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RE.On [Gamescapes RC7, Jose Sanchez, Bartlett 2012-2013] [ Georgios Tsakiridis] [ Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani]


Re.On [ Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani] [ Georgios Tsakiridis ] Plethora Studio -RC07 - GAMESCAPES Course Master : Jose Sanchez Consultant : Sergio Irigoyen The Bartlett School of Architecture MArch Graduate Architectural Design (GAD) Academic Year : 2012-2013 University College of London


Aknowledgement We would like to express our special gratitude to our families and friends who have supported us throughout this experience, as well as to our course master Jose Sanchez, our report tutor David Andreen and the G.A.D program that have given us the opportunity to research and develop RE.On. Furthermore, we would like to thank all the people that helped us formulate the final outcome of RE.On throughout the year : Denis Vlieghe Michail Desyllas Denis Lacej Michelle Poon Will Hosikian A sincere word of appreciation to Filip Visnic, Theo Spyroupolos, Sean Hana, Ricardo de Ostos, Martin Dittus, Tobias Klein, Adam Sudcliff, Igor Pantic, Soomen Hahm, Gary Freedman, Diony Kypraiou, Juan Oyarbide, Simon Winters for their very constructive comments on the project.. Special Thanks to Sergio Irigoyen for his constant help and advice.


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Table of contents

Table of Contents :

01. Float [ Georgios Tsakiridis ] ......................................................................................................... p. 7

02. Wire [ Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani ]......................................................................................... p. 15 03. The conflict of matter [The case of Hong Kong ] ............................................ p. 23 Hong Kong Unit Trip | Global Game Jam .................................................... p. 24

Board Games | The Game Of Typology ......................................................... p. 26 Board Games | The Game Of Typology ......................................................... p. 32

04. The conflict of matter [The politics of water] ....................................................... p.37

05. Designing for Water I [Water physics]............................................................................ p. 51 06. Designing for Water II [Geometry Studies]................................................................ p. 59 07. Digital Model Studies ......................................................................................................................... p. 75 08. Why Creating a Game ? [elements and mechanics of the game] ......... p.83 09. The Computation of Re.0n .......................................................................................................... p.89

L-system analysis............................................................................................................

p. 90 CA analysis ............................................................................................................................ p. 92 Bezier Connection .......................................................................................................... p. 98

10. Prototyping [Physical Model Studies] ................................................................................. p. 101 11. The Computation of Re.0n [Water Output] ............................................................... p. 121 12. Why Creating a Game? [The Interface] ....................................................................... p. 127 13. Gameplay Strategies .................................................................................................................... p. 141 14. Appendix ....................................................................................................................................................... p. 171 Theoretical Research ................................................................................................... p. 171 [1. The aesthetics of decision | Georgios Tsakiridis] ........... p. 172 [2.Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani] .... p. 183 Side activities | Imaging Workshop ................................................................ p. 195

RE .On _ Beta testing day ........................................................................................ p. 196 Unity User Group meeting ..................................................................................... p. 197 References ........................................................................................................................... p. 199 7


01 _float [ Georgios Tsakiridis]


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_float float

_float research The research is informed by two major initiatives: a. The GIPF project, which is a board game that consists of multiple game fields, and multiple components. Players are able to combine components, in order to acquire extra attributes and to achieve multiple scorings through the different fields. Moreover, the element of “time” , is used in order to create temporalities, through the differentiated distribution of it across the game board. b. a personal interest on desalinization (or processes of filtration), under the prism of the blurring boundaries between the notions of “natural” and “artificial”.

image 1

image 2

Inevitably, water emerges as a major factor of this project. Thus, the complicated process of desalination is partitioned in simple tasks, the first one of which is: the development and interposition of two discrete systems: 1. an aggregating system of floating “water vessels” (units) 2. a system of aborption/distribution of water through the units

image 3

image 4

this is achieved by: a user-driven simulation of open-form, Cellular Automata (CA) system in an environment with underwater-like properties

image 5 11


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Computational System Analysis

Instantiation

Removing

The simulation gives the option of instant removing of units from the aggregation, allowing the continuous dynamic reshape of the formations

Absorbtion

Each new component (unit) can be instantiated on one of the 6 faces of an existing one. The system allows for multipe instantiations, therefore, each unit is able to have up to 6 “neigbor” units.

Connection/Deformation Units are connected to each other under the state of a “fixed joint”, which restrains all degrees of movement freedom. However, due to the fact that units have certain mass, physical transformations occur, according to the laws of physics (gravity, friction etc.)

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Units are able to “absorb” water from the environment, thus their mass is immediately affected

Distribution Each unit is able to distribute the amount of water, which contains, to its neighboring units, as long as they are connected through a fixed joint.As the system is an open-form CA, the number of “neigbours” is not predefined, therefore, units are able to “track” them and do the necessary calculations.


_float

Initial Experiments _float v1.0

aggregation experiment 1. 0 aggregation experiment 1. 1

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GamePlay

float v2.0 variation 1. 1

float v2.0 variation 1. 2

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_float

Experimentations _float v2.0

aggregation study 2. 1 | 2. 2 aggregation study 2. 3

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02 _wire [ Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani]


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_wire

_wire research What seems really intresting in the architectural field is the investigation of the way the humans perceive space, mainly through sight, a sense that has become dominant for existance and spacial understanding. Once , the human eye consist a mechanism that can be deceived in order to create new spatial epxeriences, some physical techniques were exploared, concerning mainly the essence of light. image 6

image 7

image 9

image 8

A constant investigation on sight and eye deception, lef to the work of the Venezuelan artist Gego, who considered hes sculptyring as drowning without paper� . Through her simple forms she managed to trigger the eye and deliver 2(two) dimensional experiences in a 3(three) dimensional space

[above ] image 10 | [below] image 11

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RE.0n Influenced by this 2 dimensional essence of an object in space, some digital experiments were held, with the use of a simple, linear component, in order to investigate on the mechanisms by which an object loses its 3 dimensionality and, as a whole, deceives the eye. Techniques such as repetition and layering led to the emergence of a spacial essence of interiority/ exteriority. In a second, digital attempt to simulate a similar system, a pulsiating mechanism, able to generate “ neighbouring” relations among the design units, created the illusion of an ever evolving and constantly assembled “ living” structure. The system uses a very specific mechanism in order to aggregate and function properly. The complexity of the system derives from its ability to aggregate new units in all possible directions. The connection among the elements of the system is achieved through the use of a Sping Joint. Moreover, the ability of the system to perform according to the physical laws of the spring Joint generated a constant flow of the elements, by creating a kinetic and performative structure.

Diagram of assemblages and rotations

Renders of assemblages and rotations

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_wire

Greation of a dynamic simulation system

Distributor

Collision Mechanism

Spring Force Test

Damper Force Test

Linking Mechanism 21


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GamePlay

Experimental aggregations Test_1

Experimental aggregations Test_2

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_wire

Experimental aggregations

Experiamental aggregations Test_3 Experimental aggregations Test_4

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03 The conflict of the matter [ The case of Hong Kong ]


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Hong Kong Unit Trip and Global Game Jam 2013

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Hong Kong Unit Trip | Global Game Jam

On the 25-27 of january 2013 ,during the unit trip in hong kong, the members of the Cluster RC7,”Gamescapes”,decided to participate in the “Global Game Jam” international competition, which engages with the development of a video/board/card game in 48 hours. The theme of this year’s contest was the heart beat. “Abort-it”, is a video game that intends to raise awareness about the issue of abortion. Conceiving the heart beat as a major “sign of life” , the player is set to the dilemma of activating the constantly produced living entities or letting them vanish.The game intends to function as a research tool among two separate “hall of fames”, one of those who activated the majority of entities and one for those who let them vanish.

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RE.0n

The Game of Typology “The Game of Typology” is a board game which explores the relations of different space typologies inside a building. Initially, by focusing on the fundamental economic and cultural elements of Hong Kong’s urban system, the research attempts to illustrate the ways in which they are manifested in the architectural scale. The urban fabric is conceived as a negotiation field among the interests of different factors. More speciffically, among the private sector, which is, mainly, expressed through highrises, the public, which referes either to state property or open-space and a “buffering” zone between the two, which is usually occupied by shoping malls and other corresponding facilities.

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The case of Hong Kong | Board Games | The Game Of Typology

Pressure in Urban Scale:

Landuse pressure:

density of landuse

not build up < 1000 people/km2 < 10000 people/km2 2

< 50000 people/km > 50000 people/km2

population pressure:

culture pressure noise pressure heavy polution pressure

Pressure in Hong Kong

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RE.0n

Pressure in building scale :

Relationship : Building Density Population Density Unit Density

Building Density

High Density in Hong Kong: 10 person/unit 11/9 = 1.222

Low Density : person/unit 1/9 = 0.111

population density

Unit Density

Horrizontal Connection in Hong Kong:

Bridge

visible

connected & bring

invisible

add VALUE!!

game rule of value

bridge in the game private space with buffering space

0 value Value Bridge Buffering Space Connection

visible connection

multiple layers/ different levels

invisible connection

shopping/stores in the corridors of the tube. invisible connections among people,transport ation,commercial.Comercial â&#x20AC;&#x153; Tubeâ&#x20AC;?

stores/retails

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> 0 Value


The case of Hong Kong | Board Games | The Game Of Typology

Game Component : Rule of Connection:

Open space

Buffering space

Private space

SAME COLOR/ TYPE CUBE CONFIGURATION TOP VIEW

Game Rule: RIGHT!!

RULE OF DENSITY (Rule of four)

WRONG!!

RULE OF CONNECTION SINGLE PLAYER MULTIPLE PLAYERS

Second System: absolute value:

relative value:

SINGLE LAYER

SINGLE LAYER 31


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The creation of a buiding typology-generator “machine”, such as the “Game of Typology” requires the creation of a 3d board, in which the game is played. In that context, several models were manufactured, in order to engage with the 3d-dimensionality of the board, resulting in one prototype/mechanism. Moreover, the element of transformability is added in order to create a field of constant fluctuation and unpredictable correlations among the players and the terrain, resonating both to the market system and to the distinctive anaglyph of the city of Hong Kong.

The board game mechanism

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The case of Hong Kong | Board Games | The Game Of Typology

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On Board The whole study of the game “On Board” is inspired by the city of Hong Kong and its networks that are constituted of many different parameters. During research the issue of “cage housing” came accross, a problem that emerges from the way the city of Hong Kong is structured and distributes its residents. Towards this direction, some major parameters such as the land use, the economy analysis, the building typology and the density of the city, are analyzed and generate valuable informations for the creation of a board game that focuses on the different densities that constitute a city, mainly through its variety of networks . The “scaleless”character of the board and its components, intend to point out the different city scales in which this “cage” phenomeno can occure.

Image 12

Image 13

Image 14,15

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The case of Hong Kong | Board Games | On Board

Building Typology analiisys Building Typology Analysis:

Type A1

Board Components :

16 pixels / 0 points

Type A2

Type A3 45pixels / 1 points

16 pixels / -1 points

16 & 33 pixels / 2 points

16 & 24 pixels / -2 points

12 pixels / 3 points

16 pixels / -3 points

Type B

Type C1

Type C2

Type D1

Type D2

4 pixels / 9 points

x2

Netwrosk Components

Variations of Gameplays

4 pixels / -9 points

x2

Goal Of The Game Main goal of the game is the formation of two networks, conflicting or not, in two different levels, that intend to expand in the areas with the most positive value. The phenomeno of â&#x20AC;&#x153;cage housing â&#x20AC;? is commented through the drop of land value that occures when an area gets overpopulated.

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Structural Components

Step 1_ Configure the Board

x2

x4

x4

x1

Possible Configuration A

Possible Configuration B

Step 2_ Choose your mode of Game Play

Possible Configuration C

Step 3_ Place a structural or network component

Possible Configuration D

Step 4_ Take 2 network components

x2

x2

Player A

Player B

Player A

Player B

Step 5_ Place all of your Structural Component. The first player that achieces it, gives the call to finish the game. x1

x2

x1

x1

x2 36

Step 6_ Count your points


The case of Hong Kong | Board Games | On Board

Rules and Instractions _At the beggining of the game every player has all of his structural components and no network components . _ The first player must place a structural component whereas the second one is capable of placing also a network component. _ When a player decides to place network components, he can use from just one, up to the number of elements he posseses at that moment.

_The connection between a structural component and a bridge-like one, can be achieved only through the lifting elements.

land value drop

_All the structural Components should form a network and be connected at least in one “pixel”

Scoring System The scoring system varies according to the two different gameplays.

_Game Play 1 _In the fist gameplay each player tries to form a network and gather the maximum of points. A way to do so is by blocking his opponent’ s network. In that case the score is individual since the game is highly competitive.

_Game Play 2

_ The network components should also form a network _The middle part of the cross-like structural components is Universal

_In the second gameplay, the two players cooperate in order to form their networks. Their goal is to achieve the best common score by avoiding the board tiles with the minimum value. In that gameplay, the players compete each time their “previous selves” and try to improve their efficiency as a team by overpassing their last score.

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04 The conflict of matter [The politics of water]


RE.0n

Global Water Availability 95-100% of the population has clean water 75-94.9% of the population has clean water <74.9% of the population has clean water Not estimated

Projected Water Scarcity in 2025 Physical water scarcity Economic water scarcity Little or no water scarcity Not estimated

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The conflict of matter | the politics of water

The politics of Water

The general agenda of “Re.On” aspires to focus on water, as matter and as a system of networks in the build environment. Inevitably, dealing with water creates connotations related to the water management issues that have arisen the last years and the forth-coming global water crisis. Parallel to the uprising issue of water management, under the influence of the contemporary approach regarding the “decentralization” of the vital energy resources for an inhabitation cell, which are: electricity, food, fuel and water, it was noticed that the first three have been mostly tackled with solutions like solar panels, wind turbines, bio-fuels and urban farming. However, the forth , “ water”, has been dealt only in terms of collecting rain water or grey water treatment, but it seems that what was missing was the largest resource, which is the sea! Currently, desalination facilities are huge, expensive, industrial plants that belong usually to the state.

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Water Architecture [ reference] BATH is a project created by the german architectural firm â&#x20AC;&#x153;SMAQâ&#x20AC;? and intends to speculate not only on issues of habitation but also on issues of urban landscape.

It proposes an alternative, self-empowered form of leisure, composed of a 1,000-meter garden hose ,plugged into the existing water infrastructure and able to carry enough water to fill a bathtub for two people. Arranged in countless loops, the elastic hose forms a surface able to harves the sun, thus hea water and eventually fill the bath.

Image 16 [right] : Bath project | general view Image 17 [below] : BATH project | detail

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The conflict of matter | the politics of water

Water Game [ reference] HYDRODYNAMIC Building Set, is a game constructed by â&#x20AC;&#x153;bridge street toysâ&#x20AC;? company and intends to educate children for fluid dunamics, structure and performance of a manufacturing plant that is consisted of working tanks, pipes and valves. With the available components of the game, every user is able to crete an ice cream factory, a water treatment plant and other industrial structures.

Image 18, 19 [left] : hydrodynamic building set | configuration diagram 1 , 2 Image 20 [below] : hydrodynamic building set | cover

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Open platform architecture [ reference] “WikiHouse, is an open construction set that allows anyone to design, download and “print” cnc-milled house components which can be assembled with minimal formal skills or training.”1

Hence, the focus is drawn not by the procedure itself, but by the fact that it deals with what it could be named as “architecture’s social economy”. In that context, a potential “client” doesn’t necessarily belong only to the 1% prosperous population of the world, but to the 100%. 1. Description of the project from it’s official site : (www.wikihouse.cc/about)

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Image 21 : Functional diagram of the Wiki house project

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

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The conflict of matter | the politics of water

Common fitting for pumping / plumbing and Water Storaging / Distribution System Main initiative of the project is the reconsideration of the infrastructure of water, and the exploration of the ability of it to create architectural narratives and produce space. Therefore, the research initiates by the archiving of the existing components that can be found in a residential waternetwork, which has been up to this point considered as a secondary, almost hidden, supportive system. A catalogue of these components was created in order to understand all the possible ways that this system can be assembled along with a typical residential analysis of water distribution. cold water storage cistern

boiler

hot water cylinder

domestic hot water

mains cold water

water authority stopcock

stored cold water

stopcock

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Average Daily Water Consumption per person Factors such as: the economical state of a region, which according to scientific facts is directly related to water availability, or human behaviors/habits, expressed through the average water consumption per residential unit etc., or even the vernacular element, influence the form â&#x20AC;&#x201C;the quantity of components and therefore, the spatial configurationsâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; and, eventually, the functionality of the architectural product (the water capacity etc.). By relating the human habits concerning the water with the above study, diagrams of the individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s average water consumption around the globe, were created, in order to understand how water can be translated into space, through its structural components. The study is realized by calculating the volume capacity of all the above components and combining them in spatial configurations.

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The conflict of matter | the politics of water

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RE.0n initial state

Cellular Automata Studies

final state

Some initial speculations concerning the project and the research focused on investigating possible patterns of organization between the main characters/units of the distribution network. A primal CA system is generated in order to control the alignment of collectors, filters and distributors, according to their functional and spatial relation.

Rules

filter space collector distributor 48

iinitial condition

final condition

Space

Distributors

Collectors

1. any cell with 8 live neighbours (neighbour count) = stay dead

1. any cell with 8 live neighbours (neighbour count) = die

1. any cell with 8 live neighbours (neighbour count) = die

2. any cell with less than 7 live neighbours (neighbour count) = distributor

2. any cell with at least 1 neighbour and less than 7 neighbours (neighbour count) = distributor

2. any cell with at least 1 neighbour and less than 7 neighbours (neighbour count) = distributor

3. any cell with 7 live neighbours (green count) = collector

3. any cell with more than 7 live neighbours (green count) = collector


The conflict of matter | the politics of water

Initial Functional Diagram of the Residential Unit

Taking into consideration the above research, regarding both the existing methods of water management/distribution and the oncoming global water crisis, the project attempts to suggest an architecture that encompases an alternative way of water treatment, focusing on the local scale and the individual. Theinitial argue of the project was about the construction of a residenctial unit, which is able to harvest fresh water from the sea, by desalinating and distributing it, into its own skin. The structural system serves as a collecting and distributing â&#x20AC;&#x153;mechanismâ&#x20AC;?, which consists of a specific number of components, which are able to function as collectors, filters and distributors. Through the developement of interrelating networks of cold/hot and drinking water, the residence is able to cover the basic consumption needs of its inhabitants and, possibly, be promoted into a cell of economic activity by trading the clean water surpluses. 49


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Geometry Studies

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The conflict of matter | the politics of water

var 6.1

An initial geometrical research was held , in order to investigate on the possible aggregation and growth of the system.

var 6.2

Perfect packing and overlaying were some of the techniques that were used.

var 6.2

mirroring conditions

gen. 1

gen. 2

gen. 3

gen. 4

Water_distribution system clean water

filtration system

aggregation sea water 51


05 Designing for Water I [Water physics]


1 cm. 0 cm.

RE.0n

0 min.

Capillarity Studies

Cappilarity Studies

Balsa

Foam loose

8 cm.

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Designing for water I | Water Physics

Capillarity and Porocity Studies

In order to design, the project draw information and inspiration from the physics of water. Initially, some capillarity studies were held, which in terms of a material computation base, is a compromise between porosity and height. Communicating vessels and the phenomenon of evaporation, as the basic water desalinating/ purifying process were also explored. (quick word on the functionality of the double-chambered membrane)

Porocity experimentation 1

Surface Isolevel : 0.841 | Blur Isofield strength Porocity experimentation 1 : 0.095 | Blur Isofield Iteration : 1 | Smooth Mesh strength: 0 Surface Isolevel : 0.841 | Blur Isofield strength : 0.095 | Blur Isofield Iteration : 1 | Smooth Mesh strength: 0

Surface Detail : 2.551

Surface Detail : 3.314

Surface Detail : 2.551

Surface Detail : 3.314

Surface Detail : 3.857 Surface Detail : 3.857

Surface Detail : 4.235 Surface Detail : 4.235

Surface Detail : 5 Surface Detail : 5

Porocity experimentation 2 Porocity 2 : 0 | Blur Isofield Iteration : 1 | Smooth Mesh strength: 16,5 Surface Isolevel : 1,1 experimentation | Blur Isofield strength Surface Isolevel : 1,1 | Blur Isofield strength : 0 | Blur Isofield Iteration : 1 | Smooth Mesh strength: 16,5

Surface Detail : 2.643 Surface Detail : 2.643

Surface Detail : 2.98 Surface Detail : 2.98

Surface Detail : 3.133 Surface Detail : 3.133

Surface Detail : 3.469

Node as a communicating vessel mechanism Node as a communicating vessel mechanism

Surface Detail : 3.469

State 1 State 1

Surface Detail : 3.714 Surface Detail : 4.265 Surface Detail : 3.714 Surface Detail : 4.265

Surface Detail : 4.327 Surface Detail : 4.327

Surface Detail : 4.541 Surface Detail : 4.541

Surface Detail : 5 Surface Detail : 5

Porocity experimentation 3 Porocity experimentation 3

General communicating vessel function General communicating vessel function

capillarity drives the water upcapillarity the beamdrives the water up the beam

State 1, normal pressure State 1, normal pressure

Surface Isolevel : 1,1 | Blur isofield strength : 0.429 | Blur Isofield Iteration : 1 | Smooth Mesh strength: 25 Surface Isolevel : 1,1 | Blur isofield strength : 0.429 | Blur Isofield Iteration : 1 | Smooth Mesh strength: 25

State 2 State 2 water level water level

State 2, one vessel under pressure State 2, one vessel under pressure water is concentrated into the node water is concentrated into the node Surface Detail : 2.459 Surface Detail : 2.612 Surface Detail : 2.459 Surface Detail : 2.612

Surface Detail : 2.765 Surface Detail : 2.765

Surface Detail : 2.827 Surface Detail : 2.827

Surface Detail : 3.041 Surface Detail : 3.041

State State3 3

water level water level

State 3, under rotation State 3, under rotation

water waterpasses passes through through the thesecond secondbeam beam communicating communicatingvessel vesselphenomono phenomono

Surface Detail : 3.194 : 3.378 Surface Detail : 3.194 Surface Detail Surface Detail : 3.378

SurfaceSurface Detail : 3.622 Detail : 3.622

SurfaceSurface Detail :Detail 4.082: 4.082

Surface DetailDetail : 4.816 Surface : 4.816

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Node Typology

Node Assembly

Aggregations

Branching Aggregation

o

node a

120

3 outputs

Aggregation with 2 outputs

Aggregation with 3 outputs

Aggregation Pattern

Aggregation with 2 outputs

Aggregation with 3 outputs

Aggregation Pattern

Aggregation with 2 outputs

Aggregation with 3 outputs

Aggregation Pattern, with 4 outputs

o

node b

115

150

o

150

3 outputs

o

3 outputs

node c

120 150

node d

56

o

o

4 outputs


Designing for water I | Water Physics

Product References Watertube “This doughnut-shaped container can be used to collect, distill and store water. It consists of two chambers with a central gap in which user can fill this container with water from the nearest river. The water distils from the top chamber an down to the lower chamber, where it is stored.”1 source: http://www.en-derin.com/technology/watertube-provides-sanitary-water-in-remote-areas

Surface of the outer membrane that containes filtered water

Inner membrane that containes salty water

Slap Bracelet “ A slap bracelet (or snap bracelet) is a bracelet consisting of layered, flexible stainless steel bistable spring bands sealed within a fabric or plastic cover. The bracelet can be straightened out, making tension within the springy metal bands. The straightened bracelet is then slapped against the wearer’s forearm, causing the bands to spring back into a curve that wraps around the wrist, securing the bracelet to the wearer.” 2 source:http://www.ribbonwo rks.co.uk/slap-bracelets.cfm

salt water absorption

salt water absorption

sunbeams evaporation sunbeams evaporation

Image 22 : Water tube project | Image 203: Slap Bracelet

Water Mechanics

Water Mechanics

Pythagorian Cup

Grabbing Mechanism Grabbing Mechanism

Pythagorian Cup

water level

State 1

water level

State 1

liquefaction

atmospheric pressure atmospheric pressure

liquefaction

salt water chamber

salt water chamber

liquefaction

liquefaction

waterlevel level water

State 2

State 2

atmospheric pressure

atmospheric pressure

water level

Siphone

State 3

State 3

Siphone

water level

salt water absorption salt water absorption

salt water absorption

salt water absorption

clear water chamber

clear water chamber

atmoshperic pressure

atmoshperic pressure water level

State 4

State 4

water level

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Unit Modulation Study

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Designing for water I | Water Physics

The “Life” of the Unit Speculations on the redefinition of the existing building blocks of architecture (and specifically water architecture), led to the proposal of an open-end system (or a “sand-box”) consisted of a predefined type and number of elements (distribution components, desalinators etc) that could be combined (and re-combined) in multiple assemblages. The multitude of outcomes, which ideally emerges, is highly dependent on the “politics of matter”, as they are signified through a negotiation field of conflicts and transactions between different societal groups, organizations, individuals etc., but also through nonhuman elements: land, water, air etc.

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06 Designing for Water II [Geometry Studies]


RE.0n

Physical Model [Test I] As an initial, potential design a simple, in terms of its form, yet smart in terms of its computational capacity, unit is imported, which is a basic â&#x20AC;&#x153;Yâ&#x20AC;? element, and some experimentation initiated, with three different expressions of it, regarding its materiality and scale. Basically, the research started by studying a typical L-system for the generation of the main units, but it was quickly realized that what the project was looking for was not only the study of orientations, but the method by which this could be more radically explored through a unit that could encompass the element of flexibility. Through multiple experimentations, a number of meaningful combinations was traced that gave the user a certain aspect of control over the system. This physical model exploration that started with a simple foam-like material continued with further material exploration and scale explorations.

second model experimentation | detail

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Designing for water II | Geometry Studies

The Unit

Double Connections

Triple Connections

Connection of Four

Three open connection nodes

Three open connection nodes

Five open connection nodes

Four open connection nodes

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RE.0n second model experimentation | Top View

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Designing for water II | Geometry Studies

Physical Model Variations

first model experimentation second model experimentation

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Designing for water II | Geometry Studies second model experimentation | Section

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Study 1 PE foam 3 cm x 1 cm 3mm tube diameter

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Study 2 Silicone Tubing 4 cm x 1,5 cm 4mm tube diameter

Study 3 PVC Tube +Vacuum Hose Y Connectors 4 cm x 1,5 cm 5mm tube diameter


Designing for water II | Geometry Studies

Physical Model [ Test II ] branching system

At a later stage, the research engaged with a larger unit, considering its scale, with the intention to increase the density of the system and investigate on potential configurations that could imply a more structural approach.

+

=

Some extra units were created in order to investigate the structural performance of the system and furthermore to speculate on some surface conditions. Towards this direction, the components have been reinforced with some piano wires, which could be potentially translated in actual structural rods etc.

tube

density nodes

structural element

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RE.0n

Combination | Configuration Studies Study 1

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Study 2


Designing for water II | Geometry Studies

Study 3 .1

Study 3. 2

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RE.0n Model Fabrication |Study 1. 1

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Designing for water II | Geometry Studies

Model Fabrication |Study 1. 1 | detail 73


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Model Fabrication |Study 2 | Caption 1, 2

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Model Fabrication |Study 2 | Caption 3


Designing for water II | Geometry Studies

Model Fabrication |Study 2 | Caption 4, 5

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07 Digital Model Studies


RE.0n

Geometry Studies _ Re.On As an immediate response to the physical exploration of the system, some digital variations were created in order to test all the physical attributes that were traced. However, it was profound from the very beginning that the whole process would require the intelligence of a computational system, in order to deal with the complexity of aspects like the position and rotation of units in space, as far as larger aggregations are concerned,. the actual distribution of water etc.

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Component Study 1

Component Study 2

Component Study 3


Digital Model Studies

Component 1

Component 2

Component 3

Component 4

Component 5

Component 6

Component 7

Component 8

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Digital Model Studies Spacial Study with digital units | Detail of study 1

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Digital Model Studies Spacial Study with digital units | Study 2

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08 Why Creating a Game?

[elements and mechanics of the game]


RE.0n

Game References Image 24: Sim City

The highly narrative character of games, as mediums, denotes their adequacy for the creation of a sense of experience and a proper communication of the issues that concern the user/ player during its digital experimentation. Furthermore, considering the already existing digital tools that speculate on space complexity and creation, games and more precisely, designing through playing, seems to present a notable freedom on the creation of multiple and unexpected outcomes. By default, an unlimited amount of possible outcomes cannot be generated by a predefined scenario-making procedure. Moreover, the crowdsourocing character of video games denotes its numerous possibilities for design and alternative outcomes whereas a typical digital design platform is mainly addressed to individuals.

Image 24 Image 27 : Unity Game Engine logo

Image 25 : World of Goo

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Image 26 : Sugar Sugar


Why creating a game ? | Elemets of the game

money

media

the project

design

ideas

connections

skills

volunteers

research

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Players of the Game Through the game platforms, users are able to “actuate” some parameters, variables or even assemblages in order to explore the mechanisms of the system and generate their desirable outcome. Therefore, in the case of “RE. On”, it is important the introduction of the players /actors of this scenario that co-exist with the user at every step. The agents of this system that is struggling for its own existence through water management and purification ,are the player, the switch, the pump, the distributor, the sensor ,the desalinator, the cultivation unit and the water storage unit. Apparently, all the elements of this sandbox are not able to hold the same attributes, hence the first two are “triggered” more by the decision making process whereas the rest are highly important for their functionality.

Creation Level

Player

Switch

Pump

Distributor

Sensor

Desalinator

Cultivation

Water Storage

Operational Level

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Why creating a game ? | Elemets of the game off on

switch desalinating unit 2

non-clear water feedback loop clear water

storage units

sun

sensor evaporation

fresh water desalinating unit

distribution unit

sea water

storage unit

cultivation unit 89


09 The Computation of Re.0n [L-system analysis] [CA analysis] [Bezier Connection]


RE.0n

Early Game Experimentations | Study 1. 1

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Early Game Experimentations | Study 1. 1, 1. 2


The Computation of Re.On | L-system analysis

L system analysis a

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In the transition from the physical experimentation to the actual digital interactive environment, the attention is drawn to the development of an open-form L-system, in which the element of flexibility is incorporated through the introduction of character animation techniques. The deformation of the skin of every unit is achieved, keeping in mind the negotiation between the degrees of flexibilityfreedom and the material constrains, in order to support a proposal for a component made of flexible material with soft rubberâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;like joints.

b

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Flexible unit

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bone 2

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bone 3

bone 4

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basic bone

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The Computation of Re.On | CA analysis

CA analysis generation 1

generation 2

generation 3

In order to solve mainly the water distribution, but also other issues that occur in an open form aggregating system (such as deformations that could be applied not necessarily in all units uniformly, but in a single unit as well) a computational layer was added, which could be described as an open form CA system. As opposed to a more traditional approach on CA, what the research is focused on is not the patterns of automata that emerge etc. but the actual transaction of information that occurs among the units. Therefore, the algorithm allows for the units to talk to each other, making them aware of their neighbors, (that could mean the number of them (max 3 in our case), their state, etc.)

generation 4

generation 5

generation 6

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The Computation of Re.On | CA analysis

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The Computation of Re.On | CA analysis

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Bezier Mechanics Experimentation | Early Experimentations | Caption 1

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Bezier Mechanics Experimentation | Early Experimentations | Caption 2 ,3


The Computation of Re.On |Bezier Connections

Bezier Analysis In order to allow for the system to loop within its elements and to create the topologies of a closed network, a 3dimentional representation of a Bezier curve was introduced, which still works in parallel with the geometrical deformations of the units and the water distribution system.

Bezier Mechanics diagram

This is the updated diagram that represents the complete functionality of the water distribution system and the way it performs through a Bezier connection event inside the game. Control Point 1

End Point Start Point

Practically, this means that every unit keeps a perfect record of all possible parent-to-child and inverse connections, altering its state, either by the trigger of the player or according to the state of its neighbors. Ca diagram with Bezier Connection

Control Point 2

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10 Prototyping

[Physical Model Studies]


RE.0n

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Prototyping |Physical Model Studies

Arduino workshop Initial arduino setup spectulation

Parallel to the development of the platform, the research came to the task to see how feasible would be to implement this units as building blocks physically.

Structure

Initial attempt of this experiment was the distribution of water through a pre- assembled structure that held the ability to be reconfigured, and the exploration of the different ditributional outcomes through a decision making process.

Power Supply

Pumping Mechanism

Water Output

Water Input

Arduino Boards

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Water Distribution Experiment | Study 1 | Photo Sequence

state 1

state 2

state 3

state 4

state 5

state 6

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Prototyping |Physical Model Studies

Water Distribution Experiment | Study 1 The first experimentation initiated by a simple color test installation where a photocell was used in order to trace the different colored qualities of water that was passing through the system. An arduino board was used for the accurate collection of the color data and the munipulation of the photocell unit.

first instalation setup

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Prototyping |Physical Model Studies detail from first instalation setup

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Water Distribution Experiment | Study 2 | Photo Sequence

state 1

state 2

state 3

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Prototyping |Physical Model Studies

Water Distribution Experiment | Study 2 The second experimentation used two different types of pumps for the water distribution. A general one and an electronic one, manipulated/ handled by the arduino board.. In this case senario, the two different ditributors were performing as opponents, each by trying to affect the system the most with its own wate color wuality. .

second instalation setup

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Water distribution experiment | Caption 1 Water distribution experiment | Caption 2

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Prototyping |Physical Model Studies detail from thirddetail instalation from second setup |instalation buuble creation setup

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Water Distribution Experiment | Study 3 | Photo Sequence

state 1

state 4

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state 2

state 5

state 3

state 6


Prototyping |Physical Model Studies

Water Distribution Experiment | Study 3| System Combination The third experiment was created by combining the two previous experimentations. Therefore, in the final distributional senario the system is overflown by a certain type of colored water. By the time that a second color is introduced to the system , the color data colleected by the arduino board are triggering the electrical pump and by the time the values reach to a certain “dark “level, the second pump is triggered in order to “clean-up” the system from a less qualified water type. Direct analogy to the RE.On project through this experimentation is created for the function of the sensor of the system which is responsible for the correct distribution of fresh and salty water , separately.

third instalation setup

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detail from third arduino set up 116


Prototyping |Physical Model Studies detail from detail second from instalation setup

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Physical Model Studies

Simple Component Nylon, 3d print study

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Simple Component natural ABS 3mm print

Clipping Component natural ABS 3mm print


Prototyping |Physical Model Studies

Geometry Studies

Simple Component

Clipping Component

Switch Component

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Unit Functional analysis This diagram demonstrates the way by which the 3d printed geometries perform in the physical world. The switch component enables the change in the direction of the water distribution. On the right page .,it is shown how a simple cliping component, functions almost as an armor, once it has the ability to be assembled on distinct areas of the system.

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funtional diagram of switch component


Prototyping |Physical Model Studies funtional diagram of clipping component

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11 The Computation of Re.0n [Water Output]


RE.0n

Water Capacity of Units

Water Input / Output

In an attempt to define what are actually the minimum blocks of this system, it was noticed that there are situations where branching is necessary, whereas in others it makes more sense to retain a parallel distribution. Moreover, in an attempt to engage with the architectural scale and a closer rationalizing process , a more systematic approach was introduced to the system .Therefore, some initial spacial measurements are giving information concerning the water capacity of the unit, ant therefore the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.

Direction Change / Merge of the two systems

Water Input / Output Water Input / Output

Water Input / Output

Flexible Node

Water Input / Output

Flexible Node

Water Input / Output Water Input / Output

Larger Rombic Configuration

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22

,5 c m

41 cm

30 cm

The Computation of Re.On | Water Output

55

Water Capacity : 9.2 lt

Water Capacity : 3.8 lt

cm

Water Capacity : 11.9 lt

9 cm

30 cm

Water Capacity : 4 lt

Water Capacity : 9.4 lt

= 144

= 151

Water Capacity : 14.8 lt

= 114.4 m

4,3 m

11 cm

m

8c

Water Capacity : 2.7 lt

4.3 m

4.3

x

6

x

6

x

m

6 125


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Caption 1

Caption 2

Caption 3

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The Computation of Re.On | Water Output

Systems Water Outputs In order to investigate, further, on possible ways to treat the ground condition of the system, a plan patch was introduced, which is able to work both as a foundation of the branching elements and also as a tank or container for the storage of the water. Moreover, an extra layer of components that are related to the terrain was added to the system, costituted by elongated hexagonal forms that have the ability to perform as cultivation and water storage units, in respect.

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12 Why Creating a Game? [The Interface]


RE.0n

The Interface In general, it could be argued that the computation of “RE.On” could be achieved through all sort of different algorithmic design platforms that have been extensively used in architectural research, however, what seems to be the major element in this approach, which resonates directly to the world of Videogames, is the “interface” itself : this layer of information and data representation that regulates the communication or “symbiosis” between the user/designer/player and the algorithm itself. Consequently, by taking advantage of the game mechanics, the information is present at the moment the decision is taken and not afterwards, as a post rational process. In other words, what is put into question is: how would the absorption and distribution of water from unit to unit, influence the design decision, and therefore the morphology of the outcome. As far as the methodology of design is concerned, “Re.On” works as a case to study to test the possibility of an evolving architecture, through the development of an interactive platform (or a real-time simulating environment), which is able to provide to the designer/ user the means to explore patterns and pathways of how the architectural elements could potentially come together. Upon entering the “world of Re.On”, the player/user/designer gets familiarized with the main environment, a coastal terrain, in which he is asked to shape space through the development of structures, using a list of various geometrical entities (units).

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Why creating a game | The Interface

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655

Unit Manipulation

120 41% 28%

Reset

Branches:

50

Rotations:

Types :

Connect Mode

1

2

3

4

nothing Selected Connection Type : 1

Water Distribution

Unit Information

branch 1 branch 2

ground patch

Basic Unit

Build

Linear Unit Desalinating Unit Ground Condition

general shortcuts

Short Unit

foundation

Medium Unit

water unit

Long Unit

green unit

Water Mode


RE.0n

The units/elements of the game

Connect Mode | Panel 4

_Creates Bezier connections among the elements of the system according to their branches _Able to carry all types of water _water capacity of 1 m : 8.1 lt

A set of tutorials guides the user through the different elements of the interface, and more specifically all the different units that can be used in order to create different spacial and functional outcomes. This diagram, demonstrates all the elements of â&#x20AC;&#x153;RE.On â&#x20AC;&#x153;along with their possitioning within the interface and their functional attributes.Their distinct combinations are able to generate numerous different outcomes.

Simple no-tube unit| Panel 2

Desalinator| Panel 1

Simple long-tube unit| Panel 2

_water capacity : 3.8 lt _performs as a water carrier _able to carry all types of water

_Desalinates sea water through evaporation _Able to carry cold and warm type of water

_water capacity : 11 lt _performs as a water carrier _able to carry all types of water

Simple short-tube unit| Panel 2 _water capacity : 9. 2 lt _performs as a water carrier _able to carry all types of water

Water collector | Panel 3

_water capacity : 138 lt _collects only fresh water and is able to store or distribute it to the surrounding plantation

Plantation Unit| Panel 3

_consumes 0.5 litre per day _able to be caltivated with short rooted plants _the type of plant is defined by the region and the climate

Connecting Unit| Panel 1

_ connects long-tube structures _able to carry all types of water

Ground Plan| Panel 3

2

_predefined ground patch of 24 m _performs both as a structural element and water storage _directly connected with foundations

Foundation Unit| Panel 3

_two types of foundation : coastal and regular _performs only as a structural element

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Why creating a game | The Interface

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1597

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1248 61% 28%

Unit Manipulation

Connect Mode

1

2

3

4

nothing Selected Connection Type : 1

Unit Information

ground patch

Basic Unit

Build

Linear Unit Desalinating Unit Ground Condition

general shortcuts

Short Unit

foundation

Medium Unit

water unit

Long Unit

green unit

Water Mode


RE.0n

The scoring and the mechanics of the game

_the selected branch of every unit is moved by 5 towards the direction of the arrow _ the multiplier shows how many times this occured

A scoring board helps the user evaluate the outcome, in real-time, both in terms of the geometry (e.g. how many objects have been used) and its performance, focusing on the water distribution efficiency (e.g. the exposure of the desalinating elements to the sun, in relation to the fresh water that is produced).

_the A branch of every unit is moved by 5 towards the direction of the arrow

o

each unit is rotated 3 around itself

x7|

x2|

3 | o

general number of units

x5

o

1233 number of desalinating units

90 number of units that carry water Connected: branch B with branch A

1085

1233

90

1085

B

55% 43%

43% percentage of fresh water produced by the system

55%

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percentage of desalinators exposed to the sun

A

o


Why creating a game | The Interface

RE.0n

1233

Unit Manipulation

Connect Mode

1085 55% 43%

Reset

Branches:

90

Rotations:

1

2

3

4

nothing Selected Connection Type : 1

Unit Information

ground patch

Basic Unit

Build

Linear Unit Desalinating Unit Ground Condition

general shortcuts

Short Unit

foundation

Medium Unit

water unit

Long Unit

green unit

Water Mode


RE.0n

The water mode of the game The basic task, which is the collection and filtering of seawater to produce fresh one and the distribution of it inside the network, is fulfilled by enabling/disabling switches and by connecting the units in multiple ways. In this part of the game experience the user is also able to switch representations in order to focus mainly on the element of water and its relation with the surrounding area. _80% fresh water productivity _High exposure to the sun Fresh water carrier

switch branch A :

Off |

fresh water path

switch branch B :

On |

switch branch A :

On |

switch branch B :

Off |

_ fresh water storage _distributes water to the nearby greenery area

_Plan Area : 12m2 _ fresh water stored

60%

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

switch branch A :

switch branch B :

On |

Off |

_Water Mode Switch pump 01

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Why creating a game | The Interface

RE.0n

853

92

300 80% 32%

Unit Manipulation

Connect Mode

Water Distribution

Unit Information

branch 1 branch 2

Plan Area :

24 m

2

ground patch

Build

foundation

Short Unit

water unit

Medium Unit

green unit

Long Unit

Water Mode general shortcuts


RE.0n

Water temperature analysis

o

20-38 C 2800 m of spiraling tube

spiraling network of hot water

o

4-20 C

network of desalinated water

4000 m of tube

water path

o

4- 20 C 8000 m of tube

area of sea-water absorbtion

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Why creating a game | The Interface

10%

30% 40%

50% 50% Water 17% CO2 13% Oxygen

60% 20% Water 10% CO2 5% Oxygen

80%

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

80% Water 30% CO2 25% Oxygen

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Water distribution analysis

Connected: branch B with branch A

Connected: branch A with branch B

x4|

o

x3|

-5 |

o

30 |

70% 90%

Connected: branch A with branch B

x9|

0 | o

80%

x6| A

A

A

x9| Plan Area :

24 m

0 | o

2

pump 03

B

50%

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

35% Water 12% CO2 3 % Oxygen

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25% Water 5% CO2 4 % Oxygen

80% Water 30% CO2 25% Oxygen

pump 01 pump 02

20%

B

60%

o

270 |

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

23% Water 7% CO2 2 % Oxygen

30% Water 15% CO2 20 % Oxygen

60% Water 20% CO2 15% Oxygen

Coastal Foundation

Plan Area :

18 m

2

Coastal Foundation


Why creating a game | The Interface

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Unit Manipulation

653 60% 50%

Reset

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Rotations:

Types :

Connect Mode

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nothing Selected Connection Type : 1 o

x3|

-5 |

x4|

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70% x9|

Connected: branch B with branch A

Connected: branch A with branch B

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Connected: branch A with branch B

x6|

Unit Information

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x9| Plan Area :

24 m

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Coastal Foundation

Plan Area :

18 m

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Coastal Foundation

Build

Water Mode general shortcuts


13 Gameplay Strategies


RE.0n

game strategies

performance

structure

form

closed space

free-form

ground patch

â&#x20AC;&#x153;landscapeâ&#x20AC;? formation

bezier formations

branching formations

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Game Strategies

Game Strategies

water distribution

This diagram demonstrates a matrix of some of the different outcomes that were generated while playing with the system .The first layer of differentiation concerns the formal expression of the outcomes whereas the second layer focuses mostly on the functional aspect of those.

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Game Strategies | Early developments | Study 1

state 1

state 2

state 3

state 4

state 5

state 6

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Game Strategies

Game Strategies| Early developments | Study 2

state 1

state 2

state 3

state 4

state 5

state 6

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Game Strategies | Early developments |Study 3

state 1

state 2

state 3

state 4

state 5

state 6

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Game Strategies

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Game Strategies| Early developments

study 4

study 5

study 6

study 7

study 8

study 9

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Game Strategies

study 10

study 11

study 12

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Game Strategies | Early developments

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study 13

study 14

study 15

study 16


Game Strategies

study 17

study 18

study 19

study 20

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Game Strategies | Study 21

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Game Strategies

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Game Strategies | Study 22 Instance of one of the multiple outcomes that evolve through gameplay. In parallel to the accomplishment of what seems the major task, which is the absorption and filtration of seawater to produce fresh one, the user has the ability to generate complex spatial formations that could potentially evolve into architecture.

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Game Strategies

Spiraling Formation: structural capacity: Average water distribution efficiency : High comments: affects water temperature

B

x4|

o

180 |

x3|

o

90 |

x 12|

x6|

Plan Area :

55 m

o

o

180 |

Coastal Foundation 2

0 |

node: branch A: Free branch B: Free node:

branch A: Free branch B: Free

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Game Strategies | Study 23

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Game Strategies

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RE.0n

Game Strategies | Study 24 A future application of such architecture in the context of underdeveloped or developing countries and the harvesting of water as a function itself could potentially create a new micro-economic “water-trading” system, that is related either to the maintenance of its “inhabitants”, or its own existence (regarding its maintenance or expansion etc.)

2

Decreased number of units per m : density : Low structural capacity: Extremely Low ! water distribution efficiency : Average

Connected: branch A with branch B

A

The configuration provides shelter, which has a water capacity of approx. 2500lt. After the desalination, 1500lt of fresh water could be stored at the floor patch, whereas the rest could be distributed at the surface of the structure.

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Game Strategies

1238

Increased number of units per m 2 : Density : High + + Structural Capacity: High + + Water Distribution Efficiency : Average

20

352 64% 57%

80%

B

x3|

o

90 |

x6|

o

180 |

Coastal Foundation 10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

x 12|

B

B

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

35% Water 10% CO2 5 % Oxygen

o

60%

Plan Area :

20%

0 |

30 m

2

water distribution : High desalinating efficiency: Average + fresh water production: Average -

Water info

comments: re-adjust desalinating units to improve sun exposure

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Game Strategies | Study 25

Game Strategies | Study 25 | detail

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Game Strategies

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Game Strategies | Study 26

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Game Strategies

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Game Strategies | Study 27

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Game Strategies

Connected: branch A with branch B

Decreased number of units per m2 : Density : Low - Structural Capacity: Low Water Distribution Efficiency : High

A x 12|

B

0 | o

Coastal Foundation

x3| 10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

o

90 |

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

35% Water 10% CO2 5 % Oxygen

Plan Area :

30 m

B

2

x6|

60%

o

180 |

45% Water 12% CO2 7 % Oxygen

B

20%

10% Water 5% CO2 2 % Oxygen

water distribution : Average desalinating efficiency: High fresh water production: High + +

Water info

comments: take advantage of the fresh water and expand your plant cultivation

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Game Strategies | Study 28 The evolving architecture does not intend to give a definitive answer rather than open a spectrum of probabilities through the various configurations of components. Reassembling evolves as the main methodology to discover meaningful outcomes out of all the possible combinations. Through this research, the project investigates the potential architecture that could emerge on the blurring boundaries between the land and the sea, functioning as an actuator, which influences both the relationship of the structural space with its environment and, also, the relations which are developed among the environmental elements, themselves.

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14 Appendix Theoretical Research

[1. The aesthetics of decision | Georgios Tsakiridis] [2.Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani]

Side activities | Imaging Workshop RE .On | Beta testing day Unity User Group meeting References


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Theoretical Research | 1. The aesthetics of decision | Georgios Tsakiridis

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Theoretical Research | 1. The aesthetics of decision | Georgios Tsakiridis

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Theoretical Research | 1. The aesthetics of decision | Georgios Tsakiridis

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Theoretical Research | 1. The aesthetics of decision | Georgios Tsakiridis

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Theoretical Research | 1. The aesthetics of decision | Georgios Tsakiridis

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Theoretical Research |2. Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani

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Theoretical Research |2. Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani

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Theoretical Research |2. Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani

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Theoretical Research |2. Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani

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Theoretical Research |2. Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani

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Theoretical Research |2. Re-present the unseen | Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani

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Side activities | Imaging Workshop

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RE .On | Beta testing day

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Unity User Group Meeting

Unity User Group Meeting

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London Unity User Group Logo

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References

Image References Image 1 : A study of time | Random International [ 2001 ] Image 2 : The GIPF project | Kris Burm [ 1998 ] Image 3 : The Game of Life | John Horton Conway [ 1970 ] Image 4 : Reverse- osmosis desalination plant | Barcelona | Spain Image 5 : Falling drop and resulting splash sequence | Physics of fluids 19,091109 [ 2007 ] Image 6 : Notion of chiaroscuro | Allegory, boy lighting candle in the company of the ape and a fool | El Greco [ 1590 ] Image 7 : Figure-ground Perception | Rubinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vase | Edgar Rubin [ 1915 ] Image 8 : Bloom effect | Clair Obscure | Luc Maandret [2008 ] Image 9 : Deception of the eye | Holocene | Installation by David Spriggs [2011] Image 10 : Silhouette technique | The mysterious geographic explorations of Jasper Morello | Antony Lucas [ 2005 ] Image 11 : Reticularea | Gego [ 1969 ] Image 12, 13, 14 ,15 : Captions from the Society for community Organization [ source : http:// www.sooo/org/hk ] Image 16 : Bath project |SMAQ architects | general view [ 2006 ] Image 17 BATH project | SMAQ architects | detail [ 2006 ] Image 18 : hydrodynamic building set | Bridge Street Toys | configuration diagram 1 Image 19 : hydrodynamic building set | Bridge Street Toys | configuration diagram 2 Image 20 : hydrodynamic building set | Bridge Street Toys | cover Image 21 : Diagram of wiki house project Image 22 : Watertube [ source: http://www.en-derin.com/technology/watertube-provides-sanitary-water-in-remote-areas ] Image 23 : Slap Brachelet [ source : source:http://www.ribbonwo rks.co.uk/slap-bracelets.cfm ] Image 24: Sim City 5| designed by developer Will Wright. [ 2013 ] Image 25 : World of Goo | by 2D Boy [ 2008 ] Image 26 : Sugar Sugar | by Armor Games Image 27 : Unity Game Engine logo [ source : http://unity3d.com/ ]

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RE.On  

RE.On, by Georgios Tsakiridis & Efthymia Dimitra Kotsani, RC_7 Gamescapes, M. Arch Graduate Architectural Design (GAD), The Bartlett School...

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