his compact disc of guitarist Goran Krivokapić presents the ingenious In Praise of the Sonata, three sonatas, two of which originated for two other instruments (flute and fortepiano) and later written for guitar. The history of the sonata as a musical form is indeed the history of musical creativity, its historical development being the result of individual experimenting with inherited musical traditions. These three sonatas speak of the musical trends emerging from the study of both older and contemporary masters, but also of the possibilities in articulation and sound which arose in newly developed instruments, such as the fortepiano’s transition from the harpsichord in the late 1770’s.
. P. E. Bach’s Sonata for Flute in a minor (Wq 132, H. 562), written for King Fredrick II in 1747, is known as the only one of his flute sonatas published during his lifetime. This is not mentioned without reason: the host of virtuoso performers of the Prussian king and his firm – even iron – hand, because of which the bulk of Bach’s works remained in manuscript and hand copies, found its historical reflection in this refined flute sonata. Carl Philipp Emanuel showed the pre-classical sensitive style of this sonata through a combination of the legacy of his father, Johann Sebastian, specifically his partitas and sonatas for solo violin, and the
enormous influence of Johann Joachim Quantz, both on C. P. E. Bach and their common employer, Fredrick II. Expressions about music used in texts from around 1750 (“sensibility”, “dignity”, “pleasantness”, “naturalness”, “grace”, etc. ) are used still today to describe this lovely sonata, which nevertheless contains rich energetic and rhythmic potential in the second movement and the sonoral impression of imaginary polyphony of two, even three, interwoven voices in the first movement.
oseph Haydn’s Sonata in D Major for fortepiano (Hob. XVI:33) represents an excellent example of how the development of instruments influenced music. This work appeared in 1778 and was published in 1783 – precisely at the time in which Haydn was experimenting with the fortepiano’s new, expanded possibilities of articulation and dynamics. That Haydn was thinking along these lines is shown by a series of characteristic rests, unexpected accents and chords, and unique articulation. While C. P. E. Bach’s three-movement form was of an initial slow movement followed by two fast ones, Haydn’s plan followed the classical Allegro – Adagio – Tempo di Menuet. Although the final presto was typical in Haydn’s day he often used a slower tempo for didactic reasons, as in this sonata. The use of pre-classical elements is an essential part of the classical style, and Haydn’s free approach to the recapitulation in the