Three Schools of Thought about Learning and Teaching in the context of ICT Gumawang Jati Kelompok Keahlian Ilmu Kemanusiaan
Fakultas Seni Rupa dan Desain ITB
Finita Dewi PGSD
Three Schools of Thought • The Behavioral School of Thought • The Cognitive/Constructivism School of Thought • The Humanistic School of Thought
Behavioral Approaches to Teaching • Make the classroom enjoyable • Be specific about what needs to be learned • Be certain that learners have basic skills and knowledge • Connect new learning to prior learning • Introduce new learning gradually • Associate what is to be learned with things learners like
Behavioral Approaches to Teaching cont…. • Recognize and praise improvement • Use reinforces that are valuable • Provide regular reinforcement for new learning, less reinforcement when mastered
• Encourage shy learners • Create opportunities for success • Model behaviors you want learner to imitate • Draw attention to those exhibiting learning • Ask parents to reinforce at home
Behavioral Approaches to Learning • Programmed instruction • Computer-assisted instruction • Mastery learning • Precision teaching • Applied behavioral analysis
The Behaviourist School and Software • Learners require some reward or ‘reinforcement’ for learning
• Reinforcement should follow the desired behaviour as soon as possible
• Specific topic or item to be mastered • Learning proceeds step by step rather than happening all at once, and is strengthened by repeated success
CSM for Behavioursm
â€˘ Can be used for collaboration project
Activities Using CSM • Sample CSM 1 (What’s for breakfast) • Sample CSM 2 (Going shopping) • Sample CSM 3 (Going shopping Half dialog) • Sample CSM 4 (Playground)
Create a half-dialog using CSM • Decide the objective of the activity (What you want to teach)
• Decide the topic • Create the dialog • Put it into CSM
The Cognitive School of Thought •
The study of how we mentally take in and store information and then retrieve it when needed
Beliefs about attention
• • •
Reception learning Reciprocal teaching Problem solving
How Learners Gain or Lose Information Senses are stimulated. If we pay attention, info moves into shortterm memory. If info is well organized and connected to prior knowledge, info moves into long-tem memory.
If we do not pay sufficient attention to the stimuli, they go unnoticed. If the info reaching short-term memory is not well organized and connected to what we already know, it is lost.
Beliefs about Attention • Learning experiences should be as pleasant and satisfying • • • • • •
as possible. Lessons should take into account the interests and needs of students. A variety of stimuli gains and holds attention. Learners can only hold attention so long and differ in ability to attend. Time of day can affect attention. Distractions interfere with attention. Learners can only attend to so much information at one time, so they should not be overwhelmed.
Beliefs about Short-term Memory
• Capacity is very limited (only about 4-9 bits of new information at a time).
• New info can be organized (“chunking”). • New info should be connected to what we know. • To forestall forgetting new info, we must rehearse.
Beliefs about Long-term Memory
• • •
Capacity seems limitless. We are best able to retrieve info from long-term memory if the info relates to something previously known. We are able to call up, or recollect, related information from long-term memory when processing new info in short-term memory.
Beliefs about the Memory Process • Info in short-term memory is lost either when that memory is overloaded or through time.
• When info in short-term memory is lost, it cannot be recovered.
• Retrieval of info in long-term memory is enhanced if connected to prior knowledge
Meaningful Learning • Reception learning • Reciprocal teaching • Discovery learning • Constructivism • Problem solving
â€˘ Refers to learning that takes place when teachers offer students new information that is carefully organized and structured
Reception Learning • Give objectives • Present information clearly • Use advance organizers • Involve learners during a presentation • Present examples and nonexamples • Review what learners should understand during closure • Have learners summarize what they learned • Have learners reflect on the use and value of the lesson
Reciprocal Teaching • A form of teaching wherein the teacher gradually shifts teaching responsibility to learners
• • • • •
Modeling, explaining Students as teachers Scaffolding
Interchanges of understanding Questioning, probing
Problem Solving • Requires a situation wherein a goal is to be achieved • Requires learners to be asked to consider how they would attain the goal
• Two types of problems • •
Well-structured Unstructured (ill-structured)
The cognitivist school and ICT
â€˘ The cognitivist school believes that learning by doing, and help students make their own sense of what they are studying, and enable them to make use of their learning in real life.
Constructivist principles include: •
Use teaching strategies that require all students to make a construct.
Check and correct.
• • •
Project using several digital media Learning is a trial-and-error process, so set activities that require students to check for their own and each other’s learning errors.
What the learner does is more important than what the teacher does. Make learning fun! . We learn by doing.
This is a commonly heard principle.
CSM for Cognitivsm
â€˘ Can be used for collaboration project
• Work in group • Create a dialog based on the video • Create a cartoon story based on the dialog using CSM
Linoit http://tinyurl.com/seamolec2 user: seatraining Pass:seatraining
Elephant The class teacher asks students to name an animal that begins with an “E”. One boy says, “Elephant.” Then the teacher asks for an animal that begins with a “T”. The same boy says, “Two elephants.” The teacher sends the boy out of the class for bad behavior. After that she asks for an animal beginning with “M”. The boy shouts from the other side of the wall: “Maybe an elephant!”
• Work in group • Create dialog based on the story • Insert voice to the story
21st Century Skills Achieved Creativity and Innovation
Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.
• Students: • •
apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes. create original works as a means of personal or group expression.
21th Century Skills Achieved Communication and Collaboration Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.
• • • •
interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats. develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.
21th Century Skills Achieved Research and Information Fluency Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.
• Students: • • •
plan strategies to guide inquiry. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks.
process data and report results.
21th Century Skills Achieved Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.
• • •
identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project. collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions. use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.
21th Century Skills Achieved Digital Citizenship
Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.
• Students: • • •
exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity. demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning. exhibit leadership for digital citizenship.
21 st Century Skills in the example • ICT skills for finding infomation • Group work to develop cooperation skills • Conduct experiment to develop inquiry and problem solving skills
• Teacher make sure that each students achieve the learning objectives by individually write and present the report
• Students develop written and oral communication skills, utilizing the presentation software
Overview of Sample Project 1.Students receive instruction on a topic (to give a tour guide in Jakarta)
2.Student team conducts “research” 3.Individual students prepare and submit “research” reports (teacher should give feedback)
4.Individual students investigate and write papers on
related topics (e.g., monas, Ancol, museums, hotels)
5.Individuals prepare and deliver oral/PowerPoint reports on topics above
6.Students respond to follow-up questions on their presentation
7.Students “translate” their ideas into CSM.
Humanistic School of Thought • Having good feelings about oneself and others is essential to positive personal development.
• School should be made to fit the child. • The educational environment should satisfy basic human needs.
Humanistic School of Thought • Accept learners for themselves. • Understand learners by looking at the situation from the students’ perspective.
• Use techniques that help learners better understand their feelings and values.
Humanistic Approaches to Teaching
• Inviting School Success • Values Clarification • Moral Education • Multiethnic Education