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Faculdade Cenecista Nossa Senhora dos Anjos Mantida pela Campanha Nacional de Escolas da Comunidade – CNEC Credenciada pela Portaria Ministerial 1.267 de 25/04/2002 D.O.U. 26/04/2002

Nome: ________________________________ Turma: ________________ Data: ___________ SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÃO INGLÊS INSTRUMENTAL – AULA 2 PROF. MS. LETÍCIA ROSSA TEXT 1 – What’s a computer? 1-A computer is a machine with a complicated network of electronic circuits using very high integration. It is capable of storing millions of data and performing up to billions of operations in one second, from the simplest comparison between two numbers to the most complicated and powerful string manipulation. This work is performed at incredible speed, following technological improvements. 2- In only a short time, the computer has changed the way in which many kinds of jobs are done. However, it is not able to think. It accepts data and instructions as input, and after processing them, it outputs the results. 3- A computer is not merely a machine but a system. So in a Data Processing Center (DPC.) we have to consider three parts: the hardware or central processor and peripheral equipment, the software or programs and the liveware or the technical people, including the staff. 4- The hardware consists of several units: the central processor, the input/output processors (I/O), data communication processors (DCOM), all of them with one or several units and many combinations. Attached to the I/O processors is the peripheral equipment; attached to the DCOM are the teleprocessing lines, adapters, modems and terminals, or another computer alone or networking with another host system. 5- The software is the collection of man-written solutions and specific instructions needed to solve problems with a computer, as well as all documents needed to guide the operation of a computer, that is, manuals, programs, flowcharts, etc. 6- The liveware basically consists of system analysts, the programmers, operators and technical managers, including supervisors, networking and data base administrators. (Inglês para processamento de dados. Galante, T.P., Pow, E.7ºed. SP : Atlas, 1996.) 1. Retire do texto 15 palavras cognatas e escreva o seu significado em português. Integration = integrar;integração Problems = problemas;dificuldades Documents = documentos Instructions – instruções Administrators - administradores Operators - operadores Results - resultados Combinations – combinações Equipment - equipamento Electronic – eletrônico System - sistema Computer - computador


Supervisors – supervisores Manipulation – manipulação Consider - considerar 2. Em que parágrafos estão contidas as seguintes idéias: a) Definição de software e sua utilidade. - 5 b) O computador não é só somente uma máquina, mas um sistema. 3 c) Descrição de um computador. 1 d) Os componentes pertencentes a um hardware. e) O computador foi capaz de mudar a maneira de se fazer muitas coisas, em um curto espaço de tempo. f) Profissionais ligados à área de informática. 3. Inferência contextual: com base no texto e no contexto em que as palavras estão inseridas, relacione as colunas: a) Network b) To store c) To perform d) Speed e) Improvement f) Data g) Manager h) Powerful i) High j) Liveware

( g ) gerente ( i ) alta ( f ) dados ( ) melhoria ( ) desempenhar ( h ) poderoso ( e ) funcionários ( b ) armazenar ( d ) velocidade ( a ) rede

4. Grupos nominais. Escreva em português: a) Electronic circuits ____________________________________________________________ b) Technological improvements___________________________________________________ c) Central processor_____________________________________________________________ d) Peripheral equipment_________________________________________________________ e) System analysts______________________________________________________________ 5. Complete o quadro das abreviações: Abreviações DPC DCOM I/O

Inglês

Português

6. Complete o esquema abaixo em português com informações retiradas do terceiro parágrafo:

DPC

Hardware

ou

Software

ou

____________________

____________________


Liveware

ou

____________________

TEXT 2 – Computer Viruses The Maltese Amoeba may sound like a cartoon character, but if it attacked your computer, you wouldn´t be laughing. The Maltese Amoeba is a computer virus. It is a form of software which can infect your system and destroy your data. Making computer viruses is only one type of computer crime. Others include hacking (changing data in a computer without permission) and pirating (illegally copying software programs). Viruses are programs which are written deliberately to damage data. Viruses can hide themselves in a computer system. Some viruses are fairly harmless. They may flash a message. The Yankee Doodle virus plays an american tune every eight days at 5 p.m. Others have serious effects. They attach themselves to the operating system and can wipe out all your data. Most viruses remain dormant until activated by something. For example, the Jerusalem B virus is activated every Friday the 13th and erases any file you try to load from your disk. The Michelangelo virus was programmed to become active on March 6 1992, the 517th birthday of Michelangelo. It attacked computer systems throughout the world, turning data on hard disks into nonsense. Viruses are most commonly passed via disks but they can also spread through bulletin boards, local area networks, and email attachments. The best form of treatment is prevention. Use an antivirus program to check a floppy before using it. Always download email attachments onto a floppy and check for viruses. If you do catch a virus, there are antivirus programs to hunt down and eradicate the virus. The problem is that around 150 new viruses appear every month and you must constantly update your antivirus package to deal with these new forms. (GLENDINNIND, E.H. Basic English for Computing.OUP.1999) 1. Read the text Computer Viruses and answer the questions below in PORTUGUESE: a) In the beginning of the text, there is a description of the Maltese Amoeba by means of a comparison. What is the Maltese Amoeba compared to? b) What kind of damage can be caused by viruses when they are inside a computer? c) The text mentions three different kinds of computer crimes. What are they? d) According to the text, what is the best method to avoid the spreading of viruses? 2. There are different kinds of viruses which are mentioned throughout the text. Choose 2 types of viruses and describe them. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Qual a problemática apontada ao final do texto? A. Todo ano mais de 150 novos vírus são descobertos. B. A dificuldade de se encontrar produtos antivírus eficientes no mercado. C. Todo mês aproximadamente 150 novos vírus são descobertos, fato este que implica em uma constante atualização dos produtos antivírus utilizados. TEXTO 3 - Programming Language A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. The term programming language usually refers to high – level languages, such as BASIC, C, C ++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada and Pascal. Each language has a unique set of keywords (words that it understands) and a special syntax for organizing program instructions. High – level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages, are more complex than the languages the computer actually understands, called machine languages. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine language. Lying between machine languages and high – level languages are languages called assembly languages. Assembly languages are similar to machine languages, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers. Machine languages consist of numbers only. Lying above high – level languages are languages called fourth – generation languages (usually abbreviated 4GL). 4GLs are far removed from machine languages and represent the class of computer languages closest to human languages. Regardless of what language you use, you eventually need to convert your program into machine language so that the computer can understand it. There are two ways to do this: • Compile the program • Interpret the program The question of which language is best is one that consumes a lot of time and energy among computer professionals. Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. For example, FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data, but it does not lend itself very well to organizing large programs. Pascal is very good for writing well – structured and readable programs, but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. C ++ embodies powerful object – oriented features, but it is complex and difficult to learn. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is , and the expertise of the programmer. Responda em português:


1. O que são BASIC, C e C++ ? 2. Qual a diferença entre as linguagens assembly e as linguagens de máquina? 3. O que significa a abreviação 4GL? 4. Quais os dois processos necessários a fim de converter um programa em linguagem de máquina? 5. Quais os pontos positivos e negativos das linguagens abaixo? a) FORTRAN b) PASCAL c) C++ 6. A escolha de qual linguagem usar depende de três fatores. Quais são eles? GRAMMAR POINT: Grupos Nominais Grupos nominais são grupos de palavras formados por dois substantivos ou um substantivo e um adjetivo. Exemplo: grammatical rules; specific tasks Vale lembrar que o adjetivo em inglês está posicionado à frente do substantivo. Exs: grammatical (ADJETIVO) rules (SUBSTANTIVO) Specific (ADJETIVO) tasks (SUBSTANTIVO) Escreva os grupos nominais abaixo em português: A. Grammatical rules B. Specific tasks C. Programming languages D. Program instructions E. Machine language F. Readable programs G. Numerical data H. Large programs

ATTENTION: Lembre que a partir do dia 14 de março daremos início às aulas com o livro parte da bibliografia básica: Inglês.com.textos para Informática,


Autor Décio Torres Cruz, Alba Valéria Silva, Martha Rosas

Ano de Publicação 2006


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