A. Types of nouns:
1. Common Nouns (a noun denoting a class of objects or a concept as opposed to a particular individual.)
Ex: Stage, hall, auditorium, musician 2 . Proper Noun (a name used for an individual person, place, or organization ) (Ex: O zz Fest, Hollywood California, Neil Peart, Benny Greb) 3. Compound Noun (A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words .)
(Ex: D rum set, Keyboard, notebook) 4. Concrete Nouns (C oncrete nouns are things that you can experience through your five senses: sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch.)
(Ex: D rumthone, Guitar, microphone) 5. Abstract Nouns (a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object)
(Ex: O ptimistic, striving, success, exciting)
B. Noun identifiers: 1. Noun endings: ness tion ism ist ture tude ment ance ence ity ster ory eer hood
Ex: using the noun endings; one word pure ending in order Aggressiveness communication criticism activist adventure Attitude treatment appearance absence reality Aster category career childhood
2. Following a noun marker (NM): a, all, an, both , e ach, every, her,his,several,some, that, t heir, these, this, those, one, e ct. Embolden words are pronouns that function as noun markers only when they act as adjectives, i.e., s ome boxes are square.(“some” acts as an adjective, so it’s a noun marker). S ome are squares. (“some” acts as a noun so it’s not a noun marker). Ex: NM N The d rumset is a combination of brightly designed colors.
NM N N Both m emo and s alvador a re wearing matching jackets.
3. Plural form: for example: “notes’’ or “s trings” 4. Possessive form: for example: “ musician ’s sheet music” or “m usicians sheet music”
5. Following a preposition: NM N ADV. V NM N Prep. PN ADJ. N
The musician happily approached the fans after his spectacular concert. These are some common prepositions: aboard, about, above, according, to, across,across from, after, against, along, alongside
NOTE: Sometimes the above words are used as adverbs. The Dj’s equipment fell d own . (adverb)
C. Function (How nouns are used):
1. Subject (comes before the verb) S V
1.) Guillermo talked bombastically about the gig from last night. S V ADJ. ADV. Prep. N 2.) Guillermo spoke in a courageous and fluently way to the press after the concert last night
2. Direct Object (c omes after the verb and answer what or whom )
S V DO N 1.) Benny Greb threw a d rumstick to the crowed. S V DO ADV. PN ADJ, ADJ. ADJ. N 2.) Benny Greb threw a d rumstick creatively to his biggest most outstanding fan.
3. Indirect Object ( answers to who or to whom)
NM S V DO IO N 1.) The musician gave an autograph to his fan at the concert. S V DO IO ADV. V PN V
2.) Carlos Santana gave a guitar to his f an after wonderfully hearing he was paid 2.1 million dollars for the show.
4. Adverbial Object ( comes after the verb and answers when) S V AO ADV V N 1.) The producers work evenings to expandly improve music. S V AO ADJ ADV Pred. N N 2.) The producer works evening to encourage and expressively change the game of music.
5. Object of the preposition ( follows a preposition) S V Pred. N OPrep
1.) Memo walked to the music store to buy drum heads. S ADV V OPrep V ADJ 2.) My band and I quickly ran to the music shop to buy the most recent gear.
6. Subject Complement (following a l inking verb ) S LV SC 1.) Guillermo is the secretary of the music club. S ADV LV SC ADJ ADJ N N 2.) Guillermo happily is secretary of the astonishing new music club.
7. Object complement ( follows a direct object and renames it) S ADV V DO OC 1 .) T he band secretly voted Memo to be captain of the band. S ADV V DO CO 2 .) The band anonymously elected Memo to be the c ommander of the band.
8. Appositive (renames nouns, separated by commas) S APP V 1.) Guillermo, my f riend , explained what a paradiddle was. S APP ADV V N V 2.) Guillermo, my c olleague , helpfully explained what a paradiddle was used for.
9. Adjectival (describe noun following it) S V ADV Adjvi 1.) The advanced jazz band group went happily to the m usic park. S ADV V Pred. PN ADJ N 2.) The well educated youth group sadly went back home after their fabulous trip to Mexico.
10. Noun in Direct Address N
1.) Julian, where is all your music sheets? N 2.) Julian , did you go over the highly complicated music sheet?
11. Object of the gerund (noun that follows a gerund ) G OG
1.) Understanding the complex changes i n the sheet music made Memo proud. G OG 2.) Comprehending the over complicated sheet music m ade Memo proud.
12. Object of the participle (noun that follows a participle ) Part OPart 1.) After hearing the song, it made me rethink my life. Part OPart 2.) After listening to the over complex song , I made a decision to play that new genre of music.
13. Object of the infinitive (noun that follows an infinitive) _inf_ Olnf. 1.) Guillermo really wanted to win this year's battle of the bands. _inf_ Olnf 2.) Guillermo drastically wanted to win this year's battle of the bands .
II. PRONOUNS Pronouns take the place of nouns that have been established. 1. Personal a ssociated with the person or a thing such as using( I, you, they, us) Nominative (subjects) o bjective ( objects) I/we me/us
you/you you/you His, her, hers, its, ones him, her, it, one/them Ex: She is signing up for Berklee College of Music, but only if her other girls go. Ex: He was happy to receive his money grant after he registered for Berklee.
Possessive My, mine our, ours Your, yours your, yours His, her, hers, its, one’s their, theirs
Ex: M y favorite thing in the world is music and her, there are more stuff, but I just forgot.
Ex: Y our opinion and my opinion are just like theirs.
2. Relative: M arks a relative clause Nominative Objective Possessive Who whom whose That that of that those/this
Ex: W ho left those strings on the table, someone please pick them up!
Ex: W hom it may concern, who left there drumstick in my guitar case?
3. Interrogative: A pronoun which is used to make asking questions easy. ●
Who, which, what, whatever, whoever
Ex: W ho took my drumming tuning key?
Ex: W hoever took my sheet music, you are dead!
4. Reflexive ( personal pronouns plus the suffixself or selves) Used Only. A . When the action verb is dedicated towards the subject of the construction i. He grades himself more harshly than his critics. He bought herself two books to write what he feels.
B. t o intensify a point: i. The musician said speech when he won his Grammy. Even though it was hard work, “i can finish the job myself” the Musician thought.
5. Demonstrative: S ame pronouns used for demonstrative adjectives this, that, these and those only difference is in the sentence structure. This, these that, those
Ex: T hey are rules/directions you guys need to follow in music.
Ex: M emo played the drums, but he had to get an A in English class so his parents will let him practice.
6. Indefinite: not determining the person, thing, time, etc All, other, anybody, both, either, everybody, no one, none, nothing, such, someone, much, many, ect. Ex: T here are many few thing i would like to say about the c scale, it is so basic.
Ex: E veryone at Bravo want to be a doctor yet many times they change their mind.
III. VERBS Verbs show the time, action, and state of being of a subject. A. How verbs are identified: ( List three to five of each type)
1.) Verb ending : s, ed, ing are basic ones. Also tate, ive, er are other examples. Ex: D rumming, tuning, feeling, listening, playing
2.) Tense : V erbs indicate time via tenses 1. Simple past 6.present 9.present perfect 2. Past 7,present perfect 10. future 3. Past perfect 8. Present progressive 11. Future perfect
3. Form: a. Form of “to be” : am , are, was, were, be, been, being (these verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs. When used as main verbs, they are always L inking verbs true linking verbs = all form of be, become, and seem ) b. Form of “to have” : have, had, has, having (These verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs).
c. Form of “to have” : h ave, had, has, having,( These verbs can be used as h elping verbs or main verbs).
4. Types : There are at least eleven (11) types of Verbs: a. auxiliary verbs (helping verbs) Ex: might , is b. Linking verbs (verbs that do not describe action, but connect the subject of a sentence to other parts of the sentence usually the predicate ) E x : F eel , Grow c. Lexical verbs (main verbs) E x : Laugh , Think d. Dynamic verbs (indicate tense) E x : H it , Play e. Stative verbs (describes a condition) E x : Believe , Own f. Finitive verbs (indicates tense) E x : I live in Hollywood. (I is the subject live describes what the subject does live is a finite verb). g. Nonfinitive verbs (infinitives or participles) E x: I travelled to Berklee College of music to improve my musicality. (To improve is in the infinitive form). h. Regular verbs (weak verbs) E x : w ill admire , well add i. Irregular verbs (strong verbs) Ex : ( Drove, Driven) j. Transitive verb ( verbs followed by a direct object) E x : Played the piano. (played what? The piano) k. Intransitive verbs (verbs that do not take direct objects) Ex : w e arrived, we went
5. Voice: V oice is the form of the verb that indicates how it relates or interacts with the action. The English language has two voices: ACTIVE and Passive.
6. Verbals: (VERB FORMS NOT USED AS VERBS) A. Gerund : word ending in “ing” used as a noun i. Mr. Rodriguez enjoys happily l istening to music.
B. P articiple : Words ending in “ing” or “ed” used as an adjective. i. Guillermo jumped into the playing track at the studio. ii. Memo carelessly played drums for the d eserted venue. C. I nfinitive : v erb preceded by the word “to” (to go, to jump) used as a noun,adjectives, or adverbs. i.Guillermo enjoys to play drums loudly. (noun: direct object likes what?) ii. Guillermo has drums to play to entertain people and himself. (adjective: modifies drum what drums?)