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Sophie's Landform Encyclopedia

Archipelago An archipelago is a group of islands. Many people like to take vacations on them. For example, Hawaii is a an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.


A bay is an inlet of the sea where the land often curves inward.

An example of a bay is the Hudson Bay in Canada, North America. Also, there is a bay called Baffin Bay in North America.

Canyon A deep gorge that often has a river flowing through it at the bottom. Some examples of canyons are the Grand Canyon, and the Tara River Canyon.

These are pictures of the Grand Canyon in Arizona, U.S.A.

Desert A dry, barren area of land.

Some deserts are the Kalahari desert in Africa and the Great Victoria in Australia. Many deserts are hot and covered with sand. Often, water is scarce in deserts.

Fun Fact! Most deserts are covered with sand, but some are covered with snow!

Gulf A deep inlet of the sea There are many gulfs in the world. For example, the Gulf of Mexico is in North America. A gulf is often surrounded by land on three sides. Many people hang out and do various activities on the beach, including: boating, fishing, and swimming.


A piece of land that is surrounded by water on all sides. An example of an island is Cuba, Central America. Most islands are expensive to live at. For example, Hawaii islands can have houses that are $1,000,000

Isthmus A narrow strip of land that forms a "bridge" between a two larger areas of land. Water is on two sides of it.

In eastern Egypt, there is the Isthmus of Suez. It is 119 miles long. For an isthmus, that's pretty long!

Lake A lake is a body of water that is located in a basin and is mainly surrounded by land.

Examples of lakes are the Great Lakes in the U.S.A. There is Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, and more. These lakes are right on the border of Canada.

Fun Fact! Lake Erie is the most biologically productive of the Great Lakes.

Mountain A natural large elevation of the earth's surface.

Living in New England, there are many mountains around me. For example, there is Mount Washington. I have hiked up this mountain.

A line of mountains that are connected by high land.

Mountain Range An example of a mountain range is the Appalachian Mountains. They are located in the eastern side of the U.S.A.

Some examples of oceans are the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Arctic


A large expanse of

Ocean. They are located all around the world!

Fun Fact! Just about 70% of the earth's surface is covered with water.

salt water.

Fun Fact! About 94% of earth's life is aquatic.


A piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.

An example of a peninsula is Florida, the state in U.S.A. Another example is Italy.

Plain A large, flat, often grassy area with few to no trees.

A "great" example of a plain is the Great Plains. :D This is a large plain that stretches from the middle of the U.S. to a chunk of Canada."


An area of high ground with steep sides and a flat top.

A good example of a plateau is the Giza plateau in Egypt. This plateau is in a desert, in Africa. Another plateau is the BiĂŠ Plateau in central Angola. It takes up a big area of Angola.


There are many rivers in the world. They can vary in length and width, and you can find them commonly. In the U.S. there is the Mississippi River. In Canada, there is the Yukon River, by Yukon. A natural stream of water that streams into another body of water such as an ocean, lake, or other river.

Sea A body of salt water There are many seas in the world. They are like oceans, but smaller. An example of a sea is the Caribbean Sea. This sea was discovered by Columbus.

Fun Fact! The Caribbean Sea has a depth of 25,190 feet!

Strait A narrow passage of water that connects two larger bodies of water. Some examples of straits are the Korea Strait by China, and the Strait of Dover.

In the U.S. the Ohio and Missouri River are examples of tributaries. They flow into the Mississippi River.

Tributary A stream or river that flows into a larger lake or river.


A low section of land that is between hills or mountains.

Almost whenever there are mountains, there are valleys. In Asia, there is the Talas Valley, and Fergana Valley. In the past, the Fergana Valley has been fought over.

Fun Fact! Valleys often have a river flowing through them.

Volcano A mountain or hill with a chamber and vent that contained magma and spews lava, rock, ash, and more.

Many volcanoes are found in Hawaii, U.S.A. For example, there is the Kilauea volcano and Mauna Loa. There volcanoes are pretty active. Fun Fact! The word volcano comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.

Q and A 1. What is climate? Climate is the long-termed weather patterns and behaviors in one specific are. For example, a climate can be dry or tropical. 2. How do landforms and bodies of water affect climate? Landforms and bodies of water affect climate in many ways. When it comes to landforms such as mountains, the climate can often be cold and windy up at the top, and the valley is warmer because it lower. Bodies of water affect climate because they can make the land around them warmer or colder. The water holds in heat, maker the land around it cool. Then, it releases the heat, making the land warmer. 3. What do you check before going outside in the morning? What are some day-to-day changes in the air? How do you measure temperature and precipitation?

Before I go outside in the morning, I check to see what the temperature and weather will be for the day. This helps me decide what I should wear to school. Throughout the day, I notice changes in the air. Sometimes, in the morning, the air will be dry, but the next day everything will be very humid. To measure temperature, you can use a few different methods. You can use Fahrenheit, Kelvin, and Celsius. To measure precipitation, we can use centimeters or inches. For example, today it will be 70 degrees Fahrenheit and it will rain 3 cm.

A and B level Two examples of landforms are mountains and oceans. These have a definite impact on their environment. With mountains on the land, the flow of rainfall changes. The rain clouds gather on one side of the mountain, and rain there. The high level of land will slow down the movement of the clouds since they will hit a block. So one side of the mountain will be really wet and moist due to the rain, while the other side of the mountain will be dry. Just one mountain can create two climates, a dry one, and a wet one. The oceans change the climate, too. When it is summer, they save heat given off by the sun, making the land around it slightly cooler. In the winter, the oceans slowly release the heat, making the land slightly warmer. So the oceans can affect the climate by changing temperatures by the coast.

Mountains and oceans impact people's lives in both good ways and bad ways. With mountains, there is a good mining source. Depending on where you live on the mountain, you might have to wear warmer clothes if you live farther up. However, the mountain will make it difficult for people to travel and farm food. Oceans provide a good way for transportation, and a way of trading. There is plenty of fish, and you can collect neat objects that wash up on shore. When you live by the ocean, you have to prepare yourself for hurricanes with strong buildings capable of withstanding strong winds and rain. Living by the ocean means the hurricanes will get worse. It might be hard to grow food, since the coast is sandy and rocky. Also, you will need a variety of clothes for the summers and winters.

Bibliography page I used these research websites:

My picture citation is:

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