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Unity and Diversity: Rise of Canadian Pride and Nationalistic Movements 1945-1976 Term Paper Outline & Annotated Bibliography Garth Stone

Term Paper Outline Our topic is focused on the emergence of nationalist movements within Canada in a decolonizing world between 1945- 1976. We feel, after our research, that to do this topic justice we need to examine both the way in which Canada was part of the “decolonizing world” and the rise of nationalist movements within this context. The main question we are attempting to answer is as follows: In what ways was Canada distancing itself from its roots of that of a colony and how did nationalist movements emerge within this context? To answer this question, we will attempt to show how Canada was forging its own identity and at the same time nationalist movements that represented Canada’s diversity were emerging. Some key ideas we want to expand on are: 1) What events, between 1945-1976, show how Canada was forming its own, post-colonial identity? 2) How did Canada emerge as a socially democratic nation? 3) How did nationalist movements emerge in Quebec during this time?

Annotated Bibliography Archbold, Rick. I Stand For Canada: The Story of the Maple Leaf Flag. Toronto: Macfarlane Walter & Ross, 2002. This book’s subject is one of the main events that had an influence on nationalism within Canada between 1945 and 1976. The Great Flag Debate was an iconic event in which Canada made another step away from its imperialistic ties and towards a feeling of national pride. In this book, Archbold explores the background to the maple leaf symbol, the various flag debates, and


finally the adoption of the current flag as a national symbol. This book will be extremely useful to us because it provides a thorough study of one of the most important events concerning Canada’s nationalistic pride. It is an in-depth look at the meaning and importance of the flag as a symbol of national pride. It will prove to be a useful resource in exploring the emergence of nationalism within Canada in the 1960’s.

Belanger, Claude. “Massey Report.” Marianopolis College. This article is a general overview of the Massey Report and, in particular, what prompted its commissioning and what its outcomes were. It specifically talks about the cultural heritage of French Canada, the influence of United States culture, and the mandate for English Canadians to establish their own cultural heritage. It marked one of the first times that government interfered with cultural matters. In doing so, the Report recommended initiatives such as the Canadian Council for the Arts, expansion of the CBC, and more university funding for students. We think that this source is a good source because it looks at the development of Canadian culture through the Massey Report. It also highlights the tension that the Report created in Quebec where they thought that the Report endangered their cultural heritage. In speaking about Quebec’s reaction, this website serves to bring our two areas of Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism together.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. “Closure Ends Flag Debate.” CBC Digital Archives. This video is from the program CBC Newsmagazine on December 15, 1964 and was a news report from the day the new flag was voted on. It really shows just how polarizing the


debate over the flag was and how it became an important day in Canadian history. In several of the interviews with some of the politicians, they proclaim the importance of the day in Canada’s developing identity. We think that this source could be very useful because it shows how important of a day it was. We take our flag for granted and how we adopted it, but this video shows how that day is a defining point in Canadian history. It emphasizes the point we are trying to make that Canadian nationalism was growing as Canada further separated itself from Britain.

Canada. Department of Canadian Heritage. Symbols of Canada. (Gatineau QC: Her Majesty the Queen, 2010). This Government of Canada publication highlights some of the national symbols of Canada. It does go into the various symbols of each province, but the part that we are interested in is the symbols of Canada as a whole. Several of these symbols were established during the time period (1945-76) that we are concerned with. This publication can be useful to use because it provides accurate background information on symbols such as the flag, national anthem, and beaver that have come to be a source of Canadian pride. While we will not be using much of the document, it still remains useful in the fact that it should be accurate and is an official publication, so it can be trusted.

Desbarats, Peter. Rene, A Canadian in Search of a Country. Toronto: Mclelland and Stewart, 1976. This source is a bibliography of the Rene Levesque’s life. This memoir gives a description of key issues including hydro power development and the advancement of Parti Quebecois from the perspective of Rene Levesque. The Bibliographical style of this resource will be helpful because it shows the underlying issues that led Levesque’s to pursue a separatist


agenda. Levesque’s purpose for choosing the more extreme route may or may not have been well founded. The short term effect may have been undesirable, but we have seen long term benefits. I wish to address the long term benefits.

English, John. “Pearson, Lester Bowles.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. vol XX. University of Toronto, 2000. Accessed: March 1, 2011. This biographical article is in regards to Lester B. Pearson. Pearson’s time as Prime Minister represented a time in which Canada made great progress in developing its identity. He was Prime Minister from 1963-1968. During this time he implemented programs such as universal healthcare, Canadian Pension Plan, and Canadian Student Loans. He was also involved in the adoption of a distinctly Canadian flag and the creation of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. This commission eventually led to Canada becoming a bilingual nation. This biographical article provides us with a complete picture of the Prime Minister that arguably had one of the greatest influences on Canada form its own identity during the 1960s. By using this article, we can investigate an important political figure in growing Canadian nationalism.

Fraser, Blair. The Search for Identity Canada: Postwar to Present. Toronto: Doubleday Canada Ltd., 1967. This book, written by a former contributing editor to MacLean’s, is about exactly what we are researching. Blair Fraser covers a variety of events from the end of World War II to 1967 that influenced and shaped Canada’s national identity. Events such as the flag debate and the Korean War are discussed in an attempt to ascertain the path of Canada’s identity after World War II. Many of these events mark a point at which the idea of nationalism changed and was shaped. We think that this resource could be especially useful because it covers many events


that happened between 1945-1976 that proved to be influential in the development of Canadian nationalism. The author also speaks about events that influenced nationalist movements such as separatism in Quebec. Thus, this book could be useful for the study of nationalism as a whole and individual nationalistic movements within Canada.

Fraser, Graham. P.Q.: Rene Levesque & the Parti Quebecois in Power. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1984. This book is an in-depth look at the Parti Quebecois. This provincial government is famous for their desires to separate Quebec from Canada. Although separation was never achieved, this movement expanded the rights of the province. Rene Levesque, the party leader, built this party in defiance to the interference of large corporations that were meddling in the affairs of the Liberal party. This account is important because the struggle of the Parti Quebecois expanded the capabilities of the small business sector adding to the sovereignty of the individual.

Gauvreau, Michael. The Catholic origins of Quebec's Quiet Revolution, 1931-1970. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005. This book shows the view of education reform in Quebec from the perspective of the catholic school board. Paul Giren-Lajoie’s goal as minister of education in Jean Lesage’s provincial liberal caucus was to develop a secular education system. Doing this meant reducing the catholic school system to a typical private school board. This resource shows what happened to the Catholic system as a result of the Parent Commission and Giren-Lajoie’s ministry. This is important because this education reform expanded the capabilities of Quebec’s education system.

Hamley, Will. “Some Aspects and Consequences of the Development of the James Bay HydroElectric Complex.” British Journal of Canadian Studies 2 iss:2 (1987): 250


This book is a survey of the effects of the Hydro Electric project in James Bay. This resource shows the effect on business in Canada. A large problem that the development of hydropower addressed in the Canadian business sector was sovereignty of resources. Power was needed to refine resources and decrease the amount of raw resources leaving Canada. This expanded the business sector and gave Canada a new export. Clean electricity. Sovereignty over resources was achieved. Igartua, Jose E. The Other Quiet Revolution. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2007.

This book shows the effects of the Quiet Revolution on the rest of Canada. This project is not only meant to show the effect of Quebec’s nationalist movements effecting Quebec, but Canada as a whole. This document is important because it shows how the Quiet Revolution helped change the view of Canada from a British colony to an independent, bi-cultural nation. It also shows the struggles in becoming a bilingual nation. La Convention De La Baie James Et Du Nord Québécois. Québec: Éditeur officiel du Québec. 1976. This source is a primary document. It is a record of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement that was made to develop hydro-power in the areas stated. This document shows the specific aspects of the plan to develop Hydro-power in Quebec. This is important because we see a legal and social development being worked out between the Natives, Inuit, Provincial Government of Quebec, and Federal Government. MacLennan, Hugh. “The Psychology of Canadian Nationalism.” Foreign Affairs 27 no. 3 (1949): 413-425. This scholarly article was written in 1949 and, as such, provides a basis for nationalism at the beginning of the time period we are concerned with. Using this as a starting point, we will be


able to show how the idea of Canadian nationalism changed over the time period of 1945-1976. Specifically, this article talks about the roots of Canadian nationalism in the nation’s history and how it was hard for people to identify exactly what was involved with nationalistic feelings. The author talks about Canada having an “inferiority complex” when it comes to national identity because of the proximity of Canada near to the U.S.A. He also discusses the various influences on Canadian nationalism up until that point. We can use this article to find out the roots of nationalism in our country and what it evolved from. So, while limited in its usefulness, it this article can still be a resource that we can utilize.

Matheson, John Ross. “Flag Debate.” The Canadian Encyclopaedia. Historica-Dominion. Accessed: March 1, 2011. This article provides a good general overview of the flag debate and the people that were involved in it. The author follows the progression of the design of the flag and what different people thought of it. It is very interesting to note that the author of the article was a Liberal M.P. who was a member of the committee that decided on the design of the flag. It is from this perspective that he provides much insight of the development of the design to what was submitted to parliament as the preferred choice of the committee. We think that this source will be useful because the author was very much involved in the process that took place. However, it is necessary to keep his political affiliation in mind when reading critically.

McConnell, W.H. “Canadian Bill of Rights.” The Canadian Encyclopaedia . HistoricaDominion. Accessed: March 1, 2011. With the introduction of the Canadian Bill of Rights, Canada was guaranteeing citizens basic human rights. This is another step that Canada took towards becoming its own nation. When Diefenbaker introduced the Bill, it was groundbreaking legislation that was meant to


protect the rights of Canadian citizens. However, it was limited in its authority because it only applied to federal law, not provincial. This source is important to us because it highlights the main points of the Bill that show its significance in Canadian history as a first step towards ensuring Canadian citizens have the protected rights essential in a democratic society.

Rotstein, Abraham. “Canada: The New Nationalism.” Foreign Affairs 55 no. 1 (1976): 97-118.

This article approaches Canadian nationalism from a slightly different angle. While most discussions surrounding Canadian nationalism deal with our identity in relation to Britain, this article talks mostly about our national identity in relation to the United States. This article can be useful to us because it was published in 1976, the time period we are dealing with, and speaks about the relationship between the U.S. and Canada. In particular, it talks about political and economic ties between the two countries and where Canada’s national identity is separate from American influence. It will provide us with a picture of to what degree Canadian nationalism was evident by the end of the time period we are studying. Tamaki, George T. “The Canadian Citizenship Act, 1946.” The University of Toronto Law Journal 7 no. 1 (1947): 68-97. The Canadian Citizenship Act was passed in 1946. It established the definition of Canadian citizenship. This was another step away from being a former colony. According to the author, this act was expected to be followed by similar acts in other Commonwealth nations. The author takes time in this article to outline the points and definitions found within the act. He also discusses its implications both domestically and internationally. No longer would a person state that they were a British subject, but rather, a Canadian citizen. In regards to other


Commonwealth countries, a Canadian citizen was still to be treated as a British subject. This article will be useful to use because it speaks about the birth of Canadian citizenship. This is a very important event in Canada’s withdrawal from under British influence. The fact that the article was written quite closely after the act was passed will provide us with a glimpse into the initial reaction to it. We think that this source could provide some very useful insights into what it means to be Canadian at the beginning of the time period that we are studying.

Annotated Bibliography  

Annotated Biblioggraphy completed for another class.

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