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Liverpool & Shanghai celebrating

10 years of Twinning

庆祝利物浦-上海 姐妹城市缔结十周年


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Liverpool & Shanghai - Celebrating 10 Years of Twinning 庆祝利物浦-上海姐妹城市缔结十周年

Translation: Xiang Yu, College of Press and Communication, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, PR China. 翻译:相雨 中国 哈尔滨 黑龙江大学新闻传播学院

ISBN 978-1-905547-13-5

Digital artist: Paula Hutchinson 数码艺术设计:葆拉·哈琪森

Editor in Chief: Lew Baxter 总编辑:老胡公

Proof reading: Judy Tasker 校对人:朱迪·塔斯克

Publisher: Guy Woodland 出版商:盖武任

Printed and bound: Spain, Barcelona by GRAFICAS 94 西班牙 巴塞罗那 GRAFICAS94 公司印刷和装订

Lew Baxter and Guy Woodland are hereby identified as the authors of this work in accordance with section 77 of the (UK)

First published in 2010 by Guy Woodland as a Shanachie

Copyright, Design & Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No

imprint in collaboration with Woodland Publishing. 2010年由说书人出版公司和林地出版社共同第一次出版。

part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means – either

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老胡公和盖武任根据1988年英国版权、设计和专利法 案第77章,特此证明为该书的著作者。保留所有权利。 本出版物的任何部分在没有出版者的事先许可的前提下 都不得以任何形式或通过任何途径被转载,存储于检索 系统或被传播,无论是电子、影印、录制或任何其他方 式。本书中所论述的观点仅代表作者本人,如有引述则 有具体标明 。 5

www.shanachie.co.uk Lew Baxter is a member of the 48 Group Club


Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following for their support and contributions to this book. John Kelly, Executive Director Regeneration, Liverpool City Council Rob Burns, Urban Design Manager, Liverpool City Council Peter Mearns at the Northwest Regional Development Agency Brian Halsall at the Halsall Lloyd Limited Liability Partnership Ying Ma at Liverpool Vision Phil Southward at the Liverpool Shanghai Expo office Mohanned Ahmad at Liverpool Vision Mary Ann Small at Liverpool City Council Nick Earlam at the Liverpool Shanghai Partnership Alison Fisher at the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce Peter Grant and Cathy Roberts Zhang Xin at China Daily in Beijing for the history of Chinese arches David Yip Alan Seatwo at the Liverpool Chinese Business Association Martin Cooper at National Museums Liverpool He Chunying at Harbin University of Commerce for language advice

This book is in association with Liverpool City Council


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Liverpool & Shanghai celebrating

10 years of Twinning

庆祝利物浦-上海 姐妹城市缔结十周年

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利 上 物 海 浦


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Liverpool’s other ‘iconic’ sculpture ‘Superlambanana’, created by Taro Chiezo, became a cult and during the city’s European Capital of Culture year in 2008 some 125 ‘baby’ versions appeared all over the city during an artistic event called Go Superlambananas. 利物浦的另一个标志性的艺术品就是 Superlambanana, 其建筑师是居住在曼哈顿的日本建筑师太郎千惠藏 (Taro Chiezo)。Superlambanana 掀起了一阵狂热,在 2008年的城市欧洲文化之都庆祝年间,一个名为“一 起 Superlambananas”的艺术活动中,整个利物浦城市布 满了125个“衍生”版的 Superlambanana。

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Introduction 介绍 作为中国的“经济发展龙头”,上海推动着整个 中国的发展,并以惊人的速度成为二十一世纪的大都 市,成为公认的亚洲未来之星。 利物浦因其独特的滨河区域,被联合国教科文组 织授予世界遗产城市的美誉,并于2008年被评选为欧 洲文化之都。利物浦,这个滨海城市拥有悠久的历史 同时兼具现代城市的发展活力,被誉为有史以来最棒 的文化之都。利物浦这个现代化城市现正处于蓬勃发 展的振兴时期。 这本纪念册主要是为了庆祝利物浦—上海姐妹 城市建交十年和壮丽宏伟的“友谊拱”竣工十年。 此“友谊拱”象征着利物浦和上海人民长期的亲密友谊, 也象征着中英人民之间的长期建立起来的亲密关系。两 个城市之间的交流可以追溯到上海水手在西欧一个边 远地区的登陆以及近些年民间、文化、体育和学术方 面的交流。

SHANGHAI is nicknamed these days the ‘Dragon’s Head’ as it is driving forward China’s economic development and has been transformed at bewildering speed into a 21 st century metropolis. It is already acknowledged as the coming ‘powerhouse’ of Asia. Of course, Liverpool continues to bask in the glory of UNESCO’s World Heritage City status for its charismatic waterfront and its role as European Capital of Culture in 2008 – hailed as the best of its kind ever – while still retaining its historic reputation as a great maritime city. It is also enjoying a dynamic regeneration as a modern city in the early years of this new century. This ‘souvenir’ book celebrates the ten years of Liverpool’s sister city status with Shanghai and the magnificent Chinese ‘Arch of Friendship’ that is a potent symbol of the close and longstanding ties that exist between the people of Liverpool and Shanghai – and Britain and China in general. The joint legacy of the two cities can be traced back in time and memories through the tales of former Shanghai sailors who landed up in a foreign city on the far distant reaches of western Europe, but also in these later years through civic, cultural, sporting and academic exchanges.

老胡公 编辑和作者

Lew Baxter Editor & Writer

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Observations 感想 1999年的年末,当我被委派去拍摄位于洛浦沃克 斯的“友谊拱”时,我并没有意识到将来的某一天 这些照片会成为上海和利物浦之间友谊关系的重要 历史见证。能参与这个项目(尽管是有限地参与), 能见证“友谊拱”的成长壮大,我觉得很有意义。 这本纪念册是对所有参与到此建筑的设计和施工人 员的技术与热情的赞颂。

WHEN I was commissioned to take photographs of the building of the Chinese Arch by Rope Walks in the latter part of 1999, I had no idea that one day they would become such an important historical legacy of the relations between Shanghai and Liverpool. It was marvellous to be a part of that project – even in such a limited way – and to see this amazing structure rise up day by day. This new souvenir commemoration book is in many ways a dedication to the skills and enthusiasm of all those involved in the creation and construction of the Chinese Arch.

盖武任 出版商

Guy Woodland Publisher

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Foreword - Proud Sister Cities 前言-引以为荣的姐妹城市 自从1999年利物浦和上海结为姊妹城市后,两座 城市对21世纪的自身城市形象有了新的定义。 利物浦城中奇妙的友谊拱(上海馈赠的礼物)是我 们之间热情友谊的缩影。 两座城市有很明显的相似处。我相信利物浦和上 海会共同生机勃勃地走向未来。两城之间的商业, 文化,体育及学术交流为双方带来了利益。 与其他城市和地区不同,上海和利物浦这样的大 型港口城市对世界会有不同的看法。更开放,更愿意 迎接挑战,更能抓住机遇。 今天,上海是宏伟的现代化都市。利物浦在近十 年出现了惊人的复兴。利物浦的振兴使它成为了国际 大都市。2008年利物浦当选为欧洲文化之都,我们为 此而感到骄傲。我们对这座城市被联合国教科文组织 认可为世界遗产城市而感到荣幸。 我们因成为亚洲最具活力城市(上海)的姐妹城 而感到骄傲。

SINCE Liverpool twinned with Shanghai in 1999 both cities have continued to redefine themselves for the 21st century. The wonderful Chinese Arch in Liverpool – a gift from Shanghai – epitomises the warmth of our friendship. The similarities between the two cities are obvious and I believe that Liverpool shares Shanghai’s dynamic approach to the future. We have forged civic links that now embrace commerce, culture, sport and academic exchanges that are hugely beneficial to both our cities. Great port cities like Shanghai and Liverpool usually have a different perspective on the world than other cities and regions; they tend to be more outward looking and ready to face challenges – to grasp the opportunities with both hands. Today, Shanghai is a magnificent, modern metropolis and Liverpool has enjoyed astonishing regeneration in the last decade or so that has boosted its renaissance as one of the world’s leading cities. We were proud to be the European Capital of Culture in 2008 and honoured at UNESCO’s recognition of our waterfront as a World Heritage Site. We are proud to be a sister city to what has become the most dynamic city in Asia.

迈克·斯特瑞 利物浦市长

Councillor Mike Storey Lord Mayor of Liverpool

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Liverpool - A World Class City 利物浦-世界级城市 作为商业文化中心,利物浦一直有很大的的国际 影响力。过去十年利物浦海滨和市中心的发展变化使 它在原来的基础上变成了21世纪新型城市,就像我 们中国的姐妹城上海一样,蜕变成了一个国际化大都 市。 利物浦2008年被评选为欧洲文化之都,使我们信 心倍增,但我们已经开始了一系列的振兴计划,现在 很多计划已经完成或正接近完成,这个过程仍在继 续。利物浦不是一个已完成的工程,而是一个在变革 中的城市。 利物浦在大踏步迈进新世纪,去重新定义新世纪 的城市概念。这可以从一系列的成功完成的工程看 出。这些工程包括: Liverpool ONE、金斯码头上电信会 议和表演活动中心、利物浦约翰列侬机场扩建、大学 和知识产业的建立和知识产业以及我们宏伟壮观海滨 区的改造 利物浦标志性建筑之一就是金斯码头上电信会议 和表演活动中心。它大大提升了城市的经济,给艾尔 伯特码头注入了新的活力。 在海滨的对面,以零售为主的 Liverpool ONE 开发 区把城市的中心转移到海滨区域,使这个城市与这条 河流重新连接,也是对旧码头的纪念和致敬,因为旧 码头是城市的出发点。和金斯海滨的景点一起,艾尔 伯特码头和曼恩岛成为这个城市参观者不可抗拒的吸 引力。

AS a centre of commerce and culture Liverpool has always punched above its weight. The transformation of the waterfront and city centre over the past decade has provided a 21st century dimension to this tradition, and once again Liverpool, much like our sister city Shanghai in China, is becoming a global city. Although Liverpool’s reign as European Capital of Culture gave us an enormous boost in confidence, we had already been planning a series of regeneration programmes and, whilst many are now completed or approaching the final stages, this process is still continuing. Liverpool is not a finished project, but a city in transition. Liverpool is striding forward in a new decade to redefine itself for this new century and this can be seen in the success of projects such as Liverpool ONE, the Echo Arena and BT Convention Centre at Kings Dock, the expansion of Liverpool John Lennon Airport, the universities and knowledge industries that are spinning out business, and our magnificent waterfront. One of the landmark projects is the Arena and Convention Centre at Kings Waterfront. It is providing a massive boost to the city’s economy and has injected a new lease of life to the Albert Dock. Across the Strand, the retail-led Liverpool ONE development has shifted the centre of gravity of the city 21


其实利物浦再次成为了世界焦点还有其他的原 因。2005年我们投资7300万英镑用来改善市中心的道 路、街道和公共场所。我们通过改造赖姆街火车站的大 门口打造了富有美丽的城市入口。这个3500万英镑的工 程是和家乡社区、城市振兴公司-利物浦前景、瑞尔网 络公司、利物浦市政和摩西旅行公司一起合作的。 我们一致认为建设一个令人满意的利物浦海滨对 我们的计划非常重要。这就会使这个城市重新成为世 界瞩目的焦点,也会为城市居民带来就业机会和休闲 活动的场所,这在港口最辉煌的时期也达不到。 2008年竣工的利物浦回音活动和电信会议中 心,是多功能的室内活动场地,其展览大厅可容纳 8,000-10,000观众,还可提供7,800平方米的展览 空间。还有一个有1,350座位的会议中心。 当然我们认为自2000年后利物浦的经济发生了巨 大的转变。这一情况得到了巩固,因为2004年10月 威斯敏斯特公爵格罗伏纳开发部决定用十亿英镑的 资金改造天堂街区。Liverpool ONE 零售系统是当时 欧洲最大的。这个工程于2008年完成,为这个城市 带来了160万平方英尺的新的购物空间。它同时为去 艾尔伯特码头提供了通道,创造了市中心与海滨区 的联系。今天,Liverpool ONE 每月吸引200多万参观 者。 利物浦海滨已经有了翻天覆地的变化。主要体现 在壮观的皇家莱汶大楼、丘纳德大楼,这些都在世界 遗产城市利物浦这个城市内。 2007年海上航线的设施改造开始实施。世界最大 的轮船可以驶进市中心。在这点上与纽约、香港、悉

centre closer to the waterfront, helping the city re-connect with the river, and celebrating the site of the Old Dock, which is where the city started its journey. Together with the waterfront attractions at Kings Waterfront, Albert Dock and Mann Island, it provides a compelling draw for visitors to the city. There is so much more that has put the world spotlight on Liverpool once again. Since 2005 we have introduced a £73 million programme to improve the roads, streets and public spaces in the city centre. We are also creating a stunning entrance to the city through the Lime Street Station Gateway. This £35 million project is a collaboration with the Homes and Communities Agency, the urban regeneration company Liverpool Vision, Network Rail, Liverpool City Council and Merseytravel. We always acknowledged that the prize of a successful Liverpool waterfront was paramount to our plans. It places the city firmly back on the map of world cities, and creates opportunities for the people of the city through employment and leisure activities in a way that even the port in its heyday failed to do. The Liverpool Echo Arena and BT Convention Centre opened in January 2008 featuring a multi-purpose indoor arena and exhibition hall capable of accommodating between 8,000–10,000 spectators, while providing around 7,800 square metres of exhibition space and a 1,350-seat conference centre. Certainly we believe that Liverpool’s fortunes and economy took a dramatic turn for the better after 2000. This was underpinned by the Duke of Westminster’s Grosvenor Development arm and its exciting £1 billion transformation of the Paradise Street area, which began in October 2004. 22


尼和新加坡不相上下。现在艾尔伯特码头旅行公司在 利物浦码头有了新的终点站。 英国航运公司也投资了1850万英镑拓展经由王子 码头和利物浦码头的利兹-利物浦运河来和艾尔伯特 码头相连接。运河在2009年2月竣工,穿过新建的利 物浦博物馆。曼恩岛上三座独特黑色花岗岩建筑为海 滨增添了一道新的壮丽风景线,为利物浦这座古城诠 释了现代建筑实际的理念。 默西海滨为这个城市提供了宏伟壮观的通道:在 城市之内形成了一个文化、历史和其他景区的有机联 系,这一切证明利物浦的确是一个世界级的城市。

The Liverpool ONE retail scheme was the largest in Europe at that time and it was completed by 2008, bringing over 1.6 million square feet of new shopping space to the city. It also improves access to the Albert Dock, creating a much-needed link between the waterfront and the city centre. Today, Liverpool ONE attracts over two million visitors a month. Liverpool’s waterfront, with its internationally famous skyline punctuated by the awe-inspiring Royal Liver Building, Cunard Building and Port of Liverpool Building – and within the city’s UNESCO World Heritage Site – has also enjoyed a massive regeneration on a grand scale. A cruise liner facility opened in 2007 and the biggest liners in the world can practically sail into the city centre, putting Liverpool on a par with New York, Hong Kong, Sydney and Singapore. Merseytravel now also has a new ferry terminal at the Pier Head. British Waterways also invested £18.5 million in extending the Leeds-Liverpool Canal via Princes Dock and the Pier Head to link up with the Albert Dock. The canal was completed by February 2009 and passes underneath the new Museum of Liverpool. The three distinctive black granite buildings at Mann Island provide a dramatic addition to the waterfront, illustrating that striking contemporary architecture can complement a sensitive historic site. The Mersey waterfront provides a spectacular gateway to the city: a link with the cultural, historical and other attractions elsewhere within the city and the wider city region, and demonstrates that Liverpool is a truly world-class city.

伟伦·布特利 区议员、市议会领袖

Councillor Warren Bradley Leader, Liverpool City Council

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Forging Links With Shanghai And China 与上海和中国建立联系 伫立在利物浦唐人街中心的,引人注目 的 “友谊拱”是这座城市与上海之间友谊和合作的 强有力象征。1999年10月,仅仅在中华人民共和国 庆祝50周年后的几周,利物浦就与上海缔结为姐妹 友好城市。 “友谊拱”的竣工成为利物浦唐人街上千禧年新 年庆祝时期最炫目的亮点,同时也标记着2000二月份 “龙”年的到来。一个月后,官方的揭幕仪式吸引了 上千人到场。“友谊拱”被授予利物浦最佳建筑与设 计奖。获奖者是一位理应得此殊荣的来自中国上海的 极具天赋的设计师—张勇莱。 唐人街“友谊拱”的构想可以追溯到二十世纪八 十年代,1992年——利物浦中华商会提出建立拱门 的具体方案。友谊拱的建筑构想吸引了来自中国和英 国的六名建筑师竞标,他们各自提交了自己的设计方 案,最终由上海 LinYi Garden 设计公司中标。 利物浦和中国和上海的海上贸易的历史可追溯到 百年前,然而直到二十世纪后期,利物浦和上海还没 有正式的民间和文化交流。 上海与利物浦之间的往来开始于当代,具体说是 开始于“中国通”本·查普曼(前驻北京英国大使馆 商务参赞)于上世纪90年代初抵达利物浦主管该城市 的商贸和工业部期间。 后来,这个英国国会各党中国团体主席本·查普 曼决心把利物浦与中国联系起来,并在1993年春天组

THE eye-catching Chinese Arch in the heart of Liverpool’s Chinatown is hugely symbolic of the friendship and cooperation that exist between this great maritime city and Shanghai. Liverpool had ‘twinned’ with Shanghai in October 1999, only weeks after the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Dubbed the ‘Friendship Arch’ it was the star attraction in Liverpool’s Chinatown for the first Chinese New Year celebrations of the Millennium when it marked the Year of the Dragon in February 2000. It was officially unveiled a month later at a ceremony that attracted thousands. The Arch was also bestowed with the Liverpool Architectural & Design Trust Award, a deserved accolade for its talented designer, Zhang Yong Lai from Shanghai. The origins of the Chinatown Arch go back to the early 1980s, but took on more purpose when the Liverpool Chinese Business Association drew up ideas for an Arch in 1992. The final design was chosen from submissions by six key architects for a competition promoted in China and the UK. The winning design came from the Shanghai-based Yin Li Garden Company Limited. Although Liverpool had enjoyed continuous maritime trade with China and Shanghai stretching back hundreds of years, in the latter part of the 20th century there were no formal civic or cultural relations. 24


To mark the 10th anniversary of twinning, in September 2009, Council Leader Warren Bradley welcomes to Liverpool Town Hall the visiting Shanghai delegation led by Mr Guan Weiyong.

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为了纪念2009年九月份的结交十周年市议会领袖伟伦·布特利热烈 欢迎了由关维勇先生带领的上海参观代表团来到利物浦市政厅。关 维勇是常务委员会的成员,并且还是中国人民政治协商会议上海委 员会的副秘书长兼人民政协市委办公厅的局长 。


织了对上海的第一次正式访问。这样就开始了关于建 立姐妹城市的话题的对话。 上海市政府外事办的代表也有意建立“友谊的纽 带”。1992年上海市委书记黄菊率队对利物浦进行了 开拓性访问。 利物浦商会主席约翰·恩特威斯尔预见到上海城 市发展的无限潜力。1993年初上海和利物浦商会就早 已建立起来两个城市之间正式商贸往来的友好关系。 因此建立姐妹城市友好关系的想法受到上海和利物浦 商会的大力支持。 6年后的1999年10月18日,上海市时任市长徐匡迪 迎来了由利物浦市政领导麦克·斯特瑞带队的代表 团,并签署了正式的上海和利物浦结对协议。 今天,两个城市庆祝已结对10年,麦克·斯特瑞 为能成为利物浦市长而感到很自豪。

In contemporary times it began when ‘old China hand’ Ben Chapman, a former commercial counsellor at the British Embassy in Beijing, arrived in Liverpool in the early 1990s to head up the government’s Department of Trade and Industry in the city. Latterly Chairman of the UK All-Party Parliamentary China Group, he was determined to engage Liverpool with China and was instrumental in organising the first official civic mission to Shanghai in the spring of 1993, when the first talks about twinning also began. Indeed, representatives of the Foreign Affairs office of the Shanghai Municipal Government had already approached the City of Liverpool with the intention of developing a ‘friendship link’ when, in 1992, Shanghai’s commanding mayor, Huang Ju, led a trail-blazing civic mission to Liverpool. This desire to become ‘sister cities’ was encouraged by the Shanghai and Liverpool Chambers of Commerce, who had already set up formal commercial twinning links earlier in 1993, after its chairman John Entwistle grasped the potential for the city. Six years later, on 18th October 1999, Shanghai’s then Mayor Xu Kuangdi welcomed a civic delegation from Liverpool headed by Council Leader Mike Storey to sign the official twinning agreement between Shanghai and Liverpool. Today, as both cities celebrate a decade of twinning, Councillor Storey is proud to be the Lord Mayor of Liverpool.

Left: Liverpool’s then Council Leader Mike Storey is welcomed to the official twinning ceremony in Shanghai in September 1999 by the city’s then Mayor, Xu Kuangdi. 时任利物浦理市议会领袖迈克·斯道瑞在1999年9月 份的上海官方姐妹城市结交仪式上受到了时任上海市 长徐光迪的热烈欢迎,时任利物浦市长乔德·瓦尼也 对该活动给予了关注。

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‘Liverpool has made outstanding achievements in tourism, culture, education and sports. Recently Shanghai has been committed to becoming a modern international metropolis and a global economic, financial, trade and shipping centre. I sincerely hope we will intensify our exchange and cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual benefit for the citizens of Shanghai and Liverpool.’ Han Zheng, Mayor of Shanghai

“利物浦已在旅游、文化、教育、体育方面取得了巨大的成就。 近年来,上海一直致力于成为现代化国际大都市和全球经济、 金融、贸易、航运中心。我衷心地希望为了上海和利物浦市民, 我们能在平等互利的基础上加强交流与合作。” 韩正,上海市市长。

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Liverpool - A Potted History 利物浦--历史的缩影 利物浦宏伟壮丽的海滨可以说是世界上任何地方 中最令人难忘的,简直比得上纽约和开普敦或悉尼, 甚至它的姊妹城市——中国上海:在很大程度上,临 海面对着码头的三座建筑构成了独特的三位一体式的 建筑风格。 由于其地理位置显赫,处于默西河口,利物浦在 帆船航行时期,成为最重要的远洋运输港口。二十世 纪以来利物浦壮丽的海滨一直是这个城市视觉形象的 一个诠释,享誉海内外。 尽管被认为是史前人类定居地,直到1190年利物 浦还被称为“Lifer pul”, 意思是有泥泞水源的池塘或 小溪,不过到1200年已发展为繁荣的渔村。1207年 国 王约翰获准利物浦特权使这一地区成为一 座城市。 有人认为,他想把此地区变成他的军事基地,进 攻爱尔兰。几个世纪以来这一地区实际上一直受圣尼 古拉斯教堂,利物浦塔和利物浦城堡的统治。 由于其地理位置,利物浦城市的早期贸易伙伴是 爱尔兰和苏格兰。而在1550年也与西班牙,葡萄牙和 法国开始进行贸易。到了17世纪中期,与美国的新殖 民地之间有了越来越多的海上运输,从早期的烟草和 糖,到后来的棉花, 利物浦成为跨大西洋的货物运输 港口。到了19世纪主要是运送移民到美国,特别是在 大饥荒时期,运送了来自爱尔兰的大量移民。1880年 利物浦正式成为了一座城市。 十九世纪末利物浦码头已延伸到默西河东海岸的

LIVERPOOL’s magnificent waterfront is arguably one of the most memorable anywhere in the world, rivalling New York and Cape Town or Sydney, and even its sister Chinese city of Shanghai: in large part for the imposing architectural trinity of the elegant ‘Three Graces’ that dominate the river-facing Pier Head. In the days of colourful sailing ships the River Mersey was pivotal to the emergence of Liverpool as probably the most dynamic seaport in the world. Throughout the 20th century the awe-inducing waterfront defined the city’s visual identity; an instantly recognisable icon both at home and abroad. We understand that there were some prehistoric settlers around the site of Liverpool – in 1190 known as ‘Lifer pul’, meaning a pool or creek with a muddy waterhead – and it had grown into a thriving fishing village by the year 1200. And it was King John who helped expand the community with the grant of a Charter in 1207 that established it as a borough. It is reckoned that he wanted to develop the settlement as a base for supporting his military forays into Ireland. The waterfront was actually dominated for centuries by the church of St Nicholas, the Tower of Liverpool and Liverpool Castle. The city’s early trade was predictably with Ireland and Scotland, but by 1550 there were also dealings with Spain, Portugal and France. By the middle of the 1600s there was increasing sea-borne traffic between the new colonies 31


七公里之远。码头成为了商业区,分布着港口有关的 办事处,银行和伦敦城外独特的商品交易所。位于码 头的三座壮丽的建筑是这个城市最引人注目的标志, 随着这个城市的振兴不断变换魅力。 商业贸易所带来的巨大财富促成了威廉姆·布朗 大街周围的文化区,那些建立在其街道两旁的博物 馆,艺术馆和图书馆以其中的文化内涵证实了这座 城市的文化价值。2008年. 利物浦被教科文组织授 予世界遗产的荣誉,同时被认作欧洲文化之都。在 21世纪,利物浦继续其复兴。那条河流,以及围绕 它长达70公里的海岸线以及风景秀丽的海滨一起被 公认为“皇冠上的宝石”。 或许丹尼尔·笛福对于利物浦的评价更贴近它的 原貌。丹尼·尔笛福,这位英国18世纪的作家(曾 写过《鲁滨逊漂流记》和《摩尔·弗兰德斯》)兼 冒险家于1708年在其旅行期间来到利物浦,并留下 了这样的话:“利物浦可以称得上是大不列颠众多 奇迹中的一个:她是一个如此迷人,坚固又蓬勃的 乡镇。越来越多富有的人们投入到商业贸易之中, 越来越多的建筑拔地而起。究竟她在今后会发展成 何等的面貌?我对此毫不知晓。”

in America, initially carrying tobacco and sugar and later cotton. Liverpool became the principal European port for the transatlantic shipment of a wide variety of goods and, in the 1800s, for the mass emigrations to America, particularly from Ireland during the Great Famine. It was given formal city status in 1880. Towards the end of the 19th century Liverpool’s docks stretched for seven miles along the east bank of the River Mersey. The docks were served by a commercial district of port-related offices, banks and commodity exchanges unrivalled outside of London. And the Three Graces at the Pier Head were then the city’s most impressive showpiece, and are now enhanced by the regeneration of the waterfront. The vast wealth generated by the mercantile trade was used to create a cultural quarter around William Brown Street where the buildings – museums, art galleries and civic libraries – and their contents remain a testament to the city’s cultural values; given a contemporary accolade with UNESCO World Heritage status, and as European Capital of Culture. In the 21st century, as Liverpool continues its renaissance, that same river with its scenic waterfront – as well as the 70 miles of coastline that skirt it – are acknowledged as the area’s ‘jewel in the crown’. Perhaps Liverpool is defined in many ways by the words of Daniel Defoe, the 18th century British author – Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders – and adventurer, whose travels brought him to the city in 1708: ‘Liverpool is one of the wonders of Britain: a large handsome, well-built and thriving town. It still visibly increases in both wealth, people, business and building: what it may grow into in time, I know not’.

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Shanghai - A Potted History 上海-历史的缩影 1949年当毛泽东宣布中华人民共和国成立时,上海 人口只有520万。现在上海是中国最大的城市,人口近 1900万。 19世纪中期上海被誉为亚洲最大的大都市。20世 纪20年代和30年代,也被视为为冒险家、漂泊者、机 会家的天堂。自90年代初北京中央政府决定加快发展 后,上海在现代化建设方面发生了惊人的变化。 浦西有世界著名的外滩,和利物浦的海滨极其相 似。浦西黄浦江对面的浦东曾经是沼泽湿地,但现已 经发展成一个开放的开发区。上海在以惊人的速度向 21世纪迈进。在很多方面它已超过了香港,成为世界 上发展最快的大都市。 摩天大楼似乎在一夜之间出现。超现实的建筑 风格和未来科幻小说电影中的景象十分相似:建筑 物的顶端呈现出菠萝叶子、塔式和多利安式圆柱的 形状。 浦东的招商大厦、上海证券大厦、东方明珠广播 电视发射塔,以及以每小时260惊人速度行使的磁悬 浮火车与熠熠发光的国际机场竞相呼应(机场主大厅 顶部是深蓝色的铝波纹板,下方是根根白色钢腹杆, 看起来很像是豪猪身上的豪刺。)这一切都体现出了 上海这个大都市的现代性。 20世纪30年代的上海被无可争议地认为是中国或 许是亚洲最富有魅力与颓废的文化城市。它一直都享 有“东方巴黎”和“东方明珠’的美誉。

SHANGAI is China’s largest city and home to close on 19 million people, compared with 5.2 million in 1949 when Mao Zedong declared the founding of the People’s Republic. Acclaimed even in the mid-19th century as the greatest metropolis in Asia – although later also regarded as a ‘paradise for adventurers, mavericks and chancers’ in the 1920s and 1930s – Shanghai has undergone astonishing changes and modernisation since the central government in Beijing decided to speed up development in the early 1990s. It declared the once swampy marshland area of Pudong, across the Huangpu River from the Puxi district – which incorporates the world-famous Bund, so similar to Liverpool’s waterfront – into an open development zone. The bewildering speed at which Shanghai has dashed headlong into the 21st century is difficult to take in. In many ways it has already eclipsed Hong Kong and is the world’s fastest-growing metropolis. Skyscrapers seem to spring up overnight, and the frequently surreal architecture resembles scenes from a futuristic science fiction movie: buildings are topped with what resemble pineapple fronds, pagodas or Doric columns. In Pudong the Merchants’ Tower, the Stock Exchange Tower and the inspirational Oriental Pearl TV and Radio Tower compete with the glittering International Airport – featuring an undulating ceiling impaled by porcupine quills composed of white fibre glass – for modernity, along with the astonishing 260 mph Maglev train. 35


上海(“海边”之意)这一名称的由来可以追溯 到公元7世纪时。因当地的竹编捕鱼工具而被称作‘ 申’‘扈’‘渎’。上海之称始于11世纪的宋代,13 世纪成为一个比较重要的亚洲贸易港。 16世纪明朝时期的上海还是一个围墙式的城市, 后发展成全国闻名的棉花纺织中心。1842年英国政府 强迫中国签定不平等的南京贸易条约前,上海还是一 个几乎没有国际名望的城市。 上海优越的地理位置(坐落于长江三角洲)推动 它成为了具有国际声望的城市。长江(中华文明的摇 篮之一)无疑是中国南方的最好之地。长江长6300公 里,是亚洲最大的河流和世界第三大河。 今天,上海是亚洲的窗口:是新中国商业、贸易 和金融的中心。在世界舞台上起着重要的作用。

In the 1930s Shanghai was indisputably the most glamorous, cultured – and decadent – city in China, and probably all of Asia. It boasted the epithets the ‘Paris of the East’ and the ‘Pearl of the Orient’: both equally apposite today. The origins of Shanghai – which means ‘by the sea’ – can be traced back to the 7th century AD when it was known as Shen or Hu Tu after the local bamboo fishing traps. It took the name Shanghai in the Sung Dynasty of the 11th century and became a relatively important Asian trading port in the 13th century. During the 16th century Ming Dynasty, when Shanghai became a walled city, it grew into a national textile centre famed for its cotton. But the city had hardly any international presence until China was forced by Britain to sign the ‘unequal’ trading Treaty of Nanjing in 1842. Shanghai’s location on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta would propel it to global prominence. The Yangtze, one of the cradles of Chinese civilisation, is without doubt China’s ‘Southern Belle’ and, at 6,300km is the biggest river in Asia and the world’s third longest. Today, Shanghai is the showcase of Asia: the focal point for business, trade and finance in a ‘New China’ that is emerging as a significant power broker on the world stage.

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Liverpool’s Pagoda Of A Hundred Harmony community centre boasts the finest Chinese youth orchestra in Europe, founded and led by Li Kiu Hsiung.

利物浦百谐社区中心塔有着欧洲最棒的青年中 乐团。青年中乐团由来自中国广州的李柯雄 (Li Kiu Hsiung)建立并领导至今。


About Liverpool’s Chinese Community 利物浦华人社区介绍 人们普遍认为1865年由阿尔弗雷德·霍尔特成立 的“蓝汽船航线”是最早的上海水手和其他中国海员在 利物浦登陆并最后定居的最早渠道。当时就已有轮船定 期与中国通航,运输中国丝绸,棉花,茶叶等商品。上 海与利物浦港口之间的贸易联系对利物浦华人社区的 建立发挥了重要的作用。1880年利物浦获特权变为城市 后。人们会在码头附近经常看到中国海员的出现。 据民间传说,一些中国水手留在了这个城市。 1870年前后,这些水手们在克莱文兰德街附近创办的 杂货店和食品店显然是欧洲旧唐人街的萌芽。利物浦 唐人街因位于克莱文兰德广场、皮特街和弗雷德里克 街附近而变得很有凝聚力。 Maria Lin Wong在她的那本优秀图书《利物浦的中国 人》中提到,当英国航运业到达顶峰的那几年利物浦 的中国人口有较大的增长。华馨社区中心的一位先生 说,到了1871年尽管有很多人没有去注册,但在利物 浦定居的人已有202人。1881年官方人口普查表明, 默西塞德郡地区(当时包括利物浦和伯肯黑德)只有 15位华裔居民。到1901年,这一数字已上升至76人。 1911年社区人数超过400人,是原来的五倍多。 随后的几年社区的中国人数不断壮大。1918年航运部 的一份报告说岸上的中国人的总数已达3200人,其中 2850人都以某种方式从事着与海运相关的工作。 第二次世界大战时,在失去了船只和船员的几年 后,英国商船队开始从世界各地的盟国中招募水手。

IT is generally believed that the formation of the ‘Blue Funnel Line’ in 1865 by Alfred Holt was the earliest conduit for Shanghai sailors and other Chinese seafarers to land up in Liverpool and eventually settle. There were already regular steamers with direct connections to China carrying such goods as silk, cotton and tea. These trade links between the ports of Shanghai and Liverpool were instrumental in the establishment of a Chinese community in the city and by the time Liverpool was granted city status in 1880 by a Royal Charter, Chinese sailors were to be seen regularly in the dockside area. Some of these Chinese sailors – so folklore goes – stayed behind and the grocery and provisions stores they established around Cleveland Street were apparently the germination of Europe’s oldest Chinatown, dating back to around 1870. Liverpool’s Chinatown – then located around Cleveland Square, Pitt Street and Frederick Street – was becoming quite cohesive. According to Maria Lin Wong – in her excellent book Chinese Liverpudlians – the size of the Chinese population fluctuated quite a bit, especially when the British shipping industry was at its height. According to Mr So of the Wah Sing Chinese Community Centre, by 1871 there were 202 Chinese settled in Liverpool, although many would not have registered their presence. In 1911 the community was over 400, more than fivefold 39


利物浦变成了中国商船水手的基地。一时间来自 上海、宁波附近港口、山东省其他港口,还有香 港和新加坡的2万多人登记成为水手。数以千计的 中国船员在德国潜艇的袭击中丧生。作为英国舰 队的一部分,中国水手对于英国最终取得战争的 胜利起了至关重要的作用。 战后,很多人回到了中国。但大约2000人选择 定居在利物浦。很多人同英国妇女结了婚。但英 国政府却背信弃义,决定已各种理由遣送他们回 国,称他们为“利物浦的不和谐因素”。到1946年 3月23日为止,800名中国水手被遣返回国。这些人 的家人-包括400名儿童,再也没有见过他们的父 亲,这在中英关系历史上是极其不光彩的一幕。 随着对失去父亲这些孩子们的急切想寻根的广 泛调查(媒体有大量的报导)。2006年1月在利物 浦码头进行了揭匾仪式以悼念为英国做贡献的这 些中国海员。

its previously recorded size. Over the ensuing years the community grew considerably and a report compiled by the Ministry of Shipping in 1918 said there was a total of 3,200 Chinese men on shore, with some 2,850 associated in some way with seafaring. During the Second World War, after years of lost ships and crews, the British Merchant Navy started recruiting sailors from its allies across the world and Liverpool became the base for a reserve pool of Chinese merchant sailors. There were with up to 20,000 registered sailors at one point, coming from Shanghai, the nearby port of Ningbo, and other ports in Shandong province, as well as Hong Kong and Singapore. Thousands of Chinese sailors lost their lives to the Atlantic during attacks from German submarines and as part of the British fleet the Chinese sailors played an important role in Britain’s eventual victory in the war. After the war most returned to China but around 2,000 had settled in Liverpool and many had married British women. But in an act of perfidy the British government had decided, for various reasons, to repatriate the remaining Chinese seamen, calling them ‘an undesirable element in Liverpool’. By March 23, 1946, 800 Chinese seamen had been forced to return to China. The families of these men – including over 400 children – never saw them again. Following extensive investigations by some of the children of the ‘lost dragons’ desperate to trace their fathers – and numerous reports in the media – in January 2006 a memorial plaque was unveiled at Liverpool’s Pier Head to pay tribute to the Chinese sailors who had served Britain.

牌匾上的内容用中英文写成,大意为:此匾是为向两 次世界大战中服务本国之中国商船海员表示敬意。向那 些为本国而献出生命者致敬—感谢。亦为在两次时间大 战以后,被当时的政府权力下驱逐出境之众多中国商船 海员。亦为被遗弃而至贫困的及对她们的丈夫发生何事 而一无所知之妻子和伴侣。为从未见到过他们的父亲之 子女。此匾提醒了我们所发生之事实。我们深切地希望 同类事件永远不 会再发生。 永远怀念

利物浦公司在20世纪40年代末和50年代初进行 40


Yvonne Foley and Barbara Janecek are two of the ‘children of the lost dragons’ who attended the unveiling of the memorial plaque to their fathers. 现住在澳大利亚的伊万·弗雷和现住在加拿大的巴巴 瑞·珍塞克就是“不知道自己父亲的的孩子”。他们 参加了悼念他们的父亲和其他中国海员的揭幕仪式。


了贫民区的改造工程,大片贫民窟被拆除。华人社区 的大部分中国人逐渐迁移到位于肯特街,皮特街和上 弗里德里克街的廉租公寓里。这是一个大动荡时期, 对于一些人来说很不适应,但人们的精神情绪没有受 到影响。这一时期他们做了很多工程来丰富和改善社 区人民的生活。 不过华人社区很快就不把生意仅仅局限在中国城 市,而是有机地向默西赛德区拓展。后来在奈尔逊 街、大乔治广场重新开了一些商店和俱乐部。20世纪 70年代奈尔逊街成了唐人街的新中心。商业区逐渐地 扩展到柏瑞街、公爵街和上皮特街。 1982年在利物浦唐人街的亨利街上建立了宝塔 百协社区中心。从此它成了为这个充满活力和日新 月异的社区提供各项服务和举办各种活动的主要机 构。2009年12月8日默西赛德华人社区发展协会庆祝 建立协会20周年。有近200位客人参加这个庆典,其 中包括麦克·斯特瑞议员、利物浦市长、利物浦华人 社区的领导和来自各部门和自愿组织的代表。 21世纪初期利物浦有来自中国的人口3000多人( 有的自己独身来此,有的携带家眷)。这个位于英 国西北部的利物浦的华人家族现人口已达80,000之 多。他们在他们的共同家园向人们展示他们的自豪和 骄傲。

It reads in English and Chinese: This plaque is in honour of the Chinese merchant seamen who served this country well during both world wars. For those who gave their lives for this country – Thank you. It is also to the many Chinese merchant seamen who after both world wars were required to leave. For their wives and partners who were left in ignorance of what had happened to their men. For the children who never knew their fathers. This is a small reminder of what took place. We hope nothing like it will ever happen again. For your memory. As Liverpool Corporation introduced whole scale demolition of large swathes of slums in the late 1940s and early 1950s vast numbers of the Chinese community were eventually shifted into new tenements in Kent Street, Pitt Street and Upper Frederick Street. This was a period of great upheaval but the spirit of the people remained positive and the intervening years saw them launch many new projects to enhance and benefit the community. The Pagoda Hundred Harmony Community Centre was established in 1982 in Henry Street and has become a key agency for delivering a range of services and activities for a dynamic and changing community. In the early years of the 21st century the city of Liverpool proper is home to over 3,000 people who themselves came directly from China, or have close family relatives there.

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‘I was impressed during my many visits to Liverpool as Minister for Merseyside in the early 1980s at the entrepreneurial spirit of the Chinese community – many of whose origins are from Shanghai – and its reputation for hard work. And there can be no more exciting time to be working with China.’ Michael Heseltine, Lord Heseltine of Thenford and Founding Patron of the 48 Group Club, which carries on the legacy of the first westerners to deal with China in the early 1950s

“八十年代初作为莫西塞德郡郡长,我多次访问 利物浦,华人的创业精神给我留下了深刻的印象。他们当 中的很多人都来自上海。他们都以勤劳著称。 与中国合作会是很令人兴奋的。” 赫塞尔廷勋爵,也是48家集团的资助者。48家集团早在上世纪五十年代初便开始与中 国进行贸易往来。现在它仍致力于中英两国的贸易事业

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Synergy Between East And West 东西方的共同合作 欧洲最古老和最得到认可的华人社区就扎根在利物浦。 利物浦与 中国的贸易往来至少延续了175年。 居住在这个城市的华裔超过三代。很多利物浦华人 社区的居民认为他们是这里土生土长的人。今天利物 浦华人社区由本地的华裔利物浦人和海外移民组成。 这里有7个历史悠久的华人社团。其中两个已存在 100多年。这些社团在公立、私营和义务组织中起着关 键性的作用。近年来,它们为中国城的发展和振兴做 出了 贡献。随着他们对社区的关注,他们也利用自己 的知识和 技能促进了与中国民间、商贸、教育、艺术 和文化的活动和联系。 他们的工作可以从和上海结为姐妹城市的过程中和 上海世博会看出来。他们自愿参与这些活动,而动力来 源于他们对这个家乡城市的热爱和对传统中国文化价值 的热爱。利物浦城内对中国农历春节的庆祝活动可以说 是东西方结合的最好证明。华人社区接纳这个城市文化 的多样性,他们的庆祝活动可以反映这一点。 庆祝活动形式和内容丰富,古今并融、中西合璧。 庆祝活动吸引了区内外的25000参观者和来自不同的文 化团体到中国城。促进了地方的贸易,给城市带来了 丰厚的收入。每年的节日庆典和朝气蓬勃的中国文化 是这个2008年欧洲文化之都多元化的一道美丽风景。

THE city of Liverpool is home to one of the oldest and best established Chinese communities in Europe. Trade between the port and China dates back at least 175 years. There have been more than three generations of Chinese people residing in the city and many members of the Chinese community regard themselves as indigenous. There are seven Chinese organizations in the city, all of which are long established: two have existed for more than a 100 years. Locally these organisations act as a pivot between the public, private and voluntary sectors and in recent years they have helped to shape the development and regeneration of Chinatown. As well as providing a focus for the community, they also offer knowledge and skills to promote civil, business, education, art and cultural activities and links with China. The Chinese New Year celebrations are probably the best example of the synergies of East and West within the city of Liverpool. The Chinese community embraces the cultural diversity of the city and their celebration reflects that. The celebratory activities include contemporary and traditional, Chinese and non-Chinese art forms and attract 25,000 visitors from within and beyond the region, across different cultural groups, to the Chinatown area. Alan Seatwo First Vice Chair and Project Coordinator of Liverpool Chinese Business Association

艾伦·斯图 利物浦华人商会第一任副主席和项目协调员。 46


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A Work Of Art 一件艺术品 利物浦的友谊拱总耗资500,000英镑。因其雄伟华 丽,可与伦敦的泰特现代美术馆和康沃尔的伊甸园相 媲美,被列为英国最壮观的建筑之一。 该友谊拱15米高(超过50英尺)的规模令人印象 深刻,但只有近距离观察才能真正确切地感受到。承 载着四根支柱的白色大理石基座有两米高(足足超过 6英尺)。醒目的木制五顶经精美的修饰已经变成了 一件艺术品。它是中国大陆以外,欧洲及任何唐人街 中最大的中国拱。和它相匹敌的拱在美国的旧金山。 其他拥有中国拱的英国城市是曼彻斯特,伦敦和纽卡 斯尔。

THE overall cost of Liverpool’s Chinese Arch was £500,000, but today it is compared in grandeur with the Tate Modern in London and the Eden Project in Cornwall, and must rank as one of the most spectacular new structures in the UK. The sheer scale of the Arch, which stands 15 metres – over 50 feet – high is impressive, but only up close can the dimensions really be properly appreciated. The white marble blocks on which each of the four supports stands are two metres high and, as the eye is inevitably drawn to the five roofs, it is the complexity of the joinery and the exquisite exuberance of the decoration that transforms it into a work of art. It is not only the largest Chinese arch in Europe but the largest in any Chinatown outside of mainland China; its closest rival is in San Francisco, USA. Other UK cities that boast Chinese arches are Manchester, London and Newcastle.

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Harmony And Peace Of Mind 心灵的和谐与宁静 郭满和是英国对风水最有研究的代表人物,他被 邀请来为整个建筑项目评测。他的智慧和专业知识 被认为是可以确保心灵的和谐与和平。他已出版了 30多本关于风水的书,渴望生活顺利的人们竞相购 买他的年鉴 。 据他说拱道是一个门,通过这门,你将进入另一 个地方。这是去一个地方的主要大门,所以它的阴阳 必须平衡。 向风水大师咨询是必要的,因为人们相信像拱这 样的一个公共建筑将对华人社区未来的繁荣产生深远 的影响。其实,同时也要选择一个吉祥的日子开工, 根据古代的风水原则选择了1999年9月3日。

ONE of the finest exponents of fengshui operating in Britain was called in to give his seal of approval to the Arch project. Man Ho Kwok’s wisdom and expertise were considered vital to ensure harmony and peace of mind. He has published over 30 books on fengshui and his annual almanac is much sought after by those keen for their days and lives to run smoothly. According to Man Ho Kwok the archway is a gate and passing through this gate you are entering another region. It is the main door to a place and the yin and yang must be balanced. Consultation with a fengshui master was necessary because it is believed that a public project like the Arch would have profound influences on the future prosperity of the Chinese community. An auspicious day was selected for the start of the construction work: 3rd September 1999 was chosen according to the ancient art’s principles.

心灵的和谐与宁静 53


Of Dragons And Other Creatures 龙和其它动物 在这个光彩夺目的建筑中有200条手工雕刻上的 镀金的龙,其中有8个是在屋檐上保护着建筑,因 为“8”在中国是最幸运的数字。外表另人生畏的龙 头,还有一些民间传说中像凤凰一样的保护性动物都 在这个建筑中有所体现。 还有188条“普通”龙和12条妊娠龙,标志着利物 浦与上海之间的好运气。龙在中国神话中很重要,因 为它与皇室相关,象征着权力,威严和长寿。看似伸 出建筑物的青龙胡须,实际上是与地网相连接的避雷 针的天线。 拱的中心是三个汉字(这些字每个都是接近1米 高)。从左至右依次读为:“中国城”。英语意思 是“Middle Kingdom Town”,或者“Scousers” 。 白色石头基座上的两个中国狮子很威严地保护着 拱门的入口,其余还有4只:两只在奈尔逊街的尾 端,另两只守护着从市中心到唐人街的入口。 风水决定了拱的距离,距离是确保这个建筑周围 有良好的“能源流动”的关键。与其他唐人街不同, 利物浦的狮子不是石头,而是铜制的。 用石狮守卫重要的建筑物和庙宇的做法要追溯到 古代,甚至是公元三世纪。根据阴阳的规定,右边的 是雄狮,左边的是雌狮。

THERE are 200 hand-carved dragons painted and gilded onto this dazzling structure, which is protected on its eaves by eight – the luckiest of numbers in China – fearsome-looking dragon heads, as well as a squadron of other creatures such as the phoenix that has throughout Chinese folklore represented a guardian creature. There are also 188 ‘ordinary’ dragons and 12 pregnant dragons, signifying good fortune between Liverpool and Shanghai. The dragon is important in Chinese mythology because it is associated with royalty and represents power, majesty and longevity. The bronze dragons’ whiskers that seem to flick out of the structure are actually lightning conductors’ antennae connected to the earth mat. In the very centre of the Arch are three Chinese characters, and these alone are close to a metre high. From left to right they read: Zhong Guo Cheng – in English simply ‘Middle Kingdom Town’, or to Scousers ‘China Town’. Two Chinese lions on white stone plinths majestically guard the entrance, supported by four others: two at each end of Nelson Street and the others protecting the approach to Chinatown from the city centre. The distance from the Arch is dictated by fengshui requirements and is critical to ensure a good ‘energy flow’ around the structure. Unlike other Chinatowns, the lions in Liverpool are not made of stone but of bronze. The practice of using stone lions – in Chinese shizi – to guard important buildings and temples stretches back into antiquity, perhaps even the third century AD. In accordance with yin and yang, the right lion is male and the left female.

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The Cultural Importance Of Chinese Arches 中国拱的文化意义 “纪念性拱门与皇室拱门”的历史要追溯到遥远 的中国封建社会。每个拱代表了一个人或一个事件。 而每个拱都有自己的故事。每个拱都具有重要的内 涵,并反映了相关的历史。更重要的是,这些拱还是 艺术性及古现代工匠技艺的证明。 利物浦的拱主要是中国北方的建筑风格,而且被 认为是极其吉祥的。这些拱都是精心设计的,加以明 亮的色调,红色的柱子和金黄的屋瓦,这些都是皇家 建筑的特征。 堂皇的、壮观的、艺术装饰的拱门(也称为牌坊 或牌楼)2000多年前首次在中国出现。它们代表了中 国古代不同文化间的和谐,也是著名景点和事件标志 性建筑。 现在,拱在中国文化中仍然很重要而且广泛流 行。中国人民认为拱门是上海和利物浦之间的友谊 象征,同时也代表中英关系。新中国断言自己在国 际社会上是一个强大、独立的和有能力的贸易伙 伴,是一个不可忽视的大国。拱门便是象征着这样 的一个新中国。 拱上的每个颜色都对应中国的五行:绿色代表 木,象征成长,长寿与和谐;红色代表火,象征好运 和吉祥;黄色代表土,并且被中国皇帝用作“皇室” 的颜色,象征权力,权威和成长;黑色代表水,象征 黑暗;白色代表金,象征哀悼。 五行的概念也被用于拱门周围的其他地方;树木,

THE history of ‘Memorial and Imperial Archways’ stretches back into the distant past of Chinese feudal society. Each arch is related to a person or an event. And each arch has its own story. Every arch has important connotations and reflects the relevance of history. In more practical terms arches are also evidence of the artistry and skill of craftsmen, ancient and modern. The Liverpool Arch is predominantly northern Chinese in style and considered to be extremely auspicious. Such arches are identified by their elaborate, bright colour schemes, red coloured columns and golden coloured roof tiles – both features of royal buildings. Grand, imposing and artistically decorated arches – known as paifang or pailou – first appeared in China over 2,000 years ago. They represent the harmony between the different cultural aspects of ancient China and are symbolic landmarks for notable places and events. They continue to be important and widespread in Chinese culture. The Arch is regarded by the Chinese as a potent symbol of the friendship between Shanghai and Liverpool, and of Sino-British relations in general. It is seen as representative of the new China that is asserting itself in the international community as a strong, independent and capable trading partner – and a power to be reckoned with. Each colour on the Arch relates to one of the five Chinese elements: green for wood that symbolises growth, longevity and harmony; red for fire that represents good fortune and happiness; yellow for earth and a ‘royal’ colour used 57


上方的照明物,黄褐色的石板路,黑色的石板路和花 岗岩的底座。 还有27个金色象征物镶嵌在石板路上。这代表了 中国三个重要城市的鲜花:上海的白玉兰,强调其开 拓进取的精神;香港的5瓣白兰花;和广州的木棉。 每个城市有9个象征物:3乘3,中国人认为这是一个 很幸运的数字。

by Chinese emperors to symbolise power, authority and growth; black for water that symbolises darkness; and white, the gold element that represents mourning. And each of the five essential elements is also used in the ‘events space’ around the Arch: the trees; the up lighters beneath them; the yellow-brown stone paving; the black slate paving and granite seat. There are also 27 gold symbols cast in the paving. These represent the flowers adopted by three significant Chinese cities: Shanghai’s white magnolia, to emphasise its pioneering and enterprising spirit; Hong Kong’s fivepetal white orchid; and Guangzhou’s kapok. There are nine symbols for each city: three times three, as that number is also considered lucky in China.

中国拱的文化意义

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The Family Of Man 人类大家庭

利物浦中国拱的公共空间中有一 个很有诗意并且极易理解的铁制中 文句子,用英语大致译为:“四海一 家,所有种族和平共处,富有,资源 丰富,生意兴隆,欣欣向荣,蓬勃发 展”。 通俗的解释是:“我们和平相 处;世界是一个大家庭;富有并且繁 荣”。

THERE is a poetic and extremely apt homily braided in Chinese characters into the iron lattice fencing of the public space in front of Liverpool’s Chinese Arch which approximately translates into English as: ‘Four seas, one family, all races cohabit peacefully, wealth, resource, abundant business and trade, thriving and booming.’ A more informal interpretation might be: ‘We all live in peace; a world is one family; wealth and prosperity.’

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The Shanghai ‘Arch of Friendship’ was officially ‘unveiled’ during the celebrations to mark the Year of the Dragon in February 2000. 上海“友谊拱”于2000年二月份的龙年新年庆祝期间 由官方正式揭幕。


Team Work 团队工作 拱门是由上海的设计师、建筑师张勇莱设计,并 由上海尹力公司与英国 DowhHigh 建筑公司共同建造。 而周围景观美化是由利物浦的建筑师设计。 The Wilkinson Hindle Halsall Lloyd 组织与中国团队紧密合 作,并且由风水师郭满和担任项目经理。在上海市委 政府的支持下,林艺公司在中国建造了可以组装的拱 的,它就像一个巨大的拼图。然后可以组装的拱被装 在五个40英尺的集装箱中运到利物浦进行最后组装。 该公司选出一个由20位工厂高技能工人组成队伍 前往利物浦。他们包括石匠、雕刻师、画家和建筑工 程师。他们的工作是在3个月内组建拱门并与利物浦 的建筑师及顾问紧密合作,特别是项目领导人比尔· 哈尔索尔。该项目的双语顾问万宏博士现定居北京。 在拱门的部件由海运从上海到达利物浦不久后, 中国尹力建筑队于1999年10月26日抵达英国。1999年 圣诞后一周,在西方新年前两天,也是新世纪开始前 两天,12月30号最后的“屋顶’被放在了拱门上。 拱门是1994年9月“唐人街崭新未来”的整体规划 中一个关键元素。该项目的研究由利物浦市议会、利 物浦城市挑战公司,以及当时的格兰比·托克斯·泰 斯工作队提供,并由洛浦·沃克斯代表利物浦中国商 会 来指挥这项工程。

THE Arch was the creation of Shanghai designer and architect Zhang Yong Lai and built by the Shanghai Yin Li Garden Company in conjunction with the British construction firm Dow High, while the landscaping that surrounds it was designed by Liverpool architects. The Wilkinson Hindle Halsall Lloyd Partnership worked closely with the Chinese community and fengshui master Man Ho Kowk as project managers. With the support of the Shanghai Municipal Government the Yin Li Company built the Arch in China in prefabricated sections, almost like a giant jigsaw. It was then shipped to Liverpool in five 40-foot containers for assembly and final construction. The company sent a 20-strong team of highly skilled workers to Liverpool from its factory, based close to the Huangpu River that surges past the famous Bund. They included stonemasons and carvers, painters and construction engineers. Their job was to construct the Arch and for three months they cooperated closely with Liverpool builders and consultants, in particular architect Bill Halsall who was team leader of the project. The Chinese Yin Li team arrived in Britain on 26th October 1999, soon after the component parts of the Arch had been delivered to Liverpool by sea from Shanghai. One week after Christmas the final ‘roof’ was placed on the Arch on 30th December.

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The View From The Ground 地面景观 拱的建筑是该项目引人注目的一部分,地基设计 由项目负责人、利物浦市议会的结构工程师艾哈迈德 博士负责。他现在是利物浦前景项目管理部负责人。 艾哈迈德博士负责拱地基的设计及工程监督,检查 整体建筑结构设计和代表市议会监督整个工程的实施。 地基的地点是根据中国风水传统确定的,中国风 水师郭满和确定了合适的位置和拱的方向,艾哈迈德 博士派地形测量师进行实地调查,并确定拱柱的位置 和路的位置。最后拱门的建造选择在奈尔逊街上。 他回顾说,来自上海的原始图纸全是中文的,后 应要求改为了英文。当开始进行拱柱装饰时,从中国 带来的‘帝王红色’涂料还失踪了。该项目的建筑队 工头前往利物浦著名的利物浦快速五金用品商店,在 那里唯一合适的替代品是颜色上最接近的—红色的车 库地板漆。 艾哈迈德博士回忆道,遗憾的是在工作临近结束 时中国工程队还没有看到拱门的完整全貌,因为当时 拱门的周围还全是脚手架,而他们的签证已经快要到 期,不得不返回上海。

WHILE the construction of the Arch was the highly visible part of the project, the man charged with ensuring that the site was prepared was Liverpool City Council’s structural engineer Dr Mohanned Ahmad, now Head of Project Management for Liverpool Vision. Mohanned designed the foundations of the site and supervised their construction, checked the overall structural design of the Arch and, on behalf of the Council, oversaw both the temporary and permanent works throughout construction. The location of the foundations was in accordance with the Chinese fengshui tradition and as soon as the fengshui master Man Ho Kwok had properly identified the correct location and direction of the Arch, Mohanned sent in his topographical surveyor to carry out the actual survey and pinpoint where the columns would be and the location of the road – Nelson Street – in relation to the Arch. He recalls that the original drawings from Shanghai were all in Chinese and had to be requested in English. And when it came time to decorate the columns the designated ‘Imperial Red’ paint from China was missing. The foreman of the building team was sent to Liverpool’s well-known Liverpool supply store Rapid Hardware, where the only suitable replacement – and a close enough match – was red garage floor paint. Mohanned recalls that, sadly, at the end of the project the Chinese team did not see the final work in its entirety due to the scaffolding around it – their visas were close to expiry and they had to return to Shanghai.

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Original architects’ drawings – supplied by the Halsall Lloyd Limited Liability Partnership – show how the area for the Arch was designed according to the disciplines of fengshui. 原始的工程师图稿—由哈尔索尔劳埃德有限责任企业 提供—展示了“拱”是如何根据“风水”原理划分区 域的。

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Restoration And Repainting Of Arch 友谊拱的修复与重新涂漆 2007年夏季利物浦国家博物馆保护技术部对著名 的友谊拱进行了大维修。 2006年通过起重机对友谊拱进行了勘察。结果 发现拱的涂漆和镀金表面经过风吹日晒都已遭受了 很大的破坏,而当初冬季进行的装饰工程加剧了这 种损害。 人们发现油漆和镀金的一些地方已出现了裂纹, 一些地方已剥落,这样就露出了灰/蓝色的底漆,底 漆也已开始出现裂纹。拱门的木制嵌入物也出现了严 重的问题。由于湿度的不断变化这些镶嵌物也开始出 现裂纹。 通过颜色测试,那些没有遭到破坏的涂漆的地方 被保留下来以便和原颜色相匹配。新涂的漆持续的时 间更长。 修复工作进行了大约三个月。去除了出现裂纹和 已剥落的油漆层,对表面进行了底层涂漆和粉刷。 木制部分在需要的地方用填料和木制镶嵌物进行 了维修,用箔金的方法对原镀金的部分进行了重新的 置换。

DURING the summer of 2007 the Conservation Technologies department of National Museums Liverpool undertook vital restoration work on the city’s famous Chinese Arch. A survey carried out from a ‘cherry picker’ crane in 2006 revealed that the painted and gilded surface of the Arch had suffered extensive damage through weathering, which had been exacerbated as a result of the original decorative scheme being applied during the winter months. Areas of paint and gilding were found to be either blistering or had flaked away entirely to reveal a grey/blue primer which had also started to crack and craze. There were also serious problems with some of the wooden inserts, which due to fluctuations in humidity had also started to crack. By colour testing those painted areas that had not been affected by the weather the restoration team was able to match the original closely, and the new paints are also longer lasting. It took approximately three months to complete the restoration work, which included removal of the flaking and blistering paint layer, priming of the surfaces and repainting. Wooden sections were repaired using filler and wood inserts, where necessary, and the gold decorative areas were all replaced using the traditional method of gilding with gold leaf.

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Shanghai Plays To The Gallery - World Expo 2010 上海向世界展示自己—举办2010世界博览会 自1851年世博会第一次在伦敦水晶宫举办近170年 来,2010年上海世博会是耗资最多的一次。大约7千 万游客将参加在黄浦江岸边从5月至10月持续6个月的 活动。利物浦是唯一的英国城市代表。 利物浦前景与其他组织一道来推进这项工程。 这些合作组织包括:利物浦市议会、英国西北英格兰 发展署、利物浦-上海合作公司、利物浦商业协会及 Peel Holdings 公司领导下的私营部门。 对于利物浦来说,这次的世博是个千载难逢的机 会,利物浦可借这一机会在全球新兴市场巩固和建立 新的关系,并在“城市,让生活更美好”这一世博主 题之下尽情展示其城市复兴面貌。当2009年11月, 英国利物浦市议会领袖、区议员伟伦·布特利从世博 会官员手中领取到世博会利物浦展厅的钥匙时,他说 道:“利物浦是一个在国际舞台上了不起的引领者, 它将以远见卓识抓住这个巨大的机会,把人们的目光 吸引到它的展厅和组织上来。” 世博会吉祥物海宝的名称是海宝,它以汉字“人” 字为核心创意,配以代表生命活力的海蓝色,象征着 海洋的财富。蓝色代表海水并表明中国正融入世界。 作为其文化复兴的一部分,上海能够展现其49个 文化遗址,31个公共图书馆,50个档案馆,11个博物 馆和30个表演团体。更不用说那些非官方的,越来越 著名的“夜生活”,例如,迪斯科舞厅,歌舞厅,卡 拉OK,酒吧,餐馆和无数神话般的交响乐团。

THE most ambitious World Expo ever takes place in Shanghai in 2010, nearly 170 years after the first was held at Crystal Palace in London in 1851. Some 70 million visitors are expected to attend the six-month long event from May to October on the banks of the Huangpu River – and the only British city involved is Liverpool. Liverpool Vision is driving the project in partnership with Liverpool City Council, the Northwest Regional Development Agency, the Liverpool-Shanghai Partnership and Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, with Peel Holdings leading the private sector support. The event is regarded in Liverpool as a once-in-ageneration opportunity to consolidate existing relationships and forge new ones in the world’s emerging markets and to showcase Liverpool’s track record of urban regeneration under the Expo theme of Better City, Better Life. When handed the keys to the Liverpool Pavilion by Expo officials in November 2009 Councillor Warren Bradley, the Leader of Liverpool City Council, commented: ‘Liverpool is an amazing calling card on the international stage and will drive attention to the pavilion and the organisations with the foresight and vision to get involved in this massive opportunity.’ The name of the Expo mascot is Hai Bao, created from the Chinese character for people – ren – which means the treasure of the sea. The blue colour represents seawater and indicates China’s integration into the world.

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Liverpool City Council Leader Warren Bradley welcomes the Shanghai Expo’s mascot ‘Haibo’ with Liverpool Expo Director of Operations, Phil Southward, Mike Taylor, Investment Director of Liverpool Vision and Lindsey Ashworth, Development Director of Peel Holdings. 利物浦市议会领袖伟伦·布特利和上海世博会利物浦展馆运营总监菲 力浦·南宫先生,还有利物浦视角的投资企业总监迈克·泰勒以及皮 尔控股公司的发展总监和利物浦参加上海世博会的主要赞助商林赛· 阿什沃斯一同欢迎了上海世博的吉祥物“海宝”来到利物浦。

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Maintaining The Links 保持联系 利物浦上海合作组织成立于2006年5月,此后致力 于不断发展并加强两城市间公民的联系,并向上海当 局和更广泛的上海地区展示一个统一的、强大的利物 浦品牌。利物浦正努力成为上海的首选合作伙伴三大 国际城市之一。 在公共和私营部门的联合支持下,这种伙伴关系对 具有巨大潜力的姐妹城市发挥催化作用。城市之间的 交流增多,特别是近年来在贸易,教育和文化等领域 的交流,为双方带来了切实的利益。 该合作关系的主席是前利物浦大学副校长德拉蒙 德。他与尼克·尔蓝姆,Plexus Cotton 公司主席一起建 立了这个组织。 合作伙伴包括:利物浦市议会,利物浦双年展,英 国皇家爱乐乐团,Plexus Cotton, SURF,英国利物浦大 学,上海工商联合会,上海外国投资促进局,埃弗顿 足球俱乐部,利物浦前景公司,默西合作组织,利物 浦足球俱乐部,皮尔控股,利物浦商务部,利物浦国 家博物馆和利物浦约翰穆尔斯大学。

THE Liverpool-Shanghai Partnership was established in May 2006 to strengthen the civic links and to promote a unified, powerful brand for Liverpool to the Shanghai authorities and wider Shanghai region. It is working towards Liverpool becoming one of Shanghai’s top three international citypartners of choice. With joint backing from public and private sectors the partnership is acting as a catalyst for the tremendous potential of the sister city relationship. Civic relations have been extremely strong in recent years and there have been exchanges in the areas of trade, education and culture, to the benefit of both cities. The Chairman of the Partnership is Sir Drummond Bone, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Liverpool, who had helped set up the organisation with Nick Earlam, the Chairman of Plexus Cotton. Partners include: Liverpool City Council, Liverpool Biennial, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Plexus Cotton, SURF, the University of Liverpool, the Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce, Shanghai Foreign Investment Development Board, Everton Football Club, Liverpool Vision, the Mersey Partnership, Liverpool Football Club, Peel Holdings, Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, National Museums Liverpool and Liverpool John Moores University.

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Focus On Sister Cities 聚焦友好城市 SHANGHAI has sister city links or partnerships with over 60 cities world wide, including Liverpool, Barcelona, Hamburg, Oslo, Valparaiso, St Petersburg, Alexandria, Istanbul, Dunedin, San Francisco, Dubai, Osaka, Casablanca, Montreal, Antwerp, Karachi and Santiago in Cuba, amongst others.

上海已与世界上60多个城市结为友好城市或合作 伙伴,其中包括利物浦,巴塞罗那,汉堡,奥斯陆, 瓦尔帕莱索,圣彼得堡,亚历山大,伊斯坦布尔,达 尼丁,旧金山,迪拜,大阪,卡萨布兰卡,蒙特利 尔,安特卫普,卡拉奇和古巴的圣地亚哥等。


Focus On Sister Cities 聚焦友好城市 LIVERPOOL enjoys sister city status with Shanghai, Dublin, Cologne, Tallinn and Memphis and fraternal friendship ties with Odessa and New York.

利物浦享有与上海,都柏林,科隆,塔林,孟菲斯, 敖德萨和纽约兄弟般的友好关系,及姐妹城市的地位。


In England’s Northwest we have a diverse and highly competitive economy which is international in its size and scale. We’re home to many of the world’s leading companies across advanced engineering, biotech, and creative and digital media. Together they combine to make our economy larger than hi-tech countries like Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. To find out more about investment opportunites in our region, visit englandsnorthwest.com.

Manchester | Liverpool | Cheshire | Lancashire | Cumbria


Further Reading On Liverpool And Shanghai • Further in depth essays and historical detail about the Liverpool-Shanghai twinning links and the building of the Chinese Arch can be found in the 176pp photoessay book ‘The Friendship Arch - A Celebration of Shanghai and Liverpool’, published by Cities500 in 2005. ISBN 0-9531995-3-3 and RRP £25.00. See: www.cities500.com and www.shanachie.co.uk • Chinese Liverpudlians, Maria Lin Wong, Liver Press, 1989 • Liverpool: The First 1,000 Years, Arabella McIntyre-Brown & Guy Woodland, Garlic Press, 2001 • Chinatown Britain, Steve Lau, Chinatown Online, 2002 • Liverpool: World Waterfront City, Lew Baxter & Guy Woodland, Cities500, 2008

www.shanachie.co.uk 81


Liverpool & Shanghai celebrating

10 years of Twinning

庆祝利物浦-上海 姐妹城市缔结十周年


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Price £8.00 ISBN 978-1-905547-13-5

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Ten Years of Liverpool & Shanghai Twinning  

SHANGHAI is nicknamed the ‘Dragon’s Head’ as it is driving forward China’s economic development and has been transformed at bewildering spee...

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