasingly different politically, we’ve also seen them become increasingly different in their demographics and their economics.” Recent research by Greg Martin and Steven Webster at Emory University confirms that Democrats are more likely than Republicans to move to denser, more urban places, and Republicans to move to less dense ones. But the effect of those preferences is small – far too small to explain the level of geographic polarization we see in America today, as population density and voting results have become ever more tightly linked. People who stay put must be changing their political views. Or the parties, as they have done historically, have changed what they stand for or how they appeal to voters. Those two explanations, however, present another puzzle. Are politicians successfully tapping into an increasingly potent urban-rural divide among voters? Or do voters believe this divide matters because politicians (and the media) keep emphasizing it? Kathy Cramer’s 2016 book “The Politics of Resentment” addresses how powerful rural identity was to voters in Wisconsin, who believed their communities were disrespected, ignored and seldom given their fair share of resources – and that city dwellers were to blame. The grievances Ms. Cramer described predicted President Trump’s victories across rural communities in the Midwest, where he positioned himself as a sharp critic of “inner cities” and a champion of the rural “forgotten.” “All these lifestyle things – the type of place you like to eat, the type of food you eat, the things you do for fun – the more those things correlate with political preferences, the easier it is to form these tribal attachments,” Mr. Martin said. In these tribal attachments, lattes are synonymous with city living, which is synonymous with liberal views on abortion and preferences for Democratic candidates in elections. Likewise, Barack Obama’s remark about small-town residents who “cling to guns or religion” equated religious values with policy preferences with partisanship with place. It is clear in the new Pew data, however, that urban and rural Americans are not as different as their self-

relocated moved to a different part of the country denser crowded potent powerful seldom rarely, sjeldent/ sjeldan city dwellers people who live in the city grievances complaints positioned himself as here: played the part of champion supporter correlate match up tribal attachments primitive sense of belonging to a group of others like yourself equated regarded as going hand in hand with policy preferences the political policies one prefers – e.g., a tough attitude towards immigration vs a liberal one self-perceptions views of themselves economic insecurity problems paying the bills polls questionnaires, undersøkelser reinforce confirm underlying basic

Citizenship

249


4 Citizenship

GENRE: NEWS ANALYSIS

Rural and Urban Americans, Equally Convinced the Rest of the Country Dislikes Them

15

70%

15

62% 60%

60%

20

31%

20

50%

50%

40%

38%

25

40%

25

31% 30%

30%

2000

2004

2008

2012

2017

2000

2004

2008

2012

2017

30

30

sentiment here: belief at odds with in conflict with resentments bitterness, hatred pronounced noticeable notable meaningful divergence separation came to the fore became prominent untangle separate recession economic downturn demographics features that define people into groups, such as race, religion, and class abrupt sudden

248

[ chapter 4 ]

Source: Pew Research Center

“I do have this fear that these divides have exacerbated some since the 2016 election,” said Kathy Cramer, a University of Wisconsin political scientist who consulted with Pew on the new report, which asked more than 6,000 adults to self-identify their communities as urban, rural or suburban. Urban-rural divides in politics are not new, but Ms. Cramer believes we’re witnessing something different. “We’re in a political moment where cultural divides overlap with political divides, which overlap with geography.” Pew data going back two decades show how urban and rural America have become more clearly identified with diverging politics.

35

40

“It’s Obama’s election, but it’s also the recession and the post-recession era,” Ms. Horowitz said. “As we’ve seen these different types of communities become increasingly different politically, we’ve also seen them become increasingly different in their demographics and their economics.”

Recent research by Greg Martin and Steven Webster at Emory University confirms that Democrats are more likely than Republicans to move to denser, more urban places, and Republicans to move to less dense ones. But the effect of those preferences is small – far too small to explain the level of geographic polarization we see in America today, as population density and voting results have become ever more tightly linked. People who stay put must be changing their political views. Or the parties, as they have done historically, have changed what they stand for or how they appeal to voters. Those two explanations, however, present another puzzle. Are politicians successfully tapping into an increasingly potent urban-rural divide among voters? Or do voters believe this divide matters because politicians (and the media) keep emphasizing it?

Kathy Cramer’s 2016 book “The Politics of Resentment” addresses how powerful rural identity was to voters in Wisconsin, who believed their communities were disrespected, ignored and seldom given their fair share of resources – and that city dwellers were to blame. The grievances Ms. Cramer described predicted President Trump’s victories across rural communities in the Midwest, where he positioned himself as a sharp critic of “inner cities” and a champion of the rural “forgotten.”

Ku n

Since Obama’s election in 2008, rural counties have become more Republican (red), while urban counties have become overwhelmingly Democratic (blue).

The shift since 2008 is hard to untangle from other forces as well, said Juliana Horowitz, the lead researcher on the project at Pew